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Sample records for causada por erwinia

  1. Ptose palpebral causada por Paquidermoperiostose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Regina de Pinho Tavares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A paquidermoperiostose é uma síndrome caracterizada por acometimento cutâneo e ósseo, e em alguns casos ocorre comprometimento palpebral leve. É uma síndrome rara, idiopática ou hereditária, com provável herança autossômica dominante de penetrância variável. Descreve-se o caso de um paciente com ptose grave por paquidermoperiostose elucidando sua fisiopatologia e conduta cirúrgica aplicada.

  2. Muerte cerebral causada por consumo de psicofármacos

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Rozas, José Rafael, 1942-

    1987-01-01

    Tres imágenes de una biopsia de un cerebro en estado de muerte cerebral causada por consumo de psicofármacos. Three pictures of a biopsy of a brain that has died because of consumption of psychoactive drugs.

  3. Mancha areolada causada por Thanatephorus cucumeris em mogno africano

    OpenAIRE

    GAPAROTTO LUADIR; HANADA ROGÉRIO E.; ALBUQUERQUE FERNANDO C.; DUARTE MARIA DE LOURDES R.

    2001-01-01

    O mogno africano (Khaya ivorensis) foi introduzido no Brasil para substituir o mogno brasileiro (Swietenia macrophylla) devido a sua alta resistência ao microlepidóptero Hypsiphyla grandella, a principal praga do mogno brasileiro. Em 1999, observou-se alta incidência da mancha areolada, causada por Thanatephorus cucumeris em viveiros e áreas de plantios definitivos de mogno africano nos Estados do Amazonas e Pará, causando lesões em folhas maduras e 100% de queda das folhas jovens. Nas folhas...

  4. Neuropatia Óptica Tóxica causada por Dissulfiram

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, José Alberto; Ribeiro, Isabel; Martins, João; Menezes, Carlos; Gonçalves, Rita; Coelho, Pedro; Maio, Tiago

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos: O dissulfiram é utilizado no tratamento do alcoolismo crónico há mais de 50 anos. Este fármaco interfere no metabolismo do etanol e encoraja a abstinência por causar sintomas desagradáveis com a ingestão concomitante de álcool. Efeitos adversos incluem casos raros de neuropatia óptica bilateral. O objetivo deste artigo é descrever um caso clínico de neuropatia óptica tóxica causada por dissulfiram. Métodos: Descrição do caso clínico e breve revisão bibliográfica. Resultados: Report...

  5. Síndrome oculoglandular de Parinaud causada por esporotricose Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome caused by Sporotrichosis

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Sampaio de Abreu Ribeiro; Tiago Bisol; Marcela Sant'Ana Menezes

    2010-01-01

    A síndrome oculoglandular de Parinaud é uma doença ocular rara causada por diferentes agentes etiológicos, entre eles bactérias, vírus e fungos. É caracterizada por uma conjuntivite granulomatosa, acompanhada de linfadenopatia pré-auricular adjacente e pode trazer sequelas caso não seja prontamente tratada. Neste artigo é relatado o caso de uma jovem técnica de enfermagem e estudante de medicina veterinária apresentando a síndrome oculoglandular de Parinaud causada pelo fungo Sporothrix schen...

  6. Danos na soja causada por míldio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavo Correia da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O míldio da soja é disseminado em todo mundo. Entretanto, o dano que ele causa não tem sido estudado no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar quais componentes de rendimento da soja são afetados por essa doença e determinar o coeficiente de dano. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos, um em Castro (2006/07 e outro em Ponta Grossa (2007/08, no Estado do Paraná, Brasil. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com (i seis tratamentos e cinco repetições para os experimentos de campo, safras 2006/07, e (ii oito tratamentos e quatro repetições para 2007/08. Foram aplicados fosfito de potássio (750g ia ha-1, propamocarb + fenamidona (900g ia ha-1 e mancozeb (2,400g ia ha-1. Em todos os tratamentos, a severidade máxima da infecção pelo míldio ocorreu no estádio R5.3 e a porcentagem de severidade variou entre 0 e 43%. O gradiente da doença foi obtido apenas na segunda safra. Equações de danos foram geradas para o peso de grãos e produtividade. O número de grãos por vagem e o número de vagens por planta não foram afetados pelo míldio mas o peso de 1000 sementes por planta foi reduzido linearmente com o aumento da severidade do míldio.

  7. Resistencia y control químico en la Antracnosis del olivo causada por Colletotrichum spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier, Carlos José

    2015-01-01

    La Antracnosis o Aceituna Jabonosa, es la enfermedad más importante del fruto del olivo y origina pérdidas estimadas en unos 75 millones de euros en España. La Antracnosis está causada por varias especies de hongos del género Colletotrichum pertenecientes a los complejos Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (s.l) y Colleotrichum gloesoporiodes s.l. En Andalucía, las especies más frecuentes asociadas con la Antracnosis pertenecen al complejo C. acutatum s.l. La enfermedad presenta...

  8. Tratamento laparoscópico de periapendicite causada por dispositivo intra-uterino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho Júlio Cezar Uili

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Dispositivo intra-uterino pode perfurar o útero e causar várias complicações. OBJETIVO: Descrever um caso de tratamento laparoscópico de periapendicite causada por dispositivo intra-uterino. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Jovem do sexo feminino apresentou dor em fossa ilíaca direita de 4 dias de duração. No exame físico, apresentava dor abdominal localizada em fossa ilíaca direita, com discreta renitência de parede e dor à percussão e descompressão brusca na região. A ultra-sonografia evidenciou dispositivo intra-uterino fora do útero, na fossa ilíaca direita. RESULTADOS: À laparoscopia, observou-se massa inflamatória que consistia do dispositivo intra-uterino totalmente bloqueado pelo mesoapêndice e apêndice. Apendicectomia e retirada do dispositivo foram realizadas. CONCLUSÃO: A laparoscopia permite o tratamento adequado da periapendicite causada por dispositivo intra-uterino, inclusive com avaliação adequada de toda a região pélvica para excluir lesões associadas.

  9. Síndrome oculoglandular de Parinaud causada por esporotricose Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome caused by Sporotrichosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Sampaio de Abreu Ribeiro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome oculoglandular de Parinaud é uma doença ocular rara causada por diferentes agentes etiológicos, entre eles bactérias, vírus e fungos. É caracterizada por uma conjuntivite granulomatosa, acompanhada de linfadenopatia pré-auricular adjacente e pode trazer sequelas caso não seja prontamente tratada. Neste artigo é relatado o caso de uma jovem técnica de enfermagem e estudante de medicina veterinária apresentando a síndrome oculoglandular de Parinaud causada pelo fungo Sporothrix schenkii após contaminação com gatos infectados. Sua apresentação clínica e evolução desfavorável até o correto diagnóstico etiológico e instituição do tratamento específico, ressaltam a importância da investigação laboratorial em casos de evolução atípica da doença.Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome is a rare eye disease caused by different pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and fungi. It is characterized by a granulomatous conjunctivitis with adjacent preauricular lympha-denopathy and can cause sequelae if not promptly treated. We report a case of a young nurse assistant and veterinary student showing Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome caused by the fungus Sporothrix schenkii after contamination with infected cats. Its clinical presentation and negative outcome until the correct ethiological diagnosis, in addition to specific treatment, emphasize the importance of laboratory investigations in cases of atypical development of the disease.

  10. Uso de compuestos fenólicos para el tratamiento de patologías causadas por Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Carrascosa, Alfonso V.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Adolfo J.; López-Brea, Manuel; Alarcón, Teresa; Rodrigo, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    La presente invención se refiere a una serie de compuestos fenólicos que pueden ser extraídos de la uva o del vino y que poseen capacidad bacericida contra Helicobacter pylori, por lo que dichos compuestos son útiles para la fabricación de un medicamento para el tratamiento y/o prevención de patologías causadas por esta bacteria o como aditivos en alimentos funcionales o productos alimentarios.

  11. Uso de compuestos fenólicos para el tratamiento de patologías causadas por helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Carrascosa, Alfonso V.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Adolfo J.; López-Brea, Manuel; Alarcón, Teresa; Rodrigo, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    [ES] La presente invención se refiere a una serie de compuestos fenólicos que pueden ser extraídos de la uva o del vino y que poseen capacidad bactericida contra Helicobacter pylori, por lo que dichos compuestos son útiles para la fabricación de un medicamento para el tratamiento y/o prevención de patologías causadas por esta bacteria o como aditivos en alimentos funcionales o productos alimentarios.

  12. Primer caso de onicomicosis causada por Cylindrocarpon lichenicola, en un paciente inmunosuprimido en Costa Rica

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    Mauricio Lizano-Calvo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: la onicomicosis es una infección fúngica de las uñas, que puede ser causada por dermatofitos, levaduras y hongos filamentosos no dermatofitos. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar -morfológica y molecularmente- un aislamiento realizado a partir de la uña del dedo medio de la mano derecha de un paciente inmunosuprimido con trasplante renal. Métodos: a la muestra se le realizó un examen microscópico directo en KOH 40%, y las características de la colonia fueron evaluadas en medio de cultivo Agar Sabouraud Glucosado y Agar Mycosel. El hongo aislado se identificó molecularmente mediante la amplificación, por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR y secuenciación de la región espaciadora transcrita (ITS de los genes ribosomales y de una porción del gen del factor de elongación 1alfa (EF-1α. La secuencia de nucleótidos de cada región fue comparada con las secuencias publicadas en la base de datos del Banco de Genes del Centro Nacional para la Información Biotecnológica (NCBI. Resultados: las características macro y microscópicas de la colonia concordaron con las descritas para Cylindrocarpon lichenicola (sinónimo Fusarium lichenicola. La secuencia de nucleótidos, tanto de la región ITS (544 pb como de la porción del gen EF-1α (710 pb, presentó un 100% de similitud con secuencias de F. lichenicola. Conclusión: se identificó por primera vez en Costa Rica C. lichenicola asociado con onicomicosis en un paciente inmunosuprimido. Este tipo de pacientes deben ser instruidos sobre las posibles fuentes de agentes infecciosos.

  13. PUDRICIÓN BASAL CAUSADA POR Phytophthora capsici EN PLANTAS DE CHILE TRATADAS CON VERMICOMPOST

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    Lidieth Uribe-Lor\\u00EDo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pudrición basal causada por Phytophthora capcisi en plantas de chile tratadas con vermicompost. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar a nivel de invernadero el efecto de vermicompost sobre la incidencia y severidad de Phytophthora capcisi en plantas de chile (Capsicum annuum. Esta investigación se realizó entre febrero y marzo del 2012 en el Centro de Investigaciones Agronómicas, Sabanilla, San José, Costa Rica. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con cuatro repeticiones y ocho plantas por unidad experimental en un arreglo factorial con los factores de dosis (0, 25% y 50% v/v vermicompost:suelo e inoculación (0 y 500 zoosporas por gramo de suelo. Se trasplantaron plántulas de 35 días, que fueron inoculadas dos semanas después del trasplante. La aplicación de vermicompost provocó un aumento significativo del peso fresco foliar y del peso seco foliar y radical; a mayor dosis, mayor fue el incremento. Las plantas de todos los tratamientos que incluyeron inoculación con P. capsici presentaron síntomas de la enfermedad en la raíz. Los valores de incidencia y severidad fueron mayores para el tratamiento con 50% de abono. En este tratamiento se presentaron síntomas de marchitez. La ausencia de diferencias en las variables de peso fresco y seco entre los tratamientos inoculados y sin inocular, a los que se adicionó abono al 25%, sugiere que esta dosis podría compensar el daño causado por el patógeno. Se observó una menor concentración de nutrimentos en los tejidos de las plantas inoculadas lo que indica que el daño causado a la raíz pudo haber afectado la adquisición de nutrimentos.

  14. Fístula broncopleural cutânea causada por Eikenella corrodens Bronchopleural cutaneous fistula due to Eikenella corrodens

    OpenAIRE

    Kin-Sun Wong; Yhu-Chering Huang

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Fazer uma revisão sobre fistula cutânea broncopleural causada por Eikenella corrodens e relatar e discutir o caso de uma paciente. DESCRIÇÃO: Paciente do sexo feminino, 16 anos de idade, foi encaminhada ao nosso hospital em estado febril com histórico de escarro com estrias de sangue há 2 meses; apresentava seqüelas neurológicas de encefalite herpética e estava confinada ao leito desde os cinco anos de idade. A mãe relatou ter detectado, dias antes, uma massa mole paraespinhal longi...

  15. Mancha areolada causada por Thanatephorus cucumeris em mogno africano Target leaf spot caused by Thanatephorus cucumeris on African mahogany

    OpenAIRE

    LUADIR GAPAROTTO; ROGÉRIO E. HANADA; FERNANDO C. ALBUQUERQUE; MARIA DE LOURDES R. DUARTE

    2001-01-01

    O mogno africano (Khaya ivorensis) foi introduzido no Brasil para substituir o mogno brasileiro (Swietenia macrophylla) devido a sua alta resistência ao microlepidóptero Hypsiphyla grandella, a principal praga do mogno brasileiro. Em 1999, observou-se alta incidência da mancha areolada, causada por Thanatephorus cucumeris em viveiros e áreas de plantios definitivos de mogno africano nos Estados do Amazonas e Pará, causando lesões em folhas maduras e 100% de queda das folhas jovens. Nas folhas...

  16. Nuevas aportaciones al diagnóstico de las enfermedades causadas por las micobacterias

    OpenAIRE

    Manterola Martija, Joxe Mari

    2004-01-01

    Las micobacterias se pueden detectar por examen microscópico, por demostración de su ADN o rRNA específico tras amplificación del ácido nucleico correspondiente o por cultivo. Para aislarlas por cultivo, hace falta tratar las muestras con flora comensal (esputos, orinas, etc.) con diferentes sustancias, proceso llamado descontaminación.El objetivo de la Tesis ha consistido en evaluar: a) un nuevo método de descontaminación de muestras clínicas con C18-carboxypropilbetaína (CB-18) y compararl...

  17. Salmonella causada por reptiles y anfibios en guarderías (Salmonella Infections Caused by Reptiles and Amphibians in Childcare Centers)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-07

    Traducción al español de la entrevista con el Dr. Neil Vora, funcionario del EIS de los CDC, sobre su artículo acerca de las infecciones por Salmonella causadas por reptiles y anfibios en guarderías.  Created: 2/7/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/26/2013.

  18. SISTEMAS DE SIEMBRA EN TRIGO: ENCARANDO LA ESCASEZ DE AGUA CAUSADA POR EL CALENTAMIENTO GLOBAL

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Eduardo Villaseñor Mir; Agustín Limón Ortega; Eduardo Espitia Rangel; Luis Antonio Mariscal Amaro

    2011-01-01

    En 80% de las regiones productoras de trigo de temporal hay deficiencias de humedad, por lo que la disponibilidad de agua y la eficiencia en su uso son los factores más importantes, para mejorar la rentabilidad del cultivo, y más aún, cuando se prevé que gran parte de México, en los próximos años, enfrentará temporales más escasos por el calentamiento global. La siembra de trigo en camas, con y sin microcuencas, ha sido ideada para una captación efectiva del agua de lluvia, que permite mayor ...

  19. Surdez súbita causada por hemorragia intralabiríntica Sudden hearing loss caused by labyrinthine hemorrhage

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    Raquel Salomone

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A surdez súbita sensorioneural é uma perda auditiva súbita ou rapidamente progressiva. Na maioria dos casos a etiologia não é descoberta. Uma das causas possíveis de surdez súbita é a hemorragia intralabiríntica que, antes do surgimento da ressonância magnética, não era corretamente diagnosticada. O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar um caso de surdez súbita causada por hemorragia intralabiríntica e realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre este assunto.Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is relatively frequent. In most cases, the etiology is not discovered. One of the possible causes for sudden deafness is inner labyrinth bleeding, which was difficult to diagnose before the advent of magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of sudden hearing loss caused by a labyrinthine hemorrhage, and to present a review of the literature on this topic.

  20. Clasificación de malformaciones craneales causadas por craneosinostosis primaria utilizando kernels no lineales

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Ruiz-Correa; Yerania Campos-Silvestre

    2010-01-01

    La craneosinostosis primaria (CP) es una condición patológica asociada a la fusión prematura de una sutura del calvario. La fusión temprana produce malformaciones craneales severas que se asocian frecuentemente con discapacidades cognitivas, del lenguaje, el aprendizaje y el comportamiento social en general. Por estas razones, la CP representa un área de investigación importante que requiere de métodos efectivos para caracterizar la morfología del complejo craneofacial. En este trabajo, se es...

  1. ANTRACNOSE DO CAQUIZEIRO CAUSADA POR Colletotrichum horii: INCIDÊNCIA EM RAMOS, FOLHAS, FLORES E FRUTOS EM CAMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATO REZENDE YOUNG BLOOD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a incidência em várias partes da planta e o desenvolvimento da antracnose do caquizeiro causada por Colletotrichum horiinas cultivares Fuyu e Kakimel produzidas sob os sistemas orgânico e convencional, respectivamente, nas safras de 2010/2011 e 2011/2012, em Campina Grande do Sul, Paraná, Brasil. Em cada pomar, 10 plantas foram selecionadas aleatoriamente, e 10 ramos do ano por planta, distribuídos ao redor dacopa, foram marcados para as avaliações de incidência de antracnose em ramos e folhas, a cada 15 dias. A quantificação de frutos caídos com ou sem sintomas da doença foi a cada 15 dias, durante o período de crescimento de frutos até a colheita, relacionada com a produção total. C. horii em flores foi avaliada em campo e também após incubação no laboratório. Infecção latente foi observada em frutos verdes coletados aos 90; 120 e 150 dias após a floração. Em ambas as safras, observou-se a queda de frutos com sintomas de antracnose entre os meses de janeiro e abril. C. horii é capaz de infectar flores, permanecer latente e provocar sintomas de antracnose em frutos imaturos. Frutos colhidos sadios apresentaram sintomas em pós-colheita após a incubação.

  2. Pancreatite intersticial crônica em bovino causada por Eurytrema coelomaticum

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Souza Quevedo; Mariana Mendes; Felipe Geraldo Pappen; Mauro Pereira Soares; Gertrud Muller; Nara Amélia da Rosa Farias

    2013-01-01

    Descrevem-se os achados clínicos e patológicos atribuídos à infecção maciça por trematódeos pancreáticos do gênero Eurytrema (Loos, 1907) em uma novilha da raça Jersey, procedente do município de Seara, região oeste do estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. O animal de dois anos de idade apresentava desenvolvimento insuficiente, emagrecimento crônico, caquexia, decúbito prolongado e anemia, sendo submetido à eutanásia in extremis. Na necropsia observou-se aumento de volume do pâncreas, que estava ...

  3. Comportamiento de la diarrea causada por virus y bacterias en regiones cercanas a la zona ecuatorial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Gutiérrez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA es un problema de salud a nivel mundial que afecta a la población infantil de distintas regiones. Casi todos los estudios epidemiológicos se han hecho en países con estaciones y poco se informa su comportamiento en países sin estaciones, donde la EDA es endémica con picos epidémicos. OBJETIVOS: Contribuir a conocer la conducta de EDA en Colombia y determinar si su comportamiento es diferente en niños menores de cinco años en dos regiones distintas entre sí en geografía y clima. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se hizo un estudio descriptivo en dos localidades colombianas. Una en la costa atlántica y otra en el centro del país. La muestra se obtuvo en menores de cinco años que consultaron por diarrea a centros asistenciales de cada región. Los microorganismos bacterianos se identificaron mediante pruebas bioquímicas y los virus con técnicas inmunoenzimáticas. En el análisis estadístico se siguieron un ensayo bivariado y pruebas Z de normalidad para verificar si el clima modifica el comportamiento de EDA y si se presenta de manera distinta en las dos regiones. RESULTADOS: En ambas zonas (Cartagena, Bolívar y Facatativa, Cundinamarca predominó la diarrea viral, frente a la EDA bacteriana. También en ambas el rotavirus fue prevalente. Fue mucho más baja la presencia de astrovirus y adenovirus. No hubo datos con significación estadística para demostrar que las condiciones ambientales y las propias de los niños, alteran el comportamiento de la EDA, pero sí se observó que la EDA por rotavirus se comporta de manera diferente al analizar en forma comparativa las dos regiones del estudio.

  4. Pancreatite intersticial crônica em bovino causada por Eurytrema coelomaticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Souza Quevedo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os achados clínicos e patológicos atribuídos à infecção maciça por trematódeos pancreáticos do gênero Eurytrema (Loos, 1907 em uma novilha da raça Jersey, procedente do município de Seara, região oeste do estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. O animal de dois anos de idade apresentava desenvolvimento insuficiente, emagrecimento crônico, caquexia, decúbito prolongado e anemia, sendo submetido à eutanásia in extremis. Na necropsia observou-se aumento de volume do pâncreas, que estava esbranquiçado, crepitante, com a superfície de corte irregular, onde foram visualizados inúmeros trematódeos emergindo ativamente do órgão. Histologicamente havia pancreatite intersticial crônica. O parasito foi identificado como Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet, 1882. Trata-se do primeiro registro de euritrematose clínica em bovino no estado de Santa Catarina.

  5. Oftalmomiíase externa causada por Dermatobia hominis Dermatobia hominis provoking external ophthalmomyiasis

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    Abelardo de Souza Couto Junior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Relato de caso de oftalmomiíase externa em uma paciente de 82 anos, diabética e hipertensa, residente na zona rural, que inicialmente apresentava um quadro sugestivo de celulite pré-septal e hordéolo, com dor, edema, eritema e nodulação localizada na pálpebra superior e bulbo ocular normal. Foi então tratada com antibiótico e corticóide local, que levou a redução do processo inflamatório, possibilitando a realização de adequado exame físico, com a eversão da pálpebra superior, sendo estabelecido o diagnóstico de oftalmomiíase externa. Após tentativa frustrada de retirada ambulatorial da larva, foi indicado o procedimento cirúrgico por uma incisão vertical no tarso, a qual possibilitou a remoção de larva de 6mm de comprimento, com características da espécie Dermatobia hominis. Diante do exposto, é importante destacar, os vários diagnósticos diferenciais de oftalmomiíase, a particularidade de cada agente, as formas possíveis de tratamento, os fatores de risco e aspectos profiláticos.A 82 years old women reported an external opthalmomyiasis. She was a diabetic and with high blood pressure carrier, living in rural area. Initially a she had pain with swelling, erythema and nodulation located on the upper eyelid and normal eye and a pre-septal cellulitis was suspected and antibiotic and local steroid were introduced, which led to a reduction of inflammatory process and to perform an appropriate physical examination with the eversion of the upper eyelid, which established the diagnosis of an external opthalmomyiasis. After the unsuccessful attempt to outpatient withdrawal of the worm, was appointed the surgical procedure by a vertical incision in the tarsus, which allowed the removal of a larva 6 mm long, with characteristics of the species Dermatobia hominis. Considering the foregoing, it is important to emphasize, the various differencial diagnostics of opthalmomyiasis, the particularity of each agent, possible forms

  6. Mastite micótica em ruminantes causada por leveduras Mycotic mastitis in ruminants caused by yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Spanamberg

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de casos esporádicos de mastite causados por microrganismos de origem ambiental pode ser considerada como emergente e as leveduras, os fungos leveduriformes e os filamentosos são alguns dos principais agentes envolvidos. Em relação à mastite micótica, as leveduras são freqüentemente causas de infecções da glândula mamária em animais produtores de leite. A maior parte dos casos ocorre sob a forma de surtos localizados e/ou após tratamento com antimicrobianos. Os principais gêneros envolvidos são Candida e Cryptococcus, além de outros como Geotrichum, Pichia e Trichosporon. O objetivo do trabalho é revisar os aspectos gerais sobre a mastite micótica causada por leveduras e fungos leveduriformes, tais como etiologia, causas predisponentes, patogenicidade, diagnóstico, tratamento e profilaxia por meio de uma abordagem cronológica dos primeiros relatos, mas com enfoque principal nos resultados descritos recentemente na literatura veterinária nacional e internacional. O controle da mastite micótica é fundamentado em métodos preventivos, como adequado manejo da ordenha, correta higienização dos equipamentos e das instalações, com a finalidade de reduzir o número de animais acometidos, além de garantir a qualidade e a inocuidade dos produtos lácteos.The veterinary literature registers sporadic cases of infections caused by environmental microorganisms in which the main agents involved are yeasts, yeasts-like and filamentous fungi. In relation to dairy animals, the yeasts are more frequently incriminated as the aetiological agents of mycotic mastitis. Most cases occur under the form of localized outbreaks and / or after treatment with antimicrobial agents. The main genera involved in mastitis are Candida and Cryptococcus, besides others such as Geotrichum, Pichia and Trichosporon. The purpose of this review is to point out the main aspects of mastitis caused by yeasts and yeast-like fungi, such as etiology

  7. Costo económico de la discapacidad causada por lesiones de tránsito en México durante 2012

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    Patricia G. Sánchez-Vallejo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Para estimar el costo económico de la discapacidad permanente causada por lesiones de tránsito en México durante 2012, desde las perspectivas del Sistema de Salud y de la Sociedad, se realizó un estudio de costos que utiliza metodología bottom-up, considerando costos directos médicos (hospitalización, consultas ambulatorias y de rehabilitación y prótesis, y costos indirectos (pérdida de productividad del lesionado y cuidador con una aproximación de capital humano. La discapacidad causada por lesiones de tránsito tiene un alto costo para el sistema de salud y la sociedad mexicana. Desde la perspectiva del sistema de salud, el costo en pesos mexicanos de la discapacidad permanente fue de US$269.529.480,72, equivalente a US$1.496,33 por persona. Desde la perspectiva de la sociedad, se estimaron US$3.445,45 durante el primer año. En promedio, se estimó un costo total de US$4.941,77 por persona, resultando en un total de US$1.119.761.632,53 en 2012. Los resultados de este estudio evidencian la necesidad de diseñar e implementar políticas más enérgicas y eficientes para el control de las lesiones de tránsito en México

  8. Jejunal perforation caused by abdominal angiostrongyliasis Perfuração jejunal causada por angiostrongilíase abdominal

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    Jaques WAISBERG

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in an adult patient presenting acute abdominal pain caused by jejunal perforation. The case was unusual, as this affliction habitually involves the terminal ileum, appendix, cecum or ascending colon. The disease is caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis, whose definitive hosts are forest rodents while snails and slugs are its intermediate hosts. Infection in humans is accidental and occurs via the ingestion of snail or slug mucoid secretions found on vegetables, or by direct contact with the mucus. Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is clinically characterized by prolonged fever, anorexia, abdominal pain in the right-lower quadrant, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Although usually of a benign nature, its course may evolve to more complicated forms such as intestinal obstruction or perforation likely to require a surgical approach. Currently, no efficient medication for the treatment of abdominal angiostrongyliasis is known to be available. In this study, the authors provide a review on the subject, considering its etiopathogeny, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment.Os autores descrevem caso de angiostrongilíase abdominal em doente adulto que se manifestou como abdômen agudo devido à perfuração de alça jejunal, evento raro, uma vez que esta afecção geralmente envolve o íleo terminal, apêndice, ceco ou cólon ascendente. A doença é causada pelo nematódeo Angiostrongylus costaricensis cujos hospedeiros definitivos são roedores silvestres e os hospedeiros intermediários são caracóis e caramujos. A infecção em humanos é acidental e ocorre pela ingestão de secreção mucóide destes invertebrados presentes em vegetais ou por contato direto com o muco. A angiostrongilíase abdominal é clinicamente caracterizada pela presença de febre prolongada, anorexia, dor no quadrante inferior direito do abdômen e eosinofilia periférica. Embora a doença seja de

  9. Fístula broncopleural cutânea causada por Eikenella corrodens Bronchopleural cutaneous fistula due to Eikenella corrodens

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    Kin-Sun Wong

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Fazer uma revisão sobre fistula cutânea broncopleural causada por Eikenella corrodens e relatar e discutir o caso de uma paciente. DESCRIÇÃO: Paciente do sexo feminino, 16 anos de idade, foi encaminhada ao nosso hospital em estado febril com histórico de escarro com estrias de sangue há 2 meses; apresentava seqüelas neurológicas de encefalite herpética e estava confinada ao leito desde os cinco anos de idade. A mãe relatou ter detectado, dias antes, uma massa mole paraespinhal longitudinal. A paciente recebia alimentação via oral apesar da ocorrência de freqüentes engasgamentos nos últimos anos. À apalpação, a massa podia ser pressionada até encontrar menor resistência do espaço subcutâneo, estendendo-se longitudinalmente até a região torácica inferior. A tomografia torácica revelou pneumonia necrotizante do lobo direito inferior e uma fistula bronco pleural formando áreas de cavitação subcutânea. A paciente foi submetida a tratamento prolongado com antibióticos com decrescentes coletas de ar por 8 semanas. COMENTÁRIOS: A Eikenella corrodens tem sido indicada como potencial patógeno causador de infecções pleuropulmonares. Não há relatos de fístula pleurocutânea e formação de abscessos como complicadores de empiema e pneumonia necrotizante causados por infecção de E. corrodens. A presença de lesão torácica proeminente que aumenta e diminui com a respiração pode ser uma indicação de fistula pleurocutânea. O tratamento do empiema de Eikenella com antibióticos sem decorticação cirúrgica exige um tratamento prolongado com antibioticoterapia.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to review the subject and to report on and discuss a case of bronchopleural cutaneous fistula due to Eikenella corrodens. DESCRIPTION: A 16-year-old girl was brought to our hospital with fever and blood-tinged sputum 2 weeks prior to her admission. She suffered from neurologic sequelae of herpetic encephalitis and

  10. Feo-hifomicose causada por Veronaea bothryosa: relato de dois casos Subcutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Veronaea bothryosa: report of 2 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Rheingantz da Cunha Filho; Joel Schwartz; Mariane Rehn; Gerson Vettorato; Maria Aparecida de Resende

    2005-01-01

    Feo-hifomicose causada por Veronaea bothryosa é muito rara. Os autores relatam dois casos, que acreditam ser o primeiro e o segundo no continente americano, mas quarto e quinto da literatura mundial, até o momento. Trata-se de dois pacientes, um transplantado renal e outro imunossuprimido não transplantado. Ambos apresentavam lesões no dorso do pé após trauma. O primeiro respondeu moderadamente ao tratamento com itraconazol, e o segundo respondeu muito bem à excisão cirúrgica.Phaeohyphomycosi...

  11. An unusual gangrenous goat mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli co-infection Mastite gangrenosa caprina atípica causada por co-infecção por Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens e Escherichia coli

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    M.G. Ribeiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se, pela primeira vez no Brasil, a ocorrência de mastite gangrenosa caprina atípica causada pela co-infecção por Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens e Escherichia coli em uma cabra da raça Boer, na segunda semana de lactação. Descrevem-se os achados clínicos, os procedimentos de diagnóstico microbiológico e a conduta terapêutica.

  12. An unusual gangrenous goat mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli co-infection Mastite gangrenosa caprina atípica causada por co-infecção por Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens e Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    M.G. Ribeiro; G.H.B. Lara; S.D. Bicudo; A.V.G. Souza; T. Salerno; A.K. Siqueira; J.S. Geraldo

    2007-01-01

    Relata-se, pela primeira vez no Brasil, a ocorrência de mastite gangrenosa caprina atípica causada pela co-infecção por Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens e Escherichia coli em uma cabra da raça Boer, na segunda semana de lactação. Descrevem-se os achados clínicos, os procedimentos de diagnóstico microbiológico e a conduta terapêutica.

  13. Fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii Risk factors associated with bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Artioli Machado Yamamura; Ernst Eckhardt Müller; Roberta Lemos Freire; Júlio César de Freitas; Lucienne Garcia Pretto-Giordano; Roberta dos Santos Toledo; Márcio Garcia Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo de fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii. Foram analisadas 13 propriedades leiteiras dos Estados do Paraná e de São Paulo, segundo os seguintes critérios de seleção: confirmação prévia de casos de mastite por Prototheca spp., triagem pela pesquisa de Prototheca spp. em tanques de expansão e latões e rebanhos com contagem de células somáticas acima de 5x105cel mL-1. As amostras coletadas consistiram de: leite, água,...

  14. Reação de cultivares de batata à podridão mole causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, por P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum e por P. chrysanthemi Reaction of potato cultivars to soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and P. chrysanthemi

    OpenAIRE

    Adilce I. H. Benelli; Norimar D. Denardin; CARLOS A. FORCELINI; Valmir Duarte

    2004-01-01

    A podridão mole em tubérculos de batata (Solanum tuberosum), causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum e por P. chrysanthemi, é uma preocupante doença que causa danos expressivos à cultura em todo o mundo. Como inexiste tratamento eficiente para a podridão mole, o desenvolvimento de cultivares resistentes é considerado o método mais eficaz para a redução de perdas causadas pela doença. Nesse sentido, quatro cultivares de bata...

  15. Podridão de raízes causada por Pythium aphanidermatum, em cultivares de alface produzidas em sistema hidropônico

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    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A podridão de raízes, causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e outras espécies de Pythium, é a principal doença da alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quatro cultivares comerciais de alface em relação à sensibilidade a podridão de raízes, causada por P. aphanidermatum. Os estudos foram realizados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água com plântulas de alface das cultivares crespa (Vera e Verônica e lisa (Regina e Elisa, infestadas ou não com o patógeno. Com as mesmas cultivares foram realizados quatro experimentos em sistemas hidropônicos (Nutrient Film Technique, sendo dois em estufa coberta com plástico e sombrite e dois em estufa coberta apenas com plástico. As plântulas, infectadas ou não com P. aphanidermatum, foram transplantadas para os sistemas infestados ou não. Foi avaliada a severidade da doença e o desenvolvimento das plantas. Todas as cultivares foram suscetíveis à podridão de raízes nos experimentos realizados in vitro e in vivo. A presença do sombrite não reduziu a podridão de raízes em cultivares de alface produzidas no sistema hidropônico. A cultivar Regina apresentou maior massa de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, na presença ou ausência do patógeno, sendo a mais indicada para o cultivo hidropônico na época mais quente do ano.

  16. Primeira ocorrência de ferrugem em capim-limão causada por Puccinia cymbopogonis no Brasil First report of the lemongrass rust fungi caused by Puccinia cymbopogonis in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    João Batista Vida; Aníbal Alves de Carvalho Júnior; Jaqueline Rosemeire Verzignassi

    2006-01-01

    È registrada a primeira ocorrência de ferrugem em capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf), causada por Puccinia cymbopogonis Mass., no Brasil, Estado do Paraná.It is reported the first occurrence of the lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf) rust fungi caused by Puccinia cymbopogonis Mass. in Brazil, State of Paraná.

  17. Primeira ocorrência de ferrugem em capim-limão causada por Puccinia cymbopogonis no Brasil First report of the lemongrass rust fungi caused by Puccinia cymbopogonis in Brazil

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    João Batista Vida

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available È registrada a primeira ocorrência de ferrugem em capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, causada por Puccinia cymbopogonis Mass., no Brasil, Estado do Paraná.It is reported the first occurrence of the lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf rust fungi caused by Puccinia cymbopogonis Mass. in Brazil, State of Paraná.

  18. Conidiobolomicose causada por Conidiobolus lamprauges em ovinos no Estado de Santa Catarina Conidiobolomycosis caused by Conidiobolus lamprauges in sheep in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Fernando Henrique Furlan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de conidiobolomicose em ovinos no Estado de Santa Catarina. O surto ocorreu entre os meses de dezembro e março de 2006, no município de Santo Amaro da Imperatriz, região litorânea do Estado. A propriedade possuía 75 ovinos da raça Santa Inês e seis desses animais adoeceram. Clinicamente os animais doentes apresentavam dificuldade respiratória, corrimento nasal seroso a mucossanguinolento e, por vezes exolftalmia. Na necropsia verificou-se uma massa amarelada na região etmoidal e adjacências que, às vezes, atingia os linfonodos regionais, cérebro, globo ocular e pleura. Microscopicamente a massa caracterizava-se por infiltrado inflamatório granulomatoso com áreas necróticas associadas a hifas largas pouco ramificadas. Através de exame molecular detectou-se DNA de Conidiobolus lamprauges. Os aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos, macroscópicos, microscópicos e moleculares caracterizam a conidiobolomicose causada por Conidiobolus lamprauges em ovinos.An outbreak of conidiobolomycosis affecting sheep in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil is reported. The disease occurred in six Santa Inês breed sheep from a flock of 75 during the rainy season. Common clinical signs were noisy respiration and dyspnea, serous to mucosanguineous nasal discharge and exophthalmus. At necropsy there was a dense yellow mass in the nasopharyngeal area affecting the ethmoidal region, turbinate bones and occasionally limph nodes, central nervous system and pleura. Histopathologycally there was multifocal granulomas whith an eosinophilic necrotic reaction containing ribbon type hyphae similar to zygomycetous fungi. At molecular examination Conidiobolus lamprauges DNA was detected. The clinical, epidemiological, macroscopical, microscopical and molecular aspects characterize conidiobolomycosis caused by Conidiobolus lamprauges in sheep.

  19. Patrones electrocardiográficos en pacientes con hipertrofia ventricular causada por vasculopatía hipertensiva

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    Miguel Moncada

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available La prueba de oro para el diagnóstico de hipertrofia ventricular
    (HV es el ecocardiograma pero la electrocardiografía ha propuesto
    criterios diagnósticos tanto para HVI como para HVD, aunque la sensibilidad y especificidad no han sido óptimas, dejando siempre a este examen paraclínico por debajo del ecocardiograma en lo que a diagnóstico de HV se refiere (2.

  20. Feo-hifomicose causada por Veronaea bothryosa: relato de dois casos Subcutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Veronaea bothryosa: report of 2 cases

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    Roberto Rheingantz da Cunha Filho

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Feo-hifomicose causada por Veronaea bothryosa é muito rara. Os autores relatam dois casos, que acreditam ser o primeiro e o segundo no continente americano, mas quarto e quinto da literatura mundial, até o momento. Trata-se de dois pacientes, um transplantado renal e outro imunossuprimido não transplantado. Ambos apresentavam lesões no dorso do pé após trauma. O primeiro respondeu moderadamente ao tratamento com itraconazol, e o segundo respondeu muito bem à excisão cirúrgica.Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Veronaea bothryosa is very rare. We report two cases. To our knowledge, these are the first and second cases to be reported on the American continent, and fourth and fifth cases in the world literature. We report one case in a kidney transplant recipient, and another case in an immunosuppressed non-transplant patient. Both patients presented with a lesion on the dorsal aspect of the foot, following trauma. One patient responded moderately well to treatment with itraconazole. The other responded well to a surgical excision.

  1. El estado de las lesiones causadas por el tránsito en México: evidencias para fortalecer la estrategia mexicana de seguridad vial

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    Ricardo Pérez-Núñez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la revisión de información secundaria oficial, publicaciones científicas y el análisis de la ENSANut-2012, este trabajo busca proveer una visión integral de la magnitud actual de las lesiones causadas por el tránsito (LCT en México y analizar críticamente la respuesta social organizada. Las altas tasas de choques, lesiones, muertes y discapacidad atribuidas a este problema de salud pública, representan un elevado costo para la sociedad mexicana, en especial para los hogares. Se discute cómo la respuesta mexicana se ha enfocado a los automovilistas, dejando fuera a usuarios vulnerables de la vía pública y se ha privilegiado la implementación de estrategias poco efectivas. A pesar de que se dispone de legislación para los principales factores de riesgo, se ha descuidado su correcta aplicación. La estrategia mexicana podría fortalecerse implementando estrategias de movilidad seguras, equitativas, saludables y sostenibles para los diferentes actores de la vía pública. A pesar de los avances que se han dado en términos de prevención de LCT, existen aún retos y oportunidades para el país.

  2. Desórdenes y enfermedad psiquiátrica causada por el uso de alcohol en Colombia

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    Hernan G. Rincon-Hoyos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Una comprensión precisa de la co-ocurrencia y la comorbilidad de los trastornos por consumo de alcohol (AUD en Colombia es crucial para la salud pública.Objetivo: Se realizó un análisis secundario, utilizando una base de datos gubernamental de población 2003/2004 para determinar las asociaciones de vida entre los trastornos por consumo de alcohol y otros trastornos mentales y adictivos en personas de edades comprendidas entre 18 a 65 años de Colombia.Métodos: Varios análisis estadísticos se realizaron: pruebas de diferencia en la prevalencia de los trastornos mentales en función de si el individuo tenía un AUD; un análisis estratificado por sexo y análisis de regresión logística teniendo en cuenta las diferencias en las variables del estado de salud, demográficas, socioeconómicas, de comportamiento y de auto-reporte.Resultados: las personas con AUD fueron el 9% de la población, de los cuales 88% eran varones y en promedio tenían 37 años. Estas personas tenían trabajo y eran fumadores activos; y tenían menos probabilidad de estar en casa o ser jubilados. La población con AUD tenía mayores posibilidades de cumplir con los criterios de todos los trastornos, excepto el trastorno depresivo menor, el trastorno de estrés post-traumático, la dependencia a la nicotina, y el trastorno oposicional desafiante.Conclusión: Este estudio demuestra una alta prevalencia de trastornos mentales en la población adulta con trastornos por consumo de alcohol en Colombia. Los resultados destacan la importancia de la comorbilidad como un signo de gravedad de la enfermedad e impacto en la salud pública y apoyan la necesidad de formación de más profesionales y el desarrollo de intervenciones y servicios apropiados.

  3. Pérdidas Humanas y Económicas Causadas por el Vulcanismo en Costa Rica entre 1953 y 2005

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    Irene Aguilar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta por primera vez una aproximación integrada de los efectos de las erupciones volcánicas en el periodo comprendido entre los años 1953 y el 2005. El detalle de los daños en (puentes, casas, ferrocarril, fábricas, las pérdidas económicas (agricultura, ganadería, suministro de agua potable, interrupción de las actividades, pérdidas de vidas humanas y las inversiones (donaciones, medidas paliativas, se presenta en los correspondientes cuadros, los que se centran en los desastres y efectos económicos, sin embargo los efectos sociológicos y psicológicos no fueron evaluados. Tres emergencias nacionales se han producido, una debido a la erupción del Irazú en 1963-1965, la otra con el Arenal en 1968 y la del volcán Poás en 1990. Pero también varias crisis volcánicas ocurrieron en otros volcanes como el Poás (1953-1955, 1989-1994, Rincón de la Vieja (1967,1991, 1995 y 1998 y de nuevo en Arenal (1975, 1988 y 2000, que produjo las pérdidas económicas debidas a la lluvia acida y/o lahares, otras personas murieron debido a depósitos de flujos piroclásticos. La actividad volcánica es la responsable de al menos 48,7 millones dólares en el último siglo, cantidad que será necesaria escalar en un futuro estudio. En el presente siglo, el daño por la lluvia ácida es de más de $200 mil. Por el momento, se tiene certeza que 103 personas fueron muertas por la actividad volcánica en el siglo XX; no hay informes adicionales de muertes o personas heridas desde 1700. Este documento es la base para un trabajo futuro más centrado en la evaluación socioeconómica, el análisis del riesgo y su proyección hacia el futuro. Si una nueva erupción similar a la del Irazú en 1963-1965 o del Arenal en 1968, sucediera durante el presente siglo, las pérdidas económicas serán significativamente mayores que las anteriores.

  4. Pérdidas Humanas y Económicas Causadas por el Vulcanismo en Costa Rica entre 1953 y 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Aguilar; Guillermo E. Alvarado

    2014-01-01

    Se presenta por primera vez una aproximación integrada de los efectos de las erupciones volcánicas en el periodo comprendido entre los años 1953 y el 2005. El detalle de los daños en (puentes, casas, ferrocarril, fábricas), las pérdidas económicas (agricultura, ganadería, suministro de agua potable), interrupción de las actividades, pérdidas de vidas humanas y las inversiones (donaciones, medidas paliativas), se presenta en los correspondientes cuadros, los que se centran en los desastres y e...

  5. Síndrome respiratória aguda grave causada por influenza A (subtipo H1N1) Severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the influenza A (H1N1) virus

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Aparecida Ribeiro; Graziela Sgreccia Brasileiro; Luciana Novaes Campello Soleiman; Cristiano Cruz Silva; Cláudio Shoki Kavaguti

    2010-01-01

    Frente à pandemia causada por um novo vírus, influenza A (H1N1), descrevemos o caso de um paciente de 56 anos com síndrome respiratória aguda grave causada por influenza A (H1N1) sem fatores de risco importantes. Os resultados dos exames laboratoriais e de imagem (radiografia e TC de tórax) são apresentados aqui. O paciente teve boa evolução e recebeu alta hospitalar em 14 dias.In view of the pandemic caused by a new virus, influenza A (H1N1), we report the case of a 56-year-old patient witho...

  6. La marea roja causada por el dinoflagelado Alexandrium tamarense en la costa Pacífica colombiana (2001

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    Ingrid García-Hansen

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available El 26 de marzo de 2001 se registró por primera vez en las aguas del Pacífico colombiano, en el área de la Ensenada de Tumaco, la aparición de una marea roja producida por la especie Alexandrium tamarense con valores que superaron las 7.5 x 10(6 céls l-1 , la marea se mantuvo hacia la región oceánica, derivando en sentido sur-norte por efecto de las corrientes, hasta ser vista por ultima vez cerca a la Isla Gorgona, casi tres semanas después. Un año mas tarde, en marzo de 2002, una segunda proliferación, conformada por la misma especie, se reportó cerca de Cabo Corrientes con una concentración de 1.6 x 10(6 céls l -1 . Ambos casos estuvieron relacionados con la presencia de bajas temperaturas en la superficie del mar y no estuvieron asociadas con fenómenos de intoxicación y mortalidadFrom April 26th to May 15th 2001, a large algae bloom was observed off Tumaco Bay on the Pacific coast of Colombia. This was the first harmful algae bloom (HAB reported in the region, and reached Gorgona Island, about 120 km north. Ayear later, starting March 2002, an offshore HAB developed from Cabo Corrientes North to Solano Bay. The typical abundance during the blooms reached 7.5 x 10(6 cells l-1 for the 2001 event and 1.6 x 10(6 cells l-1 for the 2002 event. During both events, low temperature and high salinity were recorded. Typical measurements in the area are 27-27.5°C and 30-31.5 psu. Values observed during the two events were 24-24.6°C and 33-34 psu; 3°C below normal and more than 2.5 psu above average values. These conditions are indicative of local upwelling processes at the time of the events. On both occasions, cells corresponding to the Alexandrium catenella/fundeyense/tamarense complex represented 99-100% of the biomass. It was difficult to differentiate the cells from A. catenella, but the presence of short chains of only 4 cells (single cells represented most of the biomass was suggestive of A. tamarense. Shape, dimensions, and

  7. Fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii Risk factors associated with bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii

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    Aline Artioli Machado Yamamura

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo de fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii. Foram analisadas 13 propriedades leiteiras dos Estados do Paraná e de São Paulo, segundo os seguintes critérios de seleção: confirmação prévia de casos de mastite por Prototheca spp., triagem pela pesquisa de Prototheca spp. em tanques de expansão e latões e rebanhos com contagem de células somáticas acima de 5x105cel mL-1. As amostras coletadas consistiram de: leite, água, solo, fezes e swab de teteiras. Prototheca spp. foi isolada de amostras de leite dos quartos mamários com mastite clínica ou subclínica em uma propriedade e de amostras de leite e do ambiente em quatro propriedades, nas quais foi isolada em amostras de: água de bebedouro, abastecimento, esgoto, empoçada no piso de estábulo e sala de ordenha, solo de piquete e pasto, teteiras, fezes de bezerros e suínos. Do total de 383 vacas examinadas, Prototheca spp. foi isolada em 20 (5,2% vacas, sendo caracterizada como P. zopfii em 18. Os fatores de risco associados à mastite causada por P. zopfii foram: criação das vacas a pasto, alimentação dos animais com pasto e silagem, realização de ordenha mecânica em estábulo, permanência das vacas após ordenha em piquete sem alimento, criação de suínos próxima às instalações dos bovinos, existência de cães, gatos e roedores, falta de higienização dos tetos com água, pré-imersão dos tetos em aplicador com retorno e sem a troca do anti-séptico, alimentação dos bezerros com leite de vacas com mastite clínica e serem as vacas da raça holandesa.This research had as objective the study of risk factors associated with bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii. Thirteen dairy herds in Paraná and São Paulo states were analyzed and selected according to the following criteria: previous confirmation of Prototheca spp. mastitis cases, screening of Prototheca spp. in bulk tanks and

  8. Cura espontânea da leishmaniose causada por Leishmania Viannia Braziliensis em lesões cutâneas

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    Jackson Maurício Lopes Costa

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam que durante 14 anos de trabalho clínico em campo, realizado nas comunidades de Três Braços e Corte de Pedra, Bahia, acompanharam 1.416 pacientes portadores de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana, cuja espécie envolvida na transmissão, é predominantemente a Leishmania Viannia brasilienses. A terapêutica utilizada rotineiramente nos casos é o antimoniato-N-metilglucamina (Glucantime. Contudo, 16 pacientes do sexo masculino recusaram-se a utilizar a medicação e 6 do sexo feminino encontravam-se em período gestacional, portanto não utilizaram o medicamento. Estes pacientes foram acompanhados por um período entre 4 a 12 anos, a partir do diagnóstico. Observou-se que em 9 pacientes (40,9% desta casuística, o tempo de cicatrizaçâo após o aparecimento da lesão, pode ser calculado em 6 meses de evolução. Quando se eleva a observação para 12 meses, temos que 19 pacientes (86,3% cicatrizaram suas lesões neste período. Em 3 casos (13,6% as lesões permaneceram ativas por mais de 12 meses. Conclui-se que os determinantes da cicatrizaçâo natural das lesões produzidas por Leishmania Viannia Braziliensis permanecem desconhecidos, dificultando para nós entendermos e compararmos aos efeitos das drogas utilizadas no tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar.In field clinics in the comunities of Três Braços and Corte de Pedra, Bahia, we have attended 1.416 patients with tegumentary leishmaniasis in fourteen years, the predomi nant species in transmission is Leishmania Viannia brasiliensis (LVB. Because of the danger of metastasis with this infection treatment was routinely recomended with Glucantime. However sixteen patients refused injection therapy and six women were pregnant when seen and not treated. All patients were followed up in our clinic. All these patients closed their skin ulcers although one subsequently relapsed. Patients were followed up for variable periods (four to twelve years, after the diagnosis. In

  9. Mancha de mirotécio em algodoeiro causada por Myrothecium roridum Myrothecium leaf spot of cotton caused by Myrothecium roridum

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    Maurício Conrado Meyer

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A mancha de mirotécio causada por Myrothecium roridum Tode ex Fr. foi observada em lavouras de algodão no sul do Maranhão, causando reduções de produtividade de até 60%. Os sintomas da doença são lesões necróticas, circulares, com estruturas salientes, os esporodóquios, de distribuição irregular. Foram observadas lesões nos pecíolos, brácteas, folhas e maçãs de algodoeiro cv. Deltapine Acala 90, Fibermax 966 e Sure Grow 821. O isolamento do fungo foi realizado em meio de cultura batata-dextrose-ágar (BDA. O teste de patogenicidade foi realizado em maçãs sadias, destacadas de algodoeiro cv. Fibermax 966, no estádio vegetativo R6, previamente desinfestadas. Foram testados 13 isolados de M. roridum, oito provenientes de algodão e cinco de soja. Avaliações das estruturas fúngicas foram realizadas com auxílio de microscópio óptico equipado com um micrômetro ocular. Os isolados causaram infecções em maçãs de algodão e destacou-se como mais agressivo o MA-75, proveniente de algodão, apresentando diâmetro médio de lesão de 1,3cm, aos sete DAI e 2,7cm aos 14 DAI. Todos os isolados formaram esporodóquios dispostos concenticamente em meio BDA. Os conídios são unicelulares, hialinos a oliváceos, abundantemente produzidos em massa verde-oliva a preta. Os conídios de isolados provenientes de algodão mediram, em média, 5,1µm x 1,5µm, e os obtidos de soja, 5,8µm x 1,5µm. Estes resultados relatam a ocorrência da mancha de mirotécio, causada por M. roridum, em lavouras comerciais de algodão no Brasil.Myrothecium leaf spot caused by Myrothecium roridum Tode ex Fr. was observed on cotton fields in Maranhão State, Brazil, causing yield reduction of up to 60%. Disease symptoms are lesions with concentric necrotic rings, with salient structures (sporodochia irregularly distributed. Symptoms were observed on petioles, bracts, leaves and bolls of cotton cultivars Deltapine Acala 90, Fibermax 966 and Sure Grow 821

  10. ALTERAÇÕES MICROMETEOROLÓGICAS CAUSADAS POR TÚNEIS BAIXOS DE TELA PLÁSTICA PRETA CULTIVADOS COM ALFACE

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    Galileo Adeli Buriot

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Foram determinadas alterações micrometeorológicas causadas por tela plástica preta com 18, 30 e 50% de atenuação da radiação solar incidente, durante os meses de verão, em Santa Maria, RS. O experimento foi conduzido no Campo Experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, onde foram cultivados quatro canteiros com alface, três deles cobertos com túneis de tela plástica. O estudo foi realizado em 3 períodos: de 30/11/90 a 17/01/91, de 06/02/91 a 25/03/91 e de 10/12/91 a 01/03/92. Mediu-se a radiação solar global, radiação solar na faixa de comprimento de onda do infravermelho e a luminosidade, temperatura diurna do solo, temperatura mínima e diurna do ar e umidade do solo e do ar. Os resultados mostraram que a temperatura do solo e do ar e a perda de água do solo são menores sob os túneis do que no exterior. As diferenças cresceram com o aumento da atenuação e a temperatura mínima do ar e a umidade relativa do ar são semelhantes no interior e exterior dos túneis e entre os túneis com diferentes percentagens de atenuação.

  11. Production of glucosyltransferase by Erwinia sp. using experimental design and response surface methodology Produção de glicosiltransferase por Erwinia sp. utilizando planejamento experimental e metodologia de superfície de resposta

    OpenAIRE

    Haroldo Yukio Kawaguti; Eiric Manrich; Luciana Francisco Fleuri; Hélia Harumi Sato

    2005-01-01

    Glucosyltransferase produced by strain Erwinia sp. is an intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the formation of isomaltulose from sucrose. Isomaltulose is a non-cariogenic reducing dissacharide commercially used in foods. Response surface methodology and 2³-factorial central composite design were employed to optimize a fermentation medium for the production of glucosyltransferase by Erwinia sp. in shaken flasks at 200 rpm and 30ºC. The three variables involved in this study were sugar cane mola...

  12. Utilização da vacina Escherichia coli J5 na imunização de vacas leiteiras contra mastites causadas por E. coli

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    Lívio R. Molina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a utilização da vacina Escherichia coli J5, na imunização de vacas leiteiras, para prevenção e controle da mastite causada por E. coli através da análise da prevalência das infecções intramamárias (IMM no pós-parto, ocorrência e intensidade dos casos clínicos de mastite nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação, influência na contagem de células somáticas (CCS e produção de leite. O grupo experimental foi composto de 187 animais, divididos em 2 grupos, vacas vacinadas e não vacinadas. As imunizações ocorreram 60 dias antes do parto, 30 dias antes do parto e na primeira semana pós-parto. No dia da secagem e sete dias após o parto foram coletadas amostras para diagnóstico microbiológico dos patógenos causadores de mastite. A ocorrência de casos clínicos foi verificada pelo teste da caneca durante as ordenhas sendo registrados os dados relacionados à intensidade. Amostras foram coletadas mensalmente, a partir do décimo dia de lactação, para avaliação da CCS. A produção de leite foi registrada mensalmente nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação. Verificou-se no grupo vacinado, redução na prevalência de E. coli no pós-parto, na ocorrência de casos clínicos por E.coli nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação bem como na intensidade destes casos clínicos. Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas significativas na CCS, entretanto vacas vacinadas apresentaram maior produção de leite, comparadas às vacas não vacinadas. A vacinação com E. coli J5 foi eficaz em reduzir a prevalência de infecções intramamárias (IMM ao parto, ocorrência e intensidade dos casos clínicos e aumento na produção de leite nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação.

  13. Método FAMACHA para detectar anemia clínica causada por Haemonchus contortus em cordeiros lactentes e ovelhas em lactação

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    Maria Angela M. Fernandes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O controle das endoparasitoses gastrintestinais em pequenos ruminantes tem sido tradicionalmente realizado por meio do uso indiscriminado dos anti-helmínticos, porém essa prática tem resultado em grande pressão de seleção de parasitas resistentes. Métodos seletivos (ex: FAMACHA/FMC e contagem de ovos nas fezes/OPG e que apresentem boa sensibilidade para identificar os animais que necessitam receber o tratamento químico são importantes alternativas aos métodos tradicionais. O objetivo desse trabalho foi determinar a sensibilidade e a especificidade do método FMC, usado para detectar anemia causada por Haemonchus contortus em ovinos da raça Suffolk, em duas categorias de alta suscetibilidade; cordeiros lactentes e ovelhas durante a fase de lactação. A conjuntiva ocular de 42 cordeiros lactentes e 35 ovelhas em lactação foi avaliada usando o método FMC, em intervalos de 14 dias, durante cinco meses. O hematócrito (Ht foi utilizado como padrão-ouro para avaliação clínica de anemia dos animais. Para o cálculo de sensibilidade e especificidade, diferentes critérios foram utilizados: animais classificados como 4 e 5 ou 3, 4 e 5 e anêmicos pelo Ht (teste positivo; animais classificados como 1, 2 e 3 ou 1 e 2 e não anêmicos pelo Ht (teste negativo. Três valores de corte para Ht (≤22%, ≤19% ou ≤15% foram utilizados para confirmar a anemia. Entre os gêneros observados nas coproculturas, H. contortus (61,5% e Ostertagiasp (21,3% foram os mais prevalentes. Em ambas as categorias, a inclusão do FMC 3 como teste positivo, elevou a sensibilidade mas reduziu a especificidade do método. Quando o FMC 3 foi considerado anêmico, o percentual de falsos negativos foi próximo a zero, no entanto, houve aumento no número de tratamentos aplicados em animais não anêmicos (falso positivo. Durante as avaliações, a maior parte dos cordeiros (73% e das ovelhas (53% permaneceu nas categorias de FMC 1 e 2. Apenas 5% dos

  14. Incidência da varíola, causada por Asperisporium caricae, em folhas de mamoeiros submetidos ao manejo orgânico, em diferentes ambientes de cultivo

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    Luiz Aurélio Peres Martelleto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mudas de mamoeiro da cultivar Baixinho de Santa Amália foram transplantadas para covas de 40x60x40 cm, em áreas de três estruturas contíguas: (a estufa sombreada (cobertura de plástico, (b estufa sombreada + sombrite (cobertura adicional de sombrite com 30% de sombreamento sobre o plástico e (c telado (cobertura exclusiva de sombrite 30%. Ao lado de tais estruturas foi implantada uma área de cultivo de mamoeiro em ambiente natural. Os tratos culturais aplicados foram os condizentes às normas técnicas vigentes na agricultura orgânica. As irrigações foram procedidas com mangueira plástica, evitando-se molhar folhas e frutos. Aos 45 dias pós-transplantio e, subseqüentemente, a intervalos mensais, as plantas foram inspecionadas em relação à incidência de lesões foliares causada pelo fungo Asperisporium caricae. Para efeito de análise estatística, após o teste de homogeneidade das variâncias, foram consideradas quatro repetições por ambiente (tratamento, com seis plantas úteis por parcela. O modelo de quantificação da doença indicou efeito altamente significativo dos ambientes protegidos, estufa e estufa sombreada, quanto à incidência de sintomas, em comparação com ambientes de telado e em área natural de cultivo. Durante os 12 meses de avaliações foi constatada alta correlação entre incidência da doença e pluviosidade e umidade relativa do ar. As estruturas cobertas com plástico demonstraram alto potencial de controle de A. caricae, sendo, portanto, recomendáveis no sistema orgânico de produção do mamoeiro.Transplants of Baixinho de Santa Amália papaya cultivar were grown in three neighboring plant growth facilities: a greenhouse (covered with plastic sheet; b shaded greenhouse (with sombrite 30% black screen over the plastic sheet; c screenhouse (covered with sombrite 30% only. Next to such structures a plot was settled for cultivation under natural environment. Cultural practices were conducted

  15. La necrosis bacteriana de la vid, causada por xylophilus ampelinus. Detección serológica, distribución en Aragón y sensibilidad varietal.

    OpenAIRE

    CAMBRA ALVAREZ, MIGUEL

    2011-01-01

    La necrosis bacteriana de la vid, causada por la bacteria de cuarentena Xylophilus ampelinus, es una enfermedad de difícil control químico y que ha causado en España importantes pérdidas económicas. Actualmente, es endémica en distintas zonas de Aragón y Galicia y se han identificado focos aislados en La Rioja. Ante la carencia de métodos sensibles y específicos de detección de esta bacteria que se puedan utilizar para el análisis rutinario, se ha puesto a punto un método de ex...

  16. Production of glucosyltransferase by Erwinia sp. using experimental design and response surface methodology Produção de glicosiltransferase por Erwinia sp. utilizando planejamento experimental e metodologia de superfície de resposta

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    Haroldo Yukio Kawaguti

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Glucosyltransferase produced by strain Erwinia sp. is an intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the formation of isomaltulose from sucrose. Isomaltulose is a non-cariogenic reducing dissacharide commercially used in foods. Response surface methodology and 2³-factorial central composite design were employed to optimize a fermentation medium for the production of glucosyltransferase by Erwinia sp. in shaken flasks at 200 rpm and 30ºC. The three variables involved in this study were sugar cane molasses (SCM, corn steep liquor (CSL and yeast extract Prodex Lac SD (YEP. The statistical analysis of the results showed that, in the range studied, all the factors had a significant effect on glucosyltransferase production and the optimum medium composition for enzyme production was (in g l-1 SCM-100, CSL-60 and YEP-8, which lead to a glucosyltransferase activity of 6.65 U mL-1.A glicosiltransferase obtida pela linhagem Erwinia sp. é uma enzima intracelular que catalisa a conversão de sacarose em isomaltulose. A isomaltulose é um dissacarídeo redutor, não cariogênico e comercialmente utilizado em alimentos como substituto da sacarose. A metodologia de superfície de resposta e planejamento fatorial composto central-2³ foram utilizados para otimizar o meio de cultivo para a produção de glicosiltransferase de Erwinia sp. em frascos sob agitação a 200 rpm e 30ºC. As três variáveis independentes envolvidas no estudo foram o melaço de cana de açúcar, a água de maceração de milho e o extrato de levedura Prodex Lac SD. As análises estatísticas dos resultados mostraram que, dentro da faixa estudada das concentrações dos componentes de meio de cultivo, todas as variáveis apresentaram efeito significativo na produção de glicosiltransferase. O meio de cultivo otimizado foi composto de 100 gL-1 de melaço de cana de açúcar, 60 gL-1 de água de maceração de milho e 8 gL-1 de extrato de levedura Prodex Lac SD, apresentando atividade de

  17. Perdas de rendimento de grãos de soja causadas por interferência de picão-preto e guanxuma Soybean grain yield losses due to interference by beggatticks and arrowleaf sida

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    Mauro Antônio Rizzardi

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O grau de interferência mútua entre plantas daninhas e cultivadas pode ser afetado pelas espécies concorrentes e por seu nível populacional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a possibilidade de uso do modelo da hipérbole retangular na previsão das perdas de rendimento de grãos de soja causadas por picão-preto (Bidens spp. e guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia L.. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos em campo no Município de Eldorado do Sul-RS, nos anos de 1999/00 e 2000/01. Os tratamentos constaram de densidades de plantas de picão-preto ou de guanxuma, as quais foram alocadas de acordo com níveis populacionais de ervas encontrados naturalmente na área experimental. Constatou-se que as perdas de rendimento causadas por incrementos nas densidades de picão-preto e de guanxuma aumentaram de forma não linear. O modelo da hipérbole retangular propicia melhores ajustes quando utiliza perdas do rendimento de grãos do que perdas da matéria seca da soja no florescimento ou do rendimento biológico da soja. por meio da comparação dos parâmetros obtidos para o modelo testado, conclui-se que picão-preto interfere mais negativamente na cultura do que guanxuma.The level of reciprocal interference between weeds and crops is affected by the competing species and plant populations involved. This research was conducted in order to evaluate the possibility of using the retangular hyperbolic model for predicting soybean grain yield losses caused by beggarticks (Bidens spp. and arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia L. infestations. To accomplish this, there were carried out two field experiments in Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil, during the 1999/00 and 2000/01 growing seasons. Treatments consisted of beggarticks and arrowleaf densities, which were located according to naturally ocurring population levels in the research area. Was detected that grain yield losses due to increasing densities of these weeds increased non-linearly. The retangular

  18. HLA in Brazilian Ashkenazic Jews with chronic dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum Antígenos Leucocitários Humanos (HLA em Judeus Ashkenazitas Brasileiros portadores de dermatofitose crônica causada por Trichophyton rubrum

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    Aya Sadahiro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of HLA (Human Leucocyte Antigens was analyzed in 25 non-consanguineous Brazilian Ashkenazic Jews, resident in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, suffering from chronic dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum, and in 25 non-infected individuals belonging to the same ethnic group. Statistically significant values (pA freqüência dos HLA foi analisada em 25 Judeus Ashkenazitas, não consangüíneos, residentes em São Paulo, Brasil, com dermatofitose crônica causada por T. rubrum e em 25 indivíduos sadios, pertencentes ao mesmo grupo étnico dos pacientes. Observou-se valor estatisticamente significante (p<0,05 para HLA-B14 associado a resistência à dermatofitose crônica enquanto HLA-DQB1*06 (p=0,05 possivelmente relacionado a susceptibilidade. Estes achados indicam que o desenvolvimento da dermatofitose crônica pode ser influenciado por genes localizados no cromossomo 6, na região do complexo principal de histocompatibilidade.

  19. OCCURRENCE OF LEAF SPOTS CAUSED BY FUNGI AND A BACTERIUM ON COTTON CULTIVARS OCORRÊNCIA DE MANCHAS FOLIARES CAUSADAS POR FUNGOS E BACTÉRIA EM CULTIVARES DE ALGODOEIRO

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    Miguel Ferreira Soria

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The cotton leaf spot diseases caused by fungi and bacteria are a growing problem, leading to an increasing use of fungicides. During the 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 growing seasons, field experiments were carried out in a randomized block design, with five replications, aiming to evaluate the behavior of the cotton cultivars Ita-90, CD-401, CD-402, CD-403, CD-404, Fibermax 986, DeltaOpal, and Facual, as related to leaf spot diseases caused by Stemphylium spp., Alternaria spp., Ramularia areola, and the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum. The cotton cultivars Ita-90 and Facual were the less susceptible to the Stemphylium/Alternaria complex and R. areola. However, Ita-90 was more susceptible to X. axonopodis pv. Malvacearum. The cultivars with the least incidence of X. axonopodis were CD-403, Fibermax 986, and DeltaOpal. The cotton cultivar Facual presented the lowest yield, while the remaining cultivars showed similar yields.

    KEY-WORDS: Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Malvacearum; Stemphylium spp; Alternaria spp; Ramularia areola.

    As manchas foliares causadas por fungos e bactérias no algodoeiro são um problema cada vez mais grave, levando à utilização, cada vez maior, de fungicidas para controlá-las. Nas safras de 2000/2001 e 2001/2002, foram realizados experimentos m campo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco epetições, objetivando avaliar o comportamento das

  20. Podridão-mole em plantas de cebolinha causada por Pectobacterium carotovorumsubsp. carotovorum em Roraima Soft rot of bunching onion plants caused by Pectobacterium carotovorumsubsp. carotovorum in Roraima, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo A. Halfeld-Vieira; Kátia de Lima Nechet

    2008-01-01

    A ocorrência de Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (=Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora) em cebolinha (Allium fistulosum) é relatada pela primeira vez na região norte do Brasil. Até então sua ocorrência estava registrada apenas no Distrito Federal.This is the first report of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (=Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora) causing soft rot of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum) plants in Roraima, Brazil. Its occurrence is reported only in Distr...

