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Sample records for causada por erwinia

  1. causada por Fusarium moniliforme

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    Mariano Mendoza Elos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de éste trabajo fue determinar la resistencia horizontal de 134 líneas S1 de maíz al hongo Fusarium moniliforme. La enfermedad fue inducida mediante inoculación en la etapa de floración masculina bajo condiciones de campo utilizando la técnica del palillo. Las líneas se evaluaron en México en 2002. La estimación de la enfermedad se hizo en dos ocasiones con una separación de 20 días. Las evaluaciones mostraron que las líneas Roque-801, 804, 1103 y 1405 fueron resistentes en la primera evaluación. Las tasas de incremento de la enfermedad variaron de 0,01 a 0,229 por unidad por día. Las líneas mostraron bajos niveles de enfermedad de 0 a 1 % en la primera evaluación. En la segunda evaluación, los niveles de enfermedad variaron de 49 a 100 %. En un programa de mejoramiento genético estas líneas pueden ser utilizadas para mejorar la resistencia horizontal del maíz a la pudrición del tallo causada por Fusarium moniliforme

  2. Seca dos ponteiros da goiabeira causada por Erwinia psidii: níveis de incidência e aspectos epidemiológicos Guava bacterial blight due to Erwinia psidii: incidence levels and epidemiological aspects

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    Abi Soares Anjos Marques

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Um dos fatores limitantes ao cultivo da goiabeira no Brasil é a 'seca dos ponteiros', causada por Erwinia psidii, presente nas regiões Sudeste e Centro-Oeste, onde se concentram grandes áreas produtoras. Considerando a pequena disponibilidade de informações sobre a epidemiologia e níveis de incidência dessa bacteriose, este estudo teve como objetivos: confirmar a distribuição e verificar a dispersão da seca dos ponteiros da goiabeira no Distrito Federal; investigar o efeito da temperatura sobre a multiplicação in vitro de E. psidii; desenvolver um teste de patogenicidade prático e eficiente e avaliar a sobrevivência in vitro da bactéria em diferentes substratos. A doença foi identificada em 56% das propriedades produtoras avaliadas no DF, com 81,9% de correlação entre a presença de sintomas e o diagnóstico laboratorial. A melhor faixa de temperatura para multiplicação de E. psidii foi de 24 a 33 ºC, e a bactéria permaneceu viável por até 120 dias em suspensão em água. A inoculação da bactéria em folhas ou hastes destacadas levou ao aparecimento de sintomas a partir do sétimo dia e mostrou-se eficiente como um teste rápido para se avaliar a patogenicidade de isolados.A major disease that affects guava is 'bacterial blight', caused by Erwinia psidii, which has been reported in Southeastern and Central Regions of Brazil where the major producing areas are located. Considering the lack of information on epidemiology and incidence levels of this disease, the objectives of this study were to confirm the presence and to verify the spread of the disease in Distrito Federal (DF; to determine optimal temperature for in vitro multiplication of E. psidii; to develop a simple and effective method for pathogenicity testing and to evaluate in vitro bacterial survival on different substrates. The disease was detected in 56% of producing orchards evaluated in DF, with a correlation of 81, 9% between presence of symptoms and

  3. Ptose palpebral causada por Paquidermoperiostose

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    Patricia Regina de Pinho Tavares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A paquidermoperiostose é uma síndrome caracterizada por acometimento cutâneo e ósseo, e em alguns casos ocorre comprometimento palpebral leve. É uma síndrome rara, idiopática ou hereditária, com provável herança autossômica dominante de penetrância variável. Descreve-se o caso de um paciente com ptose grave por paquidermoperiostose elucidando sua fisiopatologia e conduta cirúrgica aplicada.

  4. Endocardite infecciosa causada por Eikenella corrodens

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    Cardoso Juliano Novaes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Os microorganismos do grupo HACEK (Haemophilus spp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens e Kingella kingae são responsáveis por 3% dos casos de endocardites. Eles apresentam propriedades clínicas e microbiológicas semelhantes entre si: são bacilos gram-negativos, isolados mais facilmente em meios aeróbicos, suas culturas necessitam de tempo prolongado de incubação para crescimento (média 3,3 dias e podem ser considerados como parte da flora normal do trato respiratório superior e da orofaringe1,2. Algumas características foram identificadas nas endocardites por esses agentes, como o quadro clínico insidioso¹, diagnóstico difícil pela natureza fastidiosa e culturas negativas3,4. A endocardite por Eikenella corrodens foi descrita pela primeira vez em 1972(5 e continua sendo um agente etiológico raro. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com valva nativa que apresentou endocardite infecciosa causada por Eikenella corrodens.

  5. Síndrome oculoglandular de Parinaud causada por esporotricose

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    Ribeiro,Alexandre Sampaio de Abreu; Bisol,Tiago; Menezes,Marcela Sant'Ana

    2010-01-01

    A síndrome oculoglandular de Parinaud é uma doença ocular rara causada por diferentes agentes etiológicos, entre eles bactérias, vírus e fungos. É caracterizada por uma conjuntivite granulomatosa, acompanhada de linfadenopatia pré-auricular adjacente e pode trazer sequelas caso não seja prontamente tratada. Neste artigo é relatado o caso de uma jovem técnica de enfermagem e estudante de medicina veterinária apresentando a síndrome oculoglandular de Parinaud causada pelo fungo Sporothrix schen...

  6. Hemorragia cerebral causada por enfermedad de la membrana hialina

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    Iglesias Rozas, José Rafael, 1942-

    1982-01-01

    Seis imágenes de una hemorragia cerebral en un neonato causada por la enfermedad de la membrana hialina (también conocida como síndrome de dificultad respiratoria neonatal). Six pictures of a cerebral hemorrhage in a neonate caused by the hyaline membrane disease (also known as neonatal respiratory distress syndrome).

  7. Peracute bovine mastitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae Mastite bovina hiperaguda causada por Klebsiella pneumoniae

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    Ribeiro,M.G.; R.G. Motta; A.C. Paes; S.D. Allendorf; Salerno,T.; Siqueira, A.K. [UNESP; Fernandes, M.C. [UNESP; Lara, G.h.b [UNESP

    2008-01-01

    Relata-se a ocorrência de graves sintomas de mastite hiperaguda em vaca, causada por Klebsiella pneumoniae, na terceira semana de lactação. Descrevem-se aspectos epidemiológicos, sintomas clínicos, procedimentos de diagnóstico microbiológico, conduta terapêutica e medidas de controle.

  8. Peracute bovine mastitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae Mastite bovina hiperaguda causada por Klebsiella pneumoniae

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    M.G. Ribeiro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a ocorrência de graves sintomas de mastite hiperaguda em vaca, causada por Klebsiella pneumoniae, na terceira semana de lactação. Descrevem-se aspectos epidemiológicos, sintomas clínicos, procedimentos de diagnóstico microbiológico, conduta terapêutica e medidas de controle.

  9. Mastitis bovina causada por Staphylococcus coagulasa negativos

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    Bonetto, César C.

    2014-01-01

    El presente Trabajo de Tesis se desprende como una línea de investigación del grupo de la UNRC dedicado al estudio de la problemática de la mastitis bovina tanto en aspectos básicos como aplicados con estudios genéticos, epidemiológicos y de virulencia de los principales microorganismos involucrados en la mastitis bovina. Staphylococccus coagulasa negativo (SCN) es un grupo bacteriano formado por varias especies que por lo general eran considerados flora oportunista de la piel y age...

  10. La podredumbre del cuello del sorgo causada por Fusarium verticilloides

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    Galvez Patón, Laura; Paris de la Rosa, M.; Cordes, G.; Iglesias Gonzalez, Concepcion; Palmero Llamas, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    El sorgo anual ha sido clasificado por de Wet (1978) como Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (2n=20) subespecie bicolor, con 5 razas básicas: bicolor, guinea, caudatum, kafir y durra, las que incluyen los distintos tipos de sorgo existentes en el mercado como los graniferos, los forrajeros tipo sudán, dulces y escoberos (Giorda y Cordes, 2005).

  11. Reações adversas causadas por antiparkinsonianos

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    Lopes, Mariana Aparecida; Tanaka, Érica Mayumi; Nishiyama, Paula

    2012-01-01

    A Doença de Parkinson (DP) acomete geralmente a população idosa que em sua maioria apresenta múltiplos problemas de saúde e faz uso de vários medicamentos, havendo assim uma grande probabilidade da ocorrência de eventos adversos. Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar e caracterizar os medicamentos utilizados e as reações adversas apresentadas por portadores deste agravo, atendidos pelo Programa de Medicamentos Excepcionais (PME) da 15a Regional de Saúde do Paraná. O estudo foi realizado...

  12. Lesiones en el hombro causadas por electrocución

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    Herrero Barcos, L.; Martínez Martín, Angel Antonio; Herrera Rodríguez, Antonio; Cuenca Espiérrez, Jorge; Panisello Sebastiá, Juan José

    2001-01-01

    Las lesiones en el hombro tras sufrir una descarga eléctrica son raras. Presentamos siete pacientes con luxaciones y fracturas en el hombro debidas a una electrocución. Un alto porcentaje de estas lesiones se diagnostican tarde, empeorando de esta manera el pronóstico. Por ello, ante una electrocución, debemos pensar en una lesión de hombro. Shoulder injuries after an electrical shock are rare. We report seven cases with dislocation and fractures of the shoulder due to electrocution. A hig...

  13. Severe gangrene by cold agglutinemia Gangrena grave causada por crioaglutinina

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    Perla Vicari

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The cold agglutinin syndrome is a haemolytic disorder usually manifested by acrocyanosis and Raynaud's phenomenon. Gangrene is an uncommon complication, usually associated with infections or B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases. We present a case of fulminant gangrene of fingers, toes, and nose in a 77-year-old woman with atypical pneumonia and acute renal failure. The diagnosis of haemolytic anaemia with cold agglutinin syndrome was done and the treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids was effective. However, amputation of all the toes on both feet could not be avoided. Clinical aspects of cold agglutinemia, transient or chronic, are briefly discussed. We conclude that, in the presence of cold agglutinin syndrome, the treatment should be promptly initiated in order to avoid complications such as extensive gangrene.Doença da aglutinina a frio é uma patologia caracterizada pela produção de anticorpos contra antígenos específicos da membrana eritrocitária, geralmente de classe IgM, que aglutinam hemácias em temperaturas abaixo de 32º C. Relatamos um caso de gangrena e insuficiência renal em uma mulher de 77 anos com pneumonia atípica. Anemia hemolítica secundária a crioaglutininas foi observada. O tratamento com antibióticos e corticóides foi eficaz com regressão do quadro, porém foi necessária a amputação de todos os dedos do pé (falanges bilateralmente, preservando o restante dos pés (tarsos e metatarsos. Anemia hemolítica secundária a crioaglutininas manifesta-se freqüentemente por acrocianose e fenômeno de Raynaud. Gangrena é uma complicação incomum dessa doença, principalmente quando secundária a etiologia infecciosa, sendo observada apenas em pacientes com altos títulos persistentes. Está correlacionada freqüentemente com causa infecciosa (Mycoplasma spp, vírus Epstein-Barr, citomegalovírus, vírus Influenza A, adenovírus, Legionella spp, linfoproliferativas B e idiopáticas. Suspeita clínica de

  14. Meningite e endocardite infecciosa causada por Rhodotorula mucilaginosa em paciente imunocompetente

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    Sergio Henrique Loss

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de um homem imunocompetente admitido com comprometimento agudo do sistema nervoso, crise hipertensiva e insuficiência renal, vindo a receber diagnóstico de meningite e endocardite infecciosa por Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Até onde sabemos, esta é a primeira descrição de infecção simultânea das meninges e do endotélio causada por Rhodotorula em um paciente sem comprometimento imunológico.

  15. Tratamento laparoscópico de periapendicite causada por dispositivo intra-uterino

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    RACIONAL: Dispositivo intra-uterino pode perfurar o útero e causar várias complicações. OBJETIVO: Descrever um caso de tratamento laparoscópico de periapendicite causada por dispositivo intra-uterino. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Jovem do sexo feminino apresentou dor em fossa ilíaca direita de 4 dias de duração. No exame físico, apresentava dor abdominal localizada em fossa ilíaca direita, com discreta renitência de parede e dor à percussão e descompressão brusca na região. A ultra-sonografia evidenci...

  16. Tratamiento de una depresión causada por pérdida afectiva : caso único

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Este artículo presenta la intervención terapéutica en un caso de depresión grave, causada fundamentalmente por pérdida afectiva. La cliente, de 26 años, sufre una ruptura de una relación sentimental. Después de 2 meses de la ruptura, la paciente manifiesta síntomas depresivos como insomnio, pérdida de peso, llanto constante, falta de concentración, irritabilidad y sentimientos de culpa. Asimismo, se puso de manifiesto una fuerte resistencia a aceptar la ruptura. ...

  17. Tratamento laparoscópico de periapendicite causada por dispositivo intra-uterino

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    Coelho Júlio Cezar Uili

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Dispositivo intra-uterino pode perfurar o útero e causar várias complicações. OBJETIVO: Descrever um caso de tratamento laparoscópico de periapendicite causada por dispositivo intra-uterino. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Jovem do sexo feminino apresentou dor em fossa ilíaca direita de 4 dias de duração. No exame físico, apresentava dor abdominal localizada em fossa ilíaca direita, com discreta renitência de parede e dor à percussão e descompressão brusca na região. A ultra-sonografia evidenciou dispositivo intra-uterino fora do útero, na fossa ilíaca direita. RESULTADOS: À laparoscopia, observou-se massa inflamatória que consistia do dispositivo intra-uterino totalmente bloqueado pelo mesoapêndice e apêndice. Apendicectomia e retirada do dispositivo foram realizadas. CONCLUSÃO: A laparoscopia permite o tratamento adequado da periapendicite causada por dispositivo intra-uterino, inclusive com avaliação adequada de toda a região pélvica para excluir lesões associadas.

  18. Primer caso de onicomicosis causada por Cylindrocarpon lichenicola, en un paciente inmunosuprimido en Costa Rica

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    Mauricio Lizano-Calvo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: la onicomicosis es una infección fúngica de las uñas, que puede ser causada por dermatofitos, levaduras y hongos filamentosos no dermatofitos. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar -morfológica y molecularmente- un aislamiento realizado a partir de la uña del dedo medio de la mano derecha de un paciente inmunosuprimido con trasplante renal. Métodos: a la muestra se le realizó un examen microscópico directo en KOH 40%, y las características de la colonia fueron evaluadas en medio de cultivo Agar Sabouraud Glucosado y Agar Mycosel. El hongo aislado se identificó molecularmente mediante la amplificación, por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR y secuenciación de la región espaciadora transcrita (ITS de los genes ribosomales y de una porción del gen del factor de elongación 1alfa (EF-1α. La secuencia de nucleótidos de cada región fue comparada con las secuencias publicadas en la base de datos del Banco de Genes del Centro Nacional para la Información Biotecnológica (NCBI. Resultados: las características macro y microscópicas de la colonia concordaron con las descritas para Cylindrocarpon lichenicola (sinónimo Fusarium lichenicola. La secuencia de nucleótidos, tanto de la región ITS (544 pb como de la porción del gen EF-1α (710 pb, presentó un 100% de similitud con secuencias de F. lichenicola. Conclusión: se identificó por primera vez en Costa Rica C. lichenicola asociado con onicomicosis en un paciente inmunosuprimido. Este tipo de pacientes deben ser instruidos sobre las posibles fuentes de agentes infecciosos.

  19. Estado de la moniliasis del cacao causada por Moniliophthora roreri en Colombia

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    Javier Correa Álvarez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La moniliasis es una enfermedad fúngica que ataca el cultivo de cacao, causada por el basidiomycete Moniliophthora roreri. Está presente en la mayoría de los países latinoamericanos y se adapta a diversidad de ambientes. En Colombia la enfermedad es devastadora y las estrategias de control tradicional han generado resultados colaterales como el fortalecimiento de la resistencia genética de cepas del hongo en algunas regiones. En esta revisión, se recopilan los aspectos biológicos y agronómicos más relevantes del hongo, entre ellos, origen y distribución, ciclo de vida, formas de control y trabajos de investigación realizados con el fin de entender la genética y evolución de este patógeno. Finalmente, se propone incrementar el número de estudios en investigación básica, con miras a entender cómo ha sido la evolución de su genoma en hábitats que favorecen la variación genética. Con este conocimiento se podría avanzar en programas biotecnológicos de control y prevención de la enfermedad.

  20. Trauma de genitália externa masculina causada por maquinaria

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    Marcelo Cabral Lamy de Miranda

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos um caso de trauma de genitália externa masculina causado por maquinaria tipo roçadeira com bom resultado final. O paciente J.R.A., 26 anos, trabalhador rural, apresentou evento traumático à tração de suas vestes causada por maquinaria, gerando trauma escrotal e testicular direito grau V, trauma escrotal esquerdo grau V, trauma testicular esquerdo grau II, trauma de pênis grau III, com ausência de lesão uretral. O tratamento consistiu em avaliação inicial por cirurgião geral, com posterior avaliação e conduta operatória urológica através de limpeza e desbridamento dos tecidos desvitalizados, ligadura do cordão espermático do lado direito, com introdução em subcutâneo na raiz da coxa esquerda do testículo ipsilateral preservado. Após seis meses realizou-se reconstrução da genitália pela cirurgia plástica através de técnica de colocação de retalho da coxa direita juntamente com músculo grácil. O paciente recebeu alta hospitalar no décimo dia pós-operatório, com melhora visual da estética do órgão, assim como melhora funcional, apresentando episódios de ereção durante a internação. Teve como seqüela reprodutiva azoospermia. Concluímos que em casos de trauma severo com várias lesões associadas em genitália externa masculina, deve-se optar por tratamento cirúrgico com boas perspectivas de retorno de sua função fisiológica. Descritores: genitália masculina, pênis, testículos, ferimentos e lesões, acidentes de trabalho.

  1. PUDRICIÓN BASAL CAUSADA POR Phytophthora capsici EN PLANTAS DE CHILE TRATADAS CON VERMICOMPOST

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    Lidieth Uribe-Lor\\u00EDo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pudrición basal causada por Phytophthora capcisi en plantas de chile tratadas con vermicompost. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar a nivel de invernadero el efecto de vermicompost sobre la incidencia y severidad de Phytophthora capcisi en plantas de chile (Capsicum annuum. Esta investigación se realizó entre febrero y marzo del 2012 en el Centro de Investigaciones Agronómicas, Sabanilla, San José, Costa Rica. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con cuatro repeticiones y ocho plantas por unidad experimental en un arreglo factorial con los factores de dosis (0, 25% y 50% v/v vermicompost:suelo e inoculación (0 y 500 zoosporas por gramo de suelo. Se trasplantaron plántulas de 35 días, que fueron inoculadas dos semanas después del trasplante. La aplicación de vermicompost provocó un aumento significativo del peso fresco foliar y del peso seco foliar y radical; a mayor dosis, mayor fue el incremento. Las plantas de todos los tratamientos que incluyeron inoculación con P. capsici presentaron síntomas de la enfermedad en la raíz. Los valores de incidencia y severidad fueron mayores para el tratamiento con 50% de abono. En este tratamiento se presentaron síntomas de marchitez. La ausencia de diferencias en las variables de peso fresco y seco entre los tratamientos inoculados y sin inocular, a los que se adicionó abono al 25%, sugiere que esta dosis podría compensar el daño causado por el patógeno. Se observó una menor concentración de nutrimentos en los tejidos de las plantas inoculadas lo que indica que el daño causado a la raíz pudo haber afectado la adquisición de nutrimentos.

  2. Perdas causadas por Coccus viridis (Hemiptera: Coccidae em mudas de Coffea arabica L.

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    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Coccus viridis (Green danifica plantas jovens e adultas de Coffea arabica Linnaeu. No entanto, nada se sabe sobre a magnitude dos danos causados por esta praga. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar as relações entre o ataque de C. viridis e as perdas causadas por este inseto a C. arabica. Este trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Foram utilizadas sementes da linhagem IAC 15 da variedade “Catuaí vermelho” de café (C. arabica. Para a confecção dos tratamentos esta praga foi criada em casa de vegetação separada do experimento. Os tratamentos foram: plantas infestadas e não infestadas por adultos e ninfas da cochonilha verde. As plantas foram nutridas com solução nutritiva. Durante 110 dias foram avaliados: números de adultos e de ninfas de primeiro, segundo e terceiro ínstares, área foliar, diâmetro do caule, altura das plantas em todas repetições. No final do experimento avaliou-se o peso das raízes, caule, folhas e total. Os pesos das raízes, matéria seca total, área foliar e diâmetro do caule de plantas não atacadas por C. viridis superaram em 1,31; 1,41; 1,50 e 8,93 vezes, respectivamente o peso de plantas atacadas. As variáveis selecionadas foram: diâmetro do caule (cm, área foliar (cm², peso de raízes (g, ninfas, adultos e total das cochonilhas. Concluindo que a planta de C. arabica é afetada de forma diferente entre seus órgãos e que a ninfa de terceiro ínstar e adultos são as fases que mais causam danos a C. arabica.Losses Caused by Coccus viridis (Green (Hemiptera: Coccidae on Seedlings of Coffea arabica L.Abstract. Coccus viridis (Green cause losses on seedling and old plants of Coffea arabica (Green. However, nothing is known about of the damages caused by this pest. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relations between atack of C. viridis and the losses caused by this insect. on C. arabica. This work was conduced in greenhouse at

  3. Pneumopatia causada por Mycobacterium kansasii Lung disease caused by Mycobacterium kansasii

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    Nelson Morrone

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O Mycobacterium kansasii é uma micobactéria não tuberculosa que pode causar colonização ou infecção pulmonar. OBJETIVO: Relatar experiência com doença pulmonar causada pelo M. kansasii em uma série de seis pacientes diagnosticados ao longo de cinco anos. MÉTODO: Entre junho de 1995 e junho de 2000 foram admitidos 1.349 pacientes no Dispensário do Ipiranga Ari Nogueira da Silva-Sanatorinhos, com o diagnóstico de tuberculose pulmonar, dos quais seis tiveram cultura positiva para M. kansasii. RESULTADOS: Cinco pacientes eram homens e a idade variou entre 25 e 77 anos. Todos apresentavam pneumopatia crônica e eram sintomáticos respiratórios com teste negativo para síndrome de imunodeficiência humana. As radiografias de tórax eram compatíveis com a presença de doença pulmonar prévia: cavidades de paredes finas foram notadas em todos e espessamento pleural subjacente às cavidades foi observado em dois pacientes. Todos foram tratados inicialmente com isoniazida, rifampicina, pirazinamida (INH-RMP-PZA e etambutol (EMB foi introduzido precocemente em dois pacientes por intolerância à pirazinamida, enquanto que em outros dois a introdução foi feita ao ser conhecido o resultado da cultura. Todos os pacientes foram tratados por mais de nove meses, tendo sido observada recidiva em um deles. Um paciente com silicose faleceu após dois anos por insuficiência respiratória, depois de ter sido considerado curado. CONCLUSÕES: A micobacteriose por M. kansasii foi encontrada com baixa freqüência, podendo estar relacionada às características dos pacientes encaminhados ao nosso serviço. O esquema INH-RMP-PZA, com substituição eventual da PZA por etambutol, mostrou sucesso terapêutico.BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium kansasii is a nontuberculous mycobacterium that can colonize the lungs and cause pulmonary infection. OBJECTIVE: To report authors' study of 6 patients with pulmonary disease caused by M. kansasii infection in

  4. FATORES DE RISCO EM PACIENTES COM INFECÇÕES HOSPITALARES CAUSADAS POR Klebsiella pneumoniae PRODUTORA DE CARBAPENEMASE

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    Fernanda Paula Franchini

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae produtora de klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC-Kp) é um patógeno emergente, com resistência a várias classes de antibióticos, sendo que suas infecções são associadas a considerável mortalidade. Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar fatores de risco para aquisição de infecções hospitalares causadas por KPC-Kp e identificar o desfecho clínico dos pacientes que adquirem essas infecções. Este é um estudo de caso-controle realizado em um hospital-escola terciário d...

  5. Incidência de viroses e enfezamentos e estimativa de perdas causadas por molicutes em milho no Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Elizabeth de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a incidência de viroses e enfezamentos e estimar as perdas causadas por enfezamentos na cultura do milho safrinha. Os diagnósticos baseados em sintomas foram confirmados por PCR ou RTPCR. Em todas as lavouras, foram identificadas plantas com sintomas de enfezamentos, em incidência de 6,2% a 49,9% (média de 20,7%. Na identificação de insetos vetores desses patógenos, a cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis foi detectada em 20 lavouras das 24 amostradas, constituindo 66,6% do total de espécimens de cigarrinhas coletadas. A perda potencial causada pelos enfezamentos no período foi estimada em cerca de 16,5 milhões de dólares. A ocorrência de plantas com sintomas de "Maize rayado fino virus" e "Maize dwarf mosaic virus" foi baixa e o diagnóstico confirmado por RTPCR. A análise de 441 amostras suspeitas de infecção por "Mal de Río Cuarto virus", por DASELISA, mostrou ausência desse vírus. Resultados de PCR indicaram a presença de um possível fitoplasma distinto de "Maize bushy stunt phytoplasma" em duas plantas apresentando nanismo acentuado, folhas estreitas, enrijecidas, com deformações, e grãos na inflorescência, havendo necessidade de mais estudos para a confirmação da identidade desse possível novo fitoplasma.

  6. Salmonella causada por reptiles y anfibios en guarderías (Salmonella Infections Caused by Reptiles and Amphibians in Childcare Centers)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-07

    Traducción al español de la entrevista con el Dr. Neil Vora, funcionario del EIS de los CDC, sobre su artículo acerca de las infecciones por Salmonella causadas por reptiles y anfibios en guarderías.  Created: 2/7/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/26/2013.

  7. Identificación de loci de resistencia cuantitativa para la podredumbre de la espiga de maíz causada por Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon y roya común causada por Puccinia sorghi en germoplasma argentino de maíz

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, J. I.; Lúquez, Julia

    2009-01-01

    La podredumbre de la espiga de maíz causada por Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, y la roya común, causada por Puccinia sorghi, son dos de las más importantes enfermedades del maíz en Argentina. Se observa variabilidad para la resistencia a ambas enfermedades entre los grupos heteróticos Iowa Stiff Stalk y Flint Argentino, utilizados para el mejoramiento genético del maíz. Se ha informado sobre la existencia de resistencia general a podredumbre de la espiga para podredumbre y sobre resistencia ge...

  8. Proptose causada por adenoma pituitário gigante: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Andréa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso raro de proptose unilateral associada à paralisia oculomotora e cegueira causados por adenoma pituitário gigante. MÉTODOS: A paciente foi submetida a exame clínico e oftalmológico completo, campimetria, exame de imagem por ressonância magnética e estudo histopatológico do tumor após intervenção cirúrgica. RESULTADOS: Paciente de 21 anos apresentou perda visual progressiva bilateral associada à proptose e limitação da motilidade ocular do olho esquerdo. A campimetria revelou hemianopsia temporal completa no olho direito e havia ausência de percepção luminosa no olho esquerdo. O exame de imagem por ressonância magnética mostrou extenso tumor infiltrando o terceiro ventrículo, seio cavernoso e ápice da órbita à esquerda. O estudo histopatológico revelou se tratar de adenoma hipofisário produtor de hormônio de crescimento e prolactina sem sinais de malignidade. CONCLUSÃO: Este caso é de interesse não apenas pelo fato do envolvimento orbitário pelos adenomas ser extremamente raro, mas também para salientar a importância de diagnóstico precoce uma vez que apesar da histologia benigna, os adenomas invasivos nem sempre seguem curso clínico favorável.

  9. Surdez súbita causada por hemorragia intralabiríntica Sudden hearing loss caused by labyrinthine hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Salomone

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A surdez súbita sensorioneural é uma perda auditiva súbita ou rapidamente progressiva. Na maioria dos casos a etiologia não é descoberta. Uma das causas possíveis de surdez súbita é a hemorragia intralabiríntica que, antes do surgimento da ressonância magnética, não era corretamente diagnosticada. O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar um caso de surdez súbita causada por hemorragia intralabiríntica e realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre este assunto.Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is relatively frequent. In most cases, the etiology is not discovered. One of the possible causes for sudden deafness is inner labyrinth bleeding, which was difficult to diagnose before the advent of magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of sudden hearing loss caused by a labyrinthine hemorrhage, and to present a review of the literature on this topic.

  10. Pudrición basal causada por Phytophthora capcisi en plantas de chile tratadas con vermicompost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidieth Uribe-Lorío

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar a nivel de invernadero el efecto de vermicompost sobre la incidencia y severidad de Phytophthora capcisi en plantas de chile (Capsicum annuum. Esta investigación se realizó entre febrero y marzo del 2012 en el Centro de Investigaciones Agronómicas, Sabanilla, San José, Costa Rica. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con cuatro repeticiones y ocho plantas por unidad experimental en un arreglo factorial con los factores de dosis (0, 25% y 50% v/v vermicompost:suelo e inoculación (0 y 500 zoosporas por gramo de suelo. Se trasplantaron plántulas de 35 días, que fueron inoculadas dos semanas después del trasplante. La aplicación de vermicompost provocó un aumento significativo del peso fresco foliar y del peso seco foliar y radical; a mayor dosis, mayor fue el incremento. Las plantas de todos los tratamientos que incluyeron inoculación con P. capsici presentaron síntomas de la enfermedad en la raíz. Los valores de incidencia y severidad fueron mayores para el tratamiento con 50% de abono. En este tratamiento se presentaron síntomas de marchitez. La ausencia de diferencias en las variables de peso fresco y seco entre los tratamientos inoculados y sin inocular, a los que se adicionó abono al 25%, sugiere que esta dosis podría compensar el daño causado por el patógeno. Se observó una menor concentración de nutrimentos en los tejidos de las plantas inoculadas lo que indica que el daño causado a la raíz pudo haber afectado la adquisición de nutrimentos.

  11. Agnosia integrativa causada por una epilepsia focal occipital izquierda: estudio de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Óscar Mauricio Aguilar Mejía; Beatriz Ramírez Bermejo; Luis Manuel Silva Martín

    2011-01-01

    La agnosia integrativa es un tipo de agnosia visual asociada a lesiones occipitales bilaterales que se caracteriza por la incapacidad para identificar estímulos en fondos complejos, especialmente, cuando se trata de formas superpuestas o entrelazadas. Existen dificultades para codificar y agrupar el todo a partir de las partes del estímulo. Se presenta un caso de una paciente de 14 años, con una agnosia integrativa como consecuencia de una epilepsia focal sintomática refractaria, con un foco ...

  12. Endocardite valvar mitral causada por Chlamydia psittaci: apresentação de um caso raro

    OpenAIRE

    Wolker,Rinaldo Luiz; Hahn,Cristiano Gustavo; Rita,Jorge Rafael Ruiz; Giublin, Paulo Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Relatamos o caso de um criador de pássaros que desenvolveu um quadro consuntivo, febril, com mialgia e hemoculturas negativas. Internado por três ocasiões, foi tratado empiricamente com antibióticos, sem melhora. Após quatro meses, apresentou piora com sinais de infecção sistêmica. Ecocardiograma demonstrou insuficiência mitral moderada, com vegetações, não presentes em exame prévio. Sorologia positiva para Chlamydia psittaci (imunofluorescência indireta). Na cirurgia, identificou-se grande d...

  13. Agnosia integrativa causada por una epilepsia focal occipital izquierda: estudio de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Mauricio Aguilar Mejía

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La agnosia integrativa es un tipo de agnosia visual asociada a lesiones occipitales bilaterales que se caracteriza por la incapacidad para identificar estímulos en fondos complejos, especialmente, cuando se trata de formas superpuestas o entrelazadas. Existen dificultades para codificar y agrupar el todo a partir de las partes del estímulo. Se presenta un caso de una paciente de 14 años, con una agnosia integrativa como consecuencia de una epilepsia focal sintomática refractaria, con un foco epileptogénico occipital izquierdo. Se plantean las características clínicas de la paciente y se hace un análisis de sus procesos de reconocimiento visual discutidos a partir de los diferentes modelos teóricos que tratan de explicar la percepción visual.

  14. ANTRACNOSE DO CAQUIZEIRO CAUSADA POR Colletotrichum horii: INCIDÊNCIA EM RAMOS, FOLHAS, FLORES E FRUTOS EM CAMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATO REZENDE YOUNG BLOOD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a incidência em várias partes da planta e o desenvolvimento da antracnose do caquizeiro causada por Colletotrichum horiinas cultivares Fuyu e Kakimel produzidas sob os sistemas orgânico e convencional, respectivamente, nas safras de 2010/2011 e 2011/2012, em Campina Grande do Sul, Paraná, Brasil. Em cada pomar, 10 plantas foram selecionadas aleatoriamente, e 10 ramos do ano por planta, distribuídos ao redor dacopa, foram marcados para as avaliações de incidência de antracnose em ramos e folhas, a cada 15 dias. A quantificação de frutos caídos com ou sem sintomas da doença foi a cada 15 dias, durante o período de crescimento de frutos até a colheita, relacionada com a produção total. C. horii em flores foi avaliada em campo e também após incubação no laboratório. Infecção latente foi observada em frutos verdes coletados aos 90; 120 e 150 dias após a floração. Em ambas as safras, observou-se a queda de frutos com sintomas de antracnose entre os meses de janeiro e abril. C. horii é capaz de infectar flores, permanecer latente e provocar sintomas de antracnose em frutos imaturos. Frutos colhidos sadios apresentaram sintomas em pós-colheita após a incubação.

  15. Comportamiento de la diarrea causada por virus y bacterias en regiones cercanas a la zona ecuatorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Gutiérrez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA es un problema de salud a nivel mundial que afecta a la población infantil de distintas regiones. Casi todos los estudios epidemiológicos se han hecho en países con estaciones y poco se informa su comportamiento en países sin estaciones, donde la EDA es endémica con picos epidémicos. Objetivos: Contribuir a conocer la conducta de EDA en Colombia y determinar si su comportamiento es diferente en niños menores de cinco años en dos regiones distintas entre sí en geografía y clima. Materiales y métodos: Se hizo un estudio descriptivo en dos localidades colombianas. Una en la costa atlántica y otra en el centro del país. La muestra se obtuvo en menores de cinco años que consultaron por diarrea a centros asistenciales de cada región. Los microorganismos bacterianos se identificaron mediante pruebas bioquímicas y los virus con técnicas inmunoenzimáticas. En el análisis estadístico se siguieron un ensayo bivariado y pruebas Z de normalidad para verificar si el clima modifica el comportamiento de EDA y si se presenta de manera distinta en las dos regiones. Resultados: En ambas zonas (Cartagena, Bolívar y Facatativa, Cundinamarca predominó la diarrea viral, frente a la EDA bacteriana. También en ambas el rotavirus fue prevalente. Fue mucho más baja la presencia de astrovirus y adenovirus. No hubo datos con significación estadística para demostrar que las condiciones ambientales y las propias de los niños, alteran el comportamiento de la EDA, pero sí se observó que la EDA por rotavirus se comporta de manera diferente al analizar en forma comparativa las dos regiones del estudio.

  16. Comportamiento de la diarrea causada por virus y bacterias en regiones cercanas a la zona ecuatorial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Gutiérrez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA es un problema de salud a nivel mundial que afecta a la población infantil de distintas regiones. Casi todos los estudios epidemiológicos se han hecho en países con estaciones y poco se informa su comportamiento en países sin estaciones, donde la EDA es endémica con picos epidémicos. OBJETIVOS: Contribuir a conocer la conducta de EDA en Colombia y determinar si su comportamiento es diferente en niños menores de cinco años en dos regiones distintas entre sí en geografía y clima. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se hizo un estudio descriptivo en dos localidades colombianas. Una en la costa atlántica y otra en el centro del país. La muestra se obtuvo en menores de cinco años que consultaron por diarrea a centros asistenciales de cada región. Los microorganismos bacterianos se identificaron mediante pruebas bioquímicas y los virus con técnicas inmunoenzimáticas. En el análisis estadístico se siguieron un ensayo bivariado y pruebas Z de normalidad para verificar si el clima modifica el comportamiento de EDA y si se presenta de manera distinta en las dos regiones. RESULTADOS: En ambas zonas (Cartagena, Bolívar y Facatativa, Cundinamarca predominó la diarrea viral, frente a la EDA bacteriana. También en ambas el rotavirus fue prevalente. Fue mucho más baja la presencia de astrovirus y adenovirus. No hubo datos con significación estadística para demostrar que las condiciones ambientales y las propias de los niños, alteran el comportamiento de la EDA, pero sí se observó que la EDA por rotavirus se comporta de manera diferente al analizar en forma comparativa las dos regiones del estudio.

  17. Paraplegia aguda por compressão da medula espinhal torácica causada por tofo gotoso

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    O acometimento axial pela gota é um evento raro, e o envolvimento da coluna torácica foi descrito em apenas 17 casos na literatura. Apresentamos um caso de paciente do sexo masculino de 48 anos com história de gota, sob tratamento irregular com alopurinol e colchicina, que desenvolveu paraplegia aguda decorrente de compressão medular por tofo gotoso. Realizou-se o diagnóstico por meio de ressonância magnética e anatomia patológica. Foi tratado com antiinflamatórios e descompressão cirúrgica c...

  18. Piomiositis primaria causada por Streptococcus intermedius Primary pyomyositis caused by Streptococcus intermedius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Repáraz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available La piomiositis es una infección subaguda bacteriana que afecta al músculo estriado y suele acompañarse de la formación de un absceso en dicho músculo. Fue descrita inicialmente como una enfermedad endémica en los trópicos y sólo en los últimos años se ha observado un incremento del número de casos en países de clima templado en relación a un aumento de pacientes inmunodeprimidos. El germen causal es Staphylococcus aureus en más del 75% de los casos. La prueba de imagen más útil es la resonancia magnética. El tratamiento consiste en el drenaje quirúrgico completo del absceso combinado con una antibioterapia adecuada. Presentamos un caso de piomiositis primaria del cuádriceps en un paciente diabético con un antecedente traumático remoto de la zona afectada y causado por un germen inusual. Se obtuvo una recuperación completa y sin secuelas tras drenaje quirúrgico y 4 semanas de tratamiento antibiótico endovenoso.Pyomyositis is a sub-acute bacterial infection that affects the striated muscle and is usually accompanied by the formation of an abscess in this muscle. It was initially described as an endemic disease in the tropics and only in recent years has an increase been observed in the number of cases in countries with a temperate climate in relation to an increase of immuno-depressed patients. The causal germ is Staphylococcus aureus in more than 75% of cases. The most useful imaging test is magnetic resonance. Treatment consists of complete surgical draining of the abscess combined with a suitable antibiotic therapy. We present a case of primary pyomyositis of the quadriceps in a diabetic patient with a remote traumatic antecedent of the affected zone and caused by an unusual germ. A complete recovery was obtained, without sequels, following surgical draining and 4 weeks of endovenous antibiotic treatment.

  19. Prevalência da filariose canina causada por Dirofilaria immitis e Dipetalonema reconditum em Maceió, Alagoas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito Ana Cristina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência da filariose canina causada por Dirofilaria immitis e Dipetalonema reconditum, foi estimada após a realização de inquérito hemoscópico em 1.519 cães domiciliados. Foram examinados 1.097 cães nos sete distritos sanitários da cidade de Maceió, Alagoas, 204 na Ilha de Santa Rita e 218 na cidade de Paripueira. Em Maceió, foram detectados 15 (1,3% cães com microfilárias (MF de D. immitis e 15 (1,3% com MF de D. reconditum. Todos os casos positivos foram considerados autóctones. As MF de D. immitis e de D. reconditum mediram 298,1µm e 249,2µm de comprimento e 7,3µm e 4,4µm de largura, respectivamente. Além do diagnóstico parasitológico pela técnica de gota espessa (100µL, foi utilizado o teste imunológico Witness, para detecção de antígeno filarial circulante, o qual confirmou os dados parasitológicos e permitiu a detecção de casos de infecção oculta. De um total de 6.579 fêmeas examinadas, pertencentes a seis espécies de mosquitos, oito (0,1% fêmeas de Culex quinquefasciatus foram encontradas naturalmente infectadas com larvas de D. immitis. Estes resultados demonstram a presença simultânea de D. immitis e D. reconditum na mesma área geográfica.

  20. Indicadores de riesgo de morbilidad prevenible causada por medicamentos Risk indicators of preventable morbidity related to drug utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Dago Martínez

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Seleccionar y estudiar la aceptabilidad, en términos de relevancia y pertinencia, de ciertas situaciones clínicas que puedan usarse como indicadores de riesgo de morbilidad prevenible causada por medicamentos y que sean utilizables en las farmacias comunitarias. Método: Método Delphi, en 2 rondas, con un panel de 14 expertos médicos y farmacéuticos que valoraron la relevancia y pertinencia de 68 tipos de situaciones clínicas como indicadores de morbilidad potencial relacionada con medicamentos, detectable por el profesional en su medio, con evidencia científica de resultado adverso previsible, frecuentes en el medio ambulatorio y con causa y resultado controlables. Resultados: Se consideraron utilizables y pertinentes 43 de los 68 indicadores estudiados, que se referían a 3 ámbitos: tipo de medicamento (medicamentos de estrecho margen terapéutico, con dosis individualizada y con reacciones adversas frecuentes y graves, problema de salud (problemas crónicos, especialmente asma, enfermedad cardíaca, tiroidea, prostática y dolor y tipo de paciente (ancianos y/o polimedicados. Los farmacéuticos sobrevaloraron sistemáticamente ciertos indicadores en relación con los médicos, aunque las diferencias no fueron significativas. Conclusiones: Se identificaron 43 indicadores de morbilidad potencial relacionada con los medicamentos e identificables por los profesionales en su entorno.Objective: To select clinical situations that can be used as risk indicators of preventable morbidity caused by drugs at the community pharmacies, and to study their acceptability, in terms of pertinence and relevance. Methods: We used the Delphi technique, in 2 rounds, by a panel of 14 medical doctors and pharmacists experts, to study the relevance of 68 types of clinical situations as risk indicators of preventable morbidity related to drug utilization used by health professionals in community pharmacies, with scientific evidence of foreseeable

  1. Hipertensão pseudo-resistente causada por baixa adesão terapêutica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Dias Oliveira-Filho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar pacientes com hipertensão arterial pseudo-resistente causada pela não-adesão terapêutica. Foi realizado um estudo transversal com pacientes com hipertensão atendidos pela Estratégia de Saúde da Família. As entrevistas e medidas da pressão arterial ocorreram nas residências dos pacientes cadastrados em uma unidade de saúde da família, em Maceió, entre abril de 2011 e fevereiro de 2012. Os pacientes com pressão arterial não-controlada foram classificados como pacientes com hipertensão arterial resistente (HAR ou com hipertensão pseudo-resistente, definida como a observação de falha no controle da PA causada por farmacoterapia anti-hipertensiva inapropriada, não adesão aos anti-hipertensivos, medida inadequada da PA ou efeito do jaleco branco. A adesão terapêutica foi determinada por meio da Escala de Adesão Terapêutica de oito itens de Morisky (MMAS-8. Foram investigados 173 pacientes, com idade média de 55 anos (DP 11,08 e predominância do sexo feminino (71,0%. Observou-se que 63,0% dos pacientes apresentaram PA não-controlada, dentre estes, 87,2% não eram aderentes à farmacoterapia anti-hipertensiva. Apenas 4 (2,3% pacientes foram identificados com HAR. No total, 95 pacientes não-aderentes (54,9% poderiam ser diagnosticados erroneamente como portadores de HAR, caracterizando a hipertensão pseudo-resistente causada por não-adesão. Observou-se que a não-adesão à farmacoterapia anti-hipertensiva parece ser uma relevante – e potencialmente a principal – causa da hipertensão pseudo-resistente. A identificação e remoção de tal causa podem contribuir significativamente para o diagnóstico da hipertensão resistente, evitando superexposição a medicamentos desnecessários e terapias adicionais excessivas.Palavras-chave: Pressão arterial. Hipertensão resistente. Adesão à medicação. Hipertensão pseudo-resistente. ABSTRACTMedication adherence in patients with

  2. Análise da ação do gel de plaquetas e glutamina em mucosite causada por quimioterapia induzida em ratos Wistar

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Haddad Barrach Zabalia

    2015-01-01

    Neste estudo avaliou-se a ação do gel de Plaquetas e da Glutamina no processo de cicatrização de lesões bucais causadas por mucosite induzida por quimioterapia em ratos Wistar. Foram utilizados 50 animais divididos em 05 grupos: um Grupo A (Gel de Plaquetas), Grupo B (Glutamina tópica), Grupo C (Glutamina gavagem), Grupo D (Glutamina + Gel de plaquetas) e Grupo E (controle +). A partir do 7o dia após a quimioterapia, avaliou-se os graus de mucosite e iniciou-se a aplicação dos medicamentos pr...

  3. Jejunal perforation caused by abdominal angiostrongyliasis Perfuração jejunal causada por angiostrongilíase abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaques WAISBERG

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in an adult patient presenting acute abdominal pain caused by jejunal perforation. The case was unusual, as this affliction habitually involves the terminal ileum, appendix, cecum or ascending colon. The disease is caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis, whose definitive hosts are forest rodents while snails and slugs are its intermediate hosts. Infection in humans is accidental and occurs via the ingestion of snail or slug mucoid secretions found on vegetables, or by direct contact with the mucus. Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is clinically characterized by prolonged fever, anorexia, abdominal pain in the right-lower quadrant, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Although usually of a benign nature, its course may evolve to more complicated forms such as intestinal obstruction or perforation likely to require a surgical approach. Currently, no efficient medication for the treatment of abdominal angiostrongyliasis is known to be available. In this study, the authors provide a review on the subject, considering its etiopathogeny, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment.Os autores descrevem caso de angiostrongilíase abdominal em doente adulto que se manifestou como abdômen agudo devido à perfuração de alça jejunal, evento raro, uma vez que esta afecção geralmente envolve o íleo terminal, apêndice, ceco ou cólon ascendente. A doença é causada pelo nematódeo Angiostrongylus costaricensis cujos hospedeiros definitivos são roedores silvestres e os hospedeiros intermediários são caracóis e caramujos. A infecção em humanos é acidental e ocorre pela ingestão de secreção mucóide destes invertebrados presentes em vegetais ou por contato direto com o muco. A angiostrongilíase abdominal é clinicamente caracterizada pela presença de febre prolongada, anorexia, dor no quadrante inferior direito do abdômen e eosinofilia periférica. Embora a doença seja de

  4. Costo económico de la discapacidad causada por lesiones de tránsito en México durante 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia G. Sánchez-Vallejo; Ricardo Pérez-Núñez; Ileana Heredia-Pi

    2015-01-01

    Para estimar el costo económico de la discapacidad permanente causada por lesiones de tránsito en México durante 2012, desde las perspectivas del Sistema de Salud y de la Sociedad, se realizó un estudio de costos que utiliza metodología bottom-up, considerando costos directos médicos (hospitalización, consultas ambulatorias y de rehabilitación y prótesis), y costos indirectos (pérdida de productividad del lesionado y cuidador) con una aproxima...

  5. Dermatomicose e ceratite micótica causada por Exophiala sp em um cão Dermatomycosis and mycotic keratitis caused by Exophiala sp in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Neste trabalho, descreve-se o diagnóstico e a conduta terapêutica aplicada em caso de dermatomicose e ceratite micótica causada por Exophiala sp em um cão com um ano e seis meses de idade. Os sinais clínicos incluíam alopecia, crostas, despigmentação e ulceração do plano nasal e focinho, e ceratite superficial bilateral no canto lateral dos olhos. Na cultura fúngica foi isolado Exophiala sp e o exame histopatológico da biopsia cutânea revelou dermatite nodular superficial e profunda granuloma...

  6. Diseño y estandarización de una prueba de PCR para el diagnóstico de la Bartonelosis causada por Bartonella bacilliformis

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    Carlos Padilla R

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Diseñar una prueba de PCR para el diagnóstico de la Bartonelosis causada por Bartonella bacilliformis. Materiales y métodos: Se usó la secuencia del locus de invasión ialB para diseñar los oligonucleótidos ialBF y ialBR, además del ADN geonómico purificado de una cepa referencial de B. bacilliformis para estandarizar las condiciones de la prueba. Finalmente, la prueba fue preliminarmente evaluada con 12 cepas de B. bacilliormis aisladas en 3 áreas endémicas y 10 muestras de sangre total de pacientes con Bartonelosis confirmada. Resultados: La prueba detectó el ADN de aislamientos de B. bacilliformis de 3 áreas bartonelósicas endémicas del Perú: Ancash, Cuzco y Lima; mientras que no detectó el ADN de B. hensenlae, ni de B. vinsonii, ni de otras bacterias y parásitos. Además, esta prueba fue positiva para 10 muestras sanguíneas de pacientes con bartonelosis confirmada y negativa para 5 muestras de pacientes con malaria por P. falciparum. Conclusión: Esta prueba de PCR podría ser útil para el diagnóstico de la bartonelosis causada por B. bacilliformis.

  7. An unusual gangrenous goat mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli co-infection Mastite gangrenosa caprina atípica causada por co-infecção por Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens e Escherichia coli

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    M.G. Ribeiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se, pela primeira vez no Brasil, a ocorrência de mastite gangrenosa caprina atípica causada pela co-infecção por Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens e Escherichia coli em uma cabra da raça Boer, na segunda semana de lactação. Descrevem-se os achados clínicos, os procedimentos de diagnóstico microbiológico e a conduta terapêutica.

  8. Mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii: relato de um caso Clinical bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii: a case study

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    Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva Brito

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Um caso de mastite clínica causada por Prototheca zopfii em uma vaca de um rebanho leiteiro localizado na Zona da Mata do Estado de Minas Gerais foi estudado. O animal apresentou sinais clínicos nos quartos mamárias anteriores e queda acentuada na produção de leite. Após o diagnóstico inicial, o animal foi observado durante onze meses, do início da manifestação da doença até 12 dias após o parto. Exames microbiológicos do leite foram realizadas aos 7, 30, 39, 49, 65, 326 e 331 dias após o isolamento inicial, sendo os dois últimos exames realizados 7 e 12 dias após o parto. As amostras de P. zopfii isoladas apresentaram resistência in vitro a: ampicilina, canamicina, cefatoridina, enrofloxacina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, neomicina, oxacilina, penicilina, sulfonamidas e trimetoprim x sulfametoxazol. Foi avaliada a susceptibilidade in vitro das amostras de P. zopfii a um produto natural constituído de extrato de sementes de frutas cítricas, obtido comercialmente. A menor concentração que inibiu totalmente a alga foi 1:500. Recomendou-se um tratamento com a diluição a 1:200 do extrato em solução fisiológica estéril contendo timerosal a 1:30.000 como conservante, em doses diárias de 20ml, por via intramamária. O tratamento foi realizado inicialmente durante sete dias. Após este período houve redução, mas não a completa eliminação dos organismos do leite. Foi, então, recomendado mais um período de 15 dias de tratamento, de modo semelhante ao primeiro. Trinta e nove dias após o diagnóstico inicial não foi mais isolado P. zopfii do leite dos quartos afetados e a produção retornou a níveis semelhantes de antes da infecção. Amostras de leite naturalmente infectadas foram congelados a -20°C. Células viáveis de P. zopfii foram recuperadas de amostras mantidas até 38 dias nestas condições.A clinical case of mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii in a cow from a dairy herd located in the region of Zona da

  9. Tasa de infección de la pudrición del tallo en maíz causada por Fusarium moniliforme

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano Mendoza Elos; Enrique Andrio Enr\\u00EDquez; Alfonso L\\u00F3pez Ben\\u00EDtez; Ra\\u00FAl Rodr\\u00EDguez Guerra; Luis Latournerie Moreno; Sergio A. Rodr\\u00EDguez Herrera

    2006-01-01

    Tasa de infección de la pudrición del tallo en maíz causada por Fusarium moniliforme. El objetivo de éste trabajo fue determinar la resistencia horizontal de 134 líneas S1 de maíz al hongo Fusarium moniliforme. La enfermedad fue inducida mediante inoculación en la etapa de floración masculina bajo condiciones de campo utilizando la técnica del palillo. Las líneas se evaluaron en México en 2002. La estimación de la enfermedad se hizo en dos ocasiones con una separación de 20 días. Las evaluaci...

  10. Podridão de raízes causada por Pythium aphanidermatum, em cultivares de alface produzidas em sistema hidropônico

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    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A podridão de raízes, causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e outras espécies de Pythium, é a principal doença da alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quatro cultivares comerciais de alface em relação à sensibilidade a podridão de raízes, causada por P. aphanidermatum. Os estudos foram realizados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água com plântulas de alface das cultivares crespa (Vera e Verônica e lisa (Regina e Elisa, infestadas ou não com o patógeno. Com as mesmas cultivares foram realizados quatro experimentos em sistemas hidropônicos (Nutrient Film Technique, sendo dois em estufa coberta com plástico e sombrite e dois em estufa coberta apenas com plástico. As plântulas, infectadas ou não com P. aphanidermatum, foram transplantadas para os sistemas infestados ou não. Foi avaliada a severidade da doença e o desenvolvimento das plantas. Todas as cultivares foram suscetíveis à podridão de raízes nos experimentos realizados in vitro e in vivo. A presença do sombrite não reduziu a podridão de raízes em cultivares de alface produzidas no sistema hidropônico. A cultivar Regina apresentou maior massa de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, na presença ou ausência do patógeno, sendo a mais indicada para o cultivo hidropônico na época mais quente do ano.

  11. Crestamento foliar, nova sintomatologia em algodoeiro causada por Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum Cotton leaf blight, a new symptomatology caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum

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    Valdemar Atílio Malavolta Jr.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi observada recentemente no Estado de São Paulo uma nova sintomatologia em algodoeiro cv. Makina, IAC 24 e Detaopal, causada por Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum (Xam, denominada "crestamento foliar". Caracteriza-se por crestamento foliar, geralmente acompanhado por halo clorótico, podendo também causar sintomas de "V" invertido, a partir dos bordos foliares. Linhagens de Xam foram comparadas, por meio de testes de patogenicidade, bioquímicos, sorológicos, culturais e PCR-RFLP da região espaçadora 16S-23S DNAr. Independentemente do tipo de sintoma, as linhagens apresentaram características e perfis idênticos aos apresentados pela linhagem tipo, confirmando a identidade dos isolados como Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum.Recently a new symptomatology on cotton plants (cv. Makina, IAC 24 and Deltaopal caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum (Xam was observed in São Paulo state, Brazil, and named "bacterial leaf blight". The symptom was characterized by leaf blight, generally exhibiting chlorotic haloes and sometimes showing V-shaped lesions beginning at the leaves' border. Strains of Xam responsible for typical angular leaf spots and bacterial leaf blight were compared through pathological, biochemical, serological, cultural and RFLP-PCR tests of the 16S-23S spacer region. Independently of the symptom type, the strains exhibited characteristics and profiles that were identical to those exhibited by the type strain, which confirms the isolates identity Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum

  12. Síndrome hemolítico-urêmica causada por gencitabina em uma paciente jovem com colangiocarcinoma

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    John Fredy Nieto-Ríos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A gencitabina é um fármaco utilizado no tratamento de vários tipos de neoplasias malignas. Há poucas descrições de associação entre a droga e a síndrome hemolítico-urêmica (SHU, apesar de os pacientes em questão terem ido a óbito em pelo menos 50% dos casos. O presente artigo relata o caso de uma paciente com 25 anos de idade em remissão diagnosticada com colangiocarcinoma que apresentou anemia hemolítica microangiopática acompanhada de insuficiência renal aguda anúrica após cinco ciclos de quimioterapia com gencitabina; as manifestações eram condizentes com SHU causada pelos efeitos colaterais do medicamento. A administração de gencitabina foi interrompida, e a paciente foi tratada com hemodiálise, transfusões de sangue, trocas de plasma, corticosteroides, doxiciclina e rituximabe. Foi atingido um desfecho favorável; mais especificamente, a hemólise foi controlada e a função renal foi plenamente restabelecida.

  13. Primeira ocorrência de ferrugem em capim-limão causada por Puccinia cymbopogonis no Brasil First report of the lemongrass rust fungi caused by Puccinia cymbopogonis in Brazil

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    João Batista Vida

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available È registrada a primeira ocorrência de ferrugem em capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, causada por Puccinia cymbopogonis Mass., no Brasil, Estado do Paraná.It is reported the first occurrence of the lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf rust fungi caused by Puccinia cymbopogonis Mass. in Brazil, State of Paraná.

  14. PÉRDIDAS CAUSADAS POR EL AMACHAMIENTO DEL FRIJOL (Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie Y REACCIÓN DEL GERMOPLASMA COMERCIAL AL PATÓGENO

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    N\\u00E9stor Felipe Chaves-Barrantes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La determinación de pérdidas causadas por amachamiento (Aphelenchoides besseyi en campo se llevó a cabo entre 2007 y 2008, en las regiones Brunca y Huetar Norte de Costa Rica, y la prueba de reacción de variedades se realizó en 2009 en la región Brunca. Para determinar pérdidas se establecieron 83 microparcelas de 3 m a lo largo de la hilera del cultivo, en campos reproductores de semilla de la variedad Cabécar, donde se evaluó la incidencia de la enfermedad durante tres etapas fenológicas (V3 o V4, R6 y R8. Se cuantifi caron los principales indicadores de rendimiento para cada microparcela y, mediante un análisis de regresión y correlación, se estimaron las pérdidas causadas por el amachamiento. Para determinar la reacción de cultivares a la enfermedad, se expuso bajo presión de inóculo natural, diez plantas de cada variedad (Bribrí, Chánguena, Cabécar, Gibre, Chirripó, Guaymí y Brunca, y se comparó su producción de vainas con respecto a la misma cantidad de plantas sanas, por medio de una prueba de t para muestras independientes. Las pérdidas determinadas en condiciones de campo fueron del 71 al 80% en el número de vainas y del 70 al 85% en rendimiento. La reducción en el número de semillas por vaina (0-16% y en el peso de 100 semillas (0-19% fueron bajos. Ninguna de las variedades comerciales de frijol presentó resistencia al amachamiento, ya que se obtuvieron pérdidas superiores al 91% en el número de vainas en los cultivares evaluados, excepto Gibre (82%.

  15. Conidiobolomicose causada por Conidiobolus lamprauges em ovinos no Estado de Santa Catarina Conidiobolomycosis caused by Conidiobolus lamprauges in sheep in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Fernando Henrique Furlan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de conidiobolomicose em ovinos no Estado de Santa Catarina. O surto ocorreu entre os meses de dezembro e março de 2006, no município de Santo Amaro da Imperatriz, região litorânea do Estado. A propriedade possuía 75 ovinos da raça Santa Inês e seis desses animais adoeceram. Clinicamente os animais doentes apresentavam dificuldade respiratória, corrimento nasal seroso a mucossanguinolento e, por vezes exolftalmia. Na necropsia verificou-se uma massa amarelada na região etmoidal e adjacências que, às vezes, atingia os linfonodos regionais, cérebro, globo ocular e pleura. Microscopicamente a massa caracterizava-se por infiltrado inflamatório granulomatoso com áreas necróticas associadas a hifas largas pouco ramificadas. Através de exame molecular detectou-se DNA de Conidiobolus lamprauges. Os aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos, macroscópicos, microscópicos e moleculares caracterizam a conidiobolomicose causada por Conidiobolus lamprauges em ovinos.An outbreak of conidiobolomycosis affecting sheep in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil is reported. The disease occurred in six Santa Inês breed sheep from a flock of 75 during the rainy season. Common clinical signs were noisy respiration and dyspnea, serous to mucosanguineous nasal discharge and exophthalmus. At necropsy there was a dense yellow mass in the nasopharyngeal area affecting the ethmoidal region, turbinate bones and occasionally limph nodes, central nervous system and pleura. Histopathologycally there was multifocal granulomas whith an eosinophilic necrotic reaction containing ribbon type hyphae similar to zygomycetous fungi. At molecular examination Conidiobolus lamprauges DNA was detected. The clinical, epidemiological, macroscopical, microscopical and molecular aspects characterize conidiobolomycosis caused by Conidiobolus lamprauges in sheep.

  16. El estado de las lesiones causadas por el tránsito en México: evidencias para fortalecer la estrategia mexicana de seguridad vial

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    Ricardo Pérez-Núñez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la revisión de información secundaria oficial, publicaciones científicas y el análisis de la ENSANut-2012, este trabajo busca proveer una visión integral de la magnitud actual de las lesiones causadas por el tránsito (LCT en México y analizar críticamente la respuesta social organizada. Las altas tasas de choques, lesiones, muertes y discapacidad atribuidas a este problema de salud pública, representan un elevado costo para la sociedad mexicana, en especial para los hogares. Se discute cómo la respuesta mexicana se ha enfocado a los automovilistas, dejando fuera a usuarios vulnerables de la vía pública y se ha privilegiado la implementación de estrategias poco efectivas. A pesar de que se dispone de legislación para los principales factores de riesgo, se ha descuidado su correcta aplicación. La estrategia mexicana podría fortalecerse implementando estrategias de movilidad seguras, equitativas, saludables y sostenibles para los diferentes actores de la vía pública. A pesar de los avances que se han dado en términos de prevención de LCT, existen aún retos y oportunidades para el país.

  17. Cura espontânea da leishmaniose causada por Leishmania Viannia Braziliensis em lesões cutâneas

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    Jackson Maurício Lopes Costa

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam que durante 14 anos de trabalho clínico em campo, realizado nas comunidades de Três Braços e Corte de Pedra, Bahia, acompanharam 1.416 pacientes portadores de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana, cuja espécie envolvida na transmissão, é predominantemente a Leishmania Viannia brasilienses. A terapêutica utilizada rotineiramente nos casos é o antimoniato-N-metilglucamina (Glucantime. Contudo, 16 pacientes do sexo masculino recusaram-se a utilizar a medicação e 6 do sexo feminino encontravam-se em período gestacional, portanto não utilizaram o medicamento. Estes pacientes foram acompanhados por um período entre 4 a 12 anos, a partir do diagnóstico. Observou-se que em 9 pacientes (40,9% desta casuística, o tempo de cicatrizaçâo após o aparecimento da lesão, pode ser calculado em 6 meses de evolução. Quando se eleva a observação para 12 meses, temos que 19 pacientes (86,3% cicatrizaram suas lesões neste período. Em 3 casos (13,6% as lesões permaneceram ativas por mais de 12 meses. Conclui-se que os determinantes da cicatrizaçâo natural das lesões produzidas por Leishmania Viannia Braziliensis permanecem desconhecidos, dificultando para nós entendermos e compararmos aos efeitos das drogas utilizadas no tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar.

  18. Desórdenes y enfermedad psiquiátrica causada por el uso de alcohol en Colombia

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    Hernan G. Rincon-Hoyos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Una comprensión precisa de la co-ocurrencia y la comorbilidad de los trastornos por consumo de alcohol (AUD en Colombia es crucial para la salud pública.Objetivo: Se realizó un análisis secundario, utilizando una base de datos gubernamental de población 2003/2004 para determinar las asociaciones de vida entre los trastornos por consumo de alcohol y otros trastornos mentales y adictivos en personas de edades comprendidas entre 18 a 65 años de Colombia.Métodos: Varios análisis estadísticos se realizaron: pruebas de diferencia en la prevalencia de los trastornos mentales en función de si el individuo tenía un AUD; un análisis estratificado por sexo y análisis de regresión logística teniendo en cuenta las diferencias en las variables del estado de salud, demográficas, socioeconómicas, de comportamiento y de auto-reporte.Resultados: las personas con AUD fueron el 9% de la población, de los cuales 88% eran varones y en promedio tenían 37 años. Estas personas tenían trabajo y eran fumadores activos; y tenían menos probabilidad de estar en casa o ser jubilados. La población con AUD tenía mayores posibilidades de cumplir con los criterios de todos los trastornos, excepto el trastorno depresivo menor, el trastorno de estrés post-traumático, la dependencia a la nicotina, y el trastorno oposicional desafiante.Conclusión: Este estudio demuestra una alta prevalencia de trastornos mentales en la población adulta con trastornos por consumo de alcohol en Colombia. Los resultados destacan la importancia de la comorbilidad como un signo de gravedad de la enfermedad e impacto en la salud pública y apoyan la necesidad de formación de más profesionales y el desarrollo de intervenciones y servicios apropiados.

  19. Pérdidas Humanas y Económicas Causadas por el Vulcanismo en Costa Rica entre 1953 y 2005

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    Irene Aguilar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta por primera vez una aproximación integrada de los efectos de las erupciones volcánicas en el periodo comprendido entre los años 1953 y el 2005. El detalle de los daños en (puentes, casas, ferrocarril, fábricas, las pérdidas económicas (agricultura, ganadería, suministro de agua potable, interrupción de las actividades, pérdidas de vidas humanas y las inversiones (donaciones, medidas paliativas, se presenta en los correspondientes cuadros, los que se centran en los desastres y efectos económicos, sin embargo los efectos sociológicos y psicológicos no fueron evaluados. Tres emergencias nacionales se han producido, una debido a la erupción del Irazú en 1963-1965, la otra con el Arenal en 1968 y la del volcán Poás en 1990. Pero también varias crisis volcánicas ocurrieron en otros volcanes como el Poás (1953-1955, 1989-1994, Rincón de la Vieja (1967,1991, 1995 y 1998 y de nuevo en Arenal (1975, 1988 y 2000, que produjo las pérdidas económicas debidas a la lluvia acida y/o lahares, otras personas murieron debido a depósitos de flujos piroclásticos. La actividad volcánica es la responsable de al menos 48,7 millones dólares en el último siglo, cantidad que será necesaria escalar en un futuro estudio. En el presente siglo, el daño por la lluvia ácida es de más de $200 mil. Por el momento, se tiene certeza que 103 personas fueron muertas por la actividad volcánica en el siglo XX; no hay informes adicionales de muertes o personas heridas desde 1700. Este documento es la base para un trabajo futuro más centrado en la evaluación socioeconómica, el análisis del riesgo y su proyección hacia el futuro. Si una nueva erupción similar a la del Irazú en 1963-1965 o del Arenal en 1968, sucediera durante el presente siglo, las pérdidas económicas serán significativamente mayores que las anteriores.

  20. Dermatomicose e ceratite micótica causada por Exophiala sp em um cão Dermatomycosis and mycotic keratitis caused by Exophiala sp in a dog

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    Paula Cristina Basso

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, descreve-se o diagnóstico e a conduta terapêutica aplicada em caso de dermatomicose e ceratite micótica causada por Exophiala sp em um cão com um ano e seis meses de idade. Os sinais clínicos incluíam alopecia, crostas, despigmentação e ulceração do plano nasal e focinho, e ceratite superficial bilateral no canto lateral dos olhos. Na cultura fúngica foi isolado Exophiala sp e o exame histopatológico da biopsia cutânea revelou dermatite nodular superficial e profunda granulomatosa. O tratamento com itraconazol sistêmico promoveu remissão dos sinais clínicos. Conclui-se que a realização de cultura fúngica e biópsia de pele são exames complementares eficazes no diagnóstico de dermatomicoses e que o emprego de itraconazol sistêmico pode ser efetivo no tratamento de dermatite fúngica e ceratite micótica causado por Exophiala sp em cão.This report describes the diagnosis and the therapeutic conduct applied to the cases of subcutaneous dermatomycosis and mycotic keratitis caused by Exophiala sp in a one and a half year-old dog. The clinical signs included alopecia, crusts, dispigmentation, ulcerations in the nose and superficial bilateral keratitis in the corner of the eyes. In the fungal cultures, Exophiala sp was isolated and the microscopic analysis revealed characteristics of fungal dermatitis. Systemic therapy with itraconazole evidenced remission of clinical signs. The realization of fungal cultures and cutaneous biopsy are efficient complementary procedures in the diagnosis of dermatomycosis and that the usage of oral itraconazole can be effective in the treatment of fungal dermatitis and mycotic keratitis caused by Exophiala sp in dogs.

  1. Cura espontânea da leishmaniose causada por Leishmania Viannia Braziliensis em lesões cutâneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Maurício Lopes Costa

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam que durante 14 anos de trabalho clínico em campo, realizado nas comunidades de Três Braços e Corte de Pedra, Bahia, acompanharam 1.416 pacientes portadores de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana, cuja espécie envolvida na transmissão, é predominantemente a Leishmania Viannia brasilienses. A terapêutica utilizada rotineiramente nos casos é o antimoniato-N-metilglucamina (Glucantime. Contudo, 16 pacientes do sexo masculino recusaram-se a utilizar a medicação e 6 do sexo feminino encontravam-se em período gestacional, portanto não utilizaram o medicamento. Estes pacientes foram acompanhados por um período entre 4 a 12 anos, a partir do diagnóstico. Observou-se que em 9 pacientes (40,9% desta casuística, o tempo de cicatrizaçâo após o aparecimento da lesão, pode ser calculado em 6 meses de evolução. Quando se eleva a observação para 12 meses, temos que 19 pacientes (86,3% cicatrizaram suas lesões neste período. Em 3 casos (13,6% as lesões permaneceram ativas por mais de 12 meses. Conclui-se que os determinantes da cicatrizaçâo natural das lesões produzidas por Leishmania Viannia Braziliensis permanecem desconhecidos, dificultando para nós entendermos e compararmos aos efeitos das drogas utilizadas no tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar.In field clinics in the comunities of Três Braços and Corte de Pedra, Bahia, we have attended 1.416 patients with tegumentary leishmaniasis in fourteen years, the predomi nant species in transmission is Leishmania Viannia brasiliensis (LVB. Because of the danger of metastasis with this infection treatment was routinely recomended with Glucantime. However sixteen patients refused injection therapy and six women were pregnant when seen and not treated. All patients were followed up in our clinic. All these patients closed their skin ulcers although one subsequently relapsed. Patients were followed up for variable periods (four to twelve years, after the diagnosis. In

  2. Ulceração de anastomose esôfago-entérica causada por alendronato

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    DUQUES Pedro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução - O alendronato de sódio, um aminobifosfonado indicado para o tratamento da osteoporose em mulheres pós-menopausadas, tem sido associado em vários relatos à esofagite. Estenose esofágica e sintomas gastrointestinais como dispepsia, náuseas, vômitos e dor abdominal também podem estar presentes. Objetivo - Relato do caso de paciente submetida a gastrectomia total com anastomose em Y de Roux devido a carcinóide gástrico que desenvolveu ulceração em anastomose esôfago-entérica após tratamento com esta droga. Material e Método - Paciente de 63 anos de idade, sexo feminino, iniciou terapia com alendronato na dose diária de 10 mg pela manhã, vindo a apresentar sintomas disfágicos e dor abdominal um mês após. Submetida a exame endoscópico, demonstrou-se ulceração no esôfago, na mucosa da anastomose esôfago-entérica e estenose esofágica. O tratamento medicamentoso foi descontinuado, tendo o sintoma de dor abdominal desaparecido e a disfagia diminuído de intensidade. Resultados - Houve remissão das lesões ulceradas, entretanto a estenose esofágica permaneceu. A paciente subseqüentemente foi tratada por dilatação endoscópica, evoluindo com melhora clínica e estando atualmente livre de sintomas. Conclusão - O alendronato de sódio tanto pode causar lesões na porção inferior do esôfago, como em segmentos mais distais do tubo digestivo nos pacientes cujo trânsito gastrointestinal é acelerado. Especial atenção deve ser dada aos pacientes gastrectomizados que fazem uso desta droga, pela possibilidade do desenvolvimento de lesões na mucosa entérica anastomosada e do surgimento de complicações temíveis como a estenose.

  3. Invaginación de intestino delgado en el adulto causada por lipoma submucoso de íleon

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    J. Arredondo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 68 años con invaginación intestinal secundaria a un lipoma submucoso de íleon. Se trata de una entidad rara en adultos y que suele ser debida a una lesión orgánica. La manifestación clínica se caracteriza por vómitos, dolor abdominal y melenas. Se presenta el caso de un paciente al que tras la realización de una colonoscopia y un TAC abdominal, se realizó una resección ampliada de ciego e íleon terminal. En la actualidad la precisión del diagnóstico etiológico de las invaginaciones ha aumentado gracias al desarrollo de las pruebas de imagen, como el TAC. Se recomienda un tratamiento quirúrgico precoz, sin desinvaginación intraoperatoria dado el elevado riesgo de presentar una lesión maligna o isquémica en el adulto.

  4. Síndrome do canal de Guyon causada por cisto sinovial Guyon's canal syndrome due to a synovial cyst

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    Evandro Silva Ruas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de síndrome do canal de Guyon por um cisto sinovial no punho esquerdo de uma paciente do sexo feminino, de 48 anos. A paciente apresentava dor e parestesia na topografia do nervo ulnar, diminuição da força muscular e deformidade na mão esquerda. A eletroneuromiografia evidenciava compressão do nervo ulnar no nível do punho. Realizada a ressecção do cisto e descompressão do nervo no canal de Guyon. Após a cirurgia a paciente apresentou melhora da dor e da parestesia, além de aumento do trofismo muscular e correção da deformidade.The authors present a case of Guyon's canal syndrome due to a synovial cyst within the left wrist of a 48-year-old female patient. The patient reported pain and paresthesia in the topography of the ulnar nerve, loss of muscular strength and left hand deformity. Electromyography showed a compression of the ulnar nerve at the wrist level. Surgical decompression at the Guyon canal with resection of the cyst was performed. After surgery, the patient presented with improvement of pain and paresthesia, as well as an increase in muscular trophism and correction of the deformity.

