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Sample records for causal regulatory effects

  1. How difficult is inference of mammalian causal gene regulatory networks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordje Djordjevic

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory networks (GRNs play a central role in systems biology, especially in the study of mammalian organ development. One key question remains largely unanswered: Is it possible to infer mammalian causal GRNs using observable gene co-expression patterns alone? We assembled two mouse GRN datasets (embryonic tooth and heart and matching microarray gene expression profiles to systematically investigate the difficulties of mammalian causal GRN inference. The GRNs were assembled based on > 2,000 pieces of experimental genetic perturbation evidence from manually reading > 150 primary research articles. Each piece of perturbation evidence records the qualitative change of the expression of one gene following knock-down or over-expression of another gene. Our data have thorough annotation of tissue types and embryonic stages, as well as the type of regulation (activation, inhibition and no effect, which uniquely allows us to estimate both sensitivity and specificity of the inference of tissue specific causal GRN edges. Using these unprecedented datasets, we found that gene co-expression does not reliably distinguish true positive from false positive interactions, making inference of GRN in mammalian development very difficult. Nonetheless, if we have expression profiling data from genetic or molecular perturbation experiments, such as gene knock-out or signalling stimulation, it is possible to use the set of differentially expressed genes to recover causal regulatory relationships with good sensitivity and specificity. Our result supports the importance of using perturbation experimental data in causal network reconstruction. Furthermore, we showed that causal gene regulatory relationship can be highly cell type or developmental stage specific, suggesting the importance of employing expression profiles from homogeneous cell populations. This study provides essential datasets and empirical evidence to guide the development of new GRN inference

  2. How difficult is inference of mammalian causal gene regulatory networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Djordje; Yang, Andrian; Zadoorian, Armella; Rungrugeecharoen, Kevin; Ho, Joshua W K

    2014-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) play a central role in systems biology, especially in the study of mammalian organ development. One key question remains largely unanswered: Is it possible to infer mammalian causal GRNs using observable gene co-expression patterns alone? We assembled two mouse GRN datasets (embryonic tooth and heart) and matching microarray gene expression profiles to systematically investigate the difficulties of mammalian causal GRN inference. The GRNs were assembled based on > 2,000 pieces of experimental genetic perturbation evidence from manually reading > 150 primary research articles. Each piece of perturbation evidence records the qualitative change of the expression of one gene following knock-down or over-expression of another gene. Our data have thorough annotation of tissue types and embryonic stages, as well as the type of regulation (activation, inhibition and no effect), which uniquely allows us to estimate both sensitivity and specificity of the inference of tissue specific causal GRN edges. Using these unprecedented datasets, we found that gene co-expression does not reliably distinguish true positive from false positive interactions, making inference of GRN in mammalian development very difficult. Nonetheless, if we have expression profiling data from genetic or molecular perturbation experiments, such as gene knock-out or signalling stimulation, it is possible to use the set of differentially expressed genes to recover causal regulatory relationships with good sensitivity and specificity. Our result supports the importance of using perturbation experimental data in causal network reconstruction. Furthermore, we showed that causal gene regulatory relationship can be highly cell type or developmental stage specific, suggesting the importance of employing expression profiles from homogeneous cell populations. This study provides essential datasets and empirical evidence to guide the development of new GRN inference methods for

  3. Relationship of causal effects in a causal chain and related inference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG; Zhi; HE; Yangbo; WANG; Xueli

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship among the total causal effect and local causal effects in a causal chain and identifiability of causal effects. We show a transmission relationship of causal effects in a causal chain. According to the relationship, we give an approach to eliminating confounding bias through controlling for intermediate variables in a causal chain.

  4. Identifying Causal Effects with Computer Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    García-Puente, Luis David; Sullivant, Seth

    2010-01-01

    The long-standing identification problem for causal effects in graphical models has many partial results but lacks a systematic study. We show how computer algebra can be used to either prove that a causal effect can be identified, generically identified, or show that the effect is not generically identifiable. We report on the results of our computations for linear structural equation models, where we determine precisely which causal effects are generically identifiable for all graphs on three and four vertices.

  5. Heterogeneous Causal Effects and Sample Selection Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breen, Richard; Choi, Seongsoo; Holm, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The role of education in the process of socioeconomic attainment is a topic of long standing interest to sociologists and economists. Recently there has been growing interest not only in estimating the average causal effect of education on outcomes such as earnings, but also in estimating how...... causal effects might vary over individuals or groups. In this paper we point out one of the under-appreciated hazards of seeking to estimate heterogeneous causal effects: conventional selection bias (that is, selection on baseline differences) can easily be mistaken for heterogeneity of causal effects...

  6. The Causal Effects of Father Absence

    OpenAIRE

    McLanahan, Sara; TACH, LAURA; Schneider, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The literature on father absence is frequently criticized for its use of cross-sectional data and methods that fail to take account of possible omitted variable bias and reverse causality. We review studies that have responded to this critique by employing a variety of innovative research designs to identify the causal effect of father absence, including studies using lagged dependent variable models, growth curve models, individual fixed effects models, sibling fixed effects models, natural ...

  7. Identifiability of causal effect for a simple causal model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑忠国; 张艳艳; 童行伟

    2002-01-01

    Counterfactual model is put forward to discuss the causal inference in the directed acyclic graph and its corresponding identifiability is thus studied with the ancillary information based on conditional independence. It is shown that the assumption of ignorability can be expanded to the assumption of replaceability,under which the causal efiects are identifiable.

  8. Comments: Causal Interpretations of Mediation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Booil; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors thank Dr. Lindsay Page for providing a nice illustration of the use of the principal stratification framework to define causal effects, and a Bayesian model for effect estimation. They hope that her well-written article will help expose education researchers to these concepts and methods, and move the field of mediation analysis in…

  9. Causal binding of actions to their effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehner, Marc J; Humphreys, Gruffydd R

    2009-10-01

    According to widely held views in cognitive science harking back to David Hume, causality cannot be perceived directly, but instead is inferred from patterns of sensory experience, and the quality of these inferences is determined by perceivable quantities such as contingency and contiguity. We report results that suggest a reversal of Hume's conjecture: People's sense of time is warped by the experience of causality. In a stimulus-anticipation task, participants' response behavior reflected a shortened experience of time in the case of target stimuli participants themselves had generated, relative to equidistant, equally predictable stimuli they had not caused. These findings suggest that causality in the mind leads to temporal binding of cause and effect, and extend and generalize beyond earlier claims of intentional binding between action and outcome.

  10. Transancestral fine-mapping of four type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci highlights potential causal regulatory mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Pasquali, Lorenzo; Wiltshire, Steven; Huyghe, Jeroen R.; Mahajan, Anubha; Asimit, Jennifer L.; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E.; Robertson, Neil R.; Wang, Xu; Sim, Xueling; Fujita, Hayato; Hara, Kazuo; Young, Robin; Zhang, Weihua; Choi, Sungkyoung; Chen, Han; Kaur, Ismeet; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Fontanillas, Pierre; Thuillier, Dorothée; Yengo, Loic; Below, Jennifer E.; Tam, Claudia H.T.; Wu, Ying; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Altshuler, David; Bell, Graeme I.; Blangero, John; Burtt, Noél P.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Florez, Jose C.; Hanis, Craig L.; Seielstad, Mark; Atzmon, Gil; Chan, Juliana C.N.; Ma, Ronald C.W.; Froguel, Philippe; Wilson, James G.; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan; Dupuis, Josee; Meigs, James B.; Cho, Yoon Shin; Park, Taesung; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Chambers, John C.; Saleheen, Danish; Kadowaki, Takashi; Tai, E. Shyong; Mohlke, Karen L.; Cox, Nancy J.; Ferrer, Jorge; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Kato, Norihiro; Teo, Yik Ying; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I.; Morris, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    To gain insight into potential regulatory mechanisms through which the effects of variants at four established type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility loci (CDKAL1, CDKN2A-B, IGF2BP2 and KCNQ1) are mediated, we undertook transancestral fine-mapping in 22 086 cases and 42 539 controls of East Asian, European, South Asian, African American and Mexican American descent. Through high-density imputation and conditional analyses, we identified seven distinct association signals at these four loci, each with allelic effects on T2D susceptibility that were homogenous across ancestry groups. By leveraging differences in the structure of linkage disequilibrium between diverse populations, and increased sample size, we localised the variants most likely to drive each distinct association signal. We demonstrated that integration of these genetic fine-mapping data with genomic annotation can highlight potential causal regulatory elements in T2D-relevant tissues. These analyses provide insight into the mechanisms through which T2D association signals are mediated, and suggest future routes to understanding the biology of specific disease susceptibility loci. PMID:26911676

  11. Prior knowledge driven Granger causality analysis on gene regulatory network discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Shun; Yoo, Shinjae; Yu, Dantong

    2015-01-01

    Background Our study focuses on discovering gene regulatory networks from time series gene expression data using the Granger causality (GC) model. However, the number of available time points (T) usually is much smaller than the number of target genes (n) in biological datasets. The widely applied pairwise GC model (PGC) and other regularization strategies can lead to a significant number of false identifications when n>>T. Results In this study, we proposed a new method, viz., CGC-2SPR (CGC ...

  12. Designing Effective Supports for Causal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.; Ionas, Ioan Gelu

    2008-01-01

    Causal reasoning represents one of the most basic and important cognitive processes that underpin all higher-order activities, such as conceptual understanding and problem solving. Hume called causality the "cement of the universe" [Hume (1739/2000). Causal reasoning is required for making predictions, drawing implications and inferences, and…

  13. Recursive partitioning for heterogeneous causal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athey, Susan; Imbens, Guido

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we propose methods for estimating heterogeneity in causal effects in experimental and observational studies and for conducting hypothesis tests about the magnitude of differences in treatment effects across subsets of the population. We provide a data-driven approach to partition the data into subpopulations that differ in the magnitude of their treatment effects. The approach enables the construction of valid confidence intervals for treatment effects, even with many covariates relative to the sample size, and without "sparsity" assumptions. We propose an "honest" approach to estimation, whereby one sample is used to construct the partition and another to estimate treatment effects for each subpopulation. Our approach builds on regression tree methods, modified to optimize for goodness of fit in treatment effects and to account for honest estimation. Our model selection criterion anticipates that bias will be eliminated by honest estimation and also accounts for the effect of making additional splits on the variance of treatment effect estimates within each subpopulation. We address the challenge that the "ground truth" for a causal effect is not observed for any individual unit, so that standard approaches to cross-validation must be modified. Through a simulation study, we show that for our preferred method honest estimation results in nominal coverage for 90% confidence intervals, whereas coverage ranges between 74% and 84% for nonhonest approaches. Honest estimation requires estimating the model with a smaller sample size; the cost in terms of mean squared error of treatment effects for our preferred method ranges between 7-22%. PMID:27382149

  14. The balanced survivor average causal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tom; Joffe, Marshall; Hu, Bo; Li, Liang; Boucher, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analysis of longitudinal outcomes is often complicated by the absence of observable values in patients who die prior to their scheduled measurement. In such cases, the longitudinal data are said to be "truncated by death" to emphasize that the longitudinal measurements are not simply missing, but are undefined after death. Recently, the truncation by death problem has been investigated using the framework of principal stratification to define the target estimand as the survivor average causal effect (SACE), which in the context of a two-group randomized clinical trial is the mean difference in the longitudinal outcome between the treatment and control groups for the principal stratum of always-survivors. The SACE is not identified without untestable assumptions. These assumptions have often been formulated in terms of a monotonicity constraint requiring that the treatment does not reduce survival in any patient, in conjunction with assumed values for mean differences in the longitudinal outcome between certain principal strata. In this paper, we introduce an alternative estimand, the balanced-SACE, which is defined as the average causal effect on the longitudinal outcome in a particular subset of the always-survivors that is balanced with respect to the potential survival times under the treatment and control. We propose a simple estimator of the balanced-SACE that compares the longitudinal outcomes between equivalent fractions of the longest surviving patients between the treatment and control groups and does not require a monotonicity assumption. We provide expressions for the large sample bias of the estimator, along with sensitivity analyses and strategies to minimize this bias. We consider statistical inference under a bootstrap resampling procedure. PMID:23658214

  15. Causality Assessment in Premarketing Drug Clinical Trials: Regulatory Evolution in the USA and Ongoing Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Stephen A

    2016-10-01

    Since 1993, how to assess the causality of serious adverse events in premarketing drug clinical trials has undergone sustained regulatory evolution in the USA. In that year, an investigational drug study for chronic hepatitis B virus infection was emergently stopped after a patient suddenly exhibited hepatic failure and lactic acidosis, which later developed, along with pancreatitis and peripheral neuropathy, in several others after drug discontinuation. Five patients eventually died, including three despite emergency liver transplantation. The drug's multisystem toxicity was not predicted by preclinical animal studies, with grave injury to human mitochondria subsequently implicated. A concerned US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) created a task force whose findings would have a lasting impact on the agency's thinking. In 1994, the FDA proposed to amend its investigational new drug reporting requirements largely based on task force recommendations for ways to enhance the likelihood that sponsors and investigators would consider investigational agents as a possible cause of serious adverse events mimicking the underlying disease or concomitant drug toxicity. Then, in its 1997 final rule for expedited safety reporting requirements for drugs and biologics, the FDA advised sponsors that such reporting of serious, unexpected clinical trial cases would be expected when "there is a reasonable suspected causal relationship between the investigational product and the adverse event (i.e., the causal relationship cannot be ruled out)." This last clause was codified into the suspected adverse drug reaction definition in the FDA's 2003 safety reporting requirements for drugs and biologics proposed rule. The negatively received suspected adverse drug reaction and proposed causality standard were not adopted in the FDA's 2010 finalized investigational new drug safety reporting regulations, the agency stating that "'reasonable possibility' means there is evidence to suggest a

  16. Mitigating the effects of measurement noise on Granger causality

    CERN Document Server

    Nalatore, Hariharan; Ding, Mingzhou

    2007-01-01

    Computing Granger causal relations among bivariate experimentally observed time series has received increasing attention over the past few years. Such causal relations, if correctly estimated, can yield significant insights into the dynamical organization of the system being investigated. Since experimental measurements are inevitably contaminated by noise, it is thus important to understand the effects of such noise on Granger causality estimation. The first goal of this paper is to provide an analytical and numerical analysis of this problem. Specifically, we show that, due to noise contamination, (1) spurious causality between two measured variables can arise and (2) true causality can be suppressed. The second goal of the paper is to provide a denoising strategy to mitigate this problem. Specifically, we propose a denoising algorithm based on the combined use of the Kalman filter theory and the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the den...

  17. The causal effect of teen motherhood on worklessness

    OpenAIRE

    WALKER, Ian; Zhu, Yu

    2009-01-01

    Teen motherhood continues to be high in the US and the UK relative to most other western European countries. While recent research has clarified how effective policies to reduce teen motherhood might be (Kearney (2009)), there remains little evidence that quantifies the causal effects of teen motherhood on such mothers and their first born children. This paper provides estimates of the causal effect of teen motherhood on worklessness and does so by exploiting the availability of two sources o...

  18. Identification of causal genetic drivers of human disease through systems-level analysis of regulatory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James C.; Alvarez, Mariano J.; Talos, Flaminia; Dhruv, Harshil; Rieckhof, Gabrielle E.; Iyer, Archana; Diefes, Kristin L.; Aldape, Kenneth; Berens, Michael; Shen, Michael M.; Califano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Identification of driver mutations in human diseases is often limited by cohort size and availability of appropriate statistical models. We propose a novel framework for the systematic discovery of genetic alterations that are causal determinants of disease, by prioritizing genes upstream of functional disease drivers, within regulatory networks inferred de novo from experimental data. We tested this framework by identifying the genetic determinants of the mesenchymal subtype of glioblastoma. Our analysis uncovered KLHL9 deletions as upstream activators of two previously established master regulators of the subtype, C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ. Rescue of KLHL9 expression induced proteasomal degradation of C/EBP proteins, abrogated the mesenchymal signature, and reduced tumor viability in vitro and in vivo. Deletions of KLHL9 were confirmed in >50% of mesenchymal cases in an independent cohort, thus representing the most frequent genetic determinant of the subtype. The method generalized to study other human diseases, including breast cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25303533

  19. Identifiability, stratification and minimum variance estimation of causal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xingwei; Zheng, Zhongguo; Geng, Zhi

    2005-10-15

    The weakest sufficient condition for the identifiability of causal effects is the weakly ignorable treatment assignment, which implies that potential responses are independent of treatment assignment in each fine subpopulation stratified by a covariate. In this paper, we expand the independence that holds in fine subpopulations to the case that the independence may also hold in several coarse subpopulations, each of which consists of several fine subpopulations and may have overlaps with other coarse subpopulations. We first show that the identifiability of causal effects occurs if and only if the coarse subpopulations partition the whole population. We then propose a principle, called minimum variance principle, which says that the estimator possessing the minimum variance is preferred, in dealing with the stratification and the estimation of the causal effects. The simulation results with the detail programming and a practical example demonstrate that it is a feasible and reasonable way to achieve our goals. PMID:16149123

  20. Temperature has a causal effect on avian timing of reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.; Holleman, L.J.M.; Caro, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Many bird species reproduce earlier in years with high spring temperatures, but little is known about the causal effect of temperature. Temperature may have a direct effect on timing of reproduction but the correlation may also be indirect, for instance via food phenology. As climate change has led

  1. Effects of Perceived Causality on Perceptions of Persons Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael P.; Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the perceived cause of stuttering on perceptions of persons who stutter (PWS) using a 7-item social distance scale, a 25-item adjective pair scale and a 2-item visual analogue scale. Two hundred and four university students rated vignettes which varied on describing a PWS with different causalities for stuttering…

  2. Temporal expression profiling identifies pathways mediating effect of causal variant on phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumya Gupta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Even with identification of multiple causal genetic variants for common human diseases, understanding the molecular processes mediating the causal variants' effect on the disease remains a challenge. This understanding is crucial for the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat disease. While static profiling of gene expression is primarily used to get insights into the biological bases of diseases, it makes differentiating the causative from the correlative effects difficult, as the dynamics of the underlying biological processes are not monitored. Using yeast as a model, we studied genome-wide gene expression dynamics in the presence of a causal variant as the sole genetic determinant, and performed allele-specific functional validation to delineate the causal effects of the genetic variant on the phenotype. Here, we characterized the precise genetic effects of a functional MKT1 allelic variant in sporulation efficiency variation. A mathematical model describing meiotic landmark events and conditional activation of MKT1 expression during sporulation specified an early meiotic role of this variant. By analyzing the early meiotic genome-wide transcriptional response, we demonstrate an MKT1-dependent role of novel modulators, namely, RTG1/3, regulators of mitochondrial retrograde signaling, and DAL82, regulator of nitrogen starvation, in additively effecting sporulation efficiency. In the presence of functional MKT1 allele, better respiration during early sporulation was observed, which was dependent on the mitochondrial retrograde regulator, RTG3. Furthermore, our approach showed that MKT1 contributes to sporulation independent of Puf3, an RNA-binding protein that steady-state transcription profiling studies have suggested to mediate MKT1-pleiotropic effects during mitotic growth. These results uncover interesting regulatory links between meiosis and mitochondrial retrograde signaling. In this study, we highlight the advantage

  3. Sensitivity analyses for parametric causal mediation effect estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Jeffrey M; Wang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Causal mediation analysis uses a potential outcomes framework to estimate the direct effect of an exposure on an outcome and its indirect effect through an intermediate variable (or mediator). Causal interpretations of these effects typically rely on sequential ignorability. Because this assumption is not empirically testable, it is important to conduct sensitivity analyses. Sensitivity analyses so far offered for this situation have either focused on the case where the outcome follows a linear model or involve nonparametric or semiparametric models. We propose alternative approaches that are suitable for responses following generalized linear models. The first approach uses a Gaussian copula model involving latent versions of the mediator and the final outcome. The second approach uses a so-called hybrid causal-observational model that extends the association model for the final outcome, providing a novel sensitivity parameter. These models, while still assuming a randomized exposure, allow for unobserved (as well as observed) mediator-outcome confounders that are not affected by exposure. The methods are applied to data from a study of the effect of mother education on dental caries in adolescence.

  4. Identifying Causal Marketing Mix Effects Using a Regression Discontinuity Design

    OpenAIRE

    Wesley Hartmann; Harikesh S. Nair; Sridhar Narayanan

    2011-01-01

    We discuss how regression discontinuity designs arise naturally in settings where firms target marketing activity at consumers, and we illustrate how this aspect may be exploited for econometric inference of causal effects of marketing effort. Our main insight is to use commonly observed discontinuities and kinks in the heuristics by which firms target such marketing activity to consumers for nonparametric identification. Such kinks, along with continuity restrictions that are typically satis...

  5. Causal effects of paternity leave on children and parents

    OpenAIRE

    Cools, Sara; Jon H. Fiva; Lars J. Kirkebøen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we use a parental leave reform directed towards fathers to identify the causal effects of paternity leave on children’s and parents’ outcomes. We document that paternity leave causes fathers to become more important for children’s cognitive skills. School performance at age 16 increases for children whose father is relatively higher educated than the mother. We find no evidence that fathers’ earnings and work hours are affected by paternity leave. Contrary to expectation, mother...

  6. Causal effects of parents' education on children's education

    OpenAIRE

    Ermisch, John; Pronzato, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    The paper shows that parents’ education is an important, but hardly exclusive part of the common family background that generates positive correlation between the educational attainments of siblings from the same family. But the correlation between the educational attainments of parents and those of their children overstates considerably the causal effect of parents’ education on the education of their children. Our estimates based on Norwegian twin-mothers indicate that an additional year of...

  7. Meta-analysis on gene regulatory networks discovered by pairwise Granger causality

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, GHF; Hung, YS; Chang, C.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying regulatory genes partaking in disease development is important to medical advances. Since gene expression data of multiple experiments exist, combining results from multiple gene regulatory network discoveries offers higher sensitivity and specificity. However, data for multiple experiments on the same problem may not possess the same set of genes, and hence many existing combining methods are not applicable. In this paper, we approach this problem using a number of meta-analysis ...

  8. Causal effects of alcoholism on earnings: estimates from the NLSY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alison Snow; Richmond, David W

    2006-08-01

    Propensity score matching is used to investigate the causal relationship between alcoholism and earnings in a young cohort of males and females drawn from the 1989 and 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) in order to investigate productivity losses attributed to alcoholism and to quantify these effects. Results suggest that there are productivity losses attributable to alcoholism; that they become more pronounced over the life cycle; and that they differ between men and women. Ways in which estimates from propensity score matching may or may not improve on instrumental variables estimates are discussed.

  9. Temperature has a causal effect on avian timing of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Marcel E; Holleman, Leonard J M; Caro, Samuel P

    2009-06-22

    Many bird species reproduce earlier in years with high spring temperatures, but little is known about the causal effect of temperature. Temperature may have a direct effect on timing of reproduction but the correlation may also be indirect, for instance via food phenology. As climate change has led to substantial shifts in timing, it is essential to understand this causal relationship to predict future impacts of climate change. We tested the direct effect of temperature on laying dates in great tits (Parus major) using climatized aviaries in a 6-year experiment. We mimicked the temperature patterns from two specific years in which our wild population laid either early ('warm' treatment) or late ('cold' treatment). Laying dates were affected by temperature directly. As the relevant temperature period started three weeks prior to the mean laying date, with a range of just 4 degrees C between the warm and the cold treatments, and as the birds were fed ad libitum, it is likely that temperature acted as a cue rather than lifting an energetic constraint on the onset of egg production. We furthermore show a high correlation between the laying dates of individuals reproducing both in aviaries and in the wild, validating investigations of reproduction of wild birds in captivity. Our results demonstrate that temperature has a direct effect on timing of breeding, an important step towards assessing the implication of climate change on seasonal timing. PMID:19324731

  10. Assessment of regulatory effectiveness. Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report arises from the seventh series of peer discussions on regulatory practices entitled 'Assessment of Regulatory Effectiveness'. The term 'regulatory effectiveness' covers the quality of the work and level of performance of a regulatory body. In this sense, regulatory effectiveness applies to regulatory body activities aimed at preventing safety degradation and ensuring that an acceptable level of safety is being maintained by the regulated operating organizations. In addition, regulatory effectiveness encompasses the promotion of safety improvements, the timely and cost effective performance of regulatory functions in a manner which ensures the confidence of the operating organizations, the general public and the government, and striving for continuous improvements to performance. Senior regulators from 22 Member States participated in two peer group discussions during March and May 1999. The discussions were focused on the elements of an effective regulatory body, possible indicators of regulatory effectiveness and its assessment. This report presents the outcome of these meetings and recommendations of good practices identified by senior regulators, which do not necessarily reflect those of the governments of the nominating Member States, the organizations they belong to, or the International Atomic Energy Agency. In order to protect people and the environment from hazards associated with nuclear facilities, the main objective of a nuclear regulatory body is to ensure that a high level of safety in the nuclear activities under its jurisdiction is achieved, maintained and within the control of operating organizations. Even if it is possible to directly judge objective safety levels at nuclear facilities, such safety levels would not provide an exclusive indicator of regulatory effectiveness. The way the regulatory body ensures the safety of workers and the public and the way it discharges its responsibilities also determine its effectiveness. Hence the

  11. Algorithms of causal inference for the analysis of effective connectivity among brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, Daniel; Panzeri, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, powerful general algorithms of causal inference have been developed. In particular, in the framework of Pearl's causality, algorithms of inductive causation (IC and IC(*)) provide a procedure to determine which causal connections among nodes in a network can be inferred from empirical observations even in the presence of latent variables, indicating the limits of what can be learned without active manipulation of the system. These algorithms can in principle become important complements to established techniques such as Granger causality and Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) to analyze causal influences (effective connectivity) among brain regions. However, their application to dynamic processes has not been yet examined. Here we study how to apply these algorithms to time-varying signals such as electrophysiological or neuroimaging signals. We propose a new algorithm which combines the basic principles of the previous algorithms with Granger causality to obtain a representation of the causal relations suited to dynamic processes. Furthermore, we use graphical criteria to predict dynamic statistical dependencies between the signals from the causal structure. We show how some problems for causal inference from neural signals (e.g., measurement noise, hemodynamic responses, and time aggregation) can be understood in a general graphical approach. Focusing on the effect of spatial aggregation, we show that when causal inference is performed at a coarser scale than the one at which the neural sources interact, results strongly depend on the degree of integration of the neural sources aggregated in the signals, and thus characterize more the intra-areal properties than the interactions among regions. We finally discuss how the explicit consideration of latent processes contributes to understand Granger causality and DCM as well as to distinguish functional and effective connectivity.

  12. Algorithms of causal inference for the analysis of effective connectivity among brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eChicharro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, powerful general algorithms of causal inference have been developed. In particular, in the framework of Pearl’s causality, algorithms of inductive causation (IC and IC* provide a procedure to determine which causal connections among nodes in a network can be inferred from empirical observations even in the presence of latent variables, indicating the limits of what can be learned without active manipulation of the system. These algorithms can in principle become important complements to established techniques such as Granger causality and Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM to analyze causal influences (effective connectivity among brain regions. However, their application to dynamic processes has not been yet examined. Here we study how to apply these algorithms to time-varying signals such as electrophysiological or neuroimaging signals. We propose a new algorithm which combines the basic principles of the previous algorithms with Granger causality to obtain a representation of the causal relations suited to dynamic processes. Furthermore, we use graphical criteria to predict dynamic statistical dependencies between the signals from the causal structure. We show how some problems for causal inference from neural signals (e.g. measurement noise, hemodynamic responses, and time aggregation can be understood in a general graphical approach. Focusing on the effect of spatial aggregation, we show that when causal inference is performed at a coarser scale than the one at which the neural sources interact, results strongly depend on the degree of integration of the neural sources aggregated in the signals, and thus characterize more the intra-areal properties than the interactions among regions. We finally discuss how the explicit consideration of latent processes contributes to understand Granger causality and DCM as well as to distinguish functional and effective connectivity.

  13. A Bayesian approach to estimating causal vaccine effects on binary post-infection outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jincheng; Chu, Haitao; Hudgens, Michael G; Halloran, M Elizabeth

    2016-01-15

    To estimate causal effects of vaccine on post-infection outcomes, Hudgens and Halloran (2006) defined a post-infection causal vaccine efficacy estimand VEI based on the principal stratification framework. They also derived closed forms for the maximum likelihood estimators of the causal estimand under some assumptions. Extending their research, we propose a Bayesian approach to estimating the causal vaccine effects on binary post-infection outcomes. The identifiability of the causal vaccine effect VEI is discussed under different assumptions on selection bias. The performance of the proposed Bayesian method is compared with the maximum likelihood method through simulation studies and two case studies - a clinical trial of a rotavirus vaccine candidate and a field study of pertussis vaccination. For both case studies, the Bayesian approach provided similar inference as the frequentist analysis. However, simulation studies with small sample sizes suggest that the Bayesian approach provides smaller bias and shorter confidence interval length.

  14. The Causal Effect of Education on Health Behaviors: Evidence From Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tansel, Aysit; Karaoglan, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    This study provides causal effect of education on health behaviors in Turkey which is a middle income developing country. Health Survey of the Turkish Statistical Institute for the years 2008, 2010 and 2012 are used. The health behaviors considered are smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, exercising and one health outcome namely, the body mass index (BMI). We examine the causal effect of education on these health behaviors and the BMI Instrumental variable approach ...

  15. Epidemiological causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  16. Is there a Causal Effect of High School Math on Labor Market Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, E. Juanna Schröter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we exploit a high school pilot scheme to identify the causal effect of advanced high school math on labor market outcomes. The pilot scheme reduced the costs of choosing advanced math because it allowed for a more flexible combination of math with other courses. We find clear evide...... evidence of a causal relationship between math and earnings for students who are induced to choose math after being exposed to the pilot scheme. The effect partly stems from the fact that these students end up with a higher education....

  17. A Program for Standard Errors of Indirect Effects in Recursive Causal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfle, Lee M.; Ethington, Corinna A.

    In his early exposition of path analysis, Duncan (1966) noted that the method "provides a calculus for indirect effects." Despite the interest in indirect causal effects, most users treat them as if they are population parameters and do not test whether they are statistically significant. Sobel (1982) has recently derived the asymptotic…

  18. Wiener-Granger causality for effective connectivity in the hidden states: Indication from probabilistic causality. Comment on "Foundational perspectives on causality in large-scale brain networks" by M. Mannino and S.L. Bressler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Statistics and probability theory have advanced our understanding of random processes widely observed in the physical world. There is a remarkable trend in studying the brain by looking into the stochastic information processing in large-scale brain networks [1,2]. As the review by Mannino and Bressler [3] points out, the probabilistic notion of causality, with its rooted philosophical foundations, represents a revolutionary view on how different parts of the brain interact and integrate to generate function. Specifically, Probabilistic Causality (PC) asserts that a cause should increase the probability of occurrence of its effect, and PC between two brain regions entails that the probability for the activity in one region to occur increases when conditioned on the activity of the other. This definition claims inherent randomness in the causal relationship.

  19. Estimating the Causal Effect of Randomization versus Treatment Preference in a Doubly Randomized Preference Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Sue M.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Wang, Pei; Shadish, William R.; Steiner, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Although randomized studies have high internal validity, generalizability of the estimated causal effect from randomized clinical trials to real-world clinical or educational practice may be limited. We consider the implication of randomized assignment to treatment, as compared with choice of preferred treatment as it occurs in real-world…

  20. Moving Matters: The Causal Effect of Moving Schools on Student Performance. Working Paper #01-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Stiefel, Leanna; Cordes, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of existing research on mobility indicates that students do worse in the year of a school move. This research, however, has been unsuccessful in isolating the causal effects of mobility and often fails to distinguish the heterogeneous impacts of moves, conflating structural moves (mandated by a school's terminal grade) and…

  1. Is there a Causal Effect of High School Math on Labor Market Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Juanna Schrøter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    reduced the costs of choosing advanced Math because it allowedfor at more flexible combination of Math with other courses. We findclear evidence of a causal relationship between Math and earnings for thestudents who are induced to choose Math after being exposed to the pilotscheme. The effect partly stems...

  2. Empirically Driven Variable Selection for the Estimation of Causal Effects with Observational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Bryan; Chen, Jianshen

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies are common in educational research, where subjects self-select or are otherwise non-randomly assigned to different interventions (e.g., educational programs, grade retention, special education). Unbiased estimation of a causal effect with observational data depends crucially on the assumption of ignorability, which specifies…

  3. Sharp Bounds on Causal Effects under Sample Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Mellace, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In many empirical problems, the evaluation of treatment effects is complicated by sample selection so that the outcome is only observed for a non-random subpopulation. In the absence of instruments and/or tight parametric assumptions, treatment effects are not point identified, but can be bounded...... derive sharp bounds under various assumptions and provide an empirical application to a school voucher experiment....

  4. Estimating Causal Effects from Multilevel Group-Allocation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelman, Alix I.

    2005-01-01

    In group-allocation studies for comparing behavioral, social, or educational interventions, subjects in the same group necessarily receive the same treatment, whereby a group and/or group-dynamic effect can confound the treatment effect. General counterfactual outcomes that depend on group characteristics, group membership, and treatment are…

  5. Estimating the Causal Effects of Income on Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Nattavudh Powdthavee

    2009-01-01

    There is a long tradition of psychologists finding small income effects on life satisfaction (or happiness). Yet the issue of income endogeneity in life satisfaction equations has rarely been addressed. This paper aims to do just that. Instrumenting for income and allowing for unobserved heterogeneity result in an estimated income effect that is almost twice as large as the estimate in the basic specification. The results call for a reexamination on previous findings that suggest money buys l...

  6. The psychophysics of comic: Effects of incongruity in causality and animacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parovel, Giulia; Guidi, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    According to several theories of humour (see Berger, 2012; Martin, 2007), incongruity - i.e., the presence of two incompatible meanings in the same situation - is a crucial condition for an event being evaluated as comical. The aim of this research was to test with psychophysical methods the role of incongruity in visual perception by manipulating the causal paradigm (Michotte, 1946/1963) to get a comic effect. We ran three experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the role of speed ratio between the first and the second movement, and the effect of animacy cues (i.e. frog-like and jumping-like trajectories) in the second movement; in Experiment 2, we manipulated the temporal delay between the movements to explore the relationship between perceptual causal contingencies and comic impressions; in Experiment 3, we compared the strength of the comic impressions arising from incongruent trajectories based on animacy cues with those arising from incongruent trajectories not based on animacy cues (bouncing and rotating) in the second part of the causal event. General findings showed that the paradoxical juxtaposition of a living behaviour in the perceptual causal paradigm is a powerful factor in eliciting comic appreciations, coherently with the Bergsonian perspective in particular (Bergson, 2003), and with incongruity theories in general.

  7. The Causal Effect of Scholarships Targeted at Low Income Students on Performance: Evidence from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    V. Rattini

    2014-01-01

    This paper exploits discontinuities in the assigment of scholarships targeted at low income students in an Italian University in order to evaluate the effects of monetary incentives on students' academic achievement. Results reveal positive and sizeable causal effects both in terms of credits and grades. Gender differentials also emerge: male students drive the results on credits outcome while females students drive the effect on grades. These results suggest that the scholarship design contr...

  8. Adiposity-Dependent Regulatory Effects on Multi-tissue Transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glastonbury, Craig A; Viñuela, Ana; Buil, Alfonso; Halldorsson, Gisli H; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Helgason, Hannes; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Spector, Tim D; Small, Kerrin S

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic that is causally associated with a range of diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, at the population-level. However, there is marked heterogeneity in obesity-related outcomes among individuals. This might reflect genotype-dependent responses to adiposity. Given that adiposity, measured by BMI, is associated with widespread changes in gene expression and regulatory variants mediate the majority of known complex trait loci, we sought to identify gene-by-BMI (G × BMI) interactions on the regulation of gene expression in a multi-tissue RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) dataset from the TwinsUK cohort (n = 856). At a false discovery rate of 5%, we identified 16 cis G × BMI interactions (top cis interaction: CHURC1, rs7143432, p = 2.0 × 10(-12)) and one variant regulating 53 genes in trans (top trans interaction: ZNF423, rs3851570, p = 8.2 × 10(-13)), all in adipose tissue. The interactions were adipose-specific and enriched for variants overlapping adipocyte enhancers, and regulated genes were enriched for metabolic and inflammatory processes. We replicated a subset of the interactions in an independent adipose RNA-seq dataset (deCODE genetics, n = 754). We also confirmed the interactions with an alternate measure of obesity, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived visceral-fat-volume measurements, in a subset of TwinsUK individuals (n = 682). The identified G × BMI regulatory effects demonstrate the dynamic nature of gene regulation and reveal a functional mechanism underlying the heterogeneous response to obesity. Additionally, we have provided a web browser allowing interactive exploration of the dataset, including of association between expression, BMI, and G × BMI regulatory effects in four tissues. PMID:27588447

  9. Pre-commercial procurement : regulatory effectiveness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostol, Anca Ramona

    2014-01-01

    Is public procurement of research and development (‘R&D’) services the key to European Union (‘EU’)’s sustainable welfare? Is it being regulated in accordance with economic prescripts for effectiveness? Is the regulatory and policy setting clear and comprehensive in order to stimulate a widespread u

  10. Shaping Liquidity: On the Causal Effects of Voluntary Disclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik Balakrishnan; Mary B. Billings; Kelly, Bryan T.; Alexander Ljungqvist

    2013-01-01

    Can managers influence the liquidity of their firms' shares? We use plausibly exogenous variation in the supply of public information to show that firms seek to actively shape their information environments by voluntarily disclosing more information than is mandated by market regulations and that such efforts have a sizeable and beneficial effect on liquidity. Firms respond to an exogenous loss of public information by providing more timely and informative earnings guidance. Responses appear ...

  11. Assessing Time-Varying Causal Effect Moderation in Mobile Health

    OpenAIRE

    Boruvka, Audrey; Almirall, Daniel; Witkiewitz, Katie; Murphy, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    In mobile health interventions aimed at behavior change and maintenance, treatments are provided in real time to manage current or impending high risk situations or promote healthy behaviors in near real time. Currently there is great scientific interest in developing data analysis approaches to guide the development of mobile interventions. In particular data from mobile health studies might be used to examine effect moderators-i.e., individual characteristics, time-varying context or past t...

  12. Independence and regulatory effectiveness: The Chilean experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International binding documents state that Member States should provide an effectively independent Regulatory Body. There are no recommendations on how independent a Regulatory Body must be. As a result, many different regulatory structures are found worldwide. Economical development status of Member States can be easily correlated to their regulatory organizations; nuclear power programs are also decisory. Along the last fifty years, regulatory activities in Chile have gone through several changes: before 1974 radioactive facilities were controlled by the Ministry of Health. A Supreme Decree issued on June 1974, approved the 'Regulations on Licensing (of radioactive facilities)', conferring this faculty to the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission. The CNEC had, de facto, the same faculties regarding nuclear facilities. The Nuclear Safety Law, published in 1984 stated that the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEC) was the competent authority regarding nuclear facilities, while Regional Health Services belonging to the Ministry of Health, were competent over all radioactive facilities. In 1987 the Law No. 18.730 amended the Nuclear Safety Law, transferring the competence over 1st category radioactive facilities and associated matters to the CNEC. In 2004 the Ministry of Health went under a great reorganization: the Law No. 19.937 defined new competent authorities, providing an effective independence of the regulatory functions. In 2001, the Board of Directors of the CNEC delegated the faculty of granting authorizations to the Head of the Nuclear and Radiological Safety Department. In 2005, the Board also delegated the faculties of proposing regulations and standards and prosecuting regulation violators on the person of the Head of the Nuclear and Radiological Safety Department. Both, the Ministry of Health and the CNEC, have given decisory steps towards fulfilling the principle of regulatory independence: the first one by separating functions at the level of

  13. Investigating the causal effect of vitamin D on serum adiponectin using a mendelian randomization approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, L. L. N.; Skaaby, T.; Martinussen, Torben;

    2014-01-01

    doubling of 25(OH)D was 4.78, 95% CI: 1.96, 7.68, P<0.001). Using variations in the vitamin D-binding protein gene and the filaggrin gene as instrumental variables, the causal effect in % was estimated to 61.46, 95% CI: 17.51, 120.28, P=0.003 higher adiponectin per doubling of 25(OH)D. In the MONICA10......Background/Objectives: The aim was to examine the causal effect of vitamin D on serum adiponectin using a multiple instrument Mendelian randomization approach. Subjects/Methods: Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and serum total or high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were measured in two...

  14. The causal effect of board size in the performance of small and medium-sized firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Empirical studies of large publicly traded firms have shown a robust negative relationship between board size and firm performance. The evidence on small and medium-sized firms is less clear; we show that existing work has been incomplete in analyzing the causal relationship due to weak...... identification strategies. Using a rich data set of almost 7000 closely held corporations we provide a causal analysis of board size effects on firm performance: We use a novel instrument given by the number of children of the chief executive officer (CEO) of the firms. First, we find a strong positive...... correlation between family size and board size and show this correlation to be driven by firms where the CEO's relatives serve on the board. Second, we find empirical evidence of a small adverse board size effect driven by the minority of small and medium-sized firms that are characterized by having...

  15. Double robust estimator of average causal treatment effect for censored medical cost data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Beste, Lauren A; Maier, Marissa M; Zhou, Xiao-Hua

    2016-08-15

    In observational studies, estimation of average causal treatment effect on a patient's response should adjust for confounders that are associated with both treatment exposure and response. In addition, the response, such as medical cost, may have incomplete follow-up. In this article, a double robust estimator is proposed for average causal treatment effect for right censored medical cost data. The estimator is double robust in the sense that it remains consistent when either the model for the treatment assignment or the regression model for the response is correctly specified. Double robust estimators increase the likelihood the results will represent a valid inference. Asymptotic normality is obtained for the proposed estimator, and an estimator for the asymptotic variance is also derived. Simulation studies show good finite sample performance of the proposed estimator and a real data analysis using the proposed method is provided as illustration. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The effects of argumentation goals on recall, causal understanding and reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Liujing

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the effects of instructing students to use web-based text to prepare for an argument on their recall of the text information, understanding of causal relations in the text, and reasoning in an evaluation essay about theories presented in the text. Instruction to argue was compared with instructions to use text to prepare a summary or study for a recall test. A sample of 120 participants was randomly assigned into three groups: argument group, summary group and study gro...

  17. Estimating the Causal Effect of Enforcement on Minimum Wage Compliance : The Case of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon Bhorat; Ravi Kanbur; Natasha Mayet

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate the causal effect of government enforcement on compliance with minimum wages in South Africa, a country where considerable non-compliance exists. The number of labour inspectors per capita is used as a proxy for enforcement, whilst non-compliance is measured using an index of violation that measures both the proportion of individuals violated, as well as the average depth of individual violation. Due to the potential simultaneity between enforcement and complia...

  18. The causal effect of breastfeeding on children’s cognitive development : a quasi-experimental design

    OpenAIRE

    Denny, Kevin; Doyle, Orla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the causal effect of breastfeeding on children’s cognitive skills as measured at ages 3, 5, 7 and 11. Design: An instrumental variable (IV) strategy which provides a correction method for dealing with selection bias. Standard linear regression models are compared to two-stage least squares models to test for the presence of endogeneity. The consistency of the results across multiple sources is also tested using data from two prospective longitudinal studies collected 40...

  19. Pre-commercial procurement: regulatory effectiveness?

    OpenAIRE

    Apostol, Anca Ramona

    2014-01-01

    Is public procurement of research and development (‘R&D’) services the key to European Union (‘EU’)’s sustainable welfare? Is it being regulated in accordance with economic prescripts for effectiveness? Is the regulatory and policy setting clear and comprehensive in order to stimulate a widespread use of this instrument by EU public authorities? In 2007, the EU released an Interpretative Communication, explaining how to purchase R&D services in compliance with the EU public procurement and St...

  20. Improvement of the effectiveness of regulatory management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project ARCAL LXVI has as its objective strengthening the national capabilities of the regulatory authorities to achieve an adequate level of radiation safety by training their staff in the implementation of the safety guidelines developed by a prior TC regional project under the framework of the ARCAL Programme and to measure its effectiveness. Detailed program of activities for the years 2001/2002 is presented at this meeting

  1. Comprehension and retention: The effect of concrete details and causal structure in scientific narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcken, Wendi M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine two of the salient elements of instructional narratives as a guide to instructional practice. The literature summarized in this report discusses the theoretical basis for narrative impact on comprehension and retention, enumerates and defines possible salient narrative elements from the literature, and examines the instructional impact of two of these elements: concrete details and causal structure. This is intended to help provide guidance to instructional designers and teachers who desire to use narrative in science instruction. Participants included 94 high school physics students. An experimental research design of 2 (Gender) x 2 (Concreteness) x 2 (Causal Structure) x 2 (Comprehension as within-subjects) ANCOVA was used to analyze the effects of the narrative elements. It was found that concrete details improved comprehension and retention but that causal structure had no statistically significant impact on comprehension or retention. There were no significant gender differences in comprehension or retention though there were two- and three-way interactions between the independent variables.