  1. Aspectos epidemiológicos de pacientes com lesões ungueais e cutâneas causadas por Scytalidium spp Epidemiological aspects of patients with ungual and cutaneous lesions caused by Scytalidium spp

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    Ana Paula Martins Xavier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: As dermatomicoses causadas por fungos filamentosos não dermatófitos são infecções raras, exceto as onicomicoses, cuja prevalência vem crescendo nos últimos anos. Dentre esses agentes etiológicos destacam-se o Scytalidium dimidiatum e o S. hyalinum, fungos emergentes responsáveis por micoses em unhas e pele. OBJETIVO: Investigar as características epidemiológicas das onicomicoses e micoses de outras localizações causadas pelos fungos do gênero Scytalidium, utilizando-se como parâmetros sexo, idade e localizações das lesões. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 81 amostras com cultura positiva para o gênero em estudo, oriundas de 74 pacientes encaminhados ao Laboratório de Investigação em Dermatologia (ID situado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro (RJ, no período de 1997 a 2006. As amostras foram submetidas a confirmação diagnóstica por exame direto e cultura. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de onicomicoses por Scytalidium spp. foi de 0,87%, entre as idades de 41 e 60 anos (48,64%. Em relação à localização das lesões, os pés foram mais acometidos (91,36%, com predomínio do hálux esquerdo. No exame direto, as estruturas mais encontradas foram hifas hialinas; na cultura, a espécie S. dimidiatum foi a mais frequente. CONCLUSÃO: As onicomicoses por Scytalidium spp. são raras e o S. dimidiatum foi a espécie mais isolada neste laboratório no período em estudo.BACKGROUND: Dermatomycoses caused by non-dermatophyte filamentous fungi are rare infections, except for onychomycosis, whose prevalence has increased over the past few years. Among these etiologic agents, we highlight Scytalidium dimidiatum and S. hyalinum, emergent fungi that cause mycoses that affect the nails and skin. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of onychomycosis and other mycoses caused by the fungi Scytalidium spp, using sex, age and site of infection as parameters. METHODS: Eighty-one samples were evaluated showing positive culture for Scytalidium

  2. Restrições causadas pela incontinência urinária à vida da mulher Restricciones ocasionadas por la incontinencia urinaria en la vida de la mujer Urinary incontinence restrictions in women's life

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    Maria Helena Baena de Moraes Lopes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as restrições causadas pela incontinência urinária (IU à vida da mulher, considerando-se o tipo de incontinência, e verificar como manejam este problema. Trata-se de uma análise secundária de dados obtidos em estudo anterior, coletados por meio de entrevista com perguntas abertas e fechadas. A amostra foi composta por 164 mulheres com queixa de IU, internadas em clínicas de ginecologia e urologia de dois hospitais-escola da cidade de Campinas, SP. Apresentavam idade entre 25 e 85 anos e 104 (64% referiram uma ou mais restrições. Citaram alterações nas atividades sexuais (40,9%, sociais (33,5%, domésticas (18,9% e ocupacionais (15,2%. A incontinência urinária mista e a de urgência forem as que mais afetavam a vida das mulheres. A estratégia mais utilizada para minimizar a IU foi o uso de forro e/ou absorvente higiênico. Concluiu-se que a IU tem implicações negativas no cotidiano dessas mulheres.En este estudio se tuvo como objetivo identificar las restricciones causadas por la incontinencia urinaria (IU en la vida de la mujer, considerándose el tipo de incontinencia, y verificar cómo manejan este problema. Se trata de un análisis secundario de datos obtenidos en un estudio anterior, recolectados por medio de entrevista con preguntas abiertas y cerradas. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 164 mujeres con queja de IU, internadas en clínicas de ginecología y urología de dos hospitales docentes de la ciudad de Campinas, SP. Las mujeres tenían entre 25 y 85 años de edad, habiendo relatado 104 (64% de ellas una o más restricciones. Citaron alteraciones en las actividades sexuales (40,9%, sociales (33,5%, domésticas (18,9% y ocupacionales (15,2%. La incontinencia urinaria mixta y la de urgencia fueron las que más afectaban la vida de las mujeres. La estrategia más utilizada para minimizar la IU fue el uso de paños y/o toallas higiénicas. Se concluyó que la IU tiene implicancias

  3. Evaluación de la mutagenicidad causada por metales pesados presentes en agua del río Cauca en la ciudad de Cali, Colombia

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    Aura H. Vivas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la mutagenicidad del agua delrío Cauca debida a la presencia de metalespesados en la zona urbana de la Ciudadde Santiago de Cali, a partir de muestrastomadas en la temporada seca y lluviosaen el año 2013. Los metales se extrajeronpasando el agua por la resina AmberliteXAD-16. Las concentraciones de los metalespesados se midieron por absorción atómicay la mutagenicidad se evaluó por mediodel test de Ames, con las cepas TA98 yTA100 de Salmonella typhimurium con ysin activador enzimático S9. Los resultadosmostraron índices de mutagenicidad (IMpositivos (IM > 2,0 para muestras colectadasen temporada lluviosa en tres de los cincopuntos evaluados: puente El Hormiguero(IM = 3,6, desembocadura del CanalColector Sur (IM = 2,9 y desembocaduradel río Cali (IM = 2,7, todos con la cepaTA98 sin S9. Estos sitios presentaron a suvez las mayores concentraciones totales demetales pesados en sus extractos. El análisisde la variación espacio-temporal del índicemutagénico se realizó haciendo un análisis devarianza multifactorial del IM. Los resultadosencontrados indican que la época demuestreo contribuye significativamente a lavariabilidad del IM , mientras que los puntosde muestreo no.

  4. Reação de cultivares de batata à podridão mole causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, por P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum e por P. chrysanthemi Reaction of potato cultivars to soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and P. chrysanthemi

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    Adilce I. H. Benelli

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A podridão mole em tubérculos de batata (Solanum tuberosum, causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum e por P. chrysanthemi, é uma preocupante doença que causa danos expressivos à cultura em todo o mundo. Como inexiste tratamento eficiente para a podridão mole, o desenvolvimento de cultivares resistentes é considerado o método mais eficaz para a redução de perdas causadas pela doença. Nesse sentido, quatro cultivares de batata foram avaliados quanto à resistência natural às pectobactérias, mediante redução de massa de tubérculos após 20, 24, 48, 72 e 96 h de inoculação com suspensões bacterianas. O delineamento experimental constou de um esquema fatorial com quatro cultivares, três bactérias e quatro repetições. Os resultados foram transformados em proporção e integralizados como área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD. Para as três bactérias estudadas, a cultivar Asterix mostrou-se o menos suscetível à podridão mole, diferindo significativamente dos demais.Soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and P. chrysanthemi is a severe disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum worldwide. Since there is no efficient treatment for soft rot, the use of resistant cultivars is considered the most effective method to reduce crop losses due to this disease. In this research, four potato cultivars were evaluated regarding their resistance to pectobacteria. Tubers inoculated with bacterial suspensions were assessed for mass reduction at five periods (20, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after inoculation. The experimental design consisted of a factorial scheme with four cultivars, three bacteria, and four replications. The data on tuber mass loss were transformed into proportion and integrated as the area under the disease progress curve. For all three bacteria, the cultivar Asterix was the less

  5. Anemia hemolítica causada por Indigofera suffruticosa (Leg. Papilionoideae em bovinos Hemolytic anemia caused by Indigofera suffruticosa (Leg. Papilionoideae in cattle

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    José Diomedes Barbosa Neto

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available As partes aéreas de Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. (família Leg. Papilionoideae, planta incriminada pelos criadores de diversas áreas do Nordeste por doença caracterizada por hemoglobinúria em bovinos, foram administradas por via oral a seis bovinos, em doses diárias repetidas de 10 a 40 g/kg, Todos os animais experimentais apresentaram hemoglobinúria, porém passageira, apesar continuidade da administração da planta. Dois desses bovinos não apresentaram manifestações adicionais, um terceiro animal evidenciou manifestações leves, e os três outros, sintomas adicionais de intensidade moderada: apatia, mucosas visíveis de coloração esbranquiçada, pêlos arrepiados, anorexia, diminuição da freqüência e intensidade dos movimentos ruminais, taquicardia, pulso venoso positivo e dispnéia. Antes da crise hemolítica a urina apresentava coloração verde azulada. Nenhum animal experimental morreu, porém um foi sacrificado durante a fase hemoglobinúrica. À necropsia observaram-se anemia, bexiga contendo urina cor de vinho tinto, rins aumentados de volume com coloração marrom-escura, fígado, na superfície e ao corte, de coloração azulada com lobulação perceptível. As principais alterações histológicas foram verificadas no fígado, sob forma de necrose coagulativa e tumefação e/ou microvacuolização citoplasmática dos hepatócitos, e no rim representadas por acentuada nefrose, associada a grande quantidade de filtrado e/ou hemoglobina nos espaços de Bowman dentro de túbulos e do citoplasma das células epiteliais.The aereal parts of Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. (family Leg. Papilionoideae were force-fed fresh to 6 bovines in daily doses of 10 to 40 g/kg. Cattle breeders of various parts of the Northeast of Brazil accuse this plant as the cause of a non-fatal disease characterized by hemoglobinuria. The disease occurs only in years when the plant proliferates well invading the native pastures. All experimental

  6. Tumorogênese em plantas causadas por espécies de Agrobacterium Tumorigenesis in plants induced by species of Agrobacterium

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    Reginaldo da Silva Romeiro; José Roberto Vieira Júnior; Sérgio Hermínio Brommonschenkel

    2007-01-01

    Tumores - sintomas hiperplásicos em plantas - incitados por espécies de Agrobacterium sp. sempre exerceram fascínio sobre fitopatologistas desde o início do Século XX, quando Erwin Smith e colaboradores demonstraram serem eles de etiologia bacteriana. No início, imaginava-se que os tumores eram decorrentes de alterações hormonais na planta provocadas pela bactéria. Contudo, até recentemente, a microbiologia e a biologia molecular não eram suficientemente avançadas para que os cientistas pudes...

  7. Tizón foliar de la teca en vivero causada por Ralstonia solanacearum Biovar 4 en Tabasco, México

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    Omar Alejandro Pérez Vera; Silvia Edith García Díaz; Leopold Fucikovsky-Zak; Oscar Hernández Colula; José Tulio Méndez Montiel

    2013-01-01

    La teca (Tectona grandis) se utiliza en plantaciones comerciales por su rápido crecimiento y la alta calidad de su madera. En Huimanguillo, Tabasco, México, en 2009, se detectó una enfermedad en plantas de teca que provocó daños estimados de 30% de los viveros con dicha especie. Los síntomas característicos de esta enfermedad son marchitez y atizonamiento del follaje. De hojas se aisló una bacteria, se purificó y se inoculó en la planta de teca de cinco meses de edad; hubo marchitez, necrosis...

  8. Thermolysed and active yeast to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxin Formas termolisada e viva de leveduras na redução de toxicidade causada por aflatoxinas

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    Antonio Sampaio Baptista

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are hepatotoxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus on a number of agricultural commodities. This research was carried out to evaluate the ability of thermolysed and active Saccharomyces cerevisiae to attenuate liver damage caused by aflatoxin. Diets were prepared containing 0 aflatoxin; 400 mug kg-1 aflatoxin; 400 mug kg-1 aflatoxin plus 1% of dehydrated active yeast, and 400 mug kg-1 aflatoxin plus 1% of thermolysed yeast. A bioassay with Wistar rats was conducted for 28 days, and body organs were weighted and analyses of the liver tissue of the animals were performed. The relative weight of heart, kidneys and liver from animals submitted to the different treatments did not show any difference, and liver tissue of animals feeding on the aflatoxin-free diet was adopted as a toxicity-free pattern. Hepatic tissue of animals feeding on diets containing 400 mug kg-1 aflatoxin or the diet supplemented with 1% thermolysed yeast showed clear signs of toxicity and damage. Hepatic tissue of animals feeding on the diet containing 1% of dehydrated active yeast showed less toxicity signs and damage than those receiving the diet containing 400 mug kg-1 aflatoxin. Active, dehydrated yeast had the ability to reduce toxic effects caused by aflatoxin, but thermolysed yeast was not able to alleviate the effects of aflatoxin toxicity.As aflatoxinas são metabólitos hepatotóxicos produzidos por algumas linhagens de Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus e, eventualmente, por A. nomius sobre grande número de produtos agrícolas. Esta pesquisa foi conduzida para avaliar a capacidade de Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nas formas termolisada e desidratada viva, em reduzir os danos causados por aflatoxinas. Para tal, foi preparada uma dieta básica e desta se obtiveram quatro formulações: uma como controle; as demais contaminadas com aflatoxinas na concentração de 400 mig kg-1, sendo duas com posterior adição de 1% de leveduras, uma

  9. Resistência de clones e híbridos de porta-enxertos de citros à gomose de tronco causada por Phytophthora parasitica

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    Medina Filho Herculano P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Sete grupos de híbridos entre porta-enxertos elite de citros (Citrus sp. e seus genitores foram estudados quanto a reação à infecção de tronco por Phytophthora parasitica, em plantas adultas no campo. Inocularam-se artificialmente, em duas posições do tronco, 132 plantas nucelares dos genitores e 486 híbridos entre limão (Citrus limonia Cravo 'Limeira' (C, Poncirus trifoliata 'Davis A' (T, tangerina (C.sunki 'Sunki' (S e laranja Azeda (C. aurantium 'São Paulo' (A. A classificação do grau de resistência à gomose de tronco em plantas adultas no campo foi possível somente quando baseada na média do tamanho de lesões de mais de 30 plantas nucelares, devido às grandes variações observadas em plantas individuais do mesmo clone, impossibilitando a seleção precoce de híbridos baseada em valores de plantas individuais. O trifoliata e a laranja Azeda mostraram-se bastante resistentes, desenvolvendo, em geral, lesões de tamanho reduzido. A tangerina Sunki e o limão Cravo desenvolveram lesões maiores, embora a tangerina Sunki tenha mostrado uma tendência em desenvolver lesões maiores que às do limão Cravo. Híbridos de trifoliata apresentaram, no geral, lesões intermediárias. Os híbridos de Azeda apresentaram lesões de tamanhos bastante variáveis, porém a maioria, com lesões grandes. Da mesma forma comportaram-se os híbridos recíprocos entre Sunki e Cravo.

  10. Mortality of the outbreak defoliator Ormiscodes amphimone (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae caused by natural enemies in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina Mortalidad del defoliador epidémico Ormiscodes amphimone (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae causada por enemigos naturales en el noroeste de la Patagonia Argentina

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    JUAN PARITSIS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of the defoliator moth Ormiscodes amphimone are occurring more frequently in numerous Nothofagus forests of Patagonia. However, little is known about the life history of this species including its natural enemies as mortality agents. In this work we quantified mortality by parasitoids and generalist predators at the egg, larval and pupal life stages of O. amphimone in a Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. & Endl. Krasser forest in northwestern Patagonia. Parasitism of eggs was relatively low (ca. 11 %, and we did not record significant larval predation by insectivorous birds. However, we recorded elevated mortality caused by larval parasitoids (ca. 50 % in third instar larvae and pupal predators (ca. 75 %, which suggests that these natural enemies could play a significant role in regulating O. amphimone populations. Our research is an initial step towards understanding the influence of natural enemies on O. amphimone population dynamics.Las irrupciones poblacionales de la polilla defoliadora Ormiscodes amphimone están ocurriendo de manera más frecuente en numerosos bosques de Nothofagus de la Patagonia. Sin embargo, se sabe poco de la historia natural de esta especie y, particularmente, de sus enemigos naturales. En este estudio se cuantificó la depredación de huevos, larvas y pupas de O. amphimone por parasitoides y otros depredadores en un bosque de Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. & Endl. Krasser en el noroeste de la Patagonia. Se encontró que el parasitismo de huevos fue relativamente bajo (ca. 11 % y no se registró depredación significativa de larvas por aves insectívoras. No obstante, registramos niveles elevados de mortalidad causada por parasitoides de larvas (ca. 50 % en larvas en tercer instar y por depredadores de pupas (ca. 75 %, lo que parece indicar que estos enemigos naturales desempeñan un papel significativo en la regulación de poblaciones de O. amphimone. Este estudio representa un paso inicial hacia el entendimiento de la

  11. Tratamento das ulcerações traumáticas bucais causadas por aparelhos ortodônticos Treatment of the mouth traumatic ulcers caused by orthodontic appliances

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    Antonio Adilson Soares de Lima

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available As lesões de aspecto ulcerado na mucosa bucal são um achado comum na clínica odontológica e geralmente são ocasionados por trauma mecânico devido a próteses mal adaptadas, aparelhos ortodônticos e dentes com coroas ou restaurações fraturadas. Contudo, os indivíduos nos quais a lesão persiste por mais de três semanas deverão ser submetidos à biopsia ou outros exames para excluir algumas lesões de caráter neoplásico ou outras condições, tais como as infecções crônicas e as doenças de caráter imunológico. Durante o tratamento ortodôntico, a dor e o desconforto da mucosa bucal podem acontecer como resultado do traumatismo mecânico dos aparelhos, ocasionado pela fricção aumentada entre o tecido da mucosa e a superfície dos braquetes. Atualmente, o ortodontista possui poucos recursos para prevenir ou aliviar esta irritação na mucosa. O objetivo deste artigo é orientar o ortodontista para o manejo mais adequado destas lesões visando o seu diagnóstico correto, o alívio dos sintomas que estas costumam provocar e o tratamento mais adequado para cada tipo de caso.Mouth ulcers are one of the most commom complaints in the dental clinic. They are, in general, caused for mechanic traumatism induced by non-fitted dentures, orthodontic appliances and fracturated crowns and fillings. Nevertheless, those lesions that have persisted for more than three weeks should be submitted to biopsy or other exams to exclude neoplasic, infectious or immunologic lesions. During the orthodontic treatment, pain and soreness of the oral mucosa can occur as the result of mechanic traumatism caused by increased friction between soft tissues and brackets. Nowadays, the professional owns few resources to prevention or relieve this irritation on the oral mucosa. The aim of this article is to guide the orthodontist to realize the correct diagnoses of the mouth ulcers, the relieve the symptoms and the exact treatment for each type of case.

  12. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, em área de treinamento militar na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco

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    Andrade Maria S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo geral caracterizar a epidemiologia da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em unidade de treinamento militar, localizada no Estado de Pernambuco. Entre 2002 e 2003, vinte e três casos foram diagnosticados através de exame clínico, detecção do parasita e teste de intradermoarreação de Montenegro. Sete amostras de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis foram isoladas destes pacientes, identificadas através de reações com anticorpos monoclonais específicos e perfil eletroforético com isoenzimas. Um inquérito epidemiológico de prevalência da infecção por IDRM foi realizado na população que realizou treinamento neste período, no qual foi identificada uma prevalência de 25,3% de infecção. Os dados obtidos, associados com achados prévios nesta área, apresentam evidências da manutenção de um ciclo enzoótico, com a ocorrência de surtos periódicos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana posteriormente à realização de treinamentos nas áreas de floresta Atlântica remanescente.

  13. ALTERACIONES HISTOPATOLOGICAS EN Lymnaea columella (PULMONATA: LYMNAEIDAE, HUESPED INTERMEDIARIO DE Fasciola hepatica (LINNEAEUS, 1758 (TREMATODA: FASCIOLIDAE, CAUSADAS POR Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B.

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    EDWIN PILE

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El trabajo registra los cambios histopatológicos en Lymnaea columella huésped intermediario de Fasciola hepatica causados por el látex de Euphorbia splendens. Los caracoles fueron expuestos al látex en períodos diferentes siendo posteriormente procesados através de técnicas tradicionales. Los resultados demostraron necrosis en la glándula digestiva y gónadas ocurriendo pocas horas después del contacto con el productoHISTOPATHOLOGIC CHANGES IN Lymnaea columella (SAY, 1817 (PULMONATA: LYMNAEIDAE, INTERMEDIARY HOST OF Fasciola hepatica (LINNAEUS, 1758 (TREMATODA: FASCIOLIDAE, CAUSED FOR Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. The paper registers the histopathologic changes in Lymnaea columella intermediary host of Fasciola hepatica caused by the latex of Euphorbia splendens. The snails were exposed to the latex in different period being processed later on through of traditional techniques. The results demonstrated necrosis in the digestive gland and gonads happening few hours after the contact with the product

  14. Ulceração de anastomose esôfago-entérica causada por alendronato Esophagus-enteric anastomosis ulceration caused by alendronate

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    Pedro DUQUES

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Introdução — O alendronato de sódio, um aminobifosfonado indicado para o tratamento da osteoporose em mulheres pós-menopausadas, tem sido associado em vários relatos à esofagite. Estenose esofágica e sintomas gastrointestinais como dispepsia, náuseas, vômitos e dor abdominal também podem estar presentes. Objetivo — Relato do caso de paciente submetida a gastrectomia total com anastomose em Y de Roux devido a carcinóide gástrico que desenvolveu ulceração em anastomose esôfago-entérica após tratamento com esta droga. Material e Método — Paciente de 63 anos de idade, sexo feminino, iniciou terapia com alendronato na dose diária de 10 mg pela manhã, vindo a apresentar sintomas disfágicos e dor abdominal um mês após. Submetida a exame endoscópico, demonstrou-se ulceração no esôfago, na mucosa da anastomose esôfago-entérica e estenose esofágica. O tratamento medicamentoso foi descontinuado, tendo o sintoma de dor abdominal desaparecido e a disfagia diminuído de intensidade. Resultados — Houve remissão das lesões ulceradas, entretanto a estenose esofágica permaneceu. A paciente subseqüentemente foi tratada por dilatação endoscópica, evoluindo com melhora clínica e estando atualmente livre de sintomas. Conclusão — O alendronato de sódio tanto pode causar lesões na porção inferior do esôfago, como em segmentos mais distais do tubo digestivo nos pacientes cujo trânsito gastrointestinal é acelerado. Especial atenção deve ser dada aos pacientes gastrectomizados que fazem uso desta droga, pela possibilidade do desenvolvimento de lesões na mucosa entérica anastomosada e do surgimento de complicações temíveis como a estenose.Background — Alendronate sodium is an aminobisphosphonate indicated for the treatment of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women and has been associated with esophagitis in many reports. Esophageal stenosis, gastrointestinal symptoms as dyspepsia, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain

  15. Mejoramiento Genético de la Papa en Colombia, para Resistencia a la "Gota" Causada por el PhytophthoraInfestans, (Mont. de Bary

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    Estrada Ramos Nelson

    1954-06-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión de la literatura más importante y reciente publicada en EE. UU., Inglaterra, Holanda, Alemania y Rusia, países que más sehan preocupado por resolver el problema del Phytophthora en la papa, y la relacionada especialmente con el aspecto de pérdidas que causa, razas del parásito, métodos genéticos para la obtención de variedades resistentes y sistemas de prueba de la resistencia. Además se incluyen datos estadísticos para demostrar la importancia del Cultivo en el país. Se indican los métodos seguidos en Colombia para el mejoramiento, partiendo especialmente de líneas de la especie silvestre. S. demíssumcombinándola con las variedades nativas cultivadas del tipo andigenumadaptadas a grandes alturas y a los días cortos de los trópicos. Los resultados hasta la fecha indican la posibilidad de obtener después de 3 ó4 generaciones de retrocruzamientos, una buena variedad para cultivo y altamente resistente a la enfermedad. También se aconseja el empleo de líneas y variedades extranjeras resistentes, una vez que se hayan probado a las razas de Phytophthorapropias de Colombia. . Se indica que ya existe material de fitomejoramiento bastante avanzado que es prácticamente inmune pero que requiere subsiguiente mejoramiento. Hay probabilidades así, de obtener variedades inmunes o altamente resistentes a las razas actualmente existentes aunque su identidad parece no corresponder exactamente con las de otros países como Holanda, Inglaterra y Estados Unidos. Se establece una falta de identidad entre las pruebas de campo y las del laboratorio aunque pueden complementarse. Puede suponerse, de acuerdo con las reacciones obtenidas en el material extranjero resistente, la posibilidad de existencia de varias razas, pero no tan virulentas como en los países que tienen variedades resistentes. Es aconsejable el mejoramiento permanente de las variedades, para poder combatir los nuevos biotipos del pat

  16. AVALIAÇÃO DE PERDAS CAUSADAS POR Oebalus spp. (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE EM ARROZ DE TERRAS ALTAS EVALUATION OF UPLAND RICE LOSSES CAUSED BY Oebalus spp. (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE

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    Daniela Rézio e Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Para determinar o efeito dos percevejos Oebalus poecilus e O. ypsilongriseus sobre o rendimento e a qualidade dos grãos de arroz de terras altas, panículas de cinco cultivares foram infestadas, isoladamente, pelos seguintes níveis populacionais: zero (tratamento testemunha, dois insetos adultos da primeira espécie, dois insetos adultos da segunda espécie e um inseto adulto de cada espécie. A comparação das cultivares pelas porcentagens de perda de massa por espigueta e de espiguetas vazias não apresentou efeitos diferenciados entre tratamentos, nem interação "tratamentos x cultivares" significativa. A avaliação da atividade alimentar, pela presença de bainhas de estilete, mostrou que o percevejo O. ypsilongriseus foi mais ativo que O. poecilus. Esses afetaram de modo diferente o vigor das cultivares, entretanto, não influenciaram o teor de amilose. Os percevejos também reduziram o rendimento total de arroz beneficiado e aumentaram o número de grãos inteiros manchados, apesar de não terem alterado o número total de grãos inteiros.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Inseto; percevejo das panículas; bainha de estilete.

    To determine the effect of Oebalus poecilus and O. ypsilongriseus on grain yield and quality of five upland rice cultivars, isolated panicles were subjected to four levels of infestation (number of adult insects: zero (control treatment, two O. poecilus, two O. ypsilongriseus and one O. poecilus plus one O. ypsilongriseus. Neither the treatments nor the interaction of the treatments with cultivars had significant effects on percentages of weight loss and empty spikelets. Insect activity, evaluated by the presence of feeding sheaths in the spikelets, demonstrated that O. ypsilongriseus was more active than O. poecilus. Plant vigor was also affected differently

  17. Tumorogênese em plantas causadas por espécies de Agrobacterium Tumorigenesis in plants induced by species of Agrobacterium

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    Reginaldo da Silva Romeiro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Tumores - sintomas hiperplásicos em plantas - incitados por espécies de Agrobacterium sp. sempre exerceram fascínio sobre fitopatologistas desde o início do Século XX, quando Erwin Smith e colaboradores demonstraram serem eles de etiologia bacteriana. No início, imaginava-se que os tumores eram decorrentes de alterações hormonais na planta provocadas pela bactéria. Contudo, até recentemente, a microbiologia e a biologia molecular não eram suficientemente avançadas para que os cientistas pudessem compreender e deduzir a forma através da qual o patógeno incitava os tumores. Demorou quase um século para que se deslindassem os complexos mecanismos bioquímicos, genéticos e fi­siológicos através dos quais o patógeno transforma a planta, inserindo no genoma desta uma região de seu megaplasmídeo de modo a criar para si mesmo um nicho ecológico espe­cífico. Neste trabalho é apresentada uma súmula histórica da evolução do conhecimento a respeito, das características genômicas do plasmídeo Ti, dos eventos e requerimentos ati­nentes ao processo infectivo bem como é discutida a dinâmica da transformação da planta pelo patógeno.Tumors - the plant hyperplasia symptoms- - induced by species of Agrobacterium sp. have deeply impressed plant pathologists since early 20th Century when Erwin Smith and his co-workers demonstrated that such tumors had a bacterial etiology. Nevertheless, until recently the state of art of Microbiology and Molecular Biology was not developed enough for scientists to realize and to elucidate the complexes biochemical, genetic and physiologic mechanisms by which the pathogen transforms the plant by inserting a region of its own plasmid into the genome of the latter, creating an specific ecological niche for itself. In this paper its is showed a historical brief on the evolution of knowledge about the genomic characteristics of the Ti Plasmid, events and requirements needed for infection to take

  18. Podridão-mole em plantas de cebolinha causada por Pectobacterium carotovorumsubsp. carotovorum em Roraima Soft rot of bunching onion plants caused by Pectobacterium carotovorumsubsp. carotovorum in Roraima, Brazil

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    Bernardo A. Halfeld-Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (=Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora em cebolinha (Allium fistulosum é relatada pela primeira vez na região norte do Brasil. Até então sua ocorrência estava registrada apenas no Distrito Federal.This is the first report of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (=Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora causing soft rot of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum plants in Roraima, Brazil. Its occurrence is reported only in Distrito Federal.

  19. Patrón de alteraciones en la radiografía de tórax de niños hospitalizados por infección causada por virus influenza A (H1N1) Pattern of chest radiographic abnormalities in children hospitalized because of influenza H1N1 virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    KARLA MOËNNE B; XIMENA ORTEGA F; JAIME CORDERO T; ALBERTO VIDAL G; JUAN A ESCAFFI J

    2010-01-01

    El año 2009 aparecieron los primeros casos de influenza humana causada por virus influenza A H1N1, propagándose como pandemia. En nuestra institución se observó 88,5% de aumento en consultas de urgencia, adultos y niños; se diagnosticaron 10.048 pacientes como influenza A H1N1 (45,6% confirmación de laboratorio). La media de edad fue 13 años. Se hospitalizaron 59 niños (edad: 1 mes - 15 años 7 meses), 33 niñas y 26 niños. El tiempo promedio de hospitalización fue de 3,9 días; 9 pacientes requ...

  20. Avaliação lectino-histoquímica de fígado e rim de ovinos com fotossensibilização causada por Brachiaria decumbens

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    Samay Z.R. Costa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Embora sejam as forrageiras mais importantes para a pecuária de corte (bovinocultura de corte no Brasil, em certas épocas ou condições, Brachiaria spp. podem ser tóxicas e causar surtos de fotossensibilização hepatógena que determinam significativas perdas econômicas. Animais que se alimentam em pastos de Brachiaria spp. comumente apresentam macrófagos espumosos isolados ou agrupados, além de cristais no interior de ductos biliares. Saponinas esteroidais têm sido identificadas nestes cristais e são responsabilizadas por lesar o fígado levando ao acúmulo de filoeritrina. Por vezes, imagens negativas desses cristais podem estar presentes no citoplasma de macrófagos espumosos. A patogênese de formação e o tipo de material armazenado nas células espumosas ainda são desconhecidos. A técnica de lectino-histoquímica visa auxiliar na detecção desses macrófagos e, consequentemente, no diagnóstico, além de identificar quais os resíduos de açúcares específicos que estão presentes no citoplasma das células espumosas. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar quais lectinas são mais indicadas na detecção de saponinas esteroidais no fígado e rim de ovinos com fotossensibilização causada por Brachiaria decumbens. Fragmentos de fígado e rim de quinze ovinos, de ambos os sexos e idade variável, oriundos de Conceição do Mato Dentro, Minas Gerais, e um ovino mantido em pastagem livre de Brachiaria spp. foram avaliados pela técnica de lectino-histoquímica. Quatorze lectinas foram utilizadas (Con-A, DBA, SBA, PNA, SJA, RCA-I, UEA-I, WGA, SWGA, GSL, PSA, PHA-L, PHA-E e LCA. Verificou-se que, no fígado de ovinos com fotossensibilização provocada pela ingestão de Brachiaria decumbens, a lectina PNA apresentou especificidade e acentuada reatividade aos macrófagos espumosos, bem como especificidade e leve reatividade aos hepatócitos; a lectina WGA teve especificidade e moderada reatividade aos macr

  1. Mastite clinica caprina causada por Arcanobacterium pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    F. Garino Jr; R.A.T. Matos; E.G Miranda Neto; J.N.N. Bernardino; E.D. Santos; G.M.N. Aguiar

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of goat mastitis due to Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Paraiba State - Brazil. The diagnosis was confirmed by clinical symptoms and microbiological culture. Amastectomywasperformedasclinical treatment.

  2. Mastite clinica caprina causada por Arcanobacterium pyogenes

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    F. Garino Jr

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the occurrence of goat mastitis due to Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Paraiba State - Brazil. The diagnosis was confirmed by clinical symptoms and microbiological culture. Amastectomywasperformedasclinical treatment.

  3. Desarrollo de una metodología para el estudio de las inundaciones causadas por encharcamiento de agua de lluvia en zonas urbanas relativamente planas. Area de estudio: Montería (Colombia

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    Padilla Agamez, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a methodology for the analysis of the relationship between rainfall and flooding caused by ponding of rainfall water in urban area of Monteria (Colombia is developed. Rainfall water excesses over the soil were estimated from field measurements of the soil infiltration capacity for different soil units of the studied zone. The results obtained are presented in form of statistical correlations for calculating water rainfall excesses over the soils and maps of susceptibility and vulnerability for floods. The maps were used for a brief socioeconomic discussion of the effects of flood events in the selected zone.En el presente trabajo se desarrolla una metodología para el análisis de la relación existente entre las precipitaciones y las inundaciones causadas por encharcamiento de agua de lluvia en la zona urbana de Montería (Colombia. Se realizaron mediciones en campo de la capacidad de infiltración de agua para diferentes unidades de suelos de la zona de estudio, con el fin de estimar los excesos de agua de lluvia sobre el suelo. Los resultados obtenidos se presentan en forma de correlaciones estadísticas para el cálculo de los excesos de agua de lluvia y mapas de susceptibilidad y vulnerabilidad a las inundaciones, mediante los cuales se hace una breve discusión socioeconómica de los efectos de esta clase de inundaciones en la zona de estudio. [fr] Dans le présent travail est analysé la relation existant entre les précipitations et des inondations par accumulation d eau pluie sur le sol dans la zone urbaine de Montería (Colombie. Avec la réalisation de mesures en champ de la capacité d’infiltration pour différents unities de sol de la zone d’étude, on a estimé les excès d’eau pluie sur le sol. Les résultats obtenus sont présentés sous la forme de corrélations statistiques pour le calcul des excès d’eau pluie et de cartes de susceptibilité et vulnérabilité aux inondations. Les cartes ont été employ

  4. Fructan from Erwinia herbicola.

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, J D; Clarke, M L; Jansson, P E; McNeil, K E

    1982-01-01

    Levan production by strains of Erwinia herbicola is common, and this property has some taxonomic significance for species differentiation within the "herbicola" group. The extracellular polysaccharide elaborated by strain 403 was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and methylation analysis. Results showed it to be a typical bacterial levan.

  5. Enzima convertidora frente a quimasa mastocitaria en la infiltración leucocitaria inducida por angiotensina-I : papel de fractalquina en la inflamación vascular causada por humo de tabaco

    OpenAIRE

    Company de la Calle, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    En la presente Tesis Doctoral se han abordado dos objetivos: el estudio de la contribución de la enzima convertidora (ECA) frente a la quimasa mastocitaria en la acumulación leucocitaria inducida por la síntesis endógena de Ang-II in vivo, y el estudio del papel de fractalquina (FRK) en la inflamación sistémica inducida por el extracto de humo de tabaco (EHT). La enzima convertidora de la angiotensina (ECA) es la principal enzima implicada en la formación de Ang-II a partir de Ang-I. Sin...

  6. Surtos epidêmicos de dermatite causada por mariposas do gênero Hylesia (Lepidóptera: Hemileucidae) no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Epidemic outbreaks of dermatitis caused by Hylesia (Lepidoptera: Hemileucidae), in S. Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Moreno Glasser; João Luiz Cardoso; Glória Cristina Carréri-Bruno; Maria de Fátima Domingos; Roberto Henrique Pinto Moraes; Ricardo Mário de Carvalho Ciaravolo

    1993-01-01

    Surtos epidêmicos de dermatite causada por Hylesia sp foram assinalados no litoral do Estado de São Paulo, no período de dezembro de 1989 a dezembro de 1991. O fenômeno assumiu sua maior intensidade em Bertioga, Município de Santos, onde foram registrados 612 casos. Foram atingidos outros 12 municípios da região, estimando-se que algumas centenas de casos procuraram os serviços de saúde locais. Na maioria dos casos verificou-se lesões eritemato-pápulo-pruriginosas, que regrediram em média de ...

  7. Mortalidad por bacteriemia causada por Escherichia coli y Klebsiella spp. productoras de beta lactamasas de espectro extendido: cohorte retrospectiva en un hospital de Lima, Perú Mortality caused by bacteremia Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- producers: a retrospective cohort from a hospital in Lima, Peru

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    Diego Adrianzén

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar los factores asociados a la mortalidad causada por bacteriemias por Escherichia coli y Klebsiella spp. productoras de beta lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE. Materiales y Métodos. Se realizó un estudio de cohortes retrospectivo, que incluyó 85 pacientes mayores de 16 años con diagnóstico de bacteriemia por Escherichia coli o Klebsiella spp. hospitalizados entre 2006 y 2008 en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Las cohortes se clasificaron de acuerdo a la producción de BLEE según los resultados de los hemocultivos. Se evaluaron los factores asociados a la mortalidad cruda y atribuible empleando regresión de Poisson en un modelo multivariado, con lo que se obtuvo riesgos relativos ajustados (RRa. Además, se construyeron curvas de mortalidad. Resultados. Se encontró que el 35,3% de las bacteriemias fueron debidas a cepas productoras de BLEE. El análisis de la mortalidad cruda mostró una mayor mortalidad en el grupo de cepas productoras de BLEE (63,3%. El RRa fue de 1,5 (IC95%: 1,02-2,3. En el caso de mortalidad atribuible, la proporción también fue mayor (63,3%, el RRa fue de 1,9 (IC95%: 1,2-2,9. El uso de catéter venoso central fue otro factor asociado tanto a la mortalidad cruda (RRa= 2,4; IC95%: 1,2- 4,8 como a la mortalidad atribuible (RRa= 3,8; IC95%: 1,6-8,8. Conclusiones. La producción de BLEE es un factor de riesgo independiente para mortalidad por bacteriemia causada por E. coli y Klebsiella spp. Su presencia debe evaluarse tras la sospecha diagnóstica y la elaboración de la terapéutica inicial, lo que podría disminuir la mortalidad por esta causaObjectives. To evaluate the factors associated to mortality caused by bacteremia due to Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. producers of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL. Materials and methods. We performed a retrospective cohort study, including 85 patients older than 16 and diagnosed with bacteremia by Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp

  8. Resíduos orgânicos para o controle das doenças do feijoeiro causadas por Sclerotium rolfsii / Organic residues for the control of bean diseases caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

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    Vanessa Nataline Tomazeli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A incorporação de matéria orgânica ao solo tem se mostrado eficiente para o controle de alguns fitopatógenos habitantes do solo. O efeito dessa prática agrícola, principalmente sobre patógenos formadores de escleródios, como Sclerotium rolfsii, ainda não é completamente conhecido. O experimento, em dois anos de cultivo, foi conduzido no campo experimental da Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR, em parcelas de um metro quadrado, contendo solo infestado com 100 g por parcela do substrato (arroz em casca contendo o patógeno. Os tratamentos foram chorume de suínos, cama de aviário, repolho triturado e testemunha, apenas patógeno, com quatro repetições. A semeadura de 80 sementes de feijão por parcela foi efetuada após uma semana da aplicação dos respectivos tratamentos. A intensidade da doença foi avaliada pela emergência, tombamento, incidência e severidade da doença. Os fatores como atividade microbiana, níveis de fertilidade do solo, número e sobrevivência de escleródios e massa das plantas fresca foram avaliados no fim do cultivo. O composto orgânico, cama de aviário, apresentou uma maior redução da incidência e a severidade da doença e, consequentemente, o tombamento de plântulas. Porém, apesar de reduzir a intensidade da doença, não houve aumento da emergência nos dois primeiros cultivos. Esse efeito benéfico da cama-de-aviário (CA pode estar associado ao aumento da matéria orgânica do solo e, consequentemente, da atividade microbiana, principal responsável pela redução da patogenicidade do fungo. Como consequência ao impacto provocado pela incorporação de CA ao solo, houve aumento da massa fresca da planta e redução do número de escleródios. Assim, com base nesses resultados, pode-se concluir que a CA apresenta efeito supressivo sobre as doenças causadas por S. rolfsii.AbstractOrganic matter incorporation into the soil has proved effective for the control of some soil

  9. Cerebral aspergillosis due to Aspergillus fumigatus in AIDS patient: first culture - proven case reported in Brazil Aspergilosis cerebral causada por Aspergillus fumigatus en paciente con SIDA: primer reporte de caso demostrado por cultivo en Brasil

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    José E. Vidal

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral aspergillosis is a rare cause of brain expansive lesion in AIDS patients. We report the first culture-proven case of brain abscess due to Aspergillus fumigatus in a Brazilian AIDS patient. The patient, a 26 year-old male with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and history of pulmonary tuberculosis and cerebral toxoplasmosis, had fever, cough, dyspnea, and two episodes of seizures. The brain computerized tomography (CT showed a bi-parietal and parasagittal hypodense lesion with peripheral enhancement, and significant mass effect. There was started anti-Toxoplasma treatment. Three weeks later, the patient presented mental confusion, and a new brain CT evidenced increase in the lesion. He underwent brain biopsy, draining 10 mL of purulent material. The direct mycological examination revealed septated and hyaline hyphae. There was started amphotericin B deoxycholate. The culture of the material demonstrated presence of the Aspergillus fumigatus. The following two months, the patient was submitted to three surgeries, with insertion of drainage catheter and administration of amphotericin B intralesional. Three months after hospital admission, his neurological condition suffered discrete changes. However, he died due to intrahospital pneumonia. Brain abscess caused by Aspergillus fumigatus must be considered in the differential diagnosis of the brain expansive lesions in AIDS patients in Brazil.La aspergilosis cerebral es una causa rara de lesión expansiva cerebral en pacientes con SIDA. Presentamos el primer reporte de un absceso cerebral causado por Aspergillus fumigatus en un paciente brasileño con SIDA. El paciente, de 26 años de edad, presentaba antecedentes de infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH, tuberculosis pulmonar y toxoplasmosis cerebral. Manifestó fiebre, tos, disnea y dos episódios de convulsiones. La tomografía computadorizada (TC demostró una lesión hipodensa parasagital y bi-parietal con

  10. Cytomegalovirus and other herpesviruses infections in heart and bone marrow transplant recipients Infecções causadas por citomegalovírus e outros vírus do grupo herpes em transplantados cardíacos e de medula óssea

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    Adriana Weinberg

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available From January 1988 to January 1989 all the heart transplant and bone marrow recipients at the Instituto do Coração of the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School were studied for the incidence and morbidity associated with herpesviruses infections after transplantation. Five bone marrow and 5 heart transplant recipients were followed for a mean of 4.2 months post-transplantation. All the patients were seropositive for cytomegalovirus (CMV before admission and 80% experienced one or more recurrences during the observation period. Of the 12 episodes of CMV infection, that were identified in this study, 83% were accompanied by clinical or laboratory abnormalities. However, there was only one case of severe disease. The overall incidence of infection for herpes simplex (HSV was 50%. Although most of HSV reactivations were oral or genital, one case of HSV hepatitis occurred. One of the 6 episodes of HSV infections that were treated with acyclovir showed an unsatisfactory response and was successfully managed with ganciclovir. All the individuals had anti-varicella zoster virus antibodies, but none of them developed infection. The study emphasizes the importance of active diagnostic surveillance of herpesvirus infections in transplant patients. Both CMV and HSV reactivations showed high incidence and important morbidity and thus, deserve prophylactic therapy.De janeiro de 1988 a janeiro de 1989 todos os pacientes submetidos a transplante de coração ou de medula óssea no Instituto do Coração do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo foram estudados quanto à incidência e morbidade das infecções pós-transplante causadas por vírus do grupo herpes. Cinco recipientes de medula óssea e 5 transplantados cardíacos foram observados por um período médio de 4.2 meses após o transplante. Todos os pacientes tinham sorologia positiva para citomegalovírus (CMV antes do transplante

  11. Dried powders of velvetbean and pine bark added to soil reduce Rhizoctonia solani-induced disease on soybean Pós secos de mucuna e casca de pinus adicionados ao solo reduzem a doença causada por Rhizoctonia solani em soja

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    Luiz E. B. Blum

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Diseases induced by Rhizoctonia solani, like damping-off and root and stem rot on soybean (Glycine max, are a serious problem around the world. The addition of some organic material to soil is an alternative control for these diseases. In this study, benzaldehyde and dried powders of kudzu (Pueraria lobata, velvetbean or mucuna (Mucuna deeringiana, and pine bark (Pinus spp. were used in an attempt to improve soybean plant growth and to reduce the disease R. solani (AG-4 causes on soybean. Benzaldehyde (0.1-0.4 mL/kg of soil and velvetbean (25-100 g/kg significantly (P As doenças em soja (Glycine max causadas por Rhizoctonia solani são um sério problema ao redor do mundo. A incorporação ao solo de resíduos orgânicos é uma alternativa para o controle destas doenças. Neste estudo, benzaldeido e pós-secos de kudzu (Pueraria lobata, mucuna (Mucuna deeringiana e casca de pinus (Pinus spp. foram usados com o objetivo de melhorar o crescimento de plantas de soja e de diminuir a doença causada por R. solani (AG-4. Benzaldehyde (0,1-0,4 mL/kg de solo e mucuna (25-100 g/kg reduziram significativamente (P < 0.05 o crescimento micelial de R. solani em experimentos de laboratório. Em experimentos conduzidos em casa de vegetação a porcentagem de plantas sobreviventes foi maior em solo com casca de pinus e mucuna (50-100 g/kg. Em solo tratado com kudzu (r²=0,91 ou mucuna (r²=0,94, houve tendência significativa em aumentar a massa fresca das plantas de soja. Em microparcelas de campo solos com mucuna (r²=0,85 ou com casca de pinus (r²=0,61 reduziram significativamente a quantidade de doença. A quantidade de Bacillus megaterium (r²=0,87 e Trichoderma hamatum (r²=0,92 e a hidrólise de diacetato fluoresceina (r²=0,91 foram maiores em solo com doses crescentes de mucuna, indicando uma maior atividade microbiana. Neste estudo conclui-se que pós-secos de mucuna e casca de pinus, incorporados ao solo, podem reduzir a doença causada por R

  12. Ocorrência de nova doença do algodoeiro irrigado, no Brasil, causada por Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Occurrence of a new disease of irrigated cotton, in Brazil, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

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    Maria José D´avila Charchar

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Em 1996, uma nova doença causada pelo fungo Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary foi observada em algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L., cultivar Deltapine, irrigado sob pivô central, em Paracatu, MG. Os sintomas apresentados foram murcha e podridão da haste, do pecíolo da folha e da maçã, além de serem observados no interior do capulho micélio branco e escleródios escuros do patógeno. O teste de patogenicidade foi efetuado em algodoeiro, nas cultivares Deltapine e IAC 22, e em feijoeiro e quiabeiro, aos 14 dias de idade. As plantas foram incubadas em alta umidade durante 48 horas, a 25ºC. Três dias após a inoculação, verificaram-se sintomas severos de murcha e necrose dos tecidos, de onde o patógeno foi reisolado, completando-se, assim, os postulados de Koch. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência natural de S. sclerotiorum em algodoeiro no Brasil.In 1996, a new disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary was observed on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. Deltapine cultivar irrigated under central pivot at Paracatu, MG, in the Savana region of Central Brazil. The symptoms were wilt, necrosis and rot. White mycelium and black sclerotia developed inside the boll. The pathogenicity test was done with two-week old cotton seedling cultivars Deltapine and IAC 22 and bean and okra seedlings. The plants were incubated at high humidity for 48 hours at 25ºC. Three days after inoculation, severe symptoms of wilt and necrosis were observed. S. sclerotiorum was reisolated from the damaged plant tissues, and Koch´s postulates were completed. This is the first report of S. sclerotiorum natural occurrence on cotton in Brazil.

  13. Patrón de alteraciones en la radiografía de tórax de niños hospitalizados por infección causada por virus influenza A (H1N1 Pattern of chest radiographic abnormalities in children hospitalized because of influenza H1N1 virus infection

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    KARLA MOËNNE B

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El año 2009 aparecieron los primeros casos de influenza humana causada por virus influenza A H1N1, propagándose como pandemia. En nuestra institución se observó 88,5% de aumento en consultas de urgencia, adultos y niños; se diagnosticaron 10.048 pacientes como influenza A H1N1 (45,6% confirmación de laboratorio. La media de edad fue 13 años. Se hospitalizaron 59 niños (edad: 1 mes - 15 años 7 meses, 33 niñas y 26 niños. El tiempo promedio de hospitalización fue de 3,9 días; 9 pacientes requirieron UTIy 4 ventilación mecánica. No hubo mortalidad en esta serie. Se demostró sobreinfección por VRS (5, infección bacteriana (9 y Mycoplasma (1. El patrón radiológico predominante en los niños hospitalizados correspondió a compromiso intersticial (72% y el 28% presentó hiperinsuflación pulmonar. Los niños con infección bacteriana asociada presentaron mayoritariamente (78% patrones radiológicos mixtos y de relleno alveolar. El propósito de esta revisión es conocer los patrones radiológicos en los niños que requirieron hospitalización por infección virus influenza A H1N1 en nuestra institución, durante la epidemia del año recién pasado.The first cases of H1N1- type Influenza virus infection in humans were reported in 2009, and since then, it rapidly expanded and became pandemic. At that time, an 88.5% increase in emergency consultations was observed in our institution, including adults and children and H1N1- type Influenza virus infection was clinically diagnosed in 10,048patients, 45.6% of them with laboratory confirmation. A total of 59 child, 33 girls and 26 boys, aged between 1 month and 15.5 years old, needed hospitalization. The average of hospitalization time was 3.9 days, 9 patients required intensive unit care and 4 of them mechanical ventilation. No fatal cases were registered in this series. Associated infection was confirmed in 15 patients: VRS (5, bacterial (9 and Mycoplasma (1. The most frequent

  14. Lama glama con signología y lesiones compatibles con paratuberculosis causadas por Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium Lama glama with signology and lesion compatible with paratuberculosis and injuries caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium

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    M.C Jorge

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Los camélidos sudamericanos (CS incluyen cuatro especies, guanaco, vicuña, alpaca y llama (Lama glama. En Argentina las llamas eran consideradas fauna y actualmente ganado, revalorizando su carne, fibra, cueros y pieles, también son un medio de subsistencia. Los CS son susceptibles a las enfermedades ocasionadas por micobacterias. El diagnóstico presuntivo se realiza por los signos clínicos y los hallazgos de necropsia y se confirma por técnicas bacteriológicas, moleculares e histopatología. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir un caso clínico con signos compatibles de paratuberculosis y el diagnóstico de laboratorio en una llama en cautiverio perteneciente a un zoológico de Olavarría, Provincia de Buenos Aires. En la necropsia se observaron lesiones granulomatosas en yeyuno, íleon y linfonodos mesentéricos compatibles con paratuberculosis, en los frotis directos y en la histopatología se observaron bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes en cluster. Se confirmó la presencia de Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium por bacteriología y por PCR fue detectada la IS1245 característica de este agente, no detectando la IS900 correspondiente a Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis. Esto permitió arribar al diagnóstico etiológico, combinando técnicas, de un caso de enteritis granulomatosa en llamas causado por Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium con signología y lesiones compatibles con paratuberculosis.Guanaco, vicuña, alpaca and llama (Lama glama are also known as Sudamerican camelids (SC. In Argentina llama was considered non profitable wildlife specie but now it is considered a mean for surviving because their meat, wool, leather and skin is valuable. SC are susceptible hosts of mycobacterial infections. A presumptive diagnosis is based on clinical and necropsy findings and is confirmed with bacterial isolation, molecular identification and histopathology. The objective of this publication is to describe a clinical

  15. Resíduos orgânicos para o controle das doenças do feijoeiro causadas por Sclerotium rolfsii / Organic residues for the control of bean diseases caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Nataline Tomazeli; Idalmir Santos; Rafael Gustavo Ferreira Morales

    2011-01-01

    A incorporação de matéria orgânica ao solo tem se mostrado eficiente para o controle de alguns fitopatógenos habitantes do solo. O efeito dessa prática agrícola, principalmente sobre patógenos formadores de escleródios, como Sclerotium rolfsii, ainda não é completamente conhecido. O experimento, em dois anos de cultivo, foi conduzido no campo experimental da Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR), em parcelas de um metro quadrado, contendo solo infestado com 100 g por parcela do s...

  16. Epidemiología de la babesiosis de los bovinos causada por Babesia bigemina (Smith y Kilborne, 1893) en el sudoeste de la provincia del Chaco

    OpenAIRE

    Mastropaolo, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Babesia bigemina es uno de los agentes etiológicos de la babesiosis de los bovinos y en Argentina es transmitida solamente por ninfas y adultos de la garrapata Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar el estatus epidemiológico y factores asociados para B. bigemina en rodeos del sudoeste de la provincia del Chaco y evaluar la incidencia de infección y la proporción de garrapatas infectadas en dos establecimientos ganaderos (AT y VA) de la región. Se determinó ...

  17. Relación entre Condiciones de Suelo y Manejo de Huertas de Nogal Pecanero Carya illinoensis Koch con la Dinámica de la Pudrición Texana, causada por Phymatotrichum omnivorum Duggar

    OpenAIRE

    José Alfredo Samaniego Gaxiola; Teodoro Herrera Pérez; Aurelio Pedroza Sandoval; Jesús Santamaría César

    2001-01-01

    De 1995 a 1998, 26 lotes de tres ha cada uno fueron seleccionadas en huertas comerciales de nogal pecanero. El objetivo del muestreo fue relacionar la dinámica de la Pudrición Texana con el manejo de las huertas y condición de suelo. Las variables en el manejo del cultivo fueron: edad de los árboles, distancia de plantación, árboles por hectárea, manejo de plagas, número de riegos e incidencia de árboles enfermos (en 1995); para el factor suelo se consideraron tres profundidades (0-30, 30-60 ...

  18. Reações adversas causadas por fármacos que atuam no sistema nervoso: análise de registros de um centro de farmacovigilância do Brasil Adverse reaction caused by drugs acting in nervous system: records analysis of a farmacovigilance center in Brazil

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    Marta Maria de França Fonteles

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A morbimortalidade por uso de medicamentos é um grande problema de saúde. As reações adversas a medicamentos podem resultar em óbito, aumento de internações hospitalares e dos custos com a saúde. OBJETIVOS: Descrever e analisar as notificações de suspeitas de reações adversas causadas por medicamentos que atuam no sistema nervoso (RAM-SN, registradas no Centro de Farmacovigilância do Ceará, de janeiro de 1997 a março de 2008. MÉTODOS: As RAM-SN foram classificadas segundo os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Uma relação de causalidade entre o fármaco administrado e a reação adversa identificada foi realizada, bem como a análise da reação quanto à gravidade. RESULTADOS: Foram registradas 176 notificações de RAM-SN. A maioria (n = 145; 82,4% ocorreu no ambiente hospitalar. O principal notificador foi o farmacêutico. As RAM-SN foram classificadas como: possíveis (n = 110, prováveis (n = 37 e definidas (n = 17. Quanto à gravidade, foram consideradas: leves (n = 21, moderadas (n = 127, graves (n = 15 e fatais (n = 1. O caso fatal foi notificado por médico e envolveu medicamentos anestésicos. Geralmente, as reações adversas observadas foram causadas predominantemente por analgésicos, anestésicos e antiepilépticos. DISCUSSÃO: Os dados demonstram o valor potencial de se ter acesso a sistemas de farmacovigilância local para registrar possíveis riscos com o uso de fármacos.BACKGROUND: The morbi-mortality by the use of medicines is a major health problem. The drug adverse reactions may result in death, increased hospitalizations and healthcare costs. OBJECTIVES: Describe and analyze reports of suspected adverse reactions caused by drugs that act on the nervous system (SN-ADR, registered in the database of the Pharmacovigilance Centre of Ceará, from January 1997 to March 2008. METHODS: All the NS-ADRs were classified according to criteria of the World Health Organization. The causality

  19. Insuficiência respiratória aguda causada por pneumonia em organização secundária à terapia antineoplásica para linfoma não Hodgkin

    OpenAIRE

    Adriell Ramalho Santana; Fábio Ferreira Amorim; Paulo Henrique Alves Soares; Edmilson Bastos de Moura; Marcelo de Oliveira Maia

    2012-01-01

    Doenças difusas do parênquima pulmonar pertencem a um grupo de doenças de evolução geralmente subaguda ou crônica, mas que podem determinar insuficiência respiratória aguda. Paciente masculino, 37 anos, em terapia para linfoma não Hodgkin, admitido com tosse seca, febre, dispneia e insuficiência respiratória aguda hipoxêmica. Iniciadas ventilação mecânica e antibioticoterapia, porém houve evolução desfavorável. Tomografia computadorizada de tórax mostrava opacidades pulmonares em "vidro fosco...

  20. Meningoencefalite em bovinos causada por herpesvírus bovino-5 no Mato Grosso do Sul e São Paulo Meningoencephalitis in cattle caused by bovine herpesvirus-5 in Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo

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    Sandro César Salvador

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Quinze focos de meningoencefalite por herpesvírus bovino-5 (BHV-5 foram diagnosticados entre agosto de 1993 e dezembro de 1996, sendo 14 provenientes do estado do Mato Grosso do Sul e um do estado de São Paulo. A doença ocorreu em diversos municípios e em diferentes épocas do ano. Foram afetados bovinos de 6 a 60 meses de idade, com uma morbidade de 0,05% a 5% e letalidade próxima a 100%. Os sinais clínicos foram exclusivamente nervosos e o curso da enfermidade variou de 1 a 15 dias. As principais lesões histológicas detectadas foram meningite e encefalite difusa com malacia do córtex cerebral e presença de corpúsculos de inclusão intranucleares em astrócitos e neurônios. O vírus foi isolado do cérebro de 11 de um total de 12 animais, e sua identidade confirmada por imunoperoxidase, utilizando-se anticorpos monoclonais específicos. Os surtos de encefalite por BHV-5 representam 5% dos diagnósticos realizados em bovinos pelo Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul. Os resultados deste trabalho evidenciam a importância da doença no Mato Grosso do Sul e indicam a necessidade de incluir a encefalite por BHV-5 no diagnóstico diferencial de outras doenças do sistema nervoso de bovinos frequentes no Estado.Fifteen outbreaks of bovine herpesvirus-type 5 (BHV-5 infection were diagnosed from August 1993 to December 1996. Fourteen outbreaks occurred in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and one in the State of São Paulo. Cattle 6 to 60 months old were affected. Morbidity reached 0.05% to 5% and case fatality rate was nearly 100%. The disease occurred in different municipalities and at different times of the year. Clinical signs were exclusively nervous, and the clinical course varied from 1 to 15 days. The main histologic lesions were meningitis, diffuse encephalitis and necrosis of the cerebral cortex with intranuclear inclusion bodies in astrocytes and neurons. BHV-5 was isolated from 11 out of 12 brains of

  1. Human pseudomyiasis caused by Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus (Diptera: Syrphidae in Goiás Pseudomiíase humana causada por Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus (Diptera: Syrphidae em Goiás

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    Marco Tulio A. Garcia-Zapata

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to register the first proven cases of human pseudomyiasis due to Eristalis tenax in Goiás State, Brazil, underscoring their clinical manifestations and direct relationship with hygiene. The taxonomic identification of the instars was done according to the descriptions and keys presented by James (1947, Hartley (1961 and Guimarães & Papavero (1999. Two cases were observed. In both cases there was no evidence of apparent mental disturbance. The clinical picture of these cases was self limited. The water supply, sewer system, socioeconomic level and habits of the suspect species of the flies are criteria that should be investigated.O presente trabalho visa registrar os primeiros casos evidenciados de pseudomiíases humanos por Eristalis tenax no estado de Goiás, Brasil, destacando suas manifestações clínicas e suas relações diretas com os hábitos higiênicos. A identificação taxonômica das larvas foi realizada com base nas descrições e chaves apresentadas por James (1947, Hartley (1961 e Guimarães & Papavero (1999. Observaram-se dois casos. Em ambos não havia evidência de pertubações mentais claras. O quadro clínico de ambos os casos era mesmo limitado. O abastecimento de água, o nível sócio-econômico e o hábito das espécies das moscas são critérios que devem ser considerados na investigação.

  2. Efeito do chorume líquido de suínos na podridão do colo e tombamento de plântulas de feijoeiro causadas por Sclerotium rolfsii Effect of liquid swine manure on collar rot and damping-off of bean plantlets caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

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    Rafael G.F. Morales

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O chorume líquido de suínos (CLS pode ser utilizado como fonte de nutrientes e de matéria orgânica para algumas culturas agrícolas e interferir na ocorrência de doenças de plantas, causadas por fitopatógenos habitantes do solo. Assim, foi estudado o efeito do CLS, sobre as doenças do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris causadas por Sclerotium rolfsii. Em parcelas de 1 m², foi incorporado o CLS nas doses equivalentes a 0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 m³ ha-1. O solo foi infestado dois meses antes da aplicação do CLS, com 100 g do substrato (arroz em casca colonizado pelo patógeno. A semeadura de 80 sementes de feijão por parcela foi efetuada em dois cultivos sucessivos, 1 dia e 45 dias após a aplicação do CLS. A intensidade da doença foi avaliada através da emergência, estande final de plântulas e severidade da doença, nos dois cultivos, sendo que a atividade microbiana, a concentração de amônia na camada superficial do solo e os níveis de fertilidade foram avaliados apenas no segundo cultivo. Com o aumento das doses de CLS foi verificada a redução da intensidade da doença e, entre as características avaliadas, o aumento da atividade microbiana, da concentração de amônia e dos níveis de cobre e zinco são os que melhor explicam essa redução.Liquid swine manure (LSM can be used as a source of nutrients and organic matter for some agricultural crops, and may interfere in plant diseases caused by soil-borne plant pathogens. Thus, the effect of LSM on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris diseases caused by Sclerotium rolfsii was studied. LSM was incorporated into 1 m² plots at doses equivalent to 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 m³ ha-1. The soil was infested two months prior to LSM application with 100 g of substrate (unhulled rice colonized by the pathogen. Eighty bean seeds were sown per plot in two successive cultivations, 1 day and 45 days after LSM application. Intensity of the disease was evaluated based on plant emergence, final stand, and

  3. Epidemiology of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacter bacteremia in a brazilian hospital Epidemiologia de bacteremia causadas por Enterobacter produtores de β-lactamases de espectro estendido em um hospital brasileiro

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    Felipe Francisco Tuon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Enterobacter can be included in the group of extended spectrum β-lactamases (EBSL-producing bacteria, though few studies exist evaluating risk factors associated with this microorganism. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine risk factors associated with ESBL-producing-Enterobacter and mortality METHODS: A retrospective cohort study with 58 bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing-Enterobacter (28 cases and non-ESBL (30 cases RESULTS: Risk factors associated with ESBL-Enterobacter were trauma, length of hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit, urinary catheter and elective surgery (pINTRODUÇÃO: Enterobacter pode ser incluído no grupo de bactérias produtoras de β-lactamases de espectro estendido (ESBL, mas existem poucos estudos avaliando fatores de risco para ESBL. Nós realizamos uma coorte retrospective para determiner fatores de risco associados com Enterobacter produtores de ESBL MÉTODOS: Uma coorte retrospectiva com 58 bacteremias por Enterobacter ESBL (28 casos e não-ESBL (30 casos RESULTADOS: Fatores de risco para ESBL-Enterobacter foram trauma, tempo de internação, admissão em UTI, sonda vesical e cirurgia eletiva (p<0.05. A mortalidade foi similar entre ESBL e não-ESBL CONCLUSÕES: Enterobacter produtor de ESBL é prevalente e a curva de mortalidade foi semelhante com o grupo não-ESBL.

  4. Insuficiência respiratória aguda causada por pneumonia em organização secundária à terapia antineoplásica para linfoma não Hodgkin

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    Adriell Ramalho Santana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Doenças difusas do parênquima pulmonar pertencem a um grupo de doenças de evolução geralmente subaguda ou crônica, mas que podem determinar insuficiência respiratória aguda. Paciente masculino, 37 anos, em terapia para linfoma não Hodgkin, admitido com tosse seca, febre, dispneia e insuficiência respiratória aguda hipoxêmica. Iniciadas ventilação mecânica e antibioticoterapia, porém houve evolução desfavorável. Tomografia computadorizada de tórax mostrava opacidades pulmonares em "vidro fosco" bilaterais. Devido ao paciente ter feito uso de três drogas relacionadas à pneumonia em organização (ciclofosfamida, doxorrubicina e rituximabe e quadros clínico e radiológico serem sugestivos, iniciou-se pulsoterapia com metilprednisolona com boa resposta. Pneumonia em organização pode ser idiopática ou associada a colagenoses, drogas e neoplasias, e geralmente responde bem a corticoterapia. O diagnóstico é anatomopatológico, mas condições clínicas do paciente não permitiam a realização de biópsia pulmonar. Pneumonia em organização deve ser diagnóstico diferencial em pacientes com aparente pneumonia de evolução desfavorável ao tratamento antimicrobiano.

  5. Impact of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination program on HIB meningitis in Brazil Impacto do programa de vacinação contra meningites causadas por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b no Brasil

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    Sybelle de Souza Castro Miranzi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the impact of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB in Brazil on the morbidity, mortality, and case fatality of HIB meningitis, using the Ministry of Health database and population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE. Impact was evaluated through a time series analysis (1983-2002, using regression forecasting (RF by dividing the time series into two periods: (a historical (1983-1998 and (b validation (1999-2002. Impact of the vaccination was positive, although more significant for incidence and mortality than for case fatality rates.A proposta deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da vacinação contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (HIB no Brasil sobre a morbi-mortalidade e a letalidade das meningites por HIB, a partir de base de dados fornecida pelo Ministério da Saúde e as estimativas populacionais provenientes do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE. Para a avaliação do impacto utilizou-se análise de tendência temporal (1983-2002, aplicando-se a técnica RF (regression forecasting, dividindo-se a série em dois períodos: (a período histórico (1983-1998 e (b período de estimação (1999-2002. O impacto da vacinação foi positivo, embora tenha se revelado mais expressivo sobre a morbi-mortalidade que sobre a letalidade.

  6. Alternativa de Convivencia con el Problema de la Salinidad del Agua de Irrigación causada por Presas Subterráneas Alternative of Coexistence with the Salinity Probiem of Irrigation Water caused by Underground Dams

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    José Wilmar  da S Neto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una alternativa de convivencia con el problema de salinidad del agua de irrigación causado por presas subterráneas. Se analiza la calidad del agua de irrigación comparando el crecimiento vegetativo de las gramíneas Capim Vetiver, Sempre Verde; Cana-de-agúcar, Capim Elefante cv. Napier y Capim Elefante cv. Mercker, aguas arriba y abajo de la presa subterránea localizada en el municipio de Ibicuitinga, estado de Ceará en Brasil. El análisis de muestras de aguas subterráneas aguas arriba y abajo de la presa han mostrado que ambas poseen un grado de salinidad elevado para fines de irrigación, recomendándose el uso de cultivos halófitos. Se ha realizado el análisis de varianza para variable crecimiento en altura y se ha aplicado la prueba de Tukey. A partir de esta prueba se ha verificado que, de entre las gramíneas probadas, tan sólo la Capim Elefante cv. Mercker ha diferido estadísticamente.The objective of this paper is to show an alternative for the coexistence with the salinity probiem of irrigation water caused by underground dams. The quality of irrigation water is analyzed by comparing the vegetative growth of Capim Vetiver, Sempre Verde, Cana-de-Acucar, Capim Elefante cv. Napier and Capim Elefante cv. Mercker, upstream and downstream of the underground dam located in Ibicuitinga, Ceará state in Brazil. The analysis of groundwater samples upstream and downstream of the dam have shown that both have high salinity for irrigation, recommending the use of halophytes crops. The study includes an analysis of variance for height growth variable and the Tukey test was applied. From this test it was verified that among the gramineous plants tested, only the Capim Elefante cv. Mercker was found statistically different.

  7. La marchitez tardía del maíz (Zea mays L. causada por Cephalosporium maydis en la Península Ibérica, y otros hongos asociados

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    Carmen Maria Ortiz-Bustos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de hongos de suelo asociadas a Cephalosporium maydis como agente causal de la marchitez tardía del maíz en la Península Ibérica se identificaron muestreando 19 campos con síntomas de marchitez en las principales zonas de cultivo entre 2011 y 2012. En el 47% de los campos no se identificó C. maydis, pero sí Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. equiseti, F. proliferatum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani y Trichoderma harzianum infectando las plantas de maíz. En los campos restantes, junto a C. maydis se identificaron otros hongos de suelo en porcentajes apreciables: F. verticillioides (19%, F. proliferatum (19%, F.equiseti (9%, F. oxysporum (9% y Pythium oligandrum (9%. El crecimiento vascular de C. maydis y de otras especies fúngicas en plantas de maíz se confirmó analizando plantas con marchitez procedentes de tres campos diferentes. Tanto C. maydis como F. graminearum, F. equiseti, F. proliferatum y T. harzianum se aislaron de la inserción entre la raíz y tallo y a 10 cm de altura en el tallo de las plantas. El efecto de la infección por C. maydis sobre la producción de las plantas de maíz se cuantificó en macetas y condiciones seminaturales en el 2011. En plantas inoculadas se obtuvo una reducción del peso de las mazorcas del 54%, además de pesos de raíz y de parte aérea (tallo y hojas significativamente menores en comparación con el control no inoculado, lo que sugiere el gran impacto económico que puede tener la marchitez tardía en condiciones naturales. Asimismo este trabajo pone de manifiesto el grado de complejidad de la etiología de la marchitez tardía, que debería ser estudiado mediante la confirmación de la patogenicidad de los hongos de suelo identificados en maíz, con el fin de determinar el papel que puede jugar cada una de estas especies en el desarrollo de la enfermedad y/o severidad de los síntomas.

  8. Controle químico da queima de folhas e da mela de estacas de eucalipto, causadas por Rhizoctonia spp. Chemical control of leaf scorch and web blight of eucalypt cuttings, caused by Rhizoctonia spp.