  5. Fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii Risk factors associated with bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii

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    Aline Artioli Machado Yamamura

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo de fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii. Foram analisadas 13 propriedades leiteiras dos Estados do Paraná e de São Paulo, segundo os seguintes critérios de seleção: confirmação prévia de casos de mastite por Prototheca spp., triagem pela pesquisa de Prototheca spp. em tanques de expansão e latões e rebanhos com contagem de células somáticas acima de 5x105cel mL-1. As amostras coletadas consistiram de: leite, água, solo, fezes e swab de teteiras. Prototheca spp. foi isolada de amostras de leite dos quartos mamários com mastite clínica ou subclínica em uma propriedade e de amostras de leite e do ambiente em quatro propriedades, nas quais foi isolada em amostras de: água de bebedouro, abastecimento, esgoto, empoçada no piso de estábulo e sala de ordenha, solo de piquete e pasto, teteiras, fezes de bezerros e suínos. Do total de 383 vacas examinadas, Prototheca spp. foi isolada em 20 (5,2% vacas, sendo caracterizada como P. zopfii em 18. Os fatores de risco associados à mastite causada por P. zopfii foram: criação das vacas a pasto, alimentação dos animais com pasto e silagem, realização de ordenha mecânica em estábulo, permanência das vacas após ordenha em piquete sem alimento, criação de suínos próxima às instalações dos bovinos, existência de cães, gatos e roedores, falta de higienização dos tetos com água, pré-imersão dos tetos em aplicador com retorno e sem a troca do anti-séptico, alimentação dos bezerros com leite de vacas com mastite clínica e serem as vacas da raça holandesa.This research had as objective the study of risk factors associated with bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii. Thirteen dairy herds in Paraná and São Paulo states were analyzed and selected according to the following criteria: previous confirmation of Prototheca spp. mastitis cases, screening of Prototheca spp. in bulk tanks and

  6. Mancha de mirotécio em algodoeiro causada por Myrothecium roridum Myrothecium leaf spot of cotton caused by Myrothecium roridum

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    Maurício Conrado Meyer

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A mancha de mirotécio causada por Myrothecium roridum Tode ex Fr. foi observada em lavouras de algodão no sul do Maranhão, causando reduções de produtividade de até 60%. Os sintomas da doença são lesões necróticas, circulares, com estruturas salientes, os esporodóquios, de distribuição irregular. Foram observadas lesões nos pecíolos, brácteas, folhas e maçãs de algodoeiro cv. Deltapine Acala 90, Fibermax 966 e Sure Grow 821. O isolamento do fungo foi realizado em meio de cultura batata-dextrose-ágar (BDA. O teste de patogenicidade foi realizado em maçãs sadias, destacadas de algodoeiro cv. Fibermax 966, no estádio vegetativo R6, previamente desinfestadas. Foram testados 13 isolados de M. roridum, oito provenientes de algodão e cinco de soja. Avaliações das estruturas fúngicas foram realizadas com auxílio de microscópio óptico equipado com um micrômetro ocular. Os isolados causaram infecções em maçãs de algodão e destacou-se como mais agressivo o MA-75, proveniente de algodão, apresentando diâmetro médio de lesão de 1,3cm, aos sete DAI e 2,7cm aos 14 DAI. Todos os isolados formaram esporodóquios dispostos concenticamente em meio BDA. Os conídios são unicelulares, hialinos a oliváceos, abundantemente produzidos em massa verde-oliva a preta. Os conídios de isolados provenientes de algodão mediram, em média, 5,1µm x 1,5µm, e os obtidos de soja, 5,8µm x 1,5µm. Estes resultados relatam a ocorrência da mancha de mirotécio, causada por M. roridum, em lavouras comerciais de algodão no Brasil.Myrothecium leaf spot caused by Myrothecium roridum Tode ex Fr. was observed on cotton fields in Maranhão State, Brazil, causing yield reduction of up to 60%. Disease symptoms are lesions with concentric necrotic rings, with salient structures (sporodochia irregularly distributed. Symptoms were observed on petioles, bracts, leaves and bolls of cotton cultivars Deltapine Acala 90, Fibermax 966 and Sure Grow 821

  7. ALTERAÇÕES MICROMETEOROLÓGICAS CAUSADAS POR TÚNEIS BAIXOS DE TELA PLÁSTICA PRETA CULTIVADOS COM ALFACE

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    Galileo Adeli Buriot

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Foram determinadas alterações micrometeorológicas causadas por tela plástica preta com 18, 30 e 50% de atenuação da radiação solar incidente, durante os meses de verão, em Santa Maria, RS. O experimento foi conduzido no Campo Experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, onde foram cultivados quatro canteiros com alface, três deles cobertos com túneis de tela plástica. O estudo foi realizado em 3 períodos: de 30/11/90 a 17/01/91, de 06/02/91 a 25/03/91 e de 10/12/91 a 01/03/92. Mediu-se a radiação solar global, radiação solar na faixa de comprimento de onda do infravermelho e a luminosidade, temperatura diurna do solo, temperatura mínima e diurna do ar e umidade do solo e do ar. Os resultados mostraram que a temperatura do solo e do ar e a perda de água do solo são menores sob os túneis do que no exterior. As diferenças cresceram com o aumento da atenuação e a temperatura mínima do ar e a umidade relativa do ar são semelhantes no interior e exterior dos túneis e entre os túneis com diferentes percentagens de atenuação.

  8. Utilização da vacina Escherichia coli J5 na imunização de novilhas leiteiras contra mastites causadas por E. coli

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    M.B. Gentilini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficácia da vacina E.coli J5 na prevenção e no controle de mastites causadas por E.coli por meio da análise da prevalência de infecções intramamárias após o parto, ocorrência e intensidade de casos clínicos de mastite nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação, influência na contagem de células somáticas (CCS e produção de leite. As novilhas, n=131, foram distribuídas em três grupos de animais - vacinados três vezes, vacinados duas vezes e não vacinados. As imunizações ocorreram 60 dias antes do parto, 30 dias antes do parto e na primeira semana pós-parto, esta última só para o grupo de três vacinações. Foram coletadas amostras de leite para diagnóstico microbiológico e avaliação da CCS, e registrados os dados relacionados à ocorrência e à intensidade dos casos clínicos e à produção de leite nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação. Não houve redução na prevalência de E.coli no pós-parto de novilhas vacinadas, e houve redução na ocorrência de casos clínicos por E.coli em novilhas vacinadas. Não foram observadas diferenças entre grupos com relação à CCS. Novilhas vacinadas com as três doses apresentaram maior produção de leite. A vacinação com E.coli J5 foi eficaz em reduzir a ocorrência de casos clínicos nos primeiros 100 dias da lactação, mas não interferiu na prevalência de infecções intramamárias após o parto, na intensidade de casos clínicos e na CCS.

  9. Postoperative Alcaligenes xylosoxidans endophthalmitis: report of two cases Endoftalmite pós-operatória causada por Alcaligenes xylosoxidans: relato de dois casos

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    Alejandra de-la-Torre

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of postoperative Alcaligenes xylosoxidans endophthalmitis. A 78-year-old woman in good general health developed A. xylosoxidans endophthalmitis one month after an uncomplicated phacoemulsification procedure with posterior chamber intraocular lens. It was performed on her left eye, at another institution. Removal of the intraocular lens and capsule was performed because of recurrent inflammation after vitrectomy and intravitreal antibiotic injections. Her son, a 55-year-old man, developed A. xylosoxidans endophthalmitis in his left eye, two months after an uncomplicated phacoemulsification procedure with posterior chamber intraocular lens (it also was performed by the same surgeon. He also required vitrectomy with removal of the intraocular lens and capsule because of persistent disease. A. xyloso - xidans can cause chronic low-grade and progressive endophthalmitis after cataract extraction that is often resistant to corrective antibiotic therapy. This kind of case is rare. There have been only previously reported seven cases worldwide to the best of our knowledge.Relatamos dois casos de endoftalmite pós-operatória causada por Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. Uma mulher de 78 anos de idade e saúde geral boa desenvolveu endoftalmite por A. xylosoxidans um mês após ser submetida a facoemulsificação com implante de lente intra-ocular de câmara posterior, sem complicações. A cirurgia foi realizada no olho esquerdo em outra instituição. A remoção da lente e da cápsula intra-ocular foi realizada em conseqüência da inflamação recorrente após vitrectomia e injeções intravítreas de antibiótico. Seu filho, de 55 anos, desenvolveu endoftalmite por A. xylosoxidans, no olho esquerdo, dois meses após facoemulsificação com implante de lente intra-ocular de câmara posterior (realizada também pelo mesmo cirurgião. Foi necessária também realização de vitrectomia com remoção da lente intra-ocular e da c

  10. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  11. Utilização da vacina Escherichia coli J5 na imunização de vacas leiteiras contra mastites causadas por E. coli

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    Lívio R. Molina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a utilização da vacina Escherichia coli J5, na imunização de vacas leiteiras, para prevenção e controle da mastite causada por E. coli através da análise da prevalência das infecções intramamárias (IMM no pós-parto, ocorrência e intensidade dos casos clínicos de mastite nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação, influência na contagem de células somáticas (CCS e produção de leite. O grupo experimental foi composto de 187 animais, divididos em 2 grupos, vacas vacinadas e não vacinadas. As imunizações ocorreram 60 dias antes do parto, 30 dias antes do parto e na primeira semana pós-parto. No dia da secagem e sete dias após o parto foram coletadas amostras para diagnóstico microbiológico dos patógenos causadores de mastite. A ocorrência de casos clínicos foi verificada pelo teste da caneca durante as ordenhas sendo registrados os dados relacionados à intensidade. Amostras foram coletadas mensalmente, a partir do décimo dia de lactação, para avaliação da CCS. A produção de leite foi registrada mensalmente nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação. Verificou-se no grupo vacinado, redução na prevalência de E. coli no pós-parto, na ocorrência de casos clínicos por E.coli nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação bem como na intensidade destes casos clínicos. Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas significativas na CCS, entretanto vacas vacinadas apresentaram maior produção de leite, comparadas às vacas não vacinadas. A vacinação com E. coli J5 foi eficaz em reduzir a prevalência de infecções intramamárias (IMM ao parto, ocorrência e intensidade dos casos clínicos e aumento na produção de leite nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação.

  12. Paraplegia aguda por compressão da medula espinhal torácica causada por tofo gotoso Acute paraplegia resulting from spinal cord compression by tophaceous gout

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    Eduardo Massato Hasegawa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O acometimento axial pela gota é um evento raro, e o envolvimento da coluna torácica foi descrito em apenas 17 casos na literatura. Apresentamos um caso de paciente do sexo masculino de 48 anos com história de gota, sob tratamento irregular com alopurinol e colchicina, que desenvolveu paraplegia aguda decorrente de compressão medular por tofo gotoso. Realizou-se o diagnóstico por meio de ressonância magnética e anatomia patológica. Foi tratado com antiinflamatórios e descompressão cirúrgica com melhora importante, porém parcial. Apesar de o acometimento medular pelo tofo ser um evento raro, deve ser considerado nos casos de síndrome de compressão medular em pacientes com antecedente de gotaAxial gout is a rare condition and the involvement of the thoracic spine has been described only 17 times in the literature. This paper presents the case of a 48 year-old male patient with a history of gout, under irregular treatment with allopurinol and colchicines, who developed acute paraplegia resulting from spinal cord compression by tophaceous gout. The diagnosis was made using magnetic resonance imaging and anatomic pathology. The patient was treated with anti-inflammatory drugs and surgical decompression and showed important, albeit partial, improvement. Thus, although tophi rarely affect the spinal cord, they should be considered as a possibility in cases of spinal cord compression syndrome in patients with a history of gout

  13. Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi is used with other chemotherapy medications to treat acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer ... of allergic reactions to medications similar to asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi such as (asparaginase [Elspar] or pegaspargase [Oncaspar]). ...

  14. Frecuencia de infecciones respiratorias inferiores causadas por el virus sincitial respiratorio, en niños menores de dos años, hospitalizados en el servicio de pediatría del Hospital Vicente Corral Moscoso, Cuenca, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Célleri Gomescoello, Alba Milena; Jerez Cárdenas, Doris Patricia; Ortíz Hinojosa, María Fernanda

    2009-01-01

    Con el objetivo de determinar la frecuencia de infecciones respiratorias agudas bajas (IRABs) causadas por el virus sincitial respiratorio (VSR), en niños menores de dos años, hospitalizados en el servicio de pediatría del hospital Vicente Corral Moscoso. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo, realizado en 163 niños/as menores de 2 años de edad, con infección respiratoria aguda baja. Se estudió al universo, es decir al total de la población seleccionada durante el período de 6 meses. Se e...

  15. Incidência da varíola, causada por Asperisporium caricae, em folhas de mamoeiros submetidos ao manejo orgânico, em diferentes ambientes de cultivo

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    Luiz Aurélio Peres Martelleto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mudas de mamoeiro da cultivar Baixinho de Santa Amália foram transplantadas para covas de 40x60x40 cm, em áreas de três estruturas contíguas: (a estufa sombreada (cobertura de plástico, (b estufa sombreada + sombrite (cobertura adicional de sombrite com 30% de sombreamento sobre o plástico e (c telado (cobertura exclusiva de sombrite 30%. Ao lado de tais estruturas foi implantada uma área de cultivo de mamoeiro em ambiente natural. Os tratos culturais aplicados foram os condizentes às normas técnicas vigentes na agricultura orgânica. As irrigações foram procedidas com mangueira plástica, evitando-se molhar folhas e frutos. Aos 45 dias pós-transplantio e, subseqüentemente, a intervalos mensais, as plantas foram inspecionadas em relação à incidência de lesões foliares causada pelo fungo Asperisporium caricae. Para efeito de análise estatística, após o teste de homogeneidade das variâncias, foram consideradas quatro repetições por ambiente (tratamento, com seis plantas úteis por parcela. O modelo de quantificação da doença indicou efeito altamente significativo dos ambientes protegidos, estufa e estufa sombreada, quanto à incidência de sintomas, em comparação com ambientes de telado e em área natural de cultivo. Durante os 12 meses de avaliações foi constatada alta correlação entre incidência da doença e pluviosidade e umidade relativa do ar. As estruturas cobertas com plástico demonstraram alto potencial de controle de A. caricae, sendo, portanto, recomendáveis no sistema orgânico de produção do mamoeiro.Transplants of Baixinho de Santa Amália papaya cultivar were grown in three neighboring plant growth facilities: a greenhouse (covered with plastic sheet; b shaded greenhouse (with sombrite 30% black screen over the plastic sheet; c screenhouse (covered with sombrite 30% only. Next to such structures a plot was settled for cultivation under natural environment. Cultural practices were conducted

  16. Nucleotídeos na dieta de frangos de corte e seus efeitos sobre taxa de turnover da mucosa intestinal antes e após lesões causadas por coccidiose

    OpenAIRE

    Pelícia,Vanessa Cristina; Zavarize, Kelen Cristiane [UNESP; Ducatti, Carlos [UNESP; Stradiotti,Ana Cristina; Pezzato, Antonio Celso [UNESP; Araujo, Priscila Cavalca de [UNESP; Mituo,Mariela Akie Okino; Madeira,Luciene Aparecida; Sartori,José Roberto

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da dieta suplementada com nucleotídeos sobre taxa de turnover da mucosa intestinal de frangos antes e após lesões causadas por coccidiose por meio de análise isotópica, utilizando a variação do carbono-13 em plantas C3 e C4. Foram utilizados 264 pintos submetidos a dois tratamentos: dieta controle e dieta suplementada com 0,07% nucleotídeos. Os pintos possuíam sinais isotópicos em seus tecidos semelhantes ao de ditas C4. Após o alojamento, para a...

  17. Production of glucosyltransferase by Erwinia sp. using experimental design and response surface methodology Produção de glicosiltransferase por Erwinia sp. utilizando planejamento experimental e metodologia de superfície de resposta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Yukio Kawaguti

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Glucosyltransferase produced by strain Erwinia sp. is an intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the formation of isomaltulose from sucrose. Isomaltulose is a non-cariogenic reducing dissacharide commercially used in foods. Response surface methodology and 2³-factorial central composite design were employed to optimize a fermentation medium for the production of glucosyltransferase by Erwinia sp. in shaken flasks at 200 rpm and 30ºC. The three variables involved in this study were sugar cane molasses (SCM, corn steep liquor (CSL and yeast extract Prodex Lac SD (YEP. The statistical analysis of the results showed that, in the range studied, all the factors had a significant effect on glucosyltransferase production and the optimum medium composition for enzyme production was (in g l-1 SCM-100, CSL-60 and YEP-8, which lead to a glucosyltransferase activity of 6.65 U mL-1.A glicosiltransferase obtida pela linhagem Erwinia sp. é uma enzima intracelular que catalisa a conversão de sacarose em isomaltulose. A isomaltulose é um dissacarídeo redutor, não cariogênico e comercialmente utilizado em alimentos como substituto da sacarose. A metodologia de superfície de resposta e planejamento fatorial composto central-2³ foram utilizados para otimizar o meio de cultivo para a produção de glicosiltransferase de Erwinia sp. em frascos sob agitação a 200 rpm e 30ºC. As três variáveis independentes envolvidas no estudo foram o melaço de cana de açúcar, a água de maceração de milho e o extrato de levedura Prodex Lac SD. As análises estatísticas dos resultados mostraram que, dentro da faixa estudada das concentrações dos componentes de meio de cultivo, todas as variáveis apresentaram efeito significativo na produção de glicosiltransferase. O meio de cultivo otimizado foi composto de 100 gL-1 de melaço de cana de açúcar, 60 gL-1 de água de maceração de milho e 8 gL-1 de extrato de levedura Prodex Lac SD, apresentando atividade de

  18. Eficácia do moxalactam no tratamento de meningites purulentas causadas por Haemophilus infuenzae e Neisseria meningitidis Efficacy of moxalactam in the treatment of purulent meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagamenon R. da Silva

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a eficácia do moxalactam no tratamento de meningites em crianças, causadas por H. influenzae (27 casos e N.meningitidis (6 casos. Dos 33 doentes tratados na dose de 100mg/Kg de peso (dose de ataque e 50mg de 12/12 horas por via venosa, 32 curaram-se. A tolerância ao produto foi muito boa, havendo alterações transitórias de transaminases e fosfatase alcalina; em um caso, houve hematoma posapendectomia, provavelmente relacionado ao uso deste antibiotico. Os níveis séricos e liquóricos do produto foram elevados; as concentrações no liquor excederam de muito a concentração bactericida mínima dos germes infectantes. O moxalactam se mostrou seguro e eficaz como terapia primária da meningite causada por H. influenzae e N.meningitidis em crianças.The clinical efficacy and safety of Moxalactam in purulent bacterial meningitis in children caused by H. influenzae (27 patients and N. meningitidis (6 patients was tested in a randon uncontrolled study. Clinical response was considered excelent, with cure of 32 of 33 patients. High levels of Moxalactam were achieved in the blood and cerebro-spinal fluid, with concentrations largely exceeding the minimum bacterial concentration (MIC for the infecting organisms. Tolerance was considered good, with only transient increases of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase in some patients; also, one patient developed a wound hematoma possibly related to Moxalactam therapy.

  19. HLA in Brazilian Ashkenazic Jews with chronic dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum Antígenos Leucocitários Humanos (HLA em Judeus Ashkenazitas Brasileiros portadores de dermatofitose crônica causada por Trichophyton rubrum

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    Aya Sadahiro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of HLA (Human Leucocyte Antigens was analyzed in 25 non-consanguineous Brazilian Ashkenazic Jews, resident in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, suffering from chronic dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum, and in 25 non-infected individuals belonging to the same ethnic group. Statistically significant values (pA freqüência dos HLA foi analisada em 25 Judeus Ashkenazitas, não consangüíneos, residentes em São Paulo, Brasil, com dermatofitose crônica causada por T. rubrum e em 25 indivíduos sadios, pertencentes ao mesmo grupo étnico dos pacientes. Observou-se valor estatisticamente significante (p<0,05 para HLA-B14 associado a resistência à dermatofitose crônica enquanto HLA-DQB1*06 (p=0,05 possivelmente relacionado a susceptibilidade. Estes achados indicam que o desenvolvimento da dermatofitose crônica pode ser influenciado por genes localizados no cromossomo 6, na região do complexo principal de histocompatibilidade.

  20. Infecções urinárias causadas por Trichosporon spp. em pacientes graves internados em unidade de terapia intensiva

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    Maria das Graças Silva Mattede

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOObjetivo:Avaliar a incidência de infecções do trato urinário por Trichosporon spp. em uma unidade de terapia intensiva.Métodos:Estudo descritivo observacional realizado em uma unidade de terapia intensiva no período de 2007 a 2009. Foram analisados todos os pacientes consecutivos que internaram na unidade de terapia intensiva e tiveram o diagnóstico confirmado.Resultados:Vinte pacientes apresentaram infecções do trato urinário por Trichosporon spp. A prevalência foi maior no sexo masculino (65% e na faixa etária superior a 70 anos (55%. A mortalidade foi de 20%. A média de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva foi de 19,8 dias. Seu aparecimento esteve relacionado ao uso pregresso de antibióticos e foi mais frequente no período que compreendeu o outono e o inverno.Conclusão:A infecção por Trichosporon spp. predominou no sexo masculino, de idade acima de 70 anos, com uso de sonda vesical de demora por mais de 20 dias e com uso de antibióticos de amplo espectro acima de 14 dias. Os pacientes que apresentaram a infecção urinária por Trichosporon spp. ficaram internados nos setores de terapia intensiva, com maior frequência, no período de outono e inverno.

  1. Análisis de las fallas en transformadores causadas por la operación del pararrayos ante sobretensiones externas

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    Francisco Román Campos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los problemas más graves que afronta el Sector Eléctrico Colombiano, es el alto índice de fallas de transformadores de distribución, que para el caso de la reglón central del país, servida por la Empresa de Energía Eléctrica de Bogotá -EEB-, significó cerca de 983 millones de pesos en el año 1987. De los análisis de fallas realizadas por la EEB, se desprende que un alto porcentaje de las mismas pueden deberse a Descargas Eléctricas Atmosféricas. El presente articulo tiene por objeto analizar este tipo de fallas y explicar mediante el concepto de los llamados "Lazos Inductivos" -que tienen su aplicación en los estudios de protección contra rayos directos en pararrayos tipo Franklin-; lo que unido a la alta resistividad del terreno, los drásticos cambios de Impedancia en el sitio de Instalación del pararrayos, las variaciones rápidas de la corriente asociadas a los rayos negativos y las tensiones Inducidas por descargas Indirectas, producen sobretensiones hasta ahora no consideradas y de magnitudes insospechadas en los transformadores de distribución. Como conclusión a este trabajo se plantea un cambio en la filosofía de Instalación de los transformadores de distribución, lo que respaldado por un estudio profundo de los modelos propuestos, puede conducir a una modificación de las normas nacionales de instalación del conjunto transformador-pararrayos, con la consecuente reducción de los costos por quema de los mismos, en cifras anuales que pueden ser del orden de 5 millones de dólares en todo el territorio colombiano.

  2. Bacterieziekte Erwinia groeiend probleem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Het grootste probleem van Nederlandse pootgoedtelers is tegenwoordig de bacterieziekte Erwinia. Het is een sluipmoordenaar waar nog geen bestrijdingsmiddelen tegen bestaan. Maar onderzoekers komen steeds meer over de bacterie te weten.

  3. OCCURRENCE OF LEAF SPOTS CAUSED BY FUNGI AND A BACTERIUM ON COTTON CULTIVARS OCORRÊNCIA DE MANCHAS FOLIARES CAUSADAS POR FUNGOS E BACTÉRIA EM CULTIVARES DE ALGODOEIRO

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    Miguel Ferreira Soria

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The cotton leaf spot diseases caused by fungi and bacteria are a growing problem, leading to an increasing use of fungicides. During the 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 growing seasons, field experiments were carried out in a randomized block design, with five replications, aiming to evaluate the behavior of the cotton cultivars Ita-90, CD-401, CD-402, CD-403, CD-404, Fibermax 986, DeltaOpal, and Facual, as related to leaf spot diseases caused by Stemphylium spp., Alternaria spp., Ramularia areola, and the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum. The cotton cultivars Ita-90 and Facual were the less susceptible to the Stemphylium/Alternaria complex and R. areola. However, Ita-90 was more susceptible to X. axonopodis pv. Malvacearum. The cultivars with the least incidence of X. axonopodis were CD-403, Fibermax 986, and DeltaOpal. The cotton cultivar Facual presented the lowest yield, while the remaining cultivars showed similar yields.

    KEY-WORDS: Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Malvacearum; Stemphylium spp; Alternaria spp; Ramularia areola.

    As manchas foliares causadas por fungos e bactérias no algodoeiro são um problema cada vez mais grave, levando à utilização, cada vez maior, de fungicidas para controlá-las. Nas safras de 2000/2001 e 2001/2002, foram realizados experimentos m campo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco epetições, objetivando avaliar o comportamento das

  4. Reação leucemoide e anemia hemolítica grave causada por Mycoplasma pneumoniae Leukemoid reaction and severe hemolytic anemia due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae

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    Kléber G. Luz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Hemólise massiva é uma manifestação rara da infecção por Mycoplasma pneumoniae.É desencadeada por crioaglutininas, anticorpos IgM, que surgem sete a dez dias após a infecção em cerca de 50% a 75% dos casos. Hiperleucocitose é também evento incomum e orienta o diagnóstico para etiologia bacteriana ou neoplásica. Relatamos um caso de um homem de 67 anos com pneumonia por Mycoplasma pneumoniae, que apresentou anemia grave e reação leucemoide, diagnosticada por meio do teste de crioaglutininas à beira do leito e dosagem do título de anticorpo anti-mycoplasma. Após início do tratamento adequado, houve melhora importante da anemia e a leucometria foi reduzida de 56.100/mm³ para valores próximos do normal.Massive hemolysis, a rare manifestation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, is due to cold agglutinins (IgM antibodies that appear seven to ten days after the infection in around 50% to 70% of cases. Hyperleukocytosis, suggestive of bacterial or neoplastic etiologies, is also an uncommon event. We report here on the case of a 67-year-old man with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia who presented with severe anemia and leukemoid reaction as diagnosed by the bedside cold agglutinin test and measurement of anti-mycoplasma antibodies. After beginning appropriate treatment, the anemia improved significantly and the leukocyte count reduced from 56100 /mm³ to close to normal level.

  5. Miocarditis difusa reagudizada, Cardiomiopatía dilatada causada por trypanosoma cruzi y su detección en medicina nuclear

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    Victor Cesar Lugo Espinoza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La miocarditis es la inflamación del corazón de etiología múltiple, es una enfermedad insidiosa, usualmente asintomática y es una causa importante de muerte repentina en adultos jóvenes. En Sudamérica la enfermedad de Chagas es la causa principal de miocarditis, y conlleva a la cardiomiopatía dilatada que es considerada como un síndrome clínico y fisiopatológico caracterizada por disfunción del miocardio, de la conducción eléctrica y dilatación de las cavidades del corazón, que predispone a la insuficiencia cardiaca y al desencadenamiento de muerte súbita. El diagnóstico de la miocarditis es dificultoso, a veces la clínica no nos aporta suficiente información y los exámenes complementarios específicos son invasivos, por eso debemos resaltar el uso de los métodos nucleares en el diagnóstico. La Gammagrafía cardiaca es un estudio radioisotópico del corazón con pirofosfato Tecnecio 99m o Galio 67, ambos se distribuyen específicamente por el tejido cardiaco inflamado.

  6. Aspectos epidemiológicos de pacientes com lesões ungueais e cutâneas causadas por Scytalidium spp Epidemiological aspects of patients with ungual and cutaneous lesions caused by Scytalidium spp

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    Ana Paula Martins Xavier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: As dermatomicoses causadas por fungos filamentosos não dermatófitos são infecções raras, exceto as onicomicoses, cuja prevalência vem crescendo nos últimos anos. Dentre esses agentes etiológicos destacam-se o Scytalidium dimidiatum e o S. hyalinum, fungos emergentes responsáveis por micoses em unhas e pele. OBJETIVO: Investigar as características epidemiológicas das onicomicoses e micoses de outras localizações causadas pelos fungos do gênero Scytalidium, utilizando-se como parâmetros sexo, idade e localizações das lesões. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 81 amostras com cultura positiva para o gênero em estudo, oriundas de 74 pacientes encaminhados ao Laboratório de Investigação em Dermatologia (ID situado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro (RJ, no período de 1997 a 2006. As amostras foram submetidas a confirmação diagnóstica por exame direto e cultura. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de onicomicoses por Scytalidium spp. foi de 0,87%, entre as idades de 41 e 60 anos (48,64%. Em relação à localização das lesões, os pés foram mais acometidos (91,36%, com predomínio do hálux esquerdo. No exame direto, as estruturas mais encontradas foram hifas hialinas; na cultura, a espécie S. dimidiatum foi a mais frequente. CONCLUSÃO: As onicomicoses por Scytalidium spp. são raras e o S. dimidiatum foi a espécie mais isolada neste laboratório no período em estudo.BACKGROUND: Dermatomycoses caused by non-dermatophyte filamentous fungi are rare infections, except for onychomycosis, whose prevalence has increased over the past few years. Among these etiologic agents, we highlight Scytalidium dimidiatum and S. hyalinum, emergent fungi that cause mycoses that affect the nails and skin. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of onychomycosis and other mycoses caused by the fungi Scytalidium spp, using sex, age and site of infection as parameters. METHODS: Eighty-one samples were evaluated showing positive culture for Scytalidium

  7. Restrições causadas pela incontinência urinária à vida da mulher Restricciones ocasionadas por la incontinencia urinaria en la vida de la mujer Urinary incontinence restrictions in women's life

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    Maria Helena Baena de Moraes Lopes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as restrições causadas pela incontinência urinária (IU à vida da mulher, considerando-se o tipo de incontinência, e verificar como manejam este problema. Trata-se de uma análise secundária de dados obtidos em estudo anterior, coletados por meio de entrevista com perguntas abertas e fechadas. A amostra foi composta por 164 mulheres com queixa de IU, internadas em clínicas de ginecologia e urologia de dois hospitais-escola da cidade de Campinas, SP. Apresentavam idade entre 25 e 85 anos e 104 (64% referiram uma ou mais restrições. Citaram alterações nas atividades sexuais (40,9%, sociais (33,5%, domésticas (18,9% e ocupacionais (15,2%. A incontinência urinária mista e a de urgência forem as que mais afetavam a vida das mulheres. A estratégia mais utilizada para minimizar a IU foi o uso de forro e/ou absorvente higiênico. Concluiu-se que a IU tem implicações negativas no cotidiano dessas mulheres.En este estudio se tuvo como objetivo identificar las restricciones causadas por la incontinencia urinaria (IU en la vida de la mujer, considerándose el tipo de incontinencia, y verificar cómo manejan este problema. Se trata de un análisis secundario de datos obtenidos en un estudio anterior, recolectados por medio de entrevista con preguntas abiertas y cerradas. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 164 mujeres con queja de IU, internadas en clínicas de ginecología y urología de dos hospitales docentes de la ciudad de Campinas, SP. Las mujeres tenían entre 25 y 85 años de edad, habiendo relatado 104 (64% de ellas una o más restricciones. Citaron alteraciones en las actividades sexuales (40,9%, sociales (33,5%, domésticas (18,9% y ocupacionales (15,2%. La incontinencia urinaria mixta y la de urgencia fueron las que más afectaban la vida de las mujeres. La estrategia más utilizada para minimizar la IU fue el uso de paños y/o toallas higiénicas. Se concluyó que la IU tiene implicancias

  8. Anemia hemolítica causada por Indigofera suffruticosa (Leg. Papilionoideae em bovinos Hemolytic anemia caused by Indigofera suffruticosa (Leg. Papilionoideae in cattle

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    José Diomedes Barbosa Neto

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available As partes aéreas de Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. (família Leg. Papilionoideae, planta incriminada pelos criadores de diversas áreas do Nordeste por doença caracterizada por hemoglobinúria em bovinos, foram administradas por via oral a seis bovinos, em doses diárias repetidas de 10 a 40 g/kg, Todos os animais experimentais apresentaram hemoglobinúria, porém passageira, apesar continuidade da administração da planta. Dois desses bovinos não apresentaram manifestações adicionais, um terceiro animal evidenciou manifestações leves, e os três outros, sintomas adicionais de intensidade moderada: apatia, mucosas visíveis de coloração esbranquiçada, pêlos arrepiados, anorexia, diminuição da freqüência e intensidade dos movimentos ruminais, taquicardia, pulso venoso positivo e dispnéia. Antes da crise hemolítica a urina apresentava coloração verde azulada. Nenhum animal experimental morreu, porém um foi sacrificado durante a fase hemoglobinúrica. À necropsia observaram-se anemia, bexiga contendo urina cor de vinho tinto, rins aumentados de volume com coloração marrom-escura, fígado, na superfície e ao corte, de coloração azulada com lobulação perceptível. As principais alterações histológicas foram verificadas no fígado, sob forma de necrose coagulativa e tumefação e/ou microvacuolização citoplasmática dos hepatócitos, e no rim representadas por acentuada nefrose, associada a grande quantidade de filtrado e/ou hemoglobina nos espaços de Bowman dentro de túbulos e do citoplasma das células epiteliais.The aereal parts of Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. (family Leg. Papilionoideae were force-fed fresh to 6 bovines in daily doses of 10 to 40 g/kg. Cattle breeders of various parts of the Northeast of Brazil accuse this plant as the cause of a non-fatal disease characterized by hemoglobinuria. The disease occurs only in years when the plant proliferates well invading the native pastures. All experimental

  9. Cerebral ischemia caused by Streptococcus bovis aortic endocarditis: case report Isquemia cerebral causada por endocardite aórtica pelo Streptococcus bovis: relato de caso

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    Leopoldo Santos-Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemic processes associated with infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis are rare; only 2 cases having been reported. Here we report a case of a 50-year-old man with S. bovis endocarditis who presented signs of frontal, parietal and occipital lobe cerebral ischemia. This is the first case reported in which the presence of hemianopsia preceded the endocarditis diagnosis. Initially, the clinical manifestations suggested a systemic vasculitis. Later, vegetating lesions were identified in the aortic valve and S. bovis grew in blood cultures. Antibiotic use and aortic valve replacement eliminated the infection and ceased thromboembolic events. A videocolonoscopy examination revealed no mucosal lesions as a portal of entry in this case, although such lesions have been encountered in up to 70% of reported cases of S. bovis endocarditis.A associação de isquemia cerebral e endocardite por Streptococcus bovis é um evento raro, tendo sido publicados apenas 2 casos anteriormente. Nós relatamos o caso de um homem de 50 anos com endocardite por S. bovis que apresentou sinais isquêmicos nos lobos frontal, parietal e occipital. Este é o primeiro caso em que a hemianopsia precedeu o diagnóstico de endocardite. Inicialmente, o quadro foi confundido com vasculite. Posteriormente, foi confirmada a presença de vegetações na válvula aórtica e a hemocultura identificou S. bovis. Os eventos tromboembólicos foram controlados com o uso de antibióticos e a troca da válvula aórtica. Estudo videocolonoscópico não identificou nenhuma lesão, apesar de lesões colônicas serem descritas em até 70% dos casos de indivíduos com endocardite por S. bovis.

  10. Evaluación de la mutagenicidad causada por metales pesados presentes en agua del río Cauca en la ciudad de Cali, Colombia

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    Aura H. Vivas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la mutagenicidad del agua del río Cauca debida a la presencia de metales pesados en la zona urbana de la Ciudad de Santiago de Cali, a partir de muestras tomadas en la temporada seca y lluviosa en el año 2013. Los metales se extrajeron pasando el agua por la resina Amberlite XAD-16. Las concentraciones de los metales pesados se midieron por absorción atómica y la mutagenicidad se evaluó por medio del test de Ames, con las cepas TA98 y TA100 de Salmonella typhimurium con y sin activador enzimático S9. Los resultados mostraron índices de mutagenicidad (IM positivos (IM > 2,0 para muestras colectadas en temporada lluviosa en tres de los cinco puntos evaluados: puente El Hormiguero (IM = 3,6, desembocadura del Canal Colector Sur (IM = 2,9 y desembocadura del río Cali (IM = 2,7, todos con la cepa TA98 sin S9. Estos sitios presentaron a su vez las mayores concentraciones totales de metales pesados en sus extractos. El análisis de la variación espacio-temporal del índice mutagénico se realizó haciendo un análisis de varianza multifactorial del IM. Los resultados encontrados indican que la época de muestreo contribuye significativamente a la variabilidad del IM, mientras que los puntos de muestreo no.

  11. Infecções humanas causadas por poxvirus relacionados ao vírus vaccinia no Brasil Human infections caused by vaccinia-like poxviruses in Brazil

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    Hermann G. Schatzmayr

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 1999, infecções humanas por Orthopoxvirus vem sendo observadas em pelo menos oito estados no país, com a formação de vesículas as quais evoluem para pústulas e crostas, principalmente nos membros superiores e face, após contacto com bovinos apresentando lesões semelhantes no úbere. Alem das lesões na pele, foram descritas nos pacientes reações ganglionares axilares por vezes dolorosas, febre, cefaléia, fadiga, desidratação, anorexia, sudorese, artralgia e mialgia, evoluindo o quadro por três a quatro semanas. Lesão vulvar bem como transmissão intrafamiliar foram igualmente descritas. Estudos moleculares demonstraram que os poxvirus identificados são geneticamente relacionados a amostras do vírus vaccinia utilizadas no passado, nas campanhas de vacinação. Especimens clínicos de 80 infecções humanas foram estudados no laboratório e a infecção por orthopoxvirus confirmada em 68 casos. São apresentadas lesões observadas em pacientes bem como discutidas as implicações desta zoonose no Brasil.Since 1999, human infection caused by Orthopoxvirus has been observed in at least eight Brazilian states, with the presence of vesicles that evolve to pustules and crusts, especially on the hands, arms and face, after contact with cows showing comparable lesions on the udder. In addition to the skin lesions, there have been descriptions of patients with axillary ganglionic reactions that are sometimes painful, along with fever, headache, fatigue, dehydration, anorexia, sudoresis, arthralgia and muscle pain. The condition evolves over a three to four-week period. Vulvar lesions and transmission within families have also been described. Molecular studies have shown that the poxviruses identified are genetically related to vaccinia virus samples that were used in vaccination campaigns in the past. Clinical specimens from 80 human infections were studied in the laboratory, and orthopoxvirus infections were confirmed in 68

  12. Luxação traumática do bulbo ocular causada por acidente doméstico Traumatic eyeball luxation caused by domestic accident

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    Rogério de Almeida Tárcia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A luxação do bulbo ocular ocorre quando há seu deslocamento anterior, de tal forma que as pálpebras se fecham espasmodicamente por detrás dele. Diversas causas não traumáticas são relatadas, sendo que, quando provocado por traumas contusos, com grande envolvimento do nervo óptico e da musculatura extrínseca ocular, o prognóstico em geral é desfavorável. Apresentamos um dramático caso de luxação do bulbo ocular em criança após acidente doméstico, destacando seu mecanismo fisiopatológico e apreciando as condutas.The eyeball luxation is a dramatic phenomenon in which there is a forward displacement of the eyeball so that the eyelids spasmodically close behind it. There are many risk factors, non-related to trauma, but orbital contusions with optic nerve and extraocular muscles involvement carry the worst prognosis. The present paper reports a dramatic domestic case of globe luxation in childhood, its pathophysiology mechanisms and management.

  13. Controle químico da podridão peduncular causada por Lasiodiplodia theobromae em mangas Chemical control stem rot caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae on mangoes fruits

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    Rui Sales Júnior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a eficiência do ingrediente ativo difenoconazole, em diferentes doses, comparando-as com outros ingredientes ativos, no controle da podridão peduncular em manga 'Tommy Atkins'. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições de nove plantas cada. Os tratamentos foram compostos pelos seguintes fungicidas e doses de princípio ativo: difenoconazole (75; 100; 125 mL.ha-1, azoxistrobina (80 g.ha-1, acrescido de 0,05% de nonifenol etoxilado, clorotalonil (1.237,5 g.ha-1, propiconazole (100 mL.ha-1; e testemunha, sem aplicação de fungicida. Foram realizadas seis aplicações, com intervalo de 15 dias, sendo a primeira na floração plena. Na colheita, foram amostrados aleatoriamente 25 frutos por parcela, os quais foram mantidos em condição ambiente por 15 dias. Não houve diferença significativa entre as doses testadas, porém todos os tratamentos diferiram da testemunha. O difenoconazole apresentou resultado satisfatório em todas as doses utilizadas, podendo ser recomendado no controle desta doença.This work aimed to evaluate the difenoconazole fungicide efficiency to control stem rot in mango fruits cv. Tommy Atkins. The experiment was carried out in a randomized blocks design, with four repetitions of nine plants. The treatments was compound by the respective fungicides and doses: difenoconazole (75; 100; 125 L.ha-1, azoxystrobin (80 g.ha-1, including 0,05% of nonylphenol ethoxylate, chlorothalonil (1.237,5 kg.ha-1, propiconazole (100 mL.ha-1, and control, without fungicide application. Six fungicide applications were realized, with 15 days interval, with the first at the panicles blooming. Twenty five fruits per plot were collected for evaluation, being stored under ambient conditions in plastic containers for 15 days. There was no significant difference between the tested doses, however all the treatments with fungicide differed from the control treatment

  14. Fatal septicemia caused by Chromobacterium violaceum in a child from Colombia Septicemia mortal causada por Chromobacterium violaceum en una paciente pediátrica de Colombia

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    Pedro Martinez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year old child living in Colombia presented with a history of fever and severe abdominal pain for four days. The patient developed pneumonia, septic shock, multiple organ failure and died on the fifth day of hospitalization. Chromobacterium violaceum was isolated from admission blood cultures and was resistant to ampicillin, cephalosporins, carbapenems and aminoglycosides.Una niña de 4 años que vivía en Colombia presentó historia de fiebre y dolor abdominal severo por cuatro días. La paciente desarrollo neumonía, shock séptico, múltiple falla de órganos y muerte el quinto día de hospitalización. Chromobacterium violaceum fue aislado de cultivos de sangre y mostró resistencia a ampicilina, cefalosporinas, carbapenems y aminoglicosidos.

  15. Thermolysed and active yeast to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxin Formas termolisada e viva de leveduras na redução de toxicidade causada por aflatoxinas

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    Antonio Sampaio Baptista

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are hepatotoxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus on a number of agricultural commodities. This research was carried out to evaluate the ability of thermolysed and active Saccharomyces cerevisiae to attenuate liver damage caused by aflatoxin. Diets were prepared containing 0 aflatoxin; 400 mug kg-1 aflatoxin; 400 mug kg-1 aflatoxin plus 1% of dehydrated active yeast, and 400 mug kg-1 aflatoxin plus 1% of thermolysed yeast. A bioassay with Wistar rats was conducted for 28 days, and body organs were weighted and analyses of the liver tissue of the animals were performed. The relative weight of heart, kidneys and liver from animals submitted to the different treatments did not show any difference, and liver tissue of animals feeding on the aflatoxin-free diet was adopted as a toxicity-free pattern. Hepatic tissue of animals feeding on diets containing 400 mug kg-1 aflatoxin or the diet supplemented with 1% thermolysed yeast showed clear signs of toxicity and damage. Hepatic tissue of animals feeding on the diet containing 1% of dehydrated active yeast showed less toxicity signs and damage than those receiving the diet containing 400 mug kg-1 aflatoxin. Active, dehydrated yeast had the ability to reduce toxic effects caused by aflatoxin, but thermolysed yeast was not able to alleviate the effects of aflatoxin toxicity.As aflatoxinas são metabólitos hepatotóxicos produzidos por algumas linhagens de Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus e, eventualmente, por A. nomius sobre grande número de produtos agrícolas. Esta pesquisa foi conduzida para avaliar a capacidade de Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nas formas termolisada e desidratada viva, em reduzir os danos causados por aflatoxinas. Para tal, foi preparada uma dieta básica e desta se obtiveram quatro formulações: uma como controle; as demais contaminadas com aflatoxinas na concentração de 400 mig kg-1, sendo duas com posterior adição de 1% de leveduras, uma

  16. Discapacidad auditiva causada por citomegalovirus congénito (CMVc). Sintomatología, tratamiento y seguimiento desde el punto de vista de la Logopedia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La infección por citomegalovirus congénito es una de las infecciones más comunes de transmisión materno-fetal. Se trata de una de las principales etiologías de hipoacusia neurosensorial no genética, además de ser causa de otro tipo de patologías como parálisis cerebral, afectación visual o retraso psicomotor generalizado. Con este trabajo se pretende dar a conocer un poco más esta infección y las secuelas que puede causar para ayudar así a su prevención, diagnóstico precoz, seguimiento y trat...

  17. Obstrução das vias aéreas com risco para a vida, causada por edema de via aérea superior e inchaço cervical significativo depois do trabalho de parto/parto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Ushiroda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available EXPERIÊNCIA E OBJETIVOS: Em geral, alterações nas vias aéreas ocorrem em grávidas normais; no entanto, essas alterações podem gerar situações críticas em populações específicas. OBJETIVOS: Esse artigo apresenta o caso de uma paciente que entrou em choque por causa de sangramento atônico em seguida a parto vaginal de natimorto. RELATO DE CASO: Mulher com 32 anos com sangramento atônico em seguida a parto vaginal de natimorto foi transferida para nosso hospital. A paciente manifestou choque e seu estado respiratório estava em progressiva deterioração. Ficou evidenciada obstrução das vias aéreas causada por inchaço cervical e edema faringolaríngeo. Tentamos intubação traqueal utilizando laringoscopia direta e indireta. No entanto, não foi possível inserir qualquer dos dispositivos de laringoscopia tentados. Depois de várias tentativas com TrachlightTM, finalmente obtivemos sucesso com a intubação. Depois da histerectomia, a paciente foi internada na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI, onde ficou em tratamento durante cinco dias. Ao receber alta da UTI, tinha escore de Mallampati I-II. Durante sua estadia na UTI, seu peso diminuiu de 60 kg para 51 kg. CONCLUSÕES: É provável que episódios simultâneos de trabalho de parto/parto e de ressuscitação com fluidos pioraram suficientemente o edema de via aérea e o inchaço cervical a ponto de causar obstrução aguda das vias aéreas e dificuldade na laringoscopia.

  18. Tratamento das ulcerações traumáticas bucais causadas por aparelhos ortodônticos Treatment of the mouth traumatic ulcers caused by orthodontic appliances

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    Antonio Adilson Soares de Lima

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available As lesões de aspecto ulcerado na mucosa bucal são um achado comum na clínica odontológica e geralmente são ocasionados por trauma mecânico devido a próteses mal adaptadas, aparelhos ortodônticos e dentes com coroas ou restaurações fraturadas. Contudo, os indivíduos nos quais a lesão persiste por mais de três semanas deverão ser submetidos à biopsia ou outros exames para excluir algumas lesões de caráter neoplásico ou outras condições, tais como as infecções crônicas e as doenças de caráter imunológico. Durante o tratamento ortodôntico, a dor e o desconforto da mucosa bucal podem acontecer como resultado do traumatismo mecânico dos aparelhos, ocasionado pela fricção aumentada entre o tecido da mucosa e a superfície dos braquetes. Atualmente, o ortodontista possui poucos recursos para prevenir ou aliviar esta irritação na mucosa. O objetivo deste artigo é orientar o ortodontista para o manejo mais adequado destas lesões visando o seu diagnóstico correto, o alívio dos sintomas que estas costumam provocar e o tratamento mais adequado para cada tipo de caso.Mouth ulcers are one of the most commom complaints in the dental clinic. They are, in general, caused for mechanic traumatism induced by non-fitted dentures, orthodontic appliances and fracturated crowns and fillings. Nevertheless, those lesions that have persisted for more than three weeks should be submitted to biopsy or other exams to exclude neoplasic, infectious or immunologic lesions. During the orthodontic treatment, pain and soreness of the oral mucosa can occur as the result of mechanic traumatism caused by increased friction between soft tissues and brackets. Nowadays, the professional owns few resources to prevention or relieve this irritation on the oral mucosa. The aim of this article is to guide the orthodontist to realize the correct diagnoses of the mouth ulcers, the relieve the symptoms and the exact treatment for each type of case.

  19. Papel dos medicamentos nas intoxicações causadas por agentes químicos em município da Bahia, no período de 2007 a 2010

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    Amanda dos Santos Teles

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A intoxicação medicamentosa é um problema de grande relevância para a saúde pública. No Brasil, os medicamentos são os principais agentes responsáveis por intoxicações humanas. Este artigo objetivou descrever o perfil e a evolução das intoxicações no município de Feira de Santana, Bahia, nos anos 2007 a 2010, e analisar a morbimortalidade causada por medicamentos. Neste estudo transversal, com caráter descritivo, foram analisados 631 casos registrados no SINAN. As variáveis utilizadas foram: sexo; faixa etária; raça; escolaridade; ocupação; evolução do caso notificado; zona de ocorrência da intoxicação; circunstância determinante para a ocorrência da intoxicação; tipo de exposição; frequência deste agravo; e tipo de unidade notificadora. Constatou-se que a intoxicação por medicamentos representou 33% das intoxicações, seguida de “raticidas” (18%, sendo a “tentativa de suicídio”, circunstância responsável, em 2010, por 81% das notificações. O sexo ‘feminino’ apresentou o maior número de casos registrados, bem como as crianças de 1 a 4 anos e os adultos jovens. A letalidade observada em Feira de Santana foi muito maior do que a média regional e nacional, excetuando-se o ano de 2009. A Vigilância em Saúde deve priorizar ações educativas, preventivas e intersetoriais, que assegurem o uso correto de medicamentos e melhorem seu impacto na saúde, bem como investir na sensibilização continuada dos profissionais da Atenção Básica para melhorar a notificação deste importante agravo.

  20. Mortality of the outbreak defoliator Ormiscodes amphimone (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae caused by natural enemies in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina Mortalidad del defoliador epidémico Ormiscodes amphimone (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae causada por enemigos naturales en el noroeste de la Patagonia Argentina

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    JUAN PARITSIS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of the defoliator moth Ormiscodes amphimone are occurring more frequently in numerous Nothofagus forests of Patagonia. However, little is known about the life history of this species including its natural enemies as mortality agents. In this work we quantified mortality by parasitoids and generalist predators at the egg, larval and pupal life stages of O. amphimone in a Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. & Endl. Krasser forest in northwestern Patagonia. Parasitism of eggs was relatively low (ca. 11 %, and we did not record significant larval predation by insectivorous birds. However, we recorded elevated mortality caused by larval parasitoids (ca. 50 % in third instar larvae and pupal predators (ca. 75 %, which suggests that these natural enemies could play a significant role in regulating O. amphimone populations. Our research is an initial step towards understanding the influence of natural enemies on O. amphimone population dynamics.Las irrupciones poblacionales de la polilla defoliadora Ormiscodes amphimone están ocurriendo de manera más frecuente en numerosos bosques de Nothofagus de la Patagonia. Sin embargo, se sabe poco de la historia natural de esta especie y, particularmente, de sus enemigos naturales. En este estudio se cuantificó la depredación de huevos, larvas y pupas de O. amphimone por parasitoides y otros depredadores en un bosque de Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. & Endl. Krasser en el noroeste de la Patagonia. Se encontró que el parasitismo de huevos fue relativamente bajo (ca. 11 % y no se registró depredación significativa de larvas por aves insectívoras. No obstante, registramos niveles elevados de mortalidad causada por parasitoides de larvas (ca. 50 % en larvas en tercer instar y por depredadores de pupas (ca. 75 %, lo que parece indicar que estos enemigos naturales desempeñan un papel significativo en la regulación de poblaciones de O. amphimone. Este estudio representa un paso inicial hacia el entendimiento de la

  1. Anemia hemolítica causada por Ditaxis desertorum (Euphorbiaceae em bovinos Hemolytic anemia caused by Ditaxis desertorum (Euphorbiaceae in cattle

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    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Ditaxis desertorum Pax et K. Hoffm., planta herbácea da família Euphorbiaceae, causou experimentalmente em bovinos um quadro caracterizado por hemoglobinúria em virtude de sua ação hemolítica, quando administrada por via oral em doses diárias de 1,0 a 2,5 g/kg (planta fresca, a partir do 4° ao 8° dia do experimento. Após um período de 3 a 5 dias em que os animais tiveram hemoglobinúria e anemia acentuadas, apesar de continuarem a receber a planta (durante um total de 12 a 14 dias, em três dos quatro animais esses sintomas desapareceram. Verificou-se nesses casos uma rápida recuperação dos valores hemáticos logo que cessou a hemoglobinúria. O quarto bovino, que recebeu 2,5 g/kg/dia durante 5 dias, morreu no 8° dia, tendo apresentado durante os últimos 4 dias de vida hemoglobinúria e anemia acentuadas. À necropsia e nos exames histopatológicos deste animal foram verificadas nefrose hemoglobinúrica e distrofia hepática com necrose centrolobular do parênquima. Dose de 7,7 g/kg única ou quantidades de 2,5 e 3 g/kg/dia administradas durante 2 dias seguidos, causaram em três outros bovinos quadro clínico de cólica, com morte em questão de horas, verificando-se à necropsia acentuado edema da parede do rúmen e do retículo. Pelos históricos obtidos somente ocorre, sob condições naturais, a intoxicação caracterizada pelo quadro da anemia hemolítica, indicando que possivelmente a ingestão de D. desertorum em quantidades necessárias para causar o quadro com lesões dos proventrículos ser, apesar de sua boa palatabilidade, autolimitada pelo efeito cáustico da planta.Ditaxis desertorum Pax et K. Hoffm., a herbaceous plant of the Euphorbiaceae family, caused hemoglobinuria due to its hemolytic properties, when force-fed fresh to bovines in daily doses of 1.0 to 2.5 g/kg; the hemoglobinuria appeared from the 4th to 8th day of the experiment. After a period of 3 to 5 days of severe hemoglobinuria and anemia, these

  2. Espondilodiscite cervical espontânea causada por Salmonella typhi em paciente imunocompetente Immunocompetent patient with spontaneous cervical spondylodiscitis caused by Salmonella typhi

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    Asdrubal Falavigna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos um caso de espondilodiscite cervical espontânea por Salmonella typhi. Trata-se de um paciente de 52 anos, hígido previamente, que procurou o serviço de neurocirurgia com queixa de dor na coluna cervical e região escapular. A investigação radiológica com cintilografia óssea e ressonância magnética sugeriram processo inflamatório dos corpos vertebrais de C5-C6 e do disco vertebral interposto. Houve crescimento da Salmonella typhi na hemocultura e no material obtido pela biópsia com agulha de C5 e aumento dos títulos séricos para Salmonella typhi. O tratamento instituído foi imobilização externa com halo-colete e antibioticoterapia com ciprofloxacina. Realizou-se revisão da literatura sobre aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos dessa entidade de incidência incomun, principalmente pelo fato de acometer paciente imunocompetente e se localizar na região cervical da coluna vertebral.We report a case of spontaneous cervical spondylodiscitis caused by Salmonella typhi. A 52-year-old man presented in the neurosurgical service with complaints of pain in the cervical and scapular region. Cervical inflammatory disease was suggested by bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnosis of Salmonella typhi spondylodiscitis was established by blood culture and culture of needle biopsy specimen taken from the C5 vertebra. The agglutinin titers for Salmonella were elevated. Intravenous ciprofloxacin therapy and external immobilization with a halo vest were instituted. A review of literature was performed evaluating the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this unusual pathology.

  3. Mejoramiento Genético de la Papa en Colombia, para Resistencia a la "Gota" Causada por el PhytophthoraInfestans, (Mont. de Bary

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    Estrada Ramos Nelson

    1954-06-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión de la literatura más importante y reciente publicada en EE. UU., Inglaterra, Holanda, Alemania y Rusia, países que más sehan preocupado por resolver el problema del Phytophthora en la papa, y la relacionada especialmente con el aspecto de pérdidas que causa, razas del parásito, métodos genéticos para la obtención de variedades resistentes y sistemas de prueba de la resistencia. Además se incluyen datos estadísticos para demostrar la importancia del Cultivo en el país. Se indican los métodos seguidos en Colombia para el mejoramiento, partiendo especialmente de líneas de la especie silvestre. S. demíssumcombinándola con las variedades nativas cultivadas del tipo andigenumadaptadas a grandes alturas y a los días cortos de los trópicos. Los resultados hasta la fecha indican la posibilidad de obtener después de 3 ó4 generaciones de retrocruzamientos, una buena variedad para cultivo y altamente resistente a la enfermedad. También se aconseja el empleo de líneas y variedades extranjeras resistentes, una vez que se hayan probado a las razas de Phytophthorapropias de Colombia. . Se indica que ya existe material de fitomejoramiento bastante avanzado que es prácticamente inmune pero que requiere subsiguiente mejoramiento. Hay probabilidades así, de obtener variedades inmunes o altamente resistentes a las razas actualmente existentes aunque su identidad parece no corresponder exactamente con las de otros países como Holanda, Inglaterra y Estados Unidos. Se establece una falta de identidad entre las pruebas de campo y las del laboratorio aunque pueden complementarse. Puede suponerse, de acuerdo con las reacciones obtenidas en el material extranjero resistente, la posibilidad de existencia de varias razas, pero no tan virulentas como en los países que tienen variedades resistentes. Es aconsejable el mejoramiento permanente de las variedades, para poder combatir los nuevos biotipos del pat

  4. AVALIAÇÃO DE PERDAS CAUSADAS POR Oebalus spp. (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE EM ARROZ DE TERRAS ALTAS EVALUATION OF UPLAND RICE LOSSES CAUSED BY Oebalus spp. (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE

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    Daniela Rézio e Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Para determinar o efeito dos percevejos Oebalus poecilus e O. ypsilongriseus sobre o rendimento e a qualidade dos grãos de arroz de terras altas, panículas de cinco cultivares foram infestadas, isoladamente, pelos seguintes níveis populacionais: zero (tratamento testemunha, dois insetos adultos da primeira espécie, dois insetos adultos da segunda espécie e um inseto adulto de cada espécie. A comparação das cultivares pelas porcentagens de perda de massa por espigueta e de espiguetas vazias não apresentou efeitos diferenciados entre tratamentos, nem interação "tratamentos x cultivares" significativa. A avaliação da atividade alimentar, pela presença de bainhas de estilete, mostrou que o percevejo O. ypsilongriseus foi mais ativo que O. poecilus. Esses afetaram de modo diferente o vigor das cultivares, entretanto, não influenciaram o teor de amilose. Os percevejos também reduziram o rendimento total de arroz beneficiado e aumentaram o número de grãos inteiros manchados, apesar de não terem alterado o número total de grãos inteiros.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Inseto; percevejo das panículas; bainha de estilete.

    To determine the effect of Oebalus poecilus and O. ypsilongriseus on grain yield and quality of five upland rice cultivars, isolated panicles were subjected to four levels of infestation (number of adult insects: zero (control treatment, two O. poecilus, two O. ypsilongriseus and one O. poecilus plus one O. ypsilongriseus. Neither the treatments nor the interaction of the treatments with cultivars had significant effects on percentages of weight loss and empty spikelets. Insect activity, evaluated by the presence of feeding sheaths in the spikelets, demonstrated that O. ypsilongriseus was more active than O. poecilus. Plant vigor was also affected differently

  5. Mastite clinica caprina causada por Arcanobacterium pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Garino Jr,F.; R.A.T. Matos; Miranda Neto,E.G; Bernardino,J.N.N.; Santos,E.D.; Aguiar,G.M.N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of goat mastitis due to Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Paraiba State - Brazil. The diagnosis was confirmed by clinical symptoms and microbiological culture. Amastectomywasperformedasclinical treatment.

  6. Meningitis causada por staphylococcus aureus catalasa negativa

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Moreno, Carlos Arturo; Arroyo A., Claudia Patricia; Rodríguez, Elizabeth; Martínez R., Luz Marina; Quevedo S., Ruth

    2011-01-01

    En un paciente con cáncer se aisló del liquido cefaloraquideo y ascitico un coco gram positivo coagulasa positivo. El germen aislado mostró las características típicas de un Staphylococcus aureus, a excepción de la actividad de la catalasa, la cual no pudo ser encontrada.

  7. Avaliação lectino-histoquímica de fígado e rim de ovinos com fotossensibilização causada por Brachiaria decumbens

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    Samay Z.R. Costa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Embora sejam as forrageiras mais importantes para a pecuária de corte (bovinocultura de corte no Brasil, em certas épocas ou condições, Brachiaria spp. podem ser tóxicas e causar surtos de fotossensibilização hepatógena que determinam significativas perdas econômicas. Animais que se alimentam em pastos de Brachiaria spp. comumente apresentam macrófagos espumosos isolados ou agrupados, além de cristais no interior de ductos biliares. Saponinas esteroidais têm sido identificadas nestes cristais e são responsabilizadas por lesar o fígado levando ao acúmulo de filoeritrina. Por vezes, imagens negativas desses cristais podem estar presentes no citoplasma de macrófagos espumosos. A patogênese de formação e o tipo de material armazenado nas células espumosas ainda são desconhecidos. A técnica de lectino-histoquímica visa auxiliar na detecção desses macrófagos e, consequentemente, no diagnóstico, além de identificar quais os resíduos de açúcares específicos que estão presentes no citoplasma das células espumosas. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar quais lectinas são mais indicadas na detecção de saponinas esteroidais no fígado e rim de ovinos com fotossensibilização causada por Brachiaria decumbens. Fragmentos de fígado e rim de quinze ovinos, de ambos os sexos e idade variável, oriundos de Conceição do Mato Dentro, Minas Gerais, e um ovino mantido em pastagem livre de Brachiaria spp. foram avaliados pela técnica de lectino-histoquímica. Quatorze lectinas foram utilizadas (Con-A, DBA, SBA, PNA, SJA, RCA-I, UEA-I, WGA, SWGA, GSL, PSA, PHA-L, PHA-E e LCA. Verificou-se que, no fígado de ovinos com fotossensibilização provocada pela ingestão de Brachiaria decumbens, a lectina PNA apresentou especificidade e acentuada reatividade aos macrófagos espumosos, bem como especificidade e leve reatividade aos hepatócitos; a lectina WGA teve especificidade e moderada reatividade aos macr

  8. Desarrollo de una metodología para el estudio de las inundaciones causadas por encharcamiento de agua de lluvia en zonas urbanas relativamente planas. Area de estudio: Montería (Colombia

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    Padilla Agamez, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a methodology for the analysis of the relationship between rainfall and flooding caused by ponding of rainfall water in urban area of Monteria (Colombia is developed. Rainfall water excesses over the soil were estimated from field measurements of the soil infiltration capacity for different soil units of the studied zone. The results obtained are presented in form of statistical correlations for calculating water rainfall excesses over the soils and maps of susceptibility and vulnerability for floods. The maps were used for a brief socioeconomic discussion of the effects of flood events in the selected zone.En el presente trabajo se desarrolla una metodología para el análisis de la relación existente entre las precipitaciones y las inundaciones causadas por encharcamiento de agua de lluvia en la zona urbana de Montería (Colombia. Se realizaron mediciones en campo de la capacidad de infiltración de agua para diferentes unidades de suelos de la zona de estudio, con el fin de estimar los excesos de agua de lluvia sobre el suelo. Los resultados obtenidos se presentan en forma de correlaciones estadísticas para el cálculo de los excesos de agua de lluvia y mapas de susceptibilidad y vulnerabilidad a las inundaciones, mediante los cuales se hace una breve discusión socioeconómica de los efectos de esta clase de inundaciones en la zona de estudio. [fr] Dans le présent travail est analysé la relation existant entre les précipitations et des inondations par accumulation d eau pluie sur le sol dans la zone urbaine de Montería (Colombie. Avec la réalisation de mesures en champ de la capacité d’infiltration pour différents unities de sol de la zone d’étude, on a estimé les excès d’eau pluie sur le sol. Les résultats obtenus sont présentés sous la forme de corrélations statistiques pour le calcul des excès d’eau pluie et de cartes de susceptibilité et vulnérabilité aux inondations. Les cartes ont été employ

  9. Infecções intramamárias causadas por Staphylococcus aureus e suas implicações em paúde pública Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections and its implications in public health

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    Helena Fagundes

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, são apresentados os principais problemas decorrentes das infecções intramamárias (mastites causadas por Staphylococcus aureus e as conseqüências para a saúde humana da veiculação de suas toxinas através do leite. o S. aureus destaca-se como um dos microorganismos mais importantes que podem ser transmitidos através dos alimentos. Assim, discute-se a possibilidade de veiculação de gastroenterite estafilocócica, não somente através do consumo de leite cru contaminado, mas também de leite tratado termicamente ou de derivados lácteos contendo enterotoxinas termoestáveis. São apresentados alguns aspectos relacionados ao potencial toxigênico das cepas de S. aureus, bem como as principais características das enterotoxinas estafilocócicas. Considerando que o S. aureus é um dos agentes de mastite mais freqüentemente observados, apresentam-se as principais medidas de controle de infecções estafilocócicas em rebanhos leiteiros, com vistas à prevenção da ocorrência de toxinas no leite de consumo.This article presents the main problems derived from the mammary infections (mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, and the consequences of the presence of its toxins in milk for human health. S. aureus is one of the most important microorganisms that can be transmitted through the food products. Hence, the possibility of transmission of stafilococal gastroenteritis by consumption of raw milk and heat-treated milk, containing heat-resistant enterotoxins, is discussed. Some aspects regarding the toxigenic potential of S. aureus strains and the main characteristics of stafilococal entorotoxins are presented. Taking into account that S. aureus is also one of the most prevalent agents of mastitis, considerations are made on the methods for the controlling of stafilococal infections in dairy cattle, in order to prevent the occurrence of toxins in milk and milk products.

  10. Prevenção de injúrias causadas por glyphosate em soja RR por meio do uso de aminoácido Prevention of RR soybean injuries caused by exogenous supply of aminoacids

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    L.H.S. Zobiole

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A área de soja resistente ao glyphosate (RR tem aumentado a cada ano. No entanto, essa expansão com a tecnologia da soja RR aumentou o uso de glyphosate significativamente, e muitos agricultores têm notado que alguns cultivares RR apresentam injúrias visuais logo após a aplicação do glyphosate em pós-emergência. Dessa forma, dois experimentos foram instalados em anos distintos, com diferentes objetivos: o primeiro, visando avaliar a influência do glyphosate na soja RR nas variáveis fotossintéticas e de biomassa, e o segundo, a fim de reavaliar os mesmos parâmetros afetados na soja RR pelo glyphosate, bem como o uso de diversas modalidades de aplicação de aminoácidos como forma de uma provável recuperação das plantas de soja com sua utilização exógena. A taxa fotossintética e o índice SPAD apresentaram decréscimos proporcionais às doses de glyphosate aplicadas, sendo o efeito pronunciado com a aplicação única desse herbicida. Devido ao decréscimo da taxa fotossintética, à produção de clorofila e à provável imobilização de nutrientes nos tecidos foliares causada pelo glyphosate, foi observada menor produção de biomassa. Entretanto, o uso de aminoácidos exógenos amenizou os efeitos indesejáveis desse herbicida na cultura da soja RR.Glyphosate-resistant (RR soybean crop areas have expanded every year. However, as a result of this expansion, the use of glyphosate has significantly increased, with the appearance of visual injuries in RR soybeans immediately after post-emergence application of the herbicide. Thus, two experiments were conducted in different years with different objectives. The first experiment aimed to evaluate the influence of glyphosate on photosynthetic variables and biomass production. The second experiment aimed to re-evaluate the same parameters affected in RR soybeans by glyphosate, as well as the use of various methods of amino acid application, as a form of a likely recovery of the

  11. Estudo comparativo entre antlmoniato de meglumina, isotianato de pentamidina e sulfato de aminosidine, no tratamento de lesões cutâneas primárias causadas por Leishmania (viannia braziliensis

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    Dalmo Correia

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de comparar a eficácia, a tolerabilidade e a toxicidade do antimoniato de meglumina, do sulfato de aminosidine e do isotianato depentamidine no tratamento de lesões cutâneas primárias causadas por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis foi realizado um estudo de campo, aberto, randomizado, na área endêmica de Cone de Pedra-Bahia. De outubro de 1992 a janeiro de 1993, foram tratados 46 pacientes, distribuídos em três grupos dois de 15 e um de 16 pacientes. Todos os pacientes realizaram exames clínico, parasitológico, histopatológico e imunológico, como critério diagnóstico. Todos os pacientes foram tratados pela via intramuscular. O Grupo 1 recebeu pentamidina na dose de 4mg/k.g/dia, em dias alternados, no total de 8 aplicações; o Grupo 2 aminosidine na dose de 20mg/k.g/dia, por 20 dias; o Grupo 3, meglumina na dose de 10mg/kg/dia, por 20 dias. Definiu-se como falha terapêutica a permanência de lesões ulceradas, após quatro meses de tratamento. Ocorreram cinco casos de falha terapêutica assim distribuídos: dois casos no Grupo 1, um caso no Grupo 2 e dois no Grupo 3, ao final do primeiro ano de seguimento. Na avaliação após 3 anos foram revistos 15 pacientes, 5 em cada Grupo; exceto um do Grupo 3, todos continuaram curados. Não houve diferença estatística entre os resultados dos três esquemas utilizados.With the aim of comparing the therapeutic efficacy, tolerability and toxicity of meglumine antimoniate, aminosidine sulphate andpentamidine isethionate, a field study was conducted on randomized treatment of patients with primary cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb, in Cone de Pedra, BA, from October 1992 up to January 1993- Forty six patients were treated and distributed into three groups, two with 15 and one with 16 subjects. All patients were submitted to clinical examination, histopatological and immunological investigations, as diagnostic criterium. All patients were

  12. Aplicación tópica del Oleozón como alternativa de tratamiento en lesiones causadas por fricción en caballos de tiro; considerando algunos indicadores hematológicos

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    Ana María Camps-Ramírez| José Nabil Claro- González| Armando Cuesta- Guillén|

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó con una muestra de 75 animales de la raza mestiza pertenecientes a la UEB de transporte urbano en la iudad de San Germán; su edad promedio era de 8 años y la constitución corporal entre 3 y 4 conforme a la descripción de Henneke. Los mismos fueron ubicados en tres grupos de 25 animales cada uno; los que contaron con iguales condiciones de trabajo y alimentación. Se aplicó Oleozón, Violetas Gencianas o Aceite sin principio activo tomando en cuenta el grupo al que pertenecían (A, B, y C respectivamente.Esta investigación pudo determinar la efectividad del empleo tópico del Oleozón en heridas causadas por fricción en caballos de tiro. Los resultados obtenidos sobre este particular han sido comparados con losarrojados por otras dos pruebas simultáneas a la ejecución de este experimento conforme a una varianza triple y prueba múltiple de Duncan utilizando para ello el programa Stadistic versión 6.0 parap<0.05;mostrando diferencias significativas del Grupo A (tratado con Oleozón con respecto a los otros grupos tratados con los fármacos descritos anteriormente. Este trabajo mostró además los resultados delefecto del Oleozón sobre la sangre de los pacientes tratados; donde pudo comprobarse la acción inmunoestimulante de este fármaco, todo lo cual, puso en evidencia que el uso tópico del Oleozón en lesionescausadas por fricción en caballos de tiro reduce el tiempo de recuperación de los mismos, además de observarse que en elsitio de aplicación del Oleozón no se evidenció manifestación alguna AbstractThis work has been realized with a patten of 75 animals in the UEB of Urban Transportation in San German City. The average age was 8 years old and the corporal constitution between 3 and 4 according to the description of Henneke. They were located in three groups of 25animals and each group had egual conditions regarding work and feedingOleozón,Genciana Violet and Oil withourt active source was

  13. "efecto de un plástico fotoselectivo y de una pantalla climática en la enfermedad causada por el hongo botrytis cinerea pers. y en el negreamiento de los pétalos en un cultivo de rosas (rosahybrida)"

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    Rodríguez Ramírez, Aníbal; Arbeláez Torres, Germán

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente investigación fue comparar el comportamiento en postcosecha de la enfermedad causada por el hongo Botrytis cinerea Pers., así como el "negreamiento de los pétalos" en rosas cultivadas bajo invernaderos cubiertos con plásticos de diferente filtración de la luz ultravioleta. Adicionalmente, se evaluó el efecto de unapantalla climática sobre los dos problemas. El ensayo se realizó en el Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales, localizado en el municipio ...

  14. Prevalência da filariose canina causada por Dirofilaria immitis e Dipetalonema reconditum em Maceió, Alagoas, Brasil Prevalence of canine filariasis by Dirofilaria immitis and Dipetalonema reconditum in Maceió, Alagoas State, Brazil

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    Ana Cristina Brito

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência da filariose canina causada por Dirofilaria immitis e Dipetalonema reconditum, foi estimada após a realização de inquérito hemoscópico em 1.519 cães domiciliados. Foram examinados 1.097 cães nos sete distritos sanitários da cidade de Maceió, Alagoas, 204 na Ilha de Santa Rita e 218 na cidade de Paripueira. Em Maceió, foram detectados 15 (1,3% cães com microfilárias (MF de D. immitis e 15 (1,3% com MF de D. reconditum. Todos os casos positivos foram considerados autóctones. As MF de D. immitis e de D. reconditum mediram 298,1µm e 249,2µm de comprimento e 7,3µm e 4,4µm de largura, respectivamente. Além do diagnóstico parasitológico pela técnica de gota espessa (100µL, foi utilizado o teste imunológico Witness, para detecção de antígeno filarial circulante, o qual confirmou os dados parasitológicos e permitiu a detecção de casos de infecção oculta. De um total de 6.579 fêmeas examinadas, pertencentes a seis espécies de mosquitos, oito (0,1% fêmeas de Culex quinquefasciatus foram encontradas naturalmente infectadas com larvas de D. immitis. Estes resultados demonstram a presença simultânea de D. immitis e D. reconditum na mesma área geográfica.A survey on the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis and Dipetalonema reconditum was conducted in 1,519 dogs from Maceió and two coastal areas in the State of Alagoas, Northeast Brazil, from 1995 to 1999, by testing for microfilariae in blood. All blood samples were from exclusively domiciled dogs with a known history, showing that the infections were autochthonous, confirming transmission of canine filariasis in these areas. In Greater Metropolitan Maceió, 15 (1.3% microfilaremic dogs were detected with D. immitis and 15 (1,3% with D. reconditum. In the southern coastal area there was an estimated prevalence of 12.7% for D. immitis. D. immitis and D. reconditum microfilaria were 298.1µm and 249.2µm long and 7.3µm and 4.4µm wide, respectively. A Witness

  15. Cerebral aspergillosis due to Aspergillus fumigatus in AIDS patient: first culture - proven case reported in Brazil Aspergilosis cerebral causada por Aspergillus fumigatus en paciente con SIDA: primer reporte de caso demostrado por cultivo en Brasil

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    José E. Vidal

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral aspergillosis is a rare cause of brain expansive lesion in AIDS patients. We report the first culture-proven case of brain abscess due to Aspergillus fumigatus in a Brazilian AIDS patient. The patient, a 26 year-old male with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and history of pulmonary tuberculosis and cerebral toxoplasmosis, had fever, cough, dyspnea, and two episodes of seizures. The brain computerized tomography (CT showed a bi-parietal and parasagittal hypodense lesion with peripheral enhancement, and significant mass effect. There was started anti-Toxoplasma treatment. Three weeks later, the patient presented mental confusion, and a new brain CT evidenced increase in the lesion. He underwent brain biopsy, draining 10 mL of purulent material. The direct mycological examination revealed septated and hyaline hyphae. There was started amphotericin B deoxycholate. The culture of the material demonstrated presence of the Aspergillus fumigatus. The following two months, the patient was submitted to three surgeries, with insertion of drainage catheter and administration of amphotericin B intralesional. Three months after hospital admission, his neurological condition suffered discrete changes. However, he died due to intrahospital pneumonia. Brain abscess caused by Aspergillus fumigatus must be considered in the differential diagnosis of the brain expansive lesions in AIDS patients in Brazil.La aspergilosis cerebral es una causa rara de lesión expansiva cerebral en pacientes con SIDA. Presentamos el primer reporte de un absceso cerebral causado por Aspergillus fumigatus en un paciente brasileño con SIDA. El paciente, de 26 años de edad, presentaba antecedentes de infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH, tuberculosis pulmonar y toxoplasmosis cerebral. Manifestó fiebre, tos, disnea y dos episódios de convulsiones. La tomografía computadorizada (TC demostró una lesión hipodensa parasagital y bi-parietal con

  16. Mortalidad por bacteriemia causada por Escherichia coli y Klebsiella spp. productoras de beta lactamasas de espectro extendido: cohorte retrospectiva en un hospital de Lima, Perú Mortality caused by bacteremia Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- producers: a retrospective cohort from a hospital in Lima, Peru

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    Diego Adrianzén

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar los factores asociados a la mortalidad causada por bacteriemias por Escherichia coli y Klebsiella spp. productoras de beta lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE. Materiales y Métodos. Se realizó un estudio de cohortes retrospectivo, que incluyó 85 pacientes mayores de 16 años con diagnóstico de bacteriemia por Escherichia coli o Klebsiella spp. hospitalizados entre 2006 y 2008 en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Las cohortes se clasificaron de acuerdo a la producción de BLEE según los resultados de los hemocultivos. Se evaluaron los factores asociados a la mortalidad cruda y atribuible empleando regresión de Poisson en un modelo multivariado, con lo que se obtuvo riesgos relativos ajustados (RRa. Además, se construyeron curvas de mortalidad. Resultados. Se encontró que el 35,3% de las bacteriemias fueron debidas a cepas productoras de BLEE. El análisis de la mortalidad cruda mostró una mayor mortalidad en el grupo de cepas productoras de BLEE (63,3%. El RRa fue de 1,5 (IC95%: 1,02-2,3. En el caso de mortalidad atribuible, la proporción también fue mayor (63,3%, el RRa fue de 1,9 (IC95%: 1,2-2,9. El uso de catéter venoso central fue otro factor asociado tanto a la mortalidad cruda (RRa= 2,4; IC95%: 1,2- 4,8 como a la mortalidad atribuible (RRa= 3,8; IC95%: 1,6-8,8. Conclusiones. La producción de BLEE es un factor de riesgo independiente para mortalidad por bacteriemia causada por E. coli y Klebsiella spp. Su presencia debe evaluarse tras la sospecha diagnóstica y la elaboración de la terapéutica inicial, lo que podría disminuir la mortalidad por esta causaObjectives. To evaluate the factors associated to mortality caused by bacteremia due to Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. producers of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL. Materials and methods. We performed a retrospective cohort study, including 85 patients older than 16 and diagnosed with bacteremia by Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp

  17. 'Preventie belangrijkste troef tegen Erwinia'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.

