WorldWideScience

Sample records for causality-based biological properties

  1. A Taxonomy of Causality-Based Biological Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Bodei, Chiara; Chiarugi, Davide; Gori, Roberta; 10.4204/EPTCS.19.8

    2010-01-01

    We formally characterize a set of causality-based properties of metabolic networks. This set of properties aims at making precise several notions on the production of metabolites, which are familiar in the biologists' terminology. From a theoretical point of view, biochemical reactions are abstractly represented as causal implications and the produced metabolites as causal consequences of the implication representing the corresponding reaction. The fact that a reactant is produced is represented by means of the chain of reactions that have made it exist. Such representation abstracts away from quantities, stoichiometric and thermodynamic parameters and constitutes the basis for the characterization of our properties. Moreover, we propose an effective method for verifying our properties based on an abstract model of system dynamics. This consists of a new abstract semantics for the system seen as a concurrent network and expressed using the Chemical Ground Form calculus. We illustrate an application of this fr...

  2. Antimicrobial Peptides: Versatile Biological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuirulan Pushpanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are diverse group of biologically active molecules with multidimensional properties. In recent past, a wide variety of AMPs with diverse structures have been reported from different sources such as plants, animals, mammals, and microorganisms. The presence of unusual amino acids and structural motifs in AMPs confers unique structural properties to the peptide that attribute for their specific mode of action. The ability of these active AMPs to act as multifunctional effector molecules such as signalling molecule, immune modulators, mitogen, antitumor, and contraceptive agent makes it an interesting candidate to study every aspect of their structural and biological properties for prophylactic and therapeutic applications. In addition, easy cloning and recombinant expression of AMPs in heterologous plant host systems provided a pipeline for production of disease resistant transgenic plants. Besides these properties, AMPs were also used as drug delivery vectors to deliver cell impermeable drugs to cell interior. The present review focuses on the diversity and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of AMPs along with its multidimensional properties that could be exploited for the application of these bioactive peptides as a potential and promising drug candidate in pharmaceutical industries.

  3. Allicin: Chemistry and Biological Properties

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    Jan Borlinghaus

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Allicin (diallylthiosulfinate is a defence molecule from garlic (Allium sativum L. with a broad range of biological activities. Allicin is produced upon tissue damage from the non-proteinogenic amino acid alliin (S-allylcysteine sulfoxide in a reaction that is catalyzed by the enzyme alliinase. Current understanding of the allicin biosynthetic pathway will be presented in this review. Being a thiosulfinate, allicin is a reactive sulfur species (RSS and undergoes a redox-reaction with thiol groups in glutathione and proteins that is thought to be essential for its biological activity. Allicin is physiologically active in microbial, plant and mammalian cells. In a dose-dependent manner allicin can inhibit the proliferation of both bacteria and fungi or kill cells outright, including antibiotic-resistant strains like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Furthermore, in mammalian cell lines, including cancer cells, allicin induces cell-death and inhibits cell proliferation. In plants allicin inhibits seed germination and attenuates root-development. The majority of allicin’s effects are believed to be mediated via redox-dependent mechanisms. In sub-lethal concentrations, allicin has a variety of health-promoting properties, for example cholesterol- and blood pressure-lowering effects that are advantageous for the cardio-vascular system. Clearly, allicin has wide-ranging and interesting applications in medicine and (green agriculture, hence the detailed discussion of its enormous potential in this review. Taken together, allicin is a fascinating biologically active compound whose properties are a direct consequence of the molecule’s chemistry.

  4. Bioferroelectricity and optical properties of biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrov, Vladimir; Bystrova, Natalia

    2003-08-01

    A bioferroelectric approach to analysis of ferroelectric behavior of biological systems is presented. The optical properties of nerve fibers, biomembrane ion channels, and purple membrane films containing bacteriorhodopsin are analyzed. The features, influence of the proton subsystem and proton transfer on the hydrogen-bonded biomolecular structures are analyzed within the ferroelectric liquid-crystal model and possible biomedical applications discussed. The ferroelectric behavior of biological systems and the set of various bioferroelectric effects are considered within the limits of phenomenological theory of ferroelectrics. The nonlinear response to weak actions under conditions critical to human organism is one of specific features characterizing biological objects on molecular, cell and organism levels.

  5. Structure, reactivity, and biological properties of hidantoines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydantoin (imidazolidine-2,4-dione) is a 2,4-diketotetrahydroimidazole discovered by Baeyer in 1861. Thiohydantoins and derivatives were prepared, having chemical properties similar to the corresponding carbonyl compounds. Some biological activities (antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, schistosomicidal) are attributed to the chemical reactivity and consequent affinity of hydantoinic rings towards biomacromolecules. Therefore, knowledge about the chemistry of hydantoins has increased enormously. In this review, we present important aspects such as reactivity of hydantoins, acidity of hydantoins, spectroscopy and crystallographic properties, and biological activities of hydantoin and its derivatives. (author)

  6. Falsifying Oscillation Properties of Parametric Biological Models

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    Thao Dang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose an approach to falsification of oscillation properties of parametric biological models, based on the recently developed techniques for testing continuous and hybrid systems. In this approach, an oscillation property can be specified using a hybrid automaton, which is then used to guide the exploration in the state and input spaces to search for the behaviors that do not satisfy the property. We illustrate the approach with the Laub-Loomis model for spontaneous oscillations during the aggregation stage of Dictyostelium.

  7. Biological Properties and Therapeutic Applications of Propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforcin, José M

    2016-06-01

    Propolis is a resinous material collected by bees from bud and exudates of the plants, mixed with bee enzymes, pollen and wax. In this review, the biological properties of propolis and some therapeutic applications are discussed. The same biological activities have been investigated until today, using samples from different geographic regions. Thus, the study of the biological properties of a given sample should always be associated with its chemical composition and botanical source, representing a particular sample of a given geographic area, exploring its biological potential and the role of its constituents. Efforts have been carried out to explain propolis' mechanisms of action in vivo and in vitro, but the majority of propolis' targets and actions are still unclear. The number of formulations containing propolis and patents have increased, although propolis extracts have been used deliberately with different recommendations, not always mentioning the chemical composition, vegetal source and the methods of extraction. Clinical studies will help to obtain criterious recommendations in view of the expected outcomes. Further investigation should explore the effects of common compounds found in the samples from all over the world in an attempt to standardize the research on propolis and to obtain new drugs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26988443

  8. PLANT ISOFLAVONES: BIOSYNHTESIS, DETECTION AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

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    V. D. Naumenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological properties, chemical structures and biosynthesis pathways of plant isoflavones, especially soybean isoflavones (daidzein, genistein and glycitein are reviewed. The structures of isoflavones, and their aglicone and glucosides (glycosides forms as well as isoflavone biosynthesis pathways are described. General information about the advanced methods for the detection of isoflavones and their conjugates are considered. The importance of the profiling of isoflavones, flavonoids and their conjugates by means of analytical tools and methods to dissolve some questions in biology and medicine is discussed. The review provides data on the major isoflavone content in some vegetable crops and in the tissues of different soybean varieties. Health benefits and treatment or preventive properties of isoflavones for cancer, cardiovascular, endocrine diseases and metabolic disorders are highlighted. The mechanisms that may explain their positive biological effects are considered. The information on the application of advanced technologies to create new plant forms producing isoflavonoids with a predicted level of isoflavones, which is the most favorable for the treatment is given. The possibilities to use the metabolic engineering for the increasing of accumulation and synthesis of isoflavones at the non-legume crops such as tobacco, Arabidopsis and maize are considered. The examples how the plant tissues, which are not naturally produced of the isoflavones, can obtain potential for the synthesis of biologically active compounds via inducing of the activity of the introduced enzyme isoflavon synthase, are given. Specific biochemical pathways for increasing the synthesis of isoflavone genistein in Arabidopsis thaliana tissues are discussed. It is concluded that plant genetic engineering which is focused on modification of the secondary metabolites contain in plant tissues, enables to create the new crop varieties with improved agronomic properties and

  9. Arbutus unedo L.: chemical and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria G; Faleiro, Maria L; Guerreiro, Adriana C; Antunes, Maria D

    2014-01-01

    Arbutus unedo L. (strawberry tree) has a circum-Mediterranean distribution, being found in western, central and southern Europe, north-eastern Africa (excluding Egypt and Libya) and the Canary Islands and western Asia. Fruits of the strawberry tree are generally used for preparing alcoholic drinks (wines, liqueurs and brandies), jams, jellies and marmalades, and less frequently eaten as fresh fruit, despite their pleasing appearance. An overview of the chemical composition of different parts of the plant, strawberry tree honey and strawberry tree brandy will be presented. The biological properties of the different parts of A. unedo and strawberry tree honey will be also overviewed. PMID:25271425

  10. Arbutus unedo L.: Chemical and Biological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Miguel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbutus unedo L. (strawberry tree has a circum-Mediterranean distribution, being found in western, central and southern Europe, north-eastern Africa (excluding Egypt and Libya and the Canary Islands and western Asia. Fruits of the strawberry tree are generally used for preparing alcoholic drinks (wines, liqueurs and brandies, jams, jellies and marmalades, and less frequently eaten as fresh fruit, despite their pleasing appearance. An overview of the chemical composition of different parts of the plant, strawberry tree honey and strawberry tree brandy will be presented. The biological properties of the different parts of A. unedo and strawberry tree honey will be also overviewed.

  11. The Optical Properties of Biological Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bews, Jeffrey Alan

    The ability of light to propagate through biological tissue has found much application in medicine (ie. Photodynamic therapy and Diaphanography). However, a poor understanding of this transport phenomenon has served to limit the effectiveness of those modalities employing it in their operation. This thesis is a study of light propagation through biological tissue, its goal being to improve on the lack of knowledge that presently exists. A spectrophotometer type instrument (DICOM-8) was developed to measure the diffuse spectra extinction of biological tissue. Results were obtained for both normal and diseased breast tissue. Extinction curves for the two tissues exhibited a similar shape (extinction monotonically decreasing with increasing wavelength) but differed in magnitude below 700 nm with carcinoma possessing a higher extinction than normal. Data obtained from these tissue measurements served as the basis for developing a homogeneous liquid (TEM) for simulating the optical properties of tissue over the range 550 to 900 nm. Bench-top Diaphanography studies carried out on a breast phantom constructed of TEM demonstrated the improved tumor visualization attainable with short wavelength light. TEM also functioned as a test medium in which light distributions resulting from highly controlled irradiation geometries (isotropic point and planar sources) were measured and compared with those predicted by Linear Transport (LT) theory. The mean free path (MFP) of TEM ranged from 0.206 mm at 550 nm to 0.495 mm at 900 nm and was found to be directly proportional to the square of the wavelength. The scatter/absorption coefficient (c) was 0.9986459 at 550 nm and 0.9997315 at 850 nm. Agreement between experimental and theoretical distributions was found to be extremely good. Theoretical distributions generated with LT theory revealed the fact that small changes in MFP will have little effect on light transport. Similar changes in c, meanwhile, will drastically alter the

  12. VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF A BIOLOGICAL HYDROGEL PRODUCED FROM SOYBEAN OIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogels formed from biopolymers or natural sources have special advantages because of their biodegradable and biocompatible properties. The viscoelastic properties of a newly developed biological hydrogel made from modified vegetable oil, epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were investigated. The mater...

  13. Biological properties of photocrosslinked alginate microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Feng; Li, Anna Aihua; Cornelius, Rena M; Cirone, Pasquale; Childs, Ronald F; Brash, John L; Chang, Patricia L

    2005-11-01

    An alternative form of gene therapy using recombinant cell lines delivering therapeutic products encapsulated in alginate hydrogel has proven effective in treating many murine models. The lack of long-term capsule stability has led to a new strategy to reinforce the microcapsules with a photopolymerized interpenetrating covalent network of N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) and sodium acrylate. Here the properties for potential application in gene therapy are reported. In assessing potential toxicity of the unpolymerized residues, HPLC showed that even after 1 week of washing, no toxic monomers could be detected. Their ability to sustain cell growth was monitored with growth of the encapsulated cells in vitro and in vivo. Although the initial photopolymerization caused significant cell damage, the cells were able to recover normal growth rates thereafter. After implanting into mice, the NVP-modified capsules showed a high level of biocompatibility as measured by hematological and biochemical functional tests. There was also no difference in the amount and type of plasma proteins adsorbing to the NVP-modified and the classical alginate capsules, thus indicating their similar biological compatibility. Both in vitro and in vivo tests confirmed that the NVP-modified capsules were more resistant to osmotic stress than the alginate microcapsules. Furthermore, when applied to the treatment of a murine model of human cancer by delivering encapsulated cells secreting angiostatin, the NVP-modified microcapsules suppressed tumor growth as successfully as the regular alginate microcapsules. In conclusion, the covalently modified microcapsules have shown a high level of biocompatibility, safety, increase in stability, and clinical efficacy for use as immunoisolation devices in gene therapy. PMID:16035031

  14. Optical properties of biological tissues: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of reported tissue optical properties summarizes the wavelength-dependent behavior of scattering and absorption. Formulae are presented for generating the optical properties of a generic tissue with variable amounts of absorbing chromophores (blood, water, melanin, fat, yellow pigments) and a variable balance between small-scale scatterers and large-scale scatterers in the ultrastructures of cells and tissues. (topical review)

  15. Elastic proteins: biological roles and mechanical properties.

    OpenAIRE

    Gosline, John; Lillie, Margo; Carrington, Emily; Guerette, Paul; Ortlepp, Christine; Savage, Ken

    2002-01-01

    The term 'elastic protein' applies to many structural proteins with diverse functions and mechanical properties so there is room for confusion about its meaning. Elastic implies the property of elasticity, or the ability to deform reversibly without loss of energy; so elastic proteins should have high resilience. Another meaning for elastic is 'stretchy', or the ability to be deformed to large strains with little force. Thus, elastic proteins should have low stiffness. The combination of high...

  16. Biological nanostructures and applications of nanostructures in biology electrical, mechanical, and optical properties

    CERN Document Server

    Stroscio, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    Biological Nanostructures and Applications of Nanostructures in Biology: Electrical, Mechanical, and Optical Properties contains reviews and discussions of contemporary and relevant topics dealing with the interface between the science and technology of nanostructures and the science of biology. Moreover, this book supplements these past groundbreaking discoveries with discussions of promising new avenues of research that reveal the enormous potential of emerging approaches in nanobiotechnology. The topics include: This state-of-the-art survey of key developments in nanotechnology - as they ap

  17. Insight into Biological Apatite: Physiochemical Properties and Preparation Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological apatite is an inorganic calcium phosphate salt in apatite form and nano size with a biological derivation. It is also the main inorganic component of biological hard tissues such as bones and teeth of vertebrates. Consequently, biological apatite has a wide application in dentistry and orthopedics by using as dental fillers and bone substitutes for bone reconstruction and regeneration. Given this, it is of great significance to obtain a comprehensive understanding of its physiochemical and biological properties. However, upon the previous studies, inconsistent and inadequate data of such basic properties as the morphology, crystal size, chemical compositions, and solubility of biological apatite were reported. This may be ascribed to the differences in the source of raw materials that biological apatite are made from, as well as the effect of the preparation approaches. Hence, this paper is to provide some insights rather than a thorough review of the physiochemical properties as well as the advantages and drawbacks of various preparation methods of biological apatite.

  18. Statistical properties and robustness of biological controller-target networks.

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    Jacob D Feala

    Full Text Available Cells are regulated by networks of controllers having many targets, and targets affected by many controllers, in a "many-to-many" control structure. Here we study several of these bipartite (two-layer networks. We analyze both naturally occurring biological networks (composed of transcription factors controlling genes, microRNAs controlling mRNA transcripts, and protein kinases controlling protein substrates and a drug-target network composed of kinase inhibitors and of their kinase targets. Certain statistical properties of these biological bipartite structures seem universal across systems and species, suggesting the existence of common control strategies in biology. The number of controllers is ∼8% of targets and the density of links is 2.5%±1.2%. Links per node are predominantly exponentially distributed. We explain the conservation of the mean number of incoming links per target using a mathematical model of control networks, which also indicates that the "many-to-many" structure of biological control has properties of efficient robustness. The drug-target network has many statistical properties similar to the biological networks and we show that drug-target networks with biomimetic features can be obtained. These findings suggest a completely new approach to pharmacological control of biological systems. Molecular tools, such as kinase inhibitors, are now available to test if therapeutic combinations may benefit from being designed with biomimetic properties, such as "many-to-many" targeting, very wide coverage of the target set, and redundancy of incoming links per target.

  19. Biological Properties of Plant-Derived Alkylresorcinols: Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, Ângelo; Domingues, Fernanda; Duarte, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Alkylresorcinols are compounds which belong to the family of phenolic lipids, and are usually found in numerous biological species. In the particular case of higher plants, alkylresorcinols have been found in various counterparts with chains of thirteen to twenty-seven carbon atoms containing several saturations. Due to the demonstrated antimicrobial properties of many naturally occurring members of the alkylresorcinols family, it is possible to conclude that these compounds act as defensive agents in plants. Previous studies led to the isolation and identification of 5-alkylresorcinols that cleave DNA. Additionally, in the literature, there are several other biological effects attributed to some resorcinol derivatives, namely, cytotoxic, anticarcinogenic, antiproliferative, antileishmanial and antioxidant properties. This mini-review intends to outline the biological activities of the most relevant alkylresorcinols isolated from plants and to propose future directions for subsequent studies regarding the effective biological effects of this class of compounds. PMID:26864549

  20. The diverse biological properties of the chemically inert noble gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, David A; Thornton, Aaron; Farjot, Géraldine; Katz, Ira

    2016-04-01

    The noble gases represent an intriguing scientific paradox. They are extremely inert chemically but display a remarkable spectrum of clinically useful biological properties. Despite a relative paucity of knowledge of their mechanisms of action, some of the noble gases have been used successfully in the clinic. Studies with xenon have suggested that the noble gases as a class may exhibit valuable biological properties such as anaesthesia; amelioration of ischemic damage; tissue protection prior to transplantation; analgesic properties; and a potentially wide range of other clinically useful effects. Xenon has been shown to be safe in humans, and has useful pharmacokinetic properties such as rapid onset, fast wash out etc. The main limitations in wider use are that: many of the fundamental biochemical studies are still lacking; the lighter noble gases are likely to manifest their properties only under hyperbaric conditions, impractical in surgery; and administration of xenon using convectional gaseous anaesthesia equipment is inefficient, making its use very expensive. There is nonetheless a significant body of published literature on the biochemical, pharmacological, and clinical properties of noble gases but no comprehensive reviews exist that summarize their properties and the existing knowledge of their models of action at the molecular (atomic) level. This review provides such an up-to-date summary of the extensive, useful biological properties of noble gases as drugs and prospects for wider application of these atoms. PMID:26896563

  1. [Oregano: properties, composition and biological activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcila-Lozano, Cynthia Cristina; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe; Lecona-Uribe, Salvador; González de Mejía, Elvira

    2004-03-01

    The oregano spice includes various plant species. The most common are the genus Origanum, native of Europe, and the Lippia, native of Mexico. Among the species of Origanum. their most important components are the limonene, gamma-cariofilene, rho-cymenene, canfor, linalol, alpha-pinene, carvacrol and thymol. In the genus Lippia, the same compounds can be found. The oregano composition depends on the specie, climate, altitude, time of recollection and the stage of growth. Some of the properties of this plant's extracts are being currently studied due to the growing interest for substituting synthetic additives commonly found in foods. Oregano has a good antioxidant capacity and also presents antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms like Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, among others. These are all characteristics of interest for the food industry because they may enhance the safety and stability of foods. There are also some reports regarding the antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effect of oregano; representing an alternative for the potential treatment and/or prevention of certain chronic ailments, like cancer. PMID:15332363

  2. Protection of intellectual, biological & cultural property in Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Whimp, Kathy; Busse , Mark

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual, biological and cultural property rights are a powerful and debatable topic. They offer the possibility for protection of rights to intangible resources, including the products of knowledge and creativity. The forces of globalisation have made this subject of immediate, international concern. Struggles for ownership of intellectual property occur between and within local and global arenas. This book examines important questions which Papua New Guinea must ask in the developme...

  3. Fullerenes: An introduction and overview of their biological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Thakral Seema; Mehta R

    2006-01-01

    Ever since their experimental discovery in 1985, fullerenes have attracted considerable attention in different fields of sciences. Investigations of chemical, physical and biological properties of fullerenes have yielded promising information. Their unique carbon cage structure coupled with immense scope for derivatization makes fullerenes a potential therapeutic agent. Henceforth various potential therapeutic applications of fullerenes have been reviewed in the present paper. These include a...

  4. Dynamics of hydraulic properties due to biological clogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, R.; Shavit, U.; Furman, A.

    2012-04-01

    Classic treatment of soil-water flow is described by the unsaturated version of Darcy's law and Richards' equation, assuming time invariant hydraulic properties, e.g. the saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, and van Genuchten-Mualem's α and n. However, when bacteria is present the soil is quite far from being time invariant and biological activity constantly alters the pore-scale structure, leading to macro-scale alteration of the hydraulic properties. This may be of high relevance to processes such as subsurface bioremediation, soil aquifer treatment, wastewater irrigation, and more. In this work we explore the dynamic alteration of soil hydraulic properties by a combination of column experiments and pore-network modeling. We experimentally demonstrate how biological activity clogs an unsaturated soil column and reduces its hydraulic conductivity, while a similar column where biological activity is limited does not clog. Further, we demonstrate that the clogging is preferential to the nutrient input. Next, we develop a pore-network model that uses triangular shape channels. This allows a dual occupancy (water-air) of each channel and high connectivity. The model solves the flow of water, nutrient transport, and biological dynamics. It includes biofilm growth and decay, attachment and detachment, and nutrient exchange between the water and biofilm phases. We perform a sensitivity analysis of the model and qualitatively show through the loss of connectivity how the clogging that was observed in our experiment can be explained.

  5. Biological properties of water-soluble phosphorhydrazone dendrimers

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    Anne-Marie Caminade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendrimers are hyperbranched and perfectly defined macromolecules, constituted of branches emanating from a central core in an iterative fashion. Phosphorhydrazone dendrimers constitute a special family of dendrimers, possessing one phosphorus atom at each branching point. The internal structure of these dendrimers is hydrophobic, but hydrophilic terminal groups can induce the solubility of the whole structure in water. Indeed, the properties of these compounds are mainly driven by the type of terminal groups their bear; this is especially true for the biological properties. For instance, positively charged terminal groups are efficient for transfection experiments, as drug carriers, as anti-prion agents, and as inhibitor of the aggregation of Alzheimer's peptides, whereas negatively charged dendrimers have anti-HIV properties and can influence the human immune system, leading to anti-inflammatory properties usable against rheumatoid arthritis. This review will give the most representative examples of the biological properties of water-soluble phosphorhydrazone dendrimers, organized depending on the type of terminal groups they bear.

  6. Biological and biochemical properties in evaluation of forest soil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Błońska Ewa; Lasota Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using biological and biochemical parameters in the evaluation of forest soil quality and changes caused by land use. The study attempted to determine a relationship between the enzymatic activity of soil, the number of earthworms and soil physico-chemical properties. The study was carried out in central Poland in adjoining Forest Districts (Przedbórz and Smardzewice). In soil samples taken from 12 research plots, basic physico-chem...

  7. Physical properties of biological entities: an introduction to the ontology of physics for biology.

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    Daniel L Cook

    Full Text Available As biomedical investigators strive to integrate data and analyses across spatiotemporal scales and biomedical domains, they have recognized the benefits of formalizing languages and terminologies via computational ontologies. Although ontologies for biological entities-molecules, cells, organs-are well-established, there are no principled ontologies of physical properties-energies, volumes, flow rates-of those entities. In this paper, we introduce the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB, a reference ontology of classical physics designed for annotating biophysical content of growing repositories of biomedical datasets and analytical models. The OPB's semantic framework, traceable to James Clerk Maxwell, encompasses modern theories of system dynamics and thermodynamics, and is implemented as a computational ontology that references available upper ontologies. In this paper we focus on the OPB classes that are designed for annotating physical properties encoded in biomedical datasets and computational models, and we discuss how the OPB framework will facilitate biomedical knowledge integration.

  8. Physical properties of biological entities: an introduction to the ontology of physics for biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Daniel L; Bookstein, Fred L; Gennari, John H

    2011-01-01

    As biomedical investigators strive to integrate data and analyses across spatiotemporal scales and biomedical domains, they have recognized the benefits of formalizing languages and terminologies via computational ontologies. Although ontologies for biological entities-molecules, cells, organs-are well-established, there are no principled ontologies of physical properties-energies, volumes, flow rates-of those entities. In this paper, we introduce the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB), a reference ontology of classical physics designed for annotating biophysical content of growing repositories of biomedical datasets and analytical models. The OPB's semantic framework, traceable to James Clerk Maxwell, encompasses modern theories of system dynamics and thermodynamics, and is implemented as a computational ontology that references available upper ontologies. In this paper we focus on the OPB classes that are designed for annotating physical properties encoded in biomedical datasets and computational models, and we discuss how the OPB framework will facilitate biomedical knowledge integration. PMID:22216106

  9. Synthesis, structure and biological properties of active spirohydantoin derivatives

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    Lazić Anita M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirohidantoins represent an pharmacologically important class of heterocycles since many derivatives have been recognized that display interesting activities against a wide range of biological targets. First synthesis of cycloalkanespiro-5-hydantoins was performed by Bucherer and Lieb 1934 by the reaction of cycloalkanone, potassium cyanide and ammonium-carbonate at reflux in a mixture of ethanol and water. QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship studies showed that a wide range of biological activities of spirohydantoin derivatives strongly depend upon their structure. This paper describes different methods of synthesis of spirohydantoin derivatives, their physico-chemical properties and biological activity. It emphasizes the importance of cycloalkanespiro-5-hydantoins with anticonvulsant, antiproliferative, antipsychotic, antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties as well as their importance in the treatment of diabetes. Numerous spirohydantoin compounds exhibit physiological activity such as serotonin and fibrinogen antagonist, inhibitors of the glycine binding site of the NMDA receptor also, antagonist of leukocyte cell adhesion, acting as allosteric inhibitors of the protein-protein interactions. Some spirohydantoin derivatives have been identified as antitumor agents. Their activity depends on the substituent presented at position N-3 of the hydantoin ring and increases in order alkene > ester > ether. Besides that, compounds that contain two electron withdrawing groups (e.g. fluorine or chlorine on the third and fourth position of the phenyl ring are better antitumor agents than compounds with a single electron withdrawing group. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013

  10. Milk protein tailoring to improve functional and biological properties

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    JEAN-MARC CHOBERT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are involved in every aspects of life: structure, motion, catalysis, recognition and regulation. Today's highly sophisticated science of the modifications of proteins has ancient roots. The tailoring of proteins for food and medical uses precedes the beginning of what is called biochemistry. Chemical modification of proteins was pursued early in the twentieth century as an analytical procedure for side-chain amino acids. Later, methods were developed for specific inactivation of biologically active proteins and titration of their essential groups. Enzymatic modifications were mainly developed in the seventies when many more enzymes became economically available. Protein engineering has become a valuable tool for creating or improving proteins for practical use and has provided new insights into protein structure and function. The actual and potential use of milk proteins as food ingredients has been a popular topic for research over the past 40 years. With today's sophisticated analytical, biochemical and biological research tools, the presence of compounds with biological activity has been demonstrated. Improvements in separation techniques and enzyme technology have enabled efficient and economic isolation and modification of milk proteins, which has made possible their use as functional foods, dietary supplements, nutraceuticals and medical foods. In this review, some chemical and enzymatic modifications of milk proteins are described, with particular focus on their functional and biological properties.

  11. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V Rajashekar; E Upender Rao; Srinivas P

    2012-01-01

    Bada Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.) is perhaps the most useful traditional medicinal plant in India. Each part of the neem tree has some medicinal property and is thus commercially exploitable. During the last five decades, apart from the chemistry of the Pedalium murex compounds, considerable progress has been achieved regarding the biological activity and medicinal applications of this plant. It is now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. This review gives a bird’s eye view mainly on the biological activities of some of this compounds isolated, pharmacological actions of the extracts, clinical studies and plausible medicinal applications of gokharu along with their safety evaluation.

  12. Fullerenes: An introduction and overview of their biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakral Seema

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since their experimental discovery in 1985, fullerenes have attracted considerable attention in different fields of sciences. Investigations of chemical, physical and biological properties of fullerenes have yielded promising information. Their unique carbon cage structure coupled with immense scope for derivatization makes fullerenes a potential therapeutic agent. Henceforth various potential therapeutic applications of fullerenes have been reviewed in the present paper. These include antiHIV- protease activity, photodynamic DNA cleavage, free radical scavenger, antimicrobial action and use of fullerenes as diagnostic agents.

  13. Biochemical Properties and Biological Functions of FET Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jacob C; Cech, Thomas R; Parker, Roy R

    2015-01-01

    Members of the FET protein family, consisting of FUS, EWSR1, and TAF15, bind to RNA and contribute to the control of transcription, RNA processing, and the cytoplasmic fates of messenger RNAs in metazoa. FET proteins can also bind DNA, which may be important in transcription and DNA damage responses. FET proteins are of medical interest because chromosomal rearrangements of their genes promote various sarcomas and because point mutations in FUS or TAF15 can cause neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar dementia. Recent results suggest that both the normal and pathological effects of FET proteins are modulated by low-complexity or prion-like domains, which can form higher-order assemblies with novel interaction properties. Herein, we review FET proteins with an emphasis on how the biochemical properties of FET proteins may relate to their biological functions and to pathogenesis. PMID:25494299

  14. Biological Properties of Acidic Cosmetic Water from Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Wen Hsiao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This current work was to investigate the biological effects of acidic cosmetic water (ACW on various biological assays. ACW was isolated from seawater and demonstrated several bio-functions at various concentration ranges. ACW showed a satisfactory effect against Staphylococcus aureus, which reduced 90% of bacterial growth after a 5-second exposure. We used cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs to test the properties of ACW in inflammatory cytokine release, and it did not induce inflammatory cytokine release from un-stimulated, normal PBMCs. However, ACW was able to inhibit bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine TNF-α released from PBMCs, showing an anti-inflammation potential. Furthermore, ACW did not stimulate the rat basophilic leukemia cell (RBL-2H3 related allergy response on de-granulation. Our data presented ACW with a strong anti-oxidative ability in a superoxide anion radical scavenging assay. In mass spectrometry information, magnesium and zinc ions demonstrated bio-functional detections for anti-inflammation as well as other metal ions such as potassium and calcium were observed. ACW also had minor tyrosinase and melanin decreasing activities in human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn-MP without apparent cytotoxicity. In addition, the cell proliferation assay illustrated anti-growth and anti-migration effects of ACW on human skin melanoma cells (A375.S2 indicating that it exerted the anti-cancer potential against skin cancer. The results obtained from biological assays showed that ACW possessed multiple bioactivities, including anti-microorganism, anti-inflammation, allergy-free, antioxidant, anti-melanin and anticancer properties. To our knowledge, this was the first report presenting these bioactivities on ACW.

  15. Structural, biological and biophysical properties of glycated and glycoxidized phosphatidylethanolamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibal, Andrea; Riemer, Thomas; Jovanovic, Olga; Westphal, Dennis; Griesser, Eva; Pohl, Elena E; Schiller, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Ralf; Fedorova, Maria

    2016-06-01

    Glycation and glycoxidation of proteins and peptides have been intensively studied and are considered as reliable diagnostic biomarkers of hyperglycemia and early stages of type II diabetes. However, glucose can also react with primary amino groups present in other cellular components, such as aminophospholipids (aminoPLs). Although it is proposed that glycated aminoPLs can induce many cellular responses and contribute to the development and progression of diabetes, the routes of their formation and their biological roles are only partially revealed. The same is true for the influence of glucose-derived modifications on the biophysical properties of PLs. Here we studied structural, signaling, and biophysical properties of glycated and glycoxidized phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs). By combining high resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy it was possible to deduce the structures of several intermediates indicating an oxidative cleavage of the Amadori product yielding glycoxidized PEs including advanced glycation end products, such as carboxyethyl- and carboxymethyl-ethanolamines. The pro-oxidative role of glycated PEs was demonstrated and further associated with several cellular responses including activation of NFκB signaling pathways. Label free proteomics indicated significant alterations in proteins regulating cellular metabolisms. Finally, the biophysical properties of PL membranes changed significantly upon PE glycation, such as melting temperature (Tm), membrane surface charge, and ion transport across the phospholipid bilayer. PMID:27012418

  16. Menthol: a simple monoterpene with remarkable biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamatou, Guy P P; Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro M; Lawrence, Brian M

    2013-12-01

    Menthol is a cyclic monoterpene alcohol which possesses well-known cooling characteristics and a residual minty smell of the oil remnants from which it was obtained. Because of these attributes it is one of the most important flavouring additives besides vanilla and citrus. Due to this reason it is used in a variety of consumer products ranging from confections such as chocolate and chewing gum to oral-care products such as toothpaste as well as in over-the-counter medicinal products for its cooling and biological effects. Its cooling effects are not exclusive to medicinal use. Approximately one quarter of the cigarettes on the market contain menthol and small amounts of menthol are even included in non-mentholated cigarettes. Natural menthol is isolated exclusively from Mentha canadensis, but can also be synthesised on industrial scale through various processes. Although menthol exists in eight stereoisomeric forms, (-)-menthol from the natural source and synthesised menthol with the same structure is the most preferred isomer. The demand for menthol is high and it was previously estimated that the worldwide use of menthol was 30-32,000 metric tonnes per annum. Menthol is not a predominant compound of the essential oils as it can only be found as a constituent of a limited number of aromatic plants. These plants are known to exhibit biological activity in vitro and in vivo such as antibacterial, antifungal, antipruritic, anticancer and analgesic effects, and are also an effective fumigant. In addition, menthol is one of the most effective terpenes used to enhance the dermal penetration of pharmaceuticals. This review summarises the chemical and biological properties of menthol and highlights its cooling effects and toxicity. PMID:24054028

  17. Effects of membrane disruption on dielectric properties of biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disruption of the plasma membrane causes serious changes in the dielectric properties of biological cells. The changes have been simulated with spherical cell models having holes in the plasma membrane. The complex permittivity of a cubic system including a cell model was calculated by a numerical technique based on the three-dimensional finite difference method. For a cell without hole, the complex permittivity showed dielectric relaxation (β-dispersion) as predicted from interfacial polarization theories for the single-shell model. When there is one hole in the membrane, the cell has anisotropic dielectric properties depending on whether the axis through the centres of the hole and the sphere is parallel (the parallel orientation) or perpendicular (the perpendicular orientation) to the electric field direction. In the parallel orientation, dielectric relaxation (called 'α-dispersion') appeared at lower frequencies in addition to the β-dispersion, whereas only the β-dispersion was found in the perpendicular orientation. When there were two holes at the opposite poles of the cell, the 'α-dispersion' did not appear and the intensity of the β-dispersion decreased with increasing size of the holes. When two holes located in the hemisphere of the cell, however, the 'α-dispersion' appeared again. These results suggest that the occurrence of the 'α-dispersion' requires either the presence of one hole or the localization of holes

  18. Mathematically modeling the biological properties of gliomas: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, Nikolay L; Rutter, Erica M; Ramey, Wyatt L; Kostelich, Eric J; Kuang, Yang; Preul, Mark C

    2015-08-01

    Although mathematical modeling is a mainstay for industrial and many scientific studies, such approaches have found little application in neurosurgery. However, the fusion of biological studies and applied mathematics is rapidly changing this environment, especially for cancer research. This review focuses on the exciting potential for mathematical models to provide new avenues for studying the growth of gliomas to practical use. In vitro studies are often used to simulate the effects of specific model parameters that would be difficult in a larger-scale model. With regard to glioma invasive properties, metabolic and vascular attributes can be modeled to gain insight into the infiltrative mechanisms that are attributable to the tumor's aggressive behavior. Morphologically, gliomas show different characteristics that may allow their growth stage and invasive properties to be predicted, and models continue to offer insight about how these attributes are manifested visually. Recent studies have attempted to predict the efficacy of certain treatment modalities and exactly how they should be administered relative to each other. Imaging is also a crucial component in simulating clinically relevant tumors and their influence on the surrounding anatomical structures in the brain. PMID:25974347

  19. Technetium-99m nitrido radiopharmaceuticals with unprecedented biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Duatti

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical methods for the production of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals containing a terminal TcºN triple bond have been established more than a decade ago. From that time, the chemistry of nitrido Tc-99m complexes has provided a highly efficient tool for the design and preparation of novel classes of diagnostic agents, and a number of potentially useful radiopharmaceuticals have been discovered. In particular, nitrido technetium-99m tracers have been developed for heart perfusion imaging. In this short review, the chemical and biological properties of the neutral myocardial perfusion tracer bis(N-ethoxy, N-ethyl-dithiocarbamato nitrido Tc-99m (TcN-NOEt will be summarized along with the preparation and preliminary biological evaluation of the first class of monocationic nitrido technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals exhibiting improved biodistribution properties closer to those expected for an ideal perfusion imaging agent.Os métodos químicos para produção de radiofármacos marcados com tecnécio-99m contendo a ligação tripla terminal TcºN foram estabelecidos há mais de uma década. Desde esta época, a química dos complexos nitridos marcados com 99mTc tem sido uma ferramenta altamente eficiente para o desenho e preparo de novas classes de agentes para diagnóstico e, foi descoberto um número de radiofarmacos potencialmente úteis. Nesta pequena revisão, as propriedades biológicas e químicas do traçador para perfusão miocárdica neutra, o bis(N-etoxi, N-etil-ditiocarbamato nitrido 99mTc (TcN-NOEt, serão resumidas junto com o preparo e avaliação biológica preliminar da primeira classe de radiofármacos nitrido monocatiônico marcado com tecnécio-99m que exibe melhores propriedades em relação à biodistribuição, mais próximas daquelas esperadas para um agente perfusor ideal para imagens.

  20. [Biological properties and therapeutic use of interleukin 2 (IL-2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robak, T

    1995-01-01

    A cytokine produced by the subpopulation of activated helper lymphocytes T has been called interleukin-2 (IL-2). The obtaining of recombinant cytokine has facilitated the study of its biological properties and its application in the treatment of certain neoplastic and infectious diseases. IL-2 affects the target cells by means of a receptor of great affinity consisting of three independent chains: alpha, beta, gamma. The cytokine is the most important growth factor of lymphocytes T, conditioning their clonal expansion. Antigen stimulation is the condition for the expression of IL-2 does not, however, affect resting lymphocytes T. The expression of the receptor for this cytokine on NK cells is, however, continuous in character but only a very small percentage of these cells has receptors of great affinity. IL-2 plays a great role in adoptive immunotherapy consisting in intravenous administration of cells with cytotoxic properties. Cells obtained from peripheral blood and grown in vitro are called LAK cells (lymphocyte activated killer cells), while cells obtained from neoplasms and grown in similar conditions are named TIL cells (tumor infiltrated lymphocytes). LAK and TIL cells reveal a similar antineoplastic activity in vivo. At present, however, recombinant IL-2 alone is used more often, either intravenously or subcutaneously. The cytokine is effective in the treatment of patients with disseminate cancer of the kidney and melanoma, and in adjuvant therapy of acute myeloid leukemia. Attempts have been made to apply it in the treatment of AIDS and leprosy. The toxic effect of IL-2 depends on the dose and the mode of administration. In the majority of patients parainfluenza symptoms appear. Most undesirable effects are connected with multisystemic syndrome of capillary vessels hyperpermeability leading to the increased fluid retention into extravascular spaces, oedema, hypotonia and oliguria. PMID:8657637

  1. Structural and biological properties of carbon nanotube composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Roger J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States)]. E-mail: roger.narayan@mse.gatech.edu; Berry, C.J. [Environmental Biotechnology Section, Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Brigmon, R.L. [Environmental Biotechnology Section, Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2005-11-20

    Carbon nanotube composite films have been developed that exhibit unusual structural and biological properties. These novel materials have been created by pulsed laser ablation of graphite and bombardment of nitrogen ions at temperatures between 600 and 700 deg. C. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and radial distribution function analysis demonstrate that this material consists of sp{sup 2}-bonded concentric ribbons that are wrapped approximately 15 deg. normal to the silicon substrate. The interlayer order in this material extends to approximately 15-30 A. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy data suggest that this material is predominantly trigonally coordinated. The carbon nanotube composite structure results from the use of energetic ions, which allow for non-equilibrium growth of graphitic planes. In vitro testing has revealed significant antimicrobial activity of carbon nanotube composite films against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus warneri colonization. Carbon nanotube composite films may be useful for inhibiting microorganism attachment and biofilm formation in hemodialysis catheters and other medical devices.

  2. Essential oils from neotropical Myrtaceae: chemical diversity and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Pascoal, Aislan C R F; Salvador, Marcos J

    2011-01-01

    Myrtaceae family (121 genera, 3800-5800 spp.) is one of the most important families in tropical forests. They are aromatic trees or shrubs, which frequently produce edible fruits. In the neotropics, ca. 1000 species were found. Several members of this family are used in folk medicine, mainly as an antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cleanser, antirheumatic, and anti-inflammatory agent and to decrease the blood cholesterol. In addition, some fruits are eaten fresh or used to make juices, liqueurs, and sweets very much appreciated by people. The flavor composition of some fruits belonging to the Myrtaceae family has been extensively studied due to their pleasant and intense aromas. Most of the essential oils of neotropical Myrtaceae analyzed so far are characterized by predominance of sesquiterpenes, some with important biological properties. In the present work, chemical and pharmacological studies carried out on neotropical Myrtaceae species are reviewed, based on original articles published since 1980. The uses in folk medicine and chemotaxonomic importance of secondary metabolites are also briefly discussed. PMID:21259421

  3. Impact of temperature on the biological properties of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowik, Agata; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the response of soil microorganisms and enzymes to the temperature of soil. The effect of the temperatures: 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C on the biological properties of soil was investigated under laboratory conditions. The study was performed using four different soils differing in their granulometric composition. It was found that 15°C was the optimal temperature for the development of microorganisms in soil. Typically, in the soil, the highest activity of dehydrogenases was observed at 10-15°C, catalase and acid phosphatase - at 15°C, alkaline phosphatase at 20°C, urease and β-glucosidase at 25°C. The highest colony development index for heterotrophic bacteria was recorded in soils incubated at 25°C, while for actinomycetes and fungi at 15°C. The incubation temperature of soil only slightly changed the ecophysiological variety of the investigated groups of microorganisms. Therefore, the observed climate changes might have a limited impact on the soil microbiological activity, because of the high ability of microorganisms to adopt. The response of soil microorganisms and enzymes was more dependent on the soil granulometric composition, organic carbon, and total nitrogen than on its temperature.

  4. DYNAMICS OF RESTORATION OF BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF BLACK SOILS POLLUTED WITH OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutuzova I. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Negative impact of oil on biological properties of soils right after pollution is shown in the article. Eventually, there is their restoration. However, even in some years after pollution, the biological properties of soils aren't restored completely

  5. Physical Properties of Biological Entities: An Introduction to the Ontology of Physics for Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Daniel L.; Bookstein, Fred L.; John H Gennari

    2011-01-01

    As biomedical investigators strive to integrate data and analyses across spatiotemporal scales and biomedical domains, they have recognized the benefits of formalizing languages and terminologies via computational ontologies. Although ontologies for biological entities—molecules, cells, organs—are well-established, there are no principled ontologies of physical properties—energies, volumes, flow rates—of those entities. In this paper, we introduce the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB), a ...

  6. Thermal property of biological tissues characterized by piezoelectric photoacoustic technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chunming; ZHANG Shuyi; CHEN Yan; SHUI Xiuji; YANG Yuetao

    2004-01-01

    A photoacoustic piezoelectric method based on a simplified thermoelastic theory is employed to determine thermal diffusivities of biological tissues. The thermal diffusivities of porcine tissues with different preparation conditions, including fresh, dry and specially prepared conditions, are characterized. Comparing the experimental evaluated diffusivities of the tissues in three conditions with each other, it can be seen that the diffusivities of the fresh tissues are the biggest and the diffusivities of the specially prepared tissues are bigger than that of the dry ones generally. The results show that the piezoelectric photoacoustic method is especially effective for determining macro-effective (average) thermal diffusivities of biological materials with micro- inhomogeneity and easy to be performed, which can provide useful information for researching thermal characters of biological tissues.

  7. Biological and electrical properties of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhulika Bhagat; Shayana Rajput; Sandeep Arya; Saleem Khan; Parveen Lehana

    2015-09-01

    In this work, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized biochemically at room temperature using aqueous extract of rhizome of Rheum australe plant. The as-synthesized AgNPs were further studied for their morphological, biological and electrical characterization. The morphological studies, such as scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV–vis spectrum confirmed their successful synthesis. Biological analysis revealed their antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Electrical characterization showed that the conductivity of the mixture of AgNPs with DPPH assay is more than the AgNPs dispersed in distilled water. The obtained results may have potential applications as sensors.

  8. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan (L Millsp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilipkumar Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cajanus cajan (L Millsp. (Sanskrit: Adhaki, Hindi: Arhar, English: Pigeon pea, Bengali: Tur (family: Fabaceae is the most important grain legume crop of rain-fed agriculture in semi-arid tropics. It is both a food crop and a cover/forage crop with high levels of proteins and important amino acids like methionine, lysine and tryptophan. During the last few decades extensive studies have been carried out regarding the chemistry of C. cajan and considerable progress has been achieved regarding its biological activities and medicinal applications. This review article gives an overview on the biological activities of the compounds isolated, pharmacological actions and clinical studies of C. cajan extracts apart from its general details.

  9. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Mishra, Pragya; Sachan, Neetu; Ghosh, Ashoke K

    2011-10-01

    Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp. (Sanskrit: Adhaki, Hindi: Arhar, English: Pigeon pea, Bengali: Tur) (family: Fabaceae) is the most important grain legume crop of rain-fed agriculture in semi-arid tropics. It is both a food crop and a cover/forage crop with high levels of proteins and important amino acids like methionine, lysine and tryptophan. During the last few decades extensive studies have been carried out regarding the chemistry of C. cajan and considerable progress has been achieved regarding its biological activities and medicinal applications. This review article gives an overview on the biological activities of the compounds isolated, pharmacological actions and clinical studies of C. cajan extracts apart from its general details. PMID:22247887

  10. Wildfire effects on biological properties of soils in forest-steppe ecosystems of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimova, E.; Abakumov, E.

    2014-01-01

    Soils affected by forest wildfires in 2010 in Russia were studied on postfire and mature plots near the Togljatty city, Samara region. Soil biological properties and ash composition dynamics were investigated under the forest fire affect: a place of local forest fire, riding forest fire and unaffected site by fire-control (mature) during 3 yr of restoration. Soil samples were collected at 0–15 cm. Soil biological properties was measured by the fumigation me...

  11. Physicochemical and biological properties of new steroid metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation was to prepare stable steroid metal chelates by chemical conversion of the natural steroid hormones testerone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) and estradiol and to characterize these by means of their spectroscopic and other physico-chemical properties. In addition, various measuring techniques for the qualitative and quantitative study of complex stabilities and hydrolytic properties were employed. The distribution of some tritiated steroid metal complexes in the tissues of rats was tested using whole animal autoradiography, mainly with a view to identifying whether selective concentration occurs in certain organs. (orig.)

  12. Biological properties of extracellular vesicles and their physiological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Mó, María; Siljander, Pia R-M; Andreu, Zoraida; Zavec, Apolonija Bedina; Borràs, Francesc E; Buzas, Edit I; Buzas, Krisztina; Casal, Enriqueta; Cappello, Francesco; Carvalho, Joana; Colás, Eva; Cordeiro-da Silva, Anabela; Fais, Stefano; Falcon-Perez, Juan M; Ghobrial, Irene M; Giebel, Bernd; Gimona, Mario; Graner, Michael; Gursel, Ihsan; Gursel, Mayda; Heegaard, Niels H H; Hendrix, An; Kierulf, Peter; Kokubun, Katsutoshi; Kosanovic, Maja; Kralj-Iglic, Veronika; Krämer-Albers, Eva-Maria; Laitinen, Saara; Lässer, Cecilia; Lener, Thomas; Ligeti, Erzsébet; Linē, Aija; Lipps, Georg; Llorente, Alicia; Lötvall, Jan; Manček-Keber, Mateja; Marcilla, Antonio; Mittelbrunn, Maria; Nazarenko, Irina; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; Nyman, Tuula A; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Olivan, Mireia; Oliveira, Carla; Pállinger, Éva; Del Portillo, Hernando A; Reventós, Jaume; Rigau, Marina; Rohde, Eva; Sammar, Marei; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Santarém, N; Schallmoser, Katharina; Ostenfeld, Marie Stampe; Stoorvogel, Willem; Stukelj, Roman; Van der Grein, Susanne G; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Wauben, Marca H M; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been recognized as potent vehicles of intercellular communication, both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This is due to their capacity to transfer proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, thereby influencing various physiological and pathological functions of both recipient and parent cells. While intensive investigation has targeted the role of EVs in different pathological processes, for example, in cancer and autoimmune diseases, the EV-mediated maintenance of homeostasis and the regulation of physiological functions have remained less explored. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of the physiological roles of EVs, which has been written by crowd-sourcing, drawing on the unique EV expertise of academia-based scientists, clinicians and industry based in 27 European countries, the United States and Australia. This review is intended to be of relevance to both researchers already working on EV biology and to newcomers who will encounter this universal cell biological system. Therefore, here we address the molecular contents and functions of EVs in various tissues and body fluids from cell systems to organs. We also review the physiological mechanisms of EVs in bacteria, lower eukaryotes and plants to highlight the functional uniformity of this emerging communication system. PMID:25979354

  13. Biological properties of extracellular vesicles and their physiological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Yáñez-Mó

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, extracellular vesicles (EVs have been recognized as potent vehicles of intercellular communication, both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This is due to their capacity to transfer proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, thereby influencing various physiological and pathological functions of both recipient and parent cells. While intensive investigation has targeted the role of EVs in different pathological processes, for example, in cancer and autoimmune diseases, the EV-mediated maintenance of homeostasis and the regulation of physiological functions have remained less explored. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of the physiological roles of EVs, which has been written by crowd-sourcing, drawing on the unique EV expertise of academia-based scientists, clinicians and industry based in 27 European countries, the United States and Australia. This review is intended to be of relevance to both researchers already working on EV biology and to newcomers who will encounter this universal cell biological system. Therefore, here we address the molecular contents and functions of EVs in various tissues and body fluids from cell systems to organs. We also review the physiological mechanisms of EVs in bacteria, lower eukaryotes and plants to highlight the functional uniformity of this emerging communication system.

  14. Modifications of the Dielectric Properties of Biological Membranes by Heating

    CERN Document Server

    Savescu, S B

    2004-01-01

    Biological cell suspensions are known to show dielectric dispersions due to the Maxwell-Wagner mechanism. Many examples are summarized in a number of papers by Schwan [7, 9, 10]. By the application of an appropriate analysis to the dielectric dispersion, it is possible to estimate electrical phase parameters related to protoplasm and cell membrane. A dielectric theory of interfacial polarization for a suspension of conducting particles (protoplasm) covered with poorly conducting shells (plasma membrane) was developed by Pauly and Schwan [7], and was satisfactory applied for low volume fractions of suspended particles (less than about 0.2). The purpose of this paper is to examine the change in yeast plasma membrane permittivity after heating treatment, by using the Pauly and Schwan's theory.

  15. Biological Activity and Nutritional Properties of Processed Onion Products

    OpenAIRE

    Rolán Marín, María Eduvigis

    2009-01-01

    The first part of the PhD Thesis aimed to evaluate in vitro effects of food processing and preservation technologies on onion nutritional and technological properties. The first in vitro study analyzed ‘Figueres’ and ‘Recas’ onion by-products (juices, pastes and bagasses) stabilized by sterilization, pasteurization, and freezing technologies. Results demonstrated that processing ‘Recas’ onion wastes to obtain onion pastes and the subsequent stabilization with pasteurization trigge...

  16. Experimental study of the biological properties of 188Re-Hepama-1 biologic superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate a new biologic-superparamagnetic nanoparticles's characteristics of immunological activity, biological distributing in vivo, targeting and inhibiting tumor effect. Methods: The experimental group 188Re-Hepama-l-superparamagnetic nanoparticles, and control groups, including 188ReO4-, 188Re-Hepama-1, and 188Re-superparamagnetic nanoparticles, were set up. The distributions were measured after injection 4 h and 24 h by caudal vein of Kuming mice. The magnetic targeting experiments in vivo were clone with and without magnetic field in liver after injection in New Zealand rabbit. The inhibiting tumor effect on hepatic cancer cell lines SMMC-7721 of the above four 188Re labeled products were measured by mono nuclear cell direct cytotoxicity assay method. Results: After injection 4 h and 24 h by vein, the liver taking was highest in group 188Re-Hepama-l-superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The radiative activity in liver in magnetism zoo was higher than in non magnetism zoo in 188Re- Hepama-1-superparamagnetic nanoparticles after applying magnetic field in left lobe of liver, and the ratio of in magnetism zoo to non magnetism zoo was 1.87. And the half effective inhibition radioactive concentrations (IC50) in 188Re-Hepama-l-superparamagnetic nanoparticles was one forth of 188ReO4-. Conclusion: 188Re- Hepama-l-superparamagnetic nanoparticles showed its fine stability in intro, good immunological activity and significant liver target. (authors)

  17. Simple Empirical Model for Identifying Rheological Properties of Soft Biological Tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Yo; Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the rheological properties of soft biological tissue is a key issue for mechanical systems used in the healthcare field. We propose a simple empirical model using Fractional Dynamics and Exponential Nonlinearity (FDEN) to identify the rheological properties of soft biological tissue. The model is derived from detailed material measurements using samples isolated from porcine liver. We conducted dynamic viscoelastic and creep tests on liver samples using a rheometer. The experimental results indicated that biological tissue has specific properties: i) power law increases in storage elastic modulus and loss elastic modulus with the same slope; ii) power law gain decrease and constant phase delay in the frequency domain over two decades; iii) log-log scale linearity between time and strain relationships under constant force; and iv) linear and log scale linearity between strain and stress relationships. Our simple FDEN model uses only three dependent parameters and represents the specific propertie...

  18. Phytochrome from Green Plants: Properties and biological Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quail, Peter H.

    2014-07-25

    Plants constantly monitor the light environment for informational light signals used to direct adaptational responses to the prevailing conditions. One major such response, the Shade-Avaoidance Response (SAR), triggered when plants sense the presence of competing neighbors, results in enhanced channeling of photosynthetically-fixed carbon into stem elongation at the expense of deposition in reproductive tissues. This response has been selected against in many modern food crops to ensure maximum edible yield (e.g. seeds). Converse enhancement of the SAR, with consequent increased carbon channeling into vegetative cellulose, could contribute to the generation of crops with improved yield of tissues suitable for cellulosic biofuel production. The signal for this response is light enriched in far-red wavelengths. This signal is produced by sunlight filtered through, or reflected from, neighboring vegetation, as a result of preferential depletion of red photons through chlorophyll absorption. The plant phytochrome (phy) photoreceptor system (predominantly phyB) senses this signal through its capacity to switch reversibly, in milliseconds, between two molecular states: the biologically inactive Pr (red-light-absorbing) and biologically active Pfr (far-red-light-absorbing) conformers. The photoequilibrium established between these two conformers in light-grown plants is determined by the ratio of red-to-far-red wavelengths in the incoming signal. The levels of Pfr then dictate the recipient plant’s growth response: high levels suppress elongation growth; low levels promote elongation growth. Studies on seedling deetiolation have advanced our understanding considerably in recent years, of the mechanism by which the photoactivated phy molecule transduces its signal into cellular growth responses. The data show that a subfamily of phy-interacting bHLH transcription factors (PIFs) promote skotomorphogenic seedling development in post-germinative darkness, but that the phy

  19. Double integrating spheres: A method for assessment of optical properties of biological tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Poppendieck, Wigand

    2004-01-01

    The determination of the optical properties of biological tissue is an important issue in laser medicine. The optical properties define the tissue´s absorption and scattering behaviour, and can be expressed by quantities such as the albedo, the optical thickness and the anisotropy coefficient. During this project, a measurement system for the determination of the optical properties was built up. The system consists of a double integrating sphere set-up to perform the necessary reflection and ...

  20. Manipulating lipid bilayer material properties using biologically active amphipathic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashrafuzzaman, Md [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Medical College of University of Cornell, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Lampson, M A [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Medical College of University of Cornell, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Greathouse, D V [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); II, R E Koeppe [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Andersen, O S [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Medical College of University of Cornell, New York, NY 10021 (United States)

    2006-07-19

    Lipid bilayers are elastic bodies with properties that can be manipulated/controlled by the adsorption of amphipathic molecules. The resulting changes in bilayer elasticity have been shown to regulate integral membrane protein function. To further understand the amphiphile-induced modulation of bilayer material properties (thickness, intrinsic monolayer curvature and elastic moduli), we examined how an enantiomeric pair of viral anti-fusion peptides (AFPs)-Z-Gly-D-Phe and Z-Gly-Phe, where Z denotes a benzyloxycarbonyl group, as well as Z-Phe-Tyr and Z-D-Phe-Phe-Gly-alters the function of enantiomeric pairs of gramicidin channels of different lengths in planar bilayers. For both short and long channels, the channel lifetimes and appearance frequencies increase as linear functions of the aqueous AFP concentration, with no apparent effect on the single-channel conductance. These changes in channel function do not depend on the chirality of the channels or the AFPs. At pH 7.0, the relative changes in channel lifetimes do not vary when the channel length is varied, indicating that these compounds exert their effects primarily by causing a positive-going change in the intrinsic monolayer curvature. At pH 4.0, the AFPs are more potent than at pH 7.0 and have greater effects on the shorter channels, indicating that these compounds now change the bilayer elastic moduli. When AFPs of different anti-fusion potencies are compared, the rank order of the anti-fusion activity and the channel-modifying activity is similar, but the relative changes in anti-fusion potency are larger than the changes in channel-modifying activity. We conclude that gramicidin channels are useful as molecular force transducers to probe the influence of small amphiphiles upon lipid bilayer material properties.

  1. Biological evaluation of Leucaena Leucocephala for antidiabetic properties - a proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbs have been widely used as an alternative medicine for the treatment of disease and maintenance of health. Malaysia has a rich variety of herbs that is traditionally believed to have therapeutic value. Nevertheless, this value is not yet been proven by scientific study. Among the plants that have been scientifically studied are centella asiatica for antihypertensive activity, eurycoma longifolia for antimalaria properties and morinda citrifolia for immune system enhancement. Leucaena leucocephala, which is locally known as petai belalang is ordinary species in tropical area. Malaysian has used it for the treatment of diabetes. The objective of this study is to observe the antidiabetic effects of aqueous extract of leucaena leucocephala leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic will be induced intravenous with alloxan 150mg/kg. Extract will be administered orally to adult male sprague dawley rats. Blood glucose, serum lipid and pancreatic amylase will be determined with automatic biochemistry analysor. Serum insulin will be determined by radioimmunoassay whereas morphology of pancreatic islet will be examined using microscope. If leucaena leucocephala has antidiabetic properties, blood glucose level will be decreased. (Author)

  2. Antioxidant properties of violacein: possible relation on its biological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzen, Marlon; De Marco, Daniela; Cordova, Clarissa A S; Vieira, Tiago O; Antônio, Regina V; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia B

    2006-12-15

    Violacein, a violet pigment produced by Chromobacterium violaceum, has attracted much attention in recent literature due to its pharmacological properties. In this work, the antioxidant properties of violacein were investigated. The reactivity with oxygen and nitrogen reactive species and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), a stable free radical, was evaluated. EPR studies were carried out to evaluate the reactivity with the hydroxyl radical. The action of violacein against lipid peroxidation in three models of lipid membranes, including rat liver microsomes, Egg and Soy bean phosphathidylcholine liposomes were also evaluated. The compound reacted with DPPH (IC(50)=30microM), nitric oxide (IC(50)=21microM), superoxide radicals (IC(50)=125microM) and decreased the hydroxyl radical EPR signal. The compound protected the studied membranes against peroxidation induced by reactive species in the micromolar range. The reconstitution of violacein into the membranes increased its antioxidant effect. These results indicate that the compound has strong antioxidant potential. Based on these results we suggest violacein plays an important role with the microorganism membrane in defense against oxidative stress. PMID:17011197

  3. Biological residues define the ice nucleation properties of soil dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil dust is a major driver of ice nucleation in clouds leading to precipitation. It consists largely of mineral particles with a small fraction of organic matter constituted mainly of remains of micro-organisms that participated in degrading plant debris before their own decay. Some micro-organisms have been shown to be much better ice nuclei than the most efficient soil mineral. Yet, current aerosol schemes in global climate models do not consider a difference between soil dust and mineral dust in terms of ice nucleation activity. Here, we show that particles from the clay and silt size fraction of four different soils naturally associated with 0.7 to 11.8 % organic carbon (w/w can have up to four orders of magnitude more ice nuclei per unit mass active in the immersion freezing mode at −12 °C than montmorillonite, the most efficient pure clay mineral. Most of this activity was lost after heat treatment. Removal of biological residues reduced ice nucleation activity to, or below that of montmorillonite. Desert soils, inherently low in organic content, are a large natural source of dust in the atmosphere. In contrast, agricultural land use is concentrated on fertile soils with much larger organic matter contents than found in deserts. It is currently estimated that the contribution of agricultural soils to the global dust burden is less than 20 %. Yet, these disturbed soils can contribute ice nuclei to the atmosphere of a very different and much more potent kind than mineral dusts.

  4. Physico-chemical and biological properties of Ambroxol under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physico-chemical properties of Ambroxol (AM), a potential antioxidant drug from the expectorant class, were investigated by radiation chemical and spectroscopic studies. The pulse radiolysis experiments showed that AM is a good scavenger of the primary water radical species, particularly eaq- and ·OH radicals. The ·OH attack, preferentially addressed to the ring positions activated by the -NH2 group and occupied by bromine atoms, leads to hydroxycyclohexadienyl radicals. The molecule stabilisation may be achieved by a dehalogenation reaction to give phenoxyl radicals. The ·OH attack to AM is not affected by Cu(II) ions, which interact only weakly with the drug as evidenced by IR and Raman spectroscopy. Survival experiments on E. coli B/r cells irradiated in the presence of AM showed a radiosensitising effect of AM in anoxia. Some possible mechanisms of radiosensitisation are outlined. (author)

  5. Physical Effects of Buckwheat Extract on Biological Membrane In Vitro and Its Protective Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Włoch, Aleksandra; Strugała, Paulina; Pruchnik, Hanna; Żyłka, Romuald; Oszmiański, Jan; Kleszczyńska, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat is a valuable source of many biologically active compounds and nutrients. It has properties that reduce blood cholesterol levels, and so reduces the risk of atherosclerosis, seals the capillaries, and lowers blood pressure. The aim of the study was to determine quantitative and qualitative characteristics of polyphenols contained in extracts from buckwheat husks and stalks, the biological activity of the extracts, and biophysical effects of their interaction with the erythrocyte mem...

  6. Biological and Pharmacological Properties of Abroma augusta Linn. Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Taous Khan; Waqar Ahmad; Shumaila Bashir; Zafar Iqbal; Bashir Ahmad Manzoor Ahmad; Nisarullah; Muhammad Arfan; Farzana Shaheen

    2003-01-01

    The seed oil of Abroma augusta Linn. was studied for biological and pharmacological properties. The oil was also screened for various in vitro biological and pharmacological activities including antifungal, antibacterial, insecticidal, phytotoxic and brine-shrimp cytotoxic activities. The oil exhibited remarkable phytotoxic activity against Lemna aeguinoctailis Welve. It was also explored to posses moderate antifungal activities against Trichophyton schoenleinii (56%) (human pathogens) and Mi...

  7. The species concept as an emergent property of population biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Michael W

    2011-03-01

    Resurgent interest in the genetics of population divergence and speciation coincides with recent critical evaluation of species concepts and proposals for species delimitation. An important result of these parallel trends is a slight but important conceptual shift in focus away from species diagnoses based on prior species concepts or definitions, and toward analyses of the processes acting on lineages of metapopulations that eventually lead to differences recognizable as species taxa. An advantage of this approach is that it identifies quantitative metapopulation differences in continuous variables, rather than discrete entities that do or do not conform to a prior species concept, and species taxa are recognized as an emergent property of population-level processes. The tension between species concepts and diagnosis versus emergent recognition of species taxa is at least as old as Darwin, and is unlikely to be resolved soon in favor of either view, because the products of both approaches (discrete utilitarian taxon names for species, process-based understanding of the origins of differentiated metapopulations) continue to have important applications. PMID:21108640

  8. Bioactive glass/hydroxyapatite composites: mechanical properties and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Devis; Sola, Antonella; Anesi, Alexandre; Salvatori, Roberta; Chiarini, Luigi; Cannillo, Valeria

    2015-06-01

    Bioactive glass/hydroxyapatite composites for bone tissue repair and regeneration have been produced and discussed. The use of a recently developed glass, namely BG_Ca/Mix, with its low tendency to crystallize, allowed one to sinter the samples at a relatively low temperature thus avoiding several adverse effects usually reported in the literature, such as extensive crystallization of the glassy phase, hydroxyapatite (HA) decomposition and reaction between HA and glass. The mechanical properties of the composites with 80wt.% BG_Ca/Mix and 20wt.% HA are sensibly higher than those of Bioglass® 45S5 reference samples due to the presence of HA (mechanically stronger than the 45S5 glass) and to the thermal behaviour of the BG_Ca/Mix, which is able to favour the sintering process of the composites. Biocompatibility tests, performed with murine fibroblasts BALB/3T3 and osteocites MLO-Y4 throughout a multi-parametrical approach, allow one to look with optimism to the produced composites, since both the samples themselves and their extracts do not induce negative effects in cell viability and do not cause inhibition in cell growth. PMID:25842126

  9. [SEROLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF PANTOEA AGGLOMERANS LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulygina, T V; Yakovleva, L M; Brovarska, O S; Varbanets, L D

    2015-01-01

    The serological and phytotoxic properties of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of plant pathogens--Pantoea agglomerans were studied. It is known that the thin variations in the structure of the O-specific polysaccharides determining serological specificity of gram- negative bacteria and used as a molecular basis of serological classification schemes. For P. agglomerans still does not exist a classification scheme based on serology specificity of their LPS. The results of cross serological tests demonstrate immunochemical heterogeneity of species P agglomerans. Only three strains of the 8488, 8490 and 7969 according to the agglutination of O-antigens and direct hemagglutination and inhibition direct hemagglutination can be attributed to a single serogroup. Other strains--each separate group, although some have a relationship. Compared with control plants under the influence of seed treatment of LPS in plants may be reduced, and in some cases increased root length, height and weight sprout, depending on the strain from which the selected LPS. Dive seedlings of tomatoes in the solutions of the studied preparations FSC caused the loss, and after some time, restore turgor. PMID:26829835

  10. Optical Properties and In Vitro Biological Studies of Oligonucleotide-Modified Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie A. Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble semiconducting nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs have attracted much interest in recent years due to their tuneable emission and potential applications in photonics and biological imaging. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET processes are very important for elucidating biochemical mechanisms in vitro, and QDs constitute an excellent substrate for this purpose. In this work, new oligonucleotide-functionalised CdTe-based QDs were prepared, characterised and biologically tested. These QDs demonstrated interesting optical properties as well as remarkable in vitro behaviour and potential for a range of biological applications.