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    Silvaldo Felipe da Silveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando ao controle químico da queima de folhas e mela de estacas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp. em viveiros florestais, avaliou-se a eficiência de 12 fungicidas em inibir in vitro o crescimento micelial de um isolado epifítico de Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB (RH-2. Sete fungicidas que inibiram totalmente o crescimento micelial do fungo, a concentrações inferiores a 100 ppm, foram pré-selecionados: methyl-tolclophos, benomyl, pencycuron, iprodione, thiabendazol, thiram e captan. Avaliou-se, ainda, a sensibilidade (EC50 = dose provável que inibe o crescimento micelial em 50% aos fungicidas methyl-tolclophos, benomyl, iprodione e pencycuron de mais oito isolados patogênicos ao eucalipto, que diferem entre si quanto a virulência, morfologia, grupo de anastomose, número de núcleos por célula vegetativa e padrões eletroforéticos de proteínas e isoenzimas. Embora variações nos valores de EC50 entre algumas combinações de fungicidas e isolados tenham ocorrido, todos os isolados foram sensíveis aos quatro fungicidas testados (EC50 To achieve the chemical control of leaf scorch and web blight of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp. cuttings in forest nurseries, 12 fungicides were assayed against one isolate of Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB (RH-2. Seven fungicides (methyl-tolclophos, benomyl, pencycuron, iprodione, thiabendazol and captan completely inhibited mycelial growth under concentrations lower than 100 ppm of active ingredient on PDA culture. Additionally, the sensibility (EC50 = estimated dose for 50% inhibition of mycelial growth to methyl-tolclophos, benomyl, pencycuron and iprodione of another eight isolates differing in virulence, morphology, anastomosis groups, and proteins and isozyme profiles was evaluated. Little differences in sensitivity was observed in some combinations of fungicides-isolates. However, the eight isolates were sensitive to the four tested fungicides (EC50 < 11 ppm. Under artificial conditions of inoculations, sprays

  9. CELULITIS FACIAL ODONTOGÉNICA SEVERA INFRECUENTE CAUSADA POR CITROBACTER FREUNDII PRODUCTORA DE AMPC EN UN PACIENTE CON DIABETES MELLITUS 2. REPORTE DE CASO CELULITE FACIAL ODONTOGÊNICA SEVERA INFREQUENTE CAUSADA POR CITROBACTER FREUNDII PRODUTORA DE AMPC EM UM PACIENTE COM DIABETES MELLITUS 2. RELATÓRIO DE CASO UNCOMMON SEVERE ODONTOGENIC FACIAL CELLULITIS CAUSED BY AMPCPRODUCING CITROBACTER FREUNDII IN A PATIENT WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. CASE REPORT

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    CAMILO ESLAVA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El manejo de la celulitis facial odontogénica no deja de ser un tema controversial en el campo de la cirugía oral y maxilofacial; los principios quirúrgicos y terapéuticos han sido sometidos a modificacio nes basadas en los hallazgos clínicos, imagenológicos y microbiológicos a través del tiempo. En pacientes con diabetes mellitus 2 se incrementa el riesgo a sufrir infecciones bacterianas oportunistas con tiempos de hospitalización más prolongados que la población no diabética. La literatura es clara estableciendo las diferencias clínicas y microbiológicas de la celulitis facial odontogénica en este grupo de pacientes, sin embargo, no existe un protocolo médico quirúrgico destinado a ellos. El microorganismo comúnmente aislado es Klebsiella pneumoniae, mientras Citrobacter freundii es inusual en las infecciones odontogénicas, su capacidad para producir betalactamasas de amplio espectro (AmpC le permite bloquear la acción de los antibióticos de uso empírico en Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial. A continuación, presentamos el caso de una paciente de 61 años con diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 y celulitis facial odontogénica por Citrobacter freundii productora de AmpC.O tratamento da celulite facial odontogênica não deixa de ser um tema controverso no campo da Cirurgia Oral e Maxilofacial; os princípios cirúrgicos e terapêuticos foram submetidos a modificações baseadas nos descobrimentos clínicos, imagenológicos e microbiológicos através do tempo. Em pacientes com Diabetes Mellitus 2 aumenta o risco de sofrer infecções bacterianas oportunistas com tempos de hospitalização mais prolongados que na população não diabética. A literatura é clara estabelecendo as diferenças clínicas e microbiológicas da Celulite Facial Odontogênica neste grupo de pacientes; porém, não existe um protocolo médico cirúrgico destinado a eles. O microrganismo comunmente isolado é o Klebsiella pneumoniae, enquanto que o Citrobacter

  10. Efeitos da esplenectomia na peritonite causada por lesão traumática do cólon: estudo em ratos Effects of splenectomy on peritonitis produced by a colonic injury: study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Sérgio Nassif

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o efeito da esplenectomia na infecção intra-abdominal com bactérias da flora enteral, liberadas para a cavidade abdominal através de uma lesão induzida no cólon de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 64 animais, sendo 20 do Grupo A1 (normais sem sutura da lesão, 22 do Grupo A2 (normais com sutura da lesão e 22 do Grupo B (esplenectomizados e com sutura da lesão. Os animais foram submetidos à laparotomia mediana e a indução da peritonite intra-operatória foi obtida através de lesão do cólon previamente distendido pela introdução de uma sonda naso-gástrica via retal e injeção de 2 ml de soro fisiológico. Foram realizados exames bacteriológicos de lavado abdominal obtido por swab esterelizado e exame microscópico de segmento suturado do cólon de amostras obtidas dos grupos A2 e B com 48hs, 96hs e 12 dias de pós-operatório. Todos os animais foram submetidos a necropsia por ocasião do óbito ou no 12º. dia de pós-operatório quando os sobreviventes foram sacrificados. RESULTADOS: Agentes bacterianos semelhantes foram encontrados nos três grupos: E.coli (100%; Enterococcus faecalis (97%; P. mirabilis (90%; Klebsiela pneumoniae (70%; Citobacter freundi (70% e Enterobacter aglomerans (63%. O exame microscópico revelou menor reação inflamatória no grupo esplenectomizado. A causa da morte na maioria foi peritonite nas primeiras 96hs. Houve alto índice de significância de mortalidade entre os animais do Grupo B (80% em relação ao Grupo A2 (sem mortalidade e em relação ao Grupo A1 (35%. CONCLUSÃO: Houve alto índice de significância de mortalidade em vigência de peritonite nos animais esplenectomizados em relação aos animais que não foram esplenectomizados.BACKGROUND: Study the effects of splenectomy on the intra-abdominal infection by bowel flora, consequent to a colonic injury in Wistar rats. METHODS: We used 64 animals, 20 for Group A1 (normal with colon lesion left open, 22 for Group

  11. Resultados de una encuesta sobre tratamiento de la cifosis torácica causada por enfermedad de Scheuermann Resultados de uma pesquisa sobre o tratamento da cifose torácica de Scheuermann Results of a survey on the treatment of thoracic Scheuermann´s kyphosis

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    Claudio Silveri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer que parámetros se deben considerar para encarar el tratamiento de la cifosis torácica causada por la enfermedad de Scheuermann. MÉTODO: Se realizó una recolección de informaciones consistente en aplicar un cuestionario a 25 informantes calificados, colegas de diferentes países de Íbero/Latinoamérica miembros de SILACO (Sociedad Íbero/Latinoamericana de Columna y se analizaron los resultados de las mismas. RESULTADOS: Como tratamiento ortopédico, la mayoría se inclinó por el uso del corsé de Milwaukee, indicado en pacientes prepúberes y pospúberes con curvas mayores de 60º y en curvas de menos de 60º si tienen dolor. El tiempo de uso: 22 hrs por día, su mantenimiento hasta llegar a Risser 4 o 5. Se observó una tasa de abandono de 48% al plan terapéutico. En lo referente a tratamiento quirúrgico, las indicaciones surgen: por localización de la deformidad, el valor angular, dolor, edad y estética. La extensión del área a fusionar fue determinada con los espinogramas y radiografías dinámicas. Se eligió la vía posterior como vía de abordaje con barras y tornillos, y en algunos casos la combinación con ganchos. Se evaluaron los resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico (de acuerdo a la opinión del médico, que fueron catalogados como buenos en un 64%. CONCLUSIONES: Se realizó una encuesta de opinión sobre el tratamiento de la cifosis torácica causada por enfermedad de Scheuermann .y se analizaron 25 formularios de respuestas de calificados cirujanos de columna, de diferentes países de Ibero/Latinoamérica miembros de SILACO. La encuesta ha permitido establecer normas de conducta terapéuticas (ortopédicas y quirúrgicas para el tratamiento de esta afección.OBJETIVO: Obter os parâmetros a serem considerados para realizar o tratamento da cifose torácica de Scheuermann. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram obtidos por meio de um questionário que foi respondido por 25 membros da SILACO (Sociedad Ibero

  12. A novel postharvest rot of okra pods caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Brazil Uma nova podridão pós-colheita de frutos de quiabo causada por Rhizoctonia solani

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    Gilmar P. Henz

    2007-06-01

    ngulos quase retos com constrições na base, células da hifa com 6-10 µm de largura com um septo perto da base. Cinco isolados foram obtidos dos frutos infectados e identificados como sendo do grupo de anastomose AG 1-IB. Frutos de quiabo cv. Santa Cruz 47 inoculados com discos de micélio de R. solani com e sem ferimentos e mantidos em câmaras úmidas, a 25 ºC, por sete dias ficaram completamente apodrecidos pelo patógeno, com cor marrom, enquanto somente os frutos com ferimentos mantidos a 12 ºC apresentaram lesões pequenas, variando de 0,6 a 1,0 mm de diâmetro. Em outro experimento, foi demonstrado que o patógeno foi capaz de crescer na superfície de diferentes materiais usados na confecção de embalagens de produtos hortícolas, como madeira de pinus, papelão corrugado, plástico, isopor e folhas de jornal mantidos em câmara úmida (24 ºC, 96 % UR. A ocorrência da doença está relacionada com manuseio pós-colheita inadequado, e a transmissão de propágulos do fungo junto com restos culturais ou partículas de solo. Este é o primeiro relato de R. solani causando podridão pós-colheita em frutos de quiabo no Brasil.

  13. Estudos histomorfométrico e histológico das lesões ósseas causadas por flúor em aves Histomorphometric and histological evaluations of the bone lesions caused by fluoride in chickens

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    Margarida Buss Raffi

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluoreto de sódio foi administrado na água de 2 grupos de 25 aves, fêmeas, da raça Shaver. O grupo A recebeu flúor do 1 ao 120 dia de idade e o grupo B do 61 ao 120 dia de idade. Cada grupo foi dividido em 5 níveis de tratamento: 0, 25, 50, 200 e 400 ppm de flúor, com 5 animais por tratamento. Todos os animais foram sacrificados aos 120 dias de idade. Para o estudo histomorfométrico foram coletados o fêmur e a tíbia esquerdos, e para o estudo histológico foram coletados fêmur e tíbia direitos. No estudo histomorfométrico do osso compacto observou-se um discreto aumento da porosidade cortical, que não foi estatisticamente significativo. A espessura do osso cortical aumentou nos animais tratados com flúor (pSodium fluoride was administered in the water to 2 groups of 25 Shaver female poultry. Group A received fluoride from 1 to 120 days of age and group B from 61 to 120 days. Each group was divided into 5 treatments, with 5 chickens each, which received 0, 25, 50, 200, and 400 ppm of fluoride in the water, respectively. All animals were killed at 120 days of age. For histomorphometric studies the left femur and tibia were used, and for histologic studies the right femur and tibia. In the cortical bone, cortical porosity was slightly increased by fluoride, but the differences with the control group were not significant. Cortical thickness increased in the animals treated with fluoride (p<0,05, r2 = 0,59 . In the trabecular bone, of group A, trabecular thickness (TT (p<0,05, r2 = 0,63 and trabecular bone volume (TBV (p<0,05, r2 = 0,72 increased in treatments receiving 25-200 ppm, and decreased in the 400 ppm treatment, as it was demonstrated by quadratic regression analysis. In group B there was a positive linear correlation on TT (p<0,05, r2 = 0,98 and TBV (p<0,05, r2 = 0,77 with fluoride ingestion.The osteoid surface was also positively correlated with the amount of fluoride ingested by the animals (p<0,001, r2 = 0,80. These

  14. Frecuencia y descripción de lesiones óseas en el tronco y su correlación con las lesiones en tejidos blandos, causadas por proyectil de arma de fuego, en una muestra de necropsias realizadas en el Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses, regional Bogotá 2008–2009 / Frequency and description of bony injuries in the trunk and his correlation with the injuries in soft tissues, caused by missile of firearm, in a sample of autopsies realized in the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, regional Bogotá 2008-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Garzón Rodríguez, Néstor Raúl

    2009-01-01

    Este estudio presenta los resultados de la revisión de 306 reportes de necropsias medicolegales practicadas a cadáveres cuyas muertes fueron causadas por proyectil de arma de fuego, con el objetivo de determinar la frecuencia y las características de las lesiones sufridas en el tronco. La muestra correspondía en un 94.5% a cuerpos de genero masculino, con grupos de edad predominante entre 20 y 39 años. El número de disparos vario entre 1 y 14 impactos por cada cuerpo, siendo los mas frecuente...

  15. Reclassification of non-pigmented Erwinia herbicola strains from trees as Erwinia billingiae sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergaert, J; Hauben, L; Cnockaert, M C; Swings, J

    1999-04-01

    Twenty-two Erwinia-like strains, isolated from trees since the late fifties and belonging to a distinct phenotypic group with resemblance to Pantoea agglomerans, were further characterized by conventional biochemical tests, the BIOLOG metabolic fingerprinting system and fatty acid analysis. Their phylogenetic positions were determined by comparing the 16S rRNA gene sequence of a representative strain to available sequences of Erwinia, Pantoea, Pectobacterium and Brenneria species. The strains were shown to belong to the genus Erwinia, with Erwinia rhapontici and Erwinia persicina as the closest phylogenetic relatives. The name Erwinia billingiae sp. nov. is proposed (type strain LMG 2613T) and a description of the species is given. PMID:10319458

  16. Alteraciones dentales y periodontales causadas por el stripping en ortodoncia.

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio Merchán, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Desde hace más de setenta años el desgaste interproximal o stripping forma parte de las opciones de las que disponemos en los tratamientos de ortodoncia. Inicialmente fue un procedimiento indicado solo para pacientes adultos principalmente para el tratamiento de las discrepancias dentarias y la prevención de las recidivas mediante la estabilización de los puntos de contacto. Además comenzó a emplearse como alternativa en los casos dudosos de extracción, la eliminación de triángulos n...

  17. Surto de mastite bovina causada por Arcanobacterium pyogenes

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    R.G. Motta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An uncommon outbreak of mastitis caused by Arcanobacterium pyogenes in 26 cows is reported. The epidemiological findings, clinical signs, microbiological exams, somatic cell count, in vitro susceptibility profile of strains, efficacy of intramammary treatment and control measures were discussed. Florfenicol (96.2%, cefoperazona (92.3%, cefaloxin (84.6% and ceftiofur (84.6% were the most effective antimicrobials, and neomicin (27.0% and enrofloxacin (17.4% the least effective antimicrobials.

  18. Effect of topical 0.5% povidone-iodine compared to 5% natamycin in fungal keratitis caused by Fusarium solani in a rabbit model: a pilot study Efeito tópico de iodo-povidona 0,5% comparado com natamicina 5% em ceratites fúngicas causadas por Fusarium solani em um modelo animal de coelhos: estudo piloto

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    Lauro Augusto de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    tratados por 3 dias e sacrificados em seguida. As córneas foram removidas cirurgicamente, maceradas e incubadas em meio BHI. Semeou-se culturas em placas de ágar Sabouraud, diariamente, durante 7 dias, e contou-se o número de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC. Os coelhos foram avaliados clinicamente durante o período de tratamento. RESULTADOS: Os grupos iodo-povidona e natamicina demonstraram melhor eficácia do que o grupo controle considerando-se o número de coelhos nos quais não houve crescimento de colônias. Entretanto, não houve diferença estatística significante entre os 3 grupos quando se analizou o número de UFC (p>0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo demonstrou considerações metodológicas importantes na utilização de modelos animais para o teste de agentes antifúngicos. Usando a metodologia de contar UFC e com este tamanho amostral, administração tópica de iodo-povidona 0,5% não demonstrou benefício do tratamento de ceratite fúngica experimental causada por Fusarium solani quando comparado com a administração tópica de natamicina 5%.

  19. Surtos epidêmicos de dermatite causada por mariposas do gênero Hylesia (Lepidóptera: Hemileucidae no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Epidemic outbreaks of dermatitis caused by Hylesia (Lepidoptera: Hemileucidae, in S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Carmen Moreno Glasser

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Surtos epidêmicos de dermatite causada por Hylesia sp foram assinalados no litoral do Estado de São Paulo, no período de dezembro de 1989 a dezembro de 1991. O fenômeno assumiu sua maior intensidade em Bertioga, Município de Santos, onde foram registrados 612 casos. Foram atingidos outros 12 municípios da região, estimando-se que algumas centenas de casos procuraram os serviços de saúde locais. Na maioria dos casos verificou-se lesões eritemato-pápulo-pruriginosas, que regrediram em média de 7 a 14 dias. Para tratamento foram utilizados anti-histamímicos sistêmicos corticosteróides tópicos e compressas frias. Ocorreram três episódios epidêmicos no período citado, todos eles coincidindo com o início da estação chuvosa (novembro a janeiro. A cada episódio verificou-se um deslocamento do fenômeno no sentido Norte-Sul. A principal medida profilática utilizada foi a divulgação, junto à população, das medidas de redução de exposição ao agente. Para prédios com elevada infestação por mariposas, foi estudada a efetividade da aplicação de inseticida residual, como medida de redução dos níveis de infestação por mariposas. Obteve-se resultados satisfatórios com deltametrina na dose de 50 mg/m² de parede.Epidemic outbreaks of dermatitis caused by Hylesia sp wich occurred in the coastal region of the State of S. Paulo during the period of December 1989 to December 1991 are confirmed. The incident assumed its greatest intensity in Bertioga, in Santos County, where 612 cases were registered. The outbreak also affected 12 other counties in that region and it was estimated that hundred of affected persons sought the Local Health Service Care. The majority presented with erythematous and prutiginous lesions and papula which lasted 7 to 14 days on average. Treatment consisted of systemic administration of antihistamines, and the use of topic corticosteroides and cold compresses. During the abovementioned period, three

  20. Avaliação de Passifloraceas, fungicidas e Trichoderma para o manejo da Podridão-do-colo do maracujazeiro, causada por Nectria haematococca Evaluation of Passifloraceas, fungicides and Trichoderma for passion fruit collar rot handling, caused by Nectria haematococca

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    Ivan Herman Fischer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A baixa produtividade do maracujazeiro-amarelo é devida, muitas vezes, a problemas fitossanitários, sendo a Podridão-do-colo, causada por Nectria haematococca, um dos principais problemas na maioria dos Estados produtores do Brasil. O controle desta doença é basicamente preventivo, evitando a introdução do agente patogênico na área. Sendo assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos: a avaliar o comportamento do maracujazeiro-amarelo 'Afruvec', 'IAC 275' e 'Maguary', do tipo pé-franco, e 'Afruvec' enxertado em cinco espécies de Passiflora (P. alata, P. maliformis, P. morifolia, P. mucronata e P. suberosa, em pomar com histórico de Podridão-do-colo; e b avaliar a eficiência de produtos químicos (oxicloreto de cobre, procloraz e tiabendazol e biológicos (Trichoderma harzianum e Trichoderma sp. no controle da Podridão-do-colo em maracujazeiro-amarelo 'Afruvec', sob condições de campo. As espécies P. maliformis, P. suberosa e P. alata, empregadas como porta-enxerto, apresentaram maior resistência à Podridão-do-colo do maracujazeiro em relação às plantas não enxertadas. Os produtos químicos e biológicos, aplicados em intervalos mensais ou quinzenais no colo da planta (500 mL de calda, não foram eficientes no controle da doença.The low productivity of yellow passion fruit is due often to the phytosanitary problems, being the Collar rot caused by Nectria haematococca, one of the main problems in the majority of the producing States of Brazil. The disease control is basically preventive, avoiding the introduction of the pathogen in the area. So, the present work aimed at: a evaluating the behavior of ungrafted yellow passion fruit cultivars 'Afruvec', 'IAC 275' and 'Maguary' and 'Afruvec' passion fruit grafted on five Passiflora species (Passiflora alata, P. maliformis, P. morifolia, P. mucronata and P. suberosa in orchard where the disease is frequent; and b evaluating the efficiency of chemical (copper oxychloride

  1. Role of antibiotic production by Erwinia herbicola Eh252 in biological control of Erwinia amylovora.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanneste, J L; Yu, J.; Beer, S V

    1992-01-01

    Erwinia herbicola Eh252 is a nonpathogenic epiphytic bacterium that reduces fire blight incidence when sprayed onto apple blossoms before inoculation with Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Eh252 was found to produce on minimal medium an antibiotic that inhibited the growth of E. amylovora. This antibiotic was inactivated by histidine but not by Fe(II), was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, and showed a narrow host range of activity. To determine the role of this antibiotic i...

  2. Beheersing van Erwinia vruchtrot in paprika

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.S.M.; Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D.; Ludeking, D.J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Doel van dit onderzoek was om infectiebronnen en verspreidingsrisico’s van Erwinia vruchtrot op te sporen, praktijkervaringen te inventariseren en biologische bestrijdingsmethoden te toetsen. Uit de literatuurstudie blijkt dat een hoge RV (> 90%) noodzakelijk is voor het infectieproces. Op een be

  3. Reação de híbridos, linhagens e progênies de pimentão à requeima causada por Phytophthora capsici e ao mosaico amarelo causado por Pepper yellow mosaic vírus (PepYMV Reaction of hybrids, lines and progenies of sweet pepper the blight caused by Phytophthora capsici and to Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildon Rodrigues do Nascimento

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A requeima do pimentão (Capsicum annuum L. causada por Phytophthora capsici e o mosaico amarelo causado por PepYMV são prioridades nos programas de melhoramento de pimentão em andamento no Brasil. Foram avaliados três híbridos comerciais (Magali R, Atenas F1 e Fortuna Super F1, cinco linhagens, 20 híbridos experimentais e duas progênies F2:4 do programa de melhoramento da Universidade Federal de Lavras/HortiAgro Sementes quanto à reação a P. capsici e a PepYMV. Os experimentos foram montados independentemente em blocos casualizados, com quatro e duas repetições, respectivamente. Cada parcela foi constituída de oito plantas instaladas em bandejas de 128 células, que foram mantidas em estufa com cobertura plástica e laterais teladas. As avaliações foram feitas do 4º ao 14º e do 15º ao 40º dias após a inoculação (DAI para P. capsici e PepYMV, respectivamente. A inoculação com P. capsici foi feita pormeio da distribuição de 5 mL de suspensão com 10(4 zoósporos/mL no solo ao redor do colo de cada planta. A inoculação mecânica de PepYMV foi feita a partir de macerados de folhas de Nicotiana tabacum cv. TNN, previamente infectadas. Os híbridos Magali R e Fortuna Super, foram suscetíveis a P. capsici, enquanto que o acesso Criollo de Morellos 334, a linhagem PIM-013 e as progênies PIX-03 pl#03-2 e PIX-030 pl#06-3 (ambas originadas do cruzamento com Criollo de Morellos, foram resistentes. Reação de resistência a P. capsici foi também observada para os híbridos experimentais que tiveram PIM-013 como uma das linhagens parentais. Criollo de Morellos 334, as progênies PIX-03 pl#03-2 e PIX-030 pl#06-3, o híbrido comercial Magali R e outros 6 híbridos experimentais que tinham como um dos genitores a linhagem MYR-29 forma ressitentes ao PepYMV. As progênies PIX-03 pl#03-2 e PIX-030 pl#06-3 são fontes promissoras de resistência a ambos os patógenos para serem desenvolvidas e exploradas em programas de melhoramento

  4. Terapia de resgate com amiodarona em crianças com grave disfunção ventricular esquerda causada por veneno de escorpião Terapia de rescate con amiodarona en niños con severa disfunción ventricular izquierda ocasionada por veneno de escorpión Antiadrenergic rescue therapy with amiodarone in children with severe left ventricular dysfunction secondary to scorpion envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo J. Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: As crianças picadas por escorpião, pressintam ativação maciça do sistema nervoso simpática com vários graus de disfunção sistólica ventricular esquerda. OBJETIVO: Testar um protocolo de resgate em crianças com grave disfunção ventricular esquerda causada por picada de escorpião. Métodos: Quatro crianças após serem picadas por escorpião foram submetidas a: Encubação endotraqueal e suporte respiratório, eletrocardiograma, radiografia de tórax, ecocardiograma e determinação sérica da norepinefrina e troponina I. As análises foram repetidas após 12, 24 e 48 horas. As seguintes medicações intravenosas foram administradas: dobutamina 4-6 μg/kg/min; amiodarona 3 mg/kg durante duas horas, com dose de manutenção de 5 mg/kg/dia; e furosemida 0,5 mg/kg. Amiodarona, dobutamina e furosemida foram administradas durante as primeiras 48 horas. Bloqueadores beta-adrenérgicos e inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina foram administrados até 48 após a internação, uma vez que o estado clínico havia melhorado e a fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda encontrava-se acima de 0,35%. RESULTADOS: Na admissão, a dosagem da norepinefrina foi 1.727,50± 794,96 pg/ml, a de troponina I 24,53 ± 14,09 ng/ml e a fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo foi 0,20 ± 0,056. Após 12 horas, os níveis séricos de norepinefrina e de troponina I diminuíram para a metade dos valores iniciais e a fração de ejeção aumentou para 0,32 ± 0,059. Durante as 24 e 48 horas subseqüentes, a fração de ejeção elevou-se para 0,46 ± 0,045 (pFUNDAMENTO: Los niños con picaduras de escorpión sufren activación masiva del sistema nervioso simpático con varios grados de disfunción sistólica ventricular izquierda. OBJETIVO: Probar un protocolo de rescate en niños con disfunción ventricular severa izquierda ocasionada por picadura de escorpión. MÉTODOS: Cuatro niños tras un escorpión picarlas se sometieron a: incubaci

  5. PURIFICATION OF GLUTAMINASE ENZYME PRODUCED FROM ERWINIA

    OpenAIRE

    PUSHPINDER PAUL

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to do Purification of the Glutaminase enzyme produced from free cells of Erwinia species at flask level. Glutaminase can be isolated from a number of sources such as plants, animals and microorganisms. Glutaminase is an important enzyme that serves many functions. It plays a key role in the energy and nitrogen metabolism of mammalian cells. Glutaminase is very important food enzyme used in food industries for flavor enhancement. Glutaminase, in combination with o...

  6. Human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in Santiago del Estero, Argentina: identification of parasites by monoclonal antibodies and isoenzymes Leishmaniose cutânea humana causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis na Província de Santiago del Estero, Argentina: identificação dos parasitas por anticorpos monoclonais e isoenzimas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Cuba Cuba

    1996-12-01

    pacientes humanos com lesões cutâneas de leishmaniose na Província de Santiago del Estero, no Norte da Argentina. Os procedimentos de diagnóstico foram: biópsias de lesões para utilização em esfregaços e inoculação em hamster; aspiração (com agulha de úlceras, para cultura "in vitro". As técnicas imunodiagnósticas empregadas foram a IFAT-IgG e o teste intradérmico de Montenegro. Oito cepas de parasitas foram isoladas, sendo estas obtidas de pacientes com lesões ativas. Todas as cepas foram inicialmente caracterizadas biologicamente por seu comportamento na infecção experimental do hamster, mensuração dos amastigotas e promastigotas e crescimento "in vitro". As mesmas oito cepas foram logo identificadas e caracterizadas a nível de espécie, devido a sua reatividade frente a um painel de anticorpos monoclonais subgênero e espécie-específicos. Isso foi realizado utilizando o teste de Imunofluorescência Indireta (IFAT/MAbs e de um procedimento de Dot-ELISA. Nós concluímos a partir da análise de serodema dos isolados argentinos que: MHOM/AR/92/SE-1; SE-2; SE-4; SE-8; SE-8-I; SE-30; SE-34 e SE-36 são Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. Entretanto, três dos isolados de Leishmania (SE-1; SE-2 e SE-30 não foram reconhecidos quando testados com um anticorpo monoclonal de reconhecida alta espécie-especificidade (clone B-18, marcador consagrado de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, revelando a existência de dois tipos de serodemas entre as cepas estudadas. Cinco dos oito extratos solúveis de Leishmania foram submetidos à eletroforese em gel de amido de camada fina e subseqüentemente examinadas a fim de constatar a atividade das enzimas MPI, MDH, 6PGD, NH, NH-D, SOD, GPI e ES. Fundamentados nos estudos dos corridos eletroforéticos obtidos nos ensaios isoenzimáticos chegamos à conclusão que as cepas MHOM/AR/92 SE-1; SE-2; SE-4; SE-8 e SE-8-I são Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. É necessário analisar mais enzimas antes de enquadrá-los nos

  7. Avaliação das perdas causadas por vírus na produção da batata I: Vírus do enrolamento da fôlha Evaluation of yield losses induced by potato leaf roll

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    F. P. Cupertino

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparação entre as produções de 50 pares de plantas sadias e afetadas, de nove variedades de batata, mostra que a redução na produção causada pela infecção secundária do vírus do enrolamento da fôlha foi, em média, de 60,8% no pêso total dos tubérculos produzidos e de 75,5% no pêso dos tubérculos do tipo graúdo ("especial" mais "primeira". As perdas na produção total variaram de 44,6% (variedade Patrones a 73,4% (variedade Aquila, e na de tubérculos graúdos, de 49,8% (Delta A a 86,0% (Gunda.A comparison of 50 pairs of field healthy and leaf roll infected potato plants of nine varieties indicated that the total yield reduction was on the average 60.7 per cent. Yield reduction of the two largest and most marketable potato sizes ("especial" and "primeira" reached 75.6 per cent. Aquila and Gunda had the highest yield losses (73.4 and 72.0 per cent; Delta A and Patrones had the lowest (47.6 and 44.6 per cent. Reduction in the yield of the larger tuber sizes was generally greater than total losses.

  8. Characterization of plasmids in Erwinia stewartii.

    OpenAIRE

    Coplin, D. L.; Rowan, R G; Chisholm, D A; Whitmoyer, R E

    1981-01-01

    Plasmids in 39 strains of Erwinia stewartii were examined by agarose gel electrophoresis. Most virulent strains had from 11 to 13 plasmids ranging in molecular mass from 2.8 to 210 megadaltons and contained plasmids of 210, 70, 49, 43, 29.5, 16.8, 8.8, and 2.8 megadaltons. Plasmids in strains SW2 and SS104 were characterized by both electron microscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis and may be useful as convenient references for sizing plasmids by electrophoresis. Specific size classes of pl...

  9. Identification of Erwinia stewartii by a ligase chain reaction assay.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, W.J.; Wiedmann, M; Dillard, H. R.; Batt, C A

    1994-01-01

    A PCR-coupled ligase chain reaction (LCR) assay was developed to distinguish the plant pathogenic bacterium Erwinia stewartii from other erwiniae. This new technique allows discrimination to the species level on the basis of a single-base-pair difference in the 16S rRNA gene which is unique to E. stewartii. Portions of the 16S rRNA genes of E. stewartii and the closely related Erwinia herbicola were sequenced. From comparison of the two 16S rRNA gene regions, two primer pairs were constructed...

  10. Comparative Genomics of Erwinia amylovora and Related Erwinia Species—What do We Learn?

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    Youfu Zhao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease of apples and pears, is one of the most important plant bacterial pathogens with worldwide economic significance. Recent reports on the complete or draft genome sequences of four species in the genus Erwinia, including E. amylovora, E. pyrifoliae, E. tasmaniensis, and E. billingiae, have provided us near complete genetic information about this pathogen and its closely-related species. This review describes in silico subtractive hybridization-based comparative genomic analyses of eight genomes currently available, and highlights what we have learned from these comparative analyses, as well as genetic and functional genomic studies. Sequence analyses reinforce the assumption that E. amylovora is a relatively homogeneous species and support the current classification scheme of E. amylovora and its related species. The potential evolutionary origin of these Erwinia species is also proposed. The current understanding of the pathogen, its virulence mechanism and host specificity from genome sequencing data is summarized. Future research directions are also suggested.

  11. Características epidemiológicas de las nuevas infecciones causadas por el VIH comparadas con los casos de sida: La epidemia de VIH/ sida en el País Vasco Epidemiological characteristics of new HIV infections compared with AIDS cases: The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Basque Country [Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Zulaika; Koldo Agirrebengoa; Ander Andía; Julio Arrizabalaga; José María Bustillo; Mari Mar Cámara; Jesús Corral; Mari Carmen Orive; Julio Goikoetxea; José Antonio Iribarren; Josefina López de Munain; José Manuel Lorenzo; María José Martín Gudino; Eduardo Martínez; José Mayo

    2004-01-01

    Objetivo: Describir las características epidemiológicas de los nuevos diagnósticos de infección por el VIH en el período 1997-2001 y comparlas con los casos de sida (1991-2001). Métodos: Se han recogido retrospectivamente los datos de las nuevas infecciones por el VIH ocurridas en el País Vasco (1997-2001) y se han comparado con los casos de sida (1991-2001). Resultados: Se han diagnosticado 912 nuevas infecciones por el VIH. El diagnóstico de VIH coincidió con el de sida en 299 (32,8%) de la...

  12. Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) of rosaceous plants. Pathogen virulence and selection and characterization of biological control agents

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrefiga Olamendi, Jordi

    2004-01-01

    El fuego bacteriano, causado por Erwinia amylovora, es una enfermedad muy importante a nivel comercial y económico porque afecta a plantas de la familia de las rosáceas y es especialmente agresiva en manzano (Pyrus malus) y peral (Pyrus communis), así como en plantas ornamentales (Crataegus, Cotoneaster o Pyracantha). Esta enfermedad está distribuida por todo el mundo en zonas climáticas templadas de Amércia del Norte, Nueva Zelanda, Japón, Israel, Turquí y Europa. En España, el fuego bacter...

  13. PURIFICATION OF GLUTAMINASE ENZYME PRODUCED FROM ERWINIA

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    PUSHPINDER PAUL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to do Purification of the Glutaminase enzyme produced from free cells of Erwinia species at flask level. Glutaminase can be isolated from a number of sources such as plants, animals and microorganisms. Glutaminase is an important enzyme that serves many functions. It plays a key role in the energy and nitrogen metabolism of mammalian cells. Glutaminase is very important food enzyme used in food industries for flavor enhancement. Glutaminase, in combination with or as an alternative to asparaginase could be of great significance in enzyme therapy for cancer especially acute lymphocytic leukemia. Glutaminase enzyme was produced from free cells of Erwinia under optimized conditions such as Temperature, pH, Time, Inducer concentrations etc. After production of Glutaminase enzyme, Partial purification of enzyme was done with Ammonium Sulphate precipitation method. After isolation, the Glutaminase enzyme was purified with Gel filtration Chromatography & Ion Exchange chromatography. After purification by both methods, Purified samples were analyzed for enzyme activity & protein content. Enzyme activity was determined by Nessler's method & protein content was determined by Bradford method. It was found that after purification of crude sample by both methods, Gel Filtration chromatography shows maximum enzyme activity and specific activity than the samples purified with Ion Exchange Chromatography. Also %age recovery (97.59% & purification fold (1.70 obtained was found maximum from the samples purified with Gel Filtration Chromatography. From above results it was concluded that Gel filtration method is Better method for the purification of Glutaminase enzyme than Ion exchange Chromatography.

  14. Características epidemiológicas de las nuevas infecciones causadas por el VIH comparadas con los casos de sida: La epidemia de VIH/ sida en el País Vasco Epidemiological characteristics of new HIV infections compared with AIDS cases: The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Basque Country [Spain

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    Daniel Zulaika

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir las características epidemiológicas de los nuevos diagnósticos de infección por el VIH en el período 1997-2001 y comparlas con los casos de sida (1991-2001. Métodos: Se han recogido retrospectivamente los datos de las nuevas infecciones por el VIH ocurridas en el País Vasco (1997-2001 y se han comparado con los casos de sida (1991-2001. Resultados: Se han diagnosticado 912 nuevas infecciones por el VIH. El diagnóstico de VIH coincidió con el de sida en 299 (32,8% de las nuevas infecciones. Las relaciones heterosexuales han sido el mecanismo de transmisión más frecuente, seguido de la transmisión por vía parenteral y las relaciones homosexuales y bisexuales, con diferencias significativas (pObjective: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of new cases of HIV infection diagnosed from 1997-2001 and compare them with AIDS cases (1991-2001. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected on new cases of HIV infection detectad in the Basque Country (1997-2001 and were compared with AIDS cases (1991-2001. Results: A total of 912 new cases of HIV infection were diagnosed. In 299 of the new cases (32.8%, HIV and AIDS were diagnosed simultaneously. The most common mechanism of transmission was heterosexual transmission, followed by intravenous and homo/bisexual transmission. Significant epidemiological differences (p<0.001 were found with regard to AIDS cases. Conclusions: Sexual transmission has replaced intravenous drug use as the most common mechanism of HIV transmission. A large percentage of patients were simultaneously diagnosed with HIV and AIDS, indicating the need for new prevention strategies.

  15. Diagnosis of neonatal group B Streptococcus sepsis by nested-PCR of residual urine samples Diagnóstico de sepse neonatal causada pelo estreptococo do grupo B por meio de dupla amplificação de amostras residuais de urina

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    Bruno Nicolino Cezarino

    2008-03-01

    four patients. Moreover, PCR has enabled us to use residue volumes of urine samples collected by non invasive, non sterile methods, what is technically adequate as GBS is not part of the normal urine flora, thus avoiding invasive procedures such as suprapubic bladder punction or transurethral catheterization. At the same time, the use of urine instead of blood samples could help preventing newborns blood spoliation.O estreptococo do grupo B (GBS constitui a causa mais freqüente de sepse neonatal precoce. O teste de referência continua sendo o isolamento em cultura, apesar de apresentar problemas de sensibilidade. O objetivo do presente estudo foi validar uma técnica de dupla amplificação e determinar a possibilidade do uso de amostras residuais de urina colhidas por método não invasivo, não estéril, para a confirmação da sepse por GBS em recém-nascidos. As amostras foram amplificadas com primers do principal gene de superfície do GBS. A insuficiência de volume de material biológico para a realização de exames para suporte de vida, além de outros necessários à identificação do agente etiológico de infecções é muito freqüente em recém-nascidos. Mesmo assim, decidimos definir critérios bastante rigorosos para a inclusão de pacientes na casuística: os recém-nascidos deveriam apresentar sinais e sintomas compatíveis com infecção pelo GBS; deveriam ter tido ao menos uma amostra enviada para cultura, podendo ser sangue, urina ou líquor; disponibilidade de volumes residuais dessas amostras, ou de outras colhidas no dia da hospitalização, antes da introdução da antibioticoterapia, de forma a possibilitar a análise por PCR, e evolução favorável com a antibioticoterapia empírica. Em apenas um dos quatro recém-nascidos a infecção foi confirmada por cultura, enquanto nos outros três casos a infecção foi considerada presuntiva (pacientes preencheram os critérios de inclusão, mas o GBS não foi isolado. De um total de 12 amostras

  16. Genotyping of bacteria belonging to the former Erwinia genus by PCR-RFLP analysis of a recA gene fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waleron, Małgorzata; Waleron, Krzysztof; Podhajska, Anna J; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2002-02-01

    Genotypic characterization, based on the analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of the recA gene fragment PCR product (recA PCR-RFLP), was performed on members of the former Erwinia genus. PCR primers deduced from published recA gene sequences of Erwinia carotovora allowed the amplification of an approximately 730 bp DNA fragment from each of the 19 Erwinia species tested. Amplified recA fragments were compared using RFLP analysis with four endonucleases (AluI, HinfI, TasI and Tru1I), allowing the detection of characteristic patterns of RFLP products for most of the Erwinia species. Between one and three specific RFLP groups were identified among most of the species tested (Erwinia amylovora, Erwinia ananas, Erwinia cacticida, Erwinia cypripedii, Erwinia herbicola, Erwinia mallotivora, Erwinia milletiae, Erwinia nigrifluens, Erwinia persicina, Erwinia psidii, Erwinia quercina, Erwinia rhapontici, Erwinia rubrifaciens, Erwinia salicis, Erwinia stewartii, Erwinia tracheiphila, Erwinia uredovora, Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica, Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum, Erwinia carotovora subsp. odorifera and Erwinia carotovora subsp. wasabiae). However, in two cases, Erwinia chrysanthemi and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, 15 and 18 specific RFLP groups were detected, respectively. The variability of genetic patterns within these bacteria could be explained in terms of their geographic origin and/or wide host-range. The results indicated that PCR-RFLP analysis of the recA gene fragment is a useful tool for identification of species and subspecies belonging to the former Erwinia genus, as well as for differentiation of strains within E. carotovora subsp. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi. PMID:11832521

  17. Influência do fotoperíodo e da temperatura na intensidade de doença causada por Fusarium graminearum em Egeria densa e E. najas Influence of the photoperiod and temperature on the intensity of disease caused by Fusarium graminearum in Egeria densa and E. najas

    OpenAIRE

    C.R. Borges Neto; C.Q. Gorgati; R.A. Pitelli

    2005-01-01

    Um isolado de Fusarium graminearum vem sendo estudado na UNESP, campus de Jaboticabal, como agente de controle biológico de Egeria densa e de E. najas, plantas aquáticas submersas que causam problemas em reservatórios de hidrelétricas. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos do fotoperíodo e da temperatura no controle dessas plantas em condições de laboratório. A cada dois dias foram avaliados os sintomas nas plantas inoculadas com F. graminearum, atribuindo-se notas de sever...

  18. Avaliação de produtos químicos comerciais, in vitro e in vivo, no controle da doença foliar, mancha branca do milho, causada por Pantoea ananatis Evaluation of commercial chemical products, in vitro and in vivo in the control of foliar disease, maize white spot, caused by Pantoea ananais

    OpenAIRE

    Cleide Aparecida Bomfeti; Walter Fernandes Meirelles; Edneia Aparecida Souza-Paccola; Carlos Roberto Casela; Alexandre da Silva Ferreira; Ivanildo Evódio Marriel; Luzia Doretto Paccola-Meirelles

    2007-01-01

    Uma bactéria identificada como Pantoea ananatis foi recentemente isolada de lesões jovens da doença mancha branca do milho de plantas naturalmente infectadas. Esta bateria reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos da doença quando inoculada em plantas de milho em casa de vegetação. Estudos anteriores realizados por outros autores demonstraram que o controle desta doença em condições de campo foi obtido pelo uso de fungicidas, principalmente o Mancozeb, nas fases iniciais de seu desenvolvimento. O o...

  19. Effects of Erwinia-asparaginase on the coagulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, H; Stockelberg, D; Tengborn, L; Braide, I; Carneskog, J; Kutti, J

    1995-11-01

    L-Asparaginase treatment during induction therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is known to be frequently complicated by thromboembolic events. It was recently suggested that L-asparaginase derived from Erwinia chrysanthemi alters the coagulation system less severely than does Escherichia coli asparaginase. In a series of 11 adult patients with ALL, we investigated some parameters of the coagulation system during treatment with Erwinia asparaginase. The doses employed were rather high; all patients below the age of 60 years received 15,000 U/m2 daily over 14 days. In accordance with what is known from treatment with E. coli asparaginase, we observed significant lowering of antithrombin as well as of fibrinogen. However, as to fibrinogen indeed a significant decrease had occurred prior to the institution of Erwinia asparaginase treatment. The most striking observation in the present study was that the levels of prothrombin complex, reflecting the function of K-vitamin dependent coagulation factors II, VII and X, remained within normal ranges during treatment. This indicates that these coagulation factors were not affected by Erwinia asparaginase, an observation at variance with several reports where E. coli asparaginase was investigated. This latter observation was the only finding which could lend support to the view that Erwinia asparaginase affects the coagulation system less than E. coli asparaginase. Finally, one of our patients developed a sinus thrombosis, a severe thrombotic complication. PMID:7493674

  20. Immunohistochemical changes in kidney glomerular and tubular proteins caused by rattlesnake (Crotalus vegrandis venom Cambios inmunohistoquímicos en proteínas de túbulo y glomérulo renal causadas por el veneno de la serpiente de cascabel (Crotalus vegrandis

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    María E. Girón

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Renal damage is an important cause of death in patients who have survived the early effects of severe crotalid envenomation. Extracellular matrix of renal tissue is altered by Crotalus toxin activities. The aim of this study was to describe how cytoskeletal proteins and basal membrane components undergo substantial alterations under the action of Crotalus vegrandis crude venom and its hemorrhagic fraction (Uracoina-1 in mice. To detect the proteins in question, the immunoperoxidase method with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies was used. Cell types within renal lesions were characterized by phenotypic identification, by means of immunohistologic analysis of marker proteins using different primary antibodies against mesangial cells, endothelial cells, cytoskeletal proteins (intermediate filament, extracellular matrix and basal membranes. Samples for morphological study by standard procedures (biotin-streptavidin-peroxidase technique using light microscopy were processed. Positive and negative controls for each antigen tested in the staining assay were included. After crude venom and hemorrhagic fraction inoculation of mice, the disappearance of cytoskeletal vimentin and desmin and collagen proteins in the kidney was observed. In extracellular matrix and basal membranes, collagen type IV from envenomed animals tends to disappear from 24 h to 120 h after venom injection.El daño renal es una causa importante de muerte en pacientes que sobreviven a los efectos iniciales de los severos envenenamientos crotálicos. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido el describir como las proteínas del citoesqueleto y los componentes de membrana basal muestran alteraciones importantes en su manifestación, bajo la acción del veneno crudo de Crotalus vegrandis y una fracción hemorrágica (Uracoina-1 del mismo veneno ya que, la matriz extracelular del tejido renal es alterada por la actividad de estas toxinas. Para detectar las proteínas en cuestión se utiliz

  1. Extracellular polysaccharide of Erwinia chrysanthemi A350 and ribotyping of Erwinia chrysanthemi spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J S; Yang, B Y; Montgomery, R

    2000-03-10

    Erwinia chrysanthemi spp. are gram-negative bacterial phytopathogens causing soft rots in a number of plants. The structure of the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) produced by the E. chrysanthemi strain A350, which is a lacZ- mutant of the wild type strain 3937, pathogenic to Saintpaulia, has been determined using a combination of chemical and physical techniques including methylation analysis, low-pressure gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography, high-pH anion-exchange chromatography, partial acid hydrolysis, mass spectrometry and 1- and 2D NMR spectroscopy. In contrast to the structures of the EPS reported for other strains of E. chrysanthemi, the EPS from strain A350 contains D-GalA, together with L-Rhap and D-Galp in a 1:4:1 ratio. Evidence is presented for the following hexasaccharide repeat unit: [structure: see text] All the Erwinia chrysanthemi spp. studied to date have been analyzed by ribotyping and collated into families, which are consistent with the related structures of their EPS. PMID:10744334

  2. Monitoring of Erwinia amylovora in Montenegro

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    Dragana Radunović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of Erwinia amylovora in Montenegro, conducted from 2012 to 2014, indicated that the bacterium was widespread in the northern, continental part of the country, where the most important fruit-growing regions are situated. The presence of the bacterium was confirmed on quince, pear, apple, medlar and hawthorn. Pathogenic, cultural and biochemical characteristics of E. amylovora strains sampled from pome fruit species and indigenous flora in Montenegro had been studied previously. In the present study, serological tests were used for identification of E. amylovora strains originating from pome fruit trees and indigenous plants. Monitoring of E. amylovora and collection of samples with symptoms of bacterial fire blight from different hosts and locations were performed in Montenegro from 2012 to 2014. Isolation of the bacterium on nutrient medium produced a large number of isolates, whose pathogenicity was confirmed on immature pear fruits. Twenty-seven strains of the bacterium, originating from three pome fruit species (quince, pear and apple and one indigenous species (hawthorn were selected for serological analyses. Two applied serological methods, ELISA and IF test, enabled rapid detection of the bacterium and simultaneous examination of a large number of samples over a short period of time. Serological analyses showed high homogeneity in antigenic structure of the studied E. amylovora strains sampled from quince, pear, apple and hawthorn from nine locations in Montenegro.

  3. The histopathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico Histopatologia de la leishmaniasis cutánea causada por Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana en la península de Yucatán, México

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    Fernando J. Andrade-Narvaez

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (LCL known as "chiclero's ulcer" in southeast Mexico, was described by SEIDELIN in 1912. Since then the sylvatic region of the Yucatan peninsula has been documented as an endemic focus of LCL. This study of 73 biopsies from parasitological confirmed lesions of LCL cases of Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana infection was undertaken: 1 to examine host response at tissue level; and 2 to relate manifestations of this response to some characteristics of clinical presentation. Based on Magalhães' classification we found that the most common pattern in our LCL cases caused by L. (L. mexicana was predominantly characterized by the presence of unorganized granuloma without necrosis, (43.8%. Another important finding to be highlighted is the fact that in 50/73 (68.5% parasite identification was positive. There was direct relation between the size of the lesion and time of evolution (r s = 0.3079, p = 0.03, and inverse correlation between size of the lesion and abundance of amastigotes (r s = -0.2467, p = 0.03. In view of the complexity of clinical and histopathological findings, cell-mediated immune response of the disease related to clinical and histopathological features, as so genetic background should be studied.La Leishmaniosis Cutánea Localizada (LCL mejor conocida como "úlcera del chiclero" en el sureste de México fue descrita por SEIDELIN en 1912. Desde entonces la región selvática de la península de Yucatán ha sido identificada como un área endémica de LCL. En el presente estudio se analizaron 73 biopsias de lesiones de casos de LCL causados por Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana con el fin de: 1 examinar la respuesta a nivel tisular; y 2 relacionar las manifestaciones de esta respuesta con ciertas características de la presentación clínica. Con base en la clasificación histopatológica de Magalhães el patrón histopatológico más frecuente se caracterizó por la presencia de granuloma desorganizado y

  4. Influência do fotoperíodo e da temperatura na intensidade de doença causada por Fusarium graminearum em Egeria densa e E. najas Influence of the photoperiod and temperature on the intensity of disease caused by Fusarium graminearum in Egeria densa and E. najas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Borges Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Um isolado de Fusarium graminearum vem sendo estudado na UNESP, campus de Jaboticabal, como agente de controle biológico de Egeria densa e de E. najas, plantas aquáticas submersas que causam problemas em reservatórios de hidrelétricas. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos do fotoperíodo e da temperatura no controle dessas plantas em condições de laboratório. A cada dois dias foram avaliados os sintomas nas plantas inoculadas com F. graminearum, atribuindo-se notas de severidade da doença, por um período de oito dias após a inoculação. Também foi avaliado o crescimento das plantas por meio do ganho de massa fresca, expresso em porcentagem. A maior severidade da doença foi observada quando ambas as espécies foram mantidas no escuro, e a menor, em fotoperíodo de 12 horas. A temperatura de 30 ºC proporcionou maior severidade de doença em ambas as espécies. A espécie E. densa apresentou maior produção de massa fresca no regime de 12 horas de luz e de temperaturas abaixo de 25 ºC e menor produção no regime de escuro total e nas temperaturas de 30 e 35 ºC. Por sua vez, E. najas apresentou menor produção de massa fresca no regime de escuro e nas temperaturas de 25 a 35 ºC.A promising Fusarium graminearum isolate has been evaluated as a potential biocontrol agent of two important aquatic weeds, Egeria densa and E. najas. This work aimed to study the effects of photoperiod and temperature on the control of these plants under laboratory conditions. The symptons in the plants inoculated with F. graminearum were evaluated every two days, with disease severity being evaluated through a grade scale and plant growth by fresh weight gain, expressed in percentage. The highest severity grades were observed whin both species were kept in the dark and the lowest under 12 hours photoperiod. The temperature of 30 ºC provided the higest disease severity for both species. The species E. densa presented the highest fresh

  5. Fotossensibilização primária em eqüídeos e ruminantes no semi-árido causada por Froelichia humboldtiana (Amaranthaceae Primary photosensitization in equidae and ruminants in the Brazilian semi-arid caused by Froelichia humboldtiana (Amaranthaceae

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    Luciano A. Pimentel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fotossensibilização é freqüente em eqüinos no semi-árido da região Nordeste, mas jumentos, mulas, ovinos e bovinos são, também, afetados. A dermatite afeta, principalmente, áreas de pele despigmentadas e os animais se recuperam após serem retirados das pastagens. Para comprovar a etiologia da enfermidade Froelichia humboldtiana (Roem. et Schult. Seub., coletada no campo foi administrada no mesmo dia da colheita ou após ser mantida em refrigerador por 1-4 dias, por períodos de 30 ou mais dias, ad libitum como único alimento, a 2 jumentos e um ovino branco e, como único alimento volumoso, a um eqüino branco. Esses animais não manifestaram sinais clínicos e as atividades séricas de gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT, aspartato-aminotransferase (AST e alanino-aminotransferase (ALT ficaram dentro dos valores normais. Em outro experimento, um ovino foi colocado a pastar diariamente, durante o dia, preso por uma corda em uma área que tinha exclusivamente F. humboldtiana, por um período de 26 dias. Lesões características de fotossensibilização foram observadas 4-5 dias após o início do experimento. Após cessar o consumo da planta, no 26º dia, o ovino recuperou-se totalmente em 30 dias. Em outro experimento, 4 ovinos foram também colocados, presos por cordas, na mesma área. Outros 4 permaneceram como controles em uma pastagem vizinha, mas sem F. humboldtiana. Lesões de pele, características de fotossensibilização foram observadas após 11-25 dias de consumo de F. humboldtiana. As atividades séricas de AST e GGT, e os níveis de bilirrubina sérica permaneceram dentro dos valores normais. No final do período de permanência em pastagens de F. humboldtiana, 2 ovinos foram abatidos e 2 foram retirados da pastagem. Os que foram abatidos não apresentaram lesões macroscópicas nem histológicas do fígado; os outros dois se recuperaram das lesões da pele 17 e 20 dias após o fim do pastejo. Uma égua e seu potro foram

  6. Identificação de enfermidades agudas causadas por animais e plantas em ambientes rurais e litorâneos: auxílio à prática dermatológica Identification of acute diseases caused by animals and plants in wild environments: contribution to dermatologic practice

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    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Nos últimos anos, existe um aumento progressivo do contato de moradores urbanos com ambientes selvagens devido a atividades de lazer. Com isso, algumas dermatites pouco conhecidas podem ser observadas nas clínicas privadas e ambulatórios dermatológicos, especialmente nos inícios de semana e finais de férias. OBJETIVOS: Obter e fornecer informações para dermatologistas sobre o problema. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: O autor observou, em adultos e crianças, dermatites agudas associadas a plantas ou animais em Ubatuba, cidade litorânea de São Paulo, por dois meses (junho/julho de 2006 e na Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, também por dois meses (junho/julho de 2007. RESULTADOS: Foram observados 25 pacientes na área rural e 43 na área litorânea nas condições estabelecidas. Em áreas rurais, foram mais observadas fitofotodermatites e picadas de insetos, enquanto em áreas litorâneas traumas por ouriços-do-mar e fitofotodermatites predominaram; entretanto, em ambas as áreas ocorreram outros acidentes de difícil identificação na prática diária. CONCLUSÕES: Devemos estar atentos ao fato de o paciente procurar o dermatologista somente após as fases agudas dos acidentes. Informações sobre as enfermidades mais comuns e suas características podem ser muito úteis para a prática nos consultórios. O autor sugere uma tabela algorítmica para auxílio diagnóstico.BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been increasing contact between human beings that live in urban regions and the wild environment due to a series of activities. As a result, some poorly known dermatitis may present in private and dermatological clinics, especially early in the week and at the end of vacation periods. OBJECTIVES: To obtain and provide information for dermatologists on the problem. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The author observed adult and pediatric patients with acute dermatitis associated with plants or animals in Ubatuba, coastal city of Sao Paulo

  7. Influência do fotoperíodo e da temperatura na intensidade de doença causada por Fusarium graminearum em Egeria densa e E. najas Effects of photoperiod and temperature in the development of disease caused Fusarium graminearum on Egeria densa and E. najas

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    Carlos R. Borges Neto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Um isolado de Fusarium graminearum vem sendo estudado na UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal, como agente de controle biológico de Egeria densa e E. najas, macrófitas aquáticas submersas, muito problemáticas em reservatórios de hidrelétricas. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos do fotoperíodo (0; 4; 8 e 12 h diárias de luz e da temperatura (15 ºC, 20 ºC, 25 ºC, 30 ºC e 35 ºC no controle destas plantas em condições de laboratório. A cada dois dias foram avaliados os sintomas nas plantas inoculadas com F. graminearum, atribuindo-se notas de severidade de doença, por um período de oito dias após a inoculação. Também foi avaliado o crescimento das plantas por meio do ganho de massa fresca, expresso em porcentagem. A maior severidade de doença foi observada quando ambas as espécies foram mantidas no escuro e a menor em fotoperíodo de 12 h. A temperatura de 30 ºC proporcionou maior severidade de doença em ambas espécies. Egeria densa apresentou maior produção de massa fresca no regime de 12 h de luz e de temperaturas abaixo de 25 ºC e menor produção no regime de escuro total e nas temperaturas de 30 ºC e 35 ºC. Egeria najas apresentou menor produção de massa fresca no regime de escuro total e nas temperaturas de 25 ºC a 35 ºC.A very promising Fusarium graminearum isolate was evaluated as a potential biocontrol agent for two important submerged aquatic weeds, Egeria densa and E. najas. In previous studies, the fungus showed high control of the species and satisfactory specificity. However, under some conditions, the results were unstable, probably due to abiotic factors affecting the pathogenesis. In order to evaluate the influences of the photoperiod (0; 4; 8 and 12 daily hours of light and temperature (15 ºC, 20 ºC, 25 ºC, 30 ºC and 35 ºC, studies were carried-out under laboratory conditions in completely randomized plots. The photoperiod effects were evaluated under 25 ºC and pH 7,0. The

  8. Omeprazole and misoprostol for preventing gastric mucosa effects caused by indomethacin and celecoxib in rats Omeprazol e misoprostol na prevenção de lesões de mucosa gástrica causadas por indometacina e celecoxib em ratos

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    Míriam Elias Cavallini

    2006-06-01

    ástrica com omeprazol e misoprostol. MÉTODOS: A amostragem consistiu 150 ratos machos da raça Wistar, com peso médio de 200g, divididos em quatro grupos, a saber: grupo A, subdividido em grupos A1 e A2 - pré-tratamento com omeprazol (20 mg/rato durante sete dias, e no oitavo dia receberam o AINEs, sendo A1 (20 ratos receberam celecoxib (1mg/rato e A2 (20 ratos receberam indometacina (12,5mg/rato. O grupo B, subdividido em grupo B1 e B2 - pré-tratamento com misoprostol (20ìg/rato durante sete dias e no oitavo dia receberam AINEs, sendo B1 (20 ratos receberam celecoxib (1mg/rato e B2 (20 ratos receberam indometacina (12,5mg/rato. O grupo C não recebeu citoproteção durante sete dias e no oitavo dia recebeu AINEs, sendo C1 (20 ratos receberam celecoxib (1mg/rato , C2 (20ratos receberam indometacina (12,5mg/rato, C3 (20 ratos receberam celecoxib e grupo D - grupo controle, no qual dez ratos foram observados recebendo ração e água ad libitum. A seguir, no 9º dia (de todos os grupos, os estômagos eram removidos e avaliados macro e microscopicamente para a identificação das lesões gástricas. RESULTADOS: Na análise macroscópica, os grupos A2, B2 e C2 apresentaram número de lesões por cm²/animal significativamente elevados, sendo respectivamente 18,55 lesões por cm²/animal, 16,25 lesões por cm²/animal e 13,55 lesões por cm²/animal. Na análise microscópica, a porcentagem da mucosa com lesão mostrou diferença significativa entre os grupos A1, B1, C1 quando comparados com os grupos A2, B2 e C2 (p<0,0001. Os resultados da média da extensão/lesão e da média da profundidade das lesões não mostraram diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os grupos A2, B2 e C2. A média do edema mostrou diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos A2 e D; B2 e C2 e entre C2 e D (p<0,05. CONCLUSÕES: A indometacina na concentração empregada provoca número significativo de lesões macro e microscópicas na mucosa gástrica de ratos quando comparadas ao

  9. Síndrome do ápice orbitário causada por herpes zóster oftálmico: relato de caso e revisão da literatura Herpes zoster ophthalmicus and orbital apex syndrome: case report and literature review

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    Kenzo Hokazono

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OHerpes Zoster Oftálmico (HZO decorre da infecção pelo vírus da varicela-zoster que permanece latente no gânglio de Gasser até que seja reativado e comprometa a divisão oftálmica do nervo trigêmeo. HZO freqüentemente causa manifestações oftalmológicas como lesões vesiculares palpebrais, ceratoconjuntivite, esclerite, uveíte, paralisia oculomotora, miosite orbitária e neurite óptica. Raramente o acometimento do ápice da órbita pode ser a manifestação inicial desta grave afecção. Este trabalho relata um caso de síndrome do ápice orbitário associado à meningite, causado por HZO e que foi tratado com corticosteróide e aciclovir sistêmicos.Herpes Zoster ophthalmicus (HZO is caused by a varicella-zoster virus infection which remains latent in the ganglion of Gasser until it is reactivated and compromise the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. HZO commonly causes neuro-ophthalmic complications such as vesicular lesions in the eyelids, keratoconjunctivitis, sclertis, uveitis, ocular palsy, orbital miositis and optic neuritis. HZO rarely presents as an orbital apex syndrome. This paper describes a patient with of orbital apex syndrome associate and meningitis caused by HZO which was treated with systemic steroids and acyclovir.

  10. Acceptance by Erwinia spp. of R Plasmid R68.45 and Its Ability to Mobilize the Chromosome of Erwinia chrysanthemi†

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Arun K.

    1980-01-01

    R plasmid R68.45 was transferred in broth matings from Escherichia coli to strains of Erwinia amylovora, E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica, E. chrysanthemi, and E. herbicola (Enterobacter agglomerans); the frequency of transfer ranged from 2 × 10−8 to 5 × 10−4 per input donor cell depending on the bacterial species. The drug resistance markers tet+, amp+, and kan+ were stable in these Erwinia species. Transconjugants of Erwinia spp., but not of the wild-type parent Erwinia strains, acquired le...

  11. Glycemic acute changes in type 2 diabetics caused by low and high glycemic index diets Las variaciones de la glucosa aguda en individuos con diabetes tipo 2 causada por las dietas de bajo y alto índice glucémico

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    C. E. Gonçalves Reis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low-glycemic index diets may improve the glycemic control in type 2 diabetes but the debate over their effectiveness continues. Objectives: To test the effects of low-glycemic index diets on acute glycemic control (2 days by measuring capillary blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This was a crossover randomized clinical trial with 12 type 2 diabetics which were randomly divided into 2 groups and targeted the following draft diets for low and high glycemic index (LGI and HGI for 2 consecutive days in 2 consecutive weeks. Group 1 followed an LGI diet in week 1 and an HGI diet in week 2, group 2 adopted the contrary. They were oriented to maintain medication and lifestyle and to follow the recommendations. Measurements were made of glycemia capillaries in 2 days (fasting, before lunch, post-prandial lunch and before dinner and one last in fasting on day 3. A food record during the days and the counting of carbohydrates meals was made. The software SigmaStat (version 2.03 was used, with a statistical significance criterion of p Introducción: Dietas de bajo índice glucémico pueden mejorar el control glucémico en la diabetes tipo 2, pero sigue el debate sobre su eficacia. Objetivos: Evaluar los efectos de las dietas bajas en el índice glucémico en el control glucémico agudo (2 días por la medición de glucosa en sangre capilar en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2. Métodos: Se realizó un ensayo clínico cruzado y aleatorizado con 12 pacientes diabéticos tipo 2. Fueron divididos en 2 grupos: dietas de bajo y alto índice glucémico (BIG y AIG. Las dietas fueron consumidas por 2 días consecutivos, en 2 semanas distintas. Para el grupo 1 fue administrado la dieta BIG en la semana 1 seguida de la dieta AIG en la semana 2. En contrario se dio para el grupo 2. Se recomendó a los pacientes que mantuviesen la medicación y el estilo de vida estables. Se midió y registro la glucemia capilar en 2 días (en ayunas

  12. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae

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    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

    2008-02-01

    por ácaros Brevipalpus (VTB. Brevipalpus phoenicis coletados de C. x speciosum sintomático e transferidos para plantas sadias de C. x speciosum reproduziram as lesões. O ácaro também transmitiu o patógeno para C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi e Tetragonia expansa, as quais exibiram manchas cloróticas e/ou necróticas. O vírus também foi transmitido mecanicamente para Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus e T. expansa, além de C. x speciosum. Plantas de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa mantidas a 28 - 30ºC desenvolveram infecção sistêmica. Em todos os tecidos sintomáticos das plantas-teste inoculadas, examinados ao microscópio eletrônico, foram encontrados efeitos citopáticos do tipo nuclear causado por VTB. O vírus foi purificado a partir de folhas com infecção sistêmica de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa. Injeções de preparações purificadas em coelho geraram um anti-soro policlonal que reagiu especificamente com o antígeno homólogo em teste de ELISA. As evidências obtidas indicam que as manchas cloróticas do Clerodendrum estão associadas a um VTB do tipo nuclear, tentativamente denominado de vírus da mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum (Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus- ClCSV.

  13. Reaction of arracacha genotypes to the root soft rot caused by Pectobacterium chrysanthemi Reação de genótipos de mandioquinha-salsa à podridão-mole das raízes causada por Pectobacterium chrysanthemi

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    Gilmar Paulo Henz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to screen thirty-two arracacha genotypes for their reaction to root soft rot. Twenty roots of each genotype were inoculated with two Pectobacterium chrysanthemi isolates in a randomized experiment (10 roots/isolate. After inoculation, roots were individually wrapped with PVC film and kept at 26ºC in closed plastic bags. Soft rot lesions were recorded after 36 hours and genotypes were grouped in four classes of susceptibility by cluster analysis: 10 were less susceptible, 16 intermediate, 3 susceptible and 3 very susceptible. All the tested arracacha genotypes showed only variation in the degree of susceptibility.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a reação de 32 genótipos de mandioquinha-salsa à podridão-mole das raízes. Vinte raízes de cada genótipo foram inoculadas com dois isolados de Pectobacterium chrysanthemi em um experimento casualizado (10 raízes/isolado. Após a inoculação, as raízes foram embaladas com filmes de PVC e mantidas a 26ºC em sacos de plástico. As lesões de podridão-mole foram avaliadas após 36 horas e os genótipos agrupados em quatro classes de suscetibilidade por análise de agrupamento: 10 foram menos suscetíveis, 16 intermediários, 3 suscetíveis e 3 muito suscetíveis. Todos os genótipos avaliados demonstraram apenas variação no grau de suscetibilidade.

  14. Virulence Factors of Erwinia amylovora: A Review

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    Núria Piqué

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia amylovora, a Gram negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is the causal agent of fire blight, a devastating plant disease affecting a wide range of host species within Rosaceae and a major global threat to commercial apple and pear production. Among the limited number of control options currently available, prophylactic application of antibiotics during the bloom period appears the most effective. Pathogen cells enter plants through the nectarthodes of flowers and other natural openings, such as wounds, and are capable of rapid movement within plants and the establishment of systemic infections. Many virulence determinants of E. amylovora have been characterized, including the Type III secretion system (T3SS, the exopolysaccharide (EPS amylovoran, biofilm formation, and motility. To successfully establish an infection, E. amylovora uses a complex regulatory network to sense the relevant environmental signals and coordinate the expression of early and late stage virulence factors involving two component signal transduction systems, bis-(3′-5′-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP and quorum sensing. The LPS biosynthetic gene cluster is one of the relatively few genetic differences observed between Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infecting genotypes of E. amylovora. Other differential factors, such as the presence and composition of an integrative conjugative element associated with the Hrp T3SS (hrp genes encoding the T3SS apparatus, have been recently described. In the present review, we present the recent findings on virulence factors research, focusing on their role in bacterial pathogenesis and indicating other virulence factors that deserve future research to characterize them.

  15. Virulence Factors of Erwinia amylovora: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqué, Núria; Miñana-Galbis, David; Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M

    2015-01-01

    Erwinia amylovora, a Gram negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is the causal agent of fire blight, a devastating plant disease affecting a wide range of host species within Rosaceae and a major global threat to commercial apple and pear production. Among the limited number of control options currently available, prophylactic application of antibiotics during the bloom period appears the most effective. Pathogen cells enter plants through the nectarthodes of flowers and other natural openings, such as wounds, and are capable of rapid movement within plants and the establishment of systemic infections. Many virulence determinants of E. amylovora have been characterized, including the Type III secretion system (T3SS), the exopolysaccharide (EPS) amylovoran, biofilm formation, and motility. To successfully establish an infection, E. amylovora uses a complex regulatory network to sense the relevant environmental signals and coordinate the expression of early and late stage virulence factors involving two component signal transduction systems, bis-(3'-5')-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and quorum sensing. The LPS biosynthetic gene cluster is one of the relatively few genetic differences observed between Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infecting genotypes of E. amylovora. Other differential factors, such as the presence and composition of an integrative conjugative element associated with the Hrp T3SS (hrp genes encoding the T3SS apparatus), have been recently described. In the present review, we present the recent findings on virulence factors research, focusing on their role in bacterial pathogenesis and indicating other virulence factors that deserve future research to characterize them. PMID:26057748

  16. Insuficiência respiratória aguda causada por pneumonia em organização secundária à terapia antineoplásica para linfoma não Hodgkin Acute respiratory failure caused by organizing pneumonia secondary to antineoplastic therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

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    Adriell Ramalho Santana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Doenças difusas do parênquima pulmonar pertencem a um grupo de doenças de evolução geralmente subaguda ou crônica, mas que podem determinar insuficiência respiratória aguda. Paciente masculino, 37 anos, em terapia para linfoma não Hodgkin, admitido com tosse seca, febre, dispneia e insuficiência respiratória aguda hipoxêmica. Iniciadas ventilação mecânica e antibioticoterapia, porém houve evolução desfavorável. Tomografia computadorizada de tórax mostrava opacidades pulmonares em "vidro fosco" bilaterais. Devido ao paciente ter feito uso de três drogas relacionadas à pneumonia em organização (ciclofosfamida, doxorrubicina e rituximabe e quadros clínico e radiológico serem sugestivos, iniciou-se pulsoterapia com metilprednisolona com boa resposta. Pneumonia em organização pode ser idiopática ou associada a colagenoses, drogas e neoplasias, e geralmente responde bem a corticoterapia. O diagnóstico é anatomopatológico, mas condições clínicas do paciente não permitiam a realização de biópsia pulmonar. Pneumonia em organização deve ser diagnóstico diferencial em pacientes com aparente pneumonia de evolução desfavorável ao tratamento antimicrobiano.Interstitial lung diseases belong to a group of diseases that typically exhibit a subacute or chronic progression but that may cause acute respiratory failure. The male patient, who was 37 years of age and undergoing therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, was admitted with cough, fever, dyspnea and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Mechanical ventilation and antibiotic therapy were initiated but were associated with unfavorable progression. Thoracic computed tomography showed bilateral pulmonary "ground glass" opacities. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy was initiated with satisfactory response because the patient had used three drugs related to organizing pneumonia (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and rituximab, and the clinical and radiological symptoms were

  17. Avaliação de produtos químicos comerciais, in vitro e in vivo, no controle da doença foliar, mancha branca do milho, causada por Pantoea ananatis Evaluation of commercial chemical products, in vitro and in vivo in the control of foliar disease, maize white spot, caused by Pantoea ananais

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    Cleide Aparecida Bomfeti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma bactéria identificada como Pantoea ananatis foi recentemente isolada de lesões jovens da doença mancha branca do milho de plantas naturalmente infectadas. Esta bateria reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos da doença quando inoculada em plantas de milho em casa de vegetação. Estudos anteriores realizados por outros autores demonstraram que o controle desta doença em condições de campo foi obtido pelo uso de fungicidas, principalmente o Mancozeb, nas fases iniciais de seu desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a freqüência de isolamento da bactéria P. ananatis a partir de plantas infectadas coletadas na região de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, e reproduzir sintomas da doença através de inoculações artificiais em plantas de milho em casa de vegetação. Utilizando os produtos químicos testados anteriormente por outros autores para o controle desta doença a campo, foi também objetivo deste trabalho avaliar o potencial destes produtos na inibição da bactéria tanto em condições de laboratório como em condições de infecção natural. Os resultados mostraram que P. ananatis foi isolada em 40% das lesões jovens coletadas a campo e quando inoculada em casa de vegetação sob condições controladas reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos observados a campo. Entre os produtos químicos testados, o fungicida Mancozeb mostrou-se eficiente no controle da doença a campo, em concordância com os relatos anteriores. Este produto inibiu completamente o crescimento da bactéria em laboratório, explicando os resultados obtidos a campo. Os demais produtos não foram eficientes no controle a campo e eles também não inibiram a bactéria em laboratório. Estes resultados representam evidências adicionais de que a bactéria P. ananatis é o agente causal da doença mancha branca do milho.A bacterium identified as Pantoea ananatis was recently isolated from young lesions of the disease maize white spot from infected plants in

  18. Relationships of systemic IgG antibody response and lesions caused by Oestrus ovis L. larvae (Diptera: Oestridae in infected goats - Interacciones de la respuesta sistémica de anticuerpos IgG y las lesiones causadas por larvas de Oestrus ovis L. (Diptera: Oestridae en cabras infectadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angulo-Valadez, Carlos E

    2009-11-01

    la glándula salival para elserodiagnóstico de la estrosis caprina usando la prueba de ELISA. Secapturaron larvas de tercer estadio (L3, se disectaron para removerla glándula salival y obtener la fuente de antígenos (CGS. Seexaminaron en necropsias 250 cabras. El peso, sexo y edad fueronregistrados. Los senos frontales y cavidades cornuales se examinaronpara la presencia de O. ovis. La intensidad de las lesiones en cabrasinfectadas (n=38 se registraron de acuerdo con una tabla deseveridad. Los sueros (n=125 se analizaron por ELISA para detectarla respuesta humoral de IgG. La prevalencia anual de la estrosiscaprina fue 73.9%. Una asociación baja positiva (r=0.38, P<0.05 seobservó entre la carga larvaria y la severidad de las lesionesencontradas. En general, se observaron alta sensibilidad (90.82% ybaja especificidad (25.93% en la prueba de ELISA. Comoconclusiones, los daños patológicos mayores se asociaron al númeroy presencia de larvas tempranas L2 y L3, probablemente inducidospor la muda larvaria. Los antígenos CGS demostraron ser valiosos enla prueba de ELISA para el diagnóstico de la estrosis caprina.