    2012-01-01

    De bollenteelt en -handel ondervindt aanzienlijke schade van de bacterieziekte Erwinia. Onderzoek wijst uit dat preventie het belangrijkste wapen is. Mogelijk bieden ook stofjes die de afweer van planten verbeteren een oplossing.

  18. INFECTIOUS KERATOCONJUNTIVITIS OUTBREAK IN OVINES DUE TO Moraxella spp IN STATE OF GOIÁS, BRAZIL SURTO DE CERATOCONJUNTIVITE INFECCIOSA EM OVINOS CAUSADA POR Moraxella spp. NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS, BRASIL

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    Nilo Sérgio Troncoso Chaves

    2008-04-01

    ','serif'">Moraxella spp foi feito por meio de cultura nos Laboratórios de Microbiologia do Centro de Pesquisa de Alimentos da Escola de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Goiás (APA/EV-UFG e do Departamento de Medicina Veterinária da Escola de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Goiás (DMV/EV-UFG. O controle do foco na propriedade envolveu os protocolos: 1. higiênico, com o isolamento em ambiente de pouca luminosidade, repouso e alimentação adequada;  2. medicamentoso, mediante o uso de solução fisiológica 0,9% para a lavagem dos olhos, pomada oftálmica de cloridrato de oxitetraciclina para uso local e cloridrato de oxitetraciclina LA injetável, tanto para os animais doentes como para o restante do rebanho;  3. profilático, por meio de vacina comercial contra a ceratoconjuntive infeciosa e combate às moscas. A recuperação da maioria dos animais minimizou as perdas econômicas e evitou a disseminação da enfermidade na propriedade e para outras fazendas. No Brasil, existem poucos estudos a respeito de surtos de CCI em ovinos, o que motivou a realização deste trabalho, diante da escassez de informações sobre essa doença ocular, causada pela Moraxella spp, em ovinos, no estado de Goiás, Brasil

  19. Cytomegalovirus and other herpesviruses infections in heart and bone marrow transplant recipients Infecções causadas por citomegalovírus e outros vírus do grupo herpes em transplantados cardíacos e de medula óssea

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    Adriana Weinberg

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available From January 1988 to January 1989 all the heart transplant and bone marrow recipients at the Instituto do Coração of the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School were studied for the incidence and morbidity associated with herpesviruses infections after transplantation. Five bone marrow and 5 heart transplant recipients were followed for a mean of 4.2 months post-transplantation. All the patients were seropositive for cytomegalovirus (CMV before admission and 80% experienced one or more recurrences during the observation period. Of the 12 episodes of CMV infection, that were identified in this study, 83% were accompanied by clinical or laboratory abnormalities. However, there was only one case of severe disease. The overall incidence of infection for herpes simplex (HSV was 50%. Although most of HSV reactivations were oral or genital, one case of HSV hepatitis occurred. One of the 6 episodes of HSV infections that were treated with acyclovir showed an unsatisfactory response and was successfully managed with ganciclovir. All the individuals had anti-varicella zoster virus antibodies, but none of them developed infection. The study emphasizes the importance of active diagnostic surveillance of herpesvirus infections in transplant patients. Both CMV and HSV reactivations showed high incidence and important morbidity and thus, deserve prophylactic therapy.De janeiro de 1988 a janeiro de 1989 todos os pacientes submetidos a transplante de coração ou de medula óssea no Instituto do Coração do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo foram estudados quanto à incidência e morbidade das infecções pós-transplante causadas por vírus do grupo herpes. Cinco recipientes de medula óssea e 5 transplantados cardíacos foram observados por um período médio de 4.2 meses após o transplante. Todos os pacientes tinham sorologia positiva para citomegalovírus (CMV antes do transplante

  20. Redução na produção da soja causada por Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biótipo b (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) e avaliação de táticas de controle

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    Simone Silva Vieira

    2009-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar a redução na produção de soja causada pela mosca branca e estudar táticas de controle para seu manejo. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação e área de campo da Embrapa Arroz e feijão e em lavouras de Itauçú e Goiânia, GO. O nível de controle foi avaliado a campo em três níveis de infestação com testemunha sem infestação. Semanalmente contou-se o numero de ninfas/folíolo e no final do ciclo avaliou-se a produção e o peso de ...

  1. Toetsen om Erwinia in bloembollen aan te tonen : onderzoek Erwinia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Hollinger, T.C.; Kampen, van D.; Vreeburg, P.J.M.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Binnen het Erwiniaproject is een aantal toetsen ontwikkeld en zijn andere nog in ontwikkeling. Deze toetsen moeten liefst ook latent aanwezige Erwiniastammen kunnen aantonen. Dit lukt door monsters in een voedingsbodem voor Erwinia te brengen en na kweek deze bacteriën aan te tonen met serologische

  2. Contaminación acústica causada por el transporte transpirenaico en el País Vasco y Cataluña: una aproximación estadística – Proyecto TransP1

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    Amo Sanz, Diego

    2016-01-01

    En este proyecto fin de carrera se propone el estudio de las principales rutas transpirenaicas a su paso por Navarra y Cataluña mediante el análisis mediante una encuesta de la contaminación, tanto acústica como debida a gases de combustión en el escape, que emiten los vehículos a su paso por ellas. Me centraré en la contaminación acústica sufrida por los vecinos de las zonas objeto del estudio, ya que son las 2 zonas por las que principalmente se cruza la frontera hacia Francia. Más del 85% ...

  3. Ocorrência de nova doença do algodoeiro irrigado, no Brasil, causada por Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Occurrence of a new disease of irrigated cotton, in Brazil, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

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    Maria José D´avila Charchar

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Em 1996, uma nova doença causada pelo fungo Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary foi observada em algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L., cultivar Deltapine, irrigado sob pivô central, em Paracatu, MG. Os sintomas apresentados foram murcha e podridão da haste, do pecíolo da folha e da maçã, além de serem observados no interior do capulho micélio branco e escleródios escuros do patógeno. O teste de patogenicidade foi efetuado em algodoeiro, nas cultivares Deltapine e IAC 22, e em feijoeiro e quiabeiro, aos 14 dias de idade. As plantas foram incubadas em alta umidade durante 48 horas, a 25ºC. Três dias após a inoculação, verificaram-se sintomas severos de murcha e necrose dos tecidos, de onde o patógeno foi reisolado, completando-se, assim, os postulados de Koch. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência natural de S. sclerotiorum em algodoeiro no Brasil.In 1996, a new disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary was observed on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. Deltapine cultivar irrigated under central pivot at Paracatu, MG, in the Savana region of Central Brazil. The symptoms were wilt, necrosis and rot. White mycelium and black sclerotia developed inside the boll. The pathogenicity test was done with two-week old cotton seedling cultivars Deltapine and IAC 22 and bean and okra seedlings. The plants were incubated at high humidity for 48 hours at 25ºC. Three days after inoculation, severe symptoms of wilt and necrosis were observed. S. sclerotiorum was reisolated from the damaged plant tissues, and Koch´s postulates were completed. This is the first report of S. sclerotiorum natural occurrence on cotton in Brazil.

  4. Patrón de alteraciones en la radiografía de tórax de niños hospitalizados por infección causada por virus influenza A (H1N1 Pattern of chest radiographic abnormalities in children hospitalized because of influenza H1N1 virus infection

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    KARLA MOËNNE B

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El año 2009 aparecieron los primeros casos de influenza humana causada por virus influenza A H1N1, propagándose como pandemia. En nuestra institución se observó 88,5% de aumento en consultas de urgencia, adultos y niños; se diagnosticaron 10.048 pacientes como influenza A H1N1 (45,6% confirmación de laboratorio. La media de edad fue 13 años. Se hospitalizaron 59 niños (edad: 1 mes - 15 años 7 meses, 33 niñas y 26 niños. El tiempo promedio de hospitalización fue de 3,9 días; 9 pacientes requirieron UTIy 4 ventilación mecánica. No hubo mortalidad en esta serie. Se demostró sobreinfección por VRS (5, infección bacteriana (9 y Mycoplasma (1. El patrón radiológico predominante en los niños hospitalizados correspondió a compromiso intersticial (72% y el 28% presentó hiperinsuflación pulmonar. Los niños con infección bacteriana asociada presentaron mayoritariamente (78% patrones radiológicos mixtos y de relleno alveolar. El propósito de esta revisión es conocer los patrones radiológicos en los niños que requirieron hospitalización por infección virus influenza A H1N1 en nuestra institución, durante la epidemia del año recién pasado.The first cases of H1N1- type Influenza virus infection in humans were reported in 2009, and since then, it rapidly expanded and became pandemic. At that time, an 88.5% increase in emergency consultations was observed in our institution, including adults and children and H1N1- type Influenza virus infection was clinically diagnosed in 10,048patients, 45.6% of them with laboratory confirmation. A total of 59 child, 33 girls and 26 boys, aged between 1 month and 15.5 years old, needed hospitalization. The average of hospitalization time was 3.9 days, 9 patients required intensive unit care and 4 of them mechanical ventilation. No fatal cases were registered in this series. Associated infection was confirmed in 15 patients: VRS (5, bacterial (9 and Mycoplasma (1. The most frequent

  5. Herencia Genética y Citoplásmica de la Resistencia a la Pudrición de la Mazorca del Maíz (Zea mays L.) Causada por Fusarium moniliforme Sheld

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano Mendoza; Alfonso López; Arnoldo Oyervides; Gaspar Martínez; Carlos León; Ernesto Moreno

    2003-01-01

    La resistencia genética ofrece el más amplio potencial para el control de la resistencia a la pudrición de mazorca y tallo de maíz causado por Fusarium moniliforme, el cual tiene una distribución cosmopolita y afecta la calidad del grano y tallos de plantas afectadas. Además, es una amenaza para la salud del hombre y los animales por la producción de toxinas cancerígenas. Por lo anterior, se propuso como objetivo determinar la aptitud combinatoria general (ACG), la aptitud combinatoria espec...

  6. Lesiones histológicas en músculo esquelético, causadas por larvas de Eustrongylides sp (Nematoda: Dictophymatidae) en ranas comestibles del Lago Cuitzeo, Michoacán, México

    OpenAIRE

    José Ramírez Lezama; David Osorio Sarabia

    2002-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene como objetivo informar sobre las lesiones microscópicas provocadas por larvas de Eustrongylides sp en músculo esquelético de ranas en el Lago Cuitzeo, Michoacán, México, considerado un parásito potencialmente zoonótico. Se revisaron 146 ejemplares de las cuatro especies: 80 de Rana megapoda, 43 de Rana dunni, 16 de Rana catesbiana y siete de Rana verlandieri, a los cuales se le aplicó la eutanasia con sobredosis de pentobarbital por vía intraperitoneal. Se registró e...

  7. Estimativas de perdas econômicas causadas por reação granulomatosa local após uso de vacina oleosa contra febre aftosa em bovinos de Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Paula V. Leal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lesões exacerbadas à vacina contra a febre aftosa foram observadas em 1.815 de um total de 5.000 bovinos abatidos em frigorífico com inspeção federal. Essas lesões resultaram na condenação de parte das carcaças de acordo com o Regulamento da Inspeção Industrial e Sanitária de Produtos de Origem Animal. Os bovinos haviam sido vacinados em maio de 2012 e abatidos em setembro do mesmo ano e divididos em Lotes 1 e 2 constituídos respectivamente por 1.500 e 315 bovinos. As lesões de reação vacinal eram caracterizadas por nódulos protuberantes, circunscritos, bem delimitados, firmes e de tamanhos variáveis, distribuídos multifocalmente na musculatura do aspecto lateral do pescoço; ao corte apresentavam exsudato purulento. Amostras da lesão de 28 bovinos foram avaliadas histologicamente e os principais achados foram piogranulomas com espaços claros circulares de tamanhos variados no centro, circundados por intenso infiltrado de neutrófilos íntegros e necróticos, circundados por macrófagos epitelioides com citoplasma vacuolizado, ocasionais células gigantes multinucleadas e, mais externamente, por abundante tecido conjuntivo em meio observavam-se linfócitos e plasmócitos. Culturas bacterianas realizadas em amostras do exsudato da lesão de seis bovinos resultaram negativas. Quando as carcaças afetadas foram submetidas ao toalete foi retirado em média 1,8 e 2,0 kg de músculo da área afetada, respectivamente dos Lotes 1 e 2. O prejuízo econômico da propriedade de origem dos bovinos afetados foi de R$ 20.424,00, considerando o preço pago pela arroba do boi no mês e ano da ocorrência. Esses valores à época seriam suficientes para adquirir 29,17 bezerros desmamados para engorda. Se considerarmos 5.000 bovinos vacinados forem considerados como população sob risco o coeficiente de morbidade seria de 0,36%. Os resultados deste estudo demonstram que perdas por reação vacinal, mesmo quando não provocam sinais cl

  8. Infecções causadas por fungos demácios e suas correlações anátomo-clinicas Infections caused by dematiaceous fungi and their anatomoclinical correlations

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    Camila de Camargo Hoffmann

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Exophiala é composto por fungos melanizados dimórficos, responsáveis por um espectro de doenças, incluindo feohifomicoses, micetomas, cromoblastomicoses e fungemia. A espécie E. jeanselmei é a predominante nestas infecções, seguida de E. dermatitidis. Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar quatro casos e discutir aspectos clínicos, histológicos, micológicos e epidemiológicos para o seu diagnóstico.The Exophiala genus comprises dimorphic melanized fungi responsible for a spectrum of diseases including phaeohyphomycosis, mycetoma, chromoblastomycosis and fungemia. The E. jeanselmei species is predominant in such infections, followed by E. dermatitidis. This paper aims at reporting four cases and at discussing clinical, histologycal, mycologycal and epidemiologycal aspects for its diagnosis.

  9. Caracterización de la respuesta morfológica de variedades susceptibles y resistentes de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz a la bacteriosis vascular causada por Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis

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    Tamara Sandino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis es una de las principales limitaciones del cultivo de yuca. En esta investigación, mediante microscopía óptica, se realizó un análisis comparativo de los cambios morfológicos e histoquímicos en tallos de una variedad de yuca susceptible (TMS60444 y una resistente (CM6438-14, 7 y 14 días después de ser inoculadas con la cepa patogénica CIO151. Se pudo detectar que la variedad resistente genera barreras de calosa en las paredes celulares del parénquima cortical y del floema, manteniendo funcional este tejido. En tanto que los tejidos vasculares de la variedad susceptible colapsan, el floema por obstrucción total con tapones de calosa y por formación de compuestos fenólicos, y el xilema por formación de tílides y/o acumulación de compuestos fenólicos, sin poder frenar el avance sistémico de la enfermedad.

  10. Overleving van Erwinia in water : waakzaamheid geboden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Houtenbos, R.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2008-01-01

    PPO en Plant Research International hebben al eerder de rotbacterie Erwinia onderzocht, omdat Erwinia een vochtminnende bacterie is, is besmetting via water, ook vanuit de lucht een reëel gevaar. Omdat water op veel manieren op bollenbedrijven toegepast wordt is onderzocht hoe lang deze rotveroorzak

  11. Lama glama con signología y lesiones compatibles con paratuberculosis causadas por Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium Lama glama with signology and lesion compatible with paratuberculosis and injuries caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium

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    M.C Jorge

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Los camélidos sudamericanos (CS incluyen cuatro especies, guanaco, vicuña, alpaca y llama (Lama glama. En Argentina las llamas eran consideradas fauna y actualmente ganado, revalorizando su carne, fibra, cueros y pieles, también son un medio de subsistencia. Los CS son susceptibles a las enfermedades ocasionadas por micobacterias. El diagnóstico presuntivo se realiza por los signos clínicos y los hallazgos de necropsia y se confirma por técnicas bacteriológicas, moleculares e histopatología. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir un caso clínico con signos compatibles de paratuberculosis y el diagnóstico de laboratorio en una llama en cautiverio perteneciente a un zoológico de Olavarría, Provincia de Buenos Aires. En la necropsia se observaron lesiones granulomatosas en yeyuno, íleon y linfonodos mesentéricos compatibles con paratuberculosis, en los frotis directos y en la histopatología se observaron bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes en cluster. Se confirmó la presencia de Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium por bacteriología y por PCR fue detectada la IS1245 característica de este agente, no detectando la IS900 correspondiente a Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis. Esto permitió arribar al diagnóstico etiológico, combinando técnicas, de un caso de enteritis granulomatosa en llamas causado por Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium con signología y lesiones compatibles con paratuberculosis.Guanaco, vicuña, alpaca and llama (Lama glama are also known as Sudamerican camelids (SC. In Argentina llama was considered non profitable wildlife specie but now it is considered a mean for surviving because their meat, wool, leather and skin is valuable. SC are susceptible hosts of mycobacterial infections. A presumptive diagnosis is based on clinical and necropsy findings and is confirmed with bacterial isolation, molecular identification and histopathology. The objective of this publication is to describe a clinical

  12. Relación entre Condiciones de Suelo y Manejo de Huertas de Nogal Pecanero Carya illinoensis Koch con la Dinámica de la Pudrición Texana, causada por Phymatotrichum omnivorum Duggar

    OpenAIRE

    José Alfredo Samaniego Gaxiola; Teodoro Herrera Pérez; Aurelio Pedroza Sandoval; Jesús Santamaría César

    2001-01-01

    De 1995 a 1998, 26 lotes de tres ha cada uno fueron seleccionadas en huertas comerciales de nogal pecanero. El objetivo del muestreo fue relacionar la dinámica de la Pudrición Texana con el manejo de las huertas y condición de suelo. Las variables en el manejo del cultivo fueron: edad de los árboles, distancia de plantación, árboles por hectárea, manejo de plagas, número de riegos e incidencia de árboles enfermos (en 1995); para el factor suelo se consideraron tres profundidades (0-30, 30-60 ...

  13. Reações adversas causadas por fármacos que atuam no sistema nervoso: análise de registros de um centro de farmacovigilância do Brasil Adverse reaction caused by drugs acting in nervous system: records analysis of a farmacovigilance center in Brazil

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    Marta Maria de França Fonteles

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A morbimortalidade por uso de medicamentos é um grande problema de saúde. As reações adversas a medicamentos podem resultar em óbito, aumento de internações hospitalares e dos custos com a saúde. OBJETIVOS: Descrever e analisar as notificações de suspeitas de reações adversas causadas por medicamentos que atuam no sistema nervoso (RAM-SN, registradas no Centro de Farmacovigilância do Ceará, de janeiro de 1997 a março de 2008. MÉTODOS: As RAM-SN foram classificadas segundo os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Uma relação de causalidade entre o fármaco administrado e a reação adversa identificada foi realizada, bem como a análise da reação quanto à gravidade. RESULTADOS: Foram registradas 176 notificações de RAM-SN. A maioria (n = 145; 82,4% ocorreu no ambiente hospitalar. O principal notificador foi o farmacêutico. As RAM-SN foram classificadas como: possíveis (n = 110, prováveis (n = 37 e definidas (n = 17. Quanto à gravidade, foram consideradas: leves (n = 21, moderadas (n = 127, graves (n = 15 e fatais (n = 1. O caso fatal foi notificado por médico e envolveu medicamentos anestésicos. Geralmente, as reações adversas observadas foram causadas predominantemente por analgésicos, anestésicos e antiepilépticos. DISCUSSÃO: Os dados demonstram o valor potencial de se ter acesso a sistemas de farmacovigilância local para registrar possíveis riscos com o uso de fármacos.BACKGROUND: The morbi-mortality by the use of medicines is a major health problem. The drug adverse reactions may result in death, increased hospitalizations and healthcare costs. OBJECTIVES: Describe and analyze reports of suspected adverse reactions caused by drugs that act on the nervous system (SN-ADR, registered in the database of the Pharmacovigilance Centre of Ceará, from January 1997 to March 2008. METHODS: All the NS-ADRs were classified according to criteria of the World Health Organization. The causality

  14. Chocolate das bagas e clorose foliar: anomalia da videira causada por deficiência de boro Internal browning ("chocolate" and leaf chlorosis of the 'pink Niagara' grafe, a boron deficiency anomaly

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    Hugo Kuniyuki

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available A anomalia do cultivar de videira Niagara Rosada, caracterizada por sintomas de clorose nas folhas, chocolate das bagas e cachos malformados, não é de natureza virótica, de acordo com resultados de testes de transmissão e de perpetuação. Essa anomalia, presente em áreas definidas de alguns vinhedos de Indaiatuba e Jundiaí (SP, está associada à deficiência nutricional de boro. O teor médio de boro em amostras de plantas afetadas de 'Niagara Rosada' (18 ppm no limbo e 7 ppm nos frutos foi menor do que nas de plantas normais (24 ppm no limbo e 10 ppm nos frutos das mesmas plantaçoes; um material coletado de um vinhedo bastante afetado mostrou 13 e 1 ppm respectivamente no limbo e nos frutos de plantas deficientes contra 20 e 6 ppm nos de plantas sem sintomas. Amostras de três vinhedos vizinhos sem essa anomalia apresentaram um teor médio de 35 ppm no limbo. As do porta-enxerto 'Traviú' com clorose e sem clorose mostraram 16 ppm e 43 ppm de boro respectivamente. A aplicação de bórax, nas doses de 5, 10 e 20g por planta, 1ogo após a poda de inverno, ou pulverização de ácido bórico nas concentraçoes de 0,3% e 0,6% sobre a folhagem, durante o início do florescimento e durante a fase de uva chumbinho, permitiram controlar a anomalia nas condições de campo. Foi notada resposta favorável por um ciclo vegetativo, pelo menos, indicando controle por efeito residual de uma aplicação.The 'pink Niagara' grape (V. labrusca L. x V. vinifera L. anomaly characterized by leaf chlorosis and "chocolate" (internal browning of the young fruit, at first thought to be a virus disease, has been found to be a result of boron deficiency. The anomaly was first recorded in 1974. It occurs in patches in vineyards of Indaiatuba and Jundiaí, two grape-growing counties of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Affected plants show yellowing between the primary and secondary veins of the upper leaves and malformed clusters, with normal-sized berries and

  15. Meningoencefalite em bovinos causada por herpesvírus bovino-5 no Mato Grosso do Sul e São Paulo Meningoencephalitis in cattle caused by bovine herpesvirus-5 in Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo

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    Sandro César Salvador

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Quinze focos de meningoencefalite por herpesvírus bovino-5 (BHV-5 foram diagnosticados entre agosto de 1993 e dezembro de 1996, sendo 14 provenientes do estado do Mato Grosso do Sul e um do estado de São Paulo. A doença ocorreu em diversos municípios e em diferentes épocas do ano. Foram afetados bovinos de 6 a 60 meses de idade, com uma morbidade de 0,05% a 5% e letalidade próxima a 100%. Os sinais clínicos foram exclusivamente nervosos e o curso da enfermidade variou de 1 a 15 dias. As principais lesões histológicas detectadas foram meningite e encefalite difusa com malacia do córtex cerebral e presença de corpúsculos de inclusão intranucleares em astrócitos e neurônios. O vírus foi isolado do cérebro de 11 de um total de 12 animais, e sua identidade confirmada por imunoperoxidase, utilizando-se anticorpos monoclonais específicos. Os surtos de encefalite por BHV-5 representam 5% dos diagnósticos realizados em bovinos pelo Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul. Os resultados deste trabalho evidenciam a importância da doença no Mato Grosso do Sul e indicam a necessidade de incluir a encefalite por BHV-5 no diagnóstico diferencial de outras doenças do sistema nervoso de bovinos frequentes no Estado.Fifteen outbreaks of bovine herpesvirus-type 5 (BHV-5 infection were diagnosed from August 1993 to December 1996. Fourteen outbreaks occurred in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and one in the State of São Paulo. Cattle 6 to 60 months old were affected. Morbidity reached 0.05% to 5% and case fatality rate was nearly 100%. The disease occurred in different municipalities and at different times of the year. Clinical signs were exclusively nervous, and the clinical course varied from 1 to 15 days. The main histologic lesions were meningitis, diffuse encephalitis and necrosis of the cerebral cortex with intranuclear inclusion bodies in astrocytes and neurons. BHV-5 was isolated from 11 out of 12 brains of

  16. Estimativas de perdas econômicas causadas por reação granulomatosa local após uso de vacina oleosa contra febre aftosa em bovinos de Mato Grosso do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Paula V. Leal; Pupin,Rayane C.; Ariany C. Santos; Tatiane C. Faccin; Eduardo Surdi; Leal,Cassia R.B.; Ricardo Carneiro Brumatti; Lemos,Ricardo A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Lesões exacerbadas à vacina contra a febre aftosa foram observadas em 1.815 de um total de 5.000 bovinos abatidos em frigorífico com inspeção federal. Essas lesões resultaram na condenação de parte das carcaças de acordo com o Regulamento da Inspeção Industrial e Sanitária de Produtos de Origem Animal. Os bovinos haviam sido vacinados em maio de 2012 e abatidos em setembro do mesmo ano e divididos em Lotes 1 e 2 constituídos respectivamente por 1.500 e 315 bovinos. As lesões de reação vacinal...

  17. Prevalência da mordida aberta anterior causada por hábitos deletérios de sucção em crianças de cinco anos de idade

    OpenAIRE

    Rosseto, Célia Maria Mamoni

    2015-01-01

    As maloclusões são problemas de saúde bucal em Saúde Coletiva, definidas como agravos à saúde pela Organização Mundial de Saúde. Representam variações significantes do crescimento e da morfologia dos arcos dentários comprometendo funções e a estética do indivíduo. Uma das maloclusões é a mordida aberta, caracterizada por uma deficiência no contato vertical normal entre os dentes antagonistas, que pode manifestar-se em uma região limitada ou, mais raramente, em todo o arco dentário. Quando a f...

  18. Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serotype B, in an immunocompetent patient Criptococose cutânea primária causada por Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii sorotipo B em paciente imunocomprometido

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    Carlos da Silva LACAZ

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a male patient, a seller with no detected immunosuppression, with an extensive ulcerated skin lesion localized on the left forearm, caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serotype B. Oral treatment with fluconazole was successful. A review of the literature showed the rarity of this localization in HIV-negative patients. In contrast, skin lesions frequently occurs in HIV-positive patients, with Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans serotype A predominating as the etiological agent. In this paper, the pathogenicity of C. neoformans to skin lesions in patients immunocompromised or not, is discussed, showing the efficacy of fluconazole for the treatment of these processes.Os autores registram em paciente do sexo masculino, vendedor ambulante sem qualquer doença de base, lesão cutânea extensa, localizada no antebraço esquerdo, sob forma ulcerada, provocada pelo Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii sorotipo B. Sucesso terapêutico com fluconazol, por via oral. Revisão da literatura foi realizada, mostrando raridade de tal localização em pacientes HIV-negativos. Já em pacientes HIV-positivos, lesões cutâneas ocorrem com freqüência, predominando como agente etiológico o Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans, sorotipo A. A patogenicidade do C. neoformans nas lesões cutâneas é discutida em pacientes imunocomprometidos ou não, mostrando a eficácia do fluconazol no tratamento de tais processos.

  19. Epidemiology of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacter bacteremia in a brazilian hospital Epidemiologia de bacteremia causadas por Enterobacter produtores de β-lactamases de espectro estendido em um hospital brasileiro

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    Felipe Francisco Tuon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Enterobacter can be included in the group of extended spectrum β-lactamases (EBSL-producing bacteria, though few studies exist evaluating risk factors associated with this microorganism. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine risk factors associated with ESBL-producing-Enterobacter and mortality METHODS: A retrospective cohort study with 58 bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing-Enterobacter (28 cases and non-ESBL (30 cases RESULTS: Risk factors associated with ESBL-Enterobacter were trauma, length of hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit, urinary catheter and elective surgery (pINTRODUÇÃO: Enterobacter pode ser incluído no grupo de bactérias produtoras de β-lactamases de espectro estendido (ESBL, mas existem poucos estudos avaliando fatores de risco para ESBL. Nós realizamos uma coorte retrospective para determiner fatores de risco associados com Enterobacter produtores de ESBL MÉTODOS: Uma coorte retrospectiva com 58 bacteremias por Enterobacter ESBL (28 casos e não-ESBL (30 casos RESULTADOS: Fatores de risco para ESBL-Enterobacter foram trauma, tempo de internação, admissão em UTI, sonda vesical e cirurgia eletiva (p<0.05. A mortalidade foi similar entre ESBL e não-ESBL CONCLUSÕES: Enterobacter produtor de ESBL é prevalente e a curva de mortalidade foi semelhante com o grupo não-ESBL.

  20. Insuficiência respiratória aguda causada por pneumonia em organização secundária à terapia antineoplásica para linfoma não Hodgkin

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    Adriell Ramalho Santana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Doenças difusas do parênquima pulmonar pertencem a um grupo de doenças de evolução geralmente subaguda ou crônica, mas que podem determinar insuficiência respiratória aguda. Paciente masculino, 37 anos, em terapia para linfoma não Hodgkin, admitido com tosse seca, febre, dispneia e insuficiência respiratória aguda hipoxêmica. Iniciadas ventilação mecânica e antibioticoterapia, porém houve evolução desfavorável. Tomografia computadorizada de tórax mostrava opacidades pulmonares em "vidro fosco" bilaterais. Devido ao paciente ter feito uso de três drogas relacionadas à pneumonia em organização (ciclofosfamida, doxorrubicina e rituximabe e quadros clínico e radiológico serem sugestivos, iniciou-se pulsoterapia com metilprednisolona com boa resposta. Pneumonia em organização pode ser idiopática ou associada a colagenoses, drogas e neoplasias, e geralmente responde bem a corticoterapia. O diagnóstico é anatomopatológico, mas condições clínicas do paciente não permitiam a realização de biópsia pulmonar. Pneumonia em organização deve ser diagnóstico diferencial em pacientes com aparente pneumonia de evolução desfavorável ao tratamento antimicrobiano.

  1. Cutaneous cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus gattii in a patient on chronic corticotherapy Criptococose cutânea causada por Cryptococcus gattii em um paciente sob corticoterapia crônica

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    Fernando Bellissimo-Rodrigues

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus gattii causes a form of endemic mycosis that most commonly affects the lungs and central nervous system of immunocompetent patients living in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Case report. A 66-year-old man who had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease without HIV infection and had been on systemic corticotherapy for several years developed extensive ulceration of the left forearm that was associated with ipsilateral supraclavicular adenomegaly, consequent to infection with Cryptococcus gattii. The patient was treated with fluconazole 400mg/day for eight months, which led to complete healing of the lesion. This case emphasizes that, although rare, C. gattii may cause opportunistic cutaneous-lymphatic infection in patients living in the southeastern region of Brazil who are immunocompromised through chronic corticotherapy.Cryptococcus gattii é agente causador de uma micose endêmica que afeta principalmente os pulmões e o sistema nervoso central de pacientes imunocompetentes em regiões tropicais e subtropicais do globo. Relato de caso. Um paciente de 66 anos, portador de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, não infectado pelo vírus HIV, em corticoterapia sistêmica prolongada, desenvolveu extensa ulceração do antebraço esquerdo, associada a adenomegalia supraclavicular ipsilateral, em conseqüência à infecção por Cryptococcus gattii. O paciente foi tratado com fluconazol 400mg/dia durante 8 meses, obtendo resolução completa da lesão. Este caso enfatiza que, ainda que raramente, C. gattii pode causar infecção cutâneo-linfática oportunista, em paciente imunocomprometido pelo uso sistêmico de corticosteróides vivendo na região sudeste do Brasil.

  2. Impact of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination program on HIB meningitis in Brazil Impacto do programa de vacinação contra meningites causadas por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b no Brasil

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    Sybelle de Souza Castro Miranzi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the impact of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB in Brazil on the morbidity, mortality, and case fatality of HIB meningitis, using the Ministry of Health database and population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE. Impact was evaluated through a time series analysis (1983-2002, using regression forecasting (RF by dividing the time series into two periods: (a historical (1983-1998 and (b validation (1999-2002. Impact of the vaccination was positive, although more significant for incidence and mortality than for case fatality rates.A proposta deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da vacinação contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (HIB no Brasil sobre a morbi-mortalidade e a letalidade das meningites por HIB, a partir de base de dados fornecida pelo Ministério da Saúde e as estimativas populacionais provenientes do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE. Para a avaliação do impacto utilizou-se análise de tendência temporal (1983-2002, aplicando-se a técnica RF (regression forecasting, dividindo-se a série em dois períodos: (a período histórico (1983-1998 e (b período de estimação (1999-2002. O impacto da vacinação foi positivo, embora tenha se revelado mais expressivo sobre a morbi-mortalidade que sobre a letalidade.

  3. Endocardite valvar mitral causada por Chlamydia psittaci: apresentação de um caso raro Chlamydia psittaci as a cause of mitral valve endocarditis: presentation of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo Luiz Wolker

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos o caso de um criador de pássaros que desenvolveu um quadro consuntivo, febril, com mialgia e hemoculturas negativas. Internado por três ocasiões, foi tratado empiricamente com antibióticos, sem melhora. Após quatro meses, apresentou piora com sinais de infecção sistêmica. Ecocardiograma demonstrou insuficiência mitral moderada, com vegetações, não presentes em exame prévio. Sorologia positiva para Chlamydia psittaci (imunofluorescência indireta. Na cirurgia, identificou-se grande destruição da valva mitral, com cúspide anterior rota e vegetações. Após a cirurgia, apresentou melhora clínica, recebendo alta em treze dias, com antibioticoterapia específica. Apesar de pouco freqüente, a Chlamydia psittaci deve ser lembrada em casos de endocardite com hemoculturas negativas, quando houver história de exposição a pássaros.The authors report a clinical case of bird breeder who evolved with fever, myalgia, weight lost and negative blood cultures. On three occasions he was treated with different antibiotics, without improvement. He became progressively worse and after four months a diagnosis of endocarditis was made. An echocardiogram showed mitral valve dysfunction with vegetation that had not been seen previously. A blood test proved positive for Chlamydia psittaci (indirect immunofluorescence. In surgery the mitral valve was seen to have severe lesions with anterior cuspid rupture and large areas with vegetation. After surgery, he presented with a clinical improvement and was discharged on the thirteenth post-operative day on specific antibiotic therapy. Although rare, Chlamydia psittaci must be considered in cases of endocarditis with negative blood cultures, when there is a possibility of contact with birds.

  4. La marchitez tardía del maíz (Zea mays L. causada por Cephalosporium maydis en la Península Ibérica, y otros hongos asociados

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    Carmen Maria Ortiz-Bustos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de hongos de suelo asociadas a Cephalosporium maydis como agente causal de la marchitez tardía del maíz en la Península Ibérica se identificaron muestreando 19 campos con síntomas de marchitez en las principales zonas de cultivo entre 2011 y 2012. En el 47% de los campos no se identificó C. maydis, pero sí Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. equiseti, F. proliferatum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani y Trichoderma harzianum infectando las plantas de maíz. En los campos restantes, junto a C. maydis se identificaron otros hongos de suelo en porcentajes apreciables: F. verticillioides (19%, F. proliferatum (19%, F.equiseti (9%, F. oxysporum (9% y Pythium oligandrum (9%. El crecimiento vascular de C. maydis y de otras especies fúngicas en plantas de maíz se confirmó analizando plantas con marchitez procedentes de tres campos diferentes. Tanto C. maydis como F. graminearum, F. equiseti, F. proliferatum y T. harzianum se aislaron de la inserción entre la raíz y tallo y a 10 cm de altura en el tallo de las plantas. El efecto de la infección por C. maydis sobre la producción de las plantas de maíz se cuantificó en macetas y condiciones seminaturales en el 2011. En plantas inoculadas se obtuvo una reducción del peso de las mazorcas del 54%, además de pesos de raíz y de parte aérea (tallo y hojas significativamente menores en comparación con el control no inoculado, lo que sugiere el gran impacto económico que puede tener la marchitez tardía en condiciones naturales. Asimismo este trabajo pone de manifiesto el grado de complejidad de la etiología de la marchitez tardía, que debería ser estudiado mediante la confirmación de la patogenicidad de los hongos de suelo identificados en maíz, con el fin de determinar el papel que puede jugar cada una de estas especies en el desarrollo de la enfermedad y/o severidad de los síntomas.

  5. Relación entre Incidencia y Severidad de la Roya Asiática de la Soya Causada por Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow & Sydow Relationship Between Incidence and Severity of Asian Soybean Rust Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow & Sydow

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    Felipe Rafael Garcés Fiallos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se relaciona la incidencia con la severidad de la roya asiática de la soya, donde los valores generados por las ecuaciones pueden ser usados en cualquier estudio de este patosistema, proporcionando una herramienta para evaluar la incidencia como también la severidad. Se generaron gradientes de la enfermedad mediante el uso de fungicidas y momentos de aplicación, de manera preventiva y curativa. El experimento de campo con el cultivar Nidera 5909 RG, fue distribuido en bloques completos al azar. La intensidad de la roya asiática fue medida en los estratos inferior, medio y superior de la planta, a través de diferentes conteos de incidencia (porcentaje y severidad (lesiones cm-2, urédias cm-2 y porcentaje en folíolos. Las regresiones realizadas, presentaron una correlación significativa entre incidencia y severidad a 1% de probabilidad. Con los datos obtenidos, el evaluador puede escoger el método de cuantificación mas razonable o confiable a su criterio para otros trabajos de investigación o aplicar un determinado control de la enfermedad, utilizando las ecuaciones lineales generadas, facilitando el trabajo de cuantificar la roya asiática, bien se busque medir la incidencia (% o el número de lesiones cm-2, urédias cm-2 o severidad (%.Incidence is related to severity of the Asian soybean rust, where values generated by the equations can be used in any study of this pathosystem, providing a tool to evaluate incidence as well severity. Gradients of the disease were generated by means of the use of fungicides and moments of application, in a preventive and curative way. The field experiment with the cultivar Nidera RG 5909, was distributed in a randomized complete block. The intensity of Asian rust layers was measured in the lower, middle and top of the plant, through various counts of incidence (percentage and severity (lesions cm-2, uredinia cm-2 and percentage in leaflets. The regressions showed a significant correlation between

  6. Fatores de risco e letalidade de infecção da corrente sanguínea laboratorialmente confirmada, causada por patógenos não contaminantes da pele em recém-nascidos

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    Roberta M.C. Romanelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os fatores de risco e a letalidade da infecção da corrente sanguínea laboratorialmente confirmada (ICSLC de início tardio em uma Unidade Neonatal de Cuidados Progressivos (UNCP brasileira. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo caso-controle realizado de 2008 a 2012. Os casos foram definidos como todos os recém-nascidos com ICSLC de início tardio, excluindo pacientes isolados com contaminantes da pele comuns. Os controles foram recém-nascidos que não mostraram qualquer evidência de ICSLC de início tardio, sendo separados por peso e tempo de permanência na UNCP. As variáveis foram obtidas na base de dados da Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar (CCIH. A análise foi realizada utilizando o Pacote Estatístico para Ciências Sociais. O teste χ² foi utilizado e a relevância estatística foi definida como p < 0,05, seguida pela análise multivariada. RESULTADOS: No estudo, 50 pacientes com ICSLC de início tardio foram combinados com 100 pacientes sem ICSLC de início tardio. No grupo de pacientes com ICSLC de início tardio, identificamos uma proporção significativamente maior de pacientes que foram submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos (p = 0,001 e que usaram cateter venoso central (CVC (p = 0,012 e ventilação mecânica (p = 0,001. Na análise multivariada, cirurgia prévia e uso de CVC permaneceram significativamente associados à infecção (p = 0,006 e p = 0,047; OU: 4,47 e 8,99, respectivamente. A Enterobacteriacea foi identificada em 14 casos, com três (21,4% óbitos, e Staphylococcus aureus foi identificado em 20 casos, com três (15% óbitos. CONCLUSÕES: Procedimentos cirúrgicos e uso de CVC constituíram fatores de risco significativos para ICSLC. Portanto, práticas de prevenção para cirurgia segura, inserção e manipulação de CVC são essenciais para reduzir essas infecções, além de treinamento e educação contínua às equipes cirúrgicas e de assistência.

  7. Efeitos da esplenectomia na peritonite causada por lesão traumática do cólon: estudo em ratos Effects of splenectomy on peritonitis produced by a colonic injury: study in rats

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    Luís Sérgio Nassif

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o efeito da esplenectomia na infecção intra-abdominal com bactérias da flora enteral, liberadas para a cavidade abdominal através de uma lesão induzida no cólon de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 64 animais, sendo 20 do Grupo A1 (normais sem sutura da lesão, 22 do Grupo A2 (normais com sutura da lesão e 22 do Grupo B (esplenectomizados e com sutura da lesão. Os animais foram submetidos à laparotomia mediana e a indução da peritonite intra-operatória foi obtida através de lesão do cólon previamente distendido pela introdução de uma sonda naso-gástrica via retal e injeção de 2 ml de soro fisiológico. Foram realizados exames bacteriológicos de lavado abdominal obtido por swab esterelizado e exame microscópico de segmento suturado do cólon de amostras obtidas dos grupos A2 e B com 48hs, 96hs e 12 dias de pós-operatório. Todos os animais foram submetidos a necropsia por ocasião do óbito ou no 12º. dia de pós-operatório quando os sobreviventes foram sacrificados. RESULTADOS: Agentes bacterianos semelhantes foram encontrados nos três grupos: E.coli (100%; Enterococcus faecalis (97%; P. mirabilis (90%; Klebsiela pneumoniae (70%; Citobacter freundi (70% e Enterobacter aglomerans (63%. O exame microscópico revelou menor reação inflamatória no grupo esplenectomizado. A causa da morte na maioria foi peritonite nas primeiras 96hs. Houve alto índice de significância de mortalidade entre os animais do Grupo B (80% em relação ao Grupo A2 (sem mortalidade e em relação ao Grupo A1 (35%. CONCLUSÃO: Houve alto índice de significância de mortalidade em vigência de peritonite nos animais esplenectomizados em relação aos animais que não foram esplenectomizados.BACKGROUND: Study the effects of splenectomy on the intra-abdominal infection by bowel flora, consequent to a colonic injury in Wistar rats. METHODS: We used 64 animals, 20 for Group A1 (normal with colon lesion left open, 22 for Group

  8. Therapeutic trial in experimental tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. A comparative study between mefloquine and aminosidine Ensaio terapêutico na leishmaniose tegumentar experimental causada por Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. Um estudo comparativo entre mefloquina e aminosidine

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    Letícia Oba Galvão

    2000-08-01

    mefloquina (16mg/kg/dia/10 dias, 2 52 animais tratados com aminosidina [Paramomicina ®] (20mg/kg/dia/20 dias, 3 78 animais controles, não manipulados. Vinte e seis animais de cada grupo tratado foram sacrificados nove e quinze semanas após a inoculação. Animais do grupo controle foram sacrificados na sexta, nona e décima quinta semanas após a inoculação. Ao final do tratamento, em relação à curva de peso da orelhas, somente nos animais tratados com aminosidina, houve nítida redução do peso em comparação com grupo controle. Na histopatologia verificou-se: a não houve diferença entre o grupo tratado com mefloquina e o grupo controle; o grupo tratado com aminosidina, ao final do tratamento, teve menor infiltração por macrófagos vacuolizados; b as avaliações da extensão das áreas de necrose e do nível da fibrose tecidual não mostraram diferenças entre os grupos tratados. Os animais do grupo controle apresentaram fibrose mais acentuada, seis semanas após o fim do tratamento. Pode-se concluir que ocorreu efeito terapêutico reduzido com a mefloquina e houve significativa melhora com a aminosidina. Entretanto, em todos os grupos as lesões não chegaram a curar.

  9. Padrão dermatoscópico das alopecias cicatriciais causadas por lúpus eritematoso discoide e líquen plano pilar Dermoscopy patterns of cicatricial alopecia resulting from discoid lupus erythematosus and lichen planopilaris

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    Bruna Duque Estrada

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A dermatoscopia é método importante de diagnóstico de doenças melanocíticas benignas e malignas. Recentemente, o uso desse método tem demonstrado grande ajuda também no diagnóstico e acompanhamento das alopecias. OBJETIVO: Descrever e demonstrar os achados dermatoscópicos de pacientes com quadros clínicos e histopatológicos de alopecia cicatricial. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal descritivo em que foram selecionados, pelos achados clínicos e histopatológicos do couro cabeludo, 14 pacientes com alopecia cicatricial, sendo quatro casos de líquen plano pilar clássico, cinco casos de alopecia fibrosante frontal e cinco com lúpus eritematoso discoide. Os pacientes foram avaliados com videodermatoscópio e dermatoscópio manual por três examinadores diferentes, de forma independente. Os aumentos variaram de 10 a 70 vezes. RESULTADOS: Foram achados predominantes no lúpus eritematoso discoide placas brancas, capilares arboriformes, tampões ceratósicos e áreas com diminuição dos óstios foliculares; no líquen plano pilar clássico, escamas perifoliculares, pontos brancos e diminuição de óstios foliculares; na alopecia fibrosante frontal, diminuição de óstios foliculares, escama e eritema perifolicular, além de capilares arboriformes. As estruturas azul-acinzentadas, demonstradas neste estudo, não foram descritas na literatura. CONCLUSÕES: O uso da dermatoscopia na avaliação clínica das alopecias ajudou a estabelecer elementos semióticos, melhorou a capacidade de diagnóstico em relação à simples inspeção e revelou novas características das alopecias cicatriciais.BACKGROUND: Dermoscopy is an important tool for the diagnosis of benign and malignant melanocytic diseases. Recently, this method has also been found to be extremely useful in the diagnosis and follow-up of alopecias. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe dermoscopic findings in patients with clinical and histopathological

  10. Estudos histomorfométrico e histológico das lesões ósseas causadas por flúor em aves Histomorphometric and histological evaluations of the bone lesions caused by fluoride in chickens

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    Margarida Buss Raffi

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluoreto de sódio foi administrado na água de 2 grupos de 25 aves, fêmeas, da raça Shaver. O grupo A recebeu flúor do 1 ao 120 dia de idade e o grupo B do 61 ao 120 dia de idade. Cada grupo foi dividido em 5 níveis de tratamento: 0, 25, 50, 200 e 400 ppm de flúor, com 5 animais por tratamento. Todos os animais foram sacrificados aos 120 dias de idade. Para o estudo histomorfométrico foram coletados o fêmur e a tíbia esquerdos, e para o estudo histológico foram coletados fêmur e tíbia direitos. No estudo histomorfométrico do osso compacto observou-se um discreto aumento da porosidade cortical, que não foi estatisticamente significativo. A espessura do osso cortical aumentou nos animais tratados com flúor (pSodium fluoride was administered in the water to 2 groups of 25 Shaver female poultry. Group A received fluoride from 1 to 120 days of age and group B from 61 to 120 days. Each group was divided into 5 treatments, with 5 chickens each, which received 0, 25, 50, 200, and 400 ppm of fluoride in the water, respectively. All animals were killed at 120 days of age. For histomorphometric studies the left femur and tibia were used, and for histologic studies the right femur and tibia. In the cortical bone, cortical porosity was slightly increased by fluoride, but the differences with the control group were not significant. Cortical thickness increased in the animals treated with fluoride (p<0,05, r2 = 0,59 . In the trabecular bone, of group A, trabecular thickness (TT (p<0,05, r2 = 0,63 and trabecular bone volume (TBV (p<0,05, r2 = 0,72 increased in treatments receiving 25-200 ppm, and decreased in the 400 ppm treatment, as it was demonstrated by quadratic regression analysis. In group B there was a positive linear correlation on TT (p<0,05, r2 = 0,98 and TBV (p<0,05, r2 = 0,77 with fluoride ingestion.The osteoid surface was also positively correlated with the amount of fluoride ingested by the animals (p<0,001, r2 = 0,80. These

  11. Linfadenite granulomatosa em suínos: linfonodos afetados e diagnóstico patológico da infecção causada por agentes do Complexo Mycobacterium avium Granulomatous lymphadenitis in swine: lymph nodes affected and pathologic diagnosis of the infection caused by Mycobacterium avium Complex agents

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    Nelson Morés

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo com o objetivo de avaliar a distribuição de lesões granulomatosas nos linfonodos das carcaças de suínos abatidos e de comparar os métodos de isolamento do Complexo Mycobacterium avium (MAC, coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN, exames histopatológico e de imunohisto-química (IHQ para o diagnóstico da linfadenite granulomatosa causada por micobactérias do MAC. Foram utilizadas 431 amostras de linfonodos colhidos de 394 carcaças de suínos abatidos em 12 frigoríficos da Região Sul do Brasil, com o Serviço de Inspeção Federal (SIF. Os linfonodos que apresentavam lesões granulomatosas foram submetidos aos exames histológicos, ZN e IHQ com anticorpo monoclonal produzido com extrato celular de M. avium. A concordância entre os exames foi medida pelo teste Kappa, com nível de confiança de 95%. O exame macroscópico realizado pelo SIF identifica corretamente 90,3% das lesões granulomatosas, quando comparado com o exame histológico e a maioria das carcaças (92,5 apresentam lesões apenas nos linfonodos cadeia alimentar. O exame histológico confirmou a presença de lesões granulo-matosas em 90,3% dos linfonodos. As concordâncias entre os exames histopatológico e coloração de ZN (Kappa: 0,342 e de IHQ e o isolamento do MAC (Kappa: 0,102 foram baixas, porém alta entre os exames de IHQ e histológico com a presença de granulomas típicos nos linfonodos (Kappa: 0,973. O exame de IHQ associado ao exame histopatológico mostrou-se eficiente na identificação das lesões de linfadenite granulomatosa causadas pelo MAC.A study to evaluate the distribution of granulomatous lesions in the lymph nodes of swine carcasses was accomplished. The main objective was to compare the methods of isolation of mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC, Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN staining, histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry (IHC for the diagnosis of granulomatous lymphadenitis caused by MAC. A total of 431

  12. Alterations of the myenteric plexus of the ileum and the descending colon caused by Toxoplasma gondii (genotype III Alterações do plexo mientérico do íleo e cólon descendente causadas por Toxoplasma gondii (genótipo III

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    Elaine Yae Yamashita Sugauara

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Alterations caused by a genotype III strain of Toxoplasma gondii were assessed with respect to the number and the morphometry of the myenteric neurons in the terminal ileum and the descending colon. Eighteen rats were divided into four groups: Acute Control Group (ACG, n=4; Acute Experimental Group (AEG, n=4; Chronic Control Group (CCG, n=5 and Chronic Experimental Group (CEG, n=5. NaCl solution was administered through gavage to the animals in the ACG and CCG. Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites (10(4 from a genotype III strain were orally administered to the AEG and CEG. Acute Groups were died after 24 hours, and the Chronic Groups after 30 days. Neuronal loss was not observed in both organs. The neurons atrophied in the terminal ileum as the opposite occurred with the neurons at the descending colon during the chronic phase of infection. In the terminal ileum, the neurons atrophied during the chronic phase of the infection as no alteration was found during the acute phase. For the descending colon, the neurons became hypertrophic during the chronic infection in opposition to the atrophy found during the acute phase.Objetivou-se avaliar as alterações causadas por uma cepa genótipo III de Toxoplasma gondii, sobre o número e a morfometria de neurônios mientéricos, do íleo terminal e do cólon descendente. Dividiu-se dezoitos ratos em quatro grupos: controle agudo (GCA, n=4, experimental agudo (GEA, n=4, controle crônico (GCC, n=5 e experimental crônico (GEC, n=5. Os animais do GCA e GCC receberam solução de NaCl por gavagem, e os animais do GEA e GEC 10(4 taquizoítos de uma cepa genótipo III de T. gondii por via oral. Os grupos agudos após 24 horas foram mortos e os crônicos após 30 dias. Observou-se que não houve perda neuronal em ambos os órgãos. No íleo terminal, os neurônios atrofiaram-se na fase crônica da infecção, enquanto nenhuma alteração ocorreu na fase aguda. Já no cólon descendente, os neurônios tornaram

  13. Resultados de una encuesta sobre tratamiento de la cifosis torácica causada por enfermedad de Scheuermann Resultados de uma pesquisa sobre o tratamento da cifose torácica de Scheuermann Results of a survey on the treatment of thoracic Scheuermann´s kyphosis

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    Claudio Silveri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer que parámetros se deben considerar para encarar el tratamiento de la cifosis torácica causada por la enfermedad de Scheuermann. MÉTODO: Se realizó una recolección de informaciones consistente en aplicar un cuestionario a 25 informantes calificados, colegas de diferentes países de Íbero/Latinoamérica miembros de SILACO (Sociedad Íbero/Latinoamericana de Columna y se analizaron los resultados de las mismas. RESULTADOS: Como tratamiento ortopédico, la mayoría se inclinó por el uso del corsé de Milwaukee, indicado en pacientes prepúberes y pospúberes con curvas mayores de 60º y en curvas de menos de 60º si tienen dolor. El tiempo de uso: 22 hrs por día, su mantenimiento hasta llegar a Risser 4 o 5. Se observó una tasa de abandono de 48% al plan terapéutico. En lo referente a tratamiento quirúrgico, las indicaciones surgen: por localización de la deformidad, el valor angular, dolor, edad y estética. La extensión del área a fusionar fue determinada con los espinogramas y radiografías dinámicas. Se eligió la vía posterior como vía de abordaje con barras y tornillos, y en algunos casos la combinación con ganchos. Se evaluaron los resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico (de acuerdo a la opinión del médico, que fueron catalogados como buenos en un 64%. CONCLUSIONES: Se realizó una encuesta de opinión sobre el tratamiento de la cifosis torácica causada por enfermedad de Scheuermann .y se analizaron 25 formularios de respuestas de calificados cirujanos de columna, de diferentes países de Ibero/Latinoamérica miembros de SILACO. La encuesta ha permitido establecer normas de conducta terapéuticas (ortopédicas y quirúrgicas para el tratamiento de esta afección.OBJETIVO: Obter os parâmetros a serem considerados para realizar o tratamento da cifose torácica de Scheuermann. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram obtidos por meio de um questionário que foi respondido por 25 membros da SILACO (Sociedad Ibero

  14. Erwinia berokkent pootgoedsector vele miljoenen schade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, H.; Breukers, A.

    2008-01-01

    De besmetting met Erwinia ontwikkelt zich de laatste jaren tot een serieus probleem in de pootgoedsector. Voor telers ontstaat inkomensderving door lagere opbrengstprijzen en onbruikbare pootgoedvoorraden. Handelshuizen lijden schade door margedaling en reclameringen. Een aantasting van het imago va

  15. Is Erwinia te beheersen? Een literatuurstudie over rotproblemen in diverse gewassen om met deze kennis Erwinia in bolgewassen beter te kunnen aanpakken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Wolf, J.

    2005-01-01

    Het meeste onderzoek aan Erwinia-bacteriën is uitgevoerd bij aardappel. In dit gewas worden drie ziekteverwekkende Erwinia-soorten gevonden: Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca), Erwinia chrysanthemi (Echr) en Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc). Eca speelt in gematigde klimaatsgebiede

  16. Alteraciones dentales y periodontales causadas por el stripping en ortodoncia.

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio Merchán, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Desde hace más de setenta años el desgaste interproximal o stripping forma parte de las opciones de las que disponemos en los tratamientos de ortodoncia. Inicialmente fue un procedimiento indicado solo para pacientes adultos principalmente para el tratamiento de las discrepancias dentarias y la prevención de las recidivas mediante la estabilización de los puntos de contacto. Además comenzó a emplearse como alternativa en los casos dudosos de extracción, la eliminación de triángulos n...

  17. Surto de mastite bovina causada por Arcanobacterium pyogenes

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    R.G. Motta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An uncommon outbreak of mastitis caused by Arcanobacterium pyogenes in 26 cows is reported. The epidemiological findings, clinical signs, microbiological exams, somatic cell count, in vitro susceptibility profile of strains, efficacy of intramammary treatment and control measures were discussed. Florfenicol (96.2%, cefoperazona (92.3%, cefaloxin (84.6% and ceftiofur (84.6% were the most effective antimicrobials, and neomicin (27.0% and enrofloxacin (17.4% the least effective antimicrobials.

  18. Nucleotídeos na dieta de frangos de corte e seus efeitos sobre taxa de turnover da mucosa intestinal antes e após lesões causadas por coccidiose Nucleotides in broilers challenged diet and its effects on intestinal mucosa turnover rate before and after injuries caused by coccidiose

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    Vanessa Cristina Pelícia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da dieta suplementada com nucleotídeos sobre taxa de turnover da mucosa intestinal de frangos antes e após lesões causadas por coccidiose por meio de análise isotópica, utilizando a variação do carbono-13 em plantas C3 e C4. Foram utilizados 264 pintos submetidos a dois tratamentos: dieta controle e dieta suplementada com 0,07% nucleotídeos. Os pintos possuíam sinais isotópicos em seus tecidos semelhantes ao de ditas C4. Após o alojamento, para avaliar taxa de turnover da mucosa, as aves receberam dietas predominantemente C3. Com 16 dias de idade, 50% das aves de cada tratamento foram inoculadas com oocistos de Eimeria acervulina e, a partir de 21 dias, para avaliar a taxa de turnover após desafio, as aves passaram a receber dieta predominantemente C4. Amostras de mucosa foram analisadas isotopicamente por espectrometria de massa. Na fase inicial, a suplementação com nucleotídeos propiciou aceleração na troca do carbono na mucosa, com meia-vida de 1,06 e 1,01 dias para dieta controle e com nucleotídeos, respectivamente, acelerando o crescimento intestinal. Na fase de 21 a 42 dias de idade, para os grupos não desafiados com coccidiose, as meias-vidas do carbono foram 1,81 e 1,80 dias para dieta controle e com nucleotídeos, respectivamente, não havendo influência dos tratamentos. Porém, nos grupos desafiados, as meias-vidas foram 1,01 dias no grupo controle e 0,75 dias no que recebeu dieta com nucleotídeos, indicando maior turnover da mucosa nesse último grupo. A adição de nucleotídeos promove aceleração no processo de renovação da mucosa intestinal e na regeneração após danos causados por coccidiose.The objective was to evaluate the effect of nucleotides supplementation diet on the intestinal mucosa turnover rate of broilers before and after injury caused by coccidiosis, through isotopic analysis, using the carbon-13 variation in C³ and C4 plants. It was used 264

  19. Effect of topical 0.5% povidone-iodine compared to 5% natamycin in fungal keratitis caused by Fusarium solani in a rabbit model: a pilot study Efeito tópico de iodo-povidona 0,5% comparado com natamicina 5% em ceratites fúngicas causadas por Fusarium solani em um modelo animal de coelhos: estudo piloto

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    Lauro Augusto de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    tratados por 3 dias e sacrificados em seguida. As córneas foram removidas cirurgicamente, maceradas e incubadas em meio BHI. Semeou-se culturas em placas de ágar Sabouraud, diariamente, durante 7 dias, e contou-se o número de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC. Os coelhos foram avaliados clinicamente durante o período de tratamento. RESULTADOS: Os grupos iodo-povidona e natamicina demonstraram melhor eficácia do que o grupo controle considerando-se o número de coelhos nos quais não houve crescimento de colônias. Entretanto, não houve diferença estatística significante entre os 3 grupos quando se analizou o número de UFC (p>0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo demonstrou considerações metodológicas importantes na utilização de modelos animais para o teste de agentes antifúngicos. Usando a metodologia de contar UFC e com este tamanho amostral, administração tópica de iodo-povidona 0,5% não demonstrou benefício do tratamento de ceratite fúngica experimental causada por Fusarium solani quando comparado com a administração tópica de natamicina 5%.

  20. Contribuição das projeções oblíquas em mielografias de pequenos animais para a localização de lesões medulares causadas por processo degenerativo do disco intervertebral Contribution of oblique projections in small animals myelography to the localization of spinal lesions caused by intervertebral disc degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Maciel Zardo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mielografia é uma técnica radiográfica na qual se administra meio de contraste no espaço subaracnóideo para avaliar a medula espinhal. Múltiplas projeções radiográficas fornecem uma exploração circunferencial da medula, auxiliando na localização mais precisa de compressões nesta região. Objetivou-se demonstrar a contribuição das projeções oblíquas, pouco exploradas em exames de mielografia, para a localização de lesões medulares extradurais em cães e gatos causadas por processo degenerativo do disco intervertebral. Foram avaliadas 116 mielografias e observou-se que em 36,2% dos casos as projeções oblíquas foram imprescindíveis para a localização exata das lesões. A associação entre as projeções ventrodorsal e oblíquas se mostraram mais úteis para a localização da lesão do que quando avaliadas isoladamente e as projeções oblíquas esquerda e direita foram igualmente importantes.Myelography is a radiographic technique in which is administered contrast in the subarachnoid space to assess the spinal cord. Multiple radiographic projections provide a circumferential view of the spinal cord, aiding in more precise localization of compression in this region. This paper aimed to demonstrate the contribution of oblique projections, little explored in myelography, for the location of extradural spinal cord injuries in dogs and cats caused by degeneration of the intervertebral disc. It was evaluated 116 myelography and it was observed that in 36.2% of cases, oblique views were essential to the exact localization of lesions. The association between the oblique and ventrodorsal projections was more effective to find the lesion´s lateralization than when taken separately, and the left and right oblique view was equally important.

  1. Surtos epidêmicos de dermatite causada por mariposas do gênero Hylesia (Lepidóptera: Hemileucidae no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Epidemic outbreaks of dermatitis caused by Hylesia (Lepidoptera: Hemileucidae, in S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Carmen Moreno Glasser

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Surtos epidêmicos de dermatite causada por Hylesia sp foram assinalados no litoral do Estado de São Paulo, no período de dezembro de 1989 a dezembro de 1991. O fenômeno assumiu sua maior intensidade em Bertioga, Município de Santos, onde foram registrados 612 casos. Foram atingidos outros 12 municípios da região, estimando-se que algumas centenas de casos procuraram os serviços de saúde locais. Na maioria dos casos verificou-se lesões eritemato-pápulo-pruriginosas, que regrediram em média de 7 a 14 dias. Para tratamento foram utilizados anti-histamímicos sistêmicos corticosteróides tópicos e compressas frias. Ocorreram três episódios epidêmicos no período citado, todos eles coincidindo com o início da estação chuvosa (novembro a janeiro. A cada episódio verificou-se um deslocamento do fenômeno no sentido Norte-Sul. A principal medida profilática utilizada foi a divulgação, junto à população, das medidas de redução de exposição ao agente. Para prédios com elevada infestação por mariposas, foi estudada a efetividade da aplicação de inseticida residual, como medida de redução dos níveis de infestação por mariposas. Obteve-se resultados satisfatórios com deltametrina na dose de 50 mg/m² de parede.Epidemic outbreaks of dermatitis caused by Hylesia sp wich occurred in the coastal region of the State of S. Paulo during the period of December 1989 to December 1991 are confirmed. The incident assumed its greatest intensity in Bertioga, in Santos County, where 612 cases were registered. The outbreak also affected 12 other counties in that region and it was estimated that hundred of affected persons sought the Local Health Service Care. The majority presented with erythematous and prutiginous lesions and papula which lasted 7 to 14 days on average. Treatment consisted of systemic administration of antihistamines, and the use of topic corticosteroides and cold compresses. During the abovementioned period, three

  2. Inefficacy of albendazole sulphoxide and ivermectin for the treatment of bovine parasitic otitis caused by rhabditiform nematodes Ineficácia do sulfóxido de albendazole e da ivermectina no tratamento da otite parasitária bovina causada por nematóides rhabditiformes

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    Guilherme G. Verocai

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of orally administered albendazole sulphoxide and pour-on ivermectin for the treatment of bovine parasitic otitis caused by rhabditiform nematodes. Eighteen Gyr cows presenting clinical otitis were divided in three groups with six animals each. The first one did not receive any treatment (control group. The second one was treated with 0.5% pour-on ivermectin, 500µg/kg of body weight, and the third group was treated with oral 6% albendazole sulphoxide, at 6.0mg/kg. Both ear canals of each animal were reexamined on days 7 and 21 post treatment. The animals in the control group remained infected throughout the days of observation. Ivermectin treatment did not show effectiveness on days 7 or 21 post treatment. The albendazole sulphoxide treatment had an efficacy of 16.7 and 25% on days 7 and 21, respectively. Further studies are required to assess an effective treatment for this parasitic disease, especially via alternative administration routes, because of its significant impact on Bos taurus indicus cattle breeding in Tropical and Subtropical Regions.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do sulfóxido de albendazol administrado oralmente e da ivermectina "pour-on" no tratamento da otite parasitária bovina causada por nematóides rhabditiformes. Dezoito vacas Gir apresentando otite clínica foram divididas em três grupos de seis animais cada. O primeiro não recebeu tratamento (grupo controle. O segundo foi tratado com ivermectina "pour-on" a 0,05% na dose de 500µg/kg de peso vivo. O terceiro grupo foi tratado com sulfóxido de albendazol oral a 6% na dose 6,0mg/kg. Os condutos auditivos de todos os animais foram reexaminados nos dias 7 e 21 pós-tratamento. Os animais do grupo controle permaneceram infectados nos dias de observação. O tratamento com ivermectina não demonstrou eficácia alguma para os dias 7 e 21 pós-tratamento. O tratamento com sulfóxido de albendazol obteve

  3. Efeitos do tratamento prévio com lidocaína, paracetamol e lidocaína-fentanil por via venosa na dor causada pela injeção de propofol: estudo comparativo Efectos del tratamiento previo con lidocaína, paracetamol y lidocaína-fentanil intravenosos en el dolor causado por la inyección de propofol: estudio comparativo Effect of pretreatment with lidocaine, intravenous paracetamol and lidocaine-fentanyl on propofol injection pain: comparative study

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    Khaled M. El-Radaideh

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Foi realizado estudo duplamente encoberto, aleatório, para avaliar a eficácia do tratamento prévio, por via venosa, com lidocaína, paracetamol (Perfalgan® ou lidocaína associada ao fentanil na redução da dor causada pela injeção de propofol. MÉTODOS: Imediatamente após a oclusão venosa com torniquete de borracha foi feita a administração venosa de 4 mL de lidocaína a 1% (Grupo L, n = 50, 4 mL de paracetamol (Perfalgan® (40 mg (Grupo R, n = 50, lidocaína a 2% associada a 100 µg de fentanil (Grupo LF, n = 50 ou 4 mL de solução fisiológica a 0,9% (Grupo P, n = 50; grupo-controle com placebo a 200 adultos. A liberação da obstrução venosa foi feita após 60 segundos, sendo seguida da administração venosa de propofol, 2,5 mg.kg-1 a uma velocidade de 0,5 mg.s-1 através de cateter 20G inserido na veia do dorso da mão. A avaliação da dor foi feita durante a injeção de propofol. Ela incluiu movimentos da mão, expressão verbal espontânea de dor, caretas e gemidos durante a injeção de propofol. RESULTADOS: Lidocaína-fentanil (70% sem dor e lidocaína (68% sem dor foram mais eficazes na redução da dor causada pela injeção de propofol do que o paracetamol (54% sem dor e o placebo (36% sem dor (p JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Se realizó estudio doblemente encubierto, aleatorio, para evaluar la eficacia del tratamiento previo, intravenoso (IV, con lidocaína, paracetamol (Perfalgan® o lidocaína asociada con fentanil en la reducción del dolor causado por la inyección de propofol. MÉTODOS: Inmediatamente después de la oclusión venosa con un torniquete de goma, se hizo la administración intravenosa de 4 mL de lidocaína a 1% (Grupo L, n = 50, 4 mL de paracetamol (Perfalgan® (40 mg (Grupo R, n = 50, lidocaína a 2% asociada con 100 µg de fentanil (Grupo LF, n = 50 o 4 mL de solución fisiológica (Grupo P, n = 50; grupo control con placebo a 200 adultos. La liberación de la obstrucci

  4. Comparative genomics of Japanese Erwinia pyrifoliae strain Ejp617 with closely related erwinias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Shree P; Park, Duck H; Kim, Won S; Choi, Beom S; Lim, Jong S; Choi, Ik Y; Hur, Jang H; Lim, Chun K

    2013-02-01

    Japanese Erwinia pyrifoliae strains cause bacterial shoot blight of pear (BSBP) in Japan. The genetics of Japanese Erwinia remains largely unknown relative to the abundant genomic information available for other Erwinia strains. We compared the genome of Japanese and Korean E. pyrifoliae strains along with those of E. amylovora and E. tasmaniensis. Comparisons with the Korean E. pyrifoliae strain revealed numerous gene insertions/deletions, rearrangements, and inversions in the central regions of the chromosomes. Approximately 80% (2843) of coding DNA sequences (CDSs) are shared by these two genomes which represent about three-quarters of the genome, and there are about 20% unique CDSs. Comparative analysis with closely related erwinias showed that 1942 (more than 50%) core open reading frames (ORF) are shared by all these strains. In addition to two type III secretion systems (hrp/dsp and inv/spa), the genome of Ejp617 encodes numerous virulence factors, including a type VI secretion system, an exopolysaccharide synthesis cluster, and another protein secretion system present in plant pathogenic Erwinia strains. The availability of whole genome sequence should provide a resource to further improve the understanding of pathogenesis in Japanese E. pyrifoliae Ejp617 and to facilitate evolutionary studies among the species of the genus Erwinia.

  5. Evolutionary insights from Erwinia amylovora genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Theo H M; Rezzonico, Fabio; Duffy, Brion

    2011-08-20

    Evolutionary genomics is coming into focus with the recent availability of complete sequences for many bacterial species. A hypothesis on the evolution of virulence factors in the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora, the causative agent of fire blight, was generated using comparative genomics with the genomes E. amylovora, Erwinia pyrifoliae and Erwinia tasmaniensis. Putative virulence factors were mapped to the proposed genealogy of the genus Erwinia that is based on phylogenetic and genomic data. Ancestral origin of several virulence factors was identified, including levan biosynthesis, sorbitol metabolism, three T3SS and two T6SS. Other factors appeared to have been acquired after divergence of pathogenic species, including a second flagellar gene and two glycosyltransferases involved in amylovoran biosynthesis. E. amylovora singletons include 3 unique T3SS effectors that may explain differential virulence/host ranges. E. amylovora also has a unique T1SS export system, and a unique third T6SS gene cluster. Genetic analysis revealed signatures of foreign DNA suggesting that horizontal gene transfer is responsible for some of these differential features between the three species.

  6. Trefkans detectie Erwinia in pootgoed toegenomen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Binnen het Deltaplan Erwinia is een methode ontwikkeld die met grotere zekerheid de aanwezigheid van de Erwinia’s, Pectobacterium en Dickeya, in pootgoed kan aantonen. De verbeterde methode maakt gebruik gemaakt van uitschotknollen die op de sorteerband uitgeselecteerd zijn en een toets waarbij de g

  7. Deltaplan Erwinia hielp piepers en bollen vooruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwarswaard, A.; Doorn, van J.

    2013-01-01

    Vier jaar lang werkte de bloembollensector samen met de aardappelsector aan de gezamenlijke bacterieziekte Erwinia. In beide sectoren was al het nodige voorwerk gedaan. Op 12 december 2012 werd het project afgesloten. Met de hoop op toch nog enige vorm van voortzetting.

  8. Ziek en Zeer : Erwinia chrysanthemi in Amaryllidaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.

    2011-01-01

    In dit artikel een verslag van het onderzoek naar de gevoeligheid van narcissen voor de bacterie Erwinia chrysanthemi (tegenwoordig Dickeya dadantii). Uit een infectieproef is gebleken dat deze bacterie tijdens een reguliere bollenteelt in Lisse niet in staat was om narcisbollen aan te tasten. Toch

  9. New Erwinia-like organism causing cervical lymphadenitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang Yop; Lee, Mi Young; Song, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2008-09-01

    The first case of cervical lymphadenitis due to infection by a new Erwinia-like organism is reported. The organism was identified initially as Pantoea sp. by a Vitek 2-based assessment but was finally identified as a member of the genus Erwinia by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The isolate displayed 98.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to that of E. tasmaniensis and showed phenotypic characteristics that were different from other Erwinia species.