  2. Times and Causality

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Russell

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of causal chains and mechanisms is an essential part of any scientific activity that aims at better explanation of its subject matter, and better understanding of it. While any account of causality requires that a cause should precede its effect, accounts of causality inphysics are complicated by the fact that the role of time in current theoretical physics has evolved very substantially throughout the twentieth century. In this article, I review the status of time and causa...

  3. Causal universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, George FR; Pabjan, Tadeusz

    2013-01-01

    Written by philosophers, cosmologists, and physicists, this collection of essays deals with causality, which is a core issue for both science and philosophy. Readers will learn about different types of causality in complex systems and about new perspectives on this issue based on physical and cosmological considerations. In addition, the book includes essays pertaining to the problem of causality in ancient Greek philosophy, and to the problem of God's relation to the causal structures of nature viewed in the light of contemporary physics and cosmology.

  4. Causal and causally separable processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreshkov, Ognyan; Giarmatzi, Christina

    2016-09-01

    The idea that events are equipped with a partial causal order is central to our understanding of physics in the tested regimes: given two pointlike events A and B, either A is in the causal past of B, B is in the causal past of A, or A and B are space-like separated. Operationally, the meaning of these order relations corresponds to constraints on the possible correlations between experiments performed in the vicinities of the respective events: if A is in the causal past of B, an experimenter at A could signal to an experimenter at B but not the other way around, while if A and B are space-like separated, no signaling is possible in either direction. In the context of a concrete physical theory, the correlations compatible with a given causal configuration may obey further constraints. For instance, space-like correlations in quantum mechanics arise from local measurements on joint quantum states, while time-like correlations are established via quantum channels. Similarly to other variables, however, the causal order of a set of events could be random, and little is understood about the constraints that causality implies in this case. A main difficulty concerns the fact that the order of events can now generally depend on the operations performed at the locations of these events, since, for instance, an operation at A could influence the order in which B and C occur in A’s future. So far, no formal theory of causality compatible with such dynamical causal order has been developed. Apart from being of fundamental interest in the context of inferring causal relations, such a theory is imperative for understanding recent suggestions that the causal order of events in quantum mechanics can be indefinite. Here, we develop such a theory in the general multipartite case. Starting from a background-independent definition of causality, we derive an iteratively formulated canonical decomposition of multipartite causal correlations. For a fixed number of settings and

  5. Causal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2006-01-01

    The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method......The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method...

  6. Effective coping with stroke disability in a community setting: the development of a causal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton De Sepulveda, L I; Chang, B

    1994-08-01

    A proposed causal model based upon Lazarus' theory of psychological stress and coping was tested in a sample of 75 persons disabled by stroke. Coping constraints such as demographic and stroke factors were hypothesized to affect resources (perceived availability of social support, perceived effectiveness of social support, social contact), stress appraisal, coping behavior and coping effectiveness. Although the model did not fit the data, several path coefficients within the model were statistically significant. Functional status was positively related to resources and negatively related to the stressor. Resources were negatively related to the stressor and positively related to coping effectiveness. It was noted that the buffering effect of social support was related to the level of disability of the stroke person. Persons with functional disability following stroke also had decreased social contact, perceived less availability of social resources and increased threat to physical well-being, and had reduced coping effectiveness.

  7. Causal inference in longitudinal comparative effectiveness studies with repeated measures of a continuous intermediate variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen-Pin; Jo, Booil; Brown, C Hendricks

    2014-09-10

    We propose a principal stratification approach to assess causal effects in nonrandomized longitudinal comparative effectiveness studies with a binary endpoint outcome and repeated measures of a continuous intermediate variable. Our method is an extension of the principal stratification approach originally proposed for the longitudinal randomized study "Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial" to assess the treatment effect on the continuous Hamilton depression score adjusting for the heterogeneity of repeatedly measured binary compliance status. Our motivation for this work comes from a comparison of the effect of two glucose-lowering medications on a clinical cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. Here, we consider a causal inference problem assessing how well the two medications work relative to one another on two binary endpoint outcomes: cardiovascular disease-related hospitalization and all-cause mortality. Clinically, these glucose-lowering medications can have differential effects on the intermediate outcome, glucose level over time. Ultimately, we want to compare medication effects on the endpoint outcomes among individuals in the same glucose trajectory stratum while accounting for the heterogeneity in baseline covariates (i.e., to obtain 'principal effects' on the endpoint outcomes). The proposed method involves a three-step model estimation procedure. Step 1 identifies principal strata associated with the intermediate variable using hybrid growth mixture modeling analyses. Step 2 obtains the stratum membership using the pseudoclass technique and derives propensity scores for treatment assignment. Step 3 obtains the stratum-specific treatment effect on the endpoint outcome weighted by inverse propensity probabilities derived from Step 2. PMID:24577715

  8. Causal inference in longitudinal comparative effectiveness studies with repeated measures of a continuous intermediate variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen-Pin; Jo, Booil; Brown, C Hendricks

    2014-09-10

    We propose a principal stratification approach to assess causal effects in nonrandomized longitudinal comparative effectiveness studies with a binary endpoint outcome and repeated measures of a continuous intermediate variable. Our method is an extension of the principal stratification approach originally proposed for the longitudinal randomized study "Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial" to assess the treatment effect on the continuous Hamilton depression score adjusting for the heterogeneity of repeatedly measured binary compliance status. Our motivation for this work comes from a comparison of the effect of two glucose-lowering medications on a clinical cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. Here, we consider a causal inference problem assessing how well the two medications work relative to one another on two binary endpoint outcomes: cardiovascular disease-related hospitalization and all-cause mortality. Clinically, these glucose-lowering medications can have differential effects on the intermediate outcome, glucose level over time. Ultimately, we want to compare medication effects on the endpoint outcomes among individuals in the same glucose trajectory stratum while accounting for the heterogeneity in baseline covariates (i.e., to obtain 'principal effects' on the endpoint outcomes). The proposed method involves a three-step model estimation procedure. Step 1 identifies principal strata associated with the intermediate variable using hybrid growth mixture modeling analyses. Step 2 obtains the stratum membership using the pseudoclass technique and derives propensity scores for treatment assignment. Step 3 obtains the stratum-specific treatment effect on the endpoint outcome weighted by inverse propensity probabilities derived from Step 2.

  9. A Statistical Framework for Testing the Causal Effects of Fetal Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianjun eLiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal genetic and phenotypic characteristics (e.g., metabolic and behavioral affect both the intrauterine milieu and lifelong health trajectories of their fetuses. Yet at the same time, fetal genotype may affect processes that alter pre and postnatal maternal physiology, and the subsequent health of both fetus and mother. We refer to these latter effects as ‘fetal drive.’ If fetal genotype is driving physiologic, metabolic, and behavioral phenotypic changes in the mother, there is a possibility of differential effects with different fetal genomes inducing different long-term effects on both maternal and fetal health, mediated through intrauterine environment. This proposed mechanistic path remains largely unexamined and untested. In this study, we offer a statistical method to rigorously test this hypothesis and make causal inferences in humans by relying on the (conditional randomization inherent in the process of meiosis. For illustration, we apply this method to a dataset from the Framingham Heart Study.

  10. Causality and Composite Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Joglekar, Satish D

    2007-01-01

    We study the question of whether a composite structure of elementary particles, with a length scale $1/\\Lambda$, can leave observable effects of non-locality and causality violation at higher energies (but $\\lesssim \\Lambda$). We formulate a model-independent approach based on Bogoliubov-Shirkov formulation of causality. We analyze the relation between the fundamental theory (of finer constituents) and the derived theory (of composite particles). We assume that the fundamental theory is causal and formulate a condition which must be fulfilled for the derived theory to be causal. We analyze the condition and exhibit possibilities which fulfil and which violate the condition. We make comments on how causality violating amplitudes can arise.

  11. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    Discourse analysis as a methodology is perhaps not readily associated with substantive causality claims. At the same time the study of discourses is very much the study of conceptions of causal relations among a set, or sets, of agents. Within Europeanization research we have seen endeavours...... to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality......, it suggests that discourse analysis and the study of causality are by no means opposites. The study of Europeanization discourses may even be seen as an essential step in the move towards claims of causality in Europeanization research. This chapter deals with the question of how we may move from the study...

  12. Additivity pretraining and cue competition effects: developmental evidence for a reasoning-based account of causal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Victoria; McCormack, Teresa; Beckers, Tom

    2012-04-01

    The effect of additivity pretraining on blocking has been taken as evidence for a reasoning account of human and animal causal learning. If inferential reasoning underpins this effect, then developmental differences in the magnitude of this effect in children would be expected. Experiment 1 examined cue competition effects in children's (4- to 5-year-olds and 6- to 7-year-olds) causal learning using a new paradigm analogous to the food allergy task used in studies of human adult causal learning. Blocking was stronger in the older than the younger children, and additivity pretraining only affected blocking in the older group. Unovershadowing was not affected by age or by pretraining. In experiment 2, levels of blocking were found to be correlated with the ability to answer questions that required children to reason about additivity. Our results support an inferential reasoning explanation of cue competition effects.

  13. Assessing Granger Causality in Electrophysiological Data: Removing the Adverse Effects of Common Signals via Bipolar Derivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongnetrpunya, Amy; Nandi, Bijurika; Kang, Daesung; Kocsis, Bernat; Schroeder, Charles E; Ding, Mingzhou

    2015-01-01

    Multielectrode voltage data are usually recorded against a common reference. Such data are frequently used without further treatment to assess patterns of functional connectivity between neuronal populations and between brain areas. It is important to note from the outset that such an approach is valid only when the reference electrode is nearly electrically silent. In practice, however, the reference electrode is generally not electrically silent, thereby adding a common signal to the recorded data. Volume conduction further complicates the problem. In this study we demonstrate the adverse effects of common signals on the estimation of Granger causality, which is a statistical measure used to infer synaptic transmission and information flow in neural circuits from multielectrode data. We further test the hypothesis that the problem can be overcome by utilizing bipolar derivations where the difference between two nearby electrodes is taken and treated as a representation of local neural activity. Simulated data generated by a neuronal network model where the connectivity pattern is known were considered first. This was followed by analyzing data from three experimental preparations where a priori predictions regarding the patterns of causal interactions can be made: (1) laminar recordings from the hippocampus of an anesthetized rat during theta rhythm, (2) laminar recordings from V4 of an awake-behaving macaque monkey during alpha rhythm, and (3) ECoG recordings from electrode arrays implanted in the middle temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex of an epilepsy patient during fixation. For both simulation and experimental analysis the results show that bipolar derivations yield the expected connectivity patterns whereas the untreated data (referred to as unipolar signals) do not. In addition, current source density signals, where applicable, yield results that are close to the expected connectivity patterns, whereas the commonly practiced average re-reference method

  14. Estimation of average causal effect using the restricted mean residual lifetime as effect measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    with respect to their survival times. In observational studies where the factor of interest is not randomized, covariate adjustment is needed to take into account imbalances in confounding factors. In this article, we develop an estimator for the average causal treatment difference using the restricted mean......Although mean residual lifetime is often of interest in biomedical studies, restricted mean residual lifetime must be considered in order to accommodate censoring. Differences in the restricted mean residual lifetime can be used as an appropriate quantity for comparing different treatment groups...

  15. Revisiting Causality in Markov Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Shojaee, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Identifying causal relationships is a key premise of scientific research. The growth of observational data in different disciplines along with the availability of machine learning methods offers the possibility of using an empirical approach to identifying potential causal relationships, to deepen our understandings of causal behavior and to build theories accordingly. Conventional methods of causality inference from observational data require a considerable length of time series data to capture cause-effect relationship. We find that potential causal relationships can be inferred from the composition of one step transition rates to and from an event. Also known as Markov chain, one step transition rates are a commonly available resource in different scientific disciplines. Here we introduce a simple, effective and computationally efficient method that we termed 'Causality Inference using Composition of Transitions CICT' to reveal causal structure with high accuracy. We characterize the differences in causes,...

  16. Causality Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Do Minh

    2001-01-01

    We advance a famous principle - causality principle - but under a new view. This principle is a principium automatically leading to most fundamental laws of the nature. It is the inner origin of variation, rules evolutionary processes of things, and the answer of the quest for ultimate theories of the Universe.

  17. FMRI effective connectivity and TMS chronometry: complementary accounts of causality in the visuospatial judgment network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom A de Graaf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While traditionally quite distinct, functional neuroimaging (e.g. functional magnetic resonance imaging: fMRI and functional interference techniques (e.g. transcranial magnetic stimulation: TMS increasingly address similar questions of functional brain organization, including connectivity, interactions, and causality in the brain. Time-resolved TMS over multiple brain network nodes can elucidate the relative timings of functional relevance for behavior ("TMS chronometry", while fMRI functional or effective connectivity (fMRI EC can map task-specific interactions between brain regions based on the interrelation of measured signals. The current study empirically assessed the relation between these different methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One group of 15 participants took part in two experiments: one fMRI EC study, and one TMS chronometry study, both of which used an established cognitive paradigm involving one visuospatial judgment task and one color judgment control task. Granger causality mapping (GCM, a data-driven variant of fMRI EC analysis, revealed a frontal-to-parietal flow of information, from inferior/middle frontal gyrus (MFG to posterior parietal cortex (PPC. FMRI EC-guided Neuronavigated TMS had behavioral effects when applied to both PPC and to MFG, but the temporal pattern of these effects was similar for both stimulation sites. At first glance, this would seem in contradiction to the fMRI EC results. However, we discuss how TMS chronometry and fMRI EC are conceptually different and show how they can be complementary and mutually constraining, rather than contradictory, on the basis of our data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings that fMRI EC could successfully localize functionally relevant TMS target regions on the single subject level, and conversely, that TMS confirmed an fMRI EC identified functional network to be behaviorally relevant, have important methodological and theoretical implications. Our

  18. Overall Effects of China's Recent Macroeconomic Regulatory Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiJianwei,; ZhuShida; DavidKelly

    2004-01-01

    China's economic regulatory policies in the last few years have played an important role in curbing the slide of its consistent growth drive. In terms of overall effects, the macroeconomic regulatory policies of each fiscal year have attained their targets. In some years, however,

  19. A nonlinear impact: evidences of causal effects of social media on market prices

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Thársis T. P.; Aste, Tomaso

    2016-01-01

    Online social networks offer a new way to investigate financial markets' dynamics by enabling the large-scale analysis of investors' collective behavior. We provide empirical evidence that suggests social media and stock markets have a nonlinear causal relationship. We take advantage of an extensive data set composed of social media messages related to DJIA index components. By using information-theoretic measures to cope for possible nonlinear causal coupling between social media and stock m...

  20. Causality and Tense - two temporal structure builders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oversteegen, E.

    2005-01-01

    By force of causes precede effects, causality contributes to the temporal meaning of discourse. In case of semantic causal relations, this contribution is straightforward, but in case of epistemic causal relations, it is not. In order to gain insight into the semantics of epistemic causal relations,

  1. Environmental Regulations and Livestock Production Levels: What is the Direction of Causality?

    OpenAIRE

    Herath, Deepananda P.B.; Weersink, Alfons; Thrikawala, Sunil

    2006-01-01

    Fundamental to the assertion that environmental regulatory standards are strategically set by decentralized authorities and consequently firms respond to spatial differences in regulatory standards is the underline causal relationship. Establishing the cause-effect association between regulatory standard setting and industry response is essential to justify the existence of the pollution haven and the potential for a race to the bottom. In this paper using 25 years data of the livestock produ...

  2. Developing effective consultation programs for regulatory development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, K.F. [National Energy Board, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Canada's National Energy Board promotes safety, environmental protection and economic efficiency in the regulation of pipelines, energy development and trade. The Board regulates the design, construction, operation and abandonment of interprovincial and international pipelines within Canada. It also holds regulatory control over tolls and tariffs of interprovincial and international pipelines as well as the export, exploration and development of natural gas and oil resources. Regulatory authorities are required to consult with stakeholders whenever new regulations or amendments to existing regulations are proposed. The Board has launched new initiatives for compliance with Damage Prevention Regulations. Stakeholders were advised through consultative processes such as plain language drafts, open houses, focus meetings and newsletters. The proposed Damage Prevention Regulation will govern activities that have the potential to damage a pipeline. The regulations will apply to pipeline operators, excavators, landowners, municipal planners, emergency responders, and utility companies dealing with federally regulated pipelines. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Random forest Granger causality for detection of effective brain connectivity using high-dimensional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furqan, Mohammad Shaheryar; Siyal, Mohammad Yakoob

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that the brain functions are not localized to isolated areas and connections but rather depend on the intricate network of connections and regions inside the brain. These networks are commonly analyzed using Granger causality (GC) that utilizes the ordinary least squares (OLS) method for its standard implementation. In the past, several approaches have shown to solve the limitations of OLS by using diverse regularization systems. However, there are still some shortcomings in terms of accuracy, precision, and false discovery rate (FDR). In this paper, we are proposing a new strategy to use Random Forest as a regularization technique for computing GC that will improve these shortcomings. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed methodology by comparing the results with existing Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and Elastic-Net regularized implementations of GC using simulated dataset. Later, we have used our proposed approach to map the network involved during deductive reasoning using real StarPlus dataset. PMID:26620192

  4. Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-01-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgroun...

  5. Moderate alcohol drinking in pregnancy increases risk for children's persistent conduct problems: causal effects in a Mendelian randomisation study

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Joseph; Burgess, Stephen; Zuccolo, Luisa; Hickman, Matthew; Gray, Ron; Lewis, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    Background Heavy alcohol use during pregnancy can cause considerable developmental problems for children, but effects of light‐moderate drinking are uncertain. This study examined possible effects of moderate drinking in pregnancy on children's conduct problems using a Mendelian randomisation design to improve causal inference. Methods A prospective cohort study (ALSPAC) followed children from their mother's pregnancy to age 13 years. Analyses were based on 3,544 children whose mothers self‐r...

  6. The causal effect of vitamin D binding protein (DBP levels on calcemic and cardiometabolic diseases: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Leong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Observational studies have shown that vitamin D binding protein (DBP levels, a key determinant of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD levels, and 25OHD levels themselves both associate with risk of disease. If 25OHD levels have a causal influence on disease, and DBP lies in this causal pathway, then DBP levels should likewise be causally associated with disease. We undertook a Mendelian randomization study to determine whether DBP levels have causal effects on common calcemic and cardiometabolic disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured DBP and 25OHD levels in 2,254 individuals, followed for up to 10 y, in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos. Using the single nucleotide polymorphism rs2282679 as an instrumental variable, we applied Mendelian randomization methods to determine the causal effect of DBP on calcemic (osteoporosis and hyperparathyroidism and cardiometabolic diseases (hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke and related traits, first in CaMos and then in large-scale genome-wide association study consortia. The effect allele was associated with an age- and sex-adjusted decrease in DBP level of 27.4 mg/l (95% CI 24.7, 30.0; n = 2,254. DBP had a strong observational and causal association with 25OHD levels (p = 3.2 × 10(-19. While DBP levels were observationally associated with calcium and body mass index (BMI, these associations were not supported by causal analyses. Despite well-powered sample sizes from consortia, there were no associations of rs2282679 with any other traits and diseases: fasting glucose (0.00 mmol/l [95% CI -0.01, 0.01]; p = 1.00; n = 46,186; fasting insulin (0.01 pmol/l [95% CI -0.00, 0.01,]; p = 0.22; n = 46,186; BMI (0.00 kg/m(2 [95% CI -0.01, 0.01]; p = 0.80; n = 127,587; bone mineral density (0.01 g/cm(2 [95% CI -0.01, 0.03]; p = 0.36; n = 32,961; mean arterial pressure (-0.06 mm Hg [95% CI -0.19, 0.07]; p = 0.36; n = 28,775; ischemic stroke (odds ratio [OR]  = 1

  7. Experimental test of nonlocal causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringbauer, Martin; Giarmatzi, Christina; Chaves, Rafael; Costa, Fabio; White, Andrew G; Fedrizzi, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Explaining observations in terms of causes and effects is central to empirical science. However, correlations between entangled quantum particles seem to defy such an explanation. This implies that some of the fundamental assumptions of causal explanations have to give way. We consider a relaxation of one of these assumptions, Bell's local causality, by allowing outcome dependence: a direct causal influence between the outcomes of measurements of remote parties. We use interventional data from a photonic experiment to bound the strength of this causal influence in a two-party Bell scenario, and observational data from a Bell-type inequality test for the considered models. Our results demonstrate the incompatibility of quantum mechanics with a broad class of nonlocal causal models, which includes Bell-local models as a special case. Recovering a classical causal picture of quantum correlations thus requires an even more radical modification of our classical notion of cause and effect.

  8. Causal inference based on counterfactuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höfler M

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The counterfactual or potential outcome model has become increasingly standard for causal inference in epidemiological and medical studies. Discussion This paper provides an overview on the counterfactual and related approaches. A variety of conceptual as well as practical issues when estimating causal effects are reviewed. These include causal interactions, imperfect experiments, adjustment for confounding, time-varying exposures, competing risks and the probability of causation. It is argued that the counterfactual model of causal effects captures the main aspects of causality in health sciences and relates to many statistical procedures. Summary Counterfactuals are the basis of causal inference in medicine and epidemiology. Nevertheless, the estimation of counterfactual differences pose several difficulties, primarily in observational studies. These problems, however, reflect fundamental barriers only when learning from observations, and this does not invalidate the counterfactual concept.

  9. Experimental test of nonlocal causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringbauer, Martin; Giarmatzi, Christina; Chaves, Rafael; Costa, Fabio; White, Andrew G; Fedrizzi, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Explaining observations in terms of causes and effects is central to empirical science. However, correlations between entangled quantum particles seem to defy such an explanation. This implies that some of the fundamental assumptions of causal explanations have to give way. We consider a relaxation of one of these assumptions, Bell's local causality, by allowing outcome dependence: a direct causal influence between the outcomes of measurements of remote parties. We use interventional data from a photonic experiment to bound the strength of this causal influence in a two-party Bell scenario, and observational data from a Bell-type inequality test for the considered models. Our results demonstrate the incompatibility of quantum mechanics with a broad class of nonlocal causal models, which includes Bell-local models as a special case. Recovering a classical causal picture of quantum correlations thus requires an even more radical modification of our classical notion of cause and effect. PMID:27532045

  10. Multivariate Granger Causality Analysis of Acupuncture Effects in Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangjie Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from clinical reports has indicated that acupuncture has a promising effect on mild cognitive impairment (MCI. However, it is still unknown that by what way acupuncture can modulate brain networks involving the MCI. In the current study, multivariate Granger causality analysis (mGCA was adopted to compare the interregional effective connectivity of brain networks by varying needling depths (deep acupuncture, DA; superficial acupuncture, SA and at different cognitive states, which were the MCI and healthy control (HC. Results from DA at KI3 in MCI showed that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus emerged as central hubs and had significant causal influences with each other, but significant in HC for DA. Moreover, only several brain regions had remarkable causal interactions following SA in MCI and even few brain regions following SA in HC. Our results indicated that acupuncture at KI3 at different cognitive states and with varying needling depths may induce distinct reorganizations of effective connectivities of brain networks, and DA at KI3 in MCI can induce the strongest and more extensive effective connectivities related to the therapeutic effect of acupuncture in MCI. The study demonstrated the relatively functional specificity of acupuncture at KI3 in MCI, and needling depths play an important role in acupuncture treatments.

  11. Experimental test of nonlocal causality

    OpenAIRE

    Ringbauer, Martin; Giarmatzi, Christina; Chaves, Rafael; Costa, Fabio; White, Andrew G.; Fedrizzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Explaining observations in terms of causes and effects is central to empirical science. However, correlations between entangled quantum particles seem to defy such an explanation. This implies that some of the fundamental assumptions of causal explanations have to give way. We consider a relaxation of one of these assumptions, Bell’s local causality, by allowing outcome dependence: a direct causal influence between the outcomes of measurements of remote parties. We use interventional data fro...

  12. Relativistic hydrodynamics - causality and stability

    OpenAIRE

    Ván, P.; Biró, T. S.

    2007-01-01

    Causality and stability in relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics are important conceptual issues. We argue that causality is not restricted to hyperbolic set of differential equations. E.g. heat conduction equation can be causal considering the physical validity of the theory. Furthermore we propose a new concept of relativistic internal energy that clearly separates the dissipative and non-dissipative effects. We prove that with this choice we remove all known instabilities of the linear re...

  13. Complementarity, causality, and explanation

    CERN Document Server

    Losee, John

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the work of Niels Bohr, discussions on the relationship of cause and effect presupposed that successful causal attribution implies explanation. The success of quantum theory challenged this presupposition. In this succinct review of the history of these discussions, John Losee presents the philosophical background of debates over the cause-effect relation. He reviews the positions of Aristotle, René Descartes, Isaac Newton, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, and John Stuart Mill. He shows how nineteenth-century theories in physics and chemistry were informed by a dominant theory of causality

  14. Value of College Education Mediating the Predictive Effects of Causal Attributions on Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ying; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Obade, Masela; Gerszewski, Tammy; Ruthig, Joelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Causal attributions (explanations for outcomes) have been found to predict college students' academic success; however, not all students attributing success or failure to adaptive (i.e., controllable) causes perform well in university. Eccles et al.'s ("Achievement and achievement motives." W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, pp 75-145, 1983)…

  15. Comparison of regulatory framework among bench marking countries for improving regulatory effectiveness in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays some of developing countries in Asian region are announcing their planning to embark the nuclear power program. This progression are rising due to four factor: increasing political instabilities in fossil-fuel exporting countries; declining domestic natural energy resources; growing concerns about greenhouse gas emissions; and increasing demand for electricity. This paper gives a study on the comparison between Canada, Republic of South Korea and Malaysia regarding to their regulatory framework as well as the licensing procedures in controlling the nuclear power plants establishment. Canada and Korea were selected to study because of both of the countries have different system in controlling the nuclear power plants in terms of its regulatory framework as well as the licensing process. The idea is to compare these countries along with the guidelines by the IAEA and to find out what Malaysia could be learn to start the nuclear power program and find out the best practice in nuclear licensing. Factors taken into consideration are the regulatory framework, especially the nature of the licensing authority, the licensing process and enforcement actions. Together, these give a way to evaluate the effectiveness of the regulatory body due to the licensing authorization of nuclear power plant

  16. Causal premise semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    The rise of causality and the attendant graph-theoretic modeling tools in the study of counterfactual reasoning has had resounding effects in many areas of cognitive science, but it has thus far not permeated the mainstream in linguistic theory to a comparable degree. In this study I show that a version of the predominant framework for the formal semantic analysis of conditionals, Kratzer-style premise semantics, allows for a straightforward implementation of the crucial ideas and insights of Pearl-style causal networks. I spell out the details of such an implementation, focusing especially on the notions of intervention on a network and backtracking interpretations of counterfactuals.

  17. Effective Connectivity within the Default Mode Network: Dynamic Causal Modeling of Resting-State fMRI Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaev, Maksim G; Zavyalova, Viktoria V; Ushakov, Vadim L; Kartashov, Sergey I; Velichkovsky, Boris M

    2016-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) is a brain system that mediates internal modes of cognitive activity, showing higher neural activation when one is at rest. Nowadays, there is a lot of interest in assessing functional interactions between its key regions, but in the majority of studies only association of Blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activation patterns is measured, so it is impossible to identify causal influences. There are some studies of causal interactions (i.e., effective connectivity), however often with inconsistent results. The aim of the current work is to find a stable pattern of connectivity between four DMN key regions: the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), left and right intraparietal cortex (LIPC and RIPC). For this purpose functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 30 healthy subjects (1000 time points from each one) was acquired and spectral dynamic causal modeling (DCM) on a resting-state fMRI data was performed. The endogenous brain fluctuations were explicitly modeled by Discrete Cosine Set at the low frequency band of 0.0078-0.1 Hz. The best model at the group level is the one where connections from both bilateral IPC to mPFC and PCC are significant and symmetrical in strength (p works on effective connectivity within the DMN as well as provide new insights on internal DMN relationships and brain's functioning at resting state.

  18. Regulatory fit effects on perceived fiscal exchange and tax compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Susanne; Mannetti, Lucia; Hölzl, Erik; Kirchler, Erich

    2010-04-01

    Paying taxes can be considered a contribution to the welfare of a society. But even though tax payments are redistributed to citizens in the form of public goods and services, taxpayers often do not perceive many benefits from paying taxes. Information campaigns about the use of taxes for financing public goods and services could increase taxpayers' understanding of the importance of taxes, strengthen their perception of fiscal exchange and consequently also increase tax compliance. Two studies examined how fit between framing of information and taxpayers' regulatory focus affects perceived fiscal exchange and tax compliance. Taxpayers should perceive the exchange between tax payments and provision of public goods and services as higher if information framing suits their regulatory focus. Study 1 supported this hypothesis for induced regulatory focus. Study 2 replicated the findings for chronic regulatory focus and further demonstrated that regulatory fit also affects tax compliance. The results provide further evidence for findings from previous studies concerning regulatory fit effects on tax attitudes and extend these findings to a context with low tax morale.

  19. Regulatory fit effects on perceived fiscal exchange and tax compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Susanne; Mannetti, Lucia; Hölzl, Erik; Kirchler, Erich

    2010-04-01

    Paying taxes can be considered a contribution to the welfare of a society. But even though tax payments are redistributed to citizens in the form of public goods and services, taxpayers often do not perceive many benefits from paying taxes. Information campaigns about the use of taxes for financing public goods and services could increase taxpayers' understanding of the importance of taxes, strengthen their perception of fiscal exchange and consequently also increase tax compliance. Two studies examined how fit between framing of information and taxpayers' regulatory focus affects perceived fiscal exchange and tax compliance. Taxpayers should perceive the exchange between tax payments and provision of public goods and services as higher if information framing suits their regulatory focus. Study 1 supported this hypothesis for induced regulatory focus. Study 2 replicated the findings for chronic regulatory focus and further demonstrated that regulatory fit also affects tax compliance. The results provide further evidence for findings from previous studies concerning regulatory fit effects on tax attitudes and extend these findings to a context with low tax morale. PMID:20890461

  20. Cooperation goals, regulatory focus, and their combined effects on creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittner, Jenny V.; Bruena, Mareen; Rietzschel, Eric F.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the co-activation of cooperation versus competition goals with regulatory focus, and tested whether the combined effects on creativity are interactive or additive. An experiment with 192 adults showed two main effects, such that participants with a cooperation goal and a promotio

  1. The Safety Culture of an Effective Nuclear Regulatory Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies is to ensure that activities related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy are carried out in a safe manner within their respective countries. In order to effectively achieve this objective, the nuclear regulatory body requires specific characteristics, one of which is a healthy safety culture. This regulatory guidance report describes five principles that support the safety culture of an effective nuclear regulatory body. These principles concern leadership for safety, individual responsibility and accountability, co-operation and open communication, a holistic approach, and continuous improvement, learning and self-assessment. The report also addresses some of the challenges to a regulatory body's safety culture that must be recognised, understood and overcome. It provides a unique resource to countries with existing, mature regulators and can be used for benchmarking as well as for training and developing staff. It will also be useful for new entrant countries in the process of developing and maintaining an effective nuclear safety regulator. (authors)

  2. The Development Of A Theoretical Lean Culture Causal Framework To Support The Effective Implementation Of Lean In Automotive Component Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Merwe, Karl Robert

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although it is generally accepted that lean manufacturing improves operational performance, many organisations are struggling to adapt to the lean philosophy. The purpose of this study is to contribute to a more effective strategy for implementing the lean manufacturing improvement philosophy. The study sets out both to integrate well-researched findings and theories related to generic organisational culture with more recent research and experience related to lean culture, and to examine the role that culture plays in the effective implementation of lean manufacturing principles and techniques. The ultimate aim of this exercise is to develop a theoretical lean culture causal framework.

  3. Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-04-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private. PMID:23073751

  4. Practice does not make perfect: no causal effect of music practice on music ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, Miriam A; Madison, Guy; Pedersen, Nancy L; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Ullén, Fredrik

    2014-09-01

    The relative importance of nature and nurture for various forms of expertise has been intensely debated. Music proficiency is viewed as a general model for expertise, and associations between deliberate practice and music proficiency have been interpreted as supporting the prevailing idea that long-term deliberate practice inevitably results in increased music ability. Here, we examined the associations (rs = .18-.36) between music practice and music ability (rhythm, melody, and pitch discrimination) in 10,500 Swedish twins. We found that music practice was substantially heritable (40%-70%). Associations between music practice and music ability were predominantly genetic, and, contrary to the causal hypothesis, nonshared environmental influences did not contribute. There was no difference in ability within monozygotic twin pairs differing in their amount of practice, so that when genetic predisposition was controlled for, more practice was no longer associated with better music skills. These findings suggest that music practice may not causally influence music ability and that genetic variation among individuals affects both ability and inclination to practice.

  5. Effective connectivity within the default mode network: dynamic causal modeling of resting-state fMRI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim eSharaev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Default Mode Network (DMN is a brain system that mediates internal modes of cognitive activity, showing higher neural activation when one is at rest. Nowadays, there is a lot of interest in assessing functional interactions between its key regions, but in the majority of studies only association of BOLD (Blood-oxygen-level dependent activation patterns is measured, so it is impossible to identify causal influences. There are some studies of causal interactions (i.e. effective connectivity, however often with inconsistent results. The aim of the current work is to find a stable pattern of connectivity between four DMN key regions: the medial prefrontal cortex mPFC, the posterior cingulate cortex PCC, left and right intraparietal cortex LIPC and RIPC. For this purpose fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 30 healthy subjects (1000 time points from each one was acquired and spectral dynamic causal modeling (DCM on a resting-state fMRI data was performed. The endogenous brain fluctuations were explicitly modeled by Discrete Cosine Set at the low frequency band of 0.0078–0.1 Hz. The best model at the group level is the one where connections from both bilateral IPC to mPFC and PCC are significant and symmetrical in strength (p<0.05. Connections between mPFC and PCC are bidirectional, significant in the group and weaker than connections originating from bilateral IPC. In general, all connections from LIPC/RIPC to other DMN regions are much stronger. One can assume that these regions have a driving role within the DMN. Our results replicate some data from earlier works on effective connectivity within the DMN as well as provide new insights on internal DMN relationships and brain’s functioning at resting state.

  6. Illusory reversal of causality between touch and vision has no effect on prism adaptation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu eTanaka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning, according to Oxford Dictionary, is to gain knowledge or skill by studying, from experience, from being taught, etc. In order to learn from experience, the central nervous system has to decide what action leads to what consequence, and temporal perception plays a critical role in determining the causality between actions and consequences. In motor adaptation, causality between action and consequence is implicitly assumed so that a subject adapts to a new environment based on the consequence caused by her action. Adaptation to visual displacement induced by prisms is a prime example; the visual error signal associated with the motor output contributes to the recovery of accurate reaching, and a delayed feedback of visual error can decrease the adaptation rate. Subjective feeling of temporal order of action and consequence, however, can be modified or even reversed when her sense of simultaneity is manipulated with an artificially delayed feedback. Our previous study (Tanaka, Homma & Imamizu (2011 Exp Brain Res demonstrated that the rate of prism adaptation was unaffected when the subjective delay of visual feedback was shortened. This study asked whether subjects could adapt to prism adaptation and whether the rate of prism adaptation was affected when the subjective temporal order was illusory reversed. Adapting to additional 100 ms delay and its sudden removal caused a positive shift of point of simultaneity in a temporal-order judgment experiment, indicating an illusory reversal of action and consequence. We found that, even in this case, the subjects were able to adapt to prism displacement with the learning rate that was statistically indistinguishable to that without temporal adaptation. This result provides further evidence to the dissociation between conscious temporal perception and motor adaptation.

  7. Correlation or Causality between Land Cover Patterns and the Urban Heat Island Effect? Evidence from Brisbane, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Deilami

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have identified associations between the surface urban heat island (SUHI effect (i.e., SUHI, hereinafter is referred to as UHI and urban growth, particularly changes in land cover patterns. This research questions their causal links to answer a key policy question: If cities restrict urban expansion and encourage people to live within existing urban areas, will that help in controlling UHI? The question has been answered by estimating four models using data from Brisbane, Australia: Model 1—cross-sectional ordinary least square (OLS regression—to examine the association between the UHI effect and land cover patterns in 2013; Model 2—cross-sectional geographically weighted regression (GWR—to examine whether the outputs generated from Model 1 possess significant spatial variations; Model 3—longitudinal OLS—to examine whether changes in land cover patterns led to changes in UHI effects between 2004 and 2013; and Model 4—longitudinal GWR—to examine whether the outputs generated from Model 3 vary significantly over space. All estimations were controlled for potential confounding effects (e.g., population, employment and dwelling densities. Results from the cross-sectional OLS and GWR models were consistent with previous findings and showed that porosity is negatively associated with the UHI effect in 2013. In contrast, population density has a positive association. Results from the longitudinal OLS and GWR models confirm their causal linkages and showed that an increase in porosity level reduced the UHI effect, whereas an increase in population density increased the UHI effect. The findings suggest that even a containment of population growth within existing urban areas will lead to the UHI effect. However, this can be significantly minimized through proper land use planning, by creating a balance between urban and non-urban uses of existing urban areas.

  8. Assessing statistical significance in causal graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chindelevitch Leonid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Causal graphs are an increasingly popular tool for the analysis of biological datasets. In particular, signed causal graphs--directed graphs whose edges additionally have a sign denoting upregulation or downregulation--can be used to model regulatory networks within a cell. Such models allow prediction of downstream effects of regulation of biological entities; conversely, they also enable inference of causative agents behind observed expression changes. However, due to their complex nature, signed causal graph models present special challenges with respect to assessing statistical significance. In this paper we frame and solve two fundamental computational problems that arise in practice when computing appropriate null distributions for hypothesis testing. Results First, we show how to compute a p-value for agreement between observed and model-predicted classifications of gene transcripts as upregulated, downregulated, or neither. Specifically, how likely are the classifications to agree to the same extent under the null distribution of the observed classification being randomized? This problem, which we call "Ternary Dot Product Distribution" owing to its mathematical form, can be viewed as a generalization of Fisher's exact test to ternary variables. We present two computationally efficient algorithms for computing the Ternary Dot Product Distribution and investigate its combinatorial structure analytically and numerically to establish computational complexity bounds. Second, we develop an algorithm for efficiently performing random sampling of causal graphs. This enables p-value computation under a different, equally important null distribution obtained by randomizing the graph topology but keeping fixed its basic structure: connectedness and the positive and negative in- and out-degrees of each vertex. We provide an algorithm for sampling a graph from this distribution uniformly at random. We also highlight theoretical

  9. Causality between time series

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, X San

    2014-01-01

    Given two time series, can one tell, in a rigorous and quantitative way, the cause and effect between them? Based on a recently rigorized physical notion namely information flow, we arrive at a concise formula and give this challenging question, which is of wide concern in different disciplines, a positive answer. Here causality is measured by the time rate of change of information flowing from one series, say, X2, to another, X1. The measure is asymmetric between the two parties and, particularly, if the process underlying X1 does not depend on X2, then the resulting causality from X2 to X1 vanishes. The formula is tight in form, involving only the commonly used statistics, sample covariances. It has been validated with touchstone series purportedly generated with one-way causality. It has also been applied to the investigation of real world problems; an example presented here is the cause-effect relation between two climate modes, El Ni\\~no and Indian Ocean Dipole, which have been linked to the hazards in f...

  10. Causal reasoning in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Frisch, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written on the role of causal notions and causal reasoning in the so-called 'special sciences' and in common sense. But does causal reasoning also play a role in physics? Mathias Frisch argues that, contrary to what influential philosophical arguments purport to show, the answer is yes. Time-asymmetric causal structures are as integral a part of the representational toolkit of physics as a theory's dynamical equations. Frisch develops his argument partly through a critique of anti-causal arguments and partly through a detailed examination of actual examples of causal notions in physics, including causal principles invoked in linear response theory and in representations of radiation phenomena. Offering a new perspective on the nature of scientific theories and causal reasoning, this book will be of interest to professional philosophers, graduate students, and anyone interested in the role of causal thinking in science.

  11. Causal effects of time-dependent treatments in older patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Akushevich

    Full Text Available Treatment selection for elderly patients with lung cancer must balance the benefits of curative/life-prolonging therapy and the risks of increased mortality due to comorbidities. Lung cancer trials generally exclude patients with comorbidities and current treatment guidelines do not specifically consider comorbidities, so treatment decisions are usually made on subjective individual-case basis.Impacts of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy mono-treatment as well as combined chemo/radiation on one-year overall survival (compared to no-treatment are studied for stage-specific lung cancer in 65+ y.o. patients. Methods of causal inference such as propensity score with inverse probability weighting (IPW for time-independent and marginal structural model (MSM for time-dependent treatments are applied to SEER-Medicare data considering the presence of comorbid diseases.122,822 patients with stage I (26.8%, II (4.5%, IIIa (11.5%, IIIb (19.9%, and IV (37.4% lung cancer were selected. Younger age, smaller tumor size, and fewer baseline comorbidities predict better survival. Impacts of radio- and chemotherapy increased and impact of surgery decreased with more advanced cancer stages. The effects of all therapies became weaker after adjustment for selection bias, however, the changes in the effects were minor likely due to the weak selection bias or incompleteness of the list of predictors that impacted treatment choice. MSM provides more realistic estimates of treatment effects than the IPW approach for time-independent treatment.Causal inference methods provide substantive results on treatment choice and survival of older lung cancer patients with realistic expectations of potential benefits of specific treatments. Applications of these models to specific subsets of patients can aid in the development of practical guidelines that help optimize lung cancer treatment based on individual patient characteristics.

  12. Effect of alcohol on risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: causality, bias, or a bit of both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Emberson

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan R Emberson, Derrick A BennettClinical Trial Service Unit, Richard Doll Building, University of Oxford, Oxford, UKAbstract: Epidemiological studies of middle-aged populations generally find the relationship between alcohol intake and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke to be either U- or J-shaped. This review describes the extent that these relationships are likely to be causal, and the extent that they may be due to specific methodological weaknesses in epidemiological studies. The consistency in the vascular benefit associated with moderate drinking (compared with non-drinking observed across different studies, together with the existence of credible biological pathways, strongly suggests that at least some of this benefit is real. However, because of biases introduced by: choice of reference categories; reverse causality bias; variations in alcohol intake over time; and confounding, some of it is likely to be an artefact. For heavy drinking, different study biases have the potential to act in opposing directions, and as such, the true effects of heavy drinking on vascular risk are uncertain. However, because of the known harmful effects of heavy drinking on non-vascular mortality, the problem is an academic one. Studies of the effects of alcohol consumption on health outcomes should recognise the methodological biases they are likely to face, and design, analyse and interpret their studies accordingly. While regular moderate alcohol consumption during middle-age probably does reduce vascular risk, care should be taken when making general recommendations about safe levels of alcohol intake. In particular, it is likely that any promotion of alcohol for health reasons would do substantially more harm than good. Keywords: alcohol, coronary heart disease, stroke

  13. Attitudes, personal evaluations, cognitive evaluation and interpersonal attraction: on the direct, indirect and reverse-causal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramadhar; Ho, Li Jen; Tan, Hui Lynn; Bell, Paul A

    2007-03-01

    The authors hypothesized that (1) attraction toward a stranger based on attitudinal similarity is automatic, but cognitive evaluation of the stranger's quality before the measurement of attraction can make attraction nonautomatic or controlled; (2) personal evaluations from the stranger activate automatic attraction and cognitive evaluation; (3) controlled attraction from attitudes and automatic attraction and cognitive evaluation from personal evaluations engender reverse-causal effects (i.e. they mediate each other); and (4) attraction and cognitive evaluation are distinct constructs. Attitudinal similarity between the participant and the stranger or personal evaluations of the former by the latter were varied in Experiment 1 (N=96), and were crossed with each other in Experiment 2 (N=240). Orders of response measurement were either cognitive evaluation followed by attraction or attraction followed by cognitive evaluation. Results confirmed the hypotheses. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  14. The causal effect of profound organizational change when job insecurity is low – a quasi-experiment analysing municipal mergers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Gørtz, Mette; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2015-01-01

    of municipalities are merged into larger local governments while other municipalities are not merged. This adds to previous research, which documents that organizational changes following public sector reform impact employee health negatively. We argue that a conceptual distinction between organizational change......The present article finds that the causal effect of profound organizational change on employee health can be very low, if job insecurity is mitigated. We demonstrate this by investigating a rare case of a large-scale radical public sector reform with low job insecurity, in which a large number...... and job insecurity may explain the divergence from previous results. An important strength of our study is that the reform investigated can be considered a quasi-experiment, as it was exogenous and implemented simultaneously by the affected local governments. We also have access to an objective measure...