  19. Characterisation of erwinias causing blackleg and soft rot in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Laurila, Jaana; Joutsjoki, Tiina; Lehtinen, Ari; Ahola, Virpi; Hannukkala, Asko; Pirhonen, Minna

    2006-01-01

    Potato stems showing blackleg or wilting were collected during 2003-2004 and the erwinias were isolated based on cavity forming on pectate-containing media followed by anaerobic growth test. Bacteri were also isolated from rotting tubers and from water samples collected from rivers in southern and western Finland.

  20. Harpin Mediates Cell Aggregation in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, Mee-Ngan; Rojas, Clemencia M.; Yang, Ching-Hong; Charkowski, Amy O.

    2006-01-01

    The hypersensitive response elicitor harpin (HrpN) of soft rot pathogen Erwinia chrysanthemi strains 3937 and EC16 is secreted via the type III secretion system and remains cell surface bound. Strain 3937 HrpN is essential for cell aggregation, but the C-terminal one-third of the protein is not required for aggregative activity.

  1. Plasmid ColVBtrp maintenance in Erwinia carotovora.

    OpenAIRE

    Schukin, N N

    1981-01-01

    Plasmid ColVBtrp maintenance in Erwinia carotovora cells was followed by measuring kinetics of elimination of plasmid genetic markers and loss of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid. An E. carotovora mutant stably carrying plasmid ColVBtrp was isolated. Besides stable plasmid maintenance, the mutant showed altered sensitivity to male-specific phage MS2, sensitivity to drugs, and colony morphology.

  2. Rapid Genome Response of Malus to Infection by Erwinia amylovora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple, pear, and other plants in the subfamily Maloideae of the Rosaceae. The goal of this study was to use a global analysis of gene expression to characterize the temporal response of apple to infection by E. amyl...

  3. Intestinal intussusception and occlusion caused by small bowel polyps in the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Management by combined intraoperative enteroscopy and resection through minimal enterostomy: case report Intussuscepção intestinal e oclusão intestinal causada por pólipos em intestino delgado na síndrome Peutz-Jeghers. Tratamento com ressecção por enterotomia associado a enteroscopia intra-operatória: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim J. Gama-Rodrigues

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is a hereditary disease that requires frequent endoscopic and surgical intervention, leading to secondary complications such as short bowel syndrome. CASE REPORT: This paper reports on a 15-year-old male patient with a family history of the disease, who underwent surgery for treatment of an intestinal occlusion due to a small intestine intussusception. DISCUSSION: An intra-operative fiberscopic procedure was included for the detection and treatment of numerous polyps distributed along the small intestine. Enterotomy was performed to treat only the larger polyps, therefore limiting the intestinal resection to smaller segments. The postoperative follow-up was uneventful. CONCLUSION: We point out the importance of conservative treatment for patients with this syndrome, especially those who will undergo repeated surgical interventions because of clinical manifestation while they are still young.A síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers é uma doença de caráter hereditário que freqüentemente requer intervenções endoscópicas e cirúrgicas repetidas, levando a complicações secundárias como, por exemplo, a síndrome do intestino curto. RELATO DE CASO: Relatamos neste artigo o caso de paciente de 15 anos, masculino, com história familiar para a doença, que foi submetido ao procedimento cirúrgico para tratar oclusão devido a intussucepção de intestino delgado. DISCUSSÃO: Associou-se método fibroscópico intra-operatório com a finalidade de detecção e ressecção de numerosos pólipos distribuídos em todo o intestino delgado. Realizaram-se enterotomias para a retirada dos pólipos maiores, restringindo-se, portanto, a ressecção intestinal a segmentos menores. A evolução clínica foi boa. CONCLUSÃO: Ressalta-se a importância do manejo de forma conservadora dos pacientes portadores desta síndrome, principalmente naqueles cujas manifestações clínicas de importância cirúrgica aparecem precocemente.

  4. Relatedness of chromosomal and plasmid DNAs of Erwinia pyrifoliae and Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Gayle C; Schnabel, Elise L; Maxson-Stein, Kimberly; Jones, Beatrix; Stromberg, Verlyn K; Lacy, George H; Jones, Alan L

    2002-12-01

    The plant pathogen Erwinia pyrifoliae has been classified as a separate species from Erwinia amylovora based in part on differences in molecular properties. In this study, these and other molecular properties were examined for E. pyrifoliae and for additional strains of E. amylovora, including strains from brambles (Rubus spp.). The nucleotide composition of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was determined for six of the seven 16S-23S rRNA operons detected in these species with a 16S rRNA gene probe. Each species contained four operons with a tRNA(Glu) gene and two with tRNA(Ile) and tRNA(Ala) genes, and analysis of the operons from five strains of E. amylovora indicated a high degree of ITS variability among them. One tRNA(Glu)-containing operon from E. pyrifoliae Ep1/96 was identical to one in E. amylovora Ea110, but three tRNA(Glu) operons and two tRNA(Ile) and tRNA(Ala) operons from E. pyrifoliae contained unique nucleotide changes. When groEL sequences were used for species-specific identification, E. pyrifoliae and E. amylovora were the closest phylogenetic relatives among a set of 12 bacterial species. The placement of E. pyrifoliae distinct from E. amylovora corroborated molecular hybridization data indicating low DNA-DNA similarity between them. Determination of the nucleotide sequence of plasmid pEP36 from E. pyrifoliae Ep1/96 revealed a number of presumptive genes that matched genes previously found in pEA29 from E. amylovora and similar organization for the genes and origins of replication. Also, pEP36 and pEA29 were incompatible with clones containing the reciprocal origin regions. Finally, the ColE1-like plasmid pEP2.6 from strain Ep1/96 contained sequences found in small plasmids in E. amylovora strains IL-5 and IH3-1. PMID:12450843

  5. Podridão de frutos de melancia causada por Sclerotium rolfsii no estado de Alagoas

    OpenAIRE

    QUEIROZ FÁTIMA M.; MUNIZ M. F. S.; MENEZES MARIA; BARROS PERICLES G.

    2002-01-01

    A new fruit rot disease caused by Sclerotium rolfsii on watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) was observed in the State of Alagoas. The pathogenicity of the fungus was confirmed by artificial inoculations.This is the first report of S. rolfsii causing fruit rot in watermelon in Northeast of Brazil.

  6. Enoftalmia causada por uso tópico unilateral de Bimatoprost

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Herzog Neto

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO O autor descreve o caso de uma paciente que apresenta o olho direito com o sulco palpebral profundo e enoftalmia deste lado, tratado durante uma década com Bimatoprost tópica. Concluem que os achados clínicos são provavelmente efeitos colaterais do medicamento.

  7. Antibioticoterapia intravenosa domiciliaria en el tratamiento de las infecciones causadas por microorganismos multirresistentes

    OpenAIRE

    Oltean, Dan-Marian

    2012-01-01

    L'objectiu d'aquest treball és descriure els tres primers anys d'experiència en teràpia ambulatoria domiciliària endovenosa (TADE) en infeccions per microorganismes multiresistents a la nostra Unitat d'Hospitalització a Domicili alhora que avaluar la seva seguretat i eficacia. El grup control són la resta dels pacients amb TADE ingressats a la Unitat. En el grup estudi hi ha hagut més tornades inesperades i reingressos, probablement en relació a la major comorbilitat i dependència fisica dels...

  8. Caída de la flor en kiwi causada por bacterias fitopatógenas

    OpenAIRE

    González, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    La cáida de flor en kiwi causa pérdidas importantes de producción cuando las condiciones climatológicas son favorables al desarrollo de las bacterias. En Asturias se han descrito dos especies bacterianas, "Pseudomonas viridiflava" y "P. syringae", como agentes causales de este problema

  9. Control cultural de la podredumbre radical causada por Phytophthora cinnamomi en dehesas de encina

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Moral, Socorro

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se ha estudiado el efecto in vitro de varios productos de Ca2+ y K+ (CaO, CaCO3, CaCl2, Ca(NO3)2, CaSO4, KOH, KNO3, KCl, KIO3 y K2SO4) sobre el crecimiento micelial, producción de esporangios y clamidosporas (esporas de resistencia) y germinación de esporangios (producción de zoosporas infectivas) de P. cinnamomi. Aunque ninguno de los productos testados a pH~6 inhibió el crecimiento micelial del patógeno, el CaO, CaCO3, CaSO4, KOH y KIO3 inhibieron de forma eficaz...

  10. Oftalmomiíase externa causada por Dermatobia hominis Dermatobia hominis provoking external ophthalmomyiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Abelardo de Souza Couto Junior; Jociana Paludo; Fernanda de Souza Santana; Márcio Neves Leão; Maria de Fátima Pinheiro Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    Relato de caso de oftalmomiíase externa em uma paciente de 82 anos, diabética e hipertensa, residente na zona rural, que inicialmente apresentava um quadro sugestivo de celulite pré-septal e hordéolo, com dor, edema, eritema e nodulação localizada na pálpebra superior e bulbo ocular normal. Foi então tratada com antibiótico e corticóide local, que levou a redução do processo inflamatório, possibilitando a realização de adequado exame físico, com a eversão da pálpebra superior, sendo estabelec...

  11. Growth inhibition of Erwinia amylovora and related Erwinia species by neutralized short‑chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecki, Katrin; Gernold, Marina; Wensing, Annette; Geider, Klaus

    2013-11-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are used to preserve food and could be a tool for control of fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora on apple, pear and related rosaceous plants. Neutralized acids were added to buffered growth media at 0.5–75 mM and tested at pHs ranging from 6.8 to 5.5. Particularly at low pH, SCFAs with a chain length exceeding that of acetic acid such as propionic acid were effective growth inhibitors of E. amylovora possibly due to uptake of free acid and its intracellular accumulation. We also observed high inhibition with monochloroacetic acid. An E. billingiae strain was as sensitive to the acids as E. amylovora or E. tasmaniensis. Fire blight symptoms on pear slices were reduced when the slices were pretreated with neutralized propionic acid. Propionic acid is well water soluble and could be applied in orchards as a control agent for fire blight. PMID:24077735

  12. Molecular Weight and Aggregation of Erwinia Gum in Aqueous Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Erwinia(E) gum is composed of glucose, fucose, galactose and glucuronic acid. The weight-average molecular weights Mw, number-average molecular weights Mn and intrinsic viscosities[η] of the four fractions and the unfractionated E gum in aqueous solutions at desired temperatures were studied by light scattering, membrane osmometry, size exclusion chromatography(SEC) and viscometry. The experimental results prove that E gum formed aggregates in the aqueous solution at 25 ℃ and the aggregates were broken gradually with increasing temperature. The dissociation of the aggregates of E gum in the aqueous solution started at 36 ℃, and was completed at around 90 ℃. The [η] values of E gum and its fractions are much higher than those of the conventional polymers with the similar molecular weights, and decrease with increasing NaCl concentration.

  13. UV-induced filamentation in bacteria of the generum Erwinia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is experimentally shown that cells of 56 pectolytic Erwinia strains isolated at different tomus in different states from various natural sources are converted into filaments under UV-light effect in relatively low doses which allows one to refer them to natural Fil+ - organisms. Ability to filamentation in Erwinia bacterium correlates with secretion process to the environment of pectolytic enzymes. Bacteria of 9 E.herbicola strains investigated (without pectatlyase secretion) after irradiation do not form stretched cells. Based on the results obtained a conclusion is drawn that increased ENA49 E.chrysanthemic cell sensitivity to UV light results from its natural defect in the system, providing for cell division processes like the one revealed in E.CoLiB and Lon- - mutants of E.Coli K-12

  14. Erwinia carotovora extracellular proteases : characterization and role in soft rot

    OpenAIRE

    Kyöstiö, Sirkka R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) strain EC14, a Gram-negative bacterium, causes soft rot on several crops, including potato. Maceration of potato tuber tissue is caused by secreted pectolytic enzymes. Other cell-degrading enzymes may also have roles in pathogenesis, including cellulases, phospholipases, and protease(s). The objectives of this research were to (1) characterize Ecc extracellular protease (Prt) and (2) elucidate its role in potato soft rot. A gene enc...

  15. Release of cell-free ice nuclei by Erwinia herbicola.

    OpenAIRE

    Phelps, P; Giddings, T. H.; Prochoda, M; Fall, R

    1986-01-01

    Several ice-nucleating bacterial strains, including Erwinia herbicola, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas syringae isolates, were examined for their ability to shed ice nuclei into the growth medium. Only E. herbicola isolates shed cell-free ice nuclei active at -2 to -10 degrees C. These cell-free nuclei exhibited a freezing spectrum similar to that of ice nuclei found on whole cells, both above and below -5 degrees C. Partially purified cell-free nuclei were examined by density gradie...

  16. Characterization of the RcsC sensor kinase from Erwinia amylovora and other Enterobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongping; Korban, Schuyler S; Pusey, P Lawrence; Zhao, Youfu

    2011-06-01

    RcsC is a hybrid sensor kinase which contains a sensor domain, a histidine kinase domain, and a receiver domain. We have previously demonstrated that, although the Erwinia amylovora rcsC mutant produces more amylovoran than the wild-type (WT) strain in vitro, the mutant remains nonpathogenic on both immature pear fruit and apple plants. In this study, we have comparatively characterized the Erwinia RcsC and its homologs from various enterobacteria. Results demonstrate that expression of the Erwinia rcsC gene suppresses amylovoran production in various amylovoran overproducing WT and mutant strains, thus suggesting the presence of a net phosphatase activity of Erwinia RcsC. Findings have also demonstrated that rcsC homologs from other enterobacteria could not rescue amylovoran production of the Erwinia rcsC mutant in vitro. However, virulence of the Erwinia rcsC mutant is partially restored by rcsC homologs from Pantoea stewartii, Yersinia pestis, and Salmonella enterica but not from Escherichia coli on apple shoots. Domain-swapping experiments have indicated that replacement of the E. coli RcsC sensor domain by those of Erwinia and Yersinia spp. partially restores virulence of the Erwinia rcsC mutant, whereas chimeric constructs containing the sensor domain of E. coli RcsC could not rescue virulence of the Erwinia rcsC mutant on apple. Interestingly, only chimeric constructs containing the histidine kinase and receiver domains of Erwinia RcsC are fully capable of rescuing amylovoran production. These results suggest that the sensor domain of RcsC may be important in regulating bacterial virulence, whereas the activity of the histidine kinase and receiver domains of Erwinia RcsC may be essential for amylovoran production in vitro. PMID:21261468

  17. Multidrug Efflux Pumps in the Genus Erwinia: Physiology and Regulation of Efflux Pump Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkiniath, J; Ravirala, R; San Francisco, M

    2016-01-01

    Plant pathogens belonging to the genus Erwinia cause diseases in several economically important plants. Plants respond to bacterial infection with a powerful chemical arsenal and signaling molecules to rid themselves of the microbes. Although our understanding of how Erwinia initiate infections in plants has become clear, a comprehensive understanding of how these bacteria rid themselves of noxious antimicrobial agents during the infection is important. Multidrug efflux pumps are key factors in bacterial resistance toward antibiotics by reducing the level of antimicrobial compounds in the bacterial cell. Erwinia induce the expression of efflux pump genes in response to plant-derived antimicrobials. The capability of Erwinia to co-opt plant defense signaling molecules such as salicylic acid to trigger multidrug efflux pumps might have developed to ensure bacterial survival in susceptible host plants. In this review, we discuss the developments in Erwinia efflux pumps, focusing in particular on efflux pump function and the regulation of efflux pump gene expression. PMID:27571694

  18. Application of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Fingerprinting for Taxonomy and Identification of the Soft Rot Bacteria Erwinia carotovora and Erwinia chrysanthemi

    OpenAIRE

    Avrova, Anna O; Hyman, Lizbeth J.; Toth, Rachel L.; Toth, Ian K

    2002-01-01

    The soft rot bacteria Erwinia carotovora and Erwinia chrysanthemi are important pathogens of potato and other crops. However, the taxonomy of these pathogens, particularly at subspecies level, is unclear. An investigation using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting was undertaken to determine the taxonomic relationships within this group based on their genetic relatedness. Following cluster analysis on the similarity matrices derived from the AFLP gels, four clusters (c...

  19. Compactação causada pelo manejo de plantas invasoras em latossolo vermelho-amarelo cultivado com cafeeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sant'Anna Moreira Pais

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O manejo de plantas invasoras é considerado uma das principais atividades que promovem degradação da estrutura do solo em lavouras cafeeiras, devido à compactação do solo causada pelas operações de controle de plantas invasoras. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o modelo de capacidade de suporte de carga para o manejo de plantas invasoras sem capina, bem como, utilizando esse modelo, qual manejo de plantas invasoras causa menor ou maior compactação do solo. Este estudo foi realizado em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo (LVA cultivado com cafeeiros da cutivar Topázio MG 1190 desde 2006, localizado na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG, na comunidade Farias, em Lavras-MG. Os manejos de plantas invasoras avaliados foram: na linha de tráfego da entrelinha - grade de discos, herbicida de pós-emergência, herbicida de pré-emergência, roçadora e trincha; e no centro da entrelinha, onde não houve tráfego - amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, capina manual, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea e soja (Glicine max L. A amostragem consistiu de duas etapas: uma para determinar o modelo de capacidade de suporte de carga para o manejo de plantas invasoras sem capina; e outra para avaliar a compactação promovida pelos outros manejos de plantas invasoras. A fim de determinar o modelo de capacidade de suporte de carga para o manejo sem capina, foram coletadas no centro da entrelinha 20 amostras com estrutura indeformada nas profundidades de 0-3, 10-13 e 25-28 cm, totalizando 60 amostras. Essas amostras foram submetidas ao ensaio de compressão uniaxial para obter as pressões de pré-consolidação e as umidades volumétricas, que foram usadas para determinar o modelo de capacidade de suporte de carga. Para determinar a compactação causada pelos manejos de plantas invasoras, realizados por meio do controle mecânico, foram coletadas em janeiro de 2010, nas linhas de tráfego das entrelinhas, 180 amostras com

  20. Characterization of xylitol-utilizing mutants of Erwinia uredovora.

    OpenAIRE

    Doten, R C; Mortlock, R P

    1985-01-01

    Of the four pentitols ribitol, xylitol, D-arabitol, and L-arabitol, Erwinia uredovora was able to utilize only D-arabitol as a carbon and energy source. Although attempts to isolate ribitol- or L-arabitol-utilizing mutants were unsuccessful, mutants able to grow on xylitol were isolated at a frequency of 9 X 10(-8). Xylitol-positive mutants constitutively synthesized both a novel NAD-dependent xylitol-4-dehydrogenase, which oxidized xylitol to L-xylulose, and an L-xylulokinase. The xylitol de...

  1. Ice nucleating activity of Pseudomonas syringae and Erwinia herbicola.

    OpenAIRE

    Kozloff, L. M.; Schofield, M. A.; Lute, M

    1983-01-01

    Chemical and biological properties of the ice nucleating sites of Pseudomonas syringae, strain C-9, and Erwinia herbicola have been characterized. The ice nucleating activity (INA) for both bacteria was unchanged in buffers ranging from pH 5.0 to 9.2, suggesting that there were no essential groups for which a change in charge in this range was critical. The INA of both bacteria was also unaffected by the addition of metal chelating compounds. Borate compounds and certain lectins markedly inhi...

  2. Cloning and regulation of Erwinia herbicola pigment genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, K L; Simonitch, T A; Harrison-Lavoie, K J; Liu, S T

    1986-01-01

    The genes coding for yellow pigment production in Erwinia herbicola Eho10 (ATCC 39368) were cloned and localized to a 12.4-kilobase (kb) chromosomal fragment. A 2.3-kb AvaI deletion in the cloned fragment resulted in the production of a pink-yellow pigment, a possible precursor of the yellow pigment. Production of yellow pigment in both E. herbicola Eho10 and pigmented Escherichia coli clones was inhibited by glucose. When the pigment genes were transformed into a cya (adenylate cyclase) E. c...

  3. Studies of the antifungal compounds produced by Erwinia herbicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetuyi, F C

    1990-01-01

    The organic phase of a wide spectrum, antimycotic and diffusable toxin from Erwinia herbicola showed a highly significant inhibitory activity against Pyricularia oryzae spores in spore well bioassay. Germ tube lengths were inhibited more in wells containing 5 microliters equivalent of bacterial toxin than 1 microliter. No significant difference between the germ tube in an equal mixture of Dimethyl sulphoxide: ethanol and controls. Thin layer chromatography using the chloroform extraction of the organic phase showed a significant antagonism on Cladosporium cucumerinum. The retardation factor values for inhibitory zones in solvent 1 were 0.07 for lower spot and 0.26 for upper spot. PMID:2394476

  4. Erwinia chrysanthemi: pectolytic bacterium causing soft rot outbreaks of arracacha in Brazil Erwinia chrysanthemi: bactéria pectolítica envolvida na "mela" da mandioquinha-salsa no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Paulo Henz

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this work was to identify the pectolytic bacteria associated with soft rot of arracacha roots in Brazil. From 1998 to 2001, 227 isolates of Erwinia spp. were obtained from arracacha roots and identified by biochemical and physiological tests (pectolytic activity, lecithinase, a-methyl glucoside, phosphatase, erythromycin sensivity, growth at 37ºC. Of these isolates, 89.9% were identified as E. chrysanthemi (Ech, 9.7% as E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc and 0.5% as E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica. The identity of seventeen out of twenty representative isolates of Ech and Ecc was confirmed by PCR (primers '149f', 'L1r', 'ADE1', 'ADE2'.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as bactérias pectolíticas envolvidas na podridão-mole de raízes de mandioquinha-salsa no Brasil. De 1998 a 2001, 227 isolados de Erwinia spp. foram obtidos de raízes de mandioquinha-salsa e identificados por testes bioquímicos e fisiológicos (atividade pectolítica, lecitinase, a-methyl glucosídeo, fosfatase, sensibilidade à eritromicina, crescimento a 37ºC. Destes isolados, 89,9% foram identificados como E. chrysanthemi (Ech, 9,7% como E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc e somente 0,5% como E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica. A identidade de 20 isolados representativos de Ech e Ecc foi confirmada por PCR (primers '149f', 'L1r', 'ADE1', 'ADE2', com exceção de dois isolados de Ech e um de Ecc.

  5. Choque séptico por ehrliquiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Viviana Hernández-de Mezerville; Juan I Padilla-Cuadra

    2007-01-01

    La ehrliquiosis humana es una infección zoonótica transmitida por "garrapatas duras" causada por Anaplasma sp y Ehrlichia sp. Puede presentarse como un cuadro pseudogripal con fiebre, malestar general, mialgias y cefalea o hasta un choque séptico con falla multiorgánica y muerte. La mitad de los pacientes requieren atención hospitalaria en algún momento y se reporta una mortalidad de hasta el 5% secundaria a enfermedades oportunistas o a hemorragias. El diagnóstico se puede sospechar visualiz...

  6. La responsabilidad del Estado por el hecho del legislador

    OpenAIRE

    María Consuelo Alonso; Eric Leiva Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Analizar el fenómeno de la responsabilidad del Estado causada por los hechos del legislador ha sido un trabajo desarrollado tanto por la doctrina como por la jurisprudencia internacional a mediados del siglo xx. En Francia, por ejemplo, se presentó el primer antecedentejurisprudencial en el año de 1934. En España, su estudio empezó a gestionarse con la promulgación de la Constitución de 1978, dándose el primer fallo judicial en el año de 1993. Para el caso colombiano, la Constitución de 1991 ...

  7. Differentiation of Erwinia amylovora and Erwinia pyrifoliae strains with single nucleotide polymorphisms and by synthesis of dihydrophenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, I; Geider, K

    2012-07-01

    Fire blight has spread from North America to New Zealand, Europe, and the Mediterranean region. We were able to differentiate strains from various origins with a novel PCR method. Three Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Erwinia amylovora genome were characteristic of isolates from North America and could distinguish them from isolates from other parts of the world. They were derived from the galE, acrB, and hrpA genes of strains Ea273 and Ea1/79. These genes were analyzed by conventional PCR (cPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) with differential primer annealing temperatures. North-American E. amylovora strains were further differentiated according to their production of L: -2,5-dihydrophenylalanine (DHP) as tested by growth inhibition of the yeast Rhodotorula glutinis. E. amylovora fruit tree (Maloideae) and raspberry (rubus) strains were also differentiated by Single Strand Conformational Polymorphism analysis. Strains from the related species Erwinia pyrifoliae isolated in Korea and Japan were all DHP positive, but were differentiated from each other by SNPs in the galE gene. Differential PCR is a rapid and simple method to distinguish E. amylovora as well as E. pyrifoliae strains according to their geographical origin. PMID:22538467

  8. Compactação de um latossolo vermelho causada pelo tráfego do "forwarder"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Haroldo Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A mecanização tem sido, atualmente, um poderoso instrumento para suprimento das necessidades da indústria agroflorestal, estando presente nos processos de produção, colheita e transporte florestal. Esta utilização intensiva de máquinas pode, entretanto, acarretar danos ao solo, principalmente em termos de compactação, podendo refletir negativamente na produtividade. Tendo em vista a escassez de informações sobre a compactação do solo causada pelas máquinas florestais, o objetivo principal deste trabalho foi a avaliação dos níveis de compactação do solo causada pelo tráfego do trator florestal autocarregável (Forwarder. As variáveis físicas do solo analisadas foram a densidade e a resistência à penetração, tendo as amostras de solo sido retiradas em cinco pontos igualmente espaçados ao longo das trilhas, em três níveis de profundidades (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm e 30-50 cm. A análise estatística dos resultados de cada variável foi efetuada por meio da análise de variância para parcelas subdivididas, em que foram testados o efeito da máquina, o efeito da profundidade e o efeito da interação entre a máquina e a profundidade. A análise dos resultados obtidos permitiu constatar que o Forwarder provocou uma pequena compactação no solo, ou seja, incrementos de 0,06 g/cm³ na densidade e 1,00 MPa na resistência à penetração do solo. Os valores máximos da densidade do solo e resistência à penetração, depois da última passada da máquina, foram 1,12 g/cm³ e 2,87 Mpa, respectivamente.

  9. Erwinia pyrifoliae sp. nov., a novel pathogen that affects Asian pear trees (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W S; Gardan, L; Rhim, S L; Geider, K

    1999-04-01

    A novel pathogen from Asian pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) was analysed by sequencing the 16S rDNA and the adjacent intergenic region, and the data were compared to related Enterobacteriaceae. The 16S rDNA of the Asian pear pathogen was almost identical with the sequence of Erwinia amylovora, in contrast to the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region of both species. A dendrogram was deduced from determined sequences of the spacer regions including those of several related species such as Erwinia amylovora, Enterobacter pyrinus, Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii and Escherichia coli. Dendrograms derived from 121 biochemical characteristics including Biotype 100 data placed the Asian pear pathogen close to Erwinia amylovora and more distantly to other members of the species Erwinia and to the species Pantoea and Enterobacter. Another DNA relatedness study was performed by DNA hybridizations and estimation of delta Tm values. The Asian pear strains constituted a tight DNA hybridization group (89-100%) and were barely related to strains of Erwinia amylovora (40-50%) with a delta Tm in the range of 5.2-6.8. The G + C content of DNA from the novel pathogen is 52 mol%. Therefore, it is proposed that strains isolated from Asian pears constitute a new species and the name Erwinia pyrifoliae is suggested; the type strain is strain Ep 16/96T (= CFBP 4172T = DSM 12163T). PMID:10319516

  10. Autoinducer-2 of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora and other plant-associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mojtaba; Geider, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Autoinducers are important for cellular communication of bacteria. The luxS gene has a central role in the synthesis of autoinducer-2 (AI-2). The gene was identified in a shotgun library of Erwinia amylovora and primers designed for PCR amplification from bacterial DNA. Supernatants of several Erwinia amylovora strains were assayed for AI-2 activity with a Vibrio harveyi mutant and were positive. Many other plant-associated bacteria also showed AI-2 activity such as Erwinia pyrifoliae and Erwinia tasmaniensis. The luxS genes of several bacteria were cloned, sequenced, and complemented Escherichia coli strain DH5alpha and a Salmonella typhimurium mutant, both defective in luxS, for synthesis of AI-2. Assays to detect AI-2 activity in culture supernatants of several Pseudomonas syringae pathovars failed, which may indicate the absence of AI-2 or synthesis of another type. Several reporter strains did not detect synthesis of an acyl homoserine lactone (AHL, AI-1) by Erwinia amylovora, but confirmed AHL-synthesis for Erwinia carotovora ssp. atroseptica and Pantoea stewartii. PMID:17092294

  11. Enhanced production of extracellular ice nucleators from Erwinia herbicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingkun; Lee, Tung-Ching

    1998-12-01

    The effects of growth conditions and chemical or physical treatments on the production of extracellular ice nucleators (ECINs) by Erwinia herbicola cells were investigated. The spontaneous release of ECINs, active at temperatures higher than -4 degrees C, into the environment depended on culture conditions, with optimal production when cells were grown in yeast extract to an early stationary phase at temperatures below 22 degrees C. ECINs were vesicular, released from cell surfaces with sizes ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 &mgr;m as determined by ultrafiltration and transmission electron microscopy. Protein profiles of ECIN fractions during bacterial growth were examined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and Ina proteins were detected by Western blotting. ECIN production was enhanced 5-fold when cells were treated with EDTA and 20- to 30-fold when subjected to sonication. These conditions provide a means for large-scale preparationage> ECINs by E. herbicola. PMID:12501408

  12. Molecular Characterization of Global Regulatory RNA Species That Control Pathogenicity Factors in Erwinia amylovora and Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae†‡

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Weilei; Cui, Yaya; Liu, Yang; Dumenyo, C. Korsi; Mukherjee, Asita; Chatterjee, Arun K.

    2001-01-01

    rsmBEcc specifies a nontranslatable RNA regulator that controls exoprotein production and pathogenicity in soft rot-causing Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. This effect of rsmBEcc RNA is mediated mostly by neutralizing the function of RsmAEcc, an RNA-binding protein of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora, which acts as a global negative regulator. To determine the occurrence of functional homologs of rsmBEcc in non-soft-rot-causing Erwinia species, we cloned the rsmB genes of E. amylovora (r...

  13. Antibiotic Production by Erwinia herbicola Eh1087: Its Role in Inhibition of Erwinia amylovora and Partial Characterization of Antibiotic Biosynthesis Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Kearns, L. P.; Mahanty, H K

    1998-01-01

    Mutants of Erwinia herbicola Eh1087 (Ant−), which did not produce antibiotic activity against Erwinia amylovora, the fire blight pathogen, were selected after TnphoA mutagenesis. In immature pear fruit Ant− mutants grew at the same rate as wild-type strain Eh1087 but did not suppress development of the disease caused by E. amylovora. These results indicated that antibiosis plays an important role in the suppression of disease by strain Eh1087. All of the Ant− mutations obtained were located i...

  14. Abiotic alterations caused by forest fragmentation affect tree regeneration: a shade and drought tolerance gradient in the remnants of Coastal Maulino Forest Alteraciones abióticas causadas por la fragmentación del bosque afectan la regeneración arbórea: un gradiente de tolerancia a la sombra y la sequía en los remanentes del Bosque Maulino Costero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO C GUERRERO

    2009-01-01

    by regeneration niche attributes for implementing conservation actions and ecological restoration.La regeneración en plantas está determinada por las diferencias de luz y humedad del suelo entre hábitats, ambas variables son modificadas por la fragmentación de bosques a gran escala. Varios estudios consideran esas alteraciones como parte del mecanismo involucrado en el cambio comunitario en bosques tropicales. Sin embargo, en bosques mediterráneos y deciduos esa tendencia podría ser más severa, debido a que las plantas presentan un "trade off" entre la tolerancia a la sombra y a la sequía. Nuestro estudio fue realizado en el Bosque Maulino Costero: Reserva Nacional Los Queules (RNLQ y fragmentos aledaños de bosque. Hipotetizamos que Aristotelia chilensis (sombra intolerante pero tolerante a la sequía debería aumentar su regeneración en fragmentos pequeños de bosque, como consecuencia del cambio en la idoneidad del habitat (i.e. más luminoso y seco, mientras que, Cryptocarya alba (sombra tolerante pero sequía intolerante debería reducir su regeneración en fragmentos pequeños de bosque. Nosotros además esperamos que Nothofagus glauca y N. obliqua, ambas con tolerancias a la sombra y a la sequía intermedias entre A. chilensis y C. alba, deberían responder en menor medida a la fragmentación del bosque. En este estudio utilizamos dos evaluaciones: (i la abundancia de plántulas y juveniles a través de observaciones de campo y (ii la germinación y establecimiento de plántulas vía un experimento de campo. Los patrones de regeneración natural de C. alba indican una reducción en la regeneración dentro de los fragmentos pequeños de bosque comparado con la RNLQ, a pesar de que en el experimento de campo, la proporción de semillas germinadas, de plántulas establecidas y reclutadas no variaron entre hábitats. Por el contrario, la regeneración de A. chilensis y de N. glauca fueron favorecidas por la fragmentación del bosque, con un aumento en las

  15. Pansinusitis y afectación intracraneal por implante dental Pansinusitis and intracranial impact of a dental implant

    OpenAIRE

    Josep Rubio-Palau; Jordi García-Linares; Javier Gutiérrez-Santamaría; Juan Antonio Hueto-Madrid; Mitchel Chávez-Gatty; Eduard Ferrés-Padró

    2012-01-01

    Las sinusitis odontógenas son una patología relativamente frecuente causada por infecciones dentales, quistes periapicales así como tras procedimientos bucodentales como una endodoncia, una elevación sinusal o la colocación de un implante. A continuación se presenta un caso extremo de una pansinusitis derecha con fistulización a espacio epidural causada por un implante osteointegrado. Ante la sospecha de una sinusitis maxilar de origen odontogénico se debe iniciar rápidamente un tratamiento a...

  16. Diagnósticos e atendimentos para surdocegos por rubéola congênita

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Maria Mana Aráoz

    2012-01-01

    Neste artigo, damos ênfase ao diagnóstico e posterior atendimento da surdocegueira causada por Rubéola Congênita. Destacamos as particularidades inerentes a este quadro em âmbito geral, através do uso de pesquisa para este fim.

  17. La responsabilidad del Estado por la actividad del legislador

    OpenAIRE

    María Consuelo Alonso García; Eric Leiva Ramírez

    2012-01-01

    Analizar el fenómeno de la responsabilidad del Estado causada por los hechos del legislador ha sido un trabajo desarrollado tanto por la doctrina y la jurisprudencia internacional a mediados del siglo xx. En Francia, por ejemplo, se presentó el primer antecedente jurisprudencial en el año de 1934. En España, su estudio empezó a gestionarse con la promulgación de la Constitución de 1978, presentándose el primer fallo judicial en el año de 1993. Para el caso colombiano, la Constitución de 1991 ...

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Japanese Erwinia Strain Ejp617, a Bacterial Shoot Blight Pathogen of Pear ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Duck Hwan; Thapa, Shree Prasad; Choi, Beom-Soon; Kim, Won-Sik; Hur, Jang Hyun; Cho, Jun Mo; Lim, Jong-Sung; Choi, Ik-Young; Lim, Chun Keun

    2010-01-01

    The Japanese Erwinia strain Ejp617 is a plant pathogen that causes bacterial shoot blight of pear in Japan. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain Ejp617 isolated from Nashi pears in Japan to provide further valuable insight among related Erwinia species.

  19. Molecular characterization of global regulatory RNA species that control pathogenicity factors in Erwinia amylovora and Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W; Cui, Y; Liu, Y; Dumenyo, C K; Mukherjee, A; Chatterjee, A K

    2001-03-01

    rsmB(Ecc) specifies a nontranslatable RNA regulator that controls exoprotein production and pathogenicity in soft rot-causing Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. This effect of rsmB(Ecc) RNA is mediated mostly by neutralizing the function of RsmA(Ecc), an RNA-binding protein of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora, which acts as a global negative regulator. To determine the occurrence of functional homologs of rsmB(Ecc) in non-soft-rot-causing Erwinia species, we cloned the rsmB genes of E. amylovora (rsmB(Ea)) and E. herbicola pv. gypsophilae (rsmB(Ehg)). We show that rsmB(Ea) in E. amylovora positively regulates extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production, motility, and pathogenicity. In E. herbicola pv. gypsophilae, rsmB(Ehg) elevates the levels of transcripts of a cytokinin (etz) gene and stimulates the production of EPS and yellow pigment as well as motility. RsmA(Ea) and RsmA(Ehg) have more than 93% identity to RsmA(Ecc) and, like the latter, function as negative regulators by affecting the transcript stability of the target gene. The rsmB genes reverse the negative effects of RsmA(Ea), RsmA(Ehg), and RsmA(Ecc), but the extent of reversal is highest with homologous combinations of rsm genes. These observations and findings that rsmB(Ea) and rsmB(Ehg) RNA bind RsmA(Ecc) indicate that the rsmB effect is channeled via RsmA. Additional support for this conclusion comes from the observation that the rsmB genes are much more effective as positive regulators in a RsmA(+) strain of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora than in its RsmA(-) derivative. E. herbicola pv. gypsophilae produces a 290-base rsmB transcript that is not subject to processing. By contrast, E. amylovora produces 430- and 300-base rsmB transcripts, the latter presumably derived by processing of the primary transcript as previously noted with the transcripts of rsmB(Ecc). Southern blot hybridizations revealed the presence of rsmB homologs in E. carotovora, E. chrysanthemi, E. amylovora, E. herbicola, E

  20. RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF ERWINIA GUM IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-na Zhang; Mei Zhang; Jing-hua Chen; Hideki Iijima; Hiromichi Tsuchiya

    1999-01-01

    Erwinia (E) gum, an extracellular polysaccharide, is composed of fucose, galatose, glucose and glucuronic acid. Its viscosity behavior was investigated by a low-shear-rate multiball viscometer and a rotational viscometer. Its weight-average molecular weight Mw and intrinsic viscosity [η] in 0.2 mol/L NaCl aqueous solution were measured by light scattering method at 35℃ and viscometry at 25℃ and found to be 1.06 × 106 g/mol and 1050 mL/g, respectively, and its aggregates in aqueous solution were proved by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). These results indicated that E gum in water has exceedingly high viscosity and exhibits Binham fluid behavior, owing to its aggregation. The viscosity of E gum decreased with increasing temperature, and the turning point appeared at 38℃ for dilute solution and 80℃ for concentrated solution suggesting that the aggregates of E gum in water started to disaggregate under these temperatures. In addition, the aggregates can be disrupted by adding either acid or base. The experimental results indicated that the E gum is a good thickening agent, and its fluid behavior is similar to xanthan.

  1. Fatty acid analysis of Erwinia amylovora from Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ivanović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated method of fatty acid analysis was used to identify and study heterogeneity of 41 Erwinia amylovora strains, originating from 8 plant species grown in 13 locations in Serbia and one in Montenegro. All strains contained 14:0 3OH fatty acid,characteristic for the “amylovora” group. According to fatty acid composition 39 strains were identified as E. amylovora as the first choice from the database. Due to their specific fatty acid composition, two strains were identified as E. amylovora, but as a second choice. Fatty acid analysis also showed that E. amylovora population from Serbia could be differentiated in three groups, designated in this study as α, β and γ. All strains originating from central or south Serbia, as well as four strains from north Serbia clustered into group α. Group β and γ contained only strains isolated in northern Serbia (Vojvodina. The results show that E. amylovora population in this area is heterogeneous and indicate pathogen introduction from different directions. Fatty acid analysis enabled identificationat species level, as well as new insights of heterogeneity of E. amylovora population.

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAF BLIGHT OF CARROT (Daucus carota L. CAUSED BY Alternaria dauci (KÜHN GROVES & SKOLKO: SURVIVAL OF Alternaria dauci IN VEGETAL RESIDUES OF CARROT (Daucus carota L. CROP ASPECTOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS DA QUEIMA DAS FOLHAS DA CENOURA (Daucus carota L. CAUSADA POR Alternaria dauci (Kühn GROVES & SKOLKO: Sobrevivência de Alternaria dauci (Kühn Groves & SKOLKO em restos culturais da cenoura (Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Martins Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The spore viability of Alternaria dauci (Kühn Groves & Skolko in carrot (Daucus carota L. debris which were kept at different levels of temperature and relative humidity, without light, was studied. The temperature levels tested were 8, 16, 24 and 32°C, and the relative humidity levels 3, 18, 51, 73 and 100%. The treatments were different combinations of these levels. Humidity was the more important factor in preserving the fungus spore ability to germinate and its infectivity. Under conditions of high relative humidity and temperatures of 24 and 32°C, the spores rapidly lost their viability. This did not happen when the relative humidity was equal to, or below, 51%. The survival of fungus mycelium on carrot petioles was studied in non-treated organic soil, at different humidity levels, at three different depths, during a period of 120 days. Soil humidity was the factor of major significance in the persistence of the mycelium, followed by depths and time factors. In petioles kept at depths of 10 and 20 cm in humid soil, the survival was greatly reduced, while survival was markedly higher in those kept at the surface of dry soil. The effect of humidity on the viability of mycelium was studied also under soiless condition. Petioles were maintained in relative humidity controlled chamber, at 24°C. In saturated atmosphere (100% humidity, the mycelium viability was lost in less than 20 days. It was concluded that both, the conidial and mycelial form of Alternaria dauci are quite sensitive to high humidity levels.

    Estudou-se a sobrevivência das formas conidial e miceliana de Alternaria dauci, respectivamente, sobre folhas necrosadas e pecíolos de cenoura, sob diferentes condições mesológicas. Os esporos do fungo sobre conidióforos em folhas necrosadas de cenoura foram mantidos por 120 dias sob condi

  3. Examining phylogenetic relationships of Erwinia and Pantoea species using whole genome sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yucheng; Qiu, Sai

    2015-11-01

    The genera Erwinia and Pantoea contain species that are devastating plant pathogens, non-pathogen epiphytes, and opportunistic human pathogens. However, some controversies persist in the taxonomic classification of these two closely related genera. The phylogenomic analysis of these two genera was investigated via a comprehensive analysis of 25 Erwinia genomes and 23 Pantoea genomes. Single-copy orthologs could be extracted from the Erwinia/Pantoea core-genome to reconstruct the Erwinia/Pantoea phylogeny. This tree has strong bootstrap support for almost all branches. We also estimated the in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (isDDH) and the average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between each genome; strains from the same species showed ANI values ≥96% and isDDH values >70%. These data confirm that whole genome sequence data provides a powerful tool to resolve the complex taxonomic questions of Erwinia/Pantoea, e.g. Pantoea agglomerans 299R was not clustered into a single group with other P. agglomerans strains, and the ANI values and isDDH values between them were agglomerans 299R should not be classified into the P. agglomerans species. In addition, another strain (Pantoea sp. At_9b) was identified that may represent a novel Pantoea species. We also evaluated the performance of six commonly used housekeeping genes (atpD, carA, gyrB, infB, recA, and rpoB) in phylogenetic inference. A single gene was not enough to obtain a reliable species tree, and it was necessary to use the multilocus sequence analysis of the six marker genes to recover the Erwinia/Pantoea phylogeny. PMID:26296376

  4. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Noriha Mat Amin; Hamidun Bunawan; Rohaiza Ahmad Redzuan; Indu Bala S. Jaganath

    2010-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed th...

  5. Pantoea agglomerans Strain EH318 Produces Two Antibiotics That Inhibit Erwinia amylovora In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Sandra A. I.; Zumoff, Cathy H.; Schneider, Lois; Beer, Steven V.

    2001-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans (synonym: Erwinia herbicola) strain Eh318 produces through antibiosis a complex zone of inhibited growth in an overlay seeded with Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. This zone is caused by two antibiotics, named pantocin A and B. Using a genomic library of Eh318, two cosmids, pCPP702 and pCPP704, were identified that conferred on Escherichia coli the ability to inhibit growth of E. amylovora. The two cosmids conferred different antibiotic activities on E. ...

  6. HIPERAMONEMIA NEONATAL CAUSADA POR DEFECTOS DEL CICLO DE LA UREA Neonatal hyperammonemia in urea cycle disorders patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Cifuentes C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los defectos del ciclo de la úrea se deben a deficiencias de diferentes enzimas; las manifestaciones clínicas son similares y están relacionadas con la hiperamonemia. Se presentan las historias clínicas de tres neonatos a término, sin evidencia de alteración al nacimiento. Se les detectó hiperamonemia y se sospechó enfermedad metabólica. La cromatografía de aminoácidos sugirió defectos del ciclo de la úrea. El manejo incluyó dieta con restricción de proteínas, administración de benzoato de sodio, exsanguinotransfusión y diálisis peritoneal pese a lo cual fallecieron. Se revisan las causas de hiperamonemia en el neonato y se propone una secuencia para su diagnósticoThe urea cycle disorders result from deficiency of activity of enzymes N-acetyl glutamate synthetase, carbamyl phosphate synthase, ornithine transcarbamylase, argininosuccinic acid synthetase, argininosuccinic acid lyase and arginase. Except for the last one, the clinical features are similar and related with the hiperammonaemia. It reports three full term, newborn cases, they had encephalopathy and needed respiratory support after be well in neonatal period. They had hyperammonemia as inborn error. The thin layer amino acids chromatography showed alanine and glutamine, in the siblings appeared citruline, suggesting urea cycle disorders. Despite protein restriction diet, sodium benzoate administration, blood exchange and peritoneal dialysis,babies died. High argininosuccinic acid levels in the first case and high citrulline levels with argininosuccinic acid absence in the third case, which was diagnosed as argininosuccinic aciduria with citrullinemia. This report provide an overview of neonatal hyperammonemia causes and propose a secuency for diagnosis

  7. Avaliação da resistência do eucalipto à murcha-bacteriana causada por Ralstonia solanacearum

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo Gonçalves Mafia; Acelino Couto Alfenas; Maria Alves Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    O plantio de clones de eucalipto resistentes constitui a principal estratégia para o controle de doenças no campo. Assim, este trabalho objetivou testar métodos de inoculação de Ralstonia solanacearum visando selecionar eucalipto resistente à murcha-bacteriana. Os métodos de inoculação foram selecionados em função da facilidade operacional e testados na avaliação de quatro clones (híbridos E. urophylla x E. grandis): i) aplicação de 5 mL de inóculo (10(8) ufc/mL) na região do coleto de mudas;...

  8. Puberdade precoce causada por tumores intracranianos: relato de 4 casos Pubertas praecox due to intracranial tumors: report of 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo A. Brandt

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available São relatados 4 casos de puberdade precoce conseqüentes a tumores intracranianos: um teratoma adulto do ventrículo lateral, um astrocitoma protoplasmático do terceiro ventrículo e diencéfalo, um astroblastoma do ter- ceiro ventrículo e diencéfalo e um hamartoma hipotalâmico. São apresentadas teorias que tentam explicar os mecanismos hormonais envolvidos e é salientada a importância do diagnóstico neuroradiológico preciso, pela possibilidade de cura em alguns casos e de tratamento satisfatório nos demais.Four cases of precocious puberty secondary to intracranial tumors are reported. A 3 year and 11 month old boy had a teratoma in the left lateral ventricle and total surgical excision was followed by recovery. An 8 year old girl with a protoplasmic astrocytoma of the third ventricle diagnosed by biopsy, followed by shunting and cobalt therapy was discharged improved. A five year old boy with an extensive astroblastoma of the diencephalon died following biopsy and shunting of cerebrospinal fluid. A posterior hypothalamic hamartoma totally excised from a 3 year old girl was followed by remission of the precocious puberty. The theories of hormonal mechanisms leading to precocious puberty are presented. It is stressed the importance of pneumoencephalography in the diagnosis of intracranial hamartomas, for they lack neurological signs.

  9. Cervical celullitis in broiler chickens for Escherichia coli/ Celulite cervical em frangos de corte causada por Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivens Gomes Guimarães

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper was report the isolation of Escherichia coli in broiler chickens with cellulitis in the cervical region. It was carried through the isolation of E. coli of the lesion of cellulitis from broilers and carried through histopathological examination of skin that had characterized the lesion. Focal ulcerations of epidermis, fibrin in dermis and difuse infiltrated by lymphocytes and heterophils on subcutaneous tissues.Neste trabalho, relata-se o isolamento de Escherichia coli em frangos de corte apresentando lesão de celulite na região cervical. Foi realizado o isolamento de E. coli da lesão de celulite e realizado exames histopatológicos que caracterizaram a lesão. Na epiderme foram verificadas lesões ulcerativas, presença de fibrina na derme e infiltração difusa de linfócitos e heterófilos no tecido subcutâneo.

  10. Cervical celullitis in broiler chickens for Escherichia coli/
    Celulite cervical em frangos de corte causada por Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Ivens Gomes Guimarães; Milene Martins Berbel; Marcia Marinho Luzardo; Werner Okano; Claudia Yurika Tamehiro; Benito Guimarães de Brito

    2002-01-01

    In this paper was report the isolation of Escherichia coli in broiler chickens with cellulitis in the cervical region. It was carried through the isolation of E. coli of the lesion of cellulitis from broilers and carried through histopathological examination of skin that had characterized the lesion. Focal ulcerations of epidermis, fibrin in dermis and difuse infiltrated by lymphocytes and heterophils on subcutaneous tissues.Neste trabalho, relata-se o isolamento de Escherichia coli em frango...

  11. Jejunal perforation caused by abdominal angiostrongyliasis Perfuração jejunal causada por angiostrongilíase abdominal

    OpenAIRE

    Jaques WAISBERG; Carlos Eduardo CORSI; Marisa Valente REBELO; Vilma Therezinha Trench VIEIRA; Sansom Henrique BROMBERG; Paulo Amaral dos SANTOS; Monteiro, Rodrigo

    1999-01-01

    The authors describe a case of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in an adult patient presenting acute abdominal pain caused by jejunal perforation. The case was unusual, as this affliction habitually involves the terminal ileum, appendix, cecum or ascending colon. The disease is caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis, whose definitive hosts are forest rodents while snails and slugs are its intermediate hosts. Infection in humans is accidental and occurs via the ingestion of snail or ...

  12. Conventional and real-time PCRs for detection of Erwinia piriflorinigrans allow its distinction from the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbé, Silvia; Bertolini, Edson; Roselló, Montserrat; Llop, Pablo; López, María M

    2014-04-01

    Erwinia piriflorinigrans is a new pathogenic species of the bacterial genus Erwinia that has been described recently in Spain. Accurate detection and identification of E. piriflorinigrans are challenging because its symptoms on pear blossoms are similar to those caused by Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Moreover, these two species share phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Two specific and sensitive conventional and real-time PCR protocols were developed to identify and detect E. piriflorinigrans and to differentiate it from E. amylovora and other species of this genus. These protocols were based on sequences from plasmid pEPIR37, which is present in all strains of E. piriflorinigrans analyzed. After the stability of the plasmid was demonstrated, the specificities of the protocols were confirmed by the amplification of all E. piriflorinigrans strains tested, whereas 304 closely related pathogenic and nonpathogenic Erwinia strains and microbiota from pear trees were not amplified. In sensitivity assays, 10(3) cells/ml extract were detected in spiked plant material by conventional or real-time PCR, and 10(2) cells/ml were detected in DNA extracted from spiked plant material by real-time PCR. The protocols developed here succeeded in detecting E. piriflorinigrans in 102 out of 564 symptomatic and asymptomatic naturally infected pear samples (flowers, cortex stem tissue, leaves, shoots, and fruitlets), in necrotic Pyracantha sp. blossoms, and in necrotic pear and apple tissues infected with both E. amylovora and E. piriflorinigrans. Therefore, these new tools can be used in epidemiological studies that will enhance our understanding of the life cycle of E. piriflorinigrans in different hosts and plant tissues and its interaction with E. amylovora. PMID:24509928

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia mallotivora BT-MARDI, Causative Agent of Papaya Dieback Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzuan, R Ahmad; Abu Bakar, N; Rozano, L; Badrun, R; Mat Amin, N; Mohd Raih, M F

    2014-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya trees infected with dieback disease, which were planted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, which offers an important source of information for understanding pathogen and host interaction during papaya dieback development. PMID:24812220

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia mallotivora BT-MARDI, Causative Agent of Papaya Dieback Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Redzuan, R. Ahmad; Abu Bakar, N; Rozano, L.; Badrun, R.; Mat Amin, N.; Mohd Raih, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya trees infected with dieback disease, which were planted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, which offers an important source of information for understanding pathogen and host interaction during papaya dieback development.

  15. Differential lysine acetylation profiles of Erwinia amylovora strains revealed by proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein lysine acetylation (LysAc) in bacteria has recently been demonstrated to be widespread in E. coli and Salmonella and to broadly regulate bacterial physiology and metabolism. However, LysAc in plant pathogenic bacteria is largely unknown. Here we report the lysine acetylome of Erwinia amylovo...

  16. Characterization of the RcsC sensor kinase from Erwinia amylovora and other enterobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    RcsC is a hybrid sensor kinase which contains a sensor domain, a histidine kinase domain and a receiver domain. We have previously demonstrated that, while the Erwinia amylovora rcsC mutant produces more amylovoran than the wild type strain in vitro, the mutant remains avirulent on both immature pea...

  17. Draft genome sequence of Erwinia tracheiphila, an economically important bacterial pathogen of cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwinia tracheiphila is one of the most economically important pathogen of cucumbers, melons, squashes, pumpkins, and gourds, in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, yet the molecular pathology remains uninvestigated. Here we report the first draft genome sequence of an E. tracheiphila str...

  18. Comparison of specificity and sensitivity of immunochemical and molecular techniques for reliable detection of Erwinia amylovora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kokošková, B.; Mráz, Ivan; Hýblová, Jana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2007), s. 175-182. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500510558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Erwinia amylovora * detection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2007

  19. Complete genomic sequence of Erwinia amylovora phage PhiEaH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dömötör, Dóra; Becságh, Péter; Rákhely, Gábor; Schneider, György; Kovács, Tamás

    2012-10-01

    Erwinia amylovora is the causative agent of fire blight, a serious disease of some Rosaceae plants. The newly isolated bacteriophage PhiEaH2 is able to lyse E. amylovora in the laboratory and has reduced the occurrence of fire blight cases in field experiments. This study presents the sequenced complete genome and analysis of phage PhiEaH2. PMID:22966191

  20. Transgenic expression of Erwinia amylovora effectors eopB1 and hopCEa in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwinia amylovora (Ea), the causal agent of fire blight, uses a type three secretion system (TTSS) to deliver effector proteins into plant host cells. Once inside the host cell, these effector proteins are thought to be involved with suppressing host defense responses, redirecting normal host metab...

  1. Antibiosis by Pantoea agglomerans biocontrol strain E325 against Erwinia amylovora on apple blossom stigmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoea agglomerans E325, the active ingredient in a commercial product for fire blight control, was previously shown in vitro to produce a unique alkaline- and phosphate-sensitive antibiotic specific to Erwinia amylovora. Antibiosis was evaluated as a mode of antagonism on blossom stigmas using two...

  2. Antibiosis and acidification by Panoea agglomerans strain E325 may contribute to suppression of Erwinia amylovora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoea agglomerans strain E325, a commercially-available antagonist for fire blight of apple and pear, was originally selected through broad screening based on suppression of Erwinia amylovora on flower stigmas, but specific mechanisms were unknown. Bacterial modification of pH was evaluated as a p...

  3. Bacterial leaf rot of Aloe vera L., caused byErwinia chrysanthemi biovar 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, de P.C.A.; Verhoeven, J.T.W.; Danse, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    A severe attack of the bacteriumErwinia chrysantemi biovar 3 on the succulentAloe vera on the Carribean island of Aruba is described. Biochemical and pathological characteristics of strains are presented, including results of successful inoculation experiments onAloe vera. This is the first report o

  4. Sepsis neonatal por Estreptococos Pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rodríguez-Herrera

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, recién nacido a término adecuado para la edad gestacional, quien nace por parto vaginal, con el antecedente de fiebre en la madre durante el periodo de postparto inmediato. Los padres consultan a los 2 días de vida pues le notan dificultad respiratoria, hipoactividad y rechazo a la leche materna. El paciente se interna y se aborda como una sepsis. Durante su estancia en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Nacional de Niños asocia fallo respiratorio que amerita ventilación mecánica asistida por varios días en diferentes ocasiones, derrame pleural exudativo, convulsiones de origen hipóxico isquémico. Con reporte de hemocultivos positivos por Estreptococos pyogenes. El Estreptococos pyogenes o estreptococo β-hemolνtico del grupo A, fue un problema en los comienzos del siglo pasado, siendo frecuente en las infecciones puerperales y del reciιn nacido. En la actualidad es un germen sumamente raro en los procesos de sepsis neonatal.2 La gravedad de la enfermedad causada por este microorganismo en el periodo neonatal varνa desde una onfalitis crónica de bajo grado a una septicemia, una meningitis fulminante y la muerte.1 El presente artículo pretende hacer un resumen del paciente, con su evolución clínica, radiológica y además ejemplificar todas las complicaciones que tuvimos con este germen tan poco frecuente en la actualidad en sepsis neonatal.

  5. The Cultivation of Antagonistic Bacteria in Irradiated Sludge for Biological Control of Soft Rot Erwinias : Screening of Antagonistic Bacteria for biological Control of Soft Rot Erwinias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure cultures of 57 bacterial isolates for antagonistic activity screening were isolated from three areas of soft rot infested vegetable soil and 58 isolates were obtained from commercial seed compost and seed compost product of Division of Soil and Water Conservation, Department of Land Development. A total of 115 bacterial isolates were evaluated for antagonizing activity against Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroceptica in vitro. Out of them, 18 isolates were antagonists by showing zone of inhibition ranging from 1 to 17 mm by diameter. Most of antagonistic bacteria were identified as Bacillus spp. whereas only one isolate was Pseudomonas vesicularis

  6. Alterações na dispersão de sementes por carnívoros causadas por alterações no habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Isa Sofia de Sá, 1990-

    2014-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Ecologia e Gestão Ambiental). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2014 A dispersão de sementes é um processo de ecossistema fundamental que determina a distribuição espacial, a expansão e a manutenção das populações e comunidades vegetais. Diversos grupos taxonómicos cumprem o papel de dispersores de sementes, entre os quais os mamíferos carnívoros, particularmente importantes em ecossistemas mediterrâneos. O montado é um sistema agro-florestal, inte...

  7. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriha Mat Amin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414. Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya.

  8. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a new pathogen of papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Hamidun; Redzuan, Rohaiza Ahmad; Jaganath, Indu Bala S

    2010-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch's postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya. PMID:21339975

  9. Partial Purification and Characterization of a Polysaccharide Depolymerase Associated with Phage-Infected Erwinia amylovora

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbergh, Peter A.; Wright, Ann M.; Vidaver, Anne K.

    1985-01-01

    Erwinia amylovora infected with bacteriophage ERA103 produced an enzyme which degraded the extracellular polysaccharide of noninfected cells. The depolymerase enzyme was purified 15-fold by a procedure which included ammonium sulfate precipitation, ultracentrifugation, CM-Sephadex batchwise separation, Sephadex G-50 column chromatography, and Sephacryl S-200 column chromatography. The enzyme had a molecular weight of approximately 21,000 and a pH optimum of 6.0. Activity was enhanced by suppl...

  10. Cloning, expression, purification and characterisation of Erwinia carotovora L-asparaginase in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Meraj Pourhossein; Hassan Korbekandi

    2014-01-01

    Background: For the past 30 years, bacterial L-asparaginases have been used as therapeutic agents in the treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia. It is found in a variety of organisms such as microbes, plants and mammals. Their intrinsic low-rate glutaminase activity, however, causes serious side-effects, including neurotoxicity, hepatitis, coagulopathy and other dysfunctions. Erwinia carotovora asparaginase shows decreased glutaminase activity, so it is believed to have fewer sid...

  11. The presence and survival of soft rot (Erwinia) in flower bulb production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Doorn, van, MGLM; Vreeburg, P.J.M.; van, Leeuwen, M.; Dees, R.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Soft rot is causing increasing damage in the flower bulb industry. Bulbous ornamentals such as Hyacinthus, Dahlia, Iris, Muscari, Freesia and Zantedeschia can be infected. Soft rot in flower bulbs is mainly caused by Dickeya spp. (Dickeya spp.) and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Pectobacterium carotovorum spp. carotovorum).To identify and detect these soft rot bacterial species in several bulbous ornamentals, standard PCR methods were used. During the last four years, research was dire...

  12. Bacteriocin-resistant mutants of Erwinia chrysanthemi: possible involvement of iron acquisition in phytopathogenicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Expert, D; A. Toussaint

    1985-01-01

    A series of bacteriocin-resistant mutants of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937JRH were unable to elicit soft-rot symptoms on saintpaulia plants. The loss of pathogenicity was correlated with the disappearance of one to three outer membrane polypeptides (molecular weights, about 80,000 to 90,000) whose production in wild-type strains was greatly enhanced under iron-limited growth conditions. The mutants did not exhibit altered extracellular pectinolytic or cellulolytic activities.

  13. Regulation and role in pathogenicity of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 pectin methylesterase.

    OpenAIRE

    Boccara, M; Chatain, V

    1989-01-01

    The gene pem, encoding the pectin methylesterase (PME) of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937, was cloned and mutagenized by mini-Mu transposable elements. A second gene, pecY, which could act as a negative regulator of PME was found 5' to the pem gene. A PME-E. chrysanthemi derivative inoculate onto Saintpaulia plants was shown to be clearly noninvasive, demonstrating the important role of this enzyme in soft rot disease.

  14. The influence of plant extracts on growth of Erwinia amylovora - the causal agent of fire blight

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Krupiński; Piotr Sobiczyński

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol and water extracts obtained on Soxhlet apparatus from various organs and parts (leaves, flowers, shoots, onion, bark, fruit) of 30 herbal and woody plants species were tested for growth inhibition of Erwinia amylovora using agar diffusion method. Active extracts were found in 23 plant species but in 13 ofthem it was found for the first time. The highest diameter of growth inhibition zone of this bacterium was caused by extracts from Aloe arborescens, Juglans regia, Rhus typhina, Salv...

  15. Regulation and role in pathogenicity of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 pectin methylesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccara, M; Chatain, V

    1989-07-01

    The gene pem, encoding the pectin methylesterase (PME) of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937, was cloned and mutagenized by mini-Mu transposable elements. A second gene, pecY, which could act as a negative regulator of PME was found 5' to the pem gene. A PME-E. chrysanthemi derivative inoculate onto Saintpaulia plants was shown to be clearly noninvasive, demonstrating the important role of this enzyme in soft rot disease. PMID:2738029

  16. Bacteriocin-resistant mutants of Erwinia chrysanthemi: possible involvement of iron acquisition in phytopathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert, D; Toussaint, A

    1985-07-01

    A series of bacteriocin-resistant mutants of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937JRH were unable to elicit soft-rot symptoms on saintpaulia plants. The loss of pathogenicity was correlated with the disappearance of one to three outer membrane polypeptides (molecular weights, about 80,000 to 90,000) whose production in wild-type strains was greatly enhanced under iron-limited growth conditions. The mutants did not exhibit altered extracellular pectinolytic or cellulolytic activities. PMID:4008442

  17. Thermal Stabilization of Erwinia chrysanthemi Pectin Methylesterase A for Application in a Sugar Beet Pulp Biorefinery▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chakiath, Chacko; Lyons, Margaret J.; Kozak, Robert E.; Laufer, Craig S.

    2009-01-01

    Directed evolution approaches were used to construct a thermally stabilized variant of Erwinia chrysanthemi pectin methylesterase A. The final evolved enzyme has four amino acid substitutions that together confer a Tm value that is approximately 11°C greater than that of the wild-type enzyme, while maintaining near-wild-type kinetic properties. The specific activity, with saturating substrate, of the thermally stabilized enzyme is greater than that of the wild-type enzyme when both are operat...

  18. Heterogeneous transcription of an indoleacetic acid biosynthetic gene in Erwinia herbicola on plant surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Brandl, M. T.; Quiñones, B.; Lindow, S E

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the spatial pattern of expression of ipdC, a plant inducible gene involved in indoleacetic acid biosynthesis in Erwinia herbicola, among individual cells on plants to gain a better understanding of the role of this phenotype in the epiphytic ecology of bacteria and the factors involved in the regulation of ipdC. Nonpathogenic E. herbicola strain 299R harboring a transcriptional fusion of ipdC to gfp was inoculated onto bean plants, recovered fro...

  19. Effect of Culture Conditions on the Production of Tyrosine Phenol-Lyase by Erwinia herbicola

    OpenAIRE

    Para, G. M.; Baratti, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of environmental parameters on the growth and the tyrosine phenol-lyase content of Erwinia herbicola was investigated. On mineral medium containing glycerol, l-tyrosine increased the enzyme content 23-fold. When the l-tyrosine was also the carbon source, bacterial growth was 300 times greater than the basal level. On a rich medium, tyrosine phenol-lyase production was strongly dependent on pH and aeration. Catabolite repression and induction both probably control enzyme content.

  20. Plasmid-borne determinants of pigmentation and thiamine prototrophy in Erwinia herbicola.

    OpenAIRE

    Gantotti, B. V.; Beer, S. V.

    1982-01-01

    Strains of Erwinia herbicola lost yellow pigmentation and thiamine prototrophy at high frequency when grown at elevated temperature (38 degrees C) or in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. All pigmentless, thiamine-auxotrophic variants had lost a large plasmid (ca. 350 megadaltons). Conversely, all pigmented, thiamine-prototrophic strains contained the large plasmid. The evidence presented indicates that pigmentation and thiamine prototrophy are specified or controlled by genes carried on...

  1. The crtE gene in Erwinia herbicola encodes geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase.

    OpenAIRE

    Math, S K; Hearst, J E; Poulter, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    A cluster of genes essential for the biosynthesis of carotenoids in Erwinia herbicola has been isolated and characterized [Armstrong, G.A., Alberti, M. & Hearst, J. E. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 9975-9979]. Related gene clusters are found in other carotenoid-producing bacteria. Two of these genes, crtB and crtE, have been assigned to enzymes responsible for conversion of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to prephytoene diphosphate and prephytoene diphosphate to phytoene, respective...

  2. Functional analysis of the Erwinia herbicola tutB gene and its product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Takane; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Koyanagi, Takashi; Kumagai, Hidehiko

    2002-06-01

    The tutB gene, which lies just downstream of tpl, has been cloned from Erwinia herbicola, and its product was analyzed. Despite its high sequence similarity to tryptophan transporters, TutB was found to be a tyrosine-specific transporter. Tryptophan acted as a competitive inhibitor of tyrosine transport. Unlike the tryptophanase operon, the tpl and tutB genes do not constitute an operon. PMID:12003958

  3. Functional expression of zeaxanthin glucosyltransferase from Erwinia herbicola and a proposed uridine diphosphate binding site.

    OpenAIRE

    Hundle, B S; O'Brien, D A; Alberti, M; Beyer, P; Hearst, J E

    1992-01-01

    Erwinia herbicola, a nonphotosynthetic bacterium, is yellow colored due to the accumulation of unusually polar carotenoids, primarily mono- and diglucosides of zeaxanthin. We have cloned and expressed the gene for the enzyme that catalyzes the glucosylation of zeaxanthin. The enzyme has an apparent molecular mass of 45 kDa on an SDS/polyacrylamide gel, which is consistent with its calculated molecular mass. In vitro enzymatic activity was demonstrated using UDP-[14C]glucose and zeaxanthin as ...

  4. Functional Analysis of the Erwinia herbicola tutB Gene and Its Product

    OpenAIRE

    Katayama, Takane; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Koyanagi, Takashi; Kumagai, Hidehiko

    2002-01-01

    The tutB gene, which lies just downstream of tpl, has been cloned from Erwinia herbicola, and its product was analyzed. Despite its high sequence similarity to tryptophan transporters, TutB was found to be a tyrosine-specific transporter. Tryptophan acted as a competitive inhibitor of tyrosine transport. Unlike the tryptophanase operon, the tpl and tutB genes do not constitute an operon.

  5. [Erwinia amylovora--the fire blight pathogen of trees in Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, L M; Moroz, S N; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E; Gvozdiak, R I; Patyka, V F

    2014-01-01

    Niduses of fire blight of fruit and ornamental trees have been found in the Kyiv and Vinnitsa regions of Ukraine. Pathogen Erwinia amylovora was isolated between April and October. The pathogen was often accompanied by bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Artificial infection with a mixture of bacteria E. amylovora and P. syringae pv. syringae accelerates and enhances the disease process in the laboratory. PMID:25199342

  6. Non-conventional possibilities of protection of apple and pear against fire blight (Erwinia amylovora)

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Sobiczewski; Grzegorz Krupiński; Joanna Puławska

    2013-01-01

    Standard program of plant protection against fire blight consists of use of management practices and chemical control method. Recently a new, non-conventional possibilities based on application of biocontrol agents (two biopreparations have been already introduced into practice: Bliteban A506 (Pseudomonas fluorescens) and BlossomBless (Pantoea agglomerans), plant extracts active against Erwinia amylovora (AkseBio containing extracts from Thymbra spicata and Biomit Plussz with extracts from va...

  7. Virulence of the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora: a comparative proteome analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Holtappels, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Erwinia amylovora is a Gram-negative plant pathogen that is classified as member of the Enterobacteriaceae which makes it closely related to many important human and animal pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Yersinia spp. E. amylovora causes the destructive disease fire blight which affects most members of the Rosaceae family of which apple (Malus spp.) and pear (Pyrus spp.) are economically the most important species. Other hosts include quince, blackberry...

  8. Wild pear - Pyrus pyraster as a new host of Erwinia amylovora in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrev, Sasa; Kostadinovska, Emilija

    2013-01-01

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, for the last 20 years has been the most destructive disease of pear, apple, quince and several other members of the family Rosaceae in the Republic of Macedonia. E. amylovora is a quarantine pathogen that has already caused considerable damage to orchards, and shows the tendency to further spreading. Bacteria with colony morphology similar of those of E. amylovora were repeatedly recovered from twild pear (Pyrus pyraster) on a semi-selective medium an...

  9. Characterization of fire blight strains (Erwinia amylovora) from different host plants from Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrev, Sasa; Karov, Ilija; Spasov, Dusan; Kostadinovska, Emilija; Kovacevik, Biljana; TODOROVSKA, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Burr.) Winslow et al. is twenty years old and the most destructive disease of pears and to a lesser degree of apples, quinces and several other members of the Rosaceae family in the Republic of Macedonia. E. amylovora is a quarantine pathogen for the country and has already caused considerable material damage in orchards with a tendency for further spreading. E. amylovora was reported in the Republic of Macedonia for the first time in 1991 on pea...

  10. Incidence of pectolytic erwinias associated with blackleg of potato in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Andréia M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc and E. chrysanthemi (Ech may cause potato (Solanum tuberosum blackleg. To determine the occurrence of these pathogens in the conditions found in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, potato plants showing blackleg symptoms were harvested from 22 fields in nine counties in Serra do Nordeste, Planalto, Depressão Central, and Grandes Lagoas, from September to December of 1999 (Spring-Summer season. Green pepper (Capsicum annuum fruits were used as a host to enrich for pectolytic erwinia from potato stems with blackleg symptoms. Bacteria were subsequently isolated on non-selective medium. Isolates that were Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, and pitted crystal-violet-pectate medium were tested for biochemical traits to identify the species and subspecies. Four hundred strains were identified as either Eca, Ecc or Ech. Although the three erwinias were found in RS potato fields, only three strains of Ech were found in one field. Frequencies of Eca and Ecc were 55 and 42%, respectively. Eight strains could not be assigned based on the biochemical characterization.

  11. Bacteriocin Serratine-P as a biological tool in the control of fire blight Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoofs, H; Vandebroek, K; Pierrard, A; Thonart, P; Lepoivre, P; Beaudry, T; Deckers, T

    2002-01-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora (Burill Winslow et al.), is the most important bacterial disease in European pear growing. It can cause a lot of damage in some countries on apple and on pear trees in orchards and also in the fruit tree nurseries. In Belgium, the disease is present since 1972. Control of fire blight in Belgian fruit orchards is made on a broad basis of measurements in and around the fruit trees. The use of an antibiotic is allowed for application only during the primary blossom period under strict controlled regulations. The use of antobiotics in agriculture is strongly discussed on the European level today and will probably disappear in the near future. Therefore, the research on fire blight control concentrates on the possibilities of biological control with antagonistic bacteria such as Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola), Bacillus subtilis or Pseudomonas syringae strain A 506. The use of Serratine-P, a phage tail-like bacteriocin, produced by Serratia plymiticum, shows an interesting antibacterial activity against Erwinia amylovora. Its mode of action consists in the perforation of the cytoplasmic membrane of the target cell, inducing perturbations in cellular exchanges and a final lysis of the bacterial cell. In this paper some trials are discussed on the use of Serratine-P at different doses and on different infection types on pear trees. The results indicate interesting protection possibilities on blossom- and fruit infections. PMID:12701444

  12. Absence of lysogeny in wild populations of Erwinia amylovora and Pantoea agglomerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Dwayne R; Sjaarda, David R; Sjaarda, Calvin P; Ayala, Carlos Juarez; Howcroft, Brittany; Castle, Alan J; Svircev, Antonet M

    2015-05-01

    Lytic bacteriophages are in development as biological control agents for the prevention of fire blight disease caused by Erwinia amylovora. Temperate phages should be excluded as biologicals since lysogeny produces the dual risks of host resistance to phage attack and the transduction of virulence determinants between bacteria. The extent of lysogeny was estimated in wild populations of E. amylovora and Pantoea agglomerans with real-time polymerase chain reaction primers developed to detect E. amylovora phages belonging to the Myoviridae and Podoviridae families. Pantoea agglomerans, an orchard epiphyte, is easily infected by Erwinia spp. phages, and it serves as a carrier in the development of the phage-mediated biological control agent. Screening of 161 E. amylovora isolates from 16 distinct geographical areas in North America, Europe, North Africa and New Zealand and 82 P. agglomerans isolates from southern Ontario, Canada showed that none possessed prophage. Unstable phage resistant clones or lysogens were produced under laboratory conditions. Additionally, a stable lysogen was recovered from infection of bacterial isolate Ea110R with Podoviridae phage ΦEa35-20. These laboratory observations suggested that while lysogeny is possible in E. amylovora, it is rare or absent in natural populations, and there is a minimal risk associated with lysogenic conversion and transduction by Erwinia spp. phages. PMID:25678125

  13. Lesões traumáticas de pele causadas pelos espinhos de Mimosa pudica e Mimosa debilis em equídeos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra S. Belo Reis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizadas pesquisas sobre a natureza e causa de lesões de pele em equídeos em uma propriedade no município de Castanhal, região Nordeste do Estado do Pará. Foram realizadas visitas técnicas, estudos epidemiológicos, coletas de sangue, biópsias de pele afetada e a inspeção da pastagem. O estudo incluiu 25 equídeos, dos quais 14 machos e 11 fêmeas, de seis meses e oito anos de idade. Os animais apresentaram lesões ulcerativas, de bordos irregulares, na cabeça (narinas, focinho, lábios superiores e inferiores e chanfro, na cavidade oral (vestíbulo bucal e gengiva e nos membros (boletos, metacarpos e metatarsos e articulação escápulo-umeral. No exame histopatológico foram observados focos de erosões cutâneas, caracterizados por perda e necrose da epiderme, com espongiose, degeneração vesicular da epiderme remanescente e leve infiltrado inflamatório na derme subjacente, constituído predominantemente por macrófagos e, em menor grau, eosinófilos. Na inspeção da pastagem, constituída de Brachiaria humidicola, foi constatada grande invasão de duas plantas providas de espinhos, Mimosa pudica e Mimosa debilis, ambas da família Leg. Mimosoideae. Concluiu-se, que as lesões de pele foram causadas pela ação traumática dos espinhos de Mimosa pudica e Mimosa debilis.

  14. The influence of antibiotic production and pre-emptive colonization on the population dynamics of Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola) Eh1087 and Erwinia amylovora in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddens, Stephen R; Houliston, Gary J; Mahanty, H Khris

    2003-10-01

    Stigma colonization by Erwinia amylovora is the crucial first step in the development of most fire blight infections in apple and pear trees. Suppression at this point of the disease process by antagonists of E. amylovora, such as Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola) strain Eh1087, is a rational approach to control fire blight. We tested the hypothesis that the ability of E. amylovora to compete with Eh1087 for colonization of a stigma is reduced by the potential for Eh1087 to produce the phenazine antibiotic, d-alanylgriseoluteic acid (AGA). In competition experiments on the stigmas of apple flowers, E. amylovora was significantly less successful against Eh1087 (AGA+) than against EhDeltaAGA (AGA-). Further experiments to test the importance of pre-emptive colonization of the stigma by either the pathogen or the antagonist suggested that AGA production significantly enhanced the competitiveness of Eh1087 when it was applied at the same time or 24 h before the pathogen. We also found that pre-emptive stigma colonization by either the pathogen or the antagonist resulted in a population that was resilient to subsequent invasion by a second species suggesting that niche exclusion has a dominant influence on the dynamics of bacterial populations on stigmas. PMID:14510856

  15. Fe2+ chelator proferrorosamine A: a gene cluster of Erwinia rhapontici P45 involved in its synthesis and its impact on growth of Erwinia amylovora CFBP1430.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Yannick; Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N P; Bieri, Marco; Kamber, Tim; Piel, Jörn; Pelludat, Cosima

    2016-02-01

    Proferrorosamine A (proFRA) is an iron (Fe2+) chelator produced by the opportunistic plant pathogen Erwinia rhapontici P45. To identify genes involved in proFRA synthesis, transposon mutagenesis was performed. The identified 9.3 kb gene cluster, comprising seven genes, designated rosA-rosG, encodes proteins that are involved in proFRA synthesis. Based on gene homologies, a biosynthetic pathway model for proFRA is proposed. To obtain a better understanding of the effect of proFRA on non-proFRA producing bacteria, E. rhapontici P45 was co-cultured with Erwinia amylovora CFBP1430, a fire-blight-causing plant pathogen. E. rhapontici P45, but not corresponding proFRA-negative mutants, led to a pink coloration of E. amylovora CFBP1430 colonies on King's B agar, indicating accumulation of the proFRA-iron complex ferrorosamine, and growth inhibition in vitro. By saturating proFRA-containing extracts with Fe2+, the inhibitory effect was neutralized, suggesting that the iron-chelating capability of proFRA is responsible for the growth inhibition of E. amylovora CFBP1430. PMID:26732708

  16. Estudo da protecção de lesões dopaminérgicas exercidas por meios condicionados por células estaminais e por astrócitos

    OpenAIRE

    Parente, Ana Rita Nunes

    2010-01-01

    A doença de Parkinson (DP) é causada por uma progressiva e selectiva perda de neurónios dopaminérgicos mesencefálicos da via nigroestriatal. Para além da perda de neurónios dopaminérgicos, inclusões proteicas intraneurais citoplasmáticas denominadas por “Corpos de Lewy”, contendo α-sinucleína e ubiquitina, são também características desta patologia. Os mecanismos moleculares e celulares responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento da DP não se encontram totalmente compreendidos. Estudos anteriores suger...

  17. Raza:factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de la fiebre hemorrágica por dengue:implicación de la respuesta inmune celular

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra Vázquez, Beatriz de la Caridad

    2011-01-01

    La enfermedad por virus dengue es la más importante enfermedad viral transmitida por artrópodos. Es causada por uno de cuatro serotipos del virus y produce un espectro clínico que va desde formas asintomáticas, pasando por formas leves de fiebre clásica (Fiebre dengue: FD) hasta las formas más severas de Fiebre Hemorrágica del Dengue/Síndrome de Choque por Dengue (FHD/SCD). El análisis de las epidemias cubanas de dengue ha permitido detectar varios factores de riesgo asociados a la susceptibi...

  18. Potential Distribution of Alien Invasive Species and Risk Assessment: a Case Study of Erwinia amylovora in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; CHEN Juan; HU Bai-shi; JIANG Ying-hua; LIU Feng-quan

    2007-01-01

    Alien invasive species represent a severe risk to biodiversity and economy, as in the case of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora), a bacterial disease that originated in North America, which may be released into new locations by means of fruit trade. On the basis of the knowledge of Erwinia amylovora's biophysical characteristics and environmental data, the geographic information system (GIS) has been applied to determine areas where Erwinia amylovora can potentially invade China. Temperature and precipitation, during the blossoming period, are considered to be two critical factors affecting the Erwinia amylovora's suitable climatic zones. This spatial modeling approach was validated from a case study in Europe, where the occurrence of Erwinia amylovora has been proven. The model prediction agreed with the occurrence of the bacteria recorded in Europe, and the same procedure has been applied to produce a potential establishment area in China's two preferential apple cultivation regions, Bohai Bay region and Huangtu Altiplano region. It has been found that areas belonging to the high-risk category are more or less the main apple producing areas, accounting for their great economic importance in China. This methodology provides an initial baseline for assessment, prevention, and management of alien species that may become invasive under certain environmental conditions. In addition, this modeling approach provides a tool for policy makers to use, in making decisions on management practices where alien species are involved.

  19. Minimal effects of E. coli and Erwinia asparaginase on the coagulation system in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risseeuw-Appel, I M; Dekker, I; Hop, W C; Hählen, K

    1994-01-01

    A randomized study was done in twenty newly diagnosed children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Ten children were treated with Escherichia coli L-asparaginase, and ten with Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase. L-asparaginase (ASP) treatment started halfway during ALL-induction treatment with vincristine, prednisone, daunorubicin and intrathecal methotrexate. The mean activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) level in all children demonstrated a significant fall (P II, V, VII and X stayed within the normal range, while F VIII and F IX were elevated. During the entire period of induction therapy, the ATIII activity remained within the normal range in both treatment groups. The protein C values, however, demonstrated a steady decline from 140% at start of ASP treatment to a mean of 81% and 93%, respectively, at the end of the ASP therapy in the E. coli and Erwinia group. Five of the ten children treated with E. coli ASP demonstrated protein C levels below 70% at the end of ASP therapy, opposed to none of the Erwinia treated patients (P = 0.03). We suggest that the effect of ASP resulting in decreased coagulation factor synthesis is in part counterbalanced by the effect of prednisone on the coagulation system, when ASP is administered at the end of ALL induction treatment. The overall effect of ASP either of E. coli or of Erwinia on the hemorrhagic system reveals a slight imbalance towards thrombosis, mainly because of a gradual decrease in protein C activity. This imbalance is less pronounced in the Erwinia group. PMID:8058004

  20. EFEKTIFITAS DAYA HAMBAT BAKTERI Streptomyces sp TERHADAP Erwinia sp PENYEBAB PENYAKIT BUSUK REBAH PADA TANAMAN LIDAH BUAYA (Aloe barbadensis Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARMILA TASNIM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp was conducted from December 2010 - June 2011 at the Laboratoryof Microbiology, Biology Department, Math and Science Faculty, UdayanaUniversity Bukit Jimbaran-Bali. Implementation stages of the research consisted ofisolation and testing of the antibiotic activity Streptomyces sp to inhibit growthbacterial pathogens Erwinia sp as a cause of disease in plants fallen foul (Soft rot ofAloe barbadensis Mill.The results of this study have eight isolates of Streptomyces spwith macroscopic and microscopic characters are varied. Furthermore, all isolateswere obtained and then tested against antibiotic activity to inhibit growth the bacteriaErwinia sp. Test results obtained by Streptomyces sp that has the most effective ininhibiting the ability of the bacteria Erwinia sp isolates are Streptomyces sp2for (45%.

  1. Toxicidade ocular causada pelo tamoxifeno: relato de caso Ocular toxicity caused by tamoxifen: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Terumi Inada

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho é relatar um caso de toxicidade ocular pelo tamoxifeno. Para isso, aferiu-se a melhor acuidade visual corrigida de ambos os olhos em tabela de Snellen. Foram realizados biomicroscopia do segmento anterior, refração, oftalmoscopia, angiofluoresceinografia e retinografia numa paciente de 63 anos, sexo feminino, cor branca, em uso de tamoxifeno 20 mg/dia há 4 anos, com acuidade visual corrigida de 20/70 e 20/40. A biomicroscopia do segmento anterior apresentava ceratopatia verticilata e catarata nuclear e cortical posterior de 1+/4 em ambos os olhos. À oftalmoscopia, foi verificado alteração do brilho macular de ambos os olhos. E a angiofluoresceinografia mostrou hiperfluorescência na área macular em fase precoce (defeito em janela. Relata-se um caso de ceratopatia e maculopatia causadas pelo tamoxifeno.To report tamoxifen ocular toxicity. The best visual acuity was measured in both eyes with Snellen chart, slit-lamp examination of anterior segment, refraction, dilated fundus examination, fluorescein angiography and retinography in a 63-year-old patient, female, white, using tamoxifen 20 mg/day for 4 years, with 20/70 and 20/40 corrected visual acuity. The anterior segment examination showed corneal linear subepithelial opacity inferior to the visual axis and nuclear and posterior cortical cataract (1+/4 in both eyes. Fundus examination showed alteration of macular color in both eyes. Fluorescein angiography presented hyperfluorescence in the macular area at an early phase (window defect. Report of keratopathy and maculopathy caused by tamoxifen.

  2. Evaluation of Susceptibility of Different Pear Hybrid Populations to Fire Blight (Erwinia amylovora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin EVRENOSOĞLU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight disease caused by pathogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is the serious disease of pear, and there is not a certain chemical management against this disease except antibiotic-type compounds such as streptomycin. It is very important to improve new fire blight resistant cultivars in case of integrated disease management. With this purpose, different crosses have been made between Pyrus communis varieties that have good fruit characteristics and resistant cultigens. Besides, self and open pollination treatments have been carried out in maternal plants. The disease resistance level of the hybrids obtained from these combinations was determined by artificial inoculations by Erwinia amylovora in greenhouse conditions. A total of 3284 hybrids were inoculated, and 2631 of them survived and were distributed to different susceptibility classes. 19.88% of the inoculated hybrids was killed by Erwinia amylovora. Total distribution of the hybrids to susceptibility classes was as 6.18% in class “A- slightly susceptible”, 3.11% in class “B- less susceptible”, 8.89% in class “C- mid-susceptible”, 20.28% in class “D- susceptible”, and 61.54% in class “E- very susceptible”. Majority of class “A- slightly susceptible” hybrids were obtained from ‘Magness’ x ‘Ankara’ combination. ‘Kieffer’ x ‘Santa Maria’, ‘Kieffer’ open pollination, ‘Magness’ x ‘Akça’, ‘Magness’ x ‘Kieffer’, ‘Magness’ x ‘Santa Maria’, ‘Mustafa Bey’ x ‘Moonglow’ treatments displayed good results with respect to “A- slightly susceptible” character. It is very important to evaluate these hybrid pear populations through different fruit and tree characteristics in the future.

  3. Estudio de quitridiomicosis por Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis en anfibios anuros del Litoral, Cuyo y Patagonia Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Ghirardi, Romina

    2012-01-01

    La quitridiomicosis es una enfermedad emergente que en los últimos años ha sido vinculada a la muerte masiva de los anfibios. Esta enfermedad es causada por el hongo acuático zoospórico Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis -Bd- (Orden Rhyzophydiales). La infección de los anfibios comienza cuando las zoosporas móviles contactan un animal susceptible y penetran en su piel. Las alteraciones producidas por esta infección interfieren con varias funciones epiteliales de los anfibios como la circulación y...

  4. Priones y encefalopatías espongiformes transmisibles: un recorrido por su historia

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Las enfermedades causadas por priones son un grupo de enfermedades neurodegenerativas, producidas por el metabolismo aberrante de una proteína, que afectan tanto a los animales como a la especie humana. Presentan un prolongado período de incubación, alta transmisibilidad y una evolución clínica fatal y careceden de tratamiento. Se ha utilizado el término de prionpatías para denominarlas y debido a la espongiosis que producen en el sistema nervioso también se les conoce con el nombre de encefa...

  5. The influence of plant extracts on growth of Erwinia amylovora - the causal agent of fire blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Krupiński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol and water extracts obtained on Soxhlet apparatus from various organs and parts (leaves, flowers, shoots, onion, bark, fruit of 30 herbal and woody plants species were tested for growth inhibition of Erwinia amylovora using agar diffusion method. Active extracts were found in 23 plant species but in 13 ofthem it was found for the first time. The highest diameter of growth inhibition zone of this bacterium was caused by extracts from Aloe arborescens, Juglans regia, Rhus typhina, Salvia offici nalis and Satureja hortensis. In almost all cases ethanol appeared to be a better solvent of active plant substances against E.amylovora than water.

  6. Phenazine Production in The Presence of Heavy Metals in Recombinant Erwinia herbicola Bearing the Hemoglobin Gene

    OpenAIRE

    KAHRAMAN, Hüseyin; Emel AYTAN; GİRAY KURT, Aslı; Duygu ÖZCAN

    2014-01-01

    In this study, from Vitreoscilla sp. recombinant strains were obtained from cloned bacterial hemoglobin (VHb) gene (vgb) Eh [pUC8:15] and its wild-type strain Erwinia herbicola phenazine production in the presence of heavy metals were investigated. Time-dependent production of phenazine in the wild bacteria not shows a significant change. In generally, at the end of 96 hours in the presence of Pb in terms of production of wild-type bacteria phenazine 2.91 μg/ml of recombinant bacteria is to ...

  7. Contribution of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Production to the Epiphytic Fitness of Erwinia herbicola

    OpenAIRE

    Brandl, M. T.; Lindow, S E

    1998-01-01

    Erwinia herbicola 299R produces large quantities of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in culture media supplemented with l-tryptophan. To assess the contribution of IAA production to epiphytic fitness, the population dynamics of the wild-type strain and an IAA-deficient mutant of this strain on leaves were studied. Strain 299XYLE, an isogenic IAA-deficient mutant of strain 299R, was constructed by insertional interruption of the indolepyruvate decarboxylase gene of strain 299R with the xylE gene, wh...

  8. In vitro obtention and selection of pear mutants resistant to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop a standard protocol for in vitro culture technique to support mutation breeding of fruit trees, procedures for mutagen treatment and selection methods for resistance to fire blight (by Erwinia amylovora) were investigated. 60Co gamma rays or ultra violet light (257 nm) were used as mutagens. Leaves were irradiated then adventitious buds were regenerated on the in vitro culture medium. The regenerated plants were tested by artificial inoculation with pathogen to in vitro cultured plants and confirmed in the greenhouse. Conductivity test to measure the net electrolyte leakage seemed to be a good method to quantify the resistance to the pathogen. (author). 5 refs, 6 figs

  9. Estudio del daño en el ADN inducido por compuestos polifenólicos de la dieta

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos Morón, Estefanía

    2015-01-01

    El cáncer es una enfermedad causada por la acumulación de daño en el ADN . Las células cancerosas presentan numerosas alteraciones genéticas, epigenéticas y cromosómicas, que juegan un papel fundamental en el desarrollo de la enfermedad . Estas alteraciones pueden producirse como consecuencia del propio funcionamiento celular. Por ejemplo, se sabe que las especies reactivas de oxígeno generadas durante la respiración celular y los errores cometidos por las enzimas ADN polimerasas durante la r...

  10. Compactação causada pelo manejo de plantas invasoras em latossolo vermelho-amarelo cultivado com cafeeiros

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Sant'Anna Moreira Pais; Moacir de Souza Dias Junior; Gislene Aparecida dos Santos; Adriana Cristina Dias; Paulo Tácito Gontijo Guimarães; Elifas Nunes Alcântara

    2011-01-01

    O manejo de plantas invasoras é considerado uma das principais atividades que promovem degradação da estrutura do solo em lavouras cafeeiras, devido à compactação do solo causada pelas operações de controle de plantas invasoras. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o modelo de capacidade de suporte de carga para o manejo de plantas invasoras sem capina, bem como, utilizando esse modelo, qual manejo de plantas invasoras causa menor ou maior compactação do solo. Este estudo foi realizado em u...

  11. Pantoea agglomerans strain EH318 produces two antibiotics that inhibit Erwinia amylovora in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S A; Zumoff, C H; Schneider, L; Beer, S V

    2001-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans (synonym: Erwinia herbicola) strain Eh318 produces through antibiosis a complex zone of inhibited growth in an overlay seeded with Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. This zone is caused by two antibiotics, named pantocin A and B. Using a genomic library of Eh318, two cosmids, pCPP702 and pCPP704, were identified that conferred on Escherichia coli the ability to inhibit growth of E. amylovora. The two cosmids conferred different antibiotic activities on E. coli DH5alpha and had distinct restriction enzyme profiles. A smaller, antibiotic-conferring DNA segment from each cosmid was cloned. Each subclone was characterized and mutagenized with transposons to generate clones that were deficient in conferring pantocin A and B production, respectively. Mutated subclones were introduced into Eh318 to create three antibiotic-defective marker exchange mutants: strain Eh421 (pantocin A deficient); strain Eh439 (pantocin B deficient), and Eh440 (deficient in both pantocins). Cross-hybridization results, restriction maps, and spectrum-of-activity data using the subclones and marker exchange mutants, supported the presence of two distinct antibiotics, pantocin A and pantocin B, whose biosynthetic genes were present in pCPP702 and pCPP704, respectively. The structure of pantocin A is unknown, whereas that of pantocin B has been determined as (R)-N-[((S)-2-amino-propanoylamino)-methyl]-2-methanesulfonyl-s uccina mic acid. The two pantocins mainly affect other enteric bacteria, based on limited testing. PMID:11133457

  12. Preliminary results on the ability of pentatomidae to transfer fire blight Erwinia amylovora under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peusens, G; Schoofs, H; Deckers, T; Belien, T

    2013-01-01

    With their piercing-sucking mouthparts stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), a major pest in especially organic orchards, create wounds in fruit of pear trees. As Erwinia amylovora (Burrill, Winslow et al.), a wide spread bacterial disease affecting many rosaceous plants including pome fruit trees and hawthorn, enters through openings in flowers, leaves, shoots and fruit, feeding punctures caused by these bugs might be inoculated with Erwinia bacteria. In order to investigate the ability of the bugs Pentotoma rufipes L. and Polomena prasina L. to transmit fire blight, insects were caught in an organically managed orchard without fire blight, brought into contact with artificially inoculated immature pear fruit/slices and transferred to healthy, mechanically wounded pear fruit/slices. After an incubation period potential transmission of bacteria was examined by evaluation of symptom expression (necrosis, ooze production). To assess the presence of bacteria on the exoskeleton of the tested bugs, all bugs were forced to walk on a semiselective nutrient agar medium. In another experiment the viability of Ea on the exoskeleton was tested -after previous contact with ooze- through washing and plating of the wash water. All experiments were conducted under optimal climatological conditions and according to quarantine standards. Results demonstrated the ability of stink bugs to transfer E. amylovora to fruit and the viability of bacteria on stink bugs externally - both under lab conditions. PMID:25145257

  13. Identification of genes differentially expressed during interaction of resistant and susceptible apple cultivars (Malus x domestica) with Erwinia amylovora

    Science.gov (United States)

    The necrogenic enterobacterium, Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of the fire blight (FB) disease in many Rosaceae species, including apple and pear. During the infection process, the bacteria induce an oxidative stress response with kinetics similar to those induced in an incompatible bacteria-...

  14. The chemically inducible expression of Erwinia amylovora bacterial effectors EopB1 and HopCEa in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease, utilizes a type three secretion system to deliver effector proteins into plant host cells. To investigate the role of individual bacterial effector proteins, we have engineered an apple host that transgenically expresses the bacterial effe...

  15. A differential medium for the isolation and rapid identification of a plant soft rot pathogen, Erwinia chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-An; Yu, Cheng-Pin

    2006-02-01

    A medium was developed for the isolation and differentiation of Erwinia chrysanthemi from other Erwinia spp. based on the production of blue-pigmented indigoidine. The medium, named NGM, consists of nutrient agar supplemented with 1% glycerol, that induces pigment production, and 2 mM MnCl2*4H2O, that further enhances color development. More than fifty E. chrysanthemi strains from six different plant hosts were tested. All tested strains of E. chrysanthemi grew well on the NGM medium, developing dark brownish to blue colonies easily distinguishable from other Erwinia spp. The results indicate that pigment production on the NGM medium is a very stable property and can be used as a phenotypic property to differentiate E. chrysanthemi from other Erwinia spp. In addition, a specific oligonucleotide primer set was designed for the detection of indC, which is involved in indigoidine biosynthesis. All E. chrysanthemi strains tested contained indC as determined by PCR amplification. No amplification was observed with other Erwinia spp. Thus, pigment production of E. chrysanthemi on the NGM medium is consistent with the existence of indC. The NGM medium was used to isolate and identify the causal agent of soft rot lesions of diseased Phalaenopsis orchids from three orchid cultivation areas in Taiwan. The causal agents of Phalaenopsis soft rot were all identified as E. chrysanthemi. The results indicate that the NGM medium is efficient in isolation and identification of E. chrysanthemi from plants with soft rot symptoms and can also be used for epidemiological studies. PMID:15927293

  16. Produção de isomaltulose a partir da transformação enzimática da sacarose, utilizando-se Erwinia sp D12 imobilizada com alginato de cálcio Production of isomaltulose from enzymatic transformation of sucrose, using Erwinia sp D12 immobilized with calcium alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Leite Moraes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A glicosiltransferase de Erwinia sp D12 é capaz de converter a sacarose em isomaltulose (6-o-alfa-glicopiranosil D-frutofuranose, um açúcar alternativo que apresenta baixo potencial cariogênico, e que pode ser utilizado em chocolates, gomas de mascar e balas. A isomaltulose é também utilizada na produção de isomalte, uma mistura de açúcar álcool, de baixo valor calórico e baixo potencial cariogênico. No estudo da influência dos componentes do meio de cultivo, na produção de glicosiltransferase, em frascos agitados, foi obtido maior atividade da enzima (12,8 unidades de atividade/mL do meio de cultura em meio de cultura A constituído de melaço 12% (p/v de sólidos solúveis totais, peptona 4% (p/v e extrato de carne 0,4% (p/v. No estudo do efeito do tempo e da temperatura na fermentação da linhagem de Erwinia sp D12, em fermentador New Brunswick de 3L, contendo meio de cultura A, foi obtida maior atividade de glicosiltransferase (15,6 unidades de atividade/ mL de meio de cultura na fase exponencial de crescimento após 8 horas de fermentação a 30ºC. Na produção de isomaltulose a partir da sacarose utilizando-se células de Erwinia sp D12 imobilizadas em alginato de cálcio, estudou-se o efeito da temperatura (25 - 35ºC e da concentração de substrato (12,5 - 60% p/v. Foi obtido um rendimento em torno de 50% de isomaltulose, com soluções de sacarose entre 20-30% (p/v a 35ºC. Concentrações em excesso de sacarose (ao redor de 40% p/v afetaram a atividade da célula imobilizada, diminuindo a conversão de sacarose em isomaltulose. O xarope de isomaltulose foi purificado através de cromatografia de troca iônica e o eluato cristalizado por abaixamento de temperatura. Os cristais apresentaram 91,39% de isomaltulose.The glucosyltransferase of Erwinia sp D12 is able to convert sucrose into isomaltulose (6-0-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-D-fructofuranose, an alternative sugar which presents low cariogenic potential, and can be

  17. Identificación y cuantificación de los efectos y consecuencias de los impactos ambientales generados por la mineria de extracción de oro por lixiviación de cianuro. Caso Mineria Yanacocha SRL, en Cajamarca, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Yacoub López, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    En el proyecto realizado se ha estudiado la situación de vulnerabilidad medioambiental, específicamente del recurso hídrico, causada por la empresa Minera Yanacocha S.R.L (MYSRL) situada en la región de Cajamarca, en el Perú. La empresa minera es origen de conflictos en relación al agua, por su situación (cabecera de cuatro cuencas hidrográficas) y por la contaminación en la cantidad y calidad de sus aguas percibida por la población local. Para conocer los posibles impactos del...

  18. Choque séptico por ehrliquiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Hernández-de Mezerville

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available La ehrliquiosis humana es una infección zoonótica transmitida por "garrapatas duras" causada por Anaplasma sp y Ehrlichia sp. Puede presentarse como un cuadro pseudogripal con fiebre, malestar general, mialgias y cefalea o hasta un choque séptico con falla multiorgánica y muerte. La mitad de los pacientes requieren atención hospitalaria en algún momento y se reporta una mortalidad de hasta el 5% secundaria a enfermedades oportunistas o a hemorragias. El diagnóstico se puede sospechar visualizando las mórulas intracitoplasmáticas en las células afectadas en frotis de sangre periférica, y se confirma con serología, con cultivos o con detección molecular. El tratamiento de elección es la doxiciclina con buena respuesta clínica. Se reporta un caso probable de ehrliquiosis humana asociado a choque séptico y falla multiorgánica tratado exitosamente en el Hospital Dr. Rafael Angel Calderón Guardia.

  19. por valores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmín Díaz-Barrios

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La era actual se caracteriza por una búsqueda de la identidad del hombre, donde el pivote del cambio organizacional es el individuo; cambiar en este entorno depende, en gran medida, de los valores que imperen en la cultura de la organización. Este trabajo documental intenta identificar aquellos valores, condición sine-qua-non, para el logro de los objetivos de cambio y analizarlos a fin de determinar sus indicadores, con el objeto de presentar una herramienta a las organizaciones que les facilite adaptarse a los nuevos tiempos. Se encontró que los valores: Delegación, Comunicación, Colaboración, Participación y Aprendizaje, son esenciales en los cambios integrales de esta era. Se determinaron 20 indicadores de su presencia. Se concluye que con esta información cada ente puede elaborar instrumentos que le permitan saber si los valores requeridos están presentes y en caso contrario tomar decisiones que alineen a la organización alrededor de los valores humanistas planteados, incrementando así las posibilidades de éxito en el proceso de cambio y por ende, las posibilidades de supervivencia en esta nueva época.

  20. Description of an injury in a human caused by a false tocandira (Dinoponera gigantea, Perty, 1833 with a revision on folkloric, pharmacological and clinical aspects of the giant ants of the genera Paraponera and Dinoponera (sub-family Ponerinae Descrição de injúria humana causada por falsa tocandira (Dinoponera gigantea, Perty, 1833 com revisão dos aspectos folclóricos, farmacológicos e clínicos das formigas gigantes do gênero Paraponera e Dinoponera (sub-família Ponerinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors observed an injury caused by the sting of a false tocandira ant in the hand of an amateur fisherman and they describe the clinical findings and the evolution of the envenoming, which presented an acute and violent pain, cold sweating, nausea, a vomiting episode, malaise, tachycardia and left axillary's lymphadenopathy. About three hours after the accident, still feeling intense pain in the place of the sting, he presented an episode of great amount of blood in the feces with no history of digestive, hematological or vascular problems. The intense pain decreased after eight hours, but the place stayed moderately painful for about 24 hours. In that moment, he presented small grade of local edema and erythema. The authors still present the folkloric, pharmacological and clinical aspects related to the tocandiras stings, a very interesting family of ants, which presents the largest and more venomous ants of the world.A partir de um acidente causado pela picada de uma formiga falsa tocandira na mão de um pescador amador, os autores descrevem os achados clínicos locais observados, tais como edema, eritema e dor excruciante e a evolução do envenenamento, que cursou com fenômenos sistêmicos imediatos, como sudorese fria, náuseas, vômitos, mal estar, taquicardia e linfadenopatia axilar à esquerda. Após três horas, a dor intensa persistia e o paciente apresentou um episódio de hematoquesia, sem história anterior de enfermidades do trato digestivo, hematológicas ou vasculares. O uso de analgésicos (Tramal® 300 mg/dia, água quente e gelo não melhorou a dor, que arrefeceu em oito horas, tendo permanecido por cerca de 24 horas. São apresentados ainda os aspectos folclóricos, farmacológicos e clínicos relacionados às picadas de tocandiras.

  1. Phylogenetic position and virulence apparatus of the pear flower necrosis pathogen Erwinia piriflorinigrans CFBP 5888T as assessed by comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Theo H M; Rezzonico, Fabio; López, María M; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Frey, Jürg E; Duffy, Brion

    2013-10-01

    Erwinia piriflorinigrans is a necrotrophic pathogen of pear reported from Spain that destroys flowers but does not progress further into the host. We sequenced the complete genome of the type strain CFBP 5888(T) clarifying its phylogenetic position within the genus Erwinia, and indicating a position between its closest relative, the epiphyte Erwinia tasmaniensis and other plant pathogenic Erwinia spp. (i.e., the fire blight pathogen E. amylovora and the Asian pear pathogen E. pyrifoliae). Common features are the type III and type VI secretion systems, amylovoran biosynthesis and desferrioxamine production. The E. piriflorinigrans genome also provided the first evidence for production of the siderophore chrysobactin within the genus Erwinia sensu stricto, which up to now was mostly associated with phytopathogenic, soft-rot Dickeya and Pectobacterium species. Plasmid pEPIR37, reported in this strain, is closely related to small plasmids found in the fire blight pathogen E. amylovora and E. pyrifoliae. The genome of E. piriflorinigrans also gives detailed insights in evolutionary genomics of pathoadapted Erwinia. PMID:23726521

  2. Laboratory studies on the effect of gamma radiation on Erwinia amylovora survival on apple fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susceptibility of Erwinia amylovora to gamma irradiation was determined in vitro on test tube cultures and in vivo on apples and pears. Bacterial strains differed in susceptibility to irradiation. Higher doses of irradiation (ca. 80 krad (1krad=10Gy)) were needed to kill the bacterium on fruit compared with test tube cultures (from 20 to more than 50 krad). Fruit with natural populations of E. amylovora collected from a severely blighted orchard, exposed to doses of 140 krad, still contained viable bacteria. Surviving E. amylovora were pathogenic to green 'Bartlett' pears. Five radiation-sensitizing chemicals (used previously against different pathogens on other commodities) were tested against E. amylovora. N-Ethylmaleimide sensitized the bacterium to gamma irradiation. Treatment of natural populations of the bacterium on apples with N-ethylmaleimide eliminated E. amylovora from the apple surface with a gamma irradiation dose one-third lower than the maximum rate tolerable by fruit

  3. Simplification of vacuole structure during plant cell death triggered by culture filtrates of Erwinia carotovora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumi Hirakawa; Toshihisa Nomura; Seiichiro Hasezawa; Takumi Higaki

    2015-01-01

    Vacuoles are suggested to play crucial roles in plant defense-related cel death. During programmed cel death, previous live cel imaging studies have observed vacuoles to become simpler in structure and have implicated this simplification as a prelude to the vacuole’s rupture and consequent lysis of the plasma membrane. Here, we examined dynamics of the vacuole in cel cycle-synchronized tobacco BY-2 (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yel ow 2) cel s during cel death induced by application of culture filtrates of Erwinia carotovora. The filtrate induced death in about 90%of the cel s by 24 h. Prior to cel death, vacuole shape simplified and endoplasmic actin filaments disassembled;however, the vacuoles did not rupture until after plasma membrane integrity was lost. Instead of facilitating rupture, the simplification of vacuole structure might play a role in the retrieval of membrane components needed for defense-related cel death.

  4. Role of endoglucanases in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 virulence on Saintpaulia ionantha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccara, M; Aymeric, J L; Camus, C

    1994-03-01

    The role of endoglucanases (endoglucanases Z and Y) in Erwinia chrysanthemi pathogenicity on Saintpaulia ionantha was assessed by mutagenizing cloned cel genes (celZ and celY) and recombining them with the chromosomal alleles. Strains with an omega interposon in celZ, a deletion in celY, or a double cel mutant were as virulent as the wild-type strain. However, in the strain with a deletion in celY, a delay in the appearance of symptoms was observed, and then maceration progressed as in plants infected with the wild-type strain, suggesting that E. chrysanthemi endoglucanases play a minor role in soft rot disease development. PMID:8113196

  5. Systemic virulence of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 requires a functional iron assimilation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enard, C; Diolez, A; Expert, D

    1988-06-01

    In Erwinia chrysanthemi, conditions of iron starvation initiate production of a catechol-type siderophore and enhance production of three outer membrane polypeptides. Twenty-two mutants affected in the different stages of this iron assimilation system were isolated by mini-Mu insertion mutagenesis. All of them failed to induce systemic soft rot on axenically grown Saintpaulia plants. From the siderophore auxotrophs and the iron uptake mutants, clones having recovered the missing function(s) were isolated by using the in vivo cloning vector pULB113 (RP4::mini-Mu). An R-prime plasmid containing a ca. 35.5-kilobase-pair DNA insert was identified. Restoration of the iron functions restored partially, if not completely, the virulence of the parental strain. PMID:3372473

  6. Flavohaemoglobin HmpX: a new pathogenicity determinant in Erwinia chrysanthemi strain 3937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favey, S; Labesse, G; Vouille, V; Boccara, M

    1995-04-01

    Unlike wild-type Erwinia chrysanthemi strain 3937, which fully macerates inoculated Saintpaulia plants, HmpX- mutants produce necrotic lesions or no symptoms. The hmpX gene was sequenced and the corresponding protein sequence analysed. We show that HmpX belongs to a family of flavohaemoproteins (HMP), previously identified in two yeasts and in Escherichia coli. Comparisons of protein sequences at the secondary structure level by hydrophobic cluster analysis have shown that HmpX possesses two functional regions, a haemoglobin domain in its N-terminal part and a flavin reductase domain in its C-terminal part. In an HmpX- strain, the synthesis of pectate lyases, which are pathogenicity determinants in E. chrysanthemi, was reduced in conditions of low oxygen tension. Using gus fusion in hmpX, it was shown that hmpX transcription was induced in coculture with tobacco cells. A putative function for HmpX is discussed. PMID:7773389

  7. Expression of a mineral phosphate solubilizing gene from Erwinia herbicola in two rhizobacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, H; Gonzalez, T; Selman, G

    2001-11-30

    A genetic construction was carried out using the broad host range vector pKT230 and plasmid pMCG898, which encodes the Erwinia herbicola pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) synthase, a gene involved in mineral phosphate solubilization (mps). The final construction was transformed and expressed in Escherichia coli MC1061, and the recombinant plasmids were transferred to Burkholderia cepacia IS-16 and Pseudomonas sp. PSS recipient cells by conjugation. Clones containing recombinant plasmids produced higher clearing halos in plates with insoluble phosphate as the unique (P) source, in comparison with those of strains without plasmids, demonstrating the heterologous expression of the E. herbicola gene in the recipient strains. This genetic manipulation allowed the increase in mps ability of both strains, enhancing their potentialities as growth promoters of agricultural crops. These results represent the first report on the application of the recombinant DNA methodology for the obtaining of improved phosphate solubilizing ability from rhizobacterial strains for biofertilization purposes. PMID:11090687

  8. Non-conventional possibilities of protection of apple and pear against fire blight (Erwinia amylovora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Sobiczewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Standard program of plant protection against fire blight consists of use of management practices and chemical control method. Recently a new, non-conventional possibilities based on application of biocontrol agents (two biopreparations have been already introduced into practice: Bliteban A506 (Pseudomonas fluorescens and BlossomBless (Pantoea agglomerans, plant extracts active against Erwinia amylovora (AkseBio containing extracts from Thymbra spicata and Biomit Plussz with extracts from various plant species and microelements and resistance inducers (Regalis, Bion and plant extracts are of great interest. Also plant transformation with resistance genes such as: hrpN (harpin, dpo (EPS depolymerase and lytic protein genes (attacin E, cecropin SB-37, T4 lysozyme is a promising perspective.

  9. The cyclic AMP receptor protein is the main activator of pectinolysis genes in Erwinia chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverchon, S; Expert, D; Robert-Baudouy, J; Nasser, W

    1997-06-01

    The main virulence factors of the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi are pectinases that cleave pectin, a major constituent of the plant cell wall. Although physiological studies suggested that pectinase production in Erwinia species is subjected to catabolite repression, the direct implication of the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) in this regulation has never been demonstrated. To investigate the role of CRP in pectin catabolism, we cloned the E. chrysanthemi crp gene by complementation of an Escherichia coli crp mutation and then constructed E. chrysanthemi crp mutants by reverse genetics. The carbohydrate fermentation phenotype of the E. chrysanthemi crp mutants is similar to that of an E. coli crp mutant. Furthermore, these mutants are unable to grow on pectin or polygalacturonate as the sole carbon source. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the E. chrysanthemi crp gene revealed the presence of a 630-bp open reading frame (ORF) that codes for a protein highly similar to the CRP of E. coli. Using a crp::uidA transcriptional fusion, we demonstrated that the E. chrysanthemi CRP represses its own expression, probably via a mechanism similar to that described for the E. coli crp gene. Moreover, in the E. chrysanthemi crp mutants, expression of pectinase genes (pemA, pelB, pelC, pelD, and pelE) and of genes of the intracellular part of the pectin degradation pathway (ogl, kduI, and kdgT), which are important for inducer formation and transport, is dramatically reduced in induced conditions. In contrast, expression of pelA, which encodes a pectate lyase important for E. chrysanthemi pathogenicity, seems to be negatively regulated by CRP. The E. chrysanthemi crp mutants have greatly decreased maceration capacity in potato tubers, chicory leaves, and celery petioles as well as highly diminished virulence on saintpaulia plants. These findings demonstrate that CRP plays a crucial role in expression of the pectinolysis genes and in the pathogenicity of E

  10. Characterization of a novel phenazine antibiotic gene cluster in Erwinia herbicola Eh1087.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddens, Stephen R; Feng, Yunjiang; Mahanty, H Khris

    2002-08-01

    Erwinia herbicola strain Eh1087 produces the broad-spectrum phenazine antibiotic D-alanylgriseoluteic acid (AGA). In this report, a cluster of 16 ehp (Erwinia herbicola phenazine) plasmid genes required for the production of AGA by Eh1087 is described. The extent of the gene cluster was revealed by the isolation of 82 different Eh1087 AGA- mutants, all found to possess single mini-Tn5lacZ2 insertions within a 14 kbp DNA region. Additional transposon insertions that did not affect antibiotic production by Eh1087 were created to define the boundaries of the gene cluster. The size and location of genes between these boundaries were derived from a combination of DNA sequence analyses, minicell protein analyses and the correlation between mutation position and the production of coloured AGA intermediates by many ehp mutants. Precursor-feeding and complementation experiments resulted in 15 ehp genes being assigned to one of four functional groups according to their role in the synthesis of AGA. Group 1 is required for the synthesis of the phenazine nucleus in the form of antibiotic precursor one (AP1, phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylic acid). Group 2 is responsible for conversion of AP1 to AP2, which is subsequently modified to AP3 (griseoluteic acid) and exported by the group 3 gene products. Group 4 catalyses the addition of D-alanine to AP3 to create AGA, independently of groups 1, 2 and 3. A gene that is divergently transcribed from the 15 AGA synthesis ehp genes confers resistance to AGA. PMID:12139622

  11. Cyclic Di-GMP modulates the disease progression of Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Adam C; Castiblanco, Luisa F; Sundin, George W; Waters, Christopher M

    2013-05-01

    The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a nearly ubiquitous intracellular signal molecule known to regulate various cellular processes, including biofilm formation, motility, and virulence. The intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP is inversely governed by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes and phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes, which synthesize and degrade c-di-GMP, respectively. The role of c-di-GMP in the plant pathogen and causal agent of fire blight disease Erwinia amylovora has not been studied previously. Here we demonstrate that three of the five predicted DGC genes in E. amylovora (edc genes, for Erwinia diguanylate cyclase), edcA, edcC, and edcE, are active diguanylate cyclases. We show that c-di-GMP positively regulates the secretion of the main exopolysaccharide in E. amylovora, amylovoran, leading to increased biofilm formation, and negatively regulates flagellar swimming motility. Although amylovoran secretion and biofilm formation are important for the colonization of plant xylem tissues and the development of systemic infections, deletion of the two biofilm-promoting DGCs increased tissue necrosis in an immature-pear infection assay and an apple shoot infection model, suggesting that c-di-GMP negatively regulates virulence. In addition, c-di-GMP inhibited the expression of hrpA, a gene encoding the major structural component of the type III secretion pilus. Our results are the first to describe a role for c-di-GMP in E. amylovora and suggest that downregulation of motility and type III secretion by c-di-GMP during infection plays a key role in the coordination of pathogenesis. PMID:23475975

  12. Erwinia amylovora pyrC mutant causes fire blight despite pyrimidine auxotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, L S; Sinn, J P; Lehman, B L; Pfeufer, E E; Peter, K A; McNellis, T W

    2015-06-01

    Erwinia amylovora bacteria cause fire blight disease, which affects apple and pear production worldwide. The Erw. amylovora pyrC gene encodes a predicted dihydroorotase enzyme involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Here, we discovered that the Erw. amylovora pyrC244::Tn5 mutant was a uracil auxotroph. Unexpectedly, the Erw. amylovora pyrC244::Tn5 mutant grew as well as the wild-type in detached immature apple and pear fruits. Fire blight symptoms caused by the pyrC244::Tn5 mutant in immature apple and pear fruits were attenuated compared to those caused by the wild-type. The pyrC244::Tn5 mutant also caused severe fire blight symptoms in apple tree shoots. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type pyrC gene restored prototrophy and symptom induction in apple and pear fruit to the pyrC244::Tn5 mutant. These results suggest that Erw. amylovora can obtain sufficient pyrimidine from the host to support bacterial growth and fire blight disease development, although de novo pyrimidine synthesis by Erw. amylovora is required for full symptom development in fruits. Significance and impact of the study: This study provides information about the fire blight host-pathogen interaction. Although the Erwinia amylovora pyrC mutant was strictly auxotrophic for pyrimidine, it grew as well as the wild-type in immature pear and apple fruits and caused severe fire blight disease in apple trees. This suggests that Erw. amylovora can obtain sufficient pyrimidines from host tissue to support growth and fire blight disease development. This situation contrasts with findings in some human bacterial pathogens, which require de novo pyrimidine synthesis for growth in host blood, for example. PMID:25789570

  13. Treinamento resistido controla a pressão arterial de ratos hipertensos induzidos por l-NAME

    OpenAIRE

    Ayslan Jorge Santos de Araujo; Anne Carolline Veríssimo dos Santos; Karine dos Santos Souza; Marlúcia Bastos Aires; Valter Joviniano Santana-Filho; Emerson Ticona Fioretto; Marcelo Mendonça Mota; Márcio Roberto Viana Santos

    2013-01-01

    FUNDAMENTO: A hipertensão arterial é uma síndrome multifatorial, crônica, causada tanto por fatores congênitos ou adquiridos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do treinamento físico resistido (TR) sobre pressão arterial, reatividade e morfologia vascular de ratos hipertensos induzidos por L-NAME. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar machos (200-250 g) foram divididos em 3 grupos: normotenso sedentário (NS), hipertenso sedentário (HS) e hipertenso treinado (HT). A hipertensão foi induzida pela administração de L-...

  14. Optimização da detecção de Pneumocystis jirovecii por citometria de fluxo

    OpenAIRE

    Bragada, Cláudia Sofia Pássaro

    2008-01-01

    A pneumonia por Pneumocystis (PCP) em humanos é causada por um fungo actualmente denominado Pneumocystis jirovecii, anteriormente conhecido como Pneumocystis carinii. Trata-se da infecção pulmonar oportunista mais prevalente em doentes imunodeprimidos infectados com o vírus da imunodeficiência adquirida, com patologias hematológicas de natureza oncológica, doenças inflamatórias, deficiências primárias da imunidade celular ou sob terapêuticas imunossupressoras (como transplantados de órgãos só...

  15. Infestación por garrapatas en el ganado criollo lechero tropical en Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    González Cerón, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo caracterizar la infestación por garrapatas en un hato experimental de ganado Criollo Lechero Tropical (CLT) ubicado en la región central del estado de Veracruz, México; la información generada permitiría iniciar el registro sistemático de la infestación causada por éstos ectoparásitos para considerarla como una posible característica a ser incluida en un programa de mejora genética a mediano plazo. A 28 vaquillas (655±35 días de edad) y 16 toretes (741±8...

  16. Modelo de probabilidad para predecir una neumonía nosocomial por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina

    OpenAIRE

    Tejero García, Rocio

    2010-01-01

    La neumonía mosocomial, es una de las principales infecciones hospitalarias y la de mayor morbimortalidad. Causada por una gran variedad de microorganismos, aumentando cada vez más los microorganismos multirresistentes como principales causantes, entre ellos, Staphylococcus aureus meticilín resistente. Se pretende con este estudio identificar una serie de factores de riesgo, con los que crear un modelo de probabilidad y unos criterios pronósticos para predecir la neumonía mosocomial por Staph...

  17. Perfil clínico y parasitológico de la malaria por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax no complicada en Córdoba, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica Knudson-Ospina; Ricardo Sánchez-Pedraza; Manuel Alberto Pérez-Mazorra; Liliana Jazmín Cortés-Cortés; Ángela Patricia Guerra-Vega; Rubén Santiago Nicholls-Orejuela

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes. En Colombia existen pocos estudios que buscan encontrar diferencias clínicas y parasitológicas en la malaria causada por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax. Objetivo. Describir el perfil clínico y parasitológico de las malarias por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax no complicadas en Tierralta, Córdoba, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluaron pacientes con paludismo no complicado por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax según los protocolos estandarizados po...

  18. La responsabilidad del Estado por la actividad del legislador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Consuelo Alonso García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analizar el fenómeno de la responsabilidad del Estado causada por los hechos del legislador ha sido un trabajo desarrollado tanto por la doctrina y la jurisprudencia internacional a mediados del siglo xx. En Francia, por ejemplo, se presentó el primer antecedente jurisprudencial en el año de 1934. En España, su estudio empezó a gestionarse con la promulgación de la Constitución de 1978, presentándose el primer fallo judicial en el año de 1993. Para el caso colombiano, la Constitución de 1991 introdujo en su artículo 90 el fundamento constitucional de la responsabilidad patrimonial del Estado, sin que esto significase que la jurisprudencia del Consejo de Estado encontrase las bases de esta responsabilidad en diferentes disposiciones de la Constitución. Sin embargo, los primeros fallos relacionados con este título de imputación en Colombia fueron emitidos por el máximo tribunal de lo contencioso administrativo en 1998, y por la Corte Constitucional a través de la sentencia C-038 de 2006, providencia judicial que estableció algunas de las características que posee esta figura jurídica.

  19. Acyl-homoserine lactones from Erwinia psidii R. IBSBF 435T, a guava phytopathogen (Psidium guajava L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomini, Armando M; Manfio, Gilson P; Araújo, Welington L; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2005-08-10

    The phytopathogen Erwinia psidii R. IBSBF 435T causes rot in branches, flowers, and fruits of guava (Psidium guajava L.), being responsible for crop losses, and has no effective control. It was demonstrated that this strain produces two compounds [S-(-)-N-hexanoyl and N-heptanoyl-homoserine lactone], both belonging to the class of quorum-sensing signaling substances. A protocol using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection with chiral stationary phase is described for the absolute configuration determination of a natural acyl-homoserine lactone. Biological assays with specific reporter and synthesis of identified substances are also described. This is the first report on the N-heptanoyl-homoserine lactone occurrence in the Erwinia genus. PMID:16076103

  20. [Effects of mitomycin C on the expression and transport of ice-nuclei proteins of Erwinia herbicola].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Sen; Gao, Xiu-Zhi; Yan, Ya-Li; Song, Li-Ping; Pang, Guang-Chang; Guo, Shu-Hua

    2005-05-01

    Abstract: In this paper, Mitomycin C (MMC) was added to different kinds of medium to study the effects of different cultural conditions on the Erwinia herbicola 10025A. For the first time it was confirmed that the expressed activity of the ice-nuclei active protein was different from its transportable manner from the ice nucleation active bacteria (Erwinia herbicola 10025A). The findings indicated that MMC could stimulate the SOS response,and induce the synthesis of some enzymes and proteins, which take part in repairing the damaged DNA. The effects of the MMC on the E. herbicola under different media were different. It could increase the ice nucleation activity of the E. herbicola, forming new small vesicles, which are secreted to the outside of membrane. The importance of this research for study the living mechanism of cells ander poor condition was discussed. PMID:16018268

  1. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity of Erwinia spp. associated with pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.] and papaya (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Kogeethavani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Erwinia species are well-known pathogens of economic importance in Malaysia causing serious damage to high-value fruit crops that include pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.] and papaya (Carica papaya L..The 16S rRNA sequence using eubacteria fD1 and rP2 primers, identified two bacteria species; Dickeya zeae from pineapple heart rot, and Erwinia mallotivora from papaya dieback. Phylogenetic analysis based on the neighbor-joining method indicated that all the bacterial isolates clustered in their own taxa and formed monophyletic clades. From the pathogenicity test, all isolates of D. zeae and E. mallotivora showed pathogenic reactions on their respective host plants. Genetic variability of these isolates was assessed using repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR fingerprinting. The results indicated interspecies, and intraspecies variation in both species’ isolates. There were more polymorphic bands shown by rep-PCR fingerprints than enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC and BOX- PCRs, however both species’ isolates produced distinguishable banding patterns. Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA cluster analysis indicated that all Dickeya and Erwinia isolates from the same species were grouped in the same main cluster. Similarity among the isolates ranged from 77 to 99%. Sequencing of 16S rRNA using eubacteria fD1 and rP2 primers, and rep-PCR fingerprinting revealed diversity among Dickeya and Erwinia isolates. But this method appears to be reliable for discriminating isolates from pineapple heart rot and papaya dieback.

  2. Production of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine in Escherichia coli with the tyrosine phenol-lyase gene cloned from Erwinia herbicola.

    OpenAIRE

    Foor, F; Morin, N.; Bostian, K A

    1993-01-01

    The gene (tutA) encoding tyrosine phenol-lyase from Erwinia herbicola was cloned into Escherichia coli, and fusions to the lac and tac promoters were constructed. The enzyme was expressed at high levels in E. coli in the presence of isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside or lactose as an inducer. L-Dihydroxyphenylalanine was synthesized in high yield from catechol, pyruvate, and ammonia by induced cells.

  3. Cloning and characterization of a locus encoding an indolepyruvate decarboxylase involved in indole-3-acetic acid synthesis in Erwinia herbicola.

    OpenAIRE

    Brandl, M. T.; Lindow, S E

    1996-01-01

    Erwinia herbicola 299R synthesizes indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) primarily by the indole-3-pyruvic acid pathway. A gene involved in the biosynthesis of IAA was cloned from strain 299R. This gene (ipdC) conferred the synthesis of indole-3-acetaldehyde and tryptophol upon Escherichia coli DH5 alpha in cultures supplemented with L-tryptophan. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene product has high similarity to that of the indolepyruvate decarboxylase of Enterobacter cloacae. Regions within py...

  4. The genes involved in cytokinin biosynthesis in Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae: characterization and role in gall formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Lichter, A; Barash, I; Valinsky, L.; Manulis, S

    1995-01-01

    A locus conferring cytokinin production was previously isolated from the gall-forming bacterium Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae. This locus resided in a cluster with the genes specifying indole-3-acetic acid production on the pathogenicity-associated plasmid pPATH (A. Lichter, S. Manulis, O. Sagee, Y. Gafni, J. Gray, R. Meilen, R. O. Morris, and I. Barash, Mol. Plant Microbe Interact., 8:114-121, 1995). Sequence analysis of this locus indicated the presence of a cytokinin biosynthesis gene ...

  5. Biosynthesis of the antimetabolite 6-thioguanine in Erwinia amylovora plays a key role in fire blight pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sébastien; Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Litomska, Agnieszka; Richter, Klaus; Beerhues, Ludger; Hertweck, Christian

    2013-09-27

    Sulfur for fire: The molecular basis for the biosynthesis of the antimetabolite 6-thioguanine (6TG) was unveiled in Erwinia amylovora, the causative agent of fire blight. Bioinformatics, heterologous pathway reconstitution in E. coli, and mutational analyses indicate that the protein YcfA mediates guanine thionation in analogy to 2-thiouridylase. Assays in planta and in cell cultures reveal for the first time a crucial role of 6TG in fire blight pathogenesis. PMID:24038828

  6. Artritis séptica por streptococcus pneumoniae: reporte de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Novoa, C.; López, R.E.; Gómez Balboa, P.; Blas Dobón, J.A.; Bonet, B.; Rodrigo Pérez, José Luís

    2015-01-01

    La artritis neumocócica es infrecuente en adultos, predomina en pacientes pediátricos. La neumonía y la bacteriemia son las manifestaciones más frecuentes, la afectación articular según series recientes tiene una prevalencia menor al 1% en sujetos menores de 50 años. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 60 años con LES (Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico) la cual presentó monoartritis séptica de rodilla derecha causada por Streptococcus pneumoniae

  7. Imunidade conferida por vacinas anti-meningocócicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagres Lucimar Gonçalves

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Em razão da recente epidemia de doença meningocócica causada por N. meningitidis B na Grande São Paulo, Brasil, foi feita revisão das epidemias dessa doença ocorridas no Brasil desde o início do século e uma análise das vacinas atuais contra N. meningitidis A, C, Y e W135. Também são discutidos os mais recentes avanços no desenvolvimento e aplicação de vacina contra M meningitidis B, um desafio constante para os maiores centros de pesquisa de todo o mundo.

  8. Incidência da varíola, causada por Asperisporium caricae, em folhas de mamoeiros submetidos ao manejo orgânico, em diferentes ambientes de cultivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Aurélio Peres Martelleto; Raul de Lucena Duarte Ribeiro; Margarida Goréte Ferreira do Carmo; Mariluci Sudo-Martelleto; Antonio de Goes

    2009-01-01

    Mudas de mamoeiro da cultivar Baixinho de Santa Amália foram transplantadas para covas de 40x60x40 cm, em áreas de três estruturas contíguas: (a) estufa sombreada (cobertura de plástico), (b) estufa sombreada + sombrite (cobertura adicional de sombrite com 30% de sombreamento sobre o plástico) e (c) telado (cobertura exclusiva de sombrite 30%). Ao lado de tais estruturas foi implantada uma área de cultivo de mamoeiro em ambiente natural. Os tratos culturais aplicados foram os condizentes às n...

  9. Boro, nitrogenio concentraçao de inóculo de pH na expressao da doença causada por Plasmodiophora brassicae

    OpenAIRE

    Schuta, Lucimeris Ruaro

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A hérnia das cruciferas (Plasmodiophora brassicae Woron.) é a mais importante doença que incide sobre as variedades de Brassica oleracea L. representadas pelo repolho, couve-flor, brócolis, mostarda, couve-chinesa e rúcula. A calagem para elevar o pH dos solos é a medida recomendada mais aceita pelos produtores, contudo, nem sempre esta medida, é suficiente para impedir ou reduzir o ataque do patógeno nos solos da região metropolitana de Curitiba. O que sugere, que outros fatores poss...

  10. REAÇÃO DE CULTIVARES DO FEIJOEIRO COMUM ÀS PODRIDÕES RADICULARES CAUSADAS POR Rhizoctonia solani E Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braycia Afonso de Miranda

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available REACTION OF COMMON BEAN CULTIVARS TOROOT ROT CAUSED BY Rhizoctonia solaniAND Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoliRhizoctonia solani Kuhn is a necrotrophic fungus andsoil inhabitant that attacks great number of vegetable species. Inbean plants, R. solani can induce different symptoms includingtoppling, root and colon plant rottenness. Fusarium solani (MartSacc. f. sp. phaseoli (Burcholder occurs in practically all beanproducing areas in Brazil and can cause root rots and death tobean plants. This study evaluated the reaction of commercialcommon bean cultivars growing in R. solani or F. solani f. sp.phaseoli infested soil, under green house conditions. Theexperimental design was entirely randomized, with 24 treatmentsand four replications. A Oxisol was infested with trituratedsorghum grains that were previously colonized by R. solani (1.0g/1.4 L of soil or F. solani f. sp phaseoli (8.0 g/1.4 L of soil. Thedisease evaluations were accomplished 21 days after planting.All plants were carefully removed, their root systems werewashed in running water and the disease severity was evaluatedaccording to Abawi & Pastor-Corrales (1990 scale for diseaseseverity. The cultivar behavior ranged according to the inoculatedpathogen, all cultivars were susceptible with different degrees ofsusceptibility. Among evaluated common bean cultivars Pérolawas less susceptible to R. solani, and Radiante was lesssusceptible to F. solani f. sp. phaseoli.

  11. Podridão de frutos de melancia causada por Sclerotium rolfsii no estado de Alagoas Watermelon fruit rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in the State of Alagoas

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    FÁTIMA M. QUEIROZ

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A new fruit rot disease caused by Sclerotium rolfsii on watermelon (Citrullus lanatus was observed in the State of Alagoas. The pathogenicity of the fungus was confirmed by artificial inoculations.This is the first report of S. rolfsii causing fruit rot in watermelon in Northeast of Brazil.

  12. Podridão de frutos de melancia causada por Sclerotium rolfsii no estado de Alagoas Watermelon fruit rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in the State of Alagoas

    OpenAIRE

    Fátima M. Queiroz; MUNIZ M. F. S.; MARIA MENEZES; PERICLES G. BARROS

    2002-01-01

    A new fruit rot disease caused by Sclerotium rolfsii on watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) was observed in the State of Alagoas. The pathogenicity of the fungus was confirmed by artificial inoculations.This is the first report of S. rolfsii causing fruit rot in watermelon in Northeast of Brazil.

  13. Cerebelite aguda causada por vírus Epstein-Barr: relato de caso Acute cerebellitis caused by Epstein-Barr virus: case report

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    Hélio A.G. Teive

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A cerebelite aguda pode ocorrer em associação a infecção pelo vírus da varicela-zoster, enterovirus, caxumba, micoplasma e outros agentes infecciosos. A cerebelite aguda é uma complicação rara da infecção pelo vírus Epstein-Barr (EBV. Relatamos o caso de uma mulher de 21 anos com história de 12 dias de evolução com náuseas, vômitos, ataxia de marcha e membros, tremor cefálico e de membros, opsoclono, mioclonias e rash cutâneo. Sorologia para EBV foi positiva. A infecção pelo EBV, com complicações neurológicas, pode não se apresentar com os sinais e sintomas clássicos da mononucleose infeciosa.Acute cerebellitis can occur in association with varicella-zoster virus, enterovirus, mumps, mycoplasma, and other infective organisms. Acute cerebellitis is a rare complication of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection. We report the case of a 21-year-old woman with a 12-day history of nausea and vomiting, gait and limbs ataxia, myoclonus, tremor of head and all four limbs, opsoclonus and cutaneous rash. Anti-EBV IgG and IgM antibodies against antiviral capsid were positive and anti-EBV against virus-associated nuclear antigen was also positive. EBV infection in association with neurological findings can occur without the classic signs and symptoms of infectious mononucleosis.

  14. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Bipolaris hawaiiensis: a case report Feohifomicose subcutânea causada por Bipolaris hawaiiensis: registro de um caso

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    Alcyr Ribeiro Costa

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available A case of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Bipolaris hawaiiensis is reported. The patient, an immunocompetent host, presented a verrucous lesion on the first finger of the left foot. Dematiaceous septate hyphae and yeast-like elements were seen in direct and histological examination. The isolated strain was identified on the basis of micro and macromorphological aspects. Treated with electrocoagulation, the lesions healed and presented no relapse after two years follow-up.Os autores descrevem um caso de feohifomicose com lesão verrucosa no hálux esquerdo. O paciente não apresentava sinais clínicos de deficiência imunológica. Os exames direto e histopatológico mostraram células leveduriformes e poucas hifas septadas, demacióides, essenciais ao diagnóstico desta micose. O cultivo em lâmina permitiu identificar o hifomiceto como Bipolaris hawaiiensis. A eletrocoagulação foi usada como tratamento, com cura do processo, não havendo recidiva após dois anos.

  15. Primeiro relato de mancha foliar em Cedrela odorata causada por Pseudobeltrania cedrelae First report of leaf spot on Cedrela odorata caused by Pseudobeltrania cedrelae

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    Rogério E. Hanada

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Manchas foliares e desfolha foram constatadas em árvores de cedro (Cedrela odorata estabelecidas em uma área experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental, Manaus-AM. Inicialmente nas folhas novas surgem halos cloróticos rodeando pequenas lesões. Posteriormente surgem lesões necróticas, circulares a angulares, A disease causing leaf spot and defoliation on Cedrela odorata trees planted in an Embrapa experimental area near Manaus, Brazil, is first reported here. Lesions start as yellow halos surrounding small light-brown points. Later, necrotic brown lesions are observed exhibiting many black small structures in the central portion, corresponding to fructifications of Pseudobeltrania cedrelae and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. When P. cedrelae was inoculated the leaf disease was reproduced.

  16. Aportaciones a la epidemiologia y a las manifestaciones clínicas de las sobredosis causadas por la cocaina y las nuevas drogas de diseño

    OpenAIRE

    Galicia Paredes, Miguel Ángel

    2010-01-01

    [spa] De los datos disponibles en la actualidad, se puede concluir que el consumo de sustancias de abuso genera un número importante de problemas de salud, de presentación aguda o crónica. Las consecuencias del consumo prolongado de diferentes sustancias, y su repercusión sobre la salud del consumidor o de su entorno social son bien conocidas (enfermedades en ADVP, marginalidad de zonas de comercio de sustancias, políticas dirigidas a disminuir el tráfico de sustancias). Sin embargo no hay ta...

  17. Gomose da acácia-negra causada por Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. Gummosis of Acacia decurrens Willd. Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst.

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro; Margarida Fumikoito; Osvaldo Paradela Filho; Jairo Lopes de Castro

    1988-01-01

    É relatada a ocorrência, pela primeira vez no Brasil, de Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. sobre acácia-negra. Testes de inoculação cruzada foram efetuados em casa de vegetação com o isolado obtido de acácia-negra (Acacia decurrens Willd.) e outro de mangueira (Mangifera indica L.). Observou-se que ambos os isolados foram patogênicos à acácia-negra e à mangueira.Several plants of Acacia decurrens showed wilting and subsequent branche drying. The branches showed wood splitting and gum exuda...

  18. El régimen internacional de la bioinvasión marina causada por agua de lastre: especial referencia a la República de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Cabrales, Fabián

    2015-01-01

    El agua de lastre de los buques es considerada como el más importante vector para el desplazamiento transoceánico de especies marinas propias de aguas superficiales a nuevos ambientes marinos. Se ha estimado que anualmente se transfieren de 3 a 5 billones de toneladas de agua de lastre a nivel global. Ello plantea un serio riesgo ambiental internacional. Las especies invasivas están extendiendo sus ámbitos naturales a nivel global y cada nueve semanas se notifica una nueva invasión biológica ...

  19. Bases moleculares para la prevención de una enfermedad causada por Bourdella pertussis, un patógeno re emergente

    OpenAIRE

    Bottero, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    En Argentina la vacunación contra la tos convulsa comienza en los años setenta con la incorporación masiva de la vacuna celular triple bacteriana (DTP – Difteria, Tétanos y Pertussis) en el Calendario Nacional de Vacunación con tres dosis a los 2, 4 y 6 meses y un refuerzo a los 18 meses. La situación epidemiológica de la enfermedad motivó en los años ochenta la incorporación de un refuerzo al ingreso escolar y en el año 2009 un refuerzo en la población adolescente. Se espera que estas estrat...

  20. REAÇÃO DE CULTIVARES DO FEIJOEIRO COMUM ÀS PODRIDÕES RADICULARES CAUSADAS POR Rhizoctonia solani E Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli

    OpenAIRE

    Braycia Afonso de Miranda; Murillo Lobo Júnior; Marcos Gomes Cunha

    2007-01-01

    REACTION OF COMMON BEAN CULTIVARS TOROOT ROT CAUSED BY Rhizoctonia solaniAND Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoliRhizoctonia solani Kuhn is a necrotrophic fungus andsoil inhabitant that attacks great number of vegetable species. Inbean plants, R. solani can induce different symptoms includingtoppling, root and colon plant rottenness. Fusarium solani (Mart)Sacc. f. sp. phaseoli (Burcholder) occurs in practically all beanproducing areas in Brazil and can cause root rots and death tobean plants. This...

  1. Celularidade do leite e Unidades Formadoras de Colônias nas mastites causadas por Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e coagulase negativa

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    Helio Langoni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A mastite é a principal afecção do gado destinado à produção leiteira, que impacta significativamente a cadeia produtiva do leite, com reflexos ainda para a saúde pública. Estudou-se aspectos relacionados à etiologia, celularidade e de contagem bacteriana em 10 propriedades leiteiras, localizadas no Estado de São Paulo. Foram examinadas 1148 vacas em lactação, totalizando 4584 glândulas mamárias. Foram considerados os casos, em que houve isolamento de estafilococos coagulase positiva (SCP e estafilococos coagulase negativa (SCN. Os resultados revelaram microbiota com vários patógenos e diferentes espécies de SCN (128 casos e SCP (45, Staphylococcus aureus(90, Streptococcus agalactiae(70, Streptococcus dysgalactiae (69, Streptococcus uberis(29, Corynebacteriumspp. (230, Klebsiella pneumoniae(28, Klebsiella oxytoca(2, Escherichia coli(15, Enterobactersp. (3. Os resultados de contagem de células somáticas (CCS relacionados aos SCP e SCN não mostraram diferenças entre as propriedades avaliadas, entretanto com diferenças significantes ao se avaliar a CCS entre os dois grupos de estafilococos, como pode ser evidenciado ao comparar SCN Discreto e SCP exuberante (P<0,01, SCP Discreto e SCP exuberante (P<0,001 e SCN moderado e SCP exuberante (P<0,01. A avaliação da CCS relacionada à intensidade da infecção, considerando-se como crescimento discreto o isolamento de até nove colônias, moderado de dez a 29 colônias e exuberante, com 30 ou mais colônias, revelou para ambos os grupos de estafilococos que quanto maior o número de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC, a CCS é mais elevada, sendo sempre maior nos casos de SCP. Conclui-se que quando há maior número de UFC, há concomitantemente maior CCS/mL de leite, no caso dos SCP e SCN, o que mostra relação direta da intensidade do processo infeccioso com a resposta da celularidade do leite, bem como pela relevância desses na etiologia das mastites e dos aspectos negativos tanto para a produção, quanto na qualidade do leite produzido nas propriedades.

  2. Pectate lyase PelI of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 belongs to a new family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchik, V E; Robert-Baudouy, J; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N

    1997-12-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 secretes five major isoenzymes of pectate lyases encoded by the pel4, pelB, pelC, pelD, and pelE genes and a set of secondary pectate lyases, two of which, pelL and pelZ, have been already identified. We cloned the pelI gene, encoding a ninth pectate lyase of E. chrysanthemi 3937. The pelI reading frame is 1,035 bases long, corresponding to a protein of 344 amino acids including a typical amino-terminal signal sequence of 19 amino acids. The purified mature PelI protein has an isoelectric point of about 9 and an apparent molecular mass of 34 kDa. PelI has a preference for partially methyl esterified pectin and presents an endo-cleaving activity with an alkaline pH optimum and an absolute requirement for Ca2+ ions. PelI is an extracellular protein secreted by the Out secretory pathway of E. chrysanthemi. The PelI protein is very active in the maceration of plant tissues. A pelI mutant displayed reduced pathogenicity on chicory leaves, but its virulence did not appear to be affected on potato tubers or Saintpaulia ionantha plants. The pelI gene constitutes an independent transcriptional unit. As shown for the other pel genes, the transcription of pelI is dependent on various environmental conditions. It is induced by pectic catabolic products and affected by growth phase, oxygen limitation, temperature, nitrogen starvation, and catabolite repression. Regulation of pelI expression appeared to be dependent on the three repressors of pectinase synthesis, KdgR, PecS, and PecT, and on the global activator of sugar catabolism, cyclic AMP receptor protein. A functional KdgR binding site was identified close to the putative pelI promoter. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of PelI revealed high homology with a pectate lyase from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (65% identity) and low homology with pectate lyases of the phytopathogenic fungus Nectria haematococca (Fusarium solani). This finding indicates that PelI belongs to pectate lyase class

  3. The Status of Erwinia amylovora in the Former Yugoslav Republics over the Past Two Decades

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    Mila Grahovac

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight (FB on fruit trees and ornamentalplants, rapidly spread across eastern Mediterranean countries in the early 1980s. This quarantinebacterium probably arrived in the southern parts of the former Yugoslavia (nowFYR Macedonia from Greece. Based on symptoms, and isolation and identification data, itwas concluded that Erwinia amylovora was the causal agent of pear drying in Macedonia(1989. It was the first experimental confirmation of a presence of E. amylovora in the territoryof the former Yugoslavia. The presence of E. amylovora was also proved in Serbia thatsame year. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, FB was detected during 1990. Based on an officialreport filed with the Federal Ministry of Agriculture in Belgrade, the presence of E. amylovorain Yugoslavia was confirmed (EPPO – Reporting Service, 1991. Therefore, the presenceof the bacterium E. amylovora in the territory of Yugoslavia was officially confirmedin 1990. In Croatia, FB was first observed in villages near the border on Serbia in 1995.In Montenegro, FB was first detected in 1996. In Slovenia, FB appeared as late as in 2001.E. amylovora is now present on 10 hosts (pear, wild pear, apple, quince, medlar, mountainash,hawthorn, firethorn, cotoneaster and Japanese quince in the territory ofthe former Yugoslav republics. Based on literature data, losses caused by FB in theformer Yugoslav republics in the period 1989-1992 were estimated at about12,000,000 DEM (mostly in Macedonia and in the period 1992–1996 at 6,000,000 DEM.Total damage in a more recent epiphytotic year in Slovenia (2003 was estimated atabout 474,200 EUR.Conventional and up-to-date rapid methods (PCR, ELISA and IF, BIOLOG and API System,FAME and SDS-PAGE have been used to identify E. amylovora. Mainly preventive measures have been used to control E. amylovora in the former Yugoslav republics. Spraying withcopper products has been practiced during the dormant period and in early

  4. Purification, Characterization, and Effect of Thiol Compounds on Activity of the Erwinia carotovora L-Asparaginase

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    Suchita C. Warangkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available L-asparaginase was extracted from Erwinia carotovora and purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation (60–70%, Sephadex G-100, CM cellulose, and DEAE sephadex chromatography. The apparent Mr of enzyme under nondenaturing and denaturing conditions was 150 kDa and 37±0.5 kDa, respectively. L-asparaginase activity was studied in presence of thiols, namely, L-cystine (Cys, L-methionine (Met, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, and reduced glutathione (GSH. Kinetic parameters in presence of thiols (10–400 M showed an increase in Vmax values (2000, 2223, 2380, 2500, and control 1666.7 moles mg−1min−1 and a decrease in K values (0.086, 0.076, 0.062, 0.055 and control 0.098 mM indicating nonessential mode of activation. KA values displayed propensity to bind thiols. A decrease in Vmax/K ratio in concentration plots showed inverse relationship between free thiol groups (NAC and GSH and bound thiol group (Cys and Met. Enzyme activity was enhanced in presence of thiol protecting reagents like dithiothreitol (DTT, 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME, and GSH, but inhibited by p-chloromercurybenzoate (PCMB and iodoacetamide (IA.

  5. Contribution of Erwinia amylovora exopolysaccharides amylovoran and levan to biofilm formation: implications in pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczan, Jessica M; McGrath, Molly J; Zhao, Youfu; Sundin, George W

    2009-11-01

    Erwinia amylovora is a highly virulent, necrogenic, vascular pathogen of rosaceous species that produces the exopolysaccharide amylovoran, a known pathogenicity factor, and levan, a virulence factor. An in vitro crystal violet staining and a bright-field microscopy method were used to demonstrate that E. amylovora is capable of forming a biofilm on solid surfaces. Amylovoran and levan production deletion mutants were used to determine that amylovoran was required for biofilm formation and that levan contributed to biofilm formation. In vitro flow cell and confocal microscopy were used to further reveal the architectural detail of a mature biofilm and differences in biofilm formation between E. amylovora wild-type (WT), Deltaams, and Deltalsc mutant cells labeled with green fluorescent protein or yellow fluorescent protein. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of E. amylovora WT cells following experimental inoculation in apple indicated that extensive biofilm formation occurs in xylem vessels. However, Deltaams mutant cells were nonpathogenic and died rapidly following inoculation, and Deltalsc mutant cells were not detected in xylem vessels and were reduced in movement into apple shoots. These results demonstrate that biofilm formation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of E. amylovora. PMID:19821727

  6. Erwinia amylovora – the Causal Agent of Root Collar Necrosis of Apple Trees

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    Veljko Gavrilović

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale outbreak of fire blight symptoms caused by Erwinia amylovora was recorded in pome fruit trees during 2007. In addition to fruit necrosis and shoot blight as the typical disease symptoms, dark purple necrosis was observed in the root collar area girdling the trunk just above the ground and thus withering the whole apple tree. Since similar symptoms on apple trees could be caused by E. amylovora or one of several phytopathogenic fungi of the genera Phomopsis and Phytophthora, an investigation was conducted to identify the causal agent of this disease. Levan-producing, nonfluorescent bacteria were isolated from diseased samples. The isolated strains produced HR in tobacco leaves and necrosis of artificially inoculated, immature pear fruits, followed by oozing of bacterial exudate, a characterisitic of E. amylovora. Based on the results of pathogenicity tests, biochemical characteristics, ELISA test and PCR analysis, it was confirmed that the investigated strainsbelonged to E. amylovora, causing the root collar necrosis of apple trees as an atypical symptom of this bacterium in Serbia. The explanation of this symptom may be that the vegetative rootstocks were infected with E. amylovora. Therefore, the development of diagnostic protocols for detection of E. amylovora in apple rootstock is very important for health inspections of planting materials.

  7. Cloning, expression, purification and characterisation of Erwinia carotovora L-asparaginase in Escherichia coli

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    Meraj Pourhossein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the past 30 years, bacterial L-asparaginases have been used as therapeutic agents in the treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia. It is found in a variety of organisms such as microbes, plants and mammals. Their intrinsic low-rate glutaminase activity, however, causes serious side-effects, including neurotoxicity, hepatitis, coagulopathy and other dysfunctions. Erwinia carotovora asparaginase shows decreased glutaminase activity, so it is believed to have fewer side-effects in leukemia therapy. Our aim was to clone, express, purify and characterize E. carotovora asparaginase. Materials and Methods: L-asparaginase from E. carotovora NCYC 1526 (ErA was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography. Various conditions were tested to maximize the production of recombinant asparaginase in E. coli. Results: A new L. asparaginase from E. carotovora NCYC 1526 (ErA was successfully cloned, expressed and purified in E. coli BL21 (DE3. The specific activity of the enzyme was 430 IU/mg. Conclusion: The results of the present work form the basis for a new engineered form of ErA for future therapeutic use, which could be extended with crystallographic studies.

  8. Recombinant Erwinia carotovora l-asparaginase II production in Escherichia coli fed-batch cultures

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    G. Roth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Asparaginases are the cornerstone therapy of many successful combination regimens for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, the most common malignancy in children and adolescents. The aim of this work was to produce recombinant Erwinia carotovora L-asparaginase II in Escherichia coli fed-batch cultures. Using a robust fed-batch technique with pre-determined exponential feeding rates, our bioreactor culture system yielded 30.7 grams of dry cell weight and 0.9 grams of soluble rErAII protein per liter of culture broth. The homogeneous rErAII activity was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC. The enzyme Km values for the main substrates L-Asn and L-Gln were 33x10-6 M and 10x10-3 M, respectively. Our work shows that it is possible to produce an active homogeneous rErAII enzyme in the soluble cell fraction through IPTG-induced E. coli fed-batch cultivation.

  9. One-step purification and kinetic properties of the recombinant L-asparaginase from Erwinia carotovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasotkina, Julya; Borisova, Anna A; Gervaziev, Yuri V; Sokolov, Nikolay N

    2004-04-01

    ECAR-LANS, the recombinant L-asparaginase from Erwinia carotovora, is a prospective therapeutic enzyme for leukaemia treatment. An efficient and economical scheme was developed for the purification, cloning and expression in Eschericha coli of ECAR-LANS. More than 90% purity, complemented with 72% active enzyme recovery, was achieved with a single chromatographic purification step. The activity of purified L-asparaginase was 630 i.u./mg. The ECAR-LANS K (m) value was 98x10(-6) M for the main physiological substrate L-Asn and 3400x10(-6) M for L-Gln. ECAR-LANS was found to have low relative glutaminase activity (1.2%) at physiological concentrations of L-Asn and L-Gln in blood. Kinetic studies of ECAR-LANS showed that the recombinant asparaginase combined the main advantages of Erw. chrysanthemi and E. coli L-asparaginases II, currently used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. PMID:15032742

  10. Iron Deficiency Induced by Chrysobactin in Saintpaulia Leaves Inoculated with Erwinia chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neema, C.; Laulhere, J. P.; Expert, D.

    1993-07-01

    In this communication, we examine the fate of iron during soft rot pathogenesis caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi on its host, Saintpaulia ionantha. The spread of soft rot caused by this enterobacterium was previously shown to depend on a functional genetic locus encoding a high-affinity iron assimilation system involving the catechol-type siderophore chrysobactin. Leaf intercellular fluid from healthy plants was analyzed with regard to the iron content and its availability for bacterial growth. It was compared to the fluid from diseased plants for the presence of strong iron ligands, using a new approach based on the iron-binding property of an ion-exchange resin. Further characterization allowed the identification of chrysobactin in diseased tissues, thus providing the first evidence for the external release of a microbial siderophore during pathogenesis. Competition for nutritional iron was also studied through a plant-bacterial cell system: iron incorporated into plant ferritin appeared to be considerably reduced in bacteria-treated suspension soybean cells. The same effect was visualized during treatment of soybean cells with axenic leaf intercellular fluid from E. chrysanthemi-inoculated saintpaulia leaves or with chrysobactin. PMID:12231882

  11. The PecT repressor coregulates synthesis of exopolysaccharides and virulence factors in Erwinia chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condemine, G; Castillo, A; Passeri, F; Enard, C

    1999-01-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 synthesizes an exopolysaccharide (EPS) composed of rhamnose, galactose, and galacturonic acid. Fourteen transcriptional fusions in genes required for EPS synthesis, named eps, were obtained by Tn5-B21 mutagenesis. Eleven of them are clustered on the chromosome and are repressed by PecT, a regulator of pectate lyase synthesis. In addition, expression of these fusions is repressed by the catabolite regulatory protein, CRP, and induced in low osmolarity medium. The three other mutations are located in genes that are not regulated by pecT. A 13-kb DNA fragment containing pecT-regulated eps genes has been cloned. All the genes identified on this fragment are transcribed in the same orientation and could form a large operon. The promoter region of this operon has been sequenced. It contains a JUMP-start sequence, a sequence required for the expression of polysaccharide-associated operons. E. chrysanthemi 3937 produces a systemic soft rot on its host Saintpaulia ionantha. An eps mutant was less efficient than the wild-type strain in initiating a maceration symptom, suggesting that production of EPS is required for the full expression of the E. chrysanthemi virulence. PMID:9885192

  12. Characterization of the Erwinia chrysanthemi Gan locus, involved in galactan catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delangle, Aurélie; Prouvost, Anne-France; Cogez, Virginie; Bohin, Jean-Pierre; Lacroix, Jean-Marie; Cotte-Pattat, Nicole Hugouvieux

    2007-10-01

    beta-1,4-Galactan is a major component of the ramified regions of pectin. Analysis of the genome of the plant pathogenic bacteria Erwinia chrysanthemi revealed the presence of a cluster of eight genes encoding proteins potentially involved in galactan utilization. The predicted transport system would comprise a specific porin GanL and an ABC transporter made of four proteins, GanFGK(2). Degradation of galactans would be catalyzed by the periplasmic 1,4-beta-endogalactanase GanA, which released oligogalactans from trimer to hexamer. After their transport through the inner membrane, oligogalactans would be degraded into galactose by the cytoplasmic 1,4-beta-exogalactanase GanB. Mutants affected for the porin or endogalactanase were unable to grow on galactans, but they grew on galactose and on a mixture of galactotriose, galactotetraose, galactopentaose, and galactohexaose. Mutants affected for the periplasmic galactan binding protein, the transporter ATPase, or the exogalactanase were only able to grow on galactose. Thus, the phenotypes of these mutants confirmed the functionality of the gan locus in transport and catabolism of galactans. These mutations did not affect the virulence of E. chrysanthemi on chicory leaves, potato tubers, or Saintpaulia ionantha, suggesting an accessory role of galactan utilization in the bacterial pathogeny. PMID:17644603

  13. Characterization of the Erwinia chrysanthemi gan Locus, Involved in Galactan Catabolism▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delangle, Aurélie; Prouvost, Anne-France; Cogez, Virginie; Bohin, Jean-Pierre; Lacroix, Jean-Marie; Cotte-Pattat, Nicole Hugouvieux

    2007-01-01

    β-1,4-Galactan is a major component of the ramified regions of pectin. Analysis of the genome of the plant pathogenic bacteria Erwinia chrysanthemi revealed the presence of a cluster of eight genes encoding proteins potentially involved in galactan utilization. The predicted transport system would comprise a specific porin GanL and an ABC transporter made of four proteins, GanFGK2. Degradation of galactans would be catalyzed by the periplasmic 1,4-β-endogalactanase GanA, which released oligogalactans from trimer to hexamer. After their transport through the inner membrane, oligogalactans would be degraded into galactose by the cytoplasmic 1,4-β-exogalactanase GanB. Mutants affected for the porin or endogalactanase were unable to grow on galactans, but they grew on galactose and on a mixture of galactotriose, galactotetraose, galactopentaose, and galactohexaose. Mutants affected for the periplasmic galactan binding protein, the transporter ATPase, or the exogalactanase were only able to grow on galactose. Thus, the phenotypes of these mutants confirmed the functionality of the gan locus in transport and catabolism of galactans. These mutations did not affect the virulence of E. chrysanthemi on chicory leaves, potato tubers, or Saintpaulia ionantha, suggesting an accessory role of galactan utilization in the bacterial pathogeny. PMID:17644603

  14. Characterization and virulence properties of Erwinia chrysanthemi lipopolysaccharide-defective, phi EC2-resistant mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonejans, E; Expert, D; Toussaint, A

    1987-09-01

    Outer membrane alterations were characterized in spontaneous mutants of the Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937jRH, which were selected for resistance to bacteriophage phi EC2. All but one of the mutants analyzed were affected in their lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure, lacking the entire heterogeneous region of apparent high molecular weight present in the wild-type E. chrysanthemi LPS. At least two 3937jRH mutants, one selected as phi EC2 resistant (RH6065) and the other previously selected (D. Expert and A. Toussaint, J. Bacteriol. 163:221-227, 1985) as bacteriocin resistant (R1456), were cross-resistant to bacteriophage Mu and had rough LPSs with an altered core structure. Two phi EC2r mutants (RH6053 and RH6065) were most severely affected in their outer membrane integrity and also lost their virulence on saintpaulia plants, although they still possessed normal extracellular levels of pectinolytic and cellulolytic activities. The two Mur mutants RH6065 and R1456 were also able to induce systemic resistance in the challenged plant. All the other phi EC2r mutants retained the virulence of 393jRH. PMID:3624200

  15. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordax, Mónica; Piquer-Salcedo, Jaime E.; Santander, Ricardo D.; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Biosca, Elena G.; López, María M.; Marco-Noales, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i) E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii) medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle. PMID:25978369

  16. [Multiple change of phenotype, conjugated with the loss of yellow pigmentation of Erwinia herbicola].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovkach, F I; Tovkach, A F

    2004-01-01

    It has been shown that the loss of yellow pigmentation (phenotype Crt) of nonphotosynthesizing epiphyte bacterium Erwinia herbicola is accompanied by the loss of prototrophicity (phenotype Thi). Most Crt Thi-variants change the character of sensitivity to temperate erwiniophage E105 and bacteriocins (phenotype Ph/Bn). Some of them become sensitive to the killer effect of their own bacteriocins--autocins (phenotype Au). Multiple change of the phenotype in E. herbicola occurs so spontaneously as under variable growing of bacteria at the optimal and supraoptimal growth temperature. It is also established that the cells of one of the strains stop synthesizing the additional carotenoid or synthesize the changed products. It is shown that carotenoid synthesis in the cells of E. herbicola g157/5k may be reduced by means of transduction of the Crt phenotype by lipid-containing bacteriophage UA1. Multiple change of the phenotype connected with the loss of yellow pigmentation by E. herbicola was referred to the phenomenon of the population dissociation which is similar to that in E. carotovora. PMID:15456215

  17. Bacterial phytoene synthase: molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of Erwinia herbicola phytoene synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; Math, Shivanand K; Desai, Shrivallabh B; Poulter, C Dale

    2003-03-25

    Phytoene synthase (PSase) catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to give prephytoene diphosphate (PPPP) and the subsequent rearrangement of the cyclopropylcarbinyl intermediate to phytoene. These reactions constitute the first pathway specific step in carotenoid biosynthesis. The crtB gene encoding phytoene synthase was isolated from a plasmid containing the carotenoid gene cluster in Erwinia herbicola and cloned into an Escherichia coli expression system. Upon induction, recombinant phytoene synthase constituted 5-10% of total soluble protein. To facilitate purification of the recombinant enzyme, the structural gene for PSase was modified by site-directed mutagenesis to incorporate a C-terminal Glu-Glu-Phe (EEF) tripepetide to allow purification by immunoaffinity chromatography on an immobilized monoclonal anti-alpha-tubulin antibody YL1/2 column. Purified recombinant PSase-EEF gave a band at 34.5 kDa upon SDS-PAGE. Recombinant PSase-EEF was then purified to >90% homogeneity in two steps by ion-exchange and immunoaffinity chromatography. The enzyme required Mn(2+) for activity, had a pH optimum of 8.2, and was strongly stimulated by detergent. The concentration of GGPP needed for half-maximal activity was approximately 35 microM, and a significant inhibition of activity was seen at GGPP concentrations above 100 microM. The sole product of the reaction was 15,15'-Z-phytoene. PMID:12641468

  18. Global small RNA chaperone Hfq and regulatory small RNAs are important virulence regulators in Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Quan; McNally, R Ryan; Sundin, George W

    2013-04-01

    Hfq is a global small RNA (sRNA) chaperone that interacts with Hfq-regulated sRNAs and functions in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. In this work, we identified Hfq to be a virulence regulator in the Gram-negative fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Deletion of hfq in E. amylovora Ea1189 significantly reduced bacterial virulence in both immature pear fruits and apple shoots. Analysis of virulence determinants in strain Ea1189Δhfq showed that Hfq exerts pleiotropic regulation of amylovoran exopolysaccharide production, biofilm formation, motility, and the type III secretion system (T3SS). Further characterization of biofilm regulation by Hfq demonstrated that Hfq limits bacterial attachment to solid surfaces while promoting biofilm maturation. Characterization of T3SS regulation by Hfq revealed that Hfq positively regulates the translocation and secretion of the major type III effector DspE and negatively controls the secretion of the putative translocator HrpK and the type III effector Eop1. Lastly, 10 Hfq-regulated sRNAs were identified using a computational method, and two of these sRNAs, RprA and RyhA, were found to be required for the full virulence of E. amylovora. PMID:23378513

  19. Differential lysine acetylation profiles of Erwinia amylovora strains revealed by proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Vellaichamy, Adaikkalam; Wang, Dongping; Zamdborg, Leonid; Kelleher, Neil L; Huber, Steven C; Zhao, Youfu

    2013-02-21

    Protein lysine acetylation (LysAc) has recently been demonstrated to be widespread in E. coli and Salmonella, and to broadly regulate bacterial physiology and metabolism. However, LysAc in plant pathogenic bacteria is largely unknown. Here we first report the lysine acetylome of Erwinia amylovora, an enterobacterium causing serious fire blight disease of apples and pears. Immunoblots using generic anti-lysine acetylation antibodies demonstrated that growth conditions strongly affected the LysAc profiles in E. amylovora. Differential LysAc profiles were also observed for two E. amylovora strains, known to have differential virulence in plants, indicating translational modification of proteins may be important in determining virulence of bacterial strains. Proteomic analysis of LysAc in two E. amylovora strains identified 141 LysAc sites in 96 proteins that function in a wide range of biological pathways. Consistent with previous reports, 44% of the proteins are involved in metabolic processes, including central metabolism, lipopolysaccharide, nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Interestingly, for the first time, several proteins involved in E. amylovora virulence, including exopolysaccharide amylovoran biosynthesis- and type III secretion-associated proteins, were found to be lysine acetylated, suggesting that LysAc may play a major role in bacterial virulence. Comparative analysis of LysAc sites in E. amylovora and E. coli further revealed the sequence and structural commonality for LysAc in the two organisms. Collectively, these results reinforce the notion that LysAc of proteins is widespread in bacterial metabolism and virulence. PMID:23234799

  20. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordax, Mónica; Piquer-Salcedo, Jaime E; Santander, Ricardo D; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Biosca, Elena G; López, María M; Marco-Noales, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i) E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii) medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle. PMID:25978369

  1. Cellular, physiological, and molecular adaptive responses of Erwinia amylovora to starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander, Ricardo D; Oliver, James D; Biosca, Elena G

    2014-05-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight, a destructive disease of rosaceous plants distributed worldwide. This bacterium is a nonobligate pathogen able to survive outside the host under starvation conditions, allowing its spread by various means such as rainwater. We studied E. amylovora responses to starvation using water microcosms to mimic natural oligotrophy. Initially, survivability under optimal (28 °C) and suboptimal (20 °C) growth temperatures was compared. Starvation induced a loss of culturability much more pronounced at 28 °C than at 20 °C. Natural water microcosms at 20 °C were then used to characterize cellular, physiological, and molecular starvation responses of E. amylovora. Challenged cells developed starvation-survival and viable but nonculturable responses, reduced their size, acquired rounded shapes and developed surface vesicles. Starved cells lost motility in a few days, but a fraction retained flagella. The expression of genes related to starvation, oxidative stress, motility, pathogenicity, and virulence was detected during the entire experimental period with different regulation patterns observed during the first 24 h. Further, starved cells remained as virulent as nonstressed cells. Overall, these results provide new knowledge on the biology of E. amylovora under conditions prevailing in nature, which could contribute to a better understanding of the life cycle of this pathogen. PMID:24476337

  2. Characterization of a new ViI-like Erwinia amylovora bacteriophage phiEa2809.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagonenko, Alexander L; Sadovskaya, Olga; Valentovich, Leonid N; Evtushenkov, Anatoly N

    2015-04-01

    Erwinia amylovora is a Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria causing fire blight disease in many Rosaceae species. A novel E. amylovora bacteriophage, phiEa2809, was isolated from symptomless apple leaf sample collected in Belarus. This phage was also able to infect Pantoea agglomerans strains. The genome of phiEa2809 is a double-stranded linear DNA 162,160 bp in length, including 145 ORFs and one tRNA gene. The phiEa2809 genomic sequence is similar to the genomes of the Serratia plymutica phage MAM1, Shigella phage AG-3, Dickeya phage vB DsoM LIMEstone1 and Salmonella phage ViI and lacks similarity to described E. amylovora phage genomes. Based on virion morphology (an icosahedral head, long contractile tail) and genome structure, phiEa2809 was classified as a member of Myoviridae, ViI-like bacteriophages group. PhiEa2809 is the firstly characterized ViI-like bacteriophage able to lyse E. amylovora. PMID:25714551

  3. Infecção por Treponema pallidum: análise serológica e pesquisa de DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Lino José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    RESUMO: A sífilis é uma infecção causada por T. pallidum que pode ser transmitida por via vertical, por contacto sexual ou por sangue, e cujo diagnóstico se baseia na associação entre manifestações clinicas e testes serológicos. Neste estudo utilizaram-se os testes serológicos RPR, TPHA, FTA-Abs, um teste rápido não comercializado (Signal-Spirolipin) que pesquisa anticorpos treponémicos (CDC-T) e não treponémicos (CDC-2) em simultâneo no mesmo dispositivo e uma técnica de PC...

  4. Choque séptico por ehrliquiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Hernández-de Mezerville

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available La ehrliquiosis humana es una infección zoonótica transmitida por "garrapatas duras" causada por Anaplasma sp y Ehrlichia sp. Puede presentarse como un cuadro pseudogripal con fiebre, malestar general, mialgias y cefalea o hasta un choque séptico con falla multiorgánica y muerte. La mitad de los pacientes requieren atención hospitalaria en algún momento y se reporta una mortalidad de hasta el 5% secundaria a enfermedades oportunistas o a hemorragias. El diagnóstico se puede sospechar visualizando las mórulas intracitoplasmáticas en las células afectadas en frotis de sangre periférica, y se confirma con serología, con cultivos o con detección molecular. El tratamiento de elección es la doxiciclina con buena respuesta clínica. Se reporta un caso probable de ehrliquiosis humana asociado a choque séptico y falla multiorgánica tratado exitosamente en el Hospital Dr. Rafael Angel Calderón Guardia.Human ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by Anaplasma sp and Ehrlichia sp. The presentation can range from a flu-like syndrome with fever, malaise, myalgia and headache to a septic shock state with multiorganic dysfunction. Half the patients require in- hospital care and the mortality rate is 5% as a result of opportunistic infections or hemorrhage. The diagnosis can be made by the visualization of intracytoplasmatic morulae in the blood smear, serology, cultives or polymerase chain reaction. The treatment of choice is doxycicline and generally carries a good response. We report a case of human ehrlichiosis associated with septic shock and multiorganic dysfunction successfully treated at the Calderon Guardia Hospital.

  5. Ocronose exógena induzida por hidroquinona: relato de quatro casos Exogenous ochronosis hydroquinone induced: a report of four cases

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas Ribas; Antonio Pedro Mendes Schettini; Melissa de Sousa Melo Cavalcante

    2010-01-01

    A ocronose exógena é uma dermatose, aparentemente pouco frequente, caracterizada por hiperpigmentação negro-azulada fuliginosa, localizada na região onde foi aplicado o agente causador. Pode ser causada por uso de medicamentos sistêmicos, os antimaláricos e de uso tópico, como fenol, resorcinol, benzeno, ácido pícrico e a hidroquinona - que é um composto fenólico, com propriedade despigmentante, muito utilizado em formulações dermatológicas para o tratamento de melasma e outras hiperpigmentaç...

  6. Edema pulmonar por presión negativa: a propósito de 3 casos Negative pressure pulmonary edema: 3 cases report

    OpenAIRE

    J.R. Ortiz-Gómez; I. Plaja-Marti; F. Sos-Ortigosa; J.J. Pérez-Cajaraville; M. A. Arteche-Andrés; Bengoechea, C.; J. Lobo-Palanco; M. Ahmad-Al-Ghool

    2006-01-01

    El edema agudo pulmonar por presión negativa es una complicación descrita desde 1977 tras la obstrucción de la vía aérea respiratoria, tanto en niños como en adultos. Aunque su etiopatogenia es multifactorial, destaca especialmente la excesiva presión intratorácica negativa causada por la inspiración forzada espontánea de un paciente con la glotis cerrada, que resulta en trasudación de líquido de los capilares pulmonares hacia el espacio alveolointersticial. El edema pulmonar resultante puede...

  7. Histopatologia da leishmaniose tegumentar por Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis: 1. Padrões histopatológicos e estudo evolutivo das lesões

    OpenAIRE

    Albino Verbosa de Magalhães; Mario A. P. Moraes; Alberto N. Raick; Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas; Jackson M. L. Costa; Cesar C. Cuba; Philip D. Marsden

    1986-01-01

    Os autores analisam material de biópsias de 378 casos de Leishmaniose Tegumentar, causada por Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis, da localidade endêmica de Três Braços (Estado da Bahia). O parásitos, embora escassos, foram encontrados em 63,7% dos casos da forma cutânea e em 37,5% dos casos da forma mucosa. As alterações dérmicas ou do córion da mucosa permitiram identificar cinco padrões histopatológicos: 1) Reação Exsudativa Celular, constituída por um infiltrado histiolinfoplasmocitário;...

  8. Efecto de plantas usadas etnomédicamente sobre la actividad hemorrágica y proteolítica inducida por Bothrops asper

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Badilla Baltodano; Fernando Chaves Mora; Luis Jorge Poveda Álvarez; Sandra Jiménez Castro; Gina Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Se evaluó la capacidad para neutralizar la acción hemorrágica y proteolítica causada por el veneno de la serpiente Bothrops asper de extractos acuosos de 5 plantas utilizadas etnomédicamente para tratar este problema. Este trabajo forma parte de un estudio de tamizaje farmacológico sobre las plantas usadas por los curanderos para tratar las mordeduras de serpientes. Se usaron extractos liofilizados de las hojas de Buddleja americana H.B.& K. (Buddlejaceae), Mikania guaco Humb. & Bonpl. (Aster...

  9. Derivation of Mutants of Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum Deficient in Export of Pectolytic Enzymes with Potential for Biological Control of Potato Soft Rot

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, José M.; Loper, Joyce E.

    1994-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum Ecb168 produces an antibiotic(s) that suppresses growth of the related bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in culture and in wounds of potato tubers. Strain Ecb168 also produces and secretes pectolytic enzymes and causes a vascular necrosis and root rot of sugar beet. Genes (out) involved in secretion of pectolytic enzymes by Ecb168 were localized to two HindIII fragments (8.5 and 10.5 kb) of Ecb168 genomic DNA by hybridization to the cloned...

  10. Rapid Identification and Differentiation of the Soft Rot Erwinias by 16S-23S Intergenic Transcribed Spacer-PCR and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, I. K.; Avrova, A. O.; Hyman, L. J.

    2001-01-01

    Current identification methods for the soft rot erwinias are both imprecise and time-consuming. We have used the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) to aid in their identification. Analysis by ITS-PCR and ITS-restriction fragment length polymorphism was found to be a simple, precise, and rapid method compared to current molecular and phenotypic techniques. The ITS was amplified from Erwinia and other genera using universal PCR primers. After PCR, the banding patterns generated al...

  11. Quantificação da floculação de Saccharomyces cerevisiae por bactérias contaminantes da fermentação alcoólica

    OpenAIRE

    LUDWIG K.M.; OLIVA-NETO P.; D. F. Angelis

    2001-01-01

    O assentamento de células de leveduras no fundo das dornas e perdas de células nas centrífugas podem ser causadas por bactérias floculantes, contaminantes naturais da fermentação alcoólica industrial. Estes problemas levam a queda no rendimento e produtividade do etanol. O presente trabalho visa a caracterização da floculação de Saccharomyces cerevisiae por Lactobacillus fermentum CCT 1396. As células de leveduras e bactérias foram misturadas e a floculação das células quantificadas por espec...

  12. Quorum sensing in the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora: the role of expR(Ecc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, R A; Eriksson, A R; Heikinheimo, R; Mäe, A; Pirhonen, M; Kõiv, V; Hyytiäinen, H; Tuikkala, A; Palva, E T

    2000-04-01

    The production of the main virulence determinants of the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, the extracellular cell wall-degrading enzymes, is partly controlled by the diffusible signal molecule N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OHHL). OHHL is synthesized by the product of the expI/carI gene. Linked to expI we found a gene encoding a putative transcriptional regulator of the LuxR-family. This gene, expR(Ecc), is transcribed convergently to the expI gene and the two open reading frames are partially overlapping. The ExpR(Ecc) protein showed extensive amino acid sequence similarity to the repressor EsaR from Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (formerly Erwinia stewartii subsp. stewartii) and to the ExpR(Ech) protein of Erwinia chrysanthemi. Inactivation of the E. carotovora subsp. carotovora expR(Ecc) gene caused no decrease in virulence or production of virulence determinants in vitro. In contrast, there was a slight increase in the maceration capacity of the mutant strain. The effects of ExpR(Ecc) were probably mediated by changes in OHHL levels. Inactivation of expR(Ecc) resulted in increased OHHL levels during early logarithmic growth. In addition, overexpression of expR(Ecc) caused a clear decrease in the production of virulence determinants and part of this effect was likely to be caused by OHHL binding to ExpR(Ecc). ExpR(Ecc) did not appear to exhibit transcriptional regulation of expI, but the effect on OHHL was apparently due to other mechanisms. PMID:10755301

  13. Fagoterapia frente a infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente en ratones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús H Tamariz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la actividad de los bacteriófagos frente a infecciones localizadas y sistémicas producidas por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (MRSA Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de tipo experimental en 45 ratones de la cepa Balb/c divididos en nueve grupos de cinco individuos. Se aislaron diez bacteriófagos nativos a partir de muestras clínicas y efluentes hospitalarios, se evaluó su capacidad lítica y su espectro de actividad, en base a lo cual se seleccionaron seis fagos para los ensayos de fagoterapia. Adicionalmente, se empleó un bacteriófago de origen comercial. La fagoterapia fue evaluada mediante profilaxis y terapia de infecciones localizadas y sistémicas causadas por la inoculación de MRSA por vía subcutánea y endovenosa respectivamente. Se probó la efectividad de tres esquemas terapéuticos: monoterapia, cóctel de fagos en múltiples dosis y de cóctel de fagos en una sola dosis. También se comparó la actividad terapéutica de los fagos frente a vancomicina y clindamicina. Resultados. El cóctel de fagos y la terapia a diversas dosis fueron efectivos para prevenir y controlar infecciones localizadas por MRSA, su actividad fue similar a la de vancomicina y clindamicina. La dosis única del cóctel de fagos no logró controlar la infección localizada; asimismo, la fagoterapia no resultó efectiva en infecciones sistémicas. Conclusiones. La fagoterapia se proyecta como una alternativa viable frente a infecciones causadas por MRSA. Se requieren estudios que evalúen aspectos relacionados con la inocuidad de los fagos frente al paciente

  14. Fagoterapia frente a infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente en ratones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús H Tamariz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la actividad de los bacteriófagos frente a infecciones localizadas y sistémicas producidas por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (MRSA Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de tipo experimental en 45 ratones de la cepa Balb/c divididos en nueve grupos de cinco individuos. Se aislaron diez bacteriófagos nativos a partir de muestras clínicas y efluentes hospitalarios, se evaluó su capacidad lítica y su espectro de actividad, en base a lo cual se seleccionaron seis fagos para los ensayos de fagoterapia. Adicionalmente, se empleó un bacteriófago de origen comercial. La fagoterapia fue evaluada mediante profilaxis y terapia de infecciones localizadas y sistémicas causadas por la inoculación de MRSA por vía subcutánea y endovenosa respectivamente. Se probó la efectividad de tres esquemas terapéuticos: monoterapia, cóctel de fagos en múltiples dosis y de cóctel de fagos en una sola dosis. También se comparó la actividad terapéutica de los fagos frente a vancomicina y clindamicina. Resultados. El cóctel de fagos y la terapia a diversas dosis fueron efectivos para prevenir y controlar infecciones localizadas por MRSA, su actividad fue similar a la de vancomicina y clindamicina. La dosis única del cóctel de fagos no logró controlar la infección localizada; asimismo, la fagoterapia no resultó efectiva en infecciones sistémicas. Conclusiones. La fagoterapia se proyecta como una alternativa viable frente a infecciones causadas por MRSA. Se requieren estudios que evalúen aspectos relacionados con la inocuidad de los fagos frente al paciente

  15. La responsabilidad del Estado por el hecho del legislador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Consuelo Alonso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Analizar el fenómeno de la responsabilidad del Estado causada por los hechos del legislador ha sido un trabajo desarrollado tanto por la doctrina como por la jurisprudencia internacional a mediados del siglo xx. En Francia, por ejemplo, se presentó el primer antecedentejurisprudencial en el año de 1934. En España, su estudio empezó a gestionarse con la promulgación de la Constitución de 1978, dándose el primer fallo judicial en el año de 1993. Para el caso colombiano, la Constitución de 1991 introdujo en su artículo 90 el fundamento constitucional de la responsabilidad patrimonial del Estado, sinque esto significase que la jurisprudencia del Consejo de Estado encontrase las bases de esta responsabilidad en diferentes disposiciones de la Constitución de 1886, tales como los artículos 2º, 16 y 30, que consagró el principio de legalidad del Estado para proteger la vida, honra y bienes de los ciudadanos, y garantizar la propiedad privada y los demás derechos adquiridos con el título de derecho. Sin embargo, los primeros fallos relacionados con este título de imputación en Colombia fueron emitidos por el máximo Tribunal de lo Contencioso Administrativo colombiano en el año de 1998 y por la Corte Constitucional a través de la Sentencia C-038 de 2006, providencia judicial que estableció algunas de las características que posee esta figura jurídica.

  16. Diagnostico por PCR del complejo Sigatoka en Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Magally

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Las Sigatokas negra y amarilla son enfermedades causadas por Mycosphaerella fijiensis y Mycosphaerella musicola respectivamente. Estas dos especies de hongos estrechamente relacionadas y morfológicamente similares, causan necrosis severa en las hojas de banano y plátano disminuyendo el área de tejido fotosintético y acelerando la maduración del fruto. Las enfermedades producidas por estos hongos afectan la mayoría de las áreas cultivadas de banano y plátano a nivel mundial, generando un gran problema económico y ambiental. Los síntomas que produce cada uno de estos patógenos en el cultivo son similares, por lo que su correcta identificación en campo se hace difícil. Con el fin de hacer una identificación precisa de cada uno de ellos decidimos estandarizar una prueba diagnóstica basada en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR utilizando dos oligonucleótidos de 21 bases (MF 137 y MM 137 específicos para cada una de las especies M. fijiensis y M. musicola respectivamente. MF 137 y MM 137 codifican regiones variables identificadas en las secuencias interespaciadoras (ITS del DNA ribosomal.

  17. Molecular and physiological properties of bacteriophages from North America and Germany affecting the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Ina; Lurz, Rudi; Kube, Michael; Quedenau, Claudia; Jelkmann, Wilhelm; Geider, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Summary For possible control of fire blight affecting apple and pear trees, we characterized Erwinia amylovora phages from North America and Germany. The genome size determined by electron microscopy (EM) was confirmed by sequence data and major coat proteins were identified from gel bands by mass spectroscopy. By their morphology from EM data, φEa1h and φEa100 were assigned to the Podoviridae and φEa104 and φEa116 to the Myoviridae. Host ranges were essentially confined to E. amylovora, stra...

  18. In Vitro Studies on Some Natural Beverages as Botanical Pesticides against Erwinia amylovora and Curtobacterium flaccumfaciensis subsp. poinsettiae

    OpenAIRE

    NAS, Mehmet Nuri

    2004-01-01

    Several tannin-rich beverages were tested for their antibacterial activity against 2 important phytopathogenic bacteria, Erwinia amylovora and Curtobacterium flacumfaciensis subsp. poinsettiae. Black tea (9.5, 19 and 38 g l-1), green tea (9.5, 19 and 38 g l-1) and tannic acid (0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 g l-1) inhibited the growth of E. amylovora and C. f. subsp. poinsettiae. Coffee (8.75, 17.5 and 35 g l-1) and cocoa (8.75, 17.5 and 35 g l-1) did not display any inhibitory effect on the growth of bact...

  19. Conductrimetric detection of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar pisi in pea seeds and soft rot Erwinia spp. on potato tubers.

    OpenAIRE

    Fraaije, B. A.

    1996-01-01

    Pea bacterial blight and potato blackleg are diseases caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi ( Psp ) and soft rot Erwinia spp., respectively. The primary source of inoculum for these bacteria is contaminated plant propagation material, i.e. pea seeds and potato tubers. One of the best ways to control the diseases is the use of healthy planting material. To check the health status of this material, sensitive and specific methods are needed to detect the bacteria.In Chapter 2 the use of a cond...

  20. The aroQ-encoded monofunctional chorismate mutase (CM-F) protein is a periplasmic enzyme in Erwinia herbicola.

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, T.; J. Song; Zhao, G.; Aldrich, H; Jensen, R A

    1993-01-01

    Enteric bacteria possess two species of chorismate mutase which exist as catalytic domains on the amino termini of the bifunctional PheA and TyrA proteins. In addition, some of these organisms possess a third chorismate mutase, CM-F, which exists as a small monofunctional protein. The CM-F gene (denoted aroQ) from Erwinia herbicola was cloned and sequenced for the first time. A strategy for selection by functional complementation in a chorismate mutase-free Escherichia coli background was dev...

  1. Erwinia herbicola isolates from alfalfa plants may play a role in nodulation of alfalfa by Rhizobium meliloti.

    OpenAIRE

    Handelsman, J; Brill, W J

    1985-01-01

    Erwinia herbicola was isolated from roots of plants derived from surface-sterilized seeds of all alfalfa varieties that were tested. Some of these E. herbicola strains affected nodulation by certain strains of Rhizobium meliloti. In previously published work we presented the isolation of slow-and fast-nodulating variants from a single culture of R. meliloti 102F51. In the absence of E. herbicola, the slow-nodulating variant induced the formation of nodules on alfalfa as rapidly as the faster-...

  2. RelA-Dependent (p)ppGpp Production Controls Exoenzyme Synthesis in Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jinhong; Gardiol, Noemie; Burr, Tom; Salmond, George P. C.; Welch, Martin

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we investigate the link between nutrient limitation, RelA-mediated (p)ppGpp production, and virulence in the phytopathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica. A relA null mutant (JWC7) was constructed by allelic exchange, and we confirmed that, unlike the wild-type progenitor, this mutant did not produce elevated levels of (p)ppGpp upon nutrient downshift. However, (p)ppGpp production could be restored in strain JWC7 during nutrient limitation by supplying relA in trans. Du...

  3. Compactação causada pelo tráfego de trator em diferentes manejos de solo = Soil compaction induced by tractor traffic in different soil managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Arantes Rodrigues da Cunha

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a compactação do solo causada pelo tráfego de trator, em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico submetido a diferentes tipos de preparo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com arranjo de parcelassubdivididas, considerando os tipos de preparo de solo como tratamentos principais e o número de passadas do trator como tratamentos secundários. Como tratamentos de preparo de solo, além de uma testemunha sem movimentação, foram avaliados: aração com 18 cmde profundidade, aração com 18 cm de profundidade, seguida de gradagem a 10 cm e subsolagem a 40 cm de profundidade. Após o preparo, foi avaliada a resistência do solo à penetração, por meio de um penetrômetro eletrônico, antes da passagem do trator e apósuma, três, cinco e sete vezes a passagem do trator na mesma linha de tráfego. Também se realizou a avaliação de densidade do solo. Concluiu-se que quanto maior a pulverização do solo, maior foi o potencial de compactação. Solos recentemente arados e gradeados forammais susceptíveis à compactação do que solos somente arados ou subsolados. O efeito do tráfego do trator concentrou-se principalmente na camada superficial, e a primeira passada foi a que mais provocou compactação do solo.The objective of this work was to evaluate soil compaction induced bytractor traffic in a Red Latosol (Typic Acrustox, submitted to different soil managements. The experiment was arranged in a subdivided parcel scheme, with types of soil tillage as theprimary soil treatments and the number of tractor passes as secondary treatments. In addition to a control treatment without soil tillage, the treatments were: tilling to a depth of 18 cm, a tilling to a depth of 18 cm followed by harrow use at a depth of 10 cm, and a 40-cm deep subsoil tilling. After preparing the parcels, soil penetration resistance was measured with an electronic penetrometer, before tractor passes and

  4. Erwinia amylovora CRISPR elements provide new tools for evaluating strain diversity and for microbial source tracking.

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    Gayle C McGhee

    Full Text Available Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs comprise a family of short DNA repeat sequences that are separated by non repetitive spacer sequences and, in combination with a suite of Cas proteins, are thought to function as an adaptive immune system against invading DNA. The number of CRISPR arrays in a bacterial chromosome is variable, and the content of each array can differ in both repeat number and in the presence or absence of specific spacers. We utilized a comparative sequence analysis of CRISPR arrays of the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora to uncover previously unknown genetic diversity in this species. A total of 85 E. amylovora strains varying in geographic isolation (North America, Europe, New Zealand, and the Middle East, host range, plasmid content, and streptomycin sensitivity/resistance were evaluated for CRISPR array number and spacer variability. From these strains, 588 unique spacers were identified in the three CRISPR arrays present in E. amylovora, and these arrays could be categorized into 20, 17, and 2 patterns types, respectively. Analysis of the relatedness of spacer content differentiated most apple and pear strains isolated in the eastern U.S. from western U.S. strains. In addition, we identified North American strains that shared CRISPR genotypes with strains isolated on other continents. E. amylovora strains from Rubus and Indian hawthorn contained mostly unique spacers compared to apple and pear strains, while strains from loquat shared 79% of spacers with apple and pear strains. Approximately 23% of the spacers matched known sequences, with 16% targeting plasmids and 5% targeting bacteriophage. The plasmid pEU30, isolated in E. amylovora strains from the western U.S., was targeted by 55 spacers. Lastly, we used spacer patterns and content to determine that streptomycin-resistant strains of E. amylovora from Michigan were low in diversity and matched corresponding streptomycin-sensitive strains

  5. AmyR is a novel negative regulator of amylovoran production in Erwinia amylovora.

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    Dongping Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to understand the role of an orphan gene amyR in Erwinia amylovora, a functionally conserved ortholog of ybjN in Escherichia coli, which has recently been characterized. Amylovoran, a high molecular weight acidic heteropolymer exopolysaccharide, is a virulent factor of E. amylovora. As reported earlier, amylovoran production in an amyR knockout mutant was about eight-fold higher than that in the wild type (WT strain of E. amylovora. When a multicopy plasmid containing the amyR gene was introduced into the amyR mutant or WT strains, amylovoran production was strongly inhibited. Furthermore, amylovoran production was also suppressed in various amylovoran-over-producing mutants, such as grrSA containing multicopies of the amyR gene. Consistent with amylovoran production, an inverse correlation was observed between in vitro expression of amyR and that of amylovoran biosynthetic genes. However, both the amyR knockout mutant and over-expression strains showed reduced levan production, another exopolysaccharide produced by E. amylovora. Virulence assays demonstrated that while the amyR mutant was capable of inducing slightly greater disease severity than that of the WT strain, strains over-expressing the amyR gene did not incite disease on apple shoots or leaves, and only caused reduced disease on immature pear fruits. Microarray studies revealed that amylovoran biosynthesis and related membrane protein-encoding genes were highly expressed in the amyR mutant, but down-regulated in the amyR over-expression strains in vitro. Down-regulation of amylovoran biosynthesis genes in the amyR over-expression strain partially explained why over-expression of amyR led to non-pathogenic or reduced virulence in vivo. These results suggest that AmyR plays an important role in regulating exopolysaccharide production, and thus virulence in E. amylovora.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of l-asparaginase from Erwinia carotovora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Linnea E. K. [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku 20521 (Finland); Krasotkina, Julya; Kuchumova, Anastasia; Sokolov, Nikolay N. [Institute for Biomedical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 559-B, 10 Pogodinskay St, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation); Papageorgiou, Anastassios C., E-mail: tassos.papageorgiou@btk.fi [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku 20521 (Finland)

    2005-04-01

    Er. carotovoral-asparaginase, a potential antileukaemic agent, has been crystallized. Crystals diffract to 2.6 Å using a rotating-anode source and belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 78.0, b = 112.3, c = 78.7 Å, β = 101.9° and a homotetramer in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Bacterial l-asparaginases have been used as therapeutic agents in the treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia for over 30 y. However, their use is limited owing to the glutaminase activity of the administered enzymes, which results in serious side effects. In contrast, l-asparaginase from Erwinia carotovora exhibits low glutaminase activity at physiological concentrations of l-asparagine and l-glutamine in the blood. Recombinant Er. carotovoral-asparaginase was crystallized in the presence of l-glutamate by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 10 mg ml{sup −1} purified enzyme, 16–18%(w/v) PEG 3350 and 0.2 M NaF. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.6 Å at 293 K using an in-house rotating-anode generator. The crystals belong to the monoclinic P2{sub 1} space group, with unit-cell parameters a = 78.0, b = 112.3, c = 78.7 Å, β = 101.9° and a homotetramer in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. A molecular-replacement solution has been found and refinement is currently in progress. The crystal structure may provide leads towards protein-engineering efforts aimed at safer asparaginase administration in leukaemia treatment.

  7. Role of motility and chemotaxis in the pathogenesis of Dickeya dadantii 3937 (ex Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez-Lamas, María; Cabrera-Ordóñez, Ezequiel; López-Solanilla, Emilia; Raposo, Rosa; Trelles-Salazar, Oswaldo; Rodríguez-Moreno, Andrés; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo

    2009-02-01

    Dickeya dadantii 3937 (ex Erwinia chrysanthemi), a member of the Enterobacteriaceae, causes soft rot in many economically important crops. A successful pathogen has to reach the interior of the plant in order to cause disease. To study the role of motility and chemotaxis in the pathogenicity of D. dadantii 3937, genes involved in the chemotactic signal transduction system (cheW, cheB, cheY and cheZ) and in the structure of the flagellar motor (motA) were mutagenized. All the mutant strains grew like the wild-type in culture media, and the production and secretion of pectolytic enzymes was not affected. As expected, the swimming ability of the mutant strains was reduced with respect to the wild-type: motA (94%), cheY (80%), cheW (74%), cheB (54%) and cheZ (48%). The virulence of the mutant strains was analysed in chicory, Saintpaulia and potato. The mutant strains were also tested for their capability to enter into Arabidopsis leaves. All the mutants showed a significant decrease of virulence in certain hosts; however, the degree of virulence reduction varied depending on the virulence assay. The ability to penetrate Arabidopsis leaves was impaired in all the mutants, whereas the capacity to colonize potato tubers after artificial inoculation was affected in only two mutant strains. In general, the virulence of the mutants could be ranked as motA

  8. Global effect of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis on multiple virulence factors of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shihui; Zhang, Qiu; Guo, Jianhua; Charkowski, Amy O; Glick, Bernard R; Ibekwe, A Mark; Cooksey, Donald A; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2007-02-01

    Production of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is widespread among plant-associated microorganisms. The non-gall-forming phytopathogen Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 (strain Ech3937) possesses iaaM (ASAP16562) and iaaH (ASAP16563) gene homologues. In this work, the null knockout iaaM mutant strain Ech138 was constructed. The IAA production by Ech138 was reduced in M9 minimal medium supplemented with l-tryptophan. Compared with wild-type Ech3937, Ech138 exhibited reduced ability to produce local maceration, but its multiplication in Saintpaulia ionantha was unaffected. The pectate lyase production of Ech138 was diminished. Compared with wild-type Ech3937, the expression levels of an oligogalacturonate lyase gene, ogl, and three endopectate lyase genes, pelD, pelI, and pelL, were reduced in Ech138 as determined by a green fluorescent protein-based fluorescence-activated cell sorting promoter activity assay. In addition, the transcription of type III secretion system (T3SS) genes, dspE (a putative T3SS effector) and hrpN (T3SS harpin), was found to be diminished in the iaaM mutant Ech138. Compared with Ech3937, reduced expression of hrpL (a T3SS alternative sigma factor) and gacA but increased expression of rsmA in Ech138 was also observed, suggesting that the regulation of T3SS and pectate lyase genes by IAA biosynthesis might be partially due to the posttranscriptional regulation of the Gac-Rsm regulatory pathway. PMID:17189441

  9. Erwinia amylovora CRISPR elements provide new tools for evaluating strain diversity and for microbial source tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Gayle C; Sundin, George W

    2012-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) comprise a family of short DNA repeat sequences that are separated by non repetitive spacer sequences and, in combination with a suite of Cas proteins, are thought to function as an adaptive immune system against invading DNA. The number of CRISPR arrays in a bacterial chromosome is variable, and the content of each array can differ in both repeat number and in the presence or absence of specific spacers. We utilized a comparative sequence analysis of CRISPR arrays of the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora to uncover previously unknown genetic diversity in this species. A total of 85 E. amylovora strains varying in geographic isolation (North America, Europe, New Zealand, and the Middle East), host range, plasmid content, and streptomycin sensitivity/resistance were evaluated for CRISPR array number and spacer variability. From these strains, 588 unique spacers were identified in the three CRISPR arrays present in E. amylovora, and these arrays could be categorized into 20, 17, and 2 patterns types, respectively. Analysis of the relatedness of spacer content differentiated most apple and pear strains isolated in the eastern U.S. from western U.S. strains. In addition, we identified North American strains that shared CRISPR genotypes with strains isolated on other continents. E. amylovora strains from Rubus and Indian hawthorn contained mostly unique spacers compared to apple and pear strains, while strains from loquat shared 79% of spacers with apple and pear strains. Approximately 23% of the spacers matched known sequences, with 16% targeting plasmids and 5% targeting bacteriophage. The plasmid pEU30, isolated in E. amylovora strains from the western U.S., was targeted by 55 spacers. Lastly, we used spacer patterns and content to determine that streptomycin-resistant strains of E. amylovora from Michigan were low in diversity and matched corresponding streptomycin-sensitive strains from the

  10. Heterogeneous transcription of an indoleacetic acid biosynthetic gene in Erwinia herbicola on plant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, M T; Quiñones, B; Lindow, S E

    2001-03-13

    We investigated the spatial pattern of expression of ipdC, a plant inducible gene involved in indoleacetic acid biosynthesis in Erwinia herbicola, among individual cells on plants to gain a better understanding of the role of this phenotype in the epiphytic ecology of bacteria and the factors involved in the regulation of ipdC. Nonpathogenic E. herbicola strain 299R harboring a transcriptional fusion of ipdC to gfp was inoculated onto bean plants, recovered from individual leaves 48 h after inoculation, and subjected to fluorescence in situ hybridization using a 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probe specific to strain 299R. Epifluorescence images captured through a rhodamine filter were used to distinguish the 5carboxytetramethylrhodamine-labeled cells of strain 299R from other leaf microflora. Quantification of the green fluorescence intensity of individual cells by analysis of digital images revealed that about 65% of the 299R cells recovered from bean leaves had higher ipdC expression than in culture. Additionally, 10% of the cells exhibited much higher levels of green fluorescence than the median fluorescence intensity, indicating that they are more heterogeneous with respect to ipdC expression on plants than in culture. Examination of 299R cells in situ on leaf surfaces by confocal laser scanning microscopy after fluorescence in situ hybridization of cells on leaf samples showed that even cells that were in close proximity exhibited dramatically different green fluorescence intensities, and thus, were in a physical or chemical microenvironment that induced differential expression of ipdC. PMID:11248099

  11. The regulatory cascade that activates the Hrp regulon in Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizan-Koren, R; Manulis, S; Mor, H; Iraki, N M; Barash, I

    2003-03-01

    The pathogenicity of Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae (Ehg) is dependent on a plasmid (pPATH(Ehg)) that harbors the hrp gene cluster and additional virulence genes. The hrp regulatory cascade of Ehg comprises an hrpXY operon encoding a two-component system; hrpS encoding a transcriptional factor of the NtrC family and hrpL encoding an alternative sigma factor. Results obtained suggest the following signal transduction model for activating the Hrp regulon: phosphorylated HrpY activates hrpS, HrpS activates hrpL, and HrpL activates genes containing "hrp box" promoter. This model was supported by studies on the effects of mutations in the regulatory genes on pathogenicity and complementation analysis. Nonpolar mutations in hrpX did not affect virulence or transcription of downstream genes. Site-directed mutagenesis of the conserved aspartate 57 in HrpY suggested that its phosphorylation is crucial for activating the hrp regulatory cascade. Studies on the effects of mutations in the hrp regulatory genes on transcriptional activity of downstream genes or of their isolated promoters in planta showed dependency of hrpS expression on active HrpY, of hrpL expression on active HrpS, and of hrpN or hrpJ expression on active HrpL. These results were also partially supported by overexpression of regulatory genes under in vitro conditions. The hrpXY is constitutively expressed with high basal levels under repressive conditions, in contrast to hrpS and hrpL, which exhibit low basal expression levels and are environmentally regulated. PMID:12650456

  12. Antagonistic potential of Pseudomonas graminis 49M against Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikiciński, Artur; Sobiczewski, Piotr; Puławska, Joanna; Malusa, Eligio

    2016-08-01

    In a previous study (Mikiciński et al. in Eur J Plant Pathol, doi: 10.1007/s10658-015-0837-y , 2015), we described the characterization of novel strain 49M of Pseudomonas graminis, isolated from the phyllosphere of apple trees in Poland showing a good protective activity against fire blight on different organs of host plants. We now report investigations to clarify the basis for this activity. Strain 49M was found to produce siderophores on a medium containing complex CAS-Fe(3+) and HDTMA, but was not able to produce N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Moreover, it formed a biofilm on polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces. Strain 49M gave a positive reaction in PCR with primers complementary to gacA, the regulatory gene influencing the production of several secondary metabolites including antibiotics. The genes prnD (encoding pyrrolnitrin), pltC, pltB (pyoluteorin), phlD (2,4-diacetyl-phloroglucinol) and phzC as well as phzD (and their homologs phzF and phzA encoding phenazine), described for antagonistic fluorescent pseudomonads, however, were not detected. Research into the biotic relationship between strain 49M and Erwinia amylovora strain Ea659 on five microbiological media showed that this strain clearly inhibited the growth of the pathogen on King's B and nutrient agar with glycerol media, to a very small extent on nutrient agar with sucrose, and not at all on Luria-Bertani agar. On medium 925, strain 49M even stimulated E. amylovora growth. The addition of ferric chloride to King's B resulted in the loss of its inhibitory ability. Testing the survival of 49M in vitro showed its resistance to drought, greater than that of E. amylovora. PMID:27002332

  13. EDS1 contributes to nonhost resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana against Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Manon; Degrave, Alexandre; Vedel, Régine; Bitton, Frédérique; Patrit, Oriane; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Barny, Marie-Anne; Fagard, Mathilde

    2012-03-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight in rosaceous plants. In nonhost Arabidopsis thaliana, E. amylovora triggers necrotic symptoms associated with transient bacterial multiplication, suggesting either that A. thaliana lacks a susceptibility factor or that it actively restricts E. amylovora growth. Inhibiting plant protein synthesis at the time of infection led to an increase in necrosis and bacterial multiplication and reduced callose deposition, indicating that A. thaliana requires active protein synthesis to restrict E. amylovora growth. Analysis of the callose synthase-deficient pmr4-1 mutant indicated that lack of callose deposition alone did not lead to increased sensitivity to E. amylovora. Transcriptome analysis revealed that approximately 20% of the genes induced following E. amylovora infection are related to defense and signaling. Analysis of mutants affected in NDR1 and EDS1, two main components of the defense-gene activation observed, revealed that E. amylovora multiplied ten times more in the eds1-2 mutant than in the wild type but not in the ndr1-1 mutant. Analysis of mutants affected in three WRKY transcription factors showing EDS1-dependent activation identified WRKY46 and WRKY54 as positive regulators and WRKY70 as a negative regulator of defense against E. amylovora. Altogether, we show that EDS1 is a positive regulator of nonhost resistance against E. amylovora in A. thaliana and hypothesize that it controls the production of several effective defenses against E. amylovora through the action of WRKY46 and WRKY54, while WRKY70 acts as a negative regulator. PMID:22316300

  14. The fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora requires the rpoN gene for pathogenicity in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Laura S; Lehman, Brian L; Sinn, Judith P; Pfeufer, Emily E; Halbrendt, Noemi O; McNellis, Timothy W

    2013-10-01

    RpoN is a σ(54) factor regulating essential virulence gene expression in several plant pathogenic bacteria, including Pseudomonas syringae and Pectobacterium carotovorum. In this study, we found that mutation of rpoN in the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora caused a nonpathogenic phenotype. The E. amylovora rpoN Tn5 transposon mutant rpoN1250::Tn5 did not cause fire blight disease symptoms on shoots of mature apple trees. In detached immature apple fruits, the rpoN1250::Tn5 mutant failed to cause fire blight disease symptoms and grew to population levels 12 orders of magnitude lower than the wild-type. In addition, the rpoN1250::Tn5 mutant failed to elicit a hypersensitive response when infiltrated into nonhost tobacco plant leaves, and rpoN1250::Tn5 cells failed to express HrpN protein when grown in hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity)-inducing liquid medium. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type rpoN gene complemented all the rpoN1250::Tn5 mutant phenotypes tested. The rpoN1250::Tn5 mutant was prototrophic on minimal solid and liquid media, indicating that the rpoN1250::Tn5 nonpathogenic phenotype was not caused by a defect in basic metabolism or growth. This study provides clear genetic evidence that rpoN is an essential virulence gene of E. amylovora, suggesting that rpoN has the same function in E. amylovora as in P. syringae and Pe. carotovorum. PMID:23721085

  15. Linfadenitis intratorácica, falla respiratoria y muerte por tuberculosis Fatal respiratory failure due to tuberculous intrathoracic lymphadenitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lazaro Vélez

    1989-01-01

    La Iinfadenitis tuberculosa del adulto afecta los ganglios intratorácicos sólo en 5-7% de los casos y generalmente produce poco compromiso sistémico. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 21 anos que murió en Insuficiencia respiratoria debida a la obstrucción bronquial causada por grandes adenopatias hiliares y mediastinales y derrame pleural masi...

  16. Production of isomaltulose obtained by Erwinia sp. cells submitted to different treatments and immobilized in calcium alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Yukio Kawaguti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, there has been an increase in the studies of isomaltulose obtainment, due to its physicochemical properties and physiological health benefits. These properties, which include low cariogenicity, low glycemic index and greater stability, allow the use of this sweetener as a substitute for sucrose in foods; besides the fact that it can be converted to isomalt, a dietary non-cariogenic sugar alcohol used in pharmaceuticals as well as in the food industry. Isomaltulose (6-O-α-D-glucopyronosyl-1-6-D-fructofuranose is a disaccharide reducer obtained by the enzymatic conversion of sucrose - the α-glucosyltransferase enzyme. Different treatments were performed for the preparation of whole cells; lysed cells; and crude enzyme extract of Erwinia sp. D12 strain immobilized in calcium alginate. The packed bed column of granules, containing Erwinia sp. cells sonicated and immobilized in calcium alginate (CSI, reached a maximum conversion of 53-59% sucrose into isomaltulose and it presented activity for 480 hours. The converted syrup was purified and the isomaltulose crystallization was performed through the lowering of temperature. The isomaltulose crystals presented purity of 96.5%.