  10. Expression of lysozymes from Erwinia amylovora phages and Erwinia genomes and inhibition by a bacterial protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ina; Gernold, Marina; Schneider, Bernd; Geider, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Genes coding for lysozyme-inhibiting proteins (Ivy) were cloned from the chromosomes of the plant pathogens Erwinia amylovora and Erwinia pyrifoliae. The product interfered not only with activity of hen egg white lysozyme, but also with an enzyme from E. amylovora phage ΦEa1h. We have expressed lysozyme genes from the genomes of three Erwinia species in Escherichia coli. The lysozymes expressed from genes of the E. amylovora phages ΦEa104 and ΦEa116, Erwinia chromosomes and Arabidopsis thaliana were not affected by Ivy. The enzyme from bacteriophage ΦEa1h was fused at the N- or C-terminus to other peptides. Compared to the intact lysozyme, a His-tag reduced its lytic activity about 10-fold and larger fusion proteins abolished activity completely. Specific protease cleavage restored lysozyme activity of a GST-fusion. The bacteriophage-encoded lysozymes were more active than the enzymes from bacterial chromosomes. Viral lyz genes were inserted into a broad-host range vector, and transfer to E. amylovora inhibited cell growth. Inserted in the yeast Pichia pastoris, the ΦEa1h-lysozyme was secreted and also inhibited by Ivy. Here we describe expression of unrelated cloned 'silent' lyz genes from Erwinia chromosomes and a novel interference of bacterial Ivy proteins with a viral lysozyme.

  11. Utilização da vacina Escherichia coli J5 na imunização de vacas leiteiras contra mastites causadas por E. coli Use of an Escherichia coli J5 vaccine on immunization of dairy cows against mastitis caused by E. coli

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    Lívio R. Molina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a utilização da vacina Escherichia coli J5, na imunização de vacas leiteiras, para prevenção e controle da mastite causada por E. coli através da análise da prevalência das infecções intramamárias (IMM no pós-parto, ocorrência e intensidade dos casos clínicos de mastite nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação, influência na contagem de células somáticas (CCS e produção de leite. O grupo experimental foi composto de 187 animais, divididos em 2 grupos, vacas vacinadas e não vacinadas. As imunizações ocorreram 60 dias antes do parto, 30 dias antes do parto e na primeira semana pós-parto. No dia da secagem e sete dias após o parto foram coletadas amostras para diagnóstico microbiológico dos patógenos causadores de mastite. A ocorrência de casos clínicos foi verificada pelo teste da caneca durante as ordenhas sendo registrados os dados relacionados à intensidade. Amostras foram coletadas mensalmente, a partir do décimo dia de lactação, para avaliação da CCS. A produção de leite foi registrada mensalmente nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação. Verificou-se no grupo vacinado, redução na prevalência de E. coli no pós-parto, na ocorrência de casos clínicos por E.coli nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação bem como na intensidade destes casos clínicos. Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas significativas na CCS, entretanto vacas vacinadas apresentaram maior produção de leite, comparadas às vacas não vacinadas. A vacinação com E. coli J5 foi eficaz em reduzir a prevalência de infecções intramamárias (IMM ao parto, ocorrência e intensidade dos casos clínicos e aumento na produção de leite nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação.We evaluated the use of Escherichia coli J5 vaccine immunization in dairy cows for the prevention and control of mastitis caused by E. coli. Were analyzed the prevalence of postpartum intramammary infections (IMM, occurrence and severity of clinical cases of

  12. Dermatoses provocadas por plantas (fitodermatoses Dermatosis due to plants (phytodermatosis

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    Vitor Manoel Silva dos Reis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available As dermatoses causadas por plantas são relativamente comuns no nosso meio e podem ocorrer por diversos mecanismos patogênicos. São descritas dermatoses por trauma físico, por ação farmacológica, mediadas por IgE, por irritação, por ação conjunta da luz e por sensibilização. Também são descritas na introdução desta revisão as pseudofitodermatoses causadas por elementos veiculados pelas plantas e, por isso, aparentemente causadas pelas plantas.Dermatosis caused by plants is relatively common and may occur by various pathogenic mechanisms. Dermatitis due to physical trauma, pharmacological action, irritation, sensitization, mediated by IgE and induced by light are described. Pseudophytodermatosis caused by plant-delivered elements is also described in the introduction to this work.

  13. Reação de híbridos, linhagens e progênies de pimentão à requeima causada por Phytophthora capsici e ao mosaico amarelo causado por Pepper yellow mosaic vírus (PepYMV Reaction of hybrids, lines and progenies of sweet pepper the blight caused by Phytophthora capsici and to Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV

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    Ildon Rodrigues do Nascimento

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A requeima do pimentão (Capsicum annuum L. causada por Phytophthora capsici e o mosaico amarelo causado por PepYMV são prioridades nos programas de melhoramento de pimentão em andamento no Brasil. Foram avaliados três híbridos comerciais (Magali R, Atenas F1 e Fortuna Super F1, cinco linhagens, 20 híbridos experimentais e duas progênies F2:4 do programa de melhoramento da Universidade Federal de Lavras/HortiAgro Sementes quanto à reação a P. capsici e a PepYMV. Os experimentos foram montados independentemente em blocos casualizados, com quatro e duas repetições, respectivamente. Cada parcela foi constituída de oito plantas instaladas em bandejas de 128 células, que foram mantidas em estufa com cobertura plástica e laterais teladas. As avaliações foram feitas do 4º ao 14º e do 15º ao 40º dias após a inoculação (DAI para P. capsici e PepYMV, respectivamente. A inoculação com P. capsici foi feita pormeio da distribuição de 5 mL de suspensão com 10(4 zoósporos/mL no solo ao redor do colo de cada planta. A inoculação mecânica de PepYMV foi feita a partir de macerados de folhas de Nicotiana tabacum cv. TNN, previamente infectadas. Os híbridos Magali R e Fortuna Super, foram suscetíveis a P. capsici, enquanto que o acesso Criollo de Morellos 334, a linhagem PIM-013 e as progênies PIX-03 pl#03-2 e PIX-030 pl#06-3 (ambas originadas do cruzamento com Criollo de Morellos, foram resistentes. Reação de resistência a P. capsici foi também observada para os híbridos experimentais que tiveram PIM-013 como uma das linhagens parentais. Criollo de Morellos 334, as progênies PIX-03 pl#03-2 e PIX-030 pl#06-3, o híbrido comercial Magali R e outros 6 híbridos experimentais que tinham como um dos genitores a linhagem MYR-29 forma ressitentes ao PepYMV. As progênies PIX-03 pl#03-2 e PIX-030 pl#06-3 são fontes promissoras de resistência a ambos os patógenos para serem desenvolvidas e exploradas em programas de melhoramento

  14. Terapia de resgate com amiodarona em crianças com grave disfunção ventricular esquerda causada por veneno de escorpião Terapia de rescate con amiodarona en niños con severa disfunción ventricular izquierda ocasionada por veneno de escorpión Antiadrenergic rescue therapy with amiodarone in children with severe left ventricular dysfunction secondary to scorpion envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo J. Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: As crianças picadas por escorpião, pressintam ativação maciça do sistema nervoso simpática com vários graus de disfunção sistólica ventricular esquerda. OBJETIVO: Testar um protocolo de resgate em crianças com grave disfunção ventricular esquerda causada por picada de escorpião. Métodos: Quatro crianças após serem picadas por escorpião foram submetidas a: Encubação endotraqueal e suporte respiratório, eletrocardiograma, radiografia de tórax, ecocardiograma e determinação sérica da norepinefrina e troponina I. As análises foram repetidas após 12, 24 e 48 horas. As seguintes medicações intravenosas foram administradas: dobutamina 4-6 μg/kg/min; amiodarona 3 mg/kg durante duas horas, com dose de manutenção de 5 mg/kg/dia; e furosemida 0,5 mg/kg. Amiodarona, dobutamina e furosemida foram administradas durante as primeiras 48 horas. Bloqueadores beta-adrenérgicos e inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina foram administrados até 48 após a internação, uma vez que o estado clínico havia melhorado e a fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda encontrava-se acima de 0,35%. RESULTADOS: Na admissão, a dosagem da norepinefrina foi 1.727,50± 794,96 pg/ml, a de troponina I 24,53 ± 14,09 ng/ml e a fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo foi 0,20 ± 0,056. Após 12 horas, os níveis séricos de norepinefrina e de troponina I diminuíram para a metade dos valores iniciais e a fração de ejeção aumentou para 0,32 ± 0,059. Durante as 24 e 48 horas subseqüentes, a fração de ejeção elevou-se para 0,46 ± 0,045 (pFUNDAMENTO: Los niños con picaduras de escorpión sufren activación masiva del sistema nervioso simpático con varios grados de disfunción sistólica ventricular izquierda. OBJETIVO: Probar un protocolo de rescate en niños con disfunción ventricular severa izquierda ocasionada por picadura de escorpión. MÉTODOS: Cuatro niños tras un escorpión picarlas se sometieron a: incubaci

  15. Human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in Santiago del Estero, Argentina: identification of parasites by monoclonal antibodies and isoenzymes Leishmaniose cutânea humana causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis na Província de Santiago del Estero, Argentina: identificação dos parasitas por anticorpos monoclonais e isoenzimas

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    C.A. Cuba Cuba

    1996-12-01

    pacientes humanos com lesões cutâneas de leishmaniose na Província de Santiago del Estero, no Norte da Argentina. Os procedimentos de diagnóstico foram: biópsias de lesões para utilização em esfregaços e inoculação em hamster; aspiração (com agulha de úlceras, para cultura "in vitro". As técnicas imunodiagnósticas empregadas foram a IFAT-IgG e o teste intradérmico de Montenegro. Oito cepas de parasitas foram isoladas, sendo estas obtidas de pacientes com lesões ativas. Todas as cepas foram inicialmente caracterizadas biologicamente por seu comportamento na infecção experimental do hamster, mensuração dos amastigotas e promastigotas e crescimento "in vitro". As mesmas oito cepas foram logo identificadas e caracterizadas a nível de espécie, devido a sua reatividade frente a um painel de anticorpos monoclonais subgênero e espécie-específicos. Isso foi realizado utilizando o teste de Imunofluorescência Indireta (IFAT/MAbs e de um procedimento de Dot-ELISA. Nós concluímos a partir da análise de serodema dos isolados argentinos que: MHOM/AR/92/SE-1; SE-2; SE-4; SE-8; SE-8-I; SE-30; SE-34 e SE-36 são Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. Entretanto, três dos isolados de Leishmania (SE-1; SE-2 e SE-30 não foram reconhecidos quando testados com um anticorpo monoclonal de reconhecida alta espécie-especificidade (clone B-18, marcador consagrado de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, revelando a existência de dois tipos de serodemas entre as cepas estudadas. Cinco dos oito extratos solúveis de Leishmania foram submetidos à eletroforese em gel de amido de camada fina e subseqüentemente examinadas a fim de constatar a atividade das enzimas MPI, MDH, 6PGD, NH, NH-D, SOD, GPI e ES. Fundamentados nos estudos dos corridos eletroforéticos obtidos nos ensaios isoenzimáticos chegamos à conclusão que as cepas MHOM/AR/92 SE-1; SE-2; SE-4; SE-8 e SE-8-I são Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. É necessário analisar mais enzimas antes de enquadrá-los nos

  16. Avaliação das perdas causadas por vírus na produção da batata I: Vírus do enrolamento da fôlha Evaluation of yield losses induced by potato leaf roll

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    F. P. Cupertino

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparação entre as produções de 50 pares de plantas sadias e afetadas, de nove variedades de batata, mostra que a redução na produção causada pela infecção secundária do vírus do enrolamento da fôlha foi, em média, de 60,8% no pêso total dos tubérculos produzidos e de 75,5% no pêso dos tubérculos do tipo graúdo ("especial" mais "primeira". As perdas na produção total variaram de 44,6% (variedade Patrones a 73,4% (variedade Aquila, e na de tubérculos graúdos, de 49,8% (Delta A a 86,0% (Gunda.A comparison of 50 pairs of field healthy and leaf roll infected potato plants of nine varieties indicated that the total yield reduction was on the average 60.7 per cent. Yield reduction of the two largest and most marketable potato sizes ("especial" and "primeira" reached 75.6 per cent. Aquila and Gunda had the highest yield losses (73.4 and 72.0 per cent; Delta A and Patrones had the lowest (47.6 and 44.6 per cent. Reduction in the yield of the larger tuber sizes was generally greater than total losses.

  17. Complete genome sequence of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora CFBP 1430 and comparison to other Erwinia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Theo H M; Rezzonico, Fabio; Kamber, Tim; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Frey, Jürg E; Duffy, Brion

    2010-04-01

    Fire blight, caused by the enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a devastating disease of rosaceous plants that has global economic importance for apple and pear production and trade. The complete genome of E. amylovora CFBP 1430 was sequenced, annotated, and compared with the genomes of other Erwinia spp. Several singleton and shared features of the E. amylovora CFBP 1430 genome were identified that offer a first view into evolutionary aspects within the genus Erwinia. Comparative genomics identified or clarified virulence and fitness determinants and secretion systems. Novel insights revealed in the genome of E. amylovora CFBP 1430 hold potential for exploitation to improve the design of more effective fire blight control strategies.

  18. Comparative Genomics of Erwinia amylovora and Related Erwinia Species—What do We Learn?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youfu Zhao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease of apples and pears, is one of the most important plant bacterial pathogens with worldwide economic significance. Recent reports on the complete or draft genome sequences of four species in the genus Erwinia, including E. amylovora, E. pyrifoliae, E. tasmaniensis, and E. billingiae, have provided us near complete genetic information about this pathogen and its closely-related species. This review describes in silico subtractive hybridization-based comparative genomic analyses of eight genomes currently available, and highlights what we have learned from these comparative analyses, as well as genetic and functional genomic studies. Sequence analyses reinforce the assumption that E. amylovora is a relatively homogeneous species and support the current classification scheme of E. amylovora and its related species. The potential evolutionary origin of these Erwinia species is also proposed. The current understanding of the pathogen, its virulence mechanism and host specificity from genome sequencing data is summarized. Future research directions are also suggested.

  19. Otitis externa por Demodex cati

    OpenAIRE

    L. Real; Ortuñez, A.; Verde Arribas, Mª T.; Navarro, L.; Vilela, C

    2010-01-01

    La demodicosis por Demodex cati es una enfermedad parasitaria poco común que se presenta bajo tres formas clínicas: generalizada, localizada y otitis externa ceruminosa u otodemodicosis. El objetivo de esta comunicación es presentar dos casos clínicos de otitis ceruminosa causada por D.cati sin la presencia de otros síntomas cutáneos.

  20. Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) of rosaceous plants. Pathogen virulence and selection and characterization of biological control agents

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrefiga Olamendi, Jordi

    2004-01-01

    El fuego bacteriano, causado por Erwinia amylovora, es una enfermedad muy importante a nivel comercial y económico porque afecta a plantas de la familia de las rosáceas y es especialmente agresiva en manzano (Pyrus malus) y peral (Pyrus communis), así como en plantas ornamentales (Crataegus, Cotoneaster o Pyracantha). Esta enfermedad está distribuida por todo el mundo en zonas climáticas templadas de Amércia del Norte, Nueva Zelanda, Japón, Israel, Turquí y Europa. En España, el fuego bacter...

  1. Monitoring of Erwinia amylovora in Montenegro

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    Dragana Radunović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of Erwinia amylovora in Montenegro, conducted from 2012 to 2014, indicated that the bacterium was widespread in the northern, continental part of the country, where the most important fruit-growing regions are situated. The presence of the bacterium was confirmed on quince, pear, apple, medlar and hawthorn. Pathogenic, cultural and biochemical characteristics of E. amylovora strains sampled from pome fruit species and indigenous flora in Montenegro had been studied previously. In the present study, serological tests were used for identification of E. amylovora strains originating from pome fruit trees and indigenous plants. Monitoring of E. amylovora and collection of samples with symptoms of bacterial fire blight from different hosts and locations were performed in Montenegro from 2012 to 2014. Isolation of the bacterium on nutrient medium produced a large number of isolates, whose pathogenicity was confirmed on immature pear fruits. Twenty-seven strains of the bacterium, originating from three pome fruit species (quince, pear and apple and one indigenous species (hawthorn were selected for serological analyses. Two applied serological methods, ELISA and IF test, enabled rapid detection of the bacterium and simultaneous examination of a large number of samples over a short period of time. Serological analyses showed high homogeneity in antigenic structure of the studied E. amylovora strains sampled from quince, pear, apple and hawthorn from nine locations in Montenegro.

  2. Protocolo en el tratamiento de lesiones causadas por ondas expansivas: impacto sobre el diagnóstico tardío y una mejor oportunidad de manejo en un hospital académico nivel III – IV de atención

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sanjuán

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las lesiones producidas por ondas expansivas comprometen diferentes áreas anatómicas por su mecanismo de lesión y se traducen en traumatismos severos. En Colombia, las principales causas de estas lesiones las constituyen situaciones de guerra y ataques terroristas puesto que el país se ha visto inmerso en la violencia durante varios años. Material y Métodos: Debido a la severidad y el compromiso de áreas resultantes de ese tipo de eventos, se diseñó e implemento un protocolo de atención que se propuso realizar lo siguiente: 1 Aplicar la evaluación primaria y secundaria del paciente, según los lineamientos del Soporte Vital Avanzado en Trauma del Colegio Americano de Cirujanos. 2 Hacer la evaluación sistemática por áreas anatómicas por parte del departamento quirúrgico, orientándola hacia el examen de las lesiones descritas con mayor frecuencia. 3 Llevar a cabo posteriormente una valoración de las lesiones específicas de acuerdo con las especialidades relacionadas. Para identificar las lesiones más frecuentes, se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de los casos registrados en el Hospital Universitario de Neiva, centro de referencia para el suroccidente de Colombia. Resultados: Durante ese periodo, se atendieron 35 pacientes cuyas áreas anatómicas comprometidas más frecuentes fueron las extremidades inferiores (con un registro del 60% de los casos, el abdomen (54,3% y el tórax (42,9%. La mortalidad general del grupo fue de 9,1%. Después de la implementación, se demostró una mejoría en la oportunidad de evaluación por cirugía general y se identificaron 6 pacientes con diagnósticos tardíos, previos a la implementación del protocolo. Conclusión: Este estudio determinó que la implementación de una revisión secuencial y un protocolo sistemático permiten mejorar la tasa de diagnósticos tardíos optimizando la evaluación diagnostica y el abordaje terapéutico.

  3. Diagnosis of neonatal group B Streptococcus sepsis by nested-PCR of residual urine samples Diagnóstico de sepse neonatal causada pelo estreptococo do grupo B por meio de dupla amplificação de amostras residuais de urina

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    Bruno Nicolino Cezarino

    2008-03-01

    four patients. Moreover, PCR has enabled us to use residue volumes of urine samples collected by non invasive, non sterile methods, what is technically adequate as GBS is not part of the normal urine flora, thus avoiding invasive procedures such as suprapubic bladder punction or transurethral catheterization. At the same time, the use of urine instead of blood samples could help preventing newborns blood spoliation.O estreptococo do grupo B (GBS constitui a causa mais freqüente de sepse neonatal precoce. O teste de referência continua sendo o isolamento em cultura, apesar de apresentar problemas de sensibilidade. O objetivo do presente estudo foi validar uma técnica de dupla amplificação e determinar a possibilidade do uso de amostras residuais de urina colhidas por método não invasivo, não estéril, para a confirmação da sepse por GBS em recém-nascidos. As amostras foram amplificadas com primers do principal gene de superfície do GBS. A insuficiência de volume de material biológico para a realização de exames para suporte de vida, além de outros necessários à identificação do agente etiológico de infecções é muito freqüente em recém-nascidos. Mesmo assim, decidimos definir critérios bastante rigorosos para a inclusão de pacientes na casuística: os recém-nascidos deveriam apresentar sinais e sintomas compatíveis com infecção pelo GBS; deveriam ter tido ao menos uma amostra enviada para cultura, podendo ser sangue, urina ou líquor; disponibilidade de volumes residuais dessas amostras, ou de outras colhidas no dia da hospitalização, antes da introdução da antibioticoterapia, de forma a possibilitar a análise por PCR, e evolução favorável com a antibioticoterapia empírica. Em apenas um dos quatro recém-nascidos a infecção foi confirmada por cultura, enquanto nos outros três casos a infecção foi considerada presuntiva (pacientes preencheram os critérios de inclusão, mas o GBS não foi isolado. De um total de 12 amostras

  4. Immunohistochemical changes in kidney glomerular and tubular proteins caused by rattlesnake (Crotalus vegrandis venom Cambios inmunohistoquímicos en proteínas de túbulo y glomérulo renal causadas por el veneno de la serpiente de cascabel (Crotalus vegrandis

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    María E. Girón

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Renal damage is an important cause of death in patients who have survived the early effects of severe crotalid envenomation. Extracellular matrix of renal tissue is altered by Crotalus toxin activities. The aim of this study was to describe how cytoskeletal proteins and basal membrane components undergo substantial alterations under the action of Crotalus vegrandis crude venom and its hemorrhagic fraction (Uracoina-1 in mice. To detect the proteins in question, the immunoperoxidase method with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies was used. Cell types within renal lesions were characterized by phenotypic identification, by means of immunohistologic analysis of marker proteins using different primary antibodies against mesangial cells, endothelial cells, cytoskeletal proteins (intermediate filament, extracellular matrix and basal membranes. Samples for morphological study by standard procedures (biotin-streptavidin-peroxidase technique using light microscopy were processed. Positive and negative controls for each antigen tested in the staining assay were included. After crude venom and hemorrhagic fraction inoculation of mice, the disappearance of cytoskeletal vimentin and desmin and collagen proteins in the kidney was observed. In extracellular matrix and basal membranes, collagen type IV from envenomed animals tends to disappear from 24 h to 120 h after venom injection.El daño renal es una causa importante de muerte en pacientes que sobreviven a los efectos iniciales de los severos envenenamientos crotálicos. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido el describir como las proteínas del citoesqueleto y los componentes de membrana basal muestran alteraciones importantes en su manifestación, bajo la acción del veneno crudo de Crotalus vegrandis y una fracción hemorrágica (Uracoina-1 del mismo veneno ya que, la matriz extracelular del tejido renal es alterada por la actividad de estas toxinas. Para detectar las proteínas en cuestión se utiliz

  5. Virulence Factors of Erwinia amylovora: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqué, Núria; Miñana-Galbis, David; Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M

    2015-06-05

    Erwinia amylovora, a Gram negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is the causal agent of fire blight, a devastating plant disease affecting a wide range of host species within Rosaceae and a major global threat to commercial apple and pear production. Among the limited number of control options currently available, prophylactic application of antibiotics during the bloom period appears the most effective. Pathogen cells enter plants through the nectarthodes of flowers and other natural openings, such as wounds, and are capable of rapid movement within plants and the establishment of systemic infections. Many virulence determinants of E. amylovora have been characterized, including the Type III secretion system (T3SS), the exopolysaccharide (EPS) amylovoran, biofilm formation, and motility. To successfully establish an infection, E. amylovora uses a complex regulatory network to sense the relevant environmental signals and coordinate the expression of early and late stage virulence factors involving two component signal transduction systems, bis-(3'-5')-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and quorum sensing. The LPS biosynthetic gene cluster is one of the relatively few genetic differences observed between Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infecting genotypes of E. amylovora. Other differential factors, such as the presence and composition of an integrative conjugative element associated with the Hrp T3SS (hrp genes encoding the T3SS apparatus), have been recently described. In the present review, we present the recent findings on virulence factors research, focusing on their role in bacterial pathogenesis and indicating other virulence factors that deserve future research to characterize them.

  6. Microbiological examination of Erwinia amylovora exopolysaccharide ooze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Suzanne; Zeng, Quan; Outwater, Cory; Sundin, George W

    2017-01-03

    Fire blight, caused by the pathogen Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al, is the most devastating bacterial disease of pome fruits in North America and worldwide. The primary method of dispersal for E. amylovora is through ooze, a mass of exopolysaccharides and bacterial cells that is exuded as droplets from infected host tissue. During the 2013 and 2014 field seasons, 317 ooze droplets were collected from field-inoculated apple trees. Populations of E. amylovora in ooze droplets were 108 colony forming units per microliter on average (cfu/µl). Ooze droplets harboring larger (> 108 cfu/µl) cell populations were typically smaller in total volume and had darker coloring, such as orange, red, or dark red hues. Examination of apple host tissue at the site of emergence of ooze droplets using scanning electron microscopy revealed that ooze was not exuding through natural openings; instead, it was found on erumpent mounds and small (10 µm) tears in tissue. These observations suggested that E. amylovora-induced wounds in tissue provided the exit holes for ooze extrusion from the host. Analyses of E. amylovora populations in ooze droplets and within the stems from which ooze droplets emerged indicated that approximately 9% of the total bacterial population from infected stems is diverted to ooze. Gene expression analyses indicated that E. amylovora cells in stem sections located above ooze droplets and in ooze droplets were actively expressing critical pathogenicity genes such as hrpL, dspE, and amsK. Thus, our study identified ooze as a source of large, concentrated populations of E. amylovora that emerged from the host by rupturing host tissue. As the cells in ooze droplets are expressing genes required for pathogenesis, they are already primed for infection should they be dispersed from ooze to new infection courts.

  7. Virulence Factors of Erwinia amylovora: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Piqué

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia amylovora, a Gram negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is the causal agent of fire blight, a devastating plant disease affecting a wide range of host species within Rosaceae and a major global threat to commercial apple and pear production. Among the limited number of control options currently available, prophylactic application of antibiotics during the bloom period appears the most effective. Pathogen cells enter plants through the nectarthodes of flowers and other natural openings, such as wounds, and are capable of rapid movement within plants and the establishment of systemic infections. Many virulence determinants of E. amylovora have been characterized, including the Type III secretion system (T3SS, the exopolysaccharide (EPS amylovoran, biofilm formation, and motility. To successfully establish an infection, E. amylovora uses a complex regulatory network to sense the relevant environmental signals and coordinate the expression of early and late stage virulence factors involving two component signal transduction systems, bis-(3′-5′-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP and quorum sensing. The LPS biosynthetic gene cluster is one of the relatively few genetic differences observed between Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infecting genotypes of E. amylovora. Other differential factors, such as the presence and composition of an integrative conjugative element associated with the Hrp T3SS (hrp genes encoding the T3SS apparatus, have been recently described. In the present review, we present the recent findings on virulence factors research, focusing on their role in bacterial pathogenesis and indicating other virulence factors that deserve future research to characterize them.

  8. Anatomical and ultrastructural aspects of leaf galls in Ficus microcarpa L.f. (Moraceae induced by Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera Aspectos anatômicos e ultra-estruturais de galhas foliares em Ficus microcarpa L.f. (Moraceae causadas por Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Cristina P. M. de Souza

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Ficus present leaf galls and the goal of this research is to study the structural alterations involved in the formation of leaf galls caused by Gynaikothrips ficorum on F. microcarpa, an ornamental plant. The galls of young and mature leaves were separated into two developmental stages based on the presence of lesions on leaf lamina and the degree of leaf folding. Swellings of the lamina were observed in young and mature leaves during gall development which coincided with the areas of cellular hypertrophy and tissue hyperplasia. Swellings were detected in a greater amount and more precociously on young leaves when compared to mature ones. In young leaves, the cecidogenetic responses were quicker and led to further structural differences because younger cells are not completely differentiated. Cell hypertrophy and tissue hyperplasia were striking processes involved in the ontogenesis of the studied gall, similar to other galls induced by thrips. Nevertheless, in spite of the numerous sites of feeding and the wide area of attack, F microcarpa galls can be considered rudimentary, since no new tissue differentiation was observed.Galhas foliares são comuns em diversas espécies de Ficus. O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar as alterações estruturais envolvidas na formação das galhas foliares induzidas por Gynaikothripsficorum (Thysanoptera em Ficus microcarpa, uma planta ornamental. As galhas de folhas jovens e maduras foram separadas em dois estádios de desenvolvimento, com base na presença de lesões e no grau de dobramento da lâmina. Durante o desenvolvimento da galha formam-se intumescimentos na lâmina tanto nas folhas jovens quanto nas maduras, os quais coincidem com as áreas de hipertrofia celular e hiperplasia dos tecidos. Estes intumescimentos foram detectados em maior quantidade e mais precocemente em folhas jovens, que, por possuirem células menos diferenciadas, mostraram respostas cecidogenéticas mais r

  9. Growth inhibition of Erwinia amylovora and related Erwinia species by neutralized short‑chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecki, Katrin; Gernold, Marina; Wensing, Annette; Geider, Klaus

    2013-11-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are used to preserve food and could be a tool for control of fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora on apple, pear and related rosaceous plants. Neutralized acids were added to buffered growth media at 0.5–75 mM and tested at pHs ranging from 6.8 to 5.5. Particularly at low pH, SCFAs with a chain length exceeding that of acetic acid such as propionic acid were effective growth inhibitors of E. amylovora possibly due to uptake of free acid and its intracellular accumulation. We also observed high inhibition with monochloroacetic acid. An E. billingiae strain was as sensitive to the acids as E. amylovora or E. tasmaniensis. Fire blight symptoms on pear slices were reduced when the slices were pretreated with neutralized propionic acid. Propionic acid is well water soluble and could be applied in orchards as a control agent for fire blight.

  10. The histopathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico Histopatologia de la leishmaniasis cutánea causada por Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana en la península de Yucatán, México

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    Fernando J. Andrade-Narvaez

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (LCL known as "chiclero's ulcer" in southeast Mexico, was described by SEIDELIN in 1912. Since then the sylvatic region of the Yucatan peninsula has been documented as an endemic focus of LCL. This study of 73 biopsies from parasitological confirmed lesions of LCL cases of Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana infection was undertaken: 1 to examine host response at tissue level; and 2 to relate manifestations of this response to some characteristics of clinical presentation. Based on Magalhães' classification we found that the most common pattern in our LCL cases caused by L. (L. mexicana was predominantly characterized by the presence of unorganized granuloma without necrosis, (43.8%. Another important finding to be highlighted is the fact that in 50/73 (68.5% parasite identification was positive. There was direct relation between the size of the lesion and time of evolution (r s = 0.3079, p = 0.03, and inverse correlation between size of the lesion and abundance of amastigotes (r s = -0.2467, p = 0.03. In view of the complexity of clinical and histopathological findings, cell-mediated immune response of the disease related to clinical and histopathological features, as so genetic background should be studied.La Leishmaniosis Cutánea Localizada (LCL mejor conocida como "úlcera del chiclero" en el sureste de México fue descrita por SEIDELIN en 1912. Desde entonces la región selvática de la península de Yucatán ha sido identificada como un área endémica de LCL. En el presente estudio se analizaron 73 biopsias de lesiones de casos de LCL causados por Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana con el fin de: 1 examinar la respuesta a nivel tisular; y 2 relacionar las manifestaciones de esta respuesta con ciertas características de la presentación clínica. Con base en la clasificación histopatológica de Magalhães el patrón histopatológico más frecuente se caracterizó por la presencia de granuloma desorganizado y

  11. Erwinia tracheiphila colonization of cantaloupe fruits through flower inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo var. cantalupensis) is a nutritious fresh fruit. Bacterial wilt, caused by Erwinia tracheiphila, is the most devastating cantaloupe disease globally. The pathogen is transmitted in nature by xylem-feeding spotted and striped cucumber beetles; other modes of infection have ...

  12. Hyacintentelers stemmen in met aanpak Erwinia en fonds onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwarswaard, A.; Vreeburg, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Twee stevige onderwerpen telde de agenda van de jaarvergadering van de KAVB-productgroep Hyacint. Het voorstel om werkbollen te gaan toetsen op Erwinia kreeg bijval, en ook het plan om een fonds te vormen waaruit hyacintenonderzoek wordt betaald werd met instemming begroet.

  13. Fysische, chemische en biologische bestrijding van pectinolytische Erwinia's

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Doorn, van J.

    2006-01-01

    Rotveroorzakende bacteriën, met name pectinolytische Erwinia spp., zijn verantwoordelijk voor veel schade in de diverse gewassen, vooral in de teelt van aardappelen en de bloembolgewassen hyacint, zantedeschia en iris. In deze literatuurstudie worden de beschikbare gegevens nog eens nader bekeken va

  14. Fotossensibilização primária em eqüídeos e ruminantes no semi-árido causada por Froelichia humboldtiana (Amaranthaceae Primary photosensitization in equidae and ruminants in the Brazilian semi-arid caused by Froelichia humboldtiana (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Pimentel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fotossensibilização é freqüente em eqüinos no semi-árido da região Nordeste, mas jumentos, mulas, ovinos e bovinos são, também, afetados. A dermatite afeta, principalmente, áreas de pele despigmentadas e os animais se recuperam após serem retirados das pastagens. Para comprovar a etiologia da enfermidade Froelichia humboldtiana (Roem. et Schult. Seub., coletada no campo foi administrada no mesmo dia da colheita ou após ser mantida em refrigerador por 1-4 dias, por períodos de 30 ou mais dias, ad libitum como único alimento, a 2 jumentos e um ovino branco e, como único alimento volumoso, a um eqüino branco. Esses animais não manifestaram sinais clínicos e as atividades séricas de gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT, aspartato-aminotransferase (AST e alanino-aminotransferase (ALT ficaram dentro dos valores normais. Em outro experimento, um ovino foi colocado a pastar diariamente, durante o dia, preso por uma corda em uma área que tinha exclusivamente F. humboldtiana, por um período de 26 dias. Lesões características de fotossensibilização foram observadas 4-5 dias após o início do experimento. Após cessar o consumo da planta, no 26º dia, o ovino recuperou-se totalmente em 30 dias. Em outro experimento, 4 ovinos foram também colocados, presos por cordas, na mesma área. Outros 4 permaneceram como controles em uma pastagem vizinha, mas sem F. humboldtiana. Lesões de pele, características de fotossensibilização foram observadas após 11-25 dias de consumo de F. humboldtiana. As atividades séricas de AST e GGT, e os níveis de bilirrubina sérica permaneceram dentro dos valores normais. No final do período de permanência em pastagens de F. humboldtiana, 2 ovinos foram abatidos e 2 foram retirados da pastagem. Os que foram abatidos não apresentaram lesões macroscópicas nem histológicas do fígado; os outros dois se recuperaram das lesões da pele 17 e 20 dias após o fim do pastejo. Uma égua e seu potro foram

  15. Identificação de enfermidades agudas causadas por animais e plantas em ambientes rurais e litorâneos: auxílio à prática dermatológica Identification of acute diseases caused by animals and plants in wild environments: contribution to dermatologic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Nos últimos anos, existe um aumento progressivo do contato de moradores urbanos com ambientes selvagens devido a atividades de lazer. Com isso, algumas dermatites pouco conhecidas podem ser observadas nas clínicas privadas e ambulatórios dermatológicos, especialmente nos inícios de semana e finais de férias. OBJETIVOS: Obter e fornecer informações para dermatologistas sobre o problema. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: O autor observou, em adultos e crianças, dermatites agudas associadas a plantas ou animais em Ubatuba, cidade litorânea de São Paulo, por dois meses (junho/julho de 2006 e na Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, também por dois meses (junho/julho de 2007. RESULTADOS: Foram observados 25 pacientes na área rural e 43 na área litorânea nas condições estabelecidas. Em áreas rurais, foram mais observadas fitofotodermatites e picadas de insetos, enquanto em áreas litorâneas traumas por ouriços-do-mar e fitofotodermatites predominaram; entretanto, em ambas as áreas ocorreram outros acidentes de difícil identificação na prática diária. CONCLUSÕES: Devemos estar atentos ao fato de o paciente procurar o dermatologista somente após as fases agudas dos acidentes. Informações sobre as enfermidades mais comuns e suas características podem ser muito úteis para a prática nos consultórios. O autor sugere uma tabela algorítmica para auxílio diagnóstico.BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been increasing contact between human beings that live in urban regions and the wild environment due to a series of activities. As a result, some poorly known dermatitis may present in private and dermatological clinics, especially early in the week and at the end of vacation periods. OBJECTIVES: To obtain and provide information for dermatologists on the problem. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The author observed adult and pediatric patients with acute dermatitis associated with plants or animals in Ubatuba, coastal city of Sao Paulo

  16. Efeito de fungicidas cúpricos, aplicados isoladamente ou em combinação com mancozeb, na expressão de sintomas de fitotoxicidade e controle da ferrugem causada por Puccinia psidii em goiabeira Effect of copper fungicides, sprayed alone or in combination with mancozeb, in expression of phytotoxicity symptoms and rust control caused by Puccinia psidii in guava

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    Antonio de Goes

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos em pomares de goiabeira 'Paluma', nos municípios de Monte Alto e Vista Alegre do Alto-SP. No primeiro experimento, avaliou-se o efeito de formulações de fungicidas cúpricos, aplicados isoladamente e em mistura com mancozeb, quanto ao efeito fitotóxico em botões florais e em frutos de goiabeira, em três estádios de desenvolvimento. No segundo experimento, foram avaliados os mesmos fungicidas usados no primeiro experimento, sendo, porém, acrescido do tratamento constituído por tebuconazole, cujo alvo foi sua eficiência no controle da ferrugem. No primeiro experimento, verificou-se que nenhum dos fungicidas testados causou abortamento de flores ou outros tipos de sintomas de fitotoxicidade em frutos de tamanho inferior a 15 mm de diâmetro. Contrariamente, estes fungicidas, quando aplicados isoladamente, em frutos entre 25 a 35 mm de diâmetro, causaram sintomas severos de fitotoxicidade. Em frutos de tamanho superior a 40 mm de diâmetro, estes fungicidas causaram sintomas de fitotoxicidade de níveis leves a moderados. A combinação de fungicidas cúpricos com mancozeb causou sintomas de fitotoxicidade em níveis leves, enquanto com mancozeb isoladamente não foram verificados sintomas de fitotoxicidade. No segundo experimento, verificou-se que os fungicidas cúpricos, aplicados isoladamente, foram eficientes no controle da ferrugem da goiabeira, apresentando eficiência comparável ao tratamento-padrão representado por tebuconazole. Esta eficiência foi também observada mediante o emprego da combinação mancozeb e óxido cuproso ou hidróxido de cobre.Two experiments were carried out in guava orchards cv. 'Paluma' at Monte Alto and Vista Alegre do Alto/SP. In Experiment 1 it was used copper fungicides applied alone and in combination with mancozeb to evaluate the effect of phytotoxicity on floral buds and guava fruits in three developmental stages. In Experiment 2 it was used the same fungicides

  17. Ocorrência de surto de tuberculose causada pelo complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis em uma criação de suínos

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Patrícia; Silva,Luís Eduardo da; Marchetti, Alexandre Nólibos; Bortolozzo,Fernando Pandolfo; Driemeier, David; Dias,Cleandro Pazinato; Fernandes, Joaquim Cesar Teixeira; Wentz, Ivo; Cardoso,Marisa Ribeiro de Itapema

    2002-01-01

    A tuberculose continua sendo um importante problema de saúde pública, por ser uma zoonose que tornou-se reemergente devido, principalmente, a grande incidência entre portadores de imunodeficiências. A tuberculose, causada por micobactérias do grupo mamífero, em suínos criados em sistemas comerciais, é uma doença raramente encontrada. Neste trabalho, foram necropsiados três animais, provenientes de uma granja de suínos com aproximadamente 90 animais alimentados com resíduos alimentares. Alguns...

  18. Síndrome do ápice orbitário causada por herpes zóster oftálmico: relato de caso e revisão da literatura Herpes zoster ophthalmicus and orbital apex syndrome: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzo Hokazono

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OHerpes Zoster Oftálmico (HZO decorre da infecção pelo vírus da varicela-zoster que permanece latente no gânglio de Gasser até que seja reativado e comprometa a divisão oftálmica do nervo trigêmeo. HZO freqüentemente causa manifestações oftalmológicas como lesões vesiculares palpebrais, ceratoconjuntivite, esclerite, uveíte, paralisia oculomotora, miosite orbitária e neurite óptica. Raramente o acometimento do ápice da órbita pode ser a manifestação inicial desta grave afecção. Este trabalho relata um caso de síndrome do ápice orbitário associado à meningite, causado por HZO e que foi tratado com corticosteróide e aciclovir sistêmicos.Herpes Zoster ophthalmicus (HZO is caused by a varicella-zoster virus infection which remains latent in the ganglion of Gasser until it is reactivated and compromise the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. HZO commonly causes neuro-ophthalmic complications such as vesicular lesions in the eyelids, keratoconjunctivitis, sclertis, uveitis, ocular palsy, orbital miositis and optic neuritis. HZO rarely presents as an orbital apex syndrome. This paper describes a patient with of orbital apex syndrome associate and meningitis caused by HZO which was treated with systemic steroids and acyclovir.

  19. Omeprazole and misoprostol for preventing gastric mucosa effects caused by indomethacin and celecoxib in rats Omeprazol e misoprostol na prevenção de lesões de mucosa gástrica causadas por indometacina e celecoxib em ratos

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    Míriam Elias Cavallini

    2006-06-01

    ástrica com omeprazol e misoprostol. MÉTODOS: A amostragem consistiu 150 ratos machos da raça Wistar, com peso médio de 200g, divididos em quatro grupos, a saber: grupo A, subdividido em grupos A1 e A2 - pré-tratamento com omeprazol (20 mg/rato durante sete dias, e no oitavo dia receberam o AINEs, sendo A1 (20 ratos receberam celecoxib (1mg/rato e A2 (20 ratos receberam indometacina (12,5mg/rato. O grupo B, subdividido em grupo B1 e B2 - pré-tratamento com misoprostol (20ìg/rato durante sete dias e no oitavo dia receberam AINEs, sendo B1 (20 ratos receberam celecoxib (1mg/rato e B2 (20 ratos receberam indometacina (12,5mg/rato. O grupo C não recebeu citoproteção durante sete dias e no oitavo dia recebeu AINEs, sendo C1 (20 ratos receberam celecoxib (1mg/rato , C2 (20ratos receberam indometacina (12,5mg/rato, C3 (20 ratos receberam celecoxib e grupo D - grupo controle, no qual dez ratos foram observados recebendo ração e água ad libitum. A seguir, no 9º dia (de todos os grupos, os estômagos eram removidos e avaliados macro e microscopicamente para a identificação das lesões gástricas. RESULTADOS: Na análise macroscópica, os grupos A2, B2 e C2 apresentaram número de lesões por cm²/animal significativamente elevados, sendo respectivamente 18,55 lesões por cm²/animal, 16,25 lesões por cm²/animal e 13,55 lesões por cm²/animal. Na análise microscópica, a porcentagem da mucosa com lesão mostrou diferença significativa entre os grupos A1, B1, C1 quando comparados com os grupos A2, B2 e C2 (p<0,0001. Os resultados da média da extensão/lesão e da média da profundidade das lesões não mostraram diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os grupos A2, B2 e C2. A média do edema mostrou diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos A2 e D; B2 e C2 e entre C2 e D (p<0,05. CONCLUSÕES: A indometacina na concentração empregada provoca número significativo de lesões macro e microscópicas na mucosa gástrica de ratos quando comparadas ao

  20. The genome of Erwinia tasmaniensis strain Et1/99, a non-pathogenic bacterium in the genus Erwinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kube, Michael; Migdoll, Alexander Michael; Müller, Ines; Kuhl, Heiner; Beck, Alfred; Reinhardt, Richard; Geider, Klaus

    2008-09-01

    The complete genome of the bacterium Erwinia tasmaniensis strain Et1/99 consisting of a 3.9 Mb circular chromosome and five plasmids was sequenced. Strain Et1/99 represents an epiphytic plant bacterium related to Erwinia amylovora and E. pyrifoliae, which are responsible for the important plant diseases fire blight and Asian pear shoot blight, respectively. Strain Et1/99 is a non-pathogenic bacterium and is thought to compete with these and other bacteria when occupying the same habitat during initial colonization. Genome analysis revealed tools for colonization, cellular communication and defence modulation, as well as genes coding for the synthesis of levan and a not detected capsular exopolysaccharide. Strain Et1/99 may secrete indole-3-acetic acid to increase availability of nutrients provided on plant surfaces. These nutrients are subsequently accessed and metabolized. Secretion systems include the hypersensitive response type III pathway present in many pathogens. Differences or missing parts within the virulence-related factors distinguish strain Et1/99 from pathogens such as Pectobacterium atrosepticum and the related Erwinia spp. Strain Et1/99 completely lacks the sorbitol operon, which may also affect its inability to invade fire blight host plants. Erwinia amylovora in contrast depends for virulence on utilization of sorbitol, the dominant carbohydrate in rosaceous plants. The presence of other virulence-associated factors in strain Et1/99 indicates the ancestral genomic background of many plant-associated bacteria.

  1. Hypersensitive response and acyl-homoserine lactone production of the fire blight antagonists Erwinia tasmaniensis and Erwinia billingiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Jock, Susanne; Du, Zhiqiang; Geider, Klaus

    2008-09-01

    Fire blight caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora can be controlled by antagonistic microorganisms. We characterized epiphytic bacteria isolated from healthy apple and pear trees in Australia, named Erwinia tasmaniensis, and the epiphytic bacterium Erwinia billingiae from England for physiological properties, interaction with plants and interference with growth of E. amylovora. They reduced symptom formation by the fire blight pathogen on immature pears and the colonization of apple flowers. In contrast to E. billingiae, E. tasmaniensis strains induced a hypersensitive response in tobacco leaves and synthesized levan in the presence of sucrose. With consensus primers deduced from lsc as well as hrpL, hrcC and hrcR of the hrp region of E. amylovora and of related bacteria, these genes were successfully amplified from E. tasmaniensis DNA and alignment of the encoded proteins to other Erwinia species supported a role for environmental fitness of the epiphytic bacterium. Unlike E. tasmaniensis, the epiphytic bacterium E. billingiae produced an acyl-homoserine lactone for bacterial cell-to-cell communication. Their competition with the growth of E. amylovora may be involved in controlling fire blight.

  2. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae

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    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

    2008-02-01

    por ácaros Brevipalpus (VTB. Brevipalpus phoenicis coletados de C. x speciosum sintomático e transferidos para plantas sadias de C. x speciosum reproduziram as lesões. O ácaro também transmitiu o patógeno para C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi e Tetragonia expansa, as quais exibiram manchas cloróticas e/ou necróticas. O vírus também foi transmitido mecanicamente para Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus e T. expansa, além de C. x speciosum. Plantas de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa mantidas a 28 - 30ºC desenvolveram infecção sistêmica. Em todos os tecidos sintomáticos das plantas-teste inoculadas, examinados ao microscópio eletrônico, foram encontrados efeitos citopáticos do tipo nuclear causado por VTB. O vírus foi purificado a partir de folhas com infecção sistêmica de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa. Injeções de preparações purificadas em coelho geraram um anti-soro policlonal que reagiu especificamente com o antígeno homólogo em teste de ELISA. As evidências obtidas indicam que as manchas cloróticas do Clerodendrum estão associadas a um VTB do tipo nuclear, tentativamente denominado de vírus da mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum (Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus- ClCSV.

  3. Glycemic acute changes in type 2 diabetics caused by low and high glycemic index diets Las variaciones de la glucosa aguda en individuos con diabetes tipo 2 causada por las dietas de bajo y alto índice glucémico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Gonçalves Reis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low-glycemic index diets may improve the glycemic control in type 2 diabetes but the debate over their effectiveness continues. Objectives: To test the effects of low-glycemic index diets on acute glycemic control (2 days by measuring capillary blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This was a crossover randomized clinical trial with 12 type 2 diabetics which were randomly divided into 2 groups and targeted the following draft diets for low and high glycemic index (LGI and HGI for 2 consecutive days in 2 consecutive weeks. Group 1 followed an LGI diet in week 1 and an HGI diet in week 2, group 2 adopted the contrary. They were oriented to maintain medication and lifestyle and to follow the recommendations. Measurements were made of glycemia capillaries in 2 days (fasting, before lunch, post-prandial lunch and before dinner and one last in fasting on day 3. A food record during the days and the counting of carbohydrates meals was made. The software SigmaStat (version 2.03 was used, with a statistical significance criterion of p Introducción: Dietas de bajo índice glucémico pueden mejorar el control glucémico en la diabetes tipo 2, pero sigue el debate sobre su eficacia. Objetivos: Evaluar los efectos de las dietas bajas en el índice glucémico en el control glucémico agudo (2 días por la medición de glucosa en sangre capilar en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2. Métodos: Se realizó un ensayo clínico cruzado y aleatorizado con 12 pacientes diabéticos tipo 2. Fueron divididos en 2 grupos: dietas de bajo y alto índice glucémico (BIG y AIG. Las dietas fueron consumidas por 2 días consecutivos, en 2 semanas distintas. Para el grupo 1 fue administrado la dieta BIG en la semana 1 seguida de la dieta AIG en la semana 2. En contrario se dio para el grupo 2. Se recomendó a los pacientes que mantuviesen la medicación y el estilo de vida estables. Se midió y registro la glucemia capilar en 2 días (en ayunas

  4. Coleção fluídica na interface do LASIK causada por glaucoma secundário à ceratouveíte herpética: relato de caso LASIK interface fluid accumulation caused by glaucoma associated with herpetic keratouveitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Mayumi Nakano

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A infecção por Herpes simplex vírus (HSV é causa freqüente de inflamação intra-ocular ou uveíte anterior. A hipertensão ocular é característica comumente observada nas ceratouveítes herpéticas. Neste relato descrevemos o acúmulo de fluido e descolamento do "flap" corneano da ceratomileusis, no pós-operatório tardio de LASIK (28 meses, associado a quadro hipertensivo ocular secundário a ceratouveíte herpética. Este achado corrobora a suposição que a cicatrização corneana após LASIK seja apenas parcial e o espaço virtual produzido pela ceratomileuisis permaneça indefinidamente. Condições de aumento excessivo da pressão intra-ocular podem causar edema corneano com acúmulo de fluido da interface.Herpes simplex virus infection is a frequent cause of intraocular inflammation or anterior uveitis. Ocular hypertension is a common feature in herpetic keratouveitis. We describe a fluid accumulation and flap displacement in late postoperative period (28 months of LASIK associated with ocular hypertension caused by herpetic keratouveitis. This finding supports the theory that flap attachment after LASIK is only partial and the virtual space remains indefinitely. The presence of ocular hypertension may lead to corneal edema and fluid accumulation in the interface.

  5. Reaction of arracacha genotypes to the root soft rot caused by Pectobacterium chrysanthemi Reação de genótipos de mandioquinha-salsa à podridão-mole das raízes causada por Pectobacterium chrysanthemi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Paulo Henz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to screen thirty-two arracacha genotypes for their reaction to root soft rot. Twenty roots of each genotype were inoculated with two Pectobacterium chrysanthemi isolates in a randomized experiment (10 roots/isolate. After inoculation, roots were individually wrapped with PVC film and kept at 26ºC in closed plastic bags. Soft rot lesions were recorded after 36 hours and genotypes were grouped in four classes of susceptibility by cluster analysis: 10 were less susceptible, 16 intermediate, 3 susceptible and 3 very susceptible. All the tested arracacha genotypes showed only variation in the degree of susceptibility.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a reação de 32 genótipos de mandioquinha-salsa à podridão-mole das raízes. Vinte raízes de cada genótipo foram inoculadas com dois isolados de Pectobacterium chrysanthemi em um experimento casualizado (10 raízes/isolado. Após a inoculação, as raízes foram embaladas com filmes de PVC e mantidas a 26ºC em sacos de plástico. As lesões de podridão-mole foram avaliadas após 36 horas e os genótipos agrupados em quatro classes de suscetibilidade por análise de agrupamento: 10 foram menos suscetíveis, 16 intermediários, 3 suscetíveis e 3 muito suscetíveis. Todos os genótipos avaliados demonstraram apenas variação no grau de suscetibilidade.

  6. Papel da lipoperoxidação na intensificação da remodelação causada pelo betacaroteno após o infarto Rol de la lipoperoxidación en la intensificación de la remodelación ocasionada por el betacaroteno tras infarto Role of lipoperoxidation in the remodeling intensification induced by beta-carotene after infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula S. Azevedo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Os mecanismos envolvidos na maior remodelação causada pelo betacaroteno após o infarto são desconhecidos. OBJETIVO: Analisar o papel da lipoperoxidação na remodelação ventricular após o infarto do miocárdio, em ratos suplementados com betacaroteno. MÉTODOS: Ratos foram infartados e distribuídos em dois grupos: C (controle e BC (500mg/kg/dieta. Após seis meses, foram realizados ecocardiograma e avaliação bioquímica. Utilizamos o teste t, com significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Os animais do grupo BC apresentaram maiores médias das áreas diastólicas (C = 1,57 ± 0,4 mm²/g, BC = 2,09 ± 0,3 mm²/g; p FUNDAMENTO: Los mecanismos implicados en la mayor remodelación ocasionada por betacaroteno tras el infarto son desconocidos. OBJETIVO: Analizar el rol que juega la lipoperoxidación en la remodelación ventricular tras el infarto de miocardio, en ratas suplementadas con betacaroteno. MÉTODOS: Se había inducido a un infarto a las ratas y se las distribuyó en grupos: C (control y BC (500mg/kg/dieta. Tras seis meses, se realizaron ecocardiograma y evaluación bioquímica. Utilizamos la prueba t, con significancia del 5%. RESULTADOS: Los animales del grupo BC presentaron mayores promedios de las áreas diastólicas (C = 1,57 ± 0,4 mm²/g, BC = 2,09 ± 0,3 mm²/g; p BACKGROUND: The mechanisms involved in the biggest remodeling caused by the post-infarct beta-carotene are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the role of lipoperoxidation in the ventricular remodeling after infarct of the myocardium in rats supplemented with beta-carotene. METHODS: Rats were infarcted and divided into two groups: C (control and BC (500mg/kg/regimen. After six months, echocardiogram and biochemical evaluation were performed. The t test was used, with 5% significance. RESULTS: The animals from BC group presented highest means of the diastolic (C = 1.57 ± 0.4 mm²/g, BC = 2.09 ± 0.3 mm²/g; p < 0.001 and systolic (C = 1.05 ± 0.3 mm²/g, BC = 1.61

  7. Insuficiência respiratória aguda causada por pneumonia em organização secundária à terapia antineoplásica para linfoma não Hodgkin Acute respiratory failure caused by organizing pneumonia secondary to antineoplastic therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

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    Adriell Ramalho Santana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Doenças difusas do parênquima pulmonar pertencem a um grupo de doenças de evolução geralmente subaguda ou crônica, mas que podem determinar insuficiência respiratória aguda. Paciente masculino, 37 anos, em terapia para linfoma não Hodgkin, admitido com tosse seca, febre, dispneia e insuficiência respiratória aguda hipoxêmica. Iniciadas ventilação mecânica e antibioticoterapia, porém houve evolução desfavorável. Tomografia computadorizada de tórax mostrava opacidades pulmonares em "vidro fosco" bilaterais. Devido ao paciente ter feito uso de três drogas relacionadas à pneumonia em organização (ciclofosfamida, doxorrubicina e rituximabe e quadros clínico e radiológico serem sugestivos, iniciou-se pulsoterapia com metilprednisolona com boa resposta. Pneumonia em organização pode ser idiopática ou associada a colagenoses, drogas e neoplasias, e geralmente responde bem a corticoterapia. O diagnóstico é anatomopatológico, mas condições clínicas do paciente não permitiam a realização de biópsia pulmonar. Pneumonia em organização deve ser diagnóstico diferencial em pacientes com aparente pneumonia de evolução desfavorável ao tratamento antimicrobiano.Interstitial lung diseases belong to a group of diseases that typically exhibit a subacute or chronic progression but that may cause acute respiratory failure. The male patient, who was 37 years of age and undergoing therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, was admitted with cough, fever, dyspnea and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Mechanical ventilation and antibiotic therapy were initiated but were associated with unfavorable progression. Thoracic computed tomography showed bilateral pulmonary "ground glass" opacities. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy was initiated with satisfactory response because the patient had used three drugs related to organizing pneumonia (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and rituximab, and the clinical and radiological symptoms were

  8. Avaliação de produtos químicos comerciais, in vitro e in vivo, no controle da doença foliar, mancha branca do milho, causada por Pantoea ananatis Evaluation of commercial chemical products, in vitro and in vivo in the control of foliar disease, maize white spot, caused by Pantoea ananais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Aparecida Bomfeti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma bactéria identificada como Pantoea ananatis foi recentemente isolada de lesões jovens da doença mancha branca do milho de plantas naturalmente infectadas. Esta bateria reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos da doença quando inoculada em plantas de milho em casa de vegetação. Estudos anteriores realizados por outros autores demonstraram que o controle desta doença em condições de campo foi obtido pelo uso de fungicidas, principalmente o Mancozeb, nas fases iniciais de seu desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a freqüência de isolamento da bactéria P. ananatis a partir de plantas infectadas coletadas na região de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, e reproduzir sintomas da doença através de inoculações artificiais em plantas de milho em casa de vegetação. Utilizando os produtos químicos testados anteriormente por outros autores para o controle desta doença a campo, foi também objetivo deste trabalho avaliar o potencial destes produtos na inibição da bactéria tanto em condições de laboratório como em condições de infecção natural. Os resultados mostraram que P. ananatis foi isolada em 40% das lesões jovens coletadas a campo e quando inoculada em casa de vegetação sob condições controladas reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos observados a campo. Entre os produtos químicos testados, o fungicida Mancozeb mostrou-se eficiente no controle da doença a campo, em concordância com os relatos anteriores. Este produto inibiu completamente o crescimento da bactéria em laboratório, explicando os resultados obtidos a campo. Os demais produtos não foram eficientes no controle a campo e eles também não inibiram a bactéria em laboratório. Estes resultados representam evidências adicionais de que a bactéria P. ananatis é o agente causal da doença mancha branca do milho.A bacterium identified as Pantoea ananatis was recently isolated from young lesions of the disease maize white spot from infected plants in

  9. Primeiro registro de galhas em panículas de cajazeira causadas por Clinodiplosis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae e avaliação de genótipos no estado do Piauí First record of galls in hog plum (Spondias mombim L. panicles caused by Clinodiplosis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae and evaluation of genotypes in Piauí State

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    Jaqueline Zanon de Moura

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A cajazeira (Spondias mombin L. é uma Anacardiaceae que se destaca pela considerável importância social e econômica no Nordeste brasileiro. Vários autores mencionam insetos que atacam folhas, ramos e frutos de cajazeiras; no entanto, em relação às flores, as informações são limitadas. Cecidomyiidae é uma família bastante diversificada de Nematocera (Diptera. Cecidomyiinae têm hábitos variados e grande riqueza de espécies fitófagas. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se a identificação de uma espécie de Cecidimyiinae galhador em cajazeira, caracterização dos sintomas do ataque e avaliação do nível de infestação em panículas da cajazeira em diferentes genótipos. O experimento foi desenvolvido em pomar de cajazeira do Departamento de Fitotecnia do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal do Piauí. Foram avaliados oito genótipos: JL 15, LA1, Fazenda Soares I, Fazenda Soares II, Fazenda Soares III, Major, Vagner e Jardim. O inseto foi identificado como Clinodiplosis sp. Considerando-se a alta especificidade de Cecidomyiinae (Clinodiplosini na relação galhador X planta hospedeira, a espécie de Clinodiplosis associada a Spondias mombin provavelmente é nova. Os genótipos Major, LA 1, Soares I e Jardim apresentaram menor infestação. Já os genótipos JL 15, Vagner, Soares III e Soares II apresentaram maior infestação. Pode-se concluir que o nível de infestação das cajazeiras por Clinodiplosis sp. varia de acordo com o genótipo avaliado.Hog plum (Spondias mombim L. is an Anacardiaceae of considerable social and economical importance in Brazilian northeast. Various authors mentioned insects that affect leaves, branches and the fruits, but information related to flower pestsis limited. Cecidomyiidae is a very well diversified family of Nematocera (Diptera. Cecidomyinae has varied habits and a great variety of phytophagaus species. This study had as objective the identification of a galling Cecidomyiinae

  10. Fatores de risco e letalidade de infecção da corrente sanguínea laboratorialmente confirmada, causada por patógenos não contaminantes da pele em recém-nascidos Risk factors and lethality of laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection caused by non-skin contaminant pathogens in neonates

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    Roberta M.C. Romanelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os fatores de risco e a letalidade da infecção da corrente sanguínea laboratorialmente confirmada (ICSLC de início tardio em uma Unidade Neonatal de Cuidados Progressivos (UNCP brasileira. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo caso-controle realizado de 2008 a 2012. Os casos foram definidos como todos os recém-nascidos com ICSLC de início tardio, excluindo pacientes isolados com contaminantes da pele comuns. Os controles foram recém-nascidos que não mostraram qualquer evidência de ICSLC de início tardio, sendo separados por peso e tempo de permanência na UNCP. As variáveis foram obtidas na base de dados da Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar (CCIH. A análise foi realizada utilizando o Pacote Estatístico para Ciências Sociais. O teste χ² foi utilizado e a relevância estatística foi definida como p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors and lethality of late onset laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (ICSLC in a Brazilian neonatal unit for progressive care (NUPC. Methods: This was a case-control study, performed from 2008 to 2012. Cases were defined as all newborns with late onset ICSLC, excluding patients with isolated common skin contaminants. Controls were newborns who showed no evidence of late onset ICSLC, matched by weight and time of permanence in the NUPC. Variables were obtained in the Hospital Infection Control Committee (HICC database. Analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. The chi-squared test was used, and statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05, followed by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: 50 patients with late onset ICSLC were matched with 100 patients without late onset ICSLC. In the group of patients with late onset ICSLC, a a significant higher proportion of patients who underwent surgical procedures (p = 0.001 and who used central venous catheter (CVC (p = 0.012 and mechanical ventilation (p = 0.001 was identified. In multivariate

  11. Relationships of systemic IgG antibody response and lesions caused by Oestrus ovis L. larvae (Diptera: Oestridae in infected goats - Interacciones de la respuesta sistémica de anticuerpos IgG y las lesiones causadas por larvas de Oestrus ovis L. (Diptera: Oestridae en cabras infectadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angulo-Valadez, Carlos E

    2009-11-01

    la glándula salival para elserodiagnóstico de la estrosis caprina usando la prueba de ELISA. Secapturaron larvas de tercer estadio (L3, se disectaron para removerla glándula salival y obtener la fuente de antígenos (CGS. Seexaminaron en necropsias 250 cabras. El peso, sexo y edad fueronregistrados. Los senos frontales y cavidades cornuales se examinaronpara la presencia de O. ovis. La intensidad de las lesiones en cabrasinfectadas (n=38 se registraron de acuerdo con una tabla deseveridad. Los sueros (n=125 se analizaron por ELISA para detectarla respuesta humoral de IgG. La prevalencia anual de la estrosiscaprina fue 73.9%. Una asociación baja positiva (r=0.38, P<0.05 seobservó entre la carga larvaria y la severidad de las lesionesencontradas. En general, se observaron alta sensibilidad (90.82% ybaja especificidad (25.93% en la prueba de ELISA. Comoconclusiones, los daños patológicos mayores se asociaron al númeroy presencia de larvas tempranas L2 y L3, probablemente inducidospor la muda larvaria. Los antígenos CGS demostraron ser valiosos enla prueba de ELISA para el diagnóstico de la estrosis caprina.

  12. Micetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis: reporte de caso

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    Miriam Guevara R

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente peruano, agricultor, con una infección cutánea de origen traumático causada por Nocardia brasiliensis, que evolucionó hacia la amputación del miembro inferior afectado. El diagnóstico se realizó por examen directo y cultivo del espécimen.

  13. Molecular Weight and Aggregation of Erwinia Gum in Aqueous Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Erwinia(E) gum is composed of glucose, fucose, galactose and glucuronic acid. The weight-average molecular weights Mw, number-average molecular weights Mn and intrinsic viscosities[η] of the four fractions and the unfractionated E gum in aqueous solutions at desired temperatures were studied by light scattering, membrane osmometry, size exclusion chromatography(SEC) and viscometry. The experimental results prove that E gum formed aggregates in the aqueous solution at 25 ℃ and the aggregates were broken gradually with increasing temperature. The dissociation of the aggregates of E gum in the aqueous solution started at 36 ℃, and was completed at around 90 ℃. The [η] values of E gum and its fractions are much higher than those of the conventional polymers with the similar molecular weights, and decrease with increasing NaCl concentration.

  14. Characterization of the RcsC sensor kinase from Erwinia amylovora and other Enterobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongping; Korban, Schuyler S; Pusey, P Lawrence; Zhao, Youfu

    2011-06-01

    RcsC is a hybrid sensor kinase which contains a sensor domain, a histidine kinase domain, and a receiver domain. We have previously demonstrated that, although the Erwinia amylovora rcsC mutant produces more amylovoran than the wild-type (WT) strain in vitro, the mutant remains nonpathogenic on both immature pear fruit and apple plants. In this study, we have comparatively characterized the Erwinia RcsC and its homologs from various enterobacteria. Results demonstrate that expression of the Erwinia rcsC gene suppresses amylovoran production in various amylovoran overproducing WT and mutant strains, thus suggesting the presence of a net phosphatase activity of Erwinia RcsC. Findings have also demonstrated that rcsC homologs from other enterobacteria could not rescue amylovoran production of the Erwinia rcsC mutant in vitro. However, virulence of the Erwinia rcsC mutant is partially restored by rcsC homologs from Pantoea stewartii, Yersinia pestis, and Salmonella enterica but not from Escherichia coli on apple shoots. Domain-swapping experiments have indicated that replacement of the E. coli RcsC sensor domain by those of Erwinia and Yersinia spp. partially restores virulence of the Erwinia rcsC mutant, whereas chimeric constructs containing the sensor domain of E. coli RcsC could not rescue virulence of the Erwinia rcsC mutant on apple. Interestingly, only chimeric constructs containing the histidine kinase and receiver domains of Erwinia RcsC are fully capable of rescuing amylovoran production. These results suggest that the sensor domain of RcsC may be important in regulating bacterial virulence, whereas the activity of the histidine kinase and receiver domains of Erwinia RcsC may be essential for amylovoran production in vitro.

  15. Efficacy of potato seeds disinfection products to control Erwinia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, B; Garcia, N; Boels, G

    2008-01-01

    Erwinia spp. provokes soft rot on potato tubers during storage. No disinfection products are available on the market in the European Union to control these bacteria. We tested 3 products presented as good candidates to cure potato tubers from bacterial diseases. First, Anthium 500 (Du Pont de Nemours) a product based on chlorine dioxyde, then Phostrol (Nufarm) with phosphoric acid as a.i. and finally Solucuivre (Proval), a copper based product. We firstly managed disinfection trials: high Erwinia contaminated potato seed samples were treated by immersion and were then incubated, we observed the percentage of tubers rotting. Secondly, we managed protection trials: protected healthy tubers were incubated during 23 days in contact with rotting tubers. We evaluated weight loss after symptoms development. No tested product was effective to control Erwinia spp. on seed tubers in our trials conditions. Furthermore, we observed more rot development after Phostrol and Solucuivre application. We suppose that the product couldn't reach the latent bacteria and weakened the tubers. No protection effect was observed.

  16. Comportamiento de la diarrea causada por virus y bacterias en regiones cercanas a la zona ecuatorial

    OpenAIRE

    María Fernanda Gutiérrez; Delfina Urbina; Adriana Matiz; Martha Puello; Marcela Mercado; Miguel Parra; Nadim Ajami; Piedad Serrano; Alba Alicia Trespalacios

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) es un problema de salud a nivel mundial que afecta a la población infantil de distintas regiones. Casi todos los estudios epidemiológicos se han hecho en países con estaciones y poco se informa su comportamiento en países sin estaciones, donde la EDA es endémica con picos epidémicos. OBJETIVOS: Contribuir a conocer la conducta de EDA en Colombia y determinar si su comportamiento es diferente en niños menores de cinco años en dos regiones disti...

  17. Caída de la flor en kiwi causada por bacterias fitopatógenas

    OpenAIRE

    González, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    La cáida de flor en kiwi causa pérdidas importantes de producción cuando las condiciones climatológicas son favorables al desarrollo de las bacterias. En Asturias se han descrito dos especies bacterianas, "Pseudomonas viridiflava" y "P. syringae", como agentes causales de este problema

  18. Cerebelite aguda causada por vírus Epstein-Barr: relato de caso

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    Teive Hélio A.G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A cerebelite aguda pode ocorrer em associação a infecção pelo vírus da varicela-zoster, enterovirus, caxumba, micoplasma e outros agentes infecciosos. A cerebelite aguda é uma complicação rara da infecção pelo vírus Epstein-Barr (EBV. Relatamos o caso de uma mulher de 21 anos com história de 12 dias de evolução com náuseas, vômitos, ataxia de marcha e membros, tremor cefálico e de membros, opsoclono, mioclonias e rash cutâneo. Sorologia para EBV foi positiva. A infecção pelo EBV, com complicações neurológicas, pode não se apresentar com os sinais e sintomas clássicos da mononucleose infeciosa.

  19. Enoftalmia causada por uso tópico unilateral de Bimatoprost

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    Guilherme Herzog Neto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O autor descreve o caso de uma paciente que apresenta o olho direito com o sulco palpebral profundo e enoftalmia deste lado, tratado durante uma década com Bimatoprost tópica. Concluem que os achados clínicos são provavelmente efeitos colaterais do medicamento.

  20. SENSIBILIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA CAUSADA POR EL Streptococcus Pyogenes EN MUESTRAS DE CULTIVO DE EXUDADO FARÍNGEO

    OpenAIRE

    Solórzano Solórzano, Stalin Lorenzo; Universidad Técnica de Machala, El Oro – Ecuador

    2016-01-01

    El Streptococcus pyogenes es uno de los de los gérmenes patógenos más frecuentes, causante de enfermedades supurativas y no supurativas; son la causa más habitual de faringitis bacteriana y constituye una de las mayores causas de enfermedad infecciosa relacionada con morbi-mortalidad en todo el mundo. Después de un período de incubación de 2 a 4 días; el aislamiento del microorganismo causal en el exudado faríngeo no implica necesariamente su patogenicidad; y  es necesaria la demostración de ...

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bactrocera oleae Symbiont “Candidatus Erwinia dacicola”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, Frances; Gioti, Anastasia; Starns, David; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Vontas, John

    2016-01-01

    “Candidatus Erwinia dacicola” is a Gammaproteobacterium that forms a symbiotic association with the agricultural pest Bactrocera oleae. Here, we present a 2.1-Mb draft hybrid genome assembly for “Ca. Erwinia dacicola” generated from single-cell and metagenomic data. PMID:27634990

  2. Goed om uitgangsmateriaal op Erwinia te testen (interview met Jan van der Wolf)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwarswaard, A.; Bovenkamp, van den G.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Bloembollen en aardappelen. Ze hebben in ieder geval één ziekte gemeen: bacterierot, veroorzaakt door Erwinia. In beide teelten zorgen deze bacterieziekten voor veel schade. In het Deltaplan Erwinia werken de bloembollen- en aardappelwereld samen op onderzoeksgebied. In twee artikelen staat de vraag

  3. Complete genome sequence of Japanese erwinia strain ejp617, a bacterial shoot blight pathogen of pear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duck Hwan; Thapa, Shree Prasad; Choi, Beom-Soon; Kim, Won-Sik; Hur, Jang Hyun; Cho, Jun Mo; Lim, Jong-Sung; Choi, Ik-Young; Lim, Chun Keun

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese Erwinia strain Ejp617 is a plant pathogen that causes bacterial shoot blight of pear in Japan. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain Ejp617 isolated from Nashi pears in Japan to provide further valuable insight among related Erwinia species.

  4. Toxicidade ocular causada pela cloroquina: relato de caso Ocular toxicity caused by chloroquine: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Terumi Inada

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Relatar um caso de toxicidade ocular causada pela cloroquina. Aferiu-se a acuidade visual de ambos os olhos em tabela de Snellen. Foram realizados biomicroscopia do segmento anterior, refração, oftalmoscopia, angiofluoresceinografia e retinografia numa paciente de 53 anos, sexo feminino, portadora de artrite reumatóide. Fez uso de cloroquina por 6 anos e havia parado há um ano, quando veio ao nosso serviço. Apresentava acuidade visual corrigida de 20/200 e 20/40. À biomicroscopia do segmento anterior apresentava lente intra-ocular no olho direito e catarata nuclear 1+/4+ no olho esquerdo, com opacidade corneana subepitelial inferior ao eixo visual em ambos os olhos. À oftalmoscopia, apresentava mácula com aspecto de tacho batido (atrofia do epitélio pigmentar da retina. A angiofluoresceinografia mostrou maculopatia com aspecto de olho de boi. Relata-se um caso típico de ceratopatia e maculopatia causados pela cloroquina.To report a case of ocular toxicity due to chloroquine. The best visual acuity was measured in both eyes with the Snellen chart. Slit-lamp examination of anterior segment, refraction, dilated fundus examination, fluorescein angiography and retinography was done in a 53-year-old patient, female, with rheumatoid arthritis. She had used chloroquine during 6 years and had stopped for 1 year when she came to our service. She had best corrected visual acuity of 20/200 and 20/40. Slit-lamp examination showed intraocular lens in right eye and nuclear cataract (1+/4 in the other, and bilateral corneal subepithelial opacity inferior to the visual axis. Fundus examination showed macular area with retinal pigment epithelium atrophy. Fluorescein angiography showed a bull's eye maculopathy. Report of a typical keratopathy and maculopathy caused by chloroquine.

  5. Erwinia uzenensis sp. nov., a novel pathogen that affects European pear trees (Pyrus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Takayuki; Mizuno, Akifumi; Tsukamoto, Takanori; Shimizu, Yoshiaki; Saito, Norihiko; Sato, Shigeyoshi; Kikuchi, Shigemi; Uzuki, Tsuneyasu; Azegami, Koji; Sawada, Hiroyuki

    2012-08-01

    Bacteria were isolated from black lesions on shoots of European pear trees (Pyrus communis L.) in an orchard in Japan. Previous characterization of this novel pathogen by phenotypic and genotypic methods suggested that it should belong to the genus Erwinia but might not correspond to either Erwinia amylovora or Erwinia pyrifoliae. Here, phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, gyrB, and rpoD gene sequences indicated that it could not be assigned to any recognized species of the genus Erwinia. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the bacterial strains represented a novel species. The DNA G+C contents, the fatty acid profile and phenotypic characteristics resembled those previously reported for members of the genus Erwinia. On the basis of these and previous results, the pathogen represents a novel species of the genus Erwinia, for which the name Erwinia uzenensis sp. nov. (type strain: YPPS 951(T) = LMG 25843(T) = NCPPB 4475(T)) is proposed.