  15. Attitudes, personal evaluations, cognitive evaluation and interpersonal attraction: on the direct, indirect and reverse-causal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramadhar; Ho, Li Jen; Tan, Hui Lynn; Bell, Paul A

    2007-03-01

    The authors hypothesized that (1) attraction toward a stranger based on attitudinal similarity is automatic, but cognitive evaluation of the stranger's quality before the measurement of attraction can make attraction nonautomatic or controlled; (2) personal evaluations from the stranger activate automatic attraction and cognitive evaluation; (3) controlled attraction from attitudes and automatic attraction and cognitive evaluation from personal evaluations engender reverse-causal effects (i.e. they mediate each other); and (4) attraction and cognitive evaluation are distinct constructs. Attitudinal similarity between the participant and the stranger or personal evaluations of the former by the latter were varied in Experiment 1 (N=96), and were crossed with each other in Experiment 2 (N=240). Orders of response measurement were either cognitive evaluation followed by attraction or attraction followed by cognitive evaluation. Results confirmed the hypotheses. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:17355717

  16. Causality, causality, causality: the view of education inputs and outputs from economics

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Barrow; Cecilia Elena Rouse

    2005-01-01

    Educators and policy makers are increasingly intent on using scientifically-based evidence when making decisions about education policy. Thus, education research today must necessarily be focused on identifying the causal relationships between education inputs and student outcomes. In this paper we discuss methodologies for estimating the causal effect of resources on education outcomes; we also review what we believe to be the best evidence from economics on a few important inputs: spending,...

  17. The effect of filled pauses on the processing of the surface form and the establishment of causal connections during the comprehension of spoken expository discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevasco, Jazmín; van den Broek, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of filled pauses (uh) on the verification of words and the establishment of causal connections during the comprehension of spoken expository discourse. With this aim, we asked Spanish-speaking students to listen to excerpts of interviews with writers, and to perform a word-verification task and a question-answering task on causal connectivity. There were two versions of the excerpts: filled pause present and filled pause absent. Results indicated that filled pauses increased verification times for words that preceded them, but did not make a difference on response times to questions on causal connectivity. The results suggest that, as signals of delay, filled pauses create a break with surface information, but they do not have the same effect on the establishment of meaningful connections.

  18. Food safety regulatory systems in Europe and China:A study of how co-regulation can improve regulatory effectiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin Chen; WANG Xin-xin; SONG Hai-ying

    2015-01-01

    Food safety has received a great deal of attention in both developed and developing countries in recent years. In China, the numerous food scandals and scares that have struck over the past decade have spurred signiifcant food safety regulatory reform, which has been increasingly oriented towards the public-private partnership model adopted by the Europe Union’s (EU) food safety regulatory system. This paper analyzes the development of both the EU’s and China’s food safety regu-latory systems, identiifes the current chalenges for China and additionaly considers the role of public-private partnership. The success of co-regulation in the food regulatory system would bring signiifcant beneifts and opportunities for China. Finaly, this paper recommends additional measures like training and grants to improve the private’s sector effectiveness in co-regulating China’s food safety issues.

  19. Innate immune activity conditions the effect of regulatory variants upon monocyte gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfax, Benjamin P; Humburg, Peter; Makino, Seiko; Naranbhai, Vivek; Wong, Daniel; Lau, Evelyn; Jostins, Luke; Plant, Katharine; Andrews, Robert; McGee, Chris; Knight, Julian C

    2014-03-01

    To systematically investigate the impact of immune stimulation upon regulatory variant activity, we exposed primary monocytes from 432 healthy Europeans to interferon-γ (IFN-γ) or differing durations of lipopolysaccharide and mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). More than half of cis-eQTLs identified, involving hundreds of genes and associated pathways, are detected specifically in stimulated monocytes. Induced innate immune activity reveals multiple master regulatory trans-eQTLs including the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), coding variants altering enzyme and receptor function, an IFN-β cytokine network showing temporal specificity, and an interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) transcription factor-modulated network. Induced eQTL are significantly enriched for genome-wide association study loci, identifying context-specific associations to putative causal genes including CARD9, ATM, and IRF8. Thus, applying pathophysiologically relevant immune stimuli assists resolution of functional genetic variants. PMID:24604202

  20. The Equation of Causality

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Do Minh

    1999-01-01

    We research the natural causality of the Universe. We find that the equation of causality provides very good results on physics. That is our first endeavour and success in describing a quantitative expression of the law of causality. Hence, our theoretical point suggests ideas to build other laws including the law of the Universe's evolution.

  1. Under What Assumptions Do Site-by-Treatment Instruments Identify Average Causal Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing availability of data from multi-site randomized trials provides a potential opportunity to use instrumental variables methods to study the effects of multiple hypothesized mediators of the effect of a treatment. We derive nine assumptions needed to identify the effects of multiple mediators when using site-by-treatment interactions…

  2. The Longitudinal Causal Directionality between Body Image Distress and Self-Esteem among Korean Adolescents: The Moderating Effect of Relationships with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woochul; Epstein, Norman B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship between self-esteem and body image distress, as well as the moderating effect of relationships with parents, among adolescents in Korea, using nationally representative prospective panel data. Regarding causal direction, the findings supported bi-directionality for girls, but for boys the…

  3. The short-run causal effect of tumor detection and treatment on psychosocial well-being, work, and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabus, Sofie J; Groot, Wim; Maassen van den Brink, Henriëtte

    2016-05-01

    This paper estimates the short-run causal effect of tumor detection and treatment on psychosocial well-being, work and income. Tumor detection can be considered as a random event, so that we can compare individuals' average outcomes in the year of diagnosis with the year before. We argue for using panel data estimation techniques that enable us to control for observed and unobserved information intrinsic to the individual and time constants. We use data of a national representative panel in the Netherlands that includes health survey information and data on work, education, and income between 2007 and 2012. Our findings show differences in the psychosocial dysfunction of men and women in response to tumor detection and treatment. Women, not men, are decreasingly likely to participate in the labor force as a result of malignant tumor detection, while no significant effects are found on her personal or household income. We also demonstrate that fixed effects panel data models are superior to matching techniques.

  4. Causal Client Models in Selecting Effective Interventions: A Cognitive Mapping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kwaadsteniet, Leontien; Hagmayer, York; Krol, Nicole P. C. M.; Witteman, Cilia L. M.

    2010-01-01

    An important reason to choose an intervention to treat psychological problems of clients is the expectation that the intervention will be effective in alleviating the problems. The authors investigated whether clinicians base their ratings of the effectiveness of interventions on models that they construct representing the factors causing and…

  5. Regulatory Styles, Causal Attributions and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soric, Izabela

    2009-01-01

    In the past few decades a growing research interest in internal and external factors that contribute to a student's motivation to learn has yielded numerous models and theories. Despite their similarities, these theories have tended to be developed and tested independently of each other, although some connections have been made between them. The…

  6. Sheepskin or Prozac : the causal effect of education on mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud Chevalier; Leon Feinstein

    2007-01-01

    Mental illness is associated with large costs to individuals and society. Education improves various health outcomes but little work has been done on mental illness. To obtain unbiased estimates of the effect of education on mental health, we rely on a rich longitudinal dataset that contains health information from childhood to adulthood and thus allow us to control for fixed effects in mental health. We measure two health outcomes: malaise score and depression and estimate the extensive and ...

  7. The problem of causality in cultivation research

    OpenAIRE

    Rossmann, Constanze; Brosius, Hans-Bernd

    2004-01-01

    This paper offers an up-to-date review of problems in determining causal relationships in cultivation research, and considers the research rationales of various approaches with special reference to causal interpretation. It describes in turn a number of methodologies for addressing the problem and resolving it as far as this is possible. The issue of causal inference arises not only in cultivation research, however, but is basic to all media effects theories and approaches primarily at the ma...

  8. Improving Education through Research? From Effectiveness, Causality and Technology to Purpose, Complexity and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of research in the improvement of educational practice. I use the "10 Principles for Effective Pedagogy," which were formulated on the basis of research conducted in the UK's Teacher and Learning Research Programme as an example to highlight some common problems in the discussion about research and…

  9. Longitudinal Study of Preadolescent Sport Self-Concept and Performance: Reciprocal Effects and Causal Ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Gerlach, Erin; Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Brettschneider, Wolf-Dietrich

    2007-01-01

    Do preadolescent sport self-concepts influence subsequent sport performance? Longitudinal data (Grades 3, 4, and 6) for young boys and girls (N = 1,135; mean age = 9.67) were used to test reciprocal effects model (REM) predictions that sport self-concept is both a cause and a consequence of sport accomplishments. Controlling prior sport…

  10. The Effects of Physical Attractiveness on Attributions of Causality for Success and Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Seymour; And Others

    Based on research indicating the existence of a generalized positive stereotype of physically attractive individuals, the present study was designed to investigate the effects of an individual's attractiveness on attributions about his achievement-related behavior. In the context of an accuracy-of-person perception task, 162 male and female…

  11. Causal Moderation Analysis Using Propensity Score Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Nianbo

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on previous studies in applying propensity score methods to study multiple treatment variables to examine the causal moderator effect. The propensity score methods will be demonstrated in a case study to examine the causal moderator effect, where the moderators are categorical and continuous variables. Moderation analysis is an…

  12. Sativex-induced neurobehavioral effects: causal or concausal? A practical advice!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Margherita; Rifici, Carmela; Sessa, Edoardo; D'Aleo, Giangaetano; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Nabiximols (Sativex) is an oromucosal spray, containing delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), used as treatment for unresponsive spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Sativex is thought to not affect cognition or induce any psychiatric problem at the doses generally used. Nonetheless, it is known that the concomitant use of more than one muscle-relaxant drugs can result in additive neuropsychiatric effects. Herein we describe a case of a woman affected by MS and treated with baclofen and methylprednisolone, who developed important behavioral changes, including suicidal ideation, after 4 weeks of Sativex administration. We are not completely able to state if Sativex alone was responsible for our patient's psychiatric symptoms, in reason of the concomitant use of the other drugs.In conclusion, physicians should pay more attention when prescribing drugs to MS patients affected by spasticity, including Sativex, since neurobehavioral side effects may emerge especially in predisposed individuals. PMID:25881038

  13. The Causal Effect of the Cram Schooling Timing Decision on Math Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Eric S.; Yu-lung Lue

    2010-01-01

    We take advantage of Taiwan Education Panel Survey data to evaluate the timing of the coaching effect on mathematics learning for junior high-school students. Our main finding suggests that the best strategy for the budget-limited parents is to send their children to cram schools for intensive learning in the 8th rather than earlier in the 7th grade, in order to enhance the scores for the math tests being held in the 9th grade.

  14. Inspections of Swedish schools: A critical reflection on intended effects, causal mechanisms and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Jan-Eric; Lander, Rolf; Myrberg, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The article outlines a programme theory for the Swedish school inspection. The theory has a format of ‘if … then … because’, whereby the last term states one or more generative mechanisms behind the reactions to inspection, and the former terms imply what the inspectorate does and which reactions it receives. The assumptions of the theory are tested regarding their precision of definition, consistency and empirical status. No research has as yet confirmed a general positive effect of the Swed...

  15. Sativex-induced neurobehavioral effects: causal or concausal? A practical advice!

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Margherita; Rifici, Carmela; Sessa, Edoardo; D’Aleo, Giangaetano; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Nabiximols (Sativex) is an oromucosal spray, containing delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), used as treatment for unresponsive spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Sativex is thought to not affect cognition or induce any psychiatric problem at the doses generally used. Nonetheless, it is known that the concomitant use of more than one muscle-relaxant drugs can result in additive neuropsychiatric effects. Herein we describe a case of a woman affected by MS and ...

  16. Differentiation of the causal characteristics and influences of virtual reality and the effects on learning at a science exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Strulle, Arlene

    Within the context of the informal science center, exhibits are the main interface for public learning. Essential to the success of a science center is how well exhibits model effective strategies for learning. Virtual Reality (VR) technology with its flexible, adaptive, multimedia, and immersive-learning capabilities is emerging for use by science centers in exhibits; however, research on learning in virtual environments at exhibits is scarce. To support the future development of VR science exhibits it is critical to investigate VR's pedagogical value and effects on science learning. Research investigated the Smoke & Mirrors VR exhibit at the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center in San Diego, California. Inquiry focused on the interplay between elements of the exhibit's design, assessing the separate and interactive effects of visual imagery, moving images, sound, narration, and interactive tools to differentiate the causal characteristics and influences that enhanced and detracted from learning. Case study methodology was employed utilizing visitor observations and interviews with 14 participants. Findings indicated that realistic visual elements with text were the primary sources of content learning; however, positive results were limited to only a few participants. High cognitive load due to interactive tools; instructional design; and movement of visual images were found to be significant detracting characteristics of participant learning. Other characteristics and influences of VR were also found that directly effected learning. Research results will inform the forthcoming design of a new VR exhibit at the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center and to the design and development of future VR exhibits at informal science centers. A prior brief mixed-methods evaluation of Smoke & Mirrors was conducted in 2003, contributing background to the study and its future implications and strategies.

  17. How to be causal

    CERN Document Server

    Kinsler, Paul

    2011-01-01

    I explain a simple definition of causality in widespread use, and indicate how it links to the Kramers Kronig relations. The specification of causality in terms of temporal differential eqations then shows us the way to write down dynamical models so that their causal nature in the sense used here should be obvious to all. In particular, I apply this reasoning to Maxwell's equations, which is an instructive example since their casual properties are sometimes debated.

  18. Introductive remarks on causal inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana A. Romio

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the more challenging issues in epidemiological research is being able to provide an unbiased estimate of the causal exposure-disease effect, to assess the possible etiological mechanisms and the implication for public health. A major source of bias is confounding, which can spuriously create or mask the causal relationship. In the last ten years, methodological research has been developed to better de_ne the concept of causation in epidemiology and some important achievements have resulted in new statistical models. In this review, we aim to show how a technique the well known by statisticians, i.e. standardization, can be seen as a method to estimate causal e_ects, equivalent under certain conditions to the inverse probability treatment weight procedure.

  19. Self-Belief Does Make A Difference: A Reciprocal Effects Model of the Causal Ordering of Physical Self-concept and Gymnastics Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Herbert,; Chanal, Julien; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    International audience A large body of research in support of the reciprocal effects model of causal ordering demonstrates that prior academic self-concept predicts subsequent academic achievement beyond what can be explained in terms of prior achievement. Here we evaluate the generalizability of this support for the reciprocal effects model to a physical activity context in which achievement is reflected in gymnastics skills on a standardized gymnastics performance test evaluated by exper...

  20. Serving time or serving the community? Exploiting a policy reform to assess the causal effects of community service on income, social benefit dependency and recidivism

    OpenAIRE

    Signe Hald Andersen

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread belief among criminologists, judges and the like that criminals are better off serving non-custodial sentences instead of going to prison. However, empirical evidence of the effects of community service is scarce. This paper exploits a policy reform that implemented the use of community service as punishment among specific groups of criminals in order to assess the causal effect of community service on post-sentence income, dependency on social benefits, and crime.

  1. Rumination as a Mediator of Chronic Stress Effects on Hypertension: A Causal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gerin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress has been linked to hypertension, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly specified. We suggest that chronic stress poses a risk for hypertension through repeated occurrence of acute stressors (often stemming from the chronic stress context that cause activation of stress-mediating physiological systems. Previous models have often focused on the magnitude of the acute physiological response as a risk factor; we attempt to extend this to address the issue of duration of exposure. Key to our model is the notion that these acute stressors can emerge not only in response to stressors present in the environment, but also to mental representations of those (or other stressors. Consequently, although the experience of any given stressor may be brief, a stressor often results in a constellation of negative cognitions and emotions that form a mental representation of the stressor. Ruminating about this mental representation of the stressful event can cause autonomic activation similar to that observed in response to the original incident, and may occur and persist long after the event itself has ended. Thus, rumination helps explain how chronic stress causes repeated (acute activation of one’s stress-mediating physiological systems, the effects of which accumulate over time, resulting in hypertension risk.

  2. Regulatory framework for access to safe, effective quality medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rägo, Lembit; Sillo, Hiiti; 't Hoen, Ellen; Zweygarth, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Medicines of uncertain quality, safety and efficacy can be worse than no treatment at all. It is the responsibility of national medicines regulatory authorities to protect patients from harm. Yet, there are great disparities in regulatory capacity globally, preventing large populations from accessin

  3. Moderating effect of regulatory focus on burnout and exercise behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huai-Liang; Kao, Yueh-Tzu; Lin, Cheng-Chen

    2013-12-01

    Applying Higgins' regulatory focus, which assumes that people pursue goals using means that match their self-regulatory motivation, the authors examined whether individual's promotion- or prevention-focused motivations in work would decrease participation in physical activity. Participants were 197 employees (163 men, 34 women, M age = 39 yr.) in five different Taiwanese manufacturing firms. They responded to Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, the Regulatory Focus Questionnaire, and Exercise Behavior at two different times, 8-10 weeks apart. Promotion-oriented regulatory focus significantly moderated the relationship between burnout and exercise, but prevention-oriented focus did not. BMI, blood pressure, cholesterol, and work hours contributed small but significant amounts of variance. A prevention focus was associated with more time for physical activity, even when participants were tired, supporting regulatory focus theory.

  4. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Operational and Regulatory Systems in Nuclear and Radiation Practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon choosing a nuclear option and during the implementation or operation of the project, frequently two main questions are asked are relevant to the effectiveness of both the project management or the operating system of the project and the regulatory authority or system that is responsible of performing the regulatory functions relevant to assuring the state about the safety and securing of the whole project and the security of the nuclear material involved as well as the safety and security of the environment. In the present work the main issues that can be adopted as indicators of the effectiveness of both the operational system as well as the regulatory system are discussed. Moreover, some issues concerning the role of the workers in the project as well as on site dosimetry and their relation to the effectiveness of the project management or the regulatory body are also discussed. Key words: Assessment/ Regulatory body/ Regulatory authority/ Operational system/ effectiveness

  5. Inferring deterministic causal relations

    CERN Document Server

    Daniusis, Povilas; Mooij, Joris; Zscheischler, Jakob; Steudel, Bastian; Zhang, Kun; Schoelkopf, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    We consider two variables that are related to each other by an invertible function. While it has previously been shown that the dependence structure of the noise can provide hints to determine which of the two variables is the cause, we presently show that even in the deterministic (noise-free) case, there are asymmetries that can be exploited for causal inference. Our method is based on the idea that if the function and the probability density of the cause are chosen independently, then the distribution of the effect will, in a certain sense, depend on the function. We provide a theoretical analysis of this method, showing that it also works in the low noise regime, and link it to information geometry. We report strong empirical results on various real-world data sets from different domains.

  6. Causal effects of mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Torberg Falch; Ole Henning Nyhus; Bjarne Strom

    2013-01-01

    This paper exploits that students at age 16 in Norway are randomly selected into one compulsory exit exam in either mathematics or languages. A few days before the actual exam day, the students are notified about exam subject. The students have an intensive preparation period, and preparation in mathematics relative to languages is found to decrease dropout from high school, increase enrollment in higher education, and increase enrollment in natural science and technology education programs. ...

  7. Causality in Classical Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Causality in electrodynamics is a subject of some confusion, especially regarding the application of Faraday's law and the Ampere-Maxwell law. This has led to the suggestion that we should not teach students that electric and magnetic fields can cause each other, but rather focus on charges and currents as the causal agents. In this paper I argue…

  8. Epigenetically Mediated Pathogenic Effects of Phenanthrene on Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenanthrene (Phe, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH, is a major constituent of urban air pollution. There have been conflicting results regarding the role of other AhR ligands 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD and 6-formylindolo [3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ in modifying regulatory T cell populations (Treg or T helper (Th17 differentiation, and the effects of Phe have been understudied. We hypothesized that different chemical entities of PAH induce Treg to become either Th2 or Th17 effector T cells through epigenetic modification of FOXP3. To determine specific effects on T cell populations by phenanthrene, primary human Treg were treated with Phe, TCDD, or FICZ and assessed for function, gene expression, and phenotype. Methylation of CpG sites within the FOXP3 locus reduced FOXP3 expression, leading to impaired Treg function and conversion of Treg into a CD4+CD25lo Th2 phenotype in Phe-treated cells. Conversely, TCDD treatment led to epigenetic modification of IL-17A and conversion of Treg to Th17 T cells. These findings present a mechanism by which exposure to AhR-ligands mediates human T cell responses and begins to elucidate the relationship between environmental exposures, immune modulation, and initiation of human disease.

  9. The Causal Effect of Graduating from a Top University on Promotion: Evidence from the University of Tokyo's 1969 Admission Freeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Daiji; Ma, Wenjie

    2008-01-01

    The strong correlation between having graduated from a selective college and success in the labor market has been robustly observed in many countries. There are two major explanations for this finding. One claims that graduating from a selective college assures success in the labor market in a causal sense due to better education, a better alumni…

  10. Causality in demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Jensen, Frank; Setälä, Jari;

    2011-01-01

    to fish demand. On the German market for farmed trout and substitutes, it is found that supply sources, i.e. aquaculture and fishery, are not the only determinant of causality. Storing, tightness of management and aggregation level of integrated markets might also be important. The methodological......This article focuses on causality in demand. A methodology where causality is imposed and tested within an empirical co-integrated demand model, not prespecified, is suggested. The methodology allows different causality of different products within the same demand system. The methodology is applied...... implication is that more explicit focus on causality in demand analyses provides improved information. The results suggest that frozen trout forms part of a large European whitefish market, where prices of fresh trout are formed on a relatively separate market. Redfish is a substitute on both markets. The...

  11. Agency, time and causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eWidlok

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Scientists interested in causal cognition increasingly search for evidence from non-WEIRD people but find only very few cross-cultural studies that specifically target causal cognition. This article suggests how information about causality can be retrieved from ethnographic monographs, specifically from ethnographies that discuss agency and concepts of time. Many apparent cultural differences with regard to causal cognition dissolve when cultural extensions of agency and personhood to non-humans are taken into account. At the same time considerable variability remains when we include notions of time, linearity and sequence. The article focuses on ethnographic case studies from Africa but provides a more general perspective on the role of ethnography in research on the diversity and universality of causal cognition.

  12. Estimating the causal effect of alcohol consumption on well-being for a cross-section of 9 former Soviet Union countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Suhrcke, Marc; Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; McKee, Martin

    2013-01-01

    While the adverse health and economic consequences attributable to alcohol consumption are widely acknowledged, its impact on psychological wellbeing is less well understood. This is to a large extent due to the challenge of establishing causal effects of alcohol consumption when using standard single-equation econometric analyses. Using a unique dataset collected in 2010/11 of 18,000 individuals and also community characteristics from nine countries of the former Soviet Union, a region with ...

  13. Differential Effects of Regulatory Fit on Category Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lisa R; Markman, Arthur B; Maddox, W Todd; Baldwin, Grant C

    2008-05-01

    Motivation affects the degree to which people engage in tasks as well as the processes that they bring to bear. We explore the proposal that a fit between a person's situationally-induced self-regulatory focus and the reward structure of the task that they are pursuing supports greater flexibility in processing than does a mismatch between regulatory focus and reward structure. In two experiments, we prime regulatory focus and manipulate task reward structure. Our participants perform a rule-based learning task whose solution requires flexible strategy testing as well as an information-integration task for which flexible strategy use hinders learning. Across two experiments, we predict and obtain a three-way interaction between regulatory focus, reward structure, and task. Relative to a mismatch, a match leads to better rule-based task performance, but worse performance on the information-integration task. We relate these findings to other work on motivation and choking under pressure. PMID:19412324

  14. Controlling for causally relevant third variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodie, Adam S; Williams, Cristina C; Crooks, C L

    2003-10-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors tested the conditions under which 3rd variables are controlled for in making causal judgments. The authors hypothesized that 3rd variables are controlled for when the 3rd variables are themselves perceived as causal. In Experiment 1, the participants predicted test performance after seeing information about wearing a lucky garment, taking a test-preparation course, and staying up late. The course (perceived as more causally relevant) was controlled for more than was the garment (perceived as less causally relevant) in assessing the effectiveness of staying up late. In Experiments 2 and 3, to obviate the many alternative accounts that arise from the realistic cover story of Experiment 1, participants predicted flowers' blooming after the presentation or nonpresentation of liquids. When one liquid was trained as causal, it was controlled for more in judging another liquid than when it was trained as neutral. Overall, stimuli perceived as causal were controlled for more when judging other stimuli. The authors concluded that the effect of perceived causal relevance on causal conditionalizing is real and normatively reasonable. PMID:14672103

  15. mediation: R Package for Causal Mediation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin Tingley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the R package mediation for conducting causal mediation analysis in applied empirical research. In many scientific disciplines, the goal of researchers is not only estimating causal effects of a treatment but also understanding the process in which the treatment causally affects the outcome. Causal mediation analysis is frequently used to assess potential causal mechanisms. The mediation package implements a comprehensive suite of statistical tools for conducting such an analysis. The package is organized into two distinct approaches. Using the model-based approach, researchers can estimate causal mediation effects and conduct sensitivity analysis under the standard research design. Furthermore, the design-based approach provides several analysis tools that are applicable under different experimental designs. This approach requires weaker assumptions than the model-based approach. We also implement a statistical method for dealing with multiple (causally dependent mediators, which are often encountered in practice. Finally, the package also offers a methodology for assessing causal mediation in the presence of treatment noncompliance, a common problem in randomized trials.

  16. Does regulatory fit lead to more effective health communication? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludolph, Ramona; Schulz, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Many of today's threats to public health arise from people's lifestyle. Hence, the public's compliance with advice given for health promotion and disease prevention has to be enhanced. Much research traces back the efficacy of health promotion messages to message qualities, while other work focuses on recipient qualities. Regulatory focus theory posits inter-individual differences in motivational orientation, namely a promotion or prevention focus, and offers a unique chance to look at message and recipient variables at the same time (Higgins, 1997). Whereas a promotion-focused individual tries to achieve desired end-states, someone with a prevention focus is rather vigilant. If individuals' goal pursuit strategies match their regulatory orientation, they experience regulatory fit, which increases the perceived persuasiveness of health messages (Higgins, 2000). Such a match can be evoked by particularly framed messages that highlight a person's regulatory orientation. Thus, the assumption of regulatory fit goes beyond the concept of gain- and loss-framing. To assess whether regulatory fit contributes to the effectiveness of health communication, a systematic review was conducted. An extensive systematic search led to the inclusion of 30 studies, for which data were extracted and quality appraised. Findings were summarized using narrative synthesis. Most studies (n = 23) were conducted in the USA and assessed the effects of regulatory fit on behavioral intention (n = 21). Nineteen experiments used samples of university students, and the health context chosen most often was a healthy diet (n = 7). Sixteen experiments manipulated regulatory orientation whereas chronic regulatory focus was measured ten times. The majority of studies confirmed that regulatory fit enhanced the effectiveness of health messages, which did not vary much across different health domains or outcomes. Regulatory fit is a promising approach for tailoring health messages as the synergy effects of

  17. Quantum-coherent mixtures of causal relations

    CERN Document Server

    MacLean, Jean-Philippe W; Spekkens, Robert W; Resch, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the causal influences that hold among the parts of a system is critical both to explaining that system's natural behaviour and to controlling it through targeted interventions. In a quantum world, understanding causal relations is equally important, but the set of possibilities is far richer. The two basic ways in which a pair of time-ordered quantum systems may be causally related are by a cause-effect mechanism or by a common cause acting on both. Here, we show that it is possible to have a coherent mixture of these two possibilities. We realize such a nonclassical causal relation in a quantum optics experiment and derive a set of criteria for witnessing the coherence based on a quantum version of Berkson's paradox. The interplay of causality and quantum theory lies at the heart of challenging foundational puzzles, such as Bell's theorem and the search for quantum gravity, but could also provide a resource for novel quantum technologies.

  18. Epigenetic regulation of neurodevelopmental genes in response to in utero exposure to phthalate plastic chemicals: How can we delineate causal effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Symeonides, Christos; Vuillermin, Peter; Mueller, Jochen; Sly, Peter D; Saffery, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating evidence, from animal models and human observational studies, implicates the in utero (and early postnatal) environment in the 'programming' of risk for a variety of adverse outcomes and health trajectories. The modern environment is replete with man-made compounds such as plastic product chemicals (PPC), including phenols and phthalates. Evidence from several human cohorts implicates exposure to these chemicals in adverse offspring neurodevelopment, though a direct causal relationship has not been firmly established. In this review we consider a potential causal pathway that encompasses epigenetic human variation, and how we might test this mechanistic hypothesis in human studies. In the first part of this report we outline how PPCs induce epigenetic change, focusing on the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, a key regulator of neurodevelopment. Further, we discuss the role of the epigenetics of BDNF and other genes in neurodevelopment and the emerging human evidence of an association between phthalate exposure and adverse offspring neurodevelopment. We discuss aspects of epidemiological and molecular study design and analysis that could be employed to strengthen the level of human evidence to infer causality. We undertake this using an exemplar recent research example: maternal prenatal smoking, linked to methylation change at the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) gene at birth, now shown to mediate some of the effects of maternal smoking on birth weight. Characterizing the relationship between the modern environment and the human molecular pathways underpinning its impact on early development is paramount to understanding the public health significance of modern day chemical exposures. PMID:27208563

  19. The role of causal reasoning in understanding Simpson's paradox, Lord's paradox, and the suppression effect: covariate selection in the analysis of observational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arah Onyebuchi A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tu et al present an analysis of the equivalence of three paradoxes, namely, Simpson's, Lord's, and the suppression phenomena. They conclude that all three simply reiterate the occurrence of a change in the association of any two variables when a third variable is statistically controlled for. This is not surprising because reversal or change in magnitude is common in conditional analysis. At the heart of the phenomenon of change in magnitude, with or without reversal of effect estimate, is the question of which to use: the unadjusted (combined table or adjusted (sub-table estimate. Hence, Simpson's paradox and related phenomena are a problem of covariate selection and adjustment (when to adjust or not in the causal analysis of non-experimental data. It cannot be overemphasized that although these paradoxes reveal the perils of using statistical criteria to guide causal analysis, they hold neither the explanations of the phenomenon they depict nor the pointers on how to avoid them. The explanations and solutions lie in causal reasoning which relies on background knowledge, not statistical criteria.

  20. Causal Newton Gravity Law

    CERN Document Server

    Zinoviev, Yury M

    2012-01-01

    The equations of the relativistic causal Newton gravity law for the planets of the solar system are studied in the approximation when the Sun rests at the coordinates origin and the planets do not iteract between each other.

  1. Antidiabetic effects of glucokinase regulatory protein small-molecule disruptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David J.; St Jean, David J.; Kurzeja, Robert J. M.; Wahl, Robert C.; Michelsen, Klaus; Cupples, Rod; Chen, Michelle; Wu, John; Sivits, Glenn; Helmering, Joan; Komorowski, Renée; Ashton, Kate S.; Pennington, Lewis D.; Fotsch, Christopher; Vazir, Mukta; Chen, Kui; Chmait, Samer; Zhang, Jiandong; Liu, Longbin; Norman, Mark H.; Andrews, Kristin L.; Bartberger, Michael D.; van, Gwyneth; Galbreath, Elizabeth J.; Vonderfecht, Steven L.; Wang, Minghan; Jordan, Steven R.; Véniant, Murielle M.; Hale, Clarence

    2013-12-01

    Glucose homeostasis is a vital and complex process, and its disruption can cause hyperglycaemia and type II diabetes mellitus. Glucokinase (GK), a key enzyme that regulates glucose homeostasis, converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate in pancreatic β-cells, liver hepatocytes, specific hypothalamic neurons, and gut enterocytes. In hepatocytes, GK regulates glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suppresses glucose production, and is subject to the endogenous inhibitor GK regulatory protein (GKRP). During fasting, GKRP binds, inactivates and sequesters GK in the nucleus, which removes GK from the gluconeogenic process and prevents a futile cycle of glucose phosphorylation. Compounds that directly hyperactivate GK (GK activators) lower blood glucose levels and are being evaluated clinically as potential therapeutics for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. However, initial reports indicate that an increased risk of hypoglycaemia is associated with some GK activators. To mitigate the risk of hypoglycaemia, we sought to increase GK activity by blocking GKRP. Here we describe the identification of two potent small-molecule GK-GKRP disruptors (AMG-1694 and AMG-3969) that normalized blood glucose levels in several rodent models of diabetes. These compounds potently reversed the inhibitory effect of GKRP on GK activity and promoted GK translocation both in vitro (isolated hepatocytes) and in vivo (liver). A co-crystal structure of full-length human GKRP in complex with AMG-1694 revealed a previously unknown binding pocket in GKRP distinct from that of the phosphofructose-binding site. Furthermore, with AMG-1694 and AMG-3969 (but not GK activators), blood glucose lowering was restricted to diabetic and not normoglycaemic animals. These findings exploit a new cellular mechanism for lowering blood glucose levels with reduced potential for hypoglycaemic risk in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

  2. Causal spin foams

    CERN Document Server

    Immirzi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    I discuss how to impose causality on spin-foam models, separating forward and backward propagation, turning a given triangulation to a 'causal set', and giving asymptotically the exponential of the Regge action, not a cosine. I show the equivalence of the prescriptions which have been proposed to achieve this. Essential to the argument is the closure condition for the 4-simplices, all made of space-like tetrahedra.

  3. A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R.; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan L.

    2016-01-01

    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about…

  4. Trimmed Granger causality between two groups of time series

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Ying-Chao; Tseng, Neng-Fang; Balakrishnan, Narayanaswamy

    2014-01-01

    The identification of causal effects between two groups of time series has been an important topic in a wide range of applications such as economics, engineering, medicine, neuroscience, and biology. In this paper, a simplified causal relationship (called trimmed Granger causality) based on the context of Granger causality and vector autoregressive (VAR) model is introduced. The idea is to characterize a subset of “important variables” for both groups of time series so that the underlying cau...

  5. Quantum Causal Graph Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Consider a graph having quantum systems lying at each node. Suppose that the whole thing evolves in discrete time steps, according to a global, unitary causal operator. By causal we mean that information can only propagate at a bounded speed, with respect to the distance given by the graph. Suppose, moreover, that the graph itself is subject to the evolution, and may be driven to be in a quantum superposition of graphs---in accordance to the superposition principle. We show that these unitary causal operators must decompose as a finite-depth circuit of local unitary gates. This unifies a result on Quantum Cellular Automata with another on Reversible Causal Graph Dynamics. Along the way we formalize a notion of causality which is valid in the context of quantum superpositions of time-varying graphs, and has a number of good properties. Keywords: Quantum Lattice Gas Automata, Block-representation, Curtis-Hedlund-Lyndon, No-signalling, Localizability, Quantum Gravity, Quantum Graphity, Causal Dynamical Triangula...

  6. Effects of Regulatory Self-Questioning on Secondary-Level Students' Problem-Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Michael L.; Miller, Greg

    2011-01-01

    A randomized posttest-only control group experimental design was used to determine the effects of regulatory self-questioning on secondary-level career and technical education students' electrical circuit theory test scores. Students who participated in the self-questioning group were asked to answer a list of regulatory questions as they solved…

  7. Painless causality in defect calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, C; Cheung, Charlotte; Magueijo, Joao

    1997-01-01

    Topological defects must respect causality, a statement leading to restrictive constraints on the power spectrum of the total cosmological perturbations they induce. Causality constraints have for long been known to require the presence of an under-density in the surrounding matter compensating the defect network on large scales. This so-called compensation can never be neglected and significantly complicates calculations in defect scenarios, eg. computing cosmic microwave background fluctuations. A quick and dirty way to implement the compensation are the so-called compensation fudge factors. Here we derive the complete photon-baryon-CDM backreaction effects in defect scenarios. The fudge factor comes out as an algebraic identity and so we drop the negative qualifier ``fudge''. The compensation scale is computed and physically interpreted. Secondary backreaction effects exist, and neglecting them constitutes the well-defined approximation scheme within which one should consider compensation factor calculatio...

  8. Ten simple rules for dynamic causal modeling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephan, K.E.; Penny, W.D.; Moran, R.J.; Ouden, H.E.M. den; Daunizeau, J.; Friston, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) is a generic Bayesian framework for inferring hidden neuronal states from measurements of brain activity. It provides posterior estimates of neurobiologically interpretable quantities such as the effective strength of synaptic connections among neuronal populations and

  9. Causal Structure and Birefringence in Nonlinear Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    de Melo, C. A. M.; Medeiros, L. G.; Pompeia, P. J.(Instituto de Fomento e Coordenação Industrial, Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Praça Mal. Eduardo Gomes 50, 12228-901, São José dos Campos, SP , Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the causal structure of general nonlinear electrodynamics and determine which Lagrangians generate an effective metric conformal to Minkowski. We also proof that there is only one analytic nonlinear electrodynamics presenting no birefringence.

  10. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF FOUR FUNGAL ISOLATES TO GANODERMA BONINENSE, THE CAUSAL AGENT OF BASAL STEM ROT OF OIL PALM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKKY SETYAWATI DHARMAPUTRA

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Four fungal isolates from soils obtained from three sites of the oil palm plantations in North Sumatra were found antagonistic to Ganoderma boninense, the causal agent of basal stem rot of oil palm. Penicillium citrinum inhibited the growth of the pathogen and formed a zone of inhibition on the agar media. Trichoderma harzianum BIO - 1 as well as BIO - 2 and T. viride not only repressed the growth of the pathogen but also caused lysis of the hyphae, and the colony was totally overgrown by the antagonists.

  11. The Cradle of Causal Reasoning: Newborns' Preference for Physical Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascalzoni, Elena; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Simion, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Perception of mechanical (i.e. physical) causality, in terms of a cause-effect relationship between two motion events, appears to be a powerful mechanism in our daily experience. In spite of a growing interest in the earliest causal representations, the role of experience in the origin of this sensitivity is still a matter of dispute. Here, we…

  12. Assimetria causal: um estudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio Aguiar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, examinamos o aspecto assimétrico da relação causal, confrontando-o com o ponto de vista humiano e neo-humiano. Seguindo Hausman e Ehring, favorecemos uma abordagem situacional para a assimetria causal. Nós exploramos a análise do famoso exemplo do mastro (Flagpole, esclarecendo as conexões entre causação e explicação. Nosso diagnóstico geral é que a tradição neo-humiana supõe, equivocadamente, que as relações nômicas, com exceção de pequenos detalhes, exaurem as relações causais.This paper examines the asymmetrical aspect of causal relation, confronting it to Humean and Neo-Humean's view. Following Hausman and Ehring, we favor a situational approach to causal asymmetry. We explore the Hausman's analysis of flagpole's example, clearing the connexions between causation and explanation. Our general diagnosis is that the Neo-humean tradition wrongly supposes that nomic relations, with the exception of minor details, exhaust the causal relations.

  13. Topological effects of data incompleteness of gene regulatory networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sanz, J; Borge-Holthoefer, J; Moreno, Y

    2012-01-01

    The topological analysis of biological networks has been a prolific topic in network science during the last decade. A persistent problem with this approach is the inherent uncertainty and noisy nature of the data. One of the cases in which this situation is more marked is that of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) in bacteria. The datasets are incomplete because regulatory pathways associated to a relevant fraction of bacterial genes remain unknown. Furthermore, direction, strengths and signs of the links are sometimes unknown or simply overlooked. Finally, the experimental approaches to infer the regulations are highly heterogeneous, in a way that induces the appearance of systematic experimental-topological correlations. And yet, the quality of the available data increases constantly. In this work we capitalize on these advances to point out the influence of data (in)completeness and quality on some classical results on topological analysis of TRNs, specially regarding modularity at different level...

  14. Causality and the Doppler Peaks

    OpenAIRE

    Turok, Neil

    1996-01-01

    Could cosmic structure have formed by the action of causal physics within the standard hot big bang, or was a prior period of inflation required? Recently there has been some discussion of whether causal sources could reproduce the pattern of Doppler peaks of the standard scale-invariant adiabatic theory. This paper gives a rigorous definition of causality, and a causal decomposition of a general source. I present an example of a simple causal source which mimics the standard adiabatic theory...

  15. Mining Causality for Explanation Knowledge from Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaveevan Pechsiri; Asanee Kawtrakul

    2007-01-01

    Mining causality is essential to provide a diagnosis. This research aims at extracting the causality existing within multiple sentences or EDUs (Elementary Discourse Unit). The research emphasizes the use of causality verbs because they make explicit in a certain way the consequent events of a cause, e.g., "Aphids suck the sap from rice leaves. Then leaves will shrink. Later, they will become yellow and dry.". A verb can also be the causal-verb link between cause and effect within EDU(s), e.g., "Aphids suck the sap from rice leaves causing leaves to be shrunk" ("causing" is equivalent to a causal-verb link in Thai). The research confronts two main problems: identifying the interesting causality events from documents and identifying their boundaries. Then, we propose mining on verbs by using two different machine learning techniques, Naive Bayes classifier and Support Vector Machine. The resulted mining rules will be used for the identification and the causality extraction of the multiple EDUs from text. Our multiple EDUs extraction shows 0.88 precision with 0.75 recall from Na'ive Bayes classifier and 0.89 precision with 0.76 recall from Support Vector Machine.

  16. Causal graph dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    We generalize the theory of Cellular Automata to arbitrary, time-varying graphs. In other words we formalize, and prove theorems about, the intuitive idea of a labelled graph which evolves in time - but under the natural constraint that information can only ever be transmitted at a bounded speed, with respect to the distance given by the graph. The notion of translation-invariance is also generalized. The definition we provide for these `causal graph dynamics' is simple and axiomatic. The theorems we provide also show that it is robust. For instance, causal graph dynamics are stable under composition and under restriction to radius one. In the finite case some fundamental facts of Cellular Automata theory carry through: causal graph dynamics admit a characterization as continuous functions and they are stable under inversion. The provided examples suggest a wide range of applications of this mathematical object, from complex systems science to theoretical physics. Keywords: Dynamical networks, Boolean network...

  17. Causal inference in econometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik; Sriboonchitta, Songsak

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the analysis of causal inference which is one of the most difficult tasks in data analysis: when two phenomena are observed to be related, it is often difficult to decide whether one of them causally influences the other one, or whether these two phenomena have a common cause. This analysis is the main focus of this volume. To get a good understanding of the causal inference, it is important to have models of economic phenomena which are as accurate as possible. Because of this need, this volume also contains papers that use non-traditional economic models, such as fuzzy models and models obtained by using neural networks and data mining techniques. It also contains papers that apply different econometric models to analyze real-life economic dependencies.

  18. Perception of causality in schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Kupper, Zeno

    2006-10-01

    Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders often maintain deviating views on cause-effect relationships, especially when positive and disorganization symptoms are manifest. Altered perceived causality is prominent in delusional ideation, in ideas of reference, and in the mentalizing ability (theory of mind [ToM]) of patients. Perceiving causal relationships may be understood either as higher order cognitive reasoning or as low-level information processing. In the present study, perception of causality was investigated as a low-level, preattentional capability similar to gestalt-like perceptual organization. Thirty-one patients (24 men and 7 women with mean age 27.7 years) and the same number of healthy control subjects matched to patients with respect to age and sex were tested. A visual paradigm was used in which 2 identical discs move, from opposite sides of a monitor, steadily toward and then past one another. Their coincidence generates an ambiguous, bistable percept (discs either "stream through" or "bounce off" one another). The bouncing perception, ie, perceived causality, is enhanced when auditory stimuli are presented at the time of coincidence. Psychopathology was measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. It was found that positive symptoms were strongly associated with increased perceived causality and disorganization with attenuated perceived causality. Patients in general were not significantly different from controls, but symptom subgroups showed specifically altered perceived causality. Perceived causality as a basic preattentional process may contribute to higher order cognitive alterations and ToM deficiencies. It is suggested that cognitive remediation therapy should address both increased and reduced perception of causality. PMID:16896057

  19. Understanding Causal Coherence Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, G.

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this dissertation focuses on the cognitive processes and representations involved in understanding causal coherence relations in text. Coherence relations are the meaning relations between the information units in the text, such as Cause-Consequence. These relations can be m

  20. The Temporal Logic of Causal Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinberg, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    Computational analysis of time-course data with an underlying causal structure is needed in a variety of domains, including neural spike trains, stock price movements, and gene expression levels. However, it can be challenging to determine from just the numerical time course data alone what is coordinating the visible processes, to separate the underlying prima facie causes into genuine and spurious causes and to do so with a feasible computational complexity. For this purpose, we have been developing a novel algorithm based on a framework that combines notions of causality in philosophy with algorithmic approaches built on model checking and statistical techniques for multiple hypotheses testing. The causal relationships are described in terms of temporal logic formulae, reframing the inference problem in terms of model checking. The logic used, PCTL, allows description of both the time between cause and effect and the probability of this relationship being observed. We show that equipped with these causal f...