  17. Genetic organization of the hrp gene cluster and dspAE/BF operon in Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, H; Manulis, S; Zuck, M; Nizan, R; Coplin, D L; Barash, I

    2001-03-01

    Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae induces gall formation in gypsophila that is dependent on the existence of a pathogenicity plasmid (pPATHEhg). We previously demonstrated the presence of several hrp genes on this plasmid. By employing transposon mutagenesis and sequencing, a functional hrp gene cluster on the pPATHEhg has now been characterized completely. The hrp genes of E. herbicola pv. gypsophilae are remarkably similar to and colinear with those of Erwinia amylovora and Pantoea stewartii and generally showed 60 to 90% nucleotide or deduced amino acid identity. E. herbicola pv. gypsophilae, however, lacks hrpW, which is present in E. amylovora. Additionally, E. herbicola pv. gypsophilae mutants deficient in harpin production retained pathogenicity and were slightly reduced in their ability to elicit a hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco. The "disease specific" region, dspA/EB/F, exhibited 60 to 74% identity with the dspA/EB/F loci of E. amylovora and P. stewartii, respectively. Mutations in dspA/E abolished pathogenicity of E. herbicola pv. gypsophilae but not HR elicitation on tobacco. Inactivation of HrpL reduced plant-induced transcription of dspA/E by three orders, indicating Hrp-dependent regulation. PMID:11277443

  18. Molecular and physiological properties of bacteriophages from North America and Germany affecting the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ina; Lurz, Rudi; Kube, Michael; Quedenau, Claudia; Jelkmann, Wilhelm; Geider, Klaus

    2011-11-01

    For possible control of fire blight affecting apple and pear trees, we characterized Erwinia amylovora phages from North America and Germany. The genome size determined by electron microscopy (EM) was confirmed by sequence data and major coat proteins were identified from gel bands by mass spectroscopy. By their morphology from EM data, φEa1h and φEa100 were assigned to the Podoviridae and φEa104 and φEa116 to the Myoviridae. Host ranges were essentially confined to E. amylovora, strains of the species Erwinia pyrifoliae, E. billingiae and even Pantoea stewartii were partially sensitive. The phages φEa1h and φEa100 were dependent on the amylovoran capsule of E. amylovora, φEa104 and φEa116 were not. The Myoviridae efficiently lysed their hosts and protected apple flowers significantly better than the Podoviridae against E. amylovora and should be preferred in biocontrol experiments. We have also isolated and partially characterized E. amylovora phages from apple orchards in Germany. They belong to the Podoviridae or Myoviridae with a host range similar to the phages isolated in North America. In EM measurements, the genome sizes of the Podoviridae were smaller than the genomes of the Myoviridae from North America and from Germany, which differed from each other in corresponding nucleotide sequences. PMID:21791029

  19. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of the Fire Blight Pathogen, Erwinia amylovora, Isolated from Apple and Pear Orchards in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader A. Ashmawy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven Erwinia amylovora isolates, the causal agent of the fire blight disease, were isolated from apple orchards adjacent to those of pears showing fire blight disease symptoms. Initial characterization concerning morphological and biochemical traits revealed that all isolates were typical to those of E. amylovora. Furthermore, all bacterial isolates showed typical symptoms of the fire blight disease upon infection of unripe pear fruits. Molecular characterization of these isolates via PCR utilizing specific primers based on a region of plasmid pEA29 and chromosomal DNA ams–region was performed. PCR products were positive and represented the expected length 1.1 and 1.6 kb, respectively. Moreover, PCR reactions utilizing the 16S rRNA universal primers were carried out. DNA sequence of PCR products and analysis via blast and Genbank data showed that, the bacterial isolates actually belonging to E. amylovora. Moreover, there are interference between these Erwinia isolates and identified E. amylovora strains based on constructed phylogenetic analysis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of fire blight of apples caused by E. amylovora in Egypt.

  20. Gene-for-gene relationship in the host-pathogen system Malus × robusta 5-Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Isabelle; Wöhner, Thomas; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Sundin, George W; Wensing, Annette; Savory, Elizabeth A; Geider, Klaus; Day, Brad; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Peil, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Fire blight is a destructive bacterial disease caused by Erwinia amylovora affecting plants in the family Rosaceae, including apple. Host resistance to fire blight is present mainly in accessions of Malus spp. and is thought to be quantitative in this pathosystem. In this study we analyzed the importance of the E. amylovora effector avrRpt2(EA) , a homolog of Pseudomonas syringae avrRpt2, for resistance of Malus × robusta 5 (Mr5). The deletion mutant E. amylovora Ea1189ΔavrRpt2(EA) was able to overcome the fire blight resistance of Mr5. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), resulting in an exchange of cysteine to serine in the encoded protein, was detected in avrRpt2(EA) of several Erwinia strains differing in virulence to Mr5. E. amylovora strains encoding serine (S-allele) were able to overcome resistance of Mr5, whereas strains encoding cysteine (C-allele) were not. Allele specificity was also observed in a coexpression assay with Arabidopsis thaliana RIN4 in Nicotiana benthamiana. A homolog of RIN4 has been detected and isolated in Mr5. These results suggest a system similar to the interaction of RPS2 from A. thaliana and AvrRpt2 from P. syringae with RIN4 as guard. Our data are suggestive of a gene-for-gene relationship for the host-pathogen system Mr5 and E. amylovora. PMID:23301854

  1. Mutational analysis of a predicted double β-propeller domain of the DspA/E effector of Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siamer, Sabrina; Gaubert, Stéphane; Boureau, Tristan; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle; Barny, Marie-Anne

    2013-05-01

    The bacterium Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight, an invasive disease that threatens apple trees, pear trees and other plants of the Rosaceae family. Erwinia amylovora pathogenicity relies on a type III secretion system and on a single effector DspA/E. This effector belongs to the widespread AvrE family of effectors whose biological function is unknown. In this manuscript, we performed a bioinformatic analysis of DspA/E- and AvrE-related effectors. Motif search identified nuclear localization signals, peroxisome targeting signals, endoplasmic reticulum membrane retention signals and leucine zipper motifs, but none of these motifs were present in all the AvrE-related effectors analysed. Protein threading analysis, however, predicted a conserved double β-propeller domain in the N-terminal part of all the analysed effector sequences. We then performed a random pentapeptide mutagenesis of DspA/E, which led to the characterization of 13 new altered proteins with a five amino acids insertion. Eight harboured the insertion inside the predicted β-propeller domain and six of these eight insertions impaired DspA/E stability or function. Conversely, the two remaining insertions generated proteins that were functional and abundantly secreted in the supernatant suggesting that these two insertions stabilized the protein. PMID:23421848

  2. Pathogenicity and infection strategies of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora in Rosaceae: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, K; Holtappels, M; Schoofs, H; Deckers, T; Valcke, R

    2013-05-01

    Plants are host to a large amount of pathogenic bacteria. Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is an important disease in Rosaceae. Pathogenicity of E. amylovora is greatly influenced by the production of exopolysaccharides, such as amylovoran, and the use of the type III secretion system, which enables bacteria to penetrate host tissue and cause disease. When infection takes place, plants have to rely on the ability of each cell to recognize the pathogen and the signals emanating from the infection site in order to generate several defence mechanisms. These mechanisms consist of physical barriers and the production of antimicrobial components, both in a preformed and an inducible manner. Inducible defence responses are activated upon the recognition of elicitor molecules by plant cell receptors, either derived from invading micro-organisms or from pathogen-induced degradation of plant tissue. This recognition event triggers a signal transduction cascade, leading to a range of defence responses [reactive oxygen species (ROS), plant hormones, secondary metabolites, …] and redeployment of cellular energy in a fast, efficient and multiresponsive manner, which prevents further pathogen ingress. This review highlights the research that has been performed during recent years regarding this specific plant-pathogen interaction between Erwinia amylovora and Rosaceae, with a special emphasis on the pathogenicity and the infection strategy of E. amylovora and the possible defence mechanisms of the plant against this disease. PMID:23493063

  3. The Differences among Pear Genotypes to Fire Blight (Erwinia amylovora Attack, Based on Observations of Natural Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana F. SESTRAS

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most damaging diseases of pear in the world. In Cluj-Napoca area, situated in central Transylvania, Romania, fire blight was observed first in 1994, very late comparative with the other countries from occidental Europe. The response of the pear cultivars and species from National Pear Collection from Cluj-Napoca to fire blight attack, assessed in natural conditions of infection, range on a large scale of variability, which denotes a strong influence of the genotype in expression of resistance or sensitivity to disease. From all genotypes, about 20.5% have not presented symptoms of attack, among them being the following: 'Blanquet precoce', 'Klementinka', 'Severianka', 'Beurre Bachelier', 'Kieffer Seedling', 'Er Shi Shinge', 'Beurre Amanlis', 'Bristol Cross', 'Beurre Liegel', 'Beurre Lucon', 'Grand Champion', 'Magness', 'Mericourt' etc. and several ancient autochthonous cultivars ('Pere malaiete', 'De zahar de Bihor', 'Cu miez rosu', 'Clopotele', 'Garoafa mare', 'Craiese', 'Para de apa'. Also, there were identified several species of Pyrus with no attack, as P. pollveria, P. common pear, P. lindlezi, P. malifolia, P. persica, P. ussuriensis, P. variolosa. The remarked genotypes could be potential sources for further breeding programmes and increase the number of genotypes available for breeding new pear cultivars resistant to Erwinia attack.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis BSn5, an Endophytic Bacterium of Amorphophallus konjac with Antimicrobial Activity for the Plant Pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Yun; Zhu, Yiguang; Wang, Pengxia; Zhu, Lei; Zheng, Jinshui; Li, Rong; Ruan, Lifang; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis strain BSn5, isolated from Amorphophallus konjac calli tissue and showing strong inhibitory activity to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, which causes Amorphophallus soft rot disease and affects the industry development of this organism.

  5. Halogenated furanones from the red alga, Delisea pulchra, inhibit carbapenem antibiotic synthesis and exoenzyme virulence factor production in the phytopathogen Erwinia carotovora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manefield, M.; Welch, M.; Givskov, Michael Christian; Salmond, G.P.C.; Kjelleberg, S.

    2001-01-01

    The plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora regulates expression of virulence factors and antibiotic production via an N-3- oxohexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) dependent quorum sensing mechanism. The marine alga Delisea pulchra produces halogenated furanones known to antagonise 3-oxo-C6-HSL...

  6. Compactação causada pelo tráfego de trator em diferentes manejos de solo = Soil compaction induced by tractor traffic in different soil managements

    OpenAIRE

    João Paulo Arantes Rodrigues da Cunha; Vinicius Nery Cascão; Elton Fialho dos Reis

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a compactação do solo causada pelo tráfego de trator, em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico submetido a diferentes tipos de preparo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com arranjo de parcelassubdivididas, considerando os tipos de preparo de solo como tratamentos principais e o número de passadas do trator como tratamentos secundários. Como tratamentos de preparo de solo, além de uma testemunha sem movimentação, foram aval...

  7. Predictive modelling of the combined effect of temperature and water activity on the in vitro growth of Erwinia spp. infecting potato tubers in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh, AA.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia carotovora ssp. atroseptica (Eca, Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora (Ecc and Erwinia chrysanthemi (Ech, are the main cause of potato tuber decay (soft rot in storage and stem rot in the field (blackleg. The bacteria are characterized by the production of several extracellular pectic enzymes among them Pectate Lyase (PEL activity is the most important key of pathogenesis. It has been reported that ecological parameters such as humidity and temperature, greatly influence the disease development. The objective of this work was to determine the in vitro effect of water activity (0.960, 0.980, 0.997 and temperature (10, 15 and 20°C and their interactions on the growth parameters of Eca, Ecc and Ech using optical density (OD measurement. The maximum specific growth rate (µmax was calculated under each aw-temperature combinations for the three Erwinia species. Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of aw and temperature on µmax. We noticed that Eca and Ecc grow faster than Ech in our condition. A second aim of this work was to monitor the PEL specific activity under the combined effect of these two factors (aw-temperature. Our results showed an increase of PEL specific activity with the temperature whatever are the bacterial strains. But contrary to growth, this research did not show an increase of PEL specific activity with aw except the treatment at 15 and 20°C for all bacteria strains. According to our obtained results on growth and PEL production we concluded that Eca 03034/1 and Ecc 030033 had the same ecological behavior comparatively to Ech 03/016/1 in the range of the values of the two factors (aw and temperature investigated here. To our knowledge, this research is the first publication which pointed out the combined in vitro effect of aw and temperature on the growth of Erwinia genius according to literature data.

  8. Osteomalacia inducida por tumor: hemangiopericitoma rinosinusal Tumor-induced osteomalacia: rhinosinusal hemangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enriqueta M. Serafini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La osteomalacia inducida por tumor es una rara enfermedad del metabolismo óseo caracterizada por el aumento en la excreción de fosfato a nivel renal seguido de hipofosfatemia. Es causada por agentes fosfatúricos producidos por determinados tumores. La resección total del tumor resulta en la completa reversión de las anormalidades bioquímicas, la desaparición de las manifestaciones clínicas y los hallazgos en los estudios por imágenes. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 61 años con cuadro clínico y laboratorio compatibles con osteomalacia oncogénica inducida por tumor mesenquimático de localización rinosinusal. En nuestro caso el diagnóstico histológico correspondió a una neoplasia de tipo vascular: hemangiopericitoma.Tumor-induced osteomalacia is a rare disease of bone metabolism. The characteristic of this disease is an increase in phosphate excretion followed by hypophosphatemia, due to phosphaturic agents produced by different types of tumors. Tumor resection results in complete resolution of clinical, biochemical and radiological abnormalities. We present the case of a 61 year old man with signs, symptoms and laboratory findings consistent with oncogenic osteomalacia due to a rhino-sinusal mesenchymal tumor. The histological diagnosis showed a vascular neoplasm: hemangiopericytoma.

  9. Erwinia carotovora elicitors and Botrytis cinerea activate defense responses in Physcomitrella patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentancor Marcel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular plants respond to pathogens by activating a diverse array of defense mechanisms. Studies with these plants have provided a wealth of information on pathogen recognition, signal transduction and the activation of defense responses. However, very little is known about the infection and defense responses of the bryophyte, Physcomitrella patens, to well-studied phytopathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine: i whether two representative broad host range pathogens, Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora (E.c. carotovora and Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea, could infect Physcomitrella, and ii whether B. cinerea, elicitors of a harpin (HrpN producing E.c. carotovora strain (SCC1 or a HrpN-negative strain (SCC3193, could cause disease symptoms and induce defense responses in Physcomitrella. Results B. cinerea and E.c. carotovora were found to readily infect Physcomitrella gametophytic tissues and cause disease symptoms. Treatments with B. cinerea spores or cell-free culture filtrates from E.c. carotovoraSCC1 (CF(SCC1, resulted in disease development with severe maceration of Physcomitrella tissues, while CF(SCC3193 produced only mild maceration. Although increased cell death was observed with either the CFs or B. cinerea, the occurrence of cytoplasmic shrinkage was only visible in Evans blue stained protonemal cells treated with CF(SCC1 or inoculated with B. cinerea. Most cells showing cytoplasmic shrinkage accumulated autofluorescent compounds and brown chloroplasts were evident in a high proportion of these cells. CF treatments and B. cinerea inoculation induced the expression of the defense-related genes: PR-1, PAL, CHS and LOX. Conclusion B. cinerea and E.c. carotovora elicitors induce a defense response in Physcomitrella, as evidenced by enhanced expression of conserved plant defense-related genes. Since cytoplasmic shrinkage is the most common morphological change observed in plant PCD, and that harpins and B

  10. Characterization of indigoidine biosynthetic genes in Erwinia chrysanthemi and role of this blue pigment in pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverchon, Sylvie; Rouanet, Carine; Expert, Dominique; Nasser, William

    2002-02-01

    In the plant-pathogenic bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi production of pectate lyases, the main virulence determinant, is modulated by a complex network involving several regulatory proteins. One of these regulators, PecS, also controls the synthesis of a blue pigment identified as indigoidine. Since production of this pigment is cryptic in the wild-type strain, E. chrysanthemi ind mutants deficient in indigoidine synthesis were isolated by screening a library of Tn5-B21 insertions in a pecS mutant. These ind mutations were localized close to the regulatory pecS-pecM locus, immediately downstream of pecM. Sequence analysis of this DNA region revealed three open reading frames, indA, indB, and indC, involved in indigoidine biosynthesis. No specific function could be assigned to IndA. In contrast, IndB displays similarity to various phosphatases involved in antibiotic synthesis and IndC reveals significant homology with many nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). The IndC product contains an adenylation domain showing the signature sequence DAWCFGLI for glutamine recognition and an oxidation domain similar to that found in various thiazole-forming NRPS. These data suggest that glutamine is the precursor of indigoidine. We assume that indigoidine results from the condensation of two glutamine molecules that have been previously cyclized by intramolecular amide bond formation and then dehydrogenated. Expression of ind genes is strongly derepressed in the pecS background, indicating that PecS is the main regulator of this secondary metabolite synthesis. DNA band shift assays support a model whereby the PecS protein represses indA and indC expression by binding to indA and indC promoter regions. The regulatory link, via pecS, between indigoidine and virulence factor production led us to explore a potential role of indigoidine in E. chrysanthemi pathogenicity. Mutants impaired in indigoidine production were unable to cause systemic invasion of potted Saintpaulia ionantha

  11. Characterization of the pelL gene encoding a novel pectate lyase of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojkowska, E; Masclaux, C; Boccara, M; Robert-Baudouy, J; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N

    1995-06-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 secretes five major isoenzymes of pectate lyases encoded by the pelA, pelB, pelC, pelD and pelE genes. Recently, a new set of pectate lyases was identified in E. chrysanthemi mutants deleted of those pel genes. We cloned the pelL gene, encoding one of these secondary pectate lyases of E. chrysanthemi 3937, from a genomic bank of a strain deleted of the five major pel genes. The nucleotide sequence of the region containing the pelL gene was determined. The pelL reading frame is 1275 bases long, corresponding to a protein of 425 amino acids including a typical amino-terminal signal sequence of 25 amino acids. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of PelL and the exo-pectate lyase PelX of E. chrysanthemi EC16 revealed a low homology, limited to 220 residues of the central part of the proteins. No homology was detected with other bacterial pectinolytic enzymes. Regulation of pelL transcription was analysed using gene fusion. As shown for the other pel genes, the transcription of pelL is dependent on various environmental conditions. It is induced by pectic catabolic products and affected by growth phase, temperature, iron starvation, osmolarity, anaerobiosis, nitrogen starvation and catabolite repression. Regulation of pelL expression appeared to be independent of the KdgR repressor, which controls all the steps of pectin catabolism. In contrast, the pecS gene, which is involved in regulation of the synthesis of the major pectate lyases and of cellulase, also appeared to be involved in pelL expression. The PelL protein is able to macerate plant tissue. This enzyme has a basic isoelectric point, presents an endo-cleaving activity on polygalacturonate or partially methylated pectin, with a basic pH optimum and an absolute requirement for Ca2+. The pelL mutant displayed a reduced virulence on potato tubers and Saintpaulia ionantha plants, demonstrating the important role of this enzyme in soft-rot disease. PMID:8577252

  12. Characterization of the exopolygalacturonate lyase PelX of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchik, V E; Kester, H C; Benen, J A; Visser, J; Robert-Baudouy, J; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N

    1999-03-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 secretes several pectinolytic enzymes, among which eight isoenzymes of pectate lyases with an endo-cleaving mode (PelA, PelB, PelC, PelD, PelE, PelI, PelL, and PelZ) have been identified. Two exo-cleaving enzymes, the exopolygalacturonate lyase, PelX, and an exo-poly-alpha-D-galacturonosidase, PehX, have been previously identified in other E. chrysanthemi strains. Using a genomic bank of a 3937 mutant with the major pel genes deleted, we cloned a pectinase gene identified as pelX, encoding the exopolygalacturonate lyase. The deduced amino acid sequence of the 3937 PelX is very similar to the PelX of another E. chrysanthemi strain, EC16, except in the 43 C-terminal amino acids. PelX also has homology to the endo-pectate lyase PelL of E. chrysanthemi but has a N-terminal extension of 324 residues. The transcription of pelX, analyzed by gene fusions, is dependent on several environmental conditions. It is induced by pectic catabolic products and affected by growth phase, oxygen limitation, nitrogen starvation, and catabolite repression. Regulation of pelX expression is dependent on the KdgR repressor, which controls almost all the steps of pectin catabolism, and on the global activator of sugar catabolism, cyclic AMP receptor protein. In contrast, PecS and PecT, two repressors of the transcription of most pectate lyase genes, are not involved in pelX expression. The pelX mutant displayed reduced pathogenicity on chicory leaves, but its virulence on potato tubers or Saintpaulia ionantha plants did not appear to be affected. The purified PelX protein has no maceration activity on plant tissues. Tetragalacturonate is the best substrate of PelX, but PelX also has good activity on longer oligomers. Therefore, the estimated number of binding subsites for PelX is 4, extending from subsites -2 to +2. PelX and PehX were shown to be localized in the periplasm of E. chrysanthemi 3937. PelX catalyzed the formation of unsaturated digalacturonates by

  13. Prevenção de injúrias causadas por glyphosate em soja RR por meio do uso de aminoácido Prevention of RR soybean injuries caused by exogenous supply of aminoacids

    OpenAIRE

    L.H.S. Zobiole; R.S. Oliveira Jr.; J. Constantin; D.F. Biffe

    2011-01-01

    A área de soja resistente ao glyphosate (RR) tem aumentado a cada ano. No entanto, essa expansão com a tecnologia da soja RR aumentou o uso de glyphosate significativamente, e muitos agricultores têm notado que alguns cultivares RR apresentam injúrias visuais logo após a aplicação do glyphosate em pós-emergência. Dessa forma, dois experimentos foram instalados em anos distintos, com diferentes objetivos: o primeiro, visando avaliar a influência do glyphosate na soja RR nas variáveis fotossint...

  14. Treinamento resistido controla a pressão arterial de ratos hipertensos induzidos por l-NAME Resistance training controls arterial blood pressure in rats with L-NAME- induced hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Ayslan Jorge Santos de Araujo; Anne Carolline Veríssimo dos Santos; Karine dos Santos Souza; Marlúcia Bastos Aires; Valter Joviniano Santana-Filho; Emerson Ticona Fioretto; Marcelo Mendonça Mota; Márcio Roberto Viana Santos

    2013-01-01

    FUNDAMENTO: A hipertensão arterial é uma síndrome multifatorial, crônica, causada tanto por fatores congênitos ou adquiridos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do treinamento físico resistido (TR) sobre pressão arterial, reatividade e morfologia vascular de ratos hipertensos induzidos por L-NAME. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar machos (200-250 g) foram divididos em 3 grupos: normotenso sedentário (NS), hipertenso sedentário (HS) e hipertenso treinado (HT). A hipertensão foi induzida pela administração de L-...

  15. Relación entre ruido por carga vehicular, molestia y atención escolar en estudiantes de nivel básico de la ciudad de Toluca 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elva Campuzano González

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dos escuelas públicas de la ciudad de Toluca con diferente afluencia vehicular fueron seleccionadas para el estudio. Se realizaron medidas internas y externas de los niveles de ruido; los niveles de ruido encontrados sobrepasan los recomendados por la oms. Se aplicaron dos test de atención a los alumnos de las escuelas. El nivel de atención fue mejor para la escuela con menos tránsito. En el personal de ambas escuelas hubo molestia causada por el ruido vehicular.

  16. Relación entre ruido por carga vehicular, molestia y atención escolar en estudiantes de nivel básico de la ciudad de Toluca 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Elva Campuzano González; Lilia Patricia Bustamante Montes; Miguel Angel Karam Calderón; Ninfa Ramírez Durán

    2010-01-01

    Dos escuelas públicas de la ciudad de Toluca con diferente afluencia vehicular fueron seleccionadas para el estudio. Se realizaron medidas internas y externas de los niveles de ruido; los niveles de ruido encontrados sobrepasan los recomendados por la oms. Se aplicaron dos test de atención a los alumnos de las escuelas. El nivel de atención fue mejor para la escuela con menos tránsito. En el personal de ambas escuelas hubo molestia causada por el ruido vehicular.

  17. Efectos de la administración de un inhibidor de la recaptación de serotonina, Sertralina, sobre los cambios inducidos por el estrés prenatal

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo Pereira de, Inês

    2016-01-01

    [ES] En las postrimerías del siglo pasado, se constató una vez más que las alteraciones causadas por estrés y ansiedad en la sociedad moderna, se encuentran entre los problemas de salud más comunes. Según la Organización Mundial de Salud (OMS), al menos el 25% de los adultos sufrirá alguna forma de trastornos por ansiedad en algún momento de su vida (Gordon y Hen, 2004; Anacker y cols., 2010), siendo las mujeres más susceptibles a este tipo de trastornos (Olff y cols., 2007). ...

  18. Intoxicação exógena por “chumbinho” como forma de autoextermínio no Estado de Goiás, 2003 - 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Carolina Sousa da Silva; Fábio Paulo Vilela; Graciela Mara Ordones do Nascimento Brandão

    2010-01-01

    A intoxicação exógena por chumbinho é considerada importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade no Brasil devido ao fácil acesso, baixo custo e por sua eficácia frente às tentativas de suicídio, tornando-se um problema de Saúde Pública. No Estado de Goiás não existem levantamentos sobre esse tipo de intoxicação, causadas intencionalmente, designando esta investigação. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, retrospectivo documental com abordagem quantitativa, com o objetivo de estabelecer o perfil da...

  19. Pansinusitis y afectación intracraneal por implante dental Pansinusitis and intracranial impact of a dental implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Rubio-Palau

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Las sinusitis odontógenas son una patología relativamente frecuente causada por infecciones dentales, quistes periapicales así como tras procedimientos bucodentales como una endodoncia, una elevación sinusal o la colocación de un implante. A continuación se presenta un caso extremo de una pansinusitis derecha con fistulización a espacio epidural causada por un implante osteointegrado. Ante la sospecha de una sinusitis maxilar de origen odontogénico se debe iniciar rápidamente un tratamiento antibiótico correcto y un seguimiento estrecho ya que pueden tener consecuencias fatales como la pérdida de un ojo, abscesos cerebrales o incluso la muerte.Odontogenic sinusitis is a relatively common disease caused by dental infections, periapical cysts and oral procedures such as root canal, sinus lift or implant placement. We report an extreme case of a right pansinusitis with an epidural space fistula caused by osseointegrated implants. When maxillary sinusitis of odontogenic origin is suspected, we should quickly start effective antibiotic treatment and monitor the patient closely because odontogenic sinusitis can have serious consequences, such as the loss of an eye, brain abscess or death.

  20. Characterization and plasmid profile of an inhibitory strain of Erwinia herbicola isolated from Phaseolous vulgaris in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Hendawy, H H; Azab, E A

    1999-01-01

    Erwinia herbicola strain 48 was isolated from diseased phaseolous seedlings and characterized by biochemical properties, cellular fatty acid analysis and SDS-PAGE of the soluble cell protein. Although cellular fatty acid profile and the soluble cellular protein pattern showed high degree of similarity in comparison to those from E. herbicola strain 347417, obtained from the International Mycological Institute U.K., plasmid profiles were different. Both strains harbor a 23.1 kb plasmid, in addition, E. herbicola 48 contains 2 more plasmids (26.8 and 32.5 kb). The antagonism of E. herbicola 48 against a number of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was tested in vitro. Only Gram-negative bacteria were inhibited, suggesting that the inhibitory factor is likely to be bacteriocin. PMID:10052157

  1. Potent and specific bactericidal effect of juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) on the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thilo Christopher; Gosch, Christian; Mirbeth, Beate; Gselmann, Markus; Thallmair, Veronika; Stich, Karl

    2012-12-12

    A screening of plant quinones for inhibiting effects on the bacterial fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora was performed. The most active compound, juglone from walnuts, has a potent and specific bactericidal effect on E. amylovora and minimal inhibitory concentrations of only 2.5-10 μM, with stronger effects at lower, but still physiological, pH values. In vitro tests with juglone and inoculated flowers of apple (Malus domestica) showed an efficacy of 67% in preventing infection. In two years of field tests juglone had variable degrees of efficacy ranging from 40 to 82%, seemingly due to environmental conditions. A phytotoxic reaction to juglone, which is known for its allelopathic effect on plants, was restricted to browning of petals; later fruit russeting was not observed. Juglone is a promising candidate for the development of a new environmentally friendly plant protectant to replace the antibiotic streptomycin currently used in fire blight control. PMID:23163769

  2. Genetic characterization of the HrpL regulon of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora reveals novel virulence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, R Ryan; Toth, Ian K; Cock, Peter J A; Pritchard, Leighton; Hedley, Pete E; Morris, Jenny A; Zhao, Youfu; Sundin, George W

    2012-02-01

    The bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight, an economically significant disease of apple and pear. Disease initiation by E. amylovora requires the translocation of effector proteins into host cells via the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) type III secretion system (T3SS). The alternative sigma factor HrpL positively regulates the transcription of structural and translocated components of the T3SS via hrp promoter elements. To characterize genome-wide HrpL-dependent gene expression in E. amylovora Ea1189, wild-type and Ea1189ΔhrpL strains were cultured in hrp-inducing minimal medium, and total RNA was compared using a custom microarray designed to represent the annotated genes of E. amylovora ATCC 49946. The results revealed 24 genes differentially regulated in Ea1189ΔhrpL relative to Ea1189 with fold-change expression ratios greater than 1.5; of these, 19 genes exhibited decreased transcript abundance and five genes showed increased transcript abundance relative to Ea1189. To expand our understanding of the HrpL regulon and to elucidate direct versus indirect HrpL-mediated effects on gene expression, the genome of E. amylovora ATCC 49946 was examined in silico using a hidden Markov model assembled from known Erwinia spp. hrp promoters. This technique identified 15 putative type III novel hrp promoters, seven of which were validated with quantitative polymerase chain reaction based on expression analyses. It was found that HrpL-regulated genes encode all known components of the hrp T3SS, as well as five putative type III effectors. Eight genes displayed apparent indirect HrpL regulation, suggesting that the HrpL regulon is connected to downstream signalling networks. The construction of deletion mutants of three novel HrpL-regulated genes resulted in the identification of additional virulence factors as well as mutants displaying abnormal motility and biofilm phenotypes. PMID:21831138

  3. Complete genome sequence of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia pyrifoliae DSM 12163T and comparative genomic insights into plant pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frey Jürg E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Erwinia pyrifoliae is a newly described necrotrophic pathogen, which causes fire blight on Asian (Nashi pear and is geographically restricted to Eastern Asia. Relatively little is known about its genetics compared to the closely related main fire blight pathogen E. amylovora. Results The genome of the type strain of E. pyrifoliae strain DSM 12163T, was sequenced using both 454 and Solexa pyrosequencing and annotated. The genome contains a circular chromosome of 4.026 Mb and four small plasmids. Based on their respective role in virulence in E. amylovora or related organisms, we identified several putative virulence factors, including type III and type VI secretion systems and their effectors, flagellar genes, sorbitol metabolism, iron uptake determinants, and quorum-sensing components. A deletion in the rpoS gene covering the most conserved region of the protein was identified which may contribute to the difference in virulence/host-range compared to E. amylovora. Comparative genomics with the pome fruit epiphyte Erwinia tasmaniensis Et1/99 showed that both species are overall highly similar, although specific differences were identified, for example the presence of some phage gene-containing regions and a high number of putative genomic islands containing transposases in the E. pyrifoliae DSM 12163T genome. Conclusions The E. pyrifoliae genome is an important addition to the published genome of E. tasmaniensis and the unfinished genome of E. amylovora providing a foundation for re-sequencing additional strains that may shed light on the evolution of the host-range and virulence/pathogenicity of this important group of plant-associated bacteria.

  4. Genome comparison of the epiphytic bacteria Erwinia billingiae and E. tasmaniensis with the pear pathogen E. pyrifoliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhl Heiner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Erwinia includes plant-associated pathogenic and non-pathogenic Enterobacteria. Important pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, the causative agent of fire blight and E. pyrifoliae causing bacterial shoot blight of pear in Asia belong to this genus. The species E. tasmaniensis and E. billingiae are epiphytic bacteria and may represent antagonists for biocontrol of fire blight. The presence of genes that are putatively involved in virulence in E. amylovora and E. pyrifoliae is of special interest for these species in consequence. Results Here we provide the complete genome sequences of the pathogenic E. pyrifoliae strain Ep1/96 with a size of 4.1 Mb and of the non-pathogenic species E. billingiae strain Eb661 with a size of 5.4 Mb, de novo determined by conventional Sanger sequencing and next generation sequencing techniques. Genome comparison reveals large inversions resulting from homologous recombination events. Furthermore, comparison of deduced proteins highlights a relation of E. billingiae strain Eb661 to E. tasmaniensis strain Et1/99 and a distance to E. pyrifoliae for the overall gene content as well as for the presence of encoded proteins representing virulence factors for the pathogenic species. Pathogenicity of E. pyrifoliae is supposed to have evolved by accumulation of potential virulence factors. E. pyrifoliae carries factors for type III secretion and cell invasion. Other genes described as virulence factors for E. amylovora are involved in the production of exopolysaccharides, the utilization of plant metabolites such as sorbitol and sucrose. Some virulence-associated genes of the pathogenic species are present in E. tasmaniensis but mostly absent in E. billingiae. Conclusion The data of the genome analyses correspond to the pathogenic lifestyle of E. pyrifoliae and underlines the epiphytic localization of E. tasmaniensis and E. billingiae as a saprophyte.

  5. Identification of a bacterial pectin acetyl esterase in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchik, V E; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N

    1997-06-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi causes soft-rot diseases of various plants by enzymatic degradation of the pectin in plant cell walls. The structural complexity of pectin requires the combined action of several pectinases for its efficient breakdown. Three types of pectinases have so far been identified in E. chrysanthemi: two pectin methyl esterases (PemA, PemB), a polygalacturonase (PehX), and eight pectate lyases (PelA, PelB, PelC, PelD, PelE, PelL, PelZ, PelX). We report in this paper the analysis of a novel enzyme, the pectin acetyl esterase encoded by the paeY gene. No bacterial form of pectin acetyl esterases has been described previously, while plant tissues and some pectinolytic fungi were found to produce similar enzymes. The paeY gene is present in a cluster of five pectinase-encoding genes, pelA-pelE-pelD-paeY-pemA. The paeY open reading frame is 1650 bases long and encodes a 551-residue precursor protein of 60704Da, including a 25-amino-acid signal peptide. PaeY shares one region of homology with a rhamnogalacturonan acetyl esterase of Aspergillus aculeatus. To characterize the enzyme, the paeY gene was overexpressed and its protein product was purified. PaeY releases acetate from sugar-beet pectin and from various synthetic substrates. Moreover, the enzyme was shown to act in synergy with other pectinases. The de-esterification rate by PaeY increased after previous demethylation of the pectins by PemA and after depolymerization of the pectin by pectate lyases. In addition, the degradation of sugar-beet pectin by pectate lyases is favoured after the removal of methyl and acetyl groups by PemA and PaeY, respectively. The paeY gene was first identified on the basis of its regulation, which shares several characteristics with that of other pectinases. Analysis of the paeY transcription, using gene fusions, revealed that it is induced by pectic catabolic products and is affected by growth phase, oxygen limitation and catabolite repression. Regulation of pae

  6. Miocarditis por dengue

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Amador García Hernández; Fidel Espinosa Rivera; Lianet Rivero Seriel

    2013-01-01

    El dengue es un arbovirus transmitido por el Aedes aegypti, produce los cuadros clínicos de dengue clásico, dengue hemorrágico y síndrome de choque por dengue, aisladamente se reportan casos de miocarditis. Se presentó un paciente con antecedentes de dengue clásico que manifestó dolor precordial asociado a cambios electrocardiográficos y fue ingresado en este hospital por síndrome coronario agudo probable, al cual se le diagnosticó clínicamente miocarditis por dengue.

  7. Mecanismos de modulación de la respuesta inmune por Chlamydia trachomatis asociados a infertilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Marcela López-Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la infertilidad, problema clínico y social que afecta del 13 al 15% de las parejas en el mundo, es causada, entre otros, por la enfermedad pélvica inflamatoria ocasionada por varios agentes infecciosos entre los cuales se destaca la Chlamydia trachomatis. Este agente infeccioso posee mecanismos moleculares con los cuales modula la respuesta inmune del huésped y produce cambios en la célula infectada para permitir su supervivencia, ocasionando que la respuesta del sistema inmunológico se establezca en forma crónica, con la consecuente inflamación permanente y con ello secuelas como cicatrices y obstrucción de la trompa de Falopio. El objetivo de esta revisión es ofrecer una actualización de conocimiento en inmunobiología de la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y su relación con la infertilidad. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión de la literatura en diferentes bases de datos: PubMed/ Medline, Science Direct, Ovid, desde enero del año 1995 a enero del 2012, incluyendo artículos de revisión y estudios clínicos. Resultados: en la actualidad se sostiene que la inmunomodulación que caracteriza la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis, los mediadores inflamatorios implicados en la respuesta inmune, y la posible aunque poco estudiada susceptibilidad genética del huésped, se relacionan estrechamente con la génesis de la infertilidad por factor tubárico. Conclusión: la infertilidad causada por Chlamydia trachomatis tiene su origen en la respuesta inmunológica del huésped y en la modulación por parte de este agente infeccioso, lo que lleva a inflamación crónica, cicatrización y obstrucción de la trompa de Falopio.

  8. Mortalidad por envenenamiento en niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Híjar Martha

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Conocer el panorama de las muertes por envenenamiento en niños de 0-14 años ocurridas en la República mexicana, entre 1979 y 1994. Material y métodos. Se utilizaron fuentes secundarias. Las variables analizadas fueron: edad, sexo, año, causa externa de traumatismos y envenenamientos, de la IX Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades: E850-E858, E860-E869 y E905. Mediante un modelo de regresión Poisson se analizaron tendencias por causa específica y se obtuvieron riesgos relativos según edad, sexo y entidad federativa. Resultados. Hubo un total de 11 272 defunciones en menores de 15 años; las principales causas fueron el envenenamiento y las reacciones tóxicas causadas por plantas y animales venenosos (E905, el envenenamiento accidental por gas de uso doméstico y por monóxido de carbono (E868 y el envenenamiento accidental por otras drogas (E858. El grupo de edad que presentó los mayores riesgos, para las causas mencionadas, fue el de menores de un año con un riesgo relativo (RR de 29.6, IC95% 29.2-33.4; RR 3.47, IC95% 2.86-4.22, y RR 31.86, IC95% 24.8-40.9. El riesgo fue similar en ambos sexos, salvo para la causa E905. El estado de Aguascalientes se situó sistemáticamente entre los de mayor riesgo para todas las causas analizadas, mientras que Nuevo León siempre se ubicó entre los de riesgo más bajo. Conclusiones. El envenenamiento constituye una importante causa de muerte en los niños; el riesgo se incrementa al disminuir la edad. Considerando que esas muertes son potencialmente evitables y que la mayor parte de los envenenamientos ocurren en el hogar, para prevenirlos, se recomienda a los familiares vigilar y mantener fuera de peligro al niño. Por otra parte, la multicausalidad del fenómeno requiere que su prevención se realice desde una perspectiva multidisciplinaria que genere una cultura y un ambiente de seguridad en la sociedad.

  9. Intoxicación por ciguatera: Estudio de 227 pacientes durante el periodo 1999 al 2005 Ciguatera poisoning: Study of 277 patients in the 1999-2005 period.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Manuel Maya Entenza; Miladys Martín Labrador; Marisol Monteagudo Torres

    2007-01-01

    La ciguatera es la intoxicación alimentaría causada por el consumo de pescados ciguatóxicos, cuyos efectos sobre el ser humano pueden ser graves y conducir a la muerte. Se describieron las principales características epidemiológicas, clínicas y del tratamiento en los pacientes con ciguatera. La investigación incluyó 227 pacientes con ciguatera estudiados de forma prospectiva en el Hospital Clínico-Quirúrgico Universitario “Comandante Manuel Fajardo” de Ciudad de La Habana entre lo...

  10. Pancreatite aguda devida a hematoma intramural do duodeno por uso de anticoagulante Acute pancreatitis due to intramural hematoma of the duodenum by use of anticoagulant therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Samer FARHOUD; Simone Moraes STEPHANI; Sansom Henrique BROMBERG

    2001-01-01

    Racional - A hemorragia intramural espontânea do duodeno causada por complicações da terapêutica anticoagulante é rara e seu tratamento controverso. Objetivo -- Apresentar a experiência advinda do tratamento de doente com essa condição clínica. Relato do caso - Expõe-se o caso de uma mulher de 71 anos de idade, que há 3 meses fazia uso de anticoagulante oral para tratamento de trombose venosa profunda dos membros inferiores. Apresentou-se com cefaléia e dores abdominais intensas no andar supe...

  11. In-vitro antibacterial activities of the essential oils of aromatic plants against Erwinia herbicola (Lohnis) and pseudomonas putida (Kris Hamilton)

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey Abhay K; Singh Pooja; Palni Uma T.; Tripathi N.N.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine in vitro antibacterial activities of essential oils extracted from 53 aromatic plants of Gorakhpur Division (UP, INDIA) for the control of two phytopathogenic bacteria namely Erwinia herbicola and Pseudomonas putida causing several post-harvest diseases in fruits and vegetables. Out of 53 oils screened, 8 oils such as Chenopodium ambrosioides, Citrus aurantium, Clausena pentaphylla, Hyptis suaveolens, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Ocimum sanctum and Vi...

  12. Development of a Highly Sensitive Nested-PCR Procedure Using a Single Closed Tube for Detection of Erwinia amylovora in Asymptomatic Plant Material

    OpenAIRE

    Llop, Pablo; Bonaterra, Anna; Peñalver, Javier; López, María M.

    2000-01-01

    A novel method, which involves a nested PCR in a single closed tube, was developed for the sensitive detection of Erwinia amylovora in plant material. The external and internal primer pairs used had different annealing temperatures and directed the amplification of a specific DNA fragment from plasmid pEA29. The procedure involved two consecutive PCRs, the first of which was performed at a higher annealing temperature that allowed amplification only by the external primer pair. Using pure cul...

  13. Gliding Arc Discharge in the Potato Pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica: Mechanism of Lethal Action and Effect on Membrane-Associated Molecules▿

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, M; Feuilloley, M. G. J.; Veron, W.; Meylheuc, T.; Chevalier, S.; Brisset, J.-L.; Orange, N.

    2007-01-01

    Gliding arc (glidarc) discharge is a physicochemical technique for decontamination at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. It leads to the destruction of bacterial phytopathogens responsible for important losses in industrial agriculture, namely, Erwinia spp., without the formation of resistant forms. We investigated the effect of a novel optimized prototype allowing bacterial killing without lag time. This prototype also decreases the required duration of treatment by 50%. The study...

  14. RpoS (Sigma-S) Controls Expression of rsmA, a Global Regulator of Secondary Metabolites, Harpin, and Extracellular Proteins in Erwinia carotovora†

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Asita; Cui, Yaya; Ma, Weilei; Liu, Yang; Ishihama, Akira; Eisenstark, Abraham; Chatterjee, Arun K.

    1998-01-01

    RpoS (sigma-S or sigma-38) controls a large array of genes that are expressed during stationary phase and under various stress conditions in Escherichia coli and other bacteria. We document here that plant pathogenic and epiphytic Erwinia species, such as E. amylovora; E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica, betavasculorum, and carotovora; E. chrysanthemi; E. herbicola; E. rhapontici; and E. stewartii, possess rpoS genes and produce the alternate sigma factor. We show that rpoS transcription in E. ...

  15. The presence of diverse IS elements and an avrPphD homologue that acts as a virulence factor on the pathogenicity plasmid of Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Manulis, Shulamit; Mor, Henia; Barash, Isaac

    2002-07-01

    The pathogenicity of Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae (Ehg) and Erwinia herbicola pv. betae (Ehb) is dependent on a native plasmid (pPATH(Ehg) or pPATH(Ehb)) that harbors the hrp gene cluster, genes encoding type III effectors, phytohormones, biosynthetic genes, and several copies of IS1327. Sequence analysis of the hrp-flanking region in pPATH(Ehg) (cosmid pLA150) revealed a cluster of four additional IS elements designated as ISEhel, ISEhe2, ISEhe3, and ISEhe4. Two copies of another IS element (ISEhe5) were identified on the upstream region of the indole-3-acetic acid operon located on the same cosmid. Based on homology of amino acids and genetic organization, ISEhe1 belongs to the IS630 family, ISEhe2 to the IS5 family, ISEhe3 and ISEhe4 to different groups of the IS3 family, and ISEhe5 to the IS1 family. With the exception of ISEhe4, one to three copies of all the other IS elements were identified only in pathogenic strains of Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae and Erwinia herbicola pv. betae whereas ISEhe4 was present in both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. An open reading frame that exhibited high identity (89% in amino acids) to AvrPphD of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola was present within the cluster of IS elements. An insertional mutation in the AvrPphDEh, reduced gall size in gypsophila by approximately 85%. In addition, remnants of known genes from four different bacteria were detected on the same cosmid. PMID:12118887

  16. Cloning, sequencing and partial characterisation of sorbitol transporter (srlT) gene encoding phosphotransferase system, glucitol/sorbitol-specific IIBC components of Erwinia herbicola ATCC 21998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, P H; Johri, S; Verma, V; Khan, L; Qazi, G N

    2004-09-01

    A DNA fragment of approximately 1500 bp, harbouring the sorbitol transport gene (srlT), was amplified from the chromosomal DNA of Erwinia herbicola ATCC 21998 by PCR and cloned in Escherichia coli JM109. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers used were designed based on the conserved regions in the gene sequences within the gut operon of E. coli (Gene Bank accession no. J02708) and the srl operon of Erwinia amylovora (Gene Bank accession no. Y14603). The cloned DNA fragment was sequenced and found to contain an open reading frame of 1473 nucleotides coding for a protein of 491 amino acids, corresponding to a mass of 52410 Da. The nucleotide sequence of this ORF was highly homologous to that of the gutA gene of Escherichia coli gut operon, the srlE gene of Shigella flexrni and the sorbitol transporter gene sequence of Escherichia coli K12 (Gene Bank accession nos. J02708, AE016987 and D90892 respectively). The protein sequence showed significant homology to that of the phosphotransferase system i.e. the glucitol/sorbitol-specific IIBC components of Escherichia coli and Erwinia amylovora (P56580, O32522). The cloned DNA fragment was introduced into a pRA90 vector and the recombinant was used for developing srlT mutants of Erwinia herbicola, by homologous recombination. Mutants obtained were unable to grow on minimal medium with sorbitol. The insertion of the pRA90 vector inside the srlT gene sequence of the mutants was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridisation. PMID:15560368

  17. Evaluation of Two Surface Sampling Methods for Detection of Erwinia herbicola on a Variety of Materials by Culture and Quantitative PCR▿

    OpenAIRE

    Buttner, Mark P.; Cruz, Patricia; Stetzenbach, Linda D.; Cronin, Tracy

    2007-01-01

    This research was designed to evaluate surface sampling protocols for use with culture and quantitative PCR (QPCR) amplification assay for detection of the gram-negative bacterial biothreat simulant Erwinia herbicola on a variety of surface materials. Surfaces selected for evaluation were wood laminate, glass and computer monitor screens, metal file cabinets, plastic arena seats, nylon seat cushions, finished concrete flooring, and vinyl tile flooring. Laboratory and test chamber studies were...

  18. Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and Comparison of Serological Methods for Its Sensitive Detection on Potato Tubers

    OpenAIRE

    Gorris, María Teresa; Alarcon, Benito; Lopez, María M.; Cambra, Mariano

    1994-01-01

    Seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica have been produced. One, called 4G4, reacted with high specificity for serogroup I of E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica, the most common serogroup on potato tubers in different serological assays. Eighty-six strains belonging to different E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica serogroups were assayed. Some strains of serogroup XXII also reacted positively. No cross-reactions were observed against other species of plant patho...

  19. Estudo de hemoparasitas transmitidos por vectores, em cães de canil, Setúbal, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Inês Picanço Castanheira da

    2011-01-01

    As doenças transmitidas por vectores são causadas por parasitas, bactérias ou vírus e são veiculadas pela picada de artrópodes (principalmente ixodídeos e mosquitos). Estas doenças afectam cães a nível mundial e a maioria delas têm potencial zoonótico. Nestas estão incluídas as doenças sob estudo: Erliquiose, Babesiose, Riquetsiose, Anaplasmose e Leishmaniose. A patogénese das doenças sob estudo, baseia-se fundamentalmente na resposta humoral exagerada e não protectora desenvolvida pelo ho...

  20. Tratamiento con caspofungina de endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol Treatment with caspofungin of Candida tropicalis endocarditis resistant to fluconazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo del Castillo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Las endocarditis causadas por hongos, (Candida en particular, requieren tratamiento médico-quirúrgico, siendo la anfotericina B la droga de elección. Caspofungina es una equinocandina con gran actividad sobre Candida y Aspergillus. Se presenta un paciente con una endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol tratado con caspofungina bajo un esquema de salvataje, luego de haber presentado efectos adversos por anfotericina B. El paciente tuvo respuesta microbiológica.Fungal endocarditis, in particular due to Candida species, requires medical and surgical treatment and amphotericin B is the drug of choice. Caspofungin is an echinocandin very effective against Candida and Aspergillus. We present a patient with Candida tropicalis endocarditis, fluconazol resistant, treated with caspofungin, on a compassional basis as a result of adverse effects with amphotericin B. The patient had a microbiological response.

  1. Diarrea crónica refractaria y malabsorción secundaria a hipogammaglobulinemia común variable, infestación crónica por giardia lamblia y gastrectomía total por adenocarcinoma gástrico: un manejo nutricional complejo Chonic diarrhea and malabsorption due to common variable immunodeficiency, gastrectomy and giardiasis infection: a difficult nutritional management

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Domínguez-López; I. González-Molero; C. P. Ramírez-Plaza; Soriguer, F. (Federico); G. Olveira

    2011-01-01

    El adenocarcinoma gástrico es una de las causas más frecuentes de mortalidad en el mundo, siendo la cirugía el único tratamiento potencialmente curativo, aunque los efectos adversos digestivos y nutricionales son frecuentes y abundantes. La hipogammaglobulinemia variable común es causa de frecuentes manifestaciones digestivas, derivándose las más importantes en diarrea crónica causada por giardiasis, hiperplasia nodular linfoide o atrofia vellosa, siendo frecuente la malabsorción y la desnutr...

  2. Estudo terapêutico aberto com sulfato de aminosidine na leishmaniose mucosa causada for Leishmania (viannia braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A.S. Romero

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de setembro a novembro de 1994 foram tratados 21 pacientes com leishmaniose mucosa ativa, predominantemente adultos lavradores do sexo masculino, com sulfato de aminosidine intramuscular, I6mg/kg/dia por 20 dias. Treze pacientes eram virgens de tratamento e 8 haviam sido tratados sem sucesso com Glucantime®". O diagnóstico baseou-se inicialmente em crítêrios epidemiolôgicos, clínicos e nos resultados da intrademoireação de Montenegro e a imunofluorescência indireta para anticoipos séricos antileishmânia e durante o acompanhamento nos resultados dos estudos parasitológicos. Sessenta e sete por cento dos pacientes tiveram diagnóstico parasitológico confirmado sendo a inoculação do material de biópsia das lesões em hamsters o método mais sensível. O tempo médio de acompanhamento foi de 12,6 meses. A adesão ao tratamento foi de 100%. Os efeitos colaterais foram dor no local da injeção (86%, proteinúria leve (24%, elevação do nível sérico de creatinina (5% e perda auditiva subclínica em um dos dois pacientes que realizaram audiometria. Obsevou-se cura clínica em 48% dos pacientes e a percentagem acumulada de recidiva foi de 29% (4/14pacientes durante o acompanhamento.

  3. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of EaLsc, a levansucrase from Erwinia amylovora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EaLsc, a levansucrase from E. amylovora, has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray crystallographic analysis and data collection to 2.77 Å resolution have been carried out. The structure was solved by molecular replacement and refinement is in progress. The Gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora is a destructive pathogen of Rosaceae. During infection, E. amylovora produces the exopolysaccharide levan, which contributes to the occlusion of plant vessels, causing the wilting of shoots. Levan is a fructose polymer that is synthesized by multifunctional enzymes called levansucrases. The levansucrase from E. amylovora (EaLsc) was heterologously expressed as a GST-fusion protein in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized after tag removal. The protein crystallized in space group P21212. X-ray diffraction data were acquired to 2.77 Å resolution. The structure of the enzyme was solved by molecular replacement. The asymmetric unit contains eight enzyme molecules, giving a solvent content of 58.74% and a Matthews coefficient of 2.98 Å3 Da-1

  4. Comparative genomics of 12 strains of Erwinia amylovora identifies a pan-genome with a large conserved core.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A Mann

    Full Text Available The plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora can be divided into two host-specific groupings; strains infecting a broad range of hosts within the Rosaceae subfamily Spiraeoideae (e.g., Malus, Pyrus, Crataegus, Sorbus and strains infecting Rubus (raspberries and blackberries. Comparative genomic analysis of 12 strains representing distinct populations (e.g., geographic, temporal, host origin of E. amylovora was used to describe the pan-genome of this major pathogen. The pan-genome contains 5751 coding sequences and is highly conserved relative to other phytopathogenic bacteria comprising on average 89% conserved, core genes. The chromosomes of Spiraeoideae-infecting strains were highly homogeneous, while greater genetic diversity was observed between Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains (and among individual Rubus-infecting strains, the majority of which was attributed to variable genomic islands. Based on genomic distance scores and phylogenetic analysis, the Rubus-infecting strain ATCC BAA-2158 was genetically more closely related to the Spiraeoideae-infecting strains of E. amylovora than it was to the other Rubus-infecting strains. Analysis of the accessory genomes of Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains has identified putative host-specific determinants including variation in the effector protein HopX1(Ea and a putative secondary metabolite pathway only present in Rubus-infecting strains.

  5. Utilization of a thermosensitive episome bearing transposon TN10 to isolate Hfr donor strains of Erwinia carotovora subsp. chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoujansky, A; Lemattre, M; Boistard, P

    1982-04-01

    A thermosensitive episome bearing the transposon Tn10, F(Ts)::Tn10 Lac+, has been successfully transferred from Escherichia coli to several wild strains of the enterobacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. chrysanthemi, which are pathogenic on Saintpaulia ionantha. In one of these strains, all of the characters controlled by this episome (Lac+, Tetr, Tra+) were expressed, and its replication was stopped at 40 degrees C and above. At 30 degrees C, the episome was easily transferred between strains derived from E. carotovora subsp. chrysanthemi 3937j and to E coli. Hfr donor strains were obtained from a F' strain of 3937j by selecting clones which grew at 40 degrees C on plates containing tetracycline. One of these strains, Hfrq, was examined in more detail: the characters Lac+ and Tetr were stabilized and did not segregate higher than its parental F' strain. The mating was most efficient at 37 degrees C on a membrane. Hfrq transferred its chromosome to recipient strains at high frequency and in a polarized fashion, as evidenced by the gradient of transfer frequencies, the kinetics of marker entry (in interrupted mating experiments), and the analysis of linkage between different markers. The chromosome of Hfrq was most probably transferred in the following sequence: origin...met...xyl...arg...ile...leu...thr...cys...pan...ura...gal...trp...his. ..pur... Moreover, this genetic transfer system proved to be efficient in strain construction. PMID:6277860

  6. The operon for cytokinin biosynthesis of Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae contains two promoters and is plant induced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, M; Manulis, S; Barash, I; Lichter, A

    2001-12-01

    The operon for cytokinin biosynthesis in the gall-forming bacterium Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae (Ehg) has been previously shown to reside on an indigenous plasmid (pPATH(Ehg)) that is mandatory for pathogenicity. This operon consists of two genes: the first open reading frame (pre-etz) is of unknown function, whereas the second one (etz) encodes for isopentenyl transferase. Northern hybridization performed with the wild-type strain Ehg824-1 grown in Luria-Bertani broth demonstrated two transcripts of which an etz-specific transcript (1.0 kb) was predominant. Fusion of upstream DNA fragments of both pre-etz and etz to the ice nucleation reporter gene inaZ in pVSP61 showed high ice nucleation activity in both cultures, confirming the presence of two independent promoters. An increase of 1-1.5 orders in transcriptional activity of these promoters was observed following inoculation of gypsophila cuttings. Mutants of Ehg824-1 were generated by insertion of inaZ into pre-etz and etz using the transposon reporter Tn3-Spice. An increase of about two orders in transcriptional activity was recorded with both mutants following inoculation of gypsophila or bean cuttings. A similar induction was also observed when the bacteria were applied to the leaf surface of these plants. Unlike other virulence genes present on the pPATH(Ehg), neither pre-etz nor etz was regulated by the adjacent hrp gene cluster. PMID:11822839

  7. A novel plasmid pEA68 of Erwinia amylovora and the description of a new family of plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Emadeldeen; Blom, Jochen; Bultreys, Alain; Ivanović, Milan; Obradović, Aleksa; van Doorn, Joop; Bergsma-Vlami, Maria; Maes, Martine; Willems, Anne; Duffy, Brion; Stockwell, Virginia O; Smits, Theo H M; Puławska, Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Recent genome analysis of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease on Rosaceae, has shown that the chromosome is highly conserved among strains and that plasmids are the principal source of genomic diversity. A new circular plasmid, pEA68, was found in E. amylovora strain 692 (LMG 28361), isolated in Poland from Sorbus (mountain ash) with fire blight symptoms. Annotation of the 68,763-bp IncFIIa-type plasmid revealed that it contains 79 predicted CDS, among which two operons (tra, pil) are associated with mobility. The plasmid is maintained stably in E. amylovora and does not possess genes associated with antibiotic resistance or known virulence genes. Curing E. amylovora strain 692 of pEA68 did not influence its virulence in apple shoots nor amylovoran synthesis. Of 488 strains of E. amylovora from seventeen countries, pEA68 was only found in two additional strains from Belgium. Although the spread of pEA68 is currently limited to Europe, pEA68 comprises, together with pEA72 and pEA78 both found in North America, a new plasmid family that spans two continents. PMID:25178659

  8. Fire blight disease reactome: RNA-seq transcriptional profile of apple host plant defense responses to Erwinia amylovora pathogen infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamber, Tim; Buchmann, Jan P; Pothier, Joël F; Smits, Theo H M; Wicker, Thomas; Duffy, Brion

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility of host plants to fire blight, a major disease threat to pome fruit production globally, is largely unknown. RNA-sequencing data from challenged and mock-inoculated flowers were analyzed to assess the susceptible response of apple to the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. In presence of the pathogen 1,080 transcripts were differentially expressed at 48 h post inoculation. These included putative disease resistance, stress, pathogen related, general metabolic, and phytohormone related genes. Reads, mapped to regions on the apple genome where no genes were assigned, were used to identify potential novel genes and open reading frames. To identify transcripts specifically expressed in response to E. amylovora, RT-PCRs were conducted and compared to the expression patterns of the fire blight biocontrol agent Pantoea vagans strain C9-1, another apple pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans, and mock inoculated apple flowers. This led to the identification of a peroxidase superfamily gene that was lower expressed in response to E. amylovora suggesting a potential role in the susceptibility response. Overall, this study provides the first transcriptional profile by RNA-seq of the host plant during fire blight disease and insights into the response of susceptible apple plants to E. amylovora. PMID:26883568

  9. Control of plant defense mechanisms and fire blight pathogenesis through the regulation of 6-thioguanine biosynthesis in Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sébastien; Litomska, Agnieszka; Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Richter, Klaus; Beerhues, Ludger; Hertweck, Christian

    2014-02-10

    Fire blight is a devastating disease of Rosaceae plants, such as apple and pear trees. It is characterized by necrosis of plant tissue, caused by the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora. The plant pathogen produces the well-known antimetabolite 6-thioguanine (6TG), which plays a key role in fire blight pathogenesis. Here we report that YcfR, a member of the LTTR family, is a major regulator of 6TG biosynthesis in E. amylovora. Inactivation of the regulator gene (ycfR) led to dramatically decreased 6TG production. Infection assays with apple plants (Malus domestica cultivar Holsteiner Cox) and cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia (mountain ash, rowan) revealed abortive fire blight pathogenesis and reduced plant response (biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexin production). In the presence of the ΔycfR mutant, apple trees were capable of activating the abscission machinery to remove infected tissue. In addition to unveiling the regulation of 6TG biosynthesis in a major plant pathogen, we demonstrate for the first time that this antimetabolite plays a pivotal role in dysregulating the plant response to infection. PMID:24449489

  10. Small-molecule inhibitors suppress the expression of both type III secretion and amylovoran biosynthesis genes in Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Korban, Schuyler S; Pusey, P Lawrence; Elofsson, Michael; Sundin, George W; Zhao, Youfu

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) and exopolysaccharide (EPS) amylovoran are two essential pathogenicity factors in Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of the serious bacterial disease fire blight. In this study, small molecules that inhibit T3SS gene expression in E. amylovora under hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity)-inducing conditions were identified and characterized using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. These compounds belong to salicylidene acylhydrazides and also inhibit amylovoran production. Microarray analysis of E. amylovora treated with compounds 3 and 9 identified a total of 588 significantly differentially expressed genes. Among them, 95 and 78 genes were activated and suppressed by both compounds, respectively, when compared with the dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) control. The expression of the majority of T3SS genes in E. amylovora, including hrpL and the avrRpt2 effector gene, was suppressed by both compounds. Compound 3 also suppressed the expression of amylovoran precursor and biosynthesis genes. However, both compounds induced significantly the expression of glycogen biosynthesis genes and siderophore biosynthesis, regulatory and transport genes. Furthermore, many membrane, lipoprotein and exported protein-encoding genes were also activated by both compounds. Similar expression patterns were observed for compounds 1, 2 and 4. Using crab apple flower as a model, compound 3 was capable of reducing disease development in pistils. These results suggest a common inhibition mechanism shared by salicylidene acylhydrazides and indicate that small-molecule inhibitors that disable T3SS function could be explored to control fire blight disease. PMID:23915008

  11. Role of electron transport chain of chloroplasts in oxidative burst of interaction between Erwinia amylovora and host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Hamid; Ghahremani, Zahra; Erfaninia, Kobra; Mehrabi, Rahim

    2015-05-01

    Erwinia amylovora is a necrogenic bacterium, causing the fire blight disease on many rosaceous plants. Triggering oxidative burst by E. amylovora is a key response by which host plants try to restrain pathogen spread. Electron transport chain (ETC) of chloroplasts is known as an inducible source of reactive oxygen species generation in various stresses. This research was performed to assess the role of this ETC in E. amylovora-host interaction using several inhibitors of this chain in susceptible and resistant apple and pear genotypes. All ETC inhibitors delayed appearance of disease necrosis, but the effects of methyl viologen, glutaraldehyde, and DCMU were more significant. In the absence of inhibitors, resistant genotypes showed an earlier and severe H2O2 generation and early suppression of redox dependent, psbA gene. The effects of inhibitors were corresponding to the redox potential of ETC inhibitory sites. In addition, delayed necrosis appearance was associated with the decreased disease severity and delayed H2O2 generation. These results provide evidences for the involvement of this ETC in host oxidative burst and suggest that chloroplast ETC has significant role in E. amylovora-host interaction. PMID:25820489

  12. Supressão da resposta imunitária humoral causada pela citrinina Humoral immunosupression caused by citrinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Carvalho

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito imunotóxico causado por exposição a baixas doses de citrinina (2,5mg kg-1 em camundongos albinos expostos à micotoxina antes (n=15, durante (n=15 e após (n=15 a imunização com antígeno inerte, representado por eritrócitos de carneiro - sheep red blood cells (SRBC. Quinze camundongos foram usados como controle (não intoxicados. Sete dias após o tratamento, os animais foram sangrados e os títulos de anticorpos anti-SRBC e de complemento foram determinados. A citrinina diminuiu os títulos de anticorpos primários em todos os grupos intoxicados. A intoxicação antes e após a imunização provocou diminuição em 87,5% nos títulos médios de anticorpos específicos. A exposição simultânea à imunização gerou diminuição de 75%. Houve acentuada redução nos níveis de complemento circulante, detectada nos animais previamente intoxicados (93,8%, ou intoxicados juntamente com a imunização (87,5%.The immunotoxic effect caused by citrinin was evaluated in albino mice exposed to a single dose of 2.5mg.kg-1 before (n=15, concomitantly (n=15 and after (n=15 immunization with an inert antigen represented by sheep red blood cells (SRBC. The animals were bleed seven days following the mycotoxin exposure for antibodies anti-SRBC and complement titration and compared to results obtained from non-exposed controls (n=15. It was detected a decreasing antibodies titration in all the intoxicated animals. Those animals that received citrinin before and after SRBC sensitization equally presented a lowering of 87.5% on the primary antibodies level. The exposure to the mycotoxin simultaneously to the SRBC sensitization caused a decrease equivalent to 75%. A remarkable effect was also demonstrated for the circulating complement in both groups of animals, with a decrease of 87.5% on those intoxicated before and of 93.8% on those treated concomitantly to the SRBC sensitization.

  13. Mecanismos fisiopatogênicos e diagnóstico laboratorial da infecção causada pela Entamoeba histolytica Physiopathogenic mechanisms and laboratorial diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Luciano Neves Santos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A amebíase é a segunda causa de morte entre as doenças parasitárias no mundo. Seu agente etiológico é o protozoário Entamoeba histolytica, que através da secreção de proteinases é capazes de destruir o tecido hospedeiro, matando as células-alvo por contato e fagocitando eritrócitos. Dessa forma, os trofozoítos invadem a mucosa intestinal, provocando a colite amebiana. Em alguns casos atravessam a mucosa e, através da circulação porta, chegam ao fígado, onde causam necrose constituída por poucos trofozoítos rodeados de hepatócitos mortos e debris celulares liquefeitos. Essa invasão está diretamente relacionada com a capacidade de síntese e a secreção de moléculas responsáveis pela virulência dos trofozoítos, como os amebaporos, as lectinas e as cisteína proteinases. O diagnóstico da infecção causada pelo patógeno é rotineiramente realizado através da microscopia óptica de amostras frescas ou espécimes fixados. Entretanto essa metodologia apresenta limitações, sendo incapaz de distinguir as espécies pertencentes ao complexo E. histolytica/E. dispar. A pesquisa de coproantígenos e a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR têm sido utilizadas para diferenciação desses protozoários em amostras fecais. No entanto, estudos mais aprofundados são necessários para maior compreensão sobre a relação parasita/hospedeiro, a proteômica e a genômica do protozoário, o desenvolvimento de vacinas e a real prevalência dessa infecção no Brasil e no mundo.Amebiasis is the second cause of death among parasitary diseases in the world. Its etiologic agent is the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, which destroys the host tissue by means of the secretion of proteinases, kills the target-cells by contact and phagocytizes erythrocytes. Accordingly, the trophozoites invade the intestinal mucosa, what causes amoebaean colitis. In some cases, they pass through the mucosa and reach the liver through the portal system, where

  14. Caracterización de accidentes de trabajo por caída de objetos en empresas del sector hidrocarburos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria A. Jaramillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En una multinacional del sector de hidrocarburos prestadora de servicios de perforación y workover, que opera en las zonas de Tolima y Santander Colombia, se pudo desarrollar una investigación con el objetivo de describir la situación de accidentalidad causada por caída de objetos que se presenta en el área de taladros de perforación. La información se recolectó de los reportes de accidentes e incidentes que reposaban en la base de operaciones en Sopó entre el periodo 2010 y 2011. Al analizar los hallazgos se pudo evidenciar que son cuatro los agentes causales más significativos, dentro de los cuales están los denominados Golpes por objetos, ocupando un 68%; atrapado por o entre un objeto con 41%; caída de personas con un 30% y caída de objetos con 21 %. Este último hallazgo se deriva por la actividad propia de la perforación por la manipulación de llaves hidráulicas, objetos adicionales de acero, martillos, entre otros y su causa básica fue la falta de supervisión, liderazgo y/o planificación con 39%, seguida de procedimientos de trabajo inadecuados con el 22% y el mantenimiento inadecuado con el 11%, lo que concluye que en su mayoría son errores humanos.

  15. Mecanismos da intoxicação do fígado de rato causada pelo gossipol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Luís de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O fígado desempenha uma função central no metabolismo devido à sua interposição entre o trato digestivo e a circulação geral do organismo. Ele é também o principal órgão envolvido na biotransformação de substâncias exógenas (xenobióticos, com capacidade de converter compostos hidrofóbicos em hidrossolúveis, mais facilmente eliminados pelo organismo. O gossipol é uma substância fenólica tóxica presente na semente de algodão (Gossypium sp. Com o objetivo de estudar os mecanismos envolvidos na hepatotoxicidade do gossipol avaliou-se os seus efeitos no sistema antioxidante do fígado de ratos no que diz respeito ao estresse oxidativo e aspectos histopatológicos. Foram utilizados ratos machos da linhagem Wistar, separados em dois grupos, sendo que um recebeu óleo de canola (veículo, grupo Controle e o outro recebeu gossipol na dosagem de 40 mg/kg de peso vivo do animal por 15 dias (grupo Tratado. O tratamento com gossipol promoveu alterações na atividade sérica das enzimas marcadoras de dano hepático e um significativo estresse oxidativo caracterizado pela diminuição nos níveis da glutationa reduzida (GSH e consequente aumento da glutationa oxidada (GSSG, incluindo, ainda, danos à membrana plasmática e de organelas demonstrados pela peroxidação lipídica. O resultado da avaliação histopatológica demonstrou degeneração dos hepatócitos.

  16. Decarboxylative Conversion of Hydroxycinnamic Acids by Klebsiella oxytoca and Erwinia uredovora, Epiphytic Bacteria of Polymnia sonchifolia Leaf, Possibly Associated with Formation of Microflora on the Damaged Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashidoko, Y; Urashima, M; Yoshida, T; Mizutani, J

    1993-01-01

    Two bacteria, Klebsiella oxytoca and Erwinia uredovora, which constituted epiphytic microftora on yacon (Polymnia sonchifolia) leaves, converted hydroxycinnamic acids into hydroxystyrenes decarboxylatively. Hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase was extracted as crude protein from the bacterial cells, and was substrate-inducible. This decarboxylation was for the bacteria a detoxification of hydroxycinnamic acids of plants, but the metabolites were toxic to other test bacteria and fungi, including some phytopathogens. The possible ecological role of these epiphytic bacteria on the host-plant was discussed. from the viewpoint of their chemical interaction via the styrene derivatives. PMID:27314772

  17. Halogenated furanones from the red alga, Delisea pulchra, inhibit carbapenem antibiotic synthesis and exoenzyme virulence factor production in the phytopathogen Erwinia carotovora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manefield, M.; Welch, M.; Givskov, Michael Christian;

    2001-01-01

    activity. We have tested the effects of a halogenated furanone on the production of carbapenem, cellulase and protease in E. carotovora. Despite differences in the regulatory mechanisms controlling carbapenem and exoenzyme production each was inhibited by the algal metabolite. We present evidence to......The plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora regulates expression of virulence factors and antibiotic production via an N-3- oxohexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) dependent quorum sensing mechanism. The marine alga Delisea pulchra produces halogenated furanones known to antagonise 3-oxo-C6-HSL...