  6. Erwinia teleogrylli sp. nov., a Bacterial Isolate Associated with a Chinese Cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available A bacterial isolate (SCU-B244T was obtained in China from crickets (Teleogryllus occipitalis living in cropland deserted for approximately 10 years. The isolated bacteria were Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, oxidase-negative rods. A preliminary analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain belongs to either the genus Erwinia or Pantoea. Analysis of multilocus sequence typing based on concatenated partial atpD, gyrB and infB gene sequences and physiological and biochemical characteristics indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia, as member of a new species as it was distinct from other known Erwinia species. Further analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed SCU-B244T to have 94.71% identity to the closest species of that genus, Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T, which is below the threshold of 97% used to discriminate bacterial species. DNA-DNA hybridization results (5.78±2.52% between SCU-B244T and Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T confirmed that SCU-B244T and Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T represent different species combined with average nucleotide identity values which range from 72.42% to 74.41. The DNA G+C content of SCU-B244T was 55.32 mol%, which also differs from that of Erwinia oleae (54.7 to 54.9 mol%. The polyphasic taxonomic approach used here confirmed that the strain belongs to the Erwinia group and represents a novel species. The name Erwinia teleogrylli sp. nov. is proposed for this novel taxon, for which the type strain is SCU-B244T (= CGMCC 1.12772T = DSM 28222T = KCTC 42022T.

  7. Erwinia teleogrylli sp. nov., a Bacterial Isolate Associated with a Chinese Cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Luo, Jin; Li, Wei; Long, Xiu-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Tian, Yong-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial isolate (SCU-B244T) was obtained in China from crickets (Teleogryllus occipitalis) living in cropland deserted for approximately 10 years. The isolated bacteria were Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, oxidase-negative rods. A preliminary analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain belongs to either the genus Erwinia or Pantoea. Analysis of multilocus sequence typing based on concatenated partial atpD, gyrB and infB gene sequences and physiological and biochemical characteristics indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia, as member of a new species as it was distinct from other known Erwinia species. Further analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed SCU-B244T to have 94.71% identity to the closest species of that genus, Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T), which is below the threshold of 97% used to discriminate bacterial species. DNA-DNA hybridization results (5.78±2.52%) between SCU-B244T and Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T) confirmed that SCU-B244T and Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T) represent different species combined with average nucleotide identity values which range from 72.42% to 74.41. The DNA G+C content of SCU-B244T was 55.32 mol%, which also differs from that of Erwinia oleae (54.7 to 54.9 mol%). The polyphasic taxonomic approach used here confirmed that the strain belongs to the Erwinia group and represents a novel species. The name Erwinia teleogrylli sp. nov. is proposed for this novel taxon, for which the type strain is SCU-B244T (= CGMCC 1.12772T = DSM 28222T = KCTC 42022T).

  8. Erwinia chrysanthemi: pectolytic bacterium causing soft rot outbreaks of arracacha in Brazil Erwinia chrysanthemi: bactéria pectolítica envolvida na "mela" da mandioquinha-salsa no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Paulo Henz

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this work was to identify the pectolytic bacteria associated with soft rot of arracacha roots in Brazil. From 1998 to 2001, 227 isolates of Erwinia spp. were obtained from arracacha roots and identified by biochemical and physiological tests (pectolytic activity, lecithinase, a-methyl glucoside, phosphatase, erythromycin sensivity, growth at 37ºC. Of these isolates, 89.9% were identified as E. chrysanthemi (Ech, 9.7% as E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc and 0.5% as E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica. The identity of seventeen out of twenty representative isolates of Ech and Ecc was confirmed by PCR (primers '149f', 'L1r', 'ADE1', 'ADE2'.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as bactérias pectolíticas envolvidas na podridão-mole de raízes de mandioquinha-salsa no Brasil. De 1998 a 2001, 227 isolados de Erwinia spp. foram obtidos de raízes de mandioquinha-salsa e identificados por testes bioquímicos e fisiológicos (atividade pectolítica, lecitinase, a-methyl glucosídeo, fosfatase, sensibilidade à eritromicina, crescimento a 37ºC. Destes isolados, 89,9% foram identificados como E. chrysanthemi (Ech, 9,7% como E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc e somente 0,5% como E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica. A identidade de 20 isolados representativos de Ech e Ecc foi confirmada por PCR (primers '149f', 'L1r', 'ADE1', 'ADE2', com exceção de dois isolados de Ech e um de Ecc.

  9. Enfermedad mixta del tejido conectivo como causa de fiebre de origen por determinar.

    OpenAIRE

    Trejo Ayala, Rafael; Montúfar, Rubén

    2013-01-01

    La Fiebre de Origen por Determinar,constituye un verdadero reto para el médico,ya que puede ser causada y desarrollada por múltiples causas entre las que se pueden mencionar: las enfermedades infecciosas, neopáticas, colágeno vascular, misceláneas e idiopáticas.

  10. Differentiation of Erwinia amylovora and Erwinia pyrifoliae strains with single nucleotide polymorphisms and by synthesis of dihydrophenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, I; Geider, K

    2012-07-01

    Fire blight has spread from North America to New Zealand, Europe, and the Mediterranean region. We were able to differentiate strains from various origins with a novel PCR method. Three Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Erwinia amylovora genome were characteristic of isolates from North America and could distinguish them from isolates from other parts of the world. They were derived from the galE, acrB, and hrpA genes of strains Ea273 and Ea1/79. These genes were analyzed by conventional PCR (cPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) with differential primer annealing temperatures. North-American E. amylovora strains were further differentiated according to their production of L: -2,5-dihydrophenylalanine (DHP) as tested by growth inhibition of the yeast Rhodotorula glutinis. E. amylovora fruit tree (Maloideae) and raspberry (rubus) strains were also differentiated by Single Strand Conformational Polymorphism analysis. Strains from the related species Erwinia pyrifoliae isolated in Korea and Japan were all DHP positive, but were differentiated from each other by SNPs in the galE gene. Differential PCR is a rapid and simple method to distinguish E. amylovora as well as E. pyrifoliae strains according to their geographical origin.

  11. A gene cluster for amylovoran synthesis in Erwinia amylovora: characterization and relationship to cps genes in Erwinia stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, F; Coplin, D L; Geider, K

    1993-05-01

    A large ams gene cluster required for production of the acidic extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) amylovoran by the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora was cloned. Tn5 mutagenesis and gene replacement were used to construct chromosomal ams mutants. Five complementation groups, essential for amylovoran synthesis and virulence in E. amylovora, were identified and designated ams A-E. The ams gene cluster is about 7 kb in size and functionally equivalent to the cps gene cluster involved in EPS synthesis by the related pathogen Erwinia stewartii. Mucoidy and virulence were restored to E. stewartii mutants in four cps complementation groups by the cloned E. amylovora ams genes. Conversely, the E. stewartii cps gene cluster was able to complement mutations in E. amylovora ams genes. Correspondence was found between the amsA-E complementation groups and the cpsB-D region, but the arrangement of the genes appears to be different. EPS production and virulence were also restored to E. amylovora amsE and E. stewartii cpsD mutants by clones containing the Rhizobium meliloti exo A gene.

  12. Regulatory genes and environmental regulation of amylovoran biosynthesis in Erwinia amylovora

    Science.gov (United States)

    The requirement of the exopolysaccharide amylovoran for Erwinia amylovora pathogenesis is well documented. However, regulation of amylovoran biosynthesis has not been comprehensively studied. We have previously reported that amylovoran production is strain-dependent in E. amylovora isolates. We have...

  13. Isolation and Identification of L-asparaginase producing Erwinia strains which isolated from Potato Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arastoo Badoei-Dalfard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: L-Asparaginase can be effectively used for the treatment of lymphoblastic leukemia. The rapid growth of cancer cells are needed for L-asparagine abundant storage. L-asparaginase catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-asparagine into L-aspartic acid and ammonia. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify the L-asparaginase producing Erwinia strains from the potato farms of Jiroft. Materials and methods: Pectolytic Erwinia species isolated from crumbling potato in M9 medium. The desired L-asparaginase producing bacteria were isolated based on the color changes. Biochemical-microbial and the plant pathogenicity tests of these strains were also investigated with potato and geranium. The L-asparaginase production and molecular detection of these Erwinia strains were also investigated. Results: In this study, L-asparaginase producing Erwinia was isolated on the CVP and M9 mediums. The inoculation of Erwinia strains on the potato and geranium plants showed that Er8 and Er11 species have the ability to cause plant pathogenicity. Results showed that the maximum pathogenicity of Er8 and Er11 was observed after 48 and 15 h of inoculation in potato and geranium plants, respectively. 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses exhibited that Er8 and Er11 strains were similar to Erwinia chrysanthemi with 98% homology. Discussion and conclusion: Because of several applications of the Erwinia L-asparaginase in various fields, isolated Erwinia and their L-asparaginase can be suitable for applied utilization.

  14. Erwinia iniecta sp. nov., isolated from Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, Tony; Luna, Emily; Portier, Perrine; Fischer-Le Saux, Marion; Lapitan, Nora; Tisserat, Ned A; Leach, Jan E

    2015-10-01

    Short, Gram-negative-staining, rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from crushed bodies of Russian wheat aphid [Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov)] and artificial diets after Russian wheat aphid feeding. Based on multilocus sequence analysis involving the 16S rRNA, atpD, infB, gyrB and rpoB genes, these bacterial isolates constitute a novel clade in the genus Erwinia, and were most closely related to Erwinia toletana. Representative distinct strains within this clade were used for comparisons with related species of Erwinia. Phenotypic comparisons using four distinct strains and average nucleotide identity (ANI) measurements using two distinct draft genomes revealed that these strains form a novel species within the genus Erwinia. The name Erwinia iniecta sp. nov. is proposed, and strain B120T ( = CFBP 8182T = NCCB 100485T) was designated the type strain. Erwinia iniecta sp. nov. was not pathogenic to plants. However, virulence to the Russian wheat aphid was observed.

  15. Examining phylogenetic relationships of Erwinia and Pantoea species using whole genome sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yucheng; Qiu, Sai

    2015-11-01

    The genera Erwinia and Pantoea contain species that are devastating plant pathogens, non-pathogen epiphytes, and opportunistic human pathogens. However, some controversies persist in the taxonomic classification of these two closely related genera. The phylogenomic analysis of these two genera was investigated via a comprehensive analysis of 25 Erwinia genomes and 23 Pantoea genomes. Single-copy orthologs could be extracted from the Erwinia/Pantoea core-genome to reconstruct the Erwinia/Pantoea phylogeny. This tree has strong bootstrap support for almost all branches. We also estimated the in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (isDDH) and the average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between each genome; strains from the same species showed ANI values ≥96% and isDDH values >70%. These data confirm that whole genome sequence data provides a powerful tool to resolve the complex taxonomic questions of Erwinia/Pantoea, e.g. Pantoea agglomerans 299R was not clustered into a single group with other P. agglomerans strains, and the ANI values and isDDH values between them were Erwinia/Pantoea phylogeny.

  16. Erwinia oleae sp. nov., isolated from olive knots caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Chiaraluce; Hosni, Taha; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Brady, Carrie; De Vos, Paul; Buonaurio, Roberto; Cleenwerck, Ilse

    2011-11-01

    Three endophytic bacterial isolates were obtained in Italy from olive knots caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi. Phenotypic tests in combination with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated a phylogenetic position for these isolates in the genera Erwinia or Pantoea, and revealed two other strains with highly similar 16S rRNA gene sequences (>99 %), CECT 5262 and CECT 5264, obtained in Spain from olive knots. Rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting of the five strains from olive knots with BOX, ERIC and REP primers revealed three groups of profiles that were highly similar to each other. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on concatenated partial atpD, gyrB, infB and rpoB gene sequences indicated that the strains constituted a single novel species in the genus Erwinia. The strains showed general phenotypic characteristics typical of the genus Erwinia and whole genome DNA-DNA hybridization data confirmed that they represented a single novel species of the genus Erwinia. The strains showed DNA G+C contents ranging from 54.7 to 54.9 mol%. They could be discriminated from phylogenetically related species of the genus Erwinia by their ability to utilize potassium gluconate, l-rhamnose and d-arabitol, but not glycerol, inositol or d-sorbitol. The name Erwinia oleae sp. nov. (type strain DAPP-PG 531(T)= LMG 25322(T) = DSM 23398(T)) is proposed for this novel taxon.

  17. Autoinducer-2 of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora and other plant-associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mojtaba; Geider, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Autoinducers are important for cellular communication of bacteria. The luxS gene has a central role in the synthesis of autoinducer-2 (AI-2). The gene was identified in a shotgun library of Erwinia amylovora and primers designed for PCR amplification from bacterial DNA. Supernatants of several Erwinia amylovora strains were assayed for AI-2 activity with a Vibrio harveyi mutant and were positive. Many other plant-associated bacteria also showed AI-2 activity such as Erwinia pyrifoliae and Erwinia tasmaniensis. The luxS genes of several bacteria were cloned, sequenced, and complemented Escherichia coli strain DH5alpha and a Salmonella typhimurium mutant, both defective in luxS, for synthesis of AI-2. Assays to detect AI-2 activity in culture supernatants of several Pseudomonas syringae pathovars failed, which may indicate the absence of AI-2 or synthesis of another type. Several reporter strains did not detect synthesis of an acyl homoserine lactone (AHL, AI-1) by Erwinia amylovora, but confirmed AHL-synthesis for Erwinia carotovora ssp. atroseptica and Pantoea stewartii.

  18. Structural Characterization of Core Region in Erwinia amylovora Lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillo, Angela; Ziaco, Marcello; Lindner, Buko; Merino, Susana; Mendoza-Barberá, Elena; Tomás, Juan M; Corsaro, Maria Michela

    2017-03-04

    Erwinia amylovora (E. amylovora) is the first bacterial plant pathogen described and demonstrated to cause fire blight, a devastating plant disease affecting a wide range of species including a wide variety of Rosaceae. In this study, we reported the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core structure from E. amylovora strain CFBP1430, the first one for an E. amylovora highly pathogenic strain. The chemical characterization was performed on the mutants waaL (lacking only the O-antigen LPS with a complete LPS-core), wabH and wabG (outer-LPS core mutants). The LPSs were isolated from dry cells and analyzed by means of chemical and spectroscopic methods. In particular, they were subjected to a mild acid hydrolysis and/or a hydrazinolysis and investigated in detail by one and two dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and ElectroSpray Ionization Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance (ESI FT-ICR) mass spectrometry.

  19. Structural Characterization of Core Region in Erwinia amylovora Lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Casillo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia amylovora (E. amylovora is the first bacterial plant pathogen described and demonstrated to cause fire blight, a devastating plant disease affecting a wide range of species including a wide variety of Rosaceae. In this study, we reported the lipopolysaccharide (LPS core structure from E. amylovora strain CFBP1430, the first one for an E. amylovora highly pathogenic strain. The chemical characterization was performed on the mutants waaL (lacking only the O-antigen LPS with a complete LPS-core, wabH and wabG (outer-LPS core mutants. The LPSs were isolated from dry cells and analyzed by means of chemical and spectroscopic methods. In particular, they were subjected to a mild acid hydrolysis and/or a hydrazinolysis and investigated in detail by one and two dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy and ElectroSpray Ionization Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance (ESI FT-ICR mass spectrometry.

  20. Structural Characterization of Core Region in Erwinia amylovora Lipopolysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillo, Angela; Ziaco, Marcello; Lindner, Buko; Merino, Susana; Mendoza-Barberá, Elena; Tomás, Juan M.; Corsaro, Maria Michela

    2017-01-01

    Erwinia amylovora (E. amylovora) is the first bacterial plant pathogen described and demonstrated to cause fire blight, a devastating plant disease affecting a wide range of species including a wide variety of Rosaceae. In this study, we reported the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core structure from E. amylovora strain CFBP1430, the first one for an E. amylovora highly pathogenic strain. The chemical characterization was performed on the mutants waaL (lacking only the O-antigen LPS with a complete LPS-core), wabH and wabG (outer-LPS core mutants). The LPSs were isolated from dry cells and analyzed by means of chemical and spectroscopic methods. In particular, they were subjected to a mild acid hydrolysis and/or a hydrazinolysis and investigated in detail by one and two dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and ElectroSpray Ionization Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance (ESI FT-ICR) mass spectrometry. PMID:28273861

  1. Cloud Activation Characteristics of Airborne Erwinia carotovora Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, Gary D.; Demott, Paul J.

    1998-10-01

    Several strains of plant pathogenic bacteria, Erwinia carotovora carotovora and E. carotovora atroseptica, were observed to be active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The CCN supersaturation spectra of bacterial aerosols were measured in the laboratory and compared to the activity of ammonium sulfate. Approximately 25%-30% of the aerosolized bacterial cells activated droplets at 1% water supersaturation compared to 80% activation of the ammonium sulfate aerosol. Physical and numerical simulations of cloud droplet activation and growth on bacteria were also performed. Both simulations predict that aerosolized bacteria will be incorporated into cloud droplets during cloud formation. Results strongly support the hypothesis that significant numbers of the tested bacterial strains are actively involved in atmospheric cloud formation and precipitation processes following natural aerosolization and vertical transport to cloud levels.

  2. Immobilization of glucosyltransferase from Erwinia sp. using two different techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contesini, Fabiano Jares; Ibarguren, Carolina; Grosso, Carlos Raimundo Ferreira; Carvalho, Patrícia de Oliveira; Sato, Hélia Harumi

    2012-04-15

    Two different techniques of glucosyltransferase immobilization were studied for the conversion of sucrose into isomaltulose. The optimum conditions for immobilization of Erwinia sp. glucosyltransferase onto Celite 545, determined using response surface methodology, was pH 4.0 and 170 U of glucosyltransferase/g of Celite 545. Using this conditions more than 60% conversion of sucrose into isomaltulose can be obtained. The immobilization of glucosyltransferase was also studied by its entrapment in microcapsules of low-methoxyl pectin and fat (butter and oleic acid). The non-lyophilized microcapsules of pectin, containing the enzyme and fat, showed higher glucosyltransferase activity, compared with lyophilized microcapsules containing enzyme plus fat, and also lyophilized microcapsules containing enzyme without fat addition. The non-lyophilized microcapsules of pectin containing the glucosyltransferase and fat, converted 30% of sucrose into isomaltulose in the first batch. However the conversion decreased to 5% at the 10th batch, indicating inactivation of the enzyme.

  3. Osteomalacia inducida por tumor: hemangiopericitoma rinosinusal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enriqueta M. Serafini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La osteomalacia inducida por tumor es una rara enfermedad del metabolismo óseo caracterizada por el aumento en la excreción de fosfato a nivel renal seguido de hipofosfatemia. Es causada por agentes fosfatúricos producidos por determinados tumores. La resección total del tumor resulta en la completa reversión de las anormalidades bioquímicas, la desaparición de las manifestaciones clínicas y los hallazgos en los estudios por imágenes. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 61 años con cuadro clínico y laboratorio compatibles con osteomalacia oncogénica inducida por tumor mesenquimático de localización rinosinusal. En nuestro caso el diagnóstico histológico correspondió a una neoplasia de tipo vascular: hemangiopericitoma.

  4. Complete genome sequences of three Erwinia amylovora phages isolated in north america and a bacteriophage induced from an Erwinia tasmaniensis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, I; Kube, M; Reinhardt, R; Jelkmann, W; Geider, K

    2011-02-01

    Fire blight, a plant disease of economic importance caused by Erwinia amylovora, may be controlled by the application of bacteriophages. Here, we provide the complete genome sequences and the annotation of three E. amylovora-specific phages isolated in North America and genomic information about a bacteriophage induced by mitomycin C treatment of an Erwinia tasmaniensis strain that is antagonistic for E. amylovora. The American phages resemble two already-described viral genomes, whereas the E. tasmaniensis phage displays a singular genomic sequence in BLAST searches.

  5. Eliminação da produção de bacteriocinas em Erwinia e Pseudomonas fitopatogênicas Elimination of bacteriocin production in the phytopathogenic bacteria Erwinia and Pseudomonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.R. de Biagi

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Duas linhagens de bactérias fitopatogênicas do gênero Pseudomonas e duas do gênero Erwinia produtoras de bacteriocinas, foram submetidas a diferentes tratamentos visando estimar a estabilidade desse caráter. Houve eliminação da produção de bacteriocinas após tratamento com duas concentrações de brometo de etídio e a porcentagem de eliminação variou com o hospedeiro e com a concentração da droga. Não houve eliminação em temperaturas elevadas e também a preservação da linhagem por três anos em laboratório não causou perda do caráter. A eliminação da produção de bacteriocinas com brometo de etídio sugere que os genes envolvidos tenham localização plasmidiana.Four strains, two from each of the plant pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas and Erwinia, all producing bacteriocins, were submitted to different treatments in order to evaluate the persistance of bacteriocin production. After ethidium bromide treatment elimination of the bacteriocin production was achieved and the percentage of loss varied with the host strain and drug concentration. Elimination was not detected after treatment with high temperatures, above the normal ones. Also preservation of the strains for three years, in laboratory, did not cause elimination of the character. The curing of bacteriocin production after ethidium bromide treatment suggests that the involved genes are located in plasmids.

  6. Genomics of iron acquisition in the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora: insights in the biosynthetic pathway of the siderophore desferrioxamine E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Theo H M; Duffy, Brion

    2011-10-01

    Genomics has clarified the biosynthetic pathway for desferrioxamine E critical for iron acquisition in the enterobacterial fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Evidence for each of the individual steps and the role of desferrioxamine E biosynthesis in pathogen virulence and cell protection from host defenses is presented. Using comparative genomics, it can be concluded that desferrioxamine biosynthesis is ancestral within the genera Erwinia and Pantoea.

  7. Detection of soft rot Erwinia spp. on seed potatoes: conductimetry versus dilution plating, PCR and serological assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraaije, B.A.; Appels, M.; Boer, de S.H.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.; Bulk, van den R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Automated conductance measurements in polypectate medium were used for the detection of pathogenic soft rot Erwinia spp. in potato peel extracts. The detection threshold for Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca) in inoculated peel extracts was ca. 104 colony forming units (cfu) ml-1 when sampl

  8. Identification of Erwinia species isolated from apples and pears by differential PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, I; Geider, K

    2012-04-01

    Many pathogenic and epiphytic bacteria isolated from apples and pears belong to the genus Erwinia; these include the species E. amylovora, E. pyrifoliae, E. billingiae, E. persicina, E. rhapontici and E. tasmaniensis. Identification and classification of freshly isolated bacterial species often requires tedious taxonomic procedures. To facilitate routine identification of Erwinia species, we have developed a PCR method based on species-specific oligonucleotides (SSOs) from the sequences of the housekeeping genes recA and gpd. Using species-specific primers that we report here, differentiation was done with conventional PCR (cPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) applying two consecutive primer annealing temperatures. The specificity of the primers depends on terminal Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that are characteristic for the target species. These PCR assays enabled us to distinguish eight Erwinia species, as well as to identify new Erwinia isolates from plant surfaces. When performed with mixed bacterial cultures, they only detected a single target species. This method is a novel approach to classify strains within the genus Erwinia by PCR and it can be used to confirm other diagnostic data, especially when specific PCR detection methods are not already available. The method may be applied to classify species within other bacterial genera.

  9. Abiotic alterations caused by forest fragmentation affect tree regeneration: a shade and drought tolerance gradient in the remnants of Coastal Maulino Forest Alteraciones abióticas causadas por la fragmentación del bosque afectan la regeneración arbórea: un gradiente de tolerancia a la sombra y la sequía en los remanentes del Bosque Maulino Costero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO C GUERRERO

    2009-01-01

    by regeneration niche attributes for implementing conservation actions and ecological restoration.La regeneración en plantas está determinada por las diferencias de luz y humedad del suelo entre hábitats, ambas variables son modificadas por la fragmentación de bosques a gran escala. Varios estudios consideran esas alteraciones como parte del mecanismo involucrado en el cambio comunitario en bosques tropicales. Sin embargo, en bosques mediterráneos y deciduos esa tendencia podría ser más severa, debido a que las plantas presentan un "trade off" entre la tolerancia a la sombra y a la sequía. Nuestro estudio fue realizado en el Bosque Maulino Costero: Reserva Nacional Los Queules (RNLQ y fragmentos aledaños de bosque. Hipotetizamos que Aristotelia chilensis (sombra intolerante pero tolerante a la sequía debería aumentar su regeneración en fragmentos pequeños de bosque, como consecuencia del cambio en la idoneidad del habitat (i.e. más luminoso y seco, mientras que, Cryptocarya alba (sombra tolerante pero sequía intolerante debería reducir su regeneración en fragmentos pequeños de bosque. Nosotros además esperamos que Nothofagus glauca y N. obliqua, ambas con tolerancias a la sombra y a la sequía intermedias entre A. chilensis y C. alba, deberían responder en menor medida a la fragmentación del bosque. En este estudio utilizamos dos evaluaciones: (i la abundancia de plántulas y juveniles a través de observaciones de campo y (ii la germinación y establecimiento de plántulas vía un experimento de campo. Los patrones de regeneración natural de C. alba indican una reducción en la regeneración dentro de los fragmentos pequeños de bosque comparado con la RNLQ, a pesar de que en el experimento de campo, la proporción de semillas germinadas, de plántulas establecidas y reclutadas no variaron entre hábitats. Por el contrario, la regeneración de A. chilensis y de N. glauca fueron favorecidas por la fragmentación del bosque, con un aumento en las

  10. Host exopolysaccharide quantity and composition impact Erwinia amylovora bacteriophage pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Dwayne R; Sjaarda, David R; Castle, Alan J; Svircev, Antonet M

    2013-05-01

    Erwinia amylovora bacteriophages (phages) belonging to the Myoviridae and Podoviridae families demonstrated a preference for either high-exopolysaccharide-producing (HEP) or low-exopolysaccharide-producing (LEP) bacterial hosts when grown on artificial medium without or with sugar supplementation. Myoviridae phages produced clear plaques on LEP hosts and turbid plaques on HEP hosts. The reverse preference was demonstrated by most Podoviridae phages, where clear plaques were seen on HEP hosts. Efficiency of plating (EOP) was determined by comparing phage growth on the original isolation host to the that on the LEP or HEP host. Nine of 10 Myoviridae phages showed highest EOPs on LEP hosts, and 8 of 11 Podoviridae phages had highest EOPs on HEP hosts. Increasing the production of EPS on sugar-supplemented medium or decreasing production by knocking out the synthesis of amylovoran or levan, the two EPSs produced by E. amylovora, indicated that these components play crucial roles in phage infection. Amylovoran was virtually essential for proliferation of most Podoviridae phages when phage population growth was compared to the wild type. Decreased levan production resulted in a significant reduction of progeny from phages in the Myoviridae family. Thus, Podoviridae phages are adapted to hosts that produce high levels of exopolysaccharides and are dependent on host-produced amylovoran for pathogenesis. Myoviridae phages are adapted to hosts that produce lower levels of exopolysaccharides and host-produced levan.

  11. RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF ERWINIA GUM IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-na Zhang; Mei Zhang; Jing-hua Chen; Hideki Iijima; Hiromichi Tsuchiya

    1999-01-01

    Erwinia (E) gum, an extracellular polysaccharide, is composed of fucose, galatose, glucose and glucuronic acid. Its viscosity behavior was investigated by a low-shear-rate multiball viscometer and a rotational viscometer. Its weight-average molecular weight Mw and intrinsic viscosity [η] in 0.2 mol/L NaCl aqueous solution were measured by light scattering method at 35℃ and viscometry at 25℃ and found to be 1.06 × 106 g/mol and 1050 mL/g, respectively, and its aggregates in aqueous solution were proved by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). These results indicated that E gum in water has exceedingly high viscosity and exhibits Binham fluid behavior, owing to its aggregation. The viscosity of E gum decreased with increasing temperature, and the turning point appeared at 38℃ for dilute solution and 80℃ for concentrated solution suggesting that the aggregates of E gum in water started to disaggregate under these temperatures. In addition, the aggregates can be disrupted by adding either acid or base. The experimental results indicated that the E gum is a good thickening agent, and its fluid behavior is similar to xanthan.

  12. Differential Colonization Dynamics of Cucurbit Hosts by Erwinia tracheiphila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrisman, Cláudio M; Deblais, Loïc; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Miller, Sally A

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial wilt is one of the most destructive diseases of cucurbits in the Midwestern and Northeastern United States. Although the disease has been studied since 1900, host colonization dynamics remain unclear. Cucumis- and Cucurbita-derived strains exhibit host preference for the cucurbit genus from which they were isolated. We constructed a bioluminescent strain of Erwinia tracheiphila (TedCu10-BL#9) and colonization of different cucurbit hosts was monitored. At the second-true-leaf stage, Cucumis melo plants were inoculated with TedCu10-BL#9 via wounded leaves, stems, and roots. Daily monitoring of colonization showed bioluminescent bacteria in the inoculated leaf and petiole beginning 1 day postinoculation (DPI). The bacteria spread to roots via the stem by 2 DPI, reached the plant extremities 4 DPI, and the plant wilted 6 DPI. However, Cucurbita plants inoculated with TedCu10-BL#9 did not wilt, even at 35 DPI. Bioluminescent bacteria were detected 6 DPI in the main stem of squash and pumpkin plants, which harbored approximately 10(4) and 10(1) CFU/g, respectively, of TedCu10-BL#9 without symptoms. Although significantly less systemic plant colonization was observed in nonpreferred host Cucurbita plants compared with preferred hosts, the mechanism of tolerance of Cucurbita plants to E. tracheiphila strains from Cucumis remains unknown.

  13. Tasmancin and lysogenic bacteriophages induced from Erwinia tasmaniensis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ina; Lurz, Rudi; Geider, Klaus

    2012-07-25

    Mitomycin C treatment of Erwinia tasmaniensis strains from Australia induced prophages and the expression of bacteriocins. The bacteriocin named tasmancin inhibited E. tasmaniensis strains from South Africa and Germany. A gene cluster with a klebicin-related operon and an immunity protein was detected on plasmid pET46 from E. tasmaniensis strain Et1/99. PCR reactions using primers directed to this region produced signals for several strains originating from Australia, but not for strains isolated in South Africa and Germany. The latter isolates lacked plasmid pET46. Bacteriophages were induced from E. tasmaniensis strains Et88 and Et14/99, both isolates from South-Eastern Australia. These phages formed plaques on several other strains from this region, as well as on E. tasmaniensis strains from South Africa and Germany. Sequencing revealed similarity of phages ϕEt88 and ϕEt14, which shared the host range on E. tasmaniensis strains. Bacteriophages and tasmancin may interfere with the viability of several related E. tasmaniensis strains in the environment of carrier strains.

  14. Erwinia piriflorinigrans sp. nov., a novel pathogen that causes necrosis of pear blossoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, María M; Roselló, Montserrat; Llop, Pablo; Ferrer, Sergi; Christen, Richard; Gardan, Louis

    2011-03-01

    Eight Erwinia strains, isolated from necrotic pear blossoms in València, Spain, were compared with reference strains of Erwinia amylovora and Erwinia pyrifoliae, both of which are pathogenic to species of pear tree, and to other species of the family Enterobacteriaceae using a polyphasic approach. Phenotypic analyses clustered the novel isolates into one phenon, distinct from other species of the genus Erwinia, showing that the novel isolates constituted a homogeneous phenotypic group. Rep-PCR profiles, PCR products obtained with different pairs of primers and plasmid contents determined by restriction analysis showed differences between the novel strains and reference strains of E. amylovora and E. pyrifoliae. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA, gpd and recA gene sequences showed that the eight novel strains could not be assigned to any recognized species. On the basis of DNA-DNA hybridization studies, the novel isolates constituted a single group with relatedness values of 87-100  % to the designated type strain of the group, CFBP 5888(T). Depending on the method used, strain CFBP 5888(T) showed DNA-DNA relatedness values of between 22.7 and 50  % to strains of the closely related species E. amylovora and E. tasmaniensis. The DNA G+C contents of two of the novel strains, CFBP 5888(T) and CFBP 5883, were 51.1 and 50.5 mol%, respectively. On the basis of these and previous results, the novel isolates represent a novel species of the genus Erwinia, for which the name Erwinia piriflorinigrans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CFBP 5888(T) (=CECT 7348(T)).

  15. Pansinusitis y afectación intracraneal por implante dental Pansinusitis and intracranial impact of a dental implant

    OpenAIRE

    Josep Rubio-Palau; Jordi García-Linares; Javier Gutiérrez-Santamaría; Juan Antonio Hueto-Madrid; Mitchel Chávez-Gatty; Eduard Ferrés-Padró

    2012-01-01

    Las sinusitis odontógenas son una patología relativamente frecuente causada por infecciones dentales, quistes periapicales así como tras procedimientos bucodentales como una endodoncia, una elevación sinusal o la colocación de un implante. A continuación se presenta un caso extremo de una pansinusitis derecha con fistulización a espacio epidural causada por un implante osteointegrado. Ante la sospecha de una sinusitis maxilar de origen odontogénico se debe iniciar rápidamente un tratamiento a...

  16. Fragilización por envejecimiento de aceros inoxidables moldeados

    OpenAIRE

    Mazorra Incera, Luis; Gutiérrez-Solana Salcedo, Federico; González Martínez, Javier Jesús; Varona Ruiz, José María

    1989-01-01

    RESUMEN. En este artículo se presenta, por una parte, la exposición resumida de los modelos teóricos existentes sobre la fragilización de aceros inoxidables moldeados austenoferríticos causada por envejecimiento térmico a 280ºC y, por otra, el análisis-aplicación a un acero real fragilizado, procedente del circuito de recirculación de una central nuclear. Los resultados obtenidos advierten de una importante fragilización al prever una reducción del 50% de la tenacidad a temperatura ambiente e...

  17. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAF BLIGHT OF CARROT (Daucus carota L. CAUSED BY Alternaria dauci (KÜHN GROVES & SKOLKO: SURVIVAL OF Alternaria dauci IN VEGETAL RESIDUES OF CARROT (Daucus carota L. CROP ASPECTOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS DA QUEIMA DAS FOLHAS DA CENOURA (Daucus carota L. CAUSADA POR Alternaria dauci (Kühn GROVES & SKOLKO: Sobrevivência de Alternaria dauci (Kühn Groves & SKOLKO em restos culturais da cenoura (Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Martins Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The spore viability of Alternaria dauci (Kühn Groves & Skolko in carrot (Daucus carota L. debris which were kept at different levels of temperature and relative humidity, without light, was studied. The temperature levels tested were 8, 16, 24 and 32°C, and the relative humidity levels 3, 18, 51, 73 and 100%. The treatments were different combinations of these levels. Humidity was the more important factor in preserving the fungus spore ability to germinate and its infectivity. Under conditions of high relative humidity and temperatures of 24 and 32°C, the spores rapidly lost their viability. This did not happen when the relative humidity was equal to, or below, 51%. The survival of fungus mycelium on carrot petioles was studied in non-treated organic soil, at different humidity levels, at three different depths, during a period of 120 days. Soil humidity was the factor of major significance in the persistence of the mycelium, followed by depths and time factors. In petioles kept at depths of 10 and 20 cm in humid soil, the survival was greatly reduced, while survival was markedly higher in those kept at the surface of dry soil. The effect of humidity on the viability of mycelium was studied also under soiless condition. Petioles were maintained in relative humidity controlled chamber, at 24°C. In saturated atmosphere (100% humidity, the mycelium viability was lost in less than 20 days. It was concluded that both, the conidial and mycelial form of Alternaria dauci are quite sensitive to high humidity levels.

    Estudou-se a sobrevivência das formas conidial e miceliana de Alternaria dauci, respectivamente, sobre folhas necrosadas e pecíolos de cenoura, sob diferentes condições mesológicas. Os esporos do fungo sobre conidióforos em folhas necrosadas de cenoura foram mantidos por 120 dias sob condi

  18. Conventional and real-time PCRs for detection of Erwinia piriflorinigrans allow its distinction from the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbé, Silvia; Bertolini, Edson; Roselló, Montserrat; Llop, Pablo; López, María M

    2014-04-01

    Erwinia piriflorinigrans is a new pathogenic species of the bacterial genus Erwinia that has been described recently in Spain. Accurate detection and identification of E. piriflorinigrans are challenging because its symptoms on pear blossoms are similar to those caused by Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Moreover, these two species share phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Two specific and sensitive conventional and real-time PCR protocols were developed to identify and detect E. piriflorinigrans and to differentiate it from E. amylovora and other species of this genus. These protocols were based on sequences from plasmid pEPIR37, which is present in all strains of E. piriflorinigrans analyzed. After the stability of the plasmid was demonstrated, the specificities of the protocols were confirmed by the amplification of all E. piriflorinigrans strains tested, whereas 304 closely related pathogenic and nonpathogenic Erwinia strains and microbiota from pear trees were not amplified. In sensitivity assays, 10(3) cells/ml extract were detected in spiked plant material by conventional or real-time PCR, and 10(2) cells/ml were detected in DNA extracted from spiked plant material by real-time PCR. The protocols developed here succeeded in detecting E. piriflorinigrans in 102 out of 564 symptomatic and asymptomatic naturally infected pear samples (flowers, cortex stem tissue, leaves, shoots, and fruitlets), in necrotic Pyracantha sp. blossoms, and in necrotic pear and apple tissues infected with both E. amylovora and E. piriflorinigrans. Therefore, these new tools can be used in epidemiological studies that will enhance our understanding of the life cycle of E. piriflorinigrans in different hosts and plant tissues and its interaction with E. amylovora.

  19. Development of a Duplex PCR for Identification of Erwinia amylovora%步双重PCR法检测梨火疫病原细菌(Erwinia amylovora)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许景升; 徐进; 冯洁

    2008-01-01

    @@ 由梨火疫病原细菌(Erwinia amylovom)导致的火疫病(fire blight)是梨、苹果及其它蔷薇科植物上的毁灭性病害,我国将其定为对外一类检疫性有害生物.该病随种苗、果实及包装材料传播.

  20. Meningoencefalite causada pelo vírus vacinal da febre amarela transmitido pelo leite materno

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Traiber; Priscila Coelho-Amaral; Valéria Raymundo Fonteles Ritter; Annelise Winge

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de meningoencefalite, provavelmente causada pelo vírus vacinal da febre amarela transmitido pelo leite materno. DESCRIÇÃO: Paciente de 38 dias de idade, internado em 23/05/09 para investigação de febre. No dia 25/05/09 iniciaram-se as crises convulsivas. O exame do líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) foi sugestivo de meningoencefalite. A mãe havia recebido dose da vacina contra febre amarela e o bebê estava em aleitamento materno exclusivo. Recebeu alta com controle das ...

  1. Complete genome sequence of the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora strain ATCC 49946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwinia amylovora causes the economically important disease fire blight that affects rosaceous plants, especially pear and apple. Here we report the complete genome sequence and annotation of strain ATCC 49946. The analysis of the sequence and its comparison with sequenced genomes of closely related...

  2. Morphological and biochemical characterization of Erwinia amylovora-induced hypersensitive cell death in apple leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Sobiczewski, P.; Michalczuk, L.; Wegrzynowicz-Lesiak, E.; Mikicinski, A.; Woltering, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    In attached apple leaves, spot-inoculated with Erwinia amylovora, the phenotypic appearance of the hypersensitive response (HR) and the participation of ethylene, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) (a plant caspase-1-like protease) were analysed. The HR in both the

  3. Plasmid content of Erwinia amylovora in orchards in Washington and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the plasmid content of a collection of 305 isolates of Erwinia amylovora from Washington and Oregon in the Pacific Northwest of the United States with PCR assays and RFLP. Nearly all isolates of E. amylovora carried plasmid pEA29, which is not found in other species of bacteria, but 4% ...

  4. Plasmid Content of Isolates of Erwinia amylovora from Orchards in Washington and Oregon in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington (WA) and Oregon (OR) represent a major pome fruit production region of the United States, and streptomycin-resistant isolates of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora are common in orchards in this region. We examined the plasmid content of a collection of more than 200 isolates of ...

  5. Antibiosis by Pantoea agglomerans biocontrol strain E325 against Erwinia amylovora on apple blossom stigmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoea agglomerans E325, the active ingredient in a commercial product for fire blight control, was previously shown in vitro to produce a unique alkaline- and phosphate-sensitive antibiotic specific to Erwinia amylovora. Antibiosis was evaluated as a mode of antagonism on blossom stigmas using two...

  6. Erwinia amylovora effector protein Eop1 suppresses PAMP-triggered immunity in Malus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwinia amylovora (Ea) utilizes a type three secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into plant host cells. Several Ea effectors have been identified based on their sequence similarity to plant and animal bacterial pathogen effectors; however, the function of the majority of Ea effecto...

  7. Using functional genomics to identify molecular markers for fire blight resistance (Erwinia amylovora) in apple (Malus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and some woody ornamentals in the rose family (Rosaceae). The goal of this project is to use a functional genomics approach to develop tools to breed fire blight resistant apples. Six hundred fifty...

  8. Eerste jaar Erwinia-project legt topje van de ijsberg bloot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velvis, H.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Over de herkomst van de Erwinia bacterie heerst nog altijd veel onduidelijkheid. Daarom is een onderzoek naar deze bacterie gestart. In vier jaar tijd worden diverse aardappelrassen onderzocht in de verschillende stadia van teelt en opslag. Op deze manier hoopt men te achterhalen waar de herkomst va

  9. The presence and survival of soft rot (Erwinia) in flower bulb production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Vreeburg, P.J.M.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Dees, R.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Soft rot is causing increasing damage in the flower bulb industry. Bulbous ornamentals such as Hyacinthus, Dahlia, Iris, Muscari, Freesia and Zantedeschia can be infected. Soft rot in flower bulbs is mainly caused by Dickeya spp. (Dickeya spp.) and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Pectobacteriu

  10. L-asparaginase treatment in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a focus on Erwinia asparaginase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Rob; Hunger, Stephen P; Boos, Joachim; Rizzari, Carmelo; Silverman, Lewis; Baruchel, Andre; Goekbuget, Nicola; Schrappe, Martin; Pui, Ching-Hon

    2010-01-01

    Asparaginases are a cornerstone of treatment protocols for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and are used for remission induction and intensification treatment in all pediatric regimens and in the majority of adult protocols. Extensive clinical data have shown that intensive asparaginase treatment improves clinical outcomes in childhood ALL. Three asparaginase preparations are available; the native asparaginase derived from Escherichia coli (E. coli-asparaginase), a pegylated form of this enzyme (PEG-asparaginase) and a product isolated from Erwinia chrysanthemi, i.e. Erwinia asparaginase. Clinical hypersensitivity reactions and silent inactivation due to antibodies against E.coli-asparaginase, lead to inactivation of E-Coli asparaginase in up to 60% of cases. Current treatment protocols include E. coli-asparaginase or PEG-asparaginase for first-line treatment of ALL. Typically, patients exhibiting sensitivity to one formulation of asparaginase are switched to another product to ensure they receive the most efficacious treatment regimen possible. Erwinia asparaginase is used as a second- or third-line treatment in European and US protocols. Despite the universal inclusion of asparaginase in such treatment protocols, there is much debate regarding the optimal formulation and dosage of these agents. This manuscript provides an overview of available evidence to make recommendations for optimal use of Erwinia asparaginase in the treatment of ALL. PMID:20824725

  11. Bacterial leaf rot of Aloe vera L., caused byErwinia chrysanthemi biovar 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, de P.C.A.; Verhoeven, J.T.W.; Danse, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    A severe attack of the bacteriumErwinia chrysantemi biovar 3 on the succulentAloe vera on the Carribean island of Aruba is described. Biochemical and pathological characteristics of strains are presented, including results of successful inoculation experiments onAloe vera. This is the first report o

  12. Evaluation of a PCR kit for the detection of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica on potato tubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frechon, D.; Exbrayat, P.; Helias, V.; Hyman, L.J.; Jouan, B.; Llop, P.; Lopez, M.M.; Payet, N.; Perombelon, M.C.M.; Toth, I.K.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Bertheau, Y.

    1998-01-01

    A PCR-based kit, Probelia(TM), for the detection of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca) on potatoes was evaluated at five laboratories in four countries. The kit is based on DNA-specific PCR amplification followed by detection of amplicons by hybridization to a peroxidase-labelled DNA probe

  13. Differential lysine acetylation profiles of Erwinia amylovora strains revealed by proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein lysine acetylation (LysAc) in bacteria has recently been demonstrated to be widespread in E. coli and Salmonella and to broadly regulate bacterial physiology and metabolism. However, LysAc in plant pathogenic bacteria is largely unknown. Here we report the lysine acetylome of Erwinia amylovo...

  14. AmyR is a novel negative regulator of amylovoran production in Erwinia amylovora

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously reported the characterization of an orphan gene ybjN from Escherichia coli. In this study, we attempted to understand the role of amyR in Erwinia amylovora, a functionally conserved homolog of E. coli ybjN. As reported earlier, amylovoran production in the amyR knockout mutant is ...

  15. Genome-wide identification of genes regulated by the Rcs Phosphorelay system in Erwinia amylovora

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exopolysaccharide amylovoran is one of the major pathgenicity factors in Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight of apples and pears. We have previously demonstrated that the RcsBCD phosphorelay system is essential for virulence by controlling amylovoran biosynthesis. We have also fou...

  16. Draft genome sequence of Erwinia tracheiphila, an economically important bacterial pathogen of cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwinia tracheiphila is one of the most economically important pathogen of cucumbers, melons, squashes, pumpkins, and gourds, in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, yet the molecular pathology remains uninvestigated. Here we report the first draft genome sequence of an E. tracheiphila str...

  17. L-asparaginase treatment in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a focus on Erwinia asparaginase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Rob; Hunger, Stephen P; Boos, Joachim; Rizzari, Carmelo; Silverman, Lewis; Baruchel, Andre; Goekbuget, Nicola; Schrappe, Martin; Pui, Ching-Hon

    2011-01-15

    Asparaginases are a cornerstone of treatment protocols for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and are used for remission induction and intensification treatment in all pediatric regimens and in the majority of adult treatment protocols. Extensive clinical data have shown that intensive asparaginase treatment improves clinical outcomes in childhood ALL. Three asparaginase preparations are available: the native asparaginase derived from Escherichia coli (E. coli asparaginase), a pegylated form of this enzyme (PEG-asparaginase), and a product isolated from Erwinia chrysanthemi, ie, Erwinia asparaginase. Clinical hypersensitivity reactions and silent inactivation due to antibodies against E. coli asparaginase, lead to inactivation of E. coli asparaginase in up to 60% of cases. Current treatment protocols include E. coli asparaginase or PEG-asparaginase for first-line treatment of ALL. Typically, patients exhibiting sensitivity to one formulation of asparaginase are switched to another to ensure they receive the most efficacious treatment regimen possible. Erwinia asparaginase is used as a second- or third-line treatment in European and US protocols. Despite the universal inclusion of asparaginase in such treatment protocols, debate on the optimal formulation and dosage of these agents continues. This article provides an overview of available evidence for optimal use of Erwinia asparaginase in the treatment of ALL.

  18. [Erwinia amylovora--the fire blight pathogen of trees in Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, L M; Moroz, S N; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E; Gvozdiak, R I; Patyka, V F

    2014-01-01

    Niduses of fire blight of fruit and ornamental trees have been found in the Kyiv and Vinnitsa regions of Ukraine. Pathogen Erwinia amylovora was isolated between April and October. The pathogen was often accompanied by bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Artificial infection with a mixture of bacteria E. amylovora and P. syringae pv. syringae accelerates and enhances the disease process in the laboratory.

  19. Genetic islands in pome fruit pathogenic and nonpathogenic Erwinia species and related plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo eLlop

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available New pathogenic bacteria species belonging to the genus Erwinia associated with pome fruit trees (Erwinia pyrifoliae, E. piriflorinigrans, E. uzenensis have been increasingly described in the last years, and comparative analyses have found that all these species share several genetic characteristics. Studies at different level (whole genome comparison, virulence genes, plasmid content, etc. show a high intraspecies homogeneity (i.e. among E. amylovora strains and also abundant similarities appear between the different Erwinia species: presence of plasmids of similar size in the pathogenic species; high similarity in several genes associated with exopolysaccharide production and hence, with virulence, as well as in some other genes, in the chromosomes. Many genetic similarities have been observed also among some of the plasmids (and genomes from the pathogenic species and E. tasmaniensis or E. billingiae, two epiphytic species on the same hosts. The amount of genetic material shared in this genus varies from individual genes to clusters, genomic islands and genetic material that even may constitute a whole plasmid. Recent research on evolution of erwinias point out the horizontal transfer acquisition of some genomic islands that were subsequently lost in some species and several pathogenic traits that are still present. How this common material has been obtained and is efficiently maintained in different species belonging to the same genus sharing a common ecological niche provides an idea of the origin and evolution of the pathogenic Erwinia and the interaction with nonpathogenic species present in the same niche, and the role of the genes that are conserved in all of them.

  20. Genetic islands in pome fruit pathogenic and non-pathogenic Erwinia species and related plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    New pathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus Erwinia associated with pome fruit trees (Erwinia, E. piriflorinigrans, E. uzenensis) have been increasingly described in the last years, and comparative analyses have found that all these species share several genetic characteristics. Studies at different level (whole genome comparison, virulence genes, plasmid content, etc.) show a high intraspecies homogeneity (i.e., among E. amylovora strains) and also abundant similarities appear between the different Erwinia species: presence of plasmids of similar size in the pathogenic species; high similarity in several genes associated with exopolysaccharide production and hence, with virulence, as well as in some other genes, in the chromosomes. Many genetic similarities have been observed also among some of the plasmids (and genomes) from the pathogenic species and E. tasmaniensis or E. billingiae, two epiphytic species on the same hosts. The amount of genetic material shared in this genus varies from individual genes to clusters, genomic islands and genetic material that even may constitute a whole plasmid. Recent research on evolution of erwinias point out the horizontal transfer acquisition of some genomic islands that were subsequently lost in some species and several pathogenic traits that are still present. How this common material has been obtained and is efficiently maintained in different species belonging to the same genus sharing a common ecological niche provides an idea of the origin and evolution of the pathogenic Erwinia and the interaction with non-pathogenic species present in the same niche, and the role of the genes that are conserved in all of them.

  1. Partial resistance to Erwinia carotovora SUBSP. carotovora and plant vigour among F1 hybrids of Zantedeschia cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, R.C.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The potential of breeding Zantedeschia cultivars for resistance to soft rot caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (syn. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum) was determined. Hybrids of six cultivars (`Back Magic`, Galaxy`, Pink Persuasion`, Sensation`, `Treasure` and `Florex Gold`)

  2. Alteraciones histológicas en el intestino delgado en Tupinambis rufescens (Sauria: Teiidae causadas por Diaphanocephalus galestus (Nematoda: Diaphanocephalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli, C. Mónica

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological changes in the gut of the lizard T. rufescens due to the parasitic worm D. galeatus are described here. Superficial damage of the mucosae due to mechanical action of bucal capsule, without involving deeper layers; their implication in the metabolism and immunity of the host.

  3. HIPERAMONEMIA NEONATAL CAUSADA POR DEFECTOS DEL CICLO DE LA UREA Neonatal hyperammonemia in urea cycle disorders patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Cifuentes C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los defectos del ciclo de la úrea se deben a deficiencias de diferentes enzimas; las manifestaciones clínicas son similares y están relacionadas con la hiperamonemia. Se presentan las historias clínicas de tres neonatos a término, sin evidencia de alteración al nacimiento. Se les detectó hiperamonemia y se sospechó enfermedad metabólica. La cromatografía de aminoácidos sugirió defectos del ciclo de la úrea. El manejo incluyó dieta con restricción de proteínas, administración de benzoato de sodio, exsanguinotransfusión y diálisis peritoneal pese a lo cual fallecieron. Se revisan las causas de hiperamonemia en el neonato y se propone una secuencia para su diagnósticoThe urea cycle disorders result from deficiency of activity of enzymes N-acetyl glutamate synthetase, carbamyl phosphate synthase, ornithine transcarbamylase, argininosuccinic acid synthetase, argininosuccinic acid lyase and arginase. Except for the last one, the clinical features are similar and related with the hiperammonaemia. It reports three full term, newborn cases, they had encephalopathy and needed respiratory support after be well in neonatal period. They had hyperammonemia as inborn error. The thin layer amino acids chromatography showed alanine and glutamine, in the siblings appeared citruline, suggesting urea cycle disorders. Despite protein restriction diet, sodium benzoate administration, blood exchange and peritoneal dialysis,babies died. High argininosuccinic acid levels in the first case and high citrulline levels with argininosuccinic acid absence in the third case, which was diagnosed as argininosuccinic aciduria with citrullinemia. This report provide an overview of neonatal hyperammonemia causes and propose a secuency for diagnosis

  4. Cervical celullitis in broiler chickens for Escherichia coli/ Celulite cervical em frangos de corte causada por Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivens Gomes Guimarães

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper was report the isolation of Escherichia coli in broiler chickens with cellulitis in the cervical region. It was carried through the isolation of E. coli of the lesion of cellulitis from broilers and carried through histopathological examination of skin that had characterized the lesion. Focal ulcerations of epidermis, fibrin in dermis and difuse infiltrated by lymphocytes and heterophils on subcutaneous tissues.Neste trabalho, relata-se o isolamento de Escherichia coli em frangos de corte apresentando lesão de celulite na região cervical. Foi realizado o isolamento de E. coli da lesão de celulite e realizado exames histopatológicos que caracterizaram a lesão. Na epiderme foram verificadas lesões ulcerativas, presença de fibrina na derme e infiltração difusa de linfócitos e heterófilos no tecido subcutâneo.

  5. Características laboratoriais das ceratites e conjuntivites causadas por Streptococcus sp Laboratorial findings of Streptococcus keratitis and conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Parente Solari

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar os resultados laboratoriais de conjuntivites e ceratites com cultura positiva para Streptococcus sp, avaliando a incidência das diferentes espécies e os dados dos antibiogramas. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de revisão de prontuários de pacientes encaminhados ao laboratório de Doenças Externas do Departamento de Oftalmologia da UNIFESP com resultado de cultivo bacteriano positivo de córnea ou conjuntiva e com identificação de alguma cepa do gênero Streptococcus sp, no período de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 2001. Analisou-se idade do paciente, espécie de Streptococcus e os testes de sensibilidade aos seguintes antibióticos: cefalotina, amicacina, gentamicina, tobramicina, ciprofloxacina, lomefloxacina, ofloxacina, norfloxacina e vancomicina. RESULTADOS: As espécies mais encontradas foram Streptococcus pneumoniae e Streptococcus viridans. Com relação aos antibióticos, a sensibilidade foi maior à cefalotina, às quinolonas e à vancomicina. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando-se os antibióticos tópicos comercialmente disponíveis, as quinolonas apresentam melhor espectro de ação quando comparadas aos aminoglicosídios.PURPOSE: To evaluate laboratorial findings of Streptococcus keratitis and conjunctivitis, analyzing the different species and the results of bacterial susceptibility to an antibiotics. METHODS: Retrospective study of the records from the External Disease Laboratory of the Ophthalmology Department of the Federal University of São Paulo, with conjunctival or corneal positive bacterial culture for Streptococcus sp, between January 1995 and December 2001. The collected data were age, Streptococcus species and the bacterial susceptibility to the following antibiotics: cephalotin, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramicin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and vancomicin. RESULTS: The most frequent species were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus viridans. Regarding bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics we found a higher susceptibility to the following antibiotics: cephalotin, quinolones and vancomicin. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the commercially available topic antibiotics, the quinolones presented better results when compared to the aminoglycosides.

  6. Experimental encephalitis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice Encefalite experimental causada por cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps em camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidelberto Matos-Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To present the experimental model of neurocysticercosis (NCC caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, to describe the inflammatory process, susceptibility, or resistance of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to this infection, and to describe the host-parasite relationship. METHODS: The animals were intracranially inoculated with initial stage T. crassiceps cysticerci. They were euthanized at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after the inoculation. Their encephala were removed for the histopathologic analysis, classification of the parasites, and inflammatory lesions. RESULTS: Experimental NCC was observed on both mice lineages. BALB/c mice presented inflammatory lesions with greater intensity, inducing necrosis on late stage parasites, and with an acute inflammation pattern, while C57BL/6 mice showed greater capability on provoking early necrosis in the cysticerci, which showed a chronic inflammation pattern. CONCLUSIONS: This experimental model induced NCC on mice with characteristic inflammation and lesions. C57BL/6 mice were able to induce precocious necrosis of the parasites presenting inflammatory lesions with lower intensity.OBJETIVOS: Apresentar o modelo experimental de neurocisticercose (NCC com cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps, descrever a inflamação, suscetibilidade e resistência em camundongos BALB/c e C57BL/6, caracterizando melhor a relação parasito-hospedeiro. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram inoculados intracranialmente com cisticercos de T. crassiceps em estádio inicial e eutanasiados aos 7, 30, 60 e 90 dias após a infecção. Retiraram-se os encéfalos para análise histopatológica, classificação dos parasitos e lesões inflamatórias. RESULTADOS: Foi possível induzir NCC nas duas linhagens de camundongos utilizados como modelo experimental. Os animais BALB/c apresentaram lesões inflamatórias mais intensas do que os camundongos C57BL/6 e induziram nos parasitos necrose na fase tardia com padrão inflamatório agudo. Os C57BL/6 mostraram-se mais hábeis em provocar necrose precocemente nos cisticercos, mas com padrão inflamatório crônico. CONCLUSÕES: Este modelo experimental induziu NCC nos animais com inflamações e lesões. Os camundongos C57BL/6 foram hábeis em induzir precocemente necrose nos parasitos, apresentando lesões inflamatórias com menor intensidade.

  7. Lesiones causadas por helmintos del aparato digestivo en peces estuarinos de la Laguna Tres Palos, Guerrero, México

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón Vázquez Núñez; José Ramírez Lezama; David Osorio Sarabia; Larisa Adriana Chávez Soriano; Fernando Constantino Casas

    2004-01-01

    Se realizó el presente estudio con el fi n de identificar y comparar las lesiones macro y microscópicas asociadas a helmintos en el tracto digestivo del Ariopsis guatemalensis (“cuatete”) y Eleotris picta (“alahuate”) de la Laguna de Tres Palos, Guerrero, México. En Mayo, Julio y Diciembre del 2001 se colectaron 30 peces de cada especie. A 15 individuos de cada muestra se les practicó el examen histopatológico y a los 15 restantes el examen parasitológico. Se identifi caron tres grupos de hel...

  8. Caracterização de infeções nosocomiais causadas por bactérias resistentes

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Inês Madail Marques e

    2016-01-01

    As Infeções Nosocomiais são um grave problema de saúde a nível mundial, produzindo endemias e epidemias. O elevado consumo de antibióticos e a transmissão microbiana das resistências nos hospitais são as principais causas do seu aparecimento, sobretudo em Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos. A transmissão de resistências nos hospitais tem levado ao aparecimento de estirpes bacterianas multirresistentes cujo tratamento é dificultado pela falta de recursos terapêuticos, o que resulta em aumento dos...

  9. Técnica de correção de hipernasalidade causada por adenoidectomia Management of hipernasality caused by adenoidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Junqueira

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A tonsila faríngea quando aumentada, pode causar obstrução nas vias aéreas superiores e levar à respiração bucal de suplência¹. Em alguns casos adenoidectomia e/ou adenoamigdalectomia são indicadas para remoção do fator obstrutivo, possibilitando a respiração nasal. Temos observado que algumas crianças mesmo sem apresentar queixas e/ou alterações vocais no período pré-operatório, desenvolvem uma qualidade vocal hipernasal após adenoidectomia12. Este artigo tem como objetivo descrever um caso de hipernasalidade após adenoidectomia e relatar o tratamento fonoaudiológico, bem como, os possíveis riscos e seqüelas após o procedimento cirúrgico.Hipertrophic adenoid is a frequent cause of obstruction of the upper respiratory tract and may lead to a mouth breathing condition. in some cases, surgical procedures such as adenoidectomy and or tonsillectomy are necessary to reestablish the nasal breathing. We have observed that following adenoidectomy, many children present with vocal hipernasality, even when there is no previous history or complains. In this paper, the authors describe a case of severe hipernasality following adenoidectomy, as well as detailed steps of the speech therapy approach. The risks and sequelae of this vocal condition related to adenoidectomy are also discussed.

  10. Meningoradiculitis due to Cryptococcus neofermans in an immunocompetent patient Meningorradiculite lombossacra causada por Cryptococcus neoformans em paciente imunocompetente

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Deus-Silva; Costa,Alexandre E.; Juliano M. Bevilacqua; Assis,Denise B.; Ferraz Jr.,Carlos A.; Oliveira, Augusto C P; Anamarli Nucci

    2004-01-01

    Meningoradiculitis refers to combined involvement of meninges and nerve roots. The most frequent location is the lumbosacral region. Etiology is diverse, including inflammatory, infectious and neoplastic disorders. Meningoradiculitis is a rare form of involvement in cryptococcal infection. We describe a case of subacute lower limbs flaccid paresis diagnosed as lumbosacral meningoradiculitis in view of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory changes and typical enhancement on MRI of lumbar spin...

  11. "O corpo que eu fui e o corpo que eu sou": concepções de mulheres com alterações causadas pela hanseníase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iací Proença Palmeira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se objetivó comprender las concepciones de las mujeres sobre el cuerpo femenino con alteraciones provocadas por la lepra. Estudio de naturaleza cualitativa y descriptiva, que aplicó los conceptos de la teoría de las representaciones. Participaron cuarenta y tres mujeres con alteraciones corporales causadas por la lepra, frecuentadoras de una unidad de referencia especializada en dermatología sanitaria. Se realizó entrevista semi-estructurada, individual, y análisis temático de contenido. Los resultados muestran concepciones del cuerpo relacionadas a la salud (pasado y a la enfermedad (presente, mostrando la fuerza de la estética y la funcionalidad del cuerpo, influenciando en la participación e inserción social de estas mujeres. Se concluye que las concepciones de las mujeres sobre su cuerpo explican sus prácticas de cuidado de sí, y conocerlas contribuye para que enfermería mejore la atención de las necesidades de estas mujeres.

  12. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a new pathogen of papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Hamidun; Redzuan, Rohaiza Ahmad; Jaganath, Indu Bala S

    2010-12-24

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch's postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya.

  13. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriha Mat Amin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414. Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya.

  14. Erwinia endophytica sp. nov., isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; Salazar, Sergio; Cuesta, Maria José; Tejedor, Carmen; Igual, Jose Mariano; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Peix, Alvaro

    2015-12-04

    We analysed through a polyphasic taxonomy approach two bacterial strains coded BSTT30T and BSTT40, isolated in the course of a study of endophytic bacteria occurring in stems and roots of potato growing in a soil from Salamanca, Spain. The 16S rRNA gene sequence was identical in both strains and had 98.4% identity with respect to the closest relatives Erwinia tasmaniensis Et1/99T and E. rhapontici ATCC29283T and the following closest related species with 98.2 % similarity were E. billingiae E63T and E. toletana A37T, for which the strains were classified within genus Erwinia. The analysis of housekeeping genes gpd, gyrB and rpoD confirmed their phylogenetic affiliation and showed identities lower than 90% in all cases with respect to the mentioned closest relatives. The respiratory quinone is Q8. The major fatty acids are C16:0, C16:1 7c/ 16:1 6c in summed feature 3 and C18:1 7c/ 18:2 6,9c in summed feature 8. Oxidase negative and catalase positive. Glucose is fermented without gas production. Arginine dihydrolase, urease and indole production are negative. It can grow at 35ºC and at pH 10. The DNA G+C content was 50.1 mol %. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed values lower than 29% relatedness with respect to the type strains of the four closest related species. Therefore, the combined results of genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data support the classification of strains BSTT30T and BSTT40 into a novel species of Erwinia, for which the name Erwinia endophytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BSTT30T (=LMG 28457T, CECT 8692T).

  15. Estimation of resistance pear cultivars to Erwinia amylovora using artificial immature pear fruits method

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilović, Veljko; Stanisavljević, Rade; Stošić, Stefan; Stevanović, Miloš; Aleksić, Goran; Stajić, Milica; Dolovac, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibility of different pear cultivars to Erwinia amaylovora by artificial inoculated immature pear fruits are shown in this article. According obtained results significant differences among cultivars are confirmed and they could be divided in four groups. Most susceptibly cultivars were Santa Marija. Second group includes Williams, Morettini, Carmen, Hardenpont. As most resistant shown to be Magness, Turandot and two local varietyies Karamanka, as well as another unknown local cultivar. ...

  16. Absence of lysogeny in wild populations of Erwinia amylovora and Pantoea agglomerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Dwayne R; Sjaarda, David R; Sjaarda, Calvin P; Ayala, Carlos Juarez; Howcroft, Brittany; Castle, Alan J; Svircev, Antonet M

    2015-05-01

    Lytic bacteriophages are in development as biological control agents for the prevention of fire blight disease caused by Erwinia amylovora. Temperate phages should be excluded as biologicals since lysogeny produces the dual risks of host resistance to phage attack and the transduction of virulence determinants between bacteria. The extent of lysogeny was estimated in wild populations of E. amylovora and Pantoea agglomerans with real-time polymerase chain reaction primers developed to detect E. amylovora phages belonging to the Myoviridae and Podoviridae families. Pantoea agglomerans, an orchard epiphyte, is easily infected by Erwinia spp. phages, and it serves as a carrier in the development of the phage-mediated biological control agent. Screening of 161 E. amylovora isolates from 16 distinct geographical areas in North America, Europe, North Africa and New Zealand and 82 P. agglomerans isolates from southern Ontario, Canada showed that none possessed prophage. Unstable phage resistant clones or lysogens were produced under laboratory conditions. Additionally, a stable lysogen was recovered from infection of bacterial isolate Ea110R with Podoviridae phage ΦEa35-20. These laboratory observations suggested that while lysogeny is possible in E. amylovora, it is rare or absent in natural populations, and there is a minimal risk associated with lysogenic conversion and transduction by Erwinia spp. phages.

  17. 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola', a coevolved symbiotic bacterium of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuzzo, Caterina; Firrao, Giuseppe; Mazzon, Luca; Squartini, Andrea; Girolami, Vincenzo

    2005-07-01

    The taxonomic identity of the hereditary prokaryotic symbiont of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) was investigated. In order to avoid superficial microbial contaminants and loosely associated saprophytic biota, flies were surface-sterilized at the larval stage and reared under aseptic conditions until adult emergence. B. oleae flies originating from different geographical locations and collected at different times of the year were tested. Bacterial isolation was undertaken from the cephalic oesophageal bulb, which is known to be a specific site of accumulation for the hosted microsymbionts in the adult insect. Despite evidence of multiplication cycles taking place within the insect, attempts at cultivation of the isolated bacteria ex situ were not productive at any stage, leading to the choice of unculturable status definition. PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the entire 16S rRNA gene consistently yielded a single sequence that displayed marked similarity with enterobacterial lineages, with closest matches (97%) to Erwinia persicina and Erwinia rhapontici. The novel taxon differs from common intestinal bacterial species of fruit flies and from instances of culturable bacteria previously described in B. oleae raised without sterility precautions, which we also observed as minority occupants or occasional contaminants. The symbiont's identity is also distinct from Pseudomonas savastanoi. In all observations, the numerically dominant inhabitant of the olive fly oesophageal organ was the same unculturable organism, whose presence at later stages was also regularly observed in the midgut. A novel species is proposed, by virtue of its unique properties, under the designation 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola'.

  18. Carbohydrate and ethane release with Erwinia carotovora subspecies betavasculorum--induced necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuykendall, L David; Hunter, William J

    2008-02-01

    Erwinia carotovora subspecies betavasculorum, also known as E. betavasculorum and Pectobacterium betavasculorum, is a soil bacterium that has the capacity to cause root rot necrosis of sugarbeets. The qualitatively different pathogenicity exhibited by the virulent E. carotovora strain and two avirulent strains, a Citrobacter sp. and an Enterobacter cloacae, was examined using digital analysis of photographic evidence of necrosis as well as for carbohydrate, ethane, and ethylene release compared with uninoculated potato tuber slices. Visual scoring of necrosis was superior to digital analysis of photographs. The release of carbohydrates and ethane from potato tuber slices inoculated with the soft rot necrosis-causing Erwinia was significantly greater than that of potato tuber slices that had not been inoculated or that had been inoculated with the nonpathogenic E. cloacae and Citrobacter sp. strains. Interestingly, ethylene production from potato slices left uninoculated or inoculated with the nonpathogenic Citrobacter strain was 5- to 10-fold higher than with potato slices inoculated with the pathogenic Erwinia strain. These findings suggest that (1) carbohydrate release might be a useful measure of the degree of pathogenesis, or relative virulence; and that (2) bacterial suppression of ethylene formation may be a critical step in root rot disease formation.

  19. Erwinia tasmaniensis sp. nov., a non-phytopathogenic bacterium from apple and pear trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geider, Klaus; Auling, Georg; Du, Zhiqiang; Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Jock, Susanne; Völksch, Beate

    2006-12-01

    Bacteria were isolated from flowers and bark of apple and pear trees at three places in Australia. In Victoria, Tasmania and Queensland, strains with white colonies on nutrient agar were screened for dome-shaped colony morphology on agar with sucrose and were found to be closely related by several criteria. The isolates were not pathogenic on apples or pears. They were characterized by a polyphasic approach including microbiological and API assays as well as fatty acid methyl ester analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and DNA sequencing. For molecular classification, the 16S rRNA cistron and the conserved genes gpd and recA of these bacteria were investigated. Together with other taxonomic criteria, the results of these studies indicate that the bacteria belong to a novel separate species, which we propose to name Erwinia tasmaniensis sp. nov., with the type strain Et1/99(T) (=DSM 17950(T)=NCPPB 4357(T)). From DNA-DNA hybridization kinetics, microbiological characteristics and nucleotide sequence analyses, this species is related to pathogenic Erwinia species, but also to the epiphytic species Erwinia billingiae.

  20. Fe2+ chelator proferrorosamine A: a gene cluster of Erwinia rhapontici P45 involved in its synthesis and its impact on growth of Erwinia amylovora CFBP1430.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Yannick; Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N P; Bieri, Marco; Kamber, Tim; Piel, Jörn; Pelludat, Cosima

    2016-02-01

    Proferrorosamine A (proFRA) is an iron (Fe2+) chelator produced by the opportunistic plant pathogen Erwinia rhapontici P45. To identify genes involved in proFRA synthesis, transposon mutagenesis was performed. The identified 9.3 kb gene cluster, comprising seven genes, designated rosA-rosG, encodes proteins that are involved in proFRA synthesis. Based on gene homologies, a biosynthetic pathway model for proFRA is proposed. To obtain a better understanding of the effect of proFRA on non-proFRA producing bacteria, E. rhapontici P45 was co-cultured with Erwinia amylovora CFBP1430, a fire-blight-causing plant pathogen. E. rhapontici P45, but not corresponding proFRA-negative mutants, led to a pink coloration of E. amylovora CFBP1430 colonies on King's B agar, indicating accumulation of the proFRA-iron complex ferrorosamine, and growth inhibition in vitro. By saturating proFRA-containing extracts with Fe2+, the inhibitory effect was neutralized, suggesting that the iron-chelating capability of proFRA is responsible for the growth inhibition of E. amylovora CFBP1430.

  1. Low genetic diversity among pathogenic strains of Erwinia psidii from Brazil Baixa diversidade genética entre estirpes patogênicas de Erwinia psidii no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. O. Teixeira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia psidii causes bacterial disease of guava in Brazil. Phenotypic and molecular characterization through rep-PCR fingerprinting of 42 strains from different geographical regions showed that E. psidii populations in Brazil have a low level of genetic diversity and suggest that contaminated plant material is the main source for pathogen dissemination in the country.Erwinia psidii é o agente causal da seca-dos-ponteiros ou bacteriose da goiabeira no Brasil. A caracterização fenotípica e molecular através de rep-PCR de 42 estirpes patogênicas de diferentes regiões mostrou que as populações de E. psidii no Brasil têm um baixo nível de diversidade genética e sugere que material de propagação infectado é a principal fonte de disseminação do patógeno para novas áreas no país.

  2. Potential Distribution of Alien Invasive Species and Risk Assessment: a Case Study of Erwinia amylovora in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; CHEN Juan; HU Bai-shi; JIANG Ying-hua; LIU Feng-quan

    2007-01-01

    Alien invasive species represent a severe risk to biodiversity and economy, as in the case of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora), a bacterial disease that originated in North America, which may be released into new locations by means of fruit trade. On the basis of the knowledge of Erwinia amylovora's biophysical characteristics and environmental data, the geographic information system (GIS) has been applied to determine areas where Erwinia amylovora can potentially invade China. Temperature and precipitation, during the blossoming period, are considered to be two critical factors affecting the Erwinia amylovora's suitable climatic zones. This spatial modeling approach was validated from a case study in Europe, where the occurrence of Erwinia amylovora has been proven. The model prediction agreed with the occurrence of the bacteria recorded in Europe, and the same procedure has been applied to produce a potential establishment area in China's two preferential apple cultivation regions, Bohai Bay region and Huangtu Altiplano region. It has been found that areas belonging to the high-risk category are more or less the main apple producing areas, accounting for their great economic importance in China. This methodology provides an initial baseline for assessment, prevention, and management of alien species that may become invasive under certain environmental conditions. In addition, this modeling approach provides a tool for policy makers to use, in making decisions on management practices where alien species are involved.

  3. The olive fly endosymbiont, "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola," switches from an intracellular existence to an extracellular existence during host insect development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Anne M; Hearn, David J; Bronstein, Judith L; Pierson, Elizabeth A

    2009-11-01

    As polyphagous, holometabolous insects, tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provide a unique habitat for endosymbiotic bacteria, especially those microbes associated with the digestive system. Here we examine the endosymbiont of the olive fly [Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)], a tephritid of great economic importance. "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola" was found in the digestive systems of all life stages of wild olive flies from the southwestern United States. PCR and microscopy demonstrated that "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" resided intracellularly in the gastric ceca of the larval midgut but extracellularly in the lumen of the foregut and ovipositor diverticulum of adult flies. "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" is one of the few nonpathogenic endosymbionts that transitions between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles during specific stages of the host's life cycle. Another unique feature of the olive fly endosymbiont is that unlike obligate endosymbionts of monophagous insects, "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" has a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of closely related plant-pathogenic and free-living bacteria. These two characteristics of "Ca. Erwinia dacicola," the ability to transition between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles and a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of free-living relatives, may facilitate survival in a changing environment during the development of a polyphagous, holometabolous host. We propose that insect-bacterial symbioses should be classified based on the environment that the host provides to the endosymbiont (the endosymbiont environment).