  1. The Causal Effect of Student Mobility on Standardized Test Performance: A Case Study with Possible Implications for Accountability Mandates within the Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selya, Arielle S.; Engel-Rebitzer, Eden; Dierker, Lisa; Stephen, Eric; Rose, Jennifer; Coffman, Donna L.; Otis, Mindy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a limited case study examining the causal inference of student mobility on standardized test performance, within one middle-class high school in suburban Connecticut. Administrative data were used from a district public high school enrolling 319 10th graders in 2010. Propensity score methods were used to estimate the causal effect of student mobility on Math, Science, Reading, and Writing portions of the Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT), after matching mobile vs. stable students on gender, race/ethnicity, eligibility for free/reduced lunches, and special education status. Analyses showed that mobility was associated with lower performance in the CAPT Writing exam. Follow-up analyses revealed that this trend was only significant among those who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches, but not among eligible students. Additionally, mobile students who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches had lower performance in the CAPT Science exam according to some analyses. Large numbers of students transferring into a school district may adversely affect standardized test performance. This is especially relevant for policies that affect student mobility in schools, given the accountability measures in the No Child Left Behind that are currently being re-considered in the recent Every Student Succeeds Act. PMID:27486427

  2. The Causal Effect of Student Mobility on Standardized Test Performance: A Case Study with Possible Implications for Accountability Mandates within the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selya, Arielle S; Engel-Rebitzer, Eden; Dierker, Lisa; Stephen, Eric; Rose, Jennifer; Coffman, Donna L; Otis, Mindy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a limited case study examining the causal inference of student mobility on standardized test performance, within one middle-class high school in suburban Connecticut. Administrative data were used from a district public high school enrolling 319 10th graders in 2010. Propensity score methods were used to estimate the causal effect of student mobility on Math, Science, Reading, and Writing portions of the Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT), after matching mobile vs. stable students on gender, race/ethnicity, eligibility for free/reduced lunches, and special education status. Analyses showed that mobility was associated with lower performance in the CAPT Writing exam. Follow-up analyses revealed that this trend was only significant among those who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches, but not among eligible students. Additionally, mobile students who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches had lower performance in the CAPT Science exam according to some analyses. Large numbers of students transferring into a school district may adversely affect standardized test performance. This is especially relevant for policies that affect student mobility in schools, given the accountability measures in the No Child Left Behind that are currently being re-considered in the recent Every Student Succeeds Act. PMID:27486427

  3. The Causal Effect of Student Mobility on Standardized Test Performance: A Case Study with Possible Implications for Accountability Mandates within the Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle Selya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a limited case study examining the causal inference of student mobility on standardized test performance, within one middle-class high school in suburban Connecticut. Administrative data were used from a district public high school enrolling 319 10th graders in 2010. Propensity score methods were used to estimate the causal effect of student mobility on Math, Science, Reading, and Writing portions of the Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT, after matching mobile vs. stable students on gender, race/ethnicity, eligibility for free/reduced lunches, and special education status. Analyses showed that mobility was associated with lower performance in the CAPT Writing exam. Follow-up analyses revealed that this trend was only significant among those who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches, but not among eligible students. Additionally, mobile students who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches had lower performance in the CAPT Science exam according to some analyses. Large numbers of students transferring into a school district may adversely affect standardized test performance. This is especially relevant for policies that affect student mobility in schools, given the accountability measures in the No Child Left Behind that are currently being re-considered in the recent Every Student Succeeds Act.

  4. Associative foundation of causal learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, Cody W; McConnell, Bridget L; Miller, Ralph R

    2013-03-01

    Are humans unique in their ability to interpret exogenous events as causes? We addressed this question by observing the behavior of rats for indications of causal learning. Within an operant motor-sensory preconditioning paradigm, associative surgical techniques revealed that rats attempted to control an outcome (i.e., a potential effect) by manipulating a potential exogenous cause (i.e., an intervention). Rats were able to generate an innocuous auditory stimulus. This stimulus was then paired with an aversive stimulus. The animals subsequently avoided potential generation of the predictive cue, but not if the aversive stimulus was subsequently devalued or the predictive cue was extinguished (Exp. 1). In Experiment 2, we demonstrated that the aversive stimulus we used was in fact aversive, that it was subject to devaluation, that the cue-aversive stimulus pairings did make the cue a conditioned stimulus, and that the cue was subject to extinction. In Experiments 3 and 4, we established that the decrease in leverpressing observed in Experiment 1 was goal-directed instrumental behavior rather than purely a product of Pavlovian conditioning. To the extent that interventions suggest causal reasoning, it appears that causal reasoning can be based on associations between contiguous exogenous events. Thus, contiguity appears capable of establishing causal relationships between exogenous events. Our results challenge the widely held view that causal learning is uniquely human, and suggest that causal learning is explicable in an associative framework. PMID:22562460

  5. Revisiting Causality in Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Shojaee, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Identifying causal relationships is a key premise of scientific research. The growth of observational data in different disciplines along with the availability of machine learning methods offers the possibility of using an empirical approach to identifying potential causal relationships, to deepen our understandings of causal behavior and to build theories accordingly. Conventional methods of causality inference from observational data require a considerable length of time series data to capt...

  6. Decision-making and evaluation of science causal claims: Effects of goals on uses of evidence and explanatory mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jacqueline Yin Sang

    2015-10-01

    Evidence and explanatory mechanism are central to scientific practices. Using such information could also inform decisions about issues in which science can play some role, from policy issues like climate change to personal issues like vaccination. While research suggests that people tend to focus on non-science considerations when making science-related decisions, there is also evidence that people can reason very productively with evidence and mechanism. This study examines how the goals participants pursue when reading a science report influences how they attend to information about causal mechanism and evidence. Two hundred and seventeen high school students were asked either to evaluate the truth of a scientific claim, to make a personal decision based on the claim, or to make a social policy decision based on the claim using an online task-based survey. All three groups of participants attended to evidence and mechanism, but participants with different goals requested different types of information and were influenced by evidence and mechanism for different reasons. The findings suggest that goals influence how participants use evidence and mechanism.

  7. SMCis: An Effective Algorithm for Discovery of Cis-Regulatory Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haitao; Huo, Hongwei; Yu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) is a challenging problem in computational biology. Limited by the difficulty of using an HMM to model dependent features in transcriptional regulatory sequences (TRSs), the probabilistic modeling methods based on HMMs cannot accurately represent the distance between regulatory elements in TRSs and are cumbersome to model the prevailing dependencies between motifs within CRMs. We propose a probabilistic modeling algorithm called SMCis, which builds a more powerful CRM discovery model based on a hidden semi-Markov model. Our model characterizes the regulatory structure of CRMs and effectively models dependencies between motifs at a higher level of abstraction based on segments rather than nucleotides. Experimental results on three benchmark datasets indicate that our method performs better than the compared algorithms. PMID:27637070

  8. Causal impressions: predicting when, not just whether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael E; Rogers, Ester T; Beckmann, Joshua S

    2005-03-01

    In 1739, David Hume established the so-called cues to causality--environmental cues that are important to the inference of causality. Although this descriptive account has been corroborated experimentally, it has not been established why these cues are useful, except that they may reflect statistical regularities in the environment. One of the cues to causality, covariation, helps predict whether an effect will occur, but not its time of occurrence. In the present study, evidence is provided that spatial and temporal contiguity improve an observer's ability to predict when an effect will occur, thus complementing the utility of covariation as a predictor of whether an effect will occur. While observing Michotte's (1946/1963) launching effect, participants showed greater accuracy and precision in their predictions of the onset of movement by the launched object when there was spatial and temporal contiguity. Furthermore, when auditory cues that bridged a delayed launch were included, causal ratings and predictability were similarly affected. These results suggest that the everyday inference of causality relies on our ability to predict whether and when an effect will occur.

  9. Context, causality, and appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephanie

    2013-04-01

    I applaud and elaborate on the contextualism at the heart of Bullot & Reber's (B&R's) theory, challenge two aspects of the appreciative structure they posit (the causal reasoning that allegedly underlies the design stance and the segregation of the component stages), suggest that expert and novice appreciators operate differently, and question the degree to which B&R's final theory is open to empirical investigation. PMID:23507111

  10. Regulatory effects of cotranscriptional RNA structure formation and transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng-Rui; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2016-09-01

    RNAs, which play significant roles in many fundamental biological processes of life, fold into sophisticated and precise structures. RNA folding is a dynamic and intricate process, which conformation transition of coding and noncoding RNAs form the primary elements of genetic regulation. The cellular environment contains various intrinsic and extrinsic factors that potentially affect RNA folding in vivo, and experimental and theoretical evidence increasingly indicates that the highly flexible features of the RNA structure are affected by these factors, which include the flanking sequence context, physiochemical conditions, cis RNA-RNA interactions, and RNA interactions with other molecules. Furthermore, distinct RNA structures have been identified that govern almost all steps of biological processes in cells, including transcriptional activation and termination, transcriptional mutagenesis, 5'-capping, splicing, 3'-polyadenylation, mRNA export and localization, and translation. Here, we briefly summarize the dynamic and complex features of RNA folding along with a wide variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect RNA folding. We then provide several examples to elaborate RNA structure-mediated regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Finally, we illustrate the regulatory roles of RNA structure and discuss advances pertaining to RNA structure in plants. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:562-574. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1350 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27028291

  11. Dark matter perturbations and viscosity: a causal approach

    OpenAIRE

    Acquaviva, Giovanni; John, Anslyn; Pénin, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of dissipative effects in cosmic fluids modifies their clustering properties and could have observable effects on the formation of large scale structures. We analyse the evolution of density perturbations of cold dark matter endowed with causal bulk viscosity. The perturbative analysis is carried out in the Newtonian approximation and the bulk viscosity is described by the causal Israel-Stewart (IS) theory. In contrast to the non-causal Eckart theory, we obtain a third order evo...

  12. Tachyon Kinematics and causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chronological order of the events along a space-like path is not invariant under Lorentz transformations, as wellknown. This led to an early conviction that tachyons would give rise to causal anomalies. A relativistic version of the Stuckelberg-Feynman switching procedure (SWP) has been invoked as the suitable tool to eliminate those anomalies. The application of the SWP does eliminate the motions backwards in time, but interchanges the roles of source and dector. This fact triggered the proposal of a host of causal paradoxes. Till now, however, it has not been recognized that such paradoxes can be sensibly discussed (and completely solved, at least in microphysics) only after having properly developed the tachyon relativistic mechanics. We start by showing how to apply the SWP, both in the case of ordiry Special Relativity, and in the case with tachyons. Then, we carefully exploit the kinematics of the tachyon-exchange between to (ordinary) bodies. Being finally able to tackle the tachyon-causality problem, we successively solve the paradoxes: (i) by Tolman-Regge; (ii) by Pirani; (iii) by Edmonds; (iv) by Bell. At last, we discuss a further, new paradox associated with the transmission of signals by modulated tachyon beams

  13. Foundational perspectives on causality in large-scale brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Michael; Bressler, Steven L

    2015-12-01

    A profusion of recent work in cognitive neuroscience has been concerned with the endeavor to uncover causal influences in large-scale brain networks. However, despite the fact that many papers give a nod to the important theoretical challenges posed by the concept of causality, this explosion of research has generally not been accompanied by a rigorous conceptual analysis of the nature of causality in the brain. This review provides both a descriptive and prescriptive account of the nature of causality as found within and between large-scale brain networks. In short, it seeks to clarify the concept of causality in large-scale brain networks both philosophically and scientifically. This is accomplished by briefly reviewing the rich philosophical history of work on causality, especially focusing on contributions by David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Bertrand Russell, and Christopher Hitchcock. We go on to discuss the impact that various interpretations of modern physics have had on our understanding of causality. Throughout all this, a central focus is the distinction between theories of deterministic causality (DC), whereby causes uniquely determine their effects, and probabilistic causality (PC), whereby causes change the probability of occurrence of their effects. We argue that, given the topological complexity of its large-scale connectivity, the brain should be considered as a complex system and its causal influences treated as probabilistic in nature. We conclude that PC is well suited for explaining causality in the brain for three reasons: (1) brain causality is often mutual; (2) connectional convergence dictates that only rarely is the activity of one neuronal population uniquely determined by another one; and (3) the causal influences exerted between neuronal populations may not have observable effects. A number of different techniques are currently available to characterize causal influence in the brain. Typically, these techniques quantify the statistical

  14. Foundational perspectives on causality in large-scale brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Michael; Bressler, Steven L.

    2015-12-01

    A profusion of recent work in cognitive neuroscience has been concerned with the endeavor to uncover causal influences in large-scale brain networks. However, despite the fact that many papers give a nod to the important theoretical challenges posed by the concept of causality, this explosion of research has generally not been accompanied by a rigorous conceptual analysis of the nature of causality in the brain. This review provides both a descriptive and prescriptive account of the nature of causality as found within and between large-scale brain networks. In short, it seeks to clarify the concept of causality in large-scale brain networks both philosophically and scientifically. This is accomplished by briefly reviewing the rich philosophical history of work on causality, especially focusing on contributions by David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Bertrand Russell, and Christopher Hitchcock. We go on to discuss the impact that various interpretations of modern physics have had on our understanding of causality. Throughout all this, a central focus is the distinction between theories of deterministic causality (DC), whereby causes uniquely determine their effects, and probabilistic causality (PC), whereby causes change the probability of occurrence of their effects. We argue that, given the topological complexity of its large-scale connectivity, the brain should be considered as a complex system and its causal influences treated as probabilistic in nature. We conclude that PC is well suited for explaining causality in the brain for three reasons: (1) brain causality is often mutual; (2) connectional convergence dictates that only rarely is the activity of one neuronal population uniquely determined by another one; and (3) the causal influences exerted between neuronal populations may not have observable effects. A number of different techniques are currently available to characterize causal influence in the brain. Typically, these techniques quantify the statistical

  15. The Regulatory Effect of Natural Killer Cells: Do "NK-reg Cells" Exist?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Zhang; Jian Zhang; Zhigang Tian

    2006-01-01

    The most important progress in immunology in the last decade is the description of regulatory lymphocytes, among which Treg cells and regulatory NKT cells are much attractive to not only immunologists but also almost all biomedical researchers. Meanwhile, it is noted that NK cells are not only "Killers" but also regulate innate and adaptive immunity, especially in early stage, by secreting cytokines and cell-cell contact. In this review, we are going to briefly summarize the progresses in regulatory lymphocytes including T cells (Treg, Tr1, Th3), NKT cells and NK cells, and then extensively introduce the positive regulatory function of NK cells in both normal immune response and in disease condition (tumor, infection and autoimmunity), and finally, to focus on the most latest progression in the negative regulatory effects of NK cells on normal and pathogenic immune response. In conclusion, we speculate that a "regulatory NK (NK-reg)" cell subset exist and need to explore. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2006;3(4):241-254.

  16. Time perspective and social preference in older and younger adults: Effects of self-regulatory fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C; Geiger, Paul J; Combs, Hannah L; Boggero, Ian A

    2016-09-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory predicts that when perceived time in life is limited, people will prefer emotionally close social partners over less emotionally rewarding partners. Regulating social choices with regard to time perspective can make the best use of time with regard to well-being. However, doing so may depend on the self-regulatory capacity of the individual. Two studies, 1 with younger adults (N = 101) and 1 with younger (N = 42) and older (N = 39) adults, experimentally tested the effects of time perspective and self-regulatory fatigue on preferences for emotionally close partners and knowledgeable partners. In both studies and across younger and older adults, when self-regulatory fatigue was low, the perception of limited time resulted in a greater preference for close social partners relative to knowledgeable social partners. However, this shift was eliminated by self-regulatory fatigue. In Study 2, when fatigued, younger adults preferred close social partners to knowledgeable partners across time perspectives; older adults preferred close and knowledgeable partners more equally across time perspectives. These findings have implications for social decision-making and satisfaction among people who experience chronic self-regulatory fatigue. They also contradict previous suggestions that only younger adults are susceptible to self-regulatory fatigue. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. 78 FR 78447 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness... Equipment and Co- location Fees. Session Fees The Exchange believes that its proposed API/FIX session fees... written comments from members or other interested parties. III. Date of Effectiveness of the Proposed...

  18. Low doses of ionizing radiation: Biological effects and regulatory control. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, in cooperation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, organized an international conference on Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Biological Effects and Regulatory Control, held in seville, Spain, from 17 to 21 November 1997. This technical document contains concise papers submitted to the conference

  19. Does Self-Regulatory Efficacy Matter? Effects of Punishment Certainty and Punishment Severity on Organizational Deviance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabiru Maitama Kura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Extant empirical research has reported conflicting findings with respect to the effects of punishment certainty and punishment severity on organizational deviance, suggesting the need to introduce a moderator. The present study tested whether self-regulatory efficacy matters on the relationships among punishment certainty, punishment severity, and organizational deviance. Drawing on deterrence and self-efficacy theories, this study examined the effects of punishment certainty, punishment severity, and self-regulatory efficacy on organizational deviance among 197 employed postgraduate students who enrolled in the Master of Business Administration program at two large universities located in the north-west geopolitical zone of Nigeria. We used self-administered questionnaires to collect data. Using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM, we found a significant negative relationship between punishment certainty and organizational deviance. Similarly, the results indicated that punishment severity had a significant negative relationship with organizational deviance. The study also found a significant negative relationship between self-regulatory efficacy and organizational deviance. As expected, self-regulatory efficacy was found to moderate the relationship between punishment certainty and organizational deviance. On the contrary, no significant interaction effect was found between self-regulatory efficacy and punishment severity. Implications of the study in the Nigerian context have been discussed.

  20. 特质性与情境性调节定向匹配效应的一致性%The Coincidence between the Regulatory Fit Effects Based on Chronic Regulatory Focus and Situational Regulatory Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪玲; 林晖芸; 逄晓鸣

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory fit theory proposes that the fit between regulatory focus and information frame will strengthen the individual's evaluation on the information, as well as the affect and motivation. However, the regulatory focus involves two different types: situational focus and chronic focus, the former is induced by environmental factors, while the latter reflects stable personality. Thus, an interesting question is, whether the regulatory fits based on different types of regulatory focus have the same effect? And this is the purpose of the present study.Experiment 1 adopted 2 (chronic regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) ×2 (information frame:positive vs. negative) between-subjects design to explore the influence of regulatory fit between chronic focus and information frame upon the effect of persuasion. Experiment 2 also adopted 2 (situational regulatory focus:promotion vs. prevention) ×2 (information frame: positive vs. negative) between-subjects design to explore the effect of regulatory fit between situational focus and information frame upon the effect of persuasion. Data were collected from 166 college students (113 in Experiment 1 and 53 in Experiment 2).In experiment 1, MANOVA revealed significant interactions between regulatory focus and information frame on the information value and mood intensity, while in experiment 2, in addition to information value and mood intensity, MANOVA revealed significant interaction on behavior intention. Taken together, results showed the regulatory fit based on chronic regulatory focus and the regulatory fit based on situational regulatory focus have the same influence on information value and mood intensity (they both improve the value of information and increase the intensity of mood); however, they have different influence on behavior intention (the former has no impact on behavior intention while the latter can improve behavior intention).This conclusion is beneficial to understand the difference between chronic

  1. Regulatory management system for licensing, inspection and enforcement. Regulatory approach, planning, quality manual, feedback, and measurement and improvement of effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licensing of nuclear facilities in Finland is based on a detailed review and assessment of the design against deterministic safety requirements and on additional verification of the design solutions and operating procedures with comprehensive probabilistic risk analysis. Design documents of important structures and components are reviewed before the start of manufacturing and the structures and components are inspected at various stages of implementation. The regulatory management system of STUK is documented in a QA manual that provides guidance on all work processes. It involves systematic planning and evaluation of activities, multiple means of getting feedback on the work processes, and continuous efforts to improve its effectiveness. Necessary factors for success are adequate human resources with professional competence in all the relevant areas for radiation and nuclear safety, a comprehensive and integrated assessment of safety issues, and an attention to detail. Personal responsibility and initiative of the staff is encouraged and emphasized in all decision making and everyone is advised to respond promptly to new safety concerns and to indications of deteriorating performance. Work schedule is responsive to licensee needs and a service oriented attitude is expected from the staff, also outside the office hours. Communication with the licensees and industry is open and functions at two levels: whenever different views or confusion exists, issues can easily be discussed among the experts and at the management level. (author)

  2. Entropy of Causal Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    We analyze spacetimes with horizons and study the thermodynamic aspects of causal horizons, suggesting that the resemblance between gravitational and thermodynamic systems has a deeper quantum mechanical origin. We find that the observer dependence of such horizons is a direct consequence of associating a temperature and entropy to a spacetime. The geometrical picture of a horizon acting as a one-way membrane for information flow can be accepted as a natural interpretation of assigning a quantum field theory to a spacetime with boundary, ultimately leading to a close connection with thermodynamics.

  3. Quantum information causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitalúa-García, Damián

    2013-05-24

    How much information can a transmitted physical system fundamentally communicate? We introduce the principle of quantum information causality, which states the maximum amount of quantum information that a quantum system can communicate as a function of its dimension, independently of any previously shared quantum physical resources. We present a new quantum information task, whose success probability is upper bounded by the new principle, and show that an optimal strategy to perform it combines the quantum teleportation and superdense coding protocols with a task that has classical inputs. PMID:23745844

  4. Inferring deterministic causal relations

    OpenAIRE

    Daniusis, Povilas; Janzing, Dominik; Mooij, Joris; Zscheischler, Jakob; Steudel, Bastian; Zhang, Kun; Schoelkopf, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    We consider two variables that are related to each other by an invertible function. While it has previously been shown that the dependence structure of the noise can provide hints to determine which of the two variables is the cause, we presently show that even in the deterministic (noise-free) case, there are asymmetries that can be exploited for causal inference. Our method is based on the idea that if the function and the probability density of the cause are chosen independently, then the ...

  5. [Effective connectivity within the default mode network modulated by methylphenidate using dynamic causal modeling on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang-Fang; Han, Lu; He, Hong-Jian; Zhu, Yi-Hong; Zhong, Jian-Hui

    2016-06-25

    The effective connectivity of default mode network (DMN) and its change after taking methylphenidate (MPH) were investigated in this study based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) was applied to compare the effective connectivity between the conditions of taking MPH and placebo for 18 healthy male volunteers. Started with the network structural basis provided by a recent literature, endogenous low frequency fluctuation signals (0.01-0.08 Hz) of each node of DMN were taken as the driving input, and thirty-two possible models were designed according to the modulation effect of MPH on different connections between nodes. Model fitting and Bayesian model selection were performed to find the winning model and corresponding parameters. Our results indicated that the effective connectivity from medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) to posterior cingulated cortex (PCC), from left/right inferior parietal lobule (L/RIPL) to MPFC, and from RIPL to PCC were excitatory, whereas the connectivity from LIPL to PCC was inhibitory. Further t-test statistics on connectivity parameters found that MPH significantly reduced the link from RIPL to MPFC in DMN (t = 2.724, P = 0.016) and changed the weak excitatory state to inhibitory state. However, it had no significant effect on other connections. In all, our results demonstrated that MPH modulates the effective connectivity within DMN in resting state. PMID:27350198

  6. Regulatory focus and burnout in nurses: The mediating effect of perception of transformational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rui; Zhang, Shilei; Xu, Hang; Liu, Xufeng; Miao, Danmin

    2015-12-01

    This correlation study investigated the relationship between nurses' regulatory focus and burnout, as mediated by their perceptions of transformational leadership, using a cross-sectional research design with anonymous questionnaires. In July-August 2012, data were collected from 378 nurses from three hospitals in Shaanxi Province, China, using self-report questionnaires for measuring the nurses' regulatory focus, their level of burnout and their perception of whether the leadership of their supervisor was transformational. Structural equation modelling and bootstrapping procedures were used to identify the mediating effect of their perceptions of transformational leadership. The results supported our hypothesized model. The type of regulatory focus emerged as a significant predictor of burnout. Having a perception of transformational leadership partially mediated the relationship between regulatory focus and burnout. Having a promotion focus reduced burnout when the participants perceived transformational leadership, whereas having a prevention focus exhibited the opposite pattern. The mediating effect of the perception of transformational leadership suggests that a promotion focus may help diminish burnout, directly and indirectly. Nurse managers must be aware of the role of a regulatory focus and cultivate promotion focus in their followers.

  7. The causal meaning of Hamilton's rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Martens, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Hamilton's original derivation of his rule for the spread of an altruistic gene (rb>c) assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of the rule holds under non-additive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are suitably defined, as partial regression coefficients. However, critics have questioned both the biological significance and the causal meaning of the resulting rule. This paper examines the causal meaning of the generalized Hamilton's rule in a simple model, by computing the effect of a hypothetical experiment to assess the cost of a social action and comparing it to the partial regression definition. The two do not agree. A possible way of salvaging the causal meaning of Hamilton's rule is explored, by appeal to R. A. Fisher's 'average effect of a gene substitution'. PMID:27069669

  8. TRADE EFFECTS: REGULATORY, ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND REPORTING OF INFORMATION RELATED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARISTIŢA ROTILĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is known that within trade relations providers often credit customers for the value of goods or services which are the subject of conducted commercial transactions, this aspect being materialized in the issuance and acceptance of a trade effect. From the time of acceptance until maturity / settlement, trade effects should be reflected separately in the accounts and, to the extent that were not settled until the end of exercise, their value must be presented in the financial statements. Based on analysis of the Romanian accounting regulations, also taking into consideration the opinions expressed in specific literature concerning accounting reflection of trade effects, in this article we try to point out some aspects which, in our opinion, require clarification. We also want to point out some contradictions / inconsistencies regarding the reporting of information on the trade effects, specifically between the text of accounting regulations concerning the definition of accounting structures „cash and bank accounts” and “short term investments” and their contents when presented as positions in the balance sheet structure. In relation to the issues raised we try to prove the effects on the indicators concerning financial position and to make some suggestions that would have effects on Romanian accounting regulations, namely the improvement of financial reporting performed by the economic operators.

  9. Grouped graphical Granger modeling for gene expression regulatory networks discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano, Aurélie C.; Abe, Naoki; Yan LIU; Rosset, Saharon

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of discovering gene regulatory networks from time-series microarray data. Recently, graphical Granger modeling has gained considerable attention as a promising direction for addressing this problem. These methods apply graphical modeling methods on time-series data and invoke the notion of ‘Granger causality’ to make assertions on causality through inference on time-lagged effects. Existing algorithms, however, have neglected an important aspect of the problem—the grou...

  10. Manifest Variable Granger Causality Models for Developmental Research: A Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eye, Alexander; Wiedermann, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Granger models are popular when it comes to testing hypotheses that relate series of measures causally to each other. In this article, we propose a taxonomy of Granger causality models. The taxonomy results from crossing the four variables Order of Lag, Type of (Contemporaneous) Effect, Direction of Effect, and Segment of Dependent Series…

  11. Impaired prefrontal-amygdala effective connectivity is responsible for the dysfunction of emotion process in major depressive disorder: a dynamic causal modeling study on MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing; Li, Haoran; Luo, Guoping; Wang, Yi; Tang, Hao; Han, Li; Yao, Zhijian

    2012-08-15

    Depression is proved to be associated with the dysfunction of prefrontal-limbic neural circuit, especially during emotion processing procedure. Related explorations have been undertaken from the aspects of abnormal activation and functional connectivity. However, the mechanism of the dysfunction of coordinated interactions remains unknown and is still a matter of debate. The present study gave direct evidence of this issue from the aspect of effective connectivity via dynamic causal modeling (DCM). 20 major depressive disorder (MDD) patients and 20 healthy controls were recruited to attend facial emotional stimulus during MEG recording. Bayesian model selection (BMS) was applied to choose the best model. Results under the optimal model showed that top-down endogenous effective connectivity from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to the amygdala was greatly impaired in patients relative to health controls; while bottom-up endogenous effective connectivity from the amygdala to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as well as modulatory effective connectivity from ACC to DLPFC was significantly increased. We inferred the incapable DLPFC failed to exert influence on amygdala, and finally lead to enhanced amygdala-ACC and ACC-DLPFC bottom-up effects. Such impaired prefrontal-amygdala connectivity was supposed to be responsible for the dysfunction in MDD when dealing with emotional stimuli.

  12. Reducing the Effect of Stereotype Threat: The Role of Coaction Contexts and Regulatory Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fangfang; Zuo, Bin; Wu, Yang; Dong, Xuanhao; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of competition and cooperation contexts, as well as regulatory fit, on reducing the negative influence of stereotype threat. Experiment 1 demonstrated that in high stereotype threat conditions, participants in the cooperation context scored significantly higher on a math test than those in the competition…

  13. Regulatory fit effects for injunctive versus descriptive social norms: Evidence from the promotion of sustainable products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melnyk, V.; Herpen, van E.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers face marketing messages using social norms in many situations where different goals are dominant. This research examines moderating effects of regulatory focus for descriptive and injunctive norms in the promotion of sustainable products. More specifically, it shows that descriptive norms

  14. 75 FR 80097 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by NYSE Amex LLC Establishing Strike Price Intervals of $1 and Increasing Position and Exercise Limits With Respect to Options on the KBW Bank Index December 15, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1)...

  15. 75 FR 80090 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by NYSE Amex LLC To Establish Royalty Fees for Non-Customer Executions in Options Based on the KBW Bank Index December 15, 2010. Pursuant...

  16. The persuasive effects of framing messages on fruit and vegetable consumption according to regulatory focus theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Arie; Rothman, Alexander; Pietersma, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    According to Regulatory Focus theory (RFT), outcomes in persuasive messages can be framed in four different ways, as gains, non-gains, losses or non-losses. In study 1, the persuasiveness of all four frames was compared and the presence/absence effect that was expected on the basis of the feature-po

  17. The path of least resistance: Regulatory resource depletion and the effectiveness of social influence techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Loes; Fennis, Bob M.; Pruyn, Ad Th.H.; Vohs, Kathleen D.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examine the role of regulatory resource depletion in the effectiveness of social influence techniques aimed at inducing consumer compliance. They test the two-step hypothesis that a) responding to the initial request stage of an influence technique requires self-control, thereby depl

  18. 78 FR 37644 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. June 17, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on June 4, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  19. 77 FR 58195 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. September 13, 2012. Pursuant... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on August 31, 2012, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange''...

  20. 78 FR 77736 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Modify BATS Options Market Maker Continuous Quoting Obligation Rules... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on December 5, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc....

  1. 78 FR 8617 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rules Related to Price Sliding Functionality January 31, 2013... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on January 25, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange''...

  2. 76 FR 26331 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Extend the Trading Hours of BATS Options for Certain Products May 2... 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that, on April 26, 2011, BATS Exchange, Inc....

  3. 76 FR 77576 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... and executed at C2. \\6\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 65668 (November 2, 2011), 76 FR 69313... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. December 7, 2011....

  4. 78 FR 51235 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 14, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on August 7, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  5. 76 FR 2734 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. January 6, 2011. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on January 4, 2011, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  6. 76 FR 62884 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... available to all Members. \\14\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 61869 (April 7, 2010), 75 FR 19449... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. October 3, 2011 . Pursuant...

  7. 78 FR 62804 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. October 11, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on October 1, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  8. 78 FR 7826 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rules in Connection With the Elimination of Discretionary Orders for BATS Options January 29, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act...

  9. 78 FR 41453 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. July 3, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on June 28, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  10. 78 FR 29805 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. May 15, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on May 7, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'') filed...

  11. 75 FR 66170 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. October 21, 2010. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on October 14, 2010, BATS Exchange, Inc. (``BATS'' or the ``Exchange'')...

  12. 77 FR 35735 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. June 8, 2012. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on May 31, 2012, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'') filed...

  13. 76 FR 9841 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... FR 51295 (August 19, 2010) (order approving application of BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. for registration as... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rule 11.13, Entitled ``Order Execution'' February 15,...

  14. 78 FR 16306 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. March 8, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on March 1, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  15. 76 FR 57092 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... Act Release No. 65133 (August 15, 2011), 76 FR 52032 (August 19, 2011) (SR-BATS-2011-029). The... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Offer a Bulk-Quoting Interface To All Users of BATS Options September...

  16. 76 FR 7891 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. February 7, 2011. Pursuant to... is hereby given that, on January 31, 2011, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  17. 78 FR 51261 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 14, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on August 1, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  18. 78 FR 61422 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Modify the Trading Halt Rule of BATS Options September 27, 2013... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that, on September 20, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange''...

  19. 77 FR 23307 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. April 12, 2012. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on April 2, 2012, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'') filed...

  20. 77 FR 35719 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt Rules Related to Risk Management Functionality for BATS Options June... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on June 1, 2012, BATS Exchange, Inc....

  1. 75 FR 66183 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ...), 75 FR 51295 (August 19, 2010) (order approving application of BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. for registration... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. To Amend BATS Rule 11.13, Entitled ``Order...

  2. 76 FR 50803 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 10, 2011. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on July 29, 2011, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  3. 77 FR 5588 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... forth below. \\6\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 65619 (October 25, 2011), 76 FR 67238 (October... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. January 30, 2012. Pursuant...

  4. 78 FR 76355 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. December 11, 2013. Pursuant... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on December 2, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange''...

  5. 75 FR 20418 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. April 9, 2010. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on March 31, 2010, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  6. 78 FR 19350 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. March 25, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on March 13, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  7. 75 FR 27847 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. May 11, 2010. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on May 4, 2010, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'') filed...

  8. 78 FR 56955 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. September 10, 2013. Pursuant... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on August 30, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange''...

  9. 75 FR 57097 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... 13, 2010), 75 FR 51295 (August 19, 2010) (order approving application of BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. for... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt BATS Rule 2.12, Entitled ``BATS Trading, Inc. as Inbound...

  10. 77 FR 31059 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. May 18, 2012. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on May 11, 2012, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  11. 75 FR 11951 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... equity options on the Exchange. See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 61419 (January 26, 2010), 75 FR... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. March 4, 2010. Pursuant...

  12. 77 FR 8310 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... 4, 2012), 77 FR 1532 (January 10, 2012) (SR-Phlx-2011-185) (notice of filing and immediate..., 2011), 76 FR 78322 (December 16, 2011) (SR-Phlx-2011-162) (notice of filing and immediate effectiveness... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

  13. 78 FR 16750 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ...'').\\5\\ \\5\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 67091 (May 31, 2012), 77 FR 33498 (June 6, 2012) (the... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify the Operation of Market Orders for BATS Options March 12,...

  14. 78 FR 51257 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 14, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on August 2, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  15. 76 FR 20414 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. April 6, 2011. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that, on April 1, 2011, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  16. 78 FR 62921 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Exchange Act Release No. 70264 (August 27, 2013), 78 FR 54338 (September 3, 2013) (SR-BATS-2013-045... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. October 15, 2013....

  17. 78 FR 53814 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... (July 30, 2013), 78 FR 47469 (Aug. 5, 2013) (SR-CBOE-2013-078); Securities Exchange Act Release No... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Related to Registration and Continuing Education Fees for BATS...

  18. 76 FR 12155 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ..., 2009), 74 FR 11386 (March 17, 2009). In order to allow Members sufficient time to review and complete... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. to Adopt BATS Rule 11.21, entitled ``Input of...

  19. Causal evolution of wave packets

    CERN Document Server

    Eckstein, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from the optimal transport theory adapted to the relativistic setting we formulate the principle of a causal flow of probability and apply it in the wave packet formalism. We demonstrate that whereas the Dirac system is causal, the relativistic-Schr\\"odinger Hamiltonian impels a superluminal evolution of probabilities. We quantify the causality breakdown in the latter system and argue that, in contrast to the popular viewpoint, it is not related to the localisation properties of the states.

  20. Causality Statistical Perspectives and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Berzuini, Carlo; Bernardinell, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    A state of the art volume on statistical causality Causality: Statistical Perspectives and Applications presents a wide-ranging collection of seminal contributions by renowned experts in the field, providing a thorough treatment of all aspects of statistical causality. It covers the various formalisms in current use, methods for applying them to specific problems, and the special requirements of a range of examples from medicine, biology and economics to political science. This book:Provides a clear account and comparison of formal languages, concepts and models for statistical causality. Addr

  1. U.S. regulatory requirements for blast effects from accidental explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is limited to accidental explosions external to nuclear power plants. Procedures for deciding if the risk of damage due to an accidental explosion is sufficiently high to warrant detailed study and methods for assessing structural capability when detailed study is needed are described. The dynamic blast load effect may be estimated by a simplified static procedure. The regulatory staff permits use of a dynamic load factor of 2 applied to the overpressure or reflected pressure, as appropriate, and the assumption that structures and structural elements will deform dynamically as though the loads were applied statically. This assumption allows the designer to compute stresses, moments and shears without reference to the distribution of inertial forces within the structure. Blast pressure should be considered to act both inward and outward to account for dynamic stress reversal. Overturning and sliding stability as well as the ability of supporting structures to carry loads transmitted from the directly loaded exterior surfaces must be assessed. A detailed dynamic analysis in which force-time histories and the stiffness and mass properties of the structures are employed is also acceptable. Damping is not important for air blast effects. The regulatory staff requires that blast effects be resisted elastically. This is consistent with regulatory philosophy that global loading situations should not be permitted to cause global damage. Appendix C to ACI-349, 'Code Requirements for Nuclear Safety Related Concrete Structures', in conflict with regulatory requirements, permits a ductility of 3 for blast loadings

  2. Identifying effective connectivity parameters in simulated fMRI: a direct comparison of switching linear dynamic system, stochastic dynamic causal, and multivariate autoregressive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason F.; Chen, Kewei; Pillai, Ajay S.; Horwitz, Barry

    2013-01-01

    The number and variety of connectivity estimation methods is likely to continue to grow over the coming decade. Comparisons between methods are necessary to prune this growth to only the most accurate and robust methods. However, the nature of connectivity is elusive with different methods potentially attempting to identify different aspects of connectivity. Commonalities of connectivity definitions across methods upon which base direct comparisons can be difficult to derive. Here, we explicitly define “effective connectivity” using a common set of observation and state equations that are appropriate for three connectivity methods: dynamic causal modeling (DCM), multivariate autoregressive modeling (MAR), and switching linear dynamic systems for fMRI (sLDSf). In addition while deriving this set, we show how many other popular functional and effective connectivity methods are actually simplifications of these equations. We discuss implications of these connections for the practice of using one method to simulate data for another method. After mathematically connecting the three effective connectivity methods, simulated fMRI data with varying numbers of regions and task conditions is generated from the common equation. This simulated data explicitly contains the type of the connectivity that the three models were intended to identify. Each method is applied to the simulated data sets and the accuracy of parameter identification is analyzed. All methods perform above chance levels at identifying correct connectivity parameters. The sLDSf method was superior in parameter estimation accuracy to both DCM and MAR for all types of comparisons. PMID:23717258

  3. Structural Equations and Causal Explanations: Some Challenges for Causal SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    One common application of structural equation modeling (SEM) involves expressing and empirically investigating causal explanations. Nonetheless, several aspects of causal explanation that have an impact on behavioral science methodology remain poorly understood. It remains unclear whether applications of SEM should attempt to provide complete…

  4. Risk-based school inspections in the Netherlands: A critical reflection on intended effects and causal mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehren, M.C.M.; Honingh, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts the program theory of the reenacted Supervision Act to the Supervision Act of 2003. We describe how the expectations about how schools should be inspected, the effect such inspections are expected to have, and how these effects should be realized have changed over t

  5. Linear Response Laws and Causality in Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuffa, Alex J.; Scales, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Linear response laws and causality (the effect cannot precede the cause) are of fundamental importance in physics. In the context of classical electrodynamics, students often have a difficult time grasping these concepts because the physics is obscured by the intermingling of the time and frequency domains. In this paper, we analyse the linear…

  6. Causality and Teleology in High School Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Pinchas

    1985-01-01

    Ability to distinguish between causal (cause-effect) and teleological (means-ends) explanations was measured in 1905 twelfth-grade biology students and found to be dependent on student knowledge. Although the inability to make these distinctions contributes to misconceptions in biology, appropriate instruction can easily remedy the problem. Sample…

  7. Estimating causal effects from family planning health communication campaigns using panel data: the "your health, your wealth" campaign in Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L Hutchinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health communication campaigns - involving mass media and interpersonal communication - have long been utilized by national family planning programs to create awareness about contraceptive methods, to shift social norms related to fertility control, and to promote specific behaviors, such as the use of condoms, injectable methods or permanent sterilization. However, demonstrating the effectiveness of these campaigns is often complicated because the infeasibility of experimental designs generally yields statistically non-equivalent samples of campaign-exposed and unexposed individuals. METHODS: Using data from a panel survey of reproductive age women in Egypt, we estimate the effects of the multimedia health communication campaign "Your Health, Your Wealth" ("Sahatek Sarwetek" on precursors to contraceptive use (e.g., spousal communication, birth spacing attitudes and on modern contraceptive use. Difference-in-differences and fixed effects estimators that exploit the panel nature of the data are employed to control for both observed and unobserved heterogeneity in the sample of women who self-report recall of the messages, thereby potentially improving upon methods that make no such controls or that rely solely on cross-sectional data. FINDINGS: All of the estimators find positive effects of the "Your Health, Your Wealth" campaign on reproductive health outcomes, though the magnitudes of those effects diverge, often considerably. Difference-in-differences estimators find that exposure to the campaign increases the likelihood of spousal discussions by 14.4 percentage points (pp. (SE= .039, p<0.001 but has no effect on contraceptive use. In contrast, the fixed effects, instrumental variables estimator, controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, finds a large, statistically significant effect on modern contraceptive use (27.4 pp., SE=0.135, p=0.043. CONCLUSIONS: The difficulties of evaluating family planning communication programs may

  8. The Feasibility of Using Causal Indicators in Educational Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Engelhard, George, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The authors of the focus article describe an important issue related to the use and interpretation of causal indicators within the context of structural equation modeling (SEM). In the focus article, the authors illustrate with simulated data the effects of omitting a causal indicator. Since SEMs are used extensively in the social and behavioral…

  9. Evidence for Deductive Reasoning in Blocking of Causal Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C.J.; Lovibond, P.F.; Condoleon, M.

    2005-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that pre-training of additivity (the outcome of two causal cues is larger than one causal cue) greatly enhances blocking. This manipulation could work by removing a ceiling effect on the outcome, as proposed by Cheng (1997). Alternatively, it could remove the logical ambiguity associated with blocking under…

  10. Moving towards best practice when using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) using the propensity score to estimate causal treatment effects in observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-10

    The propensity score is defined as a subject's probability of treatment selection, conditional on observed baseline covariates. Weighting subjects by the inverse probability of treatment received creates a synthetic sample in which treatment assignment is independent of measured baseline covariates. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) using the propensity score allows one to obtain unbiased estimates of average treatment effects. However, these estimates are only valid if there are no residual systematic differences in observed baseline characteristics between treated and control subjects in the sample weighted by the estimated inverse probability of treatment. We report on a systematic literature review, in which we found that the use of IPTW has increased rapidly in recent years, but that in the most recent year, a majority of studies did not formally examine whether weighting balanced measured covariates between treatment groups. We then proceed to describe a suite of quantitative and qualitative methods that allow one to assess whether measured baseline covariates are balanced between treatment groups in the weighted sample. The quantitative methods use the weighted standardized difference to compare means, prevalences, higher-order moments, and interactions. The qualitative methods employ graphical methods to compare the distribution of continuous baseline covariates between treated and control subjects in the weighted sample. Finally, we illustrate the application of these methods in an empirical case study. We propose a formal set of balance diagnostics that contribute towards an evolving concept of 'best practice' when using IPTW to estimate causal treatment effects using observational data. PMID:26238958

  11. The evolving regulation of uranium recovery operations in the United States: Inovative approaches are necessary for cost effective regulatory oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US domestic uranium industry is at a crossroads. Historic low prices for uranium, combined with stringent and often irrational regulatory requirements, pose a very real threat to the industry's continued viability. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has taken a number of innovative steps to reform and rationalize its regulatory program. However, if the domestic uranium recovery industry is to remain viable, additional steps toward innovation and reform are needed, and effective implementation of reforms adopted by the Commission is essential. (author)

  12. Expert Causal Reasoning and Explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    The relationship between cognitive psychologists and researchers in artificial intelligence carries substantial benefits for both. An ongoing investigation in causal reasoning in medical problem solving systems illustrates this interaction. This paper traces a dialectic of sorts in which three different types of causal resaoning for medical…

  13. Introduction to causal dynamical triangulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Görlich, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The method of causal dynamical triangulations is a non-perturbative and background-independent approach to quantum theory of gravity. In this review we present recent results obtained within the four dimensional model of causal dynamical triangulations. We describe the phase structure of the model...

  14. Re-thinking local causality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, Simon

    2015-01-01

    There is widespread belief in a tension between quantum theory and special relativity, motivated by the idea that quantum theory violates J. S. Bell's criterion of local causality, which is meant to implement the causal structure of relativistic space-time. This paper argues that if one takes the es

  15. Causal Inference and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether…

  16. Neural Correlates of Causal Power Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Dellarosa Cummins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Causal inference is a fundamental component of cognition and perception. Probabilistic theories of causal judgment (most notably causal Bayes networks derive causal judgments using metrics that integrate contingency information. But human estimates typically diverge from these normative predictions. This is because human causal power judgments are typically strongly influenced by beliefs concerning underlying causal mechanisms, and because of the way knowledge is retrieved from human memory during the judgment process. Neuroimaging studies indicate that the brain distinguishes causal events from mere covariation, and between perceived and inferred causality. Areas involved in error prediction are also activated, implying automatic activation of possible exception cases during causal decision-making.