  18. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a transposon (Tn5393) carrying streptomycin resistance genes in Erwinia amylovora and other gram-negative bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiou, C S; Jones, A L

    1993-01-01

    A class II Tn3-type transposable element, designated Tn5393 and located on plasmid pEa34 from streptomycin-resistant strain CA11 of Erwinia amylovora, was identified by its ability to move from pEa34 to different sites in plasmids pGEM3Zf(+) and pUCD800. Nucleotide sequence analysis reveals that Tn5393 consists of 6,705 bp with 81-bp terminal inverted repeats and generates 5-bp duplications of the target DNA following insertion. Tn5393 contains open reading frames that encode a putative trans...

  19. Effective production of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA) with Erwinia herbicola cells carrying a mutant transcriptional regulator TyrR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Takashi; Katayama, Takane; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Nakazawa, Hidetsugu; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Kumagai, Hidehiko

    2005-02-01

    The enzymatic production of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA) using Erwinia herbicola cells involves the action of tyrosine phenol-lyase (Tpl, EC 4.1.99.2). Since Tpl is only synthesized under L-tyrosine-induced conditions, the addition of L-tyrosine to the medium is unavoidable when preparing cells (the enzyme source), but severely impedes the pure preparation of the final product L-DOPA. We circumvented this problem by using recombinant E. herbicola cells carrying a mutant transcriptional regulator TyrR, which is capable of activating the tpl promoter in the absence of L-tyrosine. PMID:15639092

  20. Cloning and Random Mutagenesis of the Erwinia herbicola tyrR Gene for High-Level Expression of Tyrosine Phenol-Lyase

    OpenAIRE

    Katayama, Takane; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Koyanagi, Takashi; Kumagai, Hidehiko

    2000-01-01

    Tyrosine phenol-lyase (Tpl), which can synthesize 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine from pyruvate, ammonia, and catechol, is a tyrosine-inducible enzyme. Previous studies demonstrated that the tpl promoter of Erwinia herbicola is activated by the TyrR protein of Escherichia coli. In an attempt to create a high-Tpl-expressing strain, we cloned the tyrR gene of E. herbicola and then randomly mutagenized it. Mutant TyrR proteins with enhanced ability to activate tpl were screened for by use of the lac ...

  1. Neurite óptica bilateral após infecção viral por dengue: relato de casos Bilateral optic neuritis after dengue viral infection: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão; Ieda Maria Alexandre Barreira; Livia Nogueira Costa Lima; Leonardo Portela Rabelo; Felipe Bezerra Alves Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Dengue é uma doença viral transmitida pelos mosquitos Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus. Apresenta distribuição geográfica bastante ampla, sendo epidêmica em alguns países. A apresentação clínica depende da idade e do estado imunológico do paciente, podendo se apresentar de forma assintomática como, dengue clássica, hemorrágica e até como choque. Têm sido descritas muitas manifestações oculares, entretanto, poucos relatos de manifestações neurológicas causada por dengue. Relatamos dois casos d...

  2. Espumas inyectables de hidroxiapatita obtenidas por el método de espumado de la fase líquida de un cemento de fostato tricálcico alfa

    OpenAIRE

    Montufar Jiménez, Edgar Benjamín

    2010-01-01

    Actualmente existe un gran número de lesiones y enfermedades que afectan el tejido óseo. El origen de estos problemas es diverso y su tratamiento también es diferente en cada caso. Uno de los principales problemas es la pérdida de masa ósea, que puede ser causada por la reabsorción de hueso, fracturas o extirpación de tumores; en estos casos el tratamiento requiere de un material de relleno óseo. Se espera que este material de relleno sea capaz de promover la regeneración de hueso; los materi...

  3. Modelação do risco trombótico da população portuguesa portadora de FV Leiden por duas variantes alélicas do gene do Fibrinogénio Gama

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Cátia Marlene Marques Correia Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Actualmente, a trombose venosa (TV), é uma das causas mais comuns de morbilidade e mortalidade a nível mundial. A TV é uma doença poligénica e multifactorial, causada por alterações em factores de risco major, como o Factor V Leiden, proteínas pró-coagulantes, ou outros factores de risco minor, como o Fibrinogénio. Apesar da mutação FV Leiden representar a base molecular de TV em cerca de 8% dos casos, é possível verificar a existência de heterogenicidade no tipo e na idade da primeira manife...

  4. Factores geográficos en la epidemiología de la intoxicación por Karwinskia (tullidora) en México Geographical factors in the epidemiology of intoxication by Karwinskia (tullidora) in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    María Eugenia Arreola Nava; José Luis Vázquez Castellanos; Miguel Ernesto González Castañeda

    2000-01-01

    Las Parálisis Flácidas causadas por el consumo de los frutos de las plantas del género Karwinskia (tullidora) han emergido como un problema de salud pública en ciertas regiones de México. El objeto de este trabajo fue investigar los factores geográficos asociados a esta patología, en 72 casos reportados en México de 1990 a 1994. La distribución geográfica de casos coincide con las 11 especies reportadas de Karwinskia en México. La mayoría se relacionaron con la K. humboldtiana y, en menor med...

  5. Acute primary cutaneous Nocardia asteroides infection in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Case report Infecção primária cutânea aguda por Nocardia asteroides em paciente com lupus eritematoso sistêmico

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge O. Lopes; Cristina B. Silva; Cláudio Kmohan; Loiva T.O. OLIVEIRA; Nara L. F. Dal Forno; Cleonice C. S. Pereira

    1995-01-01

    We report a case of acute primary cutaneous infection of traumatic origin caused by Nocardia asteroides, appeared as cellulitis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Diagnosis was established by direct examination and cultures from aspirate specimens. The clinical forms of Nocardia infections that affect the skin, reported in Rio Grande do Sul and Uruguay, are discussed.Relatamos um caso de infecção primária cutânea aguda de origem traumática, causada por Nocardia asteroides, que ma...

  6. Differential involvement of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathways in pathogenicity and epiphytic fitness of Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manulis, S; Haviv-Chesner, A; Brandl, M T; Lindow, S E; Barash, I

    1998-07-01

    Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae (Ehg), which induces galls on Gypsophila paniculata, harbors two major pathways for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) synthesis, the indole-3-acetamide (IAM) and indole-3-pyruvate (IPyA) routes, as well as cytokinin biosynthetic genes. Mutants were generated in which the various biosynthetic routes were disrupted separately or jointly in order to assess the contribution of IAA of various origins and cytokinins to pathogenicity and epiphytic fitness. Inactivation of the IAM pathway or cytokinin biosynthesis caused the largest reduction in gall size. Inactivation of the IPyA pathway caused a minor, nonsignificant decrease in pathogenicity. No further reduction in gall size was observed by the simultaneous inactivation of both IAA pathways only or in combination with that of cytokinin production. However, inactivation of the IPyA pathway caused a 14-fold reduction in the population of Ehg on bean plants. Inactivation of the IAM pathway or cytokinin production did not affect epiphytic fitness. While the apparent transcriptional activity of iaaM-inaZ fusion increased slightly in cells of Ehg on bean and gypsophila leaves, compared with that in culture, very high levels of induction were observed in cells injected into gypsophila stems. In contrast, moderate levels of induction of ipdC-inaZ in Ehg were observed on leaves of these plants and in gypsophila stems, when compared with that in culture. These results suggest that the IAM pathway is involved primarily in gall formation and support the main contribution of the IpyA pathway to the epiphytic fitness of this bacterial species. PMID:9650296

  7. Differential role of ferritins in iron metabolism and virulence of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughammoura, Aïda; Matzanke, Berthold F; Böttger, Lars; Reverchon, Sylvie; Lesuisse, Emmanuel; Expert, Dominique; Franza, Thierry

    2008-03-01

    During infection, the phytopathogenic enterobacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi has to cope with iron-limiting conditions and the production of reactive oxygen species by plant cells. Previous studies have shown that a tight control of the bacterial intracellular iron content is necessary for full virulence. The E. chrysanthemi genome possesses two loci that could be devoted to iron storage: the bfr gene, encoding a heme-containing bacterioferritin, and the ftnA gene, coding for a paradigmatic ferritin. To assess the role of these proteins in the physiology of this pathogen, we constructed ferritin-deficient mutants by reverse genetics. Unlike the bfr mutant, the ftnA mutant had increased sensitivity to iron deficiency and to redox stress conditions. Interestingly, the bfr ftnA mutant displayed an intermediate phenotype for sensitivity to these stresses. Whole-cell analysis by Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that the main iron storage protein is FtnA and that there is an increase in the ferrous iron/ferric iron ratio in the ftnA and bfr ftnA mutants. We found that ftnA gene expression is positively controlled by iron and the transcriptional repressor Fur via the small antisense RNA RyhB. bfr gene expression is induced at the stationary phase of growth. The sigmaS transcriptional factor is necessary for this control. Pathogenicity tests showed that FtnA and the Bfr contribute differentially to the virulence of E. chrysanthemi depending on the host, indicating the importance of a perfect control of iron homeostasis in this bacterial species during infection. PMID:18165304

  8. Global Effect of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis on Multiple Virulence Factors of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shihui; Zhang, Qiu; Guo, Jianhua; Charkowski, Amy O.; Glick, Bernard R.; Ibekwe, A. Mark; Cooksey, Donald A.; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2007-01-01

    Production of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is widespread among plant-associated microorganisms. The non-gall-forming phytopathogen Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 (strain Ech3937) possesses iaaM (ASAP16562) and iaaH (ASAP16563) gene homologues. In this work, the null knockout iaaM mutant strain Ech138 was constructed. The IAA production by Ech138 was reduced in M9 minimal medium supplemented with l-tryptophan. Compared with wild-type Ech3937, Ech138 exhibited reduced ability to produce local maceration, but its multiplication in Saintpaulia ionantha was unaffected. The pectate lyase production of Ech138 was diminished. Compared with wild-type Ech3937, the expression levels of an oligogalacturonate lyase gene, ogl, and three endopectate lyase genes, pelD, pelI, and pelL, were reduced in Ech138 as determined by a green fluorescent protein-based fluorescence-activated cell sorting promoter activity assay. In addition, the transcription of type III secretion system (T3SS) genes, dspE (a putative T3SS effector) and hrpN (T3SS harpin), was found to be diminished in the iaaM mutant Ech138. Compared with Ech3937, reduced expression of hrpL (a T3SS alternative sigma factor) and gacA but increased expression of rsmA in Ech138 was also observed, suggesting that the regulation of T3SS and pectate lyase genes by IAA biosynthesis might be partially due to the posttranscriptional regulation of the Gac-Rsm regulatory pathway. PMID:17189441

  9. Analysis of the LacI family regulators of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937, involvement in the bacterial phytopathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gijsegem, Frédérique; Wlodarczyk, Aleksandra; Cornu, Amandine; Reverchon, Sylvie; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, Nicole

    2008-11-01

    Analysis of the regulators of the LacI family was performed in order to identify those potentially involved in pathogenicity of Erwinia chrysanthemi (Dickeya dadantii). Among the 18 members of the LacI family, the function of 11 members is either known or predicted and only 7 members have, as yet, no proposed function. Inactivation of these seven genes, called lfaR, lfbR, lfcR, lfdR, lfeR, lffR, and lfgR, demonstrated that four of them are important for plant infection. The lfaR and lfcR mutants showed a reduced virulence on chicory, Saintpaulia sp., and Arabidopsis. The lfeR mutant showed a reduced virulence on Arabidopsis. The lfdR mutant was more efficient than the wild-type strain in initiating maceration on Saintpaulia sp. The genetic environment of each regulator was examined to detect adjacent genes potentially involved in a common function. Construction of transcriptional fusions in these neighboring genes demonstrated that five regulators, LfaR, LfcR, LfeR, LffR, and LfgR, act as repressors of adjacent genes. Analysis of these fusions also indicated that the genes controlled by LfaR, LfcR, LfgR, and LffR are expressed during plant infection. Moreover, addition of crude plant extracts to culture medium demonstrated that the expression of the LfaR- and LfgR-controlled genes is specifically induced by plant components. PMID:18842096

  10. Mutation of the Erwinia amylovora argD gene causes arginine auxotrophy, nonpathogenicity in apples, and reduced virulence in pears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Laura S; Lehman, Brian L; Peter, Kari A; McNellis, Timothy W

    2014-11-01

    Fire blight is caused by Erwinia amylovora and is the most destructive bacterial disease of apples and pears worldwide. In this study, we found that E. amylovora argD(1000)::Tn5, an argD Tn5 transposon mutant that has the Tn5 transposon inserted after nucleotide 999 in the argD gene-coding region, was an arginine auxotroph that did not cause fire blight in apple and had reduced virulence in immature pear fruits. The E. amylovora argD gene encodes a predicted N-acetylornithine aminotransferase enzyme, which is involved in the production of the amino acid arginine. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type argD gene complemented both the nonpathogenic and the arginine auxotrophic phenotypes of the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant. However, even when mixed with virulent E. amylovora cells and inoculated onto immature apple fruit, the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant still failed to grow, while the virulent strain grew and caused disease. Furthermore, the pCR2.1-argD complementation plasmid was stably maintained in the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant growing in host tissues without any antibiotic selection. Therefore, the pCR2.1-argD complementation plasmid could be useful for the expression of genes, markers, and reporters in E. amylovora growing in planta, without concern about losing the plasmid over time. The ArgD protein cannot be considered an E. amylovora virulence factor because the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant was auxotrophic and had a primary metabolism defect. Nevertheless, these results are informative about the parasitic nature of the fire blight disease interaction, since they indicate that E. amylovora cannot obtain sufficient arginine from apple and pear fruit tissues or from apple vegetative tissues, either at the beginning of the infection process or after the infection has progressed to an advanced state. PMID:25172854

  11. Controle biológico da podridão radicular (Pythium aphanidermatum e promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03 em alface hidropônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élida Barbosa Corrêa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Podridões radiculares causadas por espécies de Pythium são um importante problema em cultivos hidropônicos. Sintomas de subdesenvolvimento são observados nas plantas parasitadas pelo patógeno, sendo muitas vezes não diagnosticados pelo produtor. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o controle biológico da podridão radicular causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e a promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03, reconhecidos agentes de controle biológico de doenças de plantas. A inoculação das plantas com P. aphanidermatum ocasionou o subdesenvolvimento, sendo essa diminuição de 20%. A adição dos agentes de biocontrole na solução nutritiva teve um efeito positivo no aumento da massa (6% a 13%, no número de folhas (4% a 7% e no teor de clorofila (3% das plantas de alface. Entretanto, maiores estudos devem ser realizados para melhorar a capacidade de controle da doença e de promoção de crescimento pelos agentes de biocontrole estudados no cultivo de alface hidropônica.

  12. Treinta días persiguiendo la muerte: miseria, dolor y obras de caridad en Bogotá de 1918, desolada por la epidemia de gripa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Para finales de la segunda década del siglo xx, Bogotá tiene poco que mostrar. Está detenida en el tiempo, sumergida en una rutina en la que las lluvias casi siempre le ganan a los días de sol y el barro salpica todo, tanto a la gente elegante como a la gente sencilla, que visten lo mejor de sus prendas para presentarse en calles, almacenes y templos. La rutina menuda de hombres y mujeres y la rutina trascendente de políticos y escritores en diarios y revistas, fue sustituida, de repente, por la de la muerte. Nada similar para comparar tenían en su memoria esos bogotanos que en los meses de octubre y noviembre de 1918 tuvieron que vivir en su ciudad una pesadilla causada por una gripa que de igual modo hacía estragos en muchos otros lugares del mundo.

  13. Osteomielitis por salmonella

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    Alicia Velázquez Pérez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de color blanco y dos años de edad, con diagnóstico prenatal de sicklemia, que desde edades tempranas tiene problemas de la enfermedad. Ingresó en esta ocasión por una de las complicaciones infecciosas que ocasiona este padecimiento, una osteomielitis del húmero izquierdo, aislándose el germen en el hemocultivo realizado, una salmonella. Necesitó de tratamiento enérgico y prolongado; se obtuvo un resultado satisfactorio en la evolución de la enfermedad y se sigue sistemáticamente por consulta externa en la actualidad

  14. tirados por tractores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro E. Iglesias Coronel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se brinda la metodología de realización y evaluación de los principales indicadores energéticos de los agregados de transporte agrícola, formados por tractores y remolques con el uso de la tensometría como herramienta para la toma de los datos experimentales de campo.

  15. The dual function in virulence and host range restriction of a gene isolated from the pPATH (Ehg) plasmid of Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, D; Barash, I; Valinsky, L; Manulis, S

    2000-06-01

    The host range of the gall-forming bacterium Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae (Ehg) is restricted to gypsophila whereas Erwinia herbicola pv. betae (Ehb) attacks beet as well as gypsophila. Both pathovars contain an indigenous plasmid (pPATH(Ehg or pPATH(Ehb)) that harbors pathogenicity genes, including the hrp gene cluster. A cosmid library of Ehg824-1 plasmid DNA was mobilized into Ehb4188 and the transconjugants were screened for pathogenicity on beet. One Ehb transconjugant harboring the cosmid pLA173 of pPATHEb induced a hypersensitive-like response and abolished pathogenicity on beet. Transposon mutagenesis of an open reading frame (ORF) located on this cosmid eliminated its affect on pathogenicity. Marker exchange of this mutation into Ehg824-1 caused a substantial reduction in gall size on gypsophila and caused Ehg824-1 to extend its host range and incite galls on beet. The ORF (1.5 kb) was designated as pthG (pathogenicity gene on gypsophila). DNA sequence analysis of pthG revealed no significant homology to known genes in the data bank. Only remnants of the pthG sequences were identified on the pPATH of Ehb4188. The deduced protein lacked an N-terminal signal peptide but contained a short trans-membrane helix in its C terminus. The gene product, as determined by expression in Escherichia coli and Western blots (immunoblots), was a 56-kDa protein. PMID:10830268

  16. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa antimetabolite L-2-amino-4-methoxy-trans-3-butenoic acid inhibits growth of Erwinia amylovora and acts as a seed germination-arrest factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Xiaoyun; Azevedo, Mark D; Armstrong, Donald J; Banowetz, Gary M; Reimmann, Cornelia

    2013-02-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa antimetabolite L-2-amino-4-methoxy-trans-3-butenoic acid (AMB) shares biological activities with 4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine, a related molecule produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6. We found that culture filtrates of a P. aeruginosa strain overproducing AMB weakly interfered with seed germination of the grassy weed Poa annua and strongly inhibited growth of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of the devastating orchard crop disease known as fire blight. AMB was active against a 4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine-resistant isolate of E. amylovora, suggesting that the molecular targets of the two oxyvinylglycines in Erwinia do not, or not entirely, overlap. The AMB biosynthesis and transport genes were shown to be organized in two separate transcriptional units, ambA and ambBCDE, which were successfully expressed from IPTG-inducible tac promoters in the heterologous host P. fluorescens CHA0. Engineered AMB production enabled this model biocontrol strain to become inhibitory against E. amylovora and to weakly interfere with the germination of several graminaceous seeds. We conclude that AMB production requires no additional genes besides ambABCDE and we speculate that their expression in marketed fire blight biocontrol strains could potentially contribute to disease control. PMID:23757135

  17. The genome of the Erwinia amylovora phage PhiEaH1 reveals greater diversity and broadens the applicability of phages for the treatment of fire blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meczker, Katalin; Dömötör, Dóra; Vass, János; Rákhely, Gábor; Schneider, György; Kovács, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    The enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight. This study presents the analysis of the complete genome of phage PhiEaH1, isolated from the soil surrounding an E. amylovora-infected apple tree in Hungary. Its genome is 218 kb in size, containing 244 ORFs. PhiEaH1 is the second E. amylovora infecting phage from the Siphoviridae family whose complete genome sequence was determined. Beside PhiEaH2, PhiEaH1 is the other active component of Erwiphage, the first bacteriophage-based pesticide on the market against E. amylovora. Comparative genome analysis in this study has revealed that PhiEaH1 not only differs from the 10 formerly sequenced E. amylovora bacteriophages belonging to other phage families, but also from PhiEaH2. Sequencing of more Siphoviridae phage genomes might reveal further diversity, providing opportunities for the development of even more effective biological control agents, phage cocktails against Erwinia fire blight disease of commercial fruit crops. PMID:24551880

  18. Intoxicação por Enterolobium contortisiliquum em bovinos na região Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberio G. Olinda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de fotossensibilização causada por favas de Enterolobium contortisiliquum em bovinos no Estado de Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. Os sinais clínicos observados foram hiporexia, prostração, perda de peso, edema generalizado, dermatite e icterícia. Havia anemia e atividades séricas de AST, LDH e GGT elevadas. A concentração sérica de ureia encontrava-se levemente aumentada e creatinina, proteínas séricas e albumina estavam em níveis normais. Na necropsia, o fígado estava aumentado de tamanho e difusamente alaranjado e os rins estavam aumentados de volume e apresentavam estriações esbranquiçadas irregulares entremeadas por áreas escuras na superfície subcapsular. Histologicamente, observou-se na pele, dermatite ulcerativa. No fígado havia vacuolização e necrose de hepatócitos da região centrolobular e ocasionalmente necrose individual de hepatócitos em outras regiões. O rim apresentava nefrose tubular tóxica. O diagnóstico diferencial da intoxicação por E. contortisiliquum na região semiárida deve incluir as intoxicações por Brachiaria spp, Panicum dichotomiflorum e Froelichia humboldtiana, que também causam fotossensibilização.

  19. Compaction caused by mechanized operations in a Red- Yellow Latosol cultivated with coffee over time Compactação causada pelas operações mecanizadas em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo cultivado com cafeeiros ao longo do tempo

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    Paula Cristina Caruana Martins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The main source of soil structure degradation in coffee plantation is the machinery traffic because these operations may cause soil compaction affecting the crop development. This study aimed to generate the load-bearing capacity models for a Red-Yellow Latosol and to determine through the use of these models the soil susceptibility to compaction of the coffee plantation due to the implantation time and the compaction caused by the machinery traffic on the traffic lines located at the top and bottom of the ground. This study was carried out in the EPAMIG Experimental Farm, located at Três Pontas, MG, in coffee plantations (Coffee arabica L. with 2, 7, 18 and 33 years of establishment. To obtain the load-bearing capacity models, 12 undisturbed soil samples were randomly collected in the 0-3 cm and 15-18 cm layers in the position between the rows for each establishment time of the coffee plantation. It was also randomly collected 10 undisturbed soil samples for each establishment time of the coffee plantations along the tractor traffic lines located at the top and bottom of the ground. These undisturbed soil samples were used in the uniaxial compression tests. The use of the load-bearing capacity models allow to identify the soil susceptibility to compaction due to the implementation time of the coffee plantation and the compaction caused by the machinery traffic on the traffic lines located at the top and bottom of the ground. The percentage of compacted soil samples increases with the establishment time in the layer of 15-18 cm.A principal fonte de degradação da estrutura do solo na exploração cafeeira é o tráfego de máquinas, pois essas operações podem causar compactação do solo, afetando o desenvolvimento da cultura. Neste estudo, objetivou-se gerar os modelos de capacidade de suporte de carga para um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo e determinar por meio do uso desses modelos a suscetibilidade à compactação do solo, pelo tempo de

  20. Miotoxicidade por organofosforados

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    Cavaliere Maria J.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Os organofosforados são um grupo de compostos químicos amplamente utilizados em agropecuária como inseticidas, ocasionando intoxicações acidentais em animais e humanos, e mesmo sendo utilizados em tentativas de suicídio. A toxicidade desses produtos decorre sobretudo de insuficiência cárdio-respiratória por compromentimento do sistema nervoso autônomo. Sabe-se que alguns destes compostos induzem em animais de experimentação e em humanos, uma miopatia caracterizada por degeneração de células musculares, comprometendo sobretudo a musculatura respiratória. Baseado no fato de que este comprometimento contribui para a piora da função respiratória, propõe-se um protocolo de avaliação rotineira de miotoxicidade por compostos organofosforados, através de uma bateria mínima e suficiente de colorações e reações histoquímicas para quantificação da necrose muscular. Utilizaram-se como modelo experimental, grupos de ratos albinos (Wistar intoxicados com o organofosforado paraoxon, com e sem antídotos (atropina ou pralidoxima. Verificou-se nos grupos tratados com paraoxon e paraoxon mais atropina, necrose de fibras musculares no diafragma, que atingia em determinadas áreas até 15% das fibras. No grupo tratado com paraoxon mais pralidoxima, a necrose foi mínima, evidenciando o papel mioprotetor deste último antídoto.

  1. Nucleotomia por laser

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, oão José Lobato Guimarães Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    A hérnia de disco intervertebral com compressão nervosa que não cede ao tratamento médico, tradicionalmente, é indicação para tratamento cirúrgico. No entanto, técnicas minimamente invasivas e os procedimentos percutâneos têm sido usados e desenvolvidos nas últimas duas décadas, tanto como procedimentos alternativos, bem como possibilidades terapêuticas que antecedem o tratamento cirúrgico convencional, podendo adiar o mesmo por tempo indeterminado. De entre estas opções técnicas, surge a Nuc...

  2. Por mil devaluados pesos

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    Annie Rodríguez Collázos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de lo popular y lo urbano hasta ahora se ha centrado en el comportamiento y en algunas relaciones de los habitantes con su entorno. “Por mil devaluados pesos. Publicidad popular y urbana”, pretende explorar las formas de publicidad, dispersas en diferentes espacios populares y urbanos en Bogotá, identificando esquemas y formas características de sus propios códigos comunicativos; se centran en un objeto de estudio consistente en las estrategias publicitarias y los códigos comunicativos en los mensajes publicitarios populares en las subculturas de San Victorino, 7 de Agosto y Sanandresito de San José.

  3. Granuloma macular por tuberculose sem manifestação pulmonar

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    Albert Costa Rebello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Tuberculose é uma doença infecciosa causada pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, também conhecido como bacilo de Koch. O principal sítio de acometimento é o pulmonar, porém o bacilo pode disseminar-se por via linfo-hematogênica para outros órgãos, dentre eles o olho. A incidência de tuberculose ocular é de 1 a 2% dos casos extrapulmonares. Os autores apresentam um caso clínico de um paciente do sexo feminino de 28 anos que procura atendimento médico devido à redução da acuidade visual em olho esquerdo há 7 dias. Apresentava a melhor acuidade visual corrigida no olho acometido de 20/200 e no olho contralateral de 20/20. Na fundoscopia era evidenciado um granuloma em área macular do olho esquerdo, com edema e hemorragia intrarretiniana adjacente. Após investigação diagnóstica, a paciente foi tratada com esquema antibiótico para tuberculose durante 6 meses, obtendo regressão do granuloma e melhora da acuidade visual deste olho para 20/50.

  4. Identification of genes differentially expressed during interaction of resistant and susceptible apple cultivars (Malus × domestica with Erwinia amylovora

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    Aldwinckle Herb S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The necrogenic enterobacterium, Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of the fire blight (FB disease in many Rosaceaespecies, including apple and pear. During the infection process, the bacteria induce an oxidative stress response with kinetics similar to those induced in an incompatible bacteria-plant interaction. No resistance mechanism to E. amylovora in host plants has yet been characterized, recent work has identified some molecular events which occur in resistant and/or susceptible host interaction with E. amylovora: In order to understand the mechanisms that characterize responses to FB, differentially expressed genes were identified by cDNA-AFLP analysis in resistant and susceptible apple genotypes after inoculation with E. amylovora. Results cDNA were isolated from M.26 (susceptible and G.41 (resistant apple tissues collected 2 h and 48 h after challenge with a virulent E. amylovora strain or mock (buffer inoculated. To identify differentially expressed transcripts, electrophoretic banding patterns were obtained from cDNAs. In the AFLP experiments, M.26 and G.41 showed different patterns of expression, including genes specifically induced, not induced, or repressed by E. amylovora. In total, 190 ESTs differentially expressed between M.26 and G.41 were identified using 42 pairs of AFLP primers. cDNA-AFLP analysis of global EST expression in a resistant and a susceptible apple genotype identified different major classes of genes. EST sequencing data showed that genes linked to resistance, encoding proteins involved in recognition, signaling, defense and apoptosis, were modulated by E. amylovora in its host plant. The expression time course of some of these ESTs selected via a bioinformatic analysis has been characterized. Conclusion These data are being used to develop hypotheses of resistance or susceptibility mechanisms in Malus to E. amylovora and provide an initial categorization of genes possibly involved in

  5. Erwinia amylovora expresses fast and simultaneously hrp/dsp virulence genes during flower infection on apple trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Pester

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathogen entry through host blossoms is the predominant infection pathway of the gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora leading to manifestation of the disease fire blight. Like in other economically important plant pathogens, E. amylovora pathogenicity depends on a type III secretion system encoded by hrp genes. However, timing and transcriptional order of hrp gene expression during flower infections are unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using quantitative real-time PCR analyses, we addressed the questions of how fast, strong and uniform key hrp virulence genes and the effector dspA/E are expressed when bacteria enter flowers provided with the full defense mechanism of the apple plant. In non-invasive bacterial inoculations of apple flowers still attached to the tree, E. amylovora activated expression of key type III secretion genes in a narrow time window, mounting in a single expression peak of all investigated hrp/dspA/E genes around 24-48 h post inoculation (hpi. This single expression peak coincided with a single depression in the plant PR-1 expression at 24 hpi indicating transient manipulation of the salicylic acid pathway as one target of E. amylovora type III effectors. Expression of hrp/dspA/E genes was highly correlated to expression of the regulator hrpL and relative transcript abundances followed the ratio: hrpA>hrpN>hrpL>dspA/E. Acidic conditions (pH 4 in flower infections led to reduced virulence/effector gene expression without the typical expression peak observed under natural conditions (pH 7. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The simultaneous expression of hrpL, hrpA, hrpN, and the effector dspA/E during early floral infection indicates that speed and immediate effector transmission is important for successful plant invasion. When this delicate balance is disturbed, e.g., by acidic pH during infection, virulence gene expression is reduced, thus partly explaining the efficacy of acidification in fire blight

  6. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage

  7. Ojo por ojo

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón del Llano Ibáñez

    2011-01-01

    Nuestro pan y café de la mañana se acompaña de noticias alrededor de ejecuciones, de fosas clandestinas, de batallas del ejército, de balaceras en las calles y civiles caídos por balas perdidas : la muerte acompaña nuestro desayuno. Las calaveras de azúcar del día de muertos hoy son calaveras reales y amargas : 40 000 muertos en cuatro años después que el Presidente Calderón declaró la guerra a los narcotraficantes. Se han apresado a varios e importantes miembros de los cárteles : pero han si...

  8. A vida por segundos

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Pedro Miguel Paiva da

    2010-01-01

    A Enfermagem regista evolução a vários níveis, o que torna imperioso reconhecer como de significativo valor o papel do enfermeiro. A Especialização em Enfermagem Médico-Cirúrgica visa o desenvolvimento de competências para a assistência de Enfermagem avançada ao doente adulto e idoso em estado crítico, revelando uma maior apropriação, por parte dos enfermeiros especialistas de uma concepção de cuidados sustentada numa conceptualização científica dos cuidados, daí infere-se o contributo num...

  9. Ojo por ojo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón del Llano Ibáñez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro pan y café de la mañana se acompaña de noticias alrededor de ejecuciones, de fosas clandestinas, de batallas del ejército, de balaceras en las calles y civiles caídos por balas perdidas : la muerte acompaña nuestro desayuno. Las calaveras de azúcar del día de muertos hoy son calaveras reales y amargas : 40 000 muertos en cuatro años después que el Presidente Calderón declaró la guerra a los narcotraficantes. Se han apresado a varios e importantes miembros de los cárteles : pero han si...

  10. Onicomicosis por hongos fuliginosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Salas-Campos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: Las infecciones de las uñas producidas por hongos son un problema de frecuente consulta dermatológica. Los dermatofitos son la mayor causa de estas infecciones, siendo Trichophyton rubrum el agente etiológico más importante. Sin embargo, los hongos no dermatofitos, tanto hialinos como fuliginosos, pueden ser también responsables de estos cuadros clínicos. Debido a que estos hongos tienden a ser resistentes a los antimicóticos comúnmente usados para tratar las onicomicosis, es que se hace indispensable que el clínico se asegure por medio de un examen de laboratorio de la etiología de la infección. Métodos: Se estudiaron tres casos de pacientes con lesiones en uñas, que acudieron al laboratorio de Micología Médica, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Se realizaron los análisis de rutina para aislamiento e identificación de hongos patógenos. Resultados: En los tres casos estudiados se observó al examen directo micelio fuliginoso. En uno de los casos se aisló e identificó Scytalidium dimidiatum, hongo que presenta resistencia a los antifúngicos utilizados para tratar onicomicosis. Conclusión. El reporte de hongos diferentes a los dermatofitos como agentes etiológicos de onicomicosis es importante para que el médico pueda elegir el tratamiento más recomendado para este tipo de infección.

  11. Primeiro relato da podridão da estipe da pupunheira, causada por Phytophthora palmivora, no estado do Paraná First report of stem rot on peach palm caused by Phytophthora palmivora ain the State of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro F. dos Santos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora palmivora foi isolado de plantas de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes com sintomas de podridão da estipe, no Paraná, em 2002. Testes de patogenicidade e o subseqüente reisolamento do fungo confirmaram a hipótese de que P. palmivora é o agente causal da podridão do estipe. Este é o primeiro relato de P. palmivora causando podridão do estipe na pupunheira no estado do Paraná.Phytophthora palmivora was isolated from infected peach palm (Bactris gasipaes plants with stem rot symptoms in Paraná State, in 2002. Pathogenicity tests and subsequent reisolations of P. palmivora confirmed the hypothesis that this fungus was the causal agent of the disease. This is the first report of P. palmivora causing stem rot on peach palm (Bactris gasipaes in the southern State of Paraná.

  12. Immunoprophylactic strategies against enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringens type D in goats Estratégias imunoprofiláticas contra enterotoxemia causada por Clostridium perfringens tipo D em caprinos

    OpenAIRE

    Josir Laine A. Veschi; Iveraldo S. Dutra; Fernandez Miyakawa, Mariano E.; Silvia Helena V. Perri; Uzal, Francisco A.

    2006-01-01

    The serological response to an experimental vaccine against Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia was evaluated in four groups of goats. Group 1 received colostrum from unvaccinated cows and no vaccine. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received colostrum from vaccinated cows. In addition, Groups 3 and 4 received a vaccine dose at 80 days of age, and Group 4 received a second vaccine dose at 120 days of age. Serum antibody levels were determined by ELISA in cows before and after calving, and in goats ...

  13. Hemolytic anemia caused by hereditary pyruvate kinase deficiency in a West Highland White Terrier dog Anemia hemolítica causada por la deficiencia de piruvato quinasa hereditaria en un perro West Highland White Terrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NRC Hlavac

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inherited erythrocytic pyruvate kinase (PK deficiency is an autosomal recessive hemolytic disorder described in dogs and cats. Pyruvate kinase is one of two key-regulatory enzymes in the anaerobic glycolytic pathway, and its deficiency causes premature destruction of the ATP-depleted red cells. This case study reports the clinical and laboratory findings in a West Highland White Terrier (WHWT dog with a life-long history of weakness and exercise intolerance from Brazil. The dog was found to have persistently profound pallor, a highly regenerative hemolytic anemia and osteosclerosis. PK deficiency was confirmed by a breed-specific DNA test for the previously described 6 bp insertion at 3' end of exon 10 in red blood cell (RBC R- PK gene sequence. The dog was euthanized at 20 months of age due to the deterioration of its clinical condition including anemia and blood incompatibility. Other PK-deficient WHWTs have lived as long as 9 years. Hereditary red cell defects are important differential diagnoses for chronic hemolytic anemias in younger animals after excluding immune-mediated and infectious causes. Furthermore, purebred dogs for which DNA tests for hereditary diseases are available should be screened prior to breeding in order to limit the spread of the mutant allele and to avoid future production of PK-deficient animals.La deficiencia de piruvato quinasa (PK es un desorden hemolítico autosómico recesivo descrito en perros y gatos. La piruvato quinasa es una de las enzimas regulatorias esenciales de la glicólisis anaeróbica, la deficiencia de esta enzima causa una destrucción prematura de los eritrocitos. El presente es un estudio de caso y relata los hallazgos clínicos y paraclínicos en un perro brasileño de la raza West Highland White Terrier (WHWT con historia de debilidad e intolerancia al ejercicio. El paciente presentaba mucosas pálidas, anemia hemolítica bastante regenerativa y osteoclerosis. La deficiencia de PK fue confirmada a través de una prueba de ADN raza específica para la inserción 6bp en el extremo 3' del exón 10 de la secuencia del gen de la piruvato quinasa eritrocitaria (R-PK como fue descrito. Al perro se le practicó eutanasia a los 20 meses de edad debido al deterioro de su estado clínico, el cual incluyó anemia e incompatibilidad sanguínea. En otros casos descritos en perros de la raza WHWT con esta deficiencia, existen relatos hasta de nueve años de sobrevivencia. Los defectos hereditarios deben ser objeto de diagnóstico diferencial importante en casos de anemias hemolíticas crónicas en animales jóvenes después de la exclusión diagnóstica de disturbios inmunomediados y causas infecciosas. Adicionalmente, perros de razas puras para las cuales la prueba de ADN está disponible para enfermedades hereditarias deben ser evaluados antes de la edad reproductiva para limitar la diseminación del alelo mutante y la generación futura de animales deficientes.

  14. Controle químico da queima de folhas e da mela de estacas de eucalipto, causadas por Rhizoctonia spp. Chemical control of leaf scorch and web blight of eucalypt cuttings, caused by Rhizoctonia spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Silvaldo Felipe da Silveira; Acelino Couto Alfenas; Luís Antônio Maffia; Márcio Shiguero Suzuki

    2003-01-01

    Visando ao controle químico da queima de folhas e mela de estacas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp.) em viveiros florestais, avaliou-se a eficiência de 12 fungicidas em inibir in vitro o crescimento micelial de um isolado epifítico de Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB (RH-2). Sete fungicidas que inibiram totalmente o crescimento micelial do fungo, a concentrações inferiores a 100 ppm, foram pré-selecionados: methyl-tolclophos, benomyl, pencycuron, iprodione, thiabendazol, thiram e captan. Avaliou-se, ain...

  15. Influência da concentração de inóculo e da idade da planta na intensidade de doença causada por Fusarium graminearum em Egeria densa e E. najas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Neto Carlos R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Um isolado de Fusarium graminearum estudado na UNESP/Campus de Jaboticabal, onde foi comprovada sua eficácia no controle de Egeria densa e E. najas, macrófitas aquáticas submersas. Para estudar o efeito de diferentes concentrações do inóculo na severidade de doença, foram conduzidos experimentos em incubadoras para BOD, com concentrações variando em um décimo, de 0,1 até 1,4 g/l de arroz moído colonizado com F. graminearum. Para verificar os possíveis efeitos da idade da planta sobre a severidade de doença, plantas com, no mínimo 35 cm, de comprimento foram excisadas em segmentos correspondentes às idades de crescimento. Os tratamentos com concentrações de inóculo a partir de 0,5 g/l apresentaram sintomas. Todos os tratamentos inoculados com o fungo, nas concentrações a partir de 0,5 g/l, apresentaram drástica redução na produção de biomassa fresca. Todos os segmentos utilizados como plantas-teste (0 a 32 cm de comprimento apresentaram suscetibilidade ao fungo. Os ponteiros de plantas de ambas as espécies apresentaram maior severidade de sintomas no sexto e oitavo dias após a inoculação, contudo, os segmentos correspondentes às idades 2 e 3 apresentaram maior redução de biomassa fresca quando inoculadas, apesar de não apresentarem sintomas tão severos quanto a idade 1. Com relação ao ganho de biomassa fresca, as testemunhas apresentaram sempre maior crescimento do que os respectivos tratamentos inoculados, contudo os segmentos correspondentes à idade 4 apresentaram menor ganho de biomassa fresca do que as demais idades.

  16. PCR associated with hybridization with DNA radioactive probes for diagnosis of asymptomatic infection caused by Leishmania Chagasi; PCR associado a hibridizacao com sondas radioativas de DNA para a identificacao de infeccao subclinica causada por Leishmania Chagasi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Moreno, Elizabeth Castro [Fundacao Nacional de Saude, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao Regional de Minas Gerais; Gomes, Rosangela Fatima; Melo, Maria Norma de; Carneiro, Mariangela [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia; Fernandes, Octavio [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Tropical

    2002-07-01

    Detection systems for diagnosis of leishmaniasis based on PCR are very promising due to their sensitivity and specificity. Secondary detection by specific radioactive DNA probes, able to type the PCR amplified products, increase the specificity and raise about tem-fold the sensitivity of the assay. The aim of this work was evaluate PCR and hybridization as a tool to identify Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi (the specie that cause the visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil) infection in asymptomatic persons living in a endemic area. Material and Methods: A group of 226 asymptomatic individuals, living in General Carneiro (MG), was selected. Blood samples were harvested and the DNA extracted from the mononucleate cells. PCR was performed using primers addressed to the kinetoplast DNA minicircles. This protocol gives a positive reaction for all Leishmania species. The amplified products were further hybridized with cloned L.chagasi minicircles labeled with {sup 32} P. Results: were identified 111 samples PCR positive, 2 of them hybridization negative and 133 samples hybridization positive, 24 of them PCR negative. The occurrence of samples with hybridization positive and PCR negative was expected since hybridization, with DNA probes labeled with {sup 32} P, increase the sensitivity of the assay. The samples that presented positive PCR and negative hybridization were probably due the presence of other Leishmania species, likely L. (V.) braziliensis (that produce tegumentary leishmaniasis in the region), since L. (L.) chagasi cloned minicircles were used as hybridization probe. We conclude that this procedure is a valuable tool to access subclinical L. (L.) chagasi infections in epidemiological studies. (author)

  17. Prevalência da mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná Prevalence of bovine mastitis due to Prototheca zopfii in dairy cattle in north Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Laerte Francisco Filippsen; Fernanda Barros Moreira; Adauto Taiti Sakashita; Daniéla Regina Bittencourt

    1999-01-01

    Algas do gênero Prototheca têm sido relacionadas como agente etiológico na ocorrência de mastite bovina, entretanto, nenhum caso foi relatado no estado do Paraná. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a prevalência desta alga, enquanto agente etiológico nas mastites bovinas, em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná. Foram visitadas 20 propriedades produtoras de leite e realizados exames clínicos e teste do CMT (California Mastitis Test) em todos os animais em lactação. A alga Proto...

  18. Mortality of the outbreak defoliator Ormiscodes amphimone (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) caused by natural enemies in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina Mortalidad del defoliador epidémico Ormiscodes amphimone (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) causada por enemigos naturales en el noroeste de la Patagonia Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    JUAN PARITSIS; CAROLINA QUINTERO; THOMAS KITZBERGER; Veblen, Thomas T

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of the defoliator moth Ormiscodes amphimone are occurring more frequently in numerous Nothofagus forests of Patagonia. However, little is known about the life history of this species including its natural enemies as mortality agents. In this work we quantified mortality by parasitoids and generalist predators at the egg, larval and pupal life stages of O. amphimone in a Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. & Endl.) Krasser forest in northwestern Patagonia. Parasitism of eggs was relatively lo...

  19. Hepatosplenomegaly caused by an extract of cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa bloom collected in the Manguaba Lagoon, Alagoas - Brazil Hepatoesplenomegalia causada por um extrato de cianobactéria Microcystis aeruginosa coletada na Lagoa Manguaba, Alagoas -Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Zenaldo Porfirio; Micheline P. Ribeiro; Cicero S. Estevam; Ricardo L. S. Houly; Antonio Euzébio G. Sant'Ana

    1999-01-01

    Cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), which produce powerful hepatotoxic cyclopeptides, were collected and submitted to the determination of toxicity through intraperitoneal injections made in 30 and 90 days-old Swiss albino mice. The liver and the spleen were histopathologically analyzed and the weight and vital signs development were monitored. Test of toxicity resulted in a LD50 of 154.28 mg.Kg-1. M. aeruginosa represented 95% of the analyzed biomass. The ratios between liver weight and ...

  20. Mortalidad de la bacteremia causada por Staphyloccoccus aureus resistente a meticilina en pacientes críticamente enfermos de la red distrital / Methicillin-resistant Staphyloccoccus aureus bacteremia mortality in critically ill patients in the a city healthcare network

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Londoño, Juan Sebastián

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: La resistencia bacteriana constituye uno de los principales problemas de la atención hospitalaria para el sistema de salud Distrital. La emergencia y diseminación de bacterias resistentes ha mostrado impacto en la morbilidad y mortalidad de los pacientes y en el consumo de recursos económicos. Conocer el fenómeno y sus consecuencias es un paso fundamental para lograr la movilización de los actores implicados en su contención. En nuestro país existe poca informació...

  1. Sepsis neonatal precoz causada por transmisión vertical de Morganella morganii, en un embarazo de término Fatal neonatal sepsis caused by vertical transmission of Morganella morganii. Report of one case

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Ovalle; M Angélica Martínez; Elena Kakarieka; Mirna García; Abril Salinas

    2009-01-01

    We report a term neonate who developed early-onset sepsis due to Morganella morganii. The child was vaginally delivered after a short labor, and presented signs of perinatal asphyxia. Blood cultures taken soon after birth and from mother's lochia were positive for this microorganism. The infection was unresponsive to treatment with cefotaxime, to which the microorganism was susceptible, and the infant died at 17 days of age. M morganii is an opportunistic and uncommon pathogen, causing diseas...

  2. Symptomatic thoracic spinal cord compression caused by postsurgical pseudomeningocele Compressão medular torácica sintomática causada por pseudomeningocele pós-operatória

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur de Azambuja Pereira Filho; Gustavo de David; Gustavo Azambuja Pereira Filho; Albert Vincent Berthier Brasil

    2007-01-01

    We report the first case of symptomatic thoracic spinal cord compression caused by postsurgical pseudomeningocele. A 49-year-old man sought treatment for progressive loss of strength in the lower extremities ten months after full neurological recovery for a thoracic (T11) intradural-extramedullary schwannoma. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a postsurgical thoracic (T11-T12) pseudomeningocele. The surgical approach showed an inadequate dural closure with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid fis...

  3. Immunoprophylactic strategies against enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringens type D in goats Estratégias imunoprofiláticas contra enterotoxemia causada por Clostridium perfringens tipo D em caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josir Laine A. Veschi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The serological response to an experimental vaccine against Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia was evaluated in four groups of goats. Group 1 received colostrum from unvaccinated cows and no vaccine. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received colostrum from vaccinated cows. In addition, Groups 3 and 4 received a vaccine dose at 80 days of age, and Group 4 received a second vaccine dose at 120 days of age. Serum antibody levels were determined by ELISA in cows before and after calving, and in goats at 3, 80, 120 and 160 days of age. No significant difference in serum antibody levels was observed between vaccinated and unvaccinated cows, or between the four groups of goats evaluated at 3 days of life. Groups 3 and 4 presented mean antibody titers of 0.6 and 1.1 IU/ml, respectively, 40 days after first vaccination. The vaccine response of Group 4 was 1.8 IU/ml 40 days after the booster dose and was higher than that observed for Group 3 (0.2 IU/ml. Thus, in the proposed regimen the use of heterologous colostrum did not induce passive immunization in goat kids. However, first vaccination and a booster dose after 40 days triggered satisfactory antibody levels.Foi avaliada a resposta sorológica de vacina experimental contra a enterotoxemia em quatro grupos de caprinos. O Grupo 1 recebeu colostro de vacas não vacinadas e nenhuma dose de vacina. Os Grupos 2, 3 e 4 receberam colostro de vacas vacinadas, e uma dose de vacina aos 80 dias de idade nos Grupos 3 e 4. O Grupo 4 recebeu a segunda dose de vacina aos 120 dias de idade. Os níveis de anticorpos séricos foram avaliados pelo ELISA nas vacas antes e depois do parto e nos caprinos aos 3, 80, 120 e 160 dias de idade. Não houve diferença significativa nos níveis de anticorpos séricos das vacas vacinadas e não vacinadas, assim como entre os quatro grupos de caprinos avaliados aos três dias de vida. Os Grupos 3 e 4 apresentaram títulos médios de anticorpos de 0,6 UI/mL e 1,1 UI/mL, respectivamente, aos 40 dias após a primovacinação. A resposta vacinal do grupo 4, 40 dias após o reforço, foi de 1,8 UI/mL, superior ao Grupo 3 que foi de 0,2 UI/mL. Portanto, no esquema proposto, o uso de colostro não induziu a imunização passiva dos cabritos. No entanto, a primovacinação e reforço 40 dias após desencadearam níveis de anticorpos considerados satisfatórios.

  4. Prevalência da mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná Prevalence of bovine mastitis due to Prototheca zopfii in dairy cattle in north Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Francisco Filippsen

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Algas do gênero Prototheca têm sido relacionadas como agente etiológico na ocorrência de mastite bovina, entretanto, nenhum caso foi relatado no estado do Paraná. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a prevalência desta alga, enquanto agente etiológico nas mastites bovinas, em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná. Foram visitadas 20 propriedades produtoras de leite e realizados exames clínicos e teste do CMT (California Mastitis Test em todos os animais em lactação. A alga Prototheca zopfii foi isolada de dois animais de uma das propriedades. Todas as cepas isoladas de Prototheca zopfii mostraram-se resistentes aos antimicrobianos testados.Prototheca has been reported as an etiological agent in the occurrence of bovine mastitis, although no case has been noticed in Paraná. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of this algae as an etiological agent of the bovine mastitis in dairy cattle in north Paraná. Clinical exams and CMT (California Mastitis Test were done in all lactation animals raised in 20 dairy farms. The algae Prototheca zopfii was found in two animals of one farm. All the Prototheca zopfii strains were resistent against the antimicrobial agents tested.

  5. Chemical control of the fairy ring spot of carnation caused by Heterosporium echinulatum Control químico de la mancha foliar anillada del clavel causada por Heterosporium echinuletum

    OpenAIRE

    Peñaranda Luis Alfonso; Torres Hernán Jose; Arbeláez Germán

    1991-01-01

    The fairy ring spot caused by Heterosporium echinulatum- is one of the most limiting diseases of miniature carnation in
    Colombia. An experiment was carried out in 1989 to evaluate the control of diseases with the application of four fungicides with the very susceptible variety Sam'Pride in a cornmercial
    greenhouse. Two protectant fungicides Dichlofluanid and Propineb an two svstemic fungicides Penconazol and Triforine
    were applied weekly eigth times. A lower n...

  6. Modification of the Mus musculus albino rats parasitological profile induced by low x-ray radiation dose; Modificacao do perfil parasitologico de camundongos albinos Mus musculus causada por raios X em baixa dosagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, P.L.; Veloso, L.F.; Motta, M.A. da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    1994-12-31

    Ionizing radiations can induce alterations on the immunological response. In order to observe the effects of X-Rays in the susceptibility to intestinal worms infestation, feces of 40 Albino Swiss mice (20 males and 20 females) receiving weekly X-Rays doses of 500 mGy, were collected once per week, so as was collected fecal material of an equal group o mice non-irradiated, for comparison. The results of the coprologic examination revealed the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides, eggs mainly in the irradiated females, having the irradiated group a proportional rate of 30:1, as compared with the non-irradiated group. Eggs of Syphacia obveolata was also found, with a rate of 13:1 as compared with the non-irradiated, and also here with a prevalence among the irradiated females. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  7. Mancha foliar em capim-elefante no Cerrado do Brasil Central causada por Bipolaris maydi Leaf spot in elephantgrass in the Cerrado Region of Central Brazil caused by Bipolaris maydis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José d´Avila Charchar

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Bipolaris maydis (Y. Nisik. & C. Miyake Shoemaker foi consistentemente isolado de plantas de Pennisetum purpureum Schum., com sintomas de manchas foliares, no Cerrado, em 2005 e 2006. Testes de patogenicidade em mudas sadias de capim-elefante, em casa de vegetação, e o subseqüente reisolamento do fungo confirmaram que B. maydis era o agente causal das lesões foliares observadas. Os primeiros sintomas apareceram dois dias após a inoculação. Onze outras espécies de gramíneas foram suscetíveis ao fungo.Bipolaris maydis (Y. Nisik. & C. Miyake Shoemaker was consistently isolated from elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. showing leaf spot symptoms in the Cerrado of Central Brazil in 2005 and 2006. Pathogenicity tests, under greenhouse conditions, and subsequent re-isolation of B. maydis from artificially infected elephant grass seedlings confirmed that this fungus was the causal agent of the disease. First symptoms of leaf spot appeared two days after inoculation. Eleven other grass species proved to be susceptible to the fungus.

  8. DESARROLLO DE PROTOTIPOS PARA EL TRATAMIENTO POSTCOSECHA DE CÍTRICOS CON RADIACIÓN UV-C Y AGUA CALIENTE PARA EL CONTROL DE LA PODREDUMBRE VERDE CAUSADA POR PENICILLIUN DIGITATUM.

    OpenAIRE

    IBIZA MAURI, SALVADOR

    2016-01-01

    [EN] In modern agriculture, the widespread use of chemicals is common, but the possible presence of residues in food is an issue of increasing importance for public health opinion. The germicidal effect of UV-C irradiation has been successfully tested in different foods but not at an industrial scale as a method for surface disinfection at room temperature of fresh citrus fruit without leaving residues on the product, which is considered a good alternative for food preservation. Posth...

  9. Celulitis in Japanese Quails (coturnix coturnix japonica for Eschorichia coli: virulence factors, sensibility and profile antimicrobial resistance /Celulite em codornas (coturnix coturnix japonica causada por Escherichia coli: fatores de virulência, sensibilidade e perfil de resistência antimicrobiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Carlos Vidotto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten E. coli strains isolated from celulitis lesion s of Japanese quails were to evaluated antimicrobia l resistance to twent y six drugs , to pathogenicity of strains in SPF chickens embryonated eggs and virulence factors. The antimicrobials of higher efficiency wer e ampicillin, florfenicol and the lesser efficiency were erythromycin, oxacilin, lincomicin, novobiocin, penicillin, sulfonamidas, trimethoprim+sulfomethoxazo/e and tetracyicline. The majority of E. coli strains were serum resistance, the others virulence factors, hemolisin and congo red affinity, were lesser frequent on the studied strains. Pathogenicity of E. coli strains, evaluated to DL50 in embryonated eggs, had varied of 8x10 2 the 3,2x10.Dez cepas de E. coli isoladas de lesões de celulite em codornas foram avaliadas quanto a resistência antimicrobiana frente a vinte e seis drogas, a patogenicidade das amostras em ovos embrionários de galinha SPF e quanto aos fatores de virulência: hemolisinas, resistência sérica e afinidade ao vermelho congo Os antimicrobianos de maior eficiência foram ampicilinar florfenicol e os menos eficientes foram eritromicina, oxacilina. lincomicina, novobiocina. penicsilna, sulfonamida, sulfomethoxazole+ trimetoprim e tetraciclina. A maioria das amostras de E. coli foram resistentes ao soro, os outros fatores do virulência, hemolisina e afinidade ao vermelho-congo, foram menos freqüentes nas amostras estudadas. A patogenicidade das amostras de E. coli estimada através da DL50 em ovos embrionados, variaram de 8x10* a 3.2x10a.

  10. Sarcoplasmatic and myofibrillar protein changes caused by acute heat stress in broiler chicken Alterações nas proteínas sarcoplasmáticas e miofibrilares em frangos de corte causadas por estresse térmico agudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Castro Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute heat stress (AHS modifies the structure of myofibrils affecting functional properties of meat, mainly the water holding capacity. This experiment aimed to identify changes in proteolysis and migration between the myofibrillar and sarcoplasmatic fractions due to pre-slaughter AHS. Myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI, SDS-PAGE, western blot of vinculin (WB and shear force (SF were determined. Six hundred broilers (Gallus gallus were slaughtered in three different days (ST. In each ST, groups of ten animals were placed in transport crates and submitted to AHS (35ºC, 75 - 85% RH for 2 hours. Simultaneously, the non-stressed broilers (NS were kept in thermoneutral environment (22ºC, 83 ± 6.6% RH within the crates in the same density. After slaughter, the breast muscles were kept refrigerated until the withdrawal of all samples (0, 1, 2, 6 and 24 hours after slaughter. Sampling within AHS and NS birds was collected according to lightness value (normal L* 51, except for determination of MFI and SF. The lightness was used later to perform SDS-PAGE and WB analyses. MFI kinetics showed that the fragmentation rate was superior in animals NS, indicating that AHS can harm proteolysis and rate of myofibrillar fragmentation. However, the extent of fragmentation did not change, as well as SF values. SDS-PAGE for Troponin fragments indicated a differentiated pattern between AHS and NS. The WB did not show alterations in vinculin fragmentation. Modifications in sarcoplasmatic fraction are observed in meat with high L*values, independent of environmental condition.O estresse térmico agudo (ET causa alterações na estrutura das miofibrilas, afetando propriedades funcionais da carne, principalmente a capacidade de retenção de água. Identificaram-se mudanças na proteólise e migração entre as frações miofibrilar e sarcoplasmática, decorrentes do ET pré-abate, através do índice de fragmentação miofibrilar (MFI, SDS-PAGE para troponina (SDS, imunodetecção de vinculina (IV e força de cisalhamento (FC. Seiscentos frangos (Gallus gallus foram abatidos em três dias diferentes (DA. Em cada DA os animais foram colocados em caixas de transporte (10 aves/caixa e submetidos a ET (35ºC, 75 - 85% URpor 2 horas. Simultaneamente, o outro grupo de animais (NET foi mantido em caixas em condição termoneutra (22ºC, 83 ± 6,6% UR pelo mesmo período de tempo. Após o abate o músculo do peito foi coletado e mantido refrigerado, até a retirada de todas as amostras (0, 1, 2, 6 e 24 horas pós-abate. O valor de luminosidade (L* 51, alto, foi o parâmetro utilizado na amostragem para SDS e IV. A cinética do MFI demonstrou que a taxa de fragmentação foi superior nos animais NET, indicando que o estresse térmico pode prejudicar o processo de proteólise. Entretanto, a extensão da fragmentação não variou, bem como os valores de FC. No SDS ocorreram padrões diferenciados de fragmentação entre aves ET e NET. Modificações na fração sarcoplasmática foram observadas em amostras com L*, independentemente da condição ambiental.

  11. Characterization and properties of intracellular proteins after cold acclimation of the ice-nucleating bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola) IFO12686.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, N; Aoki, M; Kawahara, H; Yamade, K; Obata, H

    2000-11-01

    The ice-nucleating bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola) IFO12686 (INA(+)) responds to a decrease in temperature by the induction of proteins. The pattern of protein bands from strain IFO12686 following a shift in temperature from 30 to 12 degrees C could be divided into four major groups: (1) increasing protein bands, (2) decreasing protein bands, (3) increasing--decreasing protein bands, and (4) almost constant protein bands. We identified a cryoprotective function in the increasing protein band found in strain IFO12686. The increasing protein bands that followed a reduction in temperature were considered to have an important role in cold acclimation or adaptation. We showed that these proteins possessed cryoprotective activity when tested against the freeze-labile enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. The strain IFO12686 had greater cryotolerance than Pa. agglomerans IAM1595 (INA(-)), and the degree of cryotolerance was increased by cold acclimation. PMID:11161552

  12. Regulation of hrp genes and type III protein secretion in Erwinia amylovora by HrpX/HrpY, a novel two-component system, and HrpS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z; Kim, J F; Beer, S V

    2000-11-01

    Two novel regulatory components, hrpX and hrpY, of the hrp system of Erwinia amylovora were identified. The hrpXY operon is expressed in rich media, but its transcription is increased threefold by low pH, nutrient, and temperature levels--conditions that mimic the plant apoplast. hrpXY is autoregulated and directs the expression of hrpL; hrpL, in turn, activates transcription of other loci in the hrp gene cluster (Z.-M. Wei and S. V. Beer, J. Bacteriol. 177:6201-6210, 1995). The deduced amino -acid sequences of hrpX and hrpY are similar to bacterial two-component regulators including VsrA/VsrD of Pseudomonas (Ralstonia) solanacearum, DegS/DegU of Bacillus subtilis, and UhpB/UhpA and NarX/NarP, NarL of Escherichia coli. The N-terminal signal-input domain of HrpX contains PAS domain repeats. hrpS, located downstream of hrpXY, encodes a protein with homology to WtsA (HrpS) of Erwinia (Pantoea) stewartii, HrpR and HrpS of Pseudomonas syringae, and other delta54-dependent, enhancer-binding proteins. Transcription of hrpS also is induced under conditions that mimic the plant apoplast. However, hrpS is not autoregulated, and its expression is not affected by hrpXY. When hrpS or hrpL were provided on multicopy plasmids, both hrpX and hrpY mutants recovered the ability to elicit the hypersensitive reaction in tobacco. This confirms that hrpS and hrpL are not epistatic to hrpXY. A model of the regulatory cascades leading to the induction of the E. amylovora type III system is proposed. PMID:11059492

  13. Systems level analysis of two-component signal transduction systems in Erwinia amylovora: Role in virulence, regulation of amylovoran biosynthesis and swarming motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundin George W

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSTs, consisting of a histidine kinase (HK and a response regulator (RR, represent a major paradigm for signal transduction in prokaryotes. TCSTs play critical roles in sensing and responding to environmental conditions, and in bacterial pathogenesis. Most TCSTs in Erwinia amylovora have either not been identified or have not yet been studied. Results We used a systems approach to identify TCST and related signal transduction genes in the genome of E. amylovora. Comparative genomic analysis of TCSTs indicated that E. amylovora TCSTs were closely related to those of Erwinia tasmaniensis, a saprophytic enterobacterium isolated from apple flowers, and to other enterobacteria. Forty-six TCST genes in E. amylovora including 17 sensor kinases, three hybrid kinases, 20 DNA- or ligand-binding RRs, four RRs with enzymatic output domain (EAL-GGDEF proteins, and two kinases were characterized in this study. A systematic TCST gene-knockout experiment was conducted, generating a total of 59 single-, double-, and triple-mutants. Virulence assays revealed that five of these mutants were non-pathogenic on immature pear fruits. Results from phenotypic characterization and gene expression experiments indicated that several groups of TCST systems in E. amylovora control amylovoran biosynthesis, one of two major virulence factors in E. amylovora. Both negative and positive regulators of amylovoran biosynthesis were identified, indicating a complex network may control this important feature of pathogenesis. Positive (non-motile, EnvZ/OmpR, negative (hypermotile, GrrS/GrrA, and intermediate regulators for swarming motility in E. amylovora were also identified. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that TCSTs in E. amylovora played major roles in virulence on immature pear fruit and in regulating amylovoran biosynthesis and swarming motility. This suggested presence of regulatory networks governing

  14. Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Arcila Salazar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, aspectos como la responsabilidad limitada; supresión de la llamada doctrina de ultra vires; duración ilimitada; eliminación de la regla, una acción, un voto; remedios al abuso de los derechos; posibilidad de eliminar prohibiciones a los administradores, libertad de establecer restricciones para la transferencia de acciones y la simplificación de los procedimientos de fusión; son inviables bajo nuestra legislación. Sin embargo, la Ley 1258 de 2008, ha incorporado al derecho societario colombiano un nuevo tipo societario híbrido, llamado “Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada”. Esta forma societaria híbrida se basa en un principio básico: garantizar amplia libertad a los empresarios en la estructuración de sus relaciones a través de disposiciones contractuales. La S.A.S. provee a los empresarios significativa flexibilidad contractual, a la vez que preserva beneficios como la limitación de la responsabilidad.

  15. Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Arcila Salazar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, aspectos como la responsabilidad limitada; supresión de la llamada doctrina de ultra vires; duración ilimitada; eliminación de la regla, una acción, un voto; remedios al abuso de los derechos; posibilidad de eliminar prohibiciones a los administradores, libertad de establecer restricciones para la transferencia de acciones y la simplificación de los procedimientos de fusión; son inviables bajo nuestra legislación. Sin embargo, la Ley 1258 de 2008, ha incorporado al derecho societario colombiano un nuevo tipo societario híbrido, llamado “Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada”. Esta forma societaria híbrida se basa en un principio básico: garantizar amplia libertad a los empresarios en la estructuración de sus relaciones a través de disposiciones contractuales. La S.A.S. provee a los empresarios significativa flexibilidad contractual, a la vez que preserva beneficios como la limitación de la responsabilidad.

  16. La medición y vigilancias de la enfermedad de la mancha foliar producida por la sigatoka negra (Mycospharella fijiensis var diformis Morelet) en la producción de musáceas: un enfoque para lograr la sostenibilidad del desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Edgardo Vargas Jarquín

    2013-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se discute la necesidad de utilizar tecnología, como el procesamiento digital de imágenes para mejorar los procesos de medición y vigilancia de la enfermedad de la mancha de la hoja causada por SIGATOKA NEGRA (Mycospharella fijiensis var diformis Morelet), pero partiendo de un análisis epistemológico que fundamenta al desarrollo sostenible, que es el marco dentro del cual se encuentra sentido a la aplicación de esta tecnología. Así se define que es la gobernabilidad ben...

  17. Hiperinfestação por Strongyloides Stercoralis - doi:10.5020/18061230.2006.p118

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    Tânia Maria Cavalcante Maia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A estrongiloidíase é uma helmintíase predominantemente intestinal causada pelo Strongyloides stercoralis, sendo o homem seu hospedeiro definitivo, além da principal fonte de infecção. Este trabalho objetivou relatar um caso de identificação laboratorial de larva de Strongyloides stercolaris no líquido ascítico de um paciente do sexo masculino, 49 anos, agricultor, etilista há mais de 30 anos, encaminhado ao Hospital Universitário Walter Cantídio, por estar evoluindo com episódios de icterícia associada a aumento do volume abdominal diagnosticado como ascite, vômito, diarréia pastosa e diminuição do volume urinário. No internamento, foi iniciada medicação profilática para Peritonite Bacteriana Espontânea (PBE, bem como reposição de vitaminas, hidratação venosa e diuréticos, sem sucesso terapêutico. A partir de achados no líquido ascítico de presença de larvas de Strongyloides stercolaris em atividade, o quadro foi interpretado como estrongiloidíase disseminada em paciente imunocomprometido por hepatopatia avançada e alcoólica. O paciente evoluiu com quadro de choque caracterizado por hipotensão e hipotermia, tendo chegado a fazer uso de drogas vasoativas de forma não responsiva. O quadro evoluiu para óbito. Os autores chamam a atenção para a importância do diagnóstico e tratamento precoce da estrongiloidíase, principalmente em pacientes imunodeprimidos.

  18. Ocorrência e tratamento de quadros depressivos por hormônios sexuais

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    Soares Cláudio N

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O processo de envelhecimento promove alterações significativas na produção e no equilíbrio dos níveis circulantes de diversos hormônios sexuais em homens e mulheres. Acredita-se que esses hormônios (estrógenos, progestógenos, testosterona, dehidroepiandrosterona [DHEA] exercem papel modulador sobre diversas funções psíquicas, particularmente sobre o humor e a cognição. Alterações nesse papel modulador causadas por variações abruptas dos hormônios sexuais circulantes -- como as que ocorrem, por exemplo, durante a transição menopausal -- favorecem o surgimento de queixas depressivas. No entanto, a utilização terapêutica de hormônios sexuais pode promover alívio ou mesmo remissão de sintomas depressivos, como já foi caracterizado com o uso de estradiol em mulheres em perimenopausa e com a administração de testosterona após a menopausa. Este artigo aborda, por revisão da literatura, os diversos papéis atribuídos aos hormônios sexuais no desenvolvimento e tratamento das queixas depressivas. Estudos sobre a eficácia terapêutica de estrógenos, testosterona e DHEA nos quadros depressivos são discutidos de forma crítica. Em essência, existem resultados preliminares bastante promissores, particularmente quanto ao uso de estradiol e testosterona em subpopulações específicas para alívio de sintomas depressivos. Futuras investigações devem melhor definir a utilização de hormônios como agente depressivo monoterápico ou adjuntivo, bem como delinear os riscos e as contra-indicações associados a seu uso.

  19. Toxoplasma gondii myelitis in a patient with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma Mielite por Toxoplasma gondii em um paciente com leucemia-linfoma de células T do adulto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELVES MACIEL

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL caused by HTLV-I may be associated with severe immunosupression and several opportunistic infections. Toxoplasmic encephalitis is a common central nervous system opportunistic infection in severely immunosupressed patients, however spinal cord involvement by this parasite is rare. In this paper, we report a case of toxoplasmic myelitis in a patient with ATL.Leucemia de células T do adulto (ATL, causada pelo HTLV-I, pode estar associada com imunossupressão severa e muitas infecções oportunistas. Encefalite por toxoplasmose é uma infecção oportunista do sistema nervoso central em pacientes imunossuprimidos, no entanto o envolvimento da medula espinal por este parasita é raro. Neste artigo, apresentamos um caso de mielite em um paciente com ATL.

  20. Infecção por C. psittaci: uma revisão com ênfase em psitacídeos C. psittaci infection: a review with emphasis in psittacines

    OpenAIRE

    Laila Maftoum Proença; José Jurandir Fagliari; Tânia de Freitas Raso

    2011-01-01

    A clamidiose ou ornitose é uma doença infecciosa, causada pela bactéria Chlamydophila psittaci, que acomete aves e mamíferos. Trata-se de uma das principais zoonoses de origem aviária. A transmissão ocorre principalmente por inalação de secreções contaminadas. Os sinais clínicos mais comuns incluem alterações no sistema gastrointestinal, respiratório e ocular, porém é possível encontrar aves infectadas sem sinais aparentes, dificultando a identificação da doença. O diagnóstico definitivo em a...