  4. Pneumonia grave por "Chlamydia psittaci"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOSCHIONI CRISTIANE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A psitacose, também conhecida como ornitose, é causada pela Chlamydia psittaci; caracteriza-se por doença de início insidioso, sintomas brandos e inespecíficos, lembrando infecção de vias aéreas superiores. Acomete principalmente o pulmão, sendo raramente doença sistêmica e fatal. Descreve-se um caso raro de pneumonia por Chlamydia psittaci que evoluiu para insuficiência respiratória aguda, necessitando de ventilação mecânica. Destaca-se a importância em considerar o diagnóstico, especialmente em casos de pneumonia comunitária que evolui de modo insatisfatório, que não responde à terapia antimicrobiana e cuja epidemiologia é positiva para exposição às aves. O diagnóstico precoce é fundamental devido à excelente resposta terapêutica. O diagnóstico tardio pode levar a curso grave e fatal da doença.

  5. Rabdomiólisis aguda masiva secundaria a neumonía con bacteriemia por Moraxella catarrhalis

    OpenAIRE

    Fajardo, Miguel; Vergara, Esther; Hernández-Blázquez, Antonia; Hernández-Rastrollo, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis es una bacteria implicada en infecciones respiratorias, otitis, sinusitis, mastoiditis o conjuntivitis. Menos frecuente es su participación en bacteriemias y artritis, siendo éste el primer caso descrito de rabdomiolisis (RM) aguda difusa. La RM aguda difusa de etiología infecciosa generalmente está causada por virus, seguido de bacterias con un conocido poder patógeno, como Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae o Legionella pneumophyla. Se diagnostica por la p...

  6. Sepsis neonatal por Estreptococos Pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rodríguez-Herrera

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, recién nacido a término adecuado para la edad gestacional, quien nace por parto vaginal, con el antecedente de fiebre en la madre durante el periodo de postparto inmediato. Los padres consultan a los 2 días de vida pues le notan dificultad respiratoria, hipoactividad y rechazo a la leche materna. El paciente se interna y se aborda como una sepsis. Durante su estancia en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Nacional de Niños asocia fallo respiratorio que amerita ventilación mecánica asistida por varios días en diferentes ocasiones, derrame pleural exudativo, convulsiones de origen hipóxico isquémico. Con reporte de hemocultivos positivos por Estreptococos pyogenes. El Estreptococos pyogenes o estreptococo β-hemolνtico del grupo A, fue un problema en los comienzos del siglo pasado, siendo frecuente en las infecciones puerperales y del reciιn nacido. En la actualidad es un germen sumamente raro en los procesos de sepsis neonatal.2 La gravedad de la enfermedad causada por este microorganismo en el periodo neonatal varνa desde una onfalitis crónica de bajo grado a una septicemia, una meningitis fulminante y la muerte.1 El presente artículo pretende hacer un resumen del paciente, con su evolución clínica, radiológica y además ejemplificar todas las complicaciones que tuvimos con este germen tan poco frecuente en la actualidad en sepsis neonatal.

  7. EFEKTIFITAS DAYA HAMBAT BAKTERI Streptomyces sp TERHADAP Erwinia sp PENYEBAB PENYAKIT BUSUK REBAH PADA TANAMAN LIDAH BUAYA (Aloe barbadensis Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARMILA TASNIM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp was conducted from December 2010 - June 2011 at the Laboratoryof Microbiology, Biology Department, Math and Science Faculty, UdayanaUniversity Bukit Jimbaran-Bali. Implementation stages of the research consisted ofisolation and testing of the antibiotic activity Streptomyces sp to inhibit growthbacterial pathogens Erwinia sp as a cause of disease in plants fallen foul (Soft rot ofAloe barbadensis Mill.The results of this study have eight isolates of Streptomyces spwith macroscopic and microscopic characters are varied. Furthermore, all isolateswere obtained and then tested against antibiotic activity to inhibit growth the bacteriaErwinia sp. Test results obtained by Streptomyces sp that has the most effective ininhibiting the ability of the bacteria Erwinia sp isolates are Streptomyces sp2for (45%.

  8. Genetic differences between blight-causing Erwinia species with differing host specificities, identified by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Lindsay R; Zhao, Youfu; Sundin, George W

    2006-11-01

    PCR-based subtractive hybridization was used to isolate sequences from Erwinia amylovora strain Ea110, which is pathogenic on apples and pears, that were not present in three closely related strains with differing host specificities: E. amylovora MR1, which is pathogenic only on Rubus spp.; Erwinia pyrifoliae Ep1/96, the causal agent of shoot blight of Asian pears; and Erwinia sp. strain Ejp556, the causal agent of bacterial shoot blight of pear in Japan. In total, six subtractive libraries were constructed and analyzed. Recovered sequences included type III secretion components, hypothetical membrane proteins, and ATP-binding proteins. In addition, we identified an Ea110-specific sequence with homology to a type III secretion apparatus component of the insect endosymbiont Sodalis glossinidius, as well as an Ep1/96-specific sequence with homology to the Yersinia pestis effector protein tyrosine phosphatase YopH.

  9. Meningoencefalite causada pelo vírus vacinal da febre amarela transmitido pelo leite materno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Traiber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de meningoencefalite, provavelmente causada pelo vírus vacinal da febre amarela transmitido pelo leite materno. DESCRIÇÃO: Paciente de 38 dias de idade, internado em 23/05/09 para investigação de febre. No dia 25/05/09 iniciaram-se as crises convulsivas. O exame do líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR foi sugestivo de meningoencefalite. A mãe havia recebido dose da vacina contra febre amarela e o bebê estava em aleitamento materno exclusivo. Recebeu alta com controle das crises convulsivas. Foi detectado anticorpo IgM específico para febre amarela no soro e no LCR. COMENTÁRIOS: Em 2009, ocorreu o primeiro caso confirmado de meningoencefalite pelo vírus vacinal da febre amarela transmitido pelo leite materno. Descrevemos o segundo caso, em que, possivelmente, o vírus vacinal tenha sido o agente etiológico da meningoencefalite. O Ministério da Saúde do Brasil recomenda adiar a vacinação de nutrizes até a criança completar 6 meses ou orientar alternativas para evitar o risco de transmissão do vírus vacinal pelo leite materno.

  10. Lesões traumáticas de pele causadas pelos espinhos de Mimosa pudica e Mimosa debilis em equídeos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra S. Belo Reis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizadas pesquisas sobre a natureza e causa de lesões de pele em equídeos em uma propriedade no município de Castanhal, região Nordeste do Estado do Pará. Foram realizadas visitas técnicas, estudos epidemiológicos, coletas de sangue, biópsias de pele afetada e a inspeção da pastagem. O estudo incluiu 25 equídeos, dos quais 14 machos e 11 fêmeas, de seis meses e oito anos de idade. Os animais apresentaram lesões ulcerativas, de bordos irregulares, na cabeça (narinas, focinho, lábios superiores e inferiores e chanfro, na cavidade oral (vestíbulo bucal e gengiva e nos membros (boletos, metacarpos e metatarsos e articulação escápulo-umeral. No exame histopatológico foram observados focos de erosões cutâneas, caracterizados por perda e necrose da epiderme, com espongiose, degeneração vesicular da epiderme remanescente e leve infiltrado inflamatório na derme subjacente, constituído predominantemente por macrófagos e, em menor grau, eosinófilos. Na inspeção da pastagem, constituída de Brachiaria humidicola, foi constatada grande invasão de duas plantas providas de espinhos, Mimosa pudica e Mimosa debilis, ambas da família Leg. Mimosoideae. Concluiu-se, que as lesões de pele foram causadas pela ação traumática dos espinhos de Mimosa pudica e Mimosa debilis.

  11. Vigilancia de diarreas por rotavirus en hospitales centinelas, Chile 2006-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Tito, Janepsy

    2010-01-01

    La infección por rotavirus es una de las más importantes causas de diarrea moderada a grave en niños menores de cinco años en todo el mundo. En Chile, la enteritis por rotavirus ha ido en aumento con el transcurso de los años. En el periodo de enero a diciembre de 2006-2008, se condujo una investigación operacional, con el propósito de desarrollar una estrategia de vigilancia que permitiera la caracterización integral de las diarreas causadas por rotavirus en niños chilenos menores de cinco a...

  12. Physiology and biochemistry of a lignin degrading bacterium Erwinia sp. Cu 3614

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Previous researchers have reported the isolation of a diphenylether cleaving organism, Erwinia sp., using an enrichment medium containing lignin. A copper and dinitrophenol resistant mutant of this organism, Erwinia sp. Cu3614, has also been reported. To assess the effect of copper on the growth and biochemistry of this organism, continuous cultivation was used employing an apparently optimized medium containing ethanol as carbon source. Upon increasing the concentration of copper sulfate in the medium from 5 [mu]g/ml to 10 [mu]g/ml increases in maximum specific growth rate and growth yield were seen. Also decrease in the values for doubling time and the coefficient for maintenance energy were seen. At higher levels of copper sulfate a [open quotes]non competitive[close quotes] inhibition of growth was seen as indicated by the values calculated for substrate affinity constant, and inhibition constant. To assess this organism's ligninolytic ability, an assay for residual lignin was developed. The assay measured a reaction between diazotized sulfanilic acid and lignin in alkaline solution by spectrophotometric monitoring of the resulting adduct. Use of this technique indicated that Erwinia sp. Cu3614 could degrade up to 80% of lignin in batch cultures. Further evidence about the ligninolytic ability of this organism was provided by examination of electron micrographs of lignocellulosic substrates incubated with cell suspensions. An assay for monitoring diphenylether cleaving abilities was also developed using resazurin, a redox dye. In vivo assays with cells obtained from continuous culture studies indicated a linear relationship between the rates of reaction with resazurin and the amount of copper associated with cells. In vitro assays, employing cell free extracts and resazurin, were used to obtain a fraction enriched in diphenylether cleaving activity by a heat treatment procedure.

  13. Evaluation of Susceptibility of Different Pear Hybrid Populations to Fire Blight (Erwinia amylovora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin EVRENOSOĞLU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight disease caused by pathogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is the serious disease of pear, and there is not a certain chemical management against this disease except antibiotic-type compounds such as streptomycin. It is very important to improve new fire blight resistant cultivars in case of integrated disease management. With this purpose, different crosses have been made between Pyrus communis varieties that have good fruit characteristics and resistant cultigens. Besides, self and open pollination treatments have been carried out in maternal plants. The disease resistance level of the hybrids obtained from these combinations was determined by artificial inoculations by Erwinia amylovora in greenhouse conditions. A total of 3284 hybrids were inoculated, and 2631 of them survived and were distributed to different susceptibility classes. 19.88% of the inoculated hybrids was killed by Erwinia amylovora. Total distribution of the hybrids to susceptibility classes was as 6.18% in class “A- slightly susceptible”, 3.11% in class “B- less susceptible”, 8.89% in class “C- mid-susceptible”, 20.28% in class “D- susceptible”, and 61.54% in class “E- very susceptible”. Majority of class “A- slightly susceptible” hybrids were obtained from ‘Magness’ x ‘Ankara’ combination. ‘Kieffer’ x ‘Santa Maria’, ‘Kieffer’ open pollination, ‘Magness’ x ‘Akça’, ‘Magness’ x ‘Kieffer’, ‘Magness’ x ‘Santa Maria’, ‘Mustafa Bey’ x ‘Moonglow’ treatments displayed good results with respect to “A- slightly susceptible” character. It is very important to evaluate these hybrid pear populations through different fruit and tree characteristics in the future.

  14. Erwinia asparaginase achieves therapeutic activity after pegaspargase allergy: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Wanda L; Asselin, Barbara; Supko, Jeffrey G; Devidas, Meenakshi; Kaiser, Nicole A; Plourde, Paul; Winick, Naomi J; Reaman, Gregory H; Raetz, Elizabeth; Carroll, William L; Hunger, Stephen P

    2013-07-25

    AALL07P2 evaluated whether substitution of Erwinia asparaginase 25000 IU/m(2) for 6 doses given intramuscularly Monday/Wednesday/Friday (M/W/F) to children and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and clinical allergy to pegaspargase would provide a 48-hour nadir serum asparaginase activity (NSAA) ≥ 0.10 IU/mL. AALL07P2 enrolled 55 eligible/evaluable patients. NSAA ≥ 0.1 IU/mL was achieved in 38 of 41 patients (92.7%) with acceptable samples 48 hours and in 38 of 43 patients (88.4%) 72 hours after dosing during course 1. Among samples obtained during all courses, 95.8% (252 of 263) of 48-hour samples and 84.5% (125 of 148) of 72-hour samples had NSAA ≥ 0.10-IU/mL. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by fitting the serum asparaginase activity-time course for all 6 doses given during course 1 to a 1-compartment open model with first order absorption. Erwinia asparaginase administered with this schedule achieved therapeutic NSAA at both 48 and 72 hours and was well tolerated with no reports of hemorrhage, thrombosis, or death, and few cases of grade 2 to 3 allergic reaction (n = 6), grade 1 to 3 hyperglycemia (n = 6), or grade 1 pancreatitis (n = 1). Following allergy to pegaspargase, Erwinia asparaginase 25000 IU/m(2) × 6 intramuscularly M/W/F can be substituted for a single dose of pegaspargase.

  15. Infección por toxoplasma: panorama actual

    OpenAIRE

    Palmezano Díaz, Jorge Mario; Plazas Rey, Lisette Katherine; Rojas Carvajal, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Tema y alcance: este artículo pretende ofrecer al lector una mirada general sobre la toxoplasmosis, una zoonosis causada por Toxoplasma gondii, que afecta tanto a los hospederos intermediarios, como a los definitivos; buscamos que pueda entenderse la dinámica de la enfermedad, dejando de lado ciertos mitos sobre esta. Características: los félidos (Felidae) son los hospederos definitivos, entre los cuales encontramos a los gatos como los más cercanos al ser humano, que desarrollan la forma sex...

  16. The influence of plant extracts on growth of Erwinia amylovora - the causal agent of fire blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Krupiński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol and water extracts obtained on Soxhlet apparatus from various organs and parts (leaves, flowers, shoots, onion, bark, fruit of 30 herbal and woody plants species were tested for growth inhibition of Erwinia amylovora using agar diffusion method. Active extracts were found in 23 plant species but in 13 ofthem it was found for the first time. The highest diameter of growth inhibition zone of this bacterium was caused by extracts from Aloe arborescens, Juglans regia, Rhus typhina, Salvia offici nalis and Satureja hortensis. In almost all cases ethanol appeared to be a better solvent of active plant substances against E.amylovora than water.

  17. Biology of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora in oligotrophic environments: survival responses and virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Santander, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Erwinia amylovora es una bacteria fitopatógena de la familia Enterobacteriaceae, responsable del fuego bacteriano de las rosáceas. Los efectos destructivos de este patógeno sobre frutos, flores y prácticamente todos los órganos de las plantas hospedadoras afectadas constituyen una amenaza importante para la producción de pera y manzana, y suponen graves pérdidas económicas anuales en todo el mundo. E. amylovora está clasificada como un organismo de cuarentena en la Unión Europea y en otros pa...

  18. Bacteria of the genus Erwinia found in the spermatheca of the laurel psyllid Trioza alacris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, Daniela; Ciolfi, Silvia; Gottardo, Marco; Marri, Laura

    2014-12-01

    Psylloidea are economically important insects causing serious damage to plants by direct feeding and/or vectoring bacterial pathogens. Results reported here indicate the presence of extracellular bacteria in the spermatheca of egg-laying Trioza alacris females. One phylotype, sharing 99 % identity with the non-phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia tasmaniensis, was identified regardless of methods applied or insect sampling year and location. This is the first study, achieved by ultrastructural, cultural, and 16S rRNA gene-based analysis, of an insect spermatheca microbiota.

  19. Erwinia amylovora – the Causal Agent of Root Collar Necrosis of Apple Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Veljko Gavrilović; Svetlana Milijašević; Biljana Todorović; Svetlana Živković; Nenad Trkulja

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale outbreak of fire blight symptoms caused by Erwinia amylovora was recorded in pome fruit trees during 2007. In addition to fruit necrosis and shoot blight as the typical disease symptoms, dark purple necrosis was observed in the root collar area girdling the trunk just above the ground and thus withering the whole apple tree. Since similar symptoms on apple trees could be caused by E. amylovora or one of several phytopathogenic fungi of the genera Phomopsis and Phytophthora, an i...

  20. Identification of genes differentially expressed during interaction of resistant and susceptible apple cultivars (Malus x domestica) with Erwinia amylovora

    Science.gov (United States)

    The necrogenic enterobacterium, Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of the fire blight (FB) disease in many Rosaceae species, including apple and pear. During the infection process, the bacteria induce an oxidative stress response with kinetics similar to those induced in an incompatible bacteria-...

  1. Apple (Malus x domestica) transcriptome in response to the compatible pathogen Erwinia amylovora and the incompatible pathogen Pseudomonas syringae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infiltration of Erwinia amylovora (Ea) into host leaves induces an oxidative burst similar to that observed during incompatible reactions associated with Hypersensitive Response (HR). However, the subsequent progressive development of necrosis in apple and other hosts is unlike an incompatible reac...

  2. TRANSGENIC EXPRESSION OF THE ERWINIA AMYLOVORA (FIRE BLIGHT) EFFECTOR PROTEIN EOP1 SUPRESSES HOST BASAL DEFENSE MECHANISMS IN MALUS (APPLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwinia amylovora (Ea) is the causative agent of fire blight, a devastating disease of apple and pear. Like many other plant and animal bacterial pathogens Ea utilizes a type three secretion system (TTSS) to deliver effector proteins into plant host cells. Once inside the host cell, effector protei...

  3. Prevalence of Candidatus Erwinia dacicola in wild and laboratory olive fruit fly populations and across developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Anne M; Hearn, David J; Burrack, Hannah J; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Pierson, Elizabeth A

    2012-04-01

    The microbiome of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), a worldwide pest of olives (Olea europaea L.), has been examined for >100 yr as part of efforts to identify bacteria that are plant pathogens vectored by the fly or are beneficial endosymbionts essential for the fly's survival and thus targets for possible biological control. Because tephritid fruit flies feed on free-living bacteria in their environment, distinguishing between the transient, acquired bacteria of their diet and persistent, resident bacteria that are vertically transmitted endosymbionts is difficult. Several culture-dependent and -independent studies have identified a diversity of species in the olive fruit fly microbiome, but they have not distinguished the roles of the microbes. Candidatus Erwinia dacicola, has been proposed to be a coevolved endosymbiont of the olive fruit fly; however, this was based on limited samples from two Italian populations. Our study shows that C. Erwinia dacicola was present in all New and Old World populations and in the majority of individuals of all life stages sampled in 2 yr. Olive fruit flies reared on olives in the laboratory had frequencies of C. Erwinia dacicola similar to that of wild populations; however, flies reared on artificial diets containing antibiotics in the laboratory rarely had the endosymbiont. The relative abundance of C. Erwinia dacicola varied across development stages, being most abundant in ovipositing females and larvae. This uniform presence of C. Erwini dacicola suggests that it is a persistent, resident endosymbiont of the olive fruit fly.

  4. Conductrimetric detection of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar pisi in pea seeds and soft rot Erwinia spp. on potato tubers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraaije, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Pea bacterial blight and potato blackleg are diseases caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi ( Psp ) and soft rot Erwinia spp., respectively. The primary source of inoculum for these bacteria is contaminated plant propagation material, i.e. pea seeds and potato tubers. One of the best ways to contr

  5. Genetics of biosynthesis and structure of the capsular exopolysaccharide from the Asian pear pathogen Erwinia pyrifoliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Sik; Schollmeyer, Martin; Nimtz, Manfred; Wray, Victor; Geider, Klaus

    2002-12-01

    Erwinia pyrifoliae is a novel bacterial pathogen, which causes Asian pear blight and is related to Erwinia amylovora, the causative agent of fire blight. E. pyrifoliae produces exopolysaccharide (EPS) related to amylovoran in its sugar composition and sugar linkages. This was shown by degradation of the EPS with a viral depolymerase, and by methylation analysis and ESI/MS. The structure of the repeating units was confirmed by (1)H-NMR spectra. The EPS of E. pyrifoliae carried side chains, which were mainly terminated by acetyl and pyruvyl residues as found previously for amylovoran. On the other hand, a second side chain with glucose found for up to 65% of the repeating units of amylovoran was completely absent. The nucleotide sequences of five genes of the cps cluster of E. pyrifoliae encoding proteins for EPS synthesis were characterized and displayed a high homology with the corresponding ams genes. Similar functions of the gene products are assumed. As for ams mutants of E. amylovora, a cpsB mutant of E. pyrifoliae did not synthesize EPS and did not produce ooze on slices of immature pears or symptoms on pear seedlings. The cps mutant was complemented for EPS synthesis and virulence on pear slices with a gene cluster of E. amylovora that included amsB.

  6. Molecular detection of Erwinia psidii in guava plants under greenhouse and field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudênia Ferreira da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Erwinia psidii causes bacterial blight of guava ( Psidium guajava , an important disease of this crop in Brazil. The pathogen affects branches and twigs of guava trees, reducing yield significantly. Bacterial dissemination often occurs through contaminated but asymptomatic propagating plant material. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the use of BIO-PCR and conventional PCR to detect E. psidii in inoculated guava plants grown in a greenhouse and in symptomatic and asymptomatic trees from guava orchards. Erwinia psidii strain IBSBF 1576 was inoculated (107CFU mL-1 into young guava shoots and plant tissue was analysed at 0, 5, 10, and 15 days after inoculation. Symptoms were observed after 5 days and all inoculated shoots were PCR positive at all times, by both BIO-PCR and conventional PCR. Under natural infection conditions, 40 samples were tested by BIO-PCR from each of three guava orchards, 20 showing symptoms and 20 asymptomatic. PCR was positive for 58 out of 60 symptomatic samples (96.7% and for 6.7% of asymptomatic samples, showing that the method can be used to detect the pathogen at early stages of infection. This PCR method may be used as a diagnostic tool to assess bacterial survival, dissemination and disease outbreaks.

  7. Preliminary results on the ability of pentatomidae to transfer fire blight Erwinia amylovora under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peusens, G; Schoofs, H; Deckers, T; Belien, T

    2013-01-01

    With their piercing-sucking mouthparts stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), a major pest in especially organic orchards, create wounds in fruit of pear trees. As Erwinia amylovora (Burrill, Winslow et al.), a wide spread bacterial disease affecting many rosaceous plants including pome fruit trees and hawthorn, enters through openings in flowers, leaves, shoots and fruit, feeding punctures caused by these bugs might be inoculated with Erwinia bacteria. In order to investigate the ability of the bugs Pentotoma rufipes L. and Polomena prasina L. to transmit fire blight, insects were caught in an organically managed orchard without fire blight, brought into contact with artificially inoculated immature pear fruit/slices and transferred to healthy, mechanically wounded pear fruit/slices. After an incubation period potential transmission of bacteria was examined by evaluation of symptom expression (necrosis, ooze production). To assess the presence of bacteria on the exoskeleton of the tested bugs, all bugs were forced to walk on a semiselective nutrient agar medium. In another experiment the viability of Ea on the exoskeleton was tested -after previous contact with ooze- through washing and plating of the wash water. All experiments were conducted under optimal climatological conditions and according to quarantine standards. Results demonstrated the ability of stink bugs to transfer E. amylovora to fruit and the viability of bacteria on stink bugs externally - both under lab conditions.

  8. A prospective study on drug monitoring of PEGasparaginase and Erwinia asparaginase and asparaginase antibodies in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wing H; Pieters, Rob; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; te Loo, D Maroeska W M; Bierings, Marc B; van den Bos, Cor; Kollen, Wouter J W; Hop, Wim C J; Lanvers-Kaminsky, Claudia; Relling, Mary V; Tissing, Wim J E; van der Sluis, Inge M

    2014-03-27

    This study prospectively analyzed the efficacy of very prolonged courses of pegylated Escherichia coli asparaginase (PEGasparaginase) and Erwinia asparaginase in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. Patients received 15 PEGasparaginase infusions (2500 IU/m(2) every 2 weeks) in intensification after receiving native E coli asparaginase in induction. In case of allergy to or silent inactivation of PEGasparaginase, Erwinia asparaginase (20 000 IU/m(2) 2-3 times weekly) was given. Eighty-nine patients were enrolled in the PEGasparaginase study. Twenty (22%) of the PEGasparaginase-treated patients developed an allergy; 7 (8%) showed silent inactivation. The PEGasparaginase level was 0 in all allergic patients (grade 1-4). Patients without hypersensitivity to PEGasparaginase had serum mean trough levels of 899 U/L. Fifty-nine patients were included in the Erwinia asparaginase study; 2 (3%) developed an allergy and none silent inactivation. Ninety-six percent had at least 1 trough level ≥100 U/L. The serum asparagine level was not always completely depleted with Erwinia asparaginase in contrast to PEGasparaginase. The presence of asparaginase antibodies was related to allergies and silent inactivation, but with low specificity (64%). Use of native E coli asparaginase in induction leads to high hypersensitivity rates to PEGasparaginase in intensification. Therefore, PEGasparaginase should be used upfront in induction, and we suggest that the dose could be lowered. Switching to Erwinia asparaginase leads to effective asparaginase levels in most patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring has been added to our ALL-11 protocol to individualize asparaginase therapy.

  9. Produção de isomaltulose a partir da transformação enzimática da sacarose, utilizando-se Erwinia sp D12 imobilizada com alginato de cálcio Production of isomaltulose from enzymatic transformation of sucrose, using Erwinia sp D12 immobilized with calcium alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Leite Moraes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A glicosiltransferase de Erwinia sp D12 é capaz de converter a sacarose em isomaltulose (6-o-alfa-glicopiranosil D-frutofuranose, um açúcar alternativo que apresenta baixo potencial cariogênico, e que pode ser utilizado em chocolates, gomas de mascar e balas. A isomaltulose é também utilizada na produção de isomalte, uma mistura de açúcar álcool, de baixo valor calórico e baixo potencial cariogênico. No estudo da influência dos componentes do meio de cultivo, na produção de glicosiltransferase, em frascos agitados, foi obtido maior atividade da enzima (12,8 unidades de atividade/mL do meio de cultura em meio de cultura A constituído de melaço 12% (p/v de sólidos solúveis totais, peptona 4% (p/v e extrato de carne 0,4% (p/v. No estudo do efeito do tempo e da temperatura na fermentação da linhagem de Erwinia sp D12, em fermentador New Brunswick de 3L, contendo meio de cultura A, foi obtida maior atividade de glicosiltransferase (15,6 unidades de atividade/ mL de meio de cultura na fase exponencial de crescimento após 8 horas de fermentação a 30ºC. Na produção de isomaltulose a partir da sacarose utilizando-se células de Erwinia sp D12 imobilizadas em alginato de cálcio, estudou-se o efeito da temperatura (25 - 35ºC e da concentração de substrato (12,5 - 60% p/v. Foi obtido um rendimento em torno de 50% de isomaltulose, com soluções de sacarose entre 20-30% (p/v a 35ºC. Concentrações em excesso de sacarose (ao redor de 40% p/v afetaram a atividade da célula imobilizada, diminuindo a conversão de sacarose em isomaltulose. O xarope de isomaltulose foi purificado através de cromatografia de troca iônica e o eluato cristalizado por abaixamento de temperatura. Os cristais apresentaram 91,39% de isomaltulose.The glucosyltransferase of Erwinia sp D12 is able to convert sucrose into isomaltulose (6-0-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-D-fructofuranose, an alternative sugar which presents low cariogenic potential, and can be

  10. Phylogenetic position and virulence apparatus of the pear flower necrosis pathogen Erwinia piriflorinigrans CFBP 5888T as assessed by comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Theo H M; Rezzonico, Fabio; López, María M; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Frey, Jürg E; Duffy, Brion

    2013-10-01

    Erwinia piriflorinigrans is a necrotrophic pathogen of pear reported from Spain that destroys flowers but does not progress further into the host. We sequenced the complete genome of the type strain CFBP 5888(T) clarifying its phylogenetic position within the genus Erwinia, and indicating a position between its closest relative, the epiphyte Erwinia tasmaniensis and other plant pathogenic Erwinia spp. (i.e., the fire blight pathogen E. amylovora and the Asian pear pathogen E. pyrifoliae). Common features are the type III and type VI secretion systems, amylovoran biosynthesis and desferrioxamine production. The E. piriflorinigrans genome also provided the first evidence for production of the siderophore chrysobactin within the genus Erwinia sensu stricto, which up to now was mostly associated with phytopathogenic, soft-rot Dickeya and Pectobacterium species. Plasmid pEPIR37, reported in this strain, is closely related to small plasmids found in the fire blight pathogen E. amylovora and E. pyrifoliae. The genome of E. piriflorinigrans also gives detailed insights in evolutionary genomics of pathoadapted Erwinia.

  11. Sialoadenitis purulenta submaxilar producida por cuerpo extraño en el conducto de Wharton.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Una causa frecuente de infección crónica de la glándula submaxilar es la obstrucción de su  conducto excretor que puede ser causada por litiasis, tapones de moco o a por la presencia de un cuerpo extraño. En las tres circunstancias se desarrollan cuadros de inflamación crónica del conducto (sialodoquitis) y de la glándula (sialoadenitis). Los estudios de imágenes radiográficas adecuadas son de gran utilidad para el diagnóstico, puesto que revelan el elemento obstructivo.La presencia dentro de...

  12. CARACTERIZACIÓN NO DESTRUCTIVA DEL ENDURECIMIENTO POR PRECIPITACIÓN DE UN ACERO 17-4PH

    OpenAIRE

    García Pérez, Ivan Xicotencatl

    2012-01-01

    El acero endurecible por precipitación 17-4 PH ha sido usado ampliamente, debido a que presenta una combinación balanceada de propiedades mecánicas y una buena resistencia a la corrosión. La temperatura de trabajo de este acero está por debajo de los 390 ̊C. Existe una gran preocupación en la industria ya que después de una exposición prolongada a esta temperatura, presentan degradación de sus propiedades, causada por envejecimiento. Los ensayos no destructivos ofrecen gran ...

  13. DETERMINACION DEL ORIGEN Y MECANISMO DE CONTAMINACION POR METALES Y METALOIDES EN LOS SUELOS DEL VALLE DE PUCHUNCAVÍ (Chile)

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Vargas, Sonnia MarbelL

    2013-01-01

    El impacto ambiental que sobre el suelo está ejerciendo el hombre ha originado que su contaminación sea uno de los problemas medio ambientales que está recibiendo una constante atención en los últimos años. La contaminación del suelo en Chile ha sido causada principalmente por elementos traza que emiten diversas actividades industriales, los cuales pueden contaminar al suelo por vía aérea a través de la deposición de material particulado de diferente granulometría y por emisiones gaseosas....

  14. Non-conventional possibilities of protection of apple and pear against fire blight (Erwinia amylovora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Sobiczewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Standard program of plant protection against fire blight consists of use of management practices and chemical control method. Recently a new, non-conventional possibilities based on application of biocontrol agents (two biopreparations have been already introduced into practice: Bliteban A506 (Pseudomonas fluorescens and BlossomBless (Pantoea agglomerans, plant extracts active against Erwinia amylovora (AkseBio containing extracts from Thymbra spicata and Biomit Plussz with extracts from various plant species and microelements and resistance inducers (Regalis, Bion and plant extracts are of great interest. Also plant transformation with resistance genes such as: hrpN (harpin, dpo (EPS depolymerase and lytic protein genes (attacin E, cecropin SB-37, T4 lysozyme is a promising perspective.

  15. Localization of transposon insertions in pathogenicity mutants of Erwinia amylovora and their biochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellemann, P; Geider, K

    1992-05-01

    Transposon Tn5, on a mobilizable ColE1 plasmid, on a Ti plasmid derepressed for bacterial transfer, and on the bacteriophage fd genome, was used to construct pathogenicity mutants of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Eleven nonpathogenic mutants were isolated from 1600 independent mutants screened. These mutants were divided into three types: auxotrophs, exopolysaccharide (EPS)-deficient mutants and a mutant of the dsp phenotype. According to their insertion sites the Tn5 mutants were mapped into several classes. Some of the mutants could be complemented with cosmid clones from a genomic library of the parent strain for EPS production on minimal agar. EPS-deficient mutants and the dsp mutant could complement each other to produce virulence symptoms on pear slices.

  16. Structure of amylovoran, the capsular exopolysaccharide from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimtz, M; Mort, A; Domke, T; Wray, V; Zhang, Y; Qiu, F; Coplin, D; Geider, K

    1996-06-01

    The acidic exopolysaccharide (EPS) of Erwinia amylovora, amylovoran, was purified from culture supernatants of bacteria in minimal medium and cleaved chemically either by treatment with trifluoracetic acid or hydrofluoric acid, and enzymatically by digestion with depolymerase from E. amylovora phage phi-Ealh. Structural characterization of the resulting oligosaccharides was performed by a combination of mass spectrometric and NMR [one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D)] spectroscopic techniques. A branched repeating unit with five monosaccharide residues and various substituents was determined: [sequence: see text] The terminal monosaccharide of the side branch, which bears a 4,6-bound pyruvate residue in the R-configuration, was found to be modified with 2-linked (26%), 3-linked (24%), 2-,3-linked (40%) O-acetyl groups, or these were absent (10%). An additional glucose residue is linked to approximately 10% of the core alpha-galactose of the repeating unit.

  17. Simplification of vacuole structure during plant cell death triggered by culture filtrates of Erwinia carotovora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumi Hirakawa; Toshihisa Nomura; Seiichiro Hasezawa; Takumi Higaki

    2015-01-01

    Vacuoles are suggested to play crucial roles in plant defense-related cel death. During programmed cel death, previous live cel imaging studies have observed vacuoles to become simpler in structure and have implicated this simplification as a prelude to the vacuole’s rupture and consequent lysis of the plasma membrane. Here, we examined dynamics of the vacuole in cel cycle-synchronized tobacco BY-2 (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yel ow 2) cel s during cel death induced by application of culture filtrates of Erwinia carotovora. The filtrate induced death in about 90%of the cel s by 24 h. Prior to cel death, vacuole shape simplified and endoplasmic actin filaments disassembled;however, the vacuoles did not rupture until after plasma membrane integrity was lost. Instead of facilitating rupture, the simplification of vacuole structure might play a role in the retrieval of membrane components needed for defense-related cel death.

  18. Reactive oxygen species activity in the interaction of rice with Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiongguang LIU; Landi HE; Jingyi ZHANG; Yutao WANG; Zhenzhong WANG

    2008-01-01

    Activities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated in the interaction between rice and Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae. Results showed that variety (128) had higher increases in activity compared to those in the susceptible variety (Texian 13) 24 hours after bacteria inoculation. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased in 128 and Texian 13 twenty-four hours after inoculation and then decreased, but the SOD activity in 128 was found to be usually lower than that in Texian 13. The CAT activity in Texian 13 had two peaks at 24 h and 96 h after inoculation, while little change was seen in 128. In conclusion, ROS and its related enzymes could be correlated to rice resistance against E. chrysanthemi pv. zeae.

  19. High-throughput screening of Erwinia chrysanthemi pectin methylesterase variants using carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Jens; Sørensen, Iben; Derkx, Patrick;

    2009-01-01

    Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) catalyse the removal of methyl esters from the homogalacturonan (HG) backbone domain of pectin, a ubiquitous polysaccharide in plant cell walls. The degree of methyl esterification (DE) impacts upon the functional properties of HG within cell walls and plants produce...... numerous PMEs that act upon HG in muro. Many microbial plant pathogens also produce PMEs, the activity of which renders HG more susceptible to cleavage by pectin lyase and polygalacturonase enzymes and hence aids cell wall degradation. We have developed a novel microarray-based approach to investigate...... the activity of a series of variant enzymes based on the PME from the important pathogen Erwinia chrysanthemi. A library of 99 E. chrysanthemi PME mutants was created in which seven amino acids were altered by various different substitutions. Each mutant PME was incubated with a highly methyl esterified lime...

  20. Cyclic Di-GMP modulates the disease progression of Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Adam C; Castiblanco, Luisa F; Sundin, George W; Waters, Christopher M

    2013-05-01

    The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a nearly ubiquitous intracellular signal molecule known to regulate various cellular processes, including biofilm formation, motility, and virulence. The intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP is inversely governed by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes and phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes, which synthesize and degrade c-di-GMP, respectively. The role of c-di-GMP in the plant pathogen and causal agent of fire blight disease Erwinia amylovora has not been studied previously. Here we demonstrate that three of the five predicted DGC genes in E. amylovora (edc genes, for Erwinia diguanylate cyclase), edcA, edcC, and edcE, are active diguanylate cyclases. We show that c-di-GMP positively regulates the secretion of the main exopolysaccharide in E. amylovora, amylovoran, leading to increased biofilm formation, and negatively regulates flagellar swimming motility. Although amylovoran secretion and biofilm formation are important for the colonization of plant xylem tissues and the development of systemic infections, deletion of the two biofilm-promoting DGCs increased tissue necrosis in an immature-pear infection assay and an apple shoot infection model, suggesting that c-di-GMP negatively regulates virulence. In addition, c-di-GMP inhibited the expression of hrpA, a gene encoding the major structural component of the type III secretion pilus. Our results are the first to describe a role for c-di-GMP in E. amylovora and suggest that downregulation of motility and type III secretion by c-di-GMP during infection plays a key role in the coordination of pathogenesis.

  1. Erwinia typographi sp. nov., isolated from bark beetle (Ips typographus) gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrodenyte-Arbaciauskiene, V; Radziute, S; Stunzenas, V; Būda, V

    2012-04-01

    Gram-negative-staining bacteria that were resistant to monoterpene myrcene (7-methyl-3-methylene-1.6-octadiene, C10H16, at concentrations of up to 10 µl ml(-1) in TSB) were isolated from the gut contents of adult bark beetles Ips typographus (Coleoptera, Scolytidae). The beetles were collected from the bark of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in Lithuania. Bark beetles feed on conifers, which produce myrcene among many other defensive compounds. It has been suggested that the micro-organisms present within the beetles' guts could be involved in their resistance towards this plant defensive compound. The most resistant bacterial strains were isolated and characterized by phenotypic assays as well as fatty acid analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) based on the rpoB, atpD and infB genes and DNA-DNA hybridization. Biochemical characterization indicated that the bacteria belonged to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequences and MLSA of the novel strains revealed that they belonged to the genus Erwinia, but represented a novel species. The dominant cellular fatty acids were C16:0 and C17:0 cyclo. The DNA G+C content was 49.1 mol%. The results obtained in this study indicated that these bacteria from the bark beetle gut represented a novel species, for which the name Erwinia typographi sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain DSM 22678T (=Y1T=LMG 25347T).

  2. Erwinia amylovora pyrC mutant causes fire blight despite pyrimidine auxotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, L S; Sinn, J P; Lehman, B L; Pfeufer, E E; Peter, K A; McNellis, T W

    2015-06-01

    Erwinia amylovora bacteria cause fire blight disease, which affects apple and pear production worldwide. The Erw. amylovora pyrC gene encodes a predicted dihydroorotase enzyme involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Here, we discovered that the Erw. amylovora pyrC244::Tn5 mutant was a uracil auxotroph. Unexpectedly, the Erw. amylovora pyrC244::Tn5 mutant grew as well as the wild-type in detached immature apple and pear fruits. Fire blight symptoms caused by the pyrC244::Tn5 mutant in immature apple and pear fruits were attenuated compared to those caused by the wild-type. The pyrC244::Tn5 mutant also caused severe fire blight symptoms in apple tree shoots. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type pyrC gene restored prototrophy and symptom induction in apple and pear fruit to the pyrC244::Tn5 mutant. These results suggest that Erw. amylovora can obtain sufficient pyrimidine from the host to support bacterial growth and fire blight disease development, although de novo pyrimidine synthesis by Erw. amylovora is required for full symptom development in fruits. Significance and impact of the study: This study provides information about the fire blight host-pathogen interaction. Although the Erwinia amylovora pyrC mutant was strictly auxotrophic for pyrimidine, it grew as well as the wild-type in immature pear and apple fruits and caused severe fire blight disease in apple trees. This suggests that Erw. amylovora can obtain sufficient pyrimidines from host tissue to support growth and fire blight disease development. This situation contrasts with findings in some human bacterial pathogens, which require de novo pyrimidine synthesis for growth in host blood, for example.

  3. 菊欧文氏菌分子检测技术的研究%Molecular detection of Erwinia chrysanthemi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 黄国明; 刘勇; 崔铁军

    2007-01-01

    蝴蝶兰细菌性软腐病对蝴蝶兰的生长危害严重,Erwinia chrysanthemi(菊欧文氏菌)、Erwinia carotovora subsp.carotovora(胡萝卜软腐欧文氏菌胡萝卜软腐亚种)是引起蝴蝶兰软腐病的主要病原细菌,其中E. chrysanthemi被列入我国三类检疫性有害生物.本文对菊欧文氏菌分子检测技术进行了研究,设计出针对该病原细菌的特异性引物,应用实时荧光PCR方法检测样品中存在的菊欧文氏菌,检测灵敏度达到102 cfu/mL.

  4. Biosynthesis of the antimetabolite 6-thioguanine in Erwinia amylovora plays a key role in fire blight pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sébastien; Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Litomska, Agnieszka; Richter, Klaus; Beerhues, Ludger; Hertweck, Christian

    2013-09-27

    Sulfur for fire: The molecular basis for the biosynthesis of the antimetabolite 6-thioguanine (6TG) was unveiled in Erwinia amylovora, the causative agent of fire blight. Bioinformatics, heterologous pathway reconstitution in E. coli, and mutational analyses indicate that the protein YcfA mediates guanine thionation in analogy to 2-thiouridylase. Assays in planta and in cell cultures reveal for the first time a crucial role of 6TG in fire blight pathogenesis.

  5. Prevalence of Erwinia soft rot affecting cut foliage, Dracaena sanderiana ornamental industry and solution towards its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayalvily, Thio Desiya; Jegathambigai, V; Karunarathne, M D S D; Svinningen, Arne; Mikunthan, G

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried out under net house conditions at Green Farms Ltd, Marawila to determine the occurrence and severity of Erwinia soft rot disease in Dracaena sanderiana plants and to formulate the possible control measures. Field experiment was carried out to manage the soft rot disease in D. sanderiana plants. Three different soil treatments with vermicompost, cow dung and poultry manure were tested to manage the disease and plots without application were kept as control. Percent disease incidence, disease reduction and growth parameters were recorded and data were statistically analyzed. Higher percentage of disease reduction was observed in vermicompost (80%) treated plots than those with cow dung (60%) and poultry manure treated. Sprinkler application of water was found favorable to spread soft rot disease and watering through horse pope had lessened the disease incidence significantly. Moreover plant height, shoot and root biomass, number of leaves per plant, leaf length and leaf width were significantly high in vermicompost media. Weeding, removal of diseased leaves and plants, and avoiding sprinkler irrigation were helpful to reduce the disease spread from plant to plant. Vermicompost is the best substrate for suppression of the disease and promoting the growth of plant. Among the different water management practices tested to reduce the disease severity of Erwinia soft rot disease in D. sanderiana plants, water irrigated through the horse pipe was effective compare to sprinkler application. In-vitro experiment conducted to manage the Erwinia soft rot disease by using bio-agent, Pseudomonas fluorescens was found effective to reduce the growth of Erwinia under in-vitro conditions.

  6. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity of Erwinia spp. associated with pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.] and papaya (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Kogeethavani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Erwinia species are well-known pathogens of economic importance in Malaysia causing serious damage to high-value fruit crops that include pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.] and papaya (Carica papaya L..The 16S rRNA sequence using eubacteria fD1 and rP2 primers, identified two bacteria species; Dickeya zeae from pineapple heart rot, and Erwinia mallotivora from papaya dieback. Phylogenetic analysis based on the neighbor-joining method indicated that all the bacterial isolates clustered in their own taxa and formed monophyletic clades. From the pathogenicity test, all isolates of D. zeae and E. mallotivora showed pathogenic reactions on their respective host plants. Genetic variability of these isolates was assessed using repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR fingerprinting. The results indicated interspecies, and intraspecies variation in both species’ isolates. There were more polymorphic bands shown by rep-PCR fingerprints than enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC and BOX- PCRs, however both species’ isolates produced distinguishable banding patterns. Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA cluster analysis indicated that all Dickeya and Erwinia isolates from the same species were grouped in the same main cluster. Similarity among the isolates ranged from 77 to 99%. Sequencing of 16S rRNA using eubacteria fD1 and rP2 primers, and rep-PCR fingerprinting revealed diversity among Dickeya and Erwinia isolates. But this method appears to be reliable for discriminating isolates from pineapple heart rot and papaya dieback.

  7. Identification and genetics of 6-thioguanine secreted by Erwinia species and its interference with the growth of other bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensing, A; Gernold, M; Jock, S; Jansen, R; Geider, K

    2014-04-01

    We identified a compound in culture supernatants of Erwinia species, such as Erwinia amylovora, E. pyrifoliae, E. billingiae, E. tasmaniensis, E. persicina and E. rhapontici absorbing at 340 nm, which was associated before with the yellow pigment produced by E. amylovora on media containing copper ions. The compound was purified from E. tasmaniensis strain Et1/99 supernatants by chromatography on Dowex-1 and Dowex-50 columns and identified by HPLC/MS and NMR analysis as 6-thioguanine (6TG). Its signal at 167 Da matched with the expected molecular mass. By random mutagenesis with miniTn5, we obtained mutants defective in the genes for pyrimidine and purine metabolism. A specific gene cluster with ycf genes described by us before, absent in the corresponding region of Escherichia coli, was identified in the genome sequence of three Erwinia species and named tgs region for thioguanine synthesis. Clones of the tgs gene cluster promoted 6TG synthesis and secretion in E. coli, when the bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with amino acids. 6TG was bacteriostatic for E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium strains, with cell growth resumed after prolonged incubation. Similar results were obtained with P. agglomerans strains. Bacteria from the genus Pectobacterium were barely and Rahnella or Gibbsiella species were not inhibited by 6TG. Adenine and guanine relieved the toxic effect of 6TG on E. coli. Non-producing strains were fully virulent on host plants. 6TG synthesis may help erwinias to interfere with growth of some microorganisms in the environment.

  8. Duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction reveals competition between Erwinia amylovora and E. pyrifoliae on pear blossoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Susan M; Kim, Won-Sik; Castle, Alan J; Svircev, Antonet M

    2008-06-01

    Erwinia amylovora and E. pyrifoliae are the causative agents of fire blight and Asian pear blight, respectively. The pathogens are closely related, with overlapping host ranges. Data are unavailable on the current distribution of E. pyrifoliae and on the interaction between the two species when they are present together on the same host. In this study, a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was developed to monitor the population dynamics of E. amylovora and E. pyrifoliae on the surface of Bartlett pear blossoms. Bacterial cells washed from blossoms were used directly as the PCR template without DNA extraction. Primers and a probe based on the E. amylovora levansucrase gene detected all E. amylovora strains. All E. pyrifoliae strains, including the Japanese Erwinia strains previously described as E. amylovora, were detected with a primer and probe combination based on the E. pyrifoliae hrpW gene. Disease development and severity were not significantly different in blossoms inoculated with individual Erwinia species or with a mixture of the two species. However, E. amylovora grew to greater population sizes than did E. pyrifoliae in both single species inoculations and in mixtures, suggesting that E. amylovora has a greater competitive fitness on Bartlett pear blossoms than E. pyrifoliae.

  9. Dermatofitose canina causada pelo fungo antropofílico Trichophyton tonsurans - Relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra de; Universidade Estadual do Ceará; Pinheiro, Adriana de Queiroz; Universidade Estadual do Ceará; Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; Universidade Estadual do Ceará; Silva, Isaac Neto Goes da; Universidade Estadual do Ceará; Moreira, Odanir Cruz; Universidade Estadual do Ceará; Silva, Bárbara Wilka Leal; Universidade Estadual do Ceará; Alencar, Érika Carvalho de; Universidade Estadual do Ceará; Leite, João Jaime Giffoni; Universidade Estadual do Ceará

    2015-01-01

    A dermatofitose é uma enfermidade cutânea de origem fúngica que merece destaque por sua elevada incidência na clínica de pequenos animais e importância na saúde animal e humana, pois pode ser transmitida do animal para o homem ou do homem para o animal. Este trabalho teve como objetivo relatar um caso de dermatofitose canina causado por uma espécie antropofílica de dermatófito, envolvendo o diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial. Uma cadela, da raça York Shire, com aproximadamente três anos de id...

  10. por valores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmín Díaz-Barrios

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La era actual se caracteriza por una búsqueda de la identidad del hombre, donde el pivote del cambio organizacional es el individuo; cambiar en este entorno depende, en gran medida, de los valores que imperen en la cultura de la organización. Este trabajo documental intenta identificar aquellos valores, condición sine-qua-non, para el logro de los objetivos de cambio y analizarlos a fin de determinar sus indicadores, con el objeto de presentar una herramienta a las organizaciones que les facilite adaptarse a los nuevos tiempos. Se encontró que los valores: Delegación, Comunicación, Colaboración, Participación y Aprendizaje, son esenciales en los cambios integrales de esta era. Se determinaron 20 indicadores de su presencia. Se concluye que con esta información cada ente puede elaborar instrumentos que le permitan saber si los valores requeridos están presentes y en caso contrario tomar decisiones que alineen a la organización alrededor de los valores humanistas planteados, incrementando así las posibilidades de éxito en el proceso de cambio y por ende, las posibilidades de supervivencia en esta nueva época.

  11. Choque séptico por ehrliquiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Hernández-de Mezerville

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available La ehrliquiosis humana es una infección zoonótica transmitida por "garrapatas duras" causada por Anaplasma sp y Ehrlichia sp. Puede presentarse como un cuadro pseudogripal con fiebre, malestar general, mialgias y cefalea o hasta un choque séptico con falla multiorgánica y muerte. La mitad de los pacientes requieren atención hospitalaria en algún momento y se reporta una mortalidad de hasta el 5% secundaria a enfermedades oportunistas o a hemorragias. El diagnóstico se puede sospechar visualizando las mórulas intracitoplasmáticas en las células afectadas en frotis de sangre periférica, y se confirma con serología, con cultivos o con detección molecular. El tratamiento de elección es la doxiciclina con buena respuesta clínica. Se reporta un caso probable de ehrliquiosis humana asociado a choque séptico y falla multiorgánica tratado exitosamente en el Hospital Dr. Rafael Angel Calderón Guardia.

  12. Identificación y cuantificación de los efectos y consecuencias de los impactos ambientales generados por la mineria de extracción de oro por lixiviación de cianuro. Caso Mineria Yanacocha SRL, en Cajamarca, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Yacoub López, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    En el proyecto realizado se ha estudiado la situación de vulnerabilidad medioambiental, específicamente del recurso hídrico, causada por la empresa Minera Yanacocha S.R.L (MYSRL) situada en la región de Cajamarca, en el Perú. La empresa minera es origen de conflictos en relación al agua, por su situación (cabecera de cuatro cuencas hidrográficas) y por la contaminación en la cantidad y calidad de sus aguas percibida por la población local. Para conocer los posibles impactos del...

  13. 梨火疫病病原菌(Erwinia amylovora)三型分泌系统的鉴别及Erwinia spp. HrpA的分析%Identification of Type Ⅲ Secration System in Erwinia amylovora and Analyse of HrpA in Erwinia spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱勃; 金谷雷; 怀雁; 谢关林

    2009-01-01

    [目的]明确梨火疫病病原菌(Erwinia amylovora)三型分泌系统(type Ⅲ secretion system,TTSS)的所在区域、相关基因及Erwiaia spp.的HrpA(hypersensitive response and pathogenicity gene A)选择压水平.[方法]利用生物信息学方法,通过BLAST程序对梨火疫病菌基因组的核苷酸数据库进行同源比对,同时对Erwiaia spp.与宿主互作的表面蛋白HrpA进行选择压分析.[结果] TTSS分析结果显示在40 kb大小的毒力岛上有27个TTSS相关基因.通过与看家基因及毒力岛上的致病性相关的重要基因HrpN的比较、选择压分析、多序列比较,发现HrpA基因处于较强的选择压作用下,且HrpA蛋白N端主要受正向选择,C端主要受净化选择.NJ法构建的HrpA系统发育树显示Erwinia spp.形成两个明显的分支,表明HrpA基因可能在种间分化后产生了不同的选择压变化.[结论]梨火疫病病原菌基因组3.14-3.18 Mb为其TTSS分布区域.该病原菌通过TTSS侵染寄主植物,在其病原菌表面有一种类鞭毛结构的TTSS蛋白HrpA,HrpA作为传输者起着将效应分子输送到宿主内部的功能,在进化上受到了较强的选择压影响.

  14. Export of the HR eliciting protein, Harpin(Es), of the maize pathogen Erwinia stewartii is species-specific but is independent of the growth temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Musharaf; Alam, Syed Sartaj; Alam, Shah; Usman, Amjad; Coplin, David L

    2007-01-01

    The extra-cellular export of the HR-eliciting protein, Harpin(Es) of the maize pathogen Erwinia stewartii was studied to find out if the protein needs any species-specific signal for its export and to determine if the export of the protein to the medium is affected in any way by the growth temperature. Based upon the experimental evidence, it was proved that the protein (i.e., Harpin(Es)) does require its own export system (species-specific) to get out of the bacterial cell and can not be exported by the export system of even the very closely related bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. It was also found that the export of Harpin(Es) is, unlike the case of Harpin(Ea) (HR-eliciting protein of Erwinia amylovora), independent of the growth temperature.

  15. Cellular, physiological, and molecular adaptive responses of Erwinia amylovora to starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander, Ricardo D; Oliver, James D; Biosca, Elena G

    2014-05-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight, a destructive disease of rosaceous plants distributed worldwide. This bacterium is a nonobligate pathogen able to survive outside the host under starvation conditions, allowing its spread by various means such as rainwater. We studied E. amylovora responses to starvation using water microcosms to mimic natural oligotrophy. Initially, survivability under optimal (28 °C) and suboptimal (20 °C) growth temperatures was compared. Starvation induced a loss of culturability much more pronounced at 28 °C than at 20 °C. Natural water microcosms at 20 °C were then used to characterize cellular, physiological, and molecular starvation responses of E. amylovora. Challenged cells developed starvation-survival and viable but nonculturable responses, reduced their size, acquired rounded shapes and developed surface vesicles. Starved cells lost motility in a few days, but a fraction retained flagella. The expression of genes related to starvation, oxidative stress, motility, pathogenicity, and virulence was detected during the entire experimental period with different regulation patterns observed during the first 24 h. Further, starved cells remained as virulent as nonstressed cells. Overall, these results provide new knowledge on the biology of E. amylovora under conditions prevailing in nature, which could contribute to a better understanding of the life cycle of this pathogen.

  16. Phylogeography and population structure of the biologically invasive phytopathogen Erwinia amylovora inferred using minisatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühlmann, Andreas; Dreo, Tanja; Rezzonico, Fabio; Pothier, Joël F; Smits, Theo H M; Ravnikar, Maja; Frey, Jürg E; Duffy, Brion

    2014-07-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes a major disease of pome fruit trees worldwide, and is regulated as a quarantine organism in many countries. While some diversity of isolates has been observed, molecular epidemiology of this bacterium is hindered by a lack of simple molecular typing techniques with sufficiently high resolution. We report a molecular typing system of E. amylovora based on variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis. Repeats in the E. amylovora genome were identified with comparative genomic tools, and VNTR markers were developed and validated. A Multiple-Locus VNTR Analysis (MLVA) was applied to E. amylovora isolates from bacterial collections representing global and regional distribution of the pathogen. Based on six repeats, MLVA allowed the distinction of 227 haplotypes among a collection of 833 isolates of worldwide origin. Three geographically separated groups were recognized among global isolates using Bayesian clustering methods. Analysis of regional outbreaks confirmed presence of diverse haplotypes but also high representation of certain haplotypes during outbreaks. MLVA analysis is a practical method for epidemiological studies of E. amylovora, identifying previously unresolved population structure within outbreaks. Knowledge of such structure can increase our understanding on how plant diseases emerge and spread over a given geographical region.

  17. Characterization of a new ViI-like Erwinia amylovora bacteriophage phiEa2809.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagonenko, Alexander L; Sadovskaya, Olga; Valentovich, Leonid N; Evtushenkov, Anatoly N

    2015-04-01

    Erwinia amylovora is a Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria causing fire blight disease in many Rosaceae species. A novel E. amylovora bacteriophage, phiEa2809, was isolated from symptomless apple leaf sample collected in Belarus. This phage was also able to infect Pantoea agglomerans strains. The genome of phiEa2809 is a double-stranded linear DNA 162,160 bp in length, including 145 ORFs and one tRNA gene. The phiEa2809 genomic sequence is similar to the genomes of the Serratia plymutica phage MAM1, Shigella phage AG-3, Dickeya phage vB DsoM LIMEstone1 and Salmonella phage ViI and lacks similarity to described E. amylovora phage genomes. Based on virion morphology (an icosahedral head, long contractile tail) and genome structure, phiEa2809 was classified as a member of Myoviridae, ViI-like bacteriophages group. PhiEa2809 is the firstly characterized ViI-like bacteriophage able to lyse E. amylovora.

  18. Cell surface attachment structures contribute to biofilm formation and xylem colonization by Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczan, Jessica M; Lenneman, Bryan R; McGrath, Molly J; Sundin, George W

    2011-10-01

    Biofilm formation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Erwinia amylovora and the systemic invasion of plant hosts. The functional role of the exopolysaccharides amylovoran and levan in pathogenesis and biofilm formation has been evaluated. However, the role of biofilm formation, independent of exopolysaccharide production, in pathogenesis and movement within plants has not been studied previously. Evaluation of the role of attachment in E. amylovora biofilm formation and virulence was examined through the analysis of deletion mutants lacking genes encoding structures postulated to function in attachment to surfaces or in cellular aggregation. The genes and gene clusters studied were selected based on in silico analyses. Microscopic analyses and quantitative assays demonstrated that attachment structures such as fimbriae and pili are involved in the attachment of E. amylovora to surfaces and are necessary for the production of mature biofilms. A time course assay indicated that type I fimbriae function earlier in attachment, while type IV pilus structures appear to function later in attachment. Our results indicate that multiple attachment structures are needed for mature biofilm formation and full virulence and that biofilm formation facilitates entry and is necessary for the buildup of large populations of E. amylovora cells in xylem tissue.

  19. EDS1 contributes to nonhost resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana against Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Manon; Degrave, Alexandre; Vedel, Régine; Bitton, Frédérique; Patrit, Oriane; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Barny, Marie-Anne; Fagard, Mathilde

    2012-03-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight in rosaceous plants. In nonhost Arabidopsis thaliana, E. amylovora triggers necrotic symptoms associated with transient bacterial multiplication, suggesting either that A. thaliana lacks a susceptibility factor or that it actively restricts E. amylovora growth. Inhibiting plant protein synthesis at the time of infection led to an increase in necrosis and bacterial multiplication and reduced callose deposition, indicating that A. thaliana requires active protein synthesis to restrict E. amylovora growth. Analysis of the callose synthase-deficient pmr4-1 mutant indicated that lack of callose deposition alone did not lead to increased sensitivity to E. amylovora. Transcriptome analysis revealed that approximately 20% of the genes induced following E. amylovora infection are related to defense and signaling. Analysis of mutants affected in NDR1 and EDS1, two main components of the defense-gene activation observed, revealed that E. amylovora multiplied ten times more in the eds1-2 mutant than in the wild type but not in the ndr1-1 mutant. Analysis of mutants affected in three WRKY transcription factors showing EDS1-dependent activation identified WRKY46 and WRKY54 as positive regulators and WRKY70 as a negative regulator of defense against E. amylovora. Altogether, we show that EDS1 is a positive regulator of nonhost resistance against E. amylovora in A. thaliana and hypothesize that it controls the production of several effective defenses against E. amylovora through the action of WRKY46 and WRKY54, while WRKY70 acts as a negative regulator.

  20. Biomolecular characterization of the levansucrase of Erwinia amylovora, a promising biocatalyst for the synthesis of fructooligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Lorenzo; Nepogodiev, Sergey A; Malnoy, Mickael; Rejzek, Martin; Field, Robert A; Benini, Stefano

    2013-12-18

    Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogen that affects Rosaceae, such as apple and pear. In E. amylovora the fructans, produced by the action of a levansucrase (EaLsc), play a role in virulence and biofilm formation. Fructans are bioactive compounds, displaying health-promoting properties in their own right. Their use as food and feed supplements is increasing. In this study, we investigated the biomolecular properties of EaLsc using HPAEC-PAD, MALDI-TOF MS, and spectrophotometric assays. The enzyme, which was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli in high yield, was shown to produce mainly fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) with a degree of polymerization between 3 and 6. The kinetic properties of EaLsc were similar to those of other phylogenetically related Gram-negative bacteria, but the good yield of FOSs, the product spectrum, and the straightforward production of the enzyme suggest that EaLsc is an interesting biocatalyst for future studies aimed at producing tailor-made fructans.

  1. Exopolysaccharides favor the survival of Erwinia amylovora under copper stress through different strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordax, Mónica; Marco-Noales, Ester; López, María M; Biosca, Elena G

    2010-09-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight, a destructive disease of rosaceous plants very difficult to control. We demonstrated that copper, employed to control plant diseases, induces the "viable-but-nonculturable" (VBNC) state in E. amylovora. Moreover, it was previously reported that copper increases production of its main exopolysaccharide (EPS), amylovoran. In this work, the copper-complexing ability of amylovoran and levan, other major EPS of E. amylovora, was demonstrated. Following this, EPS-deficient mutants were used to determine the role of these EPSs in survival of this bacterium in AB mineral medium with copper, compared to their wild type strain and AB without copper. Total, viable and culturable counts of all strains were monitored for six months. With copper, a larger fraction of the viable population of EPS mutants entered into the VBNC state, and earlier than their wild type strain, showing the contribution of both EPSs to long-term survival in a culturable state. Further, we demonstrated that both EPSs can be used as carbon source by E. amylovora under deprivation conditions. Overall, these previously unreported functions of amylovoran and levan provide survival advantages for E. amylovora, which could contribute to its enhanced persistence in nature.

  2. Global small RNA chaperone Hfq and regulatory small RNAs are important virulence regulators in Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Quan; McNally, R Ryan; Sundin, George W

    2013-04-01

    Hfq is a global small RNA (sRNA) chaperone that interacts with Hfq-regulated sRNAs and functions in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. In this work, we identified Hfq to be a virulence regulator in the Gram-negative fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Deletion of hfq in E. amylovora Ea1189 significantly reduced bacterial virulence in both immature pear fruits and apple shoots. Analysis of virulence determinants in strain Ea1189Δhfq showed that Hfq exerts pleiotropic regulation of amylovoran exopolysaccharide production, biofilm formation, motility, and the type III secretion system (T3SS). Further characterization of biofilm regulation by Hfq demonstrated that Hfq limits bacterial attachment to solid surfaces while promoting biofilm maturation. Characterization of T3SS regulation by Hfq revealed that Hfq positively regulates the translocation and secretion of the major type III effector DspE and negatively controls the secretion of the putative translocator HrpK and the type III effector Eop1. Lastly, 10 Hfq-regulated sRNAs were identified using a computational method, and two of these sRNAs, RprA and RyhA, were found to be required for the full virulence of E. amylovora.

  3. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Ordax

    Full Text Available Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae, one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle.

  4. Differential lysine acetylation profiles of Erwinia amylovora strains revealed by proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Vellaichamy, Adaikkalam; Wang, Dongping; Zamdborg, Leonid; Kelleher, Neil L; Huber, Steven C; Zhao, Youfu

    2013-02-21

    Protein lysine acetylation (LysAc) has recently been demonstrated to be widespread in E. coli and Salmonella, and to broadly regulate bacterial physiology and metabolism. However, LysAc in plant pathogenic bacteria is largely unknown. Here we first report the lysine acetylome of Erwinia amylovora, an enterobacterium causing serious fire blight disease of apples and pears. Immunoblots using generic anti-lysine acetylation antibodies demonstrated that growth conditions strongly affected the LysAc profiles in E. amylovora. Differential LysAc profiles were also observed for two E. amylovora strains, known to have differential virulence in plants, indicating translational modification of proteins may be important in determining virulence of bacterial strains. Proteomic analysis of LysAc in two E. amylovora strains identified 141 LysAc sites in 96 proteins that function in a wide range of biological pathways. Consistent with previous reports, 44% of the proteins are involved in metabolic processes, including central metabolism, lipopolysaccharide, nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Interestingly, for the first time, several proteins involved in E. amylovora virulence, including exopolysaccharide amylovoran biosynthesis- and type III secretion-associated proteins, were found to be lysine acetylated, suggesting that LysAc may play a major role in bacterial virulence. Comparative analysis of LysAc sites in E. amylovora and E. coli further revealed the sequence and structural commonality for LysAc in the two organisms. Collectively, these results reinforce the notion that LysAc of proteins is widespread in bacterial metabolism and virulence.

  5. Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis genes discriminate between Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infective genotypes of Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Braun-Kiewnick, Andrea; Mann, Rachel A; Rodoni, Brendan; Goesmann, Alexander; Duffy, Brion; Smits, Theo H M

    2012-10-01

    Comparative genomic analysis revealed differences in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis gene cluster between the Rubus-infecting strain ATCC BAA-2158 and the Spiraeoideae-infecting strain CFBP 1430 of Erwinia amylovora. These differences corroborate rpoB-based phylogenetic clustering of E. amylovora into four different groups and enable the discrimination of Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains. The structure of the differences between the two groups supports the hypothesis that adaptation to Rubus spp. took place after species separation of E. amylovora and E. pyrifoliae that contrasts with a recently proposed scenario, based on CRISPR data, in which the shift to domesticated apple would have caused an evolutionary bottleneck in the Spiraeoideae-infecting strains of E. amylovora which would be a much earlier event. In the core region of the LPS biosynthetic gene cluster, Spiraeoideae-infecting strains encode three glycosyltransferases and an LPS ligase (Spiraeoideae-type waaL), whereas Rubus-infecting strains encode two glycosyltransferases and a different LPS ligase (Rubus-type waaL). These coding domains share little to no homology at the amino acid level between Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infecting strains, and this genotypic difference was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis of the associated DNA region in 31 Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infecting strains. The LPS biosynthesis gene cluster may thus be used as a molecular marker to distinguish between Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infecting strains of E. amylovora using primers designed in this study.

  6. Characterization of Erwinia amylovora strains from Bulgaria by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, Iliana; Urshev, Zoltan; Hristova, Petya; Bogatzevska, Nevena; Moncheva, Penka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize genetically Bulgarian Erwinia amylovora strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. Fifty E. amylovora strains isolated from different hosts, locations, as well as in different years were analysed by PFGE after XbaI, SpeI, and XhoI digestion of the genomic DNA. The strains were distributed into four groups according to their XbaI-generated profile. About 82% of the strains displayed a PFGE profile identical to that of type Pt2. Three strains belonged to the Central Europe Pt1 type. Two new PFGE profiles, not reported so far, were established--one for a strain isolated from Malus domestica and another for all Fragaria spp. strains. The same grouping of the strains was obtained after analysis of the SpeI digestion patterns. On the basis of PFGE profiles, after XbaI and SpeI digestion, a genetic differentiation between the strains associated with subfamily Maloideae and subfamily Rosoideae was revealed. The presence of more than one PFGE profile in the population of E. amylovora in Bulgaria suggests a multiple source of inoculum.

  7. Involvement of N-acylhomoserine lactones throughout plant infection by Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Pectobacterium atrosepticum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadja, Bruno; Latour, Xavier; Faure, Denis; Chevalier, Sylvie; Dessaux, Yves; Orange, Nicole

    2004-11-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica is responsible for potato blackleg disease in the field and tuber soft rot during crop storage. The process leading to the disease occurs in two phases: a primary invasion step followed by a maceration step. Bacteria-to-bacteria communication is associated with a quorum-sensing (QS) process based on the production of N-acylhomoserine lactones (HSL). The role of HSL throughout plant infection was analyzed. To this purpose, HSL produced by a specific E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica wild-type strain, which was particularly virulent on potato, were identified. A derivative of this strain that expressed an HSL lactonase gene and produced low amounts of HSL was generated. The comparison of these strains allowed the evaluation of the role of HSL and QS in disease establishment and development. Bacterial growth and motility; activity of proteins secreted by type I, II, and III systems; and hypersensitive and maceration reactions were evaluated. Results indicated that HSL production and QS regulate only those traits involved in the second stage of the host plant infection (i.e., tissue maceration) and hypersensitive response in nonhost tobacco plants. Therefore, the use of QS quenching strategies for biological control in E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica cannot prevent initial infection and multiplication of this pathogen.

  8. Identification and characterization of Nip, necrosis-inducing virulence protein of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattinen, Laura; Tshuikina, Marina; Mäe, Andres; Pirhonen, Minna

    2004-12-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora is a gram-negative bacterium that causes soft rot disease of many cultivated crops. When a collection of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora isolates was analyzed on a Southern blot using the harpin-encoding gene hrpN as probe, several harpinless isolates were found. Regulation of virulence determinants in one of these, strain SCC3193, has been characterized extensively. It is fully virulent on potato and in Arabidopsis thaliana. An RpoS (SigmaS) mutant of SCC3193, producing elevated levels of secreted proteins, was found to cause lesions resembling the hypersensitive response when infiltrated into tobacco leaf tissue. This phenotype was evident only when bacterial cells had been cultivated on solid minimal medium at low pH and temperature. The protein causing'the cell death was purified and sequenced, and the corresponding gene was cloned. The deduced sequence of the necrosis-inducing protein (Nip) showed homology to necrosis- and ethylene-inducing elicitors of fungi and oomycetes. A mutant strain of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora lacking the nip gene showed reduced virulence in potato tuber assay but was unaffected in virulence in potato stem or on other tested host plants.

  9. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordax, Mónica; Piquer-Salcedo, Jaime E; Santander, Ricardo D; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Biosca, Elena G; López, María M; Marco-Noales, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i) E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii) medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle.

  10. Antimicrobial and anti-pathogenic activity of some thioureides derivatives against Erwinia amylovora phytopathogenic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Măruţescu, Luminiţa; Niţulescu, Mihai-George; Bucur, Marcela; Diţu, Lia-Mara; Mihăescu, Grigore; Lazăr, Veronica; Sesan, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    A series of N-(1-methyl-1 Hpyrazole-4-carbonyl)-thiourea derivatives were assessed for their in vitro antimicrobial and anti-pathogenic activity against twenty-two strains of Erwinia amylovora isolated from different regions in Romania. The compounds were solubilised in dimethylsulfoxide and screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity. The qualitative screening of the susceptibility spectra of various strains to the compounds was performed by adapted diffusion techniques (distribution of the tested compound solution directly on the solid medium previously seeded with the bacterial inoculums). The quantitative assay of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, microg/mL) was based on liquid medium two-fold microdilutions. The subinhibitory concentrations of the tested substances were investigated for their influence on biofilm development on inert substrata. The present study showed that six new thiourea compounds exhibited a low antibacterial activity (MIC values > 500 microg/ml), but the subinhibitory concentrations inhibited the biofilm development on inert substrata. Thus, these results could suggest the usefulness of the tested compounds as control agents for preventing the first stage (colonization) of the infection with the fire blight pathogen.

  11. Cloning and characterization of a sucrose isomerase from Erwinia rhapontici NX-5 for isomaltulose hyperproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Cai, Heng; Qing, Yujia; Ren, Ben; Xu, Hong; Zhu, Hongyang; Yao, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The sucrose isomerase (SIase) gene from an efficient strain of Erwinia rhapontici NX-5 for isomaltulose hyperproduction was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Protein sequence alignment revealed that SIase was a member of the glycoside hydrolase 13 family. The molecular mass of the purified recombinant protein was estimated at 66 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The SIase had an optimal pH and temperature of 5.0 and 30 °C, respectively, with a K (m) of 257 mmol/l and V (max) of 48.09 μmol/l/s for sucrose. To the best of our knowledge, the recombinant SIase has the most acidic optimum pH for isomaltulose synthesis. When the recombinant E. coli (pET22b- palI) cells were used for isomaltulose synthesis, almost complete conversion of sucrose (550 g/l solution) to isomaltulose was achieved in 1.5 h with high isomaltulose yields (87%). The immobilized E. coli cells remained stable for more than 30 days in a "batch"-type enzyme reactor. This indicated that the recombinant SIase could continuously and efficiently produce isomaltulose.

  12. Isolation and characterization of aniline degradation slightly halophilic bacterium, Erwinia sp. Strain HSA 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junmin; Jin, Zexin; Yu, Binbin

    2010-07-20

    The isolated strain HSA6 is classified as Erwinia amylovora based on 16S rDNA sequence and the morphological and physiological properties. Strain HSA6 is the first reported E. amylovora in pure culture growing with aniline as sole electron donor and carbon source. The suitable pH for strain HSA6 is wide (from 5 to 11). Strain HSA6 is slightly halophilic with growth occurring at 0-10% (v/v) NaCl, and the suitable NaCl concentration for strain HSA6 is from 0% to 6%. The number of bacteria appeared to decrease with an increase in aniline concentration. The number of bacteria appeared to be constant as the wastewater concentration increased from 0% to 20%. However, the number of cells decreased with an increase in wastewater concentration from 30% to 50% and grew very slowly at 50%. The degradation rate of aniline was 100% at 0.5% aniline concentration after 24 h culture. The degradation rate of aniline was found to descend as the concentration of aniline increased from 0.5% to 3% and rose as the culture time increased. Strain HSA6 contains a plasmid with molecular weight higher than 42 kDA. Plasmid curing test and quantitative degradation test showed that strain requires the plasmid for aniline degradation. The gene cluster degrading aniline was determined in the plasmid by PCR amplification.

  13. Purification and characterization of a highly selective sucrose isomerase from Erwinia rhapontici NX-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ben; Li, Sha; Xu, Hong; Feng, Xiao-Hai; Cai, Heng; Ye, Qi

    2011-06-01

    A highly selective sucrose isomerase (SIase) was purified to homogeneity from the cell-free extract of Erwinia rhapontici NX-5 with a recovery of 27.7% and a fold purification of 213.6. The purified SIase showed a high specific activity of 427.1 U mg(-1) with molecular weight of 65.6 kDa. The K (m) for sucrose was 222 mM while V (max) was 546 U mg(-1). The optimum pH and temperature for SIase activity were 6.0 and 30 °C, respectively. The purified SIase was stable in the temperature range of 10-40 °C and retained 65% of the enzyme activity after 2 weeks' storage at 30 °C. The SIase activity was enhanced by Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), inhibited by Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Co(2+), completely inhibited by Hg(2+) and Ag(2+). The purified SIase was strongly inhibited by SDS, while partially inhibited by dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran, and PMSF. Additionally, glucose and fructose acted as competitive inhibitors for purified SIase.