  17. Estimating Causal Effects With Propensity Score Models: An Evaluation of the Touch Condom Media Campaign in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher E; Chen, Hongliang; Agha, Sohail

    2016-01-01

    Rapid population growth in Pakistan poses major risks, including those pertinent to public health. In the context of family planning in Pakistan, the current study evaluates the Touch condom media campaign and its effects on condom-related awareness, attitudes, behavioral intention, and behavior. This evaluation relies on 3 waves of panel survey data from men married to women ages 15-49 living in urban and rural areas in Pakistan (N = 1,012): Wave 1 was March 15 to April 7, 2009; Wave 2 was August 10 to August 24, 2009; and Wave 3 was May 1 to June 13, 2010. Analysis of variance provided evidence of improvements in 10 of 11 condom-related outcomes from Wave 1 to Wave 2 and Wave 3. In addition, there was no evidence of outcome decay 1 year after the conclusion of campaign advertising dissemination. To help compensate for violating the assumption of random assignment, propensity score modeling offered evidence of the beneficial effects of confirmed Touch ad recall on each of the 11 outcomes in at least 1 of 3 time-lagged scenarios. By using these different time-lagged scenarios (i.e., from Wave 1 to Wave 2, from Wave 1 to Wave 3, and from Wave 2 to Wave 3), propensity score modeling permitted insights into how the campaign had time-variant effects on the different types of condom-related outcomes, including carryover effects of the media campaign.

  18. Estimating Causal Effects With Propensity Score Models: An Evaluation of the Touch Condom Media Campaign in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher E; Chen, Hongliang; Agha, Sohail

    2016-01-01

    Rapid population growth in Pakistan poses major risks, including those pertinent to public health. In the context of family planning in Pakistan, the current study evaluates the Touch condom media campaign and its effects on condom-related awareness, attitudes, behavioral intention, and behavior. This evaluation relies on 3 waves of panel survey data from men married to women ages 15-49 living in urban and rural areas in Pakistan (N = 1,012): Wave 1 was March 15 to April 7, 2009; Wave 2 was August 10 to August 24, 2009; and Wave 3 was May 1 to June 13, 2010. Analysis of variance provided evidence of improvements in 10 of 11 condom-related outcomes from Wave 1 to Wave 2 and Wave 3. In addition, there was no evidence of outcome decay 1 year after the conclusion of campaign advertising dissemination. To help compensate for violating the assumption of random assignment, propensity score modeling offered evidence of the beneficial effects of confirmed Touch ad recall on each of the 11 outcomes in at least 1 of 3 time-lagged scenarios. By using these different time-lagged scenarios (i.e., from Wave 1 to Wave 2, from Wave 1 to Wave 3, and from Wave 2 to Wave 3), propensity score modeling permitted insights into how the campaign had time-variant effects on the different types of condom-related outcomes, including carryover effects of the media campaign. PMID:26855176

  19. The Visual Causality Analyst: An Interactive Interface for Causal Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Mueller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Uncovering the causal relations that exist among variables in multivariate datasets is one of the ultimate goals in data analytics. Causation is related to correlation but correlation does not imply causation. While a number of casual discovery algorithms have been devised that eliminate spurious correlations from a network, there are no guarantees that all of the inferred causations are indeed true. Hence, bringing a domain expert into the casual reasoning loop can be of great benefit in identifying erroneous casual relationships suggested by the discovery algorithm. To address this need we present the Visual Causal Analyst-a novel visual causal reasoning framework that allows users to apply their expertise, verify and edit causal links, and collaborate with the causal discovery algorithm to identify a valid causal network. Its interface consists of both an interactive 2D graph view and a numerical presentation of salient statistical parameters, such as regression coefficients, p-values, and others. Both help users in gaining a good understanding of the landscape of causal structures particularly when the number of variables is large. Our framework is also novel in that it can handle both numerical and categorical variables within one unified model and return plausible results. We demonstrate its use via a set of case studies using multiple practical datasets. PMID:26529703

  20. The Development Of A Theoretical Lean Culture Causal Framework To Support The Effective Implementation Of Lean In Automotive Component Manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Merwe, Karl Robert; Pieterse, J. J.; Lourens, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that lean manufacturing improves operational performance, many organisations are struggling to adapt to the lean philosophy. The purpose of this study is to contribute to a more effective strategy for implementing the lean manufacturing improvement philosophy. The study sets out both to integrate well-researched findings and theories related to generic organisational culture with more recent research and experience related to lean culture, and to examine the ...

  1. Disrupted effective connectivity between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in social anxiety disorder during emotion discrimination revealed by dynamic causal modeling for FMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladky, Ronald; Höflich, Anna; Küblböck, Martin; Kraus, Christoph; Baldinger, Pia; Moser, Ewald; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Windischberger, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by over-reactivity of fear-related circuits in social or performance situations and associated with marked social impairment. We used dynamic causal modeling (DCM), a method to evaluate effective connectivity, to test our hypothesis that SAD patients would exhibit dysfunctions in the amygdala-prefrontal emotion regulation network. Thirteen unmedicated SAD patients and 13 matched healthy controls performed a series of facial emotion and object discrimination tasks while undergoing fMRI. The emotion-processing network was identified by a task-related contrast and motivated the selection of the right amygdala, OFC, and DLPFC for DCM analysis. Bayesian model averaging for DCM revealed abnormal connectivity between the OFC and the amygdala in SAD patients. In healthy controls, this network represents a negative feedback loop. In patients, however, positive connectivity from OFC to amygdala was observed, indicating an excitatory connection. As we did not observe a group difference of the modulatory influence of the FACE condition on the OFC to amygdala connection, we assume a context-independent reduction of prefrontal control over amygdalar activation in SAD patients. Using DCM, it was possible to highlight not only the neuronal dysfunction of isolated brain regions, but also the dysbalance of a distributed functional network.

  2. In vitro antibacterial effect of exotic plants essential oils on the honeybee pathogen Paenibacillus larvae, causal agent of American foul brood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuselli, S. R.; Garcia de la Rosa, S. B.; Eguaras, M. J.; Fritz, R.

    2010-07-01

    Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of exotic plants essential oils to potentially control Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American foul brood disease (AFB) were determined. AFB represents one of the main plagues that affect the colonies of honeybees Apis mellifera L. with high negative impact on beekeepers worldwide. Essential oils tested were niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora) and tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) from Myrtaceae, and citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii) from Gramineae. The components of the essential oils were identified by SPME-GC/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity of the oils against P. larvae was determined by the broth micro dilution method. In vitro assays of M. viridiflora and C. nardus oils showed the inhibition of the bacterial strains at the lowest concentrations tested, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) mean value about 320 mg L{sup -}1 for both oils, respectively. This property could be attributed to the kind and percentage of the components of the oils. Terpinen-4-ol (29.09%), {alpha}-pinene (21.63%) and limonene (17.4%) were predominant in M. viridiflora, while limonene (24.74%), citronelal (24.61%) and geraniol (15.79%) were the bulk of C. nardus. The use of these essential oils contributes to the screening of alternative natural compounds to control AFB in the apiaries; toxicological risks and other undesirable effects would be avoided as resistance factors, developed by the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. (Author) 40 refs.

  3. A causal net approach to relativistic quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, R. D.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we discuss a causal network approach to describing relativistic quantum mechanics. Each vertex on the causal net represents a possible point event or particle observation. By constructing the simplest causal net based on Reichenbach-like conjunctive forks in proper time we can exactly derive the 1+1 dimension Dirac equation for a relativistic fermion and correctly model quantum mechanical statistics. Symmetries of the net provide various quantum mechanical effects such as quantum uncertainty and wavefunction, phase, spin, negative energy states and the effect of a potential. The causal net can be embedded in 3+1 dimensions and is consistent with the conventional Dirac equation. In the low velocity limit the causal net approximates to the Schrodinger equation and Pauli equation for an electromagnetic field. Extending to different momentum states the net is compatible with the Feynman path integral approach to quantum mechanics that allows calculation of well known quantum phenomena such as diffraction.

  4. A causal net approach to relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we discuss a causal network approach to describing relativistic quantum mechanics. Each vertex on the causal net represents a possible point event or particle observation. By constructing the simplest causal net based on Reichenbach-like conjunctive forks in proper time we can exactly derive the 1+1 dimension Dirac equation for a relativistic fermion and correctly model quantum mechanical statistics. Symmetries of the net provide various quantum mechanical effects such as quantum uncertainty and wavefunction, phase, spin, negative energy states and the effect of a potential. The causal net can be embedded in 3+1 dimensions and is consistent with the conventional Dirac equation. In the low velocity limit the causal net approximates to the Schrodinger equation and Pauli equation for an electromagnetic field. Extending to different momentum states the net is compatible with the Feynman path integral approach to quantum mechanics that allows calculation of well known quantum phenomena such as diffraction.

  5. ["Karoshi" and causal relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, N

    1992-08-01

    This paper aims to introduce a measure for use by physicians for stating the degree of probable causal relationship for "Karoshi", ie, a sudden death from cerebrovascular diseases or ischemic heart diseases under occupational stresses, as well as to give a brief description for legal procedures associated with worker's compensation and civil trial in Japan. It is a well-used measure in epidemiology, "attributable risk percent (AR%)", which can be applied to describe the extent of contribution to "Karoshi" of the excess occupational burdens the deceased worker was forced to bear. Although several standards such as average occupational burdens for the worker, average occupational burdens for an ordinary worker, burdens in a nonoccupational life, and a complete rest, might be considered for the AR% estimation, the average occupational burdens for an ordinary worker should normally be utilized as a standard for worker's compensation. The adoption of AR% could be helpful for courts to make a consistent judgement whether "Karoshi" cases are compensatable or not. PMID:1392028

  6. The effects of congestion charging on road traffic casualties: a causal analysis using difference-in-difference estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haojie; Graham, Daniel J; Majumdar, Arnab

    2012-11-01

    This paper aims to identify the impacts of the London congestion charge on road casualties within the central London charging zone. It develops a full difference-in-difference (DID) model that is integrated with generalized linear models, such as Poisson and Negative Binomial regression models. Covariates are included in the model to adjust for factors that violate the parallel trend assumption, which is critical in the DID model. The lower Bayesian Information Criterion value suggests that the full difference-in-difference model performs well in evaluating the relationship between road accidents and the London congestion charge as well as other socio-economic factors. After adjusting for a time trend and regional effects, the results show that the introduction of the London congestion charge has a significant influence on the incidence of road casualties. The congestion charge reduces the total number of car accidents, but is associated with an increase in two wheeled vehicle accidents.

  7. Testing the anniversary reaction: causal effects of bereavement in a nationwide follow-up study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostila, Mikael; Saarela, Jan; Kawachi, Ichiro; Hjern, Anders

    2015-03-01

    Lingering grief associated with the death of a loved one has been hypothesized to precipitate acute health events among survivors on anniversary dates. We sought to study excess mortality risk in parents around the death date and birth date of a deceased child as an indication of a "bereavement effect". We conducted a population based follow-up study using Swedish registries including links between children and parents. All biological and Swedish-born parents who experienced the death of a minor child born were observed during the period 1973-2008 (n = 48,666). An increased mortality risk was found during the week of a child's death among mothers who lost a child aged 0-17 years (SMRR = 1.46, 95% CI 0.98-2.17). The association was stronger among mothers who lost a child aged 1-17 years (SMRR = 1.89, 95% CI 0.97-3.67) as compared to those who lost an infant (SMRR = 1.29, 95% CI 0.78-2.12). Cardiovascular diseases and suicides were overrepresented as causes of death in mothers who died around the anniversary. We found no significant increase in the mortality risk around the date of child's birth, nor any suggestion of excess mortality risk among fathers, but rather a depression of paternal death (SMRR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.34-1.03). Our study indicates an anniversary reaction among mothers who lost a young child. These results suggest that bereavement per se could have an effect on health and mortality which should be acknowledged by public health professionals working with bereaved people. PMID:25595319

  8. 78 FR 40237 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... more competition, thus improving the overall efficacy of the options markets. C. Self-Regulatory... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... change from interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I....

  9. Analysis of fatty acids in Ghee and olive oil and their probable causal effect in lipoid pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zein Mirghani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze and identify the fatty acids found in homemade ghee and in olive oil and compare those to fatty acids found in bronchoalevolar lavage of children with lipoid pneumonia.Methods: The fatty acids found in homemade fat ”Ghee” and olive oil were analyzed by gas chromatography. Methyl ester derivatives suitable for GC analysis were prepared directly from olive oil or from Ghee using anhydrous methanolic-HCl. Bronchoscopy and bronchoalevolar lavage was performed in eight children aged between 2 and 4 years, all with history of using homemade ghee and/or olive oil in the recumbent position.Results: The analysis of fatty acids in Ghee and olive oil show similar gas chromatographic pattern as those of bronchoalevolar lavage.Conclusion: The three fatty acids responsible for the deleterious effects of lipoid pneumonia were identified. Lipoid pneumonia should be one of the differentials diagnosis in children  presenting with respiratory distress. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:252-7Keywords: Bronchoalevolar lavage, gas chromatography, Ghee, methyl esters, lipoid pneumonia

  10. The Regulatory Effects of Long Noncoding RNA-ANCR on Dental Tissue-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA have been recognized as important regulators in diverse biological processes, such as transcriptional regulation, stem cell proliferation, and differentiation. Previous study has demonstrated that lncRNA-ANCR (antidifferentiation ncRNA plays a key role in regulating the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs. However, little is known about the role of ANCR in regulating other types of dental tissue-derived stem cells (DTSCs behaviours (including proliferation and multiple-potential of differentiation. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of lncRNA-ANCR on the proliferation and differentiation (including osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation of DTSCs, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs, PDLSCs, and stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP by downregulation of lncRNA-ANCR. We found that downregulation of ANCR exerted little effect on proliferation of DPSCs and SCAP but promoted the osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation of DTSCs. These data provide an insight into the regulatory effects of long noncoding RNA-ANCR on DTSCs and indicate that ANCR is a very important regulatory factor in stem cell differentiation.

  11. A strategy for regulatory action when new adverse effects of a licensed product emerge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Price, Deirdre; Ferner, Robin E

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory agencies grant product licences (marketing authorizations) for medicinal products in the light of evidence that the balance between benefit and harm in the population is favourable. Here we consider a framework for allowing regulatory agencies to make rational decisions when reviewing product licences in the light of new information about harms that change that balance. The regulator can revoke the product licence, restrict the product's availability or change the 'label' in different ways. We examine the features of the adverse effect that may be relevant in making the decision: namely, individual differences in susceptibility; the possibility of monitoring; and the availability of protective strategies. The balance of benefit and harm, and the time-course and dose relation of the adverse effect play important roles in the decision-making process. We set out how these factors can help determine the logical response to new information on the balance between benefit and harm, and provide a series of relevant examples. We believe that when regulatory agencies have to decide how to amend the product licence of a drug when new serious adverse effects cause concern, they would find it useful to adopt a framework of this kind, using different strategies for different cases. Our proposed framework could also be useful in risk management planning during drug development.

  12. Who owns Australia's water--elements of an effective regulatory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, J

    2003-01-01

    This paper identifies and describes a number of global trends in regulatory theory and legal scholarship. It points out the huge level of complexity demanded by globalisation and the unfortunate complication of this is that there is legal indeterminacy. The legal indeterminacy springs from the desire to amend and alter existing models. That has been the thrust of the Council of Australian Governments changes to adapt and add huge amounts of complexity to a flawed system. This paper argues that an effective water regulatory model requires a fundamental re-examination of the concept of water ownership and a capturing by the State of the right to allocate rainfall. This foundation is effective and the way forward to deal with the key issues in this transition phase. The second key element to an effective regulatory model is the concept of performance-based assessment. This requires information and schemes to be set up to work out ways to monitor and evaluate the performance of the utility on selected criteria. For Australia at present there is a dire lack of agreed criteria on these key issues and these have the potential to pull apart the whole process. The key issues are indigenous rights, governance issues, public participation, alteration of pre-existing rights and incorporation of environmental requirements. PMID:14653647

  13. Classical planning and causal implicatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Benotti, Luciana

    to generate clarification requests"; as a result we can model task-oriented dialogue as an interactive process locally structured by negotiation of the underlying task. We give several examples of Frolog-human dialog, discuss the limitations imposed by the classical planning paradigm, and indicate......In this paper we motivate and describe a dialogue manager (called Frolog) which uses classical planning to infer causal implicatures. A causal implicature is a type of Gricean relation implicature, a highly context dependent form of inference. As we shall see, causal implicatures are important...

  14. Regulatory approach of the monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical power generation using nuclear power plants requires this installation being safety, reliable and available for the working periods. For this purpose, an adequate, effective and well conducted maintenance program makes an essential and useful tool to the owner of the plant. However, it is necessary to follow the regulatory requirements for this program implementation which monitories this maintenance effectiveness. There are Brazilian norms requirements which must be followed. The international regulatory guides establish these requirements in good details but it is necessary to verify if this methodology for implementing can be totally applied here in Brazil. Then, the american guide NUMARC 93-01 which details how can be implemented a program for this monitoring, shows some methods for using. In this thesis, the Delphi and Probabilistic Safety Analysis were briefly included because they were preferred for implementing this monitoring.in a Brazilian plant. The results which are being obtained show that, looking the regulatory aspects, the NUMARC 93-01 follows our regulations and gives good results for the plant management. (author)

  15. Regulatory T cell effects in antitumor laser immunotherapy: a mathematical model and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Bryan A.; Laverty, Sean M.

    2016-03-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have tremendous influence on treatment outcomes in patients receiving immunotherapy for cancerous tumors. We present a mathematical model incorporating the primary cellular and molecular components of antitumor laser immunotherapy. We explicitly model developmental classes of dendritic cells (DCs), cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), primary and metastatic tumor cells, and tumor antigen. Regulatory T cells have been shown to kill antigen presenting cells, to influence dendritic cell maturation and migration, to kill activated killer CTLs in the tumor microenvironment, and to influence CTL proliferation. Since Tregs affect explicitly modeled cells, but we do not explicitly model dynamics of Treg themselves, we use model parameters to analyze effects of Treg immunosuppressive activity. We will outline a systematic method for assigning clinical outcomes to model simulations and use this condition to associate simulated patient treatment outcome with Treg activity.

  16. Packaging requirements under the new regulatory changes and their effects on the shippers quality control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has published proposed changes to their current radioactive material transportation regulations (10 CFR Part 71) for comment in the Federal Register. The Department of Transportation (DOT) has also developed changes to their Hazardous Material Regulations dealing with radioactive material. These proposed regulations should soon be published for comment, also in the Federal Register. These regulatory changes are designed to bring the US in line with the international regulations published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Assuming that DOT adopts essentially IAEA regulations, a significant impact of these changes falls in the area of packaging used for the shipment of Low Specific Activity (LSA) material and the new proper shipping category of Surface Contaminated Objects. Since the majority of the shipments made by nuclear power facilities fall into this category, these changes will directly effect the operations of these facilities

  17. On causality of extreme events

    CERN Document Server

    Zanin, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Multiple metrics have been developed to detect causality relations between data describing the elements constituting complex systems, all of them considering their evolution through time. Here we propose a metric able to detect causality within static data sets, by analysing how extreme events in one element correspond to the appearance of extreme events in a second one. The metric is able to detect both linear and non-linear causalities; to analyse both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets; and to discriminate between real causalities and correlations caused by confounding factors. We validate the metric through synthetic data, dynamical and chaotic systems, and data representing the human brain activity in a cognitive task.

  18. Causal Structure and Spacetime Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel

    2015-01-01

    In General Relativity the metric can be recovered from the structure of the lightcones and a measure giving the volume element. Since the causal structure seems to be simpler than the Lorentzian manifold structure, this suggests that it is more fundamental. But there are cases when seemingly healthy causal structure and measure determine a singular metric. Here it is shown that this is not a bug, but a feature, because big-bang and black hole singularities are instances of this situation. But while the metric is special at singularities, being singular, the causal structure and the measure are not special in an explicit way at singularities. Therefore, considering the causal structure more fundamental than the metric provides a more natural framework to deal with spacetime singularities.

  19. Causal reasoning with mental models

    OpenAIRE

    Khemlani, Sangeet S.; Barbey, Aron K.; Johnson-Laird, Philip N

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the model-based theory of causal reasoning. It postulates that the core meanings of causal assertions are deterministic and refer to temporally-ordered sets of possibilities: A causes B to occur means that given A, B occurs, whereas A enables B to occur means that given A, it is possible for B to occur. The paper shows how mental models represent such assertions, and how these models underlie deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning yielding explanations. It reviews e...

  20. Consciousness and the "Causal Paradox"

    OpenAIRE

    Velmans, Max

    1996-01-01

    Viewed from a first-person perspective consciousness appears to be necessary for complex, novel human activity - but viewed from a third-person perspective consciousness appears to play no role in the activity of brains, producing a "causal paradox". To resolve this paradox one needs to distinguish consciousness of processing from consciousness accompanying processing or causing processing. Accounts of consciousness/brain causal interactions switch between first- and third-person perspectives...

  1. Realist Magic : Objects, Ontology, Causality

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Object-oriented ontology offers a startlingly fresh way to think about causality that takes into account developments in physics since 1900. Causality, argues, Object Oriented Ontology (OOO), is aesthetic. In this book, Timothy Morton explores what it means to say that a thing has come into being, that it is persisting, and that it has ended. Drawing from examples in physics, biology, ecology, art, literature and music, Morton demonstrates the counterintuitive yet elegant explanatory power of...

  2. Change, Self-Organization and the Search for Causality in Educational Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Matthijs

    2014-01-01

    Causality is an inextricable part of the educational process, as our understanding of what works in education depends on our ability to make causal attributions. Yet, the research and policy literature in education tends to define causality narrowly as the attribution of educational outcomes to intervention effects in a randomized control trial…

  3. Correlation Measure Equivalence in Dynamic Causal Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    We prove an equivalence transformation between the correlation measure functions of the causally-unbiased quantum gravity space and the causally-biased standard space. The theory of quantum gravity fuses the dynamic (nonfixed) causal structure of general relativity and the quantum uncertainty of quantum mechanics. In a quantum gravity space, the events are causally nonseparable and all time bias vanishes, which makes it no possible to use the standard causally-biased entropy and the correlation measure functions. Since a corrected causally-unbiased entropy function leads to an undefined, obscure mathematical structure, in our approach the correction is made in the data representation of the causally-unbiased space. We prove that the standard causally-biased entropy function with a data correction can be used to identify correlations in dynamic causal structures. As a corollary, all mathematical properties of the causally-biased correlation measure functions are preserved in the causally-unbiased space. The eq...

  4. Effects of Student-Generated Diagrams versus Student-Generated Summaries on Conceptual Understanding of Causal and Dynamic Knowledge in Plate Tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobert, Janice D.; Clement, John J.

    1999-01-01

    Grade five students' (n=58) conceptual understanding of plate tectonics was measured by analysis of student-generated summaries and diagrams, and by posttest assessment of both the spatial/static and causal/dynamic aspects of the domain. The diagram group outperformed the summary and text-only groups on the posttest measures. Discusses the effects…

  5. Immunity in arterial hypertension: associations or causalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Hans-Joachim; Baumann, Marcus; Tripepi, Giovanni; Mallamaci, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Numerous studies describe associations between markers of inflammation and arterial hypertension (aHT), but does that imply causality? Interventional studies that reduce blood pressure reduced also markers of inflammation, but does immunosuppression improve hypertension? Here, we review the available mechanistic data. Aberrant immunity can trigger endothelial dysfunction but is hardly ever the primary cause of aHT. Innate and adaptive immunity get involved once hypertension has caused vascular wall injury as immunity is a modifier of endothelial dysfunction and vascular wall remodelling. As vascular remodelling progresses, immunity-related mechanisms can become significant cofactors for cardiovascular (CV) disease progression; vice versa, suppressing immunity can improve hypertension and CV outcomes. Innate and adaptive immunity both contribute to vascular wall remodelling. Innate immunity is driven by danger signals that activate Toll-like receptors and other pattern-recognition receptors. Adaptive immunity is based on loss of tolerance against vascular autoantigens and includes autoreactive T-cell immunity as well as non-HLA angiotensin II type 1 receptor-activating autoantibodies. Such processes involve numerous other modulators such as regulatory T cells. Together, immunity is not causal for hypertension but rather an important secondary pathomechanism and a potential therapeutic target in hypertension.

  6. The Causality between Human Capital and Economic Growth in Oil Exporting Countries: Panel Cointegration and Causality

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrara, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between education and GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit root tests and panel cointegration analysis for the period 1970-2010. A three-variable model is formulated with oil exports as the third variable. The results show a strong causality from oil revenues and economic growth to education in the oil exporting countries. Yet, education does not have any significant effects on GDP in short- and long-run. It ...

  7. A comparison of immunotoxic effects of nanomedicinal products with regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannakou C

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Christina Giannakou,1,2 Margriet VDZ Park,1 Wim H de Jong,1 Henk van Loveren,1,2 Rob J Vandebriel,1 Robert E Geertsma1 1Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM, Bilthoven, 2Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Abstract: Nanomaterials (NMs are attractive for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications because of their unique physicochemical and biological properties. A major application area of NMs is drug delivery. Many nanomedicinal products (NMPs currently on the market or in clinical trials are most often based on liposomal products or polymer conjugates. NMPs can be designed to target specific tissues, eg, tumors. In virtually all cases, NMPs will eventually reach the immune system. It has been shown that most NMs end up in organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system, notably liver and spleen. Adverse immune effects, including allergy, hypersensitivity, and immunosuppression, have been reported after NMP administration. Interactions of NMPs with the immune system may therefore constitute important side effects. Currently, no regulatory documents are specifically dedicated to evaluate the immunotoxicity of NMs or NMPs. Their immunotoxicity assessment is performed based on existing guidelines for conventional substances or medicinal products. Due to the unique properties of NMPs when compared with conventional medicinal products, it is uncertain whether the currently prescribed set of tests provides sufficient information for an adequate evaluation of potential immunotoxicity of NMPs. The aim of this study was therefore, to compare the current regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements with the accumulating knowledge on immunotoxic effects of NMPs in order to identify potential gaps in the safety assessment. This comparison showed that immunotoxic effects, such as complement activation-related pseudoallergy, myelosuppression, inflammasome

  8. Consigned regulatory control and effect of the owner's welding quality under the EPC mode in Fangjiashan nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under EPC management mode, how to optimize resources allocation and realize effective management and control over key control points is a big difficulty facing the owner. From the owner's point of view, and through summary of practices, the paper introduces and analyses the mode and effect of consigned regulatory control over the weld quality of Fangjiashan nuclear power project. And some recognitions and point of views on popularization of specialized and consigned regulatory control are put forward. (authors)

  9. Time reordered: Causal perception guides the interpretation of temporal order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechlivanidis, Christos; Lagnado, David A

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel temporal illusion in which the perceived order of events is dictated by their perceived causal relationship. Participants view a simple Michotte-style launching sequence featuring 3 objects, in which one object starts moving before its presumed cause. Not only did participants re-order the events in a causally consistent way, thus violating the objective temporal order, but they also failed to recognise the clip they had seen, preferring a clip in which temporal and causal order matched. We show that the effect is not due to lack of attention to the presented events and we discuss the problem of determining whether causality affects temporal order at an early perceptual stage or whether it distorts an accurately perceived order during retrieval. Alternatively, we propose a mechanism by which temporal order is neither misperceived nor misremembered but inferred "on-demand" given phenomenal causality and the temporal priority principle, the assumption that causes precede their effects. Finally, we discuss how, contrary to theories of causal perception, impressions of causality can be generated from dynamic sequences with strong spatiotemporal deviations. PMID:26402648

  10. Relativistic causality and position space renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Todorov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We survey the causal position space renormalization with a special attention to the role of Raymond Stora in the development of the subject. Renormalization is effected by subtracting pole terms in analytically regularized amplitudes. Residues are identified with periods whose relation to recent development in number theory is emphasized. We demonstrate the possibility of integration over internal vertices in the case of a (massless) conformal theory and display the dilation and the conformal anomaly.

  11. Ten simple rules for dynamic causal modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, K E; Penny, W.D.; Moran, R. J.; den Ouden, H.E.M.; Daunizeau, J.; Friston, K J

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) is a generic Bayesian framework for inferring hidden neuronal states from measurements of brain activity. It provides posterior estimates of neurobiologically interpretable quantities such as the effective strength of synaptic connections among neuronal populations and their context-dependent modulation. DCM is increasingly used in the analysis of a wide range of neuroimaging and electrophysiological data. Given the relative complexity of DCM, compared to convent...

  12. Applying Causal Discovery to the Output of Climate Models - What Can We Learn from the Causal Signatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert-Uphoff, I.; Hammerling, D.; Samarasinghe, S.; Baker, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    The framework of causal discovery provides algorithms that seek to identify potential cause-effect relationships from observational data. The output of such algorithms is a graph structure that indicates the potential causal connections between the observed variables. Originally developed for applications in the social sciences and economics, causal discovery has been used with great success in bioinformatics and, most recently, in climate science, primarily to identify interaction patterns between compound climate variables and to track pathways of interactions between different locations around the globe. Here we apply causal discovery to the output data of climate models to learn so-called causal signatures from the data that indicate interactions between the different atmospheric variables. These causal signatures can act like fingerprints for the underlying dynamics and thus serve a variety of diagnostic purposes. We study the use of the causal signatures for three applications: 1) For climate model software verification we suggest to use causal signatures as a means of detecting statistical differences between model runs, thus identifying potential errors and supplementing the Community Earth System Model Ensemble Consistency Testing (CESM-ECT) tool recently developed at NCAR for CESM verification. 2) In the context of data compression of model runs, we will test how much the causal signatures of the model outputs changes after different compression algorithms have been applied. This may result in additional means to determine which type and amount of compression is acceptable. 3) This is the first study applying causal discovery simultaneously to a large number of different atmospheric variables, and in the process of studying the resulting interaction patterns for the two aforementioned applications, we expect to gain some new insights into their relationships from this approach. We will present first results obtained for Applications 1 and 2 above.

  13. Causality in physiological signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Kraemer, Jan F; Penzel, Thomas; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Kurths, Jürgen; Wessel, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Health is one of the most important non-material assets and thus also has an enormous influence on material values, since treating and preventing diseases is expensive. The number one cause of death worldwide today originates in cardiovascular diseases. For these reasons the aim of understanding the functions and the interactions of the cardiovascular system is and has been a major research topic throughout various disciplines for more than a hundred years. The purpose of most of today's research is to get as much information as possible with the lowest possible effort and the least discomfort for the subject or patient, e.g. via non-invasive measurements. A family of tools whose importance has been growing during the last years is known under the headline of coupling measures. The rationale for this kind of analysis is to identify the structure of interactions in a system of multiple components. Important information lies for example in the coupling direction, the coupling strength, and occurring time lags. In this work, we will, after a brief general introduction covering the development of cardiovascular time series analysis, introduce, explain and review some of the most important coupling measures and classify them according to their origin and capabilities in the light of physiological analyses. We will begin with classical correlation measures, go via Granger-causality-based tools, entropy-based techniques (e.g. momentary information transfer), nonlinear prediction measures (e.g. mutual prediction) to symbolic dynamics (e.g. symbolic coupling traces). All these methods have contributed important insights into physiological interactions like cardiorespiratory coupling, neuro-cardio-coupling and many more. Furthermore, we will cover tools to detect and analyze synchronization and coordination (e.g. synchrogram and coordigram). As a last point we will address time dependent couplings as identified using a recent approach employing ensembles of time series. The

  14. Uniform infinite and Gibbs causal triangulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zohren, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We discuss uniform infinite causal triangulations (UICT) and Gibbs causal triangulations which are probabilistic models for the causal dynamical triangulations (CDT) approach to quantum gravity. Since there is a bijection between causal triangulations and planar rooted trees we first discuss some as

  15. Kernel canonical-correlation Granger causality for multiple time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guorong; Duan, Xujun; Liao, Wei; Gao, Qing; Chen, Huafu

    2011-04-01

    Canonical-correlation analysis as a multivariate statistical technique has been applied to multivariate Granger causality analysis to infer information flow in complex systems. It shows unique appeal and great superiority over the traditional vector autoregressive method, due to the simplified procedure that detects causal interaction between multiple time series, and the avoidance of potential model estimation problems. However, it is limited to the linear case. Here, we extend the framework of canonical correlation to include the estimation of multivariate nonlinear Granger causality for drawing inference about directed interaction. Its feasibility and effectiveness are verified on simulated data.

  16. An Evaluation of Active Learning Causal Discovery Methods for Reverse-Engineering Local Causal Pathways of Gene Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sisi; Kemmeren, Patrick; Aliferis, Constantin F; Statnikov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Reverse-engineering of causal pathways that implicate diseases and vital cellular functions is a fundamental problem in biomedicine. Discovery of the local causal pathway of a target variable (that consists of its direct causes and direct effects) is essential for effective intervention and can facilitate accurate diagnosis and prognosis. Recent research has provided several active learning methods that can leverage passively observed high-throughput data to draft causal pathways and then refine the inferred relations with a limited number of experiments. The current study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the performance of active learning methods for local causal pathway discovery in real biological data. Specifically, 54 active learning methods/variants from 3 families of algorithms were applied for local causal pathways reconstruction of gene regulation for 5 transcription factors in S. cerevisiae. Four aspects of the methods' performance were assessed, including adjacency discovery quality, edge orientation accuracy, complete pathway discovery quality, and experimental cost. The results of this study show that some methods provide significant performance benefits over others and therefore should be routinely used for local causal pathway discovery tasks. This study also demonstrates the feasibility of local causal pathway reconstruction in real biological systems with significant quality and low experimental cost.

  17. Causality between Prices and Wages: VECM Analysis for EU-27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriatik Hoxha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature on causality as well as the empirical evidence clearly shows that there are two opposing groups of economists, who support different hypotheses with respect to the flow of causality in the price-wage causal relationship. The first group argues that causality runs from wages to prices, whereas the second argues that effect flows from prices to wages. Nonetheless, the literature review suggeststhat there is at least some consensus in that researcher’s conclusions may be contingent on the type of data employed, applied econometric model, or even that relationship may alter with economic cycles. This paper empirically examines theprice-wage causal relationship in EU-27, by using the OLS and VECM analysis, and it also provides robust evidence in support of a bilateral causal relationship between prices and wages, both in long-run as well as in the shortrun.Prior to designing and estimating the econometric model we have performed stationarity tests for the employed price, wage and productivity variables. Additionally, we have also specified the model taking into account the lag order as well as the rank of co-integration for the co-integrated variables. Furthermore, we have also applied respective restrictions on the parameters of estimatedVECM. The evidence resulting from model robustness checks indicates that results are statistically robust. Although far from closing the issue of causality between prices and wages, this paper at least provides some fresh evidence in the case of EU-27.

  18. Causality between Prices and Wages: VECM Analysis for EU-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriatik HOXHA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature on causality as well as the empirical evidence clearly shows that there are two opposing groups of economists, who support different hypotheses with respect to the flow of causality in the price-wage causal relationship. The first group argues that causality runs from wages to price, whereas the second argue that effect flows from prices to wages. Nonetheless, there is at least some consensus that researchers conclusions may be contingent on the type of data employed, applied econometric model, or even that the relationship may vary through economic cycles. This paper empirically examines the pricewage causal relationship in EMU, by using OLS and VECM analysis, and also it provides robust evidence in support of a bilateral causal relationship between prices and wages, both in long-run as well as in the short-run. Prior to designing and estimating the econometric model we have performed stationarity tests for the employed price, wage and productivity variables. Additionally, we have also specified the model taking into account the lag order as well as the rank of co-integration for the co-integrated variables. Furthermore, we have also applied respective restrictions on the parameters of the estimated VECM and finally model robustness checks indicate that results are statistically robust. Although far from closing the issue of causality between prices and variables, this paper at least provides some fresh evidence for the case of EMU.

  19. Effect of trade and regulatory policies on level users satisfaction of mobile phone service in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. Prada-Ávila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research characterized and quantified the effect of the legislative policy, regulations, and trade policies in the level users satisfaction of the mobile phone service in Colombia. For this, we conducted a market and commerce analysis of mobile telephone, as well as legislative, regulatory, quality and satisfaction policies of service users in Colombia, for the period 2000-2012. As a result seven mathematical models were formulated of the level users satisfaction in Colombia and prepaid and postpaid segment of the three operators with greater market share, through three factors like value of importation of mobile phones, quantity of phones approved and market sharing between operators, levels not reported by regulator were estimated for the period 2010-2012 and a consistent trend of about 70% was discovered. We conclude that in the mobile phone market there are regulatory effects additional to the measured and reported by the regulator, which limit the guarantee of a minimum level of quality of service as an operational requirement within the market. The presence of the importation factor in all models reflects the effects of market evolution on the user satisfaction of mobile phone service, given by the implementation of new technologies, new services offers and the participation of new mobile phone operators.

  20. The Job Satisfaction-Life Satisfaction Relationship Revisited: Using the Lewbel Estimation Technique to Estimate Causal Effects Using Cross-Sectional Data

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Mishra; Ingrid Nielsen; Russell Smyth; Alex Newman

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a novel identification strategy proposed by Lewbel (2012, J. Bus. Econ. Stat.) to illustrate how causation between job satisfaction and life satisfaction can be established with cross-sectional data. In addition to examining the relationship between composite job satisfaction and life satisfaction, we consider the relationship between life satisfaction and different facets of job satisfaction. We find evidence of bidirectional causality between job satisfaction and life satisf...

  1. Causal effects of shelter forests and water factors on desertification control during 2000-2010 at the Horqin Sandy Land region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiaoling Yan; Jiaojun Zhu; Xiao Zheng; Changjie Jin

    2015-01-01

    The Horqin Sandy Land (HSL), the largest sandy land in the semi-arid agro-pastoral ecotone of Northeast China, has been subject to desertification during the past century. In response, and to control the desertification, government implemented the Three-North Shelter/Protec-tive Forest Program, world’s largest ecological reforestation/afforestation restoration program. The program began in 1978 and will continue for 75 years until 2050. Under-standing the dynamics of desertification and its driving for-ces is a precondition for controlling desertification. However, there is little evidence to directly link causal effects with desertification process (i.e., on the changing area of sandy land) because desertification is a complex process, that can be affected by vegetation (including vegetation cover and extent of shelter forests) and water factors such as precipitation, surface soil moisture, and evapotranspiration. The objectives of this study were to identify how influencing factors, especially shelter forests, affected desertification in HSL over a recent decade. We used Landsat TM imagery analysis and path analysis to identify the effects of spatio-temporal changes in water and vegetation parameters during 2000–2010. Desertification was controlled during the study period, as indicated by a decrease in desert area at a rate of 163.3 km2 year-1 and an increase in the area with reduced intensity or extent of desertification. Total vegetation cover in HSL increased by 10.6%during the study period and this factor exerted the greatest direct and indirect effects on slowing desertification. The contribution of total vegetation cover to controlling desertification increased with the intensity of desertification. On slightly and extremely severe desertified areas, vegetation cover contributed 5 and 42%of the desertification reduction, respectively. There were sig-nificant correlations between total vegetation cover and water conditions (i.e., evapotranspiration and

  2. Statistics, Causality and Bell's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Bell's (1964) theorem is popularly supposed to establish the non-locality of quantum physics as a mathematical-physical theory. Building from this, observed violation of Bell's inequality in experiments such as that of Aspect and coworkers (1982) is popularly supposed to provide empirical proof of non-locality in the real world. This paper reviews recent work on Bell's theorem, linking it to issues in causality as understood by statisticians. The paper starts with a new proof of a strong (finite sample) version of Bell's theorem which relies only on elementary arithmetic and (counting) probability. This proof underscores the fact that Bell's theorem tells us that quantum theory is incompatible with the conjunction of three cherished and formerly uncontroversial physical principles, nicknamed here locality, realism, and freedom. The first, locality, is obviously connected to causality: causal influences need time to propagate spatially. Less obviously, the other two principles, realism and freedom, are also fo...

  3. Causal reasoning with mental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemlani, Sangeet S; Barbey, Aron K; Johnson-Laird, Philip N

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the model-based theory of causal reasoning. It postulates that the core meanings of causal assertions are deterministic and refer to temporally-ordered sets of possibilities: A causes B to occur means that given A, B occurs, whereas A enables B to occur means that given A, it is possible for B to occur. The paper shows how mental models represent such assertions, and how these models underlie deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning yielding explanations. It reviews evidence both to corroborate the theory and to account for phenomena sometimes taken to be incompatible with it. Finally, it reviews neuroscience evidence indicating that mental models for causal inference are implemented within lateral prefrontal cortex. PMID:25389398

  4. Causal reasoning with mental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet eKhemlani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the model-based theory of causal reasoning. It postulates that the core meanings of causal assertions are deterministic and refer to temporally-ordered sets of possibilities: A causes B to occur means that given A, B occurs, whereas A enables B to occur means that given A, it is possible for B to occur. The paper shows how mental models represent such assertions, and how these models underlie deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning yielding explanations. It reviews evidence both to corroborate the theory and to account for phenomena sometimes taken to be incompatible with it. Finally, it reviews neuroscience evidence indicating that mental models for causal inference are implemented within lateral prefrontal cortex.

  5. Gravitation, Causality, and Quantum Consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Hertzberg, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    We examine the role of consistency with causality and quantum mechanics in determining the properties of gravitation. We begin by constructing two different classes of interacting theories of massless spin 2 particles -- gravitons. One involves coupling the graviton with the lowest number of derivatives to matter, the other involves coupling the graviton with higher derivatives to matter, making use of the linearized Riemann tensor. The first class requires an infinite tower of terms for consistency, which is known to lead uniquely to general relativity. The second class only requires a finite number of terms for consistency, which appears as a new class of theories of massless spin 2. We recap the causal consistency of general relativity and show how this fails in the second class for the special case of coupling to photons, exploiting related calculations in the literature. In an upcoming publication [1] this result is generalized to a much broader set of theories. Then, as a causal modification of general ...

  6. Causality and Primordial Tensor Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the real space correlation function of $B$-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a probe of superhorizon tensor perturbations created by inflation. By causality, any non-inflationary mechanism for gravitational wave production after reheating, like global phase transitions or cosmic strings, must have vanishing correlations for angular separations greater than the angle subtended by the particle horizon at recombination, i.e. $\\theta \\gtrsim 2^\\circ$. Since ordinary $B$-modes are defined non-locally in terms of the Stokes parameters $Q$ and $U$ and therefore don't have to respect causality, special care is taken to define `causal $\\tilde B$-modes' for the analysis. We compute the real space $\\tilde B$-mode correlation function for inflation and discuss its detectability on superhorizon scales where it provides an unambiguous test of inflationary gravitational waves. The correct identification of inflationary tensor modes is crucial since it relates directly to the energy s...

  7. Causal Models for Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neysis Hernández Díaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work a study about the process of risk management in major schools in the world. The project management tools worldwide highlights the need to redefine risk management processes. From the information obtained it is proposed the use of causal models for risk analysis based on information from the project or company, say risks and the influence thereof on the costs, human capital and project requirements and detect the damages of a number of tasks without tribute to the development of the project. A study on the use of causal models as knowledge representation techniques causal, among which are the Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (DCM and Bayesian networks, with the most favorable MCD technique to use because it allows modeling the risk information witho ut having a knowledge base either itemize.

  8. When two become one: the limits of causality analysis of brain dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, Daniel; Ledberg, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Biological systems often consist of multiple interacting subsystems, the brain being a prominent example. To understand the functions of such systems it is important to analyze if and how the subsystems interact and to describe the effect of these interactions. In this work we investigate the extent to which the cause-and-effect framework is applicable to such interacting subsystems. We base our work on a standard notion of causal effects and define a new concept called natural causal effect. This new concept takes into account that when studying interactions in biological systems, one is often not interested in the effect of perturbations that alter the dynamics. The interest is instead in how the causal connections participate in the generation of the observed natural dynamics. We identify the constraints on the structure of the causal connections that determine the existence of natural causal effects. In particular, we show that the influence of the causal connections on the natural dynamics of the system often cannot be analyzed in terms of the causal effect of one subsystem on another. Only when the causing subsystem is autonomous with respect to the rest can this interpretation be made. We note that subsystems in the brain are often bidirectionally connected, which means that interactions rarely should be quantified in terms of cause-and-effect. We furthermore introduce a framework for how natural causal effects can be characterized when they exist. Our work also has important consequences for the interpretation of other approaches commonly applied to study causality in the brain. Specifically, we discuss how the notion of natural causal effects can be combined with Granger causality and Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM). Our results are generic and the concept of natural causal effects is relevant in all areas where the effects of interactions between subsystems are of interest.

  9. When two become one: the limits of causality analysis of brain dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chicharro

    Full Text Available Biological systems often consist of multiple interacting subsystems, the brain being a prominent example. To understand the functions of such systems it is important to analyze if and how the subsystems interact and to describe the effect of these interactions. In this work we investigate the extent to which the cause-and-effect framework is applicable to such interacting subsystems. We base our work on a standard notion of causal effects and define a new concept called natural causal effect. This new concept takes into account that when studying interactions in biological systems, one is often not interested in the effect of perturbations that alter the dynamics. The interest is instead in how the causal connections participate in the generation of the observed natural dynamics. We identify the constraints on the structure of the causal connections that determine the existence of natural causal effects. In particular, we show that the influence of the causal connections on the natural dynamics of the system often cannot be analyzed in terms of the causal effect of one subsystem on another. Only when the causing subsystem is autonomous with respect to the rest can this interpretation be made. We note that subsystems in the brain are often bidirectionally connected, which means that interactions rarely should be quantified in terms of cause-and-effect. We furthermore introduce a framework for how natural causal effects can be characterized when they exist. Our work also has important consequences for the interpretation of other approaches commonly applied to study causality in the brain. Specifically, we discuss how the notion of natural causal effects can be combined with Granger causality and Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM. Our results are generic and the concept of natural causal effects is relevant in all areas where the effects of interactions between subsystems are of interest.

  10. Causality between Electricity Consumption & Economic growth : Empirical Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Geetu; Sahu, Naresh Chandra

    2009-01-01

    In this study ,an attempt has been made to investigate causality between electricity consumption and economic growth in India by adopting Granger Engel causality model for 1960-2006 period .Test results shows that electricity consumption has positive effect on economic growth. The paper support for the reforms in power sector and indicates that electricity act as a catalyst in realizing various social and economic goals.

  11. Time and Causation in Discourse: Temporal Proximity, Implicit Causality, and Re-mention Biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dery, Jeruen E; Bittner, Dagmar

    2016-08-01

    Using referential processing in discourse featuring implicit causality verbs as a test case, we demonstrate how a discourse's causal and temporal dimensions interact. We show that referential processing is affected by multiple discourse biases, and that these biases do not have uniform effects. In three discourse continuation experiments, we show that the bias to re-mention a particular referent in discourse involving implicit causality verbs is not only affected by the verb's implicit causality bias, but also by the discourse's temporal structure, which at times, can even override the implicit causality bias. Our results add to the growing number of studies that show how various discourse dimensions interact in discourse processing.

  12. 组织型插图对不同认知方式个体说明性文本阅读的影响%The Effect of Causal Diagrams on Expository Texts Reading for Individuals with Different Cognitive Styles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李寿欣; 张德香; 张建鹏

    2014-01-01

    采用图文相继呈现、文本逐句阅读的范式,通过反应时技术与出声思维的方法考察了组织型插图对不同认知方式个体说明性文本阅读过程与阅读结果的影响,结果发现,与单一文本相比,场独立个体在有插图条件下的阅读成绩显著提高,而阅读时间没有增加,并产生了更多的推理、细化和提问策略;而场依存个体在有插图条件下的阅读成绩显著提高,阅读时间也显著增多,而理解策略没有变化。这说明组织型插图对两种认知方式个体说明性文本的阅读均起到促进作用,但场独立个体没有因为增加组织型插图而付出更多的加工努力,而是通过调整理解策略的方式来提高阅读效果;而场依存个体在阅读过程中没有根据组织型插图调整理解策略,阅读效果的提高是以付出更多的加工努力为代价的。%Expository texts are mainly characterized by presenting abstract categories and embodying abundant inter-related concepts and relational information. The design of expository texts is in a way to prescribe a fixed processing route. However, it becomes difficult for a reader to encode multiple concept relations simultaneously, which, consequently, according to cognitive load theory, imposes heavy cognitive demands on working memory. Causal diagrams as a form of external adjunct aids have been largely examined in recent years as a potential breakthrough in easing out the problems associated with comprehending expository texts. The main purpose of the current study was to examine whether the effect of causal diagrams on expository texts reading could be different to individuals with different cognitive styles. Three experiments were designed to examine the effect of causal diagrams on expository text for different cognitive style individuals. ExperimⅠentexamined whether cau sal diagram could facilitate expository texts reading for individuals with different

  13. On the Axioms of Causal Set Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dribus, Benjamin F

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers suggested improvements to the causal sets program in discrete gravity, which treats spacetime geometry as an emergent manifestation of causal structure at the fundamental scale. This viewpoint, which I refer to as the causal metric hypothesis, is summarized by Rafael Sorkin's phrase, "order plus number equals geometry." Proposed improvements include recognition of a generally nontransitive causal relation more fundamental than the causal order, an improved local picture of causal structure, development and use of relation space methods, and a new background-independent version of the histories approach to quantum theory. Besides causal set theory, \\`a la Bombelli, Lee, Meyer, and Sorkin, this effort draws on Isham's topos-theoretic framework for physics, Sorkin's quantum measure theory, Finkelstein's causal nets, and Grothendieck's structural principles. This approach circumvents undesirable structural features in causal set theory, such as the permeability of maximal antichains, studied by ...

  14. PPARalpha siRNA-treated expression profiles uncover the causal sufficiency network for compound-induced liver hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Dai

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncovering pathways underlying drug-induced toxicity is a fundamental objective in the field of toxicogenomics. Developing mechanism-based toxicity biomarkers requires the identification of such novel pathways and the order of their sufficiency in causing a phenotypic response. Genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi phenotypic screening has emerged as an effective tool in unveiling the genes essential for specific cellular functions and biological activities. However, eliciting the relative contribution of and sufficiency relationships among the genes identified remains challenging. In the rodent, the most widely used animal model in preclinical studies, it is unrealistic to exhaustively examine all potential interactions by RNAi screening. Application of existing computational approaches to infer regulatory networks with biological outcomes in the rodent is limited by the requirements for a large number of targeted permutations. Therefore, we developed a two-step relay method that requires only one targeted perturbation for genome-wide de novo pathway discovery. Using expression profiles in response to small interfering RNAs (siRNAs against the gene for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (Ppara, our method unveiled the potential causal sufficiency order network for liver hypertrophy in the rodent. The validity of the inferred 16 causal transcripts or 15 known genes for PPARalpha-induced liver hypertrophy is supported by their ability to predict non-PPARalpha-induced liver hypertrophy with 84% sensitivity and 76% specificity. Simulation shows that the probability of achieving such predictive accuracy without the inferred causal relationship is exceedingly small (p < 0.005. Five of the most sufficient causal genes have been previously disrupted in mouse models; the resulting phenotypic changes in the liver support the inferred causal roles in liver hypertrophy. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of defining pathways mediating drug

  15. Regulatory effects on the population dynamics and wave propagation in a cell lineage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mao-Xiang; Ma, Yu-Qiang; Lai, Pik-Yin

    2016-03-21

    We consider the interplay of cell proliferation, cell differentiation (and de-differentiation), cell movement, and the effect of feedback regulations on the population and propagation dynamics of different cell types in a cell lineage model. Cells are assumed to secrete and respond to negative feedback molecules which act as a control on the cell lineage. The cell densities are described by coupled reaction-diffusion partial differential equations, and the propagating wave front solutions in one dimension are investigated analytically and by numerical solutions. In particular, wavefront propagation speeds are obtained analytically and verified by numerical solutions of the equations. The emphasis is on the effects of the feedback regulations on different stages in the cell lineage. It is found that when the progenitor cell is negatively regulated, the populations of the cell lineage are strongly down-regulated with the steady growth rate of the progenitor cell being driven to zero beyond a critical regulatory strength. An analytic expression for the critical regulation strength in terms of the model parameters is derived and verified by numerical solutions. On the other hand, if the inhibition is acting on the differentiated cells, the change in the population dynamics and wave propagation speed is small. In addition, it is found that only the propagating speed of the progenitor cells is affected by the regulation when the diffusion of the differentiated cells is large. In the presence of de-differentiation, the effect on down-regulating the progenitor population is weakened and there is no effect on the propagation speed due to regulation, suggesting that the effect of regulatory control is diminished by de-differentiation pathways.

  16. When do chronic differences in self-regulation count? Regulatory focus effects in easy and difficult soccer tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tobias; Genschow, Oliver

    2013-04-01

    Research on regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997) suggests that performance increases if instructions fit with sportspersons' dispositions. Sportspersons who chronically focus on wins (i.e., promotion-oriented individuals) perform best if instructions frame the objective as a promotion goal (e.g., "Try to hit!"). By contrast, sportspersons who chronically focus on losses (i.e., prevention-oriented individuals) perform best if instructions frame the objective as a prevention goal (e.g., "Try not to miss!"). Recent theorizing also suggests that regulatory focus interacts with task difficulty. In an experiment, we assessed soccer performance as a function of chronic focus, instructional focus, and task difficulty. Results support that task difficulty moderates the effects of fit on performance; fitting instructions to match the sportsperson's chronic regulatory focus improved performance in the easy rather than the difficult task. Findings are discussed regarding the role of regulatory fit in altering subjective pressure during sports performance.

  17. Assessment by peer review of the effectiveness of a regulatory programme for radiation safety. Interim report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document covers assessment of those aspects of a radiation protection and safety infrastructure that are implemented by the Regulatory Authority for radiation sources and practices using such sources and necessarily includes those ancillary technical services, such as dosimetry services, which directly affect the ability of the Regulatory Authority to discharge its responsibilities. The focus of the guidance in this TECDOC is on assessment of a regulatory programme intended to implement the BSS. The BSS address transportation and waste safety mainly by reference to other IAEA documents. When conducting an assessment, the Review Team members should be aware of the latest IAEA documents (or similar national documents) concerning transportation and waste safety and, if appropriate, nuclear safety, and take them into account to the extent applicable when assessing the effectiveness of the regulatory programme governing radiation protection and safety of radiation source practices in a particular State

  18. Effects of self-regulatory strength depletion on muscular performance and EMG activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Steven R; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Hicks, Audrey L; Woodgate, Jennifer

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a self-regulatory strength depletion manipulation on performance of a physical endurance (isometric handgrip) task. In addition, the effect of depletion on EMG activity in the working forearm muscles during the endurance task was explored. Sedentary undergraduates (N=49) were randomly assigned to either a cognitive depletion condition (modified Stroop task) or a control (color word) group and completed two maximal isometric exercise endurance trials separated by the cognitive task. Participants in the depletion group showed significant (p<.05) degradations in performance and exhibited higher EMG activation on the second endurance trial (p<.05) compared to controls. Results are consistent with the limited strength model of self-regulation and are interpreted in light of the central fatigue hypothesis. PMID:17995906

  19. Causality problem in Economic Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ LUIS RETOLAZA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The main point of the paper is the problem of the economy to be consider like a science in the most strict term of the concept. In the first step we are going to tackle a presentation about what we understand by science to subsequently present some of the fallacies which have bring certain scepticism about the scientific character of the investigation in economy, to know: 1 The differences between hard and weak sciences -physics and social; 2 The differences between paradigm, —positivist and phenomenological— 3 The differences between physic causalityand historic causality. In the second step we are going to talk about two fundamental problems which are questioned: 1 the confusion between ontology and gnoseology and, 2 the erroneous concept of causality that commonly is used. In the last step of the paper we are going over the recent models of «causal explanation» and we suggest the probabilistic casualty development next with a more elaborated models of causal explanation, like a way to conjugate the scientific severity with the possibility to tackle complex economic realities.

  20. Causal Behaviour on Carter spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco, Oihane F

    2015-01-01

    In this work we will focus on the causal character of Carter Spacetime (see B. Carter, Causal structure in space-time, Gen. Rel. Grav. 1 4 337-406, 1971). The importance of this spacetime is the following: for the causally best well behaved spacetimes (the globally hyperbolic ones), there are several characterizations or alternative definitions. In some cases, it has been shown that some of the causal properties required in these characterizations can be weakened. But Carter spacetime provides a counterexample for an impossible relaxation in one of them. We studied the possibility of Carter spacetime to be a counterexample for impossible lessening in another characterization, based on the previous results. In particular, we will prove that the time-separation or Lorentzian distance between two chosen points in Carter spacetime is infinite. Although this spacetime turned out not to be the counterexample we were looking for, the found result is interesting per se and provides ideas for alternate approaches to t...

  1. Causal feedbacks in climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, van E.H.; Scheffer, M.; Brovkin, V.; Lenton, T.M.; Ye, H.; Deyle, E.; Sugihara, G.

    2015-01-01

    The statistical association between temperature and greenhouse gases over glacial cycles is well documented1, but causality behind this correlation remains difficult to extract directly from the data. A time lag of CO2 behind Antarctic temperature—originally thought to hint at a driving role for tem

  2. Granger Causality and Unit Roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir; Ventosa-Santaulària, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The asymptotic behavior of the Granger-causality test under stochastic nonstationarity is studied. Our results confirm that the inference drawn from the test is not reliable when the series are integrated to the first order. In the presence of deterministic components, the test statistic diverges...

  3. Free Fermions on causal sets

    CERN Document Server

    Noldus, Johan

    2013-01-01

    We construct a Dirac theory on causal sets; a key element in the construction being that the causet must be regarded as emergent in an appropriate sense too. We further notice that mixed norm spaces appear in the construction allowing for negative norm particles and "ghosts".

  4. Learning Why Things Change: The Difference-Based Causality Learner

    CERN Document Server

    Voortman, Mark; Druzdzel, Marek J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Difference- Based Causality Learner (DBCL), an algorithm for learning a class of discrete-time dynamic models that represents all causation across time by means of difference equations driving change in a system. We motivate this representation with real-world mechanical systems and prove DBCL's correctness for learning structure from time series data, an endeavour that is complicated by the existence of latent derivatives that have to be detected. We also prove that, under common assumptions for causal discovery, DBCL will identify the presence or absence of feedback loops, making the model more useful for predicting the effects of manipulating variables when the system is in equilibrium. We argue analytically and show empirically the advantages of DBCL over vector autoregression (VAR) and Granger causality models as well as modified forms of Bayesian and constraintbased structure discovery algorithms. Finally, we show that our algorithm can discover causal directions of alpha r...

  5. Cosmic Acceleration from Causal Backreaction with Recursive Nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Bochner, Brett

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the causal backreaction paradigm, in which the need for Dark Energy is eliminated via the generation of an apparent cosmic acceleration from the causal flow of inhomogeneity information coming in towards each observer from distant structure-forming regions. This second-generation formalism incorporates "recursive nonlinearities": the process by which already-established metric perturbations will then act to slow down all future flows of inhomogeneity information. Here, the long-range effects of causal backreaction are now damped, weakening its impact for models that were previously best-fit cosmologies. Nevertheless, we find that causal backreaction can be recovered as a replacement for Dark Energy via the adoption of larger values for the dimensionless `strength' of the clustering evolution functions being modeled -- a change justified by the hierarchical nature of clustering and virialization in the universe, occurring on multiple cosmic length scales simultaneously. With this, and with one new m...

  6. On the causal structure between CO2 and global temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stips, Adolf; Macias, Diego; Coughlan, Clare; Garcia-Gorriz, Elisa; Liang, X San

    2016-01-01

    We use a newly developed technique that is based on the information flow concept to investigate the causal structure between the global radiative forcing and the annual global mean surface temperature anomalies (GMTA) since 1850. Our study unambiguously shows one-way causality between the total Greenhouse Gases and GMTA. Specifically, it is confirmed that the former, especially CO2, are the main causal drivers of the recent warming. A significant but smaller information flow comes from aerosol direct and indirect forcing, and on short time periods, volcanic forcings. In contrast the causality contribution from natural forcings (solar irradiance and volcanic forcing) to the long term trend is not significant. The spatial explicit analysis reveals that the anthropogenic forcing fingerprint is significantly regionally varying in both hemispheres. On paleoclimate time scales, however, the cause-effect direction is reversed: temperature changes cause subsequent CO2/CH4 changes. PMID:26900086

  7. Replicating the benefits of closed timelike curves without breaking causality

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Xiao; Thompson, Jayne; Haw, Jing Yan; Vedral, Vlatko; Ralph, Timothy C; Lam, Ping Koy; Weedbrook, Christian; Gu, Mile

    2014-01-01

    In general relativity, closed timelike curves can break causality with remarkable and unsettling consequences. At the classical level, they induce causal paradoxes disturbing enough to motivate conjectures that explicitly prevent their existence. At the quantum level, resolving such paradoxes induce radical benefits - from cloning unknown quantum states to solving problems intractable to quantum computers. Instinctively, one expects these benefits to vanish if causality is respected. Here we show that in harnessing entanglement, we can efficiently solve NP-complete problems and clone arbitrary quantum states - even when all time-travelling systems are completely isolated from the past. Thus, the many defining benefits of closed timelike curves can still be harnessed, even when causality is preserved. Our results unveil the subtle interplay between entanglement and general relativity, and significantly improve the potential of probing the radical effects that may exist at the interface between relativity and q...

  8. The regulatory effect of miRNAs is a heritable genetic trait in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeleher Paul

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs have been shown to regulate the expression of a large number of genes and play key roles in many biological processes. Several previous studies have quantified the inhibitory effect of a miRNA indirectly by considering the expression levels of genes that are predicted to be targeted by the miRNA and this approach has been shown to be robust to the choice of prediction algorithm. Given a gene expression dataset, Cheng et al. defined the regulatory effect score (RE-score of a miRNA as the difference in the gene expression rank of targets of the miRNA compared to non-targeted genes. Results Using microarray data from parent-offspring trios from the International HapMap project, we show that the RE-score of most miRNAs is correlated between parents and offspring and, thus, inter-individual variation in RE-score has a genetic component in humans. Indeed, the mean RE-score across miRNAs is correlated between parents and offspring, suggesting genetic differences in the overall efficiency of the miRNA biogenesis pathway between individuals. To explore the genetics of this quantitative trait further, we carried out a genome-wide association study of the mean RE-score separately in two HapMap populations (CEU and YRI. No genome-wide significant associations were discovered; however, a SNP rs17409624, in an intron of DROSHA, was significantly associated with mean RE-score in the CEU population following permutation-based control for multiple testing based on all SNPs mapped to the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway; of 244 individual miRNA RE-scores assessed in the CEU, 214 were associated (p p = 0.04 with mean RE-score in the YRI population. Interestingly, the same SNP was associated with 17 (8.5% of all expressed miRNA expression levels in the CEU. We also show here that the expression of the targets of most miRNAs is more highly correlated with global changes in miRNA regulatory effect than with the expression of

  9. Assessment of the effectiveness of the Hungarian nuclear safety regulatory authority by international expert teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the role nuclear regulatory authorities (NRA) have to fulfil and the new challenges affecting them, in the paper an overview is made on how the Hungarian NRA has evaluated and utilised the results of different international efforts in the enhancement of its effectiveness and efficiency. The reviews have been conducted by different groups of experts organised by highly recognised international organisations (e.g. IAEA, EC) and highly competent foreign regulatory bodies. The different reviews of activities and working conditions of the HAEA NSD have resulted in a generally positive picture, however, it also revealed weaknesses as well. They recognised the developments made in recent years and also appreciated the overall favourable level of nuclear safety in Hungary, identified 'good practices' and made recommendations and suggestions for the most important and most efficient ways for future improvements. These are cited or referenced in the paper. At the end, some recommendations have been formed based on the experiences gained from the review missions and from our self-assessment. (author)

  10. Ethics and Regulatory Challenges and Opportunities in Patient-Centered Comparative Effectiveness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    The Affordable Care Act includes provisions for the conduct of large-scale, patient-centered comparative effectiveness research. Such efforts aim toward the laudable moral goal of having evidence to improve health care decision making. Nevertheless, these pragmatic clinical research efforts that typically pose minimal incremental risk and are enmeshed in routine care settings perhaps surprisingly encounter an array of ethics and regulatory challenges and opportunities for academic health centers. An emphasis on patient-centeredness forces an examination of the appropriateness of traditional methods used to protect the rights, interests, and welfare of participants. At the same time, meaningful collaboration with patients throughout the research process also necessitates ensuring that novel approaches to research (including recruitment and consent) entail necessary protections regarding such issues as privacy. As the scientific and logistical aspects of this research are being developed, substantial attention is being focused on the accompanying ethics and regulatory issues that have emerged, which should help to facilitate ethically appropriate research in a variety of contexts.

  11. Assessment of the effectiveness of the Hungarian nuclear safety regulatory authority by international expert teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the bases of the role nuclear regulatory authorities (NRA) have to fulfil and the new challenges affecting them, in the paper an overview is made on how the Hungarian NRA has evaluated and utilised the results of different international efforts in the enhancement of its effectiveness and efficiency. The reviews have been conducted by different groups of experts organised by highly recognised international organisations (e.g. IAEA, EC) and highly competent foreign regulatory bodies. The different reviews of activities and working conditions of the HAEA NSD have resulted in a generally positive picture however, revealed also weaknesses as well. They recognised the developments made in the recent years and also appreciated the overall favourable level of nuclear safety in Hungary, identified 'good practices' and made recommendations and suggestions for the most important and most efficient ways of the future improvements. These are cited or referenced in the paper. At the end, some recommendations have been formed based on the experiences gained from the review missions and from our self-assessment. (author)

  12. The role of regulatory B cells (Bregs) in the Tregs-amplifying effect of Sirolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiyong; Xiao, Li; Du, Guosheng; Gao, Yu; Chen, Wen; Yang, Shaozhen; Fan, Wenmei; Shi, Bingyi

    2016-09-01

    Sirolimus can significantly amplify regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vivo and in vitro, but the specific mechanism of this has not been well documented. The role of regulatory B cells (Bregs) in the Tregs-amplifying effect of Sirolimus was investigated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro in this study. The results showed that the percentages of both CD19+CD24+CD38+TGF-β1+ Bregs and CD19+CD24+CD38+IL-10+ Bregs to B cells were elevated by Sirolimus in PBMCs including B cells. Sirolimus significantly enhances the cytokine production of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in PBMCs with B cells, and the enhancement significantly decreased in PBMCs without B cells. The percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs to T cells was also elevated by Sirolimus in PBMCs including B cells. The elevation of Tregs percentage decreased in PBMCs without B cells and recovered when additional TGF-β1 and IL-10 were added. The amplification of Tregs by Sirolimus was partially inhibited when either TGF-β1 or IL-10 was neutralized, and it even disappeared when these two cytokines were both neutralized. These results indicate that Sirolimus can amplify Bregs and Tregs in PBMCs in vitro, and Bregs may be the why Sirolimus amplifies Tregs. PMID:27258186

  13. Ethics and Regulatory Challenges and Opportunities in Patient-Centered Comparative Effectiveness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    The Affordable Care Act includes provisions for the conduct of large-scale, patient-centered comparative effectiveness research. Such efforts aim toward the laudable moral goal of having evidence to improve health care decision making. Nevertheless, these pragmatic clinical research efforts that typically pose minimal incremental risk and are enmeshed in routine care settings perhaps surprisingly encounter an array of ethics and regulatory challenges and opportunities for academic health centers. An emphasis on patient-centeredness forces an examination of the appropriateness of traditional methods used to protect the rights, interests, and welfare of participants. At the same time, meaningful collaboration with patients throughout the research process also necessitates ensuring that novel approaches to research (including recruitment and consent) entail necessary protections regarding such issues as privacy. As the scientific and logistical aspects of this research are being developed, substantial attention is being focused on the accompanying ethics and regulatory issues that have emerged, which should help to facilitate ethically appropriate research in a variety of contexts. PMID:26826074

  14. A comparison of immunotoxic effects of nanomedicinal products with regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakou, Christina; Park, Margriet VDZ; de Jong, Wim H; van Loveren, Henk; Vandebriel, Rob J; Geertsma, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are attractive for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications because of their unique physicochemical and biological properties. A major application area of NMs is drug delivery. Many nanomedicinal products (NMPs) currently on the market or in clinical trials are most often based on liposomal products or polymer conjugates. NMPs can be designed to target specific tissues, eg, tumors. In virtually all cases, NMPs will eventually reach the immune system. It has been shown that most NMs end up in organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system, notably liver and spleen. Adverse immune effects, including allergy, hypersensitivity, and immunosuppression, have been reported after NMP administration. Interactions of NMPs with the immune system may therefore constitute important side effects. Currently, no regulatory documents are specifically dedicated to evaluate the immunotoxicity of NMs or NMPs. Their immunotoxicity assessment is performed based on existing guidelines for conventional substances or medicinal products. Due to the unique properties of NMPs when compared with conventional medicinal products, it is uncertain whether the currently prescribed set of tests provides sufficient information for an adequate evaluation of potential immunotoxicity of NMPs. The aim of this study was therefore, to compare the current regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements with the accumulating knowledge on immunotoxic effects of NMPs in order to identify potential gaps in the safety assessment. This comparison showed that immunotoxic effects, such as complement activation-related pseudoallergy, myelosuppression, inflammasome activation, and hypersensitivity, are not readily detected by using current testing guidelines. Immunotoxicity of NMPs would be more accurately evaluated by an expanded testing strategy that is equipped to stratify applicable testing for the various types of NMPs. PMID:27382281

  15. The Effectiveness of Self-regulatory Speech Training for Planning and Problem Solving in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Aziz, Safiyyah; Fletcher, Janet; Bayliss, Donna M

    2016-08-01

    Self-regulatory speech has been shown to be important for the planning and problem solving of children. Our intervention study, including comparisons to both wait-list and typically developing controls, examined the effectiveness of a training programme designed to improve self-regulatory speech, and consequently, the planning and problem solving performance of 87 (60 males, 27 females) children aged 4-7 years with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) who were delayed in their self-regulatory speech development. The self-regulatory speech and Tower of London (TOL) performance of children with SLI who received the intervention initially or after a waiting period was compared with that of 80 (48 male, 32 female) typically developing children who did not receive any intervention. Children were tested at three time points: Time 1- prior to intervention; Time 2 - after the first SLI group had received training and the second SLI group provided a wait-list control; and Time 3 - when the second SLI group had received training. At Time 1 children with SLI produced less self-regulatory speech and were impaired on the TOL relative to the typically developing children. At Time 2, the TOL performance of children with SLI in the first training group improved significantly, whereas there was no improvement for the second training group (the wait-list group). At Time 3, the second training group improved their TOL performance and the first group maintained their performance. No significant differences in TOL performance were evident between typically developing children and those with SLI at Time 3. Moreover, decreases in social speech and increases in inaudible muttering following self-regulatory speech training were associated with improvements in TOL performance. Together, the results show that self-regulatory speech training was effective in increasing self-regulatory speech and in improving planning and problem solving performance in children with SLI. PMID:26678398

  16. The Effectiveness of Self-regulatory Speech Training for Planning and Problem Solving in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Aziz, Safiyyah; Fletcher, Janet; Bayliss, Donna M

    2016-08-01

    Self-regulatory speech has been shown to be important for the planning and problem solving of children. Our intervention study, including comparisons to both wait-list and typically developing controls, examined the effectiveness of a training programme designed to improve self-regulatory speech, and consequently, the planning and problem solving performance of 87 (60 males, 27 females) children aged 4-7 years with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) who were delayed in their self-regulatory speech development. The self-regulatory speech and Tower of London (TOL) performance of children with SLI who received the intervention initially or after a waiting period was compared with that of 80 (48 male, 32 female) typically developing children who did not receive any intervention. Children were tested at three time points: Time 1- prior to intervention; Time 2 - after the first SLI group had received training and the second SLI group provided a wait-list control; and Time 3 - when the second SLI group had received training. At Time 1 children with SLI produced less self-regulatory speech and were impaired on the TOL relative to the typically developing children. At Time 2, the TOL performance of children with SLI in the first training group improved significantly, whereas there was no improvement for the second training group (the wait-list group). At Time 3, the second training group improved their TOL performance and the first group maintained their performance. No significant differences in TOL performance were evident between typically developing children and those with SLI at Time 3. Moreover, decreases in social speech and increases in inaudible muttering following self-regulatory speech training were associated with improvements in TOL performance. Together, the results show that self-regulatory speech training was effective in increasing self-regulatory speech and in improving planning and problem solving performance in children with SLI.

  17. Entanglement, holography and causal diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan; Haehl, Felix M.; Heller, Michal P.; Myers, Robert C.

    2016-08-01

    We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be reorganized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2 d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglemententropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the vacuum, our observables obey linear two-derivative equations of motion on the space of causal diamonds. In two dimensions, the latter is given by a product of two copies of a two-dimensional de Sitter space. For a class of universal states, we show that the entanglement entropy and its spin-three generalization obey nonlinear equations of motion with local interactions on this moduli space, which can be identified with Liouville and Toda equations, respectively. This suggests the possibility of extending the definition of our new observables beyond the linear level more generally and in such a way that they give rise to new dynamically interacting theories on the moduli space of causal diamonds. Various challenges one has to face in order to implement this idea are discussed.

  18. Effect of diagnostic labeling and causal explanations on medical students' views about treatments for psychosis and the need to share information with service users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, Lorenza; Read, John; Sagliocchi, Alessandra; Patalano, Melania; Oliviero, Nicoletta

    2013-12-15

    This study examines whether medical students' views of treatments for 'schizophrenia' and of patients' rights to be informed about their condition and their medication were influenced by diagnostic labeling and causal explanations and whether they differed over medical training. Three hundred and eighty-one Italian students attending their first or fifth/sixth year of medical studies read a vignette portraying someone who met diagnostic criteria for 'schizophrenia' and completed a self-report questionnaire. The study found that labeling the case as 'schizophrenia' and naming heredity among its causes were associated with confidence in psychiatrists and psychiatric drugs. Naming psychological traumas among the causes was associated with confidence in psychologists and greater acknowledgment of users' right to be informed about drugs. Compared to first year students, those at their fifth/sixth-year of studies more strongly endorsed drugs, had less confidence in psychologists and family support, and were less keen to share information on drugs with patients. These findings highlight that students' beliefs vary during training and are significantly related to diagnostic labeling and belief in a biogenetic causal model. Psychiatric curricula for medical students should include greater integration of psychological and medical aspects in clinical management of 'schizophrenia'; more information on the psychosocial causes of mental health problems.

  19. The dual effects of leading for safety: The mediating role of employee regulatory focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kark, Ronit; Katz-Navon, Tal; Delegach, Marianna

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the underlying mechanisms through which transformational and transactional leadership influence employee safety behaviors. Linking leadership theory with self-regulatory focus (SRF) theory, we examined a model of dual effects of leadership on safety initiative and safety compliance behaviors as mediated by promotion and prevention self-regulations. We conducted an experimental study (N = 107), an online study (N = 99) and a field study (N = 798 employees and 49 managers). Results demonstrated that followers' situational promotion focus mediated the positive relationship between transformational leadership and safety initiative behaviors. Through all 3 studies, transactional active leadership was positively associated with followers' situational prevention focus, however, the association between followers' prevention focus and safety compliance behaviors was inconsistent, showing the expected mediation relationships in the experimental setting, but not in the online and field studies. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of the findings.

  20. Regulatory effect of heat shock protein 70 in stress-induced rat intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chang Yang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Psychological stress is one of the factors associated with many human diseases; the mechanisms need to be further understood. Methods : Rats were subjected to chronic water avoid stress. Intestinal epithelial heat shock protein (HSP 70 was evaluated. The intestinal epithelial permeability was examined with Ussing chamber technique. Results : HSP70 was detected in normal intestinal epithelial cells. Psychological stress decreased HSP70 in the intestinal epithelial cells that correlated with the stress-induced intestinal epithelial hyperpermeability. Pretreatment with HSP70 abrogated stress-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Conclusions : Chronic stress inhibits HSP70 activity in rat intestinal epithelial layer that is associated with intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction, which can be prevented by pretreatment with HSP70 protein. (Yang PC, Tu YH, Perdue MH, Oluwole C, Struiksma S. Regulatory effect of heat shock protein 70 in stress-induced rat intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction.

  1. The dual effects of leading for safety: The mediating role of employee regulatory focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kark, Ronit; Katz-Navon, Tal; Delegach, Marianna

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the underlying mechanisms through which transformational and transactional leadership influence employee safety behaviors. Linking leadership theory with self-regulatory focus (SRF) theory, we examined a model of dual effects of leadership on safety initiative and safety compliance behaviors as mediated by promotion and prevention self-regulations. We conducted an experimental study (N = 107), an online study (N = 99) and a field study (N = 798 employees and 49 managers). Results demonstrated that followers' situational promotion focus mediated the positive relationship between transformational leadership and safety initiative behaviors. Through all 3 studies, transactional active leadership was positively associated with followers' situational prevention focus, however, the association between followers' prevention focus and safety compliance behaviors was inconsistent, showing the expected mediation relationships in the experimental setting, but not in the online and field studies. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of the findings. PMID:25664472

  2. From effects-based operations to effects-based force : on causality, complex adaptive system and the the biology of war

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jobbagy, Zoltán

    2009-01-01

    The author addresses a recent force employment concept called effects-based operations, which first appeared during the 1991 war against Iraq. The attributes of effects-based operations can be grouped around three common, but interrelated elements such as effects focus, advanced technology, and syst

  3. 78 FR 21452 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... and have market maker obligations which require them to pay for equipment and connectivity. Customers... Effectiveness of the Proposed Rule Change and Timing for Commission Action The foregoing rule change...

  4. 77 FR 27106 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... Holder of the equipment, installation, and maintenance provided by the Exchange, and (2) the cost to the.... III. Date of Effectiveness of the Proposed Rule Change and Timing for Commission Action The...

  5. 77 FR 4068 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness... Facility Fees, Computer Equipment Services, Repairs and Replacements, Computer Relocation Requests and... either solicited or received. III. Date of Effectiveness of the Proposed Rule Change and Timing...

  6. 77 FR 33257 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness... Rules. BX Members are subject to various charges for membership, services and equipment as noted in the... either solicited or received. III. Date of Effectiveness of the Proposed Rule Change and Timing...

  7. Anticipation of physical causality guides eye movements

    OpenAIRE

    Wende, Kim; Theunissen, Laetitia; Missal, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Causality is a unique feature of human perception. We present here a behavioral investigation of the influence of physical causality during visual pursuit of object collisions. Pursuit and saccadic eye movements of human subjects were recorded during ocular pursuit of two concurrently launched targets, one that moved according to the laws of Newtonian mechanics (the causal target) and the other one that moved in a physically implausible direction (the non-causal target). We found that anticip...

  8. Estimating causal structure using conditional DAG models

    OpenAIRE

    Oates, Chris J.; Smith, Jim Q.; Mukherjee, Sach

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers inference of causal structure in a class of graphical models called "conditional DAGs". These are directed acyclic graph (DAG) models with two kinds of variables, primary and secondary. The secondary variables are used to aid in estimation of causal relationships between the primary variables. We give causal semantics for this model class and prove that, under certain assumptions, the direction of causal influence is identifiable from the joint observational distribution ...

  9. Representing Personal Determinants in Causal Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert

    1984-01-01

    Responds to Staddon's critique of the author's earlier article and addresses issues raised by Staddon's (1984) alternative models of causality. The author argues that it is not the formalizability of causal processes that is the issue but whether cognitive determinants of behavior are reducible to past stimulus inputs in causal structures.…

  10. Exploring Individual Differences in Preschoolers' Causal Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Aubry; Booth, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Preschoolers, as a group, are highly attuned to causality, and this attunement is known to facilitate memory, learning, and problem solving. However, recent work reveals substantial individual variability in the strength of children's "causal stance," as demonstrated by their curiosity about and preference for new causal information. In…

  11. Expectations and Interpretations during Causal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Christian C.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2011-01-01

    In existing models of causal induction, 4 types of covariation information (i.e., presence/absence of an event followed by presence/absence of another event) always exert identical influences on causal strength judgments (e.g., joint presence of events always suggests a generative causal relationship). In contrast, we suggest that, due to…

  12. Velocity requirements for causality violation

    CERN Document Server

    Modanese, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the hypothetical existence of superluminal signals would imply the logical possibility of active causal violation: an observer in relative motion with respect to a primary source could in principle emit secondary superluminal signals (triggered by the primary ones) which go back in time and deactivate the primary source before the initial emission. This is a direct consequence of the structure of the Lorentz transformations, sometimes called "Regge-Tolman paradox". It is straightforward to find a formula for the velocity of the moving observer required to produce the causality violation. When applied to some recent claims of slight superluminal propagation, this formula yields a required velocity very close to the speed of light; this raises some doubts about the real physical observability of such violations. We re-compute this velocity requirement introducing a realistic delay between the reception of the primary signal and the emission of the secondary. It turns out that for -any- delay it...

  13. Bianchi-I cosmology from causal thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bittencourt, Eduardo; Klippert, Renato

    2016-01-01

    We investigate diagonal Bianchi-I spacetimes in the presence of viscous fluids by using the shear and the anisotropic pressure components as the basic variables, where the viscosity is driven by the (second-order) causal thermodynamics. A few exact solutions are presented, among which we mention the anisotropic versions of de Sitter/anti-de Sitter geometries as well as an asymptotically isotropic spacetime presenting an effective constant cosmic acceleration without any cosmological constant. The qualitative analysis of the solutions for barotropic fluids with linear equations of state suggests that the behaviour is quite general.

  14. Phenomenology of Causal Dynamical Triangulations

    CERN Document Server

    Mielczarek, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    The four dimensional Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) approach to quantum gravity is already more than ten years old theory with numerous unprecedented predictions such as non-trivial phase structure of gravitational field and dimensional running. Here, we discuss possible empirical consequences of CDT derived based on the two features of the approach mentioned above. A possibility of using both astrophysical and cosmological observations to test CDT is discussed. We show that scenarios which can be ruled out at the empirical level exist.

  15. Learning about causes from people and about people as causes: probabilistic models and social causal reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchsbaum, Daphna; Seiver, Elizabeth; Bridgers, Sophie; Gopnik, Alison

    2012-01-01

    physical causes and their effects to learn physical causal relationships, they also use covaration between people's actions and the environment to make inferences about the causes of human behavior.

  16. Velocity Requirements for Causality Violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modanese, Giovanni

    We re-examine the "Regge-Tolman paradox" with reference to some recent experimental results. It is straightforward to find a formula for the velocity v of the moving system required to produce causality violation. This formula typically yields a velocity very close to the speed of light (for instance, v/c > 0.97 for X-shaped microwaves), which raises some doubts about the real physical observability of the violations. We then compute the velocity requirement introducing a delay between the reception of the primary signal and the emission of the secondary. It turns out that in principle for any delay it is possible to find moving observers able to produce active causal violation. This is mathematically due to the singularity of the Lorentz transformations for β →1. For a realistic delay due to the propagation of a luminal precursor, we find that causality violations in the reported experiments are still more unlikely (v/c > 0.989), and even in the hypothesis that the superluminal propagation velocity goes to infinity, the velocity requirement is bounded by v/c > 0.62. We also prove that if two oscopic bodies exchange energy and momentum through superluminal signals, then the swap of signal source and target is incompatible with the Lorentz transformations; therefore it is not possible to distinguish between source and target, even with reference to a definite reference frame.

  17. Entanglement, Holography and Causal Diamonds

    CERN Document Server

    de Boer, Jan; Heller, Michal P; Myers, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be re-organized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglement entropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the va...

  18. Rare and common regulatory variation in population-scale sequenced human genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B Montgomery

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Population-scale genome sequencing allows the characterization of functional effects of a broad spectrum of genetic variants underlying human phenotypic variation. Here, we investigate the influence of rare and common genetic variants on gene expression patterns, using variants identified from sequencing data from the 1000 genomes project in an African and European population sample and gene expression data from lymphoblastoid cell lines. We detect comparable numbers of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs when compared to genotypes obtained from HapMap 3, but as many as 80% of the top expression quantitative trait variants (eQTVs discovered from 1000 genomes data are novel. The properties of the newly discovered variants suggest that mapping common causal regulatory variants is challenging even with full resequencing data; however, we observe significant enrichment of regulatory effects in splice-site and nonsense variants. Using RNA sequencing data, we show that 46.2% of nonsynonymous variants are differentially expressed in at least one individual in our sample, creating widespread potential for interactions between functional protein-coding and regulatory variants. We also use allele-specific expression to identify putative rare causal regulatory variants. Furthermore, we demonstrate that outlier expression values can be due to rare variant effects, and we approximate the number of such effects harboured in an individual by effect size. Our results demonstrate that integration of genomic and RNA sequencing analyses allows for the joint assessment of genome sequence and genome function.

  19. Antagonistic Effect of Gut Bacteria in the Hybrid Carniolan Honey Bee, Apis Mellifera Carnica, Against Ascosphaera Apis, the Causal Organism of Chalkbrood Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mohamed O. M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize bacterial strains associated with the gut of the hybrid Carniolan honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica, and to determine their in vitro and in vivo potential against Ascosphaera apis, the causal organism of chalkbrood disease, with the purpose of exploring feasible biological control. Six bacterial strains were isolated from healthy worker honey bees by culture-dependent methods. Six fungal strains (A3, A4, A7, A8, A9, and A15 of A. apis were isolated from larvae suffering from chalkbrood disease on Yeast-Glucose-Starch agar (YGPSA medium. All bacteria were identified by a combination of morphology, Gram stain, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, and fungal strains were identified by morphology and 5.8S rRNA. In vitro and in vivo inhibition assays were carried out to determine the ability of bacterial isolates to inhibit A. apis, the causal agent of chalkbrood disease. The analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that four bacterial strains (B2, B4, B10, and B100 belong to Bacillus subtilis species, and two strains (P1 and P5 belong to Pseudomonas fluorescence. Significant differences in antagonistic activity of all bacterial strains were observed. B. subtilis isolate B2 showed the highest antagonistic activity, as measured by the inhibition zone against A. apis, followed by the P1 strain of P. fluorescence. SEM analysis also supports the antagonistic activity of these bacteria against A. apis. This study provides a theoretical basis for biological control of honey bee chalkbrood disease.

  20. Regulatory volume decrease in Leishmania mexicana: effect of anti-microtubule drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francehuli Dagger

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The trypanosomatid cytoskeleton is responsible for the parasite's shape and it is modulated throughout the different stages of the parasite's life cycle. When parasites are exposed to media with reduced osmolarity, they initially swell, but subsequently undergo compensatory shrinking referred to as regulatory volume decrease (RVD. We studied the effects of anti-microtubule (Mt drugs on the proliferation of Leishmania mexicana promastigotes and their capacity to undergo RVD. All of the drugs tested exerted antiproliferative effects of varying magnitudes [ansamitocin P3 (AP3> trifluoperazine > taxol > rhizoxin > chlorpromazine]. No direct relationship was found between antiproliferative drug treatment and RVD. Similarly, Mt stability was not affected by drug treatment. Ansamitocin P3, which is effective at nanomolar concentrations, blocked amastigote-promastigote differentiation and was the only drug that impeded RVD, as measured by light dispersion. AP3 induced 2 kinetoplasts (Kt 1 nucleus cells that had numerous flagella-associated Kts throughout the cell. These results suggest that the dramatic morphological changes induced by AP3 alter the spatial organisation and directionality of the Mts that are necessary for the parasite's hypotonic stress-induced shape change, as well as its recovery.

  1. The persuasive effects of framing messages on fruit and vegetable consumption according to regulatory focus theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Arie; Rothman, Alexander; Pietersma, Suzanne

    2011-08-01

    According to Regulatory Focus theory (RFT), outcomes in persuasive messages can be framed in four different ways, as gains, non-gains, losses or non-losses. In study 1, the persuasiveness of all four frames was compared and the presence/absence effect that was expected on the basis of the feature-positive effect was verified: Statements about present outcomes (gain, loss) were more persuasive than those about absent outcomes (non-gain, non-loss). However, this study failed to support the prediction that a gain-framed message would be more persuasive than a loss-framed message when promoting a prevention behaviour. Study 2 was designed to examine the latter finding. It was hypothesised that the threat posed by the loss-framed message in study 1 was too low to elicit a defensive reaction. Therefore, in study 2, the personal relevance of the gain and the loss framed message was manipulated. Consistent with predictions, the gain-framed message was more persuasive than the loss-framed message, but only when the message was personalised to increase self-relevance. Moreover, the effect was due to a significant drop in persuasion in the loss condition, probably caused by a defensive reaction. These data shed a new light on the findings of past framing studies.

  2. EEG oscillations: From correlation to causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Christoph S; Strüber, Daniel; Helfrich, Randolph F; Engel, Andreas K

    2016-05-01

    Already in his first report on the discovery of the human EEG in 1929, Berger showed great interest in further elucidating the functional roles of the alpha and beta waves for normal mental activities. Meanwhile, most cognitive processes have been linked to at least one of the traditional frequency bands in the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma range. Although the existing wealth of high-quality correlative EEG data led many researchers to the conviction that brain oscillations subserve various sensory and cognitive processes, a causal role can only be demonstrated by directly modulating such oscillatory signals. In this review, we highlight several methods to selectively modulate neuronal oscillations, including EEG-neurofeedback, rhythmic sensory stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). In particular, we discuss tACS as the most recent technique to directly modulate oscillatory brain activity. Such studies demonstrating the effectiveness of tACS comprise reports on purely behavioral or purely electrophysiological effects, on combination of behavioral effects with offline EEG measurements or on simultaneous (online) tACS-EEG recordings. Whereas most tACS studies are designed to modulate ongoing rhythmic brain activity at a specific frequency, recent evidence suggests that tACS may also modulate cross-frequency interactions. Taken together, the modulation of neuronal oscillations allows to demonstrate causal links between brain oscillations and cognitive processes and to obtain important insights into human brain function. PMID:25659527

  3. Quantifying causal emergence shows that macro can beat micro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, Erik P; Albantakis, Larissa; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-12-01

    Causal interactions within complex systems can be analyzed at multiple spatial and temporal scales. For example, the brain can be analyzed at the level of neurons, neuronal groups, and areas, over tens, hundreds, or thousands of milliseconds. It is widely assumed that, once a micro level is fixed, macro levels are fixed too, a relation called supervenience. It is also assumed that, although macro descriptions may be convenient, only the micro level is causally complete, because it includes every detail, thus leaving no room for causation at the macro level. However, this assumption can only be evaluated under a proper measure of causation. Here, we use a measure [effective information (EI)] that depends on both the effectiveness of a system's mechanisms and the size of its state space: EI is higher the more the mechanisms constrain the system's possible past and future states. By measuring EI at micro and macro levels in simple systems whose micro mechanisms are fixed, we show that for certain causal architectures EI can peak at a macro level in space and/or time. This happens when coarse-grained macro mechanisms are more effective (more deterministic and/or less degenerate) than the underlying micro mechanisms, to an extent that overcomes the smaller state space. Thus, although the macro level supervenes upon the micro, it can supersede it causally, leading to genuine causal emergence--the gain in EI when moving from a micro to a macro level of analysis.

  4. 77 FR 68163 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend the NYSE Arca Options Fee Schedule Relating to Pricing Applicable to Electronic Transactions in Non-Penny...

  5. 78 FR 22353 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... NOS, membership fees at away markets, Options Regulatory Fees (``ORFs'') and technical costs... NOS, membership fees at away markets, ORFs and technical costs associated with routing options, the...), 77 FR 66904 (November 7, 2012) (Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

  6. Regulatory effect of miR-149 on interleukin-6 expression in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晶晶

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the regulatory effect of miR-149 on interleukin-6(IL-6)expression in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis.Methods A mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis was established using silica dust;the level of miR-149 in the lung tissues of mice with silicainduced pulmonary fibrosis was measured by quantitative

  7. The additive effect of regulatory activities on top of intelligence in relation to academic performance in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, A; Janssen, PJ

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the additive, beneficial effect of regulatory activities on top of verbal, numerical, and diagrammatic intelligence in the prediction of academic performance. About 500 freshmen of different study domains participated in this research. The findings supported both the mixed an

  8. 76 FR 35495 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... designed to encourage efficient use of bandwidth by both order sending and quote sending ATP firms. The... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Amending the NYSE Amex Options Fee Schedule To Establish a New Fee Designed...

  9. [The effect of extremely low doses of the novel regulatory plant proteins ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, M S; Margasiuk, D V; Iamskov, I A; Iamskova, V P

    2003-01-01

    Searching and study on regulatory proteins, which can keep under control the scope of important processes as like as cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis, is an actual aim of the current biochemistry. Recently we have identified S-100 proteins in plants of following species: plantain (Plantago major L.), aloe (Aloe arborescens L.), and bilberry (Vaccinum myrtillus L.). Extraction and purification of S-100 proteins gotten from these plants were performed by the method we developed earlier for adhesion proteins of animal tissues. Homogeneity of the studied plant proteins was evaluated and confirmed by HPLC and SDS-electrophoresis in PAAG. Both, plant and animal proteins have appeared to be biologically active at extremely low doses. The tests were performed by adhesiometrical method in short-term tissue culture of mouse's liver in vitro. As a result it was established that the plant proteins insert a membranotropic effect being added in extremely low doses, corresponding to 10(-10)-10(-13) mg/ml. Keeping in mind that the plantain is well known remedy for wound protection and healing, in several experiments we studied the biological effect of plant S-100 proteins on animal cells. It was found that S-100 proteins obtained from plantain influences proliferation of human fibroblasts in vitro. It was found that after the treatment with this protein in low doses the cell growth rate increases essentially.

  10. [The effect of extremely low doses of the novel regulatory plant proteins ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, M S; Margasiuk, D V; Iamskov, I A; Iamskova, V P

    2003-01-01

    Searching and study on regulatory proteins, which can keep under control the scope of important processes as like as cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis, is an actual aim of the current biochemistry. Recently we have identified S-100 proteins in plants of following species: plantain (Plantago major L.), aloe (Aloe arborescens L.), and bilberry (Vaccinum myrtillus L.). Extraction and purification of S-100 proteins gotten from these plants were performed by the method we developed earlier for adhesion proteins of animal tissues. Homogeneity of the studied plant proteins was evaluated and confirmed by HPLC and SDS-electrophoresis in PAAG. Both, plant and animal proteins have appeared to be biologically active at extremely low doses. The tests were performed by adhesiometrical method in short-term tissue culture of mouse's liver in vitro. As a result it was established that the plant proteins insert a membranotropic effect being added in extremely low doses, corresponding to 10(-10)-10(-13) mg/ml. Keeping in mind that the plantain is well known remedy for wound protection and healing, in several experiments we studied the biological effect of plant S-100 proteins on animal cells. It was found that S-100 proteins obtained from plantain influences proliferation of human fibroblasts in vitro. It was found that after the treatment with this protein in low doses the cell growth rate increases essentially. PMID:12881977

  11. 5-Azacytidine modulates interferon regulatory factor 1 in macrophages to exert a cardioprotective effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hye-yun; Kang, Wan Seok; Hong, Moon Hwa; Jeong, Hae Chang; Shin, Myun-Geun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Yong Sook; Ahn, Youngkeun

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are actively involved in inflammatory responses during the progression of cardiac injury, including myocardial infarction (MI). A previous study showed that 5-azacytidine (5AZ), a DNA methylation inhibitor, can ameliorate cardiac injury by shifting macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype via iNOS inhibition. Here, we show that the beneficial effect of 5AZ is associated with sumoylation of interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF1) in macrophages. IRF1 is a critical transcription factor for iNOS induction and is antagonized by IRF2. In the stimulated macrophages, IRF1 accumulated in the nucleus without degradation by 5AZ treatment. In animal study, 5AZ administration resulted in significant improvements in cardiac function and fibrosis. IRF1-expressing macrophages were more abundant in the 5AZ-treated MI group than in the PBS-treated MI group. Because sumoylated IRF1 is known to mimic IRF2, we examined the IRF1 sumoylation. Sumoylated IRF1 was resistant to degradation and significantly increased in the 5AZ-treated MI group. Collectively, 5AZ had a protective effect after MI by potentiation of IRF1 sumoylation and is suggested as a novel therapeutic intervention for cardiac repair. PMID:26510961

  12. 5-Azacytidine modulates interferon regulatory factor 1 in macrophages to exert a cardioprotective effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hye-yun; Kang, Wan Seok; Hong, Moon Hwa; Jeong, Hae Chang; Shin, Myun-Geun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Yong Sook; Ahn, Youngkeun

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are actively involved in inflammatory responses during the progression of cardiac injury, including myocardial infarction (MI). A previous study showed that 5-azacytidine (5AZ), a DNA methylation inhibitor, can ameliorate cardiac injury by shifting macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype via iNOS inhibition. Here, we show that the beneficial effect of 5AZ is associated with sumoylation of interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF1) in macrophages. IRF1 is a critical transcription factor for iNOS induction and is antagonized by IRF2. In the stimulated macrophages, IRF1 accumulated in the nucleus without degradation by 5AZ treatment. In animal study, 5AZ administration resulted in significant improvements in cardiac function and fibrosis. IRF1-expressing macrophages were more abundant in the 5AZ-treated MI group than in the PBS-treated MI group. Because sumoylated IRF1 is known to mimic IRF2, we examined the IRF1 sumoylation. Sumoylated IRF1 was resistant to degradation and significantly increased in the 5AZ-treated MI group. Collectively, 5AZ had a protective effect after MI by potentiation of IRF1 sumoylation and is suggested as a novel therapeutic intervention for cardiac repair. PMID:26510961

  13. Effects of radiation on T regulatory cells in normal states and cancer: mechanisms and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu; Sun, Xiangdong; Luo, Jinhua; Zhu, Hongcheng; Yang, Xi; Guo, Qing; Song, Yaqi; Sun, Xinchen

    2015-01-01

    Radiation remains an important component of cancer treatment. In addition to inducing tumor cell death through direct cytotoxic effects, radiation can also promote the regression of tumor via augment of immune response. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a unique subpopulation of CD4 positive cells, which are characterized by expression of the forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) transcription factor and high levels of CD25. Mounting evidence has shown that Tregs are implicated in the development and progression of various types of cancer, which makes Tregs an important target in cancer therapeutics. Generally, lymphocytes are regarded as radiosensitive. However, Tregs have been demonstrated to be relatively resistant to radiotherapy, which is partly mediated by downregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins and upregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins. Moreover, radiotherapy can increase the production of Tregs and the recruitment of Tregs to local tumor microenvironment. Tregs can attenuate radiation-induced tumor death, which cause the resistance of tumor to radiotherapy. Recent experimental studies and clinical trails have demonstrated that the combination of radiation with medications that target Tregs is promising in the treatment of several types of neoplasms. In this review, we discussed the effect of radiation on Tregs in physiological states and cancer. Further, we presented an overview of therapies that target Tregs to enhance the efficacy of radiation in cancer therapeutics. PMID:26807310

  14. Drawing Causal Inferences Using Propensity Scores: A Practical Guide for Community Psychologists

    OpenAIRE

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Julia E Moore; Butera, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Confounding present in observational data impede community psychologists’ ability to draw causal inferences. This paper describes propensity score methods as a conceptually straightforward approach to drawing causal inferences from observational data. A step-by-step demonstration of three propensity score methods – weighting, matching, and subclassification – is presented in the context of an empirical examination of the causal effect of preschool experiences (Head Start vs. parental care) on...

  15. Atypicalities in Perceptual Adaptation in Autism Do Not Extend to Perceptual Causality

    OpenAIRE

    Themelis Karaminis; Marco Turi; Louise Neil; Badcock, Nicholas A.; David Burr; Elizabeth Pellicano

    2015-01-01

    A recent study showed that adaptation to causal events (collisions) in adults caused subsequent events to be less likely perceived as causal. In this study, we examined if a similar negative adaptation effect for perceptual causality occurs in children, both typically developing and with autism. Previous studies have reported diminished adaptation for face identity, facial configuration and gaze direction in children with autism. To test whether diminished adaptive coding exten...

  16. Causality between public policies and exports of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article investigates the causal relationship between public policies and exports of renewable energy technologies using panel data from 18 countries for the period 1991–2007. A number of panel unit root and cointegration tests are applied. Time series data on public policies and exports are integrated and cointegrated. The dynamic OLS results indicate that in the long run, a 1% increase in government R and D expenditures (RAD) increases exports (EX) by 0.819%. EX and RAD variables respond to deviations from the long-run equilibrium in the previous period. Additionally, the Blundell–Bond system generalized methods of moments (GMM) is employed to conduct a panel causality test in a vector error-correction mechanism (VECM) setting. Evidence of a bidirectional and short-run, and strong causal relationship between EX and the contribution of renewable energy to the total energy supply (CRES) is uncovered. CRES has a negative effect on EX, whereas EX has a positive effect on CRES. We suggest some policy implications based on the results of this study. - Highlights: ► We model VECM to test the Granger causality between the policies and the export. ► Technology-push policy has a positive impact on export in the long-run. ► There are the short-run causal relationships between market-pull policy and export

  17. Breaking the arrows of causality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsiner, Jaan

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical models of catalysis have proven to bring with them major breakthroughs in chemistry and biology, from the 1830s onward. It can be argued that the scientific status of chemistry has become established through the move from causal to catalytic models. Likewise, the central explanatory...... role of cyclical models in biology has made it possible to move from the idea of genetic determination to that of epigenetic negotiation as the core of biological theory. In psychology, catalytic thinking has been outside of the realm of accepted scientific schemes, as the axiomatic dependence upon the...

  18. The Impossibility of Causality Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, Roger K.; P. A. V. B. Swamy; Yanagida, John F.; Muehlen, Peter von zur

    1984-01-01

    Causality tests developed by Sims and Granger are fatally flawed for several reasons First, when two variables, X and Y, are uncorrelated, X has no linear predictive value for Y, but X,and Y may be nonlinearly related unless they are statistically Independent, In which case X and Y are not related at all The light-hand side variables In a regression equation are exogenous If they are mean Independent of the disturbance term Mean Independence IS stronger than uncorrelatedness The proofs for de...

  19. Dark matter perturbations and viscosity: a causal approach

    CERN Document Server

    Acquaviva, Giovanni; Pénin, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of dissipative effects in cosmic fluids modifies their clustering properties and could have observable effects on the formation of large scale structures. We analyse the evolution of density perturbations of cold dark matter endowed with causal bulk viscosity. The perturbative analysis is carried out in the Newtonian approximation and the bulk viscosity is described by the causal Israel-Stewart (IS) theory. In contrast to the non-causal Eckart theory, we obtain a third order evolution equation for the density contrast that depends on three free parameters. For certain parameter values, the density contrast and growth factor in IS mimic their behaviour in $\\Lambda$CDM when $z \\geq 1$. Interestingly, and contrary to intuition, certain sets of parameters lead to an increase of the clustering.

  20. Space and time in perceptual causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Benjamin; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    Inferring causality is a fundamental feature of human cognition that allows us to theorize about and predict future states of the world. Michotte suggested that humans automatically perceive causality based on certain perceptual features of events. However, individual differences in judgments of perceptual causality cast doubt on Michotte's view. To gain insights in the neural basis of individual difference in the perception of causality, our participants judged causal relationships in animations of a blue ball colliding with a red ball (a launching event) while fMRI-data were acquired. Spatial continuity and temporal contiguity were varied parametrically in these stimuli. We did not find consistent brain activation differences between trials judged as caused and those judged as non-caused, making it unlikely that humans have universal instantiation of perceptual causality in the brain. However, participants were slower to respond to and showed greater neural activity for violations of causality, suggesting that humans are biased to expect causal relationships when moving objects appear to interact. Our participants demonstrated considerable individual differences in their sensitivity to spatial and temporal characteristics in perceiving causality. These qualitative differences in sensitivity to time or space in perceiving causality were instantiated in individual differences in activation of the left basal ganglia or right parietal lobe, respectively. Thus, the perception that the movement of one object causes the movement of another is triggered by elemental spatial and temporal sensitivities, which themselves are instantiated in specific distinct neural networks. PMID:20463866

  1. Space and time in perceptual causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Straube

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Inferring causality is a fundamental feature of human cognition that allows us to theorize about and predict future states of the world. Michotte suggested that humans automatically perceive causality based on certain perceptual features of events. However, individual differences in judgments of perceptual causality cast doubt on Michotte’s view. To gain insights in the neural basis of individual difference in the perception of causality, our participants judged causal relationships in animations of a blue ball colliding with a red ball (a launching event while fMRI-data were acquired. Spatial continuity and temporal contiguity were varied parametrically in these stimuli. We did not find consistent brain activation differences between trials judged as caused and those judged as non-caused, making it unlikely that humans have universal instantiation of perceptual causality in the brain. However, participants were slower to respond to and showed greater neural activity for violations of causality, suggesting that humans are biased to expect causal relationships when moving objects appear to interact. Our participants demonstrated considerable individual differences in their sensitivity to spatial and temporal characteristics in perceiving causality. These qualitative differences in sensitivity to time or space in perceiving causality were instantiated in individual differences in activation of the left basal ganglia or right parietal lobe, respectively. Thus, the perception that the movement of one object causes the movement of another is triggered by elemental spatial and temporal sensitivities, which themselves are instantiated in specific distinct neural networks.

  2. The Functions of Danish Causal Conjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Therkelsen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article I propose an analysis of the Danish causal conjunctions fordi, siden and for based on the framework of Danish Functional Grammar. As conjunctions they relate two clauses, and their semantics have in common that it indicates a causal relationship between the clauses. The causal conjunctions are different as far as their distribution is concerned; siden conjoins a subordinate clause and a main clause, for conjoins two main clauses, and fordi is able to do both. Methodologically I have based my analysis on these distributional properties comparing siden and fordi conjoining a subordinate and a main clause, and comparing for and fordi conjoining two main clauses, following the thesis that they would establish a causal relationship between different kinds of content. My main findings are that fordi establishes a causal relationship between the events referred to by the two clauses, and the whole utterance functions as a statement of this causal relationship. Siden presupposes such a general causal relationship between the two events and puts forward the causing event as a reason for assuming or wishing or ordering the caused event, siden thus establishes a causal relationship between an event and a speech act. For equally presupposes a general causal relationship between two events and it establishes a causal relationship between speech acts, and fordi conjoining two main clauses is able to do this too, but in this position it also maintains its event-relating ability, the interpretation depending on contextual factors.

  3. The Effect of Regulatory Harmonization on Cross-border Labor Migration: Evidence from the Accounting Profession

    OpenAIRE

    Brüggemann, Ulf; Matthew J. Bloomfield; Christensen, Hans B.; Leuz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines whether international regulatory harmonization increases cross-border labor migration. To study this question, we analyze European Union (EU) initiatives that harmonized accounting and auditing standards. Regulatory harmonization should reduce economic mobility barriers, essentially making it easier for accounting professionals to move across countries. Our research design compares the cross-border migration of accounting professionals relative to tightly-matched other prof...

  4. Innate Immune Activity Conditions the Effect of Regulatory Variants upon Monocyte Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Fairfax, B. P.; Humburg, P.; Makino, S.; Naranbhai, V; Wong, D.; Lau, E; Jostins, L; Plant, K.; Andrews, R; McGee, C.; Knight, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    To systematically investigate the impact of immune stimulation upon regulatory variant activity, we exposed primary monocytes from 432 healthy Europeans to interferon-γ (IFN-γ) or differing durations of lipopolysaccharide and mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). More than half of cis-eQTLs identified, involving hundreds of genes and associated pathways, are detected specifically in stimulated monocytes. Induced innate immune activity reveals multiple master regulatory trans-eQTL...

  5. The effectiveness of a regulatory strategy in containing hospital costs. The Ontario experience, 1967-1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detsky, A S; Stacey, S R; Bombardier, C

    1983-07-21

    This study documents the increases in real inputs (e.g., labor and equipment) employed in Ontario's hospital sector between 1968 and 1981--a period of universal government-financed hospital insurance and a government regulatory strategy involving global budgeting. Total expenditures in Ontario increased by only 16 per cent in terms of real inputs, as compared with an increase of 101 per cent in the United States. Real inputs per patient-day increased at a mean annual rate of 0.68 per cent in Ontario versus 5.19 per cent in the United States (P less than 0.001). Real inputs per admission decreased at a mean annual rate of 1.12 per cent in Ontario, as compared with an increase of 4.15 per cent in the United States (P less than 0.0001). We conclude that regulation can contain the growth of real inputs employed in the hospital sector even in the face of an incentive structure that does not promote cost consciousness on the part of patients or physicians. Although the effect of this strategy on the quality of care is unknown, so far it appears to have been politically acceptable in Ontario.

  6. Effect of high mobility group box-1 protein on immune cells and its regulatory mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-yi LUAN; Feng-huaYAO; Qing-hong ZHANG; Xiao-mei ZHU; Ning DONG; Yong-ming YAO

    2012-01-01

    High mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1),which is a nuclear protein,participates in chromatin architecture and transcriptional regulation.When released from cells,HMGB1 also plays a well-established role as a pro-inflammatory mediator during innate immune responses to injury.In the initial stage of injury,there is a release of large quantities of early pro-inflammatory mediators to initiate or perpetuate immune responses against pathogens,but this pro-inflammatory period is transient,and it is followed by a prolonged period of immune suppression.At present,several lines of evidences have suggested that HMGB1 is a late cytokine provoking delayed endotoxin morbidity,which may enhance the production of early proinflammatory mediators,and it can contribute potently to the activation of different immune cells and play a role in the development of host cell-mediated immunity.The biology of HMGB1 has been extensively studied as a pro-inflammatory cytokine of systemic inflammation,however,this review will attempt to provide a summary of the effects of HMGB1 on different immune cells and its regulatory mechanism in acute insults.

  7. The carcinogenic effects of aspartame: The urgent need for regulatory re-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffritti, Morando; Padovani, Michela; Tibaldi, Eva; Falcioni, Laura; Manservisi, Fabiana; Belpoggi, Fiorella

    2014-04-01

    Aspartame (APM) is an artificial sweetener used since the 1980s, now present in >6,000 products, including over 500 pharmaceuticals. Since its discovery in 1965, and its first approval by the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) in 1981, the safety of APM, and in particular its carcinogenicity potential, has been controversial. The present commentary reviews the adequacy of the design and conduct of carcinogenicity bioassays on rodents submitted by G.D. Searle, in the 1970s, to the FDA for market approval. We also review how experimental and epidemiological data on the carcinogenic risks of APM, that became available in 2005 motivated the European Commission (EC) to call the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) for urgent re-examination of the available scientific documentation (including the Searle studies). The EC has further requested that, if the results of the evaluation should suggest carcinogenicity, major changes must be made to the current APM specific regulations. Taken together, the studies performed by G.D. Searle in the 1970s and other chronic bioassays do not provide adequate scientific support for APM safety. In contrast, recent results of life-span carcinogenicity bioassays on rats and mice published in peer-reviewed journals, and a prospective epidemiological study, provide consistent evidence of APM's carcinogenic potential. On the basis of the evidence of the potential carcinogenic effects of APM herein reported, a re-evaluation of the current position of international regulatory agencies must be considered an urgent matter of public health.

  8. XAF1 expression and regulatory effects of somatostatin on XAF1 in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chunde

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatostatin prevents cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. Downregulation of the XAF1 transcript may occur during the development of prostate cancer. It is interesting to evaluate the potential regulatory effects of somatostatin on XAF1 expression during the development of prostate cancer cells. Methods XAF1 mRNA and protein expression in human prostate epithelial cells RWPE-1, androgen dependent prostate cancer LNCaP, and androgen independent DU145 and PC3 cells were evaluated using RT-PCR and Western blot. The regulation of XAF1 mRNA and protein expression by somatostatin and its analogue Octreotide was evaluated. Results Substantial levels of XAF1 mRNA and proteins were detected in RWPE-1 cells, whereas prostate cancer cells LNCaP, DU145 and PC3 exhibited lower XAF1 expression. Somatostatin and Octreotide up-regulated XAF1 mRNA and protein expression in all prostate cancer cell lines. Conclusions XAF1 down-regulation may contribute to the prostate cancer development. The enhanced XAF1 expression by somatostatin indicates a promising strategy for prostate cancer therapy.

  9. Effect of cysteine on methionine production by a regulatory mutant of Corynebacterium lilium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Subramanian, Kartik; Bisaria, Virendra S.; Sreekrishnan, T.R.; Gomes, James [Indian Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi (India)

    2005-02-01

    The production of methionine by submerged fermentation using a mutant strain of Corynebacterium lilium was studied to determine suitable conditions for obtaining high productivity. The mutant strain resistant to the methionine analogues ethionine, norleucine, methionine sulfoxide and methionine methylsulfonium chloride produced 2.34 g l{sup -1} of methionine in minimal medium containing glucose as carbon source. The effect of cysteine on methionine production in a 15 l bioreactor was studied by supplementing cysteine intermittently during the course of fermentation. The addition of cysteine (0.75 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}) every 2 h to the production medium increased the production of methionine to 3.39 g l{sup -1}. A metabolic flux analysis showed that during cysteine supplementation the ATP consumption reduced by 20%. It also showed that the increase in flux from phosphoenol pyruvate to oxaloacetate leads to higher methionine production. Results indicate that controlling the respiratory quotient close to 0.75 will produce the highest amount of methionine and that regulatory mutants also resistant to analogues of cysteine would be better methionine over producers. (Author)

  10. Effect of Two Biological Formulations Based on Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Control of Didymella applanata, the Causal Agent of Red Raspberry Cane Spur Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Shternshis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to estimate the efficacy of the two microbial formulations based on Bacillus subtilis Cohn. and Pseudomonas fluorescens Mig. on the fungus Didymella applanata (Niessl. Sacc., the causal agent of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. spur blight. In vitro, both bacteria reduced the growth of D. applanata. In inoculation experiments with raspberry canes in two cultivars with different susceptibility to D. applanata, these antagonistic bacteria suppressed fungal development by reducing the lesions area and the number of D. applanata fruiting bodies. Field trials of two biological formulations under natural conditions showed a significant suppression of the disease. B. subtilis and P. fluorescens included in the formulations revealed antagonistic activity towards D. applanata that depended on the red raspberry cultivar and weather conditions. In all cases, B. subtilis showed better results than P. fluorescens in biocontrol of the raspberry spur blight. This study demonstrated for the first time the ability of the biocontrol agents B. subtilis and P. fluorescens to suppress red raspberry cane spur blight, a serious worldwide disease.

  11. Three Cs in Measurement Models: Causal Indicators, Composite Indicators, and Covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Kenneth A.; Bauldry, Shawn

    2011-01-01

    In the last 2 decades attention to causal (and formative) indicators has grown. Accompanying this growth has been the belief that one can classify indicators into 2 categories: effect (reflective) indicators and causal (formative) indicators. We argue that the dichotomous view is too simple. Instead, there are effect indicators and 3 types of…

  12. Exploring causal associations between alcohol and coronary heart disease risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benn, Marianne;

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo explore the causal effect of long-term alcohol consumption on coronary heart disease risk factors.Methods and resultsWe used variants in ADH1B and ADH1C genes as instrumental variables (IV) to estimate the causal effect of long-term alcohol consumption on body mass index (BMI), blood...

  13. Probabilistic causality and radiogenic cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review and scrutiny of the literature on probability and probabilistic causality shows that it is possible under certain assumptions to estimate the probability that a certain type of cancer diagnosed in an individual exposed to radiation prior to diagnosis was caused by this exposure. Diagnosis of this causal relationship like diagnosis of any disease - malignant or not - requires always some subjective judgments by the diagnostician. It is, therefore, illusory to believe that tables based on actuarial data can provide objective estimates of the chance that a cancer diagnosed in an individual is radiogenic. It is argued that such tables can only provide a base from which the diagnostician(s) deviate in one direction or the other according to his (their) individual (consensual) judgment. Acceptance of a physician's diagnostic judgment by patients is commonplace. Similar widespread acceptance of expert judgment by claimants in radiation compensation cases does presently not exist. Judicious use of the present radioepidemiological tables prepared by the Working Group of the National Institutes of Health or of updated future versions of similar tables may improve the situation. 20 references

  14. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  15. The Causal Relationship between Health and Education Expenditures in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chor Foon TANG

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A major macroeconomic policy in generating economic growth is to encourage investments on human capital such as health and education. This is because both health and education make significant contribution to increasing productivity of the labour force which ultimately exerts a positive effect on raising output levels. A question that arises is whether investments on health and education have a causal relationship and if so, what is the directional causality? The objective of this study is to examine the causal relationship between health and education expenditures in Malaysia. This study covered annual data from 1970 to 2007. Using Granger causality as well as Toda and Yamamoto MWALD causality approaches, this study suggests that education Granger-causes health expenditure in both the short run and long run. The findings of this study implied that the Malaysian society places preference on education expenditure rather than health. This preference is not unexpected as generally, an educated and knowledgeable society precedes a healthy one. Before a society has attained a relatively higher level of education, it is less aware of the importance of health. Thus, expenditure on education should lead expenditure on health.

  16. The evolving regulation of uranium recovery operations in the United States of America: Innovative approaches are necessary for cost effective regulatory oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US domestic uranium industry is at a crossroads. Historic low prices for uranium, combined with stringent and often irrational regulatory requirements, pose a very real threat to the industry's continued viability. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has taken a number of innovative steps to reform and rationalize its regulatory programme. However, if the domestic uranium recovery industry is to remain viable, additional steps toward innovation and reform are needed, and effective implementation of reforms adopted by the Commission is essential. (author)

  17. Is there a causal relation between mathematical creativity and mathematical problem-solving performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Tarun Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between mathematical creativity (MC) and mathematical problem-solving performance (MP) has often been studied but the causal relation between these two constructs has yet to be clearly reported. The main purpose of this study was to define the causal relationship between MC and MP. Data from a representative sample of 480 eighth-grade students were analysed using a cross-lagged panel correlation (CLPC) design. CLPC attempts to rule out plausible alternative explanation of a causal effect. The result suggests that significant predominant causal relationship was found between MC and MP. It indicates that MP was found to be a cause of MC than the converse.

  18. Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 Exerts Inhibitory Effect on Neointimal Formation after Vascular Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Li; Zhong-gao Wang; Ce Bian; Xiao-dong Chen; Jian-wen Li; Xiu Chen; Bing Han; Gao-feng Hou; Jian Chu; Qi Cui

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) on neointimal formation after vascular injury in the mouse, and its possible mechanism.Methods Vascular injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the left femoral artery of IRF-1-deficient mice and C57BL/6J mice. The mRNA expressions of IRF-1, IRF-2, angiotensin Ⅱ type 2 (AT) receptor, interleukin-1β converting enzyme (ICE), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining.Results Neointimal formation after vascular injury was significantly greater in IRF-1-deficient mice than that in C57BL/6J mice (P<0.05). In contrast, TUNEL-positive nuclei to total nuclei in the neointima and media in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) in the injured artery significantly attenuated in IRF-1-deficient mice compared to C57BL/6J mice (P<0.05). The expressions of AT2 receptor as well as pro-apoptotic genes such as ICE and iNOS in C57BL/6J mice were up-regulated in response to vascular injury, but this upregulation was attenuated in IRF-1-deficient mice.Conclusions Our results suggest that IRF-1 induces VSMC apoptosis and inhibits neointimal formation after vascular injury at least partly due to the upregulation of AT2 receptor, ICE and iNOS expressions. These results indicate that IRF-1 exerts an inhibitory effect on neointimal formation through the induction of apoptosis inVSMCs.

  19. The effects of message framing and risk perceptions for HPV vaccine campaigns: focus on the role of regulatory fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of framing and risk perception, and their interaction effects on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Based on a 2 (message frames) × 2 (perceived risk) experimental design, the interaction effects reveal the effectiveness of loss- (vs. gain-) framed messages would be maximized for high (vs. low) perceived risk condition. Based on regulatory fit principles the synergy effects are shown in terms of attitudes toward advertising and HPV vaccination, HPV vaccination intention, and ad-promoted behavioral intention. The findings indicate right message appeals should be selected for the right target audiences in the setting of HPV vaccine promotions. PMID:23210670

  20. Linear causal modeling with structural equations

    CERN Document Server

    Mulaik, Stanley A

    2009-01-01

    Emphasizing causation as a functional relationship between variables that describe objects, Linear Causal Modeling with Structural Equations integrates a general philosophical theory of causation with structural equation modeling (SEM) that concerns the special case of linear causal relations. In addition to describing how the functional relation concept may be generalized to treat probabilistic causation, the book reviews historical treatments of causation and explores recent developments in experimental psychology on studies of the perception of causation. It looks at how to perceive causal

  1. Causal inference in economics and marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varian, Hal R

    2016-07-01

    This is an elementary introduction to causal inference in economics written for readers familiar with machine learning methods. The critical step in any causal analysis is estimating the counterfactual-a prediction of what would have happened in the absence of the treatment. The powerful techniques used in machine learning may be useful for developing better estimates of the counterfactual, potentially improving causal inference. PMID:27382144

  2. Causal inference in economics and marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varian, Hal R.

    2016-01-01

    This is an elementary introduction to causal inference in economics written for readers familiar with machine learning methods. The critical step in any causal analysis is estimating the counterfactual—a prediction of what would have happened in the absence of the treatment. The powerful techniques used in machine learning may be useful for developing better estimates of the counterfactual, potentially improving causal inference. PMID:27382144

  3. Productivity Analysis of Public and Private Airports: A Causal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasigh, Bijan; Gorjidooz, Javad

    2007-01-01

    Around the world, airports are being viewed as enterprises, rather than public services, which are expected to be managed efficiently and provide passengers with courteous customer services. Governments are, increasingly, turning to the private sectors for their efficiency in managing the operation, financing, and development, as well as providing security for airports. Operational and financial performance evaluation has become increasingly important to airport operators due to recent trends in airport privatization. Assessing performance allows the airport operators to plan for human resources and capital investment as efficiently as possible. Productivity measurements may be used as comparisons and guidelines in strategic planning, in the internal analysis of operational efficiency and effectiveness, and in assessing the competitive position of an airport in transportation industry. The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate the operational and financial efficiencies of 22 major airports in the United States and Europe. These airports are divided into three groups based on private ownership (7 British Airport Authority airports), public ownership (8 major United States airports), and a mix of private and public ownership (7 major European Union airports. The detail ownership structures of these airports are presented in Appendix A. Total factor productivity (TFP) model was utilized to measure airport performance in terms of financial and operational efficiencies and to develop a benchmarking tool to identify the areas of strength and weakness. A regression model was then employed to measure the relationship between TFP and ownership structure. Finally a Granger causality test was performed to determine whether ownership structure is a Granger cause of TFP. The results of the analysis presented in this paper demonstrate that there is not a significant relationship between airport TFP and ownership structure. Airport productivity and efficiency is

  4. A Taxonomy of Causality-Based Biological Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Bodei, Chiara; Chiarugi, Davide; Gori, Roberta; 10.4204/EPTCS.19.8

    2010-01-01

    We formally characterize a set of causality-based properties of metabolic networks. This set of properties aims at making precise several notions on the production of metabolites, which are familiar in the biologists' terminology. From a theoretical point of view, biochemical reactions are abstractly represented as causal implications and the produced metabolites as causal consequences of the implication representing the corresponding reaction. The fact that a reactant is produced is represented by means of the chain of reactions that have made it exist. Such representation abstracts away from quantities, stoichiometric and thermodynamic parameters and constitutes the basis for the characterization of our properties. Moreover, we propose an effective method for verifying our properties based on an abstract model of system dynamics. This consists of a new abstract semantics for the system seen as a concurrent network and expressed using the Chemical Ground Form calculus. We illustrate an application of this fr...

  5. Temporal sequence in observational studies to establish causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Silva Ayçaguer, PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article includes a brief summary on the scope of the notions of causality and risk and considers some operational difficulties that arise when dealing with problems associated with them. It underscores the vital importance of timing and its link with the most commonly used observational research designs that address causal relationships. The article describes in detail the need to record the order in which the relevant events occur and how to consider this in the analysis. A detailed example of errors that are usually incurred in and their effect is provided.

  6. On the Capacity of Interference Channel with Causal and Non-causal Generalized Feedback at the Cognitive Transmitter

    CERN Document Server

    Mirmohseni, Mahtab; Aref, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, taking into account the effect of link delays, we investigate the capacity region of the Cognitive Interference Channel (C-IFC), where cognition can be obtained from either causal or non-causal generalized feedback. For this purpose, we introduce the Causal Cognitive Interference Channel With Delay (CC-IFC-WD) in which the cognitive user's transmission can depend on $L$ future received symbols as well as the past ones. We show that the CC-IFC-WD model is equivalent to a classical Causal C-IFC (CC-IFC) with link delays. Moreover, CC-IFC-WD extends both genie-aided and causal cognitive radio channels and bridges the gap between them. First, we derive an outer bound on the capacity region for the arbitrary value of $L$ and specialize this general outer bound to the strong interference case. Then, under strong interference conditions, we tighten the outer bound. To derive the achievable rate regions, we concentrate on three special cases: 1) Classical CC-IFC (L=0), 2) CC-IFC without delay (L=1), an...

  7. Timing and causality in the generation of learned eyelid responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raudel eSánchez-Campusano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum-red nucleus-facial motoneuron (Mn pathway has been reported as being involved in the proper timing of classically conditioned eyelid responses. This special type of associative learning serves as a model of event timing for studying the role of the cerebellum in dynamic motor control. Here, we have re-analyzed the firing activities of cerebellar posterior interpositus (IP neurons and orbicularis oculi (OO Mns in alert behaving cats during classical eyeblink conditioning, using a delay paradigm. The aim was to revisit the hypothesis that the IP neurons can be considered a neuronal phase-modulating device supporting OO Mns firing with an emergent timing mechanism and an explicit correlation code during learned eyelid movements. Optimized experimental and computational tools allowed us to determine the different causal relationships (temporal order and correlation code during and between trials. These intra- and inter-trial timing strategies expanding from sub-second range (millisecond timing to longer-lasting ranges (interval timing expanded the functional domain of cerebellar timing beyond motor control. Interestingly, the results supported the above-mentioned hypothesis. The causal inferences were influenced by the precise motor and premotor spike-timing in the cause-effect interval, and, in addition, the timing of the learned responses depended on cerebellar-Mn network causality. Furthermore, the timing of CRs depended upon the probability of simulated causal conditions in the cause-effect interval and not the mere duration of the inter-stimulus interval. In this work, the close relation between timing and causality was verified. It could thus be concluded that the firing activities of IP neurons may be related more to the proper performance of ongoing CRs (i.e., the proper timing as a consequence of the pertinent causality than to their generation and/or initiation.

  8. Causal ubiquity in quantum physics. A superluminal and local-causal physical ontology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelamkavil, Raphael

    2014-07-01

    A fixed highest criterial velocity (of light) in STR (special theory of relativity) is a convention for a layer of physical inquiry. QM (Quantum Mechanics) avoids action-at-a-distance using this concept, but accepts non-causality and action-at-a-distance in EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradox) entanglement experiments. Even in such allegedly [non-causal] processes, something exists processually in extension-motion, between the causal and the [non-causal]. If STR theoretically allows real-valued superluminal communication between EPR entangled particles, quantum processes become fully causal. That is, the QM world is sub-luminally, luminally and superluminally local-causal throughout, and the Law of Causality is ubiquitous in the micro-world. Thus, ''probabilistic causality'' is a merely epistemic term.

  9. Effects of estrogen on CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell in peripheral blood during pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Huan Xiong; Zhen Yuan; Li He

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of estrogen (E2) level on regulatory T cells (Treg) in peripheral blood during pregnancy. Methods:A total of 30 healthy non-pregnant women were selected as control group, 90 pregnant women of early, middle and late pregnancy and 30 postpartum women at 1 month after parturition were selected as experimental groups including early pregnancy group, middle pregnancy group and late pregnancy group;the proportions of CD4+CD25+Treg and CD4+CD25+CD127-Treg among CD4+T cells were detected by flow cytometry;the serum estrogen content in peripheral blood was detected by electrochemical immune luminescence method. Results: E2 level was coincident with the change of Tregs number during pregnancy. The estrogen content in peripheral blood increased gradually from early pregnancy to late pregnancy, then decreased significantly after parturition, and the level at 1 month after parturition down to the level in non-pregnancy group (P>0.05);the level of E2 in pregnancy groups were significantly higher than those in non-pregnancy group (P0.05);the proportions in middle and late pregnancy groups were significantly higher than those in early pregnancy group (P0.05). There was correlation between Tregs number with estrogen level during pregnancy. The proportion of CD4+CD25+ Treg and CD4+CD25+CD127- Treg were positively correlated with estrogen level. Conclusions:High proportion of CD4+CD25+Treg and CD4+CD25+CD127-Treg is closely related to the high level of E2 during pregnancy. It suggested that high level of estrogen may induce an increase of CD4+CD25+Treg in peripheral blood, and then influence the immune function of pregnant women. The results of this experiment might play an important role of estrogen in immune-modulation during pregnancy.

  10. Comparison theorems for causal diamonds

    CERN Document Server

    Berthiere, Clement; Solodukhin, Sergey N

    2015-01-01

    We formulate certain inequalities for the geometric quantities characterizing causal diamonds in curved and Minkowski spacetimes. These inequalities involve the red-shift factor which, as we show explicitly in the spherically symmetric case, is monotonic in the radial direction and it takes its maximal value at the centre. As a byproduct of our discussion we re-derive Bishop's inequality without assuming the positivity of the spatial Ricci tensor. We then generalize our considerations to arbitrary, static and not necessarily spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat spacetimes. In the case of spacetimes with a horizon our generalization involves the so-called {\\it domain of dependence}. The respective volume, expressed in terms of the duration measured by a distant observer compared with the volume of the domain in Minkowski spacetime, exhibits behaviours which differ if $d=4$ or $d>4$. This peculiarity of four dimensions is due to the logarithmic subleading term in the asymptotic expansion of the metric nea...

  11. Causal Indicator Models: Unresolved Issues of Construction and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Stephen G.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    These authors agree with Bainter and Bollen that causal effects represents a useful measurement structure in some applications. The structure of the science of the measurement problem should determine the model; the measurement model should not determine the science. They also applaud Bainter and Bollen's important reminder that the full…

  12. What Is the Latent Variable in Causal Indicator Models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Roy D.

    2014-01-01

    Building on the work of Bollen (2007) and Bollen & Bauldry (2011), Bainter and Bollen (this issue) clarifies several points of confusion in the literature regarding causal indicator models. This author would certainly agree that the effect indicator (reflective) measurement model is inappropriate for some indicators (such as the social…

  13. Clarity and causality needed in claims about Big Gods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joseph; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gray, Russell D; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2016-01-01

    We welcome Norenzayan et al.'s claim that the prosocial effects of beliefs in supernatural agents extend beyond Big Gods. To date, however, supporting evidence has focused on the Abrahamic Big God, making generalisations difficult. We discuss a recent study that highlights the need for clarity about the causal path by which supernatural beliefs affect the evolution of big societies. PMID:26948745

  14. A Bayesian Nonparametric Causal Model for Regression Discontinuity Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabatsos, George; Walker, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    The regression discontinuity (RD) design (Thistlewaite & Campbell, 1960; Cook, 2008) provides a framework to identify and estimate causal effects from a non-randomized design. Each subject of a RD design is assigned to the treatment (versus assignment to a non-treatment) whenever her/his observed value of the assignment variable equals or…

  15. The good and bad of being fair: effects of procedural and interpersonal justice behaviors on regulatory resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Russell E; Lanaj, Klodiana; Barnes, Christopher M

    2014-07-01

    The justice literature has paid considerable attention to the beneficial effects of fair behaviors for recipients of such behaviors. It is possible, however, that exhibiting fair behaviors may come at a cost for actors. In this article, we integrate ego depletion theory with organizational justice research in order to examine the consequences of justice behaviors for actors. We used an experience-sampling method in a sample of managerial employees to examine the relations of performing procedural justice and interpersonal justice behaviors with subsequent changes in actors' regulatory resources. Our results indicate that procedural justice behaviors are draining, whereas interpersonal justice behaviors are replenishing for actors. Depletion, in turn, adversely affected the performance of citizenship behavior, and depletion mediated relations of justice behavior with citizenship. Furthermore, 2 traits that impact self-regulatory skills--extraversion and neuroticism--moderated the replenishing effects of engaging in interpersonal justice behaviors. We conclude by discussing implications and avenues for future research.

  16. The good and bad of being fair: effects of procedural and interpersonal justice behaviors on regulatory resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Russell E; Lanaj, Klodiana; Barnes, Christopher M

    2014-07-01

    The justice literature has paid considerable attention to the beneficial effects of fair behaviors for recipients of such behaviors. It is possible, however, that exhibiting fair behaviors may come at a cost for actors. In this article, we integrate ego depletion theory with organizational justice research in order to examine the consequences of justice behaviors for actors. We used an experience-sampling method in a sample of managerial employees to examine the relations of performing procedural justice and interpersonal justice behaviors with subsequent changes in actors' regulatory resources. Our results indicate that procedural justice behaviors are draining, whereas interpersonal justice behaviors are replenishing for actors. Depletion, in turn, adversely affected the performance of citizenship behavior, and depletion mediated relations of justice behavior with citizenship. Furthermore, 2 traits that impact self-regulatory skills--extraversion and neuroticism--moderated the replenishing effects of engaging in interpersonal justice behaviors. We conclude by discussing implications and avenues for future research. PMID:24446913

  17. The Power of Causal Beliefs and Conflicting Evidence on Causal Judgments and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Muller, Stephanie M.; Catena, Andres; Maldonado, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the relative impact of causal beliefs and empirical evidence on both decision making and causal judgments, and whether this relative impact could be altered by previous experience. 2. Selected groups of participants in both experiments received pre-training with either causal or neutral cues, or no pre-training…

  18. Programmed Death-1 Antibody Blocks Therapeutic Effects of T-Regulatory Cells in Cockroach Antigen-Induced Allergic Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Halvor S; Yagita, Hideo; Shao, Zhifei; Devendra K Agrawal

    2009-01-01

    We recently reported that the adoptive transfer of T-regulatory cells (Tregs) isolated from lung and spleen tissue of green fluorescent protein–transgenic mice reversed airway hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation. Because Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) is a pivotal receptor regulating effector T-cell activation by Tregs, we evaluated whether PD-1 is involved in the therapeutic effect of naturally occurring Tregs (NTregs) and inducible Tregs (iTregs) in cockroach (CRA)-sensitized and challen...

  19. Interpersonal Attraction: The Influence of Similarity, Perceived Correctness, and Importance of Causal Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Martha; Weary, Gifford

    Despite recent emphasis on the communicative function attributions may serve, little is actually known about the reactions of observers to individuals' causal statements regarding their own or others' behavioral outcomes. To rule out perceived accuracy as an alternative explanation of the effects of concordance of causal understanding on…

  20. Causal Modeling--Path Analysis a New Trend in Research in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, Mina

    2006-01-01

    This article aims at discussing a new statistical trend in research in applied linguistics. This rather new statistical procedure is causal modeling--path analysis. The article demonstrates that causal modeling--path analysis is the best statistical option to use when the effects of a multitude of L2 learners' variables on language achievement are…

  1. Exploring Torus Universes in Causal Dynamical Triangulations

    CERN Document Server

    Budd, T G

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the search for new observables in nonperturbative quantum gravity, we consider Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) in 2+1 dimensions with the spatial topology of a torus. This system is of particular interest, because one can study not only the global scale factor, but also global shape variables in the presence of arbitrary quantum fluctuations of the geometry. Our initial investigation focusses on the dynamics of the scale factor and uncovers a qualitatively new behaviour, which leads us to investigate a novel type of boundary conditions for the path integral. Comparing large-scale features of the emergent quantum geometry in numerical simulations with a classical minisuperspace formulation, we find partial agreement. By measuring the correlation matrix of volume fluctuations we succeed in reconstructing the effective action for the scale factor directly from the simulation data. Apart from setting the stage for the analysis of shape dynamics on the torus, the new set-up highlights the role o...

  2. Causality constraints in conformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Thomas; Jain, Sachin; Kundu, Sandipan

    2016-05-01

    Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the (∂ ϕ)4 coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinning operators.

  3. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Regulatory Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesecher, Robert

    This manual is designed to assist regulatory pest control applicators to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The guide discusses: (1) Factors influencing introduction and spread of pests and their population dynamics; (2) Methods and techniques used to suppress, control, or eradicate pests of…

  4. Effect of Salmonella infection on cecal tonsil regulatory T cell properties in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to study Regulatory T cell (Treg) properties post-Salmonella infection in broiler birds. Four-day-old broiler chicks were orally infected with 5x106 CFU/ml Salmonella enteritidis or sterile PBS (control). Samples were collected at 4, 7, 10, and 14 d post-infection. ...

  5. 78 FR 68897 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... indebtedness of the customer to such member. \\9\\ See Exchange Act Release No. 61542 (Feb. 18, 2010), 75 FR 8768... the member's investment banking or securities business; (ii) to properly identify and handle customer... (Initial or Partial Payments) To Conform with the Rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority,...

  6. 78 FR 68889 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... indebtedness of the customer to such member. \\9\\ See Exchange Act Release No. 61542 (Feb. 18, 2010), 75 FR 8768... the member's investment banking or securities business; (ii) to properly identify and handle customer... (Initial or Partial Payments) To Conform With the Rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority,...

  7. 78 FR 78460 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... FR 66789 (November 6, 2013) (SR-CTA-2013-05); Securities Exchange Act Release No. 70793 (October 31, 2013), 78 FR 66788 (November 6, 2013) (File No. S7-24-89). 2. Statutory Basis The Exchange believes... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

  8. 76 FR 1208 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Release Nos. 62663 (August 9, 2010), 75 FR 49543 (August 13, 2010) (SR-NASDAQ-2010-077) (order approving... (August 10, 2010), 75 FR 50020 (August 16, 2010) (SR-EDGA-2010-06) (order approving fees for both 1G and... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

  9. 76 FR 70192 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ...\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 65500 (October 6, 2011), 76 FR 63686 (October 13, 2011) (SR-BATS-2011-041...\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 61869 (April 7, 2010), 75 FR 19449 (April 14, 2010) (SR-ISE... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

  10. 78 FR 23965 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 68752 (January 29, 2013), 78 FR 7826 (February 4, 2013) (SR-BATS-2013-003... Release No. 69121 (March 12, 2013), 78 FR 16750 (March 18, 2013) (SR-BATS-2013-014) (notice of filing and... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

  11. 77 FR 50199 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 67093 (June 1, 2012), 77 FR 33798 (June 7, 2012) (SR-BATS-2012-018). \\10... Exchange at $10.11. See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 64475 (May 12, 2011), 76 FR 28830, 28832 (May... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

  12. Regulatory effect of paraprobiotic Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 on gut environment and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Sugawara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 (CP2305 is a strain of Lactobacillus isolated from a stool sample from a healthy adult that showed beneficial effects on health as a paraprobiotic. In a previous study, we demonstrated that CP2305-fermented heat-treated milk modified gut functions more than artificially acidified sour milk. Thus, the regulatory activity of the former beverage was attributed to the inactivated CP2305 cells. Objective: The aim of this study was to elucidate the contribution of non-viable paraprobiotic CP2305 cells to regulating human gut functions. We thus conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded parallel group trial. Design: The trial included 118 healthy participants with relatively low or high stool frequencies. The test beverage was prepared by adding 1×1010 washed, heat-treated, and dried CP2305 cells directly to the placebo beverage. The participants ingested a bottle of the assigned beverage daily for 3 weeks and answered daily questionnaires about defecation and quality of life. Fecal samples were collected and the fecal characteristics, microbial metabolite contents of the feces and composition of fecal microbiota were evaluated. Results: The number of evacuations and the scores for fecal odors were significantly improved in the group that consumed the CP2305-containing beverage compared with those of the group that consumed the placebo (p=0.035 and p=0.040, respectively. Regarding the fecal contents of microbial metabolites, the level of fecal p-cresol was significantly decreased in the CP2305 group relative to that of the placebo group (p=0.013. The Bifidobacterium content of the intestinal microbiota was significantly increased in the CP2305 group relative to that of the placebo group (p<0.008, whereas the content of Clostridium cluster IV was significantly decreased (p<0.003. The parasympathetic nerve activity of the autonomic nervous system became dominant and the total power of autonomic

  13. Unpacking the causal chain of financial literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Carpena, Fenella; Cole, Shawn; Shapiro, Jeremy; Zia, Bilal

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature examines the causal impact of financial literacy on individual, household, and firm level outcomes. This paper unpacks the mechanism of impact by focusing on the first link in the causal chain. Specifically, it studies the experimental impact of financial literacy on three distinct dimensions of financial knowledge. The analysis finds that financial literacy do...

  14. Causal Indicator Models: Identification, Estimation, and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Kenneth A.; Davis, Walter R.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the identification, estimation, and testing of structural equation models that have causal indicators. We first provide 2 rules of identification that are particularly helpful in models with causal indicators--the 2C emitted paths rule and the exogenous X rule. We demonstrate how these rules can help us distinguish identified from…

  15. On the spectral formulation of Granger causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, D

    2011-12-01

    Spectral measures of causality are used to explore the role of different rhythms in the causal connectivity between brain regions. We study several spectral measures related to Granger causality, comprising the bivariate and conditional Geweke measures, the directed transfer function, and the partial directed coherence. We derive the formulation of dependence and causality in the spectral domain from the more general formulation in the information-theory framework. We argue that the transfer entropy, the most general measure derived from the concept of Granger causality, lacks a spectral representation in terms of only the processes associated with the recorded signals. For all the spectral measures we show how they are related to mutual information rates when explicitly considering the parametric autoregressive representation of the processes. In this way we express the conditional Geweke spectral measure in terms of a multiple coherence involving innovation variables inherent to the autoregressive representation. We also link partial directed coherence with Sims' criterion of causality. Given our results, we discuss the causal interpretation of the spectral measures related to Granger causality and stress the necessity to explicitly consider their specific formulation based on modeling the signals as linear Gaussian stationary autoregressive processes.

  16. Causally pathological spacetimes are physically relevant

    CERN Document Server

    Hubeny, V E; Ross, S F; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.

    2005-01-01

    We argue that in the context of string theory, the usual restriction to globally hyperbolic spacetimes should be considerably relaxed. We exhibit an example of a spacetime which only satisfies the causal condition, and so is arbitrarily close to admitting closed causal curves, but which has a well-behaved dual description, free of paradoxes.

  17. Structural intervention distance for evaluating causal graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Jonas; Bühlmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Causal inference relies on the structure of a graph, often a directed acyclic graph (DAG). Different graphs may result in different causal inference statements and different intervention distributions. To quantify such differences, we propose a (pre-)metric between DAGs, the structural interventi...... implementation with software code available on the first author's home page....

  18. Campbell's and Rubin's Perspectives on Causal Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Stephen G.; Thoemmes, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Donald Campbell's approach to causal inference (D. T. Campbell, 1957; W. R. Shadish, T. D. Cook, & D. T. Campbell, 2002) is widely used in psychology and education, whereas Donald Rubin's causal model (P. W. Holland, 1986; D. B. Rubin, 1974, 2005) is widely used in economics, statistics, medicine, and public health. Campbell's approach focuses on…

  19. Causalities of the Taiwan Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Juhi-Lian Julian Ting

    2003-01-01

    Volatility, fitting with first order Landau expansion, stationarity, and causality of the Taiwan stock market (TAIEX) are investigated based on daily records. Instead of consensuses that consider stock market index change as a random time series we propose the market change as a dual time series consists of the index and the corresponding volume. Therefore, causalities between these two time series are investigated.

  20. Causal random geometry from stochastic quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjørn, Jan; Loll, R.; Westra, W.;

    2010-01-01

     in this short note we review a recently found formulation of two-dimensional causal quantum gravity defined through Causal Dynamical Triangulations and stochastic quantization. This procedure enables one to extract the nonperturbative quantum Hamiltonian of the random surface model including the...... the sum over topologies. Interestingly, the generally fictitious stochastic time corresponds to proper time on the geometries...

  1. Modeling parsimonious putative regulatory networks: complexity and heuristic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Acuña, Vicente; Aravena, Andrés; Maass, Alejandro; Siegel, Anne

    2014-01-01

    International audience A relevant problem in systems biology is the description of the regulatory interactions between genes. It is observed that pairs of genes have significant correlation through several experimental conditions. The question is to find causal relationships that can explain this experimental evidence. A putative regulatory network can be represented by an oriented weighted graph, where vertices represent genes, arcs represent predicted regulatory interactions and the arc ...

  2. Causal discovery via reproducing kernel Hilbert space embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhitang; Zhang, Kun; Chan, Laiwan; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    2014-07-01

    Causal discovery via the asymmetry between the cause and the effect has proved to be a promising way to infer the causal direction from observations. The basic idea is to assume that the mechanism generating the cause distribution p(x) and that generating the conditional distribution p(y|x) correspond to two independent natural processes and thus p(x) and p(y|x) fulfill some sort of independence condition. However, in many situations, the independence condition does not hold for the anticausal direction; if we consider p(x, y) as generated via p(y)p(x|y), then there are usually some contrived mutual adjustments between p(y) and p(x|y). This kind of asymmetry can be exploited to identify the causal direction. Based on this postulate, in this letter, we define an uncorrelatedness criterion between p(x) and p(y|x) and, based on this uncorrelatedness, show asymmetry between the cause and the effect in terms that a certain complexity metric on p(x) and p(y|x) is less than the complexity metric on p(y) and p(x|y). We propose a Hilbert space embedding-based method EMD (an abbreviation for EMbeDding) to calculate the complexity metric and show that this method preserves the relative magnitude of the complexity metric. Based on the complexity metric, we propose an efficient kernel-based algorithm for causal discovery. The contribution of this letter is threefold. It allows a general transformation from the cause to the effect involving the noise effect and is applicable to both one-dimensional and high-dimensional data. Furthermore it can be used to infer the causal ordering for multiple variables. Extensive experiments on simulated and real-world data are conducted to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:24708374

  3. The relationship between crude oil spot and futures prices: Cointegration, linear and nonlinear causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigates the linear and nonlinear causal linkages between daily spot and futures prices for maturities of one, two, three and four months of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil. The data cover two periods October 1991-October 1999 and November 1999-October 2007, with the latter being significantly more turbulent. Apart from the conventional linear Granger test we apply a new nonparametric test for nonlinear causality by Diks and Panchenko after controlling for cointegration. In addition to the traditional pairwise analysis, we test for causality while correcting for the effects of the other variables. To check if any of the observed causality is strictly nonlinear in nature, we also examine the nonlinear causal relationships of VECM filtered residuals. Finally, we investigate the hypothesis of nonlinear non-causality after controlling for conditional heteroskedasticity in the data using a GARCH-BEKK model. Whilst the linear causal relationships disappear after VECM cointegration filtering, nonlinear causal linkages in some cases persist even after GARCH filtering in both periods. This indicates that spot and futures returns may exhibit asymmetric GARCH effects and/or statistically significant higher order conditional moments. Moreover, the results imply that if nonlinear effects are accounted for, neither market leads or lags the other consistently, videlicet the pattern of leads and lags changes over time. (author)

  4. Causality, Bell's theorem, and Ontic Definiteness

    CERN Document Server

    Henson, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Bell's theorem shows that the reasonable relativistic causal principle known as "local causality" is not compatible with the predictions of quantum mechanics. It is not possible maintain a satisfying causal principle of this type while dropping any of the better-known assumptions of Bell's theorem. However, another assumption of Bell's theorem is the use of classical logic. One part of this assumption is the principle of "ontic definiteness", that is, that it must in principle be possible to assign definite truth values to all propositions treated in the theory. Once the logical setting is clarified somewhat, it can be seen that rejecting this principle does not in any way undermine the type of causal principle used by Bell. Without ontic definiteness, the deterministic causal condition known as Einstein Locality succeeds in banning superluminal influence (including signalling) whilst allowing correlations that violate Bell's inequalities. Objections to altering logic, and the consequences for operational and...

  5. Granger causality in wall-bounded turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granger causality is based on the idea that if a variable helps to predict another one, then they are probably involved in a causality relationship. This technique is based on the identification of a predictive model for causality detection. The aim of this paper is to use Granger causality to study the dynamics and the energy redistribution between scales and components in wall-bounded turbulent flows. In order to apply it on flows, Granger causality is generalized for snapshot-based observations of large size using linear-model identification methods coming from model reduction. Optimized DMD, a variant of the Dynamic Mode Decomposition, is considered for building a linear model based on snapshots. This method is used to link physical events and extract physical mechanisms associated to the bursting process in the logarithmic layer of a turbulent channel flow.

  6. On the spectral dimension of causal triangulations

    CERN Document Server

    Durhuus, Bergfinnur; Wheater, John F

    2009-01-01

    We introduce an ensemble of infinite causal triangulations, called the uniform infinite causal triangulation, and show that it is equivalent to an ensemble of infinite trees, the uniform infinite planar tree. It is proved that in both cases the Hausdorff dimension almost surely equals 2. The infinite causal triangulations are shown to be almost surely recurrent or, equivalently, their spectral dimension is almost surely less than or equal to 2. We also establish that for certain reduced versions of the infinite causal triangulations the spectral dimension equals 2 both for the ensemble average and almost surely. The triangulation ensemble we consider is equivalent to the causal dynamical triangulation model of two-dimensional quantum gravity and therefore our results apply to that model.

  7. Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Further Enhancing the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Regime. Proceedings of an International Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last three decades, Member States, the IAEA and other international organizations have made efforts to strengthen the safety and security of the use of nuclear and radioactive material through strong national infrastructures and consistent international dialogue. To support these efforts, the IAEA has convened a series of major conferences that have addressed topical issues and strategies critical for consideration by the world's nuclear regulators. More recently, the IAEA organized the first International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Facing Safety and Security Challenges, which was held in Moscow, Russian Federation in 2006. The idea of a 'global nuclear safety and security regime' was discussed at this conference. In the meantime, this regime has been established as a cooperative mechanism to share principles, norms, rules and decision making procedures to achieve shared goals in nuclear safety and security while preserving and complementing the sovereignty, authority and ultimate responsibilities of States. To further enhance this regime, it is necessary to seek definite commitments and set forth concrete steps towards greater international cooperation on, inter alia: - Addressing emerging regulatory challenges associated with regulating new and existing nuclear power programmes; - Addressing emerging regulatory challenges associated with regulating radiation applications; - Enhancing the effective independence of national regulators and continuously improving regulatory effectiveness; - Addressing the impact of multinational activities on the national responsibility for safety and security; - Developing initiatives for capacity building, including institutional, organisational arrangements and education and training for sustainable regulatory infrastructure; - Promoting synergies and possible integration between safety and security. To address these issues, and to respond to the request by the senior regulators to have a

  8. Causal ubiquity in quantum physics a superluminal and local-causal physical ontology

    CERN Document Server

    Neelamkavil, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    A fixed highest criterial velocity (of light) in STR (special theory of relativity) is a convention for a layer of physical inquiry. QM (Quantum Mechanics) avoids action-at-a-distance using this concept, but accepts non-causality and action-at-a-distance in EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradox) entanglement experiments. Even in such allegedly non-causal processes, something exists processually in extension-motion, between the causal and the non-causal. If STR theoretically allows real-valued superluminal communication between EPR entangled particles, quantum processes become fully causal. That

  9. Causal systems categories: differences in novice and expert categorization of causal phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Benjamin M; Gentner, Dedre; Goldwater, Micah B

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the understanding of causal systems categories--categories defined by common causal structure rather than by common domain content--among college students. We asked students who were either novices or experts in the physical sciences to sort descriptions of real-world phenomena that varied in their causal structure (e.g., negative feedback vs. causal chain) and in their content domain (e.g., economics vs. biology). Our hypothesis was that there would be a shift from domain-based sorting to causal sorting with increasing expertise in the relevant domains. This prediction was borne out: the novice groups sorted primarily by domain and the expert group sorted by causal category. These results suggest that science training facilitates insight about causal structures.

  10. Causality methods in cosmetovigilance: comparison of Colipa and PLM versus global introspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweers, P G M A; Gilmour, N J; Hepburn, P A; Gerritsen, R F; van Puijenbroek, E P

    2012-08-01

    The European Cosmetics Regulation requires a post-marketing system for detection of undesirable effects on human health of cosmetic products. Colipa, the European Cosmetic, toiletry and perfumery association, provided guidelines for causality assessment of these effects. In addition another causality method originally designed for causality rating in Post Launch Monitoring (PLM) of novel foods has been employed to assess causality of cosmetic products. In this study these two causality schemes for consumer cosmetic products were validated against clinical assessment, using the method of global introspection (GI) in 100 reported cases. Causality assessments were performed by three experienced assessors in pharmacovigilance. In the event of discordance between the assessors, an adapted Delphi method was used. The overall Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.74 for comparison of Colipa versus GI, whereas this was 0.50 for PLM versus GI. According to current guidelines, the sensitivity was 0.95 for both the Colipa and PLM method, specificity was 0.84 for Colipa and 0.40 for PLM. From these results it can be concluded the performance of the Colipa causality method yielded better correlation to GI than PLM causality method. The factor identified from comparison of these two schemes as having greatest impact was the course of the reaction. PMID:22609380

  11. Causality methods in cosmetovigilance: comparison of Colipa and PLM versus global introspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweers, P G M A; Gilmour, N J; Hepburn, P A; Gerritsen, R F; van Puijenbroek, E P

    2012-08-01

    The European Cosmetics Regulation requires a post-marketing system for detection of undesirable effects on human health of cosmetic products. Colipa, the European Cosmetic, toiletry and perfumery association, provided guidelines for causality assessment of these effects. In addition another causality method originally designed for causality rating in Post Launch Monitoring (PLM) of novel foods has been employed to assess causality of cosmetic products. In this study these two causality schemes for consumer cosmetic products were validated against clinical assessment, using the method of global introspection (GI) in 100 reported cases. Causality assessments were performed by three experienced assessors in pharmacovigilance. In the event of discordance between the assessors, an adapted Delphi method was used. The overall Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.74 for comparison of Colipa versus GI, whereas this was 0.50 for PLM versus GI. According to current guidelines, the sensitivity was 0.95 for both the Colipa and PLM method, specificity was 0.84 for Colipa and 0.40 for PLM. From these results it can be concluded the performance of the Colipa causality method yielded better correlation to GI than PLM causality method. The factor identified from comparison of these two schemes as having greatest impact was the course of the reaction.

  12. Spread of entanglement and causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, Horacio; Liu, Hong; Mezei, Márk

    2016-07-01

    We investigate causality constraints on the time evolution of entanglement entropy after a global quench in relativistic theories. We first provide a general proof that the so-called tsunami velocity is bounded by the speed of light. We then generalize the free particle streaming model of [1] to general dimensions and to an arbitrary entanglement pattern of the initial state. In more than two spacetime dimensions the spread of entanglement in these models is highly sensitive to the initial entanglement pattern, but we are able to prove an upper bound on the normalized rate of growth of entanglement entropy, and hence the tsunami velocity. The bound is smaller than what one gets for quenches in holographic theories, which highlights the importance of interactions in the spread of entanglement in many-body systems. We propose an interacting model which we believe provides an upper bound on the spread of entanglement for interacting relativistic theories. In two spacetime dimensions with multiple intervals, this model and its variations are able to reproduce intricate results exhibited by holographic theories for a significant part of the parameter space. For higher dimensions, the model bounds the tsunami velocity at the speed of light. Finally, we construct a geometric model for entanglement propagation based on a tensor network construction for global quenches.

  13. Spread of entanglement and causality

    CERN Document Server

    Casini, Horacio; Mezei, Márk

    2015-01-01

    We investigate causality constraints on the time evolution of entanglement entropy after a global quench in relativistic theories. We first provide a general proof that the so-called tsunami velocity is bounded by the speed of light. We then generalize the free particle streaming model of arXiv:cond-mat/0503393 to general dimensions and to an arbitrary entanglement pattern of the initial state. In more than two spacetime dimensions the spread of entanglement in these models is highly sensitive to the initial entanglement pattern, but we are able to prove an upper bound on the normalized rate of growth of entanglement entropy, and hence the tsunami velocity. The bound is smaller than what one gets for quenches in holographic theories, which highlights the importance of interactions in the spread of entanglement in many-body systems. We propose an interacting model which we believe provides an upper bound on the spread of entanglement for interacting relativistic theories. In two spacetime dimensions with multi...

  14. EFFECTS OF CORRUPTION AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT ON FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: A CASE STUDY OF AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim M. Quazi

    2014-01-01

    The impact of corruption on foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows has been analyzed by many recent studies. Corruption can either reduce FDI as a grabbing hand by raising uncertainty and transaction costs or facilitate FDI as a helping hand by "greasing" the wheels of commerce in the presence of a weak regulatory environment. Using the Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS) methodology on 1995- 2011 panel data from 53 African countries, this study finds that corruption facilitates FDI in...

  15. Regulatory decisions in a globalised world: the domino effect of phenylpropanolamine withdrawal in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras, Albert; Laporte, Joan-Ramon

    2002-01-01

    Rapid drug regulatory decisions regarding phenylpropanolamine (PPA)-containing common cold remedies and diet pills were taken in some Latin American countries following a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) decision in the US. This situation is described as one that illustrates the important changes that regulatory decisions are experiencing as a consequence of globalisation. The evidence for the efficacy of PPA as a nasal decongestant and as an appetite-suppressant is very limited, at least by modern standards. Its potential to increase blood pressure and induce haemorrhagic stroke was described soon after its marketing. Although this poor benefit/risk ratio had been known for more than 20 years, regulatory action was taken in Latin America only after the US FDA withdrew the drug in the US on the basis of the results of a case-control study which added limited new evidence to the already known risk of stroke, but which, on the other hand, had attracted much attention from the media. PMID:12167064

  16. Low doses of ionizing radiation: Biological effects and regulatory control. Invited papers and discussions. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels and biological effects resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation are continuously reviewed by the United Nations Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Since its creation in 1928, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has issued recommendations on protection against ionizing radiation. The UNSCEAR estimates and the ICRP recommendations have served as the basis for national and international safety standards on radiation safety, including those developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Concerning health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation, the international standards are based on the plausible assumption that, above the unavoidable background radiation dose, the probability of effects increases linearly with dose, i.e. on a 'linear, no threshold' (LNT) assumption. However, in recent years the biological estimates of health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation and the regulatory approach to the control of low level radiation exposure have been much debated. To foster information exchange on the relevant issues, an International Conference on Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Biological Effects and Regulatory Control, jointly sponsored by the IAEA and WHO in co-operation with UNSCEAR, was held from 17-21 November 1997 at Seville, Spain. These Proceedings contain the invited special reports, keynote papers, summaries of discussions, session summaries and addresses presented at the opening and closing of the Conference

  17. Causal localizations in relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causal localizations describe the position of quantum systems moving not faster than light. They are constructed for the systems with finite spinor dimension. At the center of interest are the massive relativistic systems. For every positive mass, there is the sequence of Dirac tensor-localizations, which provides a complete set of inequivalent irreducible causal localizations. They obey the principle of special relativity and are fully Poincaré covariant. The boosters are determined by the causal position operator and the other Poincaré generators. The localization with minimal spinor dimension is the Dirac localization. Thus, the Dirac equation is derived here as a mere consequence of the principle of causality. Moreover, the higher tensor-localizations, not known so far, follow from Dirac’s localization by a simple construction. The probability of localization for positive energy states results to be described by causal positive operator valued (PO-) localizations, which are the traces of the causal localizations on the subspaces of positive energy. These causal Poincaré covariant PO-localizations for every irreducible massive relativistic system were, all the more, not known before. They are shown to be separated. Hence, the positive energy systems can be localized within every open region by a suitable preparation as accurately as desired. Finally, the attempt is made to provide an interpretation of the PO-localization operators within the frame of conventional quantum mechanics attributing an important role to the negative energy states

  18. Causal localizations in relativistic quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrigiano, Domenico P. L., E-mail: castrig@ma.tum.de; Leiseifer, Andreas D., E-mail: andreas.leiseifer@tum.de [Fakultät für Mathematik, TU München, Boltzmannstraße 3, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Causal localizations describe the position of quantum systems moving not faster than light. They are constructed for the systems with finite spinor dimension. At the center of interest are the massive relativistic systems. For every positive mass, there is the sequence of Dirac tensor-localizations, which provides a complete set of inequivalent irreducible causal localizations. They obey the principle of special relativity and are fully Poincaré covariant. The boosters are determined by the causal position operator and the other Poincaré generators. The localization with minimal spinor dimension is the Dirac localization. Thus, the Dirac equation is derived here as a mere consequence of the principle of causality. Moreover, the higher tensor-localizations, not known so far, follow from Dirac’s localization by a simple construction. The probability of localization for positive energy states results to be described by causal positive operator valued (PO-) localizations, which are the traces of the causal localizations on the subspaces of positive energy. These causal Poincaré covariant PO-localizations for every irreducible massive relativistic system were, all the more, not known before. They are shown to be separated. Hence, the positive energy systems can be localized within every open region by a suitable preparation as accurately as desired. Finally, the attempt is made to provide an interpretation of the PO-localization operators within the frame of conventional quantum mechanics attributing an important role to the negative energy states.

  19. Regulatory reform for natural gas pipelines: The effect on pipeline and distribution company share prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurman, Elisabeth Antonie

    1997-08-01

    The natural gas shortages in the 1970s focused considerable attention on the federal government's role in altering energy consumption. For the natural gas industry these shortages eventually led to the passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) in 1978 as part of the National Energy Plan. A series of events in the decade of the 1980s has brought about the restructuring of interstate natural gas pipelines which have been transformed by regulators and the courts from monopolies into competitive entities. This transformation also changed their relationship with their downstream customers, the LDCs, who no longer had to deal with pipelines as the only merchants of gas. Regulatory reform made it possible for LDCs to buy directly from producers using the pipelines only for delivery of their purchases. This study tests for the existence of monopoly rents by analyzing the daily returns of natural gas pipeline and utility industry stock price data from 1982 to 1990, a period of regulatory reform for the natural gas industry. The study's main objective is to investigate the degree of empirical support for claims that regulatory reforms increase profits in the affected industry, as the normative theory of regulation expects, or decrease profits, as advocates of the positive theory of regulation believe. I also test Norton's theory of risk which predicts that systematic risk will increase for firms undergoing deregulation. Based on a sample of twelve natural gas pipelines, and 25 utilities an event study concept was employed to measure the impact of regulatory event announcements on daily natural gas pipeline or utility industry stock price data using a market model regression equation. The results of this study provide some evidence that regulatory reforms did not increase the profits of pipeline firms, confirming the expectations of those who claim that excess profits result from regulation and will disappear, once that protection is removed and the firms are operating in

  20. The effect of self-regulatory and metacognitive strategy instruction on impoverished students' assessment achievement in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Jaunine

    The purpose of this nonequivalent control group design study was to evaluate the effectiveness of metacognitive and self-regulatory strategy use on the assessment achievement of 215 9th-grade, residential physics students from low socioeconomic status (low-SES) backgrounds. Students from low-SES backgrounds often lack the self-regulatory habits and metacognitive strategies to improve academic performance. In an effort to increase these scores and to increase student self-regulation and metacognition with regard to achievement in physics, this study investigated the use of metacognitive and self-regulatory strategies specifically as they apply to students' use of their own assessment data. Traditionally, student performance data is used by adults to inform instructional and curricular decisions. However, students are rarely given or asked to evaluate their own performance data. Moreover, students are not shown how to use this data to plan for or inform their own learning. It was found that students in the overall and algebra-ready treatment groups performed significantly better than their control group peers. These results are favorable for inclusion of strategies involving self-regulation and metacognition in secondary physics classrooms. Although these results may be applicable across residential, impoverished populations, further research is needed with non-residential populations.

  1. Improving regulatory effectiveness in Federal/State siting actions. Need for power: determinants in the state decisionmaking processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Nuclear Siting and Licensing Act of 1978 (S.2775; H.R.11704) proposes Federal/State coordination in need for facility decisionmaking for nuclear power stations. A prior study by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office of State Programs, ''Improving Regulatory Effectiveness in Federal/State Siting Actions'', NUREG-0195, May 1977, considered the concept of need for power/facility. The present study expands the inquiry into need for power/facility by examining the decisionmaking criteria utilized by forty-four States in making a determination of need for power/facility. Specific criteria are identified along with the number of States which make those criteria a primary consideration or a secondary consideration in determining need for facility. Individual profiles of the studied States' decisionmaking criteria are provided. In addition, the study examines the different organizational and functional patterns found in the States' regulatory processes to certificate power stations. The coordination or lack of coordination of the issuance of associated environmental permits required for power stations is outlined for each State. Information concerning States' rate treatment of expenses associated with the construction and operation of a power station is provided. The relationship between the need for power decisionmaking process and the ratemaking process is explored

  2. The Causal Meaning of Genomic Predictors and How It Affects Construction and Comparison of Genome-Enabled Selection Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Bruno D.; Morota, Gota; Peñagaricano, Francisco; Gianola, Daniel; Weigel, Kent; Rosa, Guilherme J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The term “effect” in additive genetic effect suggests a causal meaning. However, inferences of such quantities for selection purposes are typically viewed and conducted as a prediction task. Predictive ability as tested by cross-validation is currently the most acceptable criterion for comparing models and evaluating new methodologies. Nevertheless, it does not directly indicate if predictors reflect causal effects. Such evaluations would require causal inference methods that are not typical in genomic prediction for selection. This suggests that the usual approach to infer genetic effects contradicts the label of the quantity inferred. Here we investigate if genomic predictors for selection should be treated as standard predictors or if they must reflect a causal effect to be useful, requiring causal inference methods. Conducting the analysis as a prediction or as a causal inference task affects, for example, how covariates of the regression model are chosen, which may heavily affect the magnitude of genomic predictors and therefore selection decisions. We demonstrate that selection requires learning causal genetic effects. However, genomic predictors from some models might capture noncausal signal, providing good predictive ability but poorly representing true genetic effects. Simulated examples are used to show that aiming for predictive ability may lead to poor modeling decisions, while causal inference approaches may guide the construction of regression models that better infer the target genetic effect even when they underperform in cross-validation tests. In conclusion, genomic selection models should be constructed to aim primarily for identifiability of causal genetic effects, not for predictive ability. PMID:25908318

  3. What can causal networks tell us about metabolic pathways?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Hageman Blair

    Full Text Available Graphical models describe the linear correlation structure of data and have been used to establish causal relationships among phenotypes in genetic mapping populations. Data are typically collected at a single point in time. Biological processes on the other hand are often non-linear and display time varying dynamics. The extent to which graphical models can recapitulate the architecture of an underlying biological processes is not well understood. We consider metabolic networks with known stoichiometry to address the fundamental question: "What can causal networks tell us about metabolic pathways?". Using data from an Arabidopsis Bay[Formula: see text]Sha population and simulated data from dynamic models of pathway motifs, we assess our ability to reconstruct metabolic pathways using graphical models. Our results highlight the necessity of non-genetic residual biological variation for reliable inference. Recovery of the ordering within a pathway is possible, but should not be expected. Causal inference is sensitive to subtle patterns in the correlation structure that may be driven by a variety of factors, which may not emphasize the substrate-product relationship. We illustrate the effects of metabolic pathway architecture, epistasis and stochastic variation on correlation structure and graphical model-derived networks. We conclude that graphical models should be interpreted cautiously, especially if the implied causal relationships are to be used in the design of intervention strategies.

  4. On the origin of Hill's causal criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, A

    1991-09-01

    The rules to assess causation formulated by the eighteenth century Scottish philosopher David Hume are compared to Sir Austin Bradford Hill's causal criteria. The strength of the analogy between Hume's rules and Hill's causal criteria suggests that, irrespective of whether Hume's work was known to Hill or Hill's predecessors, Hume's thinking expresses a point of view still widely shared by contemporary epidemiologists. The lack of systematic experimental proof to causal inferences in epidemiology may explain the analogy of Hume's and Hill's, as opposed to Popper's, logic.

  5. Causal localizations in relativistic quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiseifer, Andreas David

    2014-06-30

    Sufficient and necessary conditions for causal localizations of massive relativistic systems are developed. It is proven that the Dirac- and the Dirac tensor-system are up to unitary equivalence the only irreducible causal localizations with finite spinor dimension which have a massive relativistic extension. A formula for this extension is given. The existence of arbitrarily good localized states of positive energy is shown. In the context of the causality condition a Paley-Wiener theorem for bounded measurable matrix-valued functions is proven.

  6. Causality and momentum conservation from relative locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Bianco, Stefano; Brighenti, Francesco; Buonocore, Riccardo Junior

    2015-04-01

    Theories involving curved momentum space, which recently became a topic of interest in the quantum-gravity literature, can, in general, violate many apparently robust aspects of our current description of the laws of physics, including relativistic invariance, locality, causality, and global momentum conservation. Here, we explore some aspects of the pathologies arising in generic theories involving curved momentum space for what concerns causality and momentum conservation. However, we also report results suggesting that when momentum space is maximally symmetric, and the theory is formulated relativistically, most notably including translational invariance with the associated relativity of spacetime locality, momentum is globally conserved and there is no violation of causality.

  7. Causal structures of pp-waves

    CERN Document Server

    Hubeny, V E; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the causal structure of pp-wave spacetimes using the ideal point construction outlined by Geroch, Kronheimer, and Penrose. This generalizes the recent work of Marolf and Ross, who considered similar issues for plane wave spacetimes. We address the question regarding the dimension of the causal boundary for certain specific pp-wave backgrounds. In particular, we demonstrate that the pp-wave spacetime which gives rise to the N = 2 sine-Gordon string world-sheet theory is geodesically complete and has a one-dimensional causal boundary.

  8. The CMB in a Causal Set Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Zuntz, Joe

    2007-01-01

    We discuss Cosmic Microwave Background constraints on the causal set theory of quantum gravity, which has made testable predictions about the nature of dark energy. We flesh out previously discussed heuristic constraints by showing how the power spectrum of causal set dark energy fluctuations can be found from the overlap volumes of past light cones of points in the universe. Using a modified Boltzmann code we put constraints on the single parameter of the theory that are somewhat stronger than previous ones. We conclude that causal set theory cannot explain late-time acceleration without radical alterations to General Relativity.

  9. Intrinsic Universality of Causal Graph Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Martiel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Causal graph dynamics are transformations over graphs that capture two important symmetries of physics, namely causality and homogeneity. They can be equivalently defined as continuous and translation invariant transformations or functions induced by a local rule applied simultaneously on every vertex of the graph. Intrinsic universality is the ability of an instance of a model to simulate every other instance of the model while preserving the structure of the computation at every step of the simulation. In this work we present the construction of a family of intrinsically universal instances of causal graphs dynamics, each instance being able to simulate a subset of instances.

  10. Causality from the Cosmological Perspective in Vedanta and Western Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Danny Lee

    The relation between Western physics and Indian Vedanta philosophy is investigated through the topic of causality, taken in the sense of explanatory theories of the origin of the universe and the relations among its physical, mental, and spiritual aspects. Both physics and Vedanta have a common goal of explanation by means of a unitary principle. While physics has long been separated from metaphysics, its discoveries indicate that consciousness must be included in a complete explanation. Consciousness is taken as the fundamental basis and source of all phenomena in Vedanta. This work traces the developments of causal explanation in Western physics and Indian philosophy, and considers how these views may relate to each other and how they may together suggest a comprehensive view of reality. Approaches typically applied by historians of religion to the study of creation myths, especially the psychological approach which considers myths from the perspective or cyclical stages of conscious development, are applied to the causal theories of the two cultures. The question of how causal explanations attempt to bridge the gap between cause and effect, unity and multiplicity, absolute and relative, conscious and unconscious, etc., is addressed. Though the investigation begins from the earliest causal explanations, viz., creation myths, emphasis is placed upon Samkara's commentaries of Advaita Vedanta, examined in the original Sanskrit, and upon the convergence of modern field theory, astrophysics, and cosmology, seen from the perspective of a previous doctorate in physics. Consideration is given to the comparison between physics and Vedanta as to goals, methods, and domains, to the question of the incompleteness of physics and the extent to which it nevertheless points beyond itself, to the possibility of a synthetic view and how it might be effected, and to analogies and metaphors through which physics and Vedanta may illuminate each other. An intuitive picture is

  11. Property transmission: an explanatory account of the role of similarity information in causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peter A

    2009-09-01

    Many kinds of common and easily observed causal relations exhibit property transmission, which is a tendency for the causal object to impose its own properties on the effect object. It is proposed that property transmission becomes a general and readily available hypothesis used to make interpretations and judgments about causal questions under conditions of uncertainty, in which property transmission functions as a heuristic. The property transmission hypothesis explains why and when similarity information is used in causal inference. It can account for magical contagion beliefs, some cases of illusory correlation, the correspondence bias, overestimation of cross-situational consistency in behavior, nonregressive tendencies in prediction, the belief that acts of will are causes of behavior, and a range of other phenomena. People learn that property transmission is often moderated by other factors, but under conditions of uncertainty in which the operation of relevant other factors is unknown, it tends to exhibit a pervasive influence on thinking about causality. PMID:19702382

  12. There aren't plenty more fish in the sea: a causal network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Milena; Lagnado, David A

    2015-11-01

    The current research investigated how lay representations of the causes of an environmental problem may underlie individuals' reasoning about the issue. Naïve participants completed an experiment that involved two main tasks. The causal diagram task required participants to depict the causal relations between a set of factors related to overfishing and to estimate the strength of these relations. The counterfactual task required participants to judge the effect of counterfactual suppositions based on the diagrammed factors. We explored two major questions: (1) what is the relation between individual causal models and counterfactual judgments? Consistent with previous findings (e.g., Green et al., 1998, Br. J. Soc. Psychology, 37, 415), these judgments were best explained by a combination of the strength of both direct and indirect causal paths. (2) To what extent do people use two-way causal thinking when reasoning about an environmental problem? In contrast to previous research (e.g., White, 2008, Appl. Cogn. Psychology, 22, 559), analyses based on individual causal networks revealed the presence of numerous feedback loops. The studies support the value of analysing individual causal models in contrast to consensual representations. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed in relation to causal reasoning as well as environmental psychology. PMID:25597224

  13. A Mixed Methods Analysis of the Effect of Google Docs Environment on EFL Learners' Writing Performance and Causal Attributions for Success and Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyedrezaie, Zari Sadat; Ghonsooly, Behzad; Shahriari, Hesamoddin; Fatemi, Hazar Hosseini

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of writing process in Google Docs environment on Iranian EFL learners' writing performance. It also examined students' perceptions towards the effects of Google Docs and their perceived causes of success or failure in writing performance. In this regard, 48 EFL students were chosen based on their IELTs writing…

  14. Assimilation and contrast effects: the role of self-construal and regulatory focus as moderators in collectivistic cultures of honour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente-Díaz, Rogelio

    2014-06-01

    Human judgments are context dependent. When answering a question about one's overall satisfaction with life, a previous question about one's romantic life might pose redundancy problems influencing one's judgment of life satisfaction, something known as item order effects. However, in order to detect such redundancy, one needs to pay attention to the context of the conversation. Any variable that influences the amount of attention given the context of the conversation can determine whether the presumed redundancy is detected or not. In three studies, two experiments and one correlational study, we tested the influence of induced self-construal (study 1) and self-regulatory focus (study 2) and self-regulatory focus measured as an individual difference variable (study 3) as moderators of context effects among college students from Mexico. In study 1, participants induced to have an independent mindset were less likely to detect the redundancy posed by two questions, resulting, as predicted, in a contrast effect. In study 3, participants with lower levels of prevention focus were less likely to detect the redundancy posed by the same two questions as study 1, resulting, as predicted, in an assimilation effect. The implications of the results were discussed within the framework of the inclusion/exclusion model.

  15. Drawing Causal Inferences Using Propensity Scores: A Practical Guide for Community Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Moore, Julia E.; Butera, Nicole M.

    2014-01-01

    Confounding present in observational data impede community psychologists’ ability to draw causal inferences. This paper describes propensity score methods as a conceptually straightforward approach to drawing causal inferences from observational data. A step-by-step demonstration of three propensity score methods – weighting, matching, and subclassification – is presented in the context of an empirical examination of the causal effect of preschool experiences (Head Start vs. parental care) on reading development in kindergarten. Although the unadjusted population estimate indicated that children with parental care had substantially higher reading scores than children who attended Head Start, all propensity score adjustments reduce the size of this overall causal effect by more than half. The causal effect was also defined and estimated among children who attended Head Start. Results provide no evidence for improved reading if those children had instead received parental care. We carefully define different causal effects and discuss their respective policy implications, summarize advantages and limitations of each propensity score method, and provide SAS and R syntax so that community psychologists may conduct causal inference in their own research. PMID:24185755

  16. The causal effect of an additional sibling on completed fertility : An estimation of intergenerational fertility correlations by looking at siblings of twins

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Kolk

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intergenerational transmission of fertility - a correlation between number of siblings and adult fertility - has been consistently demonstrated in developed countries. However, there is only limited knowledge of the causes of this correlation. Objective: This study estimates the effect of an exogenous increase of number of siblings on adult fertility for men and women using Swedish register data. The effect of an additional sibling is estimated from the birth of younger twin si...

  17. Selecting appropriate cases when tracing causal mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Pedersen, Rasmus Brun

    2016-01-01

    , ontological determinism, causal asymmetry and causal homogeneity and the importance of context. We then develop a set of case selection guidelines that are in methodological alignment with these underlying assumptions. Section 4 develops guidelines for research where the mechanism is the primary focus......The last decade has witnessed resurgence in the interest in studying the causal mechanisms linking causes and outcomes in the social sciences. This article explores the overlooked implications for case selection when tracing mechanisms using in-depth case studies. Our argument is that existing case...... selection guidelines are appropriate for research aimed at making cross-case claims about causal relationships, where case selection is primarily used to control for other causes. However, existing guidelines are not in alignment with case-based research that aims to trace mechanisms, where the goal is to...

  18. A Causal Model for Diagnostic Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Guoqiang; CHENG Hu

    2000-01-01

    Up to now, there have been many methods for knowledge representation and reasoning in causal networks, but few of them include the research on the coactions of nodes. In practice, ignoring these coactions may influence the accuracy of reasoning and even give rise to incorrect reasoning. In this paper, based on multilayer causal networks, the definitions on coaction nodes are given to construct a new causal network called Coaction Causal Network, which serves to construct a model of neural network for diagnosis followed by fuzzy reasoning, and then the activation rules are given and neural computing methods are used to finish the diagnostic reasoning. These methods are proved in theory and a method of computing the number of solutions for the diagnostic reasoning is given. Finally, the experiments and the conclusions are presented.

  19. The Gravity Dual of Boundary Causality

    CERN Document Server

    Engelhardt, Netta

    2016-01-01

    In gauge/gravity duality, points which are not causally related on the boundary cannot be causally related through the bulk; this is the statement of boundary causality. By the Gao-Wald theorem, the averaged null energy condition in the bulk is sufficient to ensure this property. Here we proceed in the converse direction: we derive a necessary as well as sufficient condition for the preservation of boundary causality under perturbative (quantum or stringy) corrections to the bulk. The condition that we find is a (background-dependent) constraint on the amount by which light cones can "open" over all null bulk geodesics. We show that this constraint is weaker than the averaged null energy condition.

  20. What becomes of a causal set

    CERN Document Server

    Wuthrich, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the relativity theory it seeks to replace, causal set theory has been interpreted to leave space for a substantive, though perhaps 'localized', form of 'becoming'. The possibility of fundamental becoming is nourished by the fact that the analogue of Stein's theorem from special relativity does not hold in causal set theory. Despite this, we find that in many ways, the debate concerning becoming parallels the well-rehearsed lines it follows in the domain of relativity. We present, however, some new twists and challenges. In particular, we show that a novel and exotic notion of becoming is compatible with causal sets. In contrast to the 'localized' becoming considered compatible with the dynamics of causal set theory by its advocates, our novel kind of becoming, while not answering to the typical A-theoretic demands, is 'global' and objective.