  11. Glutarimides: Biological activity, general synthetic methods and physicochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Đorđević Jelena B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutarimides, 2,6-dioxopiperidines are compounds that rarely occur in natural sources, but so far isolated ones exert widespread pharmacological activities, which makes them valuable as potential pharmacotherapeutics. Glutarimides act as androgen receptor antagonists, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytics, antibacterials, and tumor suppressing agents. Some synthetic glutarimide derivatives are already in use as immunosuppressive and sedative (e.g., thalidomide or anxiolytics (buspirone drugs. The wide applicability of this class of compounds, justify the interest of scientists to explore new pathways for its syntheses. General methods for synthesis of six-membered imide ring, are presented in this paper. These methods include: a reaction of dicarboxylic acids with ammonia or primary amine, b reactions of cyclization: amido-acids, diamides, dinitriles, nitrilo-acids, amido-nitriles, amido-esters, amidoacyl-chlorides or diacyl-chlorides, c adition of carbon-monoxide on a,b-unsaturated amides, d oxidation reactions, e Michael adition of active methylen compounds on methacrylamide or conjugated amides. Some of the described methods are used for closing glutarimide ring in syntheses of farmacological active compounds sesbanimide and aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI. Analyses of the geometry, as well as, the spectroscopic analyses (NMR and FT-IR of some glutarimides are presented because of their broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. To elucidate structures of glutarimides, geometrical parameters of newly synthesized tert-pentyl-1-benzyl-4-methyl-glutarimide-3-carboxylate (PBMG are analyzed and compared with the experimental data from X-ray analysis for glutarimide. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surface which is plotted over the optimized geometry to elucidate the reactivity of PBMG molecule is analyzed. The electronic properties of glutarimide derivatives are explained on the example of thalidomide. The Frontier Molecular Orbital

  12. Soil properties and biological activity as influenced by nutrient management in rice- fallow sorghum

    OpenAIRE

    N Goutami

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to observe the effect of inorganics, bio-fertilizers and FYM applied to rice-fallow sorghum on soil properties and biological activity at Agricultural College Farm, Bapatla during 2012. Soil samples were collected at flowering and harvest of the crop and were analysed for bulk density (BD), porosity, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon, N, P, K and micronutrients by standard methods. Results indicated that the soil properties viz., bulk density, p...

  13. Research on Catalytic Properties of Palladium Catalyst Prepared by Biological Reduction Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Feng; Fu Jiquan

    2013-01-01

    This paper relates to highly dispersed supported Pd/MWCNTs and Pd/α-Al2O3 catalysts prepared by biological reduction method. The physico-chemical properties and the difference in catalytic activity of Pd catalysts prepared by bio-logical reduction method and chemical method, respectively, were investigated using XRD, TEM and speciifc surface char-acterization methods. The catalytic properties of catalysts were studied through activity evaluation means. The test results showed that the catalysts prepared by biological method were characteristic of small Pd nanoparticle size, good dispersion and low agglomeration, while possessing a high activity and stability in styrene hydrogenation reaction in comparison with catalysts prepared via the chemical method.

  14. Rheological properties of a biological thermo-responsive hydrogel produced from soybean oil polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of a newly developed biological thermo-hydrogel made from vegetable oil were investigated. The material named HPSO-VI is a hydrolytic product of polymerized soybean oil (PSO). HPSO-VI exhibited viscoelastic behavior above 2% (wt. %) at room temperature and viscous fluid ...

  15. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  16. Measurement of Mechatronic Property of Biological Gel with Micro-Vibrating Electrode at Ultrasonic Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Hashimoto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A measurement system has been designed with a micro-vibrating electrode at ultrasonic frequency to measure local impedance of biological gel in vitro. The designed system consists of two electrodes, where one of the electrodes vibrates with a piezoelectric actuator. The component of variation at impedance between two electrodes with vibration of one electrode is analyzed at the corresponding spectrum. The manufactured system was applied to measure impedance of a physiological saline solution, a potassium chloride solution, a dextran aqueous solution, and an egg. The experimental results show that the designed system is effective to measure local mechatronic property of biological gel.

  17. Standards, Data Exchange and Intellectual Property Rights in Systems Biology (UNDER REVIEW)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zimmeren, Esther; Rutz, Berthold; Minssen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    scientists. In 2015, Biotechnology Journal published a report from an expert meeting on “Synthetic Biology & Intellectual Property Rights” organized by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation sponsored by the European Research Area Network in Synthetic Biology (ERASynBio), in which we...... provided a number of recommendations for a variety of stakeholders. The current article offers some deeper reflections about IPRs in Systems Biology (SysBio) resulting from an Expert Meeting funded by another European Research Area Network, ERASysAPP. SysBio involves the interdisciplinary study of...... SysBio and IPRs. This article reflects on a number of particularly relevant issues that were discussed at the meeting and offers some first recommendations....

  18. Changes in diffusion properties of biological tissues associated with mechanical strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical strain in biological tissues causes a change in the diffusion properties of water molecules. This paper proposes a method of estimating mechanical strain in biological tissues using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Measurements were carried out on uncompressed and compressed chicken skeletal muscles. A theoretical model of the diffusion of water molecules in muscle fibers was derived based on Tanner's equation. Diameter of the muscle fibers was estimated by fitting the model equation to the measured signals. Changes in the mean diffusivity (MD), the fractional anisotropy (FA), and diameter of the muscle fiber did not have any statistical significance. The intracellular diffusion coefficient (Dint) was changed by mechanical strain (p<.05). This method has potential applications in the quantitative evaluation of strain in biological tissues, a though it poses several technical challenges. (author)

  19. Predicting spiral wave patterns from cell properties in a model of biological self-organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberth, Daniel; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2008-09-01

    In many biological systems, biological variability (i.e., systematic differences between the system components) can be expected to outrank statistical fluctuations in the shaping of self-organized patterns. In principle, the distribution of single-element properties should thus allow predicting features of such patterns. For a mathematical model of a paradigmatic and well-studied pattern formation process, spiral waves of cAMP signaling in colonies of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, we explore this possibility and observe a pronounced anticorrelation between spiral waves and cell properties (namely, the firing rate) and particularly a clustering of spiral wave tips in regions devoid of spontaneously firing (pacemaker) cells. Furthermore, we observe local inhomogeneities in the distribution of spiral chiralities, again induced by the pacemaker distribution. We show that these findings can be explained by a simple geometrical model of spiral wave generation.

  20. Effects of mussel shell addition on the chemical and biological properties of a Cambisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Ferreiro, J; Baez-Bernal, D; Castro Insúa, J; García Pomar, M I

    2012-03-01

    The use of a by-product of the fisheries industry (mussel shell) combined with cattle slurry was evaluated as soil amendment, with special attention to the biological component of soil. A wide number of properties related to soil quality were measured: microbial biomass, soil respiration, net N mineralization, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, urease and phosphomonoesterase activities. The amendments showed an enhancement of soil biological activity and a decrease of aluminium held in the cation exchange complex. No adverse effects were observed on soil properties. Given that mussel shells are produced in coastal areas as a by-product and have to be managed as a waste and the fertility constraints in the local soils due to their low pH, our research suggest that there is an opportunity for disposing a residue into the soil and improving soil fertility. PMID:22209299

  1. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Adipose and Other Tissues: Basic Biological Properties and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Orbay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are adult stem cells that were initially isolated from bone marrow. However, subsequent research has shown that other adult tissues also contain MSCs. MSCs originate from mesenchyme, which is embryonic tissue derived from the mesoderm. These cells actively proliferate, giving rise to new cells in some tissues, but remain quiescent in others. MSCs are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types including adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteocytes, and cardiomyocytes. Isolation and induction of these cells could provide a new therapeutic tool for replacing damaged or lost adult tissues. However, the biological properties and use of stem cells in a clinical setting must be well established before significant clinical benefits are obtained. This paper summarizes data on the biological properties of MSCs and discusses current and potential clinical applications.

  2. Electronic and Transport Properties of Quasi-1D Wires of Biological Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetzel, Björn; Matthes, Lars; Tandetzky, Falk; Ortmann, Frank; Bechstedt, Friedhelm; Hannewald, Karsten

    2010-03-01

    In the search for organic materials with good charge-transport properties, artificial stacks of biological molecules are considered attractive candidates [1,2]. In this spirit, we present ab-initio DFT calculations of the structural, electronic, and quantum-transport properties of quasi-1D wires based on guanine and eumelanin molecules [3]. Hereby, a special focus is put on the results for the electronic bandwidths and the consequences for potential applications. [4pt] [1] R. di Felice et al., Phys. Rev. B 65, 045104 (2001) [0pt] [2] P. Meredith et al., Pigment Cell Res. 19, 572 (2006) [0pt] [3] B. Oetzel et al. (unpublished)

  3. Imaging material properties of biological samples with a Force Feedback Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Luca; Newman, Emily; Zubieta, Chloe; Chevrier, Joel; Comin, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical properties of biological samples have been imaged with a force feedback microscope. The force, force gradient and the dissipation are simultaneously measured quantitatively from solely the knowledge of the spring constant. The results are preliminary but demonstrate that the method can be used to measure material properties, it is robust and produce quantitative high force resolution measurements of interaction characteristics. The small stiffness and oscillation of the cantilever results in an vibrational energy much smaller than the thermal energy, reducing the interaction to a minimum. Because the lever is over-damped, the excitation frequency can be chosen arbitrarily.

  4. Structural Features and Biological Properties of Ellagitannins in Some Plant Families of the Order Myrtales

    OpenAIRE

    Morio Yoshimura; Yoshiaki Amakura; Takashi Yoshida

    2010-01-01

    Plant tannins, including hydrolysable and condensed varieties, are well known antioxidants in medicinal plants, foods, and edible fruits. Their diverse biological properties and potential for disease prevention have been demonstrated by various in vitro and in vivo assays. A number of ellagitannins, the largest group of hydrolysable tannins, have been isolated from dicotyledoneous angiosperms and characterized. This diverse class of tannins is sub-grouped into simple ellagitannins, C-glycosid...

  5. Chemical and Biological Properties of Quinochalcone C-Glycosides from the Florets of Carthamus tinctorius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Yue

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinochalcone C-glycosides are regarded as characteristic components that have only been isolated from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius. Recently, quinochalcone C-glycosides were found to have multiple pharmacological activities, which has attracted the attention of many researchers to explore these compounds. This review aims to summarize quinochalcone C-glycosides’ physicochemical properties, chromatographic behavior, spectroscopic characteristics, as well as their biological activities, which will be helpful for further study and development of quinochalcone C-glycosides.

  6. Structure-property relationship of quinuclidinium surfactants--Towards multifunctional biologically active molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skočibušić, Mirjana; Odžak, Renata; Štefanić, Zoran; Križić, Ivana; Krišto, Lucija; Jović, Ozren; Hrenar, Tomica; Primožič, Ines; Jurašin, Darija

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by diverse biological and pharmacological activity of quinuclidine and oxime compounds we have synthesized and characterized novel class of surfactants, 3-hydroxyimino quinuclidinium bromides with different alkyl chains lengths (CnQNOH; n=12, 14 and 16). The incorporation of non conventional hydroxyimino quinuclidinium headgroup and variation in alkyl chain length affects hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance of surfactant molecule and thereby physicochemical properties important for its application. Therefore, newly synthesized surfactants were characterized by the combination of different experimental techniques: X-ray analysis, potentiometry, electrical conductivity, surface tension and dynamic light scattering measurements, as well as antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Comprehensive investigation of CnQNOH surfactants enabled insight into structure-property relationship i.e., way in which the arrangement of surfactant molecules in the crystal phase correlates with their solution behavior and biologically activity. The synthesized CnQNOH surfactants exhibited high adsorption efficiency and relatively low critical micelle concentrations. In addition, all investigated compounds showed very potent and promising activity against Gram-positive and clinically relevant Gram-negative bacterial strains compared to conventional antimicrobial agents: tetracycline and gentamicin. The overall results indicate that bicyclic headgroup with oxime moiety, which affects both hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of CnQNOH molecule in addition to enabling hydrogen bonding, has dominant effect on crystal packing and physicochemical properties. The unique structural features of cationic surfactants with hydroxyimino quinuclidine headgroup along with diverse biological activity have made them promising structures in novel drug discovery. Obtained fundamental understanding how combination of different functionalities in a single surfactant molecule affects its physicochemical

  7. Non-covalent interactions and physico-chemical properties of small biological systems : theoretical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Riffet, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure and physico-chemical properties of biomolecules such as peptides are not only governed by their elementary composition but also various non-covalent intra-and inter-molecular interactions. The characterization, measurement and effects of these interactions are currently at the center of many researches at the interface between biology and physical chemistry. In this context, the aim of our thesis is a better understanding of these interactions in biomolecules a...

  8. Improvement of biological properties of titanium by anodic oxidation and ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anodic oxidation was applied to produce a homogeneous and uniform array of nanotubes of about 70 nm on the titanium (Ti) surface, and then, the nanotubes were irradiated by ultraviolet. The bioactivity of the Ti surface was evaluated by simulated body fluid soaking test. The biocompatibility was investigated by in vitro cell culture test. The results showed that bone-like apatite was formed on the anodic oxidized and UV irradiated Ti surface, but not on the as-polished Ti surface after immersion in simulated body fluid for two weeks. Cells cultured on the anodic oxidized Ti surface showed enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation, also presented an up-regulated gene expression of osteogenic markers OPG, compared to those cultured on the as-polished Ti surface. After UV irradiation, the cell behaviors were further improved, indicating better biocompatibility of Ti surface. Based on these results, it can be concluded that anodic oxidation improved the biological properties (bioactivity and biocompatibility) of Ti surface, while UV irradiation improved the biocompatibility to a better extent. The improved biological properties were attributed to the nanostructures as well as the enhanced hydrophilicity. Therefore, anodic oxidation combined with UV irradiation can be used to enhance the biological properties of Ti-based implants.

  9. Biological and genetic properties of the p53 null preneoplastic mammary epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Daniel; Kittrell, Frances S.; Shepard, Anne; Stephens, L. Clifton; Jiang, Cheng; Lu, Junxuan; Allred, D. Craig; McCarthy, Maureen; Ullrich, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    The absence of the tumor suppressor gene p53 confers an increased tumorigenic risk for mammary epithelial cells. In this report, we describe the biological and genetic properties of the p53 null preneoplastic mouse mammary epithelium in a p53 wild-type environment. Mammary epithelium from p53 null mice was transplanted serially into the cleared mammary fat pads of p53 wild-type BALB/c female to develop stable outgrowth lines. The outgrowth lines were transplanted for 10 generations. The outgrowths were ductal in morphology and progressed through ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ before invasive cancer. The preneoplastic outgrowth lines were immortal and exhibited activated telomerase activity. They are estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive, and aneuploid, and had various levels of tumorigenic potential. The biological and genetic properties of these lines are distinct from those found in most hyperplastic alveolar outgrowth lines, the form of mammary preneoplasia occurring in most traditional models of murine mammary tumorigenesis. These results indicate that the preneoplastic cell populations found in this genetically engineered model are similar in biological properties to a subset of precurser lesions found in human breast cancer and provide a unique model to identify secondary events critical for tumorigenicity and invasiveness.

  10. Improvement of biological properties of titanium by anodic oxidation and ultraviolet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Baoe [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Li, Ying [Stomatological Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Li, Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Fu, Xiaolong; Li, Changyi [Stomatological Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Wang, Hongshui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Liu, Shimin [Business School, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Guo, Litong [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Xin, Shigang [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Liang, Chunyong, E-mail: liangchunyong@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Li, Haipeng, E-mail: lhpcx@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Anodic oxidation was applied to produce a homogeneous and uniform array of nanotubes of about 70 nm on the titanium (Ti) surface, and then, the nanotubes were irradiated by ultraviolet. The bioactivity of the Ti surface was evaluated by simulated body fluid soaking test. The biocompatibility was investigated by in vitro cell culture test. The results showed that bone-like apatite was formed on the anodic oxidized and UV irradiated Ti surface, but not on the as-polished Ti surface after immersion in simulated body fluid for two weeks. Cells cultured on the anodic oxidized Ti surface showed enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation, also presented an up-regulated gene expression of osteogenic markers OPG, compared to those cultured on the as-polished Ti surface. After UV irradiation, the cell behaviors were further improved, indicating better biocompatibility of Ti surface. Based on these results, it can be concluded that anodic oxidation improved the biological properties (bioactivity and biocompatibility) of Ti surface, while UV irradiation improved the biocompatibility to a better extent. The improved biological properties were attributed to the nanostructures as well as the enhanced hydrophilicity. Therefore, anodic oxidation combined with UV irradiation can be used to enhance the biological properties of Ti-based implants.

  11. Effect of calcium hydroxide on mechanical strength and biological properties of bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Asma Tufail; Batool, Madeeha; Chaudhry, Aqif Anwar; Iqbal, Farasat; Javaid, Ayesha; Zahid, Saba; Ilyas, Kanwal; Bin Qasim, Saad; Khan, Ather Farooq; Khan, Abdul Samad; Ur Rehman, Ihtesham

    2016-08-01

    In this manuscript for the first time calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has been used for preparation of bioactive glass (BG-2) by co-precipitation method and compared with glass prepared using calcium nitrate tetrahydrate Ca(NO3)2·4H2O (BG-1), which is a conventional source of calcium. The new source positively affected physical, biological and mechanical properties of BG-2. The glasses were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Thermogravimetric Analysis/Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TGA-DSC), BET surface area analysis and Knoop hardness. The results showed that BG-2 possessed relatively larger surface properties (100m(2)g(-1) surface area) as compared to BG-1 (78m(2)g(-1)), spherical morphology and crystalline phases (wollastonite and apatite) after sintering at lower than conventional temperature. These properties contribute critical role in both mechanical and biological properties of glasses. The Knoop hardness measurements revealed that BG-2 possessed much better hardness (0.43±0.06GPa at 680°C and 2.16±0.46GPa at 980°C) than BG-1 (0.24±0.01 at 680°C and 0.57±0.07GPA at 980°C) under same conditions. Alamar blue Assay and confocal microscopy revealed that BG-2 exhibited better attachment and proliferation of MG63 cells. Based on the improved biological properties of BG-2 as a consequent of novel calcium source selection, BG-2 is proposed as a bioactive ceramic for hard tissue repair and regeneration applications. PMID:27068802

  12. Biological properties of a thermally crosslinked gelatin film as a novel anti-adhesive material: Relationship between the biological properties and the extent of thermal crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki; Tanzawa, Ayumi; Miyamoto, Hiroe; Horii, Tsunehito; Tsuji, Misaki; Kawasumi, Akari; Tamura, Atsushi; Wang, Zhen; Abe, Rie; Tanaka, Shota; Yamanaka, Kouki; Matoba, Mari; Torii, Hiroko; Ozamoto, Yuki; Takamori, Hideki; Suzuki, Shuko; Morita, Shinichiro; Ikada, Yoshito; Hagiwara, Akeo

    2015-10-01

    In order to prevent postoperative adhesion and the related complications, a thermally crosslinked gelatin (TCG) film was developed and the basic biological properties were examined, paying special attention to the relationship between these properties and the extent of crosslinking of the film. The gelatin films crosslinked thermally for five different time periods (0, 1, 3, 8, and 14 hours) were developed and the following tests were performed. Regarding the material characterization of the films, the water content, the water solubility, and the enzymatic degradation for collagenase were found to be closely related to the duration of thermal crosslinking. In an in vitro study conducted to examine the cell growth of fibroblasts cultured on the films, the degree of cell growth, except no crosslinked film, was less than that observed in the control group, thus suggesting that such effects of the films on fibroblast cell growth may be related with their anti-adhesive effects. In in vivo tests, the films crosslinked for longer time periods (3, 8, and 14 hours) were retained for longer after being implanted into the abdominal cavity in rats and showed a significant anti-adhesive effect in the rat cecum adhesion models, indicating that the biodegradability and anti-adhesive effects of the TCG films depend on the duration of thermal crosslinking. In order to develop useful and effective anti-adhesive gelatin film, it is very important to optimize duration of the thermal crosslinking. PMID:25449656

  13. The Biological Property of Synthetic Evolved Digital Circuits with ESD Immunity-Redundancy or Degeneracy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Menghua Man; Shanghe Liu; Xiaolong Chang; Mai Lu

    2013-01-01

    In the ongoing evolutionary process,biological systems have displayed a fundamental and remarkable property of robustness,i.e.,the property allows the system to maintain its functions despite external and internal perturbations.Redundancy and degeneracy are thought to be the underlying structural mechanisms of biological robustness.Inspired by this,we explored the proximate cause of the immunity of the synthetic evolved digital circuits to ESD interference and discussed the biological characteristics behind the evolutionary circuits.First,we proposed an evolutionary method for intrinsic immune circuit design.The circuits' immunity was evaluated using the functional fault models based on probability distributions.Then,several benchmark circuits,including ADDER,MAJORITY,and C17,were evolved for high intrinsic immunity.Finally,using the quantitative definitions based on information theory,we measured the topological characteristics of redundancy and degeneracy in the evolved circuits and compared their contributions to the immunity.The results show that redundant elements are necessary for the ESD immune circuit design,whereas degeneracy is the key to making use of the redundancy robustly and efficiently.

  14. Effects of interlinker sequences on the biological properties of bispecific single-chain antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Min; JIANG Xin; YANG Zhi; YIN Changcheng; LI Hua; ZHAO Rui; ZHANG Zhong; LIN Qing; HUANG Hualiang

    2003-01-01

    Single-chain bispecific antibody (scBsAb) is one of the promising genetic engineering antibody formats for clinical application. But the effects of interlinker sequences on the biological properties of bispecific single-chain antibodies have not been studied in detail. Three interlinker sequences were designed and synthesized, and denominated as Fc, HSA, 205C′, respectively. Universal vectors with these different interlinker sequences for scBsAb expression in E. coli were constructed. A model scBsAb based on a reshaped single-chain antibody (scFv) against human CD3 and a scFv directed against human ovarian carcinoma were generated and expressed in E. coli. The results of SDS-PAGE and Western blot showed that the different interlinker sequences did not affect the expression levelof scBsAb. However, as demonstrated by ELISA and pharmacokinetics studies performed in mice, scBsAbs with different interlinker sequences had difference in the antigen-binding activities and terminal half-life time (T1/2β) in vivo, the interlinker HSA could remarkably prolong the retention time of scBsAb in blood. These results indicated that the peptide sequence of interlinker could affect important biological properties of scBsAb, such as antigen-binding properties and stability in vivo. So, selection of an appropriate interlinker sequence is very important for scBsAb construction. Optimal interlinker can bring scBsAb biologicalproperties more suitable for clinical application.

  15. Effect of grain size on mechanical, surface and biological properties of microwave sintered hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Sudip; Tarafder, Solaiman; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita, E-mail: sbose@wsu.edu

    2013-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) compacts having average grain sizes of 168 ± 0.086 nm, 1.48 ± 0.627 μm and 5.01 ± 1.02 μm are processed from synthesized HA powder by microwave sintering at varying sintering temperature for different times. Superior mechanical and biological properties are shown by nano-grain HA compacts as compared to their micron grained counterparts. Compressive strength, indentation hardness, and indentation fracture toughness are increased with the decrease in HA grain size. The highest surface energy and maximum wettability are exhibited by nano-grain HA. HA compacts are assessed for cell–material interaction by SEM, MTT and immunochemistry assays using human osteoblast cell line for 1, 5 and 11 days. MTT assays showed higher number of living cells and faster proliferation on nano-grain HA surface. Osteoblast cells on nano-grain HA surface expressed significantly higher amount of vinculin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) protein markers for cell adhesion and differentiation respectively. This study shows the effect of grain size on physical, mechanical and in vitro biological properties of microwave sintered HA compacts. - Highlights: • Nano- and micro-grain HA compacts are prepared by microwave sintering. • Uniform heating and shorter time by microwave sintering result in finer grains. • Grain size significantly affected physical, mechanical and biological properties. • Nano-grain HA also exhibited the highest surface energy and maximum wettability. • Significantly higher amounts of vinculin and ALP were expressed on nano-grain HA.

  16. Physicochemical and biological properties of purified Escherichia coli Shiga-like toxin II variant.

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, D L; Gyles, C. L.; Valdivieso-Garcia, A; Clarke, R C

    1991-01-01

    Purified Escherichia coli Shiga-like toxin II variant (SLT-IIv) was characterized with regard to selected physical, chemical, and biological properties. N-terminal amino acid sequencing confirmed the identities of 33,000-, 27,500-, and 7,500-molecular-weight (MW) bands seen on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of purified SLT-IIv as the A subunit, A1 fragment, and B subunit, respectively. The arginine-serine bond between amino acids 247 and 248 in the A subuni...

  17. The Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Fei Ng

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water (coconut liquid endosperm, with its many applications, is one of the world’s most versatile natural product. This refreshing beverage is consumed worldwide as it is nutritious and beneficial for health. There is increasing scientific evidence that supports the role of coconut water in health and medicinal applications. Coconut water is traditionally used as a growth supplement in plant tissue culture/micropropagation. The wide applications of coconut water can be justified by its unique chemical composition of sugars, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and phytohormones. This review attempts to summarise and evaluate the chemical composition and biological properties of coconut water.

  18. Diversity of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in the Boraginaceae Structures, Distribution, and Biological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem El-Shazly

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the diversity of secondary metabolites which are produced by plants as means of defence against herbivores and microbes, pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs are common in Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and some other plant families. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are infamous as toxic compounds which can alkylate DNA und thus cause mutations and even cancer in herbivores and humans. Almost all genera of the family Boraginaceae synthesize and store this type of alkaloids. This review reports the available information on the present status (literature up to early 2014 of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the Boraginaceae and summarizes the topics structure, distribution, chemistry, chemotaxonomic significance, and biological properties.

  19. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils in the city of Mariupol, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhovtseva, O. G.; Mal'tseva, I. A.

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical and biological properties of urbanized soils in the city of Mariupol have been considered in comparison with the background soils. The parametrical characteristics (abundance and biomass) of soil algal groups, the content of humus, the reaction of soil solution, the content of heavy metals, and the particle size distributions of soils under different anthropogenic impacts have been assessed. The physicochemical properties of soils developing under urboecosystem conditions affect the number of structure-forming species, biomass, and proportions of soil algae. According to the particle size distribution, urban soils are classified among the medium and heavy loamy soils with the predominance of the clay and coarse silt fractions. The fractions of physical clay and clay are of highest importance for the existence of algae. The accumulation of heavy metals in the surface horizons of soils can stimulate or inhibit the development of algae depending on the metal concentration.

  20. A few nascent methods for measuring mechanical properties of the biological cell.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, Gayle Echo; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Corvalan, Carlos (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Corwin, Alex David; Campanella, Osvaldo H. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Nivens, David (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Werely, Steven (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Sumali, Anton Hartono; Koch, Steven John

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes a survey of several new methods for obtaining mechanical and rheological properties of single biological cells, in particular: (1) The use of laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) to measure the natural vibrations of certain cells. (2) The development of a novel micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) for obtaining high-resolution force-displacement curves. (3) The use of the atomic force microscope (AFM) for cell imaging. (4) The adaptation of a novel squeezing-flow technique to micro-scale measurement. The LDV technique was used to investigate the recent finding reported by others that the membranes of certain biological cells vibrate naturally, and that the vibration can be detected clearly with recent instrumentation. The LDV has been reported to detect motions of certain biological cells indirectly through the motion of a probe. In this project, trials on Saccharomyces cerevisiae tested and rejected the hypothesis that the LDV could measure vibrations of the cell membranes directly. The MEMS investigated in the second technique is a polysilicon surface-micromachined force sensor that is able to measure forces to a few pN in both air and water. The simple device consists of compliant springs with force constants as low as 0.3 milliN/m and Moire patterns for nanometer-scale optical displacement measurement. Fields from an electromagnet created forces on magnetic micro beads glued to the force sensors. These forces were measured and agreed well with finite element prediction. It was demonstrated that the force sensor was fully functional when immersed in aqueous buffer. These results show the force sensors can be useful for calibrating magnetic forces on magnetic beads and also for direct measurement of biophysical forces on-chip. The use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) for profiling the geometry of red blood cells was the third technique investigated here. An important finding was that the method commonly used for attaching the cells to a

  1. Chemical properties of soils treated with biological sludge from gelatin industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Melo Guimarães

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of agro-industrial organic wastes in the environment can be reduced when used in agriculture. From the standpoint of soil fertility, residue applications can increase the organic matter content and provide nutrients for plants. This study evaluated the effect of biological sludge from gelatin industry on the chemical properties of two Ultisols (loamy sand and sandy clay and an Oxisol (clay. The experiment lasted 120 days and was carried out in laboratory in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement, combining the three soils and six biological sludge rates (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 m³ ha-1, with three replications. Biological sludge rates of up to 500 m³ ha-1 decreased soil acidity and increased the effective cation exchange capacity (CEC and N, Ca, Mg, and P availability, without exceeding the tolerance limit for Na. The increase in exchangeable base content, greater than the effective CEC, indicates that the major part of cations added by the sludge remains in solution and can be lost by leaching.

  2. Physical Effects of Buckwheat Extract on Biological Membrane In Vitro and Its Protective Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włoch, Aleksandra; Strugała, Paulina; Pruchnik, Hanna; Żyłka, Romuald; Oszmiański, Jan; Kleszczyńska, Halina

    2016-04-01

    Buckwheat is a valuable source of many biologically active compounds and nutrients. It has properties that reduce blood cholesterol levels, and so reduces the risk of atherosclerosis, seals the capillaries, and lowers blood pressure. The aim of the study was to determine quantitative and qualitative characteristics of polyphenols contained in extracts from buckwheat husks and stalks, the biological activity of the extracts, and biophysical effects of their interaction with the erythrocyte membrane, treated as a model of the cell. An analysis of the extract's composition has shown that buckwheat husk and stalk extracts are a rich source of polyphenolic compounds, the stalk extracts showing more compounds than the husk extract. The study allowed to determine the location which incorporated polyphenols occupy in the erythrocyte membrane and changes in the membrane properties caused by them. It was found that the extracts do not induce hemolysis of red blood cells, causing an increase in osmotic resistance of erythrocytes. They affect mainly the hydrophilic region by changing the degree of order of the polar heads of lipids, but do little to change the fluidity of the membrane and its hydration. The results showed also that polyphenolic substances included in the extracts well protect the membranes of red blood cells against oxidation and exhibit anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:26581904

  3. [Biological properties of L-asparaginase preparations from E. coli in cell cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat'eva, N A; Dobrynin, Ia V; Merkulov, M F

    1978-01-01

    Non-specific cytotoxicity and specific antitumor activity of 5 preparations of L-asparaginase from E. coli were studied. Two cell line, i.e. the asparagine-dependent (Berkitt lymphoma cells) and asparagin-independent (human ovary cancer cells) were used as the test-system. Incorporation of 3H-thimidine into DNA was the criterion of the preparation effect on the cells. Preparation I with the specific activity of 60-90 IU per 1 mg of protein obtained at the first stages of purification had high non-specific cytotoxicity. Preparation II obtained after further purification of preparation I, as well as preparation II without any stabilizer with the specific activity of 200 IU/mg were not inferior to the "Bayer" preparation by their biological properties. Addition of L-asparaginase to the preparation as a stabilizer of excessive glycine (preparation IV) increased its non-specific cytotoxicity and interfered with the study of its properties in the cell systems. Mannitol (preparation V) had no effect on the biological activity of L-asparaginase preparation. PMID:341799

  4. Membranolytic Activity of Bile Salts: Influence of Biological Membrane Properties and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Blume

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The two main steps of the membranolytic activity of detergents: 1 the partitioning of detergent molecules in the membrane and 2 the solubilisation of the membrane are systematically investigated. The interactions of two bile salt molecules, sodium cholate (NaC and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC with biological phospholipid model membranes are considered. The membranolytic activity is analysed as a function of the hydrophobicity of the bile salt, ionic strength, temperature, membrane phase properties, membrane surface charge and composition of the acyl chains of the lipids. The results are derived from calorimetric measurements (ITC, isothermal titration calorimetry. A thermodynamic model is described, taking into consideration electrostatic interactions, which is used for the calculation of the partition coefficient as well as to derive the complete thermodynamic parameters describing the interaction of detergents with biological membranes (change in enthalpy, change in free energy, change in entropy etc. The solubilisation properties are described in a so-called vesicle-to-micelle phase transition diagram. The obtained results are supplemented and confirmed by data obtained from other biophysical techniques (DSC differential scanning calorimetry, DLS dynamic light scattering, SANS small angle neutron scattering.

  5. Synthesis and Biological Properties of Caffeic Acid-PNA Dimers Containing Guanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fiorentino

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Caffeic acid (CA; 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid is endowed with high antioxidant activity. CA derivatives (such as amides have gained a lot of attention due to their antioxidative, antitumor and antimicrobial properties as well as stable characteristics. Caffeoyl-peptide derivatives showed different antioxidant activity depending on the type and the sequence of amino acid used. For these reasons, we decided to combine CA with Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA to test whether the new PNA-CA amide derivatives would result in an improvement or gain of CA’s biological (i.e., antioxidant, cytotoxic, cytoprotective properties. We performed the synthesis and characterization of seven dimer conjugates with various combinations of nucleic acid bases and focused NMR studies on the model compound ga-CA dimer. We demonstrate that PNA dimers containing guanine conjugated to CA exhibited different biological activities depending on composition and sequence of the nucleobases. The dimer ag-CA protected HepG2, SK-B-NE(2, and C6 cells from a cytotoxic dose of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2.

  6. Wildfire effects on biological properties of soils in forest-steppe ecosystems of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Maksimova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils affected by forest wildfires in 2010 in Russia were studied on postfire and mature plots near the Togljatty city, Samara region. Soil biological properties and ash composition dynamics were investigated under the forest fire affect: a place of local forest fire, riding forest fire and unaffected site by fire-control (mature during 3 yr of restoration. Soil samples were collected at 0–15 cm. Soil biological properties was measured by the fumigation method. The analytical data obtained shows that wildfires lead to serious changes in a soil profile and soil chemistry of upper horizons. Wildfires change a chemical composition of soil horizons and increase their ash-content. Fires lead to accumulation of biogenic elements' content (P and K in the solum fine earth. Calcium content is increased as a result of fires that leads to an alkaline pH of the solum. The values of nutrients decreased as a result of leaching out with an atmospheric precipitation during the second year of restoration. Thus, when the upper horizons are burning the ash arriving on a soil surface enrich it with nutrients. The mature (unaffected by fire soils is characterized by the greatest values of soil microbial biomass in the top horizon and, respectively, the bigger values of basal respiration whereas declining of the both parameters was revealed on postfire soils. Nevertheless this influence does not extend on depth more than 10 cm. Thus, fire affect on the soil were recognized in decreasing of microbiological activity.

  7. Wildfire effects on biological properties of soils in forest-steppe ecosystems of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, E.; Abakumov, E.

    2014-01-01

    Soils affected by forest wildfires in 2010 in Russia were studied on postfire and mature plots near the Togljatty city, Samara region. Soil biological properties and ash composition dynamics were investigated under the forest fire affect: a place of local forest fire, riding forest fire and unaffected site by fire-control (mature) during 3 yr of restoration. Soil samples were collected at 0-15 cm. Soil biological properties was measured by the fumigation method. The analytical data obtained shows that wildfires lead to serious changes in a soil profile and soil chemistry of upper horizons. Wildfires change a chemical composition of soil horizons and increase their ash-content. Fires lead to accumulation of biogenic elements' content (P and K) in the solum fine earth. Calcium content is increased as a result of fires that leads to an alkaline pH of the solum. The values of nutrients decreased as a result of leaching out with an atmospheric precipitation during the second year of restoration. Thus, when the upper horizons are burning the ash arriving on a soil surface enrich it with nutrients. The mature (unaffected by fire) soils is characterized by the greatest values of soil microbial biomass in the top horizon and, respectively, the bigger values of basal respiration whereas declining of the both parameters was revealed on postfire soils. Nevertheless this influence does not extend on depth more than 10 cm. Thus, fire affect on the soil were recognized in decreasing of microbiological activity.

  8. Can Carbon Nanotubes Deliver on Their Promise in Biology? Harnessing Unique Properties for Unparalleled Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Christopher J; Kostarelos, Kostas; Davis, Benjamin G

    2016-04-27

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cylindrical sheets of hexagonally ordered carbon atoms, giving tubes with diameters on the order of a few nanometers and lengths typically in the micrometer range. They may be single- or multiwalled (SWCNTs and MWCNTs respectively). Since the seminal report of their synthesis in 1991, CNTs have fascinated scientists of all stripes. Physicists have been intrigued by their electrical, thermal, and vibrational potential. Materials scientists have worked on integrating them into ultrastrong composites and electronic devices, while chemists have been fascinated by the effects of curvature on reactivity and have developed new synthesis and purification techniques. However, to date no large-scale, real-life biotechnological CNT breakthrough has been industrially adopted and it is proving difficult to justify taking these materials forward into the clinic. We believe that these challenges are not the end of the story, but that a viable carbon nanotube biotechnology is one in which the unique properties of nanotubes bring about an effect that would be otherwise impossible. In this Outlook, we therefore seek to reframe the field by highlighting those biological applications in which the singular properties of CNTs provide some entirely new activity or biological effect as a pointer to "what could be". PMID:27163049

  9. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhin, Eleonora; Gualtieri, Maurizio; Capasso, Laura; Bengalli, Rossella; Mollerup, Steen; Holme, Jørn A; Øvrevik, Johan; Casadei, Simone; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Parenti, Paolo; Camatini, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects. Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones. Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure. These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement. PMID:27194366

  10. Physical-chemical determinant properties of biological communities in continental semi-arid waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Francisco Cleiton; de Andrade, Eunice Maia; Lopes, Fernando Bezerra; de Paula Filho, Francisco José; Filho, José Hamilton Costa; da Silva, Merivalda Doroteu

    2016-08-01

    Throughout human history, water has undergone changes in quality. This problem is more serious in dry areas, where there is a natural water deficit due to climatic factors. The aims of this study, therefore, were (i) to verify correlations between physical attributes, chemical attributes and biological metrics and (ii) from the biological attributes, to verify the similarity between different points of a body of water in a tropical semi-arid region. Samples were collected every 2 months, from July 2009 to July 2011, at seven points. Four physical attributes, five chemical attributes and four biological metrics were investigated. To identify the correlations between the physicochemical properties and the biological metrics, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) were applied. Nine classes of phytoplankton were identified, with the predominance of species of cyanobacteria, and ten families of macroinvertebrates. The use of HCA resulted in the formation of three similar groups, showing that it was possible to reduce the number of sampling points when monitoring water quality with a consequent reduction in cost. Group I was formed from the waters at the high end of the reservoir (points P1, P2 and P3), group II by the waters from the middle third (points P4 and P5), and group III by the waters from the lower part of the reservoir (points P6 and P7). Richness of the phytoplanktons Cyanophyceae, Chorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae was the attribute which determined dissimilarity in water quality. Using CCA, it was possible to identify the spatial variability of the physicochemical attributes (TSS, TKN, nitrate and total phosphorus) that most influence the metrics of the macroinvertebrates and phytoplankton present in the water. Low macroinvertebrate diversity, with a predominance of indicator families for deterioration in water quality, and the composition of phytoplankton showing a predominance of cyanobacteria, suggests greater

  11. Extracellular polysaccharides from Ascomycota and Basidiomycota: production conditions, biochemical characteristics, and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osińska-Jaroszuk, Monika; Jarosz-Wilkołazka, Anna; Jaroszuk-Ściseł, Jolanta; Szałapata, Katarzyna; Nowak, Artur; Jaszek, Magdalena; Ozimek, Ewa; Majewska, Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Fungal polysaccharides (PSs) are the subject of research in many fields of science and industry. Many properties of PSs have already been confirmed and the list of postulated functions continues to grow. Fungal PSs are classified into different groups according to systematic affinity, structure (linear and branched), sugar composition (homo- and heteropolysaccharides), type of bonds between the monomers (β-(1 → 3), β-(1 → 6), and α-(1 → 3)) and their location in the cell (cell wall PSs, exoPSs, and endoPSs). Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are most frequently studied fungal PSs but their definition, classification, and origin are still not clear and should be explained. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungi producing EPS have different ecological positions (saprotrophic and endophytic, pathogenic or symbiotic-mycorrhizae fungi); therefore, EPSs play different biological functions, for example in the protection against environmental stress factors and in interactions with other organisms. EPSs obtained from Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungal cultures are known for their antioxidant, immunostimulating, antitumor, and antimicrobial properties. The major objective of the presented review article was to provide a detailed description of the state-of-the-art knowledge of the effectiveness of EPS production by filamentous and yeast Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungi and techniques of derivation of EPSs, their biochemical characteristics, and biological properties allowing comprehensive analysis as well as indication of similarities and differences between these fungal groups. Understanding the role of EPSs in a variety of processes and their application in food or pharmaceutical industries requires improvement of the techniques of their derivation, purification, and characterization. The detailed analyses of data concerning the derivation and application of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota EPSs can facilitate development and trace the direction of application of these EPSs

  12. The effect of fibronectin on structural and biological properties of single walled carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farokhi, Mehdi [National cell bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atyabi, Fatemeh [Department of Pharmaceutical Nanoechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Omidvar, Ramin [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali, E-mail: mashokrgozar@pasteur.ac.ir [National cell bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghizadeh, Majid, E-mail: sadeghma@modares.ac.ir [Department Genetics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    Highlights: • Increasing the cytocompatibility of single walled carbon nanotube by loading fibronectin. • Enhancing the hydrophilicity and nanosurface roughness of single walled carbon nanotube after loading fibronectin. • Fibronectin makes the surface properties of single walled carbon nanotube more suitable for cell proliferation and growth. - Abstract: Despite the attractive properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), cytoxicity and hydrophobicity are two main considerable features which limit their application in biomedical fields. It was well established that treating CNTs with extracellular matrix components could reduce these unfavourable characteristics. In an attempt to address these issues, fibronectin (FN) with different concentrations was loaded on single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) substrate. Scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angles and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were preformed in order to characterize FN loaded SWCNTs substrates. According to XPS and AFM results, FN could interact with SWCNTs and for this, the hydrophilicity of SWCNTs was improved. Additionally, SWCNT modified with FN showed less cytotoxicity compared with neat SWCNT. Finally, FN was shown to act as an interesting extracellular component for enhancing the biological properties of SWCNT.

  13. Mechanical and biological properties of chitosan/carbon nanotube nanocomposite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryaei, Ashkan; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C

    2014-08-01

    In this article, different concentrations of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) were homogeneously dispersed throughout the chitosan (CS) matrix. A simple solvent-cast method was used to fabricate chitosan films with 0.1, 0.5, and 1% of MWCNT with the average diameter around 30 nm. The CS/MWCNT films were characterized for structural, viscous and mechanical properties with optical microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, tensile test machine, and microindentation testing machine. Murine osteoblasts were used to examine the cell viability and attachment of the nanocomposite films at two time points. In comparison to the pure chitosan film, the mechanical properties, including the tensile modulus and strength of the films, were greatly improved by increasing the percentage of MWCNT. Furthermore, adding MWCNT up to 1% increased the viscosity of the chitosan solution by 15%. However, adding MWCNT decreased the samples ductility and transparency. In biological point of view, no toxic effect on osteoblasts was observed in the presence of different percentages of MWCNT at day 3 and day 7. This investigation suggested MWCNT could be a promising candidate for improving chitosan mechanical properties without inducing remarkable cytotoxicity on bone cells. PMID:24108584

  14. Deforestation effects on biological and other important soil properties in an upland watershed of Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M. Sirajul Haque; Sanatan Das Gupta; Sohag Miah

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation occurs at an alarming rate in upland watersheds of Bangladesh and has many detrimental effects on the environment. This study reports the effects of deforestation on soil biological proper-ties along with some important physicochemical parameters of a southern upland watershed in Bangladesh. Soils were sampled at 4 paired sites, each pair representing a deforested site and a forested site, and having similar topographical characteristics. Significantly fewer (p≤0.001) fungi and bacteria, and lower microbial respiration, active microbial biomass, metabolic and microbial quotients were found in soils of the deforested sites. Soil physical properties such as moisture content, water holding capacity, and chemical properties such as organic matter, total N, avail-able P and EC were also lower in deforested soils. Bulk density and pH were significantly higher in deforested soils. Available Ca and Mg were inconsistent between the two land uses at all the paired sites. Re-duced abundance and biomass of soil mesofauna were recorded in defor-ested soils. However, soil anecic species were more abundant in defor-ested soils than epigeic and endogeic species, which were more abundant in forested soils than on deforested sites.

  15. Biological and physical properties of autogenous vascularized fibular grafts in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological and biomechanical properties of normal fibulae, fibulae that had had a sham operation, and both vascularized and non-vascularized autogenous grafts were studied in dogs at three months after the operation. The study was designed to quantify and correlate changes in these properties in orthotopic, stably fixed, weight-bearing grafts and to provide a baseline for additional studies of allografts. The grafts were eight centimeters long and internally fixed. The mechanical properties of the grafts were studied by torsional testing. Metabolic turnover of the grafts was evaluated by preoperative labeling of the dogs with 3H-tetracycline for resorption of bone mineral and with 3H-proline for turnover of collagen. Cortical bone area and porosity were measured. Postoperative formation of bone was evaluated by sequential labeling with fluorochrome. The vascularized grafts resembled the fibulae that had had a sham operation and those that had not had an operation with regard to the total number of osteons and the remodeling process, as measured both morphometrically and metabolically. The vascularized grafts were stronger and stiffer than the non-vascularized grafts and were not different from the bones that had had a sham operation. In contrast, the non-vascularized grafts were smaller, weaker, less stiff, and more porotic, had fewer osteons, and demonstrated increased turnover and resorption compared with the vascularized grafts, the bones that had had a sham operation, and the bones that had not been operated on

  16. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Structural and Biological Properties of a PLGA-PEG-Hydroxyapatite Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Shahabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma irradiation is able to affect various structural and biological properties of biomaterials In this study, a composite of Hap/PLGA-PEG and their ingredients were submitted to gamma irradiation doses of 25 and 50 KGy. Various properties such as molecular weight (GPC, thermal behavior (DSC, wettability (contact angle, cell viability (MTT assay, and alkaline phosphatase activity were studied for the composites and each of their ingredients. The results showed a decrease in molecular weight of copolymer with no change in the glass transition and melting temperatures after gamma irradiation. In general gamma irradiation can increase the activation energy ΔH of the composites and their ingredients. While gamma irradiation had no effect on the wettability of copolymer samples, there was a significant decrease in contact angle of hydroxyapatite and composites with increase in gamma irradiation dose. This study showed an increase in biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite with gamma irradiation with no significant effect on cell viability in copolymer and composite samples. In spite of the fact that no change occurred in alkaline phosphatase activity of composite samples, results indicated a decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity in irradiated hydroxyapatites. These effects on the properties of PLGA-PEG-hydroxyapatite can enhance the composite application as a biomaterial.

  17. The biological properties of the silver- and copper-doped ceramic biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysenko, Oleksandr, E-mail: dr.alex.lysenko@gmail.com [Bogomolets National Medical University, Department of Therapeutic Stomatology (Ukraine); Dubok, Oleksii [Institute for Problems of Material Science NASU, Department of Analytical Chemistry and Functional Ceramics (Ukraine); Borysenko, Anatolii [Bogomolets National Medical University, Department of Therapeutic Stomatology (Ukraine); Shinkaruk, Oleksandr [Institute for Problems of Material Science NASU, Department of Analytical Chemistry and Functional Ceramics (Ukraine)

    2015-04-15

    The biological properties of nanostructured bioactive ceramic composite (BCC) granules doped with 0.1–10 at.% silver and 0.05–5 at.% copper have been investigated both in vitro and in vivo to develop effective alloplastic material for infected bone defect substitute. It is assumed that the granules consisting of biphasic calcium phosphate and bioactive glass ceramics due to their nanoscale (15–40 nm) and multiphase structure, bioelement placement in different ceramic phases as well as antimicrobial effect should improve osteogenic properties and biocompatibility. Tests in vitro have been conducted with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and test strains of microorganisms. The same biocomposite has been used in vivo to study the repair of bone defects in animal model. The findings indicate that doped BCC leads to antimicrobial activity. Inhibition of MSCs growth has been observed for granules doped with ions of more than 1 at.% silver and 0.5 at.% copper. The results of the in vivo study reveal that BCC implantation significantly improves bone reparation. Differences between bone repair with undoped and doped, with 1 at.% silver and 0.5 at.% copper, ceramic samples were not observed. The BCC doped within 0.5–1 at.% silver and 0.25–0.5 at.% copper stimulates bone tissue repair and has satisfactory biocompatibility and antimicrobial properties.

  18. The biological properties of the silver- and copper-doped ceramic biomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological properties of nanostructured bioactive ceramic composite (BCC) granules doped with 0.1–10 at.% silver and 0.05–5 at.% copper have been investigated both in vitro and in vivo to develop effective alloplastic material for infected bone defect substitute. It is assumed that the granules consisting of biphasic calcium phosphate and bioactive glass ceramics due to their nanoscale (15–40 nm) and multiphase structure, bioelement placement in different ceramic phases as well as antimicrobial effect should improve osteogenic properties and biocompatibility. Tests in vitro have been conducted with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and test strains of microorganisms. The same biocomposite has been used in vivo to study the repair of bone defects in animal model. The findings indicate that doped BCC leads to antimicrobial activity. Inhibition of MSCs growth has been observed for granules doped with ions of more than 1 at.% silver and 0.5 at.% copper. The results of the in vivo study reveal that BCC implantation significantly improves bone reparation. Differences between bone repair with undoped and doped, with 1 at.% silver and 0.5 at.% copper, ceramic samples were not observed. The BCC doped within 0.5–1 at.% silver and 0.25–0.5 at.% copper stimulates bone tissue repair and has satisfactory biocompatibility and antimicrobial properties

  19. The effect of fibronectin on structural and biological properties of single walled carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Increasing the cytocompatibility of single walled carbon nanotube by loading fibronectin. • Enhancing the hydrophilicity and nanosurface roughness of single walled carbon nanotube after loading fibronectin. • Fibronectin makes the surface properties of single walled carbon nanotube more suitable for cell proliferation and growth. - Abstract: Despite the attractive properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), cytoxicity and hydrophobicity are two main considerable features which limit their application in biomedical fields. It was well established that treating CNTs with extracellular matrix components could reduce these unfavourable characteristics. In an attempt to address these issues, fibronectin (FN) with different concentrations was loaded on single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) substrate. Scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angles and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were preformed in order to characterize FN loaded SWCNTs substrates. According to XPS and AFM results, FN could interact with SWCNTs and for this, the hydrophilicity of SWCNTs was improved. Additionally, SWCNT modified with FN showed less cytotoxicity compared with neat SWCNT. Finally, FN was shown to act as an interesting extracellular component for enhancing the biological properties of SWCNT

  20. Electrospinning preparation and electrical and biological properties of ferrocene/poly(vinylpyrrolidone composite nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hong Chai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanofibers containing ferrocene (Fc have been prepared for the first time by electrospinning. In this paper, Fc was dispersed uniformly throughout the poly(vinypyrrolidone (PVP matrix for the purpose of combining the properties of PVP and Fc. The effects of solvents and Fc concentration on the morphologies and diameters of nanofibers were investigated. In the DMF/ethanol solvent, the morphologies of the obtained nanofibers significantly changed with the increase of Fc concentration. The results demonstrated that the morphologies of the nanofibers could be controlled through adjusting solvents and Fc concentration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed that the diameters of the obtained composite fibers were about 30–200 nm at different Fc concentrations. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA results confirmed the presence of ferrocene within the PVP nanofibers. X-ray diffraction (XRD results showed that the crystalline structure of Fc in the fibers was amorphous after the electrospinning process. A biological evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Fc/PVP nanofibers was carried out by using Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli as model organisms. The nanofibers fabricated by this method showed obvious antibacterial activity. Electrochemical properties were characterized based on cyclic voltammetry measurements. The CV results showed redox peaks corresponding to the Fc+/Fc couple, which suggested that Fc molecules encapsulated inside PVP nanofibers retian their electrochemical activity. The properties and facile preparation method make the Fc/PVP nanofibers promising for antibacterial and sensing applications.

  1. Improved biological properties and hypouricemic effects of uricase from Candida utilis loaded in novel alkaline enzymosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan QY

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Qun-You Tan,1,* Jing-Qing Zhang,2,* Na Wang,3,* Hong Yang,4 Xiaoling Li,5 Hua-Rong Xiong,2 Jian-Yong Wu,2 Chun-Jing Zhao,3 Hong Wang,2 Hua-Feng Yin2 1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Institute of Surgery Research, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 2Medicine Engineering Research Center, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Biochemical & Molecular Pharmacology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 3School of Pharmacy, Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 4School of Pharmacy, Medical College of Soochow University, Soochow, People's Republic of China; 5TJ Long School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: Previous studies on various enzymosomes (functional lipid vesicles encapsulating an enzyme have been mostly carried out in vitro and have focused on preserving catalytic activity and improving the stability of the enzyme. Until now, few studies have focused on their in vivo fate. Similarly, although we have previously reported the increased in vitro uricolytic activity (about 2.2 times higher than that of free uricase, or three times higher than that of PEGylated uricase, Puricase®, under physiological pH and temperature and improved stability of the novel alkaline enzymosomes (functional lipid vesicles encapsulating uricase from Candida utilis: uricase-containing lipid vesicles, UOXLVs, it is still necessary to study the biological properties and hypouricemic effects of UOXLVs in vivo.Methods: The enzyme kinetics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, immunogenicity, and preliminary safety of UOXLVs were evaluated.Results: The Michaelis constant (Km value of the UOXLVs was slightly lower than that of the free enzyme. The enzyme release from the UOXLVs lasted over 12 hours and their circulation half-life was about sevenfold longer than that of the free uricase. Meanwhile, the UOXLVs had a 22-fold

  2. Medicinal properties of mangiferin, structural features, derivative synthesis, pharmacokinetics and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Outhiriaradjou; Chi, Yuling

    2015-01-01

    The identification of biologically active and potentially therapeutically useful pharmacophores from natural products has been a long-term focus in the pharmaceutical industry. The recent emergence of a worldwide obesity and Type II diabetes epidemic has increased focus upon small molecules that can modulate energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity and fat biology. Interesting preliminary work done on mangiferin (MGF), the predominant constituent of extracts of the mango plant Mangifera indica L., portends potential for this pharmacophore as a novel parent compound for treating metabolic disorders. MGF is comprised of a C-glucosylated xanthone. Owing to the xanthone chemical structure, MGF has a redox active aromatic system and has antioxidant properties. MGF exerts varied and impressive metabolic effects in animals, improving metabolic disorders. For example we have discovered that MGF is a novel activator of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, leading to enhancement of carbohydrate utilization in oxidative metabolism, and leading to increased insulin sensitivity in animal models of obesity and insulin resistance. In addition, recent unbiased proteomics studies revealed that MGF upregulates proteins pivotal for mitochondrial bioenergetics and downregulates proteins controlling de novo lipogenesis in liver, helping to explain protective effects of MGF in prevention of liver steatosis. Several chemical studies have achieved synthesis of MGF, suggesting possible synthetic strategies to alter its chemical structure for development of structure-activity relationship (SAR) information. Ultimately, chemical derivatization studies could lead to the eventual development of novel therapeutics based upon the parent pharmacophore structure. Here we provide comprehensive review on chemical features of MGF, synthesis of its derivatives, its pharmacokinetics and biological activities. PMID:25827900

  3. Effects of added ZnTCP on mechanical and biological properties of apatite cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, K.; Suzuki, K. [Okayama Univ. Dental School (Japan). Dept. of Biomaterials; Miyamoto, Y.; Toh, T.; Yuasa, T.; Nagayama, M. [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). First Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Ito, A. [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, MITT, Ibaragi (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Effects of added Zn doped {beta}-tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) on mechanical and biological properties of apatite cement (AC) was studied. Powder X-ray diffractometer revealed that ZnTCP shows no reactivity with AC. The mechanical strength of AC decreased increasing amounts of added ZnTCP. We observed no effect on the setting time of AC when the amount of ZnTCP was 10% or less. Proliferation of the osteoblastic cells was significantly increased on the surface of AC containing 5% ZnTCP when compared with that containing no ZnTCP. In contrast, proliferation of the cells decreased on the surface of AC containing 10% ZnTCP when compared with that free from ZnTCP; indicating cytotoxity. We concluded therefore, that addition of ZnTCP to AC might be useful to enhance the osteoconductivity of AC when release of Zn{sup 2+} can be carefully regulated. (orig.)

  4. Partial purification and biological activities and properties of chick growth factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi,Fumio

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular stimulating factors on cell proliferation in the supernatants of chick embryo carcases and adult muscles were studied. There were plural stimulating factors in embryonic and adult muscular supernatants that promoted cell proliferation without any supplement of sera and other materials. Salting-out methods with ammonium sulfate, ethanol fractionation, and isoelectric precipitation were used to isolate the stimulating factors, and these three methods proved the presence of plural stimulants on cell proliferation in the supernatants of chick embryo and adult muscles. The stimulants had altered physico-chemical properties and biological activities due to embryological development. The embryonic stimulants enhanced the synthesis of DNA and protein remarkably, and RNA synthesis in whole cell systems slightly. The muscular stimulants enhanced protein synthesis without any stimulation of DNA and RNA synthesis. Partial purification of the stimulants from the ethanol fractions was performed by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and Sephadex gel chromatography.

  5. STRUCTURE AND SOME BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF Fe(III COMPLEXES WITH NITROGEN-CONTAINING LIGANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Bulhac

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Four coordination compounds of iron(III with ligands based on hydrazine and sulfadiazine: FeCl3·digsemi·2H2O (I (digsemi-semicarbazide diacetic acid dihydrazide, [Fe(HLSO4] (II (НL - sulfadiazine, [Fe(H2L1(H2O2](NO33·5H2O (III (H2L1-2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(nicotinoylhydrazone and [Fe(H2L2(H2O2](NO33•1.5H2O (IV (H2L2 - 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(isonicotinoylhydrazone were synthesized. The spectroscopic and structural characterisation as well as their biological, properties are presented.

  6. Production and Analysis of Biological Properties of Recombinant Human Apolipoprotein A-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchenko, A V; Kotova, M V; Tverdohleb, N V; Knyazev, R A; Polyakov, L M

    2015-11-01

    Production of recombinant human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in E. coli cells is described and its biological properties are compared with those of natural protein. Recombinant apoA-I was isolated as a chimeric polypeptide and then processed to a mature form apoA-I (rapo-I). We studied the ability of the resulting protein to penetrate into hepatocyte nuclei and regulate the rate of DNA biosynthesis in complex with estriol. Penetration of rapoA-I conjugated with FITC into hepatocyte nuclei was demonstrated. rapoA-I-estriol and apoA-I-estriol complexes induced similar increase in DNA biosynthesis rate in isolated hepatocytes, which confi rms functional similarity of the obtained recombinant mature protein (rapoA-I) and native human apoA-I. PMID:26612626

  7. CHANGES IN BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ORDINARY BLACK SOILS AT GLEYISATION (MODEL EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandashova K. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of laboratory modeling of gleyisation and its effect on the biological properties of soils with stagnant regime in ordinary black soils. Gleyisation is a complex biochemical process that occurs under oxygen reduction conditions. Anaerobic microorganisms, the presence of organic substances, and the constant or prolonged waterlogging of individual horizons or the entire soil profile promote gleyisation. Model experiments revealed that gleyisation increase the total number of bacteria and suppresses number of actinomycetes, micromycetes and growth of fungal mycelium. Gleyisation decreases the activity of oxidoreductases and increases the hydrolases activity. In addition, the second content of humus slightly increases and active acidity (pH changes to neutral. Accumulation of large amounts of iron oxide (II in soil is revealed

  8. Co-doping of hydroxyapatite with zinc and fluoride improves mechanical and biological properties of hydroxyapatite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Idil Uysal; Feride Severcana; Aysen Tezcanera; Zafer Evisa

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) co-doped with Zn2+ and F- ions was synthesized by precipitation method for the first time in this study. FTIR spectroscopy revealed Zn2+ and F- ions incorporation into HA structure. Co-doping of Zn2 + and F- ions decreased unit cell volume of HA and decreased grain sizes. Zn2+ or 5 mol% F- addition into HA significantly improved its density. Microhardness was increased with Zn2 + addition and further increase was detected with F- co-doping. Zn2+ and F- co-doped samples had higher fracture toughness than pure HA. Zn2+incorporation to the structure resulted in an increase in cell proliferation and ALP activity of cells, and further increase was observed with 1 mol%F- addition. With superior mechanical properties and biological response 2Zn1F is a good candidate for biomedical applications.

  9. Microstructure, mechanical properties, and biological response to functionally graded HA coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is the primary mineral content, representing 43% by weight, of bone. Applying a thin layer of HA, to the surface of a metal implant, can promote osseointegration and increase the mechanical stability of the implant. In this study, a biocompatible coating comprising an HA film with functionally graded crystallinity is being deposited on a heated substrate in an Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) system. The microstructure of the film was studied using Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques. Finally, initial cell adhesion and cell differentiation on the coating was evaluated using ATCC CRL 1486 human embryonic palatal mesenchymal cell, an osteoblast precursor cell line. The results have shown superior mechanical properties and biological response to the functionally graded HA film

  10. Microstructure, mechanical properties, and biological response to functionally graded HA coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiei, Afsaneh [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, 3211 Broughton Hall, 2601 Stinson Dr., Campus Box 7910, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910 (United States)]. E-mail: arabiei@eos.ncsu.edu; Blalock, Travis [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, 3211 Broughton Hall, 2601 Stinson Dr., Campus Box 7910, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910 (United States); Thomas, Brent [Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, 911 Partners Way, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Cuomo, Jerry [Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, 911 Partners Way, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Yang, Y. [Biomedical Engineering and Orthopedic Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 920 Madison Ave., Suite 1005, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Ong, Joo [Biomedical Engineering and Orthopedic Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 920 Madison Ave., Suite 1005, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}] is the primary mineral content, representing 43% by weight, of bone. Applying a thin layer of HA, to the surface of a metal implant, can promote osseointegration and increase the mechanical stability of the implant. In this study, a biocompatible coating comprising an HA film with functionally graded crystallinity is being deposited on a heated substrate in an Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) system. The microstructure of the film was studied using Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques. Finally, initial cell adhesion and cell differentiation on the coating was evaluated using ATCC CRL 1486 human embryonic palatal mesenchymal cell, an osteoblast precursor cell line. The results have shown superior mechanical properties and biological response to the functionally graded HA film.

  11. Structural parameters, molecular properties, and biological evaluation of some terpenes targeting Schistosoma mansoni parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafud, Ana C; Silva, Marcos P N; Monteiro, Daniela C; Oliveira, Maria F; Resende, João G; Coelho, Mayara L; de Sousa, Damião P; Mendonça, Ronaldo Z; Pinto, Pedro L S; Freitas, Rivelilson M; Mascarenhas, Yvonne P; de Moraes, Josué

    2016-01-25

    The use of natural products has a long tradition in medicine, and they have proven to be an important source of lead compounds in the development of new drugs. Among the natural compounds, terpenoids present broad-spectrum activity against infective agents such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoan and helminth parasites. In this study, we report a biological screening of 38 chemically characterized terpenes from different classes, which have a hydroxyl group connected by hydrophobic chain or an acceptor site, against the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, the parasite responsible for schistosomiasis mansoni. In vitro bioassays revealed that 3,7-dimethyl-1-octanol (dihydrocitronellol) (10) was the most active terpene (IC50 values of 13-52 μM) and, thus, we investigated its antischistosomal activity in greater detail. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that compound 10 induced severe tegumental damage in adult schistosomes and a correlation between viability and tegumental changes was observed. Furthermore, we compared all the inactive compounds with dihydrocitronellol structurally by using shape and charge modeling. Lipophilicity (miLogP) and other molecular properties (e.g. molecular polar surface area, molecular electrostatic potential) were also calculated. From the 38 terpenes studied, compound 10 is the one with the greatest flexibility, with a sufficient apolar region by which it may interact in a hydrophobic active site. In conclusion, the integration of biological and chemical analysis indicates the potential of the terpene dihydrocitronellol as an antiparasitic agent. PMID:26697994

  12. Optical and biological properties of transparent nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite obtained through spark plasma sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Thompson, Brianna C; Dong, Zhili; Khor, Khiam Aik

    2016-12-01

    Transparent bioceramics have attracted a large amount of research interest as they facilitate direct observation of biointerfacial reactions. Thus far, attempts to achieve transparent hydroxyapatite have been focused on augmenting the sintering pressure and/or extending the sintering duration. This study aims at fabricating transparent HA using a direct and fast spark plasma sintering process with appropriate starting powder and moderate sintering pressure. Three types of raw powder, namely micro-spheres, nano-rods and nano-spheres, were sintered to investigate the optical and biological properties of the compacted pellets. It was found that in terms of transparency, the micro-sphere pellet sintered at 1000°C stood out with an in-line transmittance as high as 84% achieved at 1300nm for a 2mm thick sample. In addition, pellets fabricated from micro-spheres demonstrated the highest cell viability in in vitro biological tests with L929 cells. Living cells cultured on a transparent micro-sphere pellet could be directly and clearly observed by light microscopy. It is thus concluded that the micro-sphere powder is the most desirable raw material to manufacture transparent hydroxyapatite because it could enable dense pellets with notably high transparency and outstanding in vitro biocompatibility to be readily obtained. PMID:27612791

  13. Inactivation of the antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of silver ions by biologically relevant compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Mulley

    Full Text Available There has been a recent surge in the use of silver as an antimicrobial agent in a wide range of domestic and clinical products, intended to prevent or treat bacterial infections and reduce bacterial colonization of surfaces. It has been reported that the antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of silver are affected by the assay conditions, particularly the type of growth media used in vitro. The toxicity of Ag+ to bacterial cells is comparable to that of human cells. We demonstrate that biologically relevant compounds such as glutathione, cysteine and human blood components significantly reduce the toxicity of silver ions to clinically relevant pathogenic bacteria and primary human dermal fibroblasts (skin cells. Bacteria are able to grow normally in the presence of silver nitrate at >20-fold the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC if Ag+ and thiols are added in a 1:1 ratio because the reaction of Ag+ with extracellular thiols prevents silver ions from interacting with cells. Extracellular thiols and human serum also significantly reduce the antimicrobial activity of silver wound dressings Aquacel-Ag (Convatec and Acticoat (Smith & Nephew to Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli in vitro. These results have important implications for the deployment of silver as an antimicrobial agent in environments exposed to biological tissue or secretions. Significant amounts of money and effort have been directed at the development of silver-coated medical devices (e.g. dressings, catheters, implants. We believe our findings are essential for the effective design and testing of antimicrobial silver coatings.

  14. Biological Properties of Fucoxanthin in Oil Recovered from Two Brown Seaweeds Using Supercritical CO2 Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana Periaswamy Sivagnanam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The bioactive materials in brown seaweeds hold great interest for developing new drugs and healthy foods. The oil content in brown seaweeds (Saccharina japonica and Sargassum horneri was extracted by using environmentally friendly supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2 with ethanol as a co-solvent in a semi-batch flow extraction process and compared the results with a conventional extraction process using hexane, ethanol, and acetone mixed with methanol (1:1, v/v. The SC-CO2 method was used at a temperature of 45 °C and pressure of 250 bar. The flow rate of CO2 (27 g/min was constant for the entire extraction period of 2 h. The obtained oil from the brown seaweeds was analyzed to determine their valuable compounds such as fatty acids, phenolic compounds, fucoxanthin and biological properties including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antihypertension effects. The amounts of fucoxanthin extracted from the SC-CO2 oils of S. japonica and S. horneri were 0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.77 ± 0.07 mg/g, respectively. High antihypertensive activity was detected when using mixed acetone and methanol, whereas the phenolic content and antioxidant property were higher in the oil extracted by SC-CO2. The acetone–methanol mix extracts exhibited better antimicrobial activities than those obtained by other means. Thus, the SC-CO2 extraction process appears to be a good method for obtaining valuable compounds from both brown seaweeds, and showed stronger biological activity than that obtained by the conventional extraction process.

  15. Biological Properties of Fucoxanthin in Oil Recovered from Two Brown Seaweeds Using Supercritical CO2 Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnanam, Saravana Periaswamy; Yin, Shipeng; Choi, Jae Hyung; Park, Yong Beom; Woo, Hee Chul; Chun, Byung Soo

    2015-06-01

    The bioactive materials in brown seaweeds hold great interest for developing new drugs and healthy foods. The oil content in brown seaweeds (Saccharina japonica and Sargassum horneri) was extracted by using environmentally friendly supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) with ethanol as a co-solvent in a semi-batch flow extraction process and compared the results with a conventional extraction process using hexane, ethanol, and acetone mixed with methanol (1:1, v/v). The SC-CO2 method was used at a temperature of 45 °C and pressure of 250 bar. The flow rate of CO2 (27 g/min) was constant for the entire extraction period of 2 h. The obtained oil from the brown seaweeds was analyzed to determine their valuable compounds such as fatty acids, phenolic compounds, fucoxanthin and biological properties including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antihypertension effects. The amounts of fucoxanthin extracted from the SC-CO2 oils of S. japonica and S. horneri were 0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.77 ± 0.07 mg/g, respectively. High antihypertensive activity was detected when using mixed acetone and methanol, whereas the phenolic content and antioxidant property were higher in the oil extracted by SC-CO2. The acetone-methanol mix extracts exhibited better antimicrobial activities than those obtained by other means. Thus, the SC-CO2 extraction process appears to be a good method for obtaining valuable compounds from both brown seaweeds, and showed stronger biological activity than that obtained by the conventional extraction process. PMID:26035021

  16. How preconditioning affects the measurement of poro-viscoelastic mechanical properties in biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Sayyed Mohsen; Wilson, Wouter; Ito, Keita; van Donkelaar, Corrinus C

    2014-06-01

    It is known that initial loading curves of soft biological tissues are substantially different from subsequent loadings. The later loading curves are generally used for assessing the mechanical properties of a tissue, and the first loading cycles, referred to as preconditioning, are omitted. However, slow viscoelastic phenomena related to fluid flow or collagen viscoelasticity are initiated during these first preconditioning loading cycles and may persist during the actual data collection. When these data are subsequently used for fitting of material properties, the viscoelastic phenomena that occurred during the initial cycles are not accounted for. The aim of the present study is to explore whether the above phenomena are significant for articular cartilage, by evaluating the effect of such time-dependent phenomena by means of computational modeling. Results show that under indentation, collagen viscoelasticity dominates the time-dependent behavior. Under UC, fluid-dependent effects are more important. Interestingly, viscoelastic and poroelastic effects may act in opposite directions and may cancel each other out in a stress-strain curve. Therefore, equilibrium may be apparent in a stress-strain relationship, even though internally the tissue is not in equilibrium. Also, the time-dependent effects of viscoelasticity and poroelasticity may reinforce each other, resulting in a sustained effect that lasts longer than suggested by their individual effects. Finally, the results illustrate that data collected from a mechanical test may depend on the preconditioning protocol. In conclusion, preconditioning influences the mechanical response of articular cartilage significantly and therefore cannot be neglected when determining the mechanical properties. To determine the full viscoelastic and poroelastic properties of articular cartilage requires fitting to both preconditioning and post-preconditioned loading cycles. PMID:23864393

  17. Comparative analysis of housekeeping and tissue-selective genes in human based on network topologies and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Wang, Shiyuan; Zhou, Meng; Chen, Xiaowen; Zuo, Yongchun; Sun, Dianjun; Lv, Yingli

    2016-06-01

    Housekeeping genes are genes that are turned on most of the time in almost every tissue to maintain cellular functions. Tissue-selective genes are predominantly expressed in one or a few biologically relevant tissue types. Benefitting from the massive gene expression microarray data obtained over the past decades, the properties of housekeeping and tissue-selective genes can now be investigated on a large-scale manner. In this study, we analyzed the topological properties of housekeeping and tissue-selective genes in the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Furthermore, we compared the biological properties and amino acid usage between these two gene groups. The results indicated that there were significant differences in topological properties between housekeeping and tissue-selective genes in the PPI network, and housekeeping genes had higher centrality properties and may play important roles in the complex biological network environment. We also found that there were significant differences in multiple biological properties and many amino acid compositions. The functional genes enrichment and subcellular localizations analysis was also performed to investigate the characterization of housekeeping and tissue-selective genes. The results indicated that the two gene groups showed significant different enrichment in drug targets, disease genes and toxin targets, and located in different subcellular localizations. At last, the discriminations between the properties of two gene groups were measured by the F-score, and expression stage had the most discriminative index in all properties. These findings may elucidate the biological mechanisms for understanding housekeeping and tissue-selective genes and may contribute to better annotate housekeeping and tissue-selective genes in other organisms. PMID:26897376

  18. [Biological properties of the isolate of Trichinella spp. from a jackal in the North-Caucasian Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoevskaia, I M; Kurnosova, O P; Klinkov, A V; Bocharova, M M

    2009-01-01

    The biological properties of the isolate from Trichinella from ajackal in the North-Caucasian Region of the Russian Federation were studied. The jackal's muscle tissue showed two Trichinella species preserving their genetic isolation during 5 passages on mice. Oval capsules containing live larvae (on day 90 after infection) in the rat muscles corresponds to the conventional description of the species Trichinella spiralis in their morphometric and biological properties. The morphological data, biological properties, and poor adaptation of round capsule-enclosed parasites to rats indirectly show their affiliation to the other Trichinella species--T. native or T. britovi. There was a negative test for outbred albino rat muscle Trichinella resistance to freezing, which, might be associated with the poor adaptation of this Trichinella isolate to this species of rodents. PMID:19830913

  19. Enhanced Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Ion-Implanted Titanium Using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Hegedűs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of metallic implants play an important role in their clinical success. Improving upon the inherent shortcomings of Ti implants, such as poor bioactivity, is imperative for achieving clinical use. In this study, we have developed a Ti implant modified with Ca or dual Ca + Si ions on the surface using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS. The physicochemical and biological properties of ion-implanted Ti surfaces were analyzed using various analytical techniques, such as surface analyses, potentiodynamic polarization and cell culture. Experimental results indicated that a rough morphology was observed on the Ti substrate surface modified by ECRIS plasma ions. The in vitro electrochemical measurement results also indicated that the Ca + Si ion-implanted surface had a more beneficial and desired behavior than the pristine Ti substrate. Compared to the pristine Ti substrate, all ion-implanted samples had a lower hemolysis ratio. MG63 cells cultured on the high Ca and dual Ca + Si ion-implanted surfaces revealed significantly greater cell viability in comparison to the pristine Ti substrate. In conclusion, surface modification by electron cyclotron resonance Ca and Si ion sources could be an effective method for Ti implants.

  20. Physiochemical and Biological Properties of Modified Collagen Sponge from Porcine Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yuanyuan; HUANG Shujie; WU Jimin; GUAN Jing; ZHANG Xizheng; LI Zhihong; WANG Pengfei; LI Ruixin; GUO Yong; NING Bo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare one-step method to EDC/NHS crosslinking(EDC/NHS group)and one-step simultaneous method to EDC/NHS crosslinking and heparin immobilization(EDC/NHS-Heparin group)in improving physiochemical and biological properties of native collagen sponge(Control group).Modified collagen sponge overcome the disad-vantages of native collagen sponge.IR spectra suggest the change of the functional groups.DSC data indicate that the stability of caloric transformation in EDC/NHS group is slightly higher than that of EDC/NHS-Heparin group.The crosslinking degree,stability against enzymes,stability in morpho-logically and biomechanical properties of EDC/NHS-Heparin group are higher than those of EDC/NHS group,whereas,the water-binding capacity in EDC/NHS-Heparin group is lower than that of EDC/NHS group.HUVECs in EDC/NHS-Heparin group scaffold proliferate fast,migrate well and distribute uniformly.One-step simultaneous method gains the better effects in above aspects, heparinized collagen matrices increase in angiogenic potential and suit for defect repairing and tissue engineering.

  1. Biologically relevant photoacoustic imaging phantoms with tunable optical and acoustic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, William C; Jia, Congxian; Wear, Keith A; Garra, Brian S; Joshua Pfefer, T

    2016-10-01

    Established medical imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography rely on well-validated tissue-simulating phantoms for standardized testing of device image quality. The availability of high-quality phantoms for optical-acoustic diagnostics such as photoacoustic tomography (PAT) will facilitate standardization and clinical translation of these emerging approaches. Materials used in prior PAT phantoms do not provide a suitable combination of long-term stability and realistic acoustic and optical properties. Therefore, we have investigated the use of custom polyvinyl chloride plastisol (PVCP) formulations for imaging phantoms and identified a dual-plasticizer approach that provides biologically relevant ranges of relevant properties. Speed of sound and acoustic attenuation were determined over a frequency range of 4 to 9 MHz and optical absorption and scattering over a wavelength range of 400 to 1100 nm. We present characterization of several PVCP formulations, including one designed to mimic breast tissue. This material is used to construct a phantom comprised of an array of cylindrical, hemoglobin-filled inclusions for evaluation of penetration depth. Measurements with a custom near-infrared PAT imager provide quantitative and qualitative comparisons of phantom and tissue images. Results indicate that our PVCP material is uniquely suitable for PAT system image quality evaluation and may provide a practical tool for device validation and intercomparison. PMID:26886681

  2. Investigation of the biological shielding properties of ferruginous and sandy clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological shielding properties of two local clays, the ferruginous clay from Nsaba and the sandy clay from Winneba, at three different firing temperatures (9500C, 10000C and 11000C) have been investigated. The attenuation coefficient and hence the half-value-layers for different gamma energies determined revealed that Portland concrete is better than the clays for lower gamma energies but the reverse is true for high energy gammas. The diffusion lengths of thermal neutrons in the clays were observed to be relatively shorter than the 6.61 cm recorded for Portland concrete. The worst value obtained being 1.81 cm. There is the possibility of improving on the shielding properties of the clays by adding boron or cadmium and firing below 444.60C in the former and 746.40C in the latter or by hand pressing during moulding to reduce the porosity. The values of the moduli of rupture indicates their general weakness in comparison with concrete but again it is believed that hand pressed bricks would be stronger. (author)

  3. Soil properties and biological activity as influenced by nutrient management in rice- fallow sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Goutami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to observe the effect of inorganics, bio-fertilizers and FYM applied to rice-fallow sorghum on soil properties and biological activity at Agricultural College Farm, Bapatla during 2012. Soil samples were collected at flowering and harvest of the crop and were analysed for bulk density (BD, porosity, pH, electrical conductivity (EC, organic carbon, N, P, K and micronutrients by standard methods. Results indicated that the soil properties viz., bulk density, porosity, pH and EC were not markedly influenced by the imposed treatments, while significantly high organic carbon was recorded in FYM treated plots. There was a significant influence of the treatments on available nitrogen and phosphorus, but not on potassium. Among micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe, the treatmental influence was significantly related to Fe only. Addition of inorganics in combination with organics and bio-fertilizers proved to be more efficient in improving the microbial population and enzyme activities (urease and dehydrogenase significantly.

  4. Biological Properties and Characterization of ASL50 Protein from Aged Allium sativum Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Jitendra, Kumar; Singh, Kusum; Kapoor, Vaishali; Sinha, Mou; Xess, Immaculata; Das, Satya N; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P; Dey, Sharmistha

    2015-08-01

    Allium sativum is well known for its medicinal properties. The A. sativum lectin 50 (ASL50, 50 kDa) was isolated from aged A. sativum bulbs and purified by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200 column. Agar well diffusion assay were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ASL50 against Candida species and bacteria then minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The lipid A binding to ASL50 was determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology with varying concentrations. Electron microscopic studies were done to see the mode of action of ASL50 on microbes. It exerted antimicrobial activity against clinical Candida isolates with a MIC of 10-40 μg/ml and clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with a MIC of 10-80 μg/ml. The electron microscopic study illustrates that it disrupts the cell membrane of the bacteria and cell wall of fungi. It exhibited antiproliferative activity on oral carcinoma KB cells with an IC50 of 36 μg/ml after treatment for 48 h and induces the apoptosis of cancer cells by inducing 2.5-fold higher caspase enzyme activity than untreated cells. However, it has no cytotoxic effects towards HEK 293 cells as well as human erythrocytes even at higher concentration of ASL50. Biological properties of ASL50 may have its therapeutic significance in aiding infection and cancer treatments. PMID:26043852

  5. Apples: content of phenolic compounds vs. variety, part of apple and cultivation model, extraction of phenolic compounds, biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowska, Monika; Bielawska, Aleksandra; Lewandowska-Siwkiewicz, Hanna; Priebe, Waldemar; Lewandowski, Włodzimierz

    2014-11-01

    Apples are among the most popular fruits in the world. They are rich in phenolic compounds, pectin, sugar, macro- and microelements. Applying different extraction techniques it is possible to isolate a particular group of compounds or individual chemicals and then test their biological properties. Many reports point to the antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer and many other beneficial effects of apple components that may have potential applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. This paper summarizes and compiles information about apple phenolic compounds, their biological properties with particular emphasis on health-related aspects. The data are reviewed with regard to different apple varieties, part of apple, cultivation model and methods of extraction. PMID:25282014

  6. Lunar Rhythms In Forestry Traditions - Lunar-Correlated Phenomena In Tree Biology And Wood Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Ernst

    For more than 2000 years, certain forestry practices and rules regarding tree felling have been carried out in observance to Moon cycles. A general review of the different types of rules followed (known in Europe and on other continents and stemming from both written sources and current practitioners) shows that special timber uses are mentioned in relation to a specific felling date which supposedly ensures advantageous wood properties. These empirical forestry traditions apply to a range of wood uses as diverse as building timber, shingles, wooden chimneys, fuel wood, resonance wood for harmony tables of violins, cheese-boxes, barrels and ploughs. In each of these cases, felling at the ``right date'' is thought to be an important factor to ensure the required properties of the product. Moreover, the rafting of timber used to be limited to certain days of the Moon cycle, when the water was supposed to carry the wood in the best way. The second part presents scientific studies concerned, on the one hand, with ``Moon phases'' factor. They deal with elements of tree biology such as germination and initial growth of tropical trees (where strong and systematic variations and their complicating aspects have been observed), insect attacks on trees and reversible fluctuations of stem diameters. On the other hand, some works concentrate on wood properties and the relation between wood and water. They deal with the durability of wood, with systematic density variations after kiln-drying and with variations in the compression strength of the corresponding samples. An overview tries to find a common link between empirical practices and the scientific results.

  7. Spectroscopic properties of gold nanoparticles at the single-particle level in biological environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Laura C; Gratton, Enrico

    2012-03-01

    Labeling cells and tissues with fluorescent probes, such as organic dyes and quantum dots (Qdots) is a widespread and successful technique for studying molecular dynamics both in vitro and in vivo. However, those probes usually suffer from undesirable photophysical/photochemical processes, such as blinking and photobleaching, limiting their utilization. The main challenges in fluorescent probe design are to improve their absorption/emission properties, and to provide higher stability against photobleaching. In the last few years, metallic nanoparticles (NPs) of various sizes, shapes, and compositions have been used as a new alternative for cellular microscopy. This is in part because-unlike common organic dyes and Qdots-metallic NPs do not bleach or blink upon continuous illumination, are extremely stable, very bright, and their luminescence spans over the visible spectrum. These characteristics make them attractive contrast agents for cell imaging both in vitro and in vivo. For these reasons, the emission of metallic NPs in bulk solutions has already been extensively characterized. In contrast with bulk experiments, where billions of molecules are measured simultaneously, single-particle techniques allow the observation of characteristics and dynamical processes otherwise hidden in the measured average. A full understanding of the photophysical properties of the NPs is critical when they are used for single-molecule applications. Photophysical processes can be a source of artifacts if they are not interpreted accordingly, and thus a careful characterization of these labels at the single-particle level became crucial for the correct interpretation of the experimental results. Herein, we study some of their unique optical properties at the single-particle level and show examples that illustrate their intrinsic heterogeneity when used in biological environments. PMID:22298327

  8. Tree species traits influence soil physical, chemical, and biological properties in high elevation forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ayres

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that plants often have species-specific effects on soil properties. In high elevation forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains, North America, areas that are dominated by a single tree species are often adjacent to areas dominated by another tree species. Here, we assessed soil properties beneath adjacent stands of trembling aspen, lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce, which are dominant tree species in this region and are distributed widely in North America. We hypothesized that soil properties would differ among stands dominated by different tree species and expected that aspen stands would have higher soil temperatures due to their open structure, which, combined with higher quality litter, would result in increased soil respiration rates, nitrogen availability, and microbial biomass, and differences in soil faunal community composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed soil physical, chemical, and biological properties at four sites where stands of aspen, pine, and spruce occurred in close proximity to one-another in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Leaf litter quality differed among the tree species, with the highest nitrogen (N concentration and lowest lignin:N in aspen litter. Nitrogen concentration was similar in pine and spruce litter, but lignin:N was highest in pine litter. Soil temperature and moisture were highest in aspen stands, which, in combination with higher litter quality, probably contributed to faster soil respiration rates from stands of aspen. Soil carbon and N content, ammonium concentration, and microbial biomass did not differ among tree species, but nitrate concentration was highest in aspen soil and lowest in spruce soil. In addition, soil fungal, bacterial, and nematode community composition and rotifer, collembolan, and mesostigmatid mite abundance differed among the tree species, while the total abundance of nematodes, tardigrades, oribatid mites, and prostigmatid

  9. Mapping the functional properties of soft biological tissues under shear loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Mark Raymond

    The structure and composition of articular cartilage and other load-bearing biological tissues are highly complex and heterogeneous. As a result, their functional mechanical properties exhibit clear spatial variations. Unlocking the structure-function relationship in these materials is critical for devising strategies to restore tissue impaired by injury or disease and can provide a template for successful implant design. Here, we describe a tissue deformation imaging stage (TDIS) allowing for simultaneous force measurement and visualization of microscale deformation in soft biological tissues under controlled shear strain. In combination with a fast confocal microscope, the TDIS is used to test the microscale response of articular cartilage to shear loading. To obtain the location-specific shear modulus of this tissue, we employ a high-resolution technique that involves tracking the deformation of a line photobleached into a fluorescently stained sample loaded in the TDIS. We find that the quasi-static and dynamic shear moduli are lowest roughly 100 mum below the articular surface. Here, articular cartilage is highly nonlinear, stiffening under increased shear strain and becoming more compliant under increased compressive strain. Using a simple thought model, we relate these results to structural features of the collagen network in articular cartilage. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the region of maximum compliance is also the primary site of shear energy dissipation in articular cartilage. Our findings suggest that damage to or surgical removal of the surface of this tissue will increase the joint's susceptibility to shear-induced damage. Finally, similar experiments are performed on intervertebral disc and growth plate, demonstrating the versatility of our in-situ strain mapping techniques.

  10. Biological properties of soils of former forest fires in Samosir Regency of North Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Elfiati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A study that was aimed to identify the impact of forest fires on the biological properties of soils was carried out at former forest fire areas in Samosir Regency of North Sumatera. Soil samples were collected from former forest fire areas of 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010. The composite soil samples were collected systematically using diagonal method as much as 5 points in each period of fire. The soil samples were taken at three plots measuring 20 x 20 m 0-20 cm depth. Soil biological properties observed were soil organic C content, total number of microbes, abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, phosphate solubilizing microbes, and soil microbial activity. The results showed that organic C content ranged from 0.75 to 2.47% which included criteria for very low to moderate. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores were found belonging to the genus of Glomus and Acaulospora. Spore number increased with the fire period ranging from 45 spores (forest fire in 2014 to 152 spores (forest fire in 2010. The total number of microbes obtained ranged from 53.78 x 107 cfu/mL (forest fire in 2010 to 89.70 x107 cfu/mL (forest fire in 2013. It was found 29 isolates of phosphate solubilizing microbes that consisted of 14 bacterial isolates and 15 fungi isolates with densities ranging from 27.642 x105 cfu/mL (forest fires in 2014 to 97.776 x 105 cfu/ mL (forest fires in 2011. The isolates of phosphate solubilizing bacteria identified consisted of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Staphylococcus, and Mycobacterium genus, whereas the isolates of phosphate solubilizing fungi obtained consisted of Aspergillus and Penicillium genus. Soil respiration ranged from 2.14 kg / day (forest fire in 2010 up to 3.71 kg / day (forest fire in 2013. The varied results were greatly influenced by the type or form of the fires and intensity of fires. In the study area the type or form of the fires were canopy fires with low intensity.

  11. Assessing Soil Biological Properties of Natural and Planted Forests in the Malaysian Tropical Lowland Dipterocarp Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daljit S. Karam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A study was conducted to evaluate and compare the soil biological properties of a natural forest and an 18-year-old stand of Shorea leprosula in Chikus Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia. Approach: Soils were sampled at depths of 0-15 cm (topsoil and 15-30 cm (subsoil in six subplots (20×20 m of natural forest (C1 and of a planted S. leprosula (C2 plot. Fresh composite soil samples were kept in UV-sterilized polyethylene bags prior to analysis in the laboratory. The microbial population count was determined using a spread-plate count technique. The microbial enzymatic activity was elucidated using a Fluorescein Diacetate (FDA hydrolysis assay; microbial biomass was extracted using a rapid chloroform fumigation extraction method. The Microbial Biomass C (MBC was determined by wet dichromate oxidation; Kjeldahl digestion and a distillation method were used for evaluation of Microbial Biomass N (MBN. Results: Results indicate that only the microbial biomass N and the population count in the soil at the 0-15 cm depth were found to be higher in C1 compared to C2. The higher microbial population count in the soil at the 0-15 cm depth of C1 compared to C2 was enhanced by the large amount of organic matter that serves as a suitable medium for soil microbial growth. The higher MBN in the C1 soil was also influenced by the high content of organic material available that encourages activities of decomposing bacteria to take place. Similarities in the soil biological properties of the plots with regard to enzymatic activity and microbial biomass Care believed to be influenced by the same topographic gradient. The higher MBC/MBN ratios found in soils of C2 compared to C1 were due to the low availability of N compared to C, might result from N utilization by soil microbes for organic material decomposition. Conclusion: There are similarities in microbial enzymatic activity and biomass C, but not in microbial population counts and biomass N

  12. LASER METHODS IN BIOLOGY: Optical anisotropy of fibrous biological tissues: analysis of the influence of structural properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnyakov, D. A.; Sinichkin, Yu P.; Ushakova, O. V.

    2007-08-01

    The results of theoretical analysis of the optical anisotropy of multiply scattering fibrillar biological tissues based on the model of an effective anisotropic medium are compared with the experimental in vivo birefringence data for the rat derma obtained earlier in spectral polarisation measurements of rat skin samples in the visible region. The disordered system of parallel dielectric cylinders embedded into an isotropic dielectric medium was considered as a model medium. Simulations were performed taking into account the influence of a partial mutual disordering of the bundles of collagen and elastin fibres in derma on birefringence in samples. The theoretical optical anisotropy averaged over the spectral interval 550-650 nm for the model medium with parameters corresponding to the structural parameters of derma is in good agreement with the results of spectral polarisation measurements of skin samples in the corresponding wavelength range.

  13. Some biologically active oxovanadium(IV) complexes of triazole derived Schiff bases: their synthesis, characterization and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Zahid H; Sumrra, Sajjad H

    2010-10-01

    A series of biologically active oxovanadium(IV) complexes of triazole derived Schiff bases L(1)-L(5) have been synthesized and characterized by their physical, analytical, and spectral data. The synthesized ligands potentially act as bidentate, in which the oxygen of furfural and nitrogen of azomethine coordinate with the oxovanadium atom to give a stoichiometry of vanadyl complexes 1:2 (M:L) in a square-pyramidal geometry. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities on different species of pathogenic bacteria (E. coli, S. flexneri, P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, S. aureus, and B. subtilis) and fungi (T. longifusus, C. albicans, A. flavus, M. canis, F. solani, and C. glabrata) have been studied. All compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains and good antifungal activity against most of the fungal strains. The brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to check the cytotoxicity of coordinated and uncoordinated synthesized compounds. PMID:20429776

  14. Physical properties and biological activities of hesperetin and naringenin in complex with methylated β-cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waratchada Sangpheak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to improve physical properties and biological activities of the two flavanones hesperetin and naringenin by complexation with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD and its methylated derivatives (2,6-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin, DM-β-CD and randomly methylated-β-CD, RAMEB. The free energies of inclusion complexes between hesperetin with cyclodextrins (β-CD and DM-β-CD were theoretically investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. The free energy values obtained suggested a more stable inclusion complex with DM-β-CD. The vdW force is the main guest–host interaction when hesperetin binds with CDs. The phase solubility diagram showed the formation of a soluble complex of AL type, with higher increase in solubility and stability when hesperetin and naringenin were complexed with RAMEB. Solid complexes were prepared by freeze-drying, and the data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC confirmed the formation of inclusion complexes. The data obtained by the dissolution method showed that complexation with RAMEB resulted in a better release of both flavanones to aqueous solution. The flavanones-β-CD/DM-β-CD complexes demonstrated a similar or a slight increase in anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxicity towards three different cancer cell lines. The overall results suggested that solubilities and bioactivities of both flavanones were increased by complexation with methylated β-CDs.

  15. Isolation, Characterization and Biological Properties of Membrane Vesicles Produced by the Swine Pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Haas

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis, more particularly serotype 2, is a major swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent worldwide that mainly causes meningitis, septicemia, endocarditis, and pneumonia. Although several potential virulence factors produced by S. suis have been identified in the last decade, the pathogenesis of S. suis infections is still not fully understood. In the present study, we showed that S. suis produces membrane vesicles (MVs that range in diameter from 13 to 130 nm and that appear to be coated by capsular material. A proteomic analysis of the MVs revealed that they contain 46 proteins, 9 of which are considered as proven or suspected virulence factors. Biological assays confirmed that S. suis MVs possess active subtilisin-like protease (SspA and DNase (SsnA. S. suis MVs degraded neutrophil extracellular traps, a property that may contribute to the ability of the bacterium to escape the host defense response. MVs also activated the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathway in both monocytes and macrophages, inducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may in turn contribute to increase the permeability of the blood brain barrier. The present study brought evidence that S. suis MVs may play a role as a virulence factor in the pathogenesis of S. suis infections, and given their composition be an excellent candidate for vaccine development.

  16. Biological properties of purified recombinant HCV particles with an epitope-tagged envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish a simple system for purification of recombinant infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles, we designed a chimeric J6/JFH-1 virus with a FLAG (FL)-epitope-tagged sequence at the N-terminal region of the E2 hypervariable region-1 (HVR1) gene (J6/JFH-1/1FL). We found that introduction of an adaptive mutation at the potential N-glycosylation site (E2N151K) leads to efficient production of the chimeric virus. This finding suggests the involvement of glycosylation at Asn within the envelope protein(s) in HCV morphogenesis. To further analyze the biological properties of the purified recombinant HCV particles, we developed a strategy for large-scale production and purification of recombinant J6/JFH-1/1FL/E2N151K. Infectious particles were purified from the culture medium of J6/JFH-1/1FL/E2N151K-infected Huh-7 cells using anti-FLAG affinity chromatography in combination with ultrafiltration. Electron microscopy of the purified particles using negative staining showed spherical particle structures with a diameter of 40-60 nm and spike-like projections. Purified HCV particle-immunization induced both an anti-E2 and an anti-FLAG antibody response in immunized mice. This strategy may contribute to future detailed analysis of HCV particle structure and to HCV vaccine development.

  17. Biological properties of purified recombinant HCV particles with an epitope-tagged envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hitoshi; Akazawa, Daisuke [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Toray Industries, Inc., Kanagawa (Japan); Kato, Takanobu; Date, Tomoko [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Shirakura, Masayuki [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Toray Industries, Inc., Kanagawa (Japan); Nakamura, Noriko; Mochizuki, Hidenori [Toray Industries, Inc., Kanagawa (Japan); Tanaka-Kaneko, Keiko; Sata, Tetsutaro [Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Yasuhito [Department of Clinical Molecular Informative Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Mizokami, Masashi [Research Center for Hepatitis and Immunology, Kohnodai Hospital, International Medical Center of Japan, Chiba (Japan); Suzuki, Tetsuro [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Wakita, Takaji, E-mail: wakita@nih.go.jp [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-05-14

    To establish a simple system for purification of recombinant infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles, we designed a chimeric J6/JFH-1 virus with a FLAG (FL)-epitope-tagged sequence at the N-terminal region of the E2 hypervariable region-1 (HVR1) gene (J6/JFH-1/1FL). We found that introduction of an adaptive mutation at the potential N-glycosylation site (E2N151K) leads to efficient production of the chimeric virus. This finding suggests the involvement of glycosylation at Asn within the envelope protein(s) in HCV morphogenesis. To further analyze the biological properties of the purified recombinant HCV particles, we developed a strategy for large-scale production and purification of recombinant J6/JFH-1/1FL/E2N151K. Infectious particles were purified from the culture medium of J6/JFH-1/1FL/E2N151K-infected Huh-7 cells using anti-FLAG affinity chromatography in combination with ultrafiltration. Electron microscopy of the purified particles using negative staining showed spherical particle structures with a diameter of 40-60 nm and spike-like projections. Purified HCV particle-immunization induced both an anti-E2 and an anti-FLAG antibody response in immunized mice. This strategy may contribute to future detailed analysis of HCV particle structure and to HCV vaccine development.

  18. The critical role of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide on physico-chemical, technological and biological properties of NLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, C; Campisi, A; Manno, D; Serra, A; Spatuzza, M; Musumeci, T; Bonfanti, R; Puglisi, G

    2014-09-01

    Exploiting the experimental factorial design and the potentiality of Turbiscan AG Station, we developed and characterized unmodified and DDAB-coated NLC prepared by a low energy organic solvent free phase inversion temperature technique. A 22 full factorial experimental design was developed in order to study the effects of two independent variables (DDAB and ferulic acid) and their interaction on mean particle size and zeta potential values. The factorial planning was validated by ANOVA analysis; the correspondence between the predicted values of size and zeta and those measured experimentally confirmed the validity of the design and the equation applied for its resolution. The DDAB-coated NLC were significantly affected in their physico-chemical properties by the presence of DDAB, as showed by the results of the experimental design. The coated NLC showed higher physical stability with no particles aggregation compared to the unmodified NLC, as demonstrated by Turbiscan(®) AGS measurements. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and Cryo-TEM images allowed us to assert that DDAB plays a critical role in increasing the lipids structural order with a consequent enhancement of the NLC physical stability. Furthermore, the results of the in vitro biological studies allow the revisiting of the role of DDAB to the benefit of glioblastoma treatment, due to its efficacy in increasing the NLC uptake and reducing the viability of human glioblastoma cancer cells (U87MG). PMID:24929522

  19. Biological and chemical-physical properties of root-end filling materials: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ceci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of the study is to evaluate and compare the biological and chemical-physical properties of four different root-end filling materials. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity towards murine odontoblasts cells (MDPC-23 was evaluated using the Transwell insert methodology by Alamar blue test. Streptococcus salivarius, S. sanguis, and S. mutans strains were selected to evaluate the antimicrobial activity by agar disc diffusion test. Solubility was determined after 24 h and 2 months. pH values were measured after 3 and 24 h. To evaluate radiopacity, all materials were scanned on a GE Healthcare Lunar Prodigy. Results: Excellent percentage of vitality were obtained by mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA-based materials and Biodentine. MTA-Angelus, ProRoot MTA, and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM showed the highest values for the inhibition zones when tested for S. mutans, while Biodentine showed the largest inhibition zone when tested for S. sanguis. All the materials fulfilled the requirements of the International Standard 6876, demonstrating low solubility with a weight loss of less than 3%. No significant reduction in pH value was demonstrated after 24 h. ProRoot MTA and MTA-Angelus showed the highest values of radiographic density. Conclusions: The differences showed by the root-end filling materials tested do not cover completely the ideal clinical requests.

  20. Near infrared fluorescence quenching properties of copper (II) ions for potential applications in biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Dolonchampa; Zhou, Mingzhou; Sarder, Pinaki; Achilefu, Samuel

    2014-03-01

    Fluorescence quenching properties of copper(II) ions have been used for designing Cu(II) sensitive fluorescent molecular probes. In this paper, we demonstrate that static quenching plays a key role in free Cu(II)-mediated fluorescence quenching of a near infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye cypate. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant was calculated to be KSV = 970,000 M-1 in 25 mM MES buffer, pH 6.5 at room temperature. We synthesized LS835, a compound containing cypate attached covalently to chelated Cu(II) to study fluorescence quenching by chelated Cu(II). The fluorescence quenching mechanism of chelated Cu(II) is predominantly dynamic or collisional quenching. The quenching efficiency of chelated Cu(II) was calculated to be 58% ± 6% in dimethylsulfoxide at room temperature. Future work will involve further characterization of the mechanism of NIR fluorescence quenching by Cu(II) and testing its reversibility for potential applications in designing fluorophore-quencher based molecular probes for biological imaging.

  1. Physical properties and biological activities of hesperetin and naringenin in complex with methylated β-cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangpheak, Waratchada; Kicuntod, Jintawee; Schuster, Roswitha; Rungrotmongkol, Thanyada; Wolschann, Peter; Kungwan, Nawee; Viernstein, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Summary The aim of this work is to improve physical properties and biological activities of the two flavanones hesperetin and naringenin by complexation with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and its methylated derivatives (2,6-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin, DM-β-CD and randomly methylated-β-CD, RAMEB). The free energies of inclusion complexes between hesperetin with cyclodextrins (β-CD and DM-β-CD) were theoretically investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. The free energy values obtained suggested a more stable inclusion complex with DM-β-CD. The vdW force is the main guest–host interaction when hesperetin binds with CDs. The phase solubility diagram showed the formation of a soluble complex of AL type, with higher increase in solubility and stability when hesperetin and naringenin were complexed with RAMEB. Solid complexes were prepared by freeze-drying, and the data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed the formation of inclusion complexes. The data obtained by the dissolution method showed that complexation with RAMEB resulted in a better release of both flavanones to aqueous solution. The flavanones-β-CD/DM-β-CD complexes demonstrated a similar or a slight increase in anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxicity towards three different cancer cell lines. The overall results suggested that solubilities and bioactivities of both flavanones were increased by complexation with methylated β-CDs. PMID:26877798

  2. Effects of sterilization methods on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of silk fibroin membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Mariana Agostini; Weska, Raquel Farias; Beppu, Marisa Masumi

    2014-05-01

    Silk fibroin has been widely explored for many biomedical applications, due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. Sterilization is a fundamental step in biomaterials processing and it must not jeopardize the functionality of medical devices. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of different sterilization methods in the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of dense and porous silk fibroin membranes. Silk fibroin membranes were treated by several procedures: immersion in 70% ethanol solution, ultraviolet radiation, autoclave, ethylene oxide, and gamma radiation, and were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, tensile strength and in vitro cytotoxicity to Chinese hamster ovary cells. The results indicated that the sterilization methods did not cause perceivable morphological changes in the membranes and the membranes were not toxic to cells. The sterilization methods that used organic solvent or an increased humidity and/or temperature (70% ethanol, autoclave, and ethylene oxide) increased the silk II content in the membranes: the dense membranes became more brittle, while the porous membranes showed increased strength at break. Membranes that underwent sterilization by UV and gamma radiation presented properties similar to the nonsterilized membranes, mainly for tensile strength and FTIR results. PMID:24259492

  3. The organization of biological sequences into constrained and unconstrained parts determines fundamental properties of genotype-phenotype maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbury, S F; Ahnert, S E

    2015-12-01

    Biological information is stored in DNA, RNA and protein sequences, which can be understood as genotypes that are translated into phenotypes. The properties of genotype-phenotype (GP) maps have been studied in great detail for RNA secondary structure. These include a highly biased distribution of genotypes per phenotype, negative correlation of genotypic robustness and evolvability, positive correlation of phenotypic robustness and evolvability, shape-space covering, and a roughly logarithmic scaling of phenotypic robustness with phenotypic frequency. More recently similar properties have been discovered in other GP maps, suggesting that they may be fundamental to biological GP maps, in general, rather than specific to the RNA secondary structure map. Here we propose that the above properties arise from the fundamental organization of biological information into 'constrained' and 'unconstrained' sequences, in the broadest possible sense. As 'constrained' we describe sequences that affect the phenotype more immediately, and are therefore more sensitive to mutations, such as, e.g. protein-coding DNA or the stems in RNA secondary structure. 'Unconstrained' sequences, on the other hand, can mutate more freely without affecting the phenotype, such as, e.g. intronic or intergenic DNA or the loops in RNA secondary structure. To test our hypothesis we consider a highly simplified GP map that has genotypes with 'coding' and 'non-coding' parts. We term this the Fibonacci GP map, as it is equivalent to the Fibonacci code in information theory. Despite its simplicity the Fibonacci GP map exhibits all the above properties of much more complex and biologically realistic GP maps. These properties are therefore likely to be fundamental to many biological GP maps. PMID:26609063

  4. Biological properties of aerococci and bacilli as a component of new associate-probiotic complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Valchuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dysbioses of the gastrointestinal tract are common among people of all ages and genders. Development of this pathology is associated with a number of complications, from indigestion to occurrence of malignant disease. Therefore, there is a need in development of measures of their prevention and correction. Probiotics are used as drugs against dysbiosis. Most of the presently known probiotics contain bacterial cells of one species, although combination preparations feature higher efficiency. At the same time, there are difficulties in construction of these drugs, primarily due to incompatibility of physiological properties of microorganisms and mutually antagonistic action of their components. The aim was to examine the compatibility of Bacillus subtilis and Aerococcus viridans in a single preparation, their antagonistic activity against different strains of test-cultures and general antagonism directed on different groups of bacteria for subsequent formation of associative probiotic complex. Properties of aerococci strains were studied and A. viridans 167 strain was selected for inclusion into the probiotic preparation. The tested strain showed the highest indicators of production of hydrogen peroxide, which is one of the mechanisms of antagonistic effect against opportunistic pathogens. General study of biological properties of aerococci strains showed that producing of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical in them was conditioned by functioning of NAD-independent lactatoxidase. It has been determined that antioxidant defense of aerococci from the action of endogenous and active excretable forms of oxygen was provided by activity of superoxide-dismutase and GSH-peroxidase. The method of deferred antagonism found no depressing mutual action between probiotic strains of B. subtilis 3 and A. viridans 167 at their joint cultivation. Inhibition of growth at the joint application of A. viridans 167 and B. subtilis 3 strains was recorded for both

  5. Study Under AC Stimulation on Excitement Properties of Weighted Small-World Biological Neural Networks with Side-Restrain Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Wu-Jie; LUO Xiao-Shu; JIANG Pin-Qun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a new model of weighted small-world biological neural networks based on biophysical Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with side-restrain mechanism.Then we study excitement properties of the model under alternating current (AC) stimulation.The study shows that the excitement properties in the networks are preferably consistent with the behavior properties of a brain nervous system under different AC stimuli,such as refractory period and the brain neural excitement response induced by different intensities of nolse and coupling.The results of the study have reference worthiness for the brain nerve electrophysiology and epistemological science.

  6. Study Under AC Stimulation on Excitement Properties of Weighted Small-World Biological Neural Networks with Side-Restrain Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we propose a new model of weighted small-world biological neural networks based on biophysical Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with side-restrain mechanism. Then we study excitement properties of the model under alternating current (AC) stimulation. The study shows that the excitement properties in the networks are preferably consistent with the behavior properties of a brain nervous system under different AC stimuli, such as refractory period and the brain neural excitement response induced by different intensities of noise and coupling. The results of the study have reference worthiness for the brain nerve electrophysiology and epistemological science.

  7. Influence of the biological conditions in the surface magnetic properties of nanocrystalline CoFeCrSiB ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the result of a study of the influence of the biological conditions on the surface magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Co64.5Fe2.5Cr3B15Si15 ribbons are presented and discussed. After the biological treatment the results show that, in the longitudinal direction, there is a hardening of the magnetic behavior and in the transverse direction the magnetization takes place in two steps. The surface saturation magnetization decreases in the treated samples. These results are explained considering the presence of magnetic oxides and non-conducting oxides on the surface of the treated samples

  8. The influence comparing of activated biochar and conventional biochar on the soil biological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořáčková, Helena; Mykajlo, Irina; Záhora, Jaroslav

    2016-04-01

    In our experiment we have used biochar. This material is the product of the pyrolysis that has shown a positive effect on numerous physical and chemical soil properties. However, its influence on the biological component of the soil is very variable. A number of toxic substances that inhibit the soil productivity may be produced during pyrolysis process. The experiment dealt with the hypothesis concerning biochar toxicity reduction by simulating natural processes in the soil. Biochar has been exposed to aeration in the aquatic environment, enriched with nutrients and a source of native soil microflora. It has been created 6 variants in total, each with four replications. The soils samples have been placed in a phytotron for 90 days. Variants consisted of the soil with fertilizers adding (compost, biochar, activated biochar) and have been prepared as well as variants containing compost and biochar and activated biochar optionally. The highest aboveground biomass production has been estimated in variants containing compost, while the lowest production - in the variants containing conventional biochar. During production comparing of the variants with the conventional biochar, activated biochar and control samples it has been evident that activated biochar promotes plant growth, and in contradiction conventional biochar inhibits it. We will approach to the same conclusions when comparing variants with a combination of conventional biochar + compost and activated biochar + compost. Mineral nitrogen leaching has been another investigated parameter. The highest leaching has occurred in the control variant, while the lowest - in the variant with activated biochar (the leaching of nitrate nitrogen has been negligeable). Our results suggest that activated biochar has the potential; however, it is necessary to carry out similar experiments in the field conditions.

  9. Caesium 137: Properties and biological effects resulting of an internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caesium-137 (137Cs) is a radionuclide present in the environment mainly as the result of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and accidents arising in nuclear power plants like the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Nowadays, the health consequences resulting from a chronic exposure to this radionuclide remain unknown. After absorption, the caesium is distributed relatively homogeneously within the body, with a more important load in children than in adults. The toxicity of 137Cs is mainly due to its radiological properties. A high dose of 137Cs is responsible for a medullar dystrophy, disorders of the reproductive function, and effects on liver and renal functions. Disorders of bone mineralization and brain damages were also described in human beings. At lowest dose, 137Cs induces disturbances of wakefulness-sleep cycle, but not accompanied with behavioural disorders. The cardiovascular system was also perturbed. Biological effects of 137Cs on the metabolisms of the vitamin D, cholesterol and steroid hormones were described, but do not lead to clinical symptoms. In human beings, 137Cs leads to an immune deficiency, congenital and foetal deformations, an increased of thyroid cancer, as well as neurological disorders. It seems that children are more sensitive to the toxic effects of caesium than the adults. At present, the only effective treatment for the decorporation of the ingested 137Cs is the Prussian Blue (Radiogardase). The use of pectin to de-corporate the ingested 137Cs, in children notably, is sometimes proposed, but its administration still remains an open question. To conclude, the available scientific data suggest that 137Cs could affect a number of physiological and metabolic functions and consequently, could participate in the health risks associated to the presence of other contaminants in the environment. (authors)

  10. Effect of lead contamination of maize seed on its biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastori Rudolf R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of treatment of seed with various lead concentrations (0, 10-5, 10-4, 10-3, and 10-2 mol/dm3 on accumulation and distribution of lead (Pb in seedling, seed germination, seedling growth, and mobilization of mineral matter during seed germination was investigated. Content of Pb in the root and the shoot indicates that seeds imbibed in solutions of various Pb concentrations took up Pb intensively. Content of Pb in the root and the shoot increased with increase of Pb concentration and it was much larger in the root than in the shoot. Contrary to this, the accumulation coefficient was greater in the shoot than in the root. Treatment of seed with Pb did not significantly affect its biological properties. Increase of Pb concentration decreased germination ability, germination energy, and percentage of typical seedlings, while increasing the number of atypical seedlings and non-germinated seeds. Contamination of seed by Pb did not affect the dry matter mass and the growth of young plants shoots, while the length of the primary root, the mesocotyl root as well as the root mass at the highest Pb concentration, significantly decreased. Translocation of mobilized mineral matter from the seed during germination and growth of young plants into the root and shoot was specific, depending on elements. Only the implementation of the highest implemented Pb concentration affected mobilization and translocation of some elements. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that maize is characterized by significant tolerance to Pb contamination during seed germination and growth of seedlings.

  11. A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. (Vitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cayratia trifolia Linn. Domin Syn. Vitis trifolia (Family: Vitaceae is commonly known as Fox grape in English; Amlabel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit. It is native to India, Asia and Australia. It is a perennial climber having trifoliated leaves with 2-3 cm long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in color. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, dark purple or black, nearly spherical, about 1 cm in diameter. It is found throughout the hills in India. This perennial climber is also found in the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam extending into the peninusular India upto 600 m height. Whole plant of Cayratia trifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins upon preliminary phytochemical screening. Leaves contain stilbenes (piceid, reveratrol, viniferin, ampelopsin. Stem, leaves, roots are reported to possess hydrocyanic acid, delphinidin and several flavonoids such as cyanidin is reported in the leaves. This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Infusion of seeds along with extract of tubers is traditionally given orally to diabetic patients to check sugar level of blood. Paste of tuberous is applied on the affected part in the treatment of snake bite. Whole plant is used as diuretic, in tumors, neuralgia and splenopathy. Its climbers wrapped around the neck of frantic bullock and poultice of leaves are used to yoke sores of bullock. The bark extract shows the antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, hypoglycemic, anticancer and diuretic activity. This article focuses on the upgraded review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. and triggers further investigation on this plant.

  12. Biological properties of neural progenitor cells isolated from the hippocampus of adult cynomolgus monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background The existence of neurogenesis in the hippocampus of adult nonhuman primates has been confirmed in recent years, however, the biological properties of adult neural stem cells or neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from this region remain to be extensively explored. The present work was to investigate on the expansion of NSCs/NPCs from the hippocampus of adult cynomolgus monkeys and the examination of their characteristics in vitro.Methods NPCs isolated from the hippocampus of adult cynomolgus monkeys were expanded in vitro in serum-free media containing growth factors, and were then allowed to differentiate by removing mitotic factors. The expansion capacity of NPCs and their differentiation potential were assayed by immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical analysis.Results During primary culture, NPCs underwent cell division, proliferation and aggregation to form neurospheres that were growing in suspension. Without mitotic stimulation, most neurospheres adhered to the culture dish and started to differentiate. Eventually, nearly 12% of the differentiated cells expressed neuron specific marker-βIII-tubulin (Tuj1) and 84% expressed astrocyte specific marker-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). In addition, the expression of a neural stem cell marker, nestin, was found both in NPCs and in the subgranular zone of adult monkey hippocampus, where NPCs were originally derived. Conclusions NPCs from the hippocampus of adult cynomolgus monkeys can be expanded to some extent in vitro and are capable of differentiating into neurons and astrocytes. Further experiments to promote the in vitro proliferation capacity of NPCs will be required before adult NPCs can be used as a useful cell model for studying adult neurogenesis and cell replacement therapy using adult stem cells.

  13. Biological Motion Preference in Humans at Birth: Role of Dynamic and Configural Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Lara; Regolin, Lucia; Simion, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    The present study addresses the hypothesis that detection of biological motion is an intrinsic capacity of the visual system guided by a non-species-specific predisposition for the pattern of vertebrate movement and investigates the role of global vs. local information in biological motion detection. Two-day-old babies exposed to a biological…

  14. Grammatical Gender and Inferences about Biological Properties in German-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalbach, Henrik; Imai, Mutsumi; Schalk, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    In German, nouns are assigned to one of the three gender classes. For most animal names, however, the assignment is independent of the referent's biological sex. We examined whether German-speaking children understand this independence of grammar from semantics or whether they assume that grammatical gender is mapped onto biological sex when…

  15. Contribution to the study of the biological properties of compounds labeled with radio-chromium 51Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the radioisotopes commonly used in biology and medicine which are controlled Individually in the Radioelement Departement of the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre before being sent to the users, the author has chosen chromium 51 incorporated in inorganic salts or in organic substrates for a study of the biological properties of the compounds. In the first part, he has compared the pathways followed by the radioactive sodium chromate and chromic chloride mixed with blood or given to the whole animal, the object being to determine whether a reduction of hexavalent chromium occurs, both in vitro and in vivo. In the second part, the author has tried to show the validity of using, various substrates labeled with chromium 51, red cells, haemoglobin, plasma proteins and cytochrome c. The results obtained have contributed to underline the interest of using such compounds for biological applications. (author)

  16. The Mechanical and Biological Properties of Chitosan Scaffolds for Tissue Regeneration Templates Are Significantly Enhanced by Chitosan from Gongronella butleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tamura

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan with a molecular weight (MW of 104 Da and 13% degree of acetylation (DA was extracted from the mycelia of the fungus Gongronella butleri USDB 0201 grown in solid substrate fermentation and used to prepare scaffolds by the freeze-drying method. The mechanical and biological properties of the fungal chitosan scaffolds were evaluated and compared with those of scaffolds prepared using chitosans obtained from shrimp and crab shells and squid bone plates (MW 105-106 Da and DA 10-20%. Under scanning electron microscopy, it was observed that all scaffolds had average pore sizes of approximately 60-90 mm in diameter. Elongated pores were observed in shrimp chitosan scaffolds and polygonal pores were found in crab, squid and fungal chitosan scaffolds. The physico-chemical properties of the chitosans had an effect on the formation of pores in the scaffolds, that consequently influenced the mechanical and biological properties of the scaffolds. Fungal chitosan scaffolds showed excellent mechanical, water absorption and lysozyme degradation properties, whereas shrimp chitosan scaffolds (MW 106Da and DA 12% exhibited the lowest water absorption properties and lysozyme degradation rate. In the evaluation of biocompatibility of chitosan scaffolds, the ability of fibroblast NIH/3T3 cells to attach on all chitosan scaffolds was similar, but the proliferation of cells with polygonal morphology was faster on crab, squid and fungal chitosan scaffolds than on shrimp chitosan scaffolds. Therefore fungal chitosan scaffold, which has excellent mechanical and biological properties, is the most suitable scaffold to use as a template for tissue regeneration.

  17. THE STUDY OF THE BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PROBIOTIC LACTOBACILLUS SPP. STRAINS UNDER AEROBIC AND MICROAEROPHILIC CULTIVATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babych E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological properties (growth characteristics, adhesive activity and sensitivity to antimicrobial of probiotic Lactobacillus strains were studied under different gas composition of incubation atmosphere. It was found that the number of viable lactobacilli cells in the one dose of investigated probiotic preparations was lower than it was claimed by the manufacturer. Gas composition of incubation atmosphere affects cell viability of probiotic strains. The number of colony forming units of lactobacilli under microaerophilic conditions increased in 1,19-1,33 times as compared with aerobic conditions. It was proved that adhesive activity of probiotic Lactobacillus strains and sensitivity to 2th, 3th, 4th generations of cephalosporins (cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefepime and tetracyclines (doxycycline also increased under microaerophilic conditions. The changes of the biological properties of lactobacilli under different cultivation conditions require further study for optimization of correction of dysbiotic disorders.

  18. MODELLING OF RING-SHAPED ULTRASONIC WAVEGUIDES FOR TESTING OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND THERAPEUTIC TREATMENT OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Minchenya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of modelling of ring-shaped waveguide tool for ultrasonic treatment of biological materials, particularly malignant tumours, and testing of their mechanical properties. Harmonic analysis of forced flexural vibration of the waveguide using ANSYS software and APDL programming language was implemented for determination of waveguide geometric parameters providing its resonance for the given excitation frequency. The developed finite element model accounts for interaction between the waveguide and tumour tissue as well as initial prestressing of tissue radially compressed by the waveguide. Resonant curves of the waveguide in terms of its thickness and diameter are calculated and presented. Principle of application of the developed modeling technique for extraction of diagnostic data on mechanical properties of biological tissues is described.

  19. Biological Properties and Cell Tropism of Chp2, a Bacteriophage of the Obligate Intracellular Bacterium Chlamydophila abortus

    OpenAIRE

    Everson, J. S.; Garner, S. A.; Fane, B.; Liu, B.-L.; Lambden, P R; Clarke, I N

    2002-01-01

    A number of bacteriophages belonging to the Microviridae have been described infecting chlamydiae. Phylogenetic studies divide the Chlamydiaceae into two distinct genera, Chlamydia and Chlamydophila, containing three and six different species, respectively. In this work we investigated the biological properties and host range of the recently described bacteriophage Chp2 that was originally discovered in Chlamydophila abortus. The obligate intracellular development cycle of chlamydiae has prec...

  20. Influence of green manure in physical and biological properties of soil and productivity in the culture of soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Alves Cardoso; Anderson Soares Bento; Humberto Misdei Moreski; Francielli Gasparotto

    2014-01-01

    Green manuring is the practice of using plant species in rotation, succession or intercropped with other crops, aiming improvement, maintenance and recovery of physical, chemical and biological soil properties. The objective was to evaluate the influence of different green manures on soil characteristics and productivity of soybean. The experiment was conducted in Maringá (PR) in a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications: T1: oat (Avena Sativa), T2: black oat (Avena ...

  1. Biological properties of Staphylococcus genus strains from patients of Mechnikov Dnіpropetrovsk region clinical hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Nikulina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It was investigated the biological properties of 494 strains of Staphylococcus genus isolated from pathological material of patients from 15 Departments of Mechnikov Dnipropetrovsk Region Clinical Hospita. All microflora was presented by four bacteria species: Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus and S. saprophyticus. S. aureus was the most extended agent of infections. All bacteria were the most sensitive to linezolid, gentamycin and meropenem.

  2. Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Mikaili

    2013-10-01

    Garlic and shallots are safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents.

  3. Cells release subpopulations of exosomes with distinct molecular and biological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Eduard Willms; Johansson, Henrik J; Imre Mäger; Yi Lee; Blomberg, K. Emelie M.; Mariam Sadik; Amr Alaarg; C.I. Edvard Smith; Janne Lehtiö; Samir EL Andaloussi; Matthew J A Wood; Pieter Vader

    2016-01-01

    Cells release nano-sized membrane vesicles that are involved in intercellular communication by transferring biological information between cells. It is generally accepted that cells release at least three types of extracellular vesicles (EVs): apoptotic bodies, microvesicles and exosomes. While a wide range of putative biological functions have been attributed to exosomes, they are assumed to represent a homogenous population of EVs. We hypothesized the existence of subpopulations of exosomes...

  4. Preparation and biological properties of a novel composite scaffold of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengdong Xiong

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we report the physico-chemical and biological properties of a novel biodegradable composite scaffold made of nano-hydroxyapatite and natural derived polymers of chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose, namely, n-HA/CS/CMC, which was prepared by freeze-drying method. The physico-chemical properties of n-HA/CS/CMC scaffold were tested by infrared absorption spectra (IR, transmission electron microscope(TEM, scanning electron microscope(SEM, universal material testing machine and phosphate buffer solution (PBS soaking experiment. Besides, the biological properties were evaluated by MG63 cells and Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs culture experiment in vitro and a short period implantation study in vivo. The results show that the composite scaffold is mainly formed through the ionic crossing-linking of the two polyions between CS and CMC, and n-HA is incorporated into the polyelectrolyte matrix of CS-CMC without agglomeration, which endows the scaffold with good physico-chemical properties such as highly interconnected porous structure, high compressive strength and good structural stability and degradation. More important, the results of cells attached, proliferated on the scaffold indicate that the scaffold is non-toxic and has good cell biocompatibility, and the results of implantation experiment in vivo further confirm that the scaffold has good tissue biocompatibility. All the above results suggest that the novel degradable n-HA/CS/CMC composite scaffold has a great potential to be used as bone tissue engineering material.

  5. Mobility as an emergent property of biological organization: Insights from experimental evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ian J; Garland, Theodore

    2016-05-01

    Anthropologists accept that mobility is a critical dimension of human culture, one that links economy, technology, and social relations. Less often acknowledged is that mobility depends on complex and dynamic interactions between multiple levels of our biological organization, including anatomy, physiology, neurobiology, and genetics. Here, we describe a novel experimental approach to examining the biological foundations of mobility, using mice from a long-term artificial selection experiment for high levels of voluntary exercise on wheels. In this experiment, mice from selectively bred lines have evolved to run roughly three times as far per day as those from nonselected control lines. We consider three insights gleaned from this experiment as foundational principles for the study of mobility from the perspective of biological evolution. First, an evolutionary change in mobility will necessarily be associated with alterations in biological traits both directly and indirectly connected to mobility. Second, changing mobility will result in trade-offs and constraints among some of the affected traits. Third, multiple solutions exist to altering mobility, so that various combinations of adjustments to traits linked with mobility can achieve the same overall behavioral outcome. We suggest that anthropological knowledge of variation in human mobility might be improved by greater research attention to its biological dimensions. PMID:27312181

  6. Multi-biological defects caused by lead exposure exhibit transferable properties from exposed parents to their progeny in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Whether the multi-biological toxicity from lead exposure could be transferred to progeny has not been clarified. In the present study, we explored the Caenorhabditis elegans to analyze the multiple toxicities from lead exposure and their possibly transferable properties. The lead exposure could cause series of severe multi-biological defects with a concentration-dependent manner by affecting the endpoints of life span, development, reproduction and locomotion behaviors in nematodes. Moreover, most of these toxicities could be transferred to progeny from lead exposed animals and some of the defects in progeny appeared even more severe than in their parents, such as the body sizes and mean life spans. We summarized the defects caused by lead exposure into three groups according to their transferable properties or rescue patterns. That is, the defects caused by lead exposure could be largely, or partially, or became even more severe in progeny animals. Therefore, our results suggest that lead exposure can cause severely multi-biological defects, and most of these multiple toxicities can be considered as transferable for exposed animals in C. elegans.

  7. Preliminary Study on Biological Properties of Adult Human Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tao; BAI Hai; WANG Jingchang; SHI Jingyun; WANG Cunbang; LU Jihong; OU Jianfeng; WANG Qian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method of culture and expansion of adult human bone marrow-derived MSCs in vitro and to explore their biological properties. Methods: Mononuclear cells were obtained from 5 mL adult human bone marrow by density gradient centrifugation with Percoll solution. Adult human MSCs were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium with low glucose (LG-DMEM) containing 10% fetal calf serum at a density of 2× 105 cell/cm2. The morphocytology was observed under phase-contrast microscope. The cell growth was measured by MTT method. The flow cytometer was performed to examine the expression of cell surface molecules and cell cycle. The ultrastructure of MSCs was observed under transmission electron microscope. The immunomodulatory functions of MSCs were measured by MTT method. The effects of MSCs on the growth of K562 cells and the dynamic change of HA, Ⅳ-C, LN concentration in the culture supernatant of MSCs was also observed. Results: The MSCs harvested in this study were homogenous population and exhibited a spindle-shaped fibroblastic morphology. The cell growth curve showed that MSCs had a strong ability of proliferation. The cells were positive for CD44,while negative for hematopoietic cell surface marker such as CD3, CD4, CD7, CD13, CD14, CD15, CD19,CD22, CD33, CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR, which was closely related to graft versus host disease. Above 90% cells of MSCs were found at G0/G1 phase. The ultrastructure of MSCs indicated that there were plenty of cytoplasmic organelles. Allogeneic peripheral blood lymphocytes proliferation was suppressed by MSCs and the inhibition ratio was 60.68% (P<0.01). The suppressive effect was also existed in the culture supernatant of MSCs and the inhibition ratio was 9.00% (P<0.05). When lymphocytes were stimulated by PHA, the suppression effects of the culture supernatant were even stronger and the inhibition ratio was 20.91%(P<0.01). Compared with the cell growth curve of the K562 cells alone, the K562

  8. Cells release subpopulations of exosomes with distinct molecular and biological properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willms, Eduard; Johansson, Henrik J; Mäger, Imre; Lee, Yi; Blomberg, K Emelie M; Sadik, Mariam; Alaarg, Amr; Smith, C I Edvard; Lehtiö, Janne; El Andaloussi, Samir; Wood, Matthew J A; Vader, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Cells release nano-sized membrane vesicles that are involved in intercellular communication by transferring biological information between cells. It is generally accepted that cells release at least three types of extracellular vesicles (EVs): apoptotic bodies, microvesicles and exosomes. While a wi

  9. Calf thymus DNA binding/bonding properties of CC-1065 and analogs as related to their biological activities and toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, W C; Prairie, M D

    1992-03-01

    CC-1065 is a potent natural antitumor antibiotic that binds non-covalently and covalently (N-3 adenine adduct) in the minor groove of B-form DNA. Synthetic analogs of CC-1065 do not exhibit the delayed death toxicity of CC-1065 and are efficacious anticancer agents, some of them curative in murine tumor models. In an attempt to understand the different biological properties of CC-1065 and analogs, we have determined the following quantities for CC-1065, enantiomeric CC-1065, and three biologically active analogs and their enantiomers: the calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) induced molar ellipticity of the adduct (or how rigidly the adduct is held in the right-hand conformation of the minor groove); the stability of the adduct with respect to long incubation times and to digestion by snake venom phosphodiesterase I (SVPD); the stabilizing effect on the CT-DNA helix of the covalently and non-covalently bound species with respect to thermal melting; and the CT-DNA binding/bonding (non-covalent/covalent) profiles at a low molar ratio of nucleotide to drug. The major observations from these studies are as follows: (i) molecules which show large DNA interaction parameters, stable adducts, and significant non-covalent binding exhibit delayed death toxicity; (ii) molecules which show intermediate DNA interaction parameters and stable adducts, but do not show significant non-covalent binding, do not exhibit delayed death toxicity and are biologically active; (iii) molecules which show small DNA interaction parameters and unstable DNA adducts are biologically inactive. The results suggest that a window exists in the affinity for the minor groove of DNA wherein an analog may possess the correct balance of toxicity and activity to make a useful anticancer agent. Outside of this window, the analog causes delayed deaths or has no significant biological activity. PMID:1312395

  10. An investigation of dielectric properties of biological cells using RC-model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorawuth Bunthawin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for estimating cell dielectric properties of a spherical triple shell and ellipsoidal shell models from the Laplace and RC approaches. With a combination of various theoretical parameters such as cell dielectrophoretic velocity, angular velocity of electro-rotation (ER and two critical frequencies of dielectrophoresis (DEP, these approaches will improve the predictability of the dielectric properties. The calibration of the model parameters to these experimental data results in estimations of the cellís electrical properties depending on the geometric structure of the assumed model.

  11. Biological properties of differently-aged human keratinocytes:population doubling time growth curve and cell cycle analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the biological properties of keratinocytes from differently-aged healthy human beings. Methods Keratinocytes from fetus,teenager and middle-aged groups were separated and cultured. The population doubling time (PDT) and cell growth curve in different cells were compared,and the cell cycles were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results ① In primary culture of keratinocytes,the adherence time in middle-aged group was longer than that in fetus and teenager groups. However,all cell morphology sh...

  12. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambone, Fulvia, E-mail: fulvia.tambone@unimi.it; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  13. Biological and Pharmacological Properties of Aconitum chasmanthum

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Anwar; Bashir Ahmad; Muhammad Subhan; Waseem Gul; Nazar-ul-Islam

    2003-01-01

    Crude methanolic (90%) extract of Aconitum chasmanthum as well as various fractions of the same obtained by using different solvent systems were screened for biological and pharmacological activities such as antifungal, antibacterial, insecticidal and Brine shrimp cytotoxic activities. It was observed that the antifungal activity varies from negligible to strong depending upon the solvent system used for the extraction. All the fractions exhibited remarkable antifungal activity against Tricho...

  14. Chemical–Biological Fingerprinting: Probing the Properties of DNA Lesions Formed by Peroxynitrite

    OpenAIRE

    Delaney, Sarah; James C Delaney; Essigmann, John M.

    2007-01-01

    DNA-damaging agents usually produce a vast collection of lesions within the genome. Analysis of these lesions from the structural and biological viewpoints is often complicated by the reality that some of the lesions are chemically fragile, leading to an even larger set of secondary and tertiary products. In an effort to deconvolute complex DNA-damage spectra, a strategy is presented whereby an oligonucleotide containing a specific target for chemical reaction is allowed to react with a DNA-d...

  15. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S−1 h−1. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS 13C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  16. Enhancement of quercetin water solubility with steviol glucosides and the studies of biological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Thanh Hanh Nguyen; Shin-Hye Yu; Jiyoun Kim; Eunbae An; Kyeonghwan Hwang; Jun-Seong Park; Doman Kim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quercetin, a flavonol contained in various vegetables and fruits, has various biological activities including anticancer, antiviral, anti-diabetic, and anti-oxidative. However, it has low oral bioavailability due to insolubility in water. Thus, the bioavailability of quercetin administered to human beings in a capsule form, was reported to be less than 1%, with only a small percentage of ingested quercetin getting absorbed in the blood. This leads to certain difficulties in creati...

  17. p-Coumaric acid and its conjugates: dietary sources, pharmacokinetic properties and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Kehan; Ou, Juanying; Huang, Junqing; Ou, Shiyi

    2016-07-01

    p-Coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid) is a phenolic acid that has low toxicity in mice (LD50 = 2850 mg kg(-1) body weight), serves as a precursor of other phenolic compounds, and exists either in free or conjugated form in plants. Conjugates of p-coumaric acid have been extensively studied in recent years due to their bioactivities. In this review, the occurrence, bioavailability and bioaccessibility of p-coumaric acid and its conjugates with mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides, alkyl alcohols, organic acids, amine and lignin are discussed. Their biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antivirus, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet aggregation, anxiolytic, antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-arthritis activities, and their mitigatory effects against diabetes, obesity, hyperlipaemia and gout are compared. Cumulative evidence from multiple studies indicates that conjugation of p-coumaric acid greatly strengthens its biological activities; however, the high biological activity but low absorption of its conjugates remains a puzzle. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26692250

  18. Curcumin and Its Carbocyclic Analogs: Structure-Activity in Relation to Antioxidant and Selected Biological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Vasantha Rupasinghe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is the major phenolic compound present in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.. Curcumin and 15 novel analogs were investigated for their antioxidant and selected biological activities. Strong relationships between the structure and evaluated activity revealed that the compounds with specific functional groups and carbon skeleton had specific biological profiles. Among the compounds tested, the derivatives (E-2-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene-5-((E-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylacryloylcyclopentanone (3e, and (E-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene-5-((E-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacryloyl-cyclopentanone (3d and the parent compound curcumin exhibited the strongest free radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity. Concerning the other biological activities studied the compound (E-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene-5-((E-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl-acryloylcyclopentanone (3d was the most potent angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor, while the derivatives (E-2-(4-hydroxybenzylidene-6-((E-3-(4-hydroxyphenylacryloylcyclohexanone (2b, (E-2-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene-6-((E-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylacryloylcyclohexanone (2e and (E-2-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene-5-((E-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylacryloylcyclopentanone (3e exhibited strong tyrosinase inhibition. Moreover, (E-2-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene-6-((E-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-acryloylcyclohexanone (2e was also found to be the strongest human HIV-1 protease inhibitor in vitro among the tested compounds. Cytotoxicity studies using normal human lung cells revealed that the novel curcumin as well as its carbocyclic analogs are not toxic.

  19. Ti–Ag–Pd alloy with good mechanical properties and high potential for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhnyy, V. Yu.; Shi, X.; Gorshenkov, M. V.; Kozak, D. S.; Wada, T.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.; Inoue, A.; Kato, H.

    2016-01-01

    Ti-based alloys containing Ag were produced by tilt-casting method and their properties were studied. Even in its as-cast state, Ti94Ag3Pd3 showed relatively high tensile properties, good electrochemical behavior, and good biocompatibility. The relatively good mechanical properties of the as-cast α-Ti-type Ti94Ag3Pd3 alloy (tensile strength up to 850 MPa and elongation of ~10%) can be explained by its severely deformed, fine crystalline structure. The high biocompatibility of Ti94Ag3Pd3 can be explained by the Ag–Pd interaction, which inhibits the release of Ag ions from the surface. Ag, in combination with Pd has no toxic effects and demonstrates useful antimicrobial properties. The Ti94Ag3Pd3 alloy shows a good potential to be applied as a biomedical implant alloy. PMID:27122177

  20. Ti-Ag-Pd alloy with good mechanical properties and high potential for biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhnyy, V Yu; Shi, X; Gorshenkov, M V; Kozak, D S; Wada, T; Louzguine-Luzgin, D V; Inoue, A; Kato, H

    2016-01-01

    Ti-based alloys containing Ag were produced by tilt-casting method and their properties were studied. Even in its as-cast state, Ti94Ag3Pd3 showed relatively high tensile properties, good electrochemical behavior, and good biocompatibility. The relatively good mechanical properties of the as-cast α-Ti-type Ti94Ag3Pd3 alloy (tensile strength up to 850 MPa and elongation of ~10%) can be explained by its severely deformed, fine crystalline structure. The high biocompatibility of Ti94Ag3Pd3 can be explained by the Ag-Pd interaction, which inhibits the release of Ag ions from the surface. Ag, in combination with Pd has no toxic effects and demonstrates useful antimicrobial properties. The Ti94Ag3Pd3 alloy shows a good potential to be applied as a biomedical implant alloy. PMID:27122177

  1. Ti–Ag–Pd alloy with good mechanical properties and high potential for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhnyy, V. Yu.; Shi, X.; Gorshenkov, M. V.; Kozak, D. S.; Wada, T.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.; Inoue, A.; Kato, H.

    2016-04-01

    Ti-based alloys containing Ag were produced by tilt-casting method and their properties were studied. Even in its as-cast state, Ti94Ag3Pd3 showed relatively high tensile properties, good electrochemical behavior, and good biocompatibility. The relatively good mechanical properties of the as-cast α-Ti-type Ti94Ag3Pd3 alloy (tensile strength up to 850 MPa and elongation of ~10%) can be explained by its severely deformed, fine crystalline structure. The high biocompatibility of Ti94Ag3Pd3 can be explained by the Ag–Pd interaction, which inhibits the release of Ag ions from the surface. Ag, in combination with Pd has no toxic effects and demonstrates useful antimicrobial properties. The Ti94Ag3Pd3 alloy shows a good potential to be applied as a biomedical implant alloy.

  2. Tree Species Traits Influence Soil Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties in High Elevation Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Ayres, Edward; Steltzer, Heidi; Berg, Sarah; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Simmons, Breana L.; Wall, Diana H

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that plants often have species-specific effects on soil properties. In high elevation forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains, North America, areas that are dominated by a single tree species are often adjacent to areas dominated by another tree species. Here, we assessed soil properties beneath adjacent stands of trembling aspen, lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce, which are dominant tree species in this region and are distributed widely in North Amer...

  3. Properties of Random Complex Chemical Reaction Networks and Their Relevance to Biological Toy Models

    OpenAIRE

    Bigan, Erwan; Steyaert, Jean-Marc; Douady, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the properties of large random conservative chemical reaction networks composed of elementary reactions endowed with either mass-action or saturating kinetics, assigning kinetic parameters in a thermodynamically-consistent manner. We find that such complex networks exhibit qualitatively similar behavior when fed with external nutrient flux. The nutrient is preferentially transformed into one specific chemical that is an intrinsic property of the network. We propose a self-consi...

  4. Mechanical and biological properties of the micro-/nano-grain functionally graded hydroxyapatite bioceramics for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changchun; Deng, Congying; Chen, Xuening; Zhao, Xiufen; Chen, Ying; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-08-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGM) open the promising approach for bone tissue repair. In this study, a novel functionally graded hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic with micrograin and nanograin structure was fabricated. Its mechanical properties were tailored by composition of micrograin and nanograin. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that the graded HA ceramics had similar mechanical property compared to natural bones. Their cytocompatibility was evaluated via fluorescent microscopy and MTT colorimetric assay. The viability and proliferation of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on ceramics indicated that this functionally graded HA ceramic had better cytocompatibility than conventional HA ceramic. This study demonstrated that functionally graded HA ceramics create suitable structures to satisfy both the mechanical and biological requirements of bone tissues. PMID:25910818

  5. WENDI: A tool for finding non-obvious relationships between compounds and biological properties, genes, diseases and scholarly publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Qian

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the amount of publicly-available and proprietary information pertinent to drug discovery. However, there is a distinct lack of data mining tools available to harness this information, and in particular for knowledge discovery across multiple information sources. At Indiana University we have an ongoing project with Eli Lilly to develop web-service based tools for integrative mining of chemical and biological information. In this paper, we report on the first of these tools, called WENDI (Web Engine for Non-obvious Drug Information that attempts to find non-obvious relationships between a query compound and scholarly publications, biological properties, genes and diseases using multiple information sources. Results We have created an aggregate web service that takes a query compound as input, calls multiple web services for computation and database search, and returns an XML file that aggregates this information. We have also developed a client application that provides an easy-to-use interface to this web service. Both the service and client are publicly available. Conclusions Initial testing indicates this tool is useful in identifying potential biological applications of compounds that are not obvious, and in identifying corroborating and conflicting information from multiple sources. We encourage feedback on the tool to help us refine it further. We are now developing further tools based on this model.

  6. On the structural affinity of macromolecules with different biological properties: Molecular dynamics simulations of a series of TEM-1 mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giampaolo, Alessia Di [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Universita’ degli Studi di l’Aquila, Via Vetoio snc, 67100 Coppito (AQ) (Italy); Mazza, Fernando [Department of Health Sciences, Univ. of L’Aquila, 67010 L’Aquila (Italy); Daidone, Isabella [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Universita’ degli Studi di l’Aquila, Via Vetoio snc, 67100 Coppito (AQ) (Italy); Amicosante, Gianfranco; Perilli, Mariagrazia [Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Applicate e Biotecnologiche, Università degli Studi di l’Aquila, Via Vetoio snc, 67100 Coppito (AQ) (Italy); Aschi, Massimiliano, E-mail: massimiliano.aschi@univaq.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Universita’ degli Studi di l’Aquila, Via Vetoio snc, 67100 Coppito (AQ) (Italy)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of TEM-1 mutants. •Mutations effects on the mechanical properties are considered. •Mutants do not significantly alter the average enzymes structure. •Mutants produce sharp alterations in enzyme conformational repertoire. •Mutants also produce changes in the active site volume. -- Abstract: Molecular Dynamics simulations have been carried out in order to provide a molecular rationalization of the biological and thermodynamic differences observed for a class of TEM β-lactamases. In particular we have considered the TEM-1(wt), the single point mutants TEM-40 and TEM-19 representative of IRT and ESBL classes respectively, and TEM-1 mutant M182T, TEM-32 and TEM-20 which differ from the first three for the additional of M182T mutation. Results indicate that most of the thermodynamic, and probably biological behaviour of these systems arise from subtle effects which, starting from the alterations of the local interactions, produce drastic modifications of the conformational space spanned by the enzymes. The present study suggests that systems showing essentially the same secondary and tertiary structure may differentiate their chemical–biological activity essentially (and probably exclusively) on the basis of the thermal fluctuations occurring in their physiological environment.

  7. MicroRNA-1 properties in cancer regulatory networks and tumor biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Martin; Brandenburg, Lars-Ove; Burchardt, Martin; Stope, Matthias B

    2016-08-01

    Short non-coding microRNAs have been identified to orchestrate crucial mechanisms in cancer progression and treatment resistance. MicroRNAs are involved in posttranscriptional modulation of gene expression and therefore represent promising targets for anticancer therapy. As mircoRNA-1 (miR-1) exerted to be predominantly downregulated in the majority of examined tumors, miR-1 is classified to be a tumor suppressor with high potential to diminish tumor development and therapy resistance. Here we review the complex functionality of miR-1 in tumor biology. PMID:27286699

  8. Chemical and biological properties of a cationic Tc-tetraamine complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaeuenstein, P.; Pfeiffer, G.; Schubiger, P.A. (Eidgenoessisches Inst. fuer Reaktorforschung, Wuerenlingen (Switzerland)); Anderegg, G.; Zollinger, K. (Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Organic Chemistry); May, K. (Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland). Lab. fuer Radiochemie); Proso, Z.; Ianovici, E.; Lerch, P. (Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Lab. d' Electrochimie et de Radiochimie)

    1985-04-01

    The complex of /sup 99/Tc with the ligand 1,4,8,11-tetraazaundecane (2,3,2-tet) was prepared and was compared with the similar /sup 99/Tc complexes with ethylenediamine and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane. The results are all consistent with the formula (TcO/sub 2/(2,3,2-tet))/sup +/. The biological behavior was tested with sup(99m)Tc in Wistar rats. A fast clearance via the kidneys was found, and no accumulation in any other organ was observed.

  9. Syntheses, Characterization, Physical and Biological Properties of Long-chain, Water-soluble, Dendritic Amphiphiles

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, André Arvin

    2008-01-01

    In this project, we have designed and synthesized a new series of long-chain, water-soluble, dendritic, anionic amphiphiles [3CAmn, RCONHC(CH2CH2COOH)3, R= CnH2n+1] to alleviate the low aqueous solubility of fatty acids. The dendritic-tricarboxlyato headgroup improves aqueous solubility and allows us to measure the intrinsic biological activity of our amphiphiles without the potential hindrance of low aqueous solubility. The aqueous solubilities of the anionic amphiphiles have been measured...

  10. Contrasting optical properties of surface waters across the Fram Strait and its potential biological implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Stedmon, Colin A.;

    2015-01-01

    Underwater light regime is controlled by distribution and optical properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particulate matter. The Fram Strait is a region where two contrasting water masses are found. Polar water in the East Greenland Current (EGC) and Atlantic water in the West...... Spitsbergen Current (WSC) differ with regards to temperature, salinity and optical properties. We present data on absorption properties of CDOM and particles across the Fram Strait (along 79° N), comparing Polar and Atlantic surface waters in September 2009 and 2010. CDOM absorption of Polar water in the EGC...... active radiation (PAR, 400-700nm), but does result in notable differences in ultraviolet (UV) light penetration, with higher attenuation in the EGC. Future changes in the Arctic Ocean system will likely affect EGC through diminishing sea-ice cover and potentially increasing CDOM export due to increase in...

  11. Morphological properties and proliferation analysis of olfactory ensheathing cells seeded onto three-dimensional collagen-heparan sulfate biological scaffolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Liu; Zhouping Tang; Zhiyuan Yu; Minjie Xie; Yu Zhang; Erfang Yang; Shabei Xu

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the differences in the morphological properties and proliferation of ol-factory ensheathing cells in three-dimensional culture on collagen-heparan sulfate biological scaf-folds and in two-dimensional culture on common flat culture plates. The proliferation rate of olfactory ensheathing cells in three-dimensional culture was higher than that in two-dimensional culture, as detected by an MTT assay. In addition, more than half of the olfactory ensheathing cells subcultured using the trypsinization method in three-dimensional culture displayed a spindly Schwann cell-like morphology with extremely long processes, while they showed a flat astrocyte-like morphology in two-dimensional culture. Moreover, spindle-shaped olfactory ensheathing cells tended to adopt an elongated bipolar morphology under both culture conditions. Experimental findings indicate that the morphological properties and proliferation of olfactory ensheathing cells in three-dimensional culture on collagen-heparan sulfate biological scaffolds are better than those in two-dimensional culture.

  12. Biological properties of differently-aged human keratinocytes:population doubling time growth curve and cell cycle analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-qun Ma; Jie Feng; Lech Chyczewski; Jacek Niklinski

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the biological properties of keratinocytes from differently-aged healthy human beings. Methods Keratinocytes from fetus, teenager and middle-aged groups were separated and cultured. The population doubling time (PDT) and cell growth curve in different cells were compared, and the cell cycles were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results ① In primary culture of keratinocytes, the adherence time in middle-aged group was longer than that in fetus and teenager groups. However, all cell morphology showed no obvioas differences. In subculture of kecatinocytes, with donator's age increasing, time of cell adherence prolonged, passage number decreused and differences in cell morphology were obrioas. ② The average PDT of keratinocytes was shorter in fetus group than in teenager and middle-aged groups. Bat difference in cell growth curve between different passages was not observed. ③ Keratinocytes showed G2/M period in fetus group but G0/G1 period in teenager and middle-aged groups mainly. Conclusion As age increases, the biological properties of keratinocytes change obviously.

  13. The influence of halogen substituents on the biological properties of sulfur-containing flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrin, Lucian Gabriel; Sarbu, Laura Gabriela; Hopf, Henning; Jones, Peter G; Babii, Cornelia; Stefan, Marius; Birsa, Mihail Lucian

    2016-07-15

    A series of halogen-substituted tricyclic flavonoids containing a 1,3-dithiol-2-ylium moiety has been synthesized from the corresponding 3-dithiocarbamic flavanones. The influence of halogen substituents on the antibacterial properties of the tricyclic flavonoids has been investigated against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. On going from fluorine to iodine, these compounds exhibit good to excellent inhibitory properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. These results suggest that size is the main factor for the change in potency rather than polarity/electronics. PMID:27259400

  14. Study of the surface wear resistance and biological properties of the Ti-Zr-Nb-Sn alloy for dental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new titanium alloy (Ti-12.5Zr-3Nb-2.5Sn) was developed to meet the needs of clinical requirements for medical titanium alloys and improve the properties of existing titanium alloys. The as-prepared alloy was solution treated at 500 0C for 3 h in vacuum followed by water quenching. Tensile, wear and hardness tests were carried out to examine the mechanical properties of the Ti-Zr-Nb-Sn alloy. Oral mucous membrane irritation test was performed to evaluate the surface biological properties of the Ti-Zr-Nb-Sn alloy. The results suggested that the surface hardness and wear-resistant properties of the Ti-12.5Zr-3Nb-2.5Sn alloy were superior to commercially pure Ti. The oral mucous irritation test showed that all samples had no mucous membrane irritation. It indicates that Ti-12.5Zr-3Nb-2.5Sn has large potential to be used as dental restoration material.

  15. Evaluation of biological, physical and chemical properties of mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with 4-META/MMA-TBB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra Kaul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the change in physical, chemical and biological properties when mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA is mixed with a resin 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META/methyl methacrylate-tri-n-butyl-borane (MMA-TBB. Materials and Methods: For biological evaluation MTA was inoculated in Wistar rat′s subcutaneous tissue and peripheral tissue response was checked after 72 h, 7 days, 15 days and 30 days. Setting time was evaluated using Gillmore needle. The Ca++ release at the end of 24 h was checked using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid titration method. For all the trials MTA mixed with water was kept as a control and the ratio of MTA with resin was 1:1 by weight. Results: The biological reaction was verified by two observers and their readings were matched using kappa test and there was an excellent relevance. There was no significant difference in the tissue reaction at the end of 30 days where both the groups seemed to show healing. Setting time of MTA with 4-META/MMA-TBB was coming to a mean of 26 min (approx., which is almost 6 times lesser than that of MTA with water. After applying t test, the difference in Ca++ release was found significant (P = 0.00, with mean of 0.044 and 0.031 mol/L of MTA with water and MTA with 4-META/MMA-TBB respectively. Conclusion: Under the parameters of this study, this new experimental cement has better handling, physical and chemical properties. Even its subcutaneous tissue reaction is comparable to MTA mixed with water.

  16. Gamma radiation effect on biological activity and enzymatic properties of snake venoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma radiation, from Co-60, on the biological activity and on some enzymatic activities, present in the venoms of Lachesis muta and Bothrops atrox, using samples of dried venom that had been irradiated at a dose of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 Mrad have been studied. Variations in the degree of hemorrhage and local necrosis were observed in albino mice injected subcutaneously with venoms of both types. The reduction of the biological activity was greater for the local hemorrhagic effect and was dependent on the doses of irradiation. The specific activity of various enzymes, present in both venoms, is affected by the gamma radiation, at a dose of 0.1 Mrad the order of increasing inactivation being: exonuclease (4%), phospholipase (24%), caseinolytic enzyme (20%), tamesterase (33%), a thrombine-like enzyme (40%), fibrinolytic enzyme (41%), 5'-nucleotidase (50%) and endonuclease (55%). The enzymatic inactivation was augmented by 0.5 and 1.0 Mrad, without maintaining an arithmetic relation. The enzyme of major resistance to the radiation was exonuclease, whereas 5'-nucleotidase and endonuclease were the most sensitive. No significant changes were observed in the spectrum of UV absorbtion (range 260 to 290 nm) nor in the contents of L-tyrosine in the irradiated venoms

  17. Lorentz contact resonance spectroscopy for nanoscale characterisation of structural and mechanical properties of biological, dental and pharmaceutical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Dipesh; Dillon, Eoghan; Hau, Herman; Fu, Dong; Ramzan, Iqbal; Chrzanowski, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Scanning probe microscopy has been widely used to obtain topographical information and to quantify nanostructural properties of different materials. Qualitative and quantitative imaging is of particular interest to study material-material interactions and map surface properties on a nanoscale (i.e. stiffness and viscoelastic properties). These data are essential for the development of new biomedical materials. Currently, there are limited options to map viscoelastic properties of materials at nanoscale and at high resolutions. Lorentz contact resonance (LCR) is an emerging technique, which allows mapping viscoelasticity of samples with stiffness ranging from a few hundred Pa up to several GPa. Here we demonstrate the applicability of LCR to probe and map the viscoelasticity and stiffness of 'soft' (biological sample: cell treated with nanodiamond), 'medium hard' (pharmaceutical sample: pMDI canister) and 'hard' (human teeth enamel) specimens. The results allowed the identification of nanodiamond on the cells and the qualitative assessment of its distribution based on its nanomechanical properties. It also enabled mapping of the mechanical properties of the cell to demonstrate variability of these characteristics in a single cell. Qualitative imaging of an enamel sample demonstrated variations of stiffness across the specimen and precise identification of enamel prisms (higher stiffness) and enamel interrods (lower stiffness). Similarly, mapping of the pMDI canister wall showed that drug particles were adsorbed to the wall. These particles showed differences in stiffness at nanoscale, which suggested variations in surface composition-multiphasic material. LCR technique emerges as a valuable tool for probing viscoelasticity of samples of varying stiffness's. PMID:26518012

  18. Structure-Property-Function Relationship in Humic Substances to Explain the Biological Activity in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Andrés Calderín; de Souza, Luiz Gilberto Ambrosio; Pereira, Marcos Gervasio; Castro, Rosane Nora; García-Mina, José María; Zonta, Everaldo; Lisboa, Francy Junior Gonçalves; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge of the structure-property-function relationship of humic substances (HSs) is key for understanding their role in soil. Despite progress, studies on this topic are still under discussion. We analyzed 37 humic fractions with respect to their isotopic composition, structural characteristics, and properties responsible for stimulating plant root parameters. We showed that regardless of the source of origin of the carbon (C3 or C4), soil-extracted HSs and humic acids (HAs) are structurally similar to each other. The more labile and functionalized HS fraction is responsible for root emission, whereas the more recalcitrant and less functionalized HA fraction is related to root growth. Labile structures promote root stimulation at lower concentrations, while recalcitrant structures require higher concentrations to promote a similar stimulus. These findings show that lability and recalcitrance, which are derived properties of humic fractions, are related to the type and intensity of their bioactivity. In summary, the comparison of humic fractions allowed a better understanding of the relationship between the source of origin of plant carbon and the structure, properties, and type and intensity of the bioactivity of HSs in plants. In this study, scientific concepts are unified and the basis for the agronomic use of HSs is established.

  19. Fabrication method, structure, mechanical, and biological properties of decellularized extracellular matrix for replacement of wide bone tissue defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, N Y; Kiselevsky, M V; Sukhorukova, I V; Shvindina, N V; Shtansky, D V

    2015-09-01

    The present paper was focused on the development of a new method of decellularized extracellular matrix (DECM) fabrication via a chemical treatment of a native bone tissue. Particular attention was paid to the influence of chemical treatment on the mechanical properties of native bones, sterility, and biological performance in vivo using the syngeneic heterotopic and orthotopic implantation models. The obtained data indicated that after a chemical decellularization treatment in 4% aqueous sodium chlorite, no noticeable signs of the erosion of compact cortical bone surface or destruction of trabeculae of spongy bone in spinal channel were observed. The histological studies showed that the chemical treatment resulted in the decellularization of both bone and cartilage tissues. The DECM samples demonstrated no signs of chemical and biological degradation in vivo. Thorough structural characterization revealed that after decellularization, the mineral frame retained its integrity with the organic phase; however clotting and destruction of organic molecules and fibers were observed. FTIR studies revealed several structural changes associated with the destruction of organic molecules, although all organic components typical of intact bone were preserved. The decellularization-induced structural changes in the collagen constituent resulted changed the deformation under compression mechanism: from the major fracture by crack propagation throughout the sample to the predominantly brittle fracture. Although the mechanical properties of radius bones subjected to decellularization were observed to degrade, the mechanical properties of ulna bones in compression and humerus bones in bending remained unchanged. The compressive strength of both the intact and decellularized ulna bones was 125-130 MPa and the flexural strength of humerus bones was 156 and 145 MPa for the intact and decellularized samples, respectively. These results open new avenues for the use of DECM samples as

  20. Non-contact, ultrasound-based indentation method for measuring elastic properties of biological tissues using harmonic motion imaging (HMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vappou, Jonathan; Hou, Gary Y; Marquet, Fabrice; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Grondin, Julien; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive measurement of mechanical properties of biological tissues in vivo could play a significant role in improving the current understanding of tissue biomechanics. In this study, we propose a method for measuring elastic properties non-invasively by using internal indentation as generated by harmonic motion imaging (HMI). In HMI, an oscillating acoustic radiation force is produced by a focused ultrasound transducer at the focal region, and the resulting displacements are estimated by tracking radiofrequency signals acquired by an imaging transducer. In this study, the focal spot region was modeled as a rigid cylindrical piston that exerts an oscillatory, uniform internal force to the underlying tissue. The HMI elastic modulus EHMI was defined as the ratio of the applied force to the axial strain measured by 1D ultrasound imaging. The accuracy and the precision of the EHMI estimate were assessed both numerically and experimentally in polyacrylamide tissue-mimicking phantoms. Initial feasibility of this method in soft tissues was also shown in canine liver specimens in vitro. Very good correlation and agreement was found between the measured Young's modulus and the HMI modulus in the numerical study (r(2) > 0.99, relative error <10%) and on polyacrylamide gels (r(2) = 0.95, relative error <24%). The average HMI modulus on five liver samples was found to EHMI = 2.62  ±  0.41 kPa, compared to EMechTesting = 4.2  ±  2.58 kPa measured by rheometry. This study has demonstrated for the first time the initial feasibility of a non-invasive, model-independent method to estimate local elastic properties of biological tissues at a submillimeter scale using an internal indentation-like approach. Ongoing studies include in vitro experiments in a larger number of samples and feasibility testing in in vivo models as well as pathological human specimens. PMID:25776065

  1. Thermodynamic and transport properties of some biologically active compounds in aqueous solutions at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhondge, Sudhakar S., E-mail: s_dhondge@hotmail.co [P.G. Department of Chemistry, S.K. Porwal College, Kamptee, Nagpur 441 002 (India); Zodape, Sangesh P.; Parwate, Dilip V. [Department of Chemistry, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur 440 033 (India)

    2011-01-15

    The experimental data of density and viscosity have been obtained for aqueous solutions of biologically active compounds like salbutamol sulphate (SS), diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC), and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) in the concentration range (0 to 0.15) mol . kg{sup -1} at three different temperatures. The derived parameters, such as apparent molar volume of solute ({phi}{sub V})), limiting apparent molar volume of solute ({phi}{sub V}{sup 0}), limiting apparent molar expansivity ({phi}{sub E}{sup 0}), thermal expansion coefficient ({alpha}*) and Jones-Dole equation viscosity A and B coefficients, were obtained using the density and viscosity results. It has been observed that the electrolyte-salt (SS) as well as adducts exhibit a positive viscosity B coefficient having negative ((dB)/(dT)). These results are interpreted in the light of possible solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  2. Thermodynamic and transport properties of some biologically active compounds in aqueous solutions at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental data of density and viscosity have been obtained for aqueous solutions of biologically active compounds like salbutamol sulphate (SS), diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC), and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) in the concentration range (0 to 0.15) mol . kg-1 at three different temperatures. The derived parameters, such as apparent molar volume of solute (φV)), limiting apparent molar volume of solute (φV0), limiting apparent molar expansivity (φE0), thermal expansion coefficient (α*) and Jones-Dole equation viscosity A and B coefficients, were obtained using the density and viscosity results. It has been observed that the electrolyte-salt (SS) as well as adducts exhibit a positive viscosity B coefficient having negative ((dB)/(dT) ). These results are interpreted in the light of possible solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  3. Investigation on biological properties of tacrolimus-loaded poly(1,3-trimethylene carbonate) in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ruixia; Wu, Leigang; Wang, Jin; Huang, Nan

    2010-06-01

    The drug-eluting stents have been regarded as a milestone in inhibiting the restenosis of coronary arteries. However, adverse reactions caused by bare-metal stents and non-biodegradable polymer coatings may result in some clinical problems. In this study, a new tacrolimus-eluting stent coated with biodegradable poly(1,3-trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) is developed. The structures are characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, and the wettability is measured by contact angle assay. The biological behaviors are evaluated by the in vitro platelets adhesion test, APTT test, the human umbilical cord artery smooth muscle cells (HUCASMCs), 4',6-diamidine-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and actin immunofluorescence staining, MTT colorimetric assay. These results show that after blending tacrolimus into PTMC, the anticoagulant behavior is improved, and the adhesion and proliferation of HUCASMCs on samples are inhibited. This work aims to find one kind of surface erosion biodegradable polymers that can be applied as drug-eluting stent coatings.

  4. Investigation on biological properties of tacrolimus-loaded poly(1,3-trimethylene carbonate) in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The drug-eluting stents have been regarded as a milestone in inhibiting the restenosis of coronary arteries. However, adverse reactions caused by bare-metal stents and non-biodegradable polymer coatings may result in some clinical problems. In this study, a new tacrolimus-eluting stent coated with biodegradable poly(1,3-trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) is developed. The structures are characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, and the wettability is measured by contact angle assay. The biological behaviors are evaluated by the in vitro platelets adhesion test, APTT test, the human umbilical cord artery smooth muscle cells (HUCASMCs), 4',6-diamidine-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and actin immunofluorescence staining, MTT colorimetric assay. These results show that after blending tacrolimus into PTMC, the anticoagulant behavior is improved, and the adhesion and proliferation of HUCASMCs on samples are inhibited. This work aims to find one kind of surface erosion biodegradable polymers that can be applied as drug-eluting stent coatings.

  5. Preparation and Biological Properties of Platinum(II Complex-Loaded Copolymer PLA-TPGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Phuong Thu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new nanodrug system containing bis(menthone thiosemicarbazonato Platinum(II complex (Pt-thiomen encapsulated with the block copolymers polylactide-d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLA-TPGS was prepared by a modified solvent extraction/evaporation technique. The characteristics of the nanoparticles including surface morphology, size distribution, structure, and biological activities such as antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were in vitro investigated. The spherical nanoparticles were around 50 nm in size with core-shell structure and narrow-size distribution. The encapsulated Pt-thiomen can avoid interaction with proteins in the blood plasma. The inhibitory activity of Pt-thiomen-loaded PLA-TPGS nanoparticles on the growth of some bacteria, fungi, and Hep-G2 cells suggests a possibility of developing PLA-TPGS-Pt-thiomen nanoparticles as one of the potential chemotherapeutic agents.

  6. An examination of the structural and biological properties of three intravenous immunoglobulin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, D T; Painter, R H

    1986-03-01

    Three commercial preparations of immunoglobulin G prepared for administration by the i.v. route were tested for their physical integrity and in vitro biological activity. Size exclusion chromatography by HPLC in native and denaturing buffers together with SDS-PAGE analysis were used to determine whether covalent-bond cleavage had occurred as a result of procedures used in their preparation. C1 complement binding assays and measurements of competitive binding to an Fc receptor-bearing promonocyte cell line U937 were used to assess whether such changes had altered the capacity of these preparations to engage biological effector functions. A purified IgG1 myeloma protein was used as a reference standard. WinRho, an unmodified IgG, consisted almost wholly of monomeric IgG by HPLC size exclusion and showed no evidence of proteolytic fragments in denaturing buffers or on SDS-PAGE. Sandoglobulin, a product treated at pH 4 with pepsin, contained about 10% dimeric protein and, as revealed under denaturing conditions, about 2% fragments. Relative affinity of binding to U937 cells was similar to WinRho. C1 binding by Sandoglobulin showed normal activity with 50% inhibition at 2.8 nM. Gamimune, modified by partial reduction and alkylation, contained about 15% dimers. Between 20 and 30% of the preparation retained covalent interchain disulfides. Binding to U937 cells was two-fold weaker than the other preparations and binding to C1 was also diminished and modified. This accords well with previous reports of the deleterious effect of reduction and alkylation on Fc function. PMID:3713708

  7. Short cationic lipopeptides as effective antibacterial agents: Design, physicochemical properties and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Fazren; Elliott, Alysha G; Marasini, Nirmal; Ramu, Soumya; Ziora, Zyta; Kavanagh, Angela M; Blaskovich, Mark A T; Cooper, Matthew A; Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Toth, Istvan

    2016-05-15

    The spread of drug-resistant bacteria has imparted a sense of urgency in the search for new antibiotics. In an effort to develop a new generation of antibacterial agents, we have designed de novo charged lipopeptides inspired by natural antimicrobial peptides. These short lipopeptides are composed of cationic lysine and hydrophobic lipoamino acids that replicate the amphiphilic properties of natural antimicrobial peptides. The resultant lipopeptides were found to self-assemble into nanoparticles. Some were effective against a variety of Gram-positive bacteria, including strains resistant to methicillin, daptomycin and/or vancomycin. The lipopeptides were not toxic to human kidney and liver cell lines and were highly resistant to tryptic degradation. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of bacteria cells treated with lipopeptide showed membrane-damage and lysis with extrusion of cytosolic contents. With such properties in mind, these lipopeptides have the potential to be developed as new antibacterial agents against drug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:27048775

  8. Characterization and biological properties of Citrus industrial derivatives and waste products for the formulation of nutraceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Pagano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    2013 - 2014 Polyphenols are natural chemical compounds, common in higher plants as and particularly known and appreciated for their health properties. We focused attention on Citrus bergamia, Citrus sinensis, Mela annurca and Vitis Vinifera. Citrus is one of larges species among plant; it consists of 40 species which are distributed in all continents and its fruits. We have developed a fast HPLC with ion-trap TOF-MS method for the analysis of flavonoids in these juices. With respect to the...

  9. Mechanical and biological properties of chitosan/carbon nanotube nanocomposite films

    OpenAIRE

    Aryaei, Ashkan; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H.; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, different concentrations of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) were homogeneously dispersed throughout the chitosan (CS) matrix. A simple solvent-cast method was used to fabricate chitosan films with 0.1, 0.5, and 1% of MWCNT with the average diameter around 30 nm. The CS/MWCNT films were characterized for structural, viscous and mechanical properties with optical microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, tensile test machine, and microindentation testing ...

  10. Keratin-based peptide : biological evaluation and strengthening properties on relaxed hair

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Margarida M.; Lima, Cristóvão F; Loureiro, Ana; Gomes, A. C.; Paulo, Artur Cavaco

    2012-01-01

    A peptide based on a fragment of hair keratin type II cuticular protein, keratin peptide (KP), was studied as a possible strengthening agent for weakened relaxed hair. The peptide was prepared both in aqueous water formulation (WF) and organic solvent formulations (OF), to determine the effect of organic solvents on peptide interaction with hair and the differences in hair recovery. Both peptide formulations were shown to improve mechanical and thermal properties of weakened hair with peptide...

  11. Biochemical Properties and Biological Function of a Monofunctional Microbial Biotin Protein Ligase

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Kyle G.; Beckett, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Biotin protein ligases constitute a family of enzymes that catalyze biotin linkage to biotin-dependent carboxylases. In bacteria these enzymes are functionally divided into two classes; the monofunctional enzymes that only catalyze biotin addition and the bifunctional enzymes that also bind to DNA to regulate transcription initiation. Biochemical and biophysical studies of the bifunctional Escherichia coli ligase suggest that several properties of the enzyme have evolved to support its additi...

  12. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON ENHANCED PROPERTIES AND BIOLOGICAL RESISTANCE OF CHEMICALLY MODIFIED ACACIA SPP.

    OpenAIRE

    H. P. S. Abdul Khalil; Irshad ul Haq Bhat,; Khairul B. Awang

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary experimental study was carried out to examine the ability of a chemically modified Acacia spp. to resist biodegradation. The modifications of Acacia mangium and Acacia hybrid were carried out by propionic anhydride and succinic anhydride in the presence of sodium formate as a catalyst. The treated samples were found resistant to microbial attack, while the untreated ones were damaged on 12 months exposure to a soil burial. The appearance grading, mass loss, mechanical properties...

  13. Are soil biological properties and microbial community structure altered by organic farm management?

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Dr C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental conditions and farm management practices have a considerable impact on soil biota, affecting nutrient cycling processes and ecosystem functioning. Understanding how management practices influence soil fertility and agricultural productivity is essential to improve the sustainability of agroecosystems. The effect of farming history on microbial soil properties was assessed by analysing soil samples from two organic and conventionally managed sites. Cmic and Nmic, enzyme activitie...

  14. Exploiting the Physicochemical Properties of Dendritic Polymers for Environmental and Biological Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Geitner, Nicholas K.; Sarupria, Sapna; Ke, Pu Chun

    2013-04-07

    In this Perspective we first examine the rich physicochemical properties of dendritic polymers for hosting cations, anions, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. We then extrapolate these conceptual discussions to the use of dendritic polymers for humic acid antifouling, oil dispersion, copper sensing, and fullerenol remediation. In addition, we review the state-of-the-art of dendrimer research and elaborate on their 10 implications for water purification, environmental remediation, nanomedicine, and energy harvesting.

  15. Contrasting optical properties of surface waters across the Fram Strait and its potential biological implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Stedmon, Colin A.;

    2015-01-01

    Underwater light regime is controlled by distribution and optical properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particulate matter. The Fram Strait is a region where two contrasting water masses are found. Polar water in the East Greenland Current (EGC) and Atlantic water in the West...... Spitsbergen Current (WSC) differ with regards to temperature, salinity and optical properties. We present data on absorption properties of CDOM and particles across the Fram Strait (along 79° N), comparing Polar and Atlantic surface waters in September 2009 and 2010. CDOM absorption of Polar water in the EGC...... was significantly higher (more than 3-fold) compared to Atlantic water in the WSC, with values of absorption coefficient, aCDOM(350), m-1 of 0.565±0.100 (in 2009) and 0.458±0.117 (in 2010), and 0.138±0.036 (in 2009) and 0.153±0.039 (in 2010), respectively. An opposite pattern was observed for particle...

  16. Impact of forest fire on physical, chemical and biological properties of soil: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyam Verma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest fire is very common to all the ecosystems of the world. It affects both vegetation and soil. It is also helpful in maintaining diversity and stability of ecosystems. Effect of forest fire and prescribed fire on forest soil is very complex. It affects soil organic matter, macro and micro-nutrients, physical properties of soil like texture, colour, pH, Bulk Density as well as soil biota. The impact of fire on forest soil depends on various factors such as intensity of fire, fuel load and soil moisture. Fire is beneficial as well as harmful for the forest soil depending on its severity and fire return interval. In low intensity fires, combustion of litter and soil organic matter increase plant available nutrients, which results in rapid growth of herbaceous plants and a significant increase in plant storage of nutrients. Whereas high intensity fires can result into complete loss of soil organic matter, volatilization of N, P, S, K, death of microbes, etc. Intense forest fire results into formation of some organic compounds with hydrophobic properties, which results into high water repellent soils. Forest fire also causes long term effect on forest soil. The purpose of this paper is to review the effect of forest fire on various properties of soil, which are important in maintaining healthy ecosystem.

  17. A Monte-Carlo maplet for the study of the optical properties of biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Man Ho; Carvalho, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    Monte-Carlo simulations are commonly used to study complex physical processes in various fields of physics. In this paper we present a Maple program intended for Monte-Carlo simulations of photon transport in biological tissues. The program has been designed so that the input data and output display can be handled by a maplet (an easy and user-friendly graphical interface), named the MonteCarloMaplet. A thorough explanation of the programming steps and how to use the maplet is given. Results obtained with the Maple program are compared with corresponding results available in the literature. Program summaryProgram title:MonteCarloMaplet Catalogue identifier:ADZU_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZU_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:3251 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:296 465 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language:Maple 10 Computer: Acer Aspire 5610 (any running Maple 10) Operating system: Windows XP professional (any running Maple 10) Classification: 3.1, 5 Nature of problem: Simulate the transport of radiation in biological tissues. Solution method: The Maple program follows the steps of the C program of L. Wang et al. [L. Wang, S.L. Jacques, L. Zheng, Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine 47 (1995) 131-146]; The Maple library routine for random number generation is used [Maple 10 User Manual c Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc., 2005]. Restrictions: Running time increases rapidly with the number of photons used in the simulation. Unusual features: A maplet (graphical user interface) has been programmed for data input and output. Note that the Monte-Carlo simulation was programmed with Maple 10. If attempting to run the simulation with an earlier version of Maple

  18. Enhancement of quercetin water solubility with steviol glucosides and the studies of biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh Hanh Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quercetin, a flavonol contained in various vegetables and fruits, has various biological activities including anticancer, antiviral, anti-diabetic, and anti-oxidative. However, it has low oral bioavailability due to insolubility in water. Thus, the bioavailability of quercetin administered to human beings in a capsule form, was reported to be less than 1%, with only a small percentage of ingested quercetin getting absorbed in the blood. This leads to certain difficulties in creating highly effective medicines Methods: Quercetin-rubusoside and quercetin-rebaudioside were prepared. The antioxidant activities of quercetin and Q-rubusoside were evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging method. Inhibition activities of quercetin and Quercetin-rubusoside were determined by measuring the remaining activity of 3CLpro with 200 μM inhibitor. The inhibition activity of quercetin, rubusoside and quercetin-rubusoside were determined by measuring the activity of human maltase which remains at 100 μM rubusoside or quercetin-rubusoside. The mushroom tyrosinase inhibition was assayed with the reaction mixture contained 3.3 mM L-DOPA in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8, and 10 U mushroom tyrosinase/ml with or without quercetin or quercetin-rubusoside. Results: With 10% rubusoside treatment, quercetin showed solubility of 7.7 mg/ml in water, and its solubility increased as the concentration of rubusoside increased; the quercetin solubility in water increased to 0.83 mg/mlas rubusoside concentration increased to 1 mg/ml. Quercetin solubilized in rubusoside solution showed DPPH radical-scavenging activity and mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity, similar to that of quercetin solubilized in dimethyl-sulfoxide. Quercetin-rubusoside also showed 1.2 and 1.9 folds higher inhibition activity against 3CLpro of SARS and human intestinal maltase, respectively, than those of quercetin in DMSO. Conclusions: Quercetin can be solubilized in water with

  19. Chitosan as a Biomaterial: Influence of Degree of Deacetylation on Its Physiochemical, Material and Biological Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie John Ray Foster

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a biomaterial with a range of current and potential biomedical applications. Manipulation of chitosan degree of deacetylation (DDA to achieve specific properties appears feasible, but studies investigating its influence on properties are often contradictory. With a view to the potential of chitosan in the regeneration of nerve tissue, the influence of DDA on the growth and health of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs was investigated. There was a linear increase in OEC proliferation as the DDA increased from 72 to 85%. This correlated with linear increases in average surface roughness (0.62 to 0.78 μm and crystallinity (4.3 to 10.1% of the chitosan films. Mitochondrial activity and membrane integrity of OECs was significantly different for OECs cultivated on chitosan with DDAs below 75%, while those on films with DDAs up to 85% were similar to cells in asynchronous growth. Apoptotic indices and cell cycle analysis also suggested that chitosan films with DDAs below 75% were cytocompatible but induced cellular stress, while OECs grown on films fabricated from chitosan with DDAs above 75% showed no significant differences compared to those in asynchronous growth. Tensile strength and elongation to break varied with DDA from 32.3 to 45.3 MPa and 3.6 to 7.1% respectively. DDA had no significant influence on abiotic and biotic degradation profiles of the chitosan films which showed approximately 8 and 20% weight loss respectively. Finally, perceived patterns in property changes are subject to change based on potential variations in DDA analysis. NMR examination of the chitosan samples here revealed significant differences depending upon which peaks were selected for integration; 6 to 13% in DDA values within individual samples. Furthermore, differences between DDA values determined here and those reported by the commercial suppliers were significant and this may also be a source of concern when selecting commercial chitosans for

  20. Fine structure and optical properties of biological polarizers in crustaceans and cephalopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Caldwell, Roy L.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Cronin, Thomas W.

    2008-04-01

    The lighting of the underwater environment is constantly changing due to attenuation by water, scattering by suspended particles, as well as the refraction and reflection caused by the surface waves. These factors pose a great challenge for marine animals which communicate through visual signals, especially those based on color. To escape this problem, certain cephalopod mollusks and stomatopod crustaceans utilize the polarization properties of light. While the mechanisms behind the polarization vision of these two animal groups are similar, several distinctive types of polarizers (i.e. the structure producing the signal) have been found in these animals. To gain a better knowledge of how these polarizers function, we studied the relationships between fine structures and optical properties of four types of polarizers found in cephalopods and stomatopods. Although all the polarizers share a somewhat similar spectral range, around 450- 550 nm, the reflectance properties of the signals and the mechanisms used to produce them have dramatic differences. In cephalopods, stack-plates polarizers produce the polarization patterns found on the arms and around their eyes. In stomatopods, we have found one type of beam-splitting polarizer based on photonic structures and two absorptive polarizer types based on dichroic molecules. These stomatopod polarizers may be found on various appendages, and on the cuticle covering dorsal or lateral sides of the animal. Since the efficiencies of all these polarizer types are somewhat sensitive to the change of illumination and viewing angle, how these animals compensate with different behaviors or fine structural features of the polarizer also varies.

  1. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON ENHANCED PROPERTIES AND BIOLOGICAL RESISTANCE OF CHEMICALLY MODIFIED ACACIA SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. S. Abdul Khalil

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary experimental study was carried out to examine the ability of a chemically modified Acacia spp. to resist biodegradation. The modifications of Acacia mangium and Acacia hybrid were carried out by propionic anhydride and succinic anhydride in the presence of sodium formate as a catalyst. The treated samples were found resistant to microbial attack, while the untreated ones were damaged on 12 months exposure to a soil burial. The appearance grading, mass loss, mechanical properties, and scanning electron microscopy results revealed that chemical modification enhances the resistance of Acacia mangium and Acacia hybrid wood species to biodegradation.

  2. Impact of forest fire on physical, chemical and biological properties of soil: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Satyam Verma; Jayakumar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Forest fire is very common to all the ecosystems of the world. It affects both vegetation and soil. It is also helpful in maintaining diversity and stability of ecosystems. Effect of forest fire and prescribed fire on forest soil is very complex. It affects soil organic matter, macro and micro-nutrients, physical properties of soil like texture, colour, pH, Bulk Density as well as soil biota. The impact of fire on forest soil depends on various factors such as intensity of fire, fuel load and...

  3. Some properties and possible biological role of peptidase inhibitors from the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, V V; Dunaevsky, Y E; Domash, V I; Semenova, T A; Beliakova, G A; Belozersky, M A

    2015-10-01

    The activities of secreted and mycelial inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes from fungi of the order Hypocreales have been investigated. Inhibitors of bromelain, papain, and trypsin of low molecular mass (about 1 kDa) and a subtilisin proteinaceous inhibitor with molecular mass of 45 kDa were revealed in the culture liquid of the fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum. The subtilisin inhibitor from T. cylindrosporum has antibiotic properties, significantly decreased the activity of purified bacterial enzymes, and prevented the growth of the bacterium Pseudomonas sp. Data suggesting the existence in fungi of the Hypocreales order of two pools of peptidase inhibitors have been obtained. PMID:26210235

  4. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S(-1)h(-1). Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS (13)C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins). PMID:25458767

  5. Biological properties of different type carbon particles in vitro study on primary culture of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniak-Reczulska, M; Niedzielski, P; Balcerczyk, A; Bartosz, G; Karowicz-Bilińska, A; Mitura, K

    2010-02-01

    Carbon powders have extended surface of carbon layers, which is of significant biomedical importance since the powders are employed to cover implants material. Carbon Powder Particles are produced by different methods: by a detonation method, by RF PACVD (Radio Frequency Plasma Activated Chemical Vapour Deposition) or MW/RF PCVD (Microwave/Radio Frequency Plasma Activated Chemical Vapour Deposition) and others. Our previous data showed that Carbon Powder Particles may act as antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory factor. However the mechanism of such behavior has been not fully understood. The aim of the work was tested influence carbon powders manufactured by Radio Frequency Plasma Activated Chemical Vapour Deposition RFPACVD method and detonation method on selected parameters of human endothelial cells, which play a crucial role in the regulation of the circulation and vascular wall homeostasis. Graphite powder was used as a control substance. Endothelial cells are actively involved in a wide variety of processes e.g., inflammatory responses to a different type of stimuli (ILs, TNF-alpha) or regulating vasomotor tone via production of vasorelaxants and vasocontrictors. Biological activation is dependent on the type and quantity of chemical bonds on the surface of the powders. The effect of powders on the proliferation of HUVECs (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells) was determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction assay. We found decreased cell proliferation after 72 h treatment with graphite as well as Carbon Powder Particles. PMID:20352757

  6. Biological properties of novel ruthenium- and osmium-nitrosyl complexes with azole heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Maria S; Büchel, Gabriel E; Keppler, Bernhard K; Jakupec, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    Since the discovery that nitric oxide (NO) is a physiologically relevant molecule, there has been great interest in the use of metal nitrosyl compounds as antitumor pharmaceuticals. Particularly interesting are those complexes which can deliver NO to biological targets. Ruthenium- and osmium-based compounds offer lower toxicity compared to other metals and show different mechanisms of action as well as different spectra of activity compared to platinum-based drugs. Novel ruthenium- and osmium-nitrosyl complexes with azole heterocycles were studied to elucidate their cytotoxicity and possible interactions with DNA. Apoptosis induction, changes of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and possible formation of reactive oxygen species were investigated as indicators of NO-mediated damage by flow cytometry. Results suggest that ruthenium- and osmium-nitrosyl complexes with the general formula (indazolium)[cis/trans-MCl4(NO)(1H-indazole)] have pronounced cytotoxic potency in cancer cell lines. Especially the more potent ruthenium complexes strongly induce apoptosis associated with depolarization of mitochondrial membranes, and elevated reactive oxygen species levels. Furthermore, a slight yet not unequivocal trend to accumulation of intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate attributable to NO-mediated effects was observed. PMID:26961253

  7. Biological properties of novel ruthenium- and osmium-nitrosyl complexes with azole heterocycles

    KAUST Repository

    Novak, Maria S.

    2016-03-09

    Since the discovery that nitric oxide (NO) is a physiologically relevant molecule, there has been great interest in the use of metal nitrosyl compounds as antitumor pharmaceuticals. Particularly interesting are those complexes which can deliver NO to biological targets. Ruthenium- and osmium-based compounds offer lower toxicity compared to other metals and show different mechanisms of action as well as different spectra of activity compared to platinum-based drugs. Novel ruthenium- and osmium-nitrosyl complexes with azole heterocycles were studied to elucidate their cytotoxicity and possible interactions with DNA. Apoptosis induction, changes of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and possible formation of reactive oxygen species were investigated as indicators of NO-mediated damage by flow cytometry. Results suggest that ruthenium- and osmium-nitrosyl complexes with the general formula (indazolium)[cis/trans-MCl4(NO)(1H-indazole)] have pronounced cytotoxic potency in cancer cell lines. Especially the more potent ruthenium complexes strongly induce apoptosis associated with depolarization of mitochondrial membranes, and elevated reactive oxygen species levels. Furthermore, a slight yet not unequivocal trend to accumulation of intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate attributable to NO-mediated effects was observed.

  8. Properties of biological and biochemical effects of the Iranian saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, M; Salmanizadeh, H; Zolfagharian, H; Alizadeh, H

    2014-01-01

    The venom of Echis carinatus is rich in proteins and peptides effective on the hemostatic system. This venom is contains metalloproteinase which convert prothrombin to meizothrombin. The prothrombin activator which leads to the formation of small blood clots inside the blood vessels throughout the body. To understand the mechanism of the effects of Iranian Echis carinatus venom, the effects of E. carinatus on human and Wistar rat plasma, plasma proteins (prothrombin and fibrinogen) and blood coagulation were studied. Proteolytic activity of the crude venom on blood coagulation factors such as prothrombin, partial thromboplastin and fibrinogen times were studied. In the present study the PT test for human plasma was reduced from 13.4 s (±0.59) to 8.6 s (±0.64) when human plasma was treated with crude venom (concentration of venom was 1 mg/ml) and for rat plasma PT was reduced from 14.5 s (±0.47) to 8 s (±0.49). Some possible biological and biochemical effects of IEc crude venom were investigated. The blood coagulation in human and in rat were investigated in vivo and in-vitro. In this paper, we show that the procoagulant action of Echis carinatus venom is due in part to a protein component that activates prothrombin and the procoagulant activity on human and rat plasma was evaluated (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 31). PMID:25077367

  9. Ultrafiltration of biologically treated domestic wastewater: How membrane properties influence performance

    KAUST Repository

    Filloux, Emmanuelle

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the impact of membrane properties on membrane fouling and permeate water quality was investigated. Short- and long-term laboratory scale experiments using four commercially available hollow fiber UF membranes were performed to study the impact of membrane properties on reversible and irreversible fouling. No significant differences in terms of permeate quality (i.e. biopolymer rejection) were observed over the four tested membranes. It was found that membrane characteristics including pore size, pore distribution and especially materials had a strong impact on the filtration performances in terms of both reversible and irreversible fouling. The short-term filtration tests showed that due to its specific hydrodynamic condition only the inside-out mode UF membrane was subjected to irreversible fouling. These data demonstrate the importance of membrane selection with appropriate operating conditions for optimum performances. The added value of membrane characterization to lab-scale filtration tests for membrane performance was discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Investigation of Property of Radiation and Absorbed of Infrared Lights of the Biological Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Bo; Xiao, He-Lan; Cai, Guo-Ping

    2010-04-01

    The properties of absorption of infrared light for collagen, hemoglobin, bivine serum albumen (BSA) protein molecules with α- helix structure and water in the living systems as well as the infrared transmission spectra for person’s skins and finger hands of human body in the region of 400-4000 cm-1 (i.e., wavelengths of 2-20 μm) have been collected and determined by using a Nicolet Nexus 670 FT-IR Spectrometer, a Perkin Elmer GX FT-IR spectrometer, an OMA (optical multichannel analysis) and an infrared probe systems, respectively. The experimental results obtained show that the protein molecules and water can all absorb the infrared lights in the ranges of 600-1900 cm-1 and 2900-3900 cm-l, but their properties of absorption are somewhat different due to distinctions of their structure and conformation and molecular weight. We know from the transmission spectra of person’s finger hands and skin that the infrared lights with wavelengths of 2 μm-7 μm can not only transmit over the person’s skin and finger hands, but also be absorbed by the above proteins and water in the living systems. Thus, we can conclude from this study that the human beings and animals can absorb the infrared lights with wavelengths of 2 μm-7 μm.

  11. Biological properties of nanostructured Ti incorporated with Ca, P and Ag by electrochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Baoe; Hao, Jingzu; Min, Yang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Xin, Shigang [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Guo, Litong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); He, Fei [National Key Laboratory of C1 Chemical Industry, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liang, Chunyong; Wang, Hongshui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Li, Haipeng, E-mail: lhpcx@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2015-06-01

    TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were synthesized on Ti surface by anodic oxidation. The elements of Ca and P were simultaneously incorporated during nanotubes growth in SBF electrolyte, and then Ag was introduced to nanotube arrays by cathodic deposition, which endowed the good osseointegration and antibacterial property of Ti. The bioactivity of the Ti surface was evaluated by simulated body fluid soaking test. The biocompatibility was investigated by in vitro cell culture test. And the antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus was examined by the bacterial counting method. The results showed that the incorporation of Ca, P and Ag elements had no significant influence on the formation of nanotube arrays on Ti surface during electrochemical treatment. Compared to the polished or nanotubular Ti surface, TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays incorporated with Ca, P and Ag increased the formation of bone-like apatite in simulated body fluid, enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation, and inhibited the bacterial growth. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the nanostructured Ti incorporated with Ca, P and Ag by electrochemical method has promising applications as implant material. - Highlights: • Nanotube arrays were prepared on Ti surface by anodic oxidation. • Ca, P and Ag were incorporated to nanotube arrays by electrochemical method. • Ca, P and Ag endowed Ti with good osseointegration and antibacterial property. • The beneficial effect of electrochemical treatment on Ti implant was demonstrated.

  12. Biological properties of nanostructured Ti incorporated with Ca, P and Ag by electrochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TiO2 nanotube arrays were synthesized on Ti surface by anodic oxidation. The elements of Ca and P were simultaneously incorporated during nanotubes growth in SBF electrolyte, and then Ag was introduced to nanotube arrays by cathodic deposition, which endowed the good osseointegration and antibacterial property of Ti. The bioactivity of the Ti surface was evaluated by simulated body fluid soaking test. The biocompatibility was investigated by in vitro cell culture test. And the antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus was examined by the bacterial counting method. The results showed that the incorporation of Ca, P and Ag elements had no significant influence on the formation of nanotube arrays on Ti surface during electrochemical treatment. Compared to the polished or nanotubular Ti surface, TiO2 nanotube arrays incorporated with Ca, P and Ag increased the formation of bone-like apatite in simulated body fluid, enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation, and inhibited the bacterial growth. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the nanostructured Ti incorporated with Ca, P and Ag by electrochemical method has promising applications as implant material. - Highlights: • Nanotube arrays were prepared on Ti surface by anodic oxidation. • Ca, P and Ag were incorporated to nanotube arrays by electrochemical method. • Ca, P and Ag endowed Ti with good osseointegration and antibacterial property. • The beneficial effect of electrochemical treatment on Ti implant was demonstrated

  13. Structure property relationship of biological nano composites studies by combination of in-situ synchrotron scattering and mechanical tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological materials represent hierarchical nano fibre composites with complicated morphology and architecture varying on the nm level. The mechanical response of those materials is influenced by many parameters like chemical composition and crystal structure of constituents, preferred orientation, internal morphology with specific sizes of features etc. In-situ wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) combined with mechanical tests provide a unique means to evaluate structural changes in biological materials at specific stages of tensile experiments. In this way it is possible to identify distinct architectural/compositional elements responsible for specific mechanical characteristics of the biological materials. In this thesis, structure-property relationship is analyzed using in-situ WAXS in the tissues of Picea abies, coir fibre, bacterial cellulose and cellulose II based composites. The experiments were performed at the beamline ID01 of European synchrotron radiation facility in Grenoble, France. The tissues were strained in a tensile stage, while the structural changes were monitored using WAXS. Complex straining procedures were applied including cyclic straining. One of the main goals was to understand the stiffness recovery and strain hardening effects in the tissues. The results demonstrate that, in all cellulosics, the orientation of the cellulose crystallites is only the function of the external strain while the stiffness depends on the specific stage of the tensile experiment. Whenever the strain is increased, the tissues exhibit stiffness equal or larger than the initial one. The recovery of the mechanical function is attributed to the molecular mechanistic effects operating between the crystalline domains of the cellulose. (author)

  14. Method for finding metabolic properties based on the general growth law. Liver examples. A general framework for biological modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri K Shestopaloff

    Full Text Available We propose a method for finding metabolic parameters of cells, organs and whole organisms, which is based on the earlier discovered general growth law. Based on the obtained results and analysis of available biological models, we propose a general framework for modeling biological phenomena and discuss how it can be used in Virtual Liver Network project. The foundational idea of the study is that growth of cells, organs, systems and whole organisms, besides biomolecular machinery, is influenced by biophysical mechanisms acting at different scale levels. In particular, the general growth law uniquely defines distribution of nutritional resources between maintenance needs and biomass synthesis at each phase of growth and at each scale level. We exemplify the approach considering metabolic properties of growing human and dog livers and liver transplants. A procedure for verification of obtained results has been introduced too. We found that two examined dogs have high metabolic rates consuming about 0.62 and 1 gram of nutrients per cubic centimeter of liver per day, and verified this using the proposed verification procedure. We also evaluated consumption rate of nutrients in human livers, determining it to be about 0.088 gram of nutrients per cubic centimeter of liver per day for males, and about 0.098 for females. This noticeable difference can be explained by evolutionary development, which required females to have greater liver processing capacity to support pregnancy. We also found how much nutrients go to biomass synthesis and maintenance at each phase of liver and liver transplant growth. Obtained results demonstrate that the proposed approach can be used for finding metabolic characteristics of cells, organs, and whole organisms, which can further serve as important inputs and constraints for many applications in biology (such as protein expression, biotechnology (synthesis of substances, and medicine.

  15. Superior in vitro biological response and mechanical properties of an implantable nanostructured biomaterial: Nanohydroxyapatite-silicone rubber composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Han, W W; Shah, J; Misra, R D K

    2009-09-01

    A potential approach to achieving the objective of favorably modulating the biological response of implantable biopolymers combined with good mechanical properties is to consider compounding the biopolymer with a bioactive nanocrystalline ceramic biomimetic material with high surface area. The processing of silicone rubber (SR)-nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) composite involved uniform dispersion of nHA via shear mixing and ultrasonication, followed by compounding at sub-ambient temperature, and high-pressure solidification when the final curing reaction occurs. The high-pressure solidification approach enabled the elastomer to retain the high elongation of SR even in the presence of the reinforcement material, nHA. The biological response of the nanostructured composite in terms of initial cell attachment, cell viability and proliferation was consistently greater on SR-5wt.% nHA composite surface compared to pure SR. Furthermore, in the nanocomposite, cell spreading, morphology and density were distinctly different from that of pure SR. Pre-osteoblasts grown on SR-nHA were well spread, flat, large in size with a rough cell surface, and appeared as a group. In contrast, these features were less pronounced in SR (e.g. smooth cell surface, not well spread). Interestingly, an immunofluorescence study illustrated distinct fibronectin expression level, and stronger vinculin focal adhesion contacts associated with abundant actin stress fibers in pre-osteoblasts grown on the nanocomposite compared to SR, implying enhanced cell-substrate interaction. This finding was consistent with the total protein content and SDS-PAGE analysis. The study leads us to believe that further increase in nHA content in the SR matrix beyond 5wt.% will encourage even greater cellular response. The integration of cellular and molecular biology with materials science and engineering described herein provides a direction for the development of a new generation of nanostructured materials. PMID:19435616

  16. Conformational, spectroscopic and nonlinear optical properties of biologically active N,N-dimethyltryptamine molecule: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öner, Nazmiye; Tamer, Ömer; Avcı, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf

    2014-12-01

    The effective psychoactive properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) known as the near-death molecule have encouraged the imagination of many research disciplines for several decades. Although there is no theoretical study, a number of paper composed by experimental techniques have been reported for DMT molecule. In this study, the molecular modeling of DMT was carried out using B3LYP and HSEh1PBE levels of density functional theory (DFT). Our calculations showed that the energy gap between HOMO and LUMO is low, demonstrating that DMT is a biologically active molecule. Large hyperconjugation interaction energies imply that molecular charge transfer occurs in DMT. Moreover, NLO analysis indicates that DMT can be used an effective NLO material.

  17. Contrasting optical properties of surface waters across the Fram Strait and its potential biological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Stedmon, Colin A.; Ivanov, Boris V.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Falk-Petersen, Stig

    2015-03-01

    Underwater light regime is controlled by distribution and optical properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particulate matter. The Fram Strait is a region where two contrasting water masses are found. Polar water in the East Greenland Current (EGC) and Atlantic water in the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) differ with regards to temperature, salinity and optical properties. We present data on absorption properties of CDOM and particles across the Fram Strait (along 79° N), comparing Polar and Atlantic surface waters in September 2009 and 2010. CDOM absorption of Polar water in the EGC was significantly higher (more than 3-fold) compared to Atlantic water in the WSC, with values of absorption coefficient, aCDOM(350), m- 1 of 0.565 ± 0.100 (in 2009) and 0.458 ± 0.117 (in 2010), and 0.138 ± 0.036 (in 2009) and 0.153 ± 0.039 (in 2010), respectively. An opposite pattern was observed for particle absorption with higher absorption found in the eastern part of the Fram Strait. Average values of particle absorption (aP(440), m- 1) were 0.016 ± 0.013 (in 2009) and 0.014 ± 0.011 (in 2010), and 0.047 ± 0.012 (in 2009) and 0.016 ± 0.014 (in 2010), respectively for Polar and Atlantic water. Thus absorption of light in eastern part of the Fram Strait is dominated by particles - predominantly phytoplankton, and the absorption of light in the western part of the strait is dominated by CDOM, with predominantly terrigenous origin. As a result the balance between the importance of CDOM and particulates to the total absorption budget in the upper 0-10 m shifts across Fram Strait. Under water spectral irradiance profiles were generated using ECOLIGHT 5.4.1 and the results indicate that the shift in composition between dissolved and particulate material does not influence substantially the penetration of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm), but does result in notable differences in ultraviolet (UV) light penetration, with higher attenuation in the

  18. Physicochemical and biological properties of a novel injectable polyurethane system for root canal filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jian Wang,1 Yi Zuo,1 Minghui Zhao,1 Jiaxing Jiang,1 Yi Man,2 Jun Wu,3 Yunjiu Hu,3 Changlei Liu,4 Yubao Li,1 Jidong Li11Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Orthopedics, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 4College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: A root canal sealer with antibacterial activity can be efficacious in preventing reinfection that results from residual microorganisms and/or the leakage of microorganisms. In the present study, a series of injectable, self-curing polyurethane (PU-based antibacterial sealers with different concentrations of silver phosphate (Ag3PO4 were fabricated. Subsequently, their physicochemical properties, antibacterial abilities, and preliminary cytocompatibilities were evaluated. The results indicated that the fabricated PU-based sealers can achieve a high conversion rate in a short amount of time. More than 95% of the isocyanate group of PU sealers with 3 wt% (PU3 and 5 wt% (PU5 concentrations of Ag3PO4 were included in the curing reaction after 7 hours. With the exception of those for film thickness for PU5, the results of setting time, film thickness, and solubility were able to meet the requirements of the International Organization for Standardization. The antibacterial tests showed that PU3 and PU5 exhibit stronger antimicrobial effects than that achieved with 1 wt% Ag3PO4 (PU1 and AH Plus (positive control against Streptococcus mutans. The cytocompatibility evaluation revealed that the PU1 and PU3 sealers possess good cytocompatibility and low cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate that the PU3 sealer offers good physicochemical and antimicrobial properties along with cytocompatibility, which may hold great

  19. The effect of nanobioceramic reinforcement on mechanical and biological properties of Co-base alloy/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrami, M., E-mail: m.bahrami@ma.iut.ac.ir; Fathi, M.H.; Ahmadian, M.

    2015-03-01

    The goal of the present research was to fabricate, characterize, and evaluate mechanical and biological properties of Co-base alloy composites with different amounts of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder reinforcement. The powder of Co–Cr–Mo alloy was mixed with different amounts of HA by ball milling and it was then cold pressed and sintered. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used. Microhardness measurement and compressive tests were also carried out. Bioactivity behavior was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF). A significant decrease in modulus elasticity and an increase in microhardness of the sintered composites were observed. Apatite formation on the surface of the composites showed that it could successfully convert bioinert Co–Cr–Mo alloy to bioactive type by adding 10, 15, and 20 wt.% HA which have lower modulus elasticity and higher microhardness. - Graphical abstract: The present investigation has been based on the production of composite materials based on Co–Cr–Mo alloy with different amounts of hydroxyapatite nanobioceramic powder using the powder metallurgy route. Mechanical and biological properties of the composites were investigated. A significant increase in microhardness and decrease in modulus elasticity of the sintered composites were observed. - Highlights: • Co-base alloy/hydroxyapatite composites were prepared by powder metallurgy. • Composite microhardness is improved in comparison with Co-base alloy. • Modulus elasticity decrease by about 53–63% in comparison with Co-base alloy. • Apatite nucleus is formed on the surface of composites after soaking test. • Bioinert Co–Cr–Mo alloy is successfully converted to a bioactive type.

  20. Laser-induced damage in biological tissue: Role of complex and dynamic optical properties of the medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Elharith M.

    Since its invention in the early 1960's, the laser has been used as a tool for surgical, therapeutic, and diagnostic purposes. To achieve maximum effectiveness with the greatest margin of safety it is important to understand the mechanisms of light propagation through tissue and how that light affects living cells. Lasers with novel output characteristics for medical and military applications are too often implemented prior to proper evaluation with respect to tissue optical properties and human safety. Therefore, advances in computational models that describe light propagation and the cellular responses to laser exposure, without the use of animal models, are of considerable interest. Here, a physics-based laser-tissue interaction model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal temperature and pressure rise during laser exposure to biological tissues. Our new model also takes into account the dynamic nature of tissue optical properties and their impact on the induced temperature and pressure profiles. The laser-induced retinal damage is attributed to the formation of microbubbles formed around melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the damage mechanism is assumed to be photo-thermal. Selective absorption by melanin creates these bubbles that expand and collapse around melanosomes, destroying cell membranes and killing cells. The Finite Element (FE) approach taken provides suitable ground for modeling localized pigment absorption which leads to a non-uniform temperature distribution within pigmented cells following laser pulse exposure. These hot-spots are sources for localized thermo-elastic stresses which lead to rapid localized expansions that manifest themselves as microbubbles and lead to microcavitations. Model predictions for the interaction of lasers at wavelengths of 193, 694, 532, 590, 1314, 1540, 2000, and 2940 nm with biological tissues were generated and comparisons were made with available experimental data for the retina

  1. The effect of nanobioceramic reinforcement on mechanical and biological properties of Co-base alloy/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the present research was to fabricate, characterize, and evaluate mechanical and biological properties of Co-base alloy composites with different amounts of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder reinforcement. The powder of Co–Cr–Mo alloy was mixed with different amounts of HA by ball milling and it was then cold pressed and sintered. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used. Microhardness measurement and compressive tests were also carried out. Bioactivity behavior was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF). A significant decrease in modulus elasticity and an increase in microhardness of the sintered composites were observed. Apatite formation on the surface of the composites showed that it could successfully convert bioinert Co–Cr–Mo alloy to bioactive type by adding 10, 15, and 20 wt.% HA which have lower modulus elasticity and higher microhardness. - Graphical abstract: The present investigation has been based on the production of composite materials based on Co–Cr–Mo alloy with different amounts of hydroxyapatite nanobioceramic powder using the powder metallurgy route. Mechanical and biological properties of the composites were investigated. A significant increase in microhardness and decrease in modulus elasticity of the sintered composites were observed. - Highlights: • Co-base alloy/hydroxyapatite composites were prepared by powder metallurgy. • Composite microhardness is improved in comparison with Co-base alloy. • Modulus elasticity decrease by about 53–63% in comparison with Co-base alloy. • Apatite nucleus is formed on the surface of composites after soaking test. • Bioinert Co–Cr–Mo alloy is successfully converted to a bioactive type

  2. Mechanical properties of lipid bilayers and regulation of mechanosensitive function: from biological to biomimetic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balleza, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Material properties of lipid bilayers, including thickness, intrinsic curvature and compressibility regulate the function of mechanosensitive (MS) channels. This regulation is dependent on phospholipid composition, lateral packing and organization within the membrane. Therefore, a more complete framework to understand the functioning of MS channels requires insights into bilayer structure, thermodynamics and phospholipid structure, as well as lipid-protein interactions. Phospholipids and MS channels interact with each other mainly through electrostatic forces and hydrophobic matching, which are also crucial for antimicrobial peptides. They are excellent models for studying the formation and stabilization of membrane pores. Importantly, they perform equivalent responses as MS channels: (1) tilting in response to tension and (2) dissipation of osmotic gradients. Lessons learned from pore forming peptides could enrich our knowledge of mechanisms of action and evolution of these channels. Here, the current state of the art is presented and general principles of membrane regulation of mechanosensitive function are discussed. PMID:22790280

  3. Rheological and biological properties of a hydrogel support for cells intended for intervertebral disc repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benz Karin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-based approaches towards restoration of prolapsed or degenerated intervertebral discs are hampered by a lack of measures for safe administration and placement of cell suspensions within a treated disc. In order to overcome these risks, a serum albumin-based hydrogel has been developed that polymerizes after injection and anchors the administered cell suspension within the tissue. Methods A hydrogel composed of chemically activated albumin crosslinked by polyethylene glycol spacers was produced. The visco-elastic gel properties were determined by rheological measurement. Human intervertebral disc cells were cultured in vitro and in vivo in the hydrogel and their phenotype was tested by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Matrix production and deposition was monitored by immuno-histology and by biochemical analysis of collagen and glycosaminoglycan deposition. Species specific in situ hybridization was performed to discriminate between cells of human and murine origin in xenotransplants. Results The reproducibility of the gel formation process could be demonstrated. The visco-elastic properties were not influenced by storage of gel components. In vitro and in vivo (subcutaneous implants in mice evidence is presented for cellular differentiation and matrix deposition within the hydrogel for human intervertebral disc cells even for donor cells that have been expanded in primary monolayer culture, stored in liquid nitrogen and re-activated in secondary monolayer culture. Upon injection into the animals, gels formed spheres that lasted for the duration of the experiments (14 days. The expression of cartilage- and disc-specific mRNAs was maintained in hydrogels in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating the maintenance of a stable specific cellular phenotype, compared to monolayer cells. Significantly higher levels of hyaluronan synthase isozymes-2 and -3 mRNA suggest cell functionalities towards those needed for the

  4. Properties and in vitro biological evaluation of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan membranes for bone guided regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano-hydroxyapatite(n-HA)/chitosan(CS) composite membranes were prepared by solvent casting and evaporation methods for the function of guided bone regeneration (GBR). The effect of n-HA content and solvent evaporation temperature on the properties of the composite membranes was studied. The n-HA/CS membranes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, swelling measurement, mechanical test, cell culture and MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenylte-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay. The results show that the surface roughness and micropores of the composite membranes increase with the rise of n-HA content, suitable for adhesion, crawl and growth of cells. The hydroxyapatite holds nano size and distributes uniformly in the composite membranes. Chemical bond interaction exists between Ca ions and -OH groups of n-HA and -NH2 or -OH groups of CS. The n-HA content and solvent evaporation temperature have obvious influence on the swelling ratio, tensile strength and elongation rate of the composite membranes. Cell culture and MTT assays show that n-HA and its content can affect the proliferation of cells. The n-HA/CS composite membranes have no negative effect on the cell morphology, viability and proliferation and possess good biocompatibility. This study makes the n-HA/CS composite membrane be a prospective biodegradable GBR membrane for future applications

  5. A Comparison between Characterization and Biological Properties of Brazilian Fresh and Aged Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Morgado Schmidt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. As propolis is a highly valued bee product, we aimed to verify the quality of aged propolis, investigating their phenolic and flavonoid composition, levels of toxic metals, radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities. Material and Methods. Samples of fresh and aged propolis of six different beekeepers, from the same geographical location, were investigated in terms of their phenolic and flavonoid composition and levels of Pb, Cd, and Cr, as well as radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities. Results. The two groups of propolis had similar qualitative composition by HPLC-PDA and ESI(--MS. Fresh propolis and aged propolis show no differences when average values of extraction yield, flavonoids, EC50, or MIC were compared and both types of propolis showed good antimicrobial activity at low concentrations. Only levels of phenolic compounds were higher in fresh propolis. Conclusion. The propolis samples considered in this study, aged or fresh, had similar qualitative composition, although they were collected in different periods. Samples only differed in their levels of total phenolic content. Moreover, aged propolis conserves significant radical scavenging and antimicrobial properties. We suggest that aged propolis should not be discarded but explored for alternative applications.

  6. Dependence of mechanical properties on fibre angle in narwhal tusk, a highly oriented biological composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currey, J D; Brear, K; Zioupos, P

    1994-07-01

    The successful modelling of the mechanical properties of mineralized tissues depends critically on the knowledge of the off-axis behaviour of individual unidirectional lamellae. Information on this is lacking. In this work we attempt to rectify the situation. Young's modulus, measured in bending and tension, and the tensile strength and ultimate strain to failure of the dentine of the narwhal Monodon monoceros, were determined on specimens that had almost unidirectional fibres, whose direction differed considerably from specimen to specimen. Modulus and strength decreased steadily with the degree of off-angle loading, falling to about 45% of maximum for modulus, and 35% of maximum for strength. Ultimate strain showed a less uniform behaviour, and remained remarkably high at large angles. Differences in mechanical behaviour were not related to the very small differences in mineral content measured between specimens. These findings have strong implications for modelling the anisotropic behaviour of bone, because dentine is very much like bone in most important respects. Predictions using classical composite theory are reasonably satisfactory, as long as the mineral crystals are assumed to be platelets, not rods. PMID:8063839

  7. Athrombogenic hydrogel coatings for medical devices--Examination of biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butruk-Raszeja, Beata A; Łojszczyk, Ilona; Ciach, Tomasz; Kościelniak-Ziemniak, Magdalena; Janiczak, Karolina; Kustosz, Roman; Gonsior, Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    In the article the authors present hydrogel coatings prepared from polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) macromolecules, which are chemically bonded to polyurethane (PU) substrate. The coating is designed to improve the surface hemocompatibility of blood-contacting medical devices. The coating was characterized in terms of physical properties (swelling ratio, hydrogel density, surface morphology, coating thickness, coating durability). In order to examine surface hemocompatibility, the materials were contacted with whole human blood under arterial flow simulated conditions followed by calculation of platelet consumption and the number of platelet aggregates. Samples were also contacted with platelet-poor plasma; the number of surface-adsorbed fibrinogen molecules was measured using ELISA assay. Finally, the inflammatory reaction after implantation was assessed, using New Zealand rabbits. The designed coating is characterized by high water content and excellent durability in aqueous environment - over a 35-day period, no significant changes in coating thickness were observed. Experiments with blood proved twice the reduction in adsorption of serum-derived fibrinogen together with a moderate reduction in the number of platelet aggregates formed during the contact of the material with blood. The analysis of an inflammatory reaction after the implantation confirmed high biocompatibility of the fabricated materials - studies have shown no toxic effects of the implanted material on the surrounding animal tissues. PMID:25912028

  8. Biological Properties of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Cellular and Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus-Christian Glüer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron-oxide particles (SPIO are used in different ways as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI: Particles with high nonspecific uptake are required for unspecific labeling of phagocytic cells whereas those that target specific molecules need to have very low unspecific cellular uptake. We compared iron-oxide particles with different core materials (magnetite, maghemite, different coatings (none, dextran, carboxydextran, polystyrene and different hydrodynamic diameters (20–850 nm for internalization kinetics, release of internalized particles, toxicity, localization of particles and ability to generate contrast in MRI. Particle uptake was investigated with U118 glioma cells und human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC, which exhibit different phagocytic properties. In both cell types, the contrast agents Resovist, B102, non-coated Fe3O4 particles and microspheres were better internalized than dextran-coated Nanomag particles. SPIO uptake into the cells increased with particle/iron concentrations. Maximum intracellular accumulation of iron particles was observed between 24 h to 36 h of exposure. Most particles were retained in the cells for at least two weeks, were deeply internalized, and only few remained adsorbed at the cell surface. Internalized particles clustered in the cytosol of the cells. Furthermore, all particles showed a low toxicity. By MRI, monolayers consisting of 5000 Resovist-labeled cells could easily be visualized. Thus, for unspecific cell labeling, Resovist and microspheres show the highest potential, whereas Nanomag particles are promising contrast agents for target-specific labeling.

  9. Physical and biological properties of the ion beam irradiated PMMA-based composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanthini, G.M.; Martin, Catherine Ann; Sakthivel, N.; Veerla, Sarath Chandra; Elayaraja, K. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); Lakshmi, B.S. [Department of Biotechnology, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); Asokan, K.; Kanjilal, D. [Materials Science Group, Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kalkura, S. Narayana, E-mail: kalkurasn@annauniv.edu [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • First report of swift heavy ion irradiation on PMMA-HAp as bioceramic composite. • Augmented protein adsorption of about 400% was attained due to irradiation. • Tailored surface morphology, topography, roughness, wettability and crystallinity. • Irradiation transformed the hydrophobic surface into hydrophilic surface. • Better blood and cell–material interaction leading to improved biocompatibility. - Abstract: Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and PMMA-hydroxyapatite (PMMA-HAp) composite films, prepared by the solvent evaporation method were irradiated with 100 MeV Si{sup 7+} ions. Crystallographic, morphological and the functional groups of the pristine and irradiated samples were studied using glancing incident X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) respectively. SEM reveals the creation of pores, along with an increase in porosity and cluster size on irradiation. Decrease in crystalline nature and crystallite size with an increase in ion fluence was observed from GIXRD patterns. The surface roughness and the wettability of the material were also enhanced, which could favour the cell–material interaction. The irradiated samples adsorbed significantly greater amount of proteins than pristine. Also, irradiation does not produce any toxic byproducts or leachants, and maintains the viability of 3T3 cells. The response of the irradiated samples towards biomedical applications was demonstrated by the improved antimicrobial activity, haemocompatibility and cytocompatibility. Swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI) could be an effective tool to modify and engineer the surface properties of the polymers to enhance the biocompatibility.

  10. Ferrocenyl-cymantrenyl hetero-bimetallic chalcones: Synthesis, structure and biological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sasmita; Tirkey, Vijaylakshmi; Ghosh, Avishek; Dash, Hirak R.; Das, Surajit; Shukla, Madhulata; Saha, Satyen; Mobin, Sheikh M.; Chatterjee, Saurav

    2015-04-01

    Two new ferrocenyl-cymantrenyl bimetallic chalcones, [(CO)3Mn(η5-C5H4)C(O)CHdbnd CH(η5-C5H4)Fe(η5-C5H5)] (1) and [{(CO)3Mn(η5-C5H4)C(O)CHdbnd CH(η5-C5H4)}2Fe] (2) have been synthesized. Their reactivity study with triphenylphosphine and bis-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene led to the isolation of phosphine substituted bimetallic chalcones (3-6). Single crystal X-ray structural characterization for 1 and its phosphine analogue (3) reveals their different conformational identity with anti-conformation for 1, while syn-conformation for 3. Investigation of antimalarial and antibacterial activities was carried out for compounds 1 and 2 against two strains of Plasmodium falciparum (3D7, K1) and four bacterial strains. TD-DFT calculation was performed for compound 1 and electrochemical properties were studied for bimetallic chalcone compounds by cyclic voltammetric technique.

  11. Physical and biological properties of the ion beam irradiated PMMA-based composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • First report of swift heavy ion irradiation on PMMA-HAp as bioceramic composite. • Augmented protein adsorption of about 400% was attained due to irradiation. • Tailored surface morphology, topography, roughness, wettability and crystallinity. • Irradiation transformed the hydrophobic surface into hydrophilic surface. • Better blood and cell–material interaction leading to improved biocompatibility. - Abstract: Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and PMMA-hydroxyapatite (PMMA-HAp) composite films, prepared by the solvent evaporation method were irradiated with 100 MeV Si7+ ions. Crystallographic, morphological and the functional groups of the pristine and irradiated samples were studied using glancing incident X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) respectively. SEM reveals the creation of pores, along with an increase in porosity and cluster size on irradiation. Decrease in crystalline nature and crystallite size with an increase in ion fluence was observed from GIXRD patterns. The surface roughness and the wettability of the material were also enhanced, which could favour the cell–material interaction. The irradiated samples adsorbed significantly greater amount of proteins than pristine. Also, irradiation does not produce any toxic byproducts or leachants, and maintains the viability of 3T3 cells. The response of the irradiated samples towards biomedical applications was demonstrated by the improved antimicrobial activity, haemocompatibility and cytocompatibility. Swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI) could be an effective tool to modify and engineer the surface properties of the polymers to enhance the biocompatibility

  12. Synthesis and biological property evaluation of 90Y radiolabeled glycosylated somatostatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural somatostatin (SMS), dextran-70 (Dx70) and a bifunctional chelator 2-methyl-6-(p-amidobenzyl) -diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (1B4M-DTPA) were used to synthesize a novel somatostatin-dextran-DTPA (SMS-Dx70-DTPA) conjugate and radiolabeled with 9OY. An in vitro somatostatin receptor competition binding study was carded out by using 125I-Tyr3-Octreotide as a radioligand to measure the IC50 value of SMS-Dx70-DTPA. Biodistribution and blood half-life of 90Y-DTPA-Dx70-SMS were investigated in normal rats. The results show that SMS-Dx70-DTPA has a high receptor binding affinity to somatostatin receptor subtype 2, with the IC50 value being in the same range as somatostatin. The blood half-life of 90Y-DTPA-Dx70-SMS in normal rats was 6.39h post-injection. Digestion and excretion of 90Y-DTPA-Dx70-SMS was mainly through the hepatobiliary and kidney systems. Increased uptake was seen in the adrenals and pancreas, and it kept almost constant during 24h. Therefore 90Y-DTPA-Dx70-SMS has targeting properties towards somatostatin receptor positive organs and it may become a promising therapeutic agent candidate for somatostatin receptor positive tumors. (authors)

  13. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil under soybean cultivation and at an adjacent rainforest in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Patrick Beldini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land-use change in the Amazon basin has occurred at an accelerated pace during the last decade, and it is important that the effects induced by these changes on soil properties are better understood. This study investigated the chemical, physical, and biological properties of soil in a field under cultivation of soy and rice, and at an adjacent primary rain forest. Increases in soil bulk density, exchangeable cations and pH were observed in the soy field soil. In the primary forest, soil microbial biomass and basal respiration rates were higher, and the microbial community was metabolically more efficient. The sum of basal respiration across the A, AB and BA horizons on a mass per area basis ranged from 7.31 to 10.05 Mg CO2-C ha-1yr-1, thus yielding estimates for total soil respiration between 9.6 and 15.5 Mg CO2-C ha-1yr-1 across sites and seasons. These estimates are in good agreement with literature values for Amazonian ecosystems. The estimates of heterotrophic respiration made in this study help to further constrain the estimates of autotrophic soil respiration and will be useful for monitoring the effects of future land-use in Amazonian ecosystems.

  14. Improvement of physical, chemical, and biological properties of aridisol from Botswana by the incorporation of torrefied biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Masukujane, Masego; Coetzee, Tidimalo; Akashi, Kinya; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Effective use of agricultural residual biomass may be beneficial for both local and global ecosystems. Recently, biochar has received attention as a soil enhancer, and its effects on plant growth and soil microbiota have been investigated. However, there is little information on how the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil amended with biochar are affected. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the incorporation of torrefied plant biomass on physical and structural properties, elemental profiles, initial plant growth, and metabolic and microbial dynamics in aridisol from Botswana. Hemicellulose in the biomass was degraded while cellulose and lignin were not, owing to the relatively low-temperature treatment in the torrefaction preparation. Water retentivity and mineral availability for plants were improved in soils with torrefied biomass. Furthermore, fertilization with 3% and 5% of torrefied biomass enhanced initial plant growth and elemental uptake. Although the metabolic and microbial dynamics of the control soil were dominantly associated with a C1 metabolism, those of the 3% and 5% torrefied biomass soils were dominantly associated with an organic acid metabolism. Torrefied biomass was shown to be an effective soil amendment by enhancing water retentivity, structural stability, and plant growth and controlling soil metabolites and microbiota. PMID:27313139

  15. Improvement of physical, chemical, and biological properties of aridisol from Botswana by the incorporation of torrefied biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Masukujane, Masego; Coetzee, Tidimalo; Akashi, Kinya; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Effective use of agricultural residual biomass may be beneficial for both local and global ecosystems. Recently, biochar has received attention as a soil enhancer, and its effects on plant growth and soil microbiota have been investigated. However, there is little information on how the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil amended with biochar are affected. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the incorporation of torrefied plant biomass on physical and structural properties, elemental profiles, initial plant growth, and metabolic and microbial dynamics in aridisol from Botswana. Hemicellulose in the biomass was degraded while cellulose and lignin were not, owing to the relatively low-temperature treatment in the torrefaction preparation. Water retentivity and mineral availability for plants were improved in soils with torrefied biomass. Furthermore, fertilization with 3% and 5% of torrefied biomass enhanced initial plant growth and elemental uptake. Although the metabolic and microbial dynamics of the control soil were dominantly associated with a C1 metabolism, those of the 3% and 5% torrefied biomass soils were dominantly associated with an organic acid metabolism. Torrefied biomass was shown to be an effective soil amendment by enhancing water retentivity, structural stability, and plant growth and controlling soil metabolites and microbiota.

  16. Influence of the surface morphology and microstructure on the biological properties of Ti-Si-C-N-O coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed structural, microstructural, biofilm formation and cytotoxicity studies were performed on Ti-Si-C-ON hard coatings prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering, in order to evaluate the relation among these properties. Compositional analysis showed the existence of two distinct regimens; regime I: high C/Si atomic ratio (C/Si ≥ 1.42) and intermediate N/Ti atomic ratio; regime II: low C/Si atomic ratio (C/Si ≤ 0.49) and low N/Ti atomic ratio. The structural analysis revealed that, in regime I, films crystallized in a B1-NaCl crystal structure typical of TiC0.2N0.8. In regime II, the decrease of C/Si and increase in silicon concentration led to the formation of Ti-Si-C-ON along with a reduction of grain size in the films. Atomic force microscopy observations showed that the surface morphology of these Ti-Si-C-ON films became smoother when the silicon content increased and the nitrogen content decreased, which is consistent with the formation of nanosized clusters. Concerning biological properties, it was observed that cytotoxicity could be related with the titanium concentration while biofilm formation ability was found to be related with the surface morphology of the films.

  17. Study of the effects of ionizing radiation on the biochemical and biological properties of garlic (Allium sativum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlic is used since sevral hundred years to deal with various health issues. During last decades sevral works was interested to specify these problems, in this work we studied the effects of the gamma irradiation on the physico-chemical and biological properties of Allium sativum. This study was undertaken on the bulb irradiated by implying amounts of differents irradiation from 140 to 260Gy. First we proceeded to analyse the effects of these irradiations on the composition of garlic such as : allicin, protein, reducing sugars, total sugars, triglycerides and polyphenols. Second we tested the effect of these extracts radiotreated on the cell multiplication and the enzymatic activity of salmonella Hadar. The obtained results showed that the irradiated garlic extracts, present a slight nonsignificant reduction in the allicine proteinn sugar reducers, triglyceride and polyphenols concentration. However, this reduction is significant during application of the amount 260Ky. In addition, a deterioration of the growth observed after treatment by different concentrations of aqueous irradiated garlic extract. This inhibition is dependent on the concentration of aqueous extract of garlic used and the used irradiation dose. These observations would be in favor that the irradiations induce a slight midification of physico-chemical properties and they affect the anbacterial activity against salmonella Hdar. (Author)

  18. A new kind of magnetic targeting induction heating drug carrier and its physical and biological properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Nano-carbon and iron composite―carbon-coated iron nanoparticles (CCINs) produced by carbon arc method can be used as a new kind of magnetic targeting induction heating drug carrier for cancer therapy. The structure and morphology of CCINs are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Mossbauer spectra of these nanoparticles show that they contain only iron and carbon, without ferric carbide and ferric oxide. CCINs can be used as the magnetic drug carrier, with the effect of targeting magnetic induction heating in its inner core and higher drug adsorption in its nano-carbon shell outside because of its high specific surface area. CCINs can absorb Epirubicin (EPI) of 160 μg/mg measured by an optical spectrometer. In acute toxicity experiment with mice, the median lethal dose (LD50) of EPI is 16.9 mg/kg, while that of EPI-CCINs mixture is 20.7 mg/kg and none of the mice died after pure CCINs medication. The results show that pure CCINs belong to non-toxic grade and EPI delivery in mixture with CCINs can reduce its acute toxicity in mice. The magnetic properties of CCINs and their magnetic induction heating are investigated. The iron nanoparticle in its inner core has better magnetism with a good effect on targeting magnetic induction heating. When the CCINs are mixed with physiological salt water and are injected uniformly in pig’s liver, the temperature goes up to 48℃. While in the case that CCINs are filled in a certain section of pig’s liver, the temperature goes up to 52℃. In both cases the temperature is high enough to kill the cancer cell. CCINs have potential applications in cancer therapy.

  19. Fabrication and physical and biological properties of fibrin gel derived from human plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiguang; Ma, Lie; Zhou, Jie; Mao, Zhengwei; Gao, Changyou; Shen, Jiacong

    2008-03-01

    The fast development of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine drives the old biomaterials, for example, fibrin glue, to find new applications in these areas. Aiming at developing a commercially available hydrogel for cell entrapment and delivery, in this study we optimized the fabrication and gelation conditions of fibrin gel. Fibrinogen was isolated from human plasma by a freeze-thaw circle. Gelation of the fibrinogen was accomplished by mixing with thrombin. Absorbance of the fibrinogen/thrombin mixture at 550 nm as a function of reaction time was monitored by UV-VIS spectroscopy. It was found that the clotting time is significantly influenced by the thrombin concentration and the temperature, while less influenced by the fibrinogen concentration. After freeze-drying, the fibrin gel was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), revealing fibrous microstructure. Thermal gravimetric analysis found that the degradation temperature of the crosslinked fibrin gel starts from 288 °C, which is about 30 °C higher than that of the fibrinogen. The hydrogel has an initial water-uptake ratio of ~50, decreased to 30-40 after incubation in water for 11 h depending on the thrombin concentration. The fibrin gels lost their weights in PBS very rapidly, while slowly in DMEM/fetal bovine serum and DMEM. In vitro cell culture found that human fibroblasts could normally proliferate in the fibrin gel with spreading morphology. In conclusion, the fibrin gel containing higher concentration of fibrinogen (20 mg ml-1) and thrombin (5 U ml-1) has suitable gelation time and handling properties, and thus is applicable as a delivery vehicle for cells such as fibroblasts.

  20. Fabrication and physical and biological properties of fibrin gel derived from human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Haiguang; Ma Lie; Zhou Jie; Mao Zhengwei; Gao Changyou; Shen Jiacong [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Ministry of Education and Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2008-03-15

    The fast development of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine drives the old biomaterials, for example, fibrin glue, to find new applications in these areas. Aiming at developing a commercially available hydrogel for cell entrapment and delivery, in this study we optimized the fabrication and gelation conditions of fibrin gel. Fibrinogen was isolated from human plasma by a freeze-thaw circle. Gelation of the fibrinogen was accomplished by mixing with thrombin. Absorbance of the fibrinogen/thrombin mixture at 550 nm as a function of reaction time was monitored by UV-VIS spectroscopy. It was found that the clotting time is significantly influenced by the thrombin concentration and the temperature, while less influenced by the fibrinogen concentration. After freeze-drying, the fibrin gel was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), revealing fibrous microstructure. Thermal gravimetric analysis found that the degradation temperature of the crosslinked fibrin gel starts from 288 deg. C, which is about 30 deg. C higher than that of the fibrinogen. The hydrogel has an initial water-uptake ratio of {approx}50, decreased to 30-40 after incubation in water for 11 h depending on the thrombin concentration. The fibrin gels lost their weights in PBS very rapidly, while slowly in DMEM/fetal bovine serum and DMEM. In vitro cell culture found that human fibroblasts could normally proliferate in the fibrin gel with spreading morphology. In conclusion, the fibrin gel containing higher concentration of fibrinogen (20 mg ml{sup -1}) and thrombin (5 U ml{sup -1}) has suitable gelation time and handling properties, and thus is applicable as a delivery vehicle for cells such as fibroblasts.

  1. Improving the pharmacokinetic properties of biologics by fusion to an anti-HSA shark VNAR domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mischa R; Saunders, Kenneth; Grace, Christopher; Jin, Macy; Piche-Nicholas, Nicole; Steven, John; O'Dwyer, Ronan; Wu, Leeying; Khetemenee, Lam; Vugmeyster, Yulia; Hickling, Timothy P; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila; Olland, Stephane; Gill, Davinder; Jensen, Allan; Barelle, Caroline J

    2012-01-01

    Advances in recombinant antibody technology and protein engineering have provided the opportunity to reduce antibodies to their smallest binding domain components and have concomitantly driven the requirement for devising strategies to increase serum half-life to optimise drug exposure, thereby increasing therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we adopted an immunization route to raise picomolar affinity shark immunoglobulin new antigen receptors (IgNARs) to target human serum albumin (HSA). From our model shark species, Squalus acanthias, a phage display library encompassing the variable binding domain of IgNAR (VNAR) was constructed, screened against target, and positive clones were characterized for affinity and specificity. N-terminal and C-terminal molecular fusions of our lead hit in complex with a naïve VNAR domain were expressed, purified and exhibited the retention of high affinity binding to HSA, but also cross-selectivity to mouse, rat and monkey serum albumin both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the naïve VNAR had enhanced pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics in both N- and C-terminal orientations and when tested as a three domain construct with naïve VNAR flanking the HSA binding domain at both the N and C termini. Molecules derived from this platform technology also demonstrated the potential for clinical utility by being available via the subcutaneous route of delivery. This study thus demonstrates the first in vivo functional efficacy of a VNAR binding domain with the ability to enhance PK properties and support delivery of multifunctional therapies. PMID:23676205

  2. Biological properties evaluation of a novel glycosylated somatostatin labeled with 99Tcm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural somatostatin (SMS), dextran-10 (Dx10) and a new bifunctional chelator S-Acetyl-Mercaptoacetyl-glycyl-glycyl-Lysine (MA G2Lys) are used to synthesize a novel somatostatin-dextran-MA G2Lys (SMS-Dx10-MA G2Lys) conjugate, then the conjugate is radiolabeled with 99Tcm. The value of IC50 of SMS-Dx10-MA G2Lys is tested by in vitro somatostatin receptor competition binding study using 125I-Tyr3-Octreotide as a radioligand. The biodistribution and blood half-life of 99Tcm-MA G2Lys-Dx10-SMS are investigated in normal rats. The tumor uptake and imaging properties of 99Tcm-MA G2Lys-Dx10-SMS are evaluated in nude mice bearing human pancreatic tumor. The SMS-Dx10-MAG2Lys shows high somatostatin receptor binding affinity, in the same IC50 value range as the reference ligand somatostatin (IC50-1.0 nmol/L). The blood half-life of 99Tcm-MAG2Lys-Dx10-SMS is 2.4 h post injection in normal rats. The excretion is mainly through the hepatobiliary and kidney system. The 99Tcm-MAG2Lys-Dx10-SMS is localized in pancreatic tumor and shows visible tumor uptake at 4 h imaging. The results indicate that 99Tcm-MA G2Lys-Dx10-SMS is a novel and potential imaging agent for somatostatin receptor positive tumor. (authors)

  3. CHARACTERISTICS OF ADHESIVE PROPERTIES OF LACTOBACILLUS - CLINICAL ISOLATES AND COMPONENTS OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavryk G.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli detected in all biotopes of digestive tract, starting from the mouth and ending with the colon, is the dominant flora of vaginal biotope. Their adhesiveness to epithelial cells leads to survive in conditions of microorganism biotopes and to form biofilm, thus mediating passive antagonism against conditionally pathogenic bacteria. Colonization resistance provides a set of mechanisms that provide individual anatomical stability and normal microflora. It is experimentally confirmed that lactobacilli provide biotopes colonization resistance of the human body due to competitive inhibition and coagregation of allochthonous microorganisms. It is important to consider the fact that probiotics should not compete with autochthonous microflora, which is always more physiological for each individual than most valuable exogenous bacteria, even with the greatest potential beneficial properties. The probiotic activity should be directed to the main target bacterial therapy, which is to restore physiological ecological community. The aim of research was to compare the adhesive properties of lactobacilli - clinical isolates of probiotic preparations and ingredients to the buccal epithelium cells and erythrocytes 0 (1 of the blood group system AB0 person. Materials and methods. The object of the research were clinical strains of Lactobacillus spp. selected from the mouth, intestines, vagina healthy people. At the the species identification of lactic acid bacteria were taken into account morphological and cultural properties, aerotolerance. The carbohydrate profile was determined using the test system API-50SN L (Bio-Merieux, lack of catalase activity. The ability of allocated bacteria to adhesion were observed in erythrocytes 0 (1 blood and buccal epithelium cells by human Brilis VI and oth. For comparison were used probiotic strains L. rlantarum 8PA3, L.acidophilus KS 400, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938. The effectiveness of adhesion was assessed

  4. Effects of residue 5-point mutation and N-terminus hydrophobic residues on temporin-SHc physicochemical and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbassi, Feten; Piesse, Christophe; Foulon, Thierry; Nicolas, Pierre; Ladram, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Temporin-SHc (FLSHIAGFLSNLFamide) first isolated from skin extraction of the Tunisian frog Pelophylax saharica, which shows potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and is highly active against yeasts and fungi without hemolytic activity at antimicrobial concentrations. The peptide adopts well-defined α-helical conformation when bound to SDS micelles. In this study, we explored the effects of residue at position 5 and the N-terminus hydrophobic character on the hydrophilic/polar face of temp-SHc, on its biological activities (antimicrobial and hemolytic) and biophysical properties (hydrophobicity, amphipathicity and helicity). Antibacterial and hemolytic properties of temporin-SHc derivatives depend strongly on physicochemical properties. Therefore, slight decreasing amphipathicity together with hydrophobicity and helicity by the substitution Ile(5) → Leu decreased antimicrobial potency approximately twofold without changing of hemolytic activity. It is noteworthy that a conservative amino acid substitution decreases the antimicrobial activity, underlining the differences between Leu/Ile side chains insertion into the lipid bilayer. While the modification of N-terminal hydrophobic character by four residue inversion decreased amphipathicity (twofold) of (4-1)L5temp-SHc and resulted in an increase in antibacterial activity against E. coli, E. faecalis and C. parapsilosis of at least fourfold, its therapeutic potential is limited by its drastic increase of hemolysis (LC₅₀ = 2 μM). We found that the percentage of helicity of temp-SHc analog is directly correlated to its hemolytic activity. Last, the hydrophobic N-terminal character is an important determinant of antimicrobial activity. PMID:24842084

  5. Simulated-physiological loading conditions preserve biological and mechanical properties of caprine lumbar intervertebral discs in ex vivo culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis P L Paul

    Full Text Available Low-back pain (LBP is a common medical complaint and associated with high societal costs. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD is assumed to be an important causal factor of LBP. IVDs are continuously mechanically loaded and both positive and negative effects have been attributed to different loading conditions.In order to study mechanical loading effects, degeneration-associated processes and/or potential regenerative therapies in IVDs, it is imperative to maintain the IVDs' structural integrity. While in vivo models provide comprehensive insight in IVD biology, an accompanying organ culture model can focus on a single factor, such as loading and may serve as a prescreening model to reduce life animal testing. In the current study we examined the feasibility of organ culture of caprine lumbar discs, with the hypothesis that a simulated-physiological load will optimally preserve IVD properties.Lumbar caprine IVDs (n = 175 were cultured in a bioreactor up to 21 days either without load, low dynamic load (LDL, or with simulated-physiological load (SPL. IVD stiffness was calculated from measurements of IVD loading and displacement. IVD nucleus, inner- and outer annulus were assessed for cell viability, cell density and gene expression. The extracellular matrix (ECM was analyzed for water, glycosaminoglycan and total collagen content.IVD biomechanical properties did not change significantly with loading conditions. With SPL, cell viability, cell density and gene expression were preserved up to 21 days. Both unloaded and LDL resulted in decreased cell viability, cell density and significant changes in gene expression, yet no differences in ECM content were observed in any group.In conclusion, simulated-physiological loading preserved the native properties of caprine IVDs during a 21-day culture period. The characterization of caprine IVD response to culture in the LDCS under SPL conditions paves the way for controlled analysis of degeneration

  6. Comparison of biological properties of 111In-labeled dimeric cyclic RGD peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: In this study two 111In-labeled dimeric cyclic RGD peptides, 111In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD2) and 111In(DOTA-3P-RGD2), were evaluated as radiotracers for breast tumor imaging. The objective was to evaluate the impact of SAA, PEG2 and 1,2,3-triazole linkers as compare to PEG4 on the tumor uptake and excretion kinetics of 111In radiotracers. Methods: DOTA-Galacto-RGD2 was prepared by conjugation of Galacto-RGD2 with DOTA-OSu in the presence of diisopropylethylamine. Its integrin αvβ3 binding affinity was determined using a whole-cell displacement assay against 125I-echistatin bound to U87MG glioma cells, and was compared with those of c(RGDfK), DOTA-3P-RGD2 and DOTA-3P-RGK2 (a nonsense peptide conjugate with “scrambled” RGK sequences). 111In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD2) and 111In(DOTA-3P-RGD2) were prepared and evaluated for their tumor-targeting capability and biodistribution properties in athymic nude mice bearing MDA-MB-435 breast tumor xenografts. Planar imaging studies were performed to demonstrate the utility of 111In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD2) and 111In(DOTA-3P-RGD2) for breast tumor imaging. Results: IC50 values of DOTA-Galacto-RGD2, DOTA-3P-RGD2, and DOTA-3P-RGK2 were calculated to be 27 ± 2, 29 ± 4, 596 ± 48 nM, respectively. The tumor uptake values of 111In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD2) (6.79 ± 0.98, 6.56 ± 0.56, 4.17 ± 0.61 and 1.09 ± 0.13 %ID/g at 1, 4, 24 and 72 hours p.i., respectively) were almost identical to those of 111In(DOTA-3P-RGD2) (6.17 ± 1.65, 5.94 ± 0.84, 3.40 ± 0.50 and 0.99 ± 0.20 %ID/g, respectively). 111In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD2) had a faster clearance from blood and muscle than 111In(DOTA-3P-RGD2), leading to higher tumor/blood and tumor/muscle ratios. 111In(DOTA-3P-RGD2) had lower liver uptake and better tumor/liver ratios than 111In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD2). The tumor uptake of 111In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD2) and 111In(DOTA-3P-RGD2) was both integrin αvβ3 and RGD-specific. Imaging data suggest that 111In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD2) and 111In(DOTA-3P-RGD2) are

  7. Association of Neutralization Sensitivity of HIV- 1 Primary Isolates With Biological Properties of Isolates From HIV-1 Infected Chinese Individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FA-XIN HEI; HAI-LI TANG; KUN-XUE HONG; JIAN-PING CHEN; HONG PENG; LIN YUAN; JIANG-QING XU; YI-MING SHAO

    2005-01-01

    Objective Although HIV-1 infection is prevalent in many regions in China, it remains largely unknown on the biological characteristics of dominant circulating isolates. This study was designed to isolate the circulating viral strains from different prevalent regions and to characterize their biological properties and neutralization sensitivity. Methods Primary viruses were isolated from fresh PBMCs using the traditional co-culture method and their capacity of inducing syncytium was tested in MT-2 cells. Meanwhile, their coreceptor usage was determined with two cell lines: Magi and GHOST (3) stably expressing CD4 and the chemokine receptor CCR5 or CXCR4. Furthermore, the sensitivity of these viruses to neutralization by HIV-1-infected patients' plasma which were highly active to neutralize SF33 strain, was quantified in GHOST cell-based neutralization assay. Results Six primary viral strains were isolated from 4 separated regions. Isolates LTG0213,LTG0214 and XVS032691 induced syncytia in MT-2 cells, and used CXCR4 as coreceptor. Isolates XJN0021, XJN0091, or SHXDC0041 did not induce syncytia, and used CCR5 as coreceptor. Overall neutralization sensitivity differed among four representative strains: HIV-1 XVS032691>LTG0214>XJN0091≈SHXDC0041. Conclusion The neutralization sensitivity of HIV isolates is linked with the phenotype of isolates, in which syncytium-inducing (SI) or CXCR4-tropic (X4) viruses are more easily neutralized than non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) or CCR5-tropic (R5) viruses. The genetic subtypes based on the phylogeny of env sequences are not classical neutralization serotypes.

  8. Improvement of the titanium implant biological properties by coating with poly (ɛ-caprolactone)-based hybrid nanocomposites synthesized via sol-gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Papale, Ferdinando

    2016-05-01

    When bioactive coatings are applied to medical implants by means of sol-gel dip coating technique, the biological proprieties of the implant surface can be modified to match the properties of the surrounding tissues. In this study organo-inorganic nanocomposites materials were synthesized via sol-gel. They consisted of an inorganic zirconium-based and silica-based matrix, in which a biodegradable polymer (the poly-ɛ-caprolactone, PCL) was incorporated in different weight percentages. The synthesized materials, in sol phase, were used to dip-coat a substrate of commercially pure titanium grade 4 (CP Ti gr. 4) in order to improve its biological properties. A microstructural analysis of the obtained films was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Biological proprieties of the coated substrates were investigated by means of in vitro tests.

  9. Biological Soil Crusts from Coastal Dunes at the Baltic Sea: Cyanobacterial and Algal Biodiversity and Related Soil Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Karoline; Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Dreßler, Mirko; Leinweber, Peter; Karsten, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are known as "ecosystem-engineers" that have important, multifunctional ecological roles in primary production, in nutrient and hydrological cycles, and in stabilization of soils. These communities, however, are almost unstudied in coastal dunes of the temperate zone. Hence, for the first time, the biodiversity of cyanobacterial and algal dominated BSCs collected in five dunes from the southern Baltic Sea coast on the islands Rügen and Usedom (Germany) was investigated in connection with physicochemical soil parameters. The species composition of cyanobacteria and algae was identified with direct determination of crust subsamples, cultural methods, and diatom slides. To investigate the influence of soil properties on species composition, the texture, pH, electrical conductivity, carbonate content, total contents of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and the bioavailable phosphorus-fraction (PO4 (3-)) were analyzed in adjacent BSC-free surface soils at each study site. The data indicate that BSCs in coastal dunes of the southern Baltic Sea represent an ecologically important vegetation form with a surprisingly high site-specific diversity of 19 cyanobacteria, 51 non-diatom algae, and 55 diatoms. All dominant species of the genera Coleofasciculus, Lyngbya, Microcoleus, Nostoc, Hydrocoryne, Leptolyngbya, Klebsormidium, and Lobochlamys are typical aero-terrestrial cyanobacteria and algae, respectively. This first study of coastal sand dunes in the Baltic region provides compelling evidence that here the BSCs were dominated by cyanobacteria, algae, or a mixture of both. Among the physicochemical soil properties, the total phosphorus content of the BSC-free sand was the only factor that significantly influenced the cyanobacterial and algal community structure of BSCs in coastal dunes. PMID:26507846

  10. Preparation, spectral, thermal, and biological properties of zinc(II) 4-chloro- and 5-chlorosalicylate complexes with methyl 3-pyridylcarbamate and phenazone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bujdošová, Z.; Gyoryova, K.; Hudecová, D.; Kovářová, Jana; Halás, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 5 (2010), s. 584-591. ISSN 0366-6352 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : zinc(II) chlorosalicylate * methyl 3-pyridylcarbamate * phenazone * thermal stability * biological properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.754, year: 2010

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF NICKEL OXIDE COMBINED WITH THE INFLUENCE OF ALTERNATING MAGNETIC FIELDS ON BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ALKALINITY BLACK SOILS OF THE CRIMEA (THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minnikova T. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article we have investigated the influence of nickel oxide in the amount of 100, 1000 mg/kg of the soil (1, 10 MPC, combined with the influence of an alternating magnetic field of induction of 50, 100 and 650 µT power frequency of 50 Hz on the biological properties of alkalinity black soil

  12. Biological activities and physicochemical properties of Maillard reaction products in sugar-bovine casein peptide model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhanmei; Wang, Lizhe; Wu, Wei; Wang, Yu

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological activities and physicochemical properties of Maillard reaction products (MRPs), derived from aqueous reducing sugar (ribose, galactose and lactose) and bovine casein peptide (BCP) model systems. The fluorescence intensity of ribose-BCP MRPs reached the maximum value within 1h, while it took 3h for galactose-BCP MRPs. Size exclusion chromatography of all the MRPs indicated molecular rearrangements and production of new smaller molecules, as a function of the heating time. The consumption of ribose and amino groups was the highest in the ribose-BCP MRPs. BCP lost its known angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity by the Maillard reaction with reducing sugars. Ribose-BCP MRPs had the lowest ACE inhibitory activity, but they showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferrous reducing power among all the MRPs. Galactose-BCP MRPs inhibited, slightly the growth of Caco-2 cells, while ribose-BCPand lactose-BCP MRPs had no cytotoxicity. PMID:23993556

  13. Comprehensive report of the overall activities of the contract during the past three years. [Physical properties of biological membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    The research accomplishments carried out during the last three years of support by ERDA are outlined. These entail various experiments that were carried out using spin labels to uncover information about the physical properties of biological membranes. A second general approach that was developed by this laboratory during that period was the use of paramagnetic broadening agents as an approach to explore certain restricted areas of cell and cellular systems through the use of spin labels. By utilization of this approach it is possible to remove the spin label signal from heterogeneous environments from all zones except a particular one. The third general area of accomplishment during this interval was the initiation of a class of spin labels which we call surface labels. These labels are designed to label the aqueous hydrocarbon interface of one side of a membrane enclosure. This approach is still new to us and its full potential is not yet developed, but we believe it is a profitable approach; it overcomes a number of the criticisms that have been leveled at spin labels over the years. A list of publications is included that report findings in detail.

  14. Caffeine-based gold(I) N-heterocyclic carbenes as possible anticancer agents: synthesis and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Benoît; Stefan, Loic; Pirrotta, Marc; Monchaud, David; Bodio, Ewen; Richard, Philippe; Le Gendre, Pierre; Warmerdam, Elena; de Jager, Marina H; Groothuis, Geny M M; Picquet, Michel; Casini, Angela

    2014-02-17

    A new series of gold(I) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes based on xanthine ligands have been synthesized and characterized by mass spectrometry, NMR, and X-ray diffraction. The compounds have been tested for their antiproliferative properties in human cancer cells and nontumorigenic cells in vitro, as well as for their toxicity in healthy tissues ex vivo. The bis-carbene complex [Au(caffein-2-ylidene)2][BF4] (complex 4) appeared to be selective for human ovarian cancer cell lines and poorly toxic in healthy organs. To gain preliminary insights into their actual mechanism of action, two biologically relevant in cellulo targets were studied, namely, DNA (more precisely a higher-order DNA structure termed G-quadruplex DNA that plays key roles in oncogenetic regulation) and a pivotal enzyme of the DNA damage response (DDR) machinery (poly-(adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), strongly involved in the cancer resistance mechanism). Our results indicate that complex 4 acts as an efficient and selective G-quadruplex ligand while being a modest PARP-1 inhibitor (i.e., poor DDR impairing agent) and thus provide preliminary insights into the molecular mechanism that underlies its antiproliferative behavior. PMID:24499428

  15. Influence of green manure in physical and biological properties of soil and productivity in the culture of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alves Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Green manuring is the practice of using plant species in rotation, succession or intercropped with other crops, aiming improvement, maintenance and recovery of physical, chemical and biological soil properties. The objective was to evaluate the influence of different green manures on soil characteristics and productivity of soybean. The experiment was conducted in Maringá (PR in a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications: T1: oat (Avena Sativa, T2: black oat (Avena strigosa, T3: dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, T4: radish (Raphanus sativus L., T5: white lupine (Lupinus albus and T6: control (fallow. At the end of the experiment, relations were established between the green manure used for soybean production, the production of biomass, the development of microorganisms and soil bulk density. The data were analyzed with statistical software and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The coverages provided higher content of dry matter were lupine, black oat and faba bean. Treatments that most influenced the increase of soil microorganisms were lupine, radish and pigeonpea. Regarding productivity, higher values were obtained in treatments with pigeon pea, lupine and oat. The apparent density of the soil, treatment with turnip showed better results.

  16. Biological and immunological properties of the venom of Bothrops alcatraz, an endemic species of pitviper from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, M F D

    2005-06-01

    Bothrops alcatraz is a new pitviper species derived from the Bothrops jararaca group, whose natural habitat is situated in Alcatrazes Archipelago, a group of marine islands near São Paulo State coast in Brazil. Herein, the biological and biochemical properties of venoms of four adult specimens of B. alcatraz were examined comparatively to a reference pool of Bothrops jararaca venom. Both venoms showed similar activities and electrophoretic patterns, but B. alcatraz venom showed three protein bands of molecular masses of 97, 80 and 38 kDa that were not present in B. jararaca reference venom. The i.p. median lethal dose of B. alcatraz venom ranged from 5.1 to 6.6 mg/kg, while it was 1.5 mg/kg for B. jararaca venom. The minimum hemorrhagic dose of B. jararaca venom was 0.63, whereas 2.28 mug/mouse for B. alcatraz venom. In contrast, B. alcatraz venom was more potent in regard to procoagulant and proteolytic activities. These differences were supported by western blotting and neutralization tests, employing commercial bothropic antivenom, which showed that hemorrhagic and lethal activities of B. alcatraz venom were less effectively inhibited than B. jararaca venom. Such results evidence that B. alcatraz shows quantitative and qualitative differences in venom composition in comparison with its B. jararaca relatives, which might represent an optimization of venom towards a specialized diet. PMID:16002343

  17. Biological properties of titanium implants covered with hydroxyapatite and zirconia layers by pulsed laser: In vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological and physical properties of dental implants coated by the sandwich technique with a thin layer of hydroxyapatite and an interlayer of zirconia were evaluated. The implant samples were covered by pulsed laser deposition. The aim of our study is to evaluate the cytotoxicity and the surface characteristics of the titanium targets modified with zirconia and hydroxyapatite. The titanium substrates were analyzed physically by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. We used a direct test of cytotoxicity to compare the prepared samples with other reference materials. No changes in the morphology or the proliferation rate of the cells used were found in the presence of the modified titanium targets. The adhesion, proliferation, and fibronectin expressions of human fibroblasts were also evaluated on the surface of the modified titanium targets. The results show that the modified titanium samples are at least as attractive as the tissue grade polystyrene in promoting fibroblasts' adhesion and proliferation. The results show adhesion and cell proliferation, which in turn implies that the studied material is not cytotoxic and is suitable for cell colonization. Titanium modified with zirconia and hydroxyapatite can be beneficially employed in oral bone surgery

  18. Nano-hydroxyapatite reinforced polyhydroxybutyrate composites: A comprehensive study on the structural and in vitro biological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocomposites based on polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) have recently been proposed for application in bone repair and regeneration, but very limited studies have investigated the effect of HAp on the rheological and thermal behavior of PHB. More important, the efficiency of a biomaterial depends greatly on its ability to interact with cells, but little is known about this interaction for this kind of nanocomposite. Hence, this paper dealt with some of the characteristics of solution-casted PHB/HAp nanocomposite films, and tried to explore the effect of HAp nanoparticles on cellular responses. The results showed that both rheological and thermal properties can be tailored by incorporating appropriate amounts of nanoparticles. In vitro studies showed a significant increase in proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 on nanocomposites compared to the neat polymer. Surface examination indicated that topography and chemistry of surface are important factors influencing cellular processes; while no cell differentiation was found on the neat polymer, nanocomposite with 15 wt.% filler content exhibited a pronounced differentiation resulting from high surface roughness and large amount of exposed HAp. These results suggest that HAp particles play a much more important role in determining the biological performance of PHB than has previously been supposed. Highlights: • Preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells exhibit an elongated shape in the presence of HAp. • The as-prepared nanoparticles acted as nucleating agent during PHB crystallization. • HAp efficiently induces cell proliferation and differentiation on PHB surface. • HAp nanoparticles significantly affect both the surface chemistry and topography. • A method was provided to simultaneously measure biomineralization and bioactivity

  19. Nano-hydroxyapatite reinforced polyhydroxybutyrate composites: A comprehensive study on the structural and in vitro biological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadat-Shojai, Mehdi, E-mail: MSadatShojai@gmail.com [Department of Biomaterials, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorasani, Mohammad-Taghi [Department of Biomaterials, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamshidi, Ahmad [Department of Novel Drug Delivery Systems, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Irani, Shiva [Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Nanocomposites based on polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) have recently been proposed for application in bone repair and regeneration, but very limited studies have investigated the effect of HAp on the rheological and thermal behavior of PHB. More important, the efficiency of a biomaterial depends greatly on its ability to interact with cells, but little is known about this interaction for this kind of nanocomposite. Hence, this paper dealt with some of the characteristics of solution-casted PHB/HAp nanocomposite films, and tried to explore the effect of HAp nanoparticles on cellular responses. The results showed that both rheological and thermal properties can be tailored by incorporating appropriate amounts of nanoparticles. In vitro studies showed a significant increase in proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 on nanocomposites compared to the neat polymer. Surface examination indicated that topography and chemistry of surface are important factors influencing cellular processes; while no cell differentiation was found on the neat polymer, nanocomposite with 15 wt.% filler content exhibited a pronounced differentiation resulting from high surface roughness and large amount of exposed HAp. These results suggest that HAp particles play a much more important role in determining the biological performance of PHB than has previously been supposed. Highlights: • Preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells exhibit an elongated shape in the presence of HAp. • The as-prepared nanoparticles acted as nucleating agent during PHB crystallization. • HAp efficiently induces cell proliferation and differentiation on PHB surface. • HAp nanoparticles significantly affect both the surface chemistry and topography. • A method was provided to simultaneously measure biomineralization and bioactivity.

  20. Biological Role of Anions (Sulfate, Nitrate , Oxalate and Acetate) on the Antibacterial Properties of Cobalt (II) and Nickel(II) Complexes With Pyrazinedicarboxaimide Derived, Furanyl and Thienyl Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Z H; Praveen, M

    1999-01-01

    A number of biologically active complexes of cobalt(II) and nickel(II) with pyrazinedicarboxaimido derived thienyl and furanyl compounds having the same metal ion but different anions such as sulphate, nitrate, oxalate and acetate have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of their physical, spectral and analytical data. In order to evaluate the role of anions on their antibacterial properties, these ligands and their synthesized metal complexes with various anions have been screened against bacterial species Escherichia coil,Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The title studies have proved a definitive role of anions in increasing the antibacterial properties. PMID:18475887

  1. Adult Stem Cells Properties in Terms of Commitment, Aging and Biological Safety of Grit-Blasted and Acid-Etched Ti Dental Implants Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gardin, Chiara; Ferroni, Letizia; Bressan, Eriberto; Calvo - Guirado, José L.; Degidi, Marco; Piattelli, Adriano; Zavan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is one of the most widely used biomaterials for manufacturing dental implants. The implant surface properties strongly influence osseointegration. The aim of the present study was to in vitro investigate the characteristics of Ti dental implants in terms of mutagenicity, hemocompatibility, biocompatibility, osteoinductivity and biological safety. The Ames test was used to test the mutagenicity of the Ti dental implants, and the hemolysis assay for evaluating their hemocompatibil...

  2. Biological Role of Anions (Sulfate, Nitrate , Oxalate and Acetate) on the Antibacterial Properties of Cobalt (II) and Nickel(II) Complexes With Pyrazinedicarboxaimide Derived, Furanyl and Thienyl Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Chohan, Zahid H.; Praveen, M.

    1999-01-01

    A number of biologically active complexes of cobalt(II) and nickel(II) with pyrazinedicarboxaimido derived thienyl and furanyl compounds having the same metal ion but different anions such as sulphate, nitrate, oxalate and acetate have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of their physical, spectral and analytical data. In order to evaluate the role of anions on their antibacterial properties, these ligands and their synthesized metal complexes with various anions have been screene...

  3. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi: chemical composition, biological properties and toxicity Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi: composição química, propriedades biológicas, e toxicidade

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, M.G.; A.G.N. Melo; C.F.S. Aragão; F.N. Raffin; T.F.A.L. Moura

    2013-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi is a medicinal plant known in Brazil as "aroeira da praia", which has been used in popular medicine as antipyretic, analgesic, depurative and in the treatment of diseases of the urogenital system. On the other hand, the scientific literature has reported that this plant has antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antiulcerogenic activity. This review addresses the main biological properties and toxicological effects of "aroeira da praia", in addition to a systemati...

  4. Biological and physical properties of a model calcitonin containing a glutamate residue interrupting the hydrophobic face of the idealized amphiphilic alpha-helical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, F R; Lynch, B; Kaiser, E T

    1987-01-01

    2A new calcitonin analogue, model calcitonin III (MCt-III), has been synthesized, and its biological and physical characteristics have been studied. This analogue has an idealized alpha-helix from residue 8-22 with glutamate at position 15 interrupting an otherwise continuous surface of aliphatic side chains (those of leucine residues) on the hydrophobic face of the helix. MCt-III differs from a previous model, MCt-II, only by the substitution Leu15----Glu and is here compared with salmon calcitonin I (sCt-I) and MCt-II to elucidate further the role of the putative amphiphilic alpha-helix in determining biological and physical properties of the hormone. MCt-III shows physical properties intermediate between those of sCt-I and MCt-II, demonstrating the influence of appropriately positioned single residues on properties of amphiphilic structures. In our two biological assays, a brain-binding assay and an in vivo hypocalcemic assay, MCt-III reproduces the sigmoidal dose-response curves of sCt-I; this contrasts with the behavior of MCt-II, which demonstrated unusual dose-response curves in these two assays. MCt-III is almost three times more potent than sCt-I in our hypocalcemic assay; this activity groups MCt-III among the most potent known analogues of sCt-I. PMID:2825187

  5. Effects of increasing hydrophobicity on the physical-chemical and biological properties of a class A amphipathic helical peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, G; Chaddha, M; Hama, S; Navab, M; Fogelman, A M; Garber, D W; Mishra, V K; Epand, R M; Epand, R F; Lund-Katz, S; Phillips, M C; Segrest, J P; Anantharamaiah, G M

    2001-07-01

    We have recently shown that a class A amphipathic peptide 5F with increased amphipathicity protected mice from diet-induced atherosclerosis (Garber et al. J. Lipid Res. 2001. 42: 545-552). We have now examined the effects of increasing the hydrophobicity of a series of homologous class A amphipathic peptides, including 5F, on physical and functional properties related to atherosclerosis inhibition by systematically replacing existing nonpolar amino acids with phenylalanine. The peptides, based on the sequence Ac-D-W-L-K-A-F-Y-D-K-V-A-E-K-L-K-E-A-F-NH(2) (Ac-18A-NH(2) or 2F) were: 3F(3)(Ac-F(3)18A-NH(2)), 3F(14)(Ac-F(14)18A-NH(2)), 4F(Ac-F(3,14)18A-NH(2)), 5F(Ac-F(11,14,17) 18A-NH(2)), 6F(Ac-F(10,11,14,17)18A-NH(2)), and 7F(Ac-F(3,10,11,14,17) 18A-NH(2)). Measurements of aqueous solubility, HPLC retention time, exclusion pressure for penetration into an egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) monolayer, and rates of EPC solubilization revealed an abrupt increase in the hydrophobicity between peptides 4F and 5F; this was accompanied by increased ability to associate with phospholipids. The peptides 6F and 7F were less effective, indicating a limit to increased hydrophobicity for promoting lipid interaction in these peptides. Despite this marked increase in lipid affinity, these peptides were less effective than apoA-I in activating the plasma enzyme, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, with 5F activating LCAT the best (80% of apoA-I). Peptides 4F, 5F, and 6F were equally potent in inhibiting LDL-induced monocyte chemotactic activity. These studies suggest that an appropriate balance between peptide-peptide and peptide-lipid interactions is required for optimal biological activity of amphipathic peptides. These studies provide a rationale for the design of small apoA-I-mimetics with increased potency for atherosclerosis inhibition. PMID:11441137

  6. Biological properties of 99Tcm-HMIBP and its usefulness for bone scintigraphy by comparing with 99Tcm-MDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Zoledronate has been extensively used for the treatment of tumor-induced hypercalcaemia and osteolytic bone metastases. 1-hydroxy-2-(1-methylimidazol-2-yl) ethylidene-1,1-bisphos- phonic acid (HMIBP) with similar chemical structure as Zoledronate, was therefore considered to be useful as bone imaging agent. In this study the usefulness of 99Tcm labeled HMIBP for bone imaging was evaluated and the results with the well-established 99Tcm-methylene diphosphonic acid (MDP) imaging was compared. Methods: Labeled with 99Tcm, the SnCl2·2H2O quantity, radiochemical purity, pH value and stability at 4 degree C of 99Tcm-HMIBP were measured. Besides, the partition coefficient, plasma protein binding rate, hemodynamic parameters of 99Tcm-HMIBP and median lethal dose (LD50) of HMIBP were determined. 99Tcm-HMIBP bone imaging was performed in normal New Zealand rabbits and compared with 99Tcm-MDP bone imaging. Results: The kit composed of 5 mg HMIBP and 0.05 mg SnCl2·2H2O. The labeling rate was 96% after 180 d storage at 4 degree C. The radiochemical purity of 99Tcm-HMIBP was 98% at pH 5 and the partition coefficients were 0.0125 and 0.0054 at pH 7.0 and 7.4 respectively. The plasma protein binding rate of 99Tcm-HMIBP was 44.77%. The hemodynamic parameter C valued 3.0979 e-0.0721t+0.1250 e-0.0076t and LD50 was 8.2 mg/kg. The bone images of 99Tcm-HMIBP were fairly well 3 h after the injection, which was comparable to 99Tcm-MDP bone imaging. Conclusions: 99Tcm-HMIBP had good biological properties and comparable bone imaging quality with 99Tcm-MDP. It might be a potential agent for both treatment and imaging. (authors)

  7. Prediction of Lymph Node Metastasis by Tumor Dimension Versus Tumor Biological Properties in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Jeon Yeob; Kim, Min Ji; Ryu, Gwanghui; Choi, Nayeon; Ko, Young-Hyeh; Jeong, Han-Sin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is a strong prognostic factor in many solid cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), and LNM can be dependent upon primary tumor biology, as well as tumor dimension. Here, we investigate the relative risk of LNM in accordance to tumor dimension and biology in HNSCC subsites. Materials and Methods Medical data of 295 HNSCC patients who had undergone the initial curative surgery (oral tongue 174, oropharynx 75, hypopharynx 46) were a...

  8. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section contains summaries of research on mechanisms of lethality and radioinduced changes in mammalian cell properties, new cell systems for the study of the biology of mutation and neoplastic transformation, and comparative properties of ionizing radiations

  9. The use of principal component analysis in studying physical, chemical and biological soil properties in southern caspian forests (North of Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooch, Yahya; Jalilvand, Hamid; Bahmanyar, Mohammad Ali; Pormajidian, Mohammad Reza

    2008-02-01

    This research was conducted in Khanikan forests located in lowland of Mazandaran province (North of Iran). Eighteen profiles were dug and several chemical, physical and biological soil properties were investigated. The soil properties evaluated were soil pH, bulk density, saturation moisture content, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchangeable capacity, available phosphorous, soil texture, calcium carbonate content, number and biomass of earthworms, litter carbon and litter nitrogen. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify the variation of soil properties. PCA, a technique which reduces the dimensionality of multivariate data by removing Interco relations among variables, has a number of useful applications in forest researches. The results showed significant relationships between some soil factors with PC1 and PC2 axes, also, among different soil factors, the distribution of forest types was most strongly controlled with some soil characteristics such as acidity, bulk density, texture, phosphorous, organic carbon, total nitrogen and cation exchangeable capacity. PMID:18817157

  10. Serological, electrophoretic and biological properties of Fasciola hepatica antigens Propiedades serologicas, electroforeticas y biologicas de antigenos de Fasciola hepatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Cervi

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica somatic antigen, its partially purified fractions and excretion-secretion products were investigated as to serological, electrophoretic and biological properties. In a Sephadex G-100 column (SG-100, Fasciola hepatica total antigen (FhTA gave 5 fractions, and SDS-PAGE analysis showed they were glycoproteins ranging from 14 to 94 kDa molecular weight (MW. When these fractions were analyzed by enzyme linked immunotransfer blot (EITB and immunodiffusion in gel (ID with serum from immunized rats with FhTA, the presence of different antigenic components was revealed. In the SDS-PAGE of excretor-secretor antigen (ESA, it was possible to observe peptides from 12 to 22 kDa, which were also present in FhTA. When the FhTA, its fractions and the ESA were analyzed by EITB with the immune rat serum (IRS, it was observed that only some fractions of the SG-100 shared antigens with the FhTA and ESA. Moreover, DTH and ITH responses were studied in FhTA immunized rats challenged with these different antigen components, revealing that the protein/carbohydrate ratio is important for inducing DTH response. The ESA was the most active component in the DTH and ITH response.Se realizó la purificación parcial de un antigeno somático de Fasciola hepatica y se obtuveron los productos de excreción-secreción. Por filtración del antigeno total de Fasciola hepatica en Sephadex G-100 (SG-100, se obtuvieron 5 fracciones las que al ser analizadas por electroforesis en geles de poliacrilamida, demostraron estar constituidas por glicoproteínas con un rango de peso molecular (PM entre 14 y 94 kDa. Cuando estas fracciones fueron analizadas por immunoblot e inmunodifusión en geles de agar frente al suero de ratas inmunizadas con el homogenato total se reveló la presencia de diferentes componentes antigénicos. Usando un antígeno excretor-secretor fue posible observar en el perfil electroforético la presencia de péptidos con un PM entre 12 y 22 kDa, los

  11. The effect of radiation-sterilization conditions and preservation procedures on physico-chemical and biological properties of bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-sterilization of connective tissue allografts (bone including) with a dose of 35 kGy is routinely used in the Central Tissue Bank in Warsaw since 1963. This method of sterilization offers many advantages: good penetration ability, relatively low temperature rise, and possibility of sterilization of grafts in closed beforehand vials, which protects against secondary contamination. It should be kept in mind, however that high doses of ionizing radiation (in the range of 20-35 kGy) used for sterilization evoke many chemical and physical changes which may influence biological properties of grafts. These changes have been studied using various methodological approaches. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry it has been found that in radiation-sterilized bone two types of paramagnetic entities are generated: i/ coliagen radicals which are unstable and disappear completely in the presence of air oxygen, ii/ very stable at room temperature paramagnetic defects (centers) localized in the crystalline lattice of bone mineral. These stable paramagnetic defects have been treated as a new kind of markers and used for: a/ quantitative evaluation of remodeling process of radiation-sterilized bone allografts preserved by lyophilization or deep freezing; b/ estimation of the dose of ionizing radiation absorbed by living organism in the case of accidental exposure (skeleton serving as a dosimeter) and for control of radiation-sterilization process. The effect of radiation-sterilization and preservation procedures on bone allografts was studied using a model of heterotopically induced osteogenesis and measuring the solubility of bone collagen in vitro. It has been observed that lyophilized bone allografts irradiated at room temp. with doses of 35 and 50 kGy, respectively, were very quickly resorbed in vivo and did not induce osteogenesis, while lyophilized as well as deep-frozen matrices irradiated at -7OoC were slowly resorbed and induced de novo bone fon

  12. Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes' biosynthesis and a natural source of high value products with biological, aromatic and pharmacological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Papaefthimiou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The family Cistaceae (Angiosperm, Malvales consists of 8 genera and 180 species, with 5 genera native of the Mediterranean area (Cistus, Fumara, Halimium, Helianthemum and Tuberaria. Traditionally, a number of Cistus specie have been used in Mediterranean folk medicine as herbal tea infusions for healing, digestive problems and colds, as extracts for the treatment of diseases, and as fragrances. The resin, ladano, secreted by the glandular trichomes of certain Cistus species contains a number of phytochemicals with antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer properties. Furthermore, total leaf aqueous extracts possess anti-influenza virus activity. All these properties have been attributed to phytochemicals such as terpenoids, including diterpenes, labdane-type diterpenes and clerodanes, phenylpropanoids, including flavonoids and ellagitannins, several groups of alkaloids and other types of secondary metabolites. In the past 20 years, research on Cistus involved chemical, biological and phylogenetic analysis but recent investigations have involved genomic and molecular approaches. Our lab is exploring the biosynthetic machinery that generates terpenoids and phenylpropanoids, with a goal to harness their numerous properties that have applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical and aromatic industries. This review focuses on the systematics, botanical characteristics, geographic distribution, chemical analyses, biological function and biosynthesis of major compounds, as well as genomic analyses and biotechnological approaches of the main Cistus species found in the Mediterranean basin, namely C. albidus, C. creticus, C. crispus, C. parviflorus, C. monspeliensis, C. populifolius, C. salviifolius, C. ladanifer, C. laurifolius and C. clusii.

  13. Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes' biosynthesis and a natural source of high value products with biological, aromatic and pharmacological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Papanikolaou, Antigoni; Falara, Vasiliki; Givanoudi, Stella; Kostas, Stefanos; Kanellis, Angelos

    2014-06-01

    The family Cistaceae (Angiosperm, Malvales) consists of 8 genera and 180 species, with 5 genera native of the Mediterranean area (Cistus, Fumara, Halimium, Helianthemum and Tuberaria). Traditionally, a number of Cistus specie have been used in Mediterranean folk medicine as herbal tea infusions for healing, digestive problems and colds, as extracts for the treatment of diseases, and as fragrances. The resin, ladano, secreted by the glandular trichomes of certain Cistus species contains a number of phytochemicals with antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer properties. Furthermore, total leaf aqueous extracts possess anti-influenza virus activity. All these properties have been attributed to phytochemicals such as terpenoids, including diterpenes, labdane-type diterpenes and clerodanes, phenylpropanoids, including flavonoids and ellagitannins, several groups of alkaloids and other types of secondary metabolites. In the past 20 years, research on Cistus involved chemical, biological and phylogenetic analysis but recent investigations have involved genomic and molecular approaches. Our lab is exploring the biosynthetic machinery that generates terpenoids and phenylpropanoids, with a goal to harness their numerous properties that have applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical and aromatic industries. This review focuses on the systematics, botanical characteristics, geographic distribution, chemical analyses, biological function and biosynthesis of major compounds, as well as genomic analyses and biotechnological approaches of the main Cistus species found in the Mediterranean basin, namely C. albidus, C. creticus, C. crispus, C. parviflorus, C. monspeliensis, C. populifolius, C. salviifolius, C. ladanifer, C. laurifolius and C. clusii.

  14. Spectroscopy of biological nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Ortac, Inanc; Severcan, Feride

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystals have gained much interest in recent years, due to their unusual properties allowing interesting applications in physical and biological science. In this literature review, biological nanocrystals are discussed from the spectroscopic point of view. Firstly, the theory behind the outstanding abilities of the nanocrystals is described. Secondly, the spectroscopic properties of biological nanocrystals are mentioned. Lastly, the use of nanocrystals with various spectroscopic applicati...

  15. Impact of enzyme- and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods on biological properties of red, brown, and green seaweeds from the central west coast of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dina; Sousa, Sérgio; Silva, Aline; Amorim, Manuela; Pereira, Leonel; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Gomes, Ana M P; Duarte, Armando C; Freitas, Ana Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Seaweeds are an excellent source of bioactive compounds, and therefore the use of sustainable and food compatible extraction methods such as enzyme-assisted (EAE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction were applied on Sargassum muticum, Osmundea pinnatifida, and Codium tomentosum. Extracts were evaluated for proximate characterization and biological properties. Higher extraction yields were observed for C. tomentosum EAE (48-62%; p effect on hydroxyl-radical scavenging activity (35-50%) was observed for all extracts, whereas S. muticum Alcalase and C. tomentosum Cellulase extracts exhibited higher prebiotic activity than fructooligosaccharides. O. pinnatifida and C. tomentosum EAE showed inhibitory potential against α-glucosidase (38-49%). PMID:25756735

  16. Degradation and biological properties of Ca-P contained micro-arc oxidation self-sealing coating on pure magnesium for bone fixation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Weidan; Wan, Peng; Liu, Chen; Tan, Lili; Li, Weirong; Li, Lugee; Yang, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Poor corrosion resistance is one of the main disadvantages for biodegradable magnesium-based metals, especially applied for bone fixation, where there is a high demand of bio-mechanical strength and stability. Surface coating has been proved as an effective method to control the in vivo degradation. In this study a Ca-P self-sealing micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coating was studied to verify its efficacy and biological properties by in vitro and in vivo tests. It was found that the MAO coating co...

  17. WENDI: A tool for finding non-obvious relationships between compounds and biological properties, genes, diseases and scholarly publications

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Qian; Lajiness Michael S; Ding Ying; Wild David J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the amount of publicly-available and proprietary information pertinent to drug discovery. However, there is a distinct lack of data mining tools available to harness this information, and in particular for knowledge discovery across multiple information sources. At Indiana University we have an ongoing project with Eli Lilly to develop web-service based tools for integrative mining of chemical and biological information. I...

  18. Taurolidine Antiadhesive Properties on Interaction with E. coli; Its Transformation in Biological Environment and Interaction with Bacteria Cell Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Caruso, Francesco; James W Darnowski; Opazo, Cristian; Goldberg, Alexander; Kishore, Nina; Agoston, Elin S.; Rossi, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    The taurine amino-acid derivative, taurolidine, bis-(1,1-dioxoperhydro-1,2,4-thiabiazinyl–4)methane, shows broad antibacterial action against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria and some clinically relevant fungi. It inhibits, in vitro, the adherence of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to human epithelial and fibroblast cells. Taurolidine is unstable in aqueous solution and breaks down into derivatives which are thought to be responsible for the biological activit...

  19. Taurolidine Antiadhesive Properties on Interaction with E. coli; Its Transformation in Biological Environment and Interaction with Bacteria Cell Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Caruso; Darnowski, James W.; Cristian Opazo; Alexander Goldberg; Nina Kishore; Agoston, Elin S.; Miriam Rossi

    2010-01-01

    The taurine amino-acid derivative, taurolidine, bis-(1,1-dioxoperhydro-1,2,4-thiabiazinyl-4)methane, shows broad antibacterial action against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria and some clinically relevant fungi. It inhibits, in vitro, the adherence of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to human epithelial and fibroblast cells. Taurolidine is unstable in aqueous solution and breaks down into derivatives which are thought to be responsible for the biological activit...

  20. The in vitro biological properties of Mg-Zn-Sr alloy and superiority for preparation of biodegradable intestinal anastomosis rings

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ling; Li, Nianfeng; Lei, Ting; Li, Kaimo; Zhang, Yangde

    2014-01-01

    Background Magnesium (Mg) alloy is a metal-based biodegradable material that has received increasing attention in the field of clinical surgery, but it is currently seldom used in intestinal anastomosis. This study was conducted to comprehensively assess a ternary magnesium (Mg)-zinc (Zn)-strontium (Sr) alloy’s biological superiorities as a preparation material for intestinal anastomosis ring. Material/Methods Mouse L-929 fibroblasts were cultured with Mg-Zn-Sr alloy extract and compared with...

  1. The Impact of Olive Mill Wastewater on the Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Soils in Northwest Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Wahsha; Claudio Bini; Mandana Nadimi-Goki

    2014-01-01

    Soil contamination may influence negatively soil health, which often limits and sometimes disqualifies soil biodiversity and decreases plant growth. Soil health is the continued capacity of the soil to function as a vital living system, providing essential ecosystem services. Within soils, all bio-geo-chemical processes of the different ecosystem components are combined. These processes are able to sustain biological productivity of soil, to maintain the quality of surrounding air and water e...

  2. Properties of Resveratrol: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies about Metabolism, Bioavailability, and Biological Effects in Animal Models and Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Gambini, J.; Inglés, M.; G. Olaso; Lopez-Grueso, R.; Bonet-Costa, V.; Gimeno-Mallench, L.; Mas-Bargues, C.; Abdelaziz, K. M.; Gomez-Cabrera, M. C.; Vina, J.; C. Borras

    2015-01-01

    Plants containing resveratrol have been used effectively in traditional medicine for over 2000 years. It can be found in some plants, fruits, and derivatives, such as red wine. Therefore, it can be administered by either consuming these natural products or intaking nutraceutical pills. Resveratrol exhibits a wide range of beneficial properties, and this may be due to its molecular structure, which endow resveratrol with the ability to bind to many biomolecules. Among these properties its acti...

  3. Some hints concerning phosphorus release and phosphorus uptake properties in enhanced biological phophorus removal; Empfehlungen zur Durchfuehrung und Auswertung von Phosphatrueckloese- und -aufnahmeversuchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik

    1996-01-01

    Reproducible methods of analysis are necessary for the estimation of phosphorus release and phosphorus uptake properties of activated sludges in wastewater treatment plants using enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). These methods have to allow for comparisons and evaluations of different activated sludges impressed by EBPR. A phosphorus release and phosphorus uptake attempt modified for different operation facilities and conditions in wastewater treatment plants was developed. Using these methods phosphorus release and phosphorus uptake properties of activated sludges can be described qualitativley and quantitatively. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Abschaetzung der Phosphatrueckloese- und -aufnahmeeigenschaften eines belebten Schlammes bei Klaeranlagen mit vermehrter biologischer Phosphorelimination (BIO-P) bedarf es reproduzierbarer Untersuchungsmethoden, die einen Vergleich und eine Beurteilung hierzu durchgefuehrter Untersuchungen ermoeglichen. Hierzu wurde ein fuer klaeranlagenspezifische Betriebsbedingungen modifizierter Phosphatrueckloese- und -aufnahmeversuche entwickelt, mit dem die Phosphatrueckloese- und -aufnahmeeigenschaften eines belebten Schlammes qualitativ und quantitativ beschrieben werden koennen. (orig.)

  4. Hybrid chitosan-ß-glycerol phosphate-gelatin nano-/micro fibrous scaffolds with suitable mechanical and biological properties for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Marzieh; Bagherzadeh, Roohollah; Naderi-Meshkin, Hojjat; Mahdipour, Elahe; Mafinezhad, Asghar; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Esmaily, Habibollah; Maleki, Masoud; Hasssanzadeh, Halimeh; Ghayaour-Mobarhan, Majid; Bidkhori, Hamid Reza; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza

    2016-03-01

    Scaffold-based tissue engineering is considered as a promising approach in the regenerative medicine. Graft instability of collagen, by causing poor mechanical properties and rapid degradation, and their hard handling remains major challenges to be addressed. In this research, a composite structured nano-/microfibrous scaffold, made from a mixture of chitosan-ß-glycerol phosphate-gelatin (chitosan-GP-gelatin) using a standard electrospinning set-up was developed. Gelatin-acid acetic and chitosan ß-glycerol phosphate-HCL solutions were prepared at ratios of 30/70, 50/50, 70/30 (w/w) and their mechanical and biological properties were engineered. Furthermore, the pore structure of the fabricated nanofibrous scaffolds was investigated and predicted using a theoretical model. Higher gelatin concentrations in the polymer blend resulted in significant increase in mean pore size and its distribution. Interaction between the scaffold and the contained cells was also monitored and compared in the test and control groups. Scaffolds with higher chitosan concentrations showed higher rate of cell attachment with better proliferation property, compared with gelatin-only scaffolds. The fabricated scaffolds, unlike many other natural polymers, also exhibit non-toxic and biodegradable properties in the grafted tissues. In conclusion, the data clearly showed that the fabricated biomaterial is a biologically compatible scaffold with potential to serve as a proper platform for retaining the cultured cells for further application in cell-based tissue engineering, especially in wound healing practices. These results suggested the potential of using mesoporous composite chitosan-GP-gelatin fibrous scaffolds for engineering three-dimensional tissues with different inherent cell characteristics. PMID:26566174

  5. Biology of Applied Digital Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Briscoe, G.; Sadedin, S.; Paperin, G.

    2007-01-01

    A primary motivation for our research in Digital Ecosystems is the desire to exploit the self-organising properties of biological ecosystems. Ecosystems are thought to be robust, scalable architectures that can automatically solve complex, dynamic problems. However, the biological processes that contribute to these properties have not been made explicit in Digital Ecosystems research. Here, we discuss how biological properties contribute to the self-organising features of biological ecosystem...

  6. Short-term effect of vermicompost application on biological properties of an alkaline soil with high lime content from Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz, Ilker; Tavali, Ismail Emrah

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate direct short-term impact of vermicompost on some soil biological properties by monitoring changes after addition of vermicompost as compared to farmyard manure in an alkaline soil with high lime content from semiarid Mediterranean region of Turkey. For this purpose, mixtures of soil and organic fertilizers in different doses were incubated under greenhouse condition. Soil samples collected in regular intervals were analyzed for biological parameters including dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activities, and total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria. Even though soil dehydrogenase activity appeared to be dose-independent based on overall evaluation, organic amendments were found to elevate dehydrogenase activity when sampling periods are evaluated individually. β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activity, and aerobic mesophilic bacterial numbers in vermicompost treatments fluctuated but remained significantly above the control. A slight but statistically significant difference was detected between organic amendments in terms of urease activity. Vermicompost appeared to more significantly increase bacterial number in soil. Clearly, vermicompost has a potential to be used as an alternative to farmyard manure to improve and maintain soil biological activity in alkaline calcareous soils from the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Further studies are needed to assess its full potential for these soils. PMID:25254238

  7. Synthesis of organometallic-based biologically active compounds: In vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of some sulfonamide incorporated ferrocences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Zahid H

    2009-02-01

    Sulfonamides incorporated ferrocene (SIF) have been synthesized by the condensation reaction of sulfonamides (sulfanilamide, sulfathiazole or sulfamethaxazole) with 1,1'-diacetylferrocene. The synthesized compounds (SIF(1)-SIF(4)) have been characterized by their physical, spectral and analytical properties and have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial properties against pathogenic bacterial strains e.g., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi and for antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glaberata using Agar-well diffusion method. Most of the compounds showed good antibacterial activity whereas, all the compounds exhibited significant antifungal activity. Brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out for in vitro cytotoxic properties against Artemia salina. PMID:18608785

  8. Fluorescent Properties of Au Nanoclusters and Their Biological Applications%金团簇的荧光性质及其生物应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任娟; 代雯乐; 付欣; 苏梦; 蔡晶晶; 马占芳

    2011-01-01

    金纳米团簇作为一类新型纳米材料具有独特的光学特性。当金纳米团簇颗粒的尺寸小到与电子的费米波长(〈1nm)相当时,由于量子尺寸效应,金颗粒会受激发射出荧光。作为一种新型荧光材料,金纳米团簇具有发光颜色随团簇尺寸可调、荧光不易猝灭等许多优势。本文主要综述了金纳米团簇的荧光性质及其在生物标记、生物成像以及生物检测等方面的应用。%Au nanoclusters have emerged as a class of materials with unique optical properties.When the size of Au nanocluster decrease to comparable to the Fermi wavelength(1nm) of an electron,it exhibits fluorescent characteristics while they are excited,which resulted from its quantum effect.As a novel fluorescent material,Au nanoclusters show size-dependent emission,a slower photobleaching rate and very good stability.The fluorescent properties of Au nanoclusters and their applications in the fields of biological labeling,biological imaging,and biodetection were mainly reviewed.

  9. Effect of Vermicompost on Chemical and Biological Properties of an Alkaline Soil with High Lime Content during Celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce Mill. Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker UZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate impact of vermicompost on chemical and biological properties of an alkaline soil with high lime content in the presence of plant under the open field conditions in semiarid Mediterranean region of Turkey. The study also included farmyard manure and chemical fertilizers for comparison and was conducted in two consecutive growth seasons in the same plots to observe any cumulative effect. Plots were amended with fertilizers in different rates and celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce Mill. was grown as the test plant. In general, vermicompost appeared to be more effective to increase organic matter, N, P, and Ca compared to farmyard manure. Soil alkaline phosphatase and β-glucosidase activities, especially in the second growth season, were significantly elevated by the vermicompost application. Urease activity, however, appeared not to be influenced by the type of organic fertilizer. A slight but statistically significant difference was detected between organic amendments in terms of number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria with vermicompost giving the lower values. Results showed that, in general, vermicompost significantly alters chemical and biological properties of the alkaline soil with high lime content during celery production under field conditions compared to farmyard manure and that it has a high potential to be used as an alternative to conventional organic fertilizers in agricultural production in the Mediterranean region of Turkey.

  10. Behaviour of oxyfluorfen in soils amended with edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers obtained from sewage sludge and chicken feathers. Effects on soil biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Gómez, Isidoro; Parrado, Juan; Tejada, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    We studied the behaviour of oxyfluorfen herbicide at a rate of 4 l ha(-1) on biological properties of a Calcaric Regosol amended with two edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers (SS, derived from sewage sludge; and CF, derived from chicken feathers). Oxyfluorfen was surface broadcast on 11 March 2013. Two days after application of oxyfluorfen to soil, both biostimulants/biofertilizers (BS) were also applied to the soil. An unamended soil without oxyfluorfen was used as control. For 2, 4, 7, 9, 20, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of the application of herbicide to the soil and for each treatment, the soil dehydrogenase, urease, β-glucosidase and phosphatase activities were measured. For 2, 7, 30 and 120 days of the application of herbicide to the soil and for each treatment, soil microbial community was determined. The application of both BS to soil without the herbicide increased the enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity, mainly at 7 days of beginning the experiment. However, this stimulation was higher in the soil amended with SS than for CF. The application of herbicide in organic-amended soils decreased the inhibition of soil enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity. Possibly, the low-molecular-weight protein content easily assimilated by soil microorganisms is responsible for less inhibition of these soil biological properties. PMID:24859703

  11. Impact of river overflowing on trace element contamination of volcanic soils in south Italy: Part II. Soil biological and biochemical properties in relation to trace element speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ascoli, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)]. E-mail: rosaria.dascoli@unina2.it; Rao, M.A. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e dell' Ambiente, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy)]. E-mail: maria.rao@unina.it; Adamo, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e dell' Ambiente, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy)]. E-mail: adamo@unina.it; Renella, G. [Dipartimento di Scienza del Suolo e Nutrizione della Pianta, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, P.le delle Cascine 28, 50144 Firenze (Italy)]. E-mail: giancarlo.renella@unifi.it; Landi, L. [Dipartimento di Scienza del Suolo e Nutrizione della Pianta, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, P.le delle Cascine 28, 50144 Firenze (Italy)]. E-mail: loretta.landi@unifi.it; Rutigliano, F.A. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)]. E-mail: floraa.rutigliano@unina2.it; Terribile, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e dell' Ambiente, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy)]. E-mail: terribil@unina.it; Gianfreda, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e dell' Ambiente, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy)]. E-mail: liliana.gianfreda@unina.it

    2006-11-15

    The effect of heavy metal contamination on biological and biochemical properties of Italian volcanic soils was evaluated in a multidisciplinary study, involving pedoenvironmental, micromorphological, physical, chemical, biological and biochemical analyses. Soils affected by recurring river overflowing, with Cr(III)-contaminated water and sediments, and a non-flooded control soil were analysed for microbial biomass, total and active fungal mycelium, enzyme activities (i.e., FDA hydrolase, dehydrogenase, {beta}-glucosidase, urease, arylsulphatase, acid phosphatase) and bacterial diversity (DGGE characterisation). Biological and biochemical data were related with both total and selected fractions of Cr and Cu (the latter deriving from agricultural chemical products) as well as with total and extractable organic C. The growth and activity of soil microbial community were influenced by soil organic C content rather than Cu or Cr contents. In fact, positive correlations between all studied parameters and organic C content were found. On the contrary, negative correlations were observed only between total fungal mycelium, dehydrogenase, arylsulphatase and acid phosphatase activities and only one Cr fraction (the soluble, exchangeable and carbonate bound). However, total Cr content negatively affected the eubacterial diversity but it did not determine changes in soil activity, probably because of the redundancy of functions within species of soil microbial community. On the other hand, expressing biological and biochemical parameters per unit of total organic C, Cu pollution negatively influenced microbial biomass, fungal mycelium and several enzyme activities, confirming soil organic matter is able to mask the negative effects of Cu on microbial community. - In studied soils organic C content resulted the principal factor influencing growth and activity of microbial community, with Cu and Cr contents having a lower relevance.

  12. Effects of Zero Tillage (No-Till) Conservation Agriculture on soil physical and biological properties and their contributions to sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, John N.; Rass, Gerard; de Freitas, Pedro L.; Basch, Gottlieb; González Sanchez, Emilio J.; Tabaglio, Vincenzo; Kassan, Amir; Derpsch, Rolf; Friedrich, Theodor; Giupponi, Luca

    2013-04-01

    Not cultivating soil, rotating crops over the years, and leaving crop residues on the surface in the practice of zero tillage/conservation agriculture (ZT/CA) reverses the historically accelerating degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) and soil structure, while increasing soil biological activity by a factor of 2 to 4. The results of this are many: (a) not cultivating reduces soil compaction, leaving old root holes to facilitate internal drainage, averts the pulverization of soil aggregates and formation of pans, reduces draft power for planting and gives shelter, winter food and nesting sites for fauna, (b) crop residues on the surface practically eliminate wind and water erosion, reduce soil moisture loss through the mulch effect, slow spring warm-up (possibly offset by a lower specific heat demand with less water retention in surface soil) and act as a reserve of organically-compounded nutrients (as they decompose to humus), (c) more SOM means higher available water and nutrient retention, higher biological activity year round (enhancing biological controls), higher levels of water-stable aggregates and a positive carbon sink in incremental SOM. The positive impacts for society are: (i) more and cheaper food, (ii) reduced flood and drought-induced famine risks, (iii) a positive carbon sink in SOM and possible reductions in NO2 emissions, (iv) cleaner water and greater aquifer recharge due to reduced runoff, (v) cleaner air through effective elimination of dust as a product of cultivation (vi) less water pollution and greater aquifer recharge from reduced rainfall runoff, (vii) farm diesel consumption halved, (viii) reduced demand for (tropical) de-forestation, by permitting crop expansion on steeper lands, (ix) increased wildlife populations (skylarks, plovers, partridge and peccaries) and (x) an improved conservation mindset in farmers. It is notable that, in spite of successful practitioners in all European countries, mainstream adoption is still to come

  13. Synthesis, characterization and biological properties of thienyl derived triazole Schiff bases and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Zahid H; Sumrra, Sajjad H

    2012-04-01

    A new series of biologically active thienyl derived triazole Schiff bases and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of physical (m.p., magnetic susceptibility and conductivity), spectral (IR, ¹H and ¹³C NMR, electronic and mass spectrometry) and microanalytical data. All the Schiff base ligands and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been subjected to in vitro antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica serover typhi) and two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) bacterial strains and, for in vitro antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifucus, Candida albican, Aspergillus flavus, Microscopum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata. Brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to check the cytotoxic nature of these compounds. PMID:21635212

  14. Influence of Nano-Crystal Metals on Texture and Biological Properties of Water Soluble Polysaccharides of Medicinal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churilov, G.; Ivanycheva, J.; Kiryshin, V.

    2015-11-01

    When treating the plants seeds with nano-materials there are some quality and quantity changes of polysaccharides, the molecular mass increase and monosaccharides change that leads to the increase of physiological and pharmacological activity of carbohydrates got from medicinal plants. We have got water soluble polysaccharides and nano-metals combinations containing 0.000165-0.000017 mg/dm3 of the metal. In a case of induced anemia the blood composition has practically restored on the 10th day of the treatment with nanocomposites. The use of pectin polysaccharides (that are attributed to modifiers of biological respond) to get nano-structured materials seems to be actual relative to their physiological activity (radio nuclides persorption, heavy metals ions, bacteria cells and their toxins; lipids metabolism normalization; bowels secreting and motor functions activation and modulation of the endocrine system.

  15. Taurolidine antiadhesive properties on interaction with E. coli; its transformation in biological environment and interaction with bacteria cell wall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Caruso

    Full Text Available The taurine amino-acid derivative, taurolidine, bis-(1,1-dioxoperhydro-1,2,4-thiabiazinyl-4methane, shows broad antibacterial action against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria and some clinically relevant fungi. It inhibits, in vitro, the adherence of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to human epithelial and fibroblast cells. Taurolidine is unstable in aqueous solution and breaks down into derivatives which are thought to be responsible for the biological activity. To understand the taurolidine antibacterial mechanism of action, we provide the experimental single crystal X-ray diffraction results together with theoretical methods to characterize the hydrolysis/decomposition reactions of taurolidine. The crystal structure features two independent molecules linked through intermolecular H-bonds with one of them somewhat positively charged. Taurolidine in a biological environment exists in equilibrium with taurultam derivatives and this is described theoretically as a 2-step process without an energy barrier: formation of cationic taurolidine followed by a nucleophilic attack of O(hydroxyl on the exocyclic C(methylene. A concerted mechanism describes the further hydrolysis of the taurolidine derivative methylol-taurultam. The interaction of methylol-taurultam with the diaminopimelic NH(2 group in the E. coli bacteria cell wall (peptidoglycan has a negative DeltaG value (-38.2 kcal/mol but a high energy barrier (45.8 kcal/mol suggesting no reactivity. On the contrary, taurolidine docking into E. coli fimbriae protein, responsible for bacteria adhesion to the bladder epithelium, shows it has higher affinity than mannose (the natural substrate, whereas methylol-taurultam and taurultam are less tightly bound. Since taurolidine is readily available because it is administered in high doses after peritonitis surgery, it may successfully compete with mannose explaining its effectiveness against bacterial infections at

  16. The Impact of Olive Mill Wastewater on the Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Soils in Northwest Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Wahsha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination may influence negatively soil health, which often limits and sometimes disqualifies soil biodiversity and decreases plant growth. Soil health is the continued capacity of the soil to function as a vital living system, providing essential ecosystem services. Within soils, all bio-geo-chemical processes of the different ecosystem components are combined. These processes are able to sustain biological productivity of soil, to maintain the quality of surrounding air and water environments, as well as to promote plant, animal, and human health. A common criterion to evaluate long term sustainability of ecosystems is to assess the quality of soil. However, the increased concentration and distribution of toxic substances in soils by mismanagement of industrial activities, overuse of agrochemicals and waste disposal are causing worldwide concern. A major environmental concern in the Mediterranean countries is the production of the large quantities of olive oil mill wastewater (OMW produced during olive oil extraction process. OMW inhibits several groups of bacteria and fungal species, thus affecting soil stability. In the present study, we investigated the effect of OMW on the soil physical, chemical characteristics and the microarthropods structure. All soil samples were collected from an olive mill garden in Northwest Jordan. Biological soil quality index (QBS-ar values appeared to decrease with respect to soil pollution by OMW. All investigated parameters were significantly different depending on the levels of OMW contamination in soil. Anthropogenic activities influenced the microarthropod community, altering both quantity and quality of soil chemical and physical structure of the microhabitats. Preliminary data obtained in this study suggest that the application of QBS-ar index could be a useful tool for evaluating surface soils health status.

  17. Alkali Metal Ion Complexes with Phosphates, Nucleotides, Amino Acids, and Related Ligands of Biological Relevance. Their Properties in Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Francesco; De Stefano, Concetta; Foti, Claudia; Lando, Gabriele; Milea, Demetrio; Sammartano, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    Alkali metal ions play very important roles in all biological systems, some of them are essential for life. Their concentration depends on several physiological factors and is very variable. For example, sodium concentrations in human fluids vary from quite low (e.g., 8.2 mmol dm(-3) in mature maternal milk) to high values (0.14 mol dm(-3) in blood plasma). While many data on the concentration of Na(+) and K(+) in various fluids are available, the information on other alkali metal cations is scarce. Since many vital functions depend on the network of interactions occurring in various biofluids, this chapter reviews their complex formation with phosphates, nucleotides, amino acids, and related ligands of biological relevance. Literature data on this topic are quite rare if compared to other cations. Generally, the stability of alkali metal ion complexes of organic and inorganic ligands is rather low (usually log K  Na(+) > K(+) > Rb(+) > Cs(+). For example, for citrate it is: log K ML = 0.88, 0.80, 0.48, 0.38, and 0.13 at 25 °C and infinite dilution. Some considerations are made on the main aspects related to the difficulties in the determination of weak complexes. The importance of the alkali metal ion complexes was also studied in the light of modelling natural fluids and in the use of these cations as probes for different processes. Some empirical relationships are proposed for the dependence of the stability constants of Na(+) complexes on the ligand charge, as well as for correlations among log K values of NaL, KL or LiL species (L = generic ligand). PMID:26860301

  18. Imaging a full set of optical scattering properties of biological tissue by inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ji; Backman, Vadim

    2012-11-01

    We here develop a method to measure and image the full optical scattering properties by inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (ISOCT). Tissue is modelled as a medium with continuous refractive index (RI) fluctuation and such a fluctuation is described by the RI correlation functions. Under the first-order Born approximation, the forward model is established for ISOCT. By measuring optical quantities of tissue including the scattering power of the OCT spectrum, the reflection albedo α defined as the ratio of scattering coefficient μ(s), and the backscattering coefficient μ(b), we are able to inversely deduce the RI correlation function and image the full set of optical scattering properties. PMID:23114323

  19. Imaging a full set of optical scattering properties of biological tissue by inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Ji; Backman, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    We here develop a method to measure and image the full optical scattering properties by inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (ISOCT). Tissue is modelled as a medium with continuous refractive index (RI) fluctuation and such a fluctuation is described by the RI correlation functions. Under the first-order Born approximation, the forward model is established for ISOCT. By measuring optical quantities of tissue including the scattering power (SP) of the OCT spectrum, the reflection...

  20. Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  1. Improved circuit model of open-ended coaxial probe for measurement of the biological tissue dielectric properties between megahertz and gigahertz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note describes an improved equivalent circuit analysis model for open-ended coaxial probes for measurement of the dielectric properties of biological tissues below the gigahertz level. Some parameters in the conventional model that influence the measurement results were found to be still relative to the dielectric properties of the test sample and the terminal admittance of the probe was found to be dependent on the frequency. This was not found to be the case with the conventional model. According to the simulation results in frequency range from 30 MHz to 1 GHz, a polynomial expression was found to fit the frequency–admittance curve for terminal admittance and the equivalent circuit expression of probe terminal admittance was finally modified. The simulated annealing algorithm was used to calculate the dielectric properties of the new expression. The accuracy of the improved model was validated through a simulation test and experiment based on a series of solutions over 30 MHz–1 GHz. The new model was compared to the conventional model and was found to provide more accurate permittivity estimation over a wider frequency range than the conventional model if said range was between megahertz and gigahertz. (note)

  2. Characterization of biological and antigenic properties of raccoon dog and blue fox parvoviruses: a monoclonal antibody study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veijalainen, P

    1988-03-01

    Parvovirus isolates from blue foxes and raccoon dogs were characterized by studying their haemagglutination properties, host range in vitro and antigenic structure. In all 3 characters, raccoon dog parvovirus resembled canine parvovirus (CPV), while blue fox parvovirus was similar to mink enteritis virus (MEV). Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were prepared against both viruses. Raccoon dog parvovirus, while resembling CPV, had a unique antigenic site which could be specified by MAbs. The pattern of MAbs prepared against blue fox parvovirus indicated that it is a member of Type 2 MEV. PMID:2836994

  3. The nonconservative property of dissolved molybdenum in the western Taiwan Strait: Relevance of submarine groundwater discharges and biological utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deli; Xia, Weiwei; Lu, Shuimiao; Wang, Guizhi; Liu, Qian; Moore, Willard S.; Arthur Chen, Chen-Tung

    2016-01-01

    This study examined dissolved Mo and sedimentary Mo along with hydrochemical parameters in the western Taiwan Strait (WTS) in May and August 2012. The results demonstrate that dissolved Mo could be depleted of as high as 10-20 nM during our May sampling period when the nutrient-enriched Min-Zhe coastal current ceased and spring blooms developed. The negative correlation between Chl-a and dissolved Mo suggests the possible involvement of high algal productivity in removing dissolved Mo out of the water column. Specific oceanographic settings (little currents) permitted a high sedimentary enrichment of Mo (>6 µg/g Mo) within the highly productive waters outside the Jiulong River mouth. Possibly, the high algal productivities and consequent organic matter sinks provide a pathway of Mo burial from water columns into sediments. Dissolved Mo was relatively high in groundwater samples, but we observed that submarine groundwater discharges (SGDs) only contributed to a relatively small percentage of the total dissolved Mo pool in WTS. It is probably attributable to the immediate removal of SGD-released Mo ions via adsorption onto newly formed Mn oxides once exposed to oxygenated seawater, followed by an elevated sedimentary Mo accumulation near the SGDs (˜5 µg/g). In addition to metal oxide particle scavenging and sulfide precipitation, we estimated that biological uptake along with Mo adsorption onto organic matter carriers could finally provide more than 10% of the annual sedimentary Mo accumulation in WTS.

  4. Interaction of acylated and substituted antimicrobial peptide analogs with phospholipid-polydiacetylene vesicles. Correlation with their biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siano, Alvaro; Húmpola, María V; Rey, María C; Simonetta, Arturo; Tonarelli, Georgina G

    2011-07-01

    A series of peptide analogs based on region 6-22 of Plantaricin 149 sequence were synthesized. The interaction between these analogs and phospholipid-polydiacetylene vesicles was investigated to evaluate the ability of the bioassay to detect differences in the interaction of the peptides with dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles, associated with amino acid substitution and N-terminal conjugation of the sequences with short fatty acids (8 and 12 carbon atoms). Fatty acid conjugation of peptides with low antimicrobial activity resulted in lipopeptides with improved activity against strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The length of the fatty acid determined the bacterial specificity, and the conjugation with n-octanoic acid yielded the most active analog (C8-CT) against Staphylococcus aureus strain (MIC: 1.0 μm) while the conjugation with n-dodecanoic acid (C12-CT) was optimal for Listeria monocytogenes strain (MIC: 2.0 μm). In contrast, the substitution of Phe by Trp had an unfavorable effect on the antimicrobial activity. Hemolysis tests and membrane interaction studies with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine-polydiacetylene vesicles showed that lipopeptides interact to a greater extent with both biological and biomimetic membranes. Also, a good correlation was found between antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strain and % colorimetric response values with dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol-polydiacetylene vesicles. PMID:21496212

  5. Effect of Ferric Chloride on the Properties of Biological Sludge in Co-precipitation Phosphorus Removal Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhibin; LI Yi; WEI Leilei; L(U) Yufeng; WANG Meng; GAO Baoyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper studied the effect of ferric chloride on waste sludge digestion,dewatering and sedimentation under the optimized doses in co-precipitation phosphorus removal process.The experimental results showed that the concentration of mixed liquid suspended solid (MLSS) was 2436 mg·L-1 and 2385 mg·L-1 in co-precipitation phosphorus removal process (CPR) and biological phosphorous removal process (BPR),respectively.The sludge reduction ratio for each process was 22.6% and 24.6% in aerobic digestion,and 27.6% and 29.9% in anaerobic digestion,respectively.Due to the addition of chemical to the end of aeration tank,the sludge content of CPR was slightly higher than that of BPR,but the sludge reduction rate for both processes had no distinct difference.The sludge volume index (SVI) and sludge specific resistance of BPR were 126 ml·g-1 and 11.7×1012 m·kg-1,respectively,while those of CPR were only 98 ml·g-1 and 7.1×1012 m·kg-1,indicating that CPR chemical could improve sludge settling and dewatering.

  6. Characterization of water reservoirs affected by acid mine drainage: geochemical, mineralogical, and biological (diatoms) properties of the water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, T; Rivera, M J; Almeida, S F P; Delgado, C; Gomes, P; Grande, J A; de la Torre, M L; Santisteban, M

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a combination of geochemical, mineralogical, and biological data obtained in water reservoirs located in one of the most paradigmatic mining regions, suffering from acid mine drainage (AMD) problems: the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Four water reservoirs located in the Spanish sector of the IBP, storing water for different purposes, were selected to achieve an environmental classification based on the effects of AMD: two mining dams (Gossan and Águas Ácidas), a reservoir for industrial use (Sancho), and one with water used for human supply (Andévalo). The results indicated that the four reservoirs are subject to the effect of metallic loads from polluted rivers, although with different levels: Águas Ácidas > Gossan > Sancho ≥ Andévalo. In accordance, epipsammic diatom communities have differences in the respective composition and dominant taxa. The dominant diatoms in each reservoir indicated acid water: Pinnularia acidophila and Pinnularia aljustrelica were found in the most acidic dams (Gossan and Águas Ácidas, with pH <3), Pinnularia subcapitata in Sancho (pH 2.48-5.82), and Eunotia exigua in Andévalo (pH 2.34-6.15). PMID:26032451

  7. Improvement of mechanical and biological properties of TiNi alloys by addition of Cu and Co to orthodontic archwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phukaoluan, Aphinan; Khantachawana, Anak; Kaewtatip, Pongpan; Dechkunakorn, Surachai; Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate improved performances of TiNi in order to promote tooth movement. Special attention was paid to the effect on the clinical properties of TiNi of adding Cu and Co to this alloy. Ti49.4Ni50.6, Ti49Ni46Cu5 and Ti50Ni47Co3 (at %) alloys were prepared. Specimens were cold-rolled at 30% reduction and heat-treated at 400°C for 60min. Then, the test results were compared with two types of commercial archwires. The findings showed that superelasticity properties were confirmed in the manufactured commercial alloys at mouth temperature. The difference of stress plateau in TiNi, TiNiCo and commercial wires B at 25°C changed significantly at various testing temperatures due to the combination of martensite and austenite phases. At certain temperatures the alloys exhibited zero recovery stress at 2% strain and consequently produced zero activation force for moving teeth. The corrosion test showed that the addition of Cu and Co to TiNi alloys generates an increase in corrosion potential (Ecorr) and corrosion current densities (Icorr). Finally, we observed that addition of Cu and Co improved cell viability. We conclude that addition of an appropriate amount of a third alloying element can help enhance the performances of TiNi orthodontic archwires. PMID:27520713

  8. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  9. Soil quality evaluation following the implementation of permanent cover crops in semi-arid vineyards. Organic matter, physical and biological soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virto, I.; Imaz, M. J.; Fernandez-Ugalde, O.; Urrutia, I.; Enrique, A.; Bescansa, P.

    2012-07-01

    Changing from conventional vineyard soil management, which includes keeping bare soil through intense tilling and herbicides, to permanent grass cover (PGC) is controversial in semi-arid land because it has agronomic and environmental advantages but it can also induce negative changes in the soil physical status. The objectives of this work were (i) gaining knowledge on the effect of PGC on the soil physical and biological quality, and (ii) identifying the most suitable soil quality indicators for vineyard calcareous soils in semi-arid land. Key soil physical, organic and biological characteristics were determined in a Cambic Calcisol with different time under PGC (1 and 5 years), and in a conventionally managed control. Correlation analysis showed a direct positive relationship between greater aggregate stability (WSA), soil-available water capacity (AWC), microbial biomass and enzymatic activity in the topsoil under PGC. Total and labile organic C concentrations (SOC and POM-C) were also correlated to microbial parameters. Factor analysis of the studied soil attributes using principal component analysis (PCA) was done to identify the most sensitive soil quality indicators. Earthworm activity, AWC, WSA, SOC and POM-C were the soil attributes with greater loadings in the two factors determined by PCA, which means that these properties can be considered adequate soil quality indicators in this agrosystem. These results indicate that both soil physical and biological attributes are different under PGC than in conventionally-managed soils, and need therefore to be evaluated when assessing the consequences of PGC on vineyard soil quality. (Author) 65 refs.

  10. [BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF BACTERIA OF THE FAMILY ENTEROBACTERIACEAE AS COMPONENTS OF MICROSYMBIOCENOSIS OF THE FIRST INTERMEDIATE HOSTS OF O.FELINEUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, T F; Bukharin, O V; Kataeva, L V; Perunova, N B; Karpukhina, N F

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was to study the biological properties (antilysozyme activity (ALA), biofilm formation (BFF), and virulence factors) of different Enterobacteriaceae species isolated from Bithyniidae mollusks and their habitats. A total of 117 strains isolated from Bithyniidae mollusks of the genera Codiella and Bithynia and those from their habitats were the material to be studied. Thus, comparison of the mean values of ALA in Enterobacteriaceae species suggests that the strains isolated from the mollusks and their aqueous habitat did not virtually differ in this indicator. Also, there were no statistically significant differences in the detection rate of the Enterobacteriaceae strains having a pronounced antilysozyme activity and in that of mollusks circulating in the aqueous habitat when compared with the strains isolated from the mollusks. Comparison of BFF in the aqueous bacterial strains and mollusk microbiota representatives revealed the highest values in the former; just lower value was noted in the latter. Soil Enterobacteriaceae isolates had very low BFF values. PMID:26827577

  11. The Importance Of Surface Topography For The Biological Properties Of Nitrided Diffusion Layers Produced On Ti6Al4V Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzchoń T.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion nitrided layers produced on titanium and its alloys are widely studied in terms of their application for cardiac and bone implants. The influence of the structure, the phase composition, topography and surface morphology on their biological properties is being investigated. The article presents the results of a study of the topography (nanotopography of the surface of TiN+Ti2N+αTi(N nitrided layers produced in low-temperature plasma on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy and their influence on the adhesion of blood platelets and their aggregates. The TEM microstructure of the produced layers have been examined and it was demonstrated that the interaction between platelets and the surface of the titanium implants subjected to glow-discharge nitriding can be shaped via modification of the roughness parameters of the external layer of the TiN titanium nitride nanocrystalline zone.

  12. The physicochemical/biological properties of porous tantalum and the potential surface modification techniques to improve its clinical application in dental implantology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More rapid restoration and more rigid functionality have been pursued for decades in the field of dental implantology. Under such motivation, porous tantalum has been recently introduced to design a novel type of dental implant. Porous tantalum bears interconnected porous structure with pore size ranging from 300 to 600 μm and a porosity of 75–85%. Its elastic modulus (1.3–10 GPa) more closely approximates that of natural cortical (12–18 GPa) and cancellous bone (0.1–0.5 GPa) in comparison with the most commonly used dental materials, such as titanium and titanium alloy (106–115 GPa). Porous tantalum is highly corrosion-resistant and biocompatible. It can significantly enhance the proliferation and differentiation of primary osteoblasts derived from elderly people than titanium. Porous tantalum can allow bone ingrowth and establish not only osseointegration but also osseoincorporation, which will significantly enhance the secondary stability of implants in bone tissue. In this review, we summarize the physicochemical, mechanical and biological properties of porous tantalum. We further discuss the performance of current tantalum dental implants and present the methodologies of surface modifications in order to improve their biological performance

  13. Effects of Single Amino Acid Substitution on the Biophysical Properties and Biological Activities of an Amphipathic α-Helical Antibacterial Peptide Against Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Tan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An antimicrobial peptide, known as V13K, was utilized as the framework to study the effects of charge, hydrophobicity and helicity on the biophysical properties and biological activities of α-helical peptides. Six amino acids (Lys, Glu, Gly, Ser, Ala, and Leu were individually used to substitute the original hydrophobic valine at the selected sixteenth location on the non-polar face of V13K. The results showed that the single amino acid substitutions changed the hydrophobicity of peptide analogs as monitored by RP-HPLC, but did not cause significant changes on peptide secondary structures both in a benign buffer and in a hydrophobic environment. The biological activities of the analogs exhibited a hydrophobicity-dependent behavior. The mechanism of peptide interaction with the outer membrane and cytoplasmic membrane of Gram-negative bacteria was investigated. We demonstrated that this single amino acid substitution method has valuable potential for the rational design of antimicrobial peptides with enhanced activities.

  14. The physicochemical/biological properties of porous tantalum and the potential surface modification techniques to improve its clinical application in dental implantology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yindong [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Bao, Chongyun, E-mail: cybao9933@scu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Wismeijer, Daniel [Department of Oral Implantology and Prosthetic Dentistry, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam and University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wu, Gang, E-mail: g.wu@acta.nl [Department of Oral Implantology and Prosthetic Dentistry, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam and University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    More rapid restoration and more rigid functionality have been pursued for decades in the field of dental implantology. Under such motivation, porous tantalum has been recently introduced to design a novel type of dental implant. Porous tantalum bears interconnected porous structure with pore size ranging from 300 to 600 μm and a porosity of 75–85%. Its elastic modulus (1.3–10 GPa) more closely approximates that of natural cortical (12–18 GPa) and cancellous bone (0.1–0.5 GPa) in comparison with the most commonly used dental materials, such as titanium and titanium alloy (106–115 GPa). Porous tantalum is highly corrosion-resistant and biocompatible. It can significantly enhance the proliferation and differentiation of primary osteoblasts derived from elderly people than titanium. Porous tantalum can allow bone ingrowth and establish not only osseointegration but also osseoincorporation, which will significantly enhance the secondary stability of implants in bone tissue. In this review, we summarize the physicochemical, mechanical and biological properties of porous tantalum. We further discuss the performance of current tantalum dental implants and present the methodologies of surface modifications in order to improve their biological performance.

  15. The role of EPR spectroscopy in studies of the oxidative status of biological systems and the antioxidative properties of various compounds - REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVAN SPASOJEVIĆ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this era of intense study of free radicals and antioxidants, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR is arguably the best-suited technique for such research, particularly when considering biochemical and biological systems. No attempt was made to cover all the topics of EPR application but instead attention was restricted to two areas that are both novel and received less attention in previous reviews. In the first section, the application of EPR in assessing the oxidative status of various biological systems, using endogenous stabile paramagnetic species, such as the ascorbyl radical, semiquinone, melanin, and oxidized pigments, is addressed. The second section covers the use of EPR in the emerging field of antioxidant development, using EPR spin-trapping and spin-probing techniques. In both sections, in addition to giving an overview of the available literature, examples (mostly from the authors’ recent work are also presented in sufficient detail to illustrate how to explore the full potential of EPR. This review aims at encouraging biologists, chemists and pharmacologists interested in the redox metabolism of living systems, free radical chemistry or antioxidative properties of new drugs and natural products to take advantage of this technique for their investigations.

  16. Influence of powdered activated carbon addition on water quality, sludge properties, and microbial characteristics in the biological treatment of commingled industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing-Yuan; Li, Meng; Wang, Can; Ji, Min

    2015-09-15

    A powdered activated carbon-activated sludge (PAC-AS) system, a traditional activated sludge (AS) system, and a powdered activated carbon (PAC) system were operated to examine the insights into the influence of PAC addition on biological treatment. The average COD removal efficiencies of the PAC-AS system (39%) were nearly double that of the AS system (20%). Compared with the average efficiencies of the PAC system (7%), COD removal by biodegradation in the PAC-AS system was remarkably higher than that in the AS system. The analysis of the influence of PAC on water quality and sludge properties showed that PAC facilitated the removal of hydrophobic matter and metabolic acidic products, and also enhanced the biomass accumulation, sludge settleability, and specific oxygen uptake rate inside the biological system. The microbial community structures in the PAC-AS and AS systems were monitored. The results showed that the average well color development in the PAC-AS system was higher than that in the AS system. The utilization of various substrates by microorganisms in the two systems did not differ. The dissimilarity index was far less than one; thus, showing that the microbial community structures of the two systems were the same. PMID:25863578

  17. Using calcium silicate to regulate the physicochemical and biological properties when using β-tricalcium phosphate as bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive material. For this research we have combined it with a low degradation calcium silicate (CS) to enhance its bioactive and osteostimulative properties. To check its effectiveness, a series of β-TCP/CS composites with different ratios were prepared to make new bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites for bone repair. Regarding the formation of bone-like apatite, the diametral tensile strength as well as the ion release and weight loss of composites were compared both before and after immersions in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, we also examined the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) cultured on β-TCP/CS composites. The results show that the apatite deposition ability of the β-TCP/CS composites improves as the CS content is increased. For composites with more than a 60% CS content, the samples become completely covered by a dense bone-like apatite layer. At the end of the immersion period, weight losses of 24%, 32%, 34%, 38%, 41%, and 45% were observed for the composites containing 0%, 20%, 40%, 80%, 80% and 100% β-TCP cements, respectively. In addition, the antibacterial activity of CS/β-TCP composite improves as the CS-content is increased. In vitro cell experiments show that the CS-rich composites promote human dental pulp cell (hDPC) proliferation and differentiation. However, when the CS quantity in the composite is less than 60%, the quantity of cells and osteogenesis protein of hDPCs is stimulated by Si released from the β-TCP/CS composites. The degradation of β-TCP and the osteogenesis of CS give strong reason to believe that these calcium-based composite cements will prove to be effective bone repair materials. - Highlights: • CS improved the physicochemical properties and osteogenic activity of β-TCP. • Higher CS in the composite, the shorter setting time and the higher DTS was found. • With a CS more than 40%, the osteogenesis and angiogenesis proteins were promoted by

  18. Using calcium silicate to regulate the physicochemical and biological properties when using β-tricalcium phosphate as bone cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Chia-Tze; Huang, Tsui-Hsien [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yi-Jyun [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Dental Department, Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Hung, Chi-Jr [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Chang, E-mail: chichang31@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Shie, Ming-You, E-mail: eviltacasi@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive material. For this research we have combined it with a low degradation calcium silicate (CS) to enhance its bioactive and osteostimulative properties. To check its effectiveness, a series of β-TCP/CS composites with different ratios were prepared to make new bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites for bone repair. Regarding the formation of bone-like apatite, the diametral tensile strength as well as the ion release and weight loss of composites were compared both before and after immersions in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, we also examined the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) cultured on β-TCP/CS composites. The results show that the apatite deposition ability of the β-TCP/CS composites improves as the CS content is increased. For composites with more than a 60% CS content, the samples become completely covered by a dense bone-like apatite layer. At the end of the immersion period, weight losses of 24%, 32%, 34%, 38%, 41%, and 45% were observed for the composites containing 0%, 20%, 40%, 80%, 80% and 100% β-TCP cements, respectively. In addition, the antibacterial activity of CS/β-TCP composite improves as the CS-content is increased. In vitro cell experiments show that the CS-rich composites promote human dental pulp cell (hDPC) proliferation and differentiation. However, when the CS quantity in the composite is less than 60%, the quantity of cells and osteogenesis protein of hDPCs is stimulated by Si released from the β-TCP/CS composites. The degradation of β-TCP and the osteogenesis of CS give strong reason to believe that these calcium-based composite cements will prove to be effective bone repair materials. - Highlights: • CS improved the physicochemical properties and osteogenic activity of β-TCP. • Higher CS in the composite, the shorter setting time and the higher DTS was found. • With a CS more than 40%, the osteogenesis and angiogenesis proteins were promoted by

  19. Mechanical properties, biological activity and protein controlled release by poly(vinyl alcohol)–bioglass/chitosan–collagen composite scaffolds: A bone tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon-On, Weeraphat, E-mail: fsciwpp@ku.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Thongbunchoo, Jirawan; Krishnamra, Nateetip [Center of Calcium and Bone Research (COCAB), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University (Thailand); Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University (Thailand); Tang, I-Ming [ThEP Center, Commission of Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Rd. (Thailand); Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, composite scaffolds made with different weight ratios (0.5:1, 1:1 and 2:1) of bioactive glass (15Ca:80Si:5P) (BG)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) (PVABG) and chitosan (Chi)/collagen (Col) (ChiCol) were prepared by three mechanical freeze–thaw followed by freeze-drying to obtain the porous scaffolds. The mechanical properties and the in vitro biocompatibility of the composite scaffolds to simulated body fluid (SBF) and to rat osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells were investigated. The results from the studies indicated that the porosity and compressive strength were controlled by the weight ratio of PVABG:ChiCol. The highest compressive modulus of the composites made was 214.64 MPa which was for the 1:1 weight ratio PVABG:ChiCol. Mineralization study in SBF showed the formation of apatite crystals on the PVABG:ChiCol surface after 7 days of incubation. In vitro cell availability and proliferation tests confirmed the osteoblast attachment and growth on the PVABG:ChiCol surface. MTT and ALP tests on the 1:1 weight ratio PVABG:ChiCol composite indicated that the UMR-106 cells were viable. Alkaline phosphatase activity was found to increase with increasing culturing time. In addition, we showed the potential of PVABG:ChiCol drug delivery through PBS solution studies. 81.14% of BSA loading had been achieved and controlled release for over four weeks was observed. Our results indicated that the PVABG:ChiCol composites, especially the 1:1 weight ratio composite exhibited significantly improved mechanical, mineral deposition, biological properties and controlled release. This made them potential candidates for bone tissue engineering applications. - Graphical abstract: Mechanical properties, biological activity and protein controlled release by poly(vinyl alcohol)–bioglass/chitosan–collagen composite scaffolds: A bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Preparation of PVABG:ChiCol hybrid composites and their bioactivities • Mechanical

  20. Mechanical properties, biological activity and protein controlled release by poly(vinyl alcohol)–bioglass/chitosan–collagen composite scaffolds: A bone tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, composite scaffolds made with different weight ratios (0.5:1, 1:1 and 2:1) of bioactive glass (15Ca:80Si:5P) (BG)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) (PVABG) and chitosan (Chi)/collagen (Col) (ChiCol) were prepared by three mechanical freeze–thaw followed by freeze-drying to obtain the porous scaffolds. The mechanical properties and the in vitro biocompatibility of the composite scaffolds to simulated body fluid (SBF) and to rat osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells were investigated. The results from the studies indicated that the porosity and compressive strength were controlled by the weight ratio of PVABG:ChiCol. The highest compressive modulus of the composites made was 214.64 MPa which was for the 1:1 weight ratio PVABG:ChiCol. Mineralization study in SBF showed the formation of apatite crystals on the PVABG:ChiCol surface after 7 days of incubation. In vitro cell availability and proliferation tests confirmed the osteoblast attachment and growth on the PVABG:ChiCol surface. MTT and ALP tests on the 1:1 weight ratio PVABG:ChiCol composite indicated that the UMR-106 cells were viable. Alkaline phosphatase activity was found to increase with increasing culturing time. In addition, we showed the potential of PVABG:ChiCol drug delivery through PBS solution studies. 81.14% of BSA loading had been achieved and controlled release for over four weeks was observed. Our results indicated that the PVABG:ChiCol composites, especially the 1:1 weight ratio composite exhibited significantly improved mechanical, mineral deposition, biological properties and controlled release. This made them potential candidates for bone tissue engineering applications. - Graphical abstract: Mechanical properties, biological activity and protein controlled release by poly(vinyl alcohol)–bioglass/chitosan–collagen composite scaffolds: A bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Preparation of PVABG:ChiCol hybrid composites and their bioactivities • Mechanical

  1. Evaluation, prediction and optimization the ultrasound-assisted extraction method using response surface methodology: antioxidant and biological properties of Stachys parviflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashi, Davoud Salar; Dowom, Samaneh Attaran; Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh Fazly; Khanzadeh, Farhad; Soheili, Vahid; Mohammadpour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): To optimize the extraction method using response surface methodology, extract the phenolic compounds, and identify the antioxidant and biological properties of Stachys parviflora L. extracts. Materials and Methods: Maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) (4, 7, 10 min treatment time, 40, 70, 100 % high-intensity and 60, 80, 100 % (v v-1) methanol purity) were applied to obtain the extracts. SEM was conducted to provide the microstructure of the extracted plant. MICs (colorimetric assay), MFCs (colony diameter), total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, radical scavenging capacity and extraction efficiency were determined. HPLC analysis was applied to measure the existent phenolic compounds. Results: A quadratic model (4 min treatment time, 74.5 % high-intensity and 74.2 % solvent purity) was suggested as the best (TPC: 20.89 mg GAE g-1 d.m., TFC: 6.22 mg QEs g-1 d.m., DPPH IC50: 21.86 µg ml-1 and EE: 113.65 mg g-1 d.m.) UAE extraction model. The optimized UAE extract was generally more effective against Gram-positive microorganisms (MIC: 10-20; MBC: 10-40 (mg ml-1)) than Gram-negative ones (MIC: 40; MBC: >40 (mg ml-1)). Moreover, it (MGI: 2.32-100 %) revealed more anti-mold activity than maceration (MGI: <28.77 %). Explosive disruption of the cell walls, therefore, enhanced extraction yield by acoustic cavitation, was elucidated using SEM. Caffeic acid, tannic acid, quercetin, trans ferulic acid and rosmarinic acid were determined as the phenolic compounds in the optimized extract. Conclusion: RSM optimization was successfully applied for UAE from S. parviflora. The considerable antioxidant and biological properties were attributed to the phenolic compounds. PMID:27403260

  2. Irradiation of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) surfaces by CF{sub 4} plasma to achieve robust superhydrophobic and enhanced oleophilic properties for biological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salapare, Hernando S., E-mail: hssalapare@up.edu.ph [Plasma Physics Laboratory, National Institute of Physics, College of Science, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); eUP Office and UP Information Technology Development Center, University of the Philippines, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Suarez, Beverly Anne T. [Physics Department, De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila (Philippines); Cosiñero, Hannah Shamina O.; Bacaoco, Miguel Y.; Ramos, Henry J. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, National Institute of Physics, College of Science, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines)

    2015-01-01

    Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) was irradiated by CF{sub 4} plasma produced in the gas discharge ion source facility to produce stable and robust superhydrophobic surfaces and to enhance the materials' oleophilic property for biological applications. The characterizations employed on the samples are contact angle measurements, analysis of the surface morphology (scanning electron microscopy), surface roughness measurements (atomic force microscopy) and analysis of the surface chemistry (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). Superhydrophobic behavior with water contact angles as high as 156° was observed. The wettability of all the treated samples was found to be stable in time as evidenced by the statistically insignificant differences in the hysteresis contact angles. The level of enhanced hydrophobicity depended on the plasma energies (i.e. irradiation times, discharge current, and discharge voltage); higher plasma energies produced surfaces with high hydrophobicity. The plasma treatment also enhanced the oleophilic property of the materials' surface as evidenced by the decrease in the PDMS-oil contact angle from 33° to as low as 10°. The superhydrophobicity of the modified PTFE and the enhancement of its oleophilic property were due to (1) the changes in the roughness of the surface, (2) the formation of nanoparticles or nanostructures on the surface, and (3) the changes in the surface chemistry. - Highlights: • PTFE surfaces were treated with direct CF{sub 4} using the gas discharge ion source. • Stable superhydrophobic behavior with water contact angles as high as 156° was recorded. • Surface roughness increased as the surface exhibited enhanced hydrophobicity. • Carbon nanoparticles were observed on the superhydrophobic PTFE surface. • Enhanced oleophilic property was observed with change in the PDMS-oil contact angle from 33° to 10°.

  3. Irradiation of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) surfaces by CF4 plasma to achieve robust superhydrophobic and enhanced oleophilic properties for biological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) was irradiated by CF4 plasma produced in the gas discharge ion source facility to produce stable and robust superhydrophobic surfaces and to enhance the materials' oleophilic property for biological applications. The characterizations employed on the samples are contact angle measurements, analysis of the surface morphology (scanning electron microscopy), surface roughness measurements (atomic force microscopy) and analysis of the surface chemistry (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). Superhydrophobic behavior with water contact angles as high as 156° was observed. The wettability of all the treated samples was found to be stable in time as evidenced by the statistically insignificant differences in the hysteresis contact angles. The level of enhanced hydrophobicity depended on the plasma energies (i.e. irradiation times, discharge current, and discharge voltage); higher plasma energies produced surfaces with high hydrophobicity. The plasma treatment also enhanced the oleophilic property of the materials' surface as evidenced by the decrease in the PDMS-oil contact angle from 33° to as low as 10°. The superhydrophobicity of the modified PTFE and the enhancement of its oleophilic property were due to (1) the changes in the roughness of the surface, (2) the formation of nanoparticles or nanostructures on the surface, and (3) the changes in the surface chemistry. - Highlights: • PTFE surfaces were treated with direct CF4 using the gas discharge ion source. • Stable superhydrophobic behavior with water contact angles as high as 156° was recorded. • Surface roughness increased as the surface exhibited enhanced hydrophobicity. • Carbon nanoparticles were observed on the superhydrophobic PTFE surface. • Enhanced oleophilic property was observed with change in the PDMS-oil contact angle from 33° to 10°

  4. Biological and mechanical properties of an experimental glass-ionomer cement modified by partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ae KIM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSome weaknesses of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC as dental materials, for instance the lack of bioactive potential and poor mechanical properties, remain unsolved.Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO on the mechanical and biological properties of the experimental glass ionomer cements.Material and Methods Calcium fluoro-alumino-silicate glass was prepared for an experimental glass ionomer cement by melt quenching technique. The glass composition was modified by partial replacement (10 mol% of CaO with MgO or ZnO. Net setting time, compressive and flexural properties, and in vitrorat dental pulp stem cells (rDPSCs viability were examined for the prepared GICs and compared to a commercial GIC.Results The experimental GICs set more slowly than the commercial product, but their extended setting times are still within the maximum limit (8 min specified in ISO 9917-1. Compressive strength of the experimental GIC was not increased by the partial substitution of CaO with either MgO or ZnO, but was comparable to the commercial control. For flexural properties, although there was no significance between the base and the modified glass, all prepared GICs marked a statistically higher flexural strength (p<0.05 and comparable modulus to control. The modified cements showed increased cell viability for rDPSCs.Conclusions The experimental GICs modified with MgO or ZnO can be considered bioactive dental materials.

  5. Evaluation of biological properties of electron beam melted Ti6Al4V implant with biomimetic coating in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High strength porous titanium implants are widely used for the reconstruction of craniofacial defects because of their similar mechanical properties to those of bone. The recent introduction of electron beam melting (EBM technique allows a direct digitally enabled fabrication of patient specific porous titanium implants, whereas both their in vitro and in vivo biological performance need further investigation. METHODS: In the present study, we fabricated porous Ti6Al4V implants with controlled porous structure by EBM process, analyzed their mechanical properties, and conducted the surface modification with biomimetic approach. The bioactivities of EBM porous titanium in vitro and in vivo were evaluated between implants with and without biomimetic apatite coating. RESULTS: The physical property of the porous implants, containing the compressive strength being 163 - 286 MPa and the Young's modulus being 14.5-38.5 GPa, is similar to cortical bone. The in vitro culture of osteoblasts on the porous Ti6Al4V implants has shown a favorable circumstance for cell attachment and proliferation as well as cell morphology and spreading, which were comparable with the implants coating with bone-like apatite. In vivo, histological analysis has obtained a rapid ingrowth of bone tissue from calvarial margins toward the center of bone defect in 12 weeks. We observed similar increasing rate of bone ingrowth and percentage of bone formation within coated and uncoated implants, all of which achieved a successful bridging of the defect in 12 weeks after the implantation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the EBM porous Ti6Al4V implant not only reduced the stress-shielding but also exerted appropriate osteoconductive properties, as well as the apatite coated group. The results opened up the possibility of using purely porous titanium alloy scaffolds to reconstruct specific bone defects in the maxillofacial and orthopedic fields.

  6. The use of semiempirical quantum chemical methods in studying the properties of large series of biologically active molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the productivity (temporal characteristics) of the so-called Electron Topological Method (ETM) proposed for the structure-activity relationships (SAR) investigation is studied. The method is standing aside the methods proposed for quantitative SAR (QSAR) studies because of the essential difference in the languages chosen for the compound structures description. ETM uses Electron Topological Matrices of Contiguity (ETMC) that include the most comprehensive data on the electronic structure of compounds and their topology. The flexibility of real molecules is taken into account in terms of two parameters, Δ1 and Δ2, that characterise the accuracy allowed for atomic properties (diagonal matrix elements) and for bonds (non-diagonal ones). The dependence of the feature realisation on different values of Δ1 and Δ2 is studied and its graphical representation is given

  7. Scaling Properties of Biologically Active Scalar Concentration Fluctuations in the Atmospheric Surface Layer over a Managed Peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detto, Matteo; Baldocchi, Dennis; Katul, Gabriel G.

    2010-09-01

    The higher-order scalar concentration fluctuation properties are examined in the context of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory for a variety of greenhouse gases that have distinct and separate source/sink locations along an otherwise ideal micrometeorological field site. Air temperature and concentrations of water vapour, carbon dioxide and methane were measured at high frequency (10 Hz) above a flat and extensive peat-land soil in the San Joaquin-Sacramento Delta (California, USA) area, subjected to year-round grazing by beef cattle. Because of the heterogeneous distribution of the sources and sinks of CO2 and especially CH4 emitted by cattle, the scaling behaviour of the higher-order statistical properties diverged from predictions based on a balance between their production and dissipation rate terms, which can obtained for temperature and H2O during stationary conditions. We identify and label these departures as ‘exogenous’ because they depend on heterogeneities and non-stationarities induced by boundary conditions on the flow. Spectral analysis revealed that the exogenous effects show their signatures in regions with frequencies lower than those associated with scalar vertical transport by turbulence, though the two regions may partially overlap in some cases. Cospectra of vertical fluxes appear less influenced by these exogenous effects because of the modulating role of the vertical velocity at low frequencies. Finally, under certain conditions, the presence of such exogenous factors in higher-order scalar fluctuation statistics may be ‘fingerprinted’ by a large storage term in the mean scalar budget.

  8. Organotellurium compounds of biological interest - unique properties of the N-Chlorosuccinimide oxidation product of 9-telluraheptadecanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The product formed by N-chlorosuccinimide (NCS) oxidation of 9-telluraheptadecanoic acid (9-THDA) is insoluble in organic solvents and appears to have an oligomeric or polymeric structure. The product is solubilized in dilute base to the sodium salt of the monomer, the Te(IV) geminal diol of 9-THDA. While the insoluble oxidation product cannot be analyzed directly, it has been converted to products of known structure. Treatment with HBr gives the dibromide of 9-THDA, and treatment wit acetic anhydride forms the Te(IV) geminal diacetate of 9-THDA. Similar NCS oxidation of the methyl ester of 9-THDA or dioctyl telluride in each case gives the Te(IV) geminal diols that exhibit normal solubility in organic solvents and the expected physical properties. In contrast, NCS oxidation of 9-selenaheptadecanoic acid (9-SHDA) gives a selenoxide (Se=O) that is readily soluble in organic solvents. The contrasting properties of the oxidation products of 9-THDA and 9-SHDA correlate directly with the heart specificity and degree of retention in the heart muscle after intravenous administration of the radiolabeled compounds 9-[/sup 125m/Te]THDA and 9-75Se]SHDA to experimental animals. The radiolabeled tellurium fatty acid shows pronounced heart uptake and prolonged retention (trapping) and represents a new type of imaging agent for the potential clinical evaluation of heart disease. The present studies suggest that the trapping of tellurium fatty acids in the heart may result from the formation of an insoluble oxidation product after entry into the cells of the heart muscle

  9. Effect of soil type and soil management on soil physical, chemical and biological properties in commercial organic olive orchards in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Auxiliadora Soriano, Maria; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas, Juan Antonio; Landa, Blanca B.

    2014-05-01

    One of the objectives of organic agriculture is to maintain and improve soil quality, while simultaneously producing an adequate yield. A key element in organic olive production is soil management, which properly implemented can optimize the use of rainfall water enhancing infiltration rates and controlling competition for soil water by weeds. There are different soil management strategies: eg. weed mowing (M), green manure with surface tillage in spring (T), or combination with animal grazing among the trees (G). That variability in soil management combined with the large variability in soil types on which organic olive trees are grown in Southern Spain, difficult the evaluation of the impact of different soil management on soil properties, and yield as well as its interpretation in terms of improvement of soil quality. This communications presents the results and analysis of soil physical, chemical and biological properties on 58 soils in Southern Spain during 2005 and 2006, and analyzed and evaluated in different studies since them. Those 58 soils were sampled in 46 certified commercial organic olive orchards with four soil types as well as 12 undisturbed areas with natural vegetation near the olive orchards. The four soil types considered were Eutric Regosol (RGeu, n= 16), Eutric Cambisol (CMeu, n=16), Calcaric Regosol (RGca, n=13 soils sampled) and Calcic Cambisol (CMcc), and the soil management systems (SMS) include were 10 light tillage (LT), 16 sheep grazing (G), 10 tillage (T), 10 mechanical mowing (M), and 12 undisturbed areas covered by natural vegetation (NV-C and NV-S). Our results indicate that soil management had a significant effect on olive yield as well as on key soil properties. Among these soil properties are physical ones, such as infiltration rate or bulk density, chemical ones, especially organic carbon concentration, and biological ones such as soil microbial respiration and bacterial community composition. Superimpose to that soil

  10. The comparison of powder characteristics and physicochemical, mechanical and biological properties between nanostructure ceramics of hydroxyapatite and fluoridated hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami, Hossein; Solati-Hashjin, Mehran [Biomaterial Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, P. O. Box: 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tahriri, Mohammadreza, E-mail: m-tahriri@aut.ac.ir [Biomaterial Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, P. O. Box: 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-05-05

    In this study, several fluorine-substituted hydroxyapatite ceramics with the general chemical formula Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}(OH){sub 1-x}F{sub x} (0 {<=} x {<=} 1), where x = 0.0 (hydroxyapatite; HA), x = 0.68 (fluorhydroxyapatite; FHA) and x = 0.97 (fluorapatite; FA) were prepared. The powders were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), F-selective electrode, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and EDTA titration analyses. The powders were uniaxially pressed and were formed as a disc shape. Subsequently, sinterability and thermal stability of synthesized powders were compared together. Also the effect simultaneously of fluoride content and temperature were examined on the lattice parameters and crystallites size of the obtained powders. Mechanical properties including hardness, elastic modulus and fracture toughness were measured using indentation. The in vitro dissolution studies of the samples were carried out at osteoclastic resorption conditions. Finally, the biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the samples were carried out using osteoblast-like cells and L929 cell line, respectively. The obtained results showed that the thermal stability substantially is increased with increase incorporated fluoride into HA structure. Also it was found that the fluoride reduced the lattice parameters and crystallites size of HA. Finally, the in vitro dissolution studies results suggest that the fluoride substitutions in HA offer the ability to prepare HAs with different degrees of solubility.

  11. Biological properties and therapeutic activities of honey in wound healing: A narrative review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Ahmad; Alemzadeh, Esmat; Moshiri, Ali

    2016-05-01

    For thousands of years, honey has been used for medicinal applications. The beneficial effects of honey, particularly its anti-microbial activity represent it as a useful option for management of various wounds. Honey contains major amounts of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, proteins, vitamin and minerals that have important roles in wound healing with minimum trauma during redressing. Because bees have different nutritional behavior and collect the nourishments from different and various plants, the produced honeys have different compositions. Thus different types of honey have different medicinal value leading to different effects on wound healing. This review clarifies the mechanisms and therapeutic properties of honey on wound healing. The mechanisms of action of honey in wound healing are majorly due to its hydrogen peroxide, high osmolality, acidity, non-peroxide factors, nitric oxide and phenols. Laboratory studies and clinical trials have shown that honey promotes autolytic debridement, stimulates growth of wound tissues and stimulates anti-inflammatory activities thus accelerates the wound healing processes. Compared with topical agents such as hydrofiber silver or silver sulfadiazine, honey is more effective in elimination of microbial contamination, reduction of wound area, promotion of re-epithelialization. In addition, honey improves the outcome of the wound healing by reducing the incidence and excessive scar formation. Therefore, application of honey can be an effective and economical approach in managing large and complicated wounds. PMID:26852154

  12. The comparison of powder characteristics and physicochemical, mechanical and biological properties between nanostructure ceramics of hydroxyapatite and fluoridated hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, several fluorine-substituted hydroxyapatite ceramics with the general chemical formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH)1-xFx (0 ≤ x ≤ 1), where x = 0.0 (hydroxyapatite; HA), x = 0.68 (fluorhydroxyapatite; FHA) and x = 0.97 (fluorapatite; FA) were prepared. The powders were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), F-selective electrode, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and EDTA titration analyses. The powders were uniaxially pressed and were formed as a disc shape. Subsequently, sinterability and thermal stability of synthesized powders were compared together. Also the effect simultaneously of fluoride content and temperature were examined on the lattice parameters and crystallites size of the obtained powders. Mechanical properties including hardness, elastic modulus and fracture toughness were measured using indentation. The in vitro dissolution studies of the samples were carried out at osteoclastic resorption conditions. Finally, the biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the samples were carried out using osteoblast-like cells and L929 cell line, respectively. The obtained results showed that the thermal stability substantially is increased with increase incorporated fluoride into HA structure. Also it was found that the fluoride reduced the lattice parameters and crystallites size of HA. Finally, the in vitro dissolution studies results suggest that the fluoride substitutions in HA offer the ability to prepare HAs with different degrees of solubility.

  13. Chemical and biological properties of wheat soil in response to paddy straw incorporation and its biodegradation by fungal inoculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaind, Sunita; Nain, Lata

    2007-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the relative contribution of organic fertilizers (paddy straw, microbial inoculants and vermicompost) and inorganic fertilizers (urea and superphosphate) in improving pH, C, N, humus, microbial biomass, dehydrogenase, phosphatase, cellulase, beta-glucosidase and xylanase activities of soil under wheat crop. Vermicompost fertilization resulted in highest microbial biomass, available phosphorus, and nitrogen content of wheat soil. It was also found effective in minimizing the alkalinity of soil compared to other treatments as indicated by pH change. However incorporation of paddy straw in conjunction with N(60)P(60) and T. reesei inoculation resulted in maximum dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and highest humus content of soil. Mixed inoculation of A. awamori and T. reesei did not prove effective in improving the soil biochemical properties in comparison to single inoculation of T. reesei. Results showed that in situ incorporation of paddy straw in combination with N(60)P(60) and T. reesei inoculation can be used as an effective measure for valuable disposal of paddy straw and to improve the soil health by reducing mineral fertilization. PMID:17106757

  14. Comparative chemistry and biological properties of the solid residues from hydrodistillation of Spanish populations of Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Vioque, R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid residues from the hydrodistillation of selected Spanish populations of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. have been analyzed for their polyphenol composition, and antioxidant and bioplaguicide activities. The objective was to evaluate and select the most suitable plant materials as sources of natural antioxidants and crop protectants. Total polyphenol content and polyphenol composition of rosemary populations were very dependent on the growth location: populations from Aranjuez showed a higher content of total polyphenols and were richer in rosmarinic acid as compared with their equivalent populations from Cuenca, whereas these latter were characterized by an overall higher content in genkwanin and carnosol. Most of the antioxidant activities were highly correlated with the total content of polyphenols although some polyphenols like carnosic acid and carnosol seemed to favor such activities. The extracts from R. officinalis were strong antifeedants against Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say and moderate against Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and Myzus persicae Sulzer, according to their feeding ecologies. The biological effects of the active samples cannot be accounted by their chemical composition, suggesting additive or synergistic effects. Both the phytotoxic and stimulating effects on Lactuca sativa L., and Lolium perenne L. leaf and/or root growth were observed.Se ha analizado la composición en polifenoles y las actividades antioxidante y bioplaguicida de los residuos sólidos procedentes de la hidrodestilación de poblaciones seleccionadas de romero (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. El objetivo fue evaluar y seleccionar los materiales vegetales más adecuados como fuente de antioxidantes y bioplaguicidas naturales. El contenido total y la composición en polifenoles de las poblaciones de romero dependieron mucho de la localidad de cultivo: las poblaciones de Aranjuez mostraron un mayor contenido en polifenoles y fueron más ricas en

  15. Novel glycolipid TLR2 ligands of the type Pam2Cys-α-Gal: synthesis and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, Jean-Sébastien; Monneaux, Fanny; Creusat, Gaëlle; Spanedda, Maria Vittoria; Heurtault, Béatrice; Habermacher, Chloé; Schuber, Francis; Bourel-Bonnet, Line; Frisch, Benoît

    2012-05-01

    A more complete understanding of the mechanism of action of TLR agonists has fueled the investigation of new synthetic immunoadjuvants. In this context, we designed and synthesized glycolipids of the type Pam(2)Cys-α-Galactose as novel immunoadjuvants. Their synthesis required modifying a hydrophobic tBoc-[2,3-bispalmitoyloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl moiety, i.e. the minimal structure required for TLR2 agonist activity, by addition of a hydrophilic head, either an α-Galactosylpyranose or an α-Galactosylfuranose to gain respectively Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf. While preparing a carbohydrate building block, an unexpected stereoselectivity was observed during a halide ion-catalytic process on a protected galactofuranose: the alpha anomer was obtained with surprisingly high selectivity (α/β ratio>9) and with good isolated yield (51%). The TLR2 binding properties of Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf were then fully evaluated. Their efficiency in triggering the proliferation of BALB/c mouse splenocytes was also compared to that of Pam(2)CAG and Pam(3)CAG, two well-established ligands of TLRs. Moreover, the maturation state of murine dendritic cells previously incubated with either Pam(2)CGalp or Pam(2)CGalf was monitored by flow cytometry and compared to that induced by lipopolysaccharide. Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf were found to be equivalent TLR2 agonists, and induced splenocyte proliferation and DC maturation. With very similar activity, Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf were also 10-fold to 100-fold better than Pam(2)CAG and Pam(3)CAG at inducing B cell proliferation. This represents the first time a glucidic head has been added to the tBoc-[2,3-bispalmitoyloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl moiety whilst maintaining the immunomodulating activity. This should greatly enrich the data available on Pam(2)C structure/activity relationships. PMID:22483966

  16. Detailed characterization of mechanical properties and molecular mobility within dry seed glasses: relevance to the physiology of dry biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Walters, Christina

    2011-11-01

    Slow movement of molecules in glassy matrices controls the kinetics of chemical and physical reactions in dry seeds. Variation in physiological activity among seeds suggests that there are differences in mobility among seed glasses. Testing this hypothesis is difficult because few tools are available to measure molecular mobility within dry seeds. Here, motional properties within dry pea cotyledons were assessed using dynamic mechanical analysis. The technique detected several molecular relaxations between -80 and +80°C and gave a more detailed description of water content-temperature effects on molecular motion than previously understood from studies of glass formation in seeds at glass transition (Tg). Diffusive movement is delimited by the α relaxation, which appears to be analogous to Tg. β and γ relaxations were also detected at temperatures lower than α relaxations, clearly demonstrating intramolecular motion within the glassy matrix of the pea cotyledon. Glass transitions, or the mechanical counterpart α relaxation, appear to be less relevant to seed aging during dry storage than previously thought. On the other hand, β relaxation occurs at temperature and moisture conditions typically used for seed storage and has established importance for physical aging of synthetic polymer glasses. Our data show that the nature and extent of molecular motion varies considerably with moisture and temperature, and that the hydrated conditions used for accelerated aging experiments and ultra-dry conditions sometimes recommended for seed storage give greater molecular mobility than more standard seed storage practices. We believe characterization of molecular mobility is critical for evaluating how dry seeds respond to the environment and persist through time. PMID:21831210

  17. Synthesis, photoluminescence and biological properties of terbium(III) complexes with hydroxyketone and nitrogen containing heterocyclic ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonam; Kumar, Rajesh; Boora, Priti; Khatkar, Anurag; Khatkar, S. P.; Taxak, V. B.

    2016-01-01

    The ternary terbium(III) complexes [Tb(HDAP)3ṡbiq], [Tb(HDAP)3ṡdmph] and [Tb(HDAP)3ṡbathophen] were prepared by using methoxy substituted hydroxyketone ligand HDAP (2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxyacetophenone) and an ancillary ligand 2,2-biquinoline or 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline or bathophenanthroline respectively. The ligand and synthesized complexes were characterised based on elemental analysis, FT-IR and 1H NMR. Thermal behaviour of the synthesized complexes illustrates the general decomposition patterns of the complexes by thermogravimetric analysis. Photophysical properties such as excitation spectra, emission spectra and luminescence decay curves of the complexes were investigated in detail. The main green emitting peak at 548 nm can be attributed to 5D4 → 7F5 of Tb3+ ion. Thus, these complexes might be used to make a bright green light-emitting diode for display purpose. In addition the in vitro antibacterial activities of HDAP and its Tb(III) complexes against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and antifungal activities against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger are reported. The Tb3+ complexes were found to be more potent antimicrobial agent as compared to the ligand. Among all these complexes, [Tb(HDAP)3ṡbathophen] exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity which proves its potential usefulness as an antimicrobial agent. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant activity tests were carried out by using DPPH method which indicates that the complexes have considerable antioxidant activity when compared with the standard ascorbic acid.

  18. Evaluation of colloidal silica suspension as efficient additive for improving physicochemical and in vitro biological properties of calcium sulfate-based nanocomposite bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Shokoufeh; Hesaraki, Saeed; Ahmadzadeh-Asl, Shaghayegh

    2010-12-01

    In the present study new calcium sulfate-based nanocomposite bone cement with improved physicochemical and biological properties was developed. The powder component of the cement consists of 60 wt% α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate and 40 wt% biomimetically synthesized apatite, while the liquid component consists of an aqueous colloidal silica suspension (20 wt%). In this study, the above mentioned powder phase was mixed with distilled water to prepare a calcium sulfate/nanoapatite composite without any additive. Structural properties, setting time, compressive strength, in vitro bioactivity and cellular properties of the cements were investigated by appropriate techniques. From X-ray diffractometer analysis, except gypsum and apatite, no further phases were found in both silica-containing and silica-free cements. The results showed that both setting time and compressive strength of the calcium sulfate/nanoapatite cement improved by using colloidal silica suspension as cement liquid. Meanwhile, the condensed phase produced from the polymerization process of colloidal silica filled the micropores of the microstructure and covered rodlike gypsum crystals and thus controlled cement disintegration in simulated body fluid. Additionally, formation of apatite layer was favored on the surfaces of the new cement while no apatite precipitation was observed for the cement prepared by distilled water. In this study, it was also revealed that the number of viable osteosarcoma cells cultured with extracts of both cements were comparable, while silica-containing cement increased alkaline phosphatase activity of the cells. These results suggest that the developed cement may be a suitable bone filling material after well passing of the corresponding in vivo tests. PMID:20972610

  19. Influence of Gamma Irradiation on Microbial Quality, Biological Properties and Some Chemical Compositions of Propolis and Bee Pollen In Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propolis and bee pollen may be subjected to microbial contamination as a result of handling and storage, so, the current study was conducted to evaluate the microbial quality and quantity of Egyptian propolis and pollen and to study microbial contamination, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity and some chemical properties as amino acid composition and mineral content of irradiated and non-irradiated tested samples.The results showed that most samples were of unsatisfactory microbiological quality where the total bacterial and mold and yeast counts ranged between 6.6x10-6x106 CFU/g and 1.2 x 103-3.7x103 CFU/g, respectively. Agar disk diffusion method was used for in vitro antimicrobial evaluation of propolis and pollen using water and 70% ethanolic extract against four gram positive, three gram negative bacteria and one yeast pathogens. The results exhibited that ethanolic extract has effective antibacterial activities than water extract. The free radical-scavenging activity of 70% ethanolic extract of the tested samples was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH). Pollen ethanolic extract showed higher antioxidant activity than propolis ethanolic extract. Amino acid profile of 70% ethanolic extract was determined. The results of the analysis showed the predominant amino acids in propolis and pollen were cystine and leucine, respectively. Mineral analysis of the tested samples was carried out by atomic absorption. The tested minerals were higher in pollen than in propolis except manganese and selenium. Propolis and pollen heavily bacterial and mold contaminated samples were subjected to increasing doses of gamma radiation (1-5 kGy). Exposure to 4 kGy was sufficient for microbial decontamination or reducing the count less than 10 CFU/g with no detectable effect on their antimicrobial activity. The same irradiation dose showed variable effects on amino acids and mineral content of the tested samples. Propolis and pollen have pharmacological

  20. Preparation, characterization and investigation of in vitro and in vivo biological properties of strontium-modified calcium phosphate cement for bone defect repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Masaeli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the invitro and invivo performance of a 3 wt% of strontium additive hydroxyapatite calcium phosphate cements (CPC. Materials and Methods: The prepared calcium phosphate cement was characterized with XRD, FTIR, setting time, STA and in vitro and in vivo biological analyses. The MTT assay ALP activities as in vitro study and radiological and histological examinations as in vivo study between the three groups of 3 wt% Sr-HA/CPC, CPC and control were performed and compared. Data were analyzed using T-test and One-way ANOVA. Results: XRD analysis demonstrated that by increasing the ratio of Powder/Liquid (P/L, the crystallinity of the prepared cement increased. The substitution of strontium instead of calcium in CPC could also alter the crystal structure, including some structural disorder. However, in the CPC with no strontium hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA, no significant increase in the crystallinity was observed. SEM observations revealed CPC with increasing P/L ratio, the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals arising from the interaction of solid and liquid phase of cement was decreased. Also, the addition of Sr within Ca site culminated in a dramatic increase in crystallinity of hydroxyapatite. In vitro biological properties ascertained that addition of 3 wt. % Sr-HA into CPC enhanced MTT assay and ALP activity, which could be due to the presence of strontium ions. The histological study showed that greater remodeling was seen at 4 weeks after implantation when the 3 wt% Sr-HA/CPC was used. Conclusion: The obtained results cleared that CPC can be a potential candidate as a carrier with strontium additives for bone remodeling and regeneration.

  1. Metal based biologically active compounds: design, synthesis, and antibacterial/antifungal/cytotoxic properties of triazole-derived Schiff bases and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Zahid H; Sumrra, Sajjad H; Youssoufi, Moulay H; Hadda, Taibi B

    2010-07-01

    A new series of oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been designed and synthesized with a new class of triazole Schiff bases derived from the reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde and acetyl pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, respectively. Physical (magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance), spectral (IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, mass and electronic) and analytical data have established the structures of these synthesized Schiff bases and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes. The Schiff bases, predominantly act as bidentate and coordinate with the vanadium(IV) metal to give a stoichiometric ratio of 1:2 [M:L], forming a general formulae, [M(L-H)(2)] and [M(L)(2)]SO(4) where L = (L(1))-(L(4)) and M = VO(IV) of these complexes in a square-pyramidal geometry. In order to evaluate the biological activity of Schiff bases and to assess the role of vanadium(IV) metal on biological activity, the triazole Schiff bases and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been studied for in vitro antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella flexenari, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) bacterial strains, in vitro antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifucus, Candida albican, Aspergillus flavus, Microscopum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glaberata. The simple Schiff bases showed weaker to significant activity against one or more bacterial and fungal strains. In most of the cases higher activity was exhibited upon coordination with vanadium(IV) metal. Brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out for in vitro cytotoxic properties against Artemia salina. PMID:20338672

  2. Reduced Flavin: NMR investigation of N(5-H exchange mechanism, estimation of ionisation constants and assessment of properties as biological catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüterjans Heinz

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flavin in its FMN and FAD forms is a versatile cofactor that is involved in catalysis of most disparate types of biological reactions. These include redox reactions such as dehydrogenations, activation of dioxygen, electron transfer, bioluminescence, blue light reception, photobiochemistry (as in photolyases, redox signaling etc. Recently, hitherto unrecognized types of biological reactions have been uncovered that do not involve redox shuffles, and might involve the reduced form of the flavin as a catalyst. The present work addresses properties of reduced flavin relevant in this context. Results N(5-H exchange reactions of the flavin reduced form and its pH dependence were studied using the 15N-NMR-signals of 15N-enriched, reduced flavin in the pH range from 5 to 12. The chemical shifts of the N(3 and N(5 resonances are not affected to a relevant extent in this pH range. This contrasts with the multiplicity of the N(5-resonance, which strongly depends on pH. It is a doublet between pH 8.45 and 10.25 that coalesces into a singlet at lower and higher pH values. From the line width of the 15N(5 signal the pH-dependent rate of hydrogen exchange was deduced. The multiplicity of the 15N(5 signal and the proton exchange rates are little dependent on the buffer system used. Conclusion The exchange rates allow an estimation of the pKa value of N(5-H deprotonation in reduced flavin to be ≥ 20. This value imposes specific constraints for mechanisms of flavoprotein catalysis based on this process. On the other hand the pK ≈ 4 for N(5-H protonation (to form N(5+-H2 would be consistent with a role of N(5-H as a base.

  3. Effect of mineralogical, geochemical and biological properties on soils reflectance to assess temporal and spatial dynamics of BSCs in Sahelian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguignon, A.; Cerdan, O.; Desprats, J. F.; Marin, B.; Malam Issa, O.; Valentin, C.; Rajot, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    Land degradation and desertification are among the major environmental problems, resulting in reduced productivity and development of bare surfaces in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. One important factor that acts to increase soil stability and nutrient content, and thus to prevent water and wind erosion and enhance soil productivity of arid environment, is the presence of biological soil crusts (BSCs). They are the dominant ground cover and a key component of arid environments built up mainly by cyanobacteria. They enhance degraded soil quality by providing a stable and water-retaining substratum and increasing fertility by N and C fixations. The BioCrust project, funded by ANR (VMCS 2008), focuses on BSCs in the Sahelian zone of West Africa (Niger), a highly vulnerable zone facing soil degradation due to the harsh climatic conditions, with variable rainfall, and high anthropic pressure on land use. Unlike arid areas of developed countries (USA, Australia and Israel) or China where BSCs have been extensively studied, studies from Sahelian zone (Africa) are limited (neither the inventory of their different form nor the estimation of their spatial extension has been carried out). The form, structure and composition of BSCs vary depending on characteristics related to soils and biological composition. This study focuses on the soils characterisation using ground-based spectroradiometry. An extensive database was built included spectral measurements on BSCs, bare soils and vegetation that occur in the same area, visual criteria, in situ and laboratory measurements on the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of BSCs and their substratum. The work is carried out on geo-statistical processing of data acquired in sites along a north-south climatic gradient and three types of representative land uses. The investigated areas are highly vulnerable zone facing soil degradation due to the harsh climatic conditions, with variable rainfall, and high anthropic

  4. Evaluation of radiolabeling of annexin A5 with technetium-99m: influence of the labeling methods on physico-chemical and biological properties of the compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annexin A5 (ANXA5) is an intracellular human protein of 36 kDa with high affinity for membrane-bound phosphatidylserine that is selectively exposed on the surface of cells undergoing apoptosis. Apoptosis is important in normal physiology and innumerous pathologic states. Clinical applications for ANXA5 imaging are being developed in oncology, organ transplantation and cardiovascular diseases. Many strategies to radiolabel the protein have been described, including direct labeling, derivatization through a bifunctional chelating agent (BFC), production of mutated protein or peptide analogs. Several 99mTc-labeling techniques have been reported using different cores, including [Tc=O]+3, [Tc]HYNIC, [Tc≡N]+2 and [Tc(CO3)]+1. In this study, we evaluated the influence of 99mTc cores on biological behavior and physico-chemical properties of radiolabeled annexin. Radiolabeling procedure using [Tc≡N]+2 core was a two-step procedure including the reaction of 99mTcO4 - with SDH in the presence of SnCl2 and PDTA to obtain the intermediate 99mTcN-SDH, and successive addition of ANXA5. The results obtained were not satisfactory, despite the high efficiency in the production of the intermediate. The [Tc=O]+3 core was produced using the ethylene dicysteine (EC) as BFC. TSTU was employed in the derivatization to produce the corresponding hydroxysuccinimide ester. Different ANXA5:EC ratios were studied and all labeling conditions resulted in high radiochemical yield but with differences in lipophilicity, stability, biological distribution and affinity for apoptotic cells. The HYNIC-ANXA5 also produced the labeled protein with high radiochemical yield. The stability of the radiolabeled ANXA5 was evaluated after storing at room temperature, at 2 - 8 degree C and in human serum at 37 degree C. The analysis of these results showed that the 99mTc-EC-ANXA5 (ratio 10-2) was the most stable compound in all the studied conditions. Partition coefficient assay resulted in lower

  5. EFFECTS OF AFŞİN-ELBİSTAN POWER PLANT EMISSIONS ON THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF NEARBY SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten KARACA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of emissions of Afşin - Elbistan Coal - Fired Power Plant on the physical, chemical and biological properties of nearby soils was investigated. For this aim, soil samples were taken from the villages near the central and 30 km away through central in the dominant wind direction during two years and four different periods. Besides the physical and chemical properties of the soil samples, total and available S, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, F, urease, acid and alkali phosphatase and carbon diokside evaluation quantities were determined. It was found that, trace element and heavy metal contents of the soil samples taken from the dominant wind direction were higher than the soil samples taken from near central villages, especially concentration at sites closest to the power plant was much higher. On the other hand, urease, acid and alkali phosphatase enzyme activities of soils taken from the dominant wind direction of the central were decreased significantly (P < 0.05. Regreation analysis showed that negative correlation between the urease, acid and alkali phosphatase activities and all trace elements with the exception of iron, heavy metals, nitrate and CEC However, significant positive correlation were found between pH and organik matter of the soil samples taken from the dominant wind direction. There was no correlation between the CO2 evaluation and other elements in spite of negative correlation between CO2 and Mn, organic matter, clay content and CEC. There were negative correlation between the urease, acid and alkali phosphatase activities and CEC, N, correlation between the above-mentioned activities and pH and lime were positive of the soil samples taken from the near-central villages. However, it was obtained positive correlation between CO2 evaluation and pH, organic matter.

  6. ABCG2-overexpressing S1-M1-80 cell xenografts in nude mice keep original biochemistry and cell biological properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Wang; Yong-Ju Liang; Xing-Ping Wu; Xiao-Dong Su; Li-Wu Fu

    2012-01-01

    S1-M1-80 cells,derived from human colon carcinoma S1 cells,are mitoxantrone-selected ABCG2-overexpressing cells and are widely used in in vitro studies of multidrug resistance (MDR).In this study,S1-M1-80 cell xenografts were established to investigate whether the MDR phenotype and cell biological properties were maintained in vivo.Our results showed that the proliferation,cell cycle,and ABCG2 expression level in S1-M1-80 cells were similar to those in cells isolated from S1-M1-80 cell xenografts (named xS1-M1-80 cells).Consistently,xS1-M1-80 cells exhibited high levels of resistance to ABCG2 substrates such as mitoxantrone and topotecan,but remained sensitive to the non-ABCG2 substrate cisplatin.Furthermore,the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143 potently sensitized xS1-M1-80 cells to mitoxantrone and topotecan.These results suggest that S1-M1-80 cell xenografts in nude mice retain their original cytological characteristics at 9 weeks.Thus,this model could serve as a good system for further investigation of ABCG2-mediated MDR.

  7. The MUC1 oncomucin regulates pancreatic cancer cell biological properties and chemoresistance. Implication of p42–44 MAPK, Akt, Bcl-2 and MMP13 pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tréhoux, Solange; Duchêne, Bélinda; Jonckheere, Nicolas; Van Seuningen, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.vanseuningen@inserm.fr

    2015-01-16

    Highlights: • Loss of MUC1 decreases proliferation and tumor growth via β-catenin and p42–44 MAPK. • Inhibition of MUC1 decreases cell migration and invasion through MMP13. • Loss of MUC1 decreases survival and increases apoptosis via Akt and Bcl-2 pathways. • Loss of MUC1 sensitizes cells to gemcitabine and 5-Fluorouracil chemotherapeutic drugs. - Abstract: MUC1 is an oncogenic mucin overexpressed in several epithelial cancers, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and is considered as a potent target for cancer therapy. To this aim, we undertook to study MUC1 biological effects on pancreatic cancer cells and identify pathways mediating these effects. Our in vitro experiments indicate that inhibiting MUC1 expression decreases cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion, cell survival and increases cell apoptosis. Moreover, lack of MUC1 in these cells profoundly altered their sensitivity to gemcitabine and 5-Fluorouracil chemotherapeutic drugs. In vivo MUC1-KD cell xenografts in SCID mice grew slower. Altogether, we show that MUC1 oncogenic mucin alters proliferation, migration, and invasion properties of pancreatic cancer cells and that these effects are mediated by p42–44 MAPK, Akt, Bcl-2 and MMP13 pathways.

  8. Biological property of Streptococcus mutans surface protein%变异链球菌表面蛋白的生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佼佼

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as a primary causative agent of dental caries in humans.And its cell surface protein is known to be one of the significant virulence factors, which has a strong relationship with cariogenic characteristic. This review paid attention to the research progress of biological property,molecular cloning of the encoding gene, main structure and function of the surface protein, in order to provide some reference for further studies about etiology and prevention of dental caries.%变异链球菌是人类龋病最主要的致病菌,其菌体胞壁上的表面蛋白是重要的毒力因子之一,与其致龋特性存在着密切的关系.下文就该菌表面蛋白的生物学特性、编码表面蛋白基因的分子克隆和表面蛋白的主要结构及其功能等研究进展作一综述,以期为龋病病因学和龋病防治的深入研究提供参考.

  9. Biological properties of lipoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Bilska; Lidia Włodek

    2002-01-01

    Lipoic acid is a prostetic group of H-protein of the glycine cleavage system and the dihydrolipoamide acyltransferases (E2) of the pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate and branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes. Lipoic acid and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid, reacts with oxygen reactive species. This paper reviews the beneficial effects in oxidative stress models or clinical conditions.

  10. Biological properties of lipoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bilska

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipoic acid is a prostetic group of H-protein of the glycine cleavage system and the dihydrolipoamide acyltransferases (E2 of the pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate and branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes. Lipoic acid and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid, reacts with oxygen reactive species. This paper reviews the beneficial effects in oxidative stress models or clinical conditions.

  11. Biological materials: (Part A): Temperature-responsive polymers and drug delivery, and, (Part B): Polymer modification of fish scale and their nano-mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xu

    This research has three parts. Two parts deal with novel nanoparticle assemblies for drug delivery, and are described in Part A, while the third part looks at properties of fish scales, an abundant and little-used waste resource, that can be modified to have value in medical and other areas. Part A describes fundamental research into the affects of block sequence of amphiphilic block copolymers prepared from on a new and versatile class of monomers, oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (OEGA) and the more hydrophobic di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (DEGMA). Polymers from these monomers are biologically safe and give polymers with thermoresponsive properties that can be manipulated over a broader temperature range than the more researched N-isopropylacrylamide polymers. Using RAFT polymerization and different Chain Transfer Agents (CTAs) amphiphilic block copolymers were prepared to study the effect of block sequence (hydrophilic OEGA and more hydrophobic DEGMA) on their thermo-responsive properties. Pairing hydrophilic chain ends to a hydrophobic DEGMA block and hydrophobic chain ends to hydrophilic blocks ("mis-matched polarity") significantly affected thermoresponsive properties for linear and star diblock copolymers, but little affected symmetric triblock copolymers. Specifically matching polarity in diblock copolymers yielded nanoparticles with higher cloud points (CP), narrow temperature ranges for coil collapse above CP, and smaller hydrodynamic diameter than mis-matched polarity. Using this knowledge two linear OEGA/DEGMA diblock copolymers were prepared with thiol end groups and assembled into hybrid nanoparticles with a gold nanoparticle core (GNP-polymer hybrids). This design was made using the hypothesis that a hybrid polymer drug carrier with a high CP (50-60 °C) and a diblock structure could be designed with low levels of drug release below 37 °C (body temperature) allowing the drug carrier to reach a target (tumor) site with

  12. Biological aerosol background characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  13. An Investigation into the Effects of Interface Stress and Interfacial Arrangement on Temperature Dependent Thermal Properties of a Biological and a Biomimetic Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomar, Vikas

    2015-01-13

    A significant effort in the biomimetic materials research is on developing materials that can mimic and function in the same way as biological tissues, on bio-inspired electronic circuits, on bio-inspired flight structures, on bio-mimetic materials processing, and on structural biomimetic materials, etc. Most structural biological and biomimetic material properties are affected by two primary factors: (1) interfacial interactions between an organic and an inorganic phase usually in the form of interactions between an inorganic mineral phase and organic protein network; and (2) structural arrangement of the constituents. Examples are exoskeleton structures such as spicule, nacre, and crustacean exoskeletons. A significant effort is being directed towards making synthetic biomimetic materials based on a manipulation of the above two primary factors. The proposed research is based on a hypothesis that in synthetic materials with biomimetic morphology thermal conductivity, k, (how fast heat is carried away) and thermal diffusivity, D, (how fast a material’s temperature rises: proportional to the ratio of k and heat capacity) can be engineered to be either significantly low or significantly high based on a combination of chosen interface orientation and interfacial arrangement in comparison to conventional material microstructures with the same phases and phase volume fractions. METHOD DEVELOPMENT 1. We have established a combined Raman spectroscopy and nanomechanical loading based experimental framework to perform environment (liquid vs. air vs. vacuum) dependent and temperature dependent (~1000 degree-C) in-situ thermal diffusivity measurements in biomaterials at nanoscale to micron scale along with the corresponding analytical theoretic calculations. (Zhang and Tomar, 2013) 2. We have also established a new classical molecular simulation based framework to measure thermal diffusivity in biomolecular interfaces. We are writing a publication currently (Qu and Tomar

  14. Biological properties of spermatogonial stem cell niches%精原干细胞微环境的生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲玲; 刘洋; 金波

    2012-01-01

    成体干细胞的自我更新和分化与其微环境关系密切.精原干细胞(spermatogonial stem cells,SSCs)是体内自然状态下唯一能将遗传信息传至子代的成体干细胞.探讨SSCs更新和分化的调控机制有助于精子发生机理的阐明,并为探究其他成体干细胞增殖分化的调节机制提供依据.因此,SSCs系统为成体干细胞微环境研究提供了理想模型.资料表明,SSCs的更新和分化受其微环境的调控.基于本室的工作,参考最新文献,本文主要从SSCs微环境的基本特性、构成及其产生的各种调控因子等角度,评述了SSCs微环境的生物学特性及其与SSCs更新和分化间的关系,以期为本领域研究及其他成体干细胞相关研究提供借鉴.%The self-renewal and differentiation of adult stem cells are closely related to their niches. Naturally, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the only adult stem cells in the body, which can transfer genetic information into the offspring. An insight into the modulation of the self-renewal and differentiation of SSCs can help elucidate the mechanisms of spermatogenesis and investigate the proliferation and differentiation of other adult stem cells. Therefore, the SSC system provides an ideal model for researches on the adult stem cell niche. More and more evidence indicates that the self-renewal and differentiation of SSCs are regulated by their niches. Based on our previous work and other related findings recently reported, this article presents an overview on the biological properties of SSC niches and their relationship with the self-renewal and differentiation of SSCs, focusing on the basic properties and components of SSC niches and various regulatory factors they produce.

  15. Comparative evaluation of the biological properties of bone bioimplants Tutoplast® and bioactive ceramic material "Syntekost" when implanted in the middle ear in the experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko S.V.

    2014-09-01

    were formed. In none of the experimental cases after implanting of this material into the tympanic bullae of guinea pigs inflammation was observed which may have led to suppuration or ototoxic effects on the structures of the inner ear. Conclusion. The experimental studies showed that the transformation of bone implant Tutoplast® occurred more actively and to a greater extent than that of bioactive ceramic material "Sintekost". In none of the experimental cases after implanting this material into the tympanic bullae of guinea pigs inflammation was observed. Citation: Kravchenko SV, Zaporoschenko AYu, Savitskaya IM. [Comparative evaluation of the biological properties of bone bioimplants Tutoplast® and bioactive ceramic material "Syntekost" when implanted in the middle ear in the experiment]. Morphologia. 2014;8(3:35-41. Russian.

  16. Caesium 137: Properties and biological effects resulting of an internal contamination;Cesium 137: proprietes et effets biologiques apres contamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestaevel, P.; Racine, R.; Bensoussan, H.; Rouas, C.; Gueguen, Y.; Dublineau, I.; Bertho, J.M.; Gourmelon, P.; Jourdain, J.R.; Souidi, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, laboratoire de radiotoxicologie experimentale, direction de la radioprotection de l' homme, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-02-15

    Caesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is a radionuclide present in the environment mainly as the result of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and accidents arising in nuclear power plants like the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Nowadays, the health consequences resulting from a chronic exposure to this radionuclide remain unknown. After absorption, the caesium is distributed relatively homogeneously within the body, with a more important load in children than in adults. The toxicity of {sup 137}Cs is mainly due to its radiological properties. A high dose of {sup 137}Cs is responsible for a medullar dystrophy, disorders of the reproductive function, and effects on liver and renal functions. Disorders of bone mineralization and brain damages were also described in human beings. At lowest dose, {sup 137}Cs induces disturbances of wakefulness-sleep cycle, but not accompanied with behavioural disorders. The cardiovascular system was also perturbed. Biological effects of {sup 137}Cs on the metabolisms of the vitamin D, cholesterol and steroid hormones were described, but do not lead to clinical symptoms. In human beings, {sup 137}Cs leads to an immune deficiency, congenital and foetal deformations, an increased of thyroid cancer, as well as neurological disorders. It seems that children are more sensitive to the toxic effects of caesium than the adults. At present, the only effective treatment for the decorporation of the ingested {sup 137}Cs is the Prussian Blue (Radiogardase). The use of pectin to de-corporate the ingested {sup 137}Cs, in children notably, is sometimes proposed, but its administration still remains an open question. To conclude, the available scientific data suggest that {sup 137}Cs could affect a number of physiological and metabolic functions and consequently, could participate in the health risks associated to the presence of other contaminants in the environment. (authors)

  17. Water-soluble Ru(II)- and Ru(III)-halide-PTA complexes (PTA=1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane): Chemical and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistin, F; Scaletti, F; Balducci, G; Pillozzi, S; Arcangeli, A; Messori, L; Alessio, E

    2016-07-01

    Four structurally related Ru(II)-halide-PTA complexes, of general formula trans- or cis-[Ru(PTA)4X2] (PTA=1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane, X=Cl (1, 2), Br (3, 4), were prepared and characterized. Whereas compounds 1 and 2 are known, the corresponding bromo derivatives 3 and 4 are new. The Ru(III)-PTA compound trans-[RuCl4(PTAH)2]Cl (5, PTAH=PTA protonated at one N atom), structurally similar to the well-known Ru(III) anticancer drug candidates (Na)trans-[RuCl4(ind)2] (NKP-1339, ind=indazole) and (Him)trans-[RuCl4(dmso-S)(im)] (NAMI-A, im=imidazole), was also prepared and similarly investigated. Notably, the presence of PTA confers to all complexes an appreciable solubility in aqueous solutions at physiological pH. The chemical behavior of compounds 1-5 in water and in physiological buffer, their interactions with two model proteins - cytochrome c and ribonuclease A - as well as with a single strand oligonucleotide (5'-CGCGCG-3'), and their in vitro cytotoxicity against a human colon cancer cell line (HCT-116) and a myeloid leukemia (FLG 29.1) were investigated. Upon dissolution in the buffer, sequential halide replacement by water molecules was observed for complexes 1-4, with relatively slow kinetics, whereas the Ru(III) complex 5 is more inert. All tested compounds manifested moderate antiproliferative properties, the cis compounds 2 and 4 being slightly more active than the trans ones (1 and 3). Mass spectrometry experiments evidenced that all complexes exhibit a far higher reactivity towards the reference oligonucleotide than towards model proteins. The chemical and biological profiles of compounds 1-5 are compared to those of established ruthenium drug candidates in clinical development. PMID:26920229

  18. Dynamics of the biological properties of soil and the nutrient release of Amorpha fruticosa L. litter in soil polluted by crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Zengwen; Luc, Nhu Trung; Liang, Xiao; Liu, Xiaobo

    2015-11-01

    Litter from Amorpha fruticosa, a potential phytoremediating plant, was collected and used in a decomposition experiment that involved the litterbag in soil polluted by crude oil. The dynamics of the biological properties of soil and the nutrient release of the litter were detected. The results indicated that (1) in lightly polluted soil (LP, petroleum concentration was 15 g kg(-1)), the bacteria (including actinomycetes), and fungi populations were significant higher than those in unpolluted soil (CK) at the 1st month after pollution, and the bacteria (including actinomycetes) populations were higher than those in the CK at the 6th and 12th months. In moderately polluted soil (MP, 30 g kg(-1)), the bacteria (including actinomycetes) populations were higher than those in the CK at the 1st and 6th months, whereas only the actinomycetes population was greater than that in the CK at the 12th month. In seriously polluted soil (SP, 45 g kg(-1)), only the fungi population was higher than that in the CK at the 6th month. (2) The activities of soil protease, carboxymethyl cellulase, and sucrase were generally inhibited in polluted soil. Peroxidase activity was generally inhibited in the LP and MP soil, and polyphenol oxidase activity was inhibited in the SP soil at 6-12 months. (3) At the end of litter decomposition, the LP soil significantly increased the release rate of all nutrients, except for K. The MP soil reduced the release rate of Fe and Mn, whereas it increased that of C and Cu. The SP soil decreased the release rate of all nutrients except for Cu and Zn. In conclusion, SP by crude oil would lead to limitations in the release of nutrients from the litter and to decreases in the community stability of a phytoremediating plant. A. fruticosa could only be used in phytoremediation of polluted soil at concentrations below 45 g kg(-1) (crude). PMID:26087933

  19. NEW DERIVATIVES OF 2-R1-N-(5-R-1,3,4-THIADIAZOL-2-YL-BENZOLSULFONAMIDES: SYNTHESIS, PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY PREDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sych I.V.

    2015-12-01

    activity using the chemical structural formula and helps to narrow the limits of experimental screening to identify compounds-leaders. This program is used just to assess the affinity of new compounds with known drugs, that is, to characterize their «drug likeness». The calculation was conducted with the help of Internet service that offers the software package of processing of listed structures and calculation of properties. Results and discussion: Synthesis of new potential biological active substances 2-R1-N (5-R-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ilbenzolsulfonamides has been carried out. Finished products have been obtained by the interaction of 2-amino-5-(R-1,3,4-thiadiazoles with corresponding substituted benzolsulfochlorides in the presence of anhydrous pyridine. Target products have been obtained with satisfactory yields. All semi-products have two-proton signal of aminogroup in the area from 2.5 to 2.82 ppm in NMR1Н spectra. Signals of protons substituents in the second position of the heterocycle (methyl, propyl, i-propyl, butyl, sec-butyl on corresponding areas of spectra is present in NMR1Н spectra of the all initial compounds aswell. In contrast to the spectrums of initial compounds signals of amino groups at the spectra of the finished compounds are absent. All spectra of the target products have the secondary amino group signal at 6.81 and 6.71 ppm areas. The purity of the obtained compounds determined by TLC. Prediction of biological activity derived substances was conducted using a computer program PASS. Conclusion. The group of 2-R1-N-(5-R-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylbenzolsulfonamides has been synthesized by acylation of the corresponding 2-amino-5 -(R-1,3,4-thiadiazoles. The structures of the synthesized compounds have been proved by elemental analysis, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy data. All substances for which the PASS program prognosis was carried out can show themselves as potential antidiabetic and antimycobacterial drugs.

  20. Evidence for Alteration in Chemical and Physical Properties of Water and Modulation of its Biological Functions by Sunlight Transmitted through Color Ranges of the Visible Spectrum-A Novel Study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rajeswara Rao; Angel, Michael F.; Das, Suman K.; Margot S. Koelle; Don Obenhuber; Reno, William L.; Asit Panja; Hari H. P. Cohly

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the changes in the properties of water when exposed to sunlight for 40 days. We hypothesize and prove that solar irradiation to water entraps electromagnetic radiation as potential energy, which becomes kinetic energy in various systems. It is postulated that photochemically-induced energy transfers, associated with individual spectral emission of visible spectrum of solar light, exert diverse influences on biological systems. Bottles of distilled water, individually wrapped i...

  1. Biological role of anions (sulfate, nitrate, oxalate and acetate) on the pharmacological properties of cobalt(II) and nickel(II) chelates with thienoyl- and furenoyl-derived compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Z H; Sherazi, S K; Parveen, M

    1998-01-01

    Biologically active complexes of cobalt (II) and nickel (II) with thienoyl- and furenoyl-derived Schiff-base ligands having the same metal ion but different anions such as sulfate, nitrate, oxalate and acetate have been prepared and characterized. In order to evaluate the role of anions on their pharmacological properties the synthesized complexes have been screened against bacterial species, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and results have been reported. PMID:16414804

  2. 电磁场曝露对生物组织电磁特性的影响%Effects of Electromagnetic Field Exposure on Electromagnetic Properties of Biological Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李滚; 庞小峰

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiations affect human health seriously. Bio-effects of electromagnetic fields mechanisms closely depend on the properties of themselves. Moreover, electromagnetic properties of signaling molecules, radicals and magnetic particles within body will be changed in electromagnetic fields, especially the conductivity, dielectric and magnetic properties of biological tissues will be significant difference when biological tissues exposure to various frequency electromagnetic fields. Identifying the evolution of electromagnetic properties of biological tissues is a key issue to explore underlying mechanisms and prevent electromagnetic bio-effects. Effects and applications of biological tissues in electromagnetic fields are summarized, and several future research directions are put forward.%电磁辐射严重影响着人体的健康.电磁场生物效应的发生机制与电磁场本身的特性相关,同时也与生物组织在电磁场作用下电磁特性的改变密切相关.生物体内的信号分子、自由基以及磁颗粒等处于外加电磁场中时其电磁特性会发生变化,尤其是不同频率电磁场曝露作用下生物组织的导电、介电以及磁学等特性会有非常显著的区别.明确不同频率电磁场作用下生物组织电磁特性的变化规律是研究电磁场生物效应发生机制以及预防问题的关键.综述了近年来电磁场对于生物组织电磁特性影响的研究成果,并对未来的研究方向做了展望.

  3. Investigation of antileishmanial activities of Tio2@Ag nanoparticles on biological properties of L. tropica and L. infantum parasites, in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Bagirova, Melahat; Baydar, Serap Yesilkir; Ates, Sezen Canim; Kaya, Figen; Kaya, Cengiz; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2013-09-01

    Leishmaniasis is a public health problem which is caused by protozoon parasites belonging to Leishmania species. The disease threatens approximately 350 million people in 98 countries all over the world. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) and Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) are the mostly commonly seen forms of the disease. Treatment of the disease has remained insufficient since current antileishmanial drugs have several disadvantages such as toxicity, costliness and drug-resistance. Therefore, there is an immediate need to search for new antileishmanial compounds. TiO2@Ag nanoparticles (TiAg-Nps) have been demonstrated as promising antimicrobial agents since they provide inhibition of several types of bacteria. The basic antimicrobial mechanism of TiAg-Nps is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Even though Leishmania parasites are sensitive to ROS, there is no study in literature indicating antileishmanial activities of TiAg-Nps. Herein, in this study, TiAg-Nps are shown to possess antileishmanial effects on Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum parasites by inhibiting their biological properties such as viability, metabolic activity, and survival within host cells both in the dark and under visible light. The results indicate that TiAg-Nps decreased viability values of L. tropica, and L. infantum promastigotes 3- and 10-fold, respectively, in the dark, while these rates diminished approximately 20-fold for each species in the presence of visible light, in contrast to control. On the other hand, non-visible light-exposed TiAg-Nps inhibited survival of amastigotes nearly 2- and 2.5-fold; while visible light-exposed TiAg-Nps inhibited 4- and 4.5-fold for L. tropica and L. infantum parasites, respectively. Consequently, it was determined that non-visible light-exposed TiAg-Nps were more effective against L. infantum parasites while visible light-exposed TiAg-Nps exhibited nearly the same antileishmanial effect against both species. Therefore, we think that a

  4. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  5. Nanoindentation of biological composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, M, E-mail: m.dickinson@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2009-08-15

    This investigation studied the effect of storage conditions on the mechanical properties as measured by nanoindentation of mineralised tissue samples. The three storage solutions were Hanks balanced salt solution, phosphate buffered saline and deionised water and all had a significant effect on the surface properties, namely hardness and modulus of enamel, dentin and bone tested. The effect was significant with a greater than 70% reduction in surface mechanical properties after 8 days immersion in the solutions. This study highlights the importance of testing biological tissues immediately after extraction, and the possible structural and chemistry changes that may occur by artificially storing the tissues.

  6. BiologicalNetworks: visualization and analysis tool for systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Baitaluk, Michael; Sedova, Mayya; Ray, Animesh; Gupta, Amarnath

    2006-01-01

    Systems level investigation of genomic scale information requires the development of truly integrated databases dealing with heterogeneous data, which can be queried for simple properties of genes or other database objects as well as for complex network level properties, for the analysis and modelling of complex biological processes. Towards that goal, we recently constructed PathSys, a data integration platform for systems biology, which provides dynamic integration over a diverse set of dat...

  7. Design, Synthesis, and Chemical and Biological Properties of Cyclic ADP-4-Thioribose as a Stable Equivalent of Cyclic ADP-Ribose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Takayoshi; Takano, Satoshi; Sakaguchi, Natsumi; Kudoh, Takashi; Murayama, Takashi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hashii, Minako; Higashida, Haruhiro; Weber, Karin; Guse, Andreas H.; Kameda, Tomoshi; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Kumaki, Yasuhiro; Arisawa, Mitsuhiro; Potter, Barry V. L.; Shuto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the successful synthesis of cyclic ADP-4-thioribose (cADPtR, 3), designed as a stable mimic of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR, 1), a Ca2+-mobilizing second messenger, in which the key N1-β-thioribosyladenosine structure was stereoselectively constructed by condensation between the imidazole nucleoside derivative 8 and the 4-thioribosylamine 7 via equilibrium in 7 between the α-anomer (7α) and the β-anomer (7β) during the reaction course. cADPtR is, unlike cADPR, chemically and biologically stable, while it effectively mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ like cADPR in various biological systems, such as sea urchin homogenate, NG108-15 neuronal cells, and Jurkat T-lymphocytes. Thus, cADPtR is a stable equivalent of cADPR, which can be useful as a biological tool for investigating cADPR-mediated Ca2+-mobilizing pathways.

  8. Topology in Molecular Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, Michail Ilych

    2007-01-01

    The book presents a class of new results in molecular biology for which topological methods and ideas are important. These include: the large-scale conformation properties of DNA; computational methods (Monte Carlo) allowing the simulation of large-scale properties of DNA; the tangle model of DNA recombination and other applications of Knot theory; dynamics of supercoiled DNA and biocatalitic properties of DNA; the structure of proteins; and other very recent problems in molecular biology. The text also provides a short course of modern topology intended for the broad audience of biologists and physicists. The authors are renowned specialists in their fields and some of the new results presented here are documented for the first time in monographic form.

  9. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  10. Efficient modification of the surface properties of interconnected porous hydroxyapatite by low-pressure low-frequency plasma treatment to promote its biological performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment at low pressure is found to significantly improve the biological performance of artificial bones made of interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite (IP-CHA). One of the essential parameters associated with their biological performance is hydrophilicity of their exterior surfaces as well as surfaces of inner pores. It is found that plasma treatment at low pressures is highly effective in making the inner pore surfaces more hydrophilic. Preliminary in vivo experiments of plasma-treated IP-CHA artificial bones in rats have shown fast formation of blood vessels in their inner pores, implying the increase in osteoconductivity due to the plasma treatment.

  11. Efficient modification of the surface properties of interconnected porous hydroxyapatite by low-pressure low-frequency plasma treatment to promote its biological performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Sung; Moriguchi, Yu; Myoui, Akira; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment at low pressure is found to significantly improve the biological performance of artificial bones made of interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite (IP-CHA). One of the essential parameters associated with their biological performance is hydrophilicity of their exterior surfaces as well as surfaces of inner pores. It is found that plasma treatment at low pressures is highly effective in making the inner pore surfaces more hydrophilic. Preliminary in vivo experiments of plasma-treated IP-CHA artificial bones in rats have shown fast formation of blood vessels in their inner pores, implying the increase in osteoconductivity due to the plasma treatment.

  12. Molecular variability of FLT3/ITD mutants and their impact on the differentiation program of 32D cells: Implications for the biological properties of AML blasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peková, S.; Ivánek, Robert; Dvořák, Michal; Rueggeberg, S.; Leicht, S.; Li, X.; Franz, T.; Kozak, T.; Vrba, J.; Koza, V.; Karas, M.; Schwarz, J.; Cetkovský, P.; Průcha, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 10 (2009), s. 1409-1416. ISSN 0145-2126 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/06/1728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : FLT3/ITD * microarrays * proteomics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.358, year: 2009

  13. Nucleotide variability of Ťahyňa virus (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) small (S) and medium (M) genomic segments in field strains differing in biological properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kilian, P.; Růžek, Daniel; Danielová, V.; Hypša, Václav; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 1 (2010), s. 119-123. ISSN 0168-1702 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tahyna virus * Bunyavirus * california group * genetic variability * virulence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.905, year: 2010

  14. Quantum Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Sergi, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    A critical assessment of the recent developments of molecular biology is presented. The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptual understanding of life and biological systems is defended. Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketched and its logical circularity avoided by postulating the existence of underlying {\\it living processes}, entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale, with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other. Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces, is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretation of quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so on) as quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of including long-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them) in condensed matter theories of biological processes. Some quantum effects in biology are reviewed and quantum mechanics is acknowledge...

  15. 不同材料矫形器的生物学性能%Biological properties of orthoses made of different materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志伟; 王应球; 郑群香

    2011-01-01

    背景:矫形器通过力的作用以预防、矫正畸形,达到治疗骨骼、关节、肌肉和神经疾患并补偿其功能的效果.目的:介绍了矫形器的分类,不同材料矫形器的性能及应用效果.方法:以"矫形器,生物学性能,先天性马蹄内翻足,婴幼儿"为中文关键词,以"orthosis,Congenital Club Foot" 为英文关键词,采用计算机检索中国期刊全文数据库、PubMed数据库(1996-01/2010-12)相关文章.纳入与矫形器材料、以及先天性马蹄内翻足治疗相关内容的文献,排除重复研究或Meta分析类文章,共入选20篇文章进入结果分析.并回顾性分析应用低温热塑板或高温热塑板,根据3点力作用原理设计制作静态足踝矫形器或动态足踝矫形器,结合手法推拿等综合治疗婴幼儿先天性马蹄内翻足96例(106足)临床效果.结果与结论:文章重点从矫形器的分类、矫形器的材料、矫形器的基本作用及临床验证几方面进行了叙述.目前常用的矫形器材料主要有金属材料(钢材和铝合金)、皮革、橡胶、塑料及各种纤维等.临床验证结果:随访1年优86例(93足);良8例(10足);可2例(3足).提示选用高温热塑板制作成静态踝足矫形器或动态踝足矫形器治疗婴幼儿先天性马蹄内翻足早期效果满意.%BACKGROUND: Orthoses are used to prevent and correct deformity through the force in order to treat bone, joint, muscle and nerve disorders and compensate the functions.OBJECTIVE: To introduce the classification, properties, and curative effects of orthoses made of different materials.METHODS: A computer-based search of CNKI and PubMed databases(1996-01/2010-12) were performed using the keywords of “orthosis, biological properties, congenital club food, infants” in Chinese and “orthosis,congenital club foot” in English. Articles related to orthosis and congenital club foot were included, and repetitive article or Meta analysis were excluded. Finally, 20

  16. Evidence for Alteration in Chemical and Physical Properties of Water and Modulation of its Biological Functions by Sunlight Transmitted through Color Ranges of the Visible Spectrum-A Novel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajeswara Rao

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the changes in the properties of water when exposed to sunlight for 40 days. We hypothesize and prove that solar irradiation to water entraps electromagnetic radiation as potential energy, which becomes kinetic energy in various systems. It is postulated that photochemically-induced energy transfers, associated with individual spectral emission of visible spectrum of solar light, exert diverse influences on biological systems. Bottles of distilled water, individually wrapped in spectral-colored cellophane were exposed to sunlight and compared to an unwrapped bottle to determine chemical and physical changes as well as modifications of biological properties. Each bottle of water was named according to the color of cellophane paper with letter E (stands for exposed as a prefix with (E-violet, E-indigo, E-blue, E-green, E-yellow, E-orange, and Ered. E-control (without wrap was exposed to polychromatic sunlight. This study addresses two main issues viz., the chemical and physical changes in E-water and its effect on biological activities. Chemical and physical composition analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry; physical conductance by a Wheatstone Bridge type conductivity meter; osmolarity by a vapor pressure osmometer; and, salt solubility profile of 10% sodium bicarbonate were determined. Furthermore, testing the effect of E-waters on human lymphocyte proliferation, mosquito larvae hatching and seed germination determined the functional role of solar radiation through specific spectrum/s of visible light on various biological processes. We found that water exposed to visible spectral emissions of sunlight had an altered elemental composition, electrical conductance, osmolarity and salt-solubility, as well as differences in bio-modulatory effects. A gradual increase in leaching of Boron from Eviolet to E-red was noted. E-indigo showed maximal increase in electrical conductance and maximal salt

  17. NEW DERIVATIVES OF 2-R1-N-(5-R)-1,3,4-THIADIAZOL-2-YL-BENZOLSULFONAMIDES: SYNTHESIS, PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY PREDICTION

    OpenAIRE

    Sych I.V.; Perekhoda L.О.; Іеremina Z.G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The analysis of modern literature, including overseas one, showed that a lot of the scientific researches is devoted to finding and creating biologically active compounds on base 1,3,4-thiadiazole. Derivatives of 1,3,4-thiadiazole are the large group of heterocyclic compounds with high rates of antimicrobial, antituberculosis, antidiabetic, antineoplastic and anticonvulsant activity. Material and methods: The purpose of this study was the expansion of sulfone derivati...

  18. Synthesis of iminophosphine and phosphinoiminol cyclometallated Pt (II) and Pt (IV) chloro complexes and studies into their biological and photophysical properties

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donoghue, John Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the synthesis and analysis of novel chloride based platinum complexes derived from iminophosphine and phosphinoamide ligands, along with studies on their reactivity towards substitution and oxidation reactions. Also explored here are the potential applications of these complexes for biological and luminescent purposes. Chapter one provides an extensive overview of platinum coordination chemistry with examples of various mixed donor ligands along with the history of plat...

  19. Biological and Pharmacological Properties of two Indigenous Medicinal Plants, Rheum emodi and Paeonia emodi

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Ismail; Zafar Iqbal; Bashir Ahmad; Shahida Zakir; Uzma Niaz

    2003-01-01

    The ethanol (70%) crude extracts of Rheum emodi and Paeonia emodi were screened for various biological and pharmacological activities including antifungal, antibacterial, insecticidal, phytotoxic and brine-shrimp cytotoxic activities. It was explored that the extracts of both these plant posses moderate antifungal activities. The Rheum emodi exhibited remarkable phytotoxic activity against Lemna aeguinoctailis Welve while the said activity of the Paeonia emodi was also reasonable. However, th...

  20. The role of EPR spectroscopy in studies of the oxidative status of biological systems and the antioxidative properties of various compounds - REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    IVAN SPASOJEVIĆ; MILOŠ MOJOVIĆ; ALEKSANDAR IGNJATOVIĆ; GORAN BAČIĆ

    2011-01-01

    In this era of intense study of free radicals and antioxidants, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is arguably the best-suited technique for such research, particularly when considering biochemical and biological systems. No attempt was made to cover all the topics of EPR application but instead attention was restricted to two areas that are both novel and received less attention in previous reviews. In the first section, the application of EPR in assessing the oxidative status of various ...

  1. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  2. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  3. Causality-based cost-effective action mining

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsinejadbabaki, Pirooz; Saraee, Mohamad; Blockeel, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    In many business contexts, the ultimate goal of knowledge discovery is not the knowledge itself, but putting it to use. Models or patterns found by data mining methods often require further post-processing to this effect. For instance, in churn prediction, data mining may give a model that predicts which customers are likely to end their contract, but companies are not just interested in knowing who is likely to do so, they want to know what they can do to avoid this. The models or patterns h...

  4. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  5. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists…

  6. Simple one step synthesis of nonionic dithiol surfactants and their self-assembling with silver nanoparticles: Characterization, surface properties, biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nonionic dithiol surfactants were synthesized by simple one step esterification. • The surface activity of the synthesized dithiol surfactants showed high tendency toward adsorption and micellization. • The nanostructure of the synthesized nonionic dithiol surfactants with silver nanoparticles was prepared. • The silver nanoparticles enhanced the biological activity of the synthesized dithiol surfactants. - Abstract: Simple esterification of 2-mercaptoacetic acid and polyethylene glycol with different molecular weights was done to form the desired nonionic dithiol surfactants. The chemical structures of synthesized thiol surfactants were confirmed using FT-IR and 1H NMR spectra. The surface activity of the synthesized surfactants was determined by measurement of the surface tension at different temperatures. The surface activity measurements showed their high tendency towards adsorption and micellization. The thermodynamic parameters of micellization (ΔGmic, ΔHmic and ΔSmic) and adsorption (ΔGads, ΔGads and ΔSads) showed their tendency toward adsorption at the interfaces and also micellization in the bulk of their solutions. The nanostructure of the synthesized nonionic dithiol surfactants with silver nanoparticles was prepared and investigated using UV and TEM techniques. Screening tests of the synthesized dithiol surfactants and their nanostructure with silver nanoparticles, against gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Microccus luteus), gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Bordatella pertussis) and fungi (Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) showed that they are highly active biocides. The presence of silver nanoparticles enhancement the biological activities of the individual synthesized nonionic dithiol surfactants

  7. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Shivashankar

    2002-02-01

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological systems. In recent years advances in technology have led to the study of some of the design principles of these machines; in particular at the level of an individual molecule. For example, the forces that operate in molecular interactions, the stochasticity involved in these interactions and their spatio-temporal dynamics are beginning to be explored. Understanding such design principles is opening new possibilities in mesoscopic physics with potential applications.

  8. INFLUENCE OF VERMICOMPOST ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF SOIL ALONG WITH YIELD AND QUALITY OF THE PULSE CROP-BLACKGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Parthasarathi, M. Balamurugan, L. S. Ranganathan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted during 2002-2003 on clay loam, sandy loam and red loam soil at Sivapuri, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, to evaluate the efficacy of vermicompost on the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of the soils and on the yield and nutrient content of blackgram - Vigna mungo, in comparison to inorganic fertilizers nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium. Vermicompost had increased the pore space, reduced particle and bulk density, increased water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, reduced pH and electrical conductivity, increased organic carbon content, available nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and microbial population and activity in all the soil types, particularly clay loam. The yield and quality (protein and sugar content in seed of blackgram was enhanced in soils, particularly clay loam soil. On the contrary, the application of inorganic fertilizers has resulted in reduced porosity, compaction of soil, reduced carbon and reduced microbial activity.

  9. Biological programming

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsden, Jeremy J.; Bándi, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    Biology offers a tremendous set of concepts that are potentially very powerfully usable for the software engineer, but they have been barely exploited hitherto. In this position paper we propose a fresh attempt to create the building blocks of a programming technology that could be as successful as life. A key guiding principle is to develop and make use of unambiguous definitions of the essential features of life.

  10. Biological radioprotector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the patent description, the biological radioprotector is deuterium depleted water, DDW, produced by vacuum distillation with an isotopic content lower than natural value. It appears as such or in a mixture with natural water and carbon dioxide. It can be used for preventing and reducing the ionizing radiation effects upon humans or animal organisms, exposed therapeutically, professionally or accidentally to radiation. The most significant advantage of using DDW as biological radioprotector results from its way of administration. Indeed no one of the radioprotectors currently used today can be orally administrated, what reduces the patients' compliance to prophylactic administrations. The biological radioprotector is an unnoxious product obtained from natural water, which can be administrated as food additive instead of drinking water. Dose modification factor is according to initial estimates around 1.9, what is a remarkable feature when one takes into account that the product is toxicity-free and side effect-free and can be administrated prophylactically as a food additive. A net radioprotective action of the deuterium depletion was evidenced experimentally in laboratory animals (rats) hydrated with DDW of 30 ppm D/(D+H) concentration as compared with normally hydrated control animals. Knowing the effects of irradiation and mechanisms of the acute radiation disease as well as the effects of administration of radiomimetic chemicals upon cellular lines of fast cell division, it appears that the effects of administrating DDW result from stimulation of the immunity system. In conclusion, the biological radioprotector DDW presents the following advantages: - it is obtained from natural products without toxicity; - it is easy to be administrated as a food additive, replacing the drinking water; - besides radioprotective effects, the product has also immunostimulative and antitumoral effects

  11. Simple one step synthesis of nonionic dithiol surfactants and their self-assembling with silver nanoparticles: Characterization, surface properties, biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-Elaal, Ali A., E-mail: ali_ashour5@yahoo.com; Tawfik, Salah M.; Shaban, Samy M.

    2015-07-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nonionic dithiol surfactants were synthesized by simple one step esterification. • The surface activity of the synthesized dithiol surfactants showed high tendency toward adsorption and micellization. • The nanostructure of the synthesized nonionic dithiol surfactants with silver nanoparticles was prepared. • The silver nanoparticles enhanced the biological activity of the synthesized dithiol surfactants. - Abstract: Simple esterification of 2-mercaptoacetic acid and polyethylene glycol with different molecular weights was done to form the desired nonionic dithiol surfactants. The chemical structures of synthesized thiol surfactants were confirmed using FT-IR and {sup 1}H NMR spectra. The surface activity of the synthesized surfactants was determined by measurement of the surface tension at different temperatures. The surface activity measurements showed their high tendency towards adsorption and micellization. The thermodynamic parameters of micellization (ΔG{sub mic}, ΔH{sub mic} and ΔS{sub mic}) and adsorption (ΔG{sub ads}, ΔG{sub ads} and ΔS{sub ads}) showed their tendency toward adsorption at the interfaces and also micellization in the bulk of their solutions. The nanostructure of the synthesized nonionic dithiol surfactants with silver nanoparticles was prepared and investigated using UV and TEM techniques. Screening tests of the synthesized dithiol surfactants and their nanostructure with silver nanoparticles, against gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Microccus luteus), gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Bordatella pertussis) and fungi (Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) showed that they are highly active biocides. The presence of silver nanoparticles enhancement the biological activities of the individual synthesized nonionic dithiol surfactants.

  12. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  13. Marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  14. Biology of Applied Digital Ecosystems

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, G; Paperin, G

    2007-01-01

    A primary motivation for research in digital ecosystems is the desire to exploit the self-organising properties of natural ecosystems. Ecosystems are thought to be robust, scalable architectures that can automatically solve complex, dynamic problems. However, the biological processes that contribute to these properties have not been made explicit in digital ecosystem research. Here, we discuss how biological properties contribute to the self-organising features of natural ecosystems. These properties include populations of evolving agents, a complex dynamic environment, and spatial distributions which generate local interactions. The potential for exploiting these properties in artificial systems is then considered. An example architecture, the Digital Business Ecosystem (DBE), is considered in detail. Simulation results imply that the DBE performs better at large scales than a comparable service-oriented architecture. These results suggest that incorporating ideas from theoretical ecology can contribute to u...

  15. When Two Worlds Collide: Ownership of Genetic Resources unde rthe Convention on Biological Diversity and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg K. Venbrux

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the biotechnology industry over the past two decades led many countries to recognize the vast economic potential of their genetic resources and indigenous knowledge. 1  Pharmaceutical companies and plant breeders increasingly rely upon these resources to engineer plantderived drugs, disease-resistant crops, and biotechnical production processes.2 With increasing demand for new biotechnological products, the global community is struggling to strike a balance between the interests of host countries, who seek remuneration for supplying genetic resources and traditional knowledge, and biotechnological inventors, who are pressing for free access, open markets, and stronger intellectual property rights protection.

  16. Structural Properties and Biological Prediction of ({[(1E-3-(1H-Imidazol-1-yl-1-phenylpropylidene] amino}oxy(4-methylphenylmethanone: An In Silico Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha S. Almutairi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive molecules are playing essential role in the field of drug discovery and various pharmaceutical applications. Vibrational spectral investigations of the anti-Candida agent ({[(1E-3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl-1-phenylpropylidene]amino}oxy(4-methylphenylmethanone ((1E-IPMM have been recorded and analyzed to understand its structural geometry, inter- and intra-molecular interactions. The equilibrium geometry, harmonic vibrational wavenumber, natural bond orbital (NBO and Frontier orbital energy analyses have been carried out with the help of density functional theory with B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p level of theory. The detailed vibrational assignments for the title molecule were performed on the basis of potential energy distribution analysis in order to unambiguously predict its modes. The calculated wavenumbers had good agreement with the experimental values. NBO analysis has confirmed the intramolecular charge transfer interactions. The predicted docking binding energy gave insight into the possible biological activity of the title molecule.

  17. Comparison of the Biological Properties of Two Strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom Samson Associated to Their Antagonistic Effect onto Toxocara canis Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gortari, M. C.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of nematodes by fungi is a promising field of application at large scale. Nematode egg is probably the most resistant stage in the nematode life-cycle, however they are susceptible to colonization and destruction by fungal egg-parasites. Fungal extra-cellular enzymes are able to degrade the main chemical constituents of nematode eggshell and at least they are partly responsible for fungal penetration and/or digestion of the internal tissues. Paecilomyces lilacinus was reported as an ovicidal fungus of Toxocara canis eggs in vitro, a parasite of dogs causing toxocarosis. Two wild-type P. lilacinus LPSC # 876 and LPSC # 44 strains, isolated from soil in the main park in the city of La Plata and an agricultural field, respectively, in Argentina, showed antagonism onto T. canis eggs. Besides from the isolation source, both strains showed similar hydrolytic profiles activities, ovicidal effect, and grew well on chitin agar, although no chitinolytic activity was detected. Nevertheless, both strains displayed proteolytic and chitinolytic activities in liquid cultures, with maximum values at 14 days of growth. Variable enzyme activities were observed on carboxymethylcellulose and starch agars, whereas the lipolytic activity was poor in both. Percentage of infected T. canis eggs was found 65.6% and 63.2% for P. lilacinus LPSC # 876 and # 44 strains respectively. Our results a priori indicate that P. lilacinus LPSC # 876 shows suitable characteristics as a potential agent for biocontrol of T. canis.

  18. Simple one step synthesis of nonionic dithiol surfactants and their self-assembling with silver nanoparticles: Characterization, surface properties, biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elaal, Ali A.; Tawfik, Salah M.; Shaban, Samy M.

    2015-07-01

    Simple esterification of 2-mercaptoacetic acid and polyethylene glycol with different molecular weights was done to form the desired nonionic dithiol surfactants. The chemical structures of synthesized thiol surfactants were confirmed using FT-IR and 1H NMR spectra. The surface activity of the synthesized surfactants was determined by measurement of the surface tension at different temperatures. The surface activity measurements showed their high tendency towards adsorption and micellization. The thermodynamic parameters of micellization (ΔGmic, ΔHmic and ΔSmic) and adsorption (ΔGads, ΔGads and ΔSads) showed their tendency toward adsorption at the interfaces and also micellization in the bulk of their solutions. The nanostructure of the synthesized nonionic dithiol surfactants with silver nanoparticles was prepared and investigated using UV and TEM techniques. Screening tests of the synthesized dithiol surfactants and their nanostructure with silver nanoparticles, against gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Microccus luteus), gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Bordatella pertussis) and fungi (Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) showed that they are highly active biocides. The presence of silver nanoparticles enhancement the biological activities of the individual synthesized nonionic dithiol surfactants.

  19. Synthesis, spectroscopic, photoluminescence properties and biological evaluation of novel Zn(II) and Al(III) complexes of NOON tetradentate Schiff bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Aziz, Ayman A.; Badr, Ibrahim H. A.; El-Sayed, Ibrahim S. A.

    2012-11-01

    Novel mononuclear Zn(II) and Al(III) complexes were synthesized from the reactions of Zn(OAc)2·2H2O and anhydrous AlCl3 with neutral N2O2 donor tetradentate Schiff bases; N,N'bis(salicylaldehyde)4,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylenediamine (H2L1) and N,N'bis(salicylaldehyde)4,5-dichloro-1,2-phenylenediamine (H2L2). The new complexes were fully characterized by using micro analyses (CHN), FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV-Vis spectra and thermal analysis. The analytical data have been showed that, the stoichiometry of the complexes is 1:1. Spectroscopic data suggested tetrahedral and square pyramidal geometries for Zn(II) and Al(III) complexes, respectively. The synthesized Zn(II), and Al(III) complexes exhibited intense fluorescence emission in the visible region upon UV-excitation in methylene chloride solution at ambient temperature. This high fluorescence emission was assigned to the strong coordination of the ligands to the small and the highly charged Zn(II) and Al(III) ions. Such strong coordination seems to extend the π-conjugation of the complexes. Thermal analysis measurements indicated that the complexes have good thermal stability. As a potential application the biological activity (e.g., antimicrobial action) of the prepared ligands and complexes was assessed by in-vitro testing of their effect on the growth of various strains of bacteria and fungi.

  20. Thermal and biological properties of the Schiff base N,N‧-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-phenylenediamine, a potential adjuvant to antibiotic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toledo, T. A.; da Costa, R. C.; da Silva, L. E.; Teixeira, A. M. R.; Lima, V. N.; Sena, D. M.; Coutinho, H. D. Melo; Freire, P. T. C.; Pizani, P. S.

    2016-07-01

    Schiff base N,N‧-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-phenylenediamine, salophen, is a substance that presents synergism when combined with amikacin against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Measurements of temperature dependence of the Raman spectra of salophen combined with thermal analysis investigations are presented. The room temperature crystalline structure seems to be stable up to the temperature where the phase transition from solid to liquid (433-443 K) is observed. The Raman spectra in the temperature range 433-443 K were observed to be characterized by the loss of external vibrational modes, in accordance with thermal analysis curves. According to thermogravimetric analysis, salophen shows a weight loss variation in the temperature range 300-453 K corresponding to 5% loss in weight, which is attributed to dehydration and materials melting temperature. The enthalpy (ΔH) obtained from the integration of the differential scanning calorimetry peak at melting (Tm = 438 K) and decomposition temperature (Td = 484 K) is founded to be - 91 J/g and 239 J/g, respectively. Finally, it was carried out biological assays to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the salophen.

  1. Biological Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviena Baskaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biology has entered a new era in distributing information based on database and this collection of database become primary in publishing information. This data publishing is done through Internet Gopher where information resources easy and affordable offered by powerful research tools. The more important thing now is the development of high quality and professionally operated electronic data publishing sites. To enhance the service and appropriate editorial and policies for electronic data publishing has been established and editors of article shoulder the responsibility.

  2. Evaluation of physicochemical and biological properties of chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol) polymer blend membranes and their correlation for Vero cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Parul; Mathur, Garima; Dhakate, Sanjay R; Chand, Subhash; Goswami, Navendu; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Mathur, Ashwani

    2016-02-10

    The blend membranes with varying weight ratios of chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol) (CS/PVA) (1:0, 1:1, 1:2.5, 1.5:1, 1.5: 2.5) were prepared using solvent casting method and were evaluated for their potential application in single-use membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The physicochemical properties of the prepared membranes were investigated for chemical interactions (FTIR), surface morphology (SEM), water uptake, protein sorption (qe), ammonia sorption and growth kinetics of Vero cells. CS/PVA blend membrane having weight ratio of 1.5:1 had shown enhanced membrane flexibility, reduced water uptake, less protein sorption and no ammonium sorption compared to CS membrane. This blend membrane also showed comparatively enhanced higher specific growth rate (0.82/day) of Vero cells. Improved physicochemical properties and growth kinetics obtrude CS/PVA (1.5:1) as a potential surface for adhesion and proliferation with possible application in single use membrane bioreactors. Additionally, new insight explaining correlation between water holding (%) of CS/PVA (1.5:1) blend membrane and doubling time (td) of Vero cells is proposed. PMID:26686166

  3. Controlled electrophoretic deposition of HAp/β-TCP composite coatings on piranha treated 316L SS for enhanced mechanical and biological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prem Ananth, K.; Nathanael, A. Joseph; Jose, Sujin P.; Oh, Tae Hwan; Mangalaraj, D.; Ballamurugan, A. M.

    2015-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) bioactive materials have been used as individual coatings on steel implants employed in the fields of orthopedics and dentistry due to their excellent properties, which foster effective healing of the repair site. However, slow dissolution of HAp and fairly little fast dissolution of β-TCP present a major obstacle for such applications and this leads to the focus on the investigation of a mixture of HAp and β-TCP composite that forms biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). The BCP coatings were achieved by thickness controlled electrophoretic deposition on piranha treated 316L SS. This method is well controlled and the anticipated dissolution rate could be attained with faster formation of new bone at the implant site, when compared to the individual HAp or β-TCP coating. The structural, functional, morphological and elemental composition of the coatings were characterized by using various analytical techniques. The BCP coating has been shown to have a role in obstructing the corrosion to a greater extent when in contact with SBF solution. The BCP coating also shows excellent in vitro and mechanical properties and osteoblasts cellular tests revealed that the coating was more effective in improving biocompatibility. This makes it an ideal candidate material for hard tissue replacement.

  4. Contribution to the study of the biological properties of compounds labeled with radio-chromium {sup 51}Cr; Contribution a l'etude des proprietes biologiques des composes marques au radiochrome {sup 51}Cr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingrand, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-15

    Among the radioisotopes commonly used in biology and medicine which are controlled Individually in the Radioelement Departement of the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre before being sent to the users, the author has chosen chromium 51 incorporated in inorganic salts or in organic substrates for a study of the biological properties of the compounds. In the first part, he has compared the pathways followed by the radioactive sodium chromate and chromic chloride mixed with blood or given to the whole animal, the object being to determine whether a reduction of hexavalent chromium occurs, both in vitro and in vivo. In the second part, the author has tried to show the validity of using, various substrates labeled with chromium 51, red cells, haemoglobin, plasma proteins and cytochrome c. The results obtained have contributed to underline the interest of using such compounds for biological applications. (author) [French] Parmi les radioisotopes d'utilisation courants en biologie et en medecine qui sont l'objet d'un controle particulier dans le Departement des Radioelements du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay avant leur diffusion aux utilisateurs, l'auteur a choisi le chrome 51 incorpore a des sels mineraux ou a des substrats organiques, afin d'en etudier les proprietes biologiques. Dans la premiere partie, il a compare le sort du chromate de sodium et du chlorure chromique radioactifs melanges a du sang ou administres a l'animal entier en s'efforcant de mettre en evidence une reduction du chrome hexavalent aussi bien in vitro qu'in vivo. Dans la deuxieme partie, il a cherche a etablir la validite de l'emploi de differents substrats marques au chrome 51, l'hematie, l'hemoglobine, les proteines plasmatiques et le cytochrome c. Les resultats obtenus ont permis de souligner le reel interet des applications biologiques des composes marques par le radioisotope. (auteur)

  5. Development of novel electrospun nanofibrous scaffold from P. ricini and A. mylitta silk fibroin blend with improved surface and biological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomaterials that stimulate cell attachment and proliferation without any surface modification (e.g. RGD coating) provide potent and cost effective scaffold for regenerative medicine. This study assessed the physico-chemical properties and cell supportive potential of a silk fibroin blend scaffold derived from eri (Philosamia ricini) and tasar (Antheraea mylitta) silk (ET) respectively by electrospinning process. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy study found that the fiber diameters are in 200 to 800 nm range with flat morphology. The porosity of ET scaffold is found to be 79 ± 5% with majority of pore diameter between 2.5 to 5 nm. Similarly, Bombyx mori (BM) silk fibroin and gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds were prepared and taken as control. The ultimate tensile strength of the ET and BM scaffold are found to be 1.83 ± 0.13 MPa and 1.47 ± 0.10 MPa respectively. The measured contact angle (a measure of hydrophilicity) for ET (54.7° ± 1.8°) is found to be lower than BM (62° ± 2.3°). The ability to deposit apatite over ET is comparable to that of BM nanofibers. All the scaffolds were seeded with cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and cultured for 14 days in vitro. The immunofluorescence study reveals enhanced cell attachment with higher metabolic activity for MSCs grown over ET than BM and gelatin. The ET scaffold also demonstrated expression of higher amount cell adhesion molecules (CD29/CD44) and higher proliferation rate than BM and gelatin as confirmed by MTT assay, DNA content estimation assay, flow cytometry study and SEM study. Overall, it may be concluded that ET scaffold may have potential in developing bone tissue grafts for clinical applications in the future. - Highlights: • We have fabricated eri–tasar blended electrospun silk fibroin nanofiber with superior surface property. • The hydrophilicity is higher than the silk fibroin nanofiber derived from Bombyx mori (BM). • The nanofibrous

  6. Development of novel electrospun nanofibrous scaffold from P. ricini and A. mylitta silk fibroin blend with improved surface and biological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, N.; Bissoyi, A.; Pramanik, K.; Biswas, A., E-mail: amitb79@gmail.com

    2015-03-01

    Biomaterials that stimulate cell attachment and proliferation without any surface modification (e.g. RGD coating) provide potent and cost effective scaffold for regenerative medicine. This study assessed the physico-chemical properties and cell supportive potential of a silk fibroin blend scaffold derived from eri (Philosamia ricini) and tasar (Antheraea mylitta) silk (ET) respectively by electrospinning process. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy study found that the fiber diameters are in 200 to 800 nm range with flat morphology. The porosity of ET scaffold is found to be 79 ± 5% with majority of pore diameter between 2.5 to 5 nm. Similarly, Bombyx mori (BM) silk fibroin and gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds were prepared and taken as control. The ultimate tensile strength of the ET and BM scaffold are found to be 1.83 ± 0.13 MPa and 1.47 ± 0.10 MPa respectively. The measured contact angle (a measure of hydrophilicity) for ET (54.7° ± 1.8°) is found to be lower than BM (62° ± 2.3°). The ability to deposit apatite over ET is comparable to that of BM nanofibers. All the scaffolds were seeded with cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and cultured for 14 days in vitro. The immunofluorescence study reveals enhanced cell attachment with higher metabolic activity for MSCs grown over ET than BM and gelatin. The ET scaffold also demonstrated expression of higher amount cell adhesion molecules (CD29/CD44) and higher proliferation rate than BM and gelatin as confirmed by MTT assay, DNA content estimation assay, flow cytometry study and SEM study. Overall, it may be concluded that ET scaffold may have potential in developing bone tissue grafts for clinical applications in the future. - Highlights: • We have fabricated eri–tasar blended electrospun silk fibroin nanofiber with superior surface property. • The hydrophilicity is higher than the silk fibroin nanofiber derived from Bombyx mori (BM). • The nanofibrous

  7. Fluorescence properties of the anti-tumour alkaloid luotonin A and new synthetic analogues: pH modulation as an approach to their fluorimetric quantitation in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luotonin A is an alkaloid structurally related to the natural anti-tumour agent camptothecin. The fluorescence behaviour of luotonin A and a series of six analogues is described in the present work. The influence of solvent polarity and pH on the native fluorescence properties of these alkaloids was studied, finding that in organic solvents or in aqueous solutions (pH 5.5–7.2) the neutral form of the luotonin derivatives emit in the region of 410–450 nm but, in both media, acidification to pH values below 3.0 causes a new emission band to appear at about 500 nm. An ESPT reaction occurs due to the protonation of the basic nitrogen atoms of the pentacyclic ring. Acid-base titrations of luotonin A and its derivatives in aqueous and acetonitrile media were carried out in order to determine their pKa⁎ values which were around 2, showing these compounds to be very weak bases. In aqueous media, the absence of an iso-emissive point in the emission spectra suggests the existence of more than two species in the proton transfer equilibria. The basicity of the luotonin A derivatives is increased in organic media, and a good correlation between the pKa⁎ values and the chemical structure was found. The protonation of luotonin A was also studied by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR experiments, which proved the protonation of the nitrogen atoms at the positions 5 and 6 of the pentacyclic ring. The fluorescence quantum yields were determined in ethanol and in aqueous solutions under neutral and acidic conditions. The fluorescence quantum yields were higher in water for the case of the more polar compounds, and the opposite result was obtained for the more hydrophobic ones. The remarkable and interesting fluorescence properties of luotonin A prompted the development of its fluorimetric analytical quantitation, obtaining very good analytical features. - Highlights: ► This is the first study on the fluorescence properties of luotonin A analogues. ► Fluorescence and NMR experiments

  8. Fluorescence properties of the anti-tumour alkaloid luotonin A and new synthetic analogues: pH modulation as an approach to their fluorimetric quantitation in biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Ruiz, Victor; Gonzalez-Cuevas, Yamisley; Arunachalam, Sankaralingam [S. D. Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Martin, M. Antonia, E-mail: mantonia@farm.ucm.es [S. D. Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Olives, Ana I. [S. D. Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Ribelles, Pascual; Ramos, M. Teresa; Menendez, J. Carlos [D. Quimica Organica y Farmaceutica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Luotonin A is an alkaloid structurally related to the natural anti-tumour agent camptothecin. The fluorescence behaviour of luotonin A and a series of six analogues is described in the present work. The influence of solvent polarity and pH on the native fluorescence properties of these alkaloids was studied, finding that in organic solvents or in aqueous solutions (pH 5.5-7.2) the neutral form of the luotonin derivatives emit in the region of 410-450 nm but, in both media, acidification to pH values below 3.0 causes a new emission band to appear at about 500 nm. An ESPT reaction occurs due to the protonation of the basic nitrogen atoms of the pentacyclic ring. Acid-base titrations of luotonin A and its derivatives in aqueous and acetonitrile media were carried out in order to determine their pK{sub a}{sup Low-Asterisk} values which were around 2, showing these compounds to be very weak bases. In aqueous media, the absence of an iso-emissive point in the emission spectra suggests the existence of more than two species in the proton transfer equilibria. The basicity of the luotonin A derivatives is increased in organic media, and a good correlation between the pK{sub a}{sup Low-Asterisk} values and the chemical structure was found. The protonation of luotonin A was also studied by {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR experiments, which proved the protonation of the nitrogen atoms at the positions 5 and 6 of the pentacyclic ring. The fluorescence quantum yields were determined in ethanol and in aqueous solutions under neutral and acidic conditions. The fluorescence quantum yields were higher in water for the case of the more polar compounds, and the opposite result was obtained for the more hydrophobic ones. The remarkable and interesting fluorescence properties of luotonin A prompted the development of its fluorimetric analytical quantitation, obtaining very good analytical features. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first study on the fluorescence

  9. Influence of fluoride additions on biological and mechanical properties of Na2O–CaO–SiO2–P2O5 glass–ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two series of Na2O–CaO–SiO2–P2O5 glass–ceramics doped with NH4HF2 (G-NH4HF2) or CaF2 (G-CaF2) have been prepared by sol–gel method. The glass–ceramic phase composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The mechanical properties and thermal expansion coefficient were measured by a microhardness tester, an electronic tensile machine and a thermal expansion coefficient tester. The structure difference between these two glass–ceramics was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the in vitro bioactivity of the glass–ceramics was determined by in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion test. The hemolysis test, in vitro cytotoxicity test, systemic toxicity test and the implanted experiment in animals were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of the glass–ceramics. The mechanical properties of sample G-NH4HF2 are lower than that of sample G-CaF2, and the bioactivity of sample G-NH4HF2 is better than that of sample G-CaF2. The thermal expansion coefficients of these two glass–ceramics are all closer to that of Ti6Al4V. After 7 days of SBF immersion, apatites were induced on glass–ceramic surface, indicating that the glass–ceramics have bioactivity. The hemolysis test, in vitro cytotoxicity test and systemic toxicity test demonstrate that the glass–ceramics do not cause hemolysis reaction, and have no toxicity to cell and living animal. The implanted experiment in animals shows that bone tissue can form a good osseointegration with the implant after implantation for two months, indicating that the glass–ceramics are safe to serve as implants. - Highlights: • The variations of additions account for the differences in internal structure. • The intensity ratio of Si-O-NBO/Si-O (s,sym) of G-NH4HF2 is higher than that of G-CaF2. • The bioactivity of G-NH4HF2 is better than that of G-CaF2. • The

  10. Lagrangians for biological models

    CERN Document Server

    Nucci, M C

    2011-01-01

    We show that a method presented in [S.L. Trubatch and A. Franco, Canonical Procedures for Population Dynamics, J. Theor. Biol. 48 (1974), 299-324] and later in [G.H. Paine, The development of Lagrangians for biological models, Bull. Math. Biol. 44 (1982) 749-760] for finding Lagrangians of classic models in biology, is actually based on finding the Jacobi Last Multiplier of such models. Using known properties of Jacobi Last Multiplier we show how to obtain linear Lagrangians of those first-order systems and nonlinear Lagrangian of the corresponding single second-order equations that can be derived from them, even in the case where those authors failed such as the host-parasite model.

  11. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials, including "diet poker" (nutrition game); an experiment on enzyme characteristics; demonstrations of yeast anaerobic respiration and color preference in Calliphora larvae; method to extract eugenol from clove oil to show antibiotic properties; and Benedict's test. Includes…

  12. Ship diesel emission aerosols: A comprehensive study on the chemical composition, the physical properties and the molecular biological and toxicological effects on human lung cells of aerosols from a ship diesel engine operated with heavy or light diesel fuel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R.; Buters, J.; Öder, S.; Dietmar, G.; Kanashova, T.; Paur, H.; Dilger, M.; Mülhopt, S.; Harndorf, H.; Stengel, B.; Rabe, R.; Hirvonen, M.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hiller, K.; Sapcariu, S.; Berube, K.; Sippula, O.; Streibel, T.; Karg, E.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Lintelmann, J.; Sklorz, M.; Arteaga Salas, M.; Orasche, J.; Müller, L.; Reda, A.; Passig, J.; Radischat, C.; Gröger, T.; Weiss, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Virtual Helmholtz Institute-HICE (www.hice-vi.eu) addresses chemical & physical properties, transformation processes and health effects of anthropogenic combustion emissions. This is performed by thorough comprehensive chemical and physical characterization of combustion aerosols (including application of advantageous on-line methods) and studying of biological effects on human lung cell-cultures. A new ALI air-liquid-interface (ALI) exposition system and a mobile S2-biological laboratory were developed for the HICE-measurements. Human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549 etc.) are ALI-exposed to fresh, diluted (1:40-1:100) combustion aerosols and subsequently were toxicologically and molecular-biologically characterized (e.g. proteomics). By using stable isotope labeling technologies (13C-Glucose/metabolomics; 2H-Lysine/SILAC-proteomics), high sensitivity and accuracy for detection of molecular-biological effects is achievable even at sub-toxic effect dose levels. Aerosols from wood combustion and ship diesel engine (heavy/light fuel oil) have been investigated. The effect of wood combustion and ship diesel PM e.g. on the protein expression of ALI-exposed A549 cells was compared. Filtered aerosol is used as gas-reference for the isotope labeling based method (SILAC). Therefore the effects of wood combustion- and shipping diesel-PM can be directly compared. Ship diesel aerosol causes a broader distribution in the observed fold changes (log2), i.e. more proteins are significantly up-/down-regulated in case of shipping diesel PM-exposure. This corresponds to a stronger biological reaction if compared to wood combustion-PM exposure. The chemical analysis results on wood combustion- and ship diesel-PM depict more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)/oxidized-PAH but less of some transition metals (V, Fe) in the wood combustion case. Interestingly, alkylated PAH are considerably more abundant in shipping PM, suggesting that PAH/Oxy-PAH may be less relevant for

  13. New Ti-Alloys and Surface Modifications to Improve the Mechanical Properties and the Biological Response to Orthopedic and Dental Implants: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmanidou, Yvoni; Sidira, Margarita; Drosou, Maria-Eleni; Bennani, Vincent; Bakopoulou, Athina; Tsouknidas, Alexander; Michailidis, Nikolaos; Michalakis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Titanium implants are widely used in the orthopedic and dentistry fields for many decades, for joint arthroplasties, spinal and maxillofacial reconstructions, and dental prostheses. However, despite the quite satisfactory survival rates failures still exist. New Ti-alloys and surface treatments have been developed, in an attempt to overcome those failures. This review provides information about new Ti-alloys that provide better mechanical properties to the implants, such as superelasticity, mechanical strength, and corrosion resistance. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies, which investigate the biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of these new biomaterials, are introduced. In addition, data regarding the bioactivity of new surface treatments and surface topographies on Ti-implants is provided. The aim of this paper is to discuss the current trends, advantages, and disadvantages of new titanium-based biomaterials, fabricated to enhance the quality of life of many patients around the world. PMID:26885506

  14. Magnetic property, DFT calculation, and biological activity of bis[(μ(2)-chloro)chloro(1,10-phenanthroline)copper(II)] complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroueh, Mohammad; Daher, Costantine; Hariri, Essa; Demirdjian, Sally; Isber, Samih; Choi, Eun Sang; Mirtamizdoust, Babak; Hammud, Hassan H

    2015-04-25

    The dinuclear complex bis[(μ(2)-chloro)chloro(1,10-phenanthroline)copper(II)] (1) was synthesized, and characterized by X-ray, FTIR and thermal analysis. The fitting of magnetic susceptibility and magnetization curve of (1) indicates the occurrence of weak antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between copper(II) ions. The electronic structure has been also determined by density functional theory (DFT) method. Complex (1) displayed potent anticancer activity against B16 (Melanoma), MDA-MB-32 (Breast Adenocarcinoma), A549 (Lung Adenocarcinoma), HT-29 (Colon Adenocarcinoma) and SF (Astrocytoma) cell lines with an average IC50 value of 0.726 μg/ml compared to 4.88 μg/ml for cisplatin. Complex (1) has a better therapeutic index and toxicological profile than cisplatin, and has demonstrated a potential chemotherapeutic property. PMID:25753321

  15. The effect of gamma irradiation on the biological properties of intervertebral disc allografts: in vitro and in vivo studies in a beagle model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ding

    Full Text Available STUDY DESIGN: An animal experiment about intervertebral disc allograft. OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility to decellularize disc allografts treated by 6°Co Gamma Irradiation, and simultaneously, to assess the possibility to make use of the decellularized natural disc scaffold for disc degeneration biotherapy. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Studies of both animal and human disc allograft transplantation indicated that the disc allograft may serve as a scaffold to undertake the physiological responsibility of the segment. METHODS: Experiment in vitro: 48 discs of beagles were harvested and divided randomly into four groups including a control group and three irradiated groups. Immediate cell viability and biomechanical properties of the discs were checked and comparisons were made among these groups. Experiment in vivo: 24 beagles accepted single-level allografted disc treated with different doses of gamma irradiation. Plain X-rays and MRIs were taken before and after surgery. Then, the spinal columns were harvested en bloc from the sacrificed beagles and were examined morphologically. RESULTS: There were significant differences of both the annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus immediate cell viabilities among the various groups. There were no obvious differences of the biomechanical properties among the four groups. The disc height and range of motion decreased significantly in all groups as time went on. The observed indexes in irradiated groups were much smaller than those in the control group, but the indexes in 18-kGy group were larger than those in 25-kGy and 50-kGy groups. Both MRI and macroscopic findings showed that the segmental degeneration in the control and 18-kGy group was less severe than that in 25-kGy and 50-kGy groups. CONCLUSION: Gamma Irradiation can decellularize disc allograft successfully to provide natural scaffold for the study of degenerative disc disease therapy, and also can be used as an effective method to produce

  16. Biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following an introduction into the field of cellular radiation effect considering the most important experimental results, the biological significance of the colony formation ability is brought out. The inactivation concept of stem cells does not only prove to be good, according to the present results, in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of acute radiation effects on moult tissue, it also enables chronicle radiation injuries to be interpreted through changes in the fibrous part of the organs. Radiation therapy of tumours can also be explained to a large extent by the radiation effect on the unlimited reproductiveness of tumour cells. The more or less similar dose effect curves for healthy and tumour tissue in practice lead to intermittent irradiation. The dependence of the intermittent doses and intervals on factors such as Elkind recovery, synchronisation, redistribution, reoxygenation, repopulation and regeneration are reviewed. (ORU/LH)

  17. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  18. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryJoe K Rice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  19. Lichens as biological indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichens, a symbiotic association of an alga and a fungus, have been used for some years as 'bioindicators', to detect environmental pollution. For this, their property of reacting to certain pollutants with characteristic changes of growth is exploired. With this biological method, continual, sufficiently sensitive measurements over wide areas can often be carried out more simply than with expensive, complicated technical equipment, which requires servicing, as well. This article describes the various possibilities of using lichens as bioindicators, and reviews the methods currently in use for measuring air pollution by means of lichens. (orig.)

  20. Plutonium and transplutonian biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present state of knowledge in the field of plutonium and transplutonian biology is reviewed. The physico-chemical properties of these substances, the conditions in which they can contaminate human beings, their behaviour on mammals, their toxic effects and the correlative contamination treatment technique are analyzed successively. Plutonium and transplutonians, although relatively toxic, have as yet never caused severe injuries to humans. They cannot be transmitted to man through alimentary chains and constitute a hazard only for those who handle them. In this last case, the existing protection techniques offer such a high degree of efficiency that virtually all risk of contamination is eliminated

  1. Ruthenium(III) Complexes of Heterocyclic Tridentate (ONN) Schiff Base: Synthesis, Characterization and its Biological Properties as an Antiradical and Antiproliferative Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejidike, Ikechukwu P.; Ajibade, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    The current work reports the synthesis, spectroscopic studies, antiradical and antiproliferative properties of four ruthenium(III) complexes of heterocyclic tridentate Schiff base bearing a simple 2′,4′-dihydroxyacetophenone functionality and ethylenediamine as the bridging ligand with RCHO moiety. The reaction of the tridentate ligands with RuCl3·3H2O lead to the formation of neutral complexes of the type [Ru(L)Cl2(H2O)] (where L = tridentate NNO ligands). The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-vis, conductivity measurements, FTIR spectroscopy and confirmed the proposed octahedral geometry around the Ru ion. The Ru(III) compounds showed antiradical potentials against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, with DPPH scavenging capability in the order: [(PAEBOD)RuCl2] > [(BZEBOD)RuCl2] > [(MOABOD)RuCl2] > [Vit. C] > [rutin] > [(METBOD)RuCl2], and ABTS radical in the order: [(PAEBOD)RuCl2] < [(MOABOD)RuCl2] < [(BZEBOD)RuCl2] < [(METBOD)RuCl2]. Furthermore, in vitro anti-proliferative activity was investigated against three human cancer cell lines: renal cancer cell (TK-10), melanoma cancer cell (UACC-62) and breast cancer cell (MCF-7) by SRB assay. PMID:26742030

  2. Ruthenium(III Complexes of Heterocyclic Tridentate (ONN Schiff Base: Synthesis, Characterization and its Biological Properties as an Antiradical and Antiproliferative Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechukwu P. Ejidike

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work reports the synthesis, spectroscopic studies, antiradical and antiproliferative properties of four ruthenium(III complexes of heterocyclic tridentate Schiff base bearing a simple 2′,4′-dihydroxyacetophenone functionality and ethylenediamine as the bridging ligand with RCHO moiety. The reaction of the tridentate ligands with RuCl3·3H2O lead to the formation of neutral complexes of the type [Ru(LCl2(H2O] (where L = tridentate NNO ligands. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-vis, conductivity measurements, FTIR spectroscopy and confirmed the proposed octahedral geometry around the Ru ion. The Ru(III compounds showed antiradical potentials against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radicals, with DPPH scavenging capability in the order: [(PAEBODRuCl2] > [(BZEBODRuCl2] > [(MOABODRuCl2] > [Vit. C] > [rutin] > [(METBODRuCl2], and ABTS radical in the order: [(PAEBODRuCl2] < [(MOABODRuCl2] < [(BZEBODRuCl2] < [(METBODRuCl2]. Furthermore, in vitro anti-proliferative activity was investigated against three human cancer cell lines: renal cancer cell (TK-10, melanoma cancer cell (UACC-62 and breast cancer cell (MCF-7 by SRB assay.

  3. Synthesis, Spectral, and Biological Properties of Copper(II Complexes of Thiosemicarbazones of Schiff Bases Derived from 4-Aminoantipyrine and Aromatic Aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Sharma

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized a novel series of Schiff bases by condensation of 4-aminoantipyrine and various aromatic aldehydes followed by reaction with thiosemicarbazide. These thiosemicarbazones are potential ligands toward transition metal ions. The reaction of copper(II salts with 4[N-(benzalideneamino]antipyrinethiosemicarbazone (BAAPTS, 4[N-(4′-methoxybenzalidene amino] antipyrinethiosemicarbozone (MBAAPTS, 4[N-(4′-dimethylamino benzalidene amino] antipyrinethiosemicarbazone (DABAAPTS, and 4[N-(cinnamalidene amino] antipyrinethiosemicarbazone (CAAPTS resulted in the formation of solid complexes with the general composition CuX2⋅(H2O(L(X = Cl, Br, NO3, NCS, or CH3COO; L = BAAPTS, MBAAPTS, DABAAPTS, or CAAPTS. These complexes were characterized through elemental analysis, molecular weight, electrical conductance, infrared, electronic spectra, and magnetic susceptibilities at room temperature. Copper(II complexes with BAAPTS and MBAAPTS were screened for antibacterial and antifungal properties and have exhibited potential activity. Thermal stabilities of two representative complexes were also investigated.

  4. Cu(II, Ni(II, and Zn(II Complexes of Salan-Type Ligand Containing Ester Groups: Synthesis, Characterization, Electrochemical Properties, and In Vitro Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jeslin Kanaga Inba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A salen ligand on reduction and N-alkylation affords a novel [N2O2] chelating ligand containing ester groups [L = diethyl-2,2′-(propane-1,3-diylbis((2-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzylazanediyldiacetate]. The purity of the ligand was confirmed by NMR and HPLC chromatograms. Its Cu(II, Ni(II, and Zn(II complexes were synthesized and characterized by a combination of elemental analysis, IR, NMR, UV-Vis, and mass spectral data, and thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTA. The magnetic moments, UV-Vis, and EPR spectral studies support square planar geometry around the Cu(II and Ni(II ions. A tetrahedral geometry is observed in four-coordinate zinc with bulky N-alkylated salan ligand. The redox properties of the copper complex were examined in DMSO by cyclic voltammetry. The voltammograms show quasireversible process. The interaction of metal complexes with CT DNA was investigated by UV-Vis absorption titration, ethidium bromide displacement assay, cyclic voltammetry methods, and agarose gel electrophoresis. The apparent binding constant values suggest moderate intercalative binding modes between the complexes and DNA. The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of the synthesized compounds were also determined.

  5. Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic properties, DFT calculation and biological activity of 4-chloro-N-(2-(2-nitrophenyl)acetoxy)-N-phenylbenzamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dian; Yang, Zhu-Qing; Hou, Meng; Teng, Chong; Wang, Xiao-Hong

    2014-11-01

    4-Chloro-N-(2-(2-nitrophenyl)acetoxy)-N-phenylbenzamide was synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, IR and X-ray diffraction methods. The structure-property relationship and the antitumor activity based on electrochemical measurements, density functional theory calculations (DFT) and methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay were investigated. The crystal structure adopts monoclinic space group P21/n with the unit cell parameters of a = 12.4385(10) Å, b = 6.5036(5) Å, c = 24.7944(19) Å, β = 103.045(9)°, V = 1954.0(3) Å3, Z = 4, and stabilized by π-π conjugation and hydrogen bonding interactions. The observed results of the compound have been compared with theoretical results and it is found that the experimental data show good agreement with calculated values. And the compound had slightly better inhibition than suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) in NCI-H460 cell line as well as the nearly same as SAHA in MCF-7, HCT-116, PC-3, and A549 cell lines.

  6. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  7. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  8. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  9. The impact of hyaluronic acid oligomer content on physical, mechanical, and biologic properties of divinyl sulfone-crosslinked hyaluronic acid hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Samir; Kang, Qian K; Ramamurthi, Anand

    2010-08-01

    In recent studies, we showed that exogenous hyaluronic acid oligomers (HA-o) stimulate functional endothelialization, though native long-chain HA is more bioinert and possibly more biocompatible. Thus, in this study, hydrogels containing high molecular weight (HMW) HA (1 x 10(6) Da) and HA-o mixtures (HA-o: 0.75-10 kDa) were created by crosslinking with divinyl sulfone (DVS). The incorporation of HA-o was found to compromise the physical and mechanical properties of the gels (rheology, apparent crosslinking density, swelling ratio, degradation) and to very mildly enhance inflammatory cell recruitment in vivo; increasing the DVS crosslinker content within the gels in general, had the opposite effect, though the relatively high concentration of DVS within these gels (necessary to create a solid gel) also stimulated a mild subcutaneous inflammatory response in vivo and VCAM-1 expression by endothelial cells (ECs) cultured atop; ICAM-expression levels remained very low irrespective extent of DVS crosslinking or HA-o content. The greatest EC attachment and proliferation (MTT assay) was observed on gels that contained the highest amount of HA-o. The study shows that the beneficial EC response to HA-o and biocompatibility of HA is mostly unaltered by their chemical derivatization and crosslinking into a hydrogel. However, the study also demonstrates that the relatively high concentrations of DVS, necessary to create solid gels, compromise their biocompatibility. Moreover, the poor mechanics of even these heavily crosslinked gels, in the context of vascular implantation, necessitates the investigation of other, more appropriate crosslinking agents. Alternately, the outcomes of this study may be used to guide an approach based on chemical immobilization and controlled surface-presentation of both bioactive HA-o and more biocompatible HMW HA on synthetic or tissue engineered grafts already in use, without the use of a crosslinker, so that improved, predictable, and

  10. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    MaryJoe K Rice; Ruder, Warren C.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic bi...

  11. Testing of Biologically Inhibiting Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill Madsen, Thomas; Larsen, Erup

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this course is to examine a newly developed biologically inhibiting material with regards to galvanic corrosion and electrochemical properties. More in detail, the concern was how the material would react when exposed to cleaning agents, here under CIP cleaning (Cleaning In...

  12. Artificial materials for repair of sports injuries: Biological properties of these materials%人工材料修复运动性骨损伤:材料的生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鑫

    2012-01-01

    背景 传统复位和外固定技术对骨裂、规则性骨折等轻伤性骨折能起到较好的治疗效果,而对关节等部位的复杂骨折治疗效果不理想,目前人工生物材料在骨损伤治疗中逐步成熟与多样化.目的 对骨损伤治疗的材料学措施进行综述,并对相关材料的性质尤其生物相容性对人体的免疫反应进行分类与分析.方法 应用计算机检索PubMed、维普和万方数据库中1990/2011 关于损伤性骨折治疗及其材料学方面的文章,在标题和摘要中以"骨,生物材料,生物学特性"或"bone,biological materials,biological properties"为检索词进行检索.选择文章内容与骨损伤治疗措施及材料学相关,同一领域文献则选择近期发表或发表在权威杂志文章.初检得到194 篇文献,根据纳入标准选择24 篇文章进行综述.结果 与结论 骨科疾病中,受暴力运动冲击造成的损伤性骨折是致病的主要因素,骨修复及骨移植材料的研制经历了漫长的过程,运用材料学手段进行治疗的措施日趋成熟.从内固定材料、金属假体材料以及骨组织工程支架材料的选择研制和临床应用来看,良好的生物相容性是骨修复人工生物材料必备的的特征和运用的基础,也是各种材料在实践运用工程中必须面临和克服的难题.%BACKGROUND: Traditional reduction and external fixation techniques have a better therapeutic effect on bone crack andregulated fractures, while they are not satisfactory in the treatment of complex fractures. The current biomaterials for bone injuriesbecome gradually mature and diversified.OBJECTIVE: To review the material measures for treatment of bone injuries, and to classify and analyze the properties of relevantmaterials, especially their biocompatibility to human immune responses.METHODS: A computer-based search of PubMed, VIP and Wanfang databases (1990/2011) was performed for artificial materialsfor treatment of traumatic

  13. Dielectric relaxation in biological systems physical principles, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    This title covers the theoretical basis and practical aspects of the study of dielectric properties of biological systems, such as water, electrolyte and polyelectrolytes, solutions of biological macromolecules, cells suspensions and cellular systems.

  14. Clinical application of temporary crown and cement materials: physical properties and biological safety%临时冠材料及黏结材料的临床应用:物理性能与生物安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂二民; 姜瑞; 张春元; 曾尽娣; 谈济州

    2015-01-01

    背景:临时冠在临床应用较为广泛,临时冠及其黏结材料随着材料科学的发展不断更新,其临床应用、物理学性能及生物安全性方面也越来越优越.目的:综述临时冠及其黏结材料的临床应用现状、物理性能及生物安全性.方法:以"temporary crown,provisional crown,temporary restoration,provisional restoration,interim restoration"为英文检索词,应用计算机检索PubMed数据库中2004年1月至2014年12月发表的相关文章.纳入与临时冠及其黏结材料相关的研究文献,排除重复性研究.结果与结论:通过临床评价和实验研究得出,临时冠材料自身聚合收缩、聚合产热、单体释放等物理特性和细胞毒性、对软组织的刺激性等生物安全性方面是临床要克服的关键问题.临时冠材料和黏结材料在临床上应用广泛,随着新材料筛选和新制作方法的出现其具有巨大的应用前景和较高的临床价值,但在其实验室研究和临床应用的探索过程中,还有许多亟待解决和深入探究的问题.%BACKGROUND:Temporary crown has been used widely in clinic. The physical properties and biological safety of temporary crown and cement materials are more superior along with the development of material science. OBJECTIVE:To summarize clinical application, physical properties and biological safety of the temporary crown and cement materials. METHODS:PubMed database was searched by the key words of "temporary crown, provisional crown, temporary restoration, provisional restoration, interim restoration" in English to retrieve relevant articles published from January 2004 to December 2014. Literatures addressing the temporary crown and cement materials were included, and the repetitive researches were excluded. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Through the clinical evaluation and experimental study, the physical properties (polymerization shrinkage, polymerization heat production, polymerization monomer release) and

  15. Dominating biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Milenković

    Full Text Available Proteins are essential macromolecules of life that carry out most cellular processes. Since proteins aggregate to perform function, and since protein-protein interaction (PPI networks model these aggregations, one would expect to uncover new biology from PPI network topology. Hence, using PPI networks to predict protein function and role of protein pathways in disease has received attention. A debate remains open about whether network properties of "biologically central (BC" genes (i.e., their protein products, such as those involved in aging, cancer, infectious diseases, or signaling and drug-targeted pathways, exhibit some topological centrality compared to the rest of the proteins in the human PPI network.To help resolve this debate, we design new network-based approaches and apply them to get new insight into biological function and disease. We hypothesize that BC genes have a topologically central (TC role in the human PPI network. We propose two different concepts of topological centrality. We design a new centrality measure to capture complex wirings of proteins in the network that identifies as TC those proteins that reside in dense extended network neighborhoods. Also, we use the notion of domination and find dominating sets (DSs in the PPI network, i.e., sets of proteins such that every protein is either in the DS or is a neighbor of the DS. Clearly, a DS has a TC role, as it enables efficient communication between different network parts. We find statistically significant enrichment in BC genes of TC nodes and outperform the existing methods indicating that genes involved in key biological processes occupy topologically complex and dense regions of the network and correspond to its "spine" that connects all other network parts and can thus pass cellular signals efficiently throughout the network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores domination in the context of PPI networks.

  16. Optimization on activating complement in detecting biological properties of Fc fragment of IVIG%激活补体试验检测静注人免疫球蛋白 Fc 段生物学活性的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓; 李青; 潘孟娇; 张璘; 包正琦; 何彦林

    2014-01-01

    Objective To optimize the conditions of activating complement on Fc fragment of human immunoglobulins (pH4.0)for intravenous injection( IVIG) and improve the detection method for biologic properties of Fc fragment .Meth-ods The density of taned red blood cell and stored time of antigen-coated tanned red blood cell were optimized by activa-ting complement on the classical way ,and the difference of Fc function were compared by using manual and microtitre plate method.Results The repeatability of activating complement method may be better in the following conditions :A54 1 of red blood cells=1.3,stored time for antigen-coated tanned red blood cells 1-5 days .The microtitre plate method is better than manual method .Conclusion The detection of biological properties on Fc fragment of IVIG was successfully improved . The improved method is accurate and repetitive by using microtitre plate .%优化激活补体试验的条件,完善静注人免疫球蛋白Fc段生物学活性的检测方法。方法采用补体活化经典途径的原理,分别探讨致敏红细胞密度和贮存时间对人免疫球蛋白 Fc段生物学活性检测结果的影响;比较手工法和微孔板分光光度法检测Fc段生物学活性的检测结果。结果在致敏红细胞A541 nm=1.3和致敏红细胞贮存5 d时,检测结果较稳定。微孔板分光光度法检测优于手工法。结论完善了人免疫球蛋白Fc段生物学活性的检测方法,检测结果准确、重复性好。

  17. Thermodynamical journey in plant biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin eBarbacci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonequilibrium irreversible thermodynamics constitute a meaningful point of view suitable to explore life with a rich paradigm. This analytical framework can be used to span the gap from molecular processes to plant function and shows great promise to create a holistic description of life. Since living organisms dissipate energy, exchange entropy and matter with their environment, they can be assimilated to dissipative structures. This concept inherited from nonequilibrium thermodynamics has four properties which defines a scale independent framework suitable to provide a simpler and more comprehensive view of the highly complex plant biology. According to this approach, a biological process is modeled as an avalanche of dissipative structures. Each dissipative structure, corresponds to an unitary biological process, which is initiated by the amplification of a fluctuation. Evolution of the process leads to the breakage of the system symmetry and to the export of entropy. Exporting entropy to the surrounding environment corresponds to collecting information about it. Biological actors which break the symmetry of the system and which store information are by consequence, key actors on which experiments and data analysis focus most. This paper aims at illustrating properties of dissipative structure through familiar examples and thus initiating the dialogue between nonequilibrium thermodynamics and plant biology.

  18. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  19. Polysubstituted pyrimidines: biological and chemical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeba, Zlatko

    Santa Barbara: International Society of Heterocyclic Chemistry, 2015. 0073. [International Society of Heterocyclic Chemistry Congress /25./. 23.08.2015-28.08.2015, Santa Barbara] R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046; GA ČR GA15-11223S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : pyrimidine * intramolecular hydrogen bonding * planamerism Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  20. Arbutus unedo L.: Chemical and Biological Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Maria G. Miguel; Maria L. Faleiro; Adriana C. Guerreiro; Maria D. Antunes

    2014-01-01

    Arbutus unedo L. (strawberry tree) has a circum-Mediterranean distribution, being found in western, central and southern Europe, north-eastern Africa (excluding Egypt and Libya) and the Canary Islands and western Asia. Fruits of the strawberry tree are generally used for preparing alcoholic drinks (wines, liqueurs and brandies), jams, jellies and marmalades, and less frequently eaten as fresh fruit, despite their pleasing appearance. An overview of the chemical composition of different parts ...

  1. The Beneficial Biological Properties of Salicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randjelović Pavle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salicilna kiselina je fitohemikalija sa povoljnim efektima na ljudsko zdravlje. Salicilna kiselina je fenolna komponenta i prisutna je u različitim biljkama, gde ima važnu ulogu u zaštiti od patogenih agenasa. U prirodi se nalazi u voću, povrću i začinima. Najpoznatiji i najbolje proučen efekat salicilne kiseline je inhibicija sinteze prostanglandina. Salicilna kiselina ostvaruje anti-zapaljensko dejstvo preko supresije gena za ciklooksigenazu. Većina farmakoloških svojstava salicilne kiseline mogu se objasniti inhibicijom sinteze prostanglandina. Otkriveno je da salicilna kiselina pored ovog ima i druga in vivo dejstva. Pošto salicilna kiselina ne inhibira značajno ciklooksigenazu, anti-zapaljensko dejstvo nije posledica direktne inhibicije ovog enzima. Predloženo je da je inhibicija nuklearnog faktora kapa B od strane salicilata jedno od glavnih mehanizama anti-zapaljenskog dejstva salicilata. Jedno od najviše proučavanih svojstava salicilne kiseline je antioksidativna aktivnost. Salicilna kiselina je dokazani inhibitor oksidativnog stresa. Salicilna kiselina ima sposobnost vezivanja gvožđa. Ova činjenica je značajna za antioksidativno dejstvo salicilne kiseline zbog toga što gvožđe ima važnu ulogu u procesu lipidne peroksidacije.

  2. Thymomodulin: biological properties and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouttab, N M; Prada, M; Cazzola, P

    1989-01-01

    Thymomodulin (Ellem Industria Farmaceutica s.p.a., Milan, Italy) is a calf thymus acid lysate derivative, composed of several peptides with a molecular weight range of 1-10 kD. Thymomodulin did not exhibit any mutagenic effect. Furthermore, thymomodulin used in animal studies showed no toxicity even when used at high concentrations. Of major significance are the observations in murine and human systems that thymomodulin remains active when administered orally. In vitro and in vivo administered thymomodulin was able to induce the maturation of T-lymphocytes. Additionally, studies in vitro showed that this thymic derivative can enhance the functions of mature T-lymphocytes with cascading effects on B-cell and macrophage functions. Extensive human clinical trials with thymomodulin showed that this agent can improve the clinical symptoms observed with various disease processes, including infections, allergies and malignancies, and can improve immunological functions during ageing. PMID:2657249

  3. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  4. Biology with neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron diffraction, elastic and inelastic neutron scattering experiments provide important information on the structure, interactions and dynamics of biological molecules. This arises from the unique properties of the neutron and of its interaction with matter. Coherent and incoherent neutron scattering amplitudes and cross-sections are very different for H and 2H (deuterium). Deuterium labelling by chemical or biochemical methods and H2O:2H2O exchange is the basis of high resolution crystallography experiments to locate functionally important H-atoms in protein molecules. It is also very important in low resolution crystallography and small angle scattering experiments to solve large complex structures, such as protein-nucleic acid complexes or biological membrane systems, by using contrast variation techniques. The energies of neutrons with a wavelength of the order of 1 - 10 A are similar to thermal energies and inelastic neutron scattering experiments have been done with different energy resolutions (≥∼ 1 μeV) to characterise the functional dynamics of proteins in solution and in membranes. (author)

  5. 壳聚糖/丝胶蛋白生物流体材料的制备及性能测试%Preparation and Property Characterization of Chitosan/Sericin Biological Fluid Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严晨峰; 刘琳; 姚菊明

    2013-01-01

    To overcome the limitation of commercial wound dressings with poor fluid absorption capability,a novel chitosan/sericin biological fluid material was successfully prepared by using chitosan extracted from shells of sea crabs and sericin discarded as waste material in silk industry as the major materials.The unique biological material was tawny,semitransparent and semi-fluid.It could form soft and transparent film,functioning as a natural barrier against infection.Its fluid absorption capability and permeability could be adjusted by changing the ratio of chitosan to sericin.Its moist absorption capability and water vapor permeability was in the range of 2.33 ~23.73 g/g and 2 738 ~3 752 g/(m2 ·d) respectively,being able to satisfy the needs in healing various wounds.The mechanical property of resultant film slightly reduced after addition of sericin,but it still kept excellent flexibility to satisfy clinical demand of wound dressing.In vitro antibacterial experiment indicated that,although the addition of sericin reduced antibacterial activity of the fluid material,its antibacterial rate was as high as 83% against Staphylococcus aureus when the mass ratio of chitosan to sericin was 1 ∶ 0.6,being able to prevent wound infection effectively.These results indicate that the novel chitosan/sericin biological fluid materials have good perspective in clinical application.%针对现有医用敷料吸收渗液能力不强等缺点,以海洋蟹虾外壳中提取的壳聚糖和蚕丝加工过程废弃的丝胶蛋白为主要原料,研制出一种新型生物流体材料.该材料为黄褐色半透明、半流动物质,能形成柔韧透明的薄膜从而起到防感染的天然屏障作用.通过改变壳聚糖与丝胶蛋白的配比,可以有效调控壳聚糖/丝胶蛋白生物流体材料膜的吸液能力和通透性等,其吸水量、水蒸汽透过率分别分布在2.33~ 23.73 g/g和2 738 ~3 752 g/(m2·d)之间,可以满足不同程度创面修复需要.虽

  6. Impact of Biological Soil Crust on Soil Physical Properties in the Hilly Loess Plateau Region,China%黄土丘陵区生物结皮对土壤物理属性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽倩; 赵允格; 秦宁强; 张国秀; 杨凯

    2012-01-01

    Biological soil crusts(biocrusts) are ubiquitous living surface covers in many arid and semi-arid regions.It has been demonstrated that the coverage of biocrusts was over 70% in the hilly Loess Plateau region of China and it played many important roles,such as exerting observably impact on soil properties and improving soil antierodibility.But the response of soil physical properties to the development of biocrusts has been unclear so far.The objective of the study was to determine the impact of development of biocrusts(i.e.with variable biomass) on soil physical properties in hilly Loess Plateau region.In this study,soil samples were collected after biocrusts and vegetation coverage survey,and the soil physical properties including soil bulk density,soil porosity,field water holding capacity,cohesion and hardness of biocrusts in different developmental stages were determined.The results showed: 1) Fine particles content increased due to the development of biocrusts.The content of coarse sand decreased by 86% while fine sand increased by 45% with biocrusts developing from cyanobacteria dominated to moss dominated(biomass of moss was 4.31±0.12 g/dm^2).2) With the development of biocrusts,soil bulk density and hardness were reduced while field water holding capacity,soil porosity and cohesion were increased significantly.Along with the development of biocrusts,soil bulk density was dropped by 15%.Soil hardness of biocrusts in later development stage was reduced by 68% compared with the early stage.Field water holding capacity was increased to 57%,adding about 36% compared with the early stage,while soil porosity gone up to 58%,increasing by about 14%.Cohesion of biocrusts was 6 or 7 times as much as that of subsurface soil(0-2 cm).3) Impact of biocrusts on soil physical properties was closely related to biocrusts'biomass.When biomass of moss in biocrusts was to 2.91±0.12 g/dm^2,soil physical properties changed no longer significantly.4

  7. Biological conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  8. Biological development of reading circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Wandell, Brian A.; Yeatman, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    Human neuroimaging is expanding our understanding of the biological processes that are essential for healthy brain function. Methods such as diffusion weighted imaging provide insights into white matter fascicles, growth and pruning of dendritic arbors and axons, and properties of glia. This review focuses on what we have learned from diffusion imaging about these processes and the development of reading circuitry in the human brain. Understanding reading circuitry development may suggest way...

  9. Biologically-inspired machine vision

    OpenAIRE

    Tsitiridis, A

    2013-01-01

    This thesis summarises research on the improved design, integration and expansion of past cortex-like computer vision models, following biologically-inspired methodologies. By adopting early theories and algorithms as a building block, particular interest has been shown for algorithmic parameterisation, feature extraction, invariance properties and classification. Overall, the major original contributions of this thesis have been: 1. The incorporation of a salient feature-based method for sem...

  10. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  11. 尿路致病性大肠杆菌ppk1基因缺失株的构建及其生物学特性研究%Construction of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain with ppk1 gene deletion and study on its biolog-ical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗苏; 彭亮; 潘嘉韵; 吴晓蔓

    2013-01-01

    目的构建尿路致病性大肠杆菌CFT073的聚磷酸盐激酶1( polyphosphate kinase , PPK1)基因敲除株,并初步探索其体外生物学特性。方法以CFT073株为研究对象,利用Red同源重组技术敲除CFT073的ppk1基因,构建敲除株△pk1;通过细胞实验即以人膀胱癌上皮细胞5637为体外模型对CFT073野生型菌株、敲除菌株的黏附及侵袭能力进行比较;采用96孔板结晶紫染色法分析CFT073 ppk1基因敲除对其生物膜形成能力的影响。结果成功构建了CFT073 ppk1基因敲除株;敲除ppk1后,细菌对膀胱癌上皮细胞的黏附、侵袭能力较野生株都明显减弱;△pk1在各时间点570 nm处结晶紫吸光度值均较野生株的低。结论利用Red同源重组技术可成功敲除CFT073的ppk1基因,ppk1在尿路致病性大肠杆菌黏附、侵袭尿路上皮及生物膜形成过程中可能发挥了重要作用。%Objective To construct a Polyphosphate kinase 1 ( ppk1) gene deletion mutant of uro-pathogenic Escherichia coli (E.coli) CFT073, and to explore the biological properties of the mutant strain . Methods The ppk1 gene deletion strain (△pk1) was constructed based on CFT073 E.coli strain by usingλRed homologous recombination technology .A comparison analysis was conducted on adhesive and invasive abilities between CFT073 wild type strain and △pk1 strain in in vitro model of human bladder cancer epithe-lial cell 5637 .Crystal violet staining method was used to evaluate the influences of ppk1 gene deletion on biofilm formation.Results The CFT073 ppk1 deletion mutant strain was successfully constructed .Com-pared with the wild type strain ,△pk1 strain showed impaired adhesive and invasive abilities to 5637 cells. Moreover , the absorbance values of crystal violet at 570 nm at each time point of the mutant strain group were also lower than those of the wild-type strain group .Conclusion The ppk1 gene deletion mutant of uro-pathogenic E.coli CFT073

  12. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; May, Elebeoba E.; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  13. Pictures of Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Cserer, Amelie; Seiringer, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the representation of Synthetic Biology in the media and by biotechnology experts. An analysis was made of German-language media articles published between 2004 and 2008, and interviews with biotechnology-experts at the Synthetic Biology conference SB 3.0 in Zurich 2007. The results have been reflected in terms of the definition of Synthetic Biology, applications of Synthetic Biology and the perspectives of opportunities and risks. In the media, Synthetic Biolog...

  14. Physics and Biology Collaborate to Color the World

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2013-01-01

    To understand how life works, it is essential to understand physics and chemistry. Physics informs and enlightens biology in myriad dimensions, yet many biology courses proceed with little or no consideration of physical properties or principles. The intersection between physics and biology is explored in this review of online media.

  15. Synthetic biology: programming cells for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, Maximilian; Reischmann, Nadine; Weber, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology is a novel biological discipline at the interface between traditional biology, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Synthetic biology aims at the rational design of complex synthetic biological devices and systems with desired properties by combining compatible, modular biological parts in a systematic manner. While the first engineered systems were mainly proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate the power of the modular engineering approach of synthetic biology, subsequent systems focus on applications in the health, environmental, and energy sectors. This review describes recent approaches for biomedical applications that were developed along the synthetic biology design hierarchy, at the level of individual parts, of devices, and of complex multicellular systems. It describes how synthetic biological parts can be used for the synthesis of drug-delivery tools, how synthetic biological devices can facilitate the discovery of novel drugs, and how multicellular synthetic ecosystems can give insight into population dynamics of parasites and hosts. These examples demonstrate how this new discipline could contribute to novel solutions in the biopharmaceutical industry. PMID:23502560

  16. Nuevos enfoques para mejorar las propiedades mecánicas y biológicas de substitutos óseos basados en calcio (New Approaches for Improving Mechanical and Biological Properties of Calcium-Based Bone Substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias Fernández, José Ignacio.

    2007-12-01

    substitutes, the use of calcareous natural structures such as superficially phosphated corals, the generation of diverse cements based on alpha and beta tricalcium phosphate alone or mixed with natural organic or synthetic compounds, have been tested. One of the forms of calcium phosphate most commonly used is hydroxyapatite (HA, which mixed with diverse organic and inorganic compounds has been developed to improve the resistance to tension, compression and flexion forces. Future challenges are therefore to achieve compounds that not only allow and enhance bone regeneration process, but also give the necessary mechanical support while that process is taking place. In the present article, the main chemical, physical and biological properties of calcium-based bone substitutes are reviewed, and some new approaches to be considered for improving their efficiency, are proposed.

  17. Systems Medicine: Evolution of Systems Biology From Bench To Bedside

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rui-Sheng; Maron, Bradley A.; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput experimental techniques for generating genomes, transcriptomes, proteomes, metabolomes, and interactomes have provided unprecedented opportunities to interrogate biological systems and human diseases on a global level. Systems biology integrates the mass of heterogeneous high-throughput data and predictive computational modeling to understand biological functions as system-level properties. Most human diseases are biological states caused by multiple components of perturbed pa...

  18. Implementing Recommendations for Introductory Biology by Writing a New Textbook

    OpenAIRE

    Barsoum, Mark J.; Sellers, Patrick J.; Campbell, A. Malcolm; Heyer, Laurie J.; Paradise, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    We redesigned the undergraduate introductory biology course by writing a new textbook (Integrating Concepts in Biology [ICB]) that follows first principles of learning. Our approach emphasizes primary data interpretation and the utility of mathematics in biology, while de-emphasizing memorization. This redesign divides biology into five big ideas (information, evolution, cells, emergent properties, homeostasis), addressing each at five levels of organization (molecules, cells, organisms, popu...

  19. Biological and biomechanical properties of reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament of knee joint%膝关节前交叉韧带重建的生物学及生物力学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊敏; 李增炎

    2005-01-01

    目的:通过总结前交叉韧带重建的生物学及生物力学特性,探讨早期锻炼对膝关节前交叉韧带重建后移植物愈合及膝关节运动功能恢复的作用.资料来源:应用计算机检索MEDLINE1970-01/2004-01期间有关膝关节前交叉韧带重建及其生物力学特征的文献,检索词"anterior cruciate ligament,knee ioint,biomechanics",并限定文章语言种类为英文.资料选择:对资料进行初审,选择有关膝关节前交叉韧带重建及其生物力学特征的文献,开始查找全文.选择随机对照类文章,当同一作者有多篇文章时,选择病例数最多的予以纳入;排除综述类及Mete分析类文章.质量评价主要考察资料的真实性,调查、实施过程是否严密.资料提炼:共检索到46篇有关膝关节前交叉韧带重建及其生物力学特征的文章,29篇符合以上纳入标准,排除的17篇文章中,9篇为小样本分析,8篇为综述类或Mete分析类文章.资料综合:通过了解正常前交叉韧带的生物力学特征制定重建措施及康复计划指导.重建后前交叉韧带动物实验提示膝关节运动功能恢复均不理想,而人体实验结果优于动物.随机对照实验表明,前交叉韧带重建后立即持重不增加膝关节的松弛性,反而有利于减轻髌骨疼痛.结论:前交叉韧带损伤重建后固定膝关节,限制关节周围肌肉收缩活动,导致韧带、关节及周围肌肉运动功能受限.早期康复锻炼可以减轻疼痛,改善关节软骨代谢,防止关节囊挛缩,有助于重建后膝关节前交叉韧带运动功能的恢复.%OBJECTIVE: To probe into the function of early exercises on healing of grafts after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and on motor function recovery of knee joint by summarizing biology and biomechanical properties of ACL reconstruction.DATA SOURCES: The relevant literatures on ACL reconstruction of knee joint and its biomechanical properties were looked up in

  20. Conhecimento das propriedades físicas e da interação do laser com os tecidos biológicos na odontologia Knowledge of the physical properties and interaction of laser with biological tissue in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Maciel Cavalcanti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A tendência da odontologia é a incorporação de métodos menos invasivos com a finalidade de minimizar a dor e o desconforto durante e após as intervenções odontológicas. Por isso, acredita-se que a laserterapia seja uma excelente opção de tratamento, já que apresenta efeitos benéficos para os tecidos irradiados, como ativação da microcirculação, produção de novos capilares, efeitos anti-inflamatórios e analgésicos, além de estímulo ao crescimento e à regeneração celular. O entendimento da interação entre os lasers e os tecidos baseia-se principalmente no entendimento das reações que podem ser induzidas nesses tecidos pela luz laser. Este trabalho se propõe a mostrar a relevância do conhecimento das propriedades físicas do laser, bem como sua interação com os tecidos biológicos, considerando que os efeitos e os mecanismos de ação da luz laser são complexos e alvos de inúmeras pesquisas com vistas a um melhor delineamento de suas formas de aplicação e indicações.The trend in dentistry is to incorporate less invasive methods to minimize pain and discomfort during and after dental intervention. Therefore, it is believed that laser therapy is an excellent treatment option, since it has beneficial effects for the irradiated tissues, such as activation of microcirculation, production of new capillaries, inflammatory and analgesic effects, in addition to stimulation of growth and cell regeneration. The comprehension of the interaction between lasers and tissue is based mainly on understanding the reactions that can be induced in those tissues by laser. This work intends to show how important it is to know the physical properties of laser as well as its interactions with biological tissues, since its effects and mechanisms of action are complex and are the object of various studies to better understand its forms of application and indications.