  14. Modified inoculation and disease assessment methods reveal host specificity in Erwinia tracheiphila-Cucurbitaceae interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareno, Eric S; Dumenyo, C Korsi

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a greenhouse trial to determine specific compatible interactions between Erwinia tracheiphila strains and cucurbit host species. Using a modified inoculation system, E. tracheiphila strains HCa1-5N, UnisCu1-1N, and MISpSq-N were inoculated to cucumber (Cucumis sativus) cv. 'Sweet Burpless', melon (Cucumis melo) cv. 'Athena Hybrid', and squash (Cucubita pepo) cv. 'Early Summer Crookneck'. We observed symptoms and disease progression for 30 days; recorded the number of days to wilting of the inoculated leaf (DWIL), days to wilting of the whole plant (DWWP), and days to death of the plant (DDP). We found significant interactions between host cultivar and pathogen strains, which imply host specificity. Pathogen strains HCa1-5N and UnisCu1-1N isolated from Cucumis species exhibited more virulence in cucumber and melon than in squash, while the reverse was true for strain MISpSq-N, an isolate from Cucurbita spp. Our observations confirm a previous finding that E. tracheiphila strains isolated from Cucumis species were more virulent on Cucumis hosts and those from Cucubita were more virulent on Cucubita hosts. This confirmation helps in better understanding the pathosystem and provides baseline information for the subsequent development of new disease management strategies for bacterial wilt. We also demonstrated the efficiency of our modified inoculation and disease scoring methods.

  15. Sucrose isomerase and its mutants from Erwinia rhapontici can synthesise α-arbutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xing; Zheng, Yuantao; Wei, Xingming; Yang, Kedi; Yang, Xiangkai; Wang, Yuting; Xu, Liming; Du, Liqin; Huang, Ribo

    2011-10-01

    Sucrose isomerase (SI) from Erwinia rhapontici is an intramolecular isomerase that is normally used to synthesise isomaltulose from sucrose by a mechanism of intramolecular transglycosylation. In this study, it was found that SI could synthesise α-arbutin using hydroquinone and sucrose as substrates, via an intermolecular transglycosylation reaction. Five phenylalanine residues (F185, F186, F205, F297, and F321) in the catalytic pocket of SI were chosen for sitedirected mutagenesis. Mutants F185I, F321I, and F321W, whose hydrolytic activities were enhanced after the mutation, could synthesise α-arbutin through intermolecular transglycosylation with a more than two-fold increase in the molar transfer ratio compared with wild type SI. The F297A mutant showed a strong ability to synthesise a novel α-arbutin derivative and a four-fold increase in its specific activity for intermolecular transglycosylation over the wild type. Our findings may lead to a new way to synthesise novel glucoside products such as α-arbutin derivatives by simply manipulating the Phe residues in the catalytic pocket. From the structure superposition, our strategy of manipulating these Phe residues may be applicable to other similar transglycosylating enzymes.

  16. Morphological and biochemical characterization of Erwinia amylovora-induced hypersensitive cell death in apple leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimova, Elena T; Sobiczewski, Piotr; Michalczuk, Lech; Węgrzynowicz-Lesiak, Elżbieta; Mikiciński, Artur; Woltering, Ernst J

    2013-02-01

    In attached apple leaves, spot-inoculated with Erwinia amylovora, the phenotypic appearance of the hypersensitive response (HR) and the participation of ethylene, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) (a plant caspase-1-like protease) were analysed. The HR in both the resistant and susceptible genotypes expressed a similar pattern of distinguishable micro HR lesions that progressed into confined macro HR lesions. The HR symptoms in apple were compared to those in non-host tobacco. The morphology of dead cells (protoplast shrinkage and retraction from cell wall) in apple leaves resembled necrotic programmed cell death (PCD). Lesion formation in both cv. Free Redstar (resistant) and cv. Idared (highly susceptible) was preceded by ROS accumulation and elevation of ethylene levels. Treatment of infected leaves with an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis led to a decrease of ethylene emission and suppression of lesion development in both cultivars. In the resistant but not in the susceptible apple cultivar an early and late increase in VPE gene expression was detected. This suggests that VPE might be an underlying component of the response to E. amylovora in resistant apple cultivars. The findings show that in the studied pathosystem the cell death during the HR proceeds through a signal transduction cascade in which ROS, ethylene and VPE pathways play a role.

  17. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis silences Erwinia carotovora virulence by a new form of microbial antagonism, signal interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi-Hu; Zhang, Xi-Fen; Xu, Jin-Ling; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2004-02-01

    It is commonly known that bacteria may produce antibiotics to interfere with the normal biological functions of their competitors in order to gain competitive advantages. Here we report that Bacillus thuringiensis suppressed the quorum-sensing-dependent virulence of plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora through a new form of microbial antagonism, signal interference. E. carotovora produces and responds to acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing signals to regulate antibiotic production and expression of virulence genes, whereas B. thuringiensis strains possess AHL-lactonase, which is a potent AHL-degrading enzyme. B. thuringiensis did not seem to interfere with the normal growth of E. carotovora; rather, it abolished the accumulation of AHL signal when they were cocultured. In planta, B. thuringiensis significantly decreased the incidence of E. carotovora infection and symptom development of potato soft rot caused by the pathogen. The biocontrol efficiency is correlated with the ability of bacterial strains to produce AHL-lactonase. While all the seven AHL-lactonase-producing B. thuringiensis strains provided significant protection against E. carotovora infection, Bacillus fusiformis and Escherichia coli strains that do not process AHL-degradation enzyme showed little effect in biocontrol. Mutation of aiiA, the gene encoding AHL-lactonase in B. thuringiensis, resulted in a substantial decrease in biocontrol efficacy. These results suggest that signal interference mechanisms existing in natural ecosystems could be explored as a new version of antagonism for prevention of bacterial infections.

  18. La responsabilidad del Estado por la actividad del legislador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Consuelo Alonso García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analizar el fenómeno de la responsabilidad del Estado causada por los hechos del legislador ha sido un trabajo desarrollado tanto por la doctrina y la jurisprudencia internacional a mediados del siglo xx. En Francia, por ejemplo, se presentó el primer antecedente jurisprudencial en el año de 1934. En España, su estudio empezó a gestionarse con la promulgación de la Constitución de 1978, presentándose el primer fallo judicial en el año de 1993. Para el caso colombiano, la Constitución de 1991 introdujo en su artículo 90 el fundamento constitucional de la responsabilidad patrimonial del Estado, sin que esto significase que la jurisprudencia del Consejo de Estado encontrase las bases de esta responsabilidad en diferentes disposiciones de la Constitución. Sin embargo, los primeros fallos relacionados con este título de imputación en Colombia fueron emitidos por el máximo tribunal de lo contencioso administrativo en 1998, y por la Corte Constitucional a través de la sentencia C-038 de 2006, providencia judicial que estableció algunas de las características que posee esta figura jurídica.

  19. Fratura de órbita por queda de cavalo e correção de estrabismo Orbit fracture by horse fall and strabismus correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo de Souza Couto Junior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se uma paciente com fratura orbitária grave causada por queda de cavalo. Relato do seu tratamento cirúrgico com correção do estrabismo e tentativa de correção da enoftamia.Description of a patient with orbital fracture cause by a horse fall. Follow-up the surgical treatment of the strabismus and the enophtlamos.

  20. Gomose da acácia-negra causada por Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. Gummosis of Acacia decurrens Willd. Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available É relatada a ocorrência, pela primeira vez no Brasil, de Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. sobre acácia-negra. Testes de inoculação cruzada foram efetuados em casa de vegetação com o isolado obtido de acácia-negra (Acacia decurrens Willd. e outro de mangueira (Mangifera indica L.. Observou-se que ambos os isolados foram patogênicos à acácia-negra e à mangueira.Several plants of Acacia decurrens showed wilting and subsequent branche drying. The branches showed wood splitting and gum exudation. The transversally cut wood showed ashy colored pith, that desenvolved numerous perithecia when kept in a humid chamber. These perithecia were transferred aseptically to potato-dextrose-agar and the culture was classified as Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. Four mounth old Acacia plants inoculated with the isolate died after 14 days. The fungus was again isolated from these dead plants. Cross inoculation tests with isolate of C. fimbriata from Acacia and mango (Mangifera indica L. showed pathogenic effects for both hosts.

  1. Cryptococcus gattii meningoencephalitis in an HIV-negative patient from the Peruvian Andes Meningoencefalite causada por Cryptococcus gattii em um paciente HIV-negativo procedente dos Andes Peruanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericson L. Gutierrez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an immunocompetent Peruvian patient from the Andes with a one-month history of meningoencephalitis. Cryptococcus gattii was identified from a cerebrospinal fluid culture through assimilation of D-proline and D-tryptophan as the single nitrogen source. Initially, the patient received intravenous antifungal therapy with amphotericin B. The patient was discharged 29 days after hospitalization and continued with oral fluconazole treatment for ten weeks. During this period, the patient showed clinical improvement with slight right-side residual weakness. Through this case report, we confirm the existence of this microorganism as an infectious agent in Peru.Nós reportamos o caso de um paciente peruano immunocompetente proveniente dos Andes com história de um mês com meningoencefalite. Foi identificado o Cryptococcus gattii na cultura de liquido cerebrospinal através da assimilação de D-prolina e D-tryptofano como fonte única de nitrogênio. Inicialmente, o paciente recebeu tratamento antifúngico intravenoso com amfotericina B. O paciente foi liberado 29 dias depois da hospitalização, seguindo tratamento oral durante 10 semanas com fluconazol. Durante este período, o paciente apresentou melhoria clinica e uma leve fraqueza residual direita. Com o reporte do caso, nós confirmamos a existência desse microorganismo como agente infeccioso em nosso país.

  2. Humoral immune alterations caused by lead: studies on an adult toad model Alteraciones inmunes humorales causadas por plomo: estudios en un modelo de sapo adulto

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that environmental metal levels affect the immune function. In the particular case of the impact of heavy metals, information available suggests that the immune system is a target for low-dose Pb exposure. Among vertebrates it was shown that amphibians are capable of forming antibodies against a variety of antigens, causing several responses such as anaphylactic response and rejecting grafts. In this study, the production of antibodies was assessed against sheep red blood ce...

  3. Aracnoidite constritiva causada por pantopaque resultando em siringomielia e paraparesia: relato de caso Thoracic constrictive arachnoiditis after pantopaque myelography causing syringomyelia and paraparesis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Gonçalves da Silva

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos caso de aracnoidite constritiva torácica, verificada 10 anos após o uso de pantopaque, que foi utilizado em mielografia no diagnóstico de cisto aracnóideo.We present an unusual case of thoracic constrictive arachnoiditis after pantopaque myelography, used 10 years before in the diagnosis of intradural arachnoid cyst.

  4. Celularidade do leite e Unidades Formadoras de Colônias nas mastites causadas por Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e coagulase negativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Langoni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A mastite é a principal afecção do gado destinado à produção leiteira, que impacta significativamente a cadeia produtiva do leite, com reflexos ainda para a saúde pública. Estudou-se aspectos relacionados à etiologia, celularidade e de contagem bacteriana em 10 propriedades leiteiras, localizadas no Estado de São Paulo. Foram examinadas 1148 vacas em lactação, totalizando 4584 glândulas mamárias. Foram considerados os casos, em que houve isolamento de estafilococos coagulase positiva (SCP e estafilococos coagulase negativa (SCN. Os resultados revelaram microbiota com vários patógenos e diferentes espécies de SCN (128 casos e SCP (45, Staphylococcus aureus(90, Streptococcus agalactiae(70, Streptococcus dysgalactiae (69, Streptococcus uberis(29, Corynebacteriumspp. (230, Klebsiella pneumoniae(28, Klebsiella oxytoca(2, Escherichia coli(15, Enterobactersp. (3. Os resultados de contagem de células somáticas (CCS relacionados aos SCP e SCN não mostraram diferenças entre as propriedades avaliadas, entretanto com diferenças significantes ao se avaliar a CCS entre os dois grupos de estafilococos, como pode ser evidenciado ao comparar SCN Discreto e SCP exuberante (P<0,01, SCP Discreto e SCP exuberante (P<0,001 e SCN moderado e SCP exuberante (P<0,01. A avaliação da CCS relacionada à intensidade da infecção, considerando-se como crescimento discreto o isolamento de até nove colônias, moderado de dez a 29 colônias e exuberante, com 30 ou mais colônias, revelou para ambos os grupos de estafilococos que quanto maior o número de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC, a CCS é mais elevada, sendo sempre maior nos casos de SCP. Conclui-se que quando há maior número de UFC, há concomitantemente maior CCS/mL de leite, no caso dos SCP e SCN, o que mostra relação direta da intensidade do processo infeccioso com a resposta da celularidade do leite, bem como pela relevância desses na etiologia das mastites e dos aspectos negativos tanto para a produção, quanto na qualidade do leite produzido nas propriedades.

  5. Development of a warning system for wheat blast caused by Pyricularia grisea Desenvolvimento de sistema de previsão de brusome causada por Pyricularia grisea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinara Araújo de Andrade Cardoso

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. blast caused by Pyricularia grisea is a new disease in Brazil and no resistant cultivars are available. The interactions between temperature and wetness durations have been used in many early warning systems. Hence, growth chamber experiments to assess the effect of different temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35ºC and the duration of spike-wetness (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 hours on the intensity of blast in cultivar BR23 were carried out. Each temperature formed an experiment and the duration of wetness the treatments. The highest blast intensity was observed at 30°C and increased as the duration of the wetting period increased while the lowest occurred at 25°C and 10 hours of spike wetness. Regardless of the temperature, no symptoms occurred when the wetting period was less than 10 hours but at 25°C and a 40 h wetting period blast intensity exceeded 85%. These variations in blast intensity as a function of temperature are explained by a generalized beta model and as a function of the duration of spike wetness by the Gompertz model. Disease intensity was modeled as a function of both temperature and the durations of spike wetness and the resulting equation provided a precise description of the response of P. grisea to temperatures and the durations of spike wetness. This model was used to construct tables that can be used to predict the intensity of P. grisea wheat blast based on the temperatures and the durations of wheat spike wetness obtained in the field.Em experimentos conduzidos em câmaras de crescimento, com o cultivar suscetível de trigo BR 23 (Triticum aestivum L. foram avaliadas as interações entre temperaturas e durações do período de molhamento contínuo das espigas sobre a intensidade da brusone (Pyricularia grisea. As temperaturas testadas foram de 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 e 35 ºC e os períodos de duração do molhamento das espigas de 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 horas. Cada temperatura constituiu um experimento e as horas de molhamento os tratamentos. A menor intensidade da doença foi observada a 25 °C com 10 horas de molhamento das espigas. Com molhamentos inferiores a 10 horas de duração não se observaram sintomas da doença em nenhuma das temperaturas. Intensidade de doença superior a 85% foi detectada a 25 °C com 40 horas de molhamento. As variações de intensidade da brusone do trigo pela temperatura foram explicadas pelo modelo Beta generalizado e o de duração de molhamento das espigas pelo modelo de Gompertz. A intensidade da doença foi modelada em função da temperatura e da duração do molhamento das espigas. A equação resultante fornece uma descrição precisa da resposta a intensidade da brusone aos efeitos combinados de temperatura e de duração do molhamento. O modelo foi usado para elaborar tabelas de períodos críticos que podem ser utilizadas na validação de um modelo de previsão da brusone em espigas de trigo segundo o modelo climático.

  6. El régimen internacional de la bioinvasión marina causada por agua de lastre: especial referencia a la República de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Cabrales, Fabián

    2015-01-01

    El agua de lastre de los buques es considerada como el más importante vector para el desplazamiento transoceánico de especies marinas propias de aguas superficiales a nuevos ambientes marinos. Se ha estimado que anualmente se transfieren de 3 a 5 billones de toneladas de agua de lastre a nivel global. Ello plantea un serio riesgo ambiental internacional. Las especies invasivas están extendiendo sus ámbitos naturales a nivel global y cada nueve semanas se notifica una nueva invasión biológica ...

  7. Humoral immune alterations caused by lead: studies on an adult toad model Alteraciones inmunes humorales causadas por plomo: estudios en un modelo de sapo adulto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina E. Rosenberg

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that environmental metal levels affect the immune function. In the particular case of the impact of heavy metals, information available suggests that the immune system is a target for low-dose Pb exposure. Among vertebrates it was shown that amphibians are capable of forming antibodies against a variety of antigens, causing several responses such as anaphylactic response and rejecting grafts. In this study, the production of antibodies was assessed against sheep red blood cells (SRBC in the anuran Bufo arenarum after six weekly injections of sublethal doses of lead (50 mg.kg-1, as lead acetate. Natural antibodies (natural heteroagglutinins were also quantified against SRBC. Both assessments were carried out employing an ELISA method developed to this end, measuring absorbance (A. For natural anti-SRBC antibodies in both control (C and Pb treated (T toads, there was a non significant tendency to increase the initial absorbances (C initial: 0.69±0.39 A; T initial: 0.54±0.30 A, relative to those registered at the end of the experiments (C final: 0.89±0.49 A; T final: 0.76±0.31A; the T/C ratios also did not show changes. The only significant difference was found between initial and final samples from lead-treated toads (pExiste evidencia de que los niveles de metal ambientales afectan la función inmune. En el caso particular del impacto de metales pesados, la información disponible sugiere que el sistema inmune es un blanco para la exposición a bajas dosis de Pb. Entre los vertebrados, se ha mostrado que los anfibios son capaces de formar anticuerpos contra una variedad de antígenos, que causan diversas respuestas, tales como respuesta anafiláctica y rechazo de injertos. En este estudio, la producción de anticuerpos fue evaluada contra eritrocitos de oveja (EO en el anuro Bufo arenarum, luego de seis inyecciones semanales de dosis subletales de plomo (50 mg.kg-1, como acetato de Pb. Los anticuerpos naturales (heteroaglutininas naturales fueron también cuantificados contra EO. Ambas evaluaciones fueron llevadas a cabo empleando un método de ELISA desarrollado a este fin, midiendo la absorbancia (A. Para los anticuerpos anti-EO naturales, tanto en sapos controles (C como en sapos tratados con Pb (T, hubo una tendencia significativa a incrementar las absorbancias iniciales (C inicial: 0,69±0,39 A; T inicial: 0,54±0,30 A; la relación T/C tampoco mostró cambios. La única diferencia significativa se encontró entre las muestras inicial y final de los sapos tratados con plomo (p<0,014. Los niveles de anticuerpos anti-EO inmune de sapos inmunizados con EO mostraron un bajo incremento significativo (p<0,05 en los animales tratados con plomo (T final: 0,66±0,36 A, al compararse con sapos control (C final: 0,91±0,50 A al final del experimento. De este modo, se concluye que los cambios debidos a las dosis analizadas de Pb en los niveles de anticuerpos no pueden explicarse sólo sobre la base de un único mecanismo de acción del metal, sino como resultado de una conjunción de efectos sobre diferentes subpoblaciones de células inmunocompetentes. Estas diferentes respuestas sugieren que los factores que afectan los animales expuestos a un estímulo externo son diferentes de aquellos que influyen la respuesta en los animales silvestres.

  8. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Bipolaris hawaiiensis: a case report Feohifomicose subcutânea causada por Bipolaris hawaiiensis: registro de um caso

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    Alcyr Ribeiro Costa

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available A case of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Bipolaris hawaiiensis is reported. The patient, an immunocompetent host, presented a verrucous lesion on the first finger of the left foot. Dematiaceous septate hyphae and yeast-like elements were seen in direct and histological examination. The isolated strain was identified on the basis of micro and macromorphological aspects. Treated with electrocoagulation, the lesions healed and presented no relapse after two years follow-up.Os autores descrevem um caso de feohifomicose com lesão verrucosa no hálux esquerdo. O paciente não apresentava sinais clínicos de deficiência imunológica. Os exames direto e histopatológico mostraram células leveduriformes e poucas hifas septadas, demacióides, essenciais ao diagnóstico desta micose. O cultivo em lâmina permitiu identificar o hifomiceto como Bipolaris hawaiiensis. A eletrocoagulação foi usada como tratamento, com cura do processo, não havendo recidiva após dois anos.

  9. Actividad "in vivo" del cloruro de berberina frente a una leishmaniasis cutánea causada por la especie Leishmania mexicana mexicana 856/INS

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    Amador Avila T.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En una leishmaniasis experimental inducida con Leishmania mexicana mexicana en hocico de hamsters dorados Mesocricetus auratus, después de 30 días post infección tomando como criterio la reducción del área de lesión, dosis de 100 mg/kg. de Cloruro de Berberina intralesionales en los días 30, 33 y 36 tuvieron el mismo efecto antileishmaniásico que el Antimonial Pentavalente "Glucantime", el cual fue administrado de igual modo en dosis de 20 mg/kg/día entre los días 30 a 38. El análisis histopatológico, demostró una proliferación de células gigantes de Langhans en las pápulas tratadas con Cloruro de Berberina.

  10. ACTIVIDAD "In Vivo" DEL CLORURO DE BERBERINA FRENTE A UNA LEISHMANIASIS CUTÁNEA CAUSADA POR LA ESPECIE Leishmania mexicana mexicana 856/INS

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    Edward J Acero M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available En una leishmaniasis experimental inducida con Leishmania mexicana mexicana en hocico de hamsters dorados Mesocricetus auratus, después de 30 días post infección tomando como criterio la reducción del área de lesión, dosis de 100 mg/kg. de Cloruro de Berberina intralesionales en los días 30, 33 y 36 tuvieron el mismo efecto antileishmaniásico que el Antimonial Pentavalente "Glucantime", el cual fue administrado de igual modo en dosis de 20 mg/kg/día entre los días 30 a 38. El análisis histopatológico, demostró una proliferación de células gigantes de Langhans en las pápulas tratadas con Cloruro de Berberina.

  11. Actividad "in vivo" del cloruro de berberina frente a una leishmaniasis cutánea causada por la especie leishmania mexicana mexicana 856/ins

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J Acero M; Amador Avila T.; Luis Granobles P.; Stella Torres de Young; Santiago Nicholls

    2010-01-01

    En una leishmaniasis experimental inducida con Leishmania mexicana mexicana en hocico de hamsters dorados Mesocricetus auratus, después de 30 días post infección tomando como criterio la reducción del área de lesión, dosis de 100 mg/kg. de Cloruro de Berberina intralesionales en los días 30, 33 y 36 tuvieron el mismo efecto antileishmaniásico que el Antimonial Pentavalente "Glucantime", el cual fue administrado de igual modo en dosis de 20 mg/kg/día entre los días 30 a 38. El análisis histopa...

  12. Aportaciones a la epidemiologia y a las manifestaciones clínicas de las sobredosis causadas por la cocaina y las nuevas drogas de diseño

    OpenAIRE

    Galicia Paredes, Miguel Ángel

    2010-01-01

    De los datos disponibles en la actualidad, se puede concluir que el consumo de sustancias de abuso genera un número importante de problemas de salud, de presentación aguda o crónica. Las consecuencias del consumo prolongado de diferentes sustancias, y su repercusión sobre la salud del consumidor o de su entorno social son bien conocidas (enfermedades en ADVP, marginalidad de zonas de comercio de sustancias, políticas dirigidas a disminuir el tráfico de sustancias). Sin embargo no hay tantos e...

  13. Impacto de la sustitución de grasa por fibra en la estructura de bizcochos

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    [ES] En un contexto social en el que cada vez predominan más las enfermedades causadas por el excesivo consumo de calorías y el déficit de fibra en la dieta, los consumidores empiezan a valorar de forma más positiva los alimentos saludables y bajos en grasa. Debido a la relación que existe entre la alimentación y la salud, se ha estudiado la reformulación de bizcochos para disminuir su contenido lipídico. En el presente trabajo se ha evaluado el efecto de la sustitución del 50%...

  14. Imunidade conferida por vacinas anti-meningocócicas

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    Milagres Lucimar Gonçalves

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Em razão da recente epidemia de doença meningocócica causada por N. meningitidis B na Grande São Paulo, Brasil, foi feita revisão das epidemias dessa doença ocorridas no Brasil desde o início do século e uma análise das vacinas atuais contra N. meningitidis A, C, Y e W135. Também são discutidos os mais recentes avanços no desenvolvimento e aplicação de vacina contra M meningitidis B, um desafio constante para os maiores centros de pesquisa de todo o mundo.

  15. Imunidade conferida por vacinas anti-meningocócicas

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    Lucimar Gonçalves Milagres

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Em razão da recente epidemia de doença meningocócica causada por N. meningitidis B na Grande São Paulo, Brasil, foi feita revisão das epidemias dessa doença ocorridas no Brasil desde o início do século e uma análise das vacinas atuais contra N. meningitidis A, C, Y e W135. Também são discutidos os mais recentes avanços no desenvolvimento e aplicação de vacina contra M meningitidis B, um desafio constante para os maiores centros de pesquisa de todo o mundo.

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of an Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora pectin lyase gene that responds to DNA-damaging agents.

    OpenAIRE

    McEvoy, J L; Murata, H.; Chatterjee, A. K.

    1990-01-01

    recA-mediated production of pectin lyase (PNL) and the bacteriocin carotovoricin occurs in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora 71 when this organism is subjected to agents that damage or inhibit the synthesis of DNA. The structural gene pnlA was isolated from a strain 71 cosmid gene library following mobilization of the cosmids into a moderate PNL producer, strain 193. The cosmid complemented pnl::Tn5 but not ctv::Tn5 mutations. A constitutive level of PNL activity was detected in RecA+ and ...

  17. Antagonistic potential of Pseudomonas graminis 49M against Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikiciński, Artur; Sobiczewski, Piotr; Puławska, Joanna; Malusa, Eligio

    2016-08-01

    In a previous study (Mikiciński et al. in Eur J Plant Pathol, doi: 10.1007/s10658-015-0837-y , 2015), we described the characterization of novel strain 49M of Pseudomonas graminis, isolated from the phyllosphere of apple trees in Poland showing a good protective activity against fire blight on different organs of host plants. We now report investigations to clarify the basis for this activity. Strain 49M was found to produce siderophores on a medium containing complex CAS-Fe(3+) and HDTMA, but was not able to produce N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Moreover, it formed a biofilm on polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces. Strain 49M gave a positive reaction in PCR with primers complementary to gacA, the regulatory gene influencing the production of several secondary metabolites including antibiotics. The genes prnD (encoding pyrrolnitrin), pltC, pltB (pyoluteorin), phlD (2,4-diacetyl-phloroglucinol) and phzC as well as phzD (and their homologs phzF and phzA encoding phenazine), described for antagonistic fluorescent pseudomonads, however, were not detected. Research into the biotic relationship between strain 49M and Erwinia amylovora strain Ea659 on five microbiological media showed that this strain clearly inhibited the growth of the pathogen on King's B and nutrient agar with glycerol media, to a very small extent on nutrient agar with sucrose, and not at all on Luria-Bertani agar. On medium 925, strain 49M even stimulated E. amylovora growth. The addition of ferric chloride to King's B resulted in the loss of its inhibitory ability. Testing the survival of 49M in vitro showed its resistance to drought, greater than that of E. amylovora.

  18. AmyR is a novel negative regulator of amylovoran production in Erwinia amylovora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongping Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to understand the role of an orphan gene amyR in Erwinia amylovora, a functionally conserved ortholog of ybjN in Escherichia coli, which has recently been characterized. Amylovoran, a high molecular weight acidic heteropolymer exopolysaccharide, is a virulent factor of E. amylovora. As reported earlier, amylovoran production in an amyR knockout mutant was about eight-fold higher than that in the wild type (WT strain of E. amylovora. When a multicopy plasmid containing the amyR gene was introduced into the amyR mutant or WT strains, amylovoran production was strongly inhibited. Furthermore, amylovoran production was also suppressed in various amylovoran-over-producing mutants, such as grrSA containing multicopies of the amyR gene. Consistent with amylovoran production, an inverse correlation was observed between in vitro expression of amyR and that of amylovoran biosynthetic genes. However, both the amyR knockout mutant and over-expression strains showed reduced levan production, another exopolysaccharide produced by E. amylovora. Virulence assays demonstrated that while the amyR mutant was capable of inducing slightly greater disease severity than that of the WT strain, strains over-expressing the amyR gene did not incite disease on apple shoots or leaves, and only caused reduced disease on immature pear fruits. Microarray studies revealed that amylovoran biosynthesis and related membrane protein-encoding genes were highly expressed in the amyR mutant, but down-regulated in the amyR over-expression strains in vitro. Down-regulation of amylovoran biosynthesis genes in the amyR over-expression strain partially explained why over-expression of amyR led to non-pathogenic or reduced virulence in vivo. These results suggest that AmyR plays an important role in regulating exopolysaccharide production, and thus virulence in E. amylovora.

  19. Genome-wide identification of genes regulated by the Rcs phosphorelay system in Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongping; Qi, Mingsheng; Calla, Bernarda; Korban, Schuyler S; Clough, Steven J; Cock, Peter J A; Sundin, George W; Toth, Ian; Zhao, Youfu

    2012-01-01

    The exopolysaccharide amylovoran is one of the major pathogenicity factors in Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight of apples and pears. We have previously demonstrated that the RcsBCD phosphorelay system is essential for virulence by controlling amylovoran biosynthesis. We have also found that the hybrid sensor kinase RcsC differentially regulates amylovoran production in vitro and in vivo. To further understand how the Rcs system regulates E. amylovora virulence gene expression, we conducted genome-wide microarray analyses to determine the regulons of RcsB and RcsC in liquid medium and on immature pear fruit. Array analyses identified a total of 648 genes differentially regulated by RcsCB in vitro and in vivo. Consistent with our previous findings, RcsB acts as a positive regulator in both conditions, while RcsC positively controls expression of amylovoran biosynthetic genes in vivo but negatively controls expression in vitro. Besides amylovoran biosynthesis and regulatory genes, cell-wall and cell-envelope (membrane) as well as regulatory genes were identified as the major components of the RcsBC regulon, including many novel genes. We have also demonstrated that transcripts of rcsA, rcsC, and rcsD genes but not the rcsB gene were up-regulated when bacterial cells were grown in minimal medium or following infection of pear fruits compared with those grown in Luria Bertani medium. Furthermore, using the genome of E. amylovora ATCC 49946, a hidden Markov model predicted 60 genes with a candidate RcsB binding site in the intergenic region, 28 of which were identified in the microarray assay. Based on these findings as well as previous reported data, a working model has been proposed to illustrate how the Rcs phosphorelay system regulates virulence gene expression in E. amylovora.

  20. The fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora requires the rpoN gene for pathogenicity in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Laura S; Lehman, Brian L; Sinn, Judith P; Pfeufer, Emily E; Halbrendt, Noemi O; McNellis, Timothy W

    2013-10-01

    RpoN is a σ(54) factor regulating essential virulence gene expression in several plant pathogenic bacteria, including Pseudomonas syringae and Pectobacterium carotovorum. In this study, we found that mutation of rpoN in the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora caused a nonpathogenic phenotype. The E. amylovora rpoN Tn5 transposon mutant rpoN1250::Tn5 did not cause fire blight disease symptoms on shoots of mature apple trees. In detached immature apple fruits, the rpoN1250::Tn5 mutant failed to cause fire blight disease symptoms and grew to population levels 12 orders of magnitude lower than the wild-type. In addition, the rpoN1250::Tn5 mutant failed to elicit a hypersensitive response when infiltrated into nonhost tobacco plant leaves, and rpoN1250::Tn5 cells failed to express HrpN protein when grown in hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity)-inducing liquid medium. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type rpoN gene complemented all the rpoN1250::Tn5 mutant phenotypes tested. The rpoN1250::Tn5 mutant was prototrophic on minimal solid and liquid media, indicating that the rpoN1250::Tn5 nonpathogenic phenotype was not caused by a defect in basic metabolism or growth. This study provides clear genetic evidence that rpoN is an essential virulence gene of E. amylovora, suggesting that rpoN has the same function in E. amylovora as in P. syringae and Pe. carotovorum.

  1. Erwinia amylovora type three-secreted proteins trigger cell death and defense responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrave, A; Fagard, M; Perino, C; Brisset, M N; Gaubert, S; Laroche, S; Patrit, O; Barny, M-A

    2008-08-01

    Erwinia amylovora is the bacterium responsible for fire blight, a necrotic disease affecting plants of the rosaceous family. E. amylovora pathogenicity requires a functional type three secretion system (T3SS). We show here that E. amylovora triggers a T3SS-dependent cell death on Arabidopsis thaliana. The plants respond by inducing T3SS-dependent defense responses, including salicylic acid (SA)-independent callose deposition, activation of the SA defense pathway, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and part of the jasmonic acid/ethylene defense pathway. Several of these reactions are similar to what is observed in host plants. We show that the cell death triggered by E. amylovora on A. thaliana could not be simply explained by the recognition of AvrRpt2 ea by the resistance gene product RPS2. We then analyzed the role of type three-secreted proteins (T3SPs) DspA/E, HrpN, and HrpW in the induction of cell death and defense reactions in A. thaliana following infection with the corresponding E. amylovora mutant strains. HrpN and DspA/E were found to play an important role in the induction of cell death, activation of defense pathways, and ROS accumulation. None of the T3SPs tested played a major role in the induction of SA-independent callose deposition. The relative importance of T3SPs in A. thaliana is correlated with their relative importance in the disease process on host plants, indicating that A. thaliana can be used as a model to study their role.

  2. AmyR is a novel negative regulator of amylovoran production in Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongping; Korban, Schuyler S; Pusey, P Lawrence; Zhao, Youfu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to understand the role of an orphan gene amyR in Erwinia amylovora, a functionally conserved ortholog of ybjN in Escherichia coli, which has recently been characterized. Amylovoran, a high molecular weight acidic heteropolymer exopolysaccharide, is a virulent factor of E. amylovora. As reported earlier, amylovoran production in an amyR knockout mutant was about eight-fold higher than that in the wild type (WT) strain of E. amylovora. When a multicopy plasmid containing the amyR gene was introduced into the amyR mutant or WT strains, amylovoran production was strongly inhibited. Furthermore, amylovoran production was also suppressed in various amylovoran-over-producing mutants, such as grrSA containing multicopies of the amyR gene. Consistent with amylovoran production, an inverse correlation was observed between in vitro expression of amyR and that of amylovoran biosynthetic genes. However, both the amyR knockout mutant and over-expression strains showed reduced levan production, another exopolysaccharide produced by E. amylovora. Virulence assays demonstrated that while the amyR mutant was capable of inducing slightly greater disease severity than that of the WT strain, strains over-expressing the amyR gene did not incite disease on apple shoots or leaves, and only caused reduced disease on immature pear fruits. Microarray studies revealed that amylovoran biosynthesis and related membrane protein-encoding genes were highly expressed in the amyR mutant, but down-regulated in the amyR over-expression strains in vitro. Down-regulation of amylovoran biosynthesis genes in the amyR over-expression strain partially explained why over-expression of amyR led to non-pathogenic or reduced virulence in vivo. These results suggest that AmyR plays an important role in regulating exopolysaccharide production, and thus virulence in E. amylovora.

  3. Erwinia amylovora CRISPR elements provide new tools for evaluating strain diversity and for microbial source tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Gayle C; Sundin, George W

    2012-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) comprise a family of short DNA repeat sequences that are separated by non repetitive spacer sequences and, in combination with a suite of Cas proteins, are thought to function as an adaptive immune system against invading DNA. The number of CRISPR arrays in a bacterial chromosome is variable, and the content of each array can differ in both repeat number and in the presence or absence of specific spacers. We utilized a comparative sequence analysis of CRISPR arrays of the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora to uncover previously unknown genetic diversity in this species. A total of 85 E. amylovora strains varying in geographic isolation (North America, Europe, New Zealand, and the Middle East), host range, plasmid content, and streptomycin sensitivity/resistance were evaluated for CRISPR array number and spacer variability. From these strains, 588 unique spacers were identified in the three CRISPR arrays present in E. amylovora, and these arrays could be categorized into 20, 17, and 2 patterns types, respectively. Analysis of the relatedness of spacer content differentiated most apple and pear strains isolated in the eastern U.S. from western U.S. strains. In addition, we identified North American strains that shared CRISPR genotypes with strains isolated on other continents. E. amylovora strains from Rubus and Indian hawthorn contained mostly unique spacers compared to apple and pear strains, while strains from loquat shared 79% of spacers with apple and pear strains. Approximately 23% of the spacers matched known sequences, with 16% targeting plasmids and 5% targeting bacteriophage. The plasmid pEU30, isolated in E. amylovora strains from the western U.S., was targeted by 55 spacers. Lastly, we used spacer patterns and content to determine that streptomycin-resistant strains of E. amylovora from Michigan were low in diversity and matched corresponding streptomycin-sensitive strains from the

  4. Molecular signature of differential virulence in natural isolates of Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongping; Korban, Schuyler S; Zhao, Youfu

    2010-02-01

    ABSTRACT Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight, is considered to be a genetically homogeneous species based on physiological, biochemical, phylogenetic, and genetic analysis. However, E. amylovora strains exhibiting differential virulence are isolated from nature. The exopolysaccharide amylovoran and type III secretion system (T3SS) are two major yet separate virulence factors in E. amylovora. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between E. amylovora virulence and levels of virulence gene expression. Four wild-type strains (Ea1189, Ea273, Ea110, and CFBP1430), widely used in studies of E. amylovora pathogenesis, have been analyzed and compared. E. amylovora strains Ea273 and Ea110 elicited higher severity of disease symptoms than those of Ea1189 and CFBP1430 on apple cv. Golden Delicious and G16 apple root stock plants but not on susceptible Gala plants. In addition, Ea273 and Ea110 elicited severe hypersensitive responses within shorter periods of time at lower inoculum concentrations than those of Ea1189 and CFBP1430 on tobacco plants. Further molecular analyses have revealed that amylovoran production and expression of both amylovoran (amsG) and T3SS (dspE and hrpL) genes were significantly higher in Ea273 and Ea110 than those in Ea1189 and CFBP1430. Other phenotypes such as swarming motility in these four strains also differed significantly. These results indicate that E. amylovora strains of different origin can be divided into subgroups based on molecular signatures of virulence gene expression. Therefore, these molecular signatures may be used to differentiate E. amylovora strains, which may have taxonomical and evolutionary implications.

  5. Erwinia amylovora CRISPR elements provide new tools for evaluating strain diversity and for microbial source tracking.

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    Gayle C McGhee

    Full Text Available Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs comprise a family of short DNA repeat sequences that are separated by non repetitive spacer sequences and, in combination with a suite of Cas proteins, are thought to function as an adaptive immune system against invading DNA. The number of CRISPR arrays in a bacterial chromosome is variable, and the content of each array can differ in both repeat number and in the presence or absence of specific spacers. We utilized a comparative sequence analysis of CRISPR arrays of the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora to uncover previously unknown genetic diversity in this species. A total of 85 E. amylovora strains varying in geographic isolation (North America, Europe, New Zealand, and the Middle East, host range, plasmid content, and streptomycin sensitivity/resistance were evaluated for CRISPR array number and spacer variability. From these strains, 588 unique spacers were identified in the three CRISPR arrays present in E. amylovora, and these arrays could be categorized into 20, 17, and 2 patterns types, respectively. Analysis of the relatedness of spacer content differentiated most apple and pear strains isolated in the eastern U.S. from western U.S. strains. In addition, we identified North American strains that shared CRISPR genotypes with strains isolated on other continents. E. amylovora strains from Rubus and Indian hawthorn contained mostly unique spacers compared to apple and pear strains, while strains from loquat shared 79% of spacers with apple and pear strains. Approximately 23% of the spacers matched known sequences, with 16% targeting plasmids and 5% targeting bacteriophage. The plasmid pEU30, isolated in E. amylovora strains from the western U.S., was targeted by 55 spacers. Lastly, we used spacer patterns and content to determine that streptomycin-resistant strains of E. amylovora from Michigan were low in diversity and matched corresponding streptomycin-sensitive strains

  6. PR genes of apple: identification and expression in response to elicitors and inoculation with Erwinia amylovora

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    Kim Jihyun F

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decade, much work has been done to dissect the molecular basis of the defence signalling pathway in plants known as Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR. Most of the work has been carried out in model species such as Arabidopsis, with little attention paid to woody plants. However within the range of species examined, components of the pathway seem to be highly conserved. In this study, we attempted to identify downstream components of the SAR pathway in apple to serve as markers for its activation. Results We identified three pathogenesis related (PR genes from apple, PR-2, PR-5 and PR-8, which are induced in response to inoculation with the apple pathogen, Erwinia amylovora, but they are not induced in young apple shoots by treatment with known elicitors of SAR in herbaceous plants. We also identified three PR-1-like genes from apple, PR-1a, PR-1b and PR-1c, based solely on sequence similarity to known PR-1 genes of model (intensively researched herbaceous plants. The PR-1-like genes were not induced in response to inoculation with E. amylovora or by treatment with elicitors; however, each showed a distinct pattern of expression. Conclusion Four PR genes from apple were partially characterized. PR-1a, PR-2, PR-5 and PR-8 from apple are not markers for SAR in young apple shoots. Two additional PR-1-like genes were identified through in-silico analysis of apple ESTs deposited in GenBank. PR-1a, PR-1b and PR-1c are not involved in defence response or SAR in young apple shoots; this conclusion differs from that reported previously for young apple seedlings.

  7. Genetic and virulence variability among Erwinia tracheiphila strains recovered from different cucurbit hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, E Saalau; Dixon, P M; Batzer, J C; Gleason, M L

    2013-09-01

    The causal agent of cucurbit bacterial wilt, Erwinia tracheiphila, has a wide host range in the family Cucurbitaceae, including economically important crops such as muskmelon (Cucumis melo), cucumber (C. sativus), and squash (Cucurbita spp.). Genetic variability of 69 E. tracheiphila strains was investigated by repetitive-element polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) using BOXA1R and ERIC1-2 primers. Fingerprint profiles revealed significant variability associated with crop host; strains isolated from Cucumis spp. were clearly distinguishable from Cucurbita spp.-isolated strains regardless of geographic origin. Twelve E. tracheiphila strains isolated from muskmelon, cucumber, or summer squash were inoculated onto muskmelon and summer squash seedlings, followed by incubation in a growth chamber. Wilt symptoms were assessed over 3 weeks, strains were reisolated, and rep-PCR profiles were compared with the inoculated strains. Wilting occurred significantly faster when seedlings were inoculated with strains that originated from the same crop host genus (P<0.001). In the first run of the experiment, cucumber and muskmelon strains caused wilting on muskmelon seedlings at a median of 7.8 and 5.6 days after inoculation (dai), respectively. Summer squash seedlings wilted 18.0, 15.7, and 5.7 dai when inoculated with muskmelon-, cucumber-, and squash-origin strains, respectively. In a second run of the experiment, cucumber and muskmelon strains caused wilting on muskmelon at 7.0 and 6.9 dai, respectively, whereas summer squash seedlings wilted at 23.6, 29.0 and 9.0 dai when inoculated with muskmelon-, cucumber-, and squash-origin strains, respectively. Our results provide the first evidence of genetic diversity within E. tracheiphila and suggest that strain specificity is associated with plant host. This advance is a first step toward understanding the genetic and population structure of E. tracheiphila.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of l-asparaginase from Erwinia carotovora

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    Wikman, Linnea E. K. [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku 20521 (Finland); Krasotkina, Julya; Kuchumova, Anastasia; Sokolov, Nikolay N. [Institute for Biomedical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 559-B, 10 Pogodinskay St, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation); Papageorgiou, Anastassios C., E-mail: tassos.papageorgiou@btk.fi [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku 20521 (Finland)

    2005-04-01

    Er. carotovoral-asparaginase, a potential antileukaemic agent, has been crystallized. Crystals diffract to 2.6 Å using a rotating-anode source and belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 78.0, b = 112.3, c = 78.7 Å, β = 101.9° and a homotetramer in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Bacterial l-asparaginases have been used as therapeutic agents in the treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia for over 30 y. However, their use is limited owing to the glutaminase activity of the administered enzymes, which results in serious side effects. In contrast, l-asparaginase from Erwinia carotovora exhibits low glutaminase activity at physiological concentrations of l-asparagine and l-glutamine in the blood. Recombinant Er. carotovoral-asparaginase was crystallized in the presence of l-glutamate by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 10 mg ml{sup −1} purified enzyme, 16–18%(w/v) PEG 3350 and 0.2 M NaF. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.6 Å at 293 K using an in-house rotating-anode generator. The crystals belong to the monoclinic P2{sub 1} space group, with unit-cell parameters a = 78.0, b = 112.3, c = 78.7 Å, β = 101.9° and a homotetramer in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. A molecular-replacement solution has been found and refinement is currently in progress. The crystal structure may provide leads towards protein-engineering efforts aimed at safer asparaginase administration in leukaemia treatment.

  9. Identification of gene-specific markers for resistance to Erwinia amylovora (fire blight) in Malus (apple) by a functional genomics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and other plants in the rose family (Rosaceae). 650 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) associated with fire blight were identified from Ea-challenged apple leaf tissue by suppression subtractive hybrid...

  10. Mutational analysis of a predicted double β-propeller domain of the DspA/E effector of Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siamer, Sabrina; Gaubert, Stéphane; Boureau, Tristan; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle; Barny, Marie-Anne

    2013-05-01

    The bacterium Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight, an invasive disease that threatens apple trees, pear trees and other plants of the Rosaceae family. Erwinia amylovora pathogenicity relies on a type III secretion system and on a single effector DspA/E. This effector belongs to the widespread AvrE family of effectors whose biological function is unknown. In this manuscript, we performed a bioinformatic analysis of DspA/E- and AvrE-related effectors. Motif search identified nuclear localization signals, peroxisome targeting signals, endoplasmic reticulum membrane retention signals and leucine zipper motifs, but none of these motifs were present in all the AvrE-related effectors analysed. Protein threading analysis, however, predicted a conserved double β-propeller domain in the N-terminal part of all the analysed effector sequences. We then performed a random pentapeptide mutagenesis of DspA/E, which led to the characterization of 13 new altered proteins with a five amino acids insertion. Eight harboured the insertion inside the predicted β-propeller domain and six of these eight insertions impaired DspA/E stability or function. Conversely, the two remaining insertions generated proteins that were functional and abundantly secreted in the supernatant suggesting that these two insertions stabilized the protein.

  11. Erwinia amylovora novel plasmid pEI70: complete sequence, biogeography, and role in aggressiveness in the fire blight phytopathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Llop

    Full Text Available Comparative genomics of several strains of Erwinia amylovora, a plant pathogenic bacterium causal agent of fire blight disease, revealed that its diversity is primarily attributable to the flexible genome comprised of plasmids. We recently identified and sequenced in full a novel 65.8 kb plasmid, called pEI70. Annotation revealed a lack of known virulence-related genes, but found evidence for a unique integrative conjugative element related to that of other plant and human pathogens. Comparative analyses using BLASTN showed that pEI70 is almost entirely included in plasmid pEB102 from E. billingiae, an epiphytic Erwinia of pome fruits, with sequence identities superior to 98%. A duplex PCR assay was developed to survey the prevalence of plasmid pEI70 and also that of pEA29, which had previously been described in several E. amylovora strains. Plasmid pEI70 was found widely dispersed across Europe with frequencies of 5-92%, but it was absent in E. amylovora analyzed populations from outside of Europe. Restriction analysis and hybridization demonstrated that this plasmid was identical in at least 13 strains. Curing E. amylovora strains of pEI70 reduced their aggressiveness on pear, and introducing pEI70 into low-aggressiveness strains lacking this plasmid increased symptoms development in this host. Discovery of this novel plasmid offers new insights into the biogeography, evolution and virulence determinants in E. amylovora.

  12. Molecular and physiological properties of bacteriophages from North America and Germany affecting the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ina; Lurz, Rudi; Kube, Michael; Quedenau, Claudia; Jelkmann, Wilhelm; Geider, Klaus

    2011-11-01

    For possible control of fire blight affecting apple and pear trees, we characterized Erwinia amylovora phages from North America and Germany. The genome size determined by electron microscopy (EM) was confirmed by sequence data and major coat proteins were identified from gel bands by mass spectroscopy. By their morphology from EM data, φEa1h and φEa100 were assigned to the Podoviridae and φEa104 and φEa116 to the Myoviridae. Host ranges were essentially confined to E. amylovora, strains of the species Erwinia pyrifoliae, E. billingiae and even Pantoea stewartii were partially sensitive. The phages φEa1h and φEa100 were dependent on the amylovoran capsule of E. amylovora, φEa104 and φEa116 were not. The Myoviridae efficiently lysed their hosts and protected apple flowers significantly better than the Podoviridae against E. amylovora and should be preferred in biocontrol experiments. We have also isolated and partially characterized E. amylovora phages from apple orchards in Germany. They belong to the Podoviridae or Myoviridae with a host range similar to the phages isolated in North America. In EM measurements, the genome sizes of the Podoviridae were smaller than the genomes of the Myoviridae from North America and from Germany, which differed from each other in corresponding nucleotide sequences.

  13. Erwinia amylovora novel plasmid pEI70: complete sequence, biogeography, and role in aggressiveness in the fire blight phytopathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Pablo; Cabrefiga, Jordi; Smits, Theo H M; Dreo, Tanja; Barbé, Silvia; Pulawska, Joanna; Bultreys, Alain; Blom, Jochen; Duffy, Brion; Montesinos, Emilio; López, María M

    2011-01-01

    Comparative genomics of several strains of Erwinia amylovora, a plant pathogenic bacterium causal agent of fire blight disease, revealed that its diversity is primarily attributable to the flexible genome comprised of plasmids. We recently identified and sequenced in full a novel 65.8 kb plasmid, called pEI70. Annotation revealed a lack of known virulence-related genes, but found evidence for a unique integrative conjugative element related to that of other plant and human pathogens. Comparative analyses using BLASTN showed that pEI70 is almost entirely included in plasmid pEB102 from E. billingiae, an epiphytic Erwinia of pome fruits, with sequence identities superior to 98%. A duplex PCR assay was developed to survey the prevalence of plasmid pEI70 and also that of pEA29, which had previously been described in several E. amylovora strains. Plasmid pEI70 was found widely dispersed across Europe with frequencies of 5-92%, but it was absent in E. amylovora analyzed populations from outside of Europe. Restriction analysis and hybridization demonstrated that this plasmid was identical in at least 13 strains. Curing E. amylovora strains of pEI70 reduced their aggressiveness on pear, and introducing pEI70 into low-aggressiveness strains lacking this plasmid increased symptoms development in this host. Discovery of this novel plasmid offers new insights into the biogeography, evolution and virulence determinants in E. amylovora.

  14. Gene-for-gene relationship in the host-pathogen system Malus × robusta 5-Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Isabelle; Wöhner, Thomas; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Sundin, George W; Wensing, Annette; Savory, Elizabeth A; Geider, Klaus; Day, Brad; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Peil, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Fire blight is a destructive bacterial disease caused by Erwinia amylovora affecting plants in the family Rosaceae, including apple. Host resistance to fire blight is present mainly in accessions of Malus spp. and is thought to be quantitative in this pathosystem. In this study we analyzed the importance of the E. amylovora effector avrRpt2(EA) , a homolog of Pseudomonas syringae avrRpt2, for resistance of Malus × robusta 5 (Mr5). The deletion mutant E. amylovora Ea1189ΔavrRpt2(EA) was able to overcome the fire blight resistance of Mr5. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), resulting in an exchange of cysteine to serine in the encoded protein, was detected in avrRpt2(EA) of several Erwinia strains differing in virulence to Mr5. E. amylovora strains encoding serine (S-allele) were able to overcome resistance of Mr5, whereas strains encoding cysteine (C-allele) were not. Allele specificity was also observed in a coexpression assay with Arabidopsis thaliana RIN4 in Nicotiana benthamiana. A homolog of RIN4 has been detected and isolated in Mr5. These results suggest a system similar to the interaction of RPS2 from A. thaliana and AvrRpt2 from P. syringae with RIN4 as guard. Our data are suggestive of a gene-for-gene relationship for the host-pathogen system Mr5 and E. amylovora.

  15. Production of isomaltulose obtained by Erwinia sp. cells submitted to different treatments and immobilized in calcium alginate

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    Haroldo Yukio Kawaguti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, there has been an increase in the studies of isomaltulose obtainment, due to its physicochemical properties and physiological health benefits. These properties, which include low cariogenicity, low glycemic index and greater stability, allow the use of this sweetener as a substitute for sucrose in foods; besides the fact that it can be converted to isomalt, a dietary non-cariogenic sugar alcohol used in pharmaceuticals as well as in the food industry. Isomaltulose (6-O-α-D-glucopyronosyl-1-6-D-fructofuranose is a disaccharide reducer obtained by the enzymatic conversion of sucrose - the α-glucosyltransferase enzyme. Different treatments were performed for the preparation of whole cells; lysed cells; and crude enzyme extract of Erwinia sp. D12 strain immobilized in calcium alginate. The packed bed column of granules, containing Erwinia sp. cells sonicated and immobilized in calcium alginate (CSI, reached a maximum conversion of 53-59% sucrose into isomaltulose and it presented activity for 480 hours. The converted syrup was purified and the isomaltulose crystallization was performed through the lowering of temperature. The isomaltulose crystals presented purity of 96.5%.

  16. Pathogenicity and infection strategies of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora in Rosaceae: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, K; Holtappels, M; Schoofs, H; Deckers, T; Valcke, R

    2013-05-01

    Plants are host to a large amount of pathogenic bacteria. Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is an important disease in Rosaceae. Pathogenicity of E. amylovora is greatly influenced by the production of exopolysaccharides, such as amylovoran, and the use of the type III secretion system, which enables bacteria to penetrate host tissue and cause disease. When infection takes place, plants have to rely on the ability of each cell to recognize the pathogen and the signals emanating from the infection site in order to generate several defence mechanisms. These mechanisms consist of physical barriers and the production of antimicrobial components, both in a preformed and an inducible manner. Inducible defence responses are activated upon the recognition of elicitor molecules by plant cell receptors, either derived from invading micro-organisms or from pathogen-induced degradation of plant tissue. This recognition event triggers a signal transduction cascade, leading to a range of defence responses [reactive oxygen species (ROS), plant hormones, secondary metabolites, …] and redeployment of cellular energy in a fast, efficient and multiresponsive manner, which prevents further pathogen ingress. This review highlights the research that has been performed during recent years regarding this specific plant-pathogen interaction between Erwinia amylovora and Rosaceae, with a special emphasis on the pathogenicity and the infection strategy of E. amylovora and the possible defence mechanisms of the plant against this disease.

  17. The Differences among Pear Genotypes to Fire Blight (Erwinia amylovora Attack, Based on Observations of Natural Infection

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    Adriana F. SESTRAS

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most damaging diseases of pear in the world. In Cluj-Napoca area, situated in central Transylvania, Romania, fire blight was observed first in 1994, very late comparative with the other countries from occidental Europe. The response of the pear cultivars and species from National Pear Collection from Cluj-Napoca to fire blight attack, assessed in natural conditions of infection, range on a large scale of variability, which denotes a strong influence of the genotype in expression of resistance or sensitivity to disease. From all genotypes, about 20.5% have not presented symptoms of attack, among them being the following: 'Blanquet precoce', 'Klementinka', 'Severianka', 'Beurre Bachelier', 'Kieffer Seedling', 'Er Shi Shinge', 'Beurre Amanlis', 'Bristol Cross', 'Beurre Liegel', 'Beurre Lucon', 'Grand Champion', 'Magness', 'Mericourt' etc. and several ancient autochthonous cultivars ('Pere malaiete', 'De zahar de Bihor', 'Cu miez rosu', 'Clopotele', 'Garoafa mare', 'Craiese', 'Para de apa'. Also, there were identified several species of Pyrus with no attack, as P. pollveria, P. common pear, P. lindlezi, P. malifolia, P. persica, P. ussuriensis, P. variolosa. The remarked genotypes could be potential sources for further breeding programmes and increase the number of genotypes available for breeding new pear cultivars resistant to Erwinia attack.

  18. Epidemia de febre clássica de dengue causada pelo sorotipo 2 em Araguaiana, Tocantins, Brasil Dengue epidemic, serotype 2, in Araguaina, Tocantins, Brazil

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    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Registramos a ocorrência de epidemia de dengue causada pelo sorotipo 2 (DEN 2 na cidade de Araguaina, estado do Tocantins (TO situado no Brasil central. Quatrocentos indíviduos de 74 famílias, residentes nos bairros S. João, Araguaina Sul e Neblina foram entrevistados e sangrados, independentemente de terem adoecido ou não. Os soros tanto de adultos quanto de crianças de ambos os sexos foram usados para pesquisa de anticorpos inibidores da hemaglutinação (IH e IgM através de ensaio imunoenzimático (MAC ELISA. Nas casas onde haviam doentes no momento do inquérito, sangue total também foi colhido para tentativa de isolamento de vírus. O quadro clínico apresentado pelos pacientes foi caracterizado por febre, cefaléia, mialgias, artralgias e exantema do tipo máculo-papular não pruriginoso. A infecção foi mais frequente em mulheres (33.9% do que nos homens (23.8%, ocorrendo em todas as faixas etárias, inclusive em crianças com menos de um ano de idade, bem como em maiores de 70 anos. Um total de 1105 mosquitos (56 fêmeas e 45 machos de Culex quinquefasciatus e 567 fêmeas e 437 machos de Aedes aegypti foram obtidos a partir de larvas coletadas em Araguaina. As fêmeas de Ae. aegypti obtidas das larvas fizeram repasto sangüíneo em 8 pacientes febris. O diagnóstico laboratorial foi feito por isolamento de vírus (cultura de células de Aedes albopictus, clone C6/36 e por sorologia (IH e MAC ELISA. Foram isoladas 5 amostras de DEN 2 de pacientes febris e tipadas por imunofluorescência indireta usando anticorpos monoclonais de dengue. Nenhuma amostra viral foi isolada de mosquitos. Outrossim, comprovou-se infecção em 111 pessoas sangradas, o que revelou um índice de positividade de 27.75% (111 em 400, sendo que 66.2% das famílias estudadas apresentaram pelo menos um indivíduo positivo. Ocorreram ainda, 26.1% de infecções assintomáti-cas. Por outro lado, a correlação de positividade entre os dois testes usados (IH e MAC

  19. Choque séptico por ehrliquiosis

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    Viviana Hernández-de Mezerville

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available La ehrliquiosis humana es una infección zoonótica transmitida por "garrapatas duras" causada por Anaplasma sp y Ehrlichia sp. Puede presentarse como un cuadro pseudogripal con fiebre, malestar general, mialgias y cefalea o hasta un choque séptico con falla multiorgánica y muerte. La mitad de los pacientes requieren atención hospitalaria en algún momento y se reporta una mortalidad de hasta el 5% secundaria a enfermedades oportunistas o a hemorragias. El diagnóstico se puede sospechar visualizando las mórulas intracitoplasmáticas en las células afectadas en frotis de sangre periférica, y se confirma con serología, con cultivos o con detección molecular. El tratamiento de elección es la doxiciclina con buena respuesta clínica. Se reporta un caso probable de ehrliquiosis humana asociado a choque séptico y falla multiorgánica tratado exitosamente en el Hospital Dr. Rafael Angel Calderón Guardia.Human ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by Anaplasma sp and Ehrlichia sp. The presentation can range from a flu-like syndrome with fever, malaise, myalgia and headache to a septic shock state with multiorganic dysfunction. Half the patients require in- hospital care and the mortality rate is 5% as a result of opportunistic infections or hemorrhage. The diagnosis can be made by the visualization of intracytoplasmatic morulae in the blood smear, serology, cultives or polymerase chain reaction. The treatment of choice is doxycicline and generally carries a good response. We report a case of human ehrlichiosis associated with septic shock and multiorganic dysfunction successfully treated at the Calderon Guardia Hospital.

  20. Ações de enfermagem na prevenção de úlceras por pressão em UTI

    OpenAIRE

    Pestana, Margareth Pereira; Vieira, Rosemeire dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    A úlcera por pressão é caracterizada por uma lesão da pele causada pela associação de fatores internos e externos após um período de fluxo sanguíneo deficiente. Este artigo teve como objetivo identificar na literatura científica as ações de enfermagem na prevenção de úlceras por pressão em UTI. O delineamento da pesquisa foi orientado pelos seguintes critérios nas Bases de Dados de Pesquisa da Lilacs, utilizando os descritores: ulcera de pressão, ulcera de decúbito, ulcera por pressão, unidad...

  1. Functional Characterization of Twin-arginine Translocation Gene (tatC) from Erwinia amylovora%梨火疫病菌(Erwinia amylovora)双精氨酸运输系统基因(tatC)的功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洋洋; 刘倩倩; 徐恩丽; 胡白石

    2011-01-01

    Erwinia amylovom causes fire blight on many plants of the Rosaceae family such as apple and pear. The Twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway plays a crucial role in transporting the proteins which are related to virulence. In this study, a tatC disruption mutant EaAtatC was successfully constructed by homologous recombination as well as the complement strain EaAtatC (pME-tatC). The results showed that the tatC mutant EaAtafC displayed the reduced virulence, extracellular polysaccharide production, chemotaxis, motility, flagella assembly and growth in vitro. However, compared to wild type strain NCPPB1665 (Eal665), the induction of hypersensitive response in nonhost tobacco, biofilm synthesis and cellulose production of the tatC mutant EaAtalC didn't show significant difference. These findings demonstrate that tatC gene in Erwinia amylovora is involved in growth, and motility and play an important role in virulence.%梨火疫病菌(Erwinia amylovora)可引起梨、苹果等蔷薇科植物的火疫病.双精氨酸运输系统(Tat)与致病相关蛋白的转运有特定的联系.本研究在梨火疫病菌全基因组中发现了同源基因,通过同源重组的方法,构建了梨火疫病菌的tatC基因突变体以及互补子.研究结果表明,tatC基因影响着梨火疫病菌的致病性、胞外多糖、鞭毛运动、游动性、趋化性、生长情况等多种生物学特性.然而,Ea△tatC仍能引起烟草过敏性反应,并且在胞外纤维素和生物膜的生成方面与野生型菌株相比没有明显差异.说明梨火疫病菌tatC基因对病菌的生长、游动性以及致病性方面具有关键作用.

  2. Characterization of Streptomycin Resistance in Isolates of Erwinia amylovora in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Helga; McGhee, Gayle C; Sundin, George W; Adaskaveg, James E

    2015-10-01

    In surveys from 2006 to 2014, streptomycin resistance in Erwinia amylovora from pear-growing areas in California declined from very high incidence in 2006 and 2007 to very low incidence in 2013 and 2014. The majority of resistant strains were designated as moderately resistant-low (MR-L), and were almost exclusively found in Sacramento County, whereas highly resistant (HR) strains were only recovered in Sutter-Yuba and San Joaquin counties. Resistance of HR strains was associated with a mutation in codon 43 of the chromosomal rpsL gene that results in a change from lysine to arginine, the same mutation that was originally reported for resistant strains from California in the mid-1970s. MR-L strains were found to harbor the strA-strB streptomycin resistance genes on transposon Tn5393a. This transposon lacks insertion sequence IS1133 that provides a promoter for efficient expression of strA-strB, resulting in lower minimum inhibitory concentrations of MR-L strains compared with those from other locations that harbor strA-strB on Tn5393::IS1133. In contrast to previously described plasmid-mediated resistance where Tn5393 is inserted in pEa34, or pEA29, Tn5393a in MR-L strains was located on plasmid pEU30. This plasmid was first described in E. amylovora from the western United States but was not associated with streptomycin resistance determinants previously. We hypothesize that Tn5393a was introduced into an E. amylovora strain carrying pEU30 and transposed into that plasmid. This hypothesis was supported by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) sequence analysis that showed that two MR-L strains share the same CRISPR1 pattern as a streptomycin-sensitive strain. With current low resistance levels in California growing regions, streptomycin could be successfully used again, but applications per season should be limited and the antibiotic should be mixed and rotated with different modes of action.

  3. Erwinia carotovora elicitors and Botrytis cinerea activate defense responses in Physcomitrella patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentancor Marcel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular plants respond to pathogens by activating a diverse array of defense mechanisms. Studies with these plants have provided a wealth of information on pathogen recognition, signal transduction and the activation of defense responses. However, very little is known about the infection and defense responses of the bryophyte, Physcomitrella patens, to well-studied phytopathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine: i whether two representative broad host range pathogens, Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora (E.c. carotovora and Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea, could infect Physcomitrella, and ii whether B. cinerea, elicitors of a harpin (HrpN producing E.c. carotovora strain (SCC1 or a HrpN-negative strain (SCC3193, could cause disease symptoms and induce defense responses in Physcomitrella. Results B. cinerea and E.c. carotovora were found to readily infect Physcomitrella gametophytic tissues and cause disease symptoms. Treatments with B. cinerea spores or cell-free culture filtrates from E.c. carotovoraSCC1 (CF(SCC1, resulted in disease development with severe maceration of Physcomitrella tissues, while CF(SCC3193 produced only mild maceration. Although increased cell death was observed with either the CFs or B. cinerea, the occurrence of cytoplasmic shrinkage was only visible in Evans blue stained protonemal cells treated with CF(SCC1 or inoculated with B. cinerea. Most cells showing cytoplasmic shrinkage accumulated autofluorescent compounds and brown chloroplasts were evident in a high proportion of these cells. CF treatments and B. cinerea inoculation induced the expression of the defense-related genes: PR-1, PAL, CHS and LOX. Conclusion B. cinerea and E.c. carotovora elicitors induce a defense response in Physcomitrella, as evidenced by enhanced expression of conserved plant defense-related genes. Since cytoplasmic shrinkage is the most common morphological change observed in plant PCD, and that harpins and B

  4. Diversidad morfo-genética de Cercospora en soja. Detección precoz de la infección por Cercospora kikuchii

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre Rapela, María Gabriela de los Milagros

    2015-01-01

    Entre los agentes causales de enfermedades infecciosas en la soja, las especies del género Cercospora constituyen un problema importante. El tizón de la hoja y la mancha púrpura de la semilla causada por Cercospora kikuchii y la mancha ojo de rana producida por Cercospora sojina, reducen el valor nutricional de la planta y provocan severo deterioro de las cosechas. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron el aislamiento de las especies de Cercospora que ocasionaron patología en las plantas de soj...

  5. Onicomicose por Scytalidium spp.: estudo clínico-epidemiológico em um hospital universitário do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    CURSI, Ígor Brum; FREITAS, Letícia Bastos da Cunha Rodrigues de; NEVES, Maria de Lourdes Palermo Fernandes; SILVA, Ione Carlos da

    2011-01-01

    FUNDAMENTOS: O Scytalidium spp. é fungo filamentoso, saprobio do solo e plantas, considerado, atualmente, patógeno primário das unhas. A prevalência das infecções ungueais causadas por este fungo vem aumentando nas últimas décadas, embora ainda sejam poucos os trabalhos publicados sobre sua epidemiologia. OBJETIVO: Estudo clínico-epidemiológico dos pacientes portadores de onicomicose por Scytalidium spp. em um hospital universitário do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados os dados clínico...

  6. Efecto del estrés por sequía en el desarrollo de la antracnosis en tres ecotipos de stylosanthes spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Nuñez Luis E.; Lenne Jilliam M.; Toledo José M.

    2010-01-01

    En condiciones de invernadero, se evaluó el efecto del estrés por segura sobre la incidencia y severidad de antracnosis, causada por C. gloesporioides en S. guianensis var. guianensis CIAT 136, var pauciflora CIAT 1283 y S. capitata CIAT 1315; al mismo tiempo se estudió las diferentes respuestas morfológicas y fisiológicas de los tres ecotipos bajo déficit de agua en el suelo y presión del patógeno. Los ecotipos de Stylosanthes estudiados no solo toleran la deshidratación (- 26 bares) sino ta...

  7. Diagnostico por PCR del complejo Sigatoka en Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Magally

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Las Sigatokas negra y amarilla son enfermedades causadas por Mycosphaerella fijiensis y Mycosphaerella musicola respectivamente. Estas dos especies de hongos estrechamente relacionadas y morfológicamente similares, causan necrosis severa en las hojas de banano y plátano disminuyendo el área de tejido fotosintético y acelerando la maduración del fruto. Las enfermedades producidas por estos hongos afectan la mayoría de las áreas cultivadas de banano y plátano a nivel mundial, generando un gran problema económico y ambiental. Los síntomas que produce cada uno de estos patógenos en el cultivo son similares, por lo que su correcta identificación en campo se hace difícil. Con el fin de hacer una identificación precisa de cada uno de ellos decidimos estandarizar una prueba diagnóstica basada en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR utilizando dos oligonucleótidos de 21 bases (MF 137 y MM 137 específicos para cada una de las especies M. fijiensis y M. musicola respectivamente. MF 137 y MM 137 codifican regiones variables identificadas en las secuencias interespaciadoras (ITS del DNA ribosomal.

  8. Fagoterapia frente a infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente en ratones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús H Tamariz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la actividad de los bacteriófagos frente a infecciones localizadas y sistémicas producidas por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (MRSA Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de tipo experimental en 45 ratones de la cepa Balb/c divididos en nueve grupos de cinco individuos. Se aislaron diez bacteriófagos nativos a partir de muestras clínicas y efluentes hospitalarios, se evaluó su capacidad lítica y su espectro de actividad, en base a lo cual se seleccionaron seis fagos para los ensayos de fagoterapia. Adicionalmente, se empleó un bacteriófago de origen comercial. La fagoterapia fue evaluada mediante profilaxis y terapia de infecciones localizadas y sistémicas causadas por la inoculación de MRSA por vía subcutánea y endovenosa respectivamente. Se probó la efectividad de tres esquemas terapéuticos: monoterapia, cóctel de fagos en múltiples dosis y de cóctel de fagos en una sola dosis. También se comparó la actividad terapéutica de los fagos frente a vancomicina y clindamicina. Resultados. El cóctel de fagos y la terapia a diversas dosis fueron efectivos para prevenir y controlar infecciones localizadas por MRSA, su actividad fue similar a la de vancomicina y clindamicina. La dosis única del cóctel de fagos no logró controlar la infección localizada; asimismo, la fagoterapia no resultó efectiva en infecciones sistémicas. Conclusiones. La fagoterapia se proyecta como una alternativa viable frente a infecciones causadas por MRSA. Se requieren estudios que evalúen aspectos relacionados con la inocuidad de los fagos frente al paciente

  9. Fagoterapia frente a infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente en ratones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús H Tamariz

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la actividad de los bacteriófagos frente a infecciones localizadas y sistémicas producidas por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (MRSA Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de tipo experimental en 45 ratones de la cepa Balb/c divididos en nueve grupos de cinco individuos. Se aislaron diez bacteriófagos nativos a partir de muestras clínicas y efluentes hospitalarios, se evaluó su capacidad lítica y su espectro de actividad, en base a lo cual se seleccionaron seis fagos para los ensayos de fagoterapia. Adicionalmente, se empleó un bacteriófago de origen comercial. La fagoterapia fue evaluada mediante profilaxis y terapia de infecciones localizadas y sistémicas causadas por la inoculación de MRSA por vía subcutánea y endovenosa respectivamente. Se probó la efectividad de tres esquemas terapéuticos: monoterapia, cóctel de fagos en múltiples dosis y de cóctel de fagos en una sola dosis. También se comparó la actividad terapéutica de los fagos frente a vancomicina y clindamicina. Resultados. El cóctel de fagos y la terapia a diversas dosis fueron efectivos para prevenir y controlar infecciones localizadas por MRSA, su actividad fue similar a la de vancomicina y clindamicina. La dosis única del cóctel de fagos no logró controlar la infección localizada; asimismo, la fagoterapia no resultó efectiva en infecciones sistémicas. Conclusiones. La fagoterapia se proyecta como una alternativa viable frente a infecciones causadas por MRSA. Se requieren estudios que evalúen aspectos relacionados con la inocuidad de los fagos frente al paciente

  10. Functional Characterization of Cyclic Adenosine Monphosphate (cAMP)Recptor Protein Gene (crp) from Erwinia amylovora%梨火疫菌(Erwinia amylovora)环腺苷酸受体蛋白基因(crp)的功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩倩; 于洋洋; 宋俊贤; 胡白石; 范加勤; 刘凤权

    2010-01-01

    梨火疫菌(Erwinia amylovora)可引起梨、苹果等蔷薇科(Rosaceae)植物的火疫病.在菊欧文氏菌(Erwinia chrysanthemi)中,由crp基因编码的环腺苷酸受体蛋白(cyclic adenosine monphosphate(cAMP)receptor protein,CRP)对果胶酶基因的表达调控和菌株致病性起着重要的作用.本研究首次鉴定并克隆出梨火疫菌中的crp同源基因,命名为Eacrp,并通过同源重组的方法,构建了梨火疫菌的crp基因突变体Ea△crp以及互补子,进行了致病性、过敏性反应、胞外多糖、鞭毛运动等一系列相关表型的鉴定.结果表明,crp基因影响着梨火疫菌的致病性、胞外多糖、游动性、生长情况等多种生物学特性,然而,Ea△crp仍能引起烟草过敏性反应,并且在过氧化氢敏感度以及沉降性、生物膜和AI-2信号分子的生成方面与野生型菌株相比差异明显.本研究结果说明,梨火疫菌crp基因对病菌的胞外多糖分泌、生长、游动性以及致病性方面具有关键作用.

  11. Pigmentos lipossolúveis e hidrossolúveis em plantas de salvínia sob toxicidade por cromo

    OpenAIRE

    P.F. Pereira; F. Antunes; Braga, V. F.; C. F. Resende; Ribeiro, C.; Peixoto,P.H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Devido à intensa utilização industrial, o cromo é considerado um importante poluente ambiental. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar os teores de pigmentos hidro e lipossolúveis em plantas de salvínia expostas a concentrações crescentes de Cr, visando estabelecer parâmetros bioquímicos para utilização dessa macrófita em programas de biomonitoramento e/ou fitorremediação da poluição causada por esse poluente metálico em ambientes aquáticos. As plantas foram submetidas a concentrações cresc...

  12. EVALUACION DEL DAÑO OXIDATIVO INDUCIDO POR LOS RADICALES PEROXILOS HIDROSOLUBLES SOBRE PROTEINAS DEL GLOBO OCUALR

    OpenAIRE

    ARENAS LISSI, ANDREA BEATRIZ; ARENAS LISSI; ANDREA BEATRIZ

    2013-01-01

    En esta tesis se estudiaron las modificaciones tanto químicas como estructurales de diferentes proteínas presentes en el globo ocular (lisozima, glucosa 6-fosfato deshidrogenasa y proteína de lente de bovino) causadas por la acción de los radicales peroxilos generados a partir de la termólisis del cloro hidrato de 2,2'azobis(amidinopropano) en presencia de oxígeno. El estudio de los geles de poliacrilamida, dieron cuenta de la ocurrencia de entrecruzamiento y fraccionamiento proteico...

  13. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of EaLsc, a levansucrase from Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Lorenzo; Cianci, Michele; Benini, Stefano

    2013-05-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora is a destructive pathogen of Rosaceae. During infection, E. amylovora produces the exopolysaccharide levan, which contributes to the occlusion of plant vessels, causing the wilting of shoots. Levan is a fructose polymer that is synthesized by multifunctional enzymes called levansucrases. The levansucrase from E. amylovora (EaLsc) was heterologously expressed as a GST-fusion protein in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized after tag removal. The protein crystallized in space group P21212. X-ray diffraction data were acquired to 2.77 Å resolution. The structure of the enzyme was solved by molecular replacement. The asymmetric unit contains eight enzyme molecules, giving a solvent content of 58.74% and a Matthews coefficient of 2.98 Å(3) Da(-1).

  14. Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi (Erwinaze®): a guide to its use in acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Gillian M

    2013-08-01

    Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi (Erwinaze®) is approved in the USA for use in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who have developed hypersensitivity to Escherichia coli-derived asparaginase. The approved regimen of intramuscular Erwinaze® was associated with sustained, clinically meaningful asparaginase activity in patients with ALL who had to discontinue treatment with pegaspargase (a pegylated formulation of E. coli asparaginase) because of hypersensitivity. Another study revealed that development of E. coli-derived asparaginase allergy and a switch to Erwinaze® maintained event-free survival in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed ALL. In a multicenter, compassionate-use trial, Erwinaze® was generally well tolerated, with the most commonly occurring adverse events including hypersensitivity, pancreatitis, fever, hyperglycemia, and increased transaminase levels. Subclinical hypersensitivity may result in the inactivation of asparaginase and affect treatment outcome; monitoring of serum asparaginase levels may be used to identify subclinical hypersensitivity.

  15. Genome comparison of the epiphytic bacteria Erwinia billingiae and E. tasmaniensis with the pear pathogen E. pyrifoliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhl Heiner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Erwinia includes plant-associated pathogenic and non-pathogenic Enterobacteria. Important pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, the causative agent of fire blight and E. pyrifoliae causing bacterial shoot blight of pear in Asia belong to this genus. The species E. tasmaniensis and E. billingiae are epiphytic bacteria and may represent antagonists for biocontrol of fire blight. The presence of genes that are putatively involved in virulence in E. amylovora and E. pyrifoliae is of special interest for these species in consequence. Results Here we provide the complete genome sequences of the pathogenic E. pyrifoliae strain Ep1/96 with a size of 4.1 Mb and of the non-pathogenic species E. billingiae strain Eb661 with a size of 5.4 Mb, de novo determined by conventional Sanger sequencing and next generation sequencing techniques. Genome comparison reveals large inversions resulting from homologous recombination events. Furthermore, comparison of deduced proteins highlights a relation of E. billingiae strain Eb661 to E. tasmaniensis strain Et1/99 and a distance to E. pyrifoliae for the overall gene content as well as for the presence of encoded proteins representing virulence factors for the pathogenic species. Pathogenicity of E. pyrifoliae is supposed to have evolved by accumulation of potential virulence factors. E. pyrifoliae carries factors for type III secretion and cell invasion. Other genes described as virulence factors for E. amylovora are involved in the production of exopolysaccharides, the utilization of plant metabolites such as sorbitol and sucrose. Some virulence-associated genes of the pathogenic species are present in E. tasmaniensis but mostly absent in E. billingiae. Conclusion The data of the genome analyses correspond to the pathogenic lifestyle of E. pyrifoliae and underlines the epiphytic localization of E. tasmaniensis and E. billingiae as a saprophyte.

  16. Complete genome sequence of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia pyrifoliae DSM 12163T and comparative genomic insights into plant pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frey Jürg E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Erwinia pyrifoliae is a newly described necrotrophic pathogen, which causes fire blight on Asian (Nashi pear and is geographically restricted to Eastern Asia. Relatively little is known about its genetics compared to the closely related main fire blight pathogen E. amylovora. Results The genome of the type strain of E. pyrifoliae strain DSM 12163T, was sequenced using both 454 and Solexa pyrosequencing and annotated. The genome contains a circular chromosome of 4.026 Mb and four small plasmids. Based on their respective role in virulence in E. amylovora or related organisms, we identified several putative virulence factors, including type III and type VI secretion systems and their effectors, flagellar genes, sorbitol metabolism, iron uptake determinants, and quorum-sensing components. A deletion in the rpoS gene covering the most conserved region of the protein was identified which may contribute to the difference in virulence/host-range compared to E. amylovora. Comparative genomics with the pome fruit epiphyte Erwinia tasmaniensis Et1/99 showed that both species are overall highly similar, although specific differences were identified, for example the presence of some phage gene-containing regions and a high number of putative genomic islands containing transposases in the E. pyrifoliae DSM 12163T genome. Conclusions The E. pyrifoliae genome is an important addition to the published genome of E. tasmaniensis and the unfinished genome of E. amylovora providing a foundation for re-sequencing additional strains that may shed light on the evolution of the host-range and virulence/pathogenicity of this important group of plant-associated bacteria.

  17. Genetic characterization of the HrpL regulon of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora reveals novel virulence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, R Ryan; Toth, Ian K; Cock, Peter J A; Pritchard, Leighton; Hedley, Pete E; Morris, Jenny A; Zhao, Youfu; Sundin, George W

    2012-02-01

    The bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight, an economically significant disease of apple and pear. Disease initiation by E. amylovora requires the translocation of effector proteins into host cells via the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) type III secretion system (T3SS). The alternative sigma factor HrpL positively regulates the transcription of structural and translocated components of the T3SS via hrp promoter elements. To characterize genome-wide HrpL-dependent gene expression in E. amylovora Ea1189, wild-type and Ea1189ΔhrpL strains were cultured in hrp-inducing minimal medium, and total RNA was compared using a custom microarray designed to represent the annotated genes of E. amylovora ATCC 49946. The results revealed 24 genes differentially regulated in Ea1189ΔhrpL relative to Ea1189 with fold-change expression ratios greater than 1.5; of these, 19 genes exhibited decreased transcript abundance and five genes showed increased transcript abundance relative to Ea1189. To expand our understanding of the HrpL regulon and to elucidate direct versus indirect HrpL-mediated effects on gene expression, the genome of E. amylovora ATCC 49946 was examined in silico using a hidden Markov model assembled from known Erwinia spp. hrp promoters. This technique identified 15 putative type III novel hrp promoters, seven of which were validated with quantitative polymerase chain reaction based on expression analyses. It was found that HrpL-regulated genes encode all known components of the hrp T3SS, as well as five putative type III effectors. Eight genes displayed apparent indirect HrpL regulation, suggesting that the HrpL regulon is connected to downstream signalling networks. The construction of deletion mutants of three novel HrpL-regulated genes resulted in the identification of additional virulence factors as well as mutants displaying abnormal motility and biofilm phenotypes.

  18. Microepidemia familiar por Trichophyton tonsurans Trichophyton tonsurans in a family microepidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia Pereira Salci; Maria Aparecida Salci; Sonia Silva Marcon; Paulo Hércules Biagi Salineiro; Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans é um fungo dermatófito antropofílico de alta transmissibilidade que invade tecidos queratinizados. Relatamos um caso de microepidemia familiar causada por esse dermatófito no qual, apesar das ótimas condições de higiene, o fungo se manteve viável por vários anos, disseminando-se para todos os membros da família. A hipótese de que estivesse sendo mantido na residência da família foi confirmada após análise de amostras do domicílio, em que foram isoladas e identificadas c...

  19. Lesões em linfonodos de suínos causados por Mycobacterium grupo III (Runyon)

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso,Marisa Ribeiro de Itapema; Bortolozzo,Fernando Pandolfo; Fernandes, Rejane Esteves; Wentz, Ivo; P. E. Bennemann; Borowski,Sandra Maria; Migliavacca, Flauri Ademir

    2000-01-01

    Condenações de suínos no momento do abate devido a lesões tuberculóides causadas por micobactérias são descritas em diversos países, inclusive no Brasil. No presente trabalho, 146 animais de idades variando entre 2,5 e > 14 meses, provenientes de uma propriedade com problema de condenações por tuberculose foram abatidos e os linfonodos examinados quanto ao tipo de lesão macro e microscópica e à presença de micobactérias. Ao mesmo tempo, a ração, a água e a maravalha utilizadas na propriedade ...

  20. Effect of concentration and substrate flow rate on isomaltulose production from sucrose by Erwinia sp. cells immobilized in calcium-alginate using packed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguti, Haroldo Yukio; Harumi Sato, Hélia

    2010-09-01

    Isomaltulose was obtained from sucrose solution by immobilized cells of Erwinia sp. D12 using a batch and a continuous process. Parameters for sucrose conversion into isomaltulose were evaluated using both experimental design and response surface methodology. Erwinia sp. D12 cells were immobilized in different alginates, and the influence of substrate flow rate and concentration parameters to produce isomaltulose from sucrose were observed. Response surface methodology demonstrated that packed bed columns containing cells immobilized in low-viscosity sodium alginate (250 cP) presented a mean isomaltulose conversion rate of 47%. In a continuous process, both sucrose substrate concentration and substrate flow rate parameters had a significant effect (p < 0.05) and influenced the conversion of sucrose into isomaltulose. Higher conversion rates of sucrose into isomaltulose, from 53-75% were obtained using 75 g of immobilized cells at a substrate flow rate of 0.6 mL/min.

  1. Avaliação da poluição ambiental causada por particulado de chumbo emitido por uma reformadora de baterias na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Lorena Quiterio

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, determinou-se o teor de chumbo (Pb presente no ar ao redor de uma reformadora de baterias, antes e após da instalação do sistema de exaustão. Na área externa à reformadora de baterias, as amostras foram coletadas em seis e quatro pontos localizados a aproximadamente 25m e 500m, respectivamente, da reformadora de baterias. Os resultados obtidos mostram que o limite para Pb no ar atmosférico de 1,5µg Pb.m-3 foi excedido em 50% nas amostras coletadas, variando de 0,07 a 183,3µg Pb.m-3. Assim, após algumas modificações na distribuição das atividades no interior da reformadora de baterias e a colocação do sistema de exaustão foram selecionados três pontos de coleta, que correspondiam àqueles mais críticos encontrados nas avaliações anteriores do ar externo. As novas concentrações de chumbo variaram de 0,8 a 17,6µg Pb.m-3, demonstrando que houve uma significativa redução dos níveis de chumbo emitidos para o ambiente após a instalação do sistema de exaustão.

  2. Avaliação da poluição ambiental causada por particulado de chumbo emitido por uma reformadora de baterias na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiterio Simone Lorena

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, determinou-se o teor de chumbo (Pb presente no ar ao redor de uma reformadora de baterias, antes e após da instalação do sistema de exaustão. Na área externa à reformadora de baterias, as amostras foram coletadas em seis e quatro pontos localizados a aproximadamente 25m e 500m, respectivamente, da reformadora de baterias. Os resultados obtidos mostram que o limite para Pb no ar atmosférico de 1,5µg Pb.m-3 foi excedido em 50% nas amostras coletadas, variando de 0,07 a 183,3µg Pb.m-3. Assim, após algumas modificações na distribuição das atividades no interior da reformadora de baterias e a colocação do sistema de exaustão foram selecionados três pontos de coleta, que correspondiam àqueles mais críticos encontrados nas avaliações anteriores do ar externo. As novas concentrações de chumbo variaram de 0,8 a 17,6µg Pb.m-3, demonstrando que houve uma significativa redução dos níveis de chumbo emitidos para o ambiente após a instalação do sistema de exaustão.

  3. The outer membrane protein TolC is required for phytoalexin resistance and virulence of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Summary Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight on several plant species such as apple and pear, which produce diverse phytoalexins as defence mechanisms. An evolutionary successful pathogen thus must develop resistance mechanisms towards these toxic compounds. The E. amylovora outer membrane protein, TolC, might mediate phytoalexin resistance through its interaction with the multidrug efflux pump, AcrAB. To prove this, a tolC mutant and an acrB/tolC double mutant were constructed. The minimal i...

  4. Comparative analysis of the Hrp pathogenicity island of Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infecting Erwinia amylovora strains identifies the IT region as a remnant of an integrative conjugative element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Rachel A; Blom, Jochen; Bühlmann, Andreas; Plummer, Kim M; Beer, Steven V; Luck, Joanne E; Goesmann, Alexander; Frey, Jürg E; Rodoni, Brendan C; Duffy, Brion; Smits, Theo H M

    2012-08-01

    The Hrp pathogenicity island (hrpPAI) of Erwinia amylovora not only encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS) and other genes required for pathogenesis on host plants, but also includes the so-called island transfer (IT) region, a region that originates from an integrative conjugative element (ICE). Comparative genomic analysis of the IT regions of two Spiraeoideae- and three Rubus-infecting strains revealed that the regions in Spiraeoideae-infecting strains were syntenic and highly conserved in length and genetic information, but that the IT regions of the Rubus-infecting strains varied in gene content and length, showing a mosaic structure. None of the ICEs in E. amylovora strains were complete, as conserved ICE genes and the left border were missing, probably due to reductive genome evolution. Comparison of the hrpPAI region of E. amylovora strains to syntenic regions from other Erwinia spp. indicates that the hrpPAI and the IT regions are the result of several insertion and deletion events that have occurred within the ICE. It also suggests that the T3SS was present in a common ancestor of the pathoadapted Erwinia spp. and that insertion and deletion events in the IT region occurred during speciation.

  5. The hexA gene of Erwinia carotovora encodes a LysR homologue and regulates motility and the expression of multiple virulence determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S J; Shih, Y L; Bentley, S D; Salmond, G P

    1998-05-01

    We have identified a gene important for the regulation of exoenzyme virulence factor synthesis in the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora (Ecc) and virulence and motility in Erwinia carotovora ssp. atroseptica (Eca). This gene, hexA (hyperproduction of exoenzymes), is a close relative of the Erwinia chrysanthemi (Echr) gene pecT and encodes a member of the LysR family of transcriptional regulators. hexA mutants in both Ecc and Eca produce abnormally high levels of the exoenzyme virulence factors pectate lyase, cellulase and protease. In addition, Eca hexA mutants show increased expression of the fliA and fliC genes and hypermotility. Consistent with a role as a global regulator, expression of hexA from even a low-copy plasmid can suppress exoenzyme production in Ecc and Eca and motility in Eca. Production of the quorum-sensing pheromone OHHL in Ecc hexA is higher throughout the growth curve compared with the wild-type strain. Overexpression of Ecc hexA also caused widespread effects in several strains of the opportunistic human pathogen, Serratia. Low-copy hexA expression resulted in repression of exoenzyme, pigment and antibiotic production and repression of the spreading phenotype. Finally, mutations in hexA were shown to increase Ecc or Eca virulence in planta.

  6. Osteomalacia inducida por tumor: hemangiopericitoma rinosinusal Tumor-induced osteomalacia: rhinosinusal hemangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enriqueta M. Serafini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La osteomalacia inducida por tumor es una rara enfermedad del metabolismo óseo caracterizada por el aumento en la excreción de fosfato a nivel renal seguido de hipofosfatemia. Es causada por agentes fosfatúricos producidos por determinados tumores. La resección total del tumor resulta en la completa reversión de las anormalidades bioquímicas, la desaparición de las manifestaciones clínicas y los hallazgos en los estudios por imágenes. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 61 años con cuadro clínico y laboratorio compatibles con osteomalacia oncogénica inducida por tumor mesenquimático de localización rinosinusal. En nuestro caso el diagnóstico histológico correspondió a una neoplasia de tipo vascular: hemangiopericitoma.Tumor-induced osteomalacia is a rare disease of bone metabolism. The characteristic of this disease is an increase in phosphate excretion followed by hypophosphatemia, due to phosphaturic agents produced by different types of tumors. Tumor resection results in complete resolution of clinical, biochemical and radiological abnormalities. We present the case of a 61 year old man with signs, symptoms and laboratory findings consistent with oncogenic osteomalacia due to a rhino-sinusal mesenchymal tumor. The histological diagnosis showed a vascular neoplasm: hemangiopericytoma.

  7. Infección urinaria por E. coli complicada con abscesos múltiples Urinary infection by E. coli complicated with multiple abscesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fernández

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available La osteomielitis vertebral y la artritis séptica poliarticular son patologías que afectan principalmente a personas a partir de los 50 años, aunque su incidencia parece ir en aumento debido al incremento de bacteriemias nosocomiales inoculadas por dispositivos intravasculares y otros instrumentos así como por el aumento de la edad de las personas hospitalizadas. En la mayoría de los casos están causadas por Staphylococcus aureus. Presentamos el caso y proceso diagnóstico de una paciente con esta patología causada por otro germen como, Escherichia coli, y la fatal evolución de ésta a pesar de recibir tratamiento adecuado.Vertebral osteomyelitis and septic arthritis are pathologies that principally affect people over fifty years old, but their incidence seems to be growing due to the increase of nosocomial bacteraemia associated with intravascular devices and the aging of hospitalised people. The majority of cases are produced by Staphylococcus aureus. We present the case and diagnostic process of a patient with vertebral osteomyelitis caused by another organism, Escherichia coli, with fatal evolution despite adequate treatment.

  8. Pansinusitis y afectación intracraneal por implante dental Pansinusitis and intracranial impact of a dental implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Rubio-Palau

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Las sinusitis odontógenas son una patología relativamente frecuente causada por infecciones dentales, quistes periapicales así como tras procedimientos bucodentales como una endodoncia, una elevación sinusal o la colocación de un implante. A continuación se presenta un caso extremo de una pansinusitis derecha con fistulización a espacio epidural causada por un implante osteointegrado. Ante la sospecha de una sinusitis maxilar de origen odontogénico se debe iniciar rápidamente un tratamiento antibiótico correcto y un seguimiento estrecho ya que pueden tener consecuencias fatales como la pérdida de un ojo, abscesos cerebrales o incluso la muerte.Odontogenic sinusitis is a relatively common disease caused by dental infections, periapical cysts and oral procedures such as root canal, sinus lift or implant placement. We report an extreme case of a right pansinusitis with an epidural space fistula caused by osseointegrated implants. When maxillary sinusitis of odontogenic origin is suspected, we should quickly start effective antibiotic treatment and monitor the patient closely because odontogenic sinusitis can have serious consequences, such as the loss of an eye, brain abscess or death.

  9. Conjuntivite granulomatosa atípica causada pela doença da arranhadura do gato: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Alexandre Hassler Príncipe de; Pereira, Carlos Alberto Pires [UNIFESP; Sousa,Luciene Barbosa de; Freitas, Denise

    2004-01-01

    Relatamos caso de paciente do sexo feminino, brasileira, 23 anos, residente na Alemanha, que cursou com quadro de conjuntivite granulomatosa bilateral crônica, sem acometimento ganglionar, não responsiva a tratamento tópico. A pesquisa laboratorial confirmou diagnóstico de conjuntivite por Bartonella henselae. O caso demonstra que a ausência de acometimento ganglionar não exclui o diagnóstico de doença da arranhadura do gato.

  10. Efectos de la administración de un inhibidor de la recaptación de serotonina, Sertralina, sobre los cambios inducidos por el estrés prenatal

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Inês Pereira de

    2016-01-01

    [ES] En las postrimerías del siglo pasado, se constató una vez más que las alteraciones causadas por estrés y ansiedad en la sociedad moderna, se encuentran entre los problemas de salud más comunes. Según la Organización Mundial de Salud (OMS), al menos el 25% de los adultos sufrirá alguna forma de trastornos por ansiedad en algún momento de su vida (Gordon y Hen, 2004; Anacker y cols., 2010), siendo las mujeres más susceptibles a este tipo de trastornos (Olff y cols., 2007). ...

  11. Estudio de la infección por Leishmania infantum en el perro: utilidad de las técnicas diagnósticas no invasivas y nuevas alternativas terapéuticas

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Martínez, Leticia

    2016-01-01

    La leishmaniosis canina (Lcan) causada por Leishmania infantum es una zoonosis de distribución mundial endémica en la cuenca mediterránea. Es transmitida a humanos y animales mediante la picadura de las hembras de flebotomos, siendo el perro tanto un hospedador natural como el principal reservorio. Las manifestaciones clínicas de la infección por L. infantum en el perro son muy variables, desde una infección subclínica crónica hasta una enfermedad grave, que puede ser fatal. Debido a su compl...

  12. Erwinia herbicola冰核活性蛋白的分离、电泳分析鉴定%Differential centrifugal isolation and identification of electrophoresis analysis to ice-nucleating activity protein of Erwinia herbicola

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆森; 张晓玲; 阎亚丽; 刘剑虹; 庞广昌

    2002-01-01

    Erwinia herbicola(A25)菌株的冰核活性蛋白的分离纯化及电泳进行研究.主要方法①按双温培养的方法,获得了较高的生物量积累和强冰核活性的诱导表达.②实验采用渗透压冲击法破碎细菌细胞,破碎率达98.67%.③通过差速离心法获取不同冰核活性蛋白组分,测定各组分的冰核活性和SDS-PAGE电泳图谱分析.建立了冰核活性因子的高冰核活性与离心力之间的关系;利用SDS-PAGE还建立了具冰核活性蛋白的分子量的大小与冰核活性蛋白组分之间的关系.证实了具高冰核活性蛋白质最小结构单位约为26.0kD.

  13. CLONIG AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW ICE NUCLEATION ACTIVEGENE FROM ICE NUCLEATION ACTIVE BACTERIUM ERWINIA ANANAS 110%冰核细菌(Erwinia ananas 110)冰核基因克隆和序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐朝荣; 孙福在; 赵廷昌; 李瑞峰

    2002-01-01

    从作者自行分离的冰核细菌(Erwinia ananas110)中克隆到我国第1个细菌冰核基因,并完成其序列测定和分析.所克隆基因编码区全长3921bp,编码1306aa,氨基酸序列明显分为3个区即N-端(161aa)、C-端(41aa)的单一序列区和中部的高度重复序列R区(1104aa),以16氨基酸为重复单元的R区占整个编码序列的84.5%.序列分析表明我们所克隆的基因为一个新冰核基因,将其命名为iceA,该基因已在GenBank上登录,登录号为:AF387802.

  14. Empiema por Fusobacterium necrophorum

    OpenAIRE

    ML. Valle Feijoo; M. Rodriguez Arias; A. Cobas Paz; J. De la Fuente Aguado

    2014-01-01

    Resumen La infección sistémica por Fusobacterium necrophorum se caracteriza por la tríada clásica de trombosis de la vena yugular interna, bacteriemia y focos metastásicos y se conoce como Síndrome de Lemierre (SL), sepsis post-angina o necrobacilosis. El compromiso pulmonar precipitado por la embolización séptica es extremadamente común en el SL, sin embargo el F. necrohorum raramente se asila en empiemas sin SL concurrente, por lo que hemos estimado oportuno comunicar un nuevo caso clíni...

  15. Celulitis por citomegalovirus

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Las lesiones cutáneas por citomegalovirus (CMV) son infrecuentes y a menudo una manifestación tardía de una enfermedad sistémica, que generalmente anuncia un curso fatal. Comunicamos un caso de celulitis por CMV: una mujer de 70 años con trasplante renal efectuado 1 mes antes de la consulta, terapia inmunosupresora con ciclosporina A y metilprednisona. La paciente ingresó por fiebre, dolor e impotencia funcional en pierna derecha. Comprobamos la existencia de una placa de 8 por 4 cm eritemato...

  16. Sea urchin granuloma Granulomas por ouriços-do-mar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Rossetto

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Injuries caused by venomous and poisonous aquatic animals may provoke important morbidity in humans. The phylum Echinoderma include more than 6000 species of starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers some of which have been found responsible for injuries to humans. Initial injuries by sea urchins are associated with trauma and envenomation, but later effects can be observed. Sea urchin granuloma is a chronic granulomatous skin disease caused by frequent and successive penetration of sea urchin spines which have not been removed from wounds. The authors report a typical case of sea urchin granuloma in a fisherman and its therapeutic implications.Os acidentes por animais aquáticos traumatizantes e venenosos podem provocar morbidez importante em humanos. Equinodermos marinhos incluem mais de 6000 espécies de estrelas-do-mar, ouriços-do-mar, "bolachas-de-praia" e pepinos-do-mar. Vários equinodermos têm sido responsabilizados por acidentes em humanos. Granulomas por ouriço-do-mar são lesões de caráter granulomatoso, crônicas, causada por acidentes com espículas de ouriço-do-mar. Os autores relatam um caso típico de granulomas por ouriço-do-mar ocorrido em um pescador e enfatizam as implicações terapêuticas aplicadas.

  17. Prevalencia de infección cervicovaginal por Chlamydia trachomatis en población femenina de la cuidad de Cuernavaca, Morelos

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Echániz; Noemí Carnalla; Araceli Soto; Ernesto Calderón; Aurelio Cruz; Rodolfo Gatica

    1992-01-01

    Las clamidias son un grupo de bacterias genéticamente diverso que presenta un ciclo de desarrollo intracelular único. El espectro de las manifestaciones clínicas de las infecciones causadas por Chlamydia trachomatis en la mujer incluye cervicitis, síndrome uretra1 agudo, enfermedad infiamatoria pélvica, salpingitis y el riesgo de exposición del recién nacido alpasar a través de un canal infectado y desarrollar conjuntivitis de inclusión y10 neumonía. Con objeto de conocer la prevalencia de la...

  18. Soroprevalência de infecção por Hantavírus em roedores dos focos de peste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares de Souza Chioratto, Gerlane

    2010-01-01

    A Síndrome Pulmonar Cardiovascular por Hantavirus (SPCVH) e a peste (bacteriose causada pela Yersinia pestis) são zoonoses que compartilham os mesmos roedores silvestres como reservatórios e cujas formas oligossintomáticas e respiratórias podem dificultar o diagnóstico clínico-epidemiológico em humanos. Apesar da sua relevância como problema de saúde pública, o conhecimento acerca da hantavirose no nordeste brasileiro é escasso, o que justificou a realização desse estudo de sor...

  19. Mortalidad por envenenamiento en niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Híjar Martha

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Conocer el panorama de las muertes por envenenamiento en niños de 0-14 años ocurridas en la República mexicana, entre 1979 y 1994. Material y métodos. Se utilizaron fuentes secundarias. Las variables analizadas fueron: edad, sexo, año, causa externa de traumatismos y envenenamientos, de la IX Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades: E850-E858, E860-E869 y E905. Mediante un modelo de regresión Poisson se analizaron tendencias por causa específica y se obtuvieron riesgos relativos según edad, sexo y entidad federativa. Resultados. Hubo un total de 11 272 defunciones en menores de 15 años; las principales causas fueron el envenenamiento y las reacciones tóxicas causadas por plantas y animales venenosos (E905, el envenenamiento accidental por gas de uso doméstico y por monóxido de carbono (E868 y el envenenamiento accidental por otras drogas (E858. El grupo de edad que presentó los mayores riesgos, para las causas mencionadas, fue el de menores de un año con un riesgo relativo (RR de 29.6, IC95% 29.2-33.4; RR 3.47, IC95% 2.86-4.22, y RR 31.86, IC95% 24.8-40.9. El riesgo fue similar en ambos sexos, salvo para la causa E905. El estado de Aguascalientes se situó sistemáticamente entre los de mayor riesgo para todas las causas analizadas, mientras que Nuevo León siempre se ubicó entre los de riesgo más bajo. Conclusiones. El envenenamiento constituye una importante causa de muerte en los niños; el riesgo se incrementa al disminuir la edad. Considerando que esas muertes son potencialmente evitables y que la mayor parte de los envenenamientos ocurren en el hogar, para prevenirlos, se recomienda a los familiares vigilar y mantener fuera de peligro al niño. Por otra parte, la multicausalidad del fenómeno requiere que su prevención se realice desde una perspectiva multidisciplinaria que genere una cultura y un ambiente de seguridad en la sociedad.

  20. Diversity, evolution, and functionality of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) regions in the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Smits, Theo H M; Duffy, Brion

    2011-06-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas system confers acquired heritable immunity against mobile nucleic acid elements in prokaryotes, limiting phage infection and horizontal gene transfer of plasmids. In CRISPR arrays, characteristic repeats are interspersed with similarly sized nonrepetitive spacers derived from transmissible genetic elements and acquired when the cell is challenged with foreign DNA. New spacers are added sequentially and the number and type of CRISPR units can differ among strains, providing a record of phage/plasmid exposure within a species and giving a valuable typing tool. The aim of this work was to investigate CRISPR diversity in the highly homogeneous species Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. A total of 18 CRISPR genotypes were defined within a collection of 37 cosmopolitan strains. Strains from Spiraeoideae plants clustered in three major groups: groups II and III were composed exclusively of bacteria originating from the United States, whereas group I generally contained strains of more recent dissemination obtained in Europe, New Zealand, and the Middle East. Strains from Rosoideae and Indian hawthorn (Rhaphiolepis indica) clustered separately and displayed a higher intrinsic diversity than that of isolates from Spiraeoideae plants. Reciprocal exclusion was generally observed between plasmid content and cognate spacer sequences, supporting the role of the CRISPR/Cas system in protecting against foreign DNA elements. However, in several group III strains, retention of plasmid pEU30 is inconsistent with a functional CRISPR/Cas system.

  1. Expression of the dspA/E gene of Erwinia amylovora in non-host plant Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Murat Aksoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Erwinia amylovora genome, the hrp gene cluster containing the dspA/E/EB/F operon plays a crucial role in mediating the pathogenicity and the hypersensitive response (HR in the host plant. The role of the dspA/E gene derived from E. amylovora was investigated by monitoring the expression of the β-glucuronidase (GUS reporter system in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana cv. Pri-Gus seedlings. A mutant ΔdspA/E strain of E. amylovora was generated to contain a deletion of the dspA/E gene for the purpose of this study. Two-week-old seedlings of GUS transgenic Arabidopsis were vacuum-infiltrated with the wild-type and the mutant (ΔdspA/E E. amylovora strains. The Arabidopsis seedlings were fixed and stained for GUS activity after 3–5 days following infiltration. The appearance of dense spots with blue staining on the Arabidopsis leaves indicated the typical characteristic of GUS activity. This observation indicated that the wild-type E. amylovora strain had induced a successful and efficient infection on the A. thaliana Pri-Gus leaves. In contrast, there was no visible GUS expression on leaf tissues which were inoculated with the ΔdspA/E mutant E. amylovora strain. These results indicate that the dspA/E gene is required by the bacterial cells to induce HR in non-host plants.

  2. Effect of a waaL mutation on lipopolysaccharide composition, oxidative stress survival, and virulence in Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Matthew C; McGhee, Gayle C; Zhao, Youfu; Sundin, George W

    2009-02-01

    Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight, is an enterobacterial pathogen of Rosaceous plants including apple and pear. We have been studying the response of E. amylovora to oxidative stress because, during infection, the bacterium elicits an oxidative burst response in host plants. During the screening of a transposon mutant library for hydrogen peroxide sensitivity, we identified a mutant carrying an insertion in waaL, a gene involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, that was more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide than the parental wild-type strain. We also confirmed that a waaL mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibited an increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide compared with the wild-type strain. The E. amylovora waaL mutant was also reduced in virulence, showed a decrease in twitching motility, and was more sensitive to polymyxin B than the wild type. Each of these phenotypes was complemented by the cloned waaL gene. Our results highlight the importance of the lipopolysaccharide layer to virulence in E. amylovora and the unexpected finding of an additional function of lipopolysaccharide in protection from oxidative stress in E. amylovora and P. aeruginosa.

  3. Role of electron transport chain of chloroplasts in oxidative burst of interaction between Erwinia amylovora and host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Hamid; Ghahremani, Zahra; Erfaninia, Kobra; Mehrabi, Rahim

    2015-05-01

    Erwinia amylovora is a necrogenic bacterium, causing the fire blight disease on many rosaceous plants. Triggering oxidative burst by E. amylovora is a key response by which host plants try to restrain pathogen spread. Electron transport chain (ETC) of chloroplasts is known as an inducible source of reactive oxygen species generation in various stresses. This research was performed to assess the role of this ETC in E. amylovora-host interaction using several inhibitors of this chain in susceptible and resistant apple and pear genotypes. All ETC inhibitors delayed appearance of disease necrosis, but the effects of methyl viologen, glutaraldehyde, and DCMU were more significant. In the absence of inhibitors, resistant genotypes showed an earlier and severe H2O2 generation and early suppression of redox dependent, psbA gene. The effects of inhibitors were corresponding to the redox potential of ETC inhibitory sites. In addition, delayed necrosis appearance was associated with the decreased disease severity and delayed H2O2 generation. These results provide evidences for the involvement of this ETC in host oxidative burst and suggest that chloroplast ETC has significant role in E. amylovora-host interaction.

  4. Small-molecule inhibitors suppress the expression of both type III secretion and amylovoran biosynthesis genes in Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Korban, Schuyler S; Pusey, P Lawrence; Elofsson, Michael; Sundin, George W; Zhao, Youfu

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) and exopolysaccharide (EPS) amylovoran are two essential pathogenicity factors in Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of the serious bacterial disease fire blight. In this study, small molecules that inhibit T3SS gene expression in E. amylovora under hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity)-inducing conditions were identified and characterized using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. These compounds belong to salicylidene acylhydrazides and also inhibit amylovoran production. Microarray analysis of E. amylovora treated with compounds 3 and 9 identified a total of 588 significantly differentially expressed genes. Among them, 95 and 78 genes were activated and suppressed by both compounds, respectively, when compared with the dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) control. The expression of the majority of T3SS genes in E. amylovora, including hrpL and the avrRpt2 effector gene, was suppressed by both compounds. Compound 3 also suppressed the expression of amylovoran precursor and biosynthesis genes. However, both compounds induced significantly the expression of glycogen biosynthesis genes and siderophore biosynthesis, regulatory and transport genes. Furthermore, many membrane, lipoprotein and exported protein-encoding genes were also activated by both compounds. Similar expression patterns were observed for compounds 1, 2 and 4. Using crab apple flower as a model, compound 3 was capable of reducing disease development in pistils. These results suggest a common inhibition mechanism shared by salicylidene acylhydrazides and indicate that small-molecule inhibitors that disable T3SS function could be explored to control fire blight disease.

  5. Eop1 from a Rubus strain of Erwinia amylovora functions as a host-range limiting factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, J E; Bonasera, J M; Kim, J F; Oh, C-S; Beer, S V

    2011-08-01

    Strains of Erwinia amylovora, the bacterium causing the disease fire blight of rosaceous plants, are separated into two groups based on host range: Spiraeoideae and Rubus strains. Spiraeoideae strains have wide host ranges, infecting plants in many rosaceous genera, including apple and pear. In the field, Rubus strains infect the genus Rubus exclusively, which includes raspberry and blackberry. Based on comparisons of limited sequence data from a Rubus and a Spiraeoideae strain, the gene eop1 was identified as unusually divergent, and it was selected as a possible host specificity factor. To test this, eop1 genes from a Rubus strain and a Spiraeoideae strain were cloned and mutated. Expression of the Rubus-strain eop1 reduced the virulence of E. amylovora in immature pear fruit and in apple shoots. Sequencing the orfA-eop1 regions of several strains of E. amylovora confirmed that forms of eop1 are conserved among strains with similar host ranges. This work provides evidence that eop1 from a Rubus-specific strain can function as a determinant of host specificity in E. amylovora.

  6. Control of plant defense mechanisms and fire blight pathogenesis through the regulation of 6-thioguanine biosynthesis in Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sébastien; Litomska, Agnieszka; Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Richter, Klaus; Beerhues, Ludger; Hertweck, Christian

    2014-02-10

    Fire blight is a devastating disease of Rosaceae plants, such as apple and pear trees. It is characterized by necrosis of plant tissue, caused by the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora. The plant pathogen produces the well-known antimetabolite 6-thioguanine (6TG), which plays a key role in fire blight pathogenesis. Here we report that YcfR, a member of the LTTR family, is a major regulator of 6TG biosynthesis in E. amylovora. Inactivation of the regulator gene (ycfR) led to dramatically decreased 6TG production. Infection assays with apple plants (Malus domestica cultivar Holsteiner Cox) and cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia (mountain ash, rowan) revealed abortive fire blight pathogenesis and reduced plant response (biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexin production). In the presence of the ΔycfR mutant, apple trees were capable of activating the abscission machinery to remove infected tissue. In addition to unveiling the regulation of 6TG biosynthesis in a major plant pathogen, we demonstrate for the first time that this antimetabolite plays a pivotal role in dysregulating the plant response to infection.

  7. A novel plasmid pEA68 of Erwinia amylovora and the description of a new family of plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Emadeldeen; Blom, Jochen; Bultreys, Alain; Ivanović, Milan; Obradović, Aleksa; van Doorn, Joop; Bergsma-Vlami, Maria; Maes, Martine; Willems, Anne; Duffy, Brion; Stockwell, Virginia O; Smits, Theo H M; Puławska, Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Recent genome analysis of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease on Rosaceae, has shown that the chromosome is highly conserved among strains and that plasmids are the principal source of genomic diversity. A new circular plasmid, pEA68, was found in E. amylovora strain 692 (LMG 28361), isolated in Poland from Sorbus (mountain ash) with fire blight symptoms. Annotation of the 68,763-bp IncFIIa-type plasmid revealed that it contains 79 predicted CDS, among which two operons (tra, pil) are associated with mobility. The plasmid is maintained stably in E. amylovora and does not possess genes associated with antibiotic resistance or known virulence genes. Curing E. amylovora strain 692 of pEA68 did not influence its virulence in apple shoots nor amylovoran synthesis. Of 488 strains of E. amylovora from seventeen countries, pEA68 was only found in two additional strains from Belgium. Although the spread of pEA68 is currently limited to Europe, pEA68 comprises, together with pEA72 and pEA78 both found in North America, a new plasmid family that spans two continents.

  8. Comparative genomics of 12 strains of Erwinia amylovora identifies a pan-genome with a large conserved core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Rachel A; Smits, Theo H M; Bühlmann, Andreas; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Frey, Jürg E; Plummer, Kim M; Beer, Steven V; Luck, Joanne; Duffy, Brion; Rodoni, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    The plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora can be divided into two host-specific groupings; strains infecting a broad range of hosts within the Rosaceae subfamily Spiraeoideae (e.g., Malus, Pyrus, Crataegus, Sorbus) and strains infecting Rubus (raspberries and blackberries). Comparative genomic analysis of 12 strains representing distinct populations (e.g., geographic, temporal, host origin) of E. amylovora was used to describe the pan-genome of this major pathogen. The pan-genome contains 5751 coding sequences and is highly conserved relative to other phytopathogenic bacteria comprising on average 89% conserved, core genes. The chromosomes of Spiraeoideae-infecting strains were highly homogeneous, while greater genetic diversity was observed between Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains (and among individual Rubus-infecting strains), the majority of which was attributed to variable genomic islands. Based on genomic distance scores and phylogenetic analysis, the Rubus-infecting strain ATCC BAA-2158 was genetically more closely related to the Spiraeoideae-infecting strains of E. amylovora than it was to the other Rubus-infecting strains. Analysis of the accessory genomes of Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains has identified putative host-specific determinants including variation in the effector protein HopX1(Ea) and a putative secondary metabolite pathway only present in Rubus-infecting strains.

  9. Fire blight disease reactome: RNA-seq transcriptional profile of apple host plant defense responses to Erwinia amylovora pathogen infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamber, Tim; Buchmann, Jan P; Pothier, Joël F; Smits, Theo H M; Wicker, Thomas; Duffy, Brion

    2016-02-17

    The molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility of host plants to fire blight, a major disease threat to pome fruit production globally, is largely unknown. RNA-sequencing data from challenged and mock-inoculated flowers were analyzed to assess the susceptible response of apple to the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. In presence of the pathogen 1,080 transcripts were differentially expressed at 48 h post inoculation. These included putative disease resistance, stress, pathogen related, general metabolic, and phytohormone related genes. Reads, mapped to regions on the apple genome where no genes were assigned, were used to identify potential novel genes and open reading frames. To identify transcripts specifically expressed in response to E. amylovora, RT-PCRs were conducted and compared to the expression patterns of the fire blight biocontrol agent Pantoea vagans strain C9-1, another apple pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans, and mock inoculated apple flowers. This led to the identification of a peroxidase superfamily gene that was lower expressed in response to E. amylovora suggesting a potential role in the susceptibility response. Overall, this study provides the first transcriptional profile by RNA-seq of the host plant during fire blight disease and insights into the response of susceptible apple plants to E. amylovora.

  10. SecG is required for antibiotic activities of Pseudomonas sp. YL23 against Erwinia amylovora and Dickeya chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youzhou; Baird, Sonya M; Qiao, Junqing; Du, Yan; Lu, Shi-En

    2015-05-01

    Strain YL23 was isolated from soybean root tips and identified to be Pseudomonas sp. This strain showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against bacterial pathogens that are economically important in agriculture. To characterize the genes dedicated to antibacterial activities against microbial phytopathogens, a Tn5-mutation library of YL23 was constructed. Plate bioassays revealed that the mutant YL23-93 lost its antibacterial activities against Erwinia amylovora and Dickeya chrysanthemi as compared with its wild type strain. Genetic and sequencing analyses localized the transposon in a homolog of the secG gene in the mutant YL23-93. Constitutive expression plasmid pUCP26-secG was constructed and electroporated into the mutant YL23-93. Introduction of the plasmid pUCP26-secG restored antibacterial activities of the mutant YL23-93 to E. amylovora and D. chrysanthemi. As expected, empty plasmid pUCP26 could not complement the phenotype of the antibacterial activity in the mutant. Thus the secG gene, belonging to the Sec protein translocation system, is required for antibacterial activity of strain YL23 against E. amylovora and D. chrysanthemi.

  11. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism. PMID:28225009

  12. The phytoalexin-inducible multidrug efflux pump AcrAB contributes to virulence in the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burse, Antje; Weingart, Helge; Ullrich, Matthias S

    2004-01-01

    The enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight on members of the family Rosaceae, with economic importance on apple and pear. During pathogenesis, the bacterium is exposed to a variety of plant-borne antimicrobial compounds. In plants of Rosaceae, many constitutively synthesized isoflavonoids affecting microorganisms were identified. Bacterial multidrug efflux transporters which mediate resistance toward structurally unrelated compounds might confer tolerance to these phytoalexins. To prove this hypothesis, we cloned the acrAB locus from E. amylovora encoding a resistance nodulation division-type transport system. In Escherichia coli, AcrAB of E. amylovora conferred resistance to hydrophobic and amphiphilic toxins. An acrB-deficient E. amylovora mutant was impaired in virulence on apple rootstock MM 106. Furthermore, it was susceptible toward extracts of leaves of MM 106 as well as to the apple phytoalexins phloretin, naringenin, quercetin, and (+)-catechin. The expression of acrAB was determined using the promoterless reporter gene egfp. The acrAB operon was up-regulated in vitro by the addition of phloretin and naringenin. The promoter activity of acrR, encoding a regulatory protein involved in acrAB expression, was increased by naringenin. In planta, an induction of acrAB was proved by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Our results strongly suggest that the AcrAB transport system plays an important role as a protein complex required for virulence of E. amylovora in resistance toward apple phytoalexins and that it is required for successful colonization of a host plant.

  13. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-02-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism.

  14. The luxS gene is involved in AI-2 production, pathogenicity, and some phenotypes in Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Song, Junxian; Hu, Baishi; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Qianqian; Liu, Fengquan

    2009-01-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight of apple, pear, and other members of the Rosaceae family. The enzyme LuxS catalyzes the last step in the production of autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a molecule implicated with quorum sensing in many bacterial species. It is now well recognized that LuxS also plays a central role in sulfur metabolism and in the activated methyl cycle, which is responsible for the generation of S-adenosyl-L-methionine. A research paper has reported that luxS is not involved with quorum sensing in Er. amylovora, but in our study, Er. amylovora strain NCPPB1665 (Ea1665) produced luxS-dependent extracellular AI-2 activity. Additionally, the maximal AI-2 activity occurred during late-exponential and early-stationary growth phases and diminished during the stationary phase. The luxS mutant of Ea1665 was constructed, and the phenotypes of a defined luxS mutant have been characterized. Inactivation of luxS in Ea1665 impaired motility, extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production, and tolerance for hydrogen peroxide, and reduced virulence on pear leaves.

  15. Comparative genomics of 12 strains of Erwinia amylovora identifies a pan-genome with a large conserved core.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A Mann

    Full Text Available The plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora can be divided into two host-specific groupings; strains infecting a broad range of hosts within the Rosaceae subfamily Spiraeoideae (e.g., Malus, Pyrus, Crataegus, Sorbus and strains infecting Rubus (raspberries and blackberries. Comparative genomic analysis of 12 strains representing distinct populations (e.g., geographic, temporal, host origin of E. amylovora was used to describe the pan-genome of this major pathogen. The pan-genome contains 5751 coding sequences and is highly conserved relative to other phytopathogenic bacteria comprising on average 89% conserved, core genes. The chromosomes of Spiraeoideae-infecting strains were highly homogeneous, while greater genetic diversity was observed between Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains (and among individual Rubus-infecting strains, the majority of which was attributed to variable genomic islands. Based on genomic distance scores and phylogenetic analysis, the Rubus-infecting strain ATCC BAA-2158 was genetically more closely related to the Spiraeoideae-infecting strains of E. amylovora than it was to the other Rubus-infecting strains. Analysis of the accessory genomes of Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains has identified putative host-specific determinants including variation in the effector protein HopX1(Ea and a putative secondary metabolite pathway only present in Rubus-infecting strains.

  16. Phenylalanine in the pore of the Erwinia ligand-gated ion channel modulates picrotoxinin potency but not receptor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew J; Alqazzaz, Mona; Price, Kerry L; Weston, David A; Lummis, Sarah C R

    2014-10-01

    The Erwinia ligand-gated ion channel (ELIC) is a bacterial homologue of eukaryotic Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels. This protein has the potential to be a useful model for Cys-loop receptors but is unusual in that it has an aromatic residue (Phe) facing into the pore, leading to some predictions that this protein is incapable of ion flux. Subsequent studies have shown this is not the case, so here we probe the role of this residue by examining the function of the ELIC in cases in which the Phe has been substituted with a range of alternative amino acids, expressed in Xenopus oocytes and functionally examined. Most of the mutations have little effect on the GABA EC50, but the potency of the weak pore-blocking antagonist picrotoxinin at F16'A-, F16'D-, F16'S-, and F16'T-containing receptors was increased to levels comparable with those of Cys-loop receptors, suggesting that this antagonist can enter the pore only when residue 16' is small. T6'S has no effect on picrotoxinin potency when expressed alone but abolishes the increased potency when combined with F16'S, indicating that the inhibitor binds at position 6', as in Cys-loop receptors, if it can enter the pore. Overall, the data support the proposal that the ELIC pore is a good model for Cys-loop receptor pores if the role of F16' is taken into consideration.

  17. Erwinia chrysanthemi分离株CSCL006 hrpN基因的克隆与高效表达%Molecular Characterization and Overexpression of Erwinia chrysanthemi Strain CSCL006 hrpNCSCL006 Gene, which Encodes An Elicitor of the Hyperdensitive Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤承; 崔亚亚; 吴伯骥; 李名扬

    2006-01-01

    通过构建Erwinia chrysanthemi分离株CSCL006的DNA文库,克隆出hrpN CSCL006基因,测序结果显示该基因编码区长1 020 bp;推导的harpinCSCL006与Erwinia chrysanthemi ECl6和3937编码的harpin蛋白同源性高,但与其它软腐菌的harpin蛋白同源性较低;在大肠杆菌中(Escherichia coli)高效表达了hrpN CSCL006基因,重组harpinCSCL006蛋白分子量为34kD.以抗harpinEOC的抗体为探针,Western blot证实该蛋白确为harpin;纯化的harpinCSCL006,能引起烟叶的过敏反应.

  18. Celulitis por citomegalovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ruiz Lascano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones cutáneas por citomegalovirus (CMV son infrecuentes y a menudo una manifestación tardía de una enfermedad sistémica, que generalmente anuncia un curso fatal. Comunicamos un caso de celulitis por CMV: una mujer de 70 años con trasplante renal efectuado 1 mes antes de la consulta, terapia inmunosupresora con ciclosporina A y metilprednisona. La paciente ingresó por fiebre, dolor e impotencia funcional en pierna derecha. Comprobamos la existencia de una placa de 8 por 4 cm eritematoedematosa. La tratamos con antibióticos sin mejoría, por lo que realizamos un estudio histopatológico de piel que mostró cambios citopáticos compatibles con infección por CMV. Los cultivos bacteriológicos y micológicos fueron negativos. La inmunohistoquímica específica para CMV y el estudio de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR de la biopsia de piel fueron positivas, al igual que la antigenemia. El tratamiento con ganciclovir produjo la mejoría del cuadro clínico. En la literatura revisada no hemos encontrado la celulitis como manifestación de enfermedad cutánea por CMV.

  19. Acute renal failure after rifampicin Insuficiência renal aguda por rifampicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Weinberg

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A patient with miliary tuberculosis and a chronic urogenital focus is described, who had a borderline renal function at diagnosis and developed overt renal failure upon daily treatment with rifampin (RMP, isoniazid (INH and ethambutol (EMB. This is the first Brazilian report of BMP induced renal damage. A renal biopsy taken on the third day of oliguria showed recent tubular necrosis with acute interstitial inflammation and granuloma formation. The aspect of the granulomatous lesion hightly suggested drug etiology because of the lack of palisading, high incidence of neutrophils and absence of facid-fast bacilli. This is the first presentation of an acute granulomatous interstitial nephritis probably due to RMP. Furthermore the pathogenesis of the renal damage caused by tuberculosis and RMP are discussed.Apresentamos um paciente com tuberculose miliar a partir de um foco crônico urogenital. Em sua entrada no hospital tinha uma função renal limítrofe e desenvolveu franca insuficiência renal na vigência da terapêutica específica constituída por RMP, INH e EMB. Bióp-sia renal realizada no 3° dia de uremia revelou necrose tubular recente, com inflamação intersticial aguda, permeada por granulomas. As formações granulomatosas foram altamente sugestivas de reação alérgica à droga devido à ausência de paliçadas, alta incidência de neutrófilos e o não encontro de bacilos-álcool-ácido-resistentes. Esta é a primeira descrição de nefrite intersticial granulomatosa provavelmente causada pela RMP. São discutidos os principais aspectos fisiopatogênicos da insuficiência renal causada pela tuberculose acrescida dos efeitos nefrotóxicos da RMP.

  20. Characterization of a cfr-Carrying Plasmid from Porcine Escherichia coli That Closely Resembles Plasmid pEA3 from the Plant Pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongmin; Sun, Bin; Wang, Yang; Lei, Lei; Schwarz, Stefan; Wu, Congming

    2015-11-02

    The multiresistance gene cfr was found in two porcine Escherichia coli isolates, one harboring it on the conjugative 33,885-bp plasmid pFSEC-01, the other harboring it in the chromosomal DNA. Sequence analysis of pFSEC-01 revealed that a 6,769-bp fragment containing the cfr gene bracketed by two IS26 elements was inserted into a plasmid closely related to pEA3 from the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora, suggesting that pFSEC-01 may be transferred between different bacterial genera of both animal and plant origin.

  1. Deep sequencing revealed genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism and plasmid content of Erwinia amylovora strains isolated in Middle Atlas, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannou, Najat; Mondy, Samuel; Planamente, Sara; Moumni, Mohieddine; Llop, Pablo; López, María; Manceau, Charles; Barny, Marie-Anne; Faure, Denis

    2013-10-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes economic losses that affect pear and apple production in Morocco. Here, we report comparative genomics of four Moroccan E. amylovora strains with the European strain CFBP1430 and North-American strain ATCC49946. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed genetic homogeneity of Moroccan's strains and their proximity to the European strain CFBP1430. Moreover, the collected sequences allowed the assembly of a 65 kpb plasmid, which is highly similar to the plasmid pEI70 harbored by several European E. amylovora isolates. This plasmid was found in 33% of the 40 E. amylovora strains collected from several host plants in 2009 and 2010 in Morocco.

  2. Antibacterial activity of moss extracts on Erwinia carotovora%藓类提取物对白菜软腐病菌的抑菌活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程辉彩; 赵建成

    2006-01-01

    以欧文氏菌(Erwinia carotovora)为供试菌,对24种藓类乙醇提取物进行抑菌活性筛选.结果表明,有15种藓类提取物对欧文氏菌表现出不同程度抑菌作用,并将有较强抑菌作用的提取物对欧文氏菌进行了最低抑菌浓度MIC测定.

  3. Estudo terapêutico aberto com sulfato de aminosidine na leishmaniose mucosa causada for Leishmania (viannia braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A.S. Romero

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de setembro a novembro de 1994 foram tratados 21 pacientes com leishmaniose mucosa ativa, predominantemente adultos lavradores do sexo masculino, com sulfato de aminosidine intramuscular, I6mg/kg/dia por 20 dias. Treze pacientes eram virgens de tratamento e 8 haviam sido tratados sem sucesso com Glucantime®". O diagnóstico baseou-se inicialmente em crítêrios epidemiolôgicos, clínicos e nos resultados da intrademoireação de Montenegro e a imunofluorescência indireta para anticoipos séricos antileishmânia e durante o acompanhamento nos resultados dos estudos parasitológicos. Sessenta e sete por cento dos pacientes tiveram diagnóstico parasitológico confirmado sendo a inoculação do material de biópsia das lesões em hamsters o método mais sensível. O tempo médio de acompanhamento foi de 12,6 meses. A adesão ao tratamento foi de 100%. Os efeitos colaterais foram dor no local da injeção (86%, proteinúria leve (24%, elevação do nível sérico de creatinina (5% e perda auditiva subclínica em um dos dois pacientes que realizaram audiometria. Obsevou-se cura clínica em 48% dos pacientes e a percentagem acumulada de recidiva foi de 29% (4/14pacientes durante o acompanhamento.

  4. Diarrea crónica refractaria y malabsorción secundaria a hipogammaglobulinemia común variable, infestación crónica por giardia lamblia y gastrectomía total por adenocarcinoma gástrico: un manejo nutricional complejo Chonic diarrhea and malabsorption due to common variable immunodeficiency, gastrectomy and giardiasis infection: a difficult nutritional management

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Domínguez-López; I. González-Molero; C. P. Ramírez-Plaza; F. Soriguer; G. Olveira

    2011-01-01

    El adenocarcinoma gástrico es una de las causas más frecuentes de mortalidad en el mundo, siendo la cirugía el único tratamiento potencialmente curativo, aunque los efectos adversos digestivos y nutricionales son frecuentes y abundantes. La hipogammaglobulinemia variable común es causa de frecuentes manifestaciones digestivas, derivándose las más importantes en diarrea crónica causada por giardiasis, hiperplasia nodular linfoide o atrofia vellosa, siendo frecuente la malabsorción y la desnutr...

  5. Tratamiento con caspofungina de endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol Treatment with caspofungin of Candida tropicalis endocarditis resistant to fluconazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo del Castillo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Las endocarditis causadas por hongos, (Candida en particular, requieren tratamiento médico-quirúrgico, siendo la anfotericina B la droga de elección. Caspofungina es una equinocandina con gran actividad sobre Candida y Aspergillus. Se presenta un paciente con una endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol tratado con caspofungina bajo un esquema de salvataje, luego de haber presentado efectos adversos por anfotericina B. El paciente tuvo respuesta microbiológica.Fungal endocarditis, in particular due to Candida species, requires medical and surgical treatment and amphotericin B is the drug of choice. Caspofungin is an echinocandin very effective against Candida and Aspergillus. We present a patient with Candida tropicalis endocarditis, fluconazol resistant, treated with caspofungin, on a compassional basis as a result of adverse effects with amphotericin B. The patient had a microbiological response.

  6. Alternative sigma factor RpoN and its modulation protein YhbH are indispensable for Erwinia amylovora virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Veronica; Li, Wenting; Zhao, Youfu

    2014-01-01

    In Erwinia amylovora, ECF (extracytoplasmic functions) alternative sigma factor HrpL regulates the transcription of hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity)-type III secretion system (T3SS) genes by binding to a consensus sequence known as the hrp box in hrp gene promoters. In turn, the expression of hrpL has been proposed to be positively controlled by alternative sigma factor 54 (σ(54)) (RpoN) and HrpS, a member of the σ(54) enhancer-binding proteins (EBPs). However, the function of RpoN has not been characterized genetically in E. amylovora. In this study, we investigated the role of RpoN, a nitrogen limitation sigma factor, and its modulation protein YhbH, a novel ribosome-associated protein, in E. amylovora virulence. Our results showed that mutations in hrpS, hrpL, rpoN and yhbH, but not yfiA and rmf3, resulted in a nonpathogenic phenotype on immature pear fruits and apple shoots. Consistently, the expression of T3SS genes, including hrpL, dspE, hrpN and hrpA, was barely detected in hrpS, hrpL, rpoN and yhbH mutants. These mutants were also not capable of eliciting a hypersensitive response (HR) on tobacco; however, the overexpression of hrpL using an inducible promoter rescued the HR-eliciting abilities of these mutants. These results suggest that a sigma factor cascade exists in the regulatory networks of E. amylovora and regulates important virulence factors. On the basis of this study and previously reported data, a model is proposed for the regulation of T3SS in E. amylovora.

  7. Erwinia amylovora affects the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway in mature leaves of Pyrus communis cv. Conférence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, K; Holtappels, M; Schoofs, H; Deckers, T; Treutter, D; Valcke, R

    2013-11-01

    Flavonoids, which are synthesized by the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway, not only contribute to fruit colour and photoprotection, they also may provide antimicrobial and structural components during interaction with micro-organisms. A possible response of this pathway was assessed in both mature and immature leaves of shoots of 2-year-old pear trees cv. Conférence, which were inoculated with the gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora strain SGB 225/12, were mock-inoculated or were left untreated. The phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway was analysed by histological studies, by gene expression using RT-qPCR and by HPLC analyses of the metabolites at different time intervals after infection. Transcription patterns of two key genes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and chalcone synthase (CHS) related to the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway showed differences between control, mock-inoculated and E. amylovora-inoculated mature leaves, with the strongest reaction 48 h after inoculation. The impact of E. amylovora was also visualised in histological sections, and confirmed by HPLC, as epicatechin -which is produced via ANR- augmented 72 h after inoculation in infected leaf tissue. Besides the effect of treatments, ontogenesis-related differences were found as well. The increase of certain key genes, the rise in epicatechin and the visualisation in several histological sections in this study suggest a non-negligible impact on the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway in Pyrus communis due to inoculation with E. amylovora. In this study, we propose a potential role of this pathway in defence mechanisms, providing a detailed analysis of the response of this system attributable to inoculation with E. amylovora.

  8. Mutation of the Erwinia amylovora argD gene causes arginine auxotrophy, nonpathogenicity in apples, and reduced virulence in pears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Laura S; Lehman, Brian L; Peter, Kari A; McNellis, Timothy W

    2014-11-01

    Fire blight is caused by Erwinia amylovora and is the most destructive bacterial disease of apples and pears worldwide. In this study, we found that E. amylovora argD(1000)::Tn5, an argD Tn5 transposon mutant that has the Tn5 transposon inserted after nucleotide 999 in the argD gene-coding region, was an arginine auxotroph that did not cause fire blight in apple and had reduced virulence in immature pear fruits. The E. amylovora argD gene encodes a predicted N-acetylornithine aminotransferase enzyme, which is involved in the production of the amino acid arginine. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type argD gene complemented both the nonpathogenic and the arginine auxotrophic phenotypes of the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant. However, even when mixed with virulent E. amylovora cells and inoculated onto immature apple fruit, the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant still failed to grow, while the virulent strain grew and caused disease. Furthermore, the pCR2.1-argD complementation plasmid was stably maintained in the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant growing in host tissues without any antibiotic selection. Therefore, the pCR2.1-argD complementation plasmid could be useful for the expression of genes, markers, and reporters in E. amylovora growing in planta, without concern about losing the plasmid over time. The ArgD protein cannot be considered an E. amylovora virulence factor because the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant was auxotrophic and had a primary metabolism defect. Nevertheless, these results are informative about the parasitic nature of the fire blight disease interaction, since they indicate that E. amylovora cannot obtain sufficient arginine from apple and pear fruit tissues or from apple vegetative tissues, either at the beginning of the infection process or after the infection has progressed to an advanced state.

  9. Tol-Pal proteins are critical cell envelope components of Erwinia chrysanthemi affecting cell morphology and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Jean-François; Vianney, Anne; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, Nicole; Lazzaroni, Jean Claude

    2005-10-01

    The tol-pal genes are necessary for maintaining the outer-membrane integrity of Gram-negative bacteria. These genes were first described in Escherichia coli, and more recently in several other species. They are involved in the pathogenesis of E. coli, Haemophilus ducreyi, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella enterica. The role of the tol-pal genes in bacterial pathogenesis was investigated in the phytopathogenic enterobacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi, assuming that this organism might be a good model for such a study. The whole Er. chrysanthemi tol-pal region was characterized. Tol-Pal proteins, except TolA, showed high identity scores with their E. coli homologues. Er. chrysanthemi mutants were constructed by introducing a uidA-kan cassette in the ybgC, tolQ, tolA, tolB, pal and ybgF genes. All the mutants were hypersensitive to bile salts. Mutations in tolQ, tolA, tolB and pal were deleterious for the bacteria, which required high concentrations of sugars or osmoprotectants for their viability. Consistent with this observation, they were greatly impaired in their cell morphology and division, which was evidenced by observations of cell filaments, spherical forms, membrane blebbing and mislocalized bacterial septa. Moreover, tol-pal mutants showed a reduced virulence in a potato tuber model and on chicory leaves. This could be explained by a combination of impaired phenotypes in the tol-pal mutants, such as reduced growth and motility and a decreased production of pectate lyases, the major virulence factor of Er. chrysanthemi.

  10. Determination of Quantities of Host Protein after Infection with Erwinia amylovora of Apple, Pear And Quince Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Çetin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight disease caused by Erwinia amylovora is a destructive bacterial pathogen mainly on pears, apples and quinces from Rosaceae family. In this study, it was aimed determination of total protein amounts in different apple cultivars (Braeburn, Fuji, Gala and Golden, pear cultivars (Santa Maria and Williams and quince cultivars (Eşme and Ekmek in the infections of two virulent E. amylovora strains (Ea234-1 and Ea240-3 according as the time. It was taken leaf samples after leaf inoculation with E. amylovora (108 CFU ml-1 at 24th, 36th and 72nd hours. For verification of the infections, re-isolations were made from bacteria inoculated plants and the agent was identified as E. amylovora by biochemical, physiological and molecular tests. In determining the amounts of total protein and in the SDS-PAGE analyses were used Bradford and Laemmli methods, respectively, and absorbance values of protein extracts derived from the leaf samples taken, were obtained at 595 nm wavelength. According to the findings obtained; after infection of E. amylovora in the apple varieties comparing to controls, total protein concentrations at 24th hours increased and a decrease in the amount of 36th to 72nd hours and Braeburn has the highest protein content was determined. In the pear varieties, while total protein concentrations at 24th and 36th hours increased, a decrease in the amount of 72nd hour, and Santa Maria variety has the highest protein content was detected. In the quince varieties, total protein concentrations at 72th hour increased and Eşme variety has the highest protein content was identified. As a result of SDS-PAGE analysis, protein fractions which have different molecular weights were obtained. The protein bands were defined approximately 55-70 kDa and 35-55 kDa molecule weight on apple and quince varieties, respectively and also approx. 55-70 kDa in pear varieties.

  11. Supressão da resposta imunitária humoral causada pela citrinina Humoral immunosupression caused by citrinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Carvalho

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito imunotóxico causado por exposição a baixas doses de citrinina (2,5mg kg-1 em camundongos albinos expostos à micotoxina antes (n=15, durante (n=15 e após (n=15 a imunização com antígeno inerte, representado por eritrócitos de carneiro - sheep red blood cells (SRBC. Quinze camundongos foram usados como controle (não intoxicados. Sete dias após o tratamento, os animais foram sangrados e os títulos de anticorpos anti-SRBC e de complemento foram determinados. A citrinina diminuiu os títulos de anticorpos primários em todos os grupos intoxicados. A intoxicação antes e após a imunização provocou diminuição em 87,5% nos títulos médios de anticorpos específicos. A exposição simultânea à imunização gerou diminuição de 75%. Houve acentuada redução nos níveis de complemento circulante, detectada nos animais previamente intoxicados (93,8%, ou intoxicados juntamente com a imunização (87,5%.The immunotoxic effect caused by citrinin was evaluated in albino mice exposed to a single dose of 2.5mg.kg-1 before (n=15, concomitantly (n=15 and after (n=15 immunization with an inert antigen represented by sheep red blood cells (SRBC. The animals were bleed seven days following the mycotoxin exposure for antibodies anti-SRBC and complement titration and compared to results obtained from non-exposed controls (n=15. It was detected a decreasing antibodies titration in all the intoxicated animals. Those animals that received citrinin before and after SRBC sensitization equally presented a lowering of 87.5% on the primary antibodies level. The exposure to the mycotoxin simultaneously to the SRBC sensitization caused a decrease equivalent to 75%. A remarkable effect was also demonstrated for the circulating complement in both groups of animals, with a decrease of 87.5% on those intoxicated before and of 93.8% on those treated concomitantly to the SRBC sensitization.

  12. LIMITAÇÕES E CONSEQUÊNCIAS NA VIDA DO TRABALHADOR OCASIONADAS POR DOENÇAS RELACIONADAS AO TRABALHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Caroline Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue comprobar en la literatura el impacto de las enfermedades profesionales en la vida de los trabajadores y analizar las contribuciones de los estudios para la ciencia de enfermería, en especial para enfermería del trabajo. Revisión integradora con la siguiente pregunta: cuáles son las limitaciones y consecuencias causadas por trastornos de trauma acumulativo en la vida de los trabajadores, en la literatura científica de enfermería en los últimos cinco años (2006 a 2010. Se utilizaron como descriptores: Salud Ocupacional y Salud Ocupacional del Trabajador. Fueron seleccionados 14 trabajos que se agruparon según objetivos comunes, principales limitaciones y consecuencias causadas e informaciones que se pueden traducir en contribuciones para la Enfermería del Trabajo. La producción científica sobre el tema trae pocas contribuciones efectivas, y que se necesitan más estudios para subsidiar a las estrategias de atención dirigidas a promover la salud y la calidad de vida de estos trabajadores.

  13. Selection of a biocontrol agent based on a potential mechanism of action: degradation of nicotinic acid, a growth factor essential for Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternoster, Thomas; Défago, Geneviève; Duffy, Brion; Gessler, Cesare; Pertot, Ilaria

    2010-12-01

    This work describes a medium-based screening method for selecting microbial biocontrol agents against Erwinia amylovora based on the degradation of a specific growth factor. Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of the devastating fire blight disease, requires nicotinic acid or nicotinamide as an essential growth factor. Potential biocontrol agents are either selected for antimicrobial production in plate or directly on immature pears or apple blossoms. In this work, we have attempted to streamline the selection of a new potential biocontrol agent with a lower risk of non-target effects by isolation based on the ability to degrade nicotinic acid in vitro, using therefore few plant materials. A total of 735 bacteria and 1237 yeast were isolated from apple blossoms and pre-screened for nicotinic acid-degradation. Pseudomonas rhizosphaerae strain JAN was able to degrade both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Mutants deficient in this ability were constructed. JAN, but not the mutants, controlled E. amylovora on pear slices. On detached apple blossoms, JAN colonized apple hypanthia and strongly suppressed E. amylovora growth. Under greenhouse conditions, JAN was more effective in controlling blossom blight than P. fluorescens A506, a commercial biocontrol agent of fire blight unable to degrade nicotinic acid and nicotinamide.

  14. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa antimetabolite L-2-amino-4-methoxy-trans-3-butenoic acid inhibits growth of Erwinia amylovora and acts as a seed germination-arrest factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Xiaoyun; Azevedo, Mark D; Armstrong, Donald J; Banowetz, Gary M; Reimmann, Cornelia

    2013-02-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa antimetabolite L-2-amino-4-methoxy-trans-3-butenoic acid (AMB) shares biological activities with 4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine, a related molecule produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6. We found that culture filtrates of a P. aeruginosa strain overproducing AMB weakly interfered with seed germination of the grassy weed Poa annua and strongly inhibited growth of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of the devastating orchard crop disease known as fire blight. AMB was active against a 4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine-resistant isolate of E. amylovora, suggesting that the molecular targets of the two oxyvinylglycines in Erwinia do not, or not entirely, overlap. The AMB biosynthesis and transport genes were shown to be organized in two separate transcriptional units, ambA and ambBCDE, which were successfully expressed from IPTG-inducible tac promoters in the heterologous host P. fluorescens CHA0. Engineered AMB production enabled this model biocontrol strain to become inhibitory against E. amylovora and to weakly interfere with the germination of several graminaceous seeds. We conclude that AMB production requires no additional genes besides ambABCDE and we speculate that their expression in marketed fire blight biocontrol strains could potentially contribute to disease control.

  15. The genome of the Erwinia amylovora phage PhiEaH1 reveals greater diversity and broadens the applicability of phages for the treatment of fire blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meczker, Katalin; Dömötör, Dóra; Vass, János; Rákhely, Gábor; Schneider, György; Kovács, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    The enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight. This study presents the analysis of the complete genome of phage PhiEaH1, isolated from the soil surrounding an E. amylovora-infected apple tree in Hungary. Its genome is 218 kb in size, containing 244 ORFs. PhiEaH1 is the second E. amylovora infecting phage from the Siphoviridae family whose complete genome sequence was determined. Beside PhiEaH2, PhiEaH1 is the other active component of Erwiphage, the first bacteriophage-based pesticide on the market against E. amylovora. Comparative genome analysis in this study has revealed that PhiEaH1 not only differs from the 10 formerly sequenced E. amylovora bacteriophages belonging to other phage families, but also from PhiEaH2. Sequencing of more Siphoviridae phage genomes might reveal further diversity, providing opportunities for the development of even more effective biological control agents, phage cocktails against Erwinia fire blight disease of commercial fruit crops.

  16. The acyl-homoserine lactone-type quorum-sensing system modulates cell motility and virulence of Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mumtaz B B M; Zhang, Hai-Bao; Xu, Jin-Ling; Liu, Qiongguang; Jiang, Zide; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2008-02-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae is one of the Erwinia chrysanthemi pathovars that infects on both dicotyledons and monocotyledons. However, little is known about the molecular basis and regulatory mechanisms of its virulence. By using a transposon mutagenesis approach, we cloned the genes coding for an E. chrysanthemi pv. zeae synthase of acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing signals (expI(Ecz)) and a cognate response regulator (expR(Ecz)). Chromatography analysis showed that expI(Ecz) encoded production of the AHL signal N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-homoserine lactone (OHHL). Null mutation of expI(Ecz) in the E. chrysanthemi pv. zeae strain EC1 abolished AHL production, increased bacterial swimming and swarming motility, disabled formation of multicell aggregates, and attenuated virulence of the pathogen on potato tubers. The mutation also marginally reduced the inhibitory activity of E. chrysanthemi pv. zeae on rice seed germination. The mutant phenotypes were rescued by either exogenous addition of AHL signal or in trans expression of expI(Ecz). These data demonstrate that the AHL-type QS signal plays an essential role in modulation of E. chrysanthemi pv. zeae cell motility and the ability to form multicell aggregates and is involved in regulation of bacterial virulence.

  17. Analysis of conductance responses during depolymerization of pectate by soft rot Erwinia spp. and other pectolytic bacteria isolated from potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraaije, B A; Bosveld, M; Van den Bulk, R W; Rombouts, F M

    1997-07-01

    Different bacteria isolated from potato tubers were screened for their pectolytic properties by examining pitting in polypectate agar, recording conductance responses in polypectate medium and performing potato tuber soft rot tests. For bacteria found positive in conductimetry, the role of polygalacturonase (PG) and pectate lyase (PL) in the generation of conductance changes in a polygalacturonic acid (PGA) medium was further analysed using enzyme activity staining after gel electrophoresis and high-performance anion exchange chromatography. The extent of the conductance changes during depolymerization of PGA was dependent on the amounts of galacturonate monomers and oligomers accumulated in the medium. In comparison with an unidentified saprophyte and a Klebsiella strain, both mainly having PL activity, soft rot Erwinia spp. rapidly produced larger conductance responses, due to a combined action of multiple forms of PG and PL. The responses of Erwinia spp. were initially associated with the accumulation of large amounts of monomers and saturated dimers to heptamers, due to PG activity. Subsequently, as well as monomers and saturated dimers, large amounts of unsaturated dimers were also detected, due to PL activity. The role of PG as an important conductimetric factor was also demonstrated for a pectinase preparation derived from Aspergillus niger. Besides detection, automated conductimetric assays in pectate media may also be useful for monitoring of pectolytic activity in pectinase preparations and for screening of pectolytic activity of microorganisms under different media and growth conditions.

  18. Ototoxicidad por medicamentos

    OpenAIRE

    Mercado M,Víctor; Burgos S,Rodolfo; Muñoz V,Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Se define ototoxicidad a las perturbaciones transitorias o definitivas de la función auditiva, vestibular, o de las dos a la vez, inducidas por sustancias de uso terapéutico¹. Son muchos los trabajos de investigación que se han dedicado ha este tema quedando aun dudas por resolver debido a las complejas consecuencias donde está envuelto el daño cocleovestibular. El propósito de esta revisión, es presentar las últimas teorías que tratan de explicar desde el punto de vista de la farmacociónétic...

  19. Electrocardiografo por computadora

    OpenAIRE

    Tinoco Hernandez, Rosanna; Paredes Bejarano, Margarita; Romero Chaglia, Norman; Yapur Auad, Miguel Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo trata sobrees el diseño y la implementación de un graficador de señales cardiacas por computadora, para lo cual diseñamos un circuito electrónico capaz de recibir la senal analógica proveniente de la actividad electrica del corazón , amplificarla, y luego convertirla en una señal digital para ser procesada por software y finalmente ser graficada, siendo posible así observar la señal cardiaca en el monitor de un computador como un tren de pulsos. Cabe destacar que par...

  20. Epidemiologia clássica e molecular de pneumonias associadas à ventilação mecânica por Acinetobacter baumannii resistente/susceptível ao imipenem em pacientes internados na unidade de terapia intensiva de adultos do hospital de clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia