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Sample records for caupi vigna unguiculata

  1. Variabilidade e correlações entre caracteres agronômicos em caupi (Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Ângela Celis de Almeida

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp é um alimento básico das populações do Nordeste brasileiro, devendo merecer atenção com vistas a melhoria da qualidade de grãos, resistência a doenças e pragas e aumento de produtividade. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a variabilidade e o potencial genético de 28 linhagens, escolhidas após uma seleção para cor, tamanho de grãos e resistência a viroses. A produtividade apresentou coeficiente de variação genético de 23,90%, e o valor agronômico, de 3,56%. O número de vagens por pedúnculo apresentou a menor estimativa do coeficiente de determinação genético (4,51%, e o peso de 100 grãos, a maior (81,74%. O coeficiente de determinação genético da produtividade foi de 34,15%. As maiores estimativas de ganho genético foram as do peso de 100 grãos (21,73% e da produtividade (19,77%. As correlações genotípicas foram superiores às fenotípicas e às de ambiente, destacando-se as correlações entre número de ramos secundários e produtividade (68,13%, e valor agronômico e produtividade (100%. Estes resultados mostram amplas possibilidades de seleção entre as linhagens com relação à maioria dos caracteres estudados.

  2. Genetical analysis of the induced variation by gamma radiation in quantitative characters of Caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, J.P.P. de.

    1987-10-01

    Genetical analysis procedures of the cobalt 60 gamma radiation effects in the induced mutations in quantitative characters of Caupi BR-1 Poty. The following characters were evaluated: day to first flower (FI), number of pods per plant (NVP), pod lenght (CMV), number of suds per pod (NSV), 100 seed wright (PCS), seed yield per plant (PSP) and seed yield per plant estimated by yield components (PSPE). The resistance of irradiated populations to cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CpAMV)was also evaluated. (L.M.J.) [pt

  3. Soil compaction and gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) in the development of the cowpea beans [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp]; Compactacao do solo e radiacao gama ({sup 60}Co) no desenvolvimento do feijao caupi [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Eliane Ferreira; Colaco, Waldeciro [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Radioagronomia]. E-mails: aroucha@ufpe.br; wcolaco@ufpe.br

    2005-08-15

    The objective is to investigate the effect of compaction and increased doses of gamma radiation on the development of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp] var. IPA-206 cultivated in a Neossolo fluvic soil, artificially compacted. Significant differences were observed in plant height, with the increase doses in soil density (1.30 Mg.m{sup -3} - compacted soil and 1.70 Mg.m{sup -3} - non-compacted soil), and in response to increased doses of irradiation (y-rays) [ [0, 100, 200 and 300 Gy). The diameter of the stem was significantly reduced in response to the increase in soil density, however the same did not occur in relation to the doses of irradiation (y-rays) holding capacity of the soil was reduced in response to the increase in soil density. (author)

  4. Vigna unguiculata [Linn] Walp varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Beans are recommended for their richness and for their salutary effect on blood glucose. Inter-species differences impact on blood glucose. What appeared unknown is whether varieties of beans of the same species (Vigna unguiculata [Linn]. Walp) have differential effects on blood glucose when equal ...

  5. Desenvolvimento do feijão caupi (vigna unguiculata l.walp utilizando as cinzas de bagaço da cana-de-açúcar e efluente tratado

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    José Airlys Garcia de Menezes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A grande quantidade de cinzas gerada pelos engenhos, proveniente da queima do bagaço da cana-de-açúcar, ou seja, a necessidade de redução de emissões advindas dessa queima, fazem com que se busquem alternativas para diminuir essas emissões, assim como para a utilização racional dessas cinzas em diversas culturas, como na produção do feijão caupi.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos das cinzas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar com efluente tratados, no desenvolvimento inicial da cultura do Feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp. O estudo foi desenvolvido na estação de tratamento de esgoto da Faculdade de Tecnologia CENTEC – FATEC Cariri, utilizando-se de tratamentos T1- Efluente tratado do filtro anaeróbio juntamente com as cinzas do bagaço da cana-de-açúcar; T2- Água proveniente de poço juntamente com as cinzas do bagaço da cana-de-açúcar; T3- Água proveniente de poço sem aplicação de cinzas; com três épocas de coletas, compondo um modelo de experimento inteiramente casualizado. Contudo os valores de altura e o diâmetro caulinar foram mais elevados nas plantas cultivadas com a aplicação das cinzas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar com efluente tratados. Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE

  6. Nodulação e produção do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp sob efeito de plantas de cobertura e inoculação Nodulation and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp under inoculation and cover crops

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    Cleópatra Saraiva do Nascimento

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento de campo foi realizado no município de Crato - Ceará para estudar como a planta de cobertura afeta a nodulação e produtividade de caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, submetido a diferentes inoculações. Empregou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, no esquema em parcelas subsubdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de plantas de cobertura, formando a parcela principal; inoculação, como subparcela; e amostragens quinzenais, como subsubparcela. As plantas de cobertura foram: milheto - Pennisetum americanum; mucuna-preta - Stizolobium aterrimum ou vegetação espontânea, enquanto as fontes de N foram: sem inoculação; sem inoculação + 50 kg ha-1 de N na forma de uréia; inoculação com estirpes rizobianas (Bradyrhizobium sp. recomendadas pela RELARE -BR 3301 + BR 3302; ou pela UFRPE - NFB 6156 + NFB 700. Foi utilizada a cultivar Patativa de caupi, recomendada para a região. A partir de sete dias após a emergência e até a maturidade final da cultura, foram realizadas amostras quinzenais, colhendo-se duas plantas, por subparcela para determinação do número de nódulos, matéria seca de nódulos e matéria seca da parte aérea. A partir dos 60 dias após emergência, foram realizadas colheitas semanais da área útil da subparcela, para determinação da produtividade de grãos. A mucuna aumentou a nodulação do caupi não-inoculado. A inoculação do caupi com estirpes recomendadas, ou o aumento da população nativa, permitiu produção de biomassa e grãos semelhante da adubação com 50 kg ha-1 de N.A field experiment was conducted at Crato - Ceará to study how green manuring affects nodulation and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp which received different inoculation treatments. The experiment was conducted under a randomized block design, split-split-plot arrangement with four replicates. Treatments were green manures for the main plot, nitrogen sources for the split

  7. Modelagem matemática das curvas de secagem e coeficiente de difusão de grãos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Mathematical modeling of the drying curves and diffusion coefficient of cowpea grains (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Janaína da Silva Morais

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho objetivou-se estudar a cinética de secagem do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., ajustar diferentes modelos matemáticos aos valores experimentais em função do teor de água e, determinar o coeficiente de difusão e a energia de ativação dos grãos durante a secagem. Os grãos de feijão-caupi foram submetidos à secagem sob as temperaturas de 25; 35; 45 e 55 ± 1 ºC em secador experimental até o teor de água de aproximadamente 13% b.s. Realizou-se uma análise de regressão não linear para o ajuste de 12 modelos matemáticos aos dados experimentais de secagem. O coeficiente de difusão efetivo foi obtido por meio do ajuste do modelo matemático da difusão líquida. A variação do coeficiente de difusão de acordo com a temperatura de secagem foi analisada pelo modelo de Arrhenius, o qual permitiu a determinação da energia de ativação. O modelo de Henderson e Pabis Modificada foi o que melhor representou o processo de secagem do feijão-caupi. O coeficiente de difusão apresentou valores entre 8,84 x 10-8 e 20,17 x 10-8 m² s-1. A relação do coeficiente de difusão com a temperatura de secagem pode ser descrita pela equação de Arrhenius, apresentando uma energia de ativação de 27,16 kJ mol-1.This work aimed to study the drying kinetics of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., adjust different mathematical models to the experimental values as a function of water content, and determine the diffusion coefficient and the activation energy of the grains during drying. The cowpea grains were dried at temperatures of 25; 35; 45 and 55 ± 1 ºC in an experimental dryer to a water content of approximately 13% db. A nonlinear regression analysis was carried out to adjust 12 mathematical models to the experimental drying-data. The effective diffusion coefficient was obtained by adjusting the mathematical model of liquid diffusion. The variance of the diffusion coefficient according to the drying temperature

  8. Produtividade do feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata l.walp utilizando cinzas de bagaço da cana-de-açúcar e esgoto tratado

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    José Airlys Garcia de Menezes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A viabilidades do reúso agrícola é uma forma e fonte de alternativa de água para irrigação, que fornece matéria orgânica e nutriente, possibilitando assegurar e incrementar a produção agrícola durante as estiagens prolongadas. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar os efeitos das cinzas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar com esgotos tratados, na produtividade da cultura do Feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp. O estudo foi desenvolvido na estação de tratamento de esgoto da Faculdade de Tecnologia CENTEC – FATEC Cariri, utilizando-se de tratamentos T1- Efluente tratado do filtro anaeróbio sem aplicação de cinzas; T2- Efluente tratado do filtro anaeróbio juntamente com as cinzas do bagaço da cana-de-açúcar; T3- Água proveniente de poço juntamente com as cinzas do bagaço da cana-de-açúcar; T4- Água proveniente de poço sem aplicação de cinzas. Compondo um modelo de experimento inteiramente casualizado. Portanto os valores da produtividade do feijão foram superiores nas plantas cultivadas com a aplicação das cinzas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar com esgotos tratados em relação o da água para abastecimento. Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE

  9. Composição química do feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, cultivar BRS-Milênio Chemical composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, BRS-Milênio cultivar

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    Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves Frota

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O feijão caupi é uma das principais culturas alimentares do Nordeste brasileiro. Para melhorar sua resistência contra pragas e produtividade, a nova cultivar (BRS-Milênio foi obtida por melhoramento genético. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar o potencial nutricional desta variedade, determinando-se a composição centesimal, o perfil de aminoácidos e ácidos graxos, o conteúdo de minerais e a atividade inibitória de tripsina. A semente contém (g.100 g-1: 24,5 de proteínas; 51,4 de carboidratos; 16,6 de fibra insolúvel e 2,7 de fibra solúvel; 2,6 de cinzas, tendo como principais minerais (mg.100 g-1: ferro - 6,8; zinco - 4,1; manganês - 1,5; fósforo - 510,0 e potássio - 1430,0. O teor de lipídios foi de 2,2%, e seu perfil de ácidos graxos apresenta 29,4% de saturados e 70,7% de insaturados. Foi estimado valor calórico de 323,4 kcal.100 g-1 de semente. Encontrou-se baixa atividade inibitória de tripsina (8,0 UIT.mg-1 de amostra. O perfil de aminoácidos foi favorável ao padrão de referência, exceto pela deficiência de sulfurados, sugerindo a necessidade da combinação desta leguminosa com outras fontes alimentares. Os resultados indicam que o feijão caupi possui atributos desejáveis como altos teores de energia, proteínas, fibras e minerais, baixa atividade inibitória de tripsina e, apesar de reduzido conteúdo lipídico, contém alta proporção de ácidos graxos insaturados.Cowpea is one of the major food cultures of the northeastern region of Brazil. To improve its resistance against plagues and to increase its productivity, a new cultivar (BRS-Milênio was obtained by genetic improvement. This study aimed at determining the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, mineral constituents and trypsin inhibitory activity of this cultivar. The seed presents (g.100 g-1: 24.5 protein, 51.4 carbohydrates, 16.6 insoluble fiber and 2.7 soluble fiber, 2.6 ash; major mineral constituents (mg.100 g-1 were

  10. Atividade inseticida de óleos essenciais e fixos sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae em grãos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP.] Insecticide activity of essential and fixed oils in Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae in cowpea grains [Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP.

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    Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O caruncho, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., é considerado a praga mais importante do caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., armazenado em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Visando minimizar os efeitos indesejáveis dos inseticidas químicos sintéticos, o controle dessa praga com óleos de origem vegetal vem se constituindo numa alternativa promissora, de baixo custo e segura para os aplicadores e consumidores. Foram testados os óleos essenciais [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb. J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shauer e fixos (Helianthus annuus L, Sesamum indicum L, Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L. Merr. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb., em grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde. Os óleos foram utilizados nas concentrações 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50mL/20g, correspondendo a 0,5, 1,0, 1,5, 2,0 e 2,5 L/t e impregnados aos grãos no interior de recipientes de plástico, com auxílio de pipetador automático e agitados manualmente durante dois minutos. Parcelas de 20g de caupi foram infestadas com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus, com 0 a 48 h de idade. Cada óleo foi testado, separadamente, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com seis repetições. Os óleos essenciais de C. martini, P. aduncum e L. gracillis causaram 100% de mortalidade em todas as concentrações, P. hispidinervum a partir de 1,5 L/t e Melaleuca sp. nas concentrações de 2,0 e 2,5 L/t. A redução do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos foi de 100% para todos os óleos essenciais, exceto Melaleuca sp. Por outro lado, os óleos fixos, apesar de apresentarem baixa mortalidade em todas as concentrações testadas, reduziram em praticamente 100% o número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos.The weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. is considered the most important pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., stored in tropical and subtropical regions. Focusing to minimize the undesired effects of synthetic chemical

  11. Germinação e vigor de sementes de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. de diferentes tamanhos

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    Aderson Costa Araujo Neto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A classificação de sementes por tamanho e massa pode ser uma estratégia para aumento da produtividade, visto que o tamanho da semente afeta a germinação, o vigor das plantas e a produção de grãos. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a germinação de sementes de feijão-caupi cv. Novaera de diferentes tamanhos. As sementes foram passadas por um jogo de peneiras de crivos circulares, sobrepostas, o que possibilitou a separação de quatro classes de largura, correspondendo às sementes retidas nas peneiras de números 17, 18, 19 e 20. Para avaliar o efeito do tamanho das sementes foram analisados o teor de água, o peso de mil sementes, germinação, primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG, condutividade elétrica e lixiviação de potássio. Realizou-se a análise de variância e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. O tamanho das sementes não influencia no desempenho germinativo do feijão-caupi cv. Novaera, no entanto, as sementes menores (Peneira 17 - 6,74 mm apresentam maior velocidade de germinação. As sementes menores (Peneira 17 - 6,74 mm apresentam menor vigor em relação às maiores.

  12. PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF Vigna unguiculata IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FRANK

    Investigation on the phytoremediation potential of Vigna unguiculata in a crude oil polluted tropical soil was carried out at the Botanic Garden, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. After one week of post-pollution of the ... of the soil (Xu and Johnson, 1997) and interferes with water and nutrient supply to plants.

  13. Marcha de absorção do nitrogênio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixação simbiótica em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. e feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determinada com uso de 15N Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and n derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determined using the 15N isotope

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    Marciano de Medeiros Pereira Brito

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-comum e o feijão-caupi estão entre as principais fontes de proteína vegetal para grande parte da população mundial, sobretudo aquela de baixa renda, e o N é o principal constituinte de proteínas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram de avaliar, por meio da técnica isotópica e tendo como plantas-controle arroz e soja não nodulante, as contribuições relativas das fontes de N (N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-fertilizante no desenvolvimento do feijão-comum e caupi ao longo do ciclo e comparar o método isotópico (MI com o método da diferença (MD para avaliação da fixação simbiótica de N2. A pesquisa foi realizada em casa de vegetação no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA/USP, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 16 tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos (fatorial 8 x 2 compreenderam oito épocas de coleta: 17, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 e 78 dias após a semeadura (DAS e duas culturas: feijão-comum e feijão-caupi. Utilizou-se uma dose de 10 mg kg-1 de N no solo, na forma de ureia, enriquecida com 10 % de átomos de 15N em excesso. A fixação simbiótica forneceu a maior parte do N acumulado nas plantas de feijão e caupi, seguida, em ordem decrescente, pelo solo e fertilizante. A maior taxa de fixação simbiótica de N ocorreu a partir da fase de prefloração do feijão e do caupi. Após a fase inicial (24 DAS, o arroz e a soja não nodulante tornaram-se adequadas plantas-controle da fixação simbiótica de N2. Houve boa concordância entre o MI e o MD, exceto nos estádios iniciais das culturas.Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate

  14. Pollination and yield responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    pod, the percentage of normal seeds/pod ... Key words: Apis mellifera adansonii, Vigna unguiculata, bee plant, foraging, pollination, increased yield. INTRODUCTION ... tent 23 to 25% of protein, 50 to 67% of starch and vitamin.

  15. Symbiotic Hydrogenase Activity in Bradyrhizobium sp. (Vigna) Increases Nitrogen Content in Vigna unguiculata Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginsky, Cecilia; Brito, Belén; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás; Palacios, Jose M.

    2005-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) and Bradyrhizobium sp. (Vigna) mutants in which hydrogenase (hup) activity was affected were constructed and analyzed. Vigna unguiculata plants inoculated with the Bradyrhizobium sp. (Vigna) hup mutant showed reduced nitrogenase activity and also a significant decrease in nitrogen content, suggesting a relevant contribution of hydrogenase activity to plant yield. PMID:16269797

  16. Response of vegetable cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walp. Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two factorial experiments were conducted in a randomized block design (RCBD) with three replications to study the responses of vegetable cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subspecies unguiculata) to different plant dates (May, June and July in 1998 and April, May, June and July in 1999) and various nitrogen fertilizer levels (0, ...

  17. Preliminary studies on vigna unguiculata trypsin inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofyan, Rochestri

    1980-01-01

    Investigation on the presence of trypsin inhibitor in vigna unguiculata at three stages of ripeness, i.e. as young beans obtained from first harvest usually consumed as vegetable, seed from beans picked two weeks after the first harvest and seed from beans picked four weeks after the first harvest, has been carried out. The conclusion drawn from this experiment showed the existence of trypsin inhibitor at those stages of ripeness. It is found that the older the stage of ripeness the greater the specific activity of trypsin inhibitor. Evidently the heated extract loss its antitryptic activity progressively with increasing heatings periods. Extract heated on a water bath at a constant temperature of 78 deg C during 20, 40 and 60 minutes, loss its antitryptic activity of about 53, 78 and 96% respectively. (author)

  18. Plants regeneration from African cowpea variety (Vigna unguiculata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. plant was efficiently regenerated from cotyledonary node explants. The shoots multiplication rate was ... Africa, insect pests are often responsible for 100% losses of cowpea yields (Singh and .... 26 days after acclimatization first flower buds were observed; thus plants were ...

  19. Response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) varieties to leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Botswana, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) is not only grown for grain but also the leaves are harvested and used as vegetable. The effect of leaf harvesting on grain yield under Botswana conditions is not known. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the response of four cowpea varieties namely Tswana, ...

  20. Pollination and yield responses of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the apicultural value of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabaceae) and evaluate the Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) activity on its pod and seed yields, the bee foraging and pollinating activities were studied in Ngaoundéré. The experiment was carried out within the University of ...

  1. Variability for seedling vigour in tropical cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations in seedling vigour and the effectiveness of emergence (E%), emergence index (E1), emergence rate index (ERI), growth rate (GR) and relative growth rate (RGR) as selection criteria among 10 Nigerian cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) genotypes were examined. Genotypes were grown under two locations ...

  2. Response of Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) to Nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds and leaves are an important item in the diet of most farmers in the tropics. The tender and succulent leaves are generally plucked and used as green vegetables until about flowering, when leaf plucking stops. Defoliation may adversely affect seed yield due to reduction in photosynthetic ...

  3. Genetic diversity in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. presents phenotypical variabilities and in order to study the genetic diversity of cultivated Senegalese varieties, two experimental approaches were used. First, a physiological characterization based on nitrogen fixation was used to assess cowpea breeding lines. Inoculation with two ...

  4. Susceptibility Of Five Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) Varieties To ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Susceptibility Of Five Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) Varieties To Attack By Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) ... in Ghana were screened for susceptibility to the cowpea beetle, C. maculatus, in storage for a period of 30 days in the laboratory at an ambient temperature of 27.5 ± 0.9oC and relative humidity of 64.6 ± 2%.

  5. Differential Responses of Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) lines to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifteen cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) lines selected from a pot experiment for tolerance to low P were further evaluated for two years under field conditions for their response to low (0 kg Pha-1) and high (40kg pha-1) P fertilizer rates. The experiments were conducted within the Southern Guinea savanna ecological zone of ...

  6. USO DE ÁGUAS RESIDUÁRIAS E FERTILIZANTES ORGÂNICOS NA CULTURA DO FEIJÃO-CAUPI (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) E NA FERTILIDADE DO SOLO

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Mayara Patricia Medeiros do

    2006-01-01

    A cultura do feijão-caupi é fonte de alimentação humana, é utilizado como adubação verde e planta forrageira e representa uma importante alternativa para o crescimento sócio-econômico das Regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil, visto que se adapta às condições de seca do Nordeste e a alta umidade relativa do ar do Norte do país. O uso de águas residuárias tratadas, além de ser uma solução economicamente viável, é também ambientalmente sustentável, pois se trata de uma forma efetiva de controle da...

  7. (Vigna unguiculata) To Phosphorus Fertilizer And Poultry Manure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations were carried out to determine the growth, yield and profitability of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), growth with different levels of phosphorus fertilizer and poultry manure. A randomised complete block design (RCBD) was used and the total treatments were four namely: 0.0kgP2O5/ha, 0.20kgP2O5/ha, 0.40kg ...

  8. Influência do período de armazenamento do caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.], tratado com óleos essenciais e fixos, no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae Influence of the storage period of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] treated with essential and fixed oils, for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes Pereira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Compostos secundários obtidos de plantas podem ser utilizados no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus, como uma tática alternativa potencial aos inseticidas sintéticos. Foram testados óleos essenciais (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shau e fixos (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb., na concentração de 50µl/20g, de acordo com estudos anteriores. Grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde, foram impregnados com os óleos, em recipientes de vidro e submetidos à agitação manual por dois minutos. Cada parcela de 20g foi infestada com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus com 0 a 48h de idade, durante quatro dias. Os óleos foram avaliados logo após a impregnação e aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento. Na primeira avaliação, todos os óleos essenciais provocaram 100% de mortalidade e para os óleos fixos, a mortalidade variou entre 35% (G. hirsutum e 67,5% (G. max. Com o prolongamento do período de armazenamento, houve um aumento do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos, exceto para P. aduncum. Em relação aos óleos fixos, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum e C. brasiliense foram os mais eficientes até os 30 dias de armazenamento. Os resultados indicam que os óleos testados na concentração de 50µl/20g apresentam baixo efeito residual, com exceção de P. aduncum, que foi efetivo durante todo o período de armazenamento.The secondary compounds extracted from plants are considered potential alternative to synthetic insecticides in the control of agricultural pests. Essential oils (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., P. hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shau and fixed oils (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb. at the concentration of 50µl/20g were tested according to previous studies. Samples

  9. Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the {sup 15}N isotope; Marcha de absorcao do nitrogenio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixacao simbiotica em feijao-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) e feijao-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determinada com uso de {sup 15}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Marciano de Medeiros Pereira; Muraoka, Takashi; Silva, Edson Cabral da [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba SP (Brazil)], e-mail: marcianobrito@hotmail.com, e-mail: muraoka@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ecsilva@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the {sup 15}N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg{sup -1} soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of {sup 15}N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of subgenus vigna species using nuclear ribosomal RNA ITS: evidence of hybridization among Vigna unguiculata subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, Archana; Saini, Ajay; Jawali, Narendra

    2010-01-01

    Molecular phylogeny among species belonging to subgenus Vigna (genus Vigna) was inferred based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA gene unit. Analysis showed a total of 356 polymorphic sites of which approximately 80% were parsimony informative. Phylogenetic reconstruction by neighbor joining and maximum parsimony methods placed the 57 Vigna accessions (belonging to 15 species) into 5 major clades. Five species viz. Vigna heterophylla, Vigna pubigera, Vigna parkeri, Vigna laurentii, and Vigna gracilis whose position in the subgenus was previously not known were placed in the section Vigna. A single accession (Vigna unguiculata ssp. tenuis, NI 1637) harbored 2 intragenomic ITS variants, indicative of 2 different types of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat units. ITS variant type-I was close to ITS from V. unguiculata ssp. pubescens, whereas type-II was close to V. unguiculata ssp. tenuis. Transcript analysis clearly demonstrates that in accession NI 1637, rDNA repeat units with only type-II ITS variants are transcriptionally active. Evidence from sequence analysis (of 5.8S, ITS1, and ITS2) and secondary structure analysis (of ITS1 and ITS2) indicates that the type-I ITS variant probably does not belong to the pseudogenic rDNA repeat units. The results from phylogenetic and transcript analysis suggest that the rDNA units with the type-I ITS may have introgressed as a result of hybridization (between ssp. tenuis and ssp. pubescens); however, it has been epigenetically silenced. The results also demonstrate differential evolution of ITS sequence among wild and cultivated forms of V. unguiculata.

  11. Recent advances in cowpea [ Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] “omics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After decades of research on cowpea, significant amount of omics datasets are available and useful in understanding the genetic relationship between Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata and other species belonging to the same genus as well as its genetic variation. Besides, the development of genetic map allowed the ...

  12. Viabilidade de sementes de feijão caupi após o tratamento com óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt Viability of Vigna unguiculata bean seeds treated with essential oil of Java grass (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.A. Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento de sementes com óleos essenciais é um método alternativo que auxilia o manejo integrado de pragas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tratamento de sementes de feijão Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. com o óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt. Foi avaliado o efeito do óleo essencial de C. winterianus sobre V. unguiculata nas dosagens 20 μL, 15 μL, 10 μL, 5 μL e testemunha. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi determinada pela porcentagem de emergência, velocidade de emergência e índice de velocidade de emergência. A análise dos dados foi realizada no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, disposto em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 com cinco repetições. As sementes fumigadas apresentaram diferenças estatísticas entre os parâmetros avaliados em relação à testemunha. O óleo essencial de citronela revelou potencialidade alelopática sobre a germinação de sementes de feijão que variou de acordo com a concentração do óleo.Seed treatment with essential oils is an alternative method tool in integrated pest management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of treating Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. bean seeds with essential oil of Java grass (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt. The effect of C. winterianus essential oil on P. vulgaris was evaluated at levels of 20 μL, 15 μL, 10 μL, 5 μL and control. The physiologic quality of the seeds was determined by percentage emergence, speed emergence and speed emergence index. The data analysis was carried out using an entirely randomized design, in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme with five repetitions. The fumigated bean seeds showed the statistics differences among the analyzed parameters when was compared with the no treated check. The essential oil of Java grass revealed allelopathic potentiality on bean seed germination which varied according to the oil concentration.

  13. Evaluation of aminoacids in irradiated beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Keila S. Cople; Souza, Luciana B.; Coelho, Maysa J.; Lima, Antonio L. Santos; Hernandes, Nilber K. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel L.O. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2007-07-01

    Fradinho-bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is originated from Africa and is known in Brazil as 'caupi', 'corda' or 'macassar'. It is grown in the interior of Northeast Brazil (semi-arid region) and can be found in parts of the North, being one of the most important components of people's diet in those regions. The Northeast area produces around 429,375 ton of fradinho-bean per year. Leguminous plants are very important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates and minerals. This kind of bean is an excellent source of proteins (around 23- 25% of its nutritional content), being superior to regular beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The irradiation process is an alternative to avoid post-harvesting losses, without changing the nutritional value of food. This study has the objective to evaluate the effect of different gamma irradiation doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.5; 5.0 and 10.0 kGy) on aminoacid content of fradinho-bean by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the accompanying of the grains during storage time of 6 months. After irradiation, the bean grains went through a milling process in order to make flour for posterior extraction. A liquid chromatographer Waters, model Alliance 2695, with fluorescent detector Waters 2475, having a mobile phase with gradient elution of sodium acetate. acetonitrile and Milli-Q water, was employed. The flux used was 1 mL/min and the injection volume of 10 {mu}L. The column (C 18 150.0 x 3.9 mm) was kept at 36 deg C. The results show that gamma irradiation is a promise process for fradinho bean during conservation storage time of 6 months, until the dose of 10.0 kGy. Even the most radio-sensitive aminoacids like aromatics and basic lateral chains were preserved. (author)

  14. Evaluation of aminoacids in irradiated beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Keila S. Cople; Souza, Luciana B.; Coelho, Maysa J.; Lima, Antonio L. Santos; Hernandes, Nilber K.

    2007-01-01

    Fradinho-bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is originated from Africa and is known in Brazil as 'caupi', 'corda' or 'macassar'. It is grown in the interior of Northeast Brazil (semi-arid region) and can be found in parts of the North, being one of the most important components of people's diet in those regions. The Northeast area produces around 429,375 ton of fradinho-bean per year. Leguminous plants are very important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates and minerals. This kind of bean is an excellent source of proteins (around 23- 25% of its nutritional content), being superior to regular beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The irradiation process is an alternative to avoid post-harvesting losses, without changing the nutritional value of food. This study has the objective to evaluate the effect of different gamma irradiation doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.5; 5.0 and 10.0 kGy) on aminoacid content of fradinho-bean by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the accompanying of the grains during storage time of 6 months. After irradiation, the bean grains went through a milling process in order to make flour for posterior extraction. A liquid chromatographer Waters, model Alliance 2695, with fluorescent detector Waters 2475, having a mobile phase with gradient elution of sodium acetate. acetonitrile and Milli-Q water, was employed. The flux used was 1 mL/min and the injection volume of 10 μL. The column (C 18 150.0 x 3.9 mm) was kept at 36 deg C. The results show that gamma irradiation is a promise process for fradinho bean during conservation storage time of 6 months, until the dose of 10.0 kGy. Even the most radio-sensitive aminoacids like aromatics and basic lateral chains were preserved. (author)

  15. The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

    2012-05-01

    The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis] is of particular interest because the genome of this legume has experienced divergent domestication. Initially, cowpea was domesticated from wild cowpea in Africa; in Asia a vegetable form of cowpea, yardlong bean, subsequently evolved from cowpea. Information on the genetics of domestication-related traits would be useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding programmes, as well as comparative genome study among members of the genus Vigna. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean and compare them with previously reported QTLs in closely related Vigna. Two linkage maps were developed from BC(1)F(1) and F(2) populations from the cross between yardlong bean (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis) accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. Using these linkage maps, QTLs for 24 domestication-related traits were analysed and mapped. QTLs were detected for traits related to seed, pod, stem and leaf. Most traits were controlled by between one and 11 QTLs. QTLs for domestication-related traits show co-location on several narrow genomic regions on almost all linkage groups (LGs), but especially on LGs 3, 7, 8 and 11. Major QTLs for sizes of seed, pod, stem and leaf were principally located on LG7. Pleiotropy or close linkage of genes for the traits is suggested in these chromosome regions. This is the first report of QTLs for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean. The results provide a foundation for marker-assisted selection of domestication-related QTLs in yardlong bean and enhance understanding of domestication in the genus Vigna.

  16. Regeneration and genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippone, E.; Colucci, G.; Ciardi, F.; Monti, L.

    1997-01-01

    Regeneration of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) was achieved through massive bud formation induced in apical and lateral meristems by the herbicide Thidiazuron (TDZ). The effect of TDZ (5, 10, or 20 μM) was tested in vitro on four different cowpea genotypes. Thidiazuron, even at the highest concentration, had no effect on seed germination. After one month of culture, multiple bud cluster formation was observed in all genotypes tested; about 80% of shoot apices regenerated multiple buds, whilst only 34% of cotyledonary nodes behaved in the same way. Histology of regenerating multiple bud clusters revealed that regeneration initiated from pre-existing meristems in the apex and cotyledonary node. Thidiazuron at 10 μM appeared to be the best concentration to produce clusters with high number of buds, ranging from 5 to 10. Shoot elongation occurred only on MS medium without TDZ. On the same medium, 75% of elongated shoots rooted. For genetic transformation of cowpea, a direct DNA transfer methods in plants under in vivo conditions was tested by electroporation of plasmid DNA into the nodal meristematic cells. Some transformed plants were obtained, and produced T 1 transformed progenies; their transgenic nature was confirmed by Southern analysis. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Development of 12 chloroplast microsatellite markers in Vigna unguiculata (Fabaceae) and amplification in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Li, Yi; Guo, Rui; Wu, Hua; Hu, Zhihui; Chen, Chanyou

    2014-03-01

    Vigna unguiculata is an economically important legume, and the complexity of its variability and evolution needs to be further understood. Based on publicly available databases, we developed chloroplast microsatellite primers to investigate genetic diversity within V. unguiculata and its related species Phaseolus vulgaris. • Twelve polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in 62 V. unguiculata individuals. The number of alleles per locus varied between two and four, the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.123 to 0.497, and the polymorphism information content varied from 0.114 to 0.369. In cross-species amplifications, nine of these markers showed polymorphism in 29 P. vulgaris individuals. • The newly developed chloroplast microsatellite markers exhibit variation in V. unguiculata as well as their transferability in P. vulgaris. These markers can be used to investigate genetic diversity and evolution in V. unguiculata and P. vulgaris.

  18. Development of 12 chloroplast microsatellite markers in Vigna unguiculata (Fabaceae) and amplification in Phaseolus vulgaris1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Li, Yi; Guo, Rui; Wu, Hua; Hu, Zhihui; Chen, Chanyou

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Vigna unguiculata is an economically important legume, and the complexity of its variability and evolution needs to be further understood. Based on publicly available databases, we developed chloroplast microsatellite primers to investigate genetic diversity within V. unguiculata and its related species Phaseolus vulgaris. • Methods and Results: Twelve polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in 62 V. unguiculata individuals. The number of alleles per locus varied between two and four, the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.123 to 0.497, and the polymorphism information content varied from 0.114 to 0.369. In cross-species amplifications, nine of these markers showed polymorphism in 29 P. vulgaris individuals. • Conclusions: The newly developed chloroplast microsatellite markers exhibit variation in V. unguiculata as well as their transferability in P. vulgaris. These markers can be used to investigate genetic diversity and evolution in V. unguiculata and P. vulgaris. PMID:25202608

  19. Development of 12 Chloroplast Microsatellite Markers in Vigna unguiculata (Fabaceae and Amplification in Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Vigna unguiculata is an economically important legume, and the complexity of its variability and evolution needs to be further understood. Based on publicly available databases, we developed chloroplast microsatellite primers to investigate genetic diversity within V. unguiculata and its related species Phaseolus vulgaris. Methods and Results: Twelve polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in 62 V. unguiculata individuals. The number of alleles per locus varied between two and four, the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.123 to 0.497, and the polymorphism information content varied from 0.114 to 0.369. In cross-species amplifications, nine of these markers showed polymorphism in 29 P. vulgaris individuals. Conclusions: The newly developed chloroplast microsatellite markers exhibit variation in V. unguiculata as well as their transferability in P. vulgaris. These markers can be used to investigate genetic diversity and evolution in V. unguiculata and P. vulgaris.

  20. Eficiência e diversidade fenotípica de bactérias diazotróficas que nodulam caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] e feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em solos de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação Efficiency and phenotypic diversity among nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in bauxite-mined soils under rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Melloni

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de mineração provoca degradação ambiental em várias partes do mundo, e técnicas de revegetação, empregando diversas espécies vegetais, têm sido indicadas, com vistas em reabilitar essas áreas. A eficiência e a diversidade de grupos-chave de bactérias, como as que nodulam leguminosas e fixam N2 (BNLFN, são de extrema importância, uma vez que estas participam de processos de ciclagem de nutrientes e contribuem para a sustentabilidade dessas áreas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência e a diversidade de BNLFN, coletaram-se amostras de solo de áreas mineradas, sob diferentes estratégias e cronosseqüências de reabilitação, no verão de 1999, para instalação de ensaios, empregando feijoeiro e caupi como espécies de plantas-isca de BNLFN. Na floração, coletaram-se as plantas e avaliaram-se matéria seca da parte aérea, número, matéria fresca e atividade de nódulos. Não houve influência das diferentes estratégias de reabilitação na eficiência das populações de BNLFN no crescimento do feijoeiro. A diversidade fenotípica dos isolados de BNLFN foi avaliada por meio das características culturais destes em meio de cultivo 79. Após a caracterização fenotípica de 328 isolados de feijoeiro e 420 de caupi, verificou-se que este é mais indicado que o feijoeiro nos estudos de nodulação, eficiência e diversidade de BNLFN. O impacto negativo da mineração é maior na diversidade fenotípica cultural de BNLFN do que na nodulação das plantas-isca utilizadas. A revegetação contribuiu para aumentar a diversidade dessas bactérias em solos de áreas de mineração de bauxita, especialmente quando ocorreu a introdução de leguminosas.Mining activities promote severe environmental degradation in many parts of the world, and revegetation techniques with diverse plant species have been used for rehabilitation of these areas. Studies on the occurrence, efficiency and diversity of key microbial groups such

  1. An SSR-based linkage map of yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) and QTL analysis of pod length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Shimizu, Takehiko; Shu, Yujian; Isemura, Takehisa; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

    2012-02-01

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) (2n = 2x = 22) is one of the most important vegetable legumes of Asia. The objectives of this study were to develop a genetic linkage map of yardlong bean using SSR makers from related Vigna species and to identify QTLs for pod length. The map was constructed from 226 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Unguiculata Group), azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi), and mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) in a BC(1)F(1) ((JP81610 × TVnu457) × JP81610) population derived from the cross between yardlong bean accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. The markers were clustered into 11 linkage groups (LGs) spanning 852.4 cM in total length with a mean distance between adjacent markers of 3.96 cM. All markers on LG11 showed segregation distortion towards the homozygous yardlong bean JP81610 genotype. The markers on LG11 were also distorted in the rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi) map, suggesting the presence of common segregation distortion factors in Vigna species on this LG. One major and six minor QTLs were identified for pod length variation between yardlong bean and wild cowpea. Using flanking markers, six of the seven QTLs were confirmed in an F(2) population of JP81610 × TVnu457. The molecular linkage map developed and markers linked to pod length QTLs would be potentially useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding.

  2. Genetic analysis of abiotic and biotic resistance in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agbicodo, A.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01


    Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is a most versatile African crop, it feeds people, their livestock and because of its ability in nitrogen-fixation, it improves soil fertility, and consequently helps to increase the yields of cereal crops when grown in rotation and contributes to the

  3. Nitrogen assimilation by nodulate plants of Phaseolus vulgaris l. and Vigna unguiculata (l. ) walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, M.C.P.; Fernandes, M.S.; Sa, M.F.M. (Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Solos)

    1982-05-01

    Under field conditions, the processes of nitrogen assimilation via nitrogenase and nitrate-reductase, the transport and the accumulation of nitrogen in nodulated plants of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Rio Tibagi and Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita 34 were compared and contrasted. V. unguiculata showed better nodulation than P. vulgaris and consequently had higher rates of nitrogenase activity. The small nodulation of P. vulgaris resulted in greater dependence on soil mineral nitrogen as indicated by the higher rates of nitrate-reductase acitivty compared with V. unguiculata, especially during reproductive stage of growth. The superiority of V. unguiculata in terms of assimilation and remobilization of stored nitrogen resulted in a seed yield 28% greater than that of P. vulgaris. P. vulgaris showed a negative correlation between the nitrate-reductase activity and the ureide content of the sap indicating that the metabolic pathways leading to ureide production operates alternatively to nitrate assimilation.

  4. Nitrogen assimilation by nodulate plants of Phaseolus vulgaris l. and Vigna unguiculata (l.) walp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, M.C.P.; Fernandes, M.S.; Sa, M.F.M.

    1982-01-01

    Under field conditions, the processes of nitrogen assimilation via nitrogenase and nitrate-reductase, the transport and the accumulation of nitrogen in nodulated plants of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Rio Tibagi and Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita 34 were compared and contrasted. V. unguiculata showed better nodulation than P. vulgaris and consequently had higher rates of nitrogenase activity. The small nodulation of P. vulgaris resulted in greater dependence on soil mineral nitrogen as indicated by the higher rates of nitrate-reductase acitivty compared with V. unguiculata, especially during reproductive stage of growth. The superiority of V. unguiculata in terms of assimilation and remobilization of stored nitrogen resulted in a seed yield 28% greater than that of P. vulgaris. P. vulgaris showed a negative correlation between the nitrate-reductase activity and the ureide content of the sap indicating that the metabolic pathways leading to ureide production operates alternatively to nitrate assimilation. (Author) [pt

  5. Viability of Vigna unguiculata bean seeds treated with essential oil of Java grass (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt)

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier, M.V.A.; Oliveira, C.R.F.; Brito, S.S.S.; Matos, C.H.C.; Pinto, M.A.D.S.C.

    2012-01-01

    O tratamento de sementes com óleos essenciais é um método alternativo que auxilia o manejo integrado de pragas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tratamento de sementes de feijão Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. com o óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt). Foi avaliado o efeito do óleo essencial de C. winterianus sobre V. unguiculata nas dosagens 20 μL, 15 μL, 10 μL, 5 μL e testemunha. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi determina...

  6. Computational Identification of Novel MicroRNAs and Their Targets in Vigna unguiculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongzhong; Yang, Xiaoyun

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, noncoding, short RNAs directly involved in regulating gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. High conservation of miRNAs in plant provides the foundation for identification of new miRNAs in other plant species through homology alignment. Here, previous known plant miRNAs were BLASTed against the Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) and Genomic Survey Sequence (GSS) databases of Vigna unguiculata, and according to a series of filtering criteria, a total of 47 miRNAs belonging to 13 miRNA families were identified, and 30 potential target genes of them were subsequently predicted, most of which seemed to encode transcription factors or enzymes participating in regulation of development, growth, metabolism, and other physiological processes. Overall, our findings lay the foundation for further researches of miRNAs function in Vigna unguiculata. PMID:20811611

  7. Effect of gamma radiation on seed germination and seedling vigour in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thimmaiah, S.K.; Mahadevu, P; Srinivasappa, K.N.; Shankara, A.N.

    1998-01-01

    Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is regarded as hardy and one of the important tropical legumes. The plants respond differently to mutagenic treatments. Ionizing radiations affect a wide range of physiological and biochemical activities of plants. The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of gamma radiation on seed germination and seedling vigour of two important cowpea varieties viz., KBC-1 and TVX-994-02E in M 1 generation under laboratory conditions. (author)

  8. Assessment of Phaseolus vulgaris L and Vigna unguiculata (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-09

    Apr 9, 2014 ... seeds, this study sought to evaluate the antifungal potential of hidro-ethanolic extracts of bean .... Cowpea bean was the most remarkable, not only for its high germination and maturity (Gómez, ..... Di Venere D, Linsalata V (2000). Role of endogenous flavonoids in resistance mechanism of Vigna to aphids.

  9. Weed control in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted between 1994 and 1997 at the University of Ilorin Teaching and Research Farm, Ilorin (8o29`N; 4o35`E), in the southern Guinea savanna agro-ecological zone, to evaluate the efficacy of pre-emergence applications of two imidazolinone-based herbicide mixtures in cowpea (Vigna ...

  10. De novo transcriptomic analysis of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) for genic SSR marker development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Honglin; Wang, Lixia; Liu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Liangliang; Wang, Suhua; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2017-07-11

    Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is one of the most important legumes in tropical and semi-arid regions. However, there is relatively little genomic information available for genetic research on and breeding of cowpea. The objectives of this study were to analyse the cowpea transcriptome and develop genic molecular markers for future genetic studies of this genus. Approximately 54 million high-quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from cowpea based on Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and were de novo assembled to generate 47,899 unigenes with an N50 length of 1534 bp. Sequence similarity analysis revealed 36,289 unigenes (75.8%) with significant similarity to known proteins in the non-redundant (Nr) protein database, 23,471 unigenes (49.0%) with BLAST hits in the Swiss-Prot database, and 20,654 unigenes (43.1%) with high similarity in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Further analysis identified 5560 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) as potential genic molecular markers. Validating a random set of 500 SSR markers yielded 54 polymorphic markers among 32 cowpea accessions. This transcriptomic analysis of cowpea provided a valuable set of genomic data for characterizing genes with important agronomic traits in Vigna unguiculata and a new set of genic SSR markers for further genetic studies and breeding in cowpea and related Vigna species.

  11. Nodulação e produtividade de Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. por cepas de rizóbio em Bom Jesus, PI Yield and nodulation of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. inoculated with rhizobia strains in Bom Jesus, PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Martins Costa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a resposta de Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cv. "BR 17 Gurguéia" à inoculação com duas cepas isoladas de solos de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação: UFLA 3-164 e UFLA 3-155 e três cepas INPA 03 11B (BR 3301; UFLA 03 84 (BR 3302 e BR 3267 (SEMIA 6462, autorizadas pelo MAPA como inoculantes para a cultura do feijão-caupi. O experimento foi conduzido em campo na Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Professora Cinobelina Elvas, Bom Jesus, PI. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com sete tratamentos e com seis repetições, sendo cinco cepas citadas e dois controles não inoculados, um com N-mineral (70 kg ha-1 de N e outra sem N mineral. Foram avaliados a nodulação (número e massa seca de nódulos, o crescimento (massa seca da parte aérea, o rendimento de grãos e o teor e acúmulo de nitrogênio na parte aérea e nos grãos, além da eficiência relativa. A inoculação das sementes com as cepas de bactérias diazotróficas simbióticas resultou em rendimentos de grãos equivalente à testemunha adubada com nitrogênio mineral. A cepa em fase de teste, UFLA 3-155 apresentou rendimento de grãos igual à cepa recomendada INPA 03 11B (BR 3301, podendo também ser testada em outras regiões brasileiras. Entre as cepas aprovadas pelo MAPA a INPA 03 11B (BR 3301 apresentou a maior produção de grãos.It evaluates the effect of inoculation with two rhizobia strains isolated from soils under rehabilitation after bauxite mining: UFLA 3-164 and UFLA 3-155, compared to inoculation with strains INPA 03 11B (BR 3301; UFLA 03 84 (BR 3302 and BR 3267 (SEMIA 6462, officially authorized as inoculant to cowpea by MAPA, in Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp cv. "BR 17 Gurgueia". The experiment was carried out at the 'Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Professora Cinobelina Elvas, Bom Jesus, PI,' in a randomized block design, white seven treatments and six replications. Treatments were the five strains and

  12. First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-12-14

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  13. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  14. Vigna unguiculata is nodulated in Spain by endosymbionts of Genisteae legumes and by a new symbiovar (vignae) of the genus Bradyrhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Ana; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro

    2014-10-01

    Vigna unguiculata was introduced into Europe from its distribution centre in Africa, and it is currently being cultivated in Mediterranean regions with adequate edapho-climatic conditions where the slow growing rhizobia nodulating this legume have not yet been studied. Previous studies based on rrs gene and ITS region analyses have shown that Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense and B. elkanii nodulated V. unguiculata in Africa, but these two species were not found in this study. Using the same phylogenetic markers it was shown that V. unguiculata, a legume from the tribe Phaseolae, was nodulated in Spain by two species of group I, B. cytisi and B. canariense, which are common endosymbionts of Genisteae in both Europe and Africa. These species have not been found to date in V. unguiculata nodules in its African distribution centres. All strains from Bradyrhizobium group I isolated in Spain belonged to the symbiovar genistearum, which is found at present only in Genisteae legumes in both Africa and Europe. V. unguiculata was also nodulated in Spain by a strain from Bradyrhizobium group II that belonged to a novel symbiovar (vignae). Some African V. unguiculata-nodulating strains also belonged to this proposed new symbiovar. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Composição florística de plantas daninhas na dultura do feijão-caupi no sistema de capoeira triturada Floristic composition of weeds in the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata culture under the chopped secondary forest system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J.P. Marques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O plantio direto na capoeira é um sistema de substituição ao corte e queima que vem sendo implementado na Amazônia nas áreas de agricultura familiar. Como o manejo de plantas daninhas é essencial no processo produtivo, este trabalho visou realizar o levantamento florístico nas áreas de plantio direto na capoeira triturada e cultivada com feijão-caupi. A pesquisa foi conduzida em área de produtor rural no município de Zé Doca, Maranhão. O preparo da área foi realizado com um trator de rodas, juntamente com o implemento Ahwi FM600. A área foi cultivada inicialmente com milho, seguido do feijão-caupi BRS Guariba durante dois anos, sendo a avaliação das plantas daninhas realizada aos 30 e 60 dias após a semeadura, com um retângulo (0,5 x 0,3 m lançado 30 vezes. A cada lançamento era realizada avaliação, com as partes aéreas das plantas daninhas colhidas, para a contagem, identificação e secagem, visando à obtenção dos índices fitossociológicos (frequência, densidade, dominância relativa e índice de valor de importância. Foram identificados 51 táxons distribuídos em 22 famílias, 43 gêneros e 46 espécies. As famílias de plantas daninhas com maior número de espécies foram Cyperaceae (7, Fabaceae (7, Poaceae (6, Malvaceae (5 e Rubiaceae (4. No ano agrícola de 2006/2007, as espécies com maior IVI foram Cyperus diffusus, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Spermacoce verticillata e Cyperus sp. No ano agrícola de 2007/2008, as principais espécies foram Digitaria horizontalis, seguida de C. diffusus e Pavonia cancellata. As plantas de capoeira originárias de rebrotas apresentaram os maiores IVIs no ano agrícola de 2006/2007 e sofreram redução drástica em 2007/2008. Conclui-se que o cultivo progressivo reduz as plantas de capoeira e aumenta o extrato herbáceo.The no-tillage system in secondary vegetation is a replacement to the slash-and- burn method, using annual crops such as cowpea in family farming in the Amazon

  16. Effets des graines torréfiées de Vigna unguiculata (niébé) comme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effets des graines torréfiées de Vigna unguiculata (niébé) comme source de protéines, dans l'alimentation des poules locales en ponte au Burkina Faso, sur leurs performances zootechniques et la rentabilité économique des régimes.

  17. Physiological effects of seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): aging and water uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important annual food crop in Northeast Brazil. Dry storage of these seeds leads to a slow and uneven darkening of the seed coat. The mixture of seed colors creates an unacceptable product for consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the kineti...

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of accessions in the Chinese cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important legume crop with diverse uses. The species is presently a minor crop, and evaluation of its genetic diversity has been very limited. In this study, a total of 200 genic and 100 genomic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from cowpea unigene ...

  19. Transformation of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata Cells with an Antibiotic Resistance Gene Using a Ti-Plasmid-Derived Vector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, Jacques; Goldbach, Rob

    1986-01-01

    A chimaeric antibiotic resistance gene was transferred to cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), a member of the legume family. This transfer was established by inoculating cowpea leaf discs with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring a Ti-plasmid-derived vector that contained two copies of a chimaeric

  20. Utilização da farinha de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp na elaboração de produtos de panificação Utilization of cowpea flour in the development of bakery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves Frota

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo enriquecer produtos de panificação do tipo biscoito e rocambole com farinha de feijão-caupi (FFC, avaliar sua aceitabilidade e composição química, incluindo o conteúdo dos minerais (ferro, zinco, magnésio, potássio e fósforo e das vitaminas (tiamina e piridoxina. Foram desenvolvidas três formulações de biscoito contendo 10, 20 e 30% FFC e duas formulações de rocambole contendo 10 e 20% FFC. Observou-se um aumento no teor protéico do biscoito 30% FFC e do rocambole 20% FFC e na quantidade de cinzas dos biscoitos 20 e 30% FFC e rocambole 20% FFC, quando comparados às formulações padrão. O teor dos minerais analisados e de piridoxina aumentou à medida que FFC foi adicionada, enquanto a concentração de tiamina aumentou somente no rocambole 20% FFC. O biscoito com 10% FFC apresentou maior aceitação (84,4%, dentre os biscoitos formulados com FFC, além disso, os rocamboles com 10 e 20% FFC tiveram boa aceitação (86,7 e 77,8%, respectivamente. Todas as formulações contendo FFC tiveram notas superiores a 6, mostrando que os produtos foram aceitos sensorialmente. Desta forma, a adição de FFC visando melhorar o valor nutritivo de formulações à base de cereais é viável.This work had as objective to enrich bakery products (biscuit and rocambole or Brazilian roll with cowpea flour (CF to analyze their acceptability and chemical composition including mineral contents (iron, zinc, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus and vitamins (thiamine and pyridoxine. Three formulations of biscuits containing 10, 20, and 30% CF and two formulations of Brazilian rolls with 10 and 20% CF were developed. It was observed an increase in the protein contents of the 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, as well as in the ash value of 20 and 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, when compared to a standard formulation. The concentration of minerals and pyridoxine analyzed increased with the addition of

  1. Vigna unguiculata modulates cholesterol induced cardiac markers, genotoxicity and gene expressions profile in an experimental rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeesh, P A; Abraham, Annie

    2013-04-25

    Vigna unguiculata (VU) leaves are edible and used as a leafy vegetable in cuisine from traditional times in India. This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of VU in cholesterol fed rabbits. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each and the experimental period was 3 months. Group I-ND [normal diet 40 g feed], Group II-ND + FVU [flavanoid fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg kg (-1) per body weight)], Group III-ND + CH [cholesterol (400 mg)] and Group IV-ND + CH (400 mg) +FVU (150 mg kg(-1) per body weight). After the experimental period, animals were sacrificed and the various parameters, such as cardiac markers, toxicity parameters, genotoxicity and gene expression, were investigated. Cholesterol feeding causes a significant increase in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, namely lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phospokinase (CPK), atherogenic index, toxicity parameters like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were elevated. Antioxidant enzyme levels were decreased, lipid peroxidation products in heart tissue and inflammatory markers, namely cyclooxygenase (COX2) and lipooxygenase (LOX15) in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs), were significantly increased. A genotoxicity study using a Comet assay and gene expression by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-b1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) from heart tissue showed an altered expression in the disease group. The supplementation of the flavonoid fraction of Vigna unguiculata leaves (FVU) in the CH + FVU group caused the reversal of the above parameters and cardiotoxicity to near normal when compared with the CH group and FVU. This study revealed the cardioprotective nature of Vigna unguiculata in preventing cardiovascular diseases and this effect is attributed to the presence of antioxidants and the antihyperlipidemic properties of the

  2. Development of unigene-derived SSR markers in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and their transferability to other Vigna species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S K; Gopalakrishna, T

    2010-07-01

    Unigene sequences available in public databases provide a cost-effective and valuable source for the development of molecular markers. In this study, the identification and development of unigene-based SSR markers in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is presented. A total of 1071 SSRs were identified in 15 740 cowpea unigene sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The most frequent SSR motifs present in the unigenes were trinucleotides (59.7%), followed by dinucleotides (34.8%), pentanucleotides (4%), and tetranucleotides (1.5%). The copy number varied from 6 to 33 for dinucleotide, 5 to 29 for trinucleotide, 5 to 7 for tetranucleotide, and 4 to 6 for pentanucleotide repeats. Primer pairs were successfully designed for 803 SSR motifs and 102 SSR markers were finally characterized and validated. Putative function was assigned to 64.7% of the unigene SSR markers based on significant homology to reported proteins. About 31.7% of the SSRs were present in coding sequences and 68.3% in untranslated regions of the genes. About 87% of the SSRs located in the coding sequences were trinucleotide repeats. Allelic variation at 32 SSR loci produced 98 alleles in 20 cowpea genotypes. The polymorphic information content for the SSR markers varied from 0.10 to 0.83 with an average of 0.53. These unigene SSR markers showed a high rate of transferability (88%) across other Vigna species, thereby expanding their utility. Alignment of unigene sequences with soybean genomic sequences revealed the presence of introns in amplified products of some of the SSR markers. This study presents the distribution of SSRs in the expressed portion of the cowpea genome and is the first report of the development of functional unigene-based SSR markers in cowpea. These SSR markers would play an important role in molecular mapping, comparative genomics, and marker-assisted selection strategies in cowpea and other Vigna species.

  3. Improvement of the Chinese bean [Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp.], through radioinduced mutagenesis; Mejoramiento de Frijol Chino [Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp.], Mediante Mutagenesis Radioinducida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron E, J.; Bueno J, J.E.; Valencia E, F.; Solis M, M. [Colegio Superior Agropecuario del Estado de Guerrero, Iguala (Mexico); Cervantes S, T. [Instituto de Recursos Geneticos y Productividad (Mexico); Cruz T, E. de la [ININ, Carretera Mexico-La Marquesa S/N, La Marquesa Ocoyoacac, Mexico. C.P. 52750 (Mexico)]. e-mail: csaegro@prodigy.net.mx

    2006-07-01

    The advances in the process of genetic improvement of the Chinese bean (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) are presented, high nutritious value that it is evaluating as alternative for marginal areas producers of the State of Guerrero. The method of improvement applied it is recurrent radiation, continued by selection cycles applying the method of progeny by plant. The applied radiation doses were 200 and 250 Gray. The established selection approaches are: resistant plants or tolerant to the plagues attack and illnesses, vigorous, with more height to the first sheath, of compact and certain growth, with short internodes, bigger number of sheaths by plant and of grains by sheath, bigger number of grain size, among others. The obtained results show that the dose that induces bigger variability and that it has propitiated the biggest quantity in possible mutants it is 200Gy. Precocious plants with more height to the first sheath, with certain growth as well as with bigger number and sheaths size have been detected. The selected plants have incorporated to an increment process by means of the progeny method by plant. (Author)

  4. Effect of application of organic manure in agroproductive response of bean (Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Boudet Antomarchi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was done at the training farm on Granma University campus, from October through December 2012, on a Cambisol soil. A randomized block experimental design with 3 treatments and four replications was used, with the objective of evaluating the effect of two types of organic manure in the response of yardlong beans (Vigna unguiculata, L var. Lina. The yield indicators (pod number/plants, average pod length and width, and average weight of the pod/plants and dry matter of different parts of the plants were assessed. The data were evaluated using the program Statistica version 6.0, for windows. The Tukey’s range test was used to determine the significant differences between treatments. The best treatment turns out to be the T2, where rabbit manure was applied, with a benefit of 2.56 pesos.m-2.

  5. Measurements of experimental precision for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, P E; Torres, F E; Santos, A D; Corrêa, A M; Nascimento, M; Barroso, L M A; Ceccon, G

    2016-05-09

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of statistics as experimental precision degree measures for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes. Cowpea genotype yields were evaluated in 29 trials conducted in Brazil between 2005 and 2012. The genotypes were evaluated with a randomized block design with four replications. Ten statistics that were estimated for each trial were compared using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and path analysis. According to the class limits established, selective accuracy and F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination adequately estimated the degree of experimental precision. Using these statistics, 86.21% of the trials had adequate experimental precision. Selective accuracy and the F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination were directly related to each other, and were more suitable than the coefficient of variation and the least significant difference (by the Tukey test) to evaluate experimental precision in trials with cowpea genotypes.

  6. Mineralization of P from 32P labelled plant residue of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundal, H.S.; Choudhary, O.P.

    1991-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the mineralization of P from 32 P labelled plant material of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) added to Fatehpur sand (Typic Ustipssament) in absence or presence of applied inorganic phosphorus (20 mg P kg -1 soil). Significantly higher P mineralization occurred in P fertilized (53.7 per cent) than in low P (43.3 per cent) soil system. The half-life of P mineralized from added plant residue was 38.5 and 33 days in low and P fertilized soils, respectively. Plant residue added to soil released inorganic P on mineralization and this factor was considered for better P management practices. (author). 12 refs., 1 tab

  7. Programmed cell death during development of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seed coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Nathália Bastos; Trindade, Fernanda Gomes; da Cunha, Maura; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Topping, Jennifer; Lindsey, Keith; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales

    2015-04-01

    The seed coat develops primarily from maternal tissues and comprises multiple cell layers at maturity, providing a metabolically dynamic interface between the developing embryo and the environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination of seeds. Seed coat development involves dramatic cellular changes, and the aim of this research was to investigate the role of programmed cell death (PCD) events during the development of seed coats of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. We demonstrate that cells of the developing cowpea seed coats undergo a programme of autolytic cell death, detected as cellular morphological changes in nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts and vacuoles, DNA fragmentation and oligonucleosome accumulation in the cytoplasm, and loss of membrane viability. We show for the first time that classes 6 and 8 caspase-like enzymes are active during seed coat development, and that these activities may be compartmentalized by translocation between vacuoles and cytoplasm during PCD events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. PRODUCTION COMPONENTS OF Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp IRRIGATED WITH BRACKISH WATER UNDER DIFFERENT LEACHING FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ FRANCISCO DE CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production components of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp subjected to irrigation with brackish water and different leaching fractions. The experiment was conducted in a lysimeter system of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife campus. The treatments, consisting of two water salinity levels (ECw (1.2 and 3.3 dS m - 1 and five leaching fractions (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, were evaluated using a completely randomized design in a 2x5 factorial arrangement with four replications. The variables evaluated were: number of pods per plant, 100 - grain weight, number of grains per pod, grain and shoot dry weight, grain yield and harvest index. The soil salinity increased with increasing salinity of the water used for irrigation, and reduced with increasing leaching fraction. The salinity of the water used for irrigation influenced only the variables number of pods per plant and grain yield. The estimated leaching fractions of 9.1% and 9.6% inhibited the damage caused by salinity on the number of pods per plant and grain yield, respectively. Therefore, the production of V. unguiculata irrigated with brackish water, leaching salts from the plant root environment, is possible under the conditions evaluated.

  9. Amelioration of cholesterol induced atherosclerosis by normalizing gene expression, cholesterol profile and antioxidant enzymes by Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeesh, P A; Abraham, Annie

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis, have found to be the dreadful diseases worldwide and therapeutic interventions using plant sources have wide therapeutic value. Vigna unguiculata (VU) leaves have been used as food and therapeutics. Hence, our study was designed to evaluate the hypolipidemic as well as anti-atherogenic potential of VU leaves in normalizing atherogenic gene expression, cholesterol profile, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzyme system on cholesterol fed rabbit model. For the study New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and experimental period was three months; group -i - ND [normal diet (40 g feed)], group-ii- ND (normal diet) +EAVU [ethyl acetate fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg/kg body weight)], group -iii- ND [normal diet ]+ CFD [cholesterol fed diet (cholesterol 1 % of 40 g feed and cholic acid 0.5 % of 40 g feed)] and group-iv - ND [normal diet] +CFD [cholesterol fed diet ]+EAVU [ethyl acetate fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg/kg body weight)]. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding the rabbit with cholesterol (1 % of 40 g feed) and cholic acid (0.5 % of 40 g feed). Supplementation of EAVU normalized cholesterol profile, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products like thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), antioxidant system and important genes of cardiovascular diseases like interleukin-10 (IL 10), paraoxanase-1 (PON I), interleukin-6 (IL 6), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox 2) to near normal level as compared with normal diet. The result obtained showed the antioxidant as well as anti-atherogenic potential of Vigna unguiculata leaves in ameliorating cholesterol induced atherosclerosis, and thus it is good task to include VU leaves in daily diet for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases especially atherosclerosis.

  10. Evaluation of Different Tillage Practices for Monocultural Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Production in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ndaeyo, NU.; Aiyelari, EA.

    1997-01-01

    A two-season (rainy and dry) study was conducted in 1993 at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to assess the most productive tillage practice for monocultural cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) production. Completely randomised block design with four replications was used and tillage treatments were : No till-Slash and Burn (NSB), No till-Herbicide applied (NH), Conventional-ploughed and harrowed (CT), and Minimum-ploughed only (MT). Results revealed that tillage ...

  11. Vigna unguiculata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VIC

    2012-12-07

    Dec 7, 2012 ... The difference in weight (cooking loss) was determined by subtracting W2 from W1. Thicknesses and ... flavour intensity, flavour liking and overall acceptability of the products by the taste panel. The burgers were .... Since the use of cowpea flour caused a reduction in fat content without an adverse effect on.

  12. A SNP and SSR Based Genetic Map of Asparagus Bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and Comparison with the Broader Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D.; Close, Timothy J.; Roberts, Philip A.; Diop, Ndeye-Ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2011-01-01

    Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as ‘long beans’ or ‘asparagus beans’. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs), with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs) identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level. PMID:21253606

  13. A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis and comparison with the broader species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Xu

    Full Text Available Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L. Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs, with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level.

  14. Assembled genomic and tissue-specific transcriptomic data resources for two genetically distinct lines of Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Andrew; Henderson, Steven T; Hand, Melanie L; Johnson, Susan D; Taylor, Jennifer M; Koltunow, Anna

    2018-02-09

    Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume crop for food security in areas of low-input and smallholder farming throughout Africa and Asia. Genetic improvements are required to increase yield and resilience to biotic and abiotic stress and to enhance cowpea crop performance. An integrated cowpea genomic and gene expression data resource has the potential to greatly accelerate breeding and the delivery of novel genetic traits for cowpea. Extensive genomic resources for cowpea have been absent from the public domain; however, a recent early release reference genome for IT97K-499-35 ( Vigna unguiculata  v1.0, NSF, UCR, USAID, DOE-JGI, http://phytozome.jgi.doe.gov/) has now been established in a collaboration between the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) and University California (UC) Riverside. Here we release supporting genomic and transcriptomic data for IT97K-499-35 and a second transformable cowpea variety, IT86D-1010. The transcriptome resource includes six tissue-specific datasets for each variety, with particular emphasis on reproductive tissues that extend and support the V. unguiculata v1.0 reference. Annotations have been included in our resource to allow direct mapping to the v1.0 cowpea reference. Access to this resource provided here is supported by raw and assembled data downloads.

  15. A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and comparison with the broader species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A; Diop, Ndeye-Ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2011-01-06

    Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs), with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs) identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level.

  16. Improvement of the Chinese bean [Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp.], through radioinduced mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmeron E, J.; Bueno J, J.E.; Valencia E, F.; Solis M, M.; Cervantes S, T.; Cruz T, E. de la

    2006-01-01

    The advances in the process of genetic improvement of the Chinese bean (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) are presented, high nutritious value that it is evaluating as alternative for marginal areas producers of the State of Guerrero. The method of improvement applied it is recurrent radiation, continued by selection cycles applying the method of progeny by plant. The applied radiation doses were 200 and 250 Gray. The established selection approaches are: resistant plants or tolerant to the plagues attack and illnesses, vigorous, with more height to the first sheath, of compact and certain growth, with short internodes, bigger number of sheaths by plant and of grains by sheath, bigger number of grain size, among others. The obtained results show that the dose that induces bigger variability and that it has propitiated the biggest quantity in possible mutants it is 200Gy. Precocious plants with more height to the first sheath, with certain growth as well as with bigger number and sheaths size have been detected. The selected plants have incorporated to an increment process by means of the progeny method by plant. (Author)

  17. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Jayasinghe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis. However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest. Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka.

  18. Evaluation of ecophysiological characteristics of intercropping of millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghanbari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. intercropping, an experiment was conducted during 2008-2009 at Agriculture Research Center of Zabol University, Iran. The experiment was as randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatment s consisted of sole crop of millet, sole crop of cowpea, 25% millet + 100% cowpea, 50% millet + 50% cowpea, 75% millet + 100% cowpea and 100% millet + 100% cowpea. The results showed that intercropping treatments had significant effect (P < 1% on millet and bean seed yield, LER, dry matter of weeds, PAR, temperature and (P < 5% on soil moisture content. The highest seed yield of millet and cowpea obtained from treatments of sole crops. The LER for most intercrops was greater than one which indicated that intercropping had advantage over sole crop. For weeds management and control the results indicated that weed suppressing effects in intercropping treatments is better than sole crops treatment, so that the lowest dry matter of weeds obtained from 100% millet + 100% cowpea treatment. PAR in all of stages showed that the highest PAR interception obtained from intercropping treatments specially 100% millet + 100% cowpea treatment. In addition to the lowest of soil moisture content and temperature obtained from this treatment.

  19. Toxic effects of Pb2+ on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopittke, Peter M.; Asher, Colin J.; Kopittke, Rosemary A.; Menzies, Neal W.

    2007-01-01

    A concentration as low as 1 μM lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb 2+ activity of 0.2 μM for the shoots and at a Pb 2+ activity of 0.06 μM for the roots. The primary site of Pb 2+ toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. - The Pb 2+ ion reduced the growth of cowpea by 10% at a solution activity of 0.2 μM for the shoots and 0.06 μM for the roots

  20. Simultaneous selection for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes with adaptability and yield stability using mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, F E; Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Ceccon, G

    2016-04-29

    The aim of this study was to select erect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes simultaneously for high adaptability, stability, and yield grain in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil using mixed models. We conducted six trials of different cowpea genotypes in 2005 and 2006 in Aquidauana, Chapadão do Sul, Dourados, and Primavera do Leste. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with four replications and 20 genotypes. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction, and selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method using three strategies: selection based on the predicted breeding value, having considered the performance mean of the genotypes in all environments (no interaction effect); the performance in each environment (with an interaction effect); and the simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability, and adaptability. The MNC99542F-5 and MNC99-537F-4 genotypes could be grown in various environments, as they exhibited high grain yield, adaptability, and stability. The average heritability of the genotypes was moderate to high and the selective accuracy was 82%, indicating an excellent potential for selection.

  1. Growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant responses of Vigna unguiculata L. treated with hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Aiman Hasan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. is an important legume well grown in semiarid and arid environment. Hydrogen peroxide solutions (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM have been used to optimize growth and photosynthetic performance of cowpea plant at two growth stages [30 and 45 DAS (days of sowing]. Foliar application of H2O2 at 0.5 > 1.0 mM solution at 29 DAS optimally promoted the photosynthetic attributes [leaf chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (PN, water use efficiency, and maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm] and growth performance [root and shoot length; fresh and dry weight] of plants where the responses were more significant at the later growth stage. It was favored by activity of enzymes as carbonic anhydrase [CA; E.C. 4.2.1.1] and nitrate reductase [NR, E.C. 1.6.6.1] and those of antioxidant enzymes viz. peroxidase [POX; EC 1.11.1.7], catalase [CAT; EC 1.11.1.6], and superoxide dismutase [SOD; EC 1.15.1.1] and leaf proline content. Strengthened root system and antioxidant activity, particularly leaf proline level appeared to be the key factor for efficient photosynthesis and growth responses.

  2. TRUE METABOLIZABLE ENERGY AND DIGESTIBILITY OF FIVE Vigna unguiculata VARIETIES IN CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Armando Sarmiento-Franco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of heat-treatment on grain true metabolizable energy (TME, dry matter and gross energy digestibilities of five Vigna unguiculata varieties: H82, T782, TM97, C666 y XL. The grain of the former three varieties were heat-treated, and offered raw or cooked, whereas grain of the late two varieties were used only row, resulting in a total of eight treatments. The heat treatment consisted of watering the grains with boiling water for 30 minutes and drying at 60°C.  Forty-five Hubbard male chickens (2.1 ± 0.2 kg housed in individual wire pens were used to evaluate the treatments. Five chickens from each treatment were fed 40 g of treated grain in mash form, using the force-feeding technique. Additionally, five fasted chickens were used to calculate the endogenous energy and DM losses. The data were submitted to an analysis of variance according to the randomized statistical model; to evaluate the effect of heat treatment orthogonal contrasts were performed. There were no significant differences in all the variables neither among varieties nor between heat treatments (P>0.05. TME values in this study were similar to those found in the literature and equivalent to the TME value of soybean meal, a conventional feedstuff used in the poultry industry.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Cople Lima, Keila dos, E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Boher e Souza, Luciana [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de [Technological Center, Embrapa Food Agroindustry, Av. das Americas, 29501, CEP 23020-470 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Costa Franca, Tanos Celmar; Santos Lima, Antonio Luis dos [Chemical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: > In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation > Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. > Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. > Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. > Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

  4. Diallelic analysis to obtain cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) populations tolerant to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, E V; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Rocha, M M; Bastos, E A

    2016-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to identify parents and obtain segregating populations of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) with the potential for tolerance to water deficit. A full diallel was performed with six cowpea genotypes, and two experiments were conducted in Teresina, PI, Brazil in 2011 to evaluate 30 F2 populations and their parents, one under water deficit and the other under full irrigation. A triple-lattice experimental design was used, with six 2-m-long rows in each plot. Sixteen plants were sampled per plot. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability estimates were obtained based on the means. Additive effects were more important than non-additive effects, and maternal inheritance had occurred. The genotypes BRS Xiquexique, Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 were the most promising for use in selection programs aimed at water deficit tolerance. The hybrid combinations Pingo de Ouro-1-2 x BRS Xiquexique, BRS Xiquexique x Santo Inácio, CNCx 698-128G x MNC99-510F-16-1, Santo Inácio x CNCx 698-128G, MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Paraguaçu, MNC99- 510F-16-1 x Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Xiquexique have the potential to increase grain production and tolerate water deficit.

  5. Highly distinct chromosomal structures in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), as revealed by molecular cytogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Lin, Jer-Young; Gill, Navdeep; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume, particularly in developing countries. However, little is known about its genome or chromosome structure. We used molecular cytogenetics to characterize the structure of pachytene chromosomes to advance our knowledge of chromosome and genome organization of cowpea. Our data showed that cowpea has highly distinct chromosomal structures that are cytologically visible as brightly DAPI-stained heterochromatic regions. Analysis of the repetitive fraction of the cowpea genome present at centromeric and pericentromeric regions confirmed that two retrotransposons are major components of pericentromeric regions and that a 455-bp tandem repeat is found at seven out of 11 centromere pairs in cowpea. These repeats likely evolved after the divergence of cowpea from common bean and form chromosomal structure unique to cowpea. The integration of cowpea genetic and physical chromosome maps reveals potential regions of suppressed recombination due to condensed heterochromatin and a lack of pairing in a few chromosomal termini. This study provides fundamental knowledge on cowpea chromosome structure and molecular cytogenetics tools for further chromosome studies.

  6. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopittke, Peter M.; Dart, Peter J.; Menzies, Neal W.

    2007-01-01

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu 2+ activities as low as 1-2 μM, the effect of Cu 2+ on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu 2+ on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu 2+ . The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu 2+ activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu 2+ activity of 1.0 μM corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu 2+ activity of 0.2 μM corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu 2+ activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing ≥0.77 μM Cu 2+ , rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu 2+ activities than either shoot or root growth

  7. Simplified methods for screening cowpea cultivars for manganese leaf-tissue tolerance. [Vigna unguiculata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissemeier, A.H.; Horst, W.J. (Univ. of Hannover (West Germany))

    In cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) dark brown speckles on old leaves are typical symptoms of Mn toxicity and indicate Mn sensitivity of leaf tissue. Induction and subsequent quantification of brown Mn speckles in leaf tissues were used to screen cowpea cultivars for Mn leaf-tissue tolerance using three different techniques: (i) leaf cuttings cultured for 22 days in solution culture with 20 {mu}M MnSO{sub 4}, (ii) leaf rings mounted on leaves of intact plants and filled with 500 {mu}M MnSO{sub 4} for 5 days, and (iii) leaf disks floated for 3 days on 500 {mu}M MnSO{sub 4}. Density of brown speckles differed considerably among the six cultivars tested, and was not related to the Mn concentrations of the leaf tissues. There were close relationships between genotypic Mn-toxicity symptom expression and depression of dry matter production of the cultivars at high Mn supply in a long-term sand culture experiment. The floating leaf-disk method is particularly suited for screening large numbers of cowpea cultivars for Mn leaf-tissue tolerance because it requires only 3 days. The ranking of the cultivars for Mn tolerance was highly correlated to Mn tolerance of intact plants.

  8. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Dart, Peter J. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu{sup 2+} activities as low as 1-2 {mu}M, the effect of Cu{sup 2+} on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu{sup 2+} on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu{sup 2+}. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 1.0 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu{sup 2+} activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing {>=}0.77 {mu}M Cu{sup 2+}, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than either shoot or root growth.

  9. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, R C; Premachandra, W T S Dammini; Neilson, Roy

    2015-09-01

    Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis). However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest) > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest). Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka.

  10. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility.

  11. Removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution by Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) pods biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyo, Upenyu; Sibanda, Kudakwashe; Sebata, Edith; Chigondo, Fidelis; Moyo, Mambo

    2016-01-01

    The potential to remove nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution using a biosorbent prepared from Vigna unguiculata pods (VUPs) was investigated in batch experiments. The batch mode experiments were conducted utilising the independent variables of pH (2 to 8), contact time (5 to 120 min), dosage concentration (0.2 to 1.6 g), nickel(II) concentrations (10 to 80 mg L(-1)) and temperature (20 to 50°C). The biosorption data fitted best to the Freundlich biosorption model with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.993 and lowest chi-squared value of 31.89. The maximum sorption capacity of the VUP for nickel(II) was 27.70 mg g(-1). Kinetics studies revealed that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model as it had the lowest sum of square error value (0.808) and correlation coefficient close to unity (R(2) = 0.998). The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the biosorption process was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. Consequently, the study demonstrated that VUP biomass could be used as a biosorbent for the removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution.

  12. Characterization of seed storage proteins in high protein genotypes of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prachi; Singh, Rohtas; Malhotra, S; Boora, K S; Singal, H R

    2010-01-01

    Twenty one genotypes and two check varieties viz. CS-88 and V-240 of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ] were screened for total proteins. The total protein content ranged from 22.4 (HC-3) to 27.9 % (HC-98-64) in 21 genotypes whereas in check varieties it was 25.6 (V-240) and 26.0 % (CS-88). Seven genotypes viz. HC-6, HC-5, CP-21, LST-II-C-12, CP-16, COVU-702 and HC-98-64 having high protein content (26.7 to 27.9 %) were selected for further characterization of their seed storage proteins. Globulins were the major protein fraction ranging from 55.6 (LST-II-C-12) to 58.8 % (CP-16 and HC-6) of total protein. Glutelins was the second major fraction ranging from 14.4 to 15.6 % followed by albumins (8.2 to 11.9 %) and prolamins (2.3 to 5.0 %). Content of free amino acids also showed variations amongst genotypes with COVU-702 having maximum and LST-II-C-12 having minimum content. Essential amino acid analysis revealed that S-amino acids (cysteine and methionine) were the first limiting amino acids followed by tryptophan. From the results presented here it could be suggested that two genotypes viz. LST-II-C-12 and HC-5 be used in breeding programmes aimed at developing high protein moth bean varieties with good quality.

  13. Effects of ozone on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Rashied; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Wada, Yoshiharu; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of O(3)on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of cowpea(Vigna unguiculata L.), Blackeye and Asontem were exposed as potted plants to air that was either filtered to remove O(3) (FA), non-filtered air (NF), non-filtered with added O3 of approximately 50 nL L(-1) (ppb) from 11:00 to 16:00 (NF + O(3)) for 88 days in open-top chambers. The mean O(3) concentration (11:00-16:00) during the exposure period had a range from 16 ppb in the FA treatment to 118 ppb in the NF + O(3) treatment. Net photosynthetic rate and leaf area per plant were significantly reduced by exposure to O(3), reducing the growth of both varieties. Exposure to O(3) significantly reduced the 100-seed weight and number of seeds per pod. As a result, cowpea yield was significantly reduced by long-term exposure to O(3), with no difference in sensitivity between the varieties.

  14. Active aggregation among sexes in bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niassy, Saliou; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K; Orindi, Benedict; Moritz, Gerald B; de Kogel, Willem J; Subramanian, Sevgan

    2016-01-01

    Male sexual aggregations are a common territorial, mating-related or resource-based, behaviour observed in diverse organisms, including insects such as thrips. The influence of factors such as plant substrate, time of day, and geographic location on aggregation of thrips is uncertain, therefore we monitored the dispersion of male and female bean flower thrips (BFT), Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabaceae), over three cowpea growth stages and across three cowpea-growing areas of Kenya. Our results indicated that for all the crop growth stages, the density of BFTs varied over the time of day, with higher densities at 10:00, 13:00, and 16:00 hours than at 07:00 hours. Thrips densities did not differ among blocks at the budding stage, but they did at peak flowering and podding stages. Dispersion indices suggested that both male and female BFTs were aggregated. Active male aggregation occurred only on green plant parts and it varied across blocks, crop stages, and locations. Similarly, active female aggregation was observed in peak flowering and podding stages. Such active aggregation indicates a semiochemical or behaviour-mediated aggregation. Identification of such a semiochemical may offer new opportunities for refining monitoring and management strategies for BFT on cowpea, the most important grain legume in sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: a case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N

    2014-06-17

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species.

  16. Cluster analysis technique for assessing variability in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp accessions from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajayi Abiola Toyin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability among 10 accessions of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp was studied by the use of 13 qualitative and 13 quantitative traits. From the results on qualitative traits, dendrogram grouped the 10 accessions into two major clusters, 1 and 2.Cluster 1 had 3 accessions and cluster 2 had 2 sub-clusters (I and II, having 2 accessions in sub-cluster I and 5 accessions in sub-cluster II. The dendrogram revealed two major clusters, 1 and 2, for quantitative data, for the 10 accessions. At distance of 4 and 6, cluster 1 had two sub-clusters (I and II, with sub-cluster I having 5 accessions, sub-cluster II having 4 accessions while cluster 2 had only 1 accession. This study made the observation that identification of the right agro-morphological traits of high discriminating capacity is essential, before embarking on any genetic diversity; as it was revealed that some traits discriminated more efficiently among the accessions than others. A group of accessions, which are NGSA1, NGSA2, NGSA3, NGSA4, NGSA7, NGSA9 and NGSA10, was identified as being different from the others for number of seeds per pod, pod length, plant height, peduncle length, seed weight and number of pods per plant. These accessions may be good for cowpea improvement programs.

  17. Toxic effects of Pb{sup 2+} on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Asher, Colin J. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Kopittke, Rosemary A. [Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 80 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2007-11-15

    A concentration as low as 1 {mu}M lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.06 {mu}M for the roots. The primary site of Pb{sup 2+} toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. - The Pb{sup 2+} ion reduced the growth of cowpea by 10% at a solution activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and 0.06 {mu}M for the roots.

  18. Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as trap plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F.V.; Simões-Araújo, J.L.; Silva Júnior, J.P.; Xavier, G.R.; Rumjanek, N.G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis) and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium. PMID:24031880

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Cople Lima, Keila dos; Boher e Souza, Luciana; Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de; Costa Franca, Tanos Celmar; Santos Lima, Antonio Luis dos

    2011-01-01

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: → In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation → Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. → Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. → Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. → Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

  20. Floral Volatiles from Vigna unguiculata Are Olfactory and Gustatory Stimulants for Oviposition by the Bean Pod Borer Moth Maruca vitrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bo; Qian, Kai; Du, Yong-Jun

    2017-06-09

    Abstract : We investigated the role of floral odors from cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), in mediating oviposition of the bean pod borer moth, Maruca vitrata , a serious pest of grain legumes that flies to host plants at the flowering stage and oviposits onto flowers and buds. The flower of the host plant V. unguiculata was a stimulus for egg-laying by M. vitrata in an oviposition bioassay. Commercial longifolene, β-caryophyllene, linalool, geraniol, and ( Z )-3-hexenyl acetate were used as stimulus. Each one elicited dose-dependent electroantennogram responses in female M. vitrata , and all but longifolene stimulated oviposition, when presented singly. Beta-caryophyllene was the most active stimulant, similar to that of the flower of V. unguiculata , and eliciting a dose-dependent oviposition response. Either olfaction or gustation was sufficient to mediate an oviposition response to V. unguiculata floral volatiles: intact M. vitrata responded to β-caryophyllene whether or not they could contact the source of the volatiles, and females with amputated antennae responded if allowed to contact the source. We believe this is the first demonstration in a moth where β-caryophyllene from the host plant was able to mediate an oviposition response. As β-caryophyllene is widely expressed by non-host plants, we suggest that its role in stimulating oviposition could be exploited as part of a push-pull strategy for pest management in which β-caryophyllene-expressing non-host plants provide a population sink for M. vitrata .

  1. Assessment of hybridization among wild and cultivated Vigna unguiculata subspecies revealed by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, Archana; Saini, Ajay; Jawali, Narendra

    2012-01-01

    Intra-species hybridization and incompletely homogenized ribosomal RNA repeat units have earlier been reported in 21 accessions of Vigna unguiculata from six subspecies using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 5S intergenic spacer (IGS) analyses. However, the relationships among these accessions were not clear from these analyses. We therefore assessed intra-species hybridization in the same set of accessions. Arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) analysis was carried out using 12 primers. The PCR products were resolved on agarose gels and the DNA fragments were scored manually. Genetic relationships were inferred by TREECON software using unweighted paired group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis evaluated by bootstrapping and compared with previous analyses based on ITS and 5S IGS. A total of 202 (86 %) fragments were found to be polymorphic and used for generating a genetic distance matrix. Twenty-one V. unguiculata accessions were grouped into three main clusters. The cultivated subspecies (var. unguiculata) and most of its wild progenitors (var. spontanea) were placed in cluster I along with ssp. pubescens and ssp. stenophylla. Whereas var. spontanea were grouped with ssp. alba and ssp. tenuis accessions in cluster II, ssp. alba and ssp. baoulensis were included in cluster III. Close affinities of ssp. unguiculata, ssp. alba and ssp. tenuis suggested inter-subspecies hybridization. Multi-locus AP-PCR analysis reveals that intra-species hybridization is prevalent among V. unguiculata subspecies and suggests that grouping of accessions from two different subspecies is not solely due to the similarity in the ITS and 5S IGS regions but also due to other regions of the genome.

  2. Alleviation of Cu and Pb rhizotoxicities in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as related to ion activities at root-cell plasma membrane surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cations, such as Ca and Mg, are generally thought to alleviate toxicities of trace metals through site-specific competition (as incorporated in the biotic ligand model, BLM). Short term (48 h) experiments were conducted using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) seedlings in simple nutrient solution...

  3. Population structure analysis and association mapping of seed antioxidant content in USDA cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) core collection using SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) is an important legume and the antioxidants in cowpea seeds have been recognized as health-promoting compounds for human. The objectives of this study were to analyze the population structure of cowpea collections using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and to...

  4. Effects of the legume Vigna unguiculata crop on carbon and nitrogen cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Virginia; Zornoza, Raúl; Fernández, Juan; Faz Cano, Ángel

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of a legume crop (Vigna unguiculata) on soil properties related to the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles, taking into account different management practices (conventional and organic) and two genotypes. The study was randomly designed in blocks with four replications, in plots of 10 m2. The crop cycle spanned from 29 May 2014 to 13 August 2014. We collected soil samples (0-30 cm) from each plot at the beginning and at the end of the cycle to measure soil total N, organic C, recalcitrant C, organic C labile fractions, microbial biomass C (MBC) and the enzyme activities β-glucosidase and β-glucosaminidase. We collected plant samples (seeds, pods, roots and stem/leaves) at two different maturity stages (fresh and dry pods) to assess the influence of management practices and genotype in the accumulation of N, as indicative of the content of proteins in the crop. In the final plant sampling, we also determined crop production. The results showed that no significant differences were observed between management practices and genotypes in any of the soil properties measured. However, total N, recalcitrant C, most labile C fraction, MBC and β-glucosidase increased at the final sampling compared to initial values. We observed that genotype had a significant effect on the concentration of the second fraction of labile C under organic management. N content in the different plant tissues was significantly higher in the intermediate sampling than in the final harvest, without significant differences between management practices and genotypes. We observed a significant positive correlation between N content in roots, seeds and pods. N content was always higher in seeds, indicating the high quantity of proteins in this crop. C content was significantly lower in stem/leaves than in the rest of tissues, without significant differences among them. No effect of management practice, maturity stage or genotype was observed with regard to C

  5. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocloo, F.C.K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D.O.; Wilson, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: → We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. → Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. → Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. → Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

  6. Fate of ZnO nanoparticles in soils and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Menzies, Neal W; Lombi, Enzo; McKenna, Brigid A; Johannessen, Bernt; Glover, Chris J; Kappen, Peter; Kopittke, Peter M

    2013-12-03

    The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) in various commercial products is prompting detailed investigation regarding the fate of these materials in the environment. There is, however, a lack of information comparing the transformation of ZnO-NPs with soluble Zn(2+) in both soils and plants. Synchrotron-based techniques were used to examine the uptake and transformation of Zn in various tissues of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) exposed to ZnO-NPs or ZnCl2 following growth in either solution or soil culture. In solution culture, soluble Zn (ZnCl2) was more toxic than the ZnO-NPs, although there was substantial accumulation of ZnO-NPs on the root surface. When grown in soil, however, there was no significant difference in plant growth and accumulation or speciation of Zn between soluble Zn and ZnO-NP treatments, indicating that the added ZnO-NPs underwent rapid dissolution following their entry into the soil. This was confirmed by an incubation experiment with two soils, in which ZnO-NPs could not be detected after incubation for 1 h. The speciation of Zn was similar in shoot tissues for both soluble Zn and ZnO-NPs treatments and no upward translocation of ZnO-NPs from roots to shoots was observed in either solution or soil culture. Under the current experimental conditions, the similarity in uptake and toxicity of Zn from ZnO-NPs and soluble Zn in soils indicates that the ZnO-NPs used in this study did not constitute nanospecific risks.

  7. Estudo do feijão verde (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp minimamente processado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FURTUNATO Andréa A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando definir tecnologias alternativas de processamento do feijão verde (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp, estudou-se o processo de congelamento do mesmo. Este consistiu na recepção da matéria prima, seleção dos grãos de coloração e tamanho uniformes, seguida de lavagem em água corrente e branqueamento por imersão em água a 90ºC. Os grãos foram acondicionados em sacos plásticos e congelados em freezer doméstico a -18ºC, sendo armazenados a essa temperatura. Foi realizado o estudo de vida de prateleira desse produto por 180 dias, através de análises físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais, preservando-se em boas condições para o consumo. Foi realizado também o teste de aceitação do produto comparando-se com o feijão verde fresco. Embora o nível de aceitação não tenha sido muito alto (71,1% quando comparado com o feijão fresco (96,6%, este resultado poderia ser diferente em regiões que não têm o hábito de consumir esta leguminosa no estádio de maturação verde fresco.

  8. Activity of recombinant and natural defensins from Vigna unguiculata seeds against Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Géssika Silva; do Nascimento, Viviane Veiga; de Carvalho, Laís Pessanha; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório; Fernandes, Keysson Vieira; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares; Retamal, Claudio Andres; Gomes, Valdirene Moreira; Carvalho, André de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are differentiated from other antibiotic peptides, such as gramicidins and polymyxins, because they are synthesized by large enzymatic complex and bear modified amino acids including d-amino acids, are short polymers of l-amino acids synthesized by ribosomes upon which all living organisms rely to defend themselves from invaders or competitor microorganisms. AMPs have received a great deal of attention from the scientific community as potential new drugs for neglected diseases such as Leishmaniasis. In plants, they include several families of compounds, including the plant defensins. The aim of the present study was to improve the expression of recombinant defensin from Vigna unguiculata seeds (Vu-Defr) and to test its activity against Leishmania amazonensis promatigotes. Recombinant expression was performed in LB and TB media and under different conditions. The purification of Vu-Defr was achieved by immobilized metal ion affinity and reversed-phase chromatography. The purified Vu-Defr was analyzed by circular dichroism (CD), and its biological activity was tested against L. amazonenis promastigotes. To demonstrate that the recombinant production of Vu-Defr did not interfere with its fold and biological activity, the results of all experiments were compared with the results from the natural defensin (Vu-Def). The CD spectra of both peptides presented good superimposition indicating that both peptides present very similar secondary structure and that the Vu-Defr was correctly folded. L. amazonensis treated with Vu-Defr led to the elimination of 54.3% and 46.9% of the parasites at 24 and 48h of incubation time, respectively. Vu-Def eliminated 50% and 54.8% of the parasites at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Both were used at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. These results suggested the potential for plant defensins to be used as new antiparasitic substances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional associations between the metabolome and manganese tolerance in Vigna unguiculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Führs, Hendrik; Specht, André; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Horst, Walter J.

    2012-01-01

    Genotypic- and silicon (Si)-mediated differences in manganese (Mn) tolerance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) arise from a combination of symplastic and apoplastic traits. A detailed metabolomic inspection could help to identify functional associations between genotype- and Si-mediated Mn tolerance and metabolism. Two cowpea genotypes differing in Mn tolerance (TVu 91, Mn sensitive; TVu 1987, Mn tolerant) were subjected to differential Mn and Si treatments. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolite profiling of leaf material was performed. Detailed evaluation of the response of metabolites was combined with gene expression and physiological analyses. After 2 d of 50 μM Mn supply TVu 91 expressed toxicity symptoms first in the form of brown spots on the second oldest trifoliate leaves. Silicon treatment suppressed symptom development in TVu 91. Despite higher concentrations of Mn in leaves of TVu 1987 compared with TVu 91, the tolerant genotype did not show symptoms. From sample cluster formation as identified by independent component analysis (ICA) of metabolite profiles it is concluded that genotypic differences accounted for the highest impact on variation in metabolite pools, followed by Mn and Si treatments in one of two experiments. Analysis of individual metabolites corroborated a comparable minor role for Mn and Si treatments in the modulation of individual metabolites. Mapping individual metabolites differing significantly between genotypes onto biosynthetic pathways and gene expression studies on the corresponding pathways suggest that genotypic Mn tolerance is a consequence of differences (i) in the apoplastic binding capacity; (ii) in the capability to maintain a high antioxidative state; and (iii) in the activity of shikimate and phenylpropanoid metabolism. PMID:21934118

  10. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocloo, F.C.K., E-mail: fidelis_ocloo@yahoo.com [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D.O. [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Wilson, D.D. [Department of Zoology, University of Ghana, Legon (Ghana)

    2012-01-15

    Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: > We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. > Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. > Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. > Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

  11. A novel symbiovar (aegeanense) of the genus Ensifer nodulates Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Fotiadis, Christos T; Ntatsi, Georgia; Savvas, Dimitrios

    2017-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) forms nitrogen-fixing root nodules with diverse symbiotic bacteria, mainly slow-growing rhizobial species belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium, although a few studies have reported the isolation of fast-growing rhizobia under laboratory and field conditions. Although much research has been done on cowpea-nodulating bacteria in various countries around the world, very limited information is available on cowpea rhizobia in European soils. The aim of this study was to study the genetic and phenotypic diversity of indigenous cowpea-nodulating rhizobia in Greece. The genetic diversity of indigenous rhizobia associated with cowpea was investigated through a polyphasic approach. ERIC-PCR based fingerprinting analysis grouped the isolates into three groups. Based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA genes, IGS and on the concatenation of six housekeeping genes (recA, glnII, gyrB, truA, thrA and SMc00019), rhizobial isolates were classified within the species Ensifer fredii. However, symbiotic gene phylogenies, based on nodC, nifH and rhcRST genes, showed that the Ensifer isolates are markedly diverged from type and reference strains of E. fredii and formed one clearly separate cluster. The E. fredii strains were able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in cowpea but not in soybean and common bean. The present study showed that cowpea is nodulated under field conditions by fast-growing rhizobia belonging to the species E. fredii. Based on the phylogenies, similarity levels of symbiotic genes and the host range, the Ensifer isolates may constitute a new symbiovar for which the name 'aegeanense' is proposed. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root mucilage on microbial community response and capacity for phenanthrene remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ran; Belcher, Richard W; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Li; Thater, Brian; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is normally limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Prior research suggests that biosurfactants are synthesized as intermediates during the production of mucilage at the root tip. To date the effects of mucilage on PAH degradation and microbial community response have not been directly examined. To address this question, our research compared 3 cowpea breeding lines (Vigna unguiculata) that differed in mucilage production for their effects on phenanthrene (PHE) degradation in soil. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography results indicated that the highest PHE degradation rate was achieved in soils planted with mucilage producing cowpea line C1, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, leading to 91.6% PHE disappearance in 5 weeks. In root printing tests, strings treated with mucilage and bacteria produced larger clearing zones than those produced on mucilage treated strings with no bacteria or bacteria inoculated strings. Experiments with 14C-PHE and purified mucilage in soil slurry confirmed that the root mucilage significantly enhanced PHE mineralization (82.7%), which is 12% more than the control treatment without mucilage. The profiles of the PHE degraders generated by Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that cowpea C1, producing a high amount of root mucilage, selectively enriched the PHE degrading bacteria population in rhizosphere. These findings indicate that root mucilage may play a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation and suggests that differences in mucilage production may be an important criterion for selection of the best plant species for use in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on Some Growth Parameters of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seedlings growth parameters to nitrogen nutritional stress. This was with a view to determining whether nitrogen nutritional stress would retard or enhance maize and cowpea growth, partly, wholly or not at all through its effect on biomass accumulation and some morphological parameters. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots. A group of the seedlings was nutrient stressed by administering 200 ml of complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen (-N while the other groups were fed with five times (X5N and ten times (X10N the optimal concentration of nitrogen and the last regime was fed with full nutrient solution (FN. The effects of optimal concentration and nitrogen stress on the growth rates (as measured by their fresh and dry weight were studied. The result of the growth analysis showed that there was increase in shoot height with supraoptimal concentrations of nitrogen treatments (X10N and X5N while there was a decrease in shoot height with minus nitrogen (-N regimes. The observed higher biomass (dry matter yield under the FN regimes in both Zea mays and Vigna unguiculata were attributed to optimal nutrient assimilation rate.

  14. Isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. , Pisum sativum L. , and Vigna unguiculata (L. ) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becana, M.; Paris, F.J.; Sandalio, L.M.; Del Rio, L.A. (IRNA, Salamanca (Spain) Unidad de Bioquimica Vegetal, Granada (Spain))

    1989-08-01

    The activity and isozymic composition of superoxide dismutase were determined in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. A Mn-SOD was present in Rhizobium and two in Bradyrhizobium and bacteroids. Nodule mitochondria from all three legume species had a single Mn-SOD with similar relative mobility, whereas the cytosol contained several CuZn-SODs: two in Phaseolus and Pisum, and four in Vigna. In the cytoplasm of V. unguiculata nodules, a Fe-containing SOD was also present, with an electrophoretic mobility between those of CuZn- and Mn-SODs, and an estimated molecular weight of 57,000. Total SOD activity of the soluble fraction of host cells, expressed on a nodule fresh weight basis, exceeded markedly that of bacteroids. Likewise, specific SOD activities of free-living bacteria were superior or equal to those of their symbiotic forms. Soluble extracts of bacteria and bacteroids did not show peroxidase activity, but the nodule cell cytoplasm contained diverse peroxidase isozymes which were readily distinguishable from leghemoglobin components by electrophoresis. Data indicated that peroxidases and leghemoglobins did not significantly interfere with SOD localization on gels. Treatment with chloroform-ethanol scarcely affected the isozymic pattern of SODs and peroxidases, and had limited success in the removal of leghemoglobin.

  15. Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on some Mineral Nutrients and Photosynthetic Apparatus of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seedlings metabolic activities and photosynthetic apparatus to nitrogen nutritional stress. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots and the seedlings were divided into four nutrient regimes. A group of the seedlings was nutrient stressed by administering 200 ml of complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen (-N while the other groups were fed with five times (X5N and ten times (X10N the optimal concentration of nitrogen and the last regime was fed with full nutrient solution (FN. The photosynthetic parameters studied included chlorophylls ‘a’ and ‘b’ respectively; carotenes and xanthophyll while the mineral elements investigated include potassium, calcium and magnesium. The result of the growth analysis showed that nitrogen deficiency promotes an increase in the content of abscisic acid (ABA, causing stomatal closure and a reduction in photosynthesis. This explains the higher rate of leaf abscission in -N plants. A comparison of calcium ion and magnesium ion concentrations in both optimal and stressed conditions reveals that the two ions show antagonism in uptake. There is a correlation between nitrogen and magnesium accumulation as magnesium ion plays a vital role in chlorophyll biosynthesis, protein synthesis and photosynthesis. The pattern of accumulation of photosynthetic apparatus in both maize and cowpea follow a similar pattern. Chlorophyll a dictated the growth pattern of other photosynthetic apparatus in both Zea mays and Vigna unguiculata.

  16. The structure of a haemopexin-fold protein from cow pea (Vigna unguiculata) suggests functional diversity of haemopexins in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, Vineet; Chanana, Veenu; Jain, Abha; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of CP4, a haemopexin-fold protein from cow pea (Vigna unguiculata), has been determined at 2.1 Å resolution. The haemopexin fold is present in almost all life forms and is utilized for carrying out diverse physiological functions. The structure of CP4, a haemopexin-fold protein from cow pea (Vigna unguiculata), was determined at 2.1 Å resolution. The protein exists as a monomer both in solution and in the crystal. The structure revealed a typical four-bladed β-propeller topology. The protein exhibits 42% sequence similarity to LS-24 from Lathyrus sativus, with substantial differences in the surface-charge distribution and in the oligomeric state. A structure-based sequence analysis of haemopexin-fold proteins of plant and mammalian origin established a sequence signature associated with the haemopexin motif. This signature sequence enabled the identification of other proteins with possible haemopexin-like topology of both plant and animal origin. Although CP4 shares a structural fold with LS-24 and other haemopexins, biochemical studies indicated possible functional differences between CP4 and LS-24. While both of these proteins exhibit spermine-binding potential, CP4 does not bind to haem, unlike LS-24

  17. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of peptide fractions extracted by ultrafiltration of cowpea Vigna unguiculata hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura Campos, Maira R; Chel Guerrero, Luis A; Betancur Ancona, David A

    2010-11-01

    Enzymatic proteolysis of food proteins is used to produce peptide fractions with the potential to act as physiological modulators. Fractionation of these proteins by ultrafiltration results in fractions rich in small peptides with the potential to act as functional food ingredients. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitory and antioxidant activities for hydrolysates produced by hydrolyzing Vigna unguiculata protein extract as well as ultrafiltered peptide fractions from these hydrolysates. Alcalase(®), Flavourzyme(®) and pepsin-pancreatin were used to produce extensively hydrolyzed V. unguiculata protein extract. Degree of hydrolysis (DH) differed between the enzymatic systems and ranged from 35.7% to 58.8%. Fractionation increased in vitro biological activities in the peptide fractions, with IC(50) (hydrolysate concentration in µg protein mL(-1) required to produce 50% ACE inhibition) value ranges of 24.3-123 (Alcalase hydrolysate, AH), 0.04-170.6 (Flavourzyme hydrolysate; FH) and 44.7-112 (pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysate, PPH) µg mL(-1), and TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant coefficient) value ranges of 303.2-1457 (AH), 357.4-10 211 (FH) and 267.1-2830.4 (PPH) mmol L(-1) mg(-1) protein. The results indicate the possibility of obtaining bioactive peptides from V. unguiculata proteins by means of a controlled protein hydrolysis using Alcalase(®), Flavourzyme(®) and pepsin-pancreatin. The V. unguiculata protein hydrolysates and their corresponding ultrafiltered peptide fractions might be utilized for physiologically functional foods with antihypertensive and antioxidant activities. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

  18. Association analysis of salt tolerance in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) at germination and seedling stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelombola, Waltram; Shi, Ainong; Weng, Yuejin; Mou, Beiquan; Motes, Dennis; Clark, John; Chen, Pengyin; Srivastava, Vibha; Qin, Jun; Dong, Lingdi; Yang, Wei; Bhattarai, Gehendra; Sugihara, Yuichi

    2018-01-01

    This is the first report on association analysis of salt tolerance and identification of SNP markers associated with salt tolerance in cowpea. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is one of the most important cultivated legumes in Africa. The worldwide annual production in cowpea dry seed is 5.4 million metric tons. However, cowpea is unfavorably affected by salinity stress at germination and seedling stages, which is exacerbated by the effects of climate change. The lack of knowledge on the genetic underlying salt tolerance in cowpea limits the establishment of a breeding strategy for developing salt-tolerant cowpea cultivars. The objectives of this study were to conduct association mapping for salt tolerance at germination and seedling stages and to identify SNP markers associated with salt tolerance in cowpea. We analyzed the salt tolerance index of 116 and 155 cowpea accessions at germination and seedling stages, respectively. A total of 1049 SNPs postulated from genotyping-by-sequencing were used for association analysis. Population structure was inferred using Structure 2.3.4; K optimal was determined using Structure Harvester. TASSEL 5, GAPIT, and FarmCPU involving three models such as single marker regression, general linear model, and mixed linear model were used for the association study. Substantial variation in salt tolerance index for germination rate, plant height reduction, fresh and dry shoot biomass reduction, foliar leaf injury, and inhibition of the first trifoliate leaf was observed. The cowpea accessions were structured into two subpopulations. Three SNPs, Scaffold87490_622, Scaffold87490_630, and C35017374_128 were highly associated with salt tolerance at germination stage. Seven SNPs, Scaffold93827_270, Scaffold68489_600, Scaffold87490_633, Scaffold87490_640, Scaffold82042_3387, C35069468_1916, and Scaffold93942_1089 were found to be associated with salt tolerance at seedling stage. The SNP markers were consistent across the three models and

  19. Roles for GTP-binding proteins in Vigna unguiculata responding to Nod factors or chitin elicitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.N.; Irving, H.R.

    2001-01-01

    μNod factors are lipo-chito-oligosaccharides secreted by Rhizobium to initiate deformation of legume root hairs and other changes such as increases in intracellular calcium in responsive root hairs. We studied the effects of Nod factors and G-protein modulators on root hair deformation and found significant deformation of root hairs after 30 min exposure to the compounds. Since G-proteins have been implicated in the root hair response to Nod factors in vivo, we examined the GTP-binding profiles of root microsomal membrane fractions isolated from the nodulation competent zone of the legume Vigna unguiculata. GTP competitively binds to microsomal membrane fractions labelled with [ 35 S]GTPγS with a high affinity, yielding a two-site displacement curve with displacement constants (K i ) of 0.58 μM and 0.16 μM. Competition with either ATP or GDP revealed a one-site displacement curve with K i of 4.14 and 11.7 μM respectively. To test if exposure to Nod factors affect the GTP-binding profile, we isolated microsomal membrane fractions from roots pretreated with either NodNGR[S] (from Rhizobium sp. NGR234) or the four-sugar, tetracetylchitotetraose (TACT) backbone of Nod factors. Pretreatment with NodNGR[S] results in an increased affinity for GTP of several hundred-fold. Roots pretreated with TACT also showed a similar but slightly smaller increase in affinity for GTP. To begin identification of possible candidates microsomal proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and GTP-binding proteins were probed with [ 35 S]GTPγS. Microsomal membrane factions isolated from roots pretreated with NodNGR[S] revealed two proteins (27 kDa and 25 kDa) with a higher affinity for GTPγS. Western blotting of the microsomal membrane preparation with anti-Rac antibodies also showed changes in Rac associated signal in microsomal membranes prepared from either NodNGR[S] or TACT pretreated roots. These results provide further support for a role for small, monomeric G-proteins in the Nod factor

  20. Night drying of caupi bean using solar energy; Secagem noturna de feijao caupi com o uso de energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Dyego da C.; Queiroz, Alexandre Jose de M.; Figueiredo, Rossana M.F. de; Oliveira, Emanuel N.A. de [Univerdiade Federal de Campina Grande (CTRN/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais], email: dyego.csantos@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    The drying at low temperature preserves the best qualities of seeds. The older practice, a solar drying, has disadvantage the interruption of the process in the night period. In this work, was used a drying system constituted for a solar panels that heats up water and it is store in a thermal box. The heat water is used on a dryer, where it travels a copper coil, providing temperatures around 41 deg C. In this system drying of caupi bean (Vigna unguiculata L.) seeds were studied during the night period. The samples began with 67,2% of water content and reached at 14,9% in one night of drying and changed of 14,9 to 12,6% at the end in second drying night. The drying data were good fitted using Two-terms, Henderson and Pabis, Midilli, Page and Exponential Two-Terms models. (author)

  1. A stakeless yard long bean cultivar derived from an interspecific cross between cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp) and yard long bean Vigna sesquipedalis L. (Verdc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 'Yard long bean' is an important vegetable in the Thai diet, particularly in Northeast Thailand. However, growing 'yard long beans' requires stakes for supporting the twining stems and keeping the pod from touching the ground. Staking costs money, takes time and needs labour. An ideal cultivar would be a 'yard long bean' with erect plant type and under 80 cm in height that produces typical long bean pods and allows convenient picking during the harvest time. An attempt to breed such a cultivar was made by crossing cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.) with' yard long bean' Vigna sesquipedalis L. (Verdc.) in 1984. This resulted in a new cultivar 'KKU 25'. This cultivar, having erect plant type, requires no staking for supporting the stem and produces long fresh pods with acceptable taste which can be harvested within 43 days. The average pod length is 48 cm, and pod diameter 1.43 cm. In a preliminary yield trial, an average fresh pod yield of 16 t/ha was obtained. (author)

  2. Effect of Cd and UV-B radiation on polypeptide composition and photosystem activities of Vigna unguiculata chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedunchezhian, N.; Kulandaivelu, G.

    1995-01-01

    Rates of whole chain and photosystem 2 activities in chloroplasts isolated from Vigna unguiculata L. seedlings grown under ultraviolet-B (UV-B) enhanced radiation were less affected by 3, 6 and 9 mM CdCl2 for 60 min at 0 degrees C in the dark than the rates in chloroplasts from control plants grown under normal irradiation. The results are in agreement with changes in contents of chloroplast 55, 47, 43, 33, 29, 27-25, 23 and 17 kDa polypeptides that were significantly lowered at 3, 6 and 9 mM CdCl2 only in chloroplasts from control plants. On the other hand, in the simultaneous treatment of chloroplast isolated from control plants the UV-B supported the inhibitory effect of all applied concentrations of CdCl2. The photosystem 1 activity was only marginally affected in the all experimental variants

  3. Genetic variability in dinitrogen fixation between cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] cultivars determined using the nitrogen-15 isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndiaye, M.A.F.; Spencer, M.M.; Gueye, M.

    2000-01-01

    N fixed in 16 cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] inoculated with effective Bradyrhizobium strains collected from the West African MIRCEN culture collection was measured by 15N isotope dilution technique. In all plant parts, significant differences in the percentage of N derived from the atmosphere (%Ndfa) and the amount of Ndfa occurred between the cultivars. Ndoute variety exhibited the highest %Ndfa (74.33% in shoots; 60.90% in roots) and accumulated more fixed N (960 mg N plant–1 and 38 mg N plant–1 in shoots and roots, respectively). Therefore this cultivar should be selected as the highest N-fixing cowpea cultivar. It also should be used in a breeding programme to contribute to the development of cultivars that could stimulate an intensive use of cowpea in many different cropping systems in Africa with a view to maintaining soil fertility. (Authors)

  4. Effect of storage on the amino acid composition and biological quality of irradiated macacar beans Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, L.C.B.B.; de Medeiros, R.B.; Flores, H.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of two doses of gamma radiation (100 and 1,000 krad) upon the stability over a 6-month storage period of the amino acid composition and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of the macacar bean Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp were investigated. No important differences were noted when the aminograms of irradiated and nonirradiated beans, either raw or cooked were compared. Nevertheless, the losses of lysine, arginine, and histidine due to cooking were greater in the irradiated beans. The PER of nonirradiated was higher than that of irradiated beans before and after the 6 months of storage, and was always lowest in the beans subjected to the higher dose of radiation. Qualitatively, an association was observed between the nutritional value (PER) and small decreases in the content of certain amino acids which resulted mainly from increased thermal lability of the irradiated bean protein

  5. Soil compaction and gamma radiation (60Co) in the development of the cowpea beans (Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, Eliane Ferreira; Colaco, Waldeciro

    2005-01-01

    The objective is to investigate the effect of compaction and increased doses of gamma radiation on the development of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp] var. IPA-206 cultivated in a Neossolo fluvic soil, artificially compacted. Significant differences were observed in plant height, with the increase doses in soil density (1.30 Mg.m -3 - compacted soil and 1.70 Mg.m -3 - non-compacted soil), and in response to increased doses of irradiation (y-rays) [ [0, 100, 200 and 300 Gy). The diameter of the stem was significantly reduced in response to the increase in soil density, however the same did not occur in relation to the doses of irradiation (y-rays) holding capacity of the soil was reduced in response to the increase in soil density. (author)

  6. Antioxidant activity of the extracts of some cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) cultivars commonly consumed in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Shakeel; Amarowicz, Ryszard; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2013-02-05

    The present investigation has been carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from four cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) seeds. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed the antioxidant and antiradical properties when investigated using a linoleic acid peroxidation model, FRAP, ORAC and TRAP assays, as well as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The HPLC analysis of the cowpea extracts showed the presence of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids. The results indicated that methanolic extract of the cowpea resembled in the aforementioned activities those from other leguminous seeds and pulses. Phenolic constituents contained in cowpea may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  7. Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has been carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from four cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. seeds. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed the antioxidant and antiradical properties when investigated using a linoleic acid peroxidation model, FRAP, ORAC and TRAP assays, as well as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The HPLC analysis of the cowpea extracts showed the presence of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids. The results indicated that methanolic extract of the cowpea resembled in the aforementioned activities those from other leguminous seeds and pulses. Phenolic constituents contained in cowpea may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  8. Antiobesity Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Amaranthus dubius, Cucurbita pepo, and Vigna unguiculata in Progesterone-Induced Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwenda, Njagi Shadrack; Barasa, Stephen Super; Ngugi, Mathew Piero

    2017-01-01

    Amaranthus dubius, Vigna unguiculata, and Cucurbita pepo are traditionally used to manage obesity in Kenya but lack scientific validation to support their use. The aim of this study was to determine the antiobesity activity of methanolic leaf extracts of these plants in progesterone-induced obese mice. The activity of the methanolic leaf extracts was orally bioscreened in progesterone-induced obese mice at 200 mg/kg/bw and 400 mg/kg/bw. Body mass index was calculated once per week for four weeks and blood samples were obtained at the end of the experiment for lipid profile analysis. Antiobesity activities of the extracts were compared with the controls. Leaf extracts of A. dubius, C. pepo, and V. unguiculata, at dose concentrations of 200 mg/kgbw and 400 mg/kgbw, showed significant effects on body mass index (p 0.05). The present study showed high food intake in the negative control group as compared with normal control, positive control, and treatment groups. These extracts contained various phytochemicals such as saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and steroids and therefore validate use of aforementioned plants in the suppression of obesity and their use for management of obesity is recommended. PMID:28947909

  9. Antiobesity Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Amaranthus dubius, Cucurbita pepo, and Vigna unguiculata in Progesterone-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Wanjiku Nderitu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus dubius, Vigna unguiculata, and Cucurbita pepo are traditionally used to manage obesity in Kenya but lack scientific validation to support their use. The aim of this study was to determine the antiobesity activity of methanolic leaf extracts of these plants in progesterone-induced obese mice. The activity of the methanolic leaf extracts was orally bioscreened in progesterone-induced obese mice at 200 mg/kg/bw and 400 mg/kg/bw. Body mass index was calculated once per week for four weeks and blood samples were obtained at the end of the experiment for lipid profile analysis. Antiobesity activities of the extracts were compared with the controls. Leaf extracts of A. dubius, C. pepo, and V. unguiculata, at dose concentrations of 200 mg/kgbw and 400 mg/kgbw, showed significant effects on body mass index (p0.05. The present study showed high food intake in the negative control group as compared with normal control, positive control, and treatment groups. These extracts contained various phytochemicals such as saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and steroids and therefore validate use of aforementioned plants in the suppression of obesity and their use for management of obesity is recommended.

  10. Antiobesity Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Amaranthus dubius, Cucurbita pepo, and Vigna unguiculata in Progesterone-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nderitu, Kathryn Wanjiku; Mwenda, Njagi Shadrack; Macharia, Ndegwa John; Barasa, Stephen Super; Ngugi, Mathew Piero

    2017-01-01

    Amaranthus dubius , Vigna unguiculata, and Cucurbita pepo are traditionally used to manage obesity in Kenya but lack scientific validation to support their use. The aim of this study was to determine the antiobesity activity of methanolic leaf extracts of these plants in progesterone-induced obese mice. The activity of the methanolic leaf extracts was orally bioscreened in progesterone-induced obese mice at 200 mg/kg/bw and 400 mg/kg/bw. Body mass index was calculated once per week for four weeks and blood samples were obtained at the end of the experiment for lipid profile analysis. Antiobesity activities of the extracts were compared with the controls. Leaf extracts of A. dubius , C. pepo, and V. unguiculata, at dose concentrations of 200 mg/kgbw and 400 mg/kgbw, showed significant effects on body mass index ( p 0.05). The present study showed high food intake in the negative control group as compared with normal control, positive control, and treatment groups. These extracts contained various phytochemicals such as saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and steroids and therefore validate use of aforementioned plants in the suppression of obesity and their use for management of obesity is recommended.

  11. Feeding value of hays of tropical forage legumes in pigs: Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambashi, Bienvenu; Boudry, Christelle; Picron, Pascale; Kiatoko, Honoré; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    The effects of four tropical forage legume hays (Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis) on voluntary feed intake (VFI) and their nutritive value were studied in growing pigs using a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing varying proportions of forage legume hays (0, 10, 20 and 40 % or 0, 12.5 and 25 % for VFI and nutritive value determination, respectively). There was no difference in VFI between species (P > 0.20), but a linear response to forage inclusion level (P unguiculata, where the response was quadratic (P = 0.01). All four forage species linearly decreased the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) from 0.76 to 0.61, 0.80 to 0.68, 0.54 to 0.40 and 0.58 to 0.31 except for S. guianensis (0.44) for DM, N, NDF and N retention, respectively. Differences in digestibility (P < 0.05) between species were also observed. Due to their negative influence on the overall digestibility, the contribution of hays should not exceed 12.5 %, except for S. guianensis, in which N retention remained quite high (0.44) at the highest inclusion level (25 %). P. phaseoloides hay should be avoided in pigs as it combines the lowest VFI with the lowest nutrient digestibility.

  12. Effect of lead on physiological and antioxidant responses in two Vigna unguiculata cultivars differing in Pb-accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerril Fontenele, Nila Maria; Otoch, Maria de Lourdes Oliveira; Gomes-Rochette, Neuza Félix; Sobreira, Alana Cecília de Menezes; Barreto, Adolph Annderson Gonçalves Costa; de Oliveira, Francisco Dalton Barreto; Costa, José Hélio; Borges, Simone da Silveira Sá; do Nascimento, Ronaldo Ferreira; Fernandes de Melo, Dirce

    2017-06-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most toxic anthropogenic pollutants, occurring widely in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, where it impairs plant growth and development. In this work, the effect of 0.5 mM EDTA-Pb was evaluated in two Vigna unguiculata cultivars (SV and SET), with the aim of detecting genotype/cultivar dependent changes in the physiological and anti-oxidant responses (CAT and APX) of a leguminous plant. The data showed that SV accumulated more Pb in roots while SET accumulated more in leaves, indicating differential regulation in Pb-translocation/accumulation. Lead affected the growth of SV less severely than SET, mainly associated with reduced inhibition in photosynthetic parameters. Furthermore, CAT and APX activities increased or were sustained at elevated levels in both cultivars in response to lead. However, gene expression analyses revealed that CAT1 was the main lead responsive gene in SET while CAT2 was more responsive in SV. APX1 was higher expressed in tissues with higher Pb-accumulation while APX2 was ubiquitously responsive to lead in both cultivars. Taken together, these results reveal differential ability of V. unguiculata cultivars in Pb-accumulation in different tissues affecting distinctly physiological and anti-oxidant responses. In addition, the existence of cultivars with predominant Pb-accumulation in aerial tissues invokes a need for studies to identify pollution-safe cultivars of leguminous plants to ensure food safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In vivo studies on the occurrence of stored mRNA in embryonic axes of Vigna unguiculata seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Minamikawa, Takao

    1983-01-01

    α-Amanitin and cordycepin at various concentrations were tested for their inhibitory effect on the fresh weight increase of Vigna unguiculata embryonic axes after the onset of imbibition and on the incorporation rate of 3 H-labeled leucine into protein in axes of the 36 - 38 h stage. α-Amanitin at 0.5 - 5 μg/ml clearly exerted an inhibitory effect on both the fresh weight increase and the protein synthesis. This drug at 1 μg/ml, however, showed no significant effect on the protein synthesis at an early stage of imbibition (4 h), whereas cycloheximide was a very potent inhibitor. By experiments in which 'dry' axes were allowed to imbibe 3 H-lebeled adenosine solution for 4 and 12 h in the presence of α-amanitin, it was found that poly A+RNA was newly synthesized to some extent in axes as early as 4 h after the onset of imbibition and that the drug effectively inhibited the poly A+RNA synthesis. The results may indicate the occurrence of stored mRNA in embryonic axes of V. unguiculata seeds. (author)

  14. In vivo studies on the occurrence of stored mRNA in embryonic axes of Vigna unguiculata seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Minamikawa, Takao (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1983-12-01

    ..cap alpha..-Amanitin and cordycepin at various concentrations were tested for their inhibitory effect on the fresh weight increase of Vigna unguiculata embryonic axes after the onset of imbibition and on the incorporation rate of /sup 3/H-labeled leucine into protein in axes of the 36 - 38 h stage. ..cap alpha..-Amanitin at 0.5 - 5 ..mu..g/ml clearly exerted an inhibitory effect on both the fresh weight increase and the protein synthesis. This drug at 1 ..mu..g/ml, however, showed no significant effect on the protein synthesis at an early stage of imbibition (4 h), whereas cycloheximide was a very potent inhibitor. By experiments in which 'dry' axes were allowed to imbibe /sup 3/H-labeled adenosine solution for 4 and 12 h in the presence of ..cap alpha..-amanitin, it was found that poly A+RNA was newly synthesized to some extent in axes as early as 4 h after the onset of imbibition and that the drug effectively inhibited the poly A+RNA synthesis. The results may indicate the occurrence of stored mRNA in embryonic axes of V. unguiculata seeds.

  15. Effect of biologically treated petroleum sludge on seed germination and seedling growth of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyabalan Sangeetha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to study the response of different concentrations of treated petroleum sludge on seed germination, root and shoot length and tolerance of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. The biologically treated petroleum sludge with bacterial consortium showed 54.8% reduction in total petroleum hydrocarbons. Treated sludge was utilized with agricultural soil in known concentration for the assessment of growth of V. unguiculata. A remarkable absence of seed germination was observed at higher sludge concentration. The different concentrations of treated petroleum sludge showed severe decline on the length, weight and vigour index of the tested seedlings with increasing sludge concentrations. The results showed that the difference in rate of seed germination was significant among various concentrations. Under environmental stress condition, germination is the most critical phase of life cycle in crop plants. In this present study, the high oil content found to alter the osmotic relation between seed and water and thus reduce the amount of water absorbed. It was concluded that the concentration of nutrients and oil present in the treated sludge were toxic to the plant.

  16. Comportamento agronômico e qualidade culinária de feijão-caupi no Vale do São Francisco

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Carlos Antonio F; Barros,Gustavo Adolfo de A; Santos,Ierla Carla CN dos; Ferraz,Michel G de S

    2008-01-01

    Foi avaliado o comportamento de 64 linhagens e quatro cultivares de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), em dois experimentos de diferentes densidades populacionais, em diversos ambientes do Vale do São Francisco em 2004 e 2005, em regime irrigado ou de sequeiro, visando à recomendação de cultivares para a região. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em blocos ao caso, com três repetições, nas densidades de 100.000 e 200.000 plantas/ha, tendo sido analisados a produtividade, parâmetros ge...

  17. CGKB: an annotation knowledge base for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. methylation filtered genomic genespace sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spraggins Thomas A

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its ability to tolerate drought and grow on poor soils. It is cultivated mostly by poor farmers in developing countries, with 80% of production taking place in the dry savannah of tropical West and Central Africa. Cowpea is largely an underexploited crop with relatively little genomic information available for use in applied plant breeding. The goal of the Cowpea Genomics Initiative (CGI, funded by the Kirkhouse Trust, a UK-based charitable organization, is to leverage modern molecular genetic tools for gene discovery and cowpea improvement. One aspect of the initiative is the sequencing of the gene-rich region of the cowpea genome (termed the genespace recovered using methylation filtration technology and providing annotation and analysis of the sequence data. Description CGKB, Cowpea Genespace/Genomics Knowledge Base, is an annotation knowledge base developed under the CGI. The database is based on information derived from 298,848 cowpea genespace sequences (GSS isolated by methylation filtering of genomic DNA. The CGKB consists of three knowledge bases: GSS annotation and comparative genomics knowledge base, GSS enzyme and metabolic pathway knowledge base, and GSS simple sequence repeats (SSRs knowledge base for molecular marker discovery. A homology-based approach was applied for annotations of the GSS, mainly using BLASTX against four public FASTA formatted protein databases (NCBI GenBank Proteins, UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot, UniprotKB-PIR (Protein Information Resource, and UniProtKB-TrEMBL. Comparative genome analysis was done by BLASTX searches of the cowpea GSS against four plant proteomes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Medicago truncatula, and Populus trichocarpa. The possible exons and introns on each cowpea GSS were predicted using the HMM-based Genscan gene predication program and the

  18. Intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements between cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) revealed by BAC-FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Emanuelle Varão; de Andrade Fonsêca, Artur Fellipe; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; de Andrade Bortoleti, Kyria Cilene; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; da Costa, Antônio Félix; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana Christina

    2015-06-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual legume grown in tropical and subtropical regions, which is economically relevant due to high protein content in dried beans, green pods, and leaves. In this work, a comparative cytogenetic study between V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) was conducted using BAC-FISH. Sequences previously mapped in P. vulgaris chromosomes (Pv) were used as probes in V. unguiculata chromosomes (Vu), contributing to the analysis of macrosynteny between both legumes. Thirty-seven clones from P. vulgaris 'BAT93' BAC library, corresponding to its 11 linkage groups, were hybridized in situ. Several chromosomal rearrangements were identified, such as translocations (between BACs from Pv1 and Pv8; Pv2 and Pv3; as well as Pv2 and Pv11), duplications (BAC from Pv3), as well as paracentric and pericentric inversions (BACs from Pv3, and Pv4, respectively). Two BACs (from Pv2 and Pv7), which hybridized at terminal regions in almost all P. vulgaris chromosomes, showed single-copy signal in Vu. Additionally, 17 BACs showed no signal in V. unguiculata chromosomes. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of using BAC libraries in comparative chromosomal mapping and karyotype evolution studies between Phaseolus and Vigna species, and revealed several macrosynteny and collinearity breaks among both legumes.

  19. Improvement of the antioxidant and hypolipidaemic effects of cowpea flours (Vigna unguiculata) by fermentation: results of in vitro and in vivo experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Martínez, Rosario; Andrade, Ana M; López Chaves, Carlos; López-Jurado, María; Aranda, Pilar; Arrebola, Francisco; Cañizares, Francisco J; Galisteo, Milagros; Porres, Jesús M

    2015-04-01

    The antioxidant capacity and hypolipidaemic effects of Vigna unguiculata, as well as their potential improvement by different fermentation and thermal processes were studied using in vitro and in vivo methods. Phenolic content and reducing capacity of legume acetone extract were significantly increased by different fermentation processes, and by the thermal treatment of fermented legume flours. TBARS inhibiting capacity was increased by fermentation but not by thermal treatment. A higher ability to decrease Cu(2+)/H2O2-induced electrophoretic mobility of LDL was found in fermented when compared to raw legume extracts, and a higher protective effect on short term metabolic status of HT-29 cells was found for raw and lactobacillus-fermented Vigna followed by naturally fermented Vigna extracts. Significant improvements in plasma antioxidant capacity and hepatic activity of antioxidant enzymes were observed in rats that consumed fermented legume flours when compared to the untreated legume or a casein-methionine control diet. In addition, liver weight and plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were also positively affected by untreated or naturally fermented Vigna. V. unguiculata has demonstrated its potential as a functional food with interesting antioxidant and lipid lowering properties, which can be further augmented by fermentation processes associated or not to thermal processing. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Feijão-caupi autoclavado na nutrição de juvenis de tambaqui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony Koji Dairiki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da inclusão de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata na ração sobre o desempenho de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições de 20 juvenis de tambaqui (10 g, alocados em caixas d'água de 310 L. Os peixes foram alimentados por 60 dias com rações isonitrogenadas e isoenergéticas, com seis níveis de inclusão de feijão-caupi: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25%. Foram determinadas as relações corporais e de desempenho produtivo. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Juvenis de tambaqui podem ser alimentados com inclusão de até 25% de feijão-caupi na ração.

  1. Teste de condutividade elétrica em sementes de feijão miúdo (Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda da Motta Xavier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-miúdo (Vigna unguiculata apresenta multiplicidade de usos, que o torna boa opção para os agricultores, podendo ser utilizado além de recuperador de solos, como forragem verde, na alimentação animal e destaque na consorciação com gramíneas de alto potencial de produção. Objetivou-se adequar o teste de condutividade elétrica para avaliação do vigor de lotes de sementes de feijão miúdo. Foram utilizados três lotes de sementes da variedade Amendoim e da variedade Mosqueado. Para avaliar a qualidade fisiológica foram conduzidos os seguintes testes: germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, massa seca de plântula, área foliar, emergência e índice de velocidade de emergência. O teste de condutividade elétrica foi realizado com 25 e 50 sementes embebidas em 75 mL e 200 mL de água destilada, a 20º C, por 2, 4, 6, 8, e 24 horas e o delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com 4 repetições. As demais variáveis: germinação, índice de velocidade de emergência, envelhecimento acelerado, massa seca de plântulas, área foliar e emergência, não permitiram diferenciar os lotes, sendo que o teste de envelhecimento acelerado e massa seca mostraram-se contraditórios. O teste de condutividade elétrica não foi eficiente na diferenciação dos lotes analisados.Conductivity test power in cowpea bean seeds (Vigna unguiculataAbstract: The cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata shows multiple uses, which makes it good choice for farmers and can be used in addition to soil recovery, as green fodder in animal feed and featured in intercropping with high production potential grasses. The objective of this work was to adjust the electrical conductivity test to evaluate the effect of lots of cowpea bean seeds. Three lots of seeds of two varieties mosqueado and amendoin were used.nTo evaluate the physiological quality, the following tests were conducted: germination accelerated aging, dry weight of seedling, leaf

  2. OUTWARD CURRENT CONDUCTING ION CHANNELS IN TONOPLASTS OF VIGNA-UNGUICULATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MAATHUIS, FJM; PRINS, HBA

    1991-01-01

    Patch clamp studies were done on tonoplasts of V unguiculata. Apart from the usually present inward rectifying K+ conducting channels (IRC), vacuoles showed outward rectifying channels (ORC), although less frequently. The ORC are activated at physiological tonoplast potentials, in contrast to IRC,

  3. Phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis of indigenous slow-growing rhizobia nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Fotiadis, Christos T; Ntatsi, Georgia; Savvas, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a promiscuous grain legume, capable of establishing efficient symbiosis with diverse symbiotic bacteria, mainly slow-growing rhizobial species belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Although much research has been done on cowpea-nodulating bacteria in various countries around the world, little is known about the genetic and symbiotic diversity of indigenous cowpea rhizobia in European soils. In the present study, the genetic and symbiotic diversity of indigenous rhizobia isolated from field-grown cowpea nodules in three geographically different Greek regions were studied. Forty-five authenticated strains were subjected to a polyphasic approach. ERIC-PCR based fingerprinting analysis grouped the isolates into seven groups and representative strains of each group were further analyzed. The analysis of the rrs gene showed that the strains belong to different species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. The analysis of the 16S-23S IGS region showed that the strains from each geographic region were characterized by distinct IGS types which may represent novel phylogenetic lineages, closely related to the type species of Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi, Bradyrhizobium ferriligni and Bradyrhizobium liaoningense. MLSA analysis of three housekeeping genes (recA, glnII, and gyrB) showed the close relatedness of our strains with B. pachyrhizi PAC48 T and B. liaoningense USDA 3622 T and confirmed that the B. liaoningense-related isolate VUEP21 may constitute a novel species within Bradyrhizobium. Moreover, symbiotic gene phylogenies, based on nodC and nifH genes, showed that the B. pachyrhizi-related isolates belonged to symbiovar vignae, whereas the B. liaoningense-related isolates may represent a novel symbiovar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Organisation du pool génique de Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. : croisements entre les formes sauvages et cultivées du niébé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Baudoin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Organization of the genic pool of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. : crosses between the wild and cultivated forms of cowpea. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. gene pool organization is studied on the basis of intra-specific crossing between cultivated (cv-gr. Unguiculata, cv-gr. Biflora and wild forms of the species (var. spontanea, subsp. alba, subsp. stenophylla, subsp. pawekiae, subsp. baoulensis. The rate of crosses success, the rate of the obtained pods fruitfulness and the pollinic fertility of the hybrids F1 varied according to the wild taxa used. The highest rate of success was obtained for the crossings between cultivated and annual inbred form (40-79,3%. This result confirms that var. spontanea is genetically closer to the cultivated forms than the other wild forms. Crosses between cultivated and wild allo-autogamous forms gave intermediate rates of success (17,8-57,9% and a significant reduction of the pollinic fertility of some hybrids F1. These observations suggest the existence of a genetic divergence between these two groups, however they share the same gene pool. The wild allogamous forms gave the weakest rates of success with the cultivated forms (3,1-40% showing that they are genetically more distant of these last, compared to the other wild groups. The rates of crosses success are particularly weaker when the wild form subsp. baoulensis is crossed with the cultivated forms.

  5. Efeitos de genótipos de feijão caupi e de espécies botânicas em diferentes formulações sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR.)

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Maria de Jesus Passos de [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    O caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) é considerado a principal praga durante o armazenamento de grãos de feijão-caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Devido à necessidade de desenvolvimento de estratégias de controle mais eficientes e menos agressivas ao meio ambiente, o uso de genótipos resistentes e/ou produtos provenientes de plantas surgem como alternativas bastante promissoras. Neste trabalho avaliou-se o efeito isolado e associado de genótipos...

  6. A protein with amino acid sequence homology to bovine insulin is present in the legume Vigna unguiculata (cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venâncio T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of bovine insulin in plants, much effort has been devoted to the characterization of these proteins and elucidation of their functions. We report here the isolation of a protein with similar molecular mass and same amino acid sequence to bovine insulin from developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotype Epace 10. Insulin was measured by ELISA using an anti-human insulin antibody and was detected both in empty pods and seed coats but not in the embryo. The highest concentrations (about 0.5 ng/µg of protein of the protein were detected in seed coats at 16 and 18 days after pollination, and the values were 1.6 to 4.0 times higher than those found for isolated pods tested on any day. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of insulin was performed on the protein purified by C4-HPLC. The significance of the presence of insulin in these plant tissues is not fully understood but we speculate that it may be involved in the transport of carbohydrate to the fruit.

  7. Combined Effects of Ozone and Drought on the Physiology and Membrane Lipids of Two Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Moura Rebouças

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The interactive effects of drought and ozone on the physiology and leaf membrane lipid content, composition and metabolism of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. were investigated in two cultivars (EPACE-1 and IT83-D grown under controlled conditions. The drought treatment (three-week water deprivation did not cause leaf injury but restricted growth through stomatal closure. In contrast, the short-term ozone treatment (130 ppb 12 h daily during 14 day had a limited impact at the whole-plant level but caused leaf injury, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and galactolipid degradation. These effects were stronger in the IT83-D cultivar, which also showed specific ozone responses such as a higher digalactosyl-diacylglycerol (DGDG:monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG ratio and the coordinated up-regulation of DGDG synthase (VuDGD2 and ω-3 fatty acid desaturase 8 (VuFAD8 genes, suggesting that membrane remodeling occurred under ozone stress in the sensitive cultivar. When stresses were combined, ozone did not modify the stomatal response to drought and the observed effects on whole-plant physiology were essentially the same as when drought was applied alone. Conversely, the drought-induced stomatal closure appeared to alleviate ozone effects through the reduction of ozone uptake.

  8. Using artificial neural networks to select upright cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes with high productivity and phenotypic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, L M A; Teodoro, P E; Nascimento, M; Torres, F E; Nascimento, A C C; Azevedo, C F; Teixeira, F R F

    2016-11-03

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is grown in three Brazilian regions: the Midwest, North, and Northeast, and is consumed by people on low incomes. It is important to investigate the genotype x environment (GE) interaction to provide accurate recommendations for farmers. The aim of this study was to identify cowpea genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability for growing in the Brazilian Cerrado, and to compare the use of artificial neural networks with the Eberhart and Russell (1966) method. Six trials with upright cowpea genotypes were conducted in 2005 and 2006 in the States of Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso. The data were subjected to adaptability and stability analysis by the Eberhart and Russell (1966) method and artificial neural networks. The genotypes MNC99-537F-4 and EVX91-2E-2 provided grain yields above the overall environment means, and exhibited high stability according to both methods. Genotype IT93K-93-10 was the most suitable for unfavorable environments. There was a high correlation between the results of both methods in terms of classifying the genotypes by their adaptability and stability. Therefore, this new approach would be effective in quantifying the GE interaction in upright cowpea breeding programs.

  9. Quantitative trait loci analysis of flowering time related traits identified in recombinant inbred lines of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andargie, Mebeasealassie; Pasquet, Remy S; Muluvi, Geoffrey M; Timko, Michael P

    2013-05-01

    Flowering time is a major adaptive trait in plants and an important selection criterion in the breeding for genetic improvement of crop species. QTLs for the time of flower opening and days to flower were identified in a cross between a short duration domesticated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) variety, 524B, and a relatively long duration wild accession, 219-01. A set of 159 F7 lines was grown under greenhouse conditions and scored for the flowering time associated phenotypes of time of flower opening and days to flower. Using a LOD threshold of 2.0, putative QTLs were identified and placed on a linkage map consisting of 202 SSR markers and four morphological loci. A total of five QTLs related to the time of flower opening were identified, accounting for 8.8%-29.8% of the phenotypic variation. Three QTLs for days to flower were detected, accounting for 5.7%-18.5% of the phenotypic variation. The major QTL of days to flower and time of flower opening were both mapped on linkage group 1. The QTLs identified in this study provide a strong foundation for further validation and fine mapping for developing an efficient way to restrain the gene flow between the cultivated and wild plants.

  10. Evaluating the freezing impact on the proximate composition of immature cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) pods: classical versus spectroscopic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Nelson; Oppolzer, David; Ramos, Ana; Ferreira, Luis; Rosa, Eduardo As; Rodrigues, Miguel; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl; Barros, Ana Irna

    2017-10-01

    Freezing represents a common conservation practice regarding vegetal foodstuffs. Since compositional features need to be monitored during storage, the development of rapid monitoring tools suitable for assessing nutritional characteristics arises as a pertinent issue. In this study, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) pods, both fresh and after 6 and 9 months of freezing at -18 °C, were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography for their content of protein as well as of essential and nonessential amino acids, while their Fourier transform infrared spectra in the mid infrared (MIR) and near infrared (NIR) ranges were concomitantly registered to assess the feasibility of this approach for the traceability of these frozen matrices. For the NIR interval, the application of the 1st derivative to the spectral data retrieved the best results, while for lower concentrations the application of the Savitzky-Golay algorithm was indispensable to achieve quantification models for the amino acids. MIR is also suitable for this purpose, though being unable to quantify amino acids with concentrations below 0.07 mmol g -1 dry weight, irrespective of the data treatment used. The spectroscopic approach constitutes a methodology suitable for monitoring the impact of freezing on the nutritional properties of cowpea pods, allowing accurate quantification of the protein and amino acid contents, while NIR displayed better performance. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. New observations on gametogenic development and reproductive experimental tools to support seed yield improvement in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Gamboa, Rigel; Johnson, Susan D; Sánchez-León, Nidia; Koltunow, Anna M G; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Cowpea reproductive tools. Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. (cowpea) is recognized as a major legume food crop in Africa, but seed yields remain low in most varieties adapted to local conditions. The development of hybrid cowpea seed that could be saved after each generation, enabling significant yield increases, will require manipulation of reproductive development from a sexual to an asexual mode. To develop new technologies that could support the biotechnological manipulation of reproductive development in cowpea, we examined gametogenesis and seed formation in two transformable, African-adapted, day-length-insensitive varieties. Here, we show that these two varieties exhibit distinct morphological and phenological traits but share a common developmental sequence in terms of ovule formation and gametogenesis. We present a reproductive calendar that allows prediction of male and female gametogenesis on the basis of sporophytic parameters related to floral bud size and reproductive organ development, determining that gametogenesis occurs more rapidly in the anther than in the ovule. We also show that the mode of megagametogenesis is of the Polygonum-type and not Oenothera-type, as previously reported. Finally, we developed a whole-mount immunolocalization protocol and applied it to detect meiotic proteins in the cowpea megaspore mother cell, opening opportunities for comparing the dynamics of protein localization during male and female meiosis, as well as other reproductive events in this emerging legume model system.

  12. Nitric oxide increases tolerance responses to moderate water deficit in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata bean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Prados, Lucas Martins; Moreira, Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro; Magalhaes, Jose Ronaldo; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-07-01

    Drought stress is one of the most intensively studied and widespread constraints, and nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule involved in the mediation of abiotic stresses in plants. We demonstrated that a sprayed solution of NO from donor sodium nitroprusside increased drought stress tolerance responses in both sensitive (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tolerant (Vigna unguiculata) beans. In intact plants subjected to halting irrigation, NO increased the leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance in both species. After cutting leaf discs and washing them, NO induced increased electrolyte leakage, which was more evident in the tolerant species. These leaf discs were then subjected to different water deficits, simulating moderate and severe drought stress conditions through polyethylene glycol solutions. NO supplied at moderate drought stress revealed a reduced membrane injury index in sensitive species. In hydrated discs and at this level of water deficit, NO increased the electron transport rate in both species, and a reduction of these rates was observed at severe stress levels. Taken together, it can be shown that NO has an effective role in ameliorating drought stress effects, activating tolerance responses at moderate water deficit levels and in both bean species which present differential drought tolerance.

  13. Combined Effects of Ozone and Drought on the Physiology and Membrane Lipids of Two Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Deborah Moura; De Sousa, Yuri Maia; Bagard, Matthieu; Costa, Jose Helio; Jolivet, Yves; De Melo, Dirce Fernandes; Repellin, Anne

    2017-03-03

    The interactive effects of drought and ozone on the physiology and leaf membrane lipid content, composition and metabolism of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) were investigated in two cultivars (EPACE-1 and IT83-D) grown under controlled conditions. The drought treatment (three-week water deprivation) did not cause leaf injury but restricted growth through stomatal closure. In contrast, the short-term ozone treatment (130 ppb 12 h daily during 14 day) had a limited impact at the whole-plant level but caused leaf injury, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and galactolipid degradation. These effects were stronger in the IT83-D cultivar, which also showed specific ozone responses such as a higher digalactosyl-diacylglycerol (DGDG):monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) ratio and the coordinated up-regulation of DGDG synthase (VuDGD2) and ω-3 fatty acid desaturase 8 (VuFAD8) genes, suggesting that membrane remodeling occurred under ozone stress in the sensitive cultivar. When stresses were combined, ozone did not modify the stomatal response to drought and the observed effects on whole-plant physiology were essentially the same as when drought was applied alone. Conversely, the drought-induced stomatal closure appeared to alleviate ozone effects through the reduction of ozone uptake.

  14. NaCl Effects on In Vitro Germination and Growth of Some Senegalese Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Mahamadou; Champion, Antony; Diouf, Diaga; Ourèye Sy, Mame

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharian regions. It contributes to man food security by providing a protein-rich diet. However, its production is limited by abiotic stresses such as salinity. This study aims to evaluate the salt tolerance of 15 cowpea cultivars, at germination stage. The seed germination process consisted of sowing them in agarified water (8 g·L(-1)) supplemented with 6 different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mM). Results highlighted that high salt concentrations drastically reduced germination and significantly delayed the process for all varieties. A cowpea varietal effect towards the salt tolerance was noticed. Genotypes Diongoma, 58-78, and 58-191 were more salt-tolerant cultivars while Mougne and Yacine were more salt-sensitive ones as confirmed in the three groups of the dendrogram. NaCl effects on the early vegetative growth of seedlings were assessed with a tolerant (58-191) and a susceptible (Yacine) cultivar. Morphological (length and dry biomass) and physiological (chlorophyll and proline contents) parameter measurements revealed a negative effect of high (NaCl). However, 58-191 was much more salt tolerant, and the chlorophyll and proline contents were higher than those of Yacine genotype at increasing salt concentrations.

  15. Bradyrhizobium manausense sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Vigna unguiculata grown in Brazilian Amazonian rainforest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Flavia V; De Meyer, Sofie E; Simões-Araújo, Jean L; Barbé, Tatiane da Costa; Xavier, Gustavo R; O'Hara, Graham; Ardley, Julie K; Rumjanek, Norma G; Willems, Anne; Zilli, Jerri E

    2014-07-01

    Root nodule bacteria were trapped within cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in soils with different cultivation histories collected from the Amazonian rainforest in northern Brazil. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of six strains (BR 3351(T), BR 3307, BR 3310, BR 3315, BR 3323 BR and BR 3361) isolated from cowpea nodules showed that they formed a distinct group within the genus Bradyrhizobium, which was separate from previously identified type strains. Phylogenetic analyses of three housekeeping genes (glnII, recA and rpoB) revealed that Bradyrhizobium huanghuaihaiense CCBAU 23303(T) was the most closely related type strain (96% sequence similarity or lower). Chemotaxonomic data, including fatty acid profiles (predominant fatty acids being C16 : 0 and summed feature 8), the slow growth rate and carbon compound utilization patterns supported the assignment of the strains to the genus Bradyrhizobium. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations, antibiotic resistance and physiological tests differentiated these novel strains from the most closely related species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names. Symbiosis-related genes for nodulation (nodC) and nitrogen fixation (nifH) grouped the novel strains of the genus Bradyrhizobium together with Bradyrhizobium iriomotense strain EK05(T), with 94% and 96% sequence similarity, respectively. Based on these data, these six strains represent a novel species for which the name Brabyrhizobium manausense sp. nov. (BR 3351(T) = HAMBI 3596(T)), is proposed. © 2014 IUMS.

  16. Detection and validation of single feature polymorphisms in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp using a soybean genome array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanamaker Steve

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an important food and fodder legume of the semiarid tropics and subtropics worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. High density genetic linkage maps are needed for marker assisted breeding but are not available for cowpea. A single feature polymorphism (SFP is a microarray-based marker which can be used for high throughput genotyping and high density mapping. Results Here we report detection and validation of SFPs in cowpea using a readily available soybean (Glycine max genome array. Robustified projection pursuit (RPP was used for statistical analysis using RNA as a surrogate for DNA. Using a 15% outlying score cut-off, 1058 potential SFPs were enumerated between two parents of a recombinant inbred line (RIL population segregating for several important traits including drought tolerance, Fusarium and brown blotch resistance, grain size and photoperiod sensitivity. Sequencing of 25 putative polymorphism-containing amplicons yielded a SFP probe set validation rate of 68%. Conclusion We conclude that the Affymetrix soybean genome array is a satisfactory platform for identification of some 1000's of SFPs for cowpea. This study provides an example of extension of genomic resources from a well supported species to an orphan crop. Presumably, other legume systems are similarly tractable to SFP marker development using existing legume array resources.

  17. Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer and Spacing on Growth, Nodulation Count and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) in Southern Guinea Savanna Agroecological Zone, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    E. Ndor; N.S. Dauda; E.O. Abimuku; D.E. Azagaku; H. Anzaku

    2012-01-01

    The experiments were conducted during 2009 and 2010 rainy season at the research and teaching farm of the college of agriculture, Lafia, Nasarawa state, Nigeria. To determine the effect of phosphorus fertilizer and spacing on growth, nodulation count and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in southern guinea savanna agroecological zone, Nigeria. The treatments consisted of three levels of phosphorus 0, 20 and 40 kg/ha and three levels of spacing: 15x40, 30x60 and 45x80 cm factorially combined...

  18. Vigna mungo, V. radiata and V. unguiculata plants sampled in different agronomical-ecological-climatic regions of India are nodulated by Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appunu, Chinnaswamy; N'Zoue, Angèle; Moulin, Lionel; Depret, Géraldine; Laguerre, Gisèle

    2009-10-01

    Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata and Vigna unguiculata are important legume crops cultivated in India, but little is known about the genetic resources in native rhizobia that nodulate these species. To identify these bacteria, a core collection of 76 slow-growing isolates was built from root nodules of V. mungo, V. radiata and V. unguiculata plants grown at different sites within three agro-ecological-climatic regions of India. The genetic diversity of the bacterial collection was assessed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragments of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) region, and the symbiotic genes nifH and nodC. One rDNA IGS type grouped 91% of isolates, but more diversity was found at the symbiotic loci (17 symbiotic genotypes). Overall, no host plant specificity was shown, the three host plant species sharing common bradyrhizobial genotypes that represented 62% of the collection. Similarly, the predominant genotypes were found at most sampling sites and in all agro-ecological-climatic regions. Phylogenies inferred from IGS sequencing and multi-locus sequence analysis of the dnaK, glnII and recA genes indicated that all isolates but one were clustered with the Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense species. The nifH phylogeny also grouped the different nif haplotypes within a cluster including B. yuanmingense, except for one infrequent nif haplotype which formed a new lineage within the Bradyrhizobium genus. These results may reflect a long history of co-evolution between B. yuanmingense and Vigna spp. in India, while intra-species polymorphism detected in the symbiotic loci may be linked with the long history of diversification of B. yuanmingense coinciding with that of its host legumes.

  19. Soil Management and Efficiency of Rhizobia Strains of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. in the Tropics Manejo de Suelo y Eficiencia de Cepas de Rizobio de Frijol Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. en los Trópicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Donizetti dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the humid tropics, the largest obstacle to the implementation of sustainable farming systems is the reduced efficiency of nutrient use by crops. This study assesses the effectiveness of five selected rhizobia strains in symbiosis with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., with the objective of replacing N fertilization in the predominant agricultural system used by smallholder farmers. The study was carried out in three adjacent areas with distinct agricultural uses: conventional tillage, itinerant agriculture, and a no-till system. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks with four replicates and seven treatments: five rhizobia strains (BR3262, BR3267, BR3299, INPA3-11B, and UFLA 3-84 and two controls without inoculation (one without mineral N and another fertilized with 74 kg N ha-1. We measured the dry mass of 100 grains, nodules and shoots, as well as cowpea yields and calculated relative and absolute efficiency indices for dry biomass production of cowpea shoots. Agricultural uses affected the number and dry mass of the nodules and, consequently, the mass of the dry plant matter and bean yield. In terms of yield, there was a major difference between the conventional and the itinerant systems. Yield was around four times as high in the itinerant system (1009.9 kg ha-1 compared to 243.7 kg ha-1. Under conditions of cohesion-prone soils, the system of conventional tillage reduces the possibility of cultivation of a second harvest in the year even with inoculation or N fertilization.En los trópicos húmedos, el mayor obstáculo para la aplicación de sistemas de agricultura sostenible es la reducción de la eficiencia del uso de nutrientes por los cultivos. Este estudio evalúa la eficacia de cinco cepas de rizobios seleccionados en simbiosis con frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., con el objetivo de sustituir la fertilización nitrogenada en el sistema de uso de suelo predominante utilizado por los pequeños agricultores

  20. Variant vicilins from a resistant Vigna unguiculata lineage (IT81D-1053) accumulate inside Callosobruchus maculatus larval midgut epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gabriel B; Kunz, Daniele; Peres, Tanara V; Leal, Rodrigo B; Uchôa, Adriana F; Samuels, Richard I; Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Carlini, Célia R; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Terra, Walter R; Xavier-Filho, José; Silva, Carlos P

    2014-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that variant vicilins are the main resistance factor of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) against attack by the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. There is evidence that the toxic properties of these storage proteins may be related to their interaction with glycoproteins and other microvillar membrane constituents along the digestive tract of the larvae. New findings have shown that following interaction with the microvilli, the vicilins are absorbed across the intestinal epithelium and thus reach the internal environment of the larvae. In the present paper we studied the insecticidal activity of the variant vicilins purified from a resistant cowpea variety (IT81D-1053). Bioassays showed that the seeds of this genotype affected larval growth, causing developmental retardation and 100% mortality. By feeding C. maculatus larvae on susceptible and IT81D-1053 derived vicilins (FITC labelled or unlabelled), followed by fluorescence and immunogold cytolocalization, we were able to demonstrate that both susceptible and variant forms are internalized in the midgut cells and migrate inside vesicular structures from the apex to the basal portion of the enterocytes. However, when larvae were fed with the labelled vicilins for 24h and then returned to a control diet, the concentration of the variant form remained relatively high, suggesting that variant vicilins are not removed from the cells at the same rate as the non-variant vicilins. We suggest that the toxic effects of variant vicilins on midgut cells involve the binding of these proteins to the cell surface followed by internalization and interference with the normal physiology of the enterocytes, thereby affecting larval development in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of leaf apoplastic peroxidases and metabolites in Vigna unguiculata in response to toxic manganese supply and silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Führs, Hendrik; Götze, Stefanie; Specht, André; Erban, Alexander; Gallien, Sébastien; Heintz, Dimitri; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Kopka, Joachim; Braun, Hans-Peter; Horst, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous work suggested that the apoplastic phenol composition and its interaction with apoplastic class III peroxidases (PODs) are decisive in the development or avoidance of manganese (Mn) toxicity in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). This study characterizes apoplastic PODs with particular emphasis on the activities of specific isoenzymes and their modulation by phenols in the Mn-sensitive cowpea cultivar TVu 91 as affected by Mn and silicon (Si) supply. Si reduced Mn-induced toxicity symptoms without affecting the Mn uptake. Blue Native-PAGE combined with Nano-LC-MS/MS allowed identification of a range of POD isoenzymes in the apoplastic washing fluid (AWF). In Si-treated plants Mn-mediated induction of POD activity was delayed. Four POD isoenzymes eluted from the BN gels catalysed both H2O2-consuming and H2O2-producing activity with pH optima at 6.5 and 5.5, respectively. Four phenols enhanced NADH-peroxidase activity of these isoenzymes in the presence of Mn2+ (p-coumaric=vanillic>>benzoic>ferulic acid). p-Coumaric acid-enhanced NADH-peroxidase activity was inhibited by ferulic acid (50%) and five other phenols (50–90%). An independent component analysis (ICA) of the total and apoplastic GC-MS-based metabolome profile showed that Mn, Si supply, and the AWF fraction (AWFH2O, AWFNaCl) significantly changed the metabolite composition. Extracting non-polar metabolites from the AWF allowed the identification of phenols. Predominantly NADH-peroxidase activity-inhibiting ferulic acid appeared to be down-regulated in Mn-sensitive (+Mn, –Si) and up-regulated in Mn-tolerant (+Si) leaf tissue. The results presented here support the previously hypothesized role of apoplastic NADH-peroxidase and its activity-modulating phenols in Mn toxicity and Si-enhanced Mn tolerance. PMID:19286915

  2. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) applied to determination of oligosaccharides in irradiated beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Keila S. Cople; Souza, Luciana B.; Coelho, Maysa J.; Lima, Antonio L. Santos; Vital, Helio C. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia IME, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br; maysa@ime.eb.br; santoslima@ime.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel L.O. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2007-07-01

    Beans are important components of Brazilian diet, especially for less affordable people. They have in their composition proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, minerals and fibers. Despite of their high nutritional value, nonnutritive elements from natural origin are present in leguminous plants, such as raffinose and stachyose. The oligosaccharides are flatulence agents due to bacterial anaerobic fermentation at the intestines. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of combined boiling and gamma irradiation treatments on fradinho-beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) with respect to oligosaccharide contents. The irradiation process was performed at the Nuclear Defense Section of Brazilian Army, using a cavity type research irradiator, which has a Cs-137 radiation source and maximum dose rate of 1.8 kGy/h. The oligosaccharides were evaluated by HPLC technique, at 'EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos', using a SHIMADZU liquid chromatography system, with a refraction index detector Waters 2421. The mobile phase was acetonitrile 70% in water for raffinose and stachyose and 80% for saccharose. The flux and the running time were 1 mL/min and 18 minutes for raffinose and stachyose, and 1.3 mL/min and 20 minutes for saccharose. The injection volume was 20 {mu}L and the column used (Waters 250 x 4,6 mm; 4 mm) was kept at room temperature. The evaluation of unboiled irradiated beans showed that there was no significant difference between the different irradiation doses and control sample, keeping the oligosaccharide contents. However, the combination of the boiling and the irradiation processes turned out to reduce of non-nutritive factors that may cause flatulence, meaning a real benefit to the consumers. (author)

  3. Nodulation of cowpeas and survival of cowpeas Rhizobia in acid, aluminum-rich soils. [Vigna unguiculata; Rhizobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartel, P.G.; Whelan, A.M.; Alexander, M.

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether the reduced nodulation of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) grown in certain acid, Alrich soils resulted from the poor survival of the potentially infective rhizobia. Two strains of Rhizobium capable of nodulating cowpeas were used. The lowest pH for growth in defined liquid medium was 4.2 for one strain and 3.9 for the other. Only the latter was Al tolerant and could grow in a defined liquid medium containing 50 ..mu..M KAl(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/. The survival of the bacteria and their ability to nodulate cowpeas in three soils were measured after the soils were amended with Ca or Al salts to give pH values ranging from 5.7 to 4.1 and extractable-Al concentrations from < 0.1 to 3.7 cmol(p/sup +/)/kg of soil. Only small differences in survival in 7 or 8 weeks were noted between the two strains. Plants inoculated with the Al-sensitive strain bore significantly fewer nodules in the more acid, Al-rich soils than in the same soils with higher pH values and less extractable Al. No significant reduction in nodule number was evident for plants inoculated with the Al-tolerant strain and grown in the more acid, Al-rich soils compared to cowpeas grown in the same soils with higher pH values and less extractable Al. It is suggested that the Al content of soil is not a major factor in the survival of cowpea rhizobia but that it does have a significant effect on nodulation. 24 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Evaluation of Different Tillage Practices for Monocultural Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Production in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndaeyo, NU.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-season (rainy and dry study was conducted in 1993 at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to assess the most productive tillage practice for monocultural cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp production. Completely randomised block design with four replications was used and tillage treatments were : No till-Slash and Burn (NSB, No till-Herbicide applied (NH, Conventional-ploughed and harrowed (CT, and Minimum-ploughed only (MT. Results revealed that tillage practices had no significant effect on percentage emergence, leaf and branch number in both seasons. In the first season, plant height was significantly (P <0.05 influenced by tillage treatments at 2 and 4 weeks after sowing (WAS with NH showing superiority over the other treatments. In the second season, plant height was significantly (P <0.05 higher in NSB and MT treatments at 6 and 8 WAS, respectively. Pod and grain yield (t ha-1 were not affected by tillage treatments in the first season but in the second season, NSB (1.84 t ha-1 and MT (1.53 t ha-1 showed significant superiority over other treatments. The highest cost of production was observed under NSB while CT produced the highest economie returns. Some soil properties were also influenced with NSB treatment having a higher soil bulk density at sowing and 6 WAS than the other treatments, while NH recorded a higher soil moisture content at 6 WAS than the other treatments. The study also suggests that with optimum precipitation, CT appears a better land preparation option for cowpea production.

  5. Stress-induced co-expression of two alternative oxidase (VuAox1 and 2b) genes in Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, José Hélio; Mota, Erika Freitas; Cambursano, Mariana Virginia; Lauxmann, Martin Alexander; de Oliveira, Luciana Maia Nogueira; Silva Lima, Maria da Guia; Orellano, Elena Graciela; Fernandes de Melo, Dirce

    2010-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) alternative oxidase is encoded by a small multigene family (Aox1, 2a and 2b) that is orthologous to the soybean Aox family. Like most of the identified Aox genes in plants, VuAox1 and VuAox2 consist of 4 exons interrupted by 3 introns. Alignment of the orthologous Aox genes revealed high identity of exons and intron variability, which is more prevalent in Aox1. In order to determine Aox gene expression in V. unguiculata, a steady-state analysis of transcripts involved in seed development (flowers, pods and dry seeds) and germination (soaked seeds) was performed and systemic co-expression of VuAox1 and VuAox2b was observed during germination. The analysis of Aox transcripts in leaves from seedlings under different stress conditions (cold, PEG, salicylate and H2O2 revealed stress-induced co-expression of both VuAox genes. Transcripts of VuAox2a and 2b were detected in all control seedlings, which was not the case for VuAox1 mRNA. Estimation of the primary transcript lengths of V. unguiculata and soybean Aox genes showed an intron length reduction for VuAox1 and 2b, suggesting that the two genes have converged in transcribed sequence length. Indeed, a bioinformatics analysis of VuAox1 and 2b promoters revealed a conserved region related to a cis-element that is responsive to oxidative stress. Taken together, the data provide evidence for co-expression of Aox1 and Aox2b in response to stress and also during the early phase of seed germination. The dual nature of VuAox2b expression (constitutive and induced) suggests that the constitutive Aox2b gene of V. unguiculata has acquired inducible regulatory elements. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. A compendium of transcription factor and Transcriptionally active protein coding gene families in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vikram A; Wang, Yu; Timko, Michael P

    2017-11-22

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is the most important food and forage legume in the semi-arid tropics of sub-Saharan Africa where approximately 80% of worldwide production takes place primarily on low-input, subsistence farm sites. Among the major goals of cowpea breeding and improvement programs are the rapid manipulation of agronomic traits for seed size and quality and improved resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses to enhance productivity. Knowing the suite of transcription factors (TFs) and transcriptionally active proteins (TAPs) that control various critical plant cellular processes would contribute tremendously to these improvement aims. We used a computational approach that employed three different predictive pipelines to data mine the cowpea genome and identified over 4400 genes representing 136 different TF and TAP families. We compare the information content of cowpea to two evolutionarily close species common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and soybean (Glycine max) to gauge the relative informational content. Our data indicate that correcting for genome size cowpea has fewer TF and TAP genes than common bean (4408 / 5291) and soybean (4408/ 11,065). Members of the GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR (GRF) and Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene families appear to be over-represented in the genome relative to common bean and soybean, whereas members of the MADS (Minichromosome maintenance deficient 1 (MCM1), AGAMOUS, DEFICIENS, and serum response factor (SRF)) and C2C2-YABBY appear to be under-represented. Analysis of the AP2-EREBP APETALA2-Ethylene Responsive Element Binding Protein (AP2-EREBP), NAC (NAM (no apical meristem), ATAF1, 2 (Arabidopsis transcription activation factor), CUC (cup-shaped cotyledon)), and WRKY families, known to be important in defense signaling, revealed changes and phylogenetic rearrangements relative to common bean and soybean that suggest these groups may have evolved different functions. The availability of detailed

  7. Diel pattern of circadian clock and storage protein gene expression in leaves and during seed filling in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Julia; Terry, Marta I; Martos-Fuentes, Marina; Letourneux, Lisa; Ruiz-Hernández, Victoria; Fernández, Juan A; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2018-02-14

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important source of protein supply for animal and human nutrition. The major storage globulins VICILIN and LEGUMIN (LEG) are synthesized from several genes including LEGA, LEGB, LEGJ and CVC (CONVICILIN). The current hypothesis is that the plant circadian core clock genes are conserved in a wide array of species and that primary metabolism is to a large extent controlled by the plant circadian clock. Our aim was to investigate a possible link between gene expression of storage proteins and the circadian clock. We identified cowpea orthologues of the core clock genes VunLHY, VunTOC1, VunGI and VunELF3, the protein storage genes VunLEG, VunLEGJ, and VunCVC as well as nine candidate reference genes used in RT-PCR. ELONGATION FACTOR 1-A (ELF1A) resulted the most suitable reference gene. The clock genes VunELF3, VunGI, VunTOC1 and VunLHY showed a rhythmic expression profile in leaves with a typical evening/night and morning/midday phased expression. The diel patterns were not completely robust and only VungGI and VungELF3 retained a rhythmic pattern under free running conditions of darkness. Under field conditions, rhythmicity and phasing apparently faded during early pod and seed development and was regained in ripening pods for VunTOC1 and VunLHY. Mature seeds showed a rhythmic expression of VunGI resembling leaf tissue under controlled growth chamber conditions. Comparing time windows during developmental stages we found that VunCVC and VunLEG were significantly down regulated during the night in mature pods as compared to intermediate ripe pods, while changes in seeds were non-significant due to high variance. The rhythmic expression under field conditions was lost under growth chamber conditions. The core clock gene network is conserved in cowpea leaves showing a robust diel expression pattern except VunELF3 under growth chamber conditions. There appears to be a clock transcriptional reprogramming in pods and seeds compared to

  8. Crescimento de genótipos de feijão caupi inoculados com rizóbio e irrigado com água salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailma Ribeiro de Andrade

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata conhecido popularmente como feijão-de-corda, feijão fradinho ou feijão-da-colônia é uma leguminosa alimentar muito importante por ser uma rica fonte de proteína. É cultivado predominantemente nas regiões Norte e Nordeste, principalmente por sua adaptação às condições edafoclimáticas, constituindo um importante recurso alimentar para a população. Devido à importância do feijão-caupi para os pequenos agricultores do nordeste objetivou-se neste trabalho analisar cinco cultivares (MNC01-649F-1-3, BRS-JURUÁ, MNC02-675F-4-9, MNC03-736F-7 e MNC02-684F-5-6 inoculadas com o rizóbio Br 3267 irrigadas com quatro níveis de salinidade (1,5; 3,0; 4,5 e 6,0 dS m-1, visando o seu reflexo no desenvolvimento da cultura. Dentre os genótipos estudados, o genótipo 2 BRS-JURUÁ se destacou em  todos os níveis de salinidade. A salinidade afeta a área foliar em feijão caupi.

  9. Vicilins (7S storage globulins of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sales M.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seed vicilins (7S storage proteins bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicilins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

  10. Performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) intercropped under Parkia biglobosa in an agroforestry system in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman, Ahmed Nur; Ræbild, Anders; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2011-01-01

    In agroforestry systems, crop yields under trees are often low compared to outside. This study explored crop management under trees for improved production and income for farmers. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) sole and intercrops were grown under and outside...... canopy. The crops were intercropped in two different proportions using the replacement method and compared to sole crops. Days to flowering were noted and yields were measured, and Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) and Monetary Advantage Index (MAI) calculated. Flowering was earlier outside than under...... the trees and intercrops flowered earlier than sole crops. Cowpea sole crops had significant grain yield losses of up to 21% under trees compared to outside, and pearl millet yield was reduced up to 67% under trees. Intercrop yields were less affected by growth under trees. LER was significantly higher...

  11. High-resolution transcriptomic analyses of Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 bacteroids in determinate nodules of Vigna unguiculata and indeterminate nodules of Leucaena leucocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Feng; Wang, Lei; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Xin

    2013-01-01

    The rhizobium-legume symbiosis is a model system for studying mutualistic interactions between bacteria and eukaryotes. Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 is distinguished by its ability to form either indeterminate nodules or determinate nodules with diverse legumes. Here, we presented a high-resolution RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis of NGR234 bacteroids in indeterminate nodules of Leucaena leucocephala and determinate nodules of Vigna unguiculata. In contrast to exponentially growing free-living bacteria, non-growing bacteroids from both legumes recruited several common cellular functions such as cbb3 oxidase, thiamine biosynthesis, nitrate reduction pathway (NO-producing), succinate metabolism, PHB (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) biosynthesis and phosphate/phosphonate transporters. However, different transcription profiles between bacteroids from two legumes were also uncovered for genes involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, T3SS (type three secretion system) and effector proteins, cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase, PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone), cytochrome c550, pseudoazurin, biotin, phasins and glycolate oxidase, and in the metabolism of glutamate and phenylalanine. Noteworthy were the distinct expression patterns of genes encoding phasins, which are thought to be involved in regulating the surface/volume ratio of PHB granules. These patterns are in good agreement with the observed granule size difference between bacteroids from L. leucocephala and V. unguiculata.

  12. High-resolution transcriptomic analyses of Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 bacteroids in determinate nodules of Vigna unguiculata and indeterminate nodules of Leucaena leucocephala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    Full Text Available The rhizobium-legume symbiosis is a model system for studying mutualistic interactions between bacteria and eukaryotes. Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 is distinguished by its ability to form either indeterminate nodules or determinate nodules with diverse legumes. Here, we presented a high-resolution RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis of NGR234 bacteroids in indeterminate nodules of Leucaena leucocephala and determinate nodules of Vigna unguiculata. In contrast to exponentially growing free-living bacteria, non-growing bacteroids from both legumes recruited several common cellular functions such as cbb3 oxidase, thiamine biosynthesis, nitrate reduction pathway (NO-producing, succinate metabolism, PHB (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis and phosphate/phosphonate transporters. However, different transcription profiles between bacteroids from two legumes were also uncovered for genes involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, T3SS (type three secretion system and effector proteins, cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase, PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone, cytochrome c550, pseudoazurin, biotin, phasins and glycolate oxidase, and in the metabolism of glutamate and phenylalanine. Noteworthy were the distinct expression patterns of genes encoding phasins, which are thought to be involved in regulating the surface/volume ratio of PHB granules. These patterns are in good agreement with the observed granule size difference between bacteroids from L. leucocephala and V. unguiculata.

  13. Effet comparé des poudres de Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf et de l'huile de Ricinus communis L sur la conservation des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakuru, S.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared Effect of Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf Powders and Castor Oil Ricinus communis L. on Conservation of Cowpea Vigna Unguiculata (L. Walp Grains. The effect of powder of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. and citronella grass Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf and castor oil Ricinus communis L. on conservation of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. grains was investigated in Kisangani, Zaire. After 5 months of conservation, infestation rates by bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say were 72.5 %, 74.5 %, 49.5 % and 5 % respectively for the check, the samples treated by 1 % of citronella grass and tobacco powder and 1 % of castor oil. The powder dose of 7.5 % did not give more interesting results.

  14. A High Density Genetic Map Derived from RAD Sequencing and Its Application in QTL Analysis of Yield-Related Traits in Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Wang, Nian; Wu, Zhihua; Guo, Rui; Yu, Xiaolu; Zheng, Yu; Xia, Qiuju; Gui, Songtao; Chen, Chanyou

    2017-01-01

    Cowpea [ Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an annual legume of economic importance and widely grown in the semi-arid tropics. However, high-density genetic maps of cowpea are still lacking. Here, we identified 34,868 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) that were distributed in the cowpea genome based on the RAD sequencing (restriction-site associated DNA sequencing) technique using a population of 170 individuals (two cowpea parents and 168 F 2:3 progenies). Of these, 17,996 reliable SNPs were allotted to 11 consensus linkage groups (LGs). The length of the genetic map was 1,194.25 cM in total with a mean distance of 0.066 cM/SNP marker locus. Using this map and the F 2:3 population, combined with the CIM (composite interval mapping) method, eleven quantitative trait loci (QTL) of yield-related trait were detected on seven LGs (LG4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 11) in cowpea. These QTL explained 0.05-17.32% of the total phenotypic variation. Among these, four QTL were for pod length, four QTL for thousand-grain weight (TGW), two QTL for grain number per pod, and one QTL for carpopodium length. Our results will provide a foundation for understanding genes related to grain yield in the cowpea and genus Vigna .

  15. A High Density Genetic Map Derived from RAD Sequencing and Its Application in QTL Analysis of Yield-Related Traits in Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is an annual legume of economic importance and widely grown in the semi-arid tropics. However, high-density genetic maps of cowpea are still lacking. Here, we identified 34,868 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms that were distributed in the cowpea genome based on the RAD sequencing (restriction-site associated DNA sequencing technique using a population of 170 individuals (two cowpea parents and 168 F2:3 progenies. Of these, 17,996 reliable SNPs were allotted to 11 consensus linkage groups (LGs. The length of the genetic map was 1,194.25 cM in total with a mean distance of 0.066 cM/SNP marker locus. Using this map and the F2:3 population, combined with the CIM (composite interval mapping method, eleven quantitative trait loci (QTL of yield-related trait were detected on seven LGs (LG4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 11 in cowpea. These QTL explained 0.05–17.32% of the total phenotypic variation. Among these, four QTL were for pod length, four QTL for thousand-grain weight (TGW, two QTL for grain number per pod, and one QTL for carpopodium length. Our results will provide a foundation for understanding genes related to grain yield in the cowpea and genus Vigna.

  16. COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    C – 88, an improved variety and a local (unimproved) variety while cowpea used is the Borno red. Standard methods were used for the ... foods, will give rise to a weaning food which is cheaper, easily digestible and acceptable to ... pearl millet and cowpea seed (Borno Red) were purchased from the Maiduguri Monday ...

  17. in cowpea (vigna unguiculata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tangaza

    progenies were obtained for F1 generation from which only five (5) were found to be resistant to ... A considerable progress has been made during the .... Aloka x IT98K-1092-1. IT98K-1263 x Danila. IT98K-1263 x IT98K-131-2. IT98K-1263 x IT98K-1092-1. RESISTANT. RESISTANT. RESISTANT. SUSCEPTIBLE.

  18. (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    dehydrogenase and phosphoglucoisomerase (glucose- 1 -phosphate). A total of 1 1 0 different alleles were observed; .... 40 mg glucose, 30 mg adenosine diphosphate. (ADP), 7.5 mg nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ... 100 mg MgClZ, 15 mg adenosine triphosphate. West African Journal of Applied Ecology, v01. 4, 2003 ...

  19. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi Weed interference in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.L. Freitas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata. A semeadura do feijão-caupi cultivar BR 16 foi realizada em julho de 2007, no sistema de plantio convencional. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos constituídos de períodos de controle ou convivência das plantas daninhas com a cultura. No primeiro grupo, a cultura permaneceu livre da interferência das plantas daninhas, por meio de capinas, nos períodos de: 0-09, 0-18, 0-27, 0-36, 0-45 e 0-60 (colheita. No segundo grupo, a cultura permaneceu sob a interferência desde a emergência até os mesmos períodos descritos anteriormente. O período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI foi de 11 a 35 dias após a emergência da cultura. A interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu o estande final, o número de vagens por planta e o rendimento de grãos do feijão-caupi em até 90%.This work aimed to determine the periods of weed interference in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, sown under the conventional system in July 2007. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks, with the treatments consisting of periods of control or intercropping of the weeds with the crop. In the first group, the bean crop remained free of weed interference in the periods 0-09, 0-18, 0-27, 0-36, 0-45 and 0-60 (harvest. .In the second group, the bean crop remained under interference from the time of emergence up to the same periods previously described. The critical period of weed interference prevention (CPIP was from 11 to 35 days after crop emergence. Weed interference reduced the final stand, number of pods per plant, and grain yield up to 90%.

  20. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), a renewed multipurpose crop for a more sustainable agri-food system: nutritional advantages and constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Alexandre; Goufo, Piebiep; Barros, Ana; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl; Trindade, Henrique; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira, Luis; Rodrigues, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    The growing awareness of the relevance of food composition for human health has increased the interest of the inclusion of high proportions of fruits and vegetables in diets. To reach the objective of more balanced diets, an increased consumption of legumes, which constitutes a sustainable source of essential nutrients, particularly low-cost protein, is of special relevance. However, the consumption of legumes also entails some constraints that need to be addressed to avoid a deleterious impact on consumers' wellbeing and health. The value of legumes as a source of nutrients depends on a plethora of factors, including genetic characteristics, agro-climatic conditions, and postharvest management that modulate the dietary effect of edible seeds and vegetative material. Thus, more comprehensive information regarding composition, especially their nutritional and anti-nutritional compounds, digestibility, and alternative processing procedures is essential. These were the challenges to write this review, which focusses on the nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, an emerging crop all over the world intended to provide a rational support for the development of valuable foods and feeds of increased commercial value. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Biochemical studies of amylase, lipase and protease in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) populations fed with Vigna unguiculata grain cultivated with diazotrophic bacteria strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L B; Torres, É B; Nóbrega, R A S; Lopes, G N; Vogado, R F; Pavan, B E; Fernandes-Junior, P I

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of homogenates of insects fed on grain of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), cultivars grown with different nitrogen sources. For the experiment we used aliquots of the homogenate of 100 unsexed adult insects, emerged from 10 g of grain obtained from four cowpea cultivars: 'BRS Acauã', 'BRS Carijó', 'BRS Pujante', and 'BRS Tapaihum' grown under different regimes of nitrogen sources: mineral fertilizer, inoculation with strains of diazotrophs (BR 3267, BR 3262, BR 3299; INPA 03-11B, 03-84 UFLA, as well as the control (with soil nitrogen). The parameters evaluated were enzymatic activities of insect protease, amylase and lipase and the starch content of the grains. There were differences in the enzymatic activity of amylase, lipase and protease of insect homogenate according to the food source. A lower activity of the enzyme amylase from C. maculatus homogenate was observed when insects were fed grain of the cultivar BRS Carijó. A lower activity of lipase enzyme from C. maculatus homogenate was observed when the insects fed on grain from the interaction of the cultivar Tapaihum inoculated with BR 3262 diazotrophs. The lowest proteolytic activity was observed in homogenate of insects fed on interaction of 'BRS Carijó' inoculated with BR 3262 diazotrophs. Starch content correlated positively with the amylase activity of C. maculatus homogenate. The cultivar BRS Carijó had a different behavior from the other cultivars, according to the cluster analysis.

  2. Use of ex vitro composite plants to study the interaction of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important grain and forage legume grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa primarily by subsistence farmers on poor, drought prone soils. Genetic improvement of the crop is being actively pursued and numerous functional genomics studies are underway aimed at characterizing gene controlling key agronomic characteristics for disease and pest resistances. Unfortunately, similar to other legumes, efficient plant transformation technology is a rate-limiting step in analysis of gene function in cowpea. Results Here we describe an optimized protocol for the rapid generation of transformed hairy roots on ex vitro composite plants of cowpea using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. We further demonstrate the applicability of cowpea composite plants to study gene expression involved in the resistance response of the plant roots to attack by the root parasitic weed, Striga gesnerioides. The utility of the new system and critical parameters of the method are described and discussed herein. Conclusions Cowpea composite plants offer a rapid alternative to methods requiring stable transformation and whole plant regeneration for studying gene expression in resistance or susceptibility responses to parasitic weeds. Their use can likely be readily adapted to look at the effects of both ectopic gene overexpression as well as gene knockdown of root associated defense responses and to the study of a broader range of root associated physiological and aphysiological processes including root growth and differentiation as well as interactions with other root pests, parasites, and symbionts. PMID:22741546

  3. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) consumed in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elenilda J; Carvalho, Lucia M J; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela M; Cardoso, Flávio S N; Carvalho, José L V

    2016-01-01

    The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap.) is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients.

  4. A major QTL corresponding to the Rk locus for resistance to root-knot nematodes in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Bao-Lam; Matthews, William C; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Lucas, Mitchell R; Santos, Jansen R P; Ndeve, Arsenio; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    Genome resolution of a major QTL associated with the Rk locus in cowpea for resistance to root-knot nematodes has significance for plant breeding programs and R gene characterization. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) is a susceptible host of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) (RKN), major plant-parasitic pests in global agriculture. To date, breeding for host resistance in cowpea has relied on phenotypic selection which requires time-consuming and expensive controlled infection assays. To facilitate marker-based selection, we aimed to identify and map quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring the resistance trait. One recombinant inbred line (RIL) and two F2:3 populations, each derived from a cross between a susceptible and a resistant parent, were genotyped with genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The populations were screened in the field for root-galling symptoms and/or under growth-chamber conditions for nematode reproduction levels using M. incognita and M. javanica biotypes. One major QTL was mapped consistently on linkage group VuLG11 of each population. By genotyping additional cowpea lines and near-isogenic lines derived from conventional backcrossing, we confirmed that the detected QTL co-localized with the genome region associated with the Rk locus for RKN resistance that has been used in conventional breeding for many decades. This chromosomal location defined with flanking markers will be a valuable target in marker-assisted breeding and for positional cloning of genes controlling RKN resistance.

  5. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects of the 60Co on the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casanas Haasis

    1998-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 5.0 and 10 kGy on beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., of the carioca variety and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, of the macacar variety stored for 6 months were studied. The cooking time was established, and then the following analyses, and then the following analyses were carried out: Sensory, vitamins B 1 , B 2 and B 6 protein content, biological evaluation in rats [Food intake and Weight gain (in grams), apparent Digestibility (Dapp), apparent Net Protein Utilization (NPUapp) and apparent Biological Value (BVapp), as well as the applicability of detection methods of irradiated foodstuffs through germination tests, the analysis of DNA migration, thermoluminescence and analysis of the carbohydrates formed by radiation. Changes in the cooking time were observed for all doses. In doses up to 1 kGy, the nutritional quality of the irradiated beans were not altered. The application of the proposed detection methods of the irradiated foodstuffs allowed the detection of irradiated beans with doses as low as 0.5 kGy. (author)

  6. Pathways of nitrogen assimilation in cowpea nodules studied using /sup 15/N/sub 2/ and allopurinol. [Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, C.A.; Storer, P.J.; Pate, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    In the presence of 0.5 millimolar allopurinol (4-hydroxypyrazolo (3,4-d)pyrimidine), an inhibitor of NAD:xanthine oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.3.2), intact attached nodules of cowpea (vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita 3) formed (/sup 15/N)xanthine from /sup 15/N/sub 2/ at rates equivalent to those of ureide synthesis, confirming the direct assimilation of fixed nitrogen into purines. Xanthine accumulated in nodules and was exported in increasing amounts in xylem of allopurinol-treated plants. Other intermediates of purine oxidation, de novo purine synthesis, and ammonia assimilation did not increase and, over the time course of experiments (4 hours), allopurinol had no effect on nitrogenase (EC 1.87.99.2) activity. Negligible /sup 15/N -labeling of asparagine from /sup 15/N/sub 2/ was observed, suggesting that the significant pool (up to 14 micromoles per gram of nodule fresh weight) of this amide in cowpea nodules was not formed directly from fixation but may have accumulated as a consequence of phloem delivery.

  7. Polyphenolic extracts from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) protect colonic myofibroblasts (CCD18Co cells) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation--modulation of microRNA 126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojwang, Leonnard O; Banerjee, Nivedita; Noratto, Giuliana D; Angel-Morales, Gabriela; Hachibamba, Twambo; Awika, Joseph M; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a drought tolerant crop with several agronomic advantages over other legumes. This study evaluated varieties from four major cowpea phenotypes (black, red, light brown and white) containing different phenolic profiles for their anti-inflammatory property on non-malignant colonic myofibroblasts (CCD18Co) cells challenged with an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay on the LPS-stimulated cells revealed antioxidative potential of black and red cowpea varieties. Real-time qRT-PCR analysis in LPS-stimulated cells revealed down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8, TNF-α, VCAM-1), transcription factor NF-κB and modulation of microRNA-126 (specific post-transcriptional regulator of VCAM-1) by cowpea polyphenolics. The ability of cowpea polyphenols to modulate miR-126 signaling and its target gene VCAM-1 were studied in LPS-stimulated endothelial cells transfected with a specific inhibitor of miR-126, and treated with 10 mg GAE/L black cowpea extract where the extract in part reversed the effect of the miR-126 inhibitor. This suggests that cowpea may exert their anti-inflammatory activities at least in part through induction of miR-126 that then down-regulate VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expressions. Overall, Cowpea therefore is promising as an anti-inflammatory dietary component.

  8. A multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population for genetic analysis and improvement of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Bao-Lam; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Huang, Bevan Emma; Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Lonardi, Stefano; Santos, Jansen R P; Ndeve, Arsenio; Batieno, Benoit J; Boukar, Ousmane; Cisse, Ndiaga; Drabo, Issa; Fatokun, Christian; Kusi, Francis; Agyare, Richard Y; Guo, Yi-Ning; Herniter, Ira; Lo, Sassoum; Wanamaker, Steve I; Xu, Shizhong; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A

    2018-03-01

    Multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) populations are an emerging type of resource for dissecting the genetic structure of traits and improving breeding populations. We developed a MAGIC population for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) from eight founder parents. These founders were genetically diverse and carried many abiotic and biotic stress resistance, seed quality and agronomic traits relevant to cowpea improvement in the United States and sub-Saharan Africa, where cowpea is vitally important in the human diet and local economies. The eight parents were inter-crossed using structured matings to ensure that the population would have balanced representation from each parent, followed by single-seed descent, resulting in 305 F 8 recombinant inbred lines each carrying a mosaic of genome blocks contributed by all founders. This was confirmed by single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping with the Illumina Cowpea Consortium Array. These lines were on average 99.74% homozygous but also diverse in agronomic traits across environments. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified for several parental traits. Loci with major effects on photoperiod sensitivity and seed size were also verified by biparental genetic mapping. The recombination events were concentrated in telomeric regions. Due to its broad genetic base, this cowpea MAGIC population promises breakthroughs in genetic gain, QTL and gene discovery, enhancement of breeding populations and, for some lines, direct releases as new varieties. © 2018 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Influence of Rhizobacterium Inoculation on NaCl Salinity Tolerance in Pusa Sukomal and RC101 Varieties of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhna Chaturvedi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in cowpea plants. In the present study, the effect of rhizobacterium strains BR2 and BR3 on the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. varieties—Pusa Sukomal and RC101—tolerance to 0, 25, 50, and 75 mM concentrations of NaCl salinity was evaluated. The rate of growth, in general, was high in plants irrigated with 25 mM NaCl saline water as compared to control, and thereafter, the growth reduced with increase in salinity concentrations. The results revealed that treating the seeds with rhizobacteria accompanied by NaCl salinity increased growth parameters of the cowpea plant as compared to the seeds irrigated with sodium chloride alone. Treatment with rhizobacteria mitigated the harmful effect of NaCl, and the growth was significantly better than the plants growing in saline water without rhizobacterium inoculation. The overall performance of Pusa Sukomal with BR3 strain was found to be better than the other combinations tested. Flowering in field plants started within 45 days of sowing, and the seeds in plants irrigated with saline water, in the presence of rhizobacterium, were found to be healthy as compared to control seeds. Seed protein profile was analyzed by SDS PAGE gel studies.

  10. Curbing the Growth of Wax Bean (Vigna unguiculata L. via a Novel Complex of Nano Zinc Oxide/Vermicompost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh BEHBOUDI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost (VC samples were prepared from manure and spent mushroom compost (SMC and were impregnated with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs, giving ZnO NPs/VC complexes that were added into the soil in which wax beans (Vigna unguiculata L. were then planted. The study was carried out through a factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with three factors. The experimental factors included: ZnO NPs (0, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 mg kg-1, two substrate types (cow manure and SMC and VC (2.5, 5 and 7.5 weight percentages. To the substrate types, adult earthworms (Eisenia fetida were added. Specifically, after three months, the prepared VC was soaked in ZnO NPs solutions, mixed with soil (according to cultivation substrate weight, then employed in wet plantation of wax beans. The obtained results showed that with increasing ZnO NPs, leaves’ chlorophyll, grains number per pod, stem length, hundred grains weight, grain yield, and the grain protein content significantly decreased. In general, the usage of these NPs in the applied amounts could curb the undesired growth of this species.

  11. Viabilidade de sementes de feijão macassar tratadas com extrato vegetal e acondicionadas em dois tipos de embalagens = Viability of Vigna unguiculata bean seeds treated with vegetable extract and conditioned in two types of packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Cardoso Almeida

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho estudar a perda de viabilidade das sementes de duas variedades de Vigna unguiculata, acondicionadas em embalagens de papel e recipiente metálico, armazenados em ambiente não controlado. Após a colheita das sementes, em campos preparados para esta finalidade, as mesmas foram beneficiadas manualmente, tratadas, acondicionadas e armazenadas, para que a cada dois meses fossem avaliadas quanto a sua qualidade fisiológica mediante teste de germinação, indicando a melhor capacidade armazenadora para a condição do estudo. A análise dos dados foi realizada no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, disposto em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 2x 6 com 4 repetições, sendo os fatores quantitativos revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a viabilidade das sementes de feijão Vigna unguiculata foi afetada pelos tratamentos e condição do armazenamento, tendo ao final de 360 dias a germinação passada de 99,37 para 41,68%; a variedade Emepa foi superior a Corujinha em 63,47% e o extrato de Piper nigrum revelou-se eficiente na manutenção da viabilidade dessas sementes.The objective of this work was to study the loss of seed viability of two varieties of Vigna unguiculata, conditioned in paper andmetallic packaging, and stored without temperature and relative air humidity control. After seed harvest, in fields prepared for this purpose, the seeds were manually processed, treated, conditioned and stored; every two months, their physiological quality was evaluated using a germination test. The data analysis was carried out using an entirely randomized design, in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 6 factorial scheme with four repetitions; the quantitative factors were disclosed by the regression in the analysis of variance. Based on the results, the viability of the Vigna unguiculata bean seeds was affected by the treatments and storage condition: after 360 days, the germination rate decreased

  12. Evapotranspiration of caupi beans culture in the Zona da Mata of Pernambuco State, Brazil; Evapotranspiracao da cultura do feijao caupi na zona da mata de Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardo, Ana Lucia; Antonino, Antonio Celso Dantas; Dall' Olio, Attilio [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Carneiro, Clemente Jose Gusmao [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    1996-07-01

    A water balance experiment was carried out in a red-yellow podzolic soil of the Northern Zona da Mata region, in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Six 11 m x 3m plots were planted with the IPA-206 variety of caupi beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), which was genetically modified at the IPA Research Center in order to improve its resistance to water stress. The experiments were performed in two different periods of the year, so that the influence of the amount of rainfall on the crop yield could be evaluated. Stored water and water potential gradient at the 0-90 cm depth layer, were measured through the use of neutron probes and mercury manometers, respectively. The dry season results a water stress throughout the growing cycle, resulting in a low yield (548 Kg/ha). In contrast, the large amount of rainfall that occurred during the wet season, was sufficient to avoid water stress to the plant root system, leading to a significant increase in the crop yield, (1014 kg/ha). The evapotranspiration component has been estimated as 3,57 mm/day and 4,07 mm/day, respectively. (author)

  13. Fotossíntese e acúmulo de solutos em feijoeiro caupi submetido à salinidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogéria Pereira Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as respostas fotossintéticas e a acumulação de carboidratos, íons salinos e prolina em feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata submetido à salinidade. As plantas foram submetidas à quatro tratamentos, dos 28 aos 35 dias de idade: 0, 50, 100 e 200 mmol L-1 de NaCl. Avaliaramse as trocas gasosas, a emissão de fluorescência pela clorofila a, o potencial hídrico foliar, e as concentrações de carboidratos, Na+, Cl- e prolina nas folhas. Os tratamentos não tiveram efeito sobre a eficiência quântica potencial do fotossistema II, mas causaram leve diminuição na eficiência quântica efetiva e maior dissipação do excesso de energia de excitação por processos não fotoquímicos. As concentrações foliares de amido diminuíram, e as de sacarose e prolina aumentaram nas maiores concentrações de NaCl. Ocorreu exclusão do Na+ e acúmulo do Cl- nas folhas, e as relações hídricas das folhas foram pouco afetadas, exceto no tratamento mais severo. O acúmulo de Cl- esteve envolvido na redução da assimilação de CO2, decorrente da queda na condutância estomática e na eficiência de carboxilação da Rubisco. O feijoeiro caupi apresenta características fisiológicas que favorecem a manutenção da atividade fotossintética sob curta exposição à salinidade.

  14. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp consumed in Brazil

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    Elenilda J. Pereira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap. is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods: Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results: When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions: Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients.

  15. Genome wide linkage disequilibrium in Chinese asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm: implications for domestication history and genome wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P; Wu, X; Wang, B; Luo, J; Liu, Y; Ehlers, J D; Close, T J; Roberts, P A; Lu, Z; Wang, S; Li, G

    2012-07-01

    Association mapping of important traits of crop plants relies on first understanding the extent and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the particular germplasm being investigated. We characterize here the genetic diversity, population structure and genome wide LD patterns in a set of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm from China. A diverse collection of 99 asparagus bean and normal cowpea accessions were genotyped with 1127 expressed sequence tag-derived single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs). The proportion of polymorphic SNPs across the collection was relatively low (39%), with an average number of SNPs per locus of 1.33. Bayesian population structure analysis indicated two subdivisions within the collection sampled that generally represented the 'standard vegetable' type (subgroup SV) and the 'non-standard vegetable' type (subgroup NSV), respectively. Level of LD (r(2)) was higher and extent of LD persisted longer in subgroup SV than in subgroup NSV, whereas LD decayed rapidly (0-2 cM) in both subgroups. LD decay distance varied among chromosomes, with the longest (≈ 5 cM) five times longer than the shortest (≈ 1 cM). Partitioning of LD variance into within- and between-subgroup components coupled with comparative LD decay analysis suggested that linkage group 5, 7 and 10 may have undergone the most intensive epistatic selection toward traits favorable for vegetable use. This work provides a first population genetic insight into domestication history of asparagus bean and demonstrates the feasibility of mapping complex traits by genome wide association study in asparagus bean using a currently available cowpea SNPs marker platform.

  16. Gel-free/label-free proteomic, photosynthetic, and biochemical analysis of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) resistance against Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Anna Lidia N; Komatsu, Setsuko; Wang, Xin; Silva, Rodolpho G G; Souza, Pedro Filho N; Lobo, Ana Karla M; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Silveira, Joaquim A G; Oliveira, Jose T A

    2017-06-23

    Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) causes significant losses in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production. In this present study biochemical, physiological, and proteomic analysis were done to identify pathways and defense proteins that are altered during the incompatible interaction between the cowpea genotype BRS-Marataoã and CPSMV. The leaf protein extracts from mock- (MI) and CPSMV-inoculated plantlets (V) were evaluated at 2 and 6days post-inoculation (DPI). Data support the assumptions that increases in biochemical (high hydrogen peroxide, antioxidant enzymes, and secondary compounds) and physiological responses (high photosynthesis index and chlorophyll content), confirmed by label-free comparative proteomic approach, in which quantitative changes in proteasome proteins, proteins related to photosynthesis, redox homeostasis, regulation factors/RNA processing proteins were observed may be implicated in the resistance of BRS-Marataoã to CPSMV. This pioneering study provides information for the selection of specific pathways and proteins, altered in this incompatible relationship, which could be chosen as targets for detailed studies to advance our understanding of the molecular, physiological, and biochemistry basis of the resistance mechanism of cowpea and design approachs to engineer plants that are more productive. This is a pioneering study in which an incompatible relationship between a resistant cowpea and Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) was conducted to comparatively evaluate proteomic profiles by Gel-free/label-free methodology and some physiological and biochemical parameters to shed light on how a resistant cowpea cultivar deals with the virus attack. Specific proteins and associated pathways were altered in the cowpea plants challenged with CPSMV and will contribute to our knowledge on the biological process tailored by cowpea in response to CPSMV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Vigna unguiculata Gene Expression Atlas (VuGEA) from de novo assembly and quantification of RNA-seq data provides insights into seed maturation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shaolun; Jiang, Chuan; Huang, Ziyue; Torres-Jerez, Ivone; Chang, Junil; Zhang, Heng; Udvardi, Michael; Liu, Renyi; Verdier, Jerome

    2016-10-01

    Legume research and cultivar development are important for sustainable food production, especially of high-protein seed. Thanks to the development of deep-sequencing technologies, crop species have been taken to the front line, even without completion of their genome sequences. Black-eyed pea (Vigna unguiculata) is a legume species widely grown in semi-arid regions, which has high potential to provide stable seed protein production in a broad range of environments, including drought conditions. The black-eyed pea reference genotype has been used to generate a gene expression atlas of the major plant tissues (i.e. leaf, root, stem, flower, pod and seed), with a developmental time series for pods and seeds. From these various organs, 27 cDNA libraries were generated and sequenced, resulting in more than one billion reads. Following filtering, these reads were de novo assembled into 36 529 transcript sequences that were annotated and quantified across the different tissues. A set of 24 866 unique transcript sequences, called Unigenes, was identified. All the information related to transcript identification, annotation and quantification were stored into a gene expression atlas webserver (http://vugea.noble.org), providing a user-friendly interface and necessary tools to analyse transcript expression in black-eyed pea organs and to compare data with other legume species. Using this gene expression atlas, we inferred details of molecular processes that are active during seed development, and identified key putative regulators of seed maturation. Additionally, we found evidence for conservation of regulatory mechanisms involving miRNA in plant tissues subjected to drought and seeds undergoing desiccation. © 2016 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Sensitivity studies of the common bean (Vigna unguiculata) and maize (Zea mays) to different soil types from the crude oil drilling site at Kutchalli, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anoliefo, G.O. [Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Benin, Benin City (Nigeria); Isikhuemhen, O.S. [Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, NC Agricultural and Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States); Ohimain, E.I. [Rohi Biotechnologies Ltd., Port Harcourt (Nigeria)

    2006-02-15

    Background, aims and scope. The economic growth that Nigeria has enjoyed as a result of oil revenue has its drawback through exposure of people in the oil producing areas to environmental contamination, due largely to the increase in the movement of oil. Activities associated with oil well drilling on agricultural lands have led to serious economic losses on the communities affected. The local people in most of these communities are peasants who do not know how to react to drilling wastes or polluted fields where they have their crops. A case under study is the Kutchalli oil drilling area. Methods. Waste pit soil from drilling waste dumps in Kutchalli oil drilling area was tested whole and in combinations with 'clean' soil for their abilities to support plant growth and development in common bean (Vigna unguiculata) and maize (Zea mays). Seed germination, plant height, leaf area, biomass accumulation, respiratory activity as well as soil chemical analysis were used to access the ability of waste pit soil to support plant growth and development in the test plants. Results, discussion and conclusions. Waste pit soil completely inhibited the germination of bean and maize seeds. Waste pit soil in combinations with different proportions of Kutchalli soil gave growth (germination, height of plants, number of leaves, leaf area, etc.) values that were inferior to the control soil (Kutchalli) and the independent control soil (Monguno). Seeds planted in the test soil combinations containing waste pit soil showed significantly low respiratory activity. Waste pit soil seems to be toxic to plant growth and development. Drilling mud in combination with native Kutchalli soil significantly enhanced plant growth and development. Recommendations and outlook. The seed germination, growth and development inhibition by waste pit soil suggests its toxicity. We want to suggest the need for strict control and monitoring of waste pit soil in oil drilling sites. (orig.)

  19. Genome wide linkage disequilibrium in Chinese asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm: implications for domestication history and genome wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P; Wu, X; Wang, B; Luo, J; Liu, Y; Ehlers, J D; Close, T J; Roberts, P A; Lu, Z; Wang, S; Li, G

    2012-01-01

    Association mapping of important traits of crop plants relies on first understanding the extent and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the particular germplasm being investigated. We characterize here the genetic diversity, population structure and genome wide LD patterns in a set of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm from China. A diverse collection of 99 asparagus bean and normal cowpea accessions were genotyped with 1127 expressed sequence tag-derived single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs). The proportion of polymorphic SNPs across the collection was relatively low (39%), with an average number of SNPs per locus of 1.33. Bayesian population structure analysis indicated two subdivisions within the collection sampled that generally represented the ‘standard vegetable' type (subgroup SV) and the ‘non-standard vegetable' type (subgroup NSV), respectively. Level of LD (r2) was higher and extent of LD persisted longer in subgroup SV than in subgroup NSV, whereas LD decayed rapidly (0–2 cM) in both subgroups. LD decay distance varied among chromosomes, with the longest (≈5 cM) five times longer than the shortest (≈1 cM). Partitioning of LD variance into within- and between-subgroup components coupled with comparative LD decay analysis suggested that linkage group 5, 7 and 10 may have undergone the most intensive epistatic selection toward traits favorable for vegetable use. This work provides a first population genetic insight into domestication history of asparagus bean and demonstrates the feasibility of mapping complex traits by genome wide association study in asparagus bean using a currently available cowpea SNPs marker platform. PMID:22378357

  20. Escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade da cercosporiose em caupi Diagrammatic scale for assessment of Cercospora leaf spot severity in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Corrêa Lima Albert

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A cercosporiose, causada por Cercospora cannescens e Pseudocercospora cruenta, é uma importante doença do caupi (Vigna unguiculata no Brasil. Devido à inexistência de métodos padronizados para quantificação dessa doença, foi desenvolvida uma escala diagramática com níveis de 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 e 82% de área foliar lesionada. A escala diagramática foi validada por 10 avaliadores, usando 50 folíolos de caupi com diferentes níveis de severidade, mensurados previamente com o programa Assess®. A acurácia, a precisão e a reprodutibilidade das estimativas de cada avaliador foi determinada por regressão linear simples entre a severidade real e a estimada, com e sem o auxílio da escala. Com a escala, os avaliadores obtiveram melhores níveis de acurácia e precisão das estimativas, com os erros absolutos concentrando-se na faixa de 10%. Os avaliadores apresentaram elevada repetibilidade (94% e reprodutibilidade (90% em 82,3% dos casos das estimativas com a utilização da escala. Portanto, a escala diagramática proposta é adequada para avaliação da severidade da cercosporiose do caupi.Cercospora leaf spot caused by Cercospora canescens and Pseudocercospora cruenta is an important disease of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata in Brazil. Due to the inexistence of standard methods for the assessment of this disease, a diagrammatic scale was developed with 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 82% of diseased leaf area. The diagrammatic scale was validated by 10 raters using 50 cowpea leaflets with different levels of severity previously measured by the software Assess®. The accuracy, precision and reproducibility of the estimative of each rater were determined by simple linear regression between actual and estimated severity, with and without the use of the scale. With the scale raters obtained better levels of accuracy and precision, with absolute errors concentrating around 10%. Raters showed high repeatability (94% and reproducibility ( 90% in

  1. Variabilidade genética em acessos de caupi analisada por meio de marcadores RAPD Cowpea genetic variability analyzed by RAPD markers

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    Gustavo Ribeiro Xavier

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da variabilidade genética e da relação entre diferentes acessos de caupi é importante para maximizar o uso dos recursos genéticos disponíveis. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a variabilidade genética em 45 acessos de caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. oriundos do Brasil, EUA e Nigéria, por meio de marcadores RAPD. Foram encontrados 8 iniciadores polimórficos e um total de 48 bandas informativas. De acordo com os perfis polimórficos obtidos, foi observada a formação de quatro grupos genotípicos. Houve uma tendência de agrupamento em razão da origem dos acessos. A maioria dos acessos de variedades locais brasileiras pertence apenas a um grupo, o que sugere uma limitação da base genética. Vale ressaltar que nesse grupo não estavam presentes acessos da Nigéria considerados portadores de características agronômicas superiores, como, por exemplo, alta produtividade. RAPD é uma ferramenta eficiente, capaz de auxiliar a seleção de genótipos de caupi adaptados às diferentes condições edafo-climáticas brasileiras, com vistas ao aumento da produtividade e melhoria de outras características que atendam aos interesses regionais específicos.The knowledge on genetic variability and the relationship among different cowpea accesses is important to maximize resource use represented by available cowpea genotypes. The objective of this work was to determine the genetic variability among 45 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. accesses from Brazil, USA and Niger, characterized by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers. Eight polymorphic primers were identified, comprehending a total of 48 informative bands. Based on the obtained polymorphic profiles, four major clusters were formed. Clustering was mainly influenced by the genotype origin. Most accesses from Brazilian landraces belong to just one cluster, suggesting a limited genetic basis. It is worth noting that none of the genotypes from Niger

  2. Assessment of genetic diversity in Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp) accessions using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwe, David Okeh; Afiukwa, Celestine Azubike; Ubi, Benjamin Ewa; Ogbu, Kenneth Idika; Ojuederie, Omena Bernard; Ude, George Nkem

    2017-11-17

    Assessment of genetic diversity of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (cowpea) accessions using informative molecular markers is imperative for their genetic improvement and conservation. Use of efficacious molecular markers to obtain the required knowledge of the genetic diversity within the local and regional germplasm collections can enhance the overall effectiveness of cowpea improvement programs, hence, the comparative assessment of Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and Start codon targeted (SCoT) markers in genetic diversity of V. unguiculata accessions from different regions in Nigeria. Comparative analysis of the genetic diversity of eighteen accessions from different locations in Nigeria was investigated using ISSR and SCoT markers. DNA extraction was done using Zymogen Kit according to its manufacturer's instructions followed by amplifications with ISSR and SCoT and agarose gel electrophoresis. The reproducible bands were scored for analyses of dendrograms, principal component analysis, genetic diversity, allele frequency, polymorphic information content, and population structure. Both ISSR and SCoT markers resolved the accessions into five major clusters based on dendrogram and principal component analyses. Alleles of 32 and 52 were obtained with ISSR and SCoT, respectively. Numbers of alleles, gene diversity and polymorphic information content detected with ISSR were 9.4000, 0.7358 and 0.7192, while SCoT yielded 11.1667, 0.8158 and 0.8009, respectively. Polymorphic loci were 70 and 80 in ISSR and SCoT, respectively. Both markers produced high polymorphism (94.44-100%). The ranges of effective number of alleles (Ne) were 1.2887 ± 0.1797-1.7831 ± 0.2944 and 1.7416 ± 0.0776-1.9181 ± 0.2426 in ISSR and SCoT, respectively. The Nei's genetic diversity (H) ranged from 0.2112 ± 0.0600-0.4335 ± 0.1371 and 0.4111 ± 0.0226-0.4778 ± 0.1168 in ISSR and SCoT, respectively. Shannon's information index (I) from ISSR and SCoT were 0

  3. Effet du mode de conservation de l'huile de Jatropha curcas L. sur son efficacité dans la lutte contre les principaux insectes ravageurs du niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. au Niger

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    Abdoul Habou, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the Conservation Mode of Jatropha curcas L. oil on its Efficacy in the Control of Major Insect Pests of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp in Niger. Jatropha curcas oil has an insecticidal activity harnessed by the farmers in Niger. In this study, we compared the insecticidal activity of two batches of oil conserved during 70 days, one exposed to light and the other kept in the dark. The insecticidal efficacy was evaluated in a field with three concentrations (5, 10 and 15% trial on the main pests of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp and in a laboratory test on Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybon (Thysanoptera: Thripidae with different concentrations of crude oil (50; 100; 150 and 200 µl. No difference in insecticidal effect was found between the two modes of oil conservation, both in the laboratory and in the field. In the field, regardless of the mode of conservation, the concentrations of 10% of J. curcas oil enables a reduction of over than 80% of thrips, aphids, and bugs compared to the control. Its increased seeds yield more than 50%. The concentration of 15% gives an insecticidal effect comparable to that of the reference treatment (deltaméthrine but induces phytotoxicity symptoms on the leaves of Cowpea.

  4. Redes neurais artificiais para identificar genótipos de feijão-caupi semiprostrado com alta adaptabilidade e estabilidade fenotípicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Teodoro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a concordância entre as redes neurais artificiais (RNAs e o método de Eberhart & Russel na identificação de genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata com alta adaptabilidade e estabilidade fenotípicas. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de 18 linhagens experimentais e duas cultivares de feijão-caupi. Foram conduzidos quatro ensaios de valor de cultivo e uso nos municípios de Aquidauana, Chapadão do Sul e Dourados, no estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Os dados de produtividade de grãos foram submetidos às análises de variância individual e conjunta. Em seguida, os dados foram submetidos às análises de adaptabilidade e estabilidade por meio dos métodos de Eberhart & Russell e de RNAs. Houve elevada concordância entre os métodos avaliados quanto à discriminação da adaptabilidade fenotípica dos genótipos de feijão-caupi semiprostrado, o que indica que as RNAs podem ser utilizadas em programas de melhoramento genético. Em ambos os métodos avaliados, os genótipos BRS Xiquexique, TE97-304G-12 e MNC99-542F-5 são recomendados para ambientes desfavoráveis, gerais e favoráveis, respectivamente, por apresentarem produtividade de grãos acima da média geral dos ambientes e alta estabilidade fenotípica.

  5. Perspectiva bayesiana na seleção de genótipos de feijão-caupi em ensaios de valor de cultivo e uso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Teodoro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo:O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar, sob a perspectiva bayesiana, genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata que reúnam alta adaptabilidade e estabilidade fenotípicas, no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foram utilizados dados de quatro experimentos, conduzidos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em que a produtividade de grãos de 20 genótipos de feijão-caupi semiprostrado foi avaliada. Para representar as distribuições a priori pouco informativas, utilizaram-se distribuições de probabilidade com grande variância; e, para representar distribuições a priori informativas, adotou-se o conceito de metanálise, com uso de informações de trabalhos anteriores. A comparação entre as distribuições a priori foi realizada por meio do fator de Bayes. A abordagem bayesiana proporciona maior acurácia na seleção de genótipos de feijão-caupi semiprostrado, com elevadas adaptabilidade e estabilidade fenotípicas avaliadas por meio da metodologia de Eberhart & Russell. Com base nas prioris informativas, os genótipos MNC99-507G-4, TE97-309G-24, MNC99-542F-7 e BR 17-Gurguéia são classificados como de alta adaptabilidade a ambientes favoráveis. Já os genótipos TE96-290-12G, MNC99-510F-16, MNC99-508G-1, MNC99-541F-21, MNC99-542F-5 e MNC99-547F-2 apresentam alta adaptabilidade a ambientes desfavoráveis.

  6. Número de repetições para avaliação de caracteres em genótipos de feijão-caupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Eduardo Torres

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o número de medições (repetições necessário para avaliar caracteres de genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata. Vinte genótipos de feijão-caupi de porte ereto e vinte de porte semiprostrado foram avaliados no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, em seis e quatro ensaios, respectivamente. Os dez ensaios foram conduzidos no delineamento blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram mensurados os caracteres comprimento de vagem, massa de vagem, massa de grãos por vagem, número de grãos por vagem, massa de cem grãos e produtividade de grãos. Foram verificados os pressupostos do modelo matemático, realizada a análise de variância, estimado o coeficiente de repetibilidade e calculado o número de repetições. Ensaios com quatro repetições identificam genótipos superiores de feijão-caupi em relação aos caracteres comprimento de vagem, massa de vagem, massa de grãos por vagem, número de grãos por vagem, massa de cem grãos e produtividade de grãos, com, respectivamente, 84,57, 75,62, 73,14, 75,25, 81,53 e 79,19% de exatidão no prognóstico de seu valor real.

  7. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Tan

    Full Text Available Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp. is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18% had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic

  8. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic engineering, and

  9. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects of the {sup 60}Co on the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp beans; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante de {sup 60}Co em propriedades fisicas, quimicas e nutricionais dos feijoes Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casanas Haasis

    1998-07-01

    The effects of {sup 60} Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 5.0 and 10 kGy on beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., of the carioca variety and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, of the macacar variety stored for 6 months were studied. The cooking time was established, and then the following analyses were carried out: Sensory, vitamins B{sub 1}, B{sub 2} and B{sub 6} protein content, biological evaluation in rats (Food intake and Weight gain (in grams)), apparent Digestibility (Dapp), apparent Net Protein Utilization (NPUapp) and apparent Biological Value (BVapp), as well as the applicability of detection methods of irradiated foodstuffs through germination tests, the analysis of DNA migration, thermoluminescence and analysis of the carbohydrates formed by radiation. Changes in the cooking time were observed for all doses. In doses up to 1 kGy, the nutritional quality of the irradiated beans were not altered. The application of the proposed detection methods of the irradiated foodstuffs allowed the detection of irradiated beans with doses as low as 0.5 kGy. (author)

  10. Bioactive Properties of Phaseolus lunatus (Lima Bean) and Vigna unguiculata (Cowpea) Hydrolyzates Incorporated into Pasta. Residual Activity after Pasta Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Silvina R; Franco-Miranda, Hanai; Cian, Raúl E; Betancur-Ancona, David; Chel-Guerrero, Luis

    2016-09-01

    The aims of the study were to study the inclusion of P. lunatus (PLH) and V. unguiculata (VUH) protein hydrolyzates with bioactive properties into a pasta-extruded product and determine residual activity after extrusion or pasta cooking. Both protein hydrolyzates showed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) and antioxidant activity (TEAC). PLH showed higher ACEI but lower TEAC than VUH (97.19 ± 0.23 vs. 91.95 ± 0.29 % and 244.7 ± 3.4 vs. 293.7 ± 3.3 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). They were included at 5 or 10 % into wheat pasta. Control pasta had the lowest ACEI activity or TEAC (22.01 ± 0.76 % or 14.14 ± 1.28 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). Higher activity remained in pasta with PLH than VUH after extrusion, and higher the level of addition, higher the ACEI was. Pasta had practically the same ACEI activity after cooking, thus active compounds were not lost by temperature or lixiviation. Regarding TEAC, higher activity remained in pasta with 10 % VUH (31.84 ± 0.17 μmol Trolox/g). Other samples with hydrolyzates had the same activity. After cooking, pasta with hydrolyzates had higher TEAC values than control, but these were not modified by the level of incorporation. Moreover, the profile changed because pasta with PLH had the highest TEAC values (21.39 ± 0.01 and 20.34 ± 0.15 for 5 or 10 % hydrolyzates, respectively). Cooking decreased this activity (~ 20 %), for all samples. Although a certain loss of antioxidant activity was observed, pasta could be a good vehicle for bioactive compounds becoming a functional food.

  11. Leaf morphology in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp]: QTL analysis, physical mapping and identifying a candidate gene using synteny with model legume species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pottorff Marti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] exhibits a considerable variation in leaf shape. Although cowpea is mostly utilized as a dry grain and animal fodder crop, cowpea leaves are also used as a high-protein pot herb in many countries of Africa. Results Leaf morphology was studied in the cowpea RIL population, Sanzi (sub-globose leaf shape x Vita 7 (hastate leaf shape. A QTL for leaf shape, Hls (hastate leaf shape, was identified on the Sanzi x Vita 7 genetic map spanning from 56.54 cM to 67.54 cM distance on linkage group 15. SNP marker 1_0910 was the most significant over the two experiments, accounting for 74.7% phenotypic variance (LOD 33.82 in a greenhouse experiment and 71.5% phenotypic variance (LOD 30.89 in a field experiment. The corresponding Hls locus was positioned on the cowpea consensus genetic map on linkage group 4, spanning from 25.57 to 35.96 cM. A marker-trait association of the Hls region identified SNP marker 1_0349 alleles co-segregating with either the hastate or sub-globose leaf phenotype. High co-linearity was observed for the syntenic Hls region in Medicago truncatula and Glycine max. One syntenic locus for Hls was identified on Medicago chromosome 7 while syntenic regions for Hls were identified on two soybean chromosomes, 3 and 19. In all three syntenic loci, an ortholog for the EZA1/SWINGER (AT4G02020.1 gene was observed and is the candidate gene for the Hls locus. The Hls locus was identified on the cowpea physical map via SNP markers 1_0910, 1_1013 and 1_0992 which were identified in three BAC contigs; contig926, contig821 and contig25. Conclusions This study has demonstrated how integrated genomic resources can be utilized for a candidate gene approach. Identification of genes which control leaf morphology may be utilized to improve the quality of cowpea leaves for vegetable and or forage markets as well as contribute to more fundamental research understanding the control of leaf shape in

  12. Contribución de Vigna unguiculata L. a la sustentabilidad de sistemas de cultivo de caña de azúcar

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    Oscar Eduardo Sanclemente Reyes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  Con el objetivo de evaluar la contribución del abono verde (AV Vigna unguiculata L., a la producción sostenible de caña de azúcar (CA Saccharum officinarum L. Var. CC 85-92 en un Vertisol del Valle del Cauca (Colombia, se usó diseño experimental en bloques completos al azar y cinco repeticiones. Los tratamientos fueron: (C Control- soca de CA, (AV1 siembra 1X1 AV- CA, (AV2 siembra 2X1 AV- CA, (AV1+R siembra 1X1 AV inoculada con Rhizobium sp.- CA, y (AV2+R siembra 2X1 AV inoculada con Rhizobium sp.- CA. Se evaluó el aporte de biomasa del AV, la biomasa de arvenses asociadas y la humedad del suelo, durante el mes dos. En maduración de CA (mes once se evaluó la concentración de sólidos y sacarosa en tallos. En cosecha de CA (mes trece se evaluaron las toneladas de caña por hectárea (TCH, el rendimiento y las toneladas de azúcar por hectárea (TAH, como efecto de los tratamientos. Se observó que el inóculo Rhizobium sp., no tuvo efectos aparentes, por baja especificidad simbiótica con el AV. El AV2, registró aporte significativo (p<0.05 de materia seca (14.5 t ha-1 incidiendo en reducción de arvenses y retención de humedad (161 m3 ha-1, frente al C. El AV1 registró productividad en TCH (131.5 t ha-1 y TAH (15.5 t ha-1, significativamente (p<0.05 altas con respecto a los demás tratamientos. Estos resultados muestran las bondades del uso de sistemas intercalados AV- caña de azúcar, sobre la economía y sustentabilidad del sector.

  13. Leaf morphology in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]: QTL analysis, physical mapping and identifying a candidate gene using synteny with model legume species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] exhibits a considerable variation in leaf shape. Although cowpea is mostly utilized as a dry grain and animal fodder crop, cowpea leaves are also used as a high-protein pot herb in many countries of Africa. Results Leaf morphology was studied in the cowpea RIL population, Sanzi (sub-globose leaf shape) x Vita 7 (hastate leaf shape). A QTL for leaf shape, Hls (hastate leaf shape), was identified on the Sanzi x Vita 7 genetic map spanning from 56.54 cM to 67.54 cM distance on linkage group 15. SNP marker 1_0910 was the most significant over the two experiments, accounting for 74.7% phenotypic variance (LOD 33.82) in a greenhouse experiment and 71.5% phenotypic variance (LOD 30.89) in a field experiment. The corresponding Hls locus was positioned on the cowpea consensus genetic map on linkage group 4, spanning from 25.57 to 35.96 cM. A marker-trait association of the Hls region identified SNP marker 1_0349 alleles co-segregating with either the hastate or sub-globose leaf phenotype. High co-linearity was observed for the syntenic Hls region in Medicago truncatula and Glycine max. One syntenic locus for Hls was identified on Medicago chromosome 7 while syntenic regions for Hls were identified on two soybean chromosomes, 3 and 19. In all three syntenic loci, an ortholog for the EZA1/SWINGER (AT4G02020.1) gene was observed and is the candidate gene for the Hls locus. The Hls locus was identified on the cowpea physical map via SNP markers 1_0910, 1_1013 and 1_0992 which were identified in three BAC contigs; contig926, contig821 and contig25. Conclusions This study has demonstrated how integrated genomic resources can be utilized for a candidate gene approach. Identification of genes which control leaf morphology may be utilized to improve the quality of cowpea leaves for vegetable and or forage markets as well as contribute to more fundamental research understanding the control of leaf shape in legumes. PMID:22691139

  14. Global changes in gene expression during compatible and incompatible interactions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics. While most domesticated forms of cowpea are susceptible to the root parasitic weed Striga gesnerioides, several cultivars have been identified that show race-specific resistance. Cowpea cultivar B301 contains the RSG3-301 gene for resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG3, but is susceptible to race SG4z. When challenged by SG3, roots of cultivar B301 develop a strong resistance response characterized by a hypersensitive reaction and cell death at the site of parasite attachment. In contrast, no visible response occurs in B301 roots parasitized by SG4z. Results Gene expression in the roots of the cowpea cultivar B301 during compatible (susceptible) and incompatible (resistant) interactions with S. gesnerioides races SG4z and SG3, respectively, were investigated at the early (6 days post-inoculation (dpi)) and late (13 dpi) stages of the resistance response using a Nimblegen custom design cowpea microarray. A total of 111 genes were differentially expressed in B301 roots at 6 dpi; this number increased to 2102 genes at 13 dpi. At 13 dpi, a total of 1944 genes were differentially expressed during compatible (susceptible) interactions of B301 with SG4z. Genes and pathways involved in signal transduction, programmed cell death and apoptosis, and defense response to biotic and abiotic stress were differentially expressed in the early resistance response; at the later time point, enrichment was primarily for defense-related gene expression, and genes encoding components of lignifications and secondary wall formation. In compatible interactions (B301 – SG4z), multiple defense pathways were repressed, including those involved in lignin biosynthesis and secondary cell wall modifications, while cellular transport processes for nitrogen and sulfur were increased. Conclusion Distinct changes in global gene expression profiles occur in host roots

  15. Genic SNP markers and legume synteny reveal candidate genes underlying QTL for Macrophomina phaseolina resistance and maturity in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehlers Jeffrey D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophomina phaseolina is an emerging and devastating fungal pathogen that causes significant losses in crop production under high temperatures and drought stress. An increasing number of disease incidence reports highlight the wide prevalence of the pathogen around the world and its contribution toward crop yield suppression. In cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp.], limited sources of low-level host resistance have been identified, the genetic basis of which is unknown. In this study we report on the identification of strong sources of host resistance to M. phaseolina and the genetic mapping of putative resistance loci on a cowpea genetic map comprised of gene-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs. Results Nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs, accounting for between 6.1 and 40.0% of the phenotypic variance (R2, were identified using plant mortality data taken over three years in field experiments and disease severity scores taken from two greenhouse experiments. Based on annotated genic SNPs as well as synteny with soybean (Glycine max and Medicago truncatula, candidate resistance genes were found within mapped QTL intervals. QTL Mac-2 explained the largest percent R2 and was identified in three field and one greenhouse experiments where the QTL peak co-located with a SNP marker derived from a pectin esterase inhibitor encoding gene. Maturity effects on the expression of resistance were indicated by the co-location of Mac-6 and Mac-7 QTLs with maturity-related senescence QTLs Mat-2 and Mat-1, respectively. Homologs of the ELF4 and FLK flowering genes were found in corresponding syntenic soybean regions. Only three Macrophomina resistance QTLs co-located with delayed drought-induced premature senescence QTLs previously mapped in the same population, suggesting that largely different genetic mechanisms mediate cowpea response to drought stress and Macrophomina infection

  16. Eficiência da farinha desengordurada de gergelim como complemento protéico da farinha extrudada de caupi1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Arraes Maia

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi promover uma avaliação nutricional da mistura protéica desengordurada, obtida do gergelim (Sesamum indicum L., com a farinha extrudada do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, utilizando-se métodos físicos, bioquímicos, nutricionais e sensoriais. Usando-se semente integral do gergelim, com 54,08% de óleo e 21,83% de proteína, obteve-se a semente descascada com baixa concentração de oxalatos, que foi usada para a produção de farinha desengordurada de gergelim (FDG contendo 2,81% de óleo e 59,16% de proteína. A principal característica desta farinha foi sua alta concentração de aminoácidos sulfurados (30,88 mg/g proteína. Esta FDG foi usada como complemento da proteína da farinha do caupi obtida pelo processo de cozimento por extrusão (FEC, o que ocasionou a inativação de grande parte dos inibidores de tripsina. A proteína da farinha FEC mostrou uma concentração de 24,29%, um baixo conteúdo de aminoácidos sulfurados (17,22 mg/g proteína e alto teor de lisina (58,47 mg/g proteína. O alimento formulado foi considerado de boa qualidade nutricional.

  17. Analysis of ibuprofen and its main metabolites in roots, shoots, and seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry: uptake, metabolism, and translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picó, Yolanda; Alvarez-Ruiz, Rodrigo; Wijaya, Leonard; Alfarhan, Ahmed; Alyemeni, Mohammed; Barceló, Damià

    2018-01-01

    A liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QqTOF-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous quantitative analysis of ibuprofen (IBU), 1- and 2-hydroxyibuprofen (1-OH IBU and 2-OH IBU), and carboxyibuprofen (CBX IBU) while preserving the ability of the instrument to get precursor and product ion mass spectra of non-target compounds. The trigger was the precursor ions reaching 100 cps intensity. Sample preparation was carried out by ultrasound solid-liquid extraction with methanol as extraction solvent at pH  70% for all target analytes at low and high concentration levels. The lowest limit of quantification was Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) treated at high IBU concentrations and its presence in vegetables irrigated with treated water. Up to 46 metabolites, mostly hydroxylated metabolites and conjugates with hexosides and amino acids, were identified. The most abundant metabolites were also identified in an eggplant sample. Graphical Abstract ᅟ Ibuprofen metabolite identification.

  18. Caracterização fenotípica de rizóbio nativos isolados de solos da Amazônia e eficiência simbiótica em feijão caupi = Phenotypic characterization of rhizobia strains isolated from Amazonian soils and symbiotic efficiency in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisio Freitas Chagas Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A fixação biológica do nitrogênio é de fundamental importância nasustentabilidade agrícola, e a caracterização fenotípica rizobial contribui para o conhecimento da sua diversidade em coleções e para a utilização posterior em sistemas agrícolas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade fenotípica de rizóbio isolados de solos da Amazônia e suas eficiências simbióticas quando inoculados em feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.. Os isolados nativos apresentaram diversidade quanto às características morfológicas e fisiológicas. Foi verificado que a inoculação com isolados de rizóbio nativoscontribuiu, de forma significativa, para o aumento da biomassa, nodulação de caupi e em eficiência simbiótica.Biological nitrogen fixation is of fundamental importance for agricultural sustainability, and the evaluation of the rhizobialdiversity contributes to the knowledge of their diversity in collections, as well as for later use in agricultural systems. The objective of this paper was to evaluate phenotype diversity and symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia isolates from Amazonian soils when inoculated on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.. The native isolates presented diversity regarding their morphologic and physiological characteristics. It was verified that the inoculation with isolates of native rhizobia contributed to the increase of the biomass, nodulation on cowpea and symbiotic efficiency.

  19. BiorreduÃÃes de cetonas prÃ-quirais e nitrocompostos com cÃlulas Ãntegras de Vigna unguiculata L. e produÃÃo enzimÃtica de Ãsteres de cloranfenicol

    OpenAIRE

    Ayla MÃrcia Cordeiro Bizerra

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho encontra-se dividido em duas partes: a primeira relacionada à biotransformaÃÃes de compostos orgÃnicos com a espÃcie Vigna unguiculata, e a segunda, relativa à sÃntese enzimÃtica de Ãsteres de cloranfenicol. ReaÃÃes de biorreduÃÃo de cetonas e nitrocompostos com grÃos de Vigna unguiculata (feijÃo de corda). ApÃs realizado um screnning com reduÃÃo de acetofenona variando-se as condiÃÃes reacionais, encontrou-se aquelas que levaram ao melhores resultados de conversÃo e excesso en...

  20. Produtividade e morfologia de acessos de caupi, em Mossoró, RN Yield and morphology of cowpea accessions in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador B Torres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade e caracterizar a morfologia de dez acessos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.], nas condições edafoclimáticas do município de Mossoró, RN. Dez acessos (Amapá, BRS Potiguar, Canapu, Casca-de-seda, Coruja, Costela-de-vaca, João-vieira, Pingo-de-ouro, Rabo-de-peba e Sempre-verde foram avaliados em experimento de campo, de agosto/2006 a junho/2007, em Mossoró. Verificou-se que todos os genótipos de caupi apresentaram hábito de crescimento indeterminado e semi-enramador volúvel, exceto o "BRS Potiguar" que revelou comportamento semi-enramador. O número de sementes variou de 12 a 16 por vagem. Para a região de Mossoró, pode ser indicado como melhor alternativa ao produtor, o acesso Amapá, por ser mais precoce, possuir maior número de vagens por planta e maior produtividade, seguido de BRS Potiguar e Casca-de-seda.The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity and to describe the morphology of ten cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] accessions in the edaphoclimatic conditions of Mossoró, Brazil. The accessions Amapá, BRS Potiguar, Canapu, Casca-de-seda, Coruja, Costela-de-vaca, João-vieira, Pingo-de-ouro, Rabo-de-peba and Sempre-verde were evaluated in a field experiment from August 2006 to June 2007. The majority of accessions was of indeterminate and semi-branched voluble growth habit; only BRS Potiguar was semibranched. The number of seeds per pod varied from 12 to 16. For the Mossoró region, the accession Amapá is considered be the best alternative for small farmers. This accession is earlier maturing, presents a high number of pods per plant and high yield. Other promising genotypes are BRS Potiguar and Casca-de-seda.

  1. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behura, Ratikanta; Kumar, Sanjeev; Saha, Bedabrata; Panda, Manasa Kumar; Dey, Mohitosh; Sadhukhan, Ayan; Mishra, Sagarika; Alam, Shamsher; Sahoo, Debee Prasad; Sugla, Twinkle; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is an efficient method for incorporating genes and recovering stable transgenic plants in cowpea because this method offers several advantages such as the defined integration of transgenes, potentially low copy number, and preferential integration into transcriptional active regions of the chromosome. Cotyledonary node explants of cowpea present an attractive target for T-DNA delivery followed by regeneration of shoots via axillary proliferation without involvement of a de novo regeneration pathway. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the cowpea variety Pusa Komal. The seedling cotyledonary node explants are used for cocultivation with an Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring standard binary vector, pCAMBIA2301 or pNOV2819, and putative transformed plants are selected using aminoglycoside antibiotic or mannose as sole carbon source, respectively. The entire process includes explant infection to transgenic seed generation in greenhouse.

  2. Potencial genético de progênies de feijão-caupi segregantes quanto ao tipo da inflorescência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ribeiro Barros

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial genético produtivo de progênies de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata segregantes quanto ao tipo da inflorescência. Foram avaliadas 68 progênies F4 obtidas dos retrocruzamentos: (TV x 5058-09C x Cacheado-roxo x TV x 5058-09C e (AU94-MOB-816 x Cacheado-roxo x AU94-MOB-816, com os genitores. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, tendo-se avaliado 17 progênies, com quatro repetições, em parcelas subdivididas quanto à inflorescência: simples e composta. A análise estatística foi realizada por modelos mistos via procedimento REML/BLUP. As estimativas das variâncias genéticas foram significativas para todos os caracteres estudados. Os caracteres comprimento do pedúnculo, número médio de vagens por pedúnculo e floração inicial apresentaram alta variabilidade e expressão do componente genético para a inflorescência composta. As progênies de inflorescência simples apresentam potencial genético produtivo similar às progênies de inflorescência composta. As progênies resultantes do retrocruzamento (AU94-MOB-816 x Cacheado-roxo x AU94-MOB-816 são promissoras como estratégia para aumentar os níveis atuais de produtividade do feijão-caupi.

  3. Effects of Cropping System and Cowpea Variety on Symbiotic Potential and Yields of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp and Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone of Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoumana Kouyaté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cowpea varieties (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp have been proposed by research in Mali. None of these varieties were investigated for their symbiotic potential in terms of root nodulation and mycorrhizal infection. An experiment was conducted at Cinzana Research Station, from 2007 to 2009 with an objective to identify a cowpea variety with high symbiotic potential which may improve millet/cowpea cropping global production. Randomized complete block (RCBD design with a factorial combination of 3 cowpea varieties (IT89KD-374, CZ1-94-23-1, and CZ11-94-5C and 2 cropping systems (millet/cowpea intercropping and cowpea-millet rotation was used. On farm test was conducted to evaluate CZ11-94-5C and IT89KD-374 nodulation performance. Cowpea variety CZ11-94-5-C had the highest nodule number and nodule weight. Millet/cowpea alternate rows intercropping (1/1, only, had a significant influence on cowpea root infection rates by mycorrhizae, on the 45th day after emergence. IT89KD-374 gave the best cowpea grain yield (1540 kg ha−1 in sole crop. The highest millet grain yield (1650 kg ha−1 was obtained under CZ11-94-5C-millet rotation. Farmers' fields assessments results confirmed CZ11-94-5C performance on research station. The CZ11-94-5C cowpea variety needs to be more characterized.

  4. Influence du décalage du semis du niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp par rapport au maïs (Zea mays L. sur la croissance et le rendement du niébé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osiru, DSO.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Time of Planting Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Relative to Maize (Zea mays L. on Growth and Yield of Cowpea. Field investigations were carried out for three seasons in two locations of Uganda to examine yield benefits when cowpea and maize are planted under intensive farming conditions. Additive mixtures of cowpea were planted into maize thrice at 2 weekly intervals together with sole crops. Time of introducing cowpea into maize significantly affected both the growth and yield of cowpea. Simultaneous planting generally showed a yield advantage (LER> 1 of the cowpea/ maize intercropping systems irrespective of the cowpea varieties used, but LER declined when time of introducing cowpea into maize was delayed being as low as 0.76 when cowpea was planted four weeks after planting maize. The reduction in the growth and yield of cowpea was due to increased shading from the maize plants especially when cowpea was introduced at the fourth week. Therefore, to achieve yield benefit simultaneous planting of maize and cowpea recommended.

  5. Ultraviolet-B (280-320 nm) enhanced radiation induced changes in chlorophyll-protein complexes and polypeptide composition of chloroplasts in Vigna unguiculata seedlings grown at various temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedunchezhian, N.; Annamalainathan, K.; Kulandaivelu, G.

    1995-01-01

    The changes in pigment-protein composition of chloroplasts in Vigna unguiculata (L. ) Walp seedlings grown under control and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) enhanced radiation at various temperatures were studied. The chlorophyll-protein (CP) complexes isolated from seedlings after 60 h of continuous UV-B enhanced radiation treatment showed temperature-dependent changes in their levels. At 10 degrees C, well marked CP1, CP2a, CP47, CP2 and free pigment bands were seen in UV-B treated seedlings while control seedlings had no detectable green bands. UV-B enhanced radiation decreased the level of CP1, CP2a and CP2 complexes which was more pronounced at 20 and 30 degrees C than at 40 degrees C. The analysis of chloroplast polypeptides revealed a drastic decrease in the levels of 55, 47, 33, 25, 23, 22 and 17 kDa polypeptides in UV-B treated seedlings at 20 and 30 degrees C, and marginal decrease in the levels of 47, 43 and 16 kDa polypeptides at 40 degrees C. In contrast to this, at 10 degrees C large increase in many polypeptides was noticed in UV-B treated seedlings

  6. Comparative study of the karyotypes of two Vigna sub species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chromosomes of the two Vigna sub species were individually identified in order to gain insight into variations in the chromosome morphology that may contribute to interspecies cross incompatibility. Diploid chromosome number of 22 was established for V. unguiculata (TVu14476) while V. unguiculata ssp. dekindtiana ...

  7. Silicon and Nitrate Differentially Modulate the Symbiotic Performances of Healthy and Virus-Infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Yardlong Bean (V. unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) and Mung Bean (V. radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre-Mayoral, Maria Luisa; Brito, Miriam; Baral, Bikash; Garrido, Mario José

    2017-09-15

    The effects of 2 mM silicon (Si) and 10 mM KNO₃ (N)-prime signals for plant resistance to pathogens-were analyzed in healthy and Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) or Cowpea mild mottle virus (CMMV)-infected Bradyrhizobium -nodulated cowpea, yardlong bean and mung bean plants. In healthy plants of the three Vigna taxa, nodulation and growth were promoted in the order of Si + N > N > Si > controls. In the case of healthy cowpea and yardlong bean, the addition of Si and N decreased ureide and α-amino acids (AA) contents in the nodules and leaves in the order of Si + N> N > Si > controls. On the other hand, the addition of N arrested the deleterious effects of CCMV or CMMV infections on growth and nodulation in the three Vigna taxa. However, the addition of Si or Si + N hindered growth and nodulation in the CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean, causing a massive accumulation of ureides in the leaves and nodules. Nevertheless, the AA content in leaves and nodules of CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean was promoted by Si but reduced to minimum by Si + N. These results contrasted to the counteracting effects of Si or Si + N in the CCMV- and CMMV-infected mung bean via enhanced growth, nodulation and levels of ureide and AA in the leaves and nodules. Together, these observations suggest the fertilization with Si + N exclusively in virus-free cowpea and yardlong bean crops. However, Si + N fertilization must be encouraged in virus-endangered mung bean crops to enhance growth, nodulation and N-metabolism. It is noteworthy to see the enhanced nodulation of the three Vigna taxa in the presence of 10 mM KNO₃.

  8. Genetic control of cowpea seed sizes Controle genético do tamanho das sementes de caupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cláudio da Conceição Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most widely adapted grain legumes in hot regions of Africa, Asia and the Americas. In the semiarid Northeast of Brazil, it is the main subsistence crop, an excellent protein source of low cost, for the poor population. The objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters to understand the inheritance of seed sizes in cowpea. The parents P1 and P2 and the generations, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of the cross TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha formed the genetic material for this study. These six generates (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC were evaluated in a completely randomized block-design with six replications, in Teresina - PI, Brazil, in 1998. The genetic parameters estimated were: phenotypic and total genetic variance, additive and dominance genetic components of variance and the variance attributed to the environment, heritability in the broad and narrow senses, average degree of dominance and the number of genes controlling the character. The additive - dominance model fitted the data for 100-seeds weight in as much as the midparental value and the additive effect were the more important genetic parameters for the determination of this character. The number of genes that control its expression is five. The occurrence of high values for narrow sense heritability indicates that the selection for seed size can be made in early generations.Caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] é uma das leguminosas mais adaptadas às regiões quentes da África, Ásia e das Américas. No semi-árido do nordeste do Brasil é a principal cultura de subsistência, por ser uma excelente fonte de proteína de baixo custo para a população mais carente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar parâmetros genéticos que podem explicar a herança do tamanho das sementes de caupi. Os genótipos parentais P1 e P2 e as gerações F1, F2, RC1 e RC2 do cruzamento TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha, constituíram o material genético utilizado

  9. Divergência genética entre cultivares de caupi Genetic divergence among cultivars of cowpea

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    Francisco José de Oliveira

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a divergência genética de cultivares de caupi, agrupadas por análise multivariada visando à seleção de parentais superiores. Foram utilizadas 16 cultivares de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] do banco de germoplasma do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal do Ceará. As observações fenotípicas foram realizadas num ensaio com delineamento experimental em blocos completos casualizados, com seis blocos e 16 tratamentos, incluindo três testemunhas, com parcela experimental de 24 m² e área útil de 16 m², sendo quatro fileiras de plantas, com espaços de 1,0 x 0,5 m, contendo duas plantas por cova. Para mensurar os caracteres fenotípicos, cinco plantas competitivas, localizadas nas duas fileiras centrais da parcela, foram tomadas ao acaso. Os cruzamentos entre os grupos I [TVx-337-3F e Vita-4 (TVu 1977-OD] e II (Bengala e V-4 Alagoas podem resultar em produção de novas combinações gênicas, por serem divergentes e reunirem maior número de caracteres agronomicamente desejáveis. Os caracteres que mais contribuem para divergência genética são o comprimento da vagem (36,80% e o peso de 100 sementes (19,21%.This work aimed to determine the genetic divergence among cowpea cultivars [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] when grouped in a multivariate analysis concerning to select superior parents. So 16 cowpea cultivars were used from the germplasm bank of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias of the Universidade Federal do Ceará, in Brazil. The data were accomplished in complete randomized blocks, with six blocks, 16 treatments and three cultivar checks. The total area of experimental plots was 24 m² and the net area was 16 m², displayed in four rows, plants were spaced about 1.0 x 0.5 m with two plants in each plot. The phenotypic data were estimated from five competitive plants as casual samples on two central rows of each replicate. Breeding among the groups I [TVx-337-3F and

  10. Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the 15N isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Marciano de Medeiros Pereira; Muraoka, Takashi; Silva, Edson Cabral da

    2009-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the 15 N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N 2 fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg -1 soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of 15 N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

  11. Effets de Boscia senegalensis (Pers. Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae sur l'évolution des populations de bruches dans les systèmes de stockage traditionnel de niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp en zone sahélienne

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    Doumma, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of B. senegalensis (Pers. Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae on Bruchids Populations within Storage Traditional System of Cowpea beans (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp in Sahelian Area. Bruchidius atrolineatus Pic. (Coleoptera- Bruchidae and Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Coleoptera-Bruchidae are, in Sahelian area, the most important pests of cowpea beans, (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Cowpea infestation by these two species of bruchids starts in the field at the beginning of the plant fruit bearing and continues during storages where damage can be high if no control action is taken. In this study, the impact of several introductions of B. senegalensis (Pers. Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae, an insecticidal plant which is usually used by farmers in Niger, on the population dynamics of the two bruchids species in traditional cowpea storage system has been investigated. The results obtained from this study point out that bruchid populations are more important in the standard jars than in the one, which have received regular inputs of B. senegalensis. Thus, preservation action by regular inputs of B. senegalensis seems to be an efficient way to control bruchids in the cowpea traditional storage system.

  12. Controle genético do comprimento do pedúnculo em feijão-caupi Genetic control of peduncle length in cowpea

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    Maurisrael de Moura Rocha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o controle genético do caráter comprimento do pedúnculo em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata. Para isso, foi realizado um cruzamento entre os parentais TVx-5058-09C, de pedúnculo curto, e TE96-282-22G, de pedúnculo longo. Os parentais e as gerações F1, F2, RC1 (P1xF1 e RC2 (P2xF1 foram avaliados em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram estimados: variâncias fenotípica, genotípica, ambiental, aditiva e de dominância; herdabilidades no sentido amplo e restrito; grau médio de dominância e número mínimo de genes que determinam o caráter. O modelo aditivo-dominante foi adequado para explicar a variação observada. O efeito gênico aditivo foi o mais importante no controle do comprimento do pedúnculo, que é, aparentemente, controlado por cinco genes.The objective of this work was to investigate the genetic control of peduncle length in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.. A short peduncle cowpea line (TVx-5058-09C was crossed with a long peduncle line (TE 96-282-22G. The parents and the F1, F2, RC1 (P1xF1, and RC2 (P2xF1 generations were evaluated in randomized block design with four replications. Genotypic, phenotypic, environmental, additive, and dominance variances for peduncle length were determined. Narrow and broad sense heritability, the degree of dominance, and the minimum number of genes determining peduncle length were estimated. The additive-dominant model was adequate to explain the observed variation. The additive gene effect was the most important in controlling peduncle length, which appeared to be controlled by five genes.

  13. Physiological and molecular characterization of cowpea [Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diaga Diouf

    Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. presents phenotypical variabilities and in order to study the genetic diversity of cultivated Senegalese varieties, two experimental approaches were used. First, a physiological characterization based on nitrogen fixation was used to assess cowpea breeding lines. Inoculation with two ...

  14. Resistência de genótipos de caupi ao caruncho

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    BARRETO PAULO DIÓGENES

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de resistência genética ao ataque de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. tem sido alvo de investigação científica, especialmente no que diz respeito à identificação de fontes de resistência. O presente trabalho objetivou incorporar, ao grupo de caracteres desejáveis para o cultivo de caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., resistência genética ao caruncho (C. maculatus. Foram realizadas hibridações dos genótipos IT81D-1045 e IT81D-1064 (portadores de resistência ao inseto com CNCx 252-1E/FB, CNCx 187-22D-1 e BR 1-Poty (capazes de transferir resistência a viroses, tolerância à seca, formação de grãos com padrão comercial, elevado potencial de produção e adaptabilidade a diferentes condições ambientais. Populações segregantes obtidas destes cruzamentos foram conduzidas pelo método SPD (descendência de uma única vagem, e na geração F5 foram realizadas seleções individuais. As linhagens obtidas foram avaliadas em conjunto com materiais de origens diferentes, utilizando-se parâmetros associados à infestação da praga. Foi constatado que os genótipos avaliados apresentaram variabilidade quanto à preferência à postura, número de insetos emergidos e número de sementes danificadas; as linhas EVx 37-15E e EVx 37-2E foram as que sofreram menor dano causado pelo caruncho; as variáveis número de ovos, número de insetos emergidos e número de sementes danificadas mostraram-se positiva e significativamente correlacionadas entre si; o grupo das linhagens que descendem de genitores resistentes apresenta valores significativamente inferiores aos obtidos pelas demais, o que indica que a resistência ao inseto se transmite geneticamente.

  15. Impacto do aquecimento global no cultivo do feijão-caupi, no Estado da Paraíba Impact of global warming on the cowpea cultivation in the State of Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João H. B. da C. Campos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo se avaliam os impactos da mudança do clima com base nos relatórios do Painel Intergovernamental em Mudanças do Clima (IPCC, no zoneamento agrícola de riscos climáticos para a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cultivado em sistema de sequeiro, no Estado da Paraíba. Utilizou-se o modelo do balanço hídrico associado a técnicas de geoprocessamento, e se objetivou a identificação das regiões do Estado em que a cultura do feijão-caupi sofrerá restrições em face das mudanças climáticas. As variáveis consideradas no modelo foram precipitação pluvial, coeficientes de cultura, evapotranspiração potencial e duração das fases fenológicas da cultura. Adotou-se, como limite para o índice de satisfação da necessidade de água para a cultura (ISNA, o valor de 0,50. A data foi considerada adequada para a semeadura quando a simulação do balanço hídrico apresentou resultados de ISNA com frequência mínima de 80%, superior ao valor do critério adotado. Tendo em vista um aumento de temperatura do ar de 3 e 6 oC, como sugerido pelo IPCC, o cultivo do feijão-caupi sofrerá uma redução significativa nas áreas atualmente favoráveis ao seu cultivo no Estado da Paraíba.This study evaluates the impacts of climate change, based on the reports of the IPCC, on the agricultural zoning of climatic risk of the rainfed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp crop grown in the Paraíba state. The water balance model combined with GIS techniques was used for identifying areas in the state where the cowpea crop will suffer yield restrictions due to climate changes. Model input variables were: rainfall, crop coefficients, potential evapotranspiration and duration of the crop cycle. The limit value of 0.5 was adopted for the water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI. The date acceptable for seeding was that when the water balance simulation presented, for at least 80% minimum frequency, WRSI value greater than

  16. Obtenção de plantas de feijão-caupi resistentes ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus e ao Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

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    Gislanne Brito Barros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. destacam-se, respectivamente, pela severidade e ampla ocorrência o Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV e o Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV. Portanto, objetivaram-se, no presente trabalho, obter e avaliar plantas de feijão-caupi com resistência ao CPSMV e ao CABMV, visando ao desenvolvimento de cultivares essencialmente derivadas e novas cultivares. Realizaram-se oito cruzamentos seguidos de retrocruzamentos, utilizando a linhagem TE 97-309G-9 e a cultivar Patativa como genitores resistentes, e as cultivares BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba e Pretinho como genitores suscetíveis. As gerações F2 e F2RC1 foram desafiadas quanto à resistência por meio de inoculação mecânica com isolados do CPSMV e do CABMV. Nas gerações F2RC1, além da resistência foram avaliados os caracteres: número de dias para o início da floração, comprimento das vagens, número de grãos. vagem-1, peso de cem grãos e produção de grãos.planta-1. Todos os indivíduos F2 e F2RC1 foram analisados pelo teste χ² e se ajustaram à frequência esperada de 15 plantas suscetíveis 1 planta resistente a ambos os vírus. As médias das plantas F2RC1 resistentes, de cada retrocruzamento, foram comparadas com a média do seu respectivo genitor recorrente pelo teste 't' e as médias dos retrocruzamentos foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Foi detectada variabilidade genética entre os retrocruzamentos para todos os caracteres. Todos os retrocruzamentos foram considerados promissores para produção de cultivares essencialmente derivadas resistentes ao CPSMV e ao CABMV e as plantas selecionadas possuem características que possibilitam a seleção de linhagens com grãos de bom padrão comercial e altamente produtivas.

  17. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade da produtividade de grãos de genótipos de caupi enramador de tegumento mulato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freire Filho Francisco Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adaptabilidade e a estabilidade da produtividade de grãos de 16 genótipos de feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. utilizando o modelo de efeitos aditivos principais e interação multiplicativa. Os ensaios foram realizados em nove ambientes, locais e anos, da região Meio-Norte do Brasil, Estados do Piauí (PI e Maranhão (MA, no período de 1999 a 2001. Os efeitos de ambientes e interação genótipos x ambientes, e os dois primeiros eixos da análise de componentes principais da interação foram significativos (P<0,01. A análise de componentes principais explicou 61,25% da soma de quadrados da interação genótipos x ambientes. Os genótipos TE93-244-23F e TE93-213-12F-1 reuniram genes para adaptabilidade e estabilidade, os quais podem ser cultivados em todos os ambientes. Os genótipos BR 17-Gurguéia, Canapuzinho e EPACE-10 apresentaram as maiores médias de produtividade, mas foram instáveis e com adaptação específica a ambientes de alta qualidade. Os ambientes mais favoráveis para a produtividade de grãos foram Bom Jesus, PI, 2000; Palmeira do Piauí, PI, 2001 e Sambaíba, MA, 2000. Não houve tendência de agrupamento de locais por Estado e a distribuição foi equilibrada em termos de qualidade ambiental.

  18. ( Arachis hypogea L .) et du niébé ( Vigna ungiculata L. Walp).

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caractérisation des proteins de reserve des graines d'arachide ( Arachis hypogea L .) et du niébé ( Vigna ungiculata L. Walp). : Protein contents of two groundnuts ( Archis hypogea L.) and cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp).

  19. Estratégias de manejo de água em caupi irrigado Strategies of irrigation scheduling in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Sonsol Gondim

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido no período de setembro a dezembro de 1997, numa área irrigada da Fazenda Experimental do Vale do Curu, pertencente à Universidade Federal do Ceará, no município de Pentecoste, CE, localizada a 100 km de Fortaleza. O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a utilização do tensiômetro de mercúrio, do Tanque Classe A e da equação de Hargreaves, na determinação da lâmina de água a ser aplicada na irrigação. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e quatro repetições, enquanto os tratamentos foram representados pelos três diferentes métodos de estimação citados, de quando e quanto irrigar (Tratamento 1 - Tensiômetro; Tratamento 2 - Tanque Classe A e Tratamento 3 - equação de Hargreaves e a cultura utilizada foi o caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp para consumo em estado verde, cultivar João Paulo II, no espaçamento de 0,90 x 0,40 m, com duas plantas por cova, irrigada por aspersão convencional. A análise dos resultados constatou uma economia de água no tratamento 1, de 28 e 23%, em relação aos tratamentos 2 e 3, respectivamente, e também evidenciou a inexistência de diferenças significativas entre as produtividades alcançadas em todos os tratamentos. O tensiômetro pode ser indicado como instrumento de racionalização do uso da água em irrigação.A field study was conducted from September to December 1997 at the Federal University of Ceará Experimental Farm in Pentecoste, Brazil. The irrigation scheduling was based on a tensiometer, Class A pan evaporation and Hargreaves equation. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the three treatments (Treatment 1 - tensiometer, Treatment 2 - pan evaporation and Treatment 3 - Hargreaves equation with four replications in a completely randomized design. Sprinkler irrigated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, cultivar João Paulo II for fresh consumption was grown on the experimental area. Plants were spaced at 0.90 x 0

  20. PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF Vigna unguiculata IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Record keeping is a fundamental activity of public administration. Land Titles management in Nigeria, by virtue of the. Land use act 1990, is one of the functions of government. Most of the records hitherto used in managing the records of lands are documented on paper. We carried out an investigation into the suitability of ...

  1. PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF Vigna unguiculata IN A ...

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    Cephalic index is an important parameter for classifying populations. In the present study, one thousand students with age ranging from 18 to 25 years of Urhobo and Itsekiri origin from rural and urban areas of Delta State of Nigeria were measured. The study was aimed at determining possible similarities and differences in ...

  2. PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF Vigna unguiculata IN A ...

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    Exemplify Significance of Using Regional. Correlations,” SPE 37295, Oilfield CHEM. INT. SYMP (Houston, 2/18-21/97) PROC pp 733-. 737. Hemmati, M. N, and Kharrat, R., 2007. “A correlation. Approach for Prediction of Crude-Oil PVT. Properties,” SPE 15721. 5th Mid East Oil & Gas. Show & Conf., Bahrain, March 11-14.

  3. PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF Vigna unguiculata IN A ...

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    Blood was collected by cardiac puncture into EDTA sterilized sample bottles. Protein free blood was prepared and used for the analysis of glucose while whole blood was used for hemoglobin and hematocrit analysis; serum was prepared by centrifugation and used for serum total protein levels. The brain of each.

  4. Pathogenic Responses of Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) Inoculated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants that served as control were also inoculated with the virus but were sown in soil not amended with neem leaf powder. Results from the experiment indicated that amendment of the soil with neem-leaf powder produced plants that were less vulnerable to diseases occasioned by viruses. The rate and time of the ...

  5. PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF Vigna unguiculata IN A ...

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    components of the earth directly into high-energy carbohydrates, fat, and protein. These plant materials are absolutely essential to human nutrition as well as to .... (Unicam 969) using hollow cathode lamps in default condition and flame absorption mode. For reproducibility this analysis was carried out tries. RESULTS AND ...

  6. Molecular characterization of cultivated cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty eight accessions of cultivated cowpea were assessed using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram constructed revealed three main clusters when truncated at 65% similarity coefficient. All accessions showed high genetic variation ...

  7. PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF Vigna unguiculata IN A ...

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    Fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus were fed six isocaloric diets at different crude protein levels at 5% of body weight to determine the growth and ... no significant difference (p> 0.01) in apparent feed conversion ratio, but the nitrogen metabolism showed significant variations. ... complement existing knowledge. This study was.

  8. PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF Vigna unguiculata IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    haulm growth at the expense of the tubers (Ewing,. 1981), increased rate of respiration (Sale, 1974), reduced dry matter accumulation (Bushnell, 1925), delayed tuber initiation (Menzel, 1980, Nowak and. Coleborne, 1989) and maturity (Amadi, 2005) and a significant loss of tuber yield and quality (Levy, 1983,. 1984).

  9. PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF Vigna unguiculata IN A ...

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    apparent nutrients digestibility and hematological responses of broiler chickens. ..... 1.15. 1.25. 1.25. 1.25. 1.25. Bone meal. 3.0. 3.0. 3.0. 3.0. 3.0. 3.0. 3.0. 3.0. 3.0. 3.0. Salt (Nacl). 0.25. 0.25. 0.25. 0.25. 0.25. 0.25. 0.25. 0.25. 0.25. 0.25. Lysine. 0.10 ... Manganese (0.096g), Zinc (0.6g), Iron (0.024g), Copper (0.006g), Iodine.

  10. PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF Vigna unguiculata IN A ...

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    S. P. Malu, Department of Biochemistry, Cross River University of Technology, P. M. B. 1123 Calabar, Nigeria. E. N. Tawo ..... J. K., 1999. Leptin differentially regulates NPY and. POMP neurons Projecting to the Lateral hypothalamus area. Neuron 23: 775-786. Emmanuel, R. L., Thull, D. L, Girard, D. M and Majzoub,.

  11. PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF Vigna unguiculata IN A ...

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    by framework dealumination and gallium oxide incorporation led to an increase in catalytic activity. The catalytic activities of both parent ... regeneration of the coked sample was seen to completely restore the catalytic activity of both samples. KEY WORDS: Zeolite catalyst, ..... in reforming catalyst”. J. Catal. 89, 256 – 265.

  12. PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF Vigna unguiculata IN A ...

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    Homemade software based on the new analytical expressions of internal quantum efficiency is used to fit the experimental data. PACS: 73.50 ... have the theory that leads to the internal quantum efficiency, then in the second part we ..... great number of the recombination phenomenon in the polycrystalline silicon solar cells.

  13. PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF Vigna unguiculata IN A ...

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    nitrogen gas overnight at a temperature of 450oC. This treatment converts the NH4 - form of the zeolite into its H. – form. Testing of the catalyst was done by conversion of n-Butane at atmospheric pressure. The n-butane feed was supplied from a gas cylinder without any carrier gas. The reaction temperature was varied.

  14. PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF Vigna unguiculata IN A ...

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    of sleep and wakefulness between weeks 8 and 10 when the animals were in the classical diurnal sleepiness with 8 -. 10 sleep episodes and nocturnal restlessness. All the infected baboons died from the attendant disease between the. 8 and 10 weeks of infection. Treatment with Berenil or DFMO at 4 weeks post infection ...

  15. PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF Vigna unguiculata IN A ...

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    by performing statistical sampling experiments on a computer. In econometrics, while asymptotic properties of estimators obtained by using various econometric methods are deductive in character, an approach which is often described as analytical, small sample properties of such estimators have always been studied from.

  16. Pathogenic Responses of Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) Inoculated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out using potted plants arranged in a randomized complete block experimental design, to evaluate the pathogenic responses of Cowpea that was inoculated with cucumber mosaic virus to soil amendment with neem leaf powder. The amendments were applied at varying rates of 0.125Kg/10kg soil, ...

  17. PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF Vigna unguiculata IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Quadrature and in-phase measurements in vertical and horizontal dipole modes were undertaken on seventeen traverses of various ... The lower conductivity values obtained from the vertical dipole mode may be due to the high retarding ... metropolis and it drains the southern half of the city into. Owena River (Fig.1).

  18. PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF Vigna unguiculata IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    2003-07-20

    Jul 20, 2003 ... The thickness of these mantle deposits range from a few centimeters to tens of meters, and their morphology has been shaped by tectonics and meteorological processes. The loose ... (2000) who used open stand pipe piezometers in an analytical ... second measuring post and was tensioned so that there.

  19. PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF Vigna unguiculata IN A ...

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    100°C until constant weight was obtained before grinding into flour like sample and used for analysis. The minerals analyzed include ... drying at 100°C decreased the levels of all the vitamins, with sun drying exerting a greater reduction effects. Oven .... condition except in such situations like starvation, and extensive tissue ...

  20. Purification And Characterization Of Vigna unguiculata Cultiver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AspII had a Km value 1.25 mM for asparagine and a pH optimum at 8.0. Asp II had a temperature optimum and heat stability at 40 oC. The fodder cultivar asp II activity was specific for Lasparagine and did not hydrolyze D-asparagine. It is not specific for. L-glutamine. Ni2+ and Co2+ had activator effects on asp II but other

  1. PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF Vigna unguiculata IN A ...

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    define Record- keeping as a system used for creating, storing and otherwise managing records. It is a fundamental acitivity of public administration. Public servants must have information to carry out their work, and records represent a particular and crucial source of information. Records provides a reliable, legally verifiable ...

  2. (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) through Agrobacterium transformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... confers resistance to the non-selective herbicide Bialaphos as well as to the related compounds phosphinothricin (PPT) and glufosinate ammonium. ... Pods were harvested immediately upon drying. Seeds derived from the inoculated flower buds were planted out in sterilized soil in seed trays. A week after ...

  3. Inheritanceof seed coat colour pattern in cowpea [ Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inheritanceof seed coat colour pattern in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata) (L) Walp.] Y Mustapha. Abstract. Hybridization experiments were conducted in the screen house to study the inheritance of seed colour pattern in cowpea. Cowpea varieties of varying seed coat colour were used as parents for the investigation. Parental ...

  4. Effectiveness and efficiency of chemical mutagens in cowpea (Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... A study was undertaken in a cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) variety CO 6 to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of chemical mutagens; ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), diethyl sulphate (DES) and sodium azide (SA). EMS treatments were found highly effective than the other chemicals.

  5. Seed yield and agronomic parameters of cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes (two released cultivars and seven lines) were evaluated for grain yield and agronomic parameters at two locations within the Middle Black Sea region of Turkey for two years (2005 to 2006). Genotypes were evaluated for plant height, first pod height from ground, branches ...

  6. Effect Of Sprouting On Available Lysine Content Of Cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of sprouting on available Lysine content of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flour and the performance of the flour used for producing “moi – moi” (steamed bean cake). Cowpea seed was subjected to sprouting for different periods of 1 day, 2 days and 3 days for samples B, C and ...

  7. Preferência do pulgão-preto e da cigarrinha-verde em diferentes genótipos de feijão-caupi em Roraima = Preference of the black aphid and green leafhopper in different genotypes of cowpea in Roraima, Brazil

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    Hugo Falkyner da Silva Bandeira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de insetos praga está entre os fatores que mais afetam a produtividade do feijão-caupi. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a resistência de nove genótipos de feijão-caupi ao ataque do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch, 1854, e da cigarrinha-verde, (Empoasca sp., e a flutuação populacional de A. craccivora sobre a cultura, em condições de campo. Foram selecionados nove genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, a saber: BR-17 Gurgueia, BRS Guariba, BRS Cauamé, Pretinho Precoce 1, UFRR Grão Verde, Apiaú, Iracema, Cara-Preta e Sempre Verde. O delineamento experimental foi realizado em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcela subdividida, com quatro repetições. Cada variedade foi plantada em quatro linhas paralelas, considerando as duas fileiras centrais como área útil. A contagem dos pulgões foi feita diretamente na última folha trifoliolada completamente aberta, enquanto que a das cigarrinhas foi realizada pelo método da batida de plantas em bandeja com água. Nos genótipos BRS Cauamé, BRS Guariba e Pretinho Precoce 1 foram observados os menores índices de infestação por A. craccivora, apresentando, portanto, resistência do tipo não preferência em relação aos demais avaliados. O genótipo Apiaú mostrou-se suscetível a Empoasca sp., e os BR-17 Gurgueia, Cara-Preta, Sempre Verde, UFRR Grão Verde e BRS Cauamé foram os mais resistentes, em função da menor preferência pelas cigarrinhas, registrada, principalmente, aos 28 e 35 dias após a emergência das plantas. = The occurrence of insect pests is among the most important factors affecting cowpea productivity. This study aimed at evaluating the resistance of nine genotypes of cowpea attack in black aphid Aphis craccivora Koch, 1854, and of green leafhopper (Empoasca sp., and the population fluctuation of A. craccivora on culture, under field conditions. Nine cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp genotypes were chosen: BR-17

  8. Assessment of cowpea rhizobium diversity in Cerrado areas of northeastern Brazil Avaliação da diversidade de rizóbios nodulantes de caupi em áreas de Cerrado do nordeste do Brasil

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    Jerri Édson Zilli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to contribute for the optimization of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF associated with cowpea in Cerrado areas in the Northeast region of Brazil, this work aimed to analyze the diversity of rhizobial populations in eight areas of Cerrado, during a soybean and rice-cowpea rotation. Morphological traits (mucous production and colony morphology, genotypic analyzes (ARDRA 16S and intrinsic resistance to antibiotics were determined for a collection of isolates captured using cowpea as a host-plant. The morphological data showed a inverse correlation (p Com o objetivo de contribuir com a otimização do processo de fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN na cultura do caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp no Cerrado do nordeste brasileiro, a diversidade de isolados de rizóbio obtidos em oito áreas de Cerrado com rotação de cultura bianual com soja, arroz e caupi. Foram realizadas caracterizações morfológicas (produção de muco e morfologia das colônias, genotípicas baseadas em ARDRA do 16S rDNA e resistência a antibióticos. Os resultados da caracterização morfológica mostraram uma correlação inversamente proporcional (p < 0,05 do índice de diversidade de Shannon-Waver com o número de cultivos de leguminosas (caupi e soja. Os dados de ARDRA mostraram que no Cerrado nativo somente foram observados isolados de Bradyrhizobium elkanii, corroborando com dados da literatura. Nas áreas onde haviam sido cultivadas leguminosas ocorreram dois fatos distintos; onde somente cultivou-se soja houve maior proporção de B. japonicum e onde cultivou-se soja e caupi, ocorreu maior proporção de B. elkanii. A análise de resistência a antibióticos mostrou cinco diferentes perfis de resistência. Maior resistência de Bradyrhizobium spp. foi encontrada em áreas cultivadas há mais tempo, e menor na área nativa e/ou áreas com poucos cultivos. De forma geral, pode-se observar uma relação inversa entre a diversidade de rizóbios e a resist

  9. Caracterização físico-química do grândulo do amido do feijão caupi Physico-chemical characteristics of the granule of the starch of the cowpea bean

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    S.M. Salgado

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar quimica e fisicamente o amido de feijão caupi nos estádios de maturação em que o grão é consumido. Grãos verdes e maduros de feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp foram submetidos à determinação da composição centesimal: proteína por Kjeldahl, lipídio por Soxleth, umidade a 105º, cinzas a 550ºC, fibra alimentar por método gravimétrico-enzimático, carboidratos totais por diferença, amido total, glicídios redutores e não redutores, por óxido-redução em solução de Fehling. O amido isolado das distintas amostras foi analisado quanto ao amido resistente (baseado no uso de enzimas amilolíticas, amilose e amilopectina (por espectrofotometria e tipificação (difração de raio-X. Os dados paramétricos foram avaliados pelo teste t de Student. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que as frações de carboidratos diferiram em função do estádio de maturação dos grãos. O amido de feijão verde apresentou maior teor de amido resistente (AR tipo 2 em relação ao amido total e baixo conteúdo de amilose. A maturação influenciou nos padrões de cristalinidade, sendo encontrado padrão tipo C para o feijão verde e o A para o maduro. O estádio de maturação exerceu influência sobre aspectos qualitativos e quantitativos dos constituintes dos feijões. O aspecto morfológico dos grânulos de amido não sofreu influência do estádio de maturação dos grãos. O feijão verde apresenta um percentual da fibra alimentar solúvel compatível com a recomendação do FDA.This work aimed at characterizing the starch of the cowpea bean in the stages of maturation in which it is consumed both chemically and physically. The unripe and ripe grains of the cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp were submitted to determine the centesimal composition: protein by Kjeldahl, lipids by Soxleth, moisture at 105°C, ashes at 550°C, alimentary fiber by gravimetric-enzymatic method, total carbohydrates

  10. Caracterização genética de rizóbios nativos dos tabuleiros costeiros eficientes em culturas do guandu e caupi

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    Fernandes Marcelo Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar geneticamente sete estirpes de rizóbios nativos dos tabuleiros costeiros de Sergipe com alta eficiência de fixação biológica do N2 em associação com guandu (Cajanus cajan e caupi (Vigna unguiculata. A amplificação do DNA pela técnica de PCR (polymerase chain reaction com o oligonucleotídeo específico BOX indicou um grau elevado de diversidade genética, uma vez que todas as estirpes apresentaram perfis únicos de DNA. A análise por BOX-PCR revelou, ainda, que essa metodologia é eficiente para diferenciar estirpes, mas não para a diferenciação de espécies de rizóbio. Pela técnica do RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism da região do DNA que codifica o gene 16S rRNA e da região intergênica entre os genes 16S e 23S rRNA, com cinco enzimas de restrição, bem como pelo seqüenciamento parcial da região do 16S rRNA, foi possível classificar as estirpes nos gêneros Bradyrhizobium e Rhizobium. Houve coerência entre as análises envolvendo a região do 16S rRNA, mas o agrupamento com uma das estirpes diferiu pela análise do espaço intergênico. Os resultados obtidos com a estirpe R11 indicam variabilidade genética elevada em relação às espécies de rizóbios descritas, inclusive diferindo em diversas bases da região do 16S rRNA, e podem indicar uma nova espécie.

  11. Identificação de Genótipos de Feijão-caupi Tolerantes a Acidez em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo do Estado de Roraima = Identification of cowpea genotypes sensitivity to acidicy conditions in an Oxisol of Roraima State (Brazil.

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    Sandra Cátia Pereira Uchôa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp., tolerantes à acidez. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação localizada no Campus do Cauamé, da Universidade Federal de Roraima, utilizando um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo de Boa Vista-RR. Foi adotado o delineamento experimental de Blocos Inteiramente Casualizados em esquema fatorial 2 x 5 x 10 com três repetições. Os tratamentos resultaram de duas formas de localização do calcário (localizada e não-localizada, 5 profundidades (0-5; 5-10; 10-15; 15-20; 20-25 cm e 10 genótipos de feijão-caupi(IT85D-3428-4-R2,4-HM; Apiaú; Hikari Graúdo; Pretinho Precoce 1; IT85D-3428-4-3-HP; USA; UFRR Grão Verde; BRS-Mazagão; Canapum e Sempre Verde. A unidade experimental foi constituída por 2dm3 de solo, dispostos em tubo de PVC com 25cm de altura,10cm de diâmetro e duas plantas de feijão. Os tubos foram confeccionados por meio da junção de 5 anéis com 5 cm cada, sendo que no anel inferior foi colocada uma placa delgada de isopor para permitir a acomodação do solo. Aos 40 dias após a emergência, as plantas foram coletadas, sendo determinada à produção de matéria seca das raízes e parte aérea. Os genótipos IT85D-3428-4-3-HP e UFRRGRÃO VERDE foram classificados como sendo de baixa tolerância, os genótipos USA, BRS-Mazagão, IT85D-3428-4-R2,4-HM e Sempre Verde, medianamente tolerantes e os genótipos Apiaú, Hikari Graúdo, Pretinho Precoce 1 e Canapum, tolerantes à acidez.= This research was carried out objecting to identify the sensibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp genotypes to acidity conditions. The experiment was installed in a greenhouse located at Campus of Cauamé (Universidade Federal de Roraima in an oxisol of Roraima State (Brazil. The experimental design adopted was a completely andomized blocks in a factorial scheme 2 x 5 x 10 with three replicates. The terms of this factorial

  12. Preferência para alimentação e oviposição do manhoso, Chalcodermus bimaculatus Fiedler (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, em genótipos de feijão-caupi. = The feeding and oviposition preference of Chalcodermus bimaculatus Fiedler (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in cowpea genotype.

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    Antonio Cesar Silva Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a resistência do tipo antixenose de dez genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. ao manhoso (Chalcodermus bimaculatus Fiedler, em condições de campo. Os tratamentos consistiram de dez genótipos, sendo: Pretinho Precoce 1, UFRR Grão Verde, Apiaú, Iracema, BRS Mazagão, IT85D-3428-4-3-HP e IT85D-3428-4-R2-4-HM, Pingo de Ouro, Epace 10 e Pitiúba. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A parcela experimental (2,8 x 5,0 m continha quatro fileiras de 5,0 m, espaçadas de 0,70 m com área total de 14 m2, deixando-se após o desbaste cinco plantas por metro. O cultivo se deu em condições de campo nos anos agrícolas 2004 e 2005. As avaliações foram realizadas semanalmente coletando-se aleatoriamente 10 vagens (no ponto de grão verde de cada genótipo nas fileiras centrais das parcelas. No laboratório de Entomologia Agrícola do CCA/UFRR fazia-se a contagem do número de cicatrizes superficiais na vagem, número de grãos perfurados na vagem, comprimento da vagem e o número de grãos cheios na vagem. Concluiu-se que BRS Mazagão apresenta resistência do tipo não-preferência para oviposição de C. bimaculatus; que Pingo de Ouro foi o mais preferido pelo manhoso tanto para alimentação quanto para a oviposição; e que há correlação positiva entre o número de cicatrizes superficiais por 10 cm de vagem do feijão-caupi e a percentagem de grãos perfurados na vagem. = The objective of this study was to evaluate the type antixenosis resistance of 10 cowpea genotypes, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., (Pretinho Precoce 1, UFRR Grão Verde, Apiaú, Iracema, BRS-Mazagão, IT85D-3428-4-3-HP and IT85D-3428-4-R2-4-HM, Pingo de Ouro, Epace 10, and Pitiúba to curculio, Chalcodermus bimaculatus Fiedler, during field conditions. Theexperimental design used consisted of randomized blocks with four replications. The genotypes were sowed in field

  13. Diversity and efficiency of bradyrhizobium strains isolated from soil samples collected from around sesbania virgata roots using cowpea as trap species Diversidade e eficiência simbiótica de estirpes de bradyrhizobium capturadas próximo ao sistema radicular de sesbania virgata usando caupi como planta-isca

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    Ligiane Aparecida Florentino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of ten Bradyrhizobium strains was evaluated for tolerance to high temperatures, to different salinity levels and for the efficiency of symbiosis with cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.. Eight of these strains were isolated from nodules that appeared on cowpea after inoculation with suspensions of soil sampled from around the root system of Sesbania virgata (wand riverhemp in ecosystems of South Minas Gerais. The other two strains used in our analyses as references, were from the Amazon and are currently recommended as cowpea inoculants. Genetic diversity was analyzed by amplifying repetitive DNA elements with the BOX primer, revealing high genetic diversity with each strain presenting a unique band profile. Leonard jar assays showed that the strains UFLA 03-30 and UFLA 03-38 had the highest N2-fixing potentials in symbiosis with cowpea. These strains had more shoot and nodule dry matter, more shoot N accumulation, and a higher relative efficiency than the strains recommended as inoculants. All strains grew in media of pH levels ranging from 4.0 to 9.0. The strains with the highest N2-fixing efficiencies in symbiosis with cowpea were also tolerant to the greatest number of antibiotics. However, these strains also had the lowest tolerance to high salt concentrations. All strains, with the exceptions of UFLA 03-84 and UFLA 03-37, tolerated temperatures of up to 40 ºC. The genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the eight strains isolated from soils of the same region were highly variable, as well as their symbiotic efficiencies, despite their common origin. This variability highlights the importance of including these tests in the selection of cowpea inoculant strains.Dez estirpes de rizóbios, sendo oito isoladas de amostras de solos coletadas próximo ao sistema radicular de Sesbania virgata, no Sul de Minas Gerais, e duas recomendadas como inoculante para o caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. usadas como refer

  14. Effect of phospho-compost on growth and yield of cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of phospho-compost on the growth and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was studied at Juaboso in the Western Region of Ghana. It was a factorial experiment arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Phospho-compost, prepared from phosphate rock, cocoa pod husk, sawdust ...

  15. Effets des cultures de soja ( Glycine max ) et de niébé ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effets des cultures de soja ( Glycine max ) et de niébé ( Vigna unguiculata ) sur la densité apparente et la teneur en eau des sols et sur la productivité du riz pluvial de plateau sur ferralsol hyperdystrique.

  16. Effets De La Cuisson Ou De L\\'extrusion Du Niebe ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 160 23 days old males Hubbard broilers chicks, were used to evaluate the effect of treatment of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) on feed consumption, growth, feed conversion ratio, feed conversion efficiency, carcass characteristics and creatinine level in serum of finisher broilers. The experimental rations contained ...

  17. Aspectos fisiológicos do feijão-caupi e crescimento de tiririca (Cyperus rotundus L. sob competição em solo compactado

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    E. N. Silva Terceiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vários fatores estão envolvidos na interferência das plantas daninhas sobre as culturas e os aspectos fisiológicos ainda são pouco estudados. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a interferência de diferentes populações de Cyperus rotundus L. e da compactação do solo nos caracteres fisiológicos do feijão-caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] e na fenologia de C. rotundus. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação no Centro de Ciências e Tecnologia Agroalimentar da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, CCTA/UFCG, Campus de Pombal-PB. As unidades experimentais foram compostas por vasos com capacidade de 6 litros. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, sendo os fatores três populações de C. rotundus (0, 2 e 3 tubérculos por vaso e dois níveis de compactação (solo sem compactação e solo com subsuperfície compactada artificialmente, com quatro repetições. Foram coletados os dados de: taxa de assimilação de CO2 (µmol m-2 s-1, transpiração (mmol de H2O m-2 s-1, condutância estomática (mol de H2O m-2 s-1 e concentração interna de CO2, com um analisador de gás infravermelho – IRGA LCpro (Infra-red Gas Analyzer. Com relação a Cyperaceae, foram coletados os seguintes dados: produção de fitomassa fresca e seca e relação raiz/parte aérea, número de tubérculos por vaso, produção diária de tubérculos e produção de tubérculos por unidade plantada; os quais foram submetidos à análise da variância e teste de médias, quando necessário. A presença de C. rotundus, reduziu a fotossíntese líquida do feijão-caupi de forma mais intensa do que a compactação do solo. C. rotundus expressou notável capacidade de reprodução vegetativa.Physiological Characters of Cowpea and Growth of nut grass (Cyperus rotundus L. under competition in the soil compressiveAbstract - Several factors are involved in weed interference on crops and physiological

  18. Viabilidade de sementes de feijão caupi após o tratamento com óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt)

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier,M.V.A.; Oliveira,C.R.F.; Brito,S.S.S.; Matos,C.H.C.; Pinto,M.A.D.S.C.

    2012-01-01

    O tratamento de sementes com óleos essenciais é um método alternativo que auxilia o manejo integrado de pragas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tratamento de sementes de feijão Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. com o óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt). Foi avaliado o efeito do óleo essencial de C. winterianus sobre V. unguiculata nas dosagens 20 μL, 15 μL, 10 μL, 5 μL e testemunha. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi determina...

  19. Rôle de l'intensité lumineuse sur les capacités parasitaires d'Eupelmus orientalis Crawford et d'Eupelmus vuilleti Crawford, parasitoïdes des Bruchidae ravageurs de graines de niébé (Vigna unguiculata Walp.

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    Ndoutoume-Ndong A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Role of light intensity on parasitic capacities of Eupelmus orientalis Crawford and Eupelmus vuilleti Crawford, parasitoids of Bruchidae pests of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp. seeds. In tropical Africa, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius is a cowpea pest. After the harvest, the disappearance of one of C. maculatus parasitoids (Eupelmus orientalis Crawford limits the duration of stocks conservation. In this study, we used an experimental model imitating the traditional african granaries taking into account the lack of airtightness and the variability of the internal luminous intensity of the different types of granaries. Three kinds of cages were used: cages with an internal luminous intensity of 380 lux, cages with an internal luminous intensity of 3.5 lux, and some others with an internal luminous intensity of 0.2 lux. Four little holes are pierced on the sides of each cage. Each hole was provided with a trap to catch the insects that escaped. Inside each cage, 20 E. orientalis and Eupelmus vuilleti Crawford nymphs were placed. In adult stage, the insects faced a choice of either to escape, or to stay in the cage and then parasitize available hosts. The trapped individuals as well as those remaining in the cage are sorted out by species. Available hosts in the cage which had parasites are also sorted out. The results show that the E. orientalis females born in the cage hardly parasitize available hosts and escape in majority compared to E. vuilleti which stay in the cages. In 380 lux cages, 19% of E. orientalis females escape compared to 6% of E. vuilleti. This percentage of evasion increases with the darkning of the enclosure. Thus, 62% of E. vuilleti females escape from the cages of 3.5 lux and only 11% escape from the cages of 0.2 lux. The majority of E. orientalis individuals escape right from birth, which therefore explains their disappearance from storage. This escape behaviour constitutes a factor limiting the use of this parasitoid as

  20. Systèmes de cultures améliorés à base de niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp pour une meilleure gestion de la sécurité alimentaire et des ressources naturelles en zone semi-aride du Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoundi, JS.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved Cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Based Cropping Systems for Food Security and Natural Resource Management Enhancement in Semi-Arid Burkina Faso. Des plants au stade 4 feuilles de deux cultivars de fraisier, Darselect et Elsanta, ont été scindés en cinq lots et cultivées durant 10 semaines sous différents régimes thermique et photopériodique: [1] une température basse (3 °C associée à 8 h (4 semaines puis transférés à une température élevée (20 °C associée à 8 h ou 16 h (6 semaines ou bien [2] une température élevée (20 °C associée à 8 h et 16 h (10 semaines ou 8 h (4 semaines suivis de 16 h (6 semaines. Les résultats obtenus montrent que le pré-traitement thermique de 4 semaines détermine la croissance et l'état inflorescentiel des plants qui sera mesuré dès leur transfert à une température élevée (20 °C en présence des jours courts ou des jours longs durant 6 semaines. En effet, les températures élevées (20 °C augmentent le nombre de feuilles/plant, améliorent la surface foliaire totale et la longueur du pétiole, tandis que les basses températures (3 °C avancent le stade d'émergence du bourgeon terminal et accélèrent la croissance de son axe inflorescentiel. Dans ce cas, le transfert des plants de jours courts en jours longs favorise la croissance de l'axe inflorescentiel et la longueur du pétiole (Elsanta.

  1. Resposta do feijão-caupi as lâminas de irrigação e as doses de fósforo no cerrado de Roraima Response of cowpea to water levels and phosphate fertilizer on the savanna of Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Almeida Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar o comportamento do feijão-caupi (Vigna ungüiculata (L. Walp. cv. BRS Novaera sob quatro lâminas de água (273; 257; 241 e 187 mm e doses de fósforo (0; 70; 140; 210 kg ha-1 de P2O5, aplicados na forma de superfosfato triplo, em Boa Vista, Roraima. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas pelas lâminas de água e as sub parcelas pelas doses de fósforo, resultando em 16 tratamentos. A irrigação foi realizada por um sistema convencional de aspersão, montado no campo segundo o sistema de "aspersão em linha". As massas seca da parte aérea e de 100 grãos foram influenciadas significativamente pela interação entre lâminas de água e doses de fósforo, enquanto o número de grãos por vagem e o comprimento da vagem foram influenciados somente pelas doses de fósforo. A dose de máxima eficiência econômica foi de 89,45 kg de P2O5, com produtividade de 1.306 kg ha-1.This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of irrigation depth and phosphate fertilizer (0; 70; 140; 210 kg ha-1 de P2O5 on yield and production components of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. Novaera at the Savanna of Roraima, Brazil. The experimental design was arranged in a completely randomized block in split-plot and four replications. Irrigation depths were applied through a sprinkler line source system. The principal treatments constituted on the depths of irrigation and the secondary treatments by the phosphate fertilizer. Significant effects (p < 0.05 of the depth of irrigation and phosphate fertilizer interaction with aerial mass production and mass of 100 grains were observed. The number of grains per pods and size of pod were affected by the phosphate fertilizer only. The highest economical yield (1,306 kg ha-1 was obtained by 89.45 kg of P2O5.

  2. Efeito de extratos vegetais no controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum em sementes de caupi Effect of naturals extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum in cowpea seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandiê Araújo da Silva

    2009-04-01

    environment. The present work had the objective to compare the effect of natural extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphlum, originated from seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L, compared to chemical fungicide effect. Extracts of Allium sativum, Anadenanthera colubrine, and Ocimum basilicum were used alone or in combination with Mancozeb. A 50 µL aliquot of each treatment was added in a hole (6 mm of diameter made in the center of Petri dishes with BDA and a fungus mycelia disk was inoculated on it. Evaluations were done during seven days, measuring the pathogen mycelial growth. Seeds of cowpea were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite, sowed in plastic bags with autoclaved soil. Eight days after germination, wounds were made on the basal part of the plantlets, and fungus spore suspension (1.4 x 10-5 con/mL was applied on it. Evaluations of the disease severity were accomplished daily during 30 days after inoculation, using a disease index. Combination of extracts of A. sativum + Ocimum basilicum and Anadenanthera colubrina + Ocimum basilicum did not reduce fungus mycelial growth, whereas Ocimum basilicum extract alone showed minor mycelial growth, indicating fungicide action of this treatment on F. oxysporum f. sp tracheipphlum under the conditions studied. Combination of Mancozeb + Anadenanthera colubrina was responsible for lower average of severity on the evaluated plants.

  3. Bradyrhizobium vignae sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing symbiont isolated from effective nodules of Vigna and Arachis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönemeyer, Jann Lasse; Hurek, Thomas; Bünger, Wiebke; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Twenty one strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of local races of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) grown on subsistence farmers' fields in the Kavango region of Namibia, were previously characterized as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To verify their taxonomic position, the strains were further analysed using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequences were most similar to Bradyrhizobium manausense BR 3351T, with Bradyrhizobium ganzhouense RITF806T being the most closely related type strain in the phylogenetic analysis, and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense CCBAU 10071T in the ITS sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated glnII-recA-rpoB-dnaK placed the strains in a highly supported lineage distinct from species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names; they were most closely related to Bradyrhizobium subterraneum 58 2-1T. The status of the species was validated by results of DNA-DNA hybridization. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests, including carbon source utilization and antibiotic resistance, could be used to differentiate representative strains of species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names. Novel strain 7-2T induced effective nodules on Vigna subterranea, Vigna unguiculata, Arachis hypogaea and on Lablab purpureus. The DNA G+C content of strain 7-2T was 65.4 mol% (Tm). Based on the data presented, we conclude that these strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium vignae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain 7-2T [LMG 28791T, DSMZ 100297T, NTCCM0018T (Windhoek)] as the type strain.

  4. Vigna subterranea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetunji, Adewole T; Lewu, Francis B; Mundembe, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Ammonium transporters (AMTs) play a role in the uptake of ammonium, the form in which nitrogen is preferentially absorbed by plants. Vigna subterranea (VsAMT1) and Solanum tuberosum (StAMT1) AMT1s were characterized using molecular biology and bioinformatics methods. AMT1-specific primers were designed and used to amplify the AMT1 internal regions. Nucleotide sequencing, alignment and phylogenetic analysis assigned VsAMT1 and StAMT1 to the AMT1 family. The deduced amino acid sequences showed that VsAMT1 is 92% and 89% similar to Phaseolus vulgaris PvAMT1.1 and Glycine max AMT1 respectively, while StAMT1 is 92% similar to Solanum lycopersicum LeAMT1.1, and correspond to the 5th-10th trans-membrane domains. Residues VsAMT1 D23 and StAMT1 D15 are predicted to be essential for ammonium transport, while mutations of VsAMT1 W1A-L and S87A and StAMT1 S76A may further enhance ammonium transport. In addition to nitrogen uptake from the roots, VsAMT1 may also contribute to interactions with rhizobia.

  5. Detection of Aflatoxin Producing Aspergillus flavus in Post-harvest Contaminated Vigna ungulculata Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar Gautam

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out with a specific objective to study postharvest spoilage of Lobhiya (Vigna unguiculata) seeds contaminated with Aspergillus flavus. Infected seeds were collected and cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA) media, at 25±2 °C. Aspergillus flavus isolates were primarily characterized by its morphological and microscopic characteristics. Collected fungal isolates were also screened for their afaltoxigenic nature on preliminary basis and at molecul...

  6. Genetic linkage map of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic linkage maps provide a genomic framework for quantitative trait loci identification applied in marker assisted selection breeding in crops with limited resources. It serves as a powerful tool to breeders for analysing the mode of inheritance of genes of interest and monitoring of the transmission of target genes from ...

  7. Field evaluation of Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials to screen twelve varieties of cowpea for resistance to major insect pests were conducted over two planting seasons (2002 and 2003) at the Teaching and Research Farm of the College of Agricultural Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye. Results showed that varietal resistance to insect pests in ...

  8. Studies on the nutritive value of cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata ) | Nell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DE) and true metabolizable energy (TME) when determined in pigs and poultry respectively. Monsters van 150 verskillende akkerboonkultivars, afkomstig van die kultivarstudies van die Somergraan Instituut by Potchefstroom, is ontleed en het ...

  9. Genetic variability in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fodder production and for weed control in forestry planta- tions (Kay 1979). Cowpea is widely grown in both high and low rainfall areas of South Africa (Kay 1979). It is a highly nutritious legume crop (Kay 1979). The seeds contain small amounts of β-carotene (precursor of vitamin. A), thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid and ...

  10. Genetic linkage map of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR.ADETUNMBI

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... Constructed map provides basic information that could assist in genetic improvement of .... mix contains two universal (FRET) fluorescent resonance energy transfer cassettes. (FAM and HEX), ROX™ passive reference dye, Taq polymerase, free nucleotides and MgCl2 in an optimized buffer solution, while ...

  11. Effects of feeding different levels of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of feeding diets containing different levels of raw cowpea on the histomorphometry of the small intestine and ... lysed for their pH and moisture content while osmolarity and the levels of electrolytes, glucose and protein were determined ..... higher the accompanying bacterial fermentation of carbohy- drates, as ...

  12. Transgene expression in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen transformation shows potential as a fast and easy means of obtaining transformed plants carrying desirable transgenes. Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been suggested as the best natural plant genetic engineering system. Laboratory and screenhouse studies were undertaken to investigate the possibility of ...

  13. Timing of insecticidal application in vigna unguiculata (l.) Walp, cv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the 1990 planting, there was no significant difference in yield of treated and untreated plants (P = 0.05), but all treatments except at 7 DEA significantly reduced pod damage by the legume pod borer, Maruca testulalis Geyr. Though some of the treatments significantly reduced the percentage of seed damage when ...

  14. Characterization of mutant cowpea [ Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogenetic relationship and polymorphism was detected in 10 cowpea lines comprising of leaf, flower and stem mutants, their putative parents and an exotic accession using 10 random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) and three primer combinations of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers.

  15. Fungal species associated with Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (Cowpea)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem, Botryodiplodia theobromae (Pat) Novel, Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht and Rhizopus stolonifer Ehrenb ex Link were isolated from both blotter and agar methods. Botryodiplodia theobromae had the highest mean occurrence (42.37%) followed by Fusarium oxysporum (30.02%), Aspergillus ...

  16. FIXING ABILITY OF COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sys01

    2011-09-03

    Sep 3, 2011 ... The nodule count and N-fixed were determined at. 3, 6, and 12 weeks .... broiler poultry pen. The nitrogen of the poultry manure sample was determined using micro-. Kjeldahl method. For the determination of P, 5 ml of sample solution ..... did not lead to increase in cowpea nodulation count which might ...

  17. Adaptations of cowpea varieties ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was realized in the context of farmer management of genotype by environment interaction. The objective was to determine the agronomic and morphological characteristics commonly used by farmers to assess farmer named cowpea varieties through a joint farmer researcher characterization. The trial design was ...

  18. Characteristic properties of lipase from cowpea (vigna unguiculata) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahoja, V.M.; Dahot, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    Lipase activity was assayed in 4 days old cowpea seedlings using olive oil emulsion stabilized with 10% gum acacia as a substrate. The maximum lipase activity was observed at pH 8.0 with Tris-HCI buffer and at 30 degree C. The pH stability was found in between 7.5-8.5. Lipase activity was fairly stable up to 60 degree C and retaining 80% activity whereas, 26% lipase activity was remaining at 100 degree C within 15 minutes. Lipase activity was slightly increased in the presence of MnC/sub 2/ and decreased by the addition of Triton X 100, Tween 80, ZnCI/sub 2/ and mercaptoethanol. (author)

  19. Performance of Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata [l.] Walp.) Genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study was performed with thirty-six cowpea genotypes to determine their performance for yield and yield related attributes in two pooled locations in a randomized system accross three replicates. Measurement of their different genetic parameters indicated high values of genetic variances for grain yield ...

  20. Nutritional aspects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fortified cookies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A. E.; Osman, Y.; Yousif, H.

    2003-01-01

    Defatted cowpea flour was used to replace 10%, 20% and 30% of wheat flour in cookies. The wheat flour and cowpea-fortified cookies were prepared with standardized levels of ingredients. Chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and sensory characteristics of the different cookies were investigated. The fortification with cowpea flour increased the contents of moisture, ash, protein, crude fibre, calcium, phosphorus and reducing non-reducing and total sugars. The fortification resulted in slight reduction in the in vitro digestibility. The products were accepted by the panelists who gave high scores for most of the attributes, although the fortification with more than 10% cowpea flour significantly (P<0.05) affected those attributes when compared with the control sample.(Author)

  1. Assessment of Phaseolus vulgaris L and Vigna unguiculata (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (L.) Walp leaves for antifungal metabolites against two bean fungal pathogens Colletotricum lindemuthianum and Phaeoisariopsis griseola. Diana Alexandra Norena-Ramirez, Oscar Julian Velasguez-Ballesteros, Elizabeth Murillo-Perea, John Mendez-Arteaga, Joze Fernando Solanilla-Duque, Walter Murillo-Arango ...

  2. Screening cowpea [ Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] varieties by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of water deficit induced by polyethylene glycol-6000 on some cowpea varieties, which belong to the national germplasm in Senegal are reported. Our results showed that, the length of the epicotyl was not affected by water deficit but the length of primary root was influenced only in Mouride variety. Water deficit ...

  3. Storing cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds in active cattle kraals for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-10-09

    Oct 9, 2012 ... controls, ACK had reduced the final weevil population density by 76 to 82%, floating seeds by 86 to 98% and damaged sunken seeds by 36 ... management systems are still being practiced at the farmer level, particularly in ... pest management technologies to manage storage pests. (Ngobeni and Mashela ...

  4. Adoption of improved cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ghana Grains Development Project has developed and disseminated improved cowpea production technologies to farmers in Ghana since 1985. These technologies were improved varieties, row planting, and the use of pre- and post-flowering insecticides. To assess the extent of adoption of these technologies by ...

  5. Effect of variety mixtures on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jokonya

    1Institute of Agronomy in the Tropics, Georg-August-Universität, Grisebachstr. 6,. 37077 Götttingen, Germany. 2Global Program of Integrated Crop and Systems Research, International Potato. Center (CIP), P.O. Box 22274, Kampala, Uganda. 3Tropical Forages Program, International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT),.

  6. Screening Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (l) walp) lines for infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, CABMV and BCMV-BlC did not infect IT85F-2687 and Futo Coiled. SBMV and BCMV-BlC did not cause infection in IT86D-371, similarly, CMeV and SBMV did not cause infections CP-VAR8. CMeV and BCMV-BlC significantly (p < 0.05) reduced cowpea yield in 27 varieties, CABMV in 23 and SBMV in 14.

  7. Stable gene transformation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. walp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The size of microcarriers, microflight distance and helium pressure significantly affected transient expression of reporter genes. A total of 1692 explants were bombarded with DNA-coated particles and placed on 3 mg/l bialaphos selective medium. Only 12 regenerated shoots produced seeds eventually, and all were Gus ...

  8. Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) Performance and yield as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatments consisted of 0, 20, 40 and 60 kgP ha-1 arranged in randomized complete block design with three replicates. The results indicated that P application significantly influenced growth of cowpea with maximum vine length, number of branches, number of leaves, number of nodules and dry matter yield of 97.4cm, ...

  9. Comportamento agronômico e qualidade culinária de feijão-caupi no Vale do São Francisco Agronomic and cooking quality of cowpea evaluated in the São Francisco valley, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio F Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o comportamento de 64 linhagens e quatro cultivares de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., em dois experimentos de diferentes densidades populacionais, em diversos ambientes do Vale do São Francisco em 2004 e 2005, em regime irrigado ou de sequeiro, visando à recomendação de cultivares para a região. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em blocos ao caso, com três repetições, nas densidades de 100.000 e 200.000 plantas/ha, tendo sido analisados a produtividade, parâmetros genéticos, tolerância as algumas viroses, peso de 100 grãos, dias para a maturação e variáveis de qualidade tecnológica dos grãos. Observou-se forte interação genótipo x ambiente para as variáveis analisadas. Os valores médios observadas no experimento sob irrigação superaram aqueles do experimento de sequeiro em mais que o dobro, nas duas densidades populacionais. Algumas linhagens não apresentaram sintomas de virose, sendo que as cultivares BR 17 Gurguéia e Canapu foram as mais suscetíveis. O peso médio de 100 grãos foi em torno de 20 g nas duas densidades de plantio. O 'Canapu' apresentou o maior valor de embebição de água antes do cozimento, diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos. O valor de embebição de água após o cozimento apresentou correlação negativa significativa com a taxa de expansão volumétrica dos grãos após o cozimento. A linhagem PC 95-05-12-2-2 que apresentou valores próximos de 1,0 (sem sintomas para as viroses, produtividade superior à média, adaptabilidade de grãos foi recomendada para a região com o nome de 'BRS Pujante'.We evaluated 64 lines and four cultivars of cowpea, in two different trials of planting density, under some environments of the São Francisco valley during the years 2004 and 2005, under rainfed and irrigated conditions, with the objective of identifying an adequate cowpea cultivar for the region. The trials were conducted in a randomized blocks design, with

  10. PÓ DE FOLHAS SECAS E VERDES DE NIM SOBRE A QUALIDADE DAS SEMENTES DE FEIJÃO CAUPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiana Cleuma de Medeiros

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With objective to study the effect of the powder of neem (Azadirachta indica L. dryness and green leaves on the quality of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seeds, was installed an experiment in the technology of seeds laboratory of the ESAM-RN. Was utilized seeds drip-gold cultured originated of Sierra of honey municipality, submitted four doses (0,25; 050; 0,75; 1,0g by fifty seeds of powder of neem dryness and green leaves. The experiment was in completely randomized design with eight replications in a factorial arrangement 2 x 4 + 1. The values were submitted variance analyses and compared through tukey test with 1% probability used SISVAR program. NPDL and NPGL caused no toxic effect to seedlings as evaluated through first count of emergenced seedlings, germination rate and dry matter loss in seedlings.

  11. CRESCIMENTO DO FEIJÃO-CAUPI IRRIGADO COM ÁGUA RESIDUÁRIA DE ESGOTO DOMÉSTICO TRATADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JONATAS RAFAEL LACERDA REBOUÇAS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate foliar production of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. was accomplished in an experiment under greenhouse conditions. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design with six treatments: T1 - tap water; T2, T3, and T4 mixture of wastewater and tap water (25-75%; 50-50% and 75-25%, respectively, T5 - wastewater only, and T6 - tap water + mineral fertilization, and four replications. The results showed that increasing the proportion of wastewater in the treatments T2 to T5 there was a simultaneous increase in dry mater production of root, stem and leaf. In the absence of mineral fertilization, soils irrigated with treated wastewater were able to attend nutritional requirements of the tested plant, proving wastewater to be a viable source of water and nutrients for plants.

  12. Variability pattern within 65 accessions of African wild vigna - Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variability pattern within 65 accessions of African wild vigna - Vigna ambacensis Baker. MA Adebayo, CO Aremu. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Genetics Vol. 19 2005: pp. 1-8. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  13. Comparative nutritional analysis between Vigna radiata and Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vigna radiata (mung bean) and Vigna mungo (mash bean) of the family Fabaceae are among staple food in Pakistan. The experiments were conducted on these beans to determine the proximate composition such as moisture, ash, fibre, fat and protein content. The protein isolates from V. radiata and V. mungo was ...

  14. Distribution of Bio-accumulated Cd and Cr in two Vigna species and the Associated Histological Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratheesh Chandra, P.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In nutrient culture experiments, bioaccumulation and anatomical effects of cadmium (CdCl2 - 20μM and chromium (K2Cr2O7 - 600 μM on the structure of root and stem was studied by histochemical and analytical methods in Vigna radiata and Vigna unguiculata. Each metal exerted specific influences on the anatomy of various tissues in root and stem. Histochemical localisation of cadmium and chromium was observed in the stained sections of root and stem. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric study revealed maximum accumulation of cadmium and chromium in the root tissue as compared to shoot with significant variation among the species. Abundant occurrences of densely stained deposits of chromium were seen in the root stelar region of V. unguiculata and to a lesser extend in V. radiata. Cadmium accumulation in V. radiata was comparatively more than that of V. unguiculata. The findings also revealed that the accumulation pattern of cadmium and chromium varies between species and hence is species specific.

  15. Métodos para avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de feijão vigna Methods for evaluation of physiological quality of vigna bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonieta Laurinda Francisco Bias

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Visando comparar diferentes testes de vigor quanto à avaliação da qualidade fisiológica, quatro lotes de sementes de feijão vigna (Vigna unguiculata W. de duas cultivares ('EPACE-10' e 'IPA-206' foram armazenados por 180 dias (novembro/94 a maio/95, em condições normais de ambiente em Pelotas, RS. Bimestralmente, foram conduzidos testes de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, condutividade elétrica, frio sem solo, emergência de plântulas em campo e peso de matéria seca da parte aérea das plântulas. A análise e a interpretação dos resultados indicaram que a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de feijão vigna deve ser fundamentada no conjunto das informações fornecidas por diferentes testes de vigor. O teste de frio sem solo, dentre os testes estudados, é o que apresenta melhor relação com a emergência das plântulas em campo. O peso de matéria seca da parte aérea das plântulas não é eficiente na separação de lotes de sementes de feijão vigna em diferentes níveis de vigor.The aim of this research was to compare vigor tests for seed quality evaluation. Four seed lots of vigna bean (Vigna unguiculata W. of two cultivares (EPACE-10 and IPA-206, were stored for six months (november/94 to may/95 at natural environmen conditions of Pelotas, RS, Brazil and evaluated at two month intervals, throught the following tests: germination, accelerated aging, cold test without soil, electrical condutivity, seedling dry weight and field emergence tests. The analysis and interpretation of the results showed that the evaluation of the physiological quality of vigna bean seeds needs to be based on different vigor tests. Among the tests, the cold test without soil was the best related with seedling field emergence. The seedling dry weight was not effective to separate vigna bean seed lots in different vigor levels.

  16. Detection of Aflatoxin Producing Aspergillus flavus in Post-harvest Contaminated Vigna ungulculata Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Gautam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with a specific objective to study postharvest spoilage of Lobhiya (Vigna unguiculata seeds contaminated with Aspergillus flavus. Infected seeds were collected and cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA media, at 25±2 °C. Aspergillus flavus isolates were primarily characterized by its morphological and microscopic characteristics. Collected fungal isolates were also screened for their afaltoxigenic nature on preliminary basis and at molecular level. For preliminary screening, 5 mm disc of fungal culture was soaked with few drops of liquid ammonia. Color change from yellow pigment to plum-red with different intensities showed the mycotoxic nature of the fungus. DNA from fungal isolates was isolated and amplified using PCR with aflatoxin specific primers, apa-2, ver-1 and omt-1. Amplicons of 1032 bp, 895 bp and 596 bp were obtained in most of the isolates regardless of primer set used which was useful to differentiate between mycotoxic and nontoxic isolates of A. flavus. The isolation of aflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus during post-harvest period of lobhiya seeds raise a serious concern over the quality of seeds and a threat to heath of consumers. It was concluded that Aspergillus flavus is responsible for postharvest spolilage of Lobhiya (Vigna unguiculata.

  17. Barrières pré-zygotiques chez les hybrides entre formes sauvages du niébé, Vigna unguilata (L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudoin JP.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrids pre-zygotic barriers between wild forms of cowpea. The wild forms of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, constitute an important gene pool insufficiently exploited for the improvement of the cultivated form. In order to promote the use of these wild forms in the genetic improvement programmes, we undertook to understand the various incompatibility reactions which appear in the crosses between wild forms. Efforts were concentrated to understand the incompatibility barriers in the hybridizations between subsp. baoulensis NI 933 and the other wild forms of V. unguiculata. Thanks to the use of the aniline blue fluorescence, we observed a high frequency of pre-zygotic barriers. They appear in three sites, i.e. the higher and lower third of the style, and within the ovary. However, these incompatibility barriers are not absolute. Indeed, in our hybridizations, more than 4% of the ovules were fertilized in the various studied combinations.

  18. Molecular cytogenetic characterisation and phylogenetic analysis of the seven cultivated Vigna species (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, C-W; Jiang, X-H; Ou, L-J; Liu, J; Long, K-L; Zhang, L-H; Duan, W-T; Zhao, W; Hu, J-C

    2015-01-01

    The genomic organisation of the seven cultivated Vigna species, V. unguiculata, V. subterranea, V. angularis, V. umbellata, V. radiata, V. mungo and V. aconitifolia, was determined using sequential combined PI and DAPI (CPD) staining and dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with 5S and 45S rDNA probes. For phylogenetic analyses, comparative genomic in situ hybridisation (cGISH) onto somatic chromosomes and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of 45S rDNA were used. Quantitative karyotypes were established using chromosome measurements, fluorochrome bands and rDNA FISH signals. All species had symmetrical karyotypes composed of only metacentric or metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes. Distinct heterochromatin differentiation was revealed by CPD staining and DAPI counterstaining after FISH. The rDNA sites among all species differed in their number, location and size. cGISH of V. umbellata genomic DNA to the chromosomes of all species produced strong signals in all centromeric regions of V. umbellata and V. angularis, weak signals in all pericentromeric regions of V. aconitifolia, and CPD-banded proximal regions of V. mungo var. mungo. Molecular phylogenetic trees showed that V. angularis and V. umbellata were the closest relatives, and V. mungo and V. aconitifolia were relatively closely related; these species formed a group that was separated from another group comprising V. radiata, V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis and V. subterranea. This result was consistent with the phylogenetic relationships inferred from the heterochromatin and cGISH patterns; thus, fluorochrome banding and cGISH are efficient tools for the phylogenetic analysis of Vigna species. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. A novel NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase gene from Vigna radiata confers resistance to the grapevine fungal toxin eutypine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, P; Guis, M; Martínez-Reina, G; Colrat, S; Dalmayrac, S; Deswarte, C; Bouzayen, M; Roustan, J P; Fallot, J; Pech, J C; Latché, A

    1998-11-01

    Eutypine, 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-3-butene-1-ynyl) benzyl aldehyde, is a toxin produced by Eutypa lata, the causal agent of eutypa dieback of grapevines. It has previously been demonstrated that tolerance of some cultivars to this disease was correlated with their capacity to convert eutypine to the corresponding alcohol, eutypinol, which lacks phytotoxicity. We have thus purified to homogeneity a protein from Vigna radiata that exhibited eutypine-reducing activity and have isolated the corresponding cDNA. This encodes an NADPH-dependent reductase of 36 kDa that we have named Vigna radiata eutypine-reducing enzyme (VR-ERE), based on the capacity of a recombinant form of the protein to reduce eutypine into eutypinol. The strongest homologies (86.8%) of VR-ERE at the amino acid level were found with CPRD14, a drought-inducible gene of unknown function, isolated from Vigna unguiculata and with an aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase (71.7%) from Eucalyptus gunnii. Biochemical characterization of VR-ERE revealed that a variety of compounds containing an aldehyde group can act as substrates. However, the highest affinity was observed with 3-substituted benzaldehydes. Expression of a VR-ERE transgene in Vitis vinifera cells cultured in vitro conferred resistance to the toxin. This discovery opens up new biotechnological approaches for the generation of grapevines resistant to eutypa dieback.

  20. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Kyeong Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. ‘Sorok’, ‘Sodam’ and ‘Somyeong’. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1–100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

  1. Assessment of N 2 fixation in 32 cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 3.1 and 2.9 t/ha, respectively) in 2006. In general, these data show that genotypes that fixed more N also produced more biomass and grain yield and are therefore, the best candidates for inclusion in cropping systems as biofertilizers. Key words: Symbiotic performance, N nutrition, biomass, N-fixed, cowpea varieties.

  2. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as sugarcane cover crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Louisiana sugarcane field is typically replanted every four years due to declining yields, and, although, it is a costly process, it is both necessary and an opportunity to maximize the financial return during the next four year cropping cycle. Fallow planting systems (FPS) during the fallow perio...

  3. Enhancing the digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) by traditional processing and fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madode, Y.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Bakker, E.J.; Linnemann, A.R.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Flatulence is an important drawback for the consumption of legumes. Therefore, the ability of traditional processing (dehulling, boiling, soaking) and fermentation (bacterial, fungal or yeast) of cowpeas to reduce flatulence was investigated. Raw and processed cowpeas were assessed for their

  4. Association studies and legume synteny reveal haplotypes determining seed size in Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell R Lucas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly specific seed market classes for cowpea and other grain legumes exists because grain is most commonly cooked and consumed whole. Size, shape, color, and texture are critical features of these market classes and breeders target development of cultivars for market acceptance. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that are absent from elite breeding material are often introgressed through crosses to landraces or wild relatives. When crosses are made between parents with different grain quality characteristics, recovery of progeny with acceptable or enhanced grain quality is problematic. Thus genetic markers for grain quality traits can help in pyramiding genes needed for specific market classes. Allelic variation dictating the inheritance of seed size can be tagged and used to assist the selection of large-seeded lines. In this work we applied SNP genotyping and knowledge of legume synteny to characterize regions of the cowpea genome associated with seed size. These marker-trait associations will enable breeders to use marker based selection approaches to increase the frequency of progeny with large seed. For ~800 samples derived from eight bi-parental populations, QTL analysis was used to identify markers linked to ten trait determinants. In addition, the population structure of 171 samples from the USDA core collection was identified and incorporated into a genome-wide association study which supported more than half of the trait-associated regions important in the bi-parental populations. Seven of the total ten QTL were supported based on synteny to seed size associated regions identified in the related legume soybean. In addition to delivering markers linked to major trait determinants in the context of modern breeding, we provide an analysis of the diversity of the USDA core collection of cowpea to identify genepools, migrants, admixture, and duplicates.

  5. Association Studies and Legume Synteny Reveal Haplotypes Determining Seed Size in Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Mitchell R; Huynh, Bao-Lam; da Silva Vinholes, Patricia; Cisse, Ndiaga; Drabo, Issa; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Highly specific seed market classes for cowpea and other grain legumes exist because grain is most commonly cooked and consumed whole. Size, shape, color, and texture are critical features of these market classes and breeders target development of cultivars for market acceptance. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that are absent from elite breeding material are often introgressed through crosses to landraces or wild relatives. When crosses are made between parents with different grain quality characteristics, recovery of progeny with acceptable or enhanced grain quality is problematic. Thus genetic markers for grain quality traits can help in pyramiding genes needed for specific market classes. Allelic variation dictating the inheritance of seed size can be tagged and used to assist the selection of large seeded lines. In this work we applied 1,536-plex SNP genotyping and knowledge of legume synteny to characterize regions of the cowpea genome associated with seed size. These marker-trait associations will enable breeders to use marker-based selection approaches to increase the frequency of progeny with large seed. For 804 individuals derived from eight bi-parental populations, QTL analysis was used to identify markers linked to 10 trait determinants. In addition, the population structure of 171 samples from the USDA core collection was identified and incorporated into a genome-wide association study which supported more than half of the trait-associated regions important in the bi-parental populations. Seven of the total 10 QTLs were supported based on synteny to seed size associated regions identified in the related legume soybean. In addition to delivering markers linked to major trait determinants in the context of modern breeding, we provide an analysis of the diversity of the USDA core collection of cowpea to identify genepools, migrants, admixture, and duplicates.

  6. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Haizheng; Shi, Ainong; Mou, Beiquan; Qin, Jun; Motes, Dennis; Lu, Weiguo; Ma, Jianbing; Weng, Yuejin; Yang, Wei; Wu, Dianxing

    2016-01-01

    The genetic diversity of cowpea was analyzed, and the population structure was estimated in a diverse set of 768 cultivated cowpea genotypes from the USDA GRIN cowpea collection, originally collected from 56 countries. Genotyping by sequencing was used to discover single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in cowpea and the identified SNP alleles were used to estimate the level of genetic diversity, population structure, and phylogenetic relationships. The aim of this study was to detect the gene pool structure of cowpea and to determine its relationship between different regions and countries. Based on the model-based ancestry analysis, the phylogenetic tree, and the principal component analysis, three well-differentiated genetic populations were postulated from 768 worldwide cowpea genotypes. According to the phylogenetic analyses between each individual, region, and country, we may trace the accession from off-original, back to the two candidate original areas (West and East of Africa) to predict the migration and domestication history during the cowpea dispersal and development. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the analysis of the genetic variation and relationship between globally cultivated cowpea genotypes. The results will help curators, researchers, and breeders to understand, utilize, conserve, and manage the collection for more efficient contribution to international cowpea research.

  7. Study of phenanthrene utilizing bacterial consortia associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ran; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-02-01

    Many legumes have been selected as model plants to degrade organic contaminants with their special associated rhizosphere microbes in soil. However, the function of root nodules during microbe-assisted phytoremediation is not clear. A pot study was conducted to examine phenanthrene (PHE) utilizing bacteria associated with root nodules and the effects of cowpea root nodules on phytoremediation in two different types of soils (freshly contaminated soil and aged contaminated soil). Cowpea nodules in freshly-contaminated soil showed less damage in comparison to the aged-contaminated soil, both morphologically and ultra-structurally by scanning electron microscopy. The study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) attenuation conducted by high performance liquid chromatography revealed that more PAH was eliminated from liquid culture around nodulated roots than nodule-free roots. PAH sublimation and denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis were applied to analyze the capability and diversity of PAH degrading bacteria from the following four parts of rhizo-microzone: bulk soil, root surface, nodule surface and nodule inside. The results indicated that the surface and inside of cowpea root nodules were colonized with bacterial consortia that utilized PHE. Our results demonstrated that root nodules not only fixed nitrogen, but also enriched PAH-utilizing microorganisms both inside and outside of the nodules. Legume nodules may have biotechnological values for PAH degradation.

  8. New molecular features of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata, l. Walp) β-vignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Ferreira, Ederlan; Capraro, Jessica; Sessa, Fabio; Magni, Chiara; Demonte, Aureluce; Consonni, Alessandro; Augusto Neves, Valdir; Maffud Cilli, Eduardo; Duranti, Marcello; Scarafoni, Alessio

    2018-02-01

    Cowpea seed β-vignin, a vicilin-like globulin, proved to exert various health favourable effects, including blood cholesterol reduction in animal models. The need of a simple scalable enrichment procedure for further studies for tailored applications of this seed protein is crucial. A chromatography-independent fractionation method allowing to obtain a protein preparation with a high degree of homogeneity was used. Further purification was pursued to deep the molecular characterisation of β-vignin. The results showed: (i) differing glycosylation patterns of the two constituent polypeptides, in agreement with amino acid sequence features; (ii) the seed accumulation of a gene product never identified before; (iii) metal binding capacity of native protein, a property observed only in few other legume seed vicilins.

  9. Removal of Pb and Zn from Soil using cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zea mays) plants to remove Pb and Zn from soil. The crops were exposed to three concentrations (100, 150 and 200 mgkg-1) of each metal salts during the study. When the plants were treated with lead nitrate at a concentration of 150 mgkg-1, ...

  10. 3-O-β-D-Glucopyranosyltheobroxide from Aerial Parts of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Arata; Yamashita, Yudai; Gao, Xiquan; Uematsu, Makoto; Ota, Maremichi; Takahashi, Kosaku; Yoshihara, Teruhiko; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    Theobroxide has been isolated from culture filtrates of Lasiodiplodia theobromae as a potato tuber-inducing compound. In this study, the metabolism of theobroxide was investigated using cowpea as an experimental model and [2H3-7]theobroxide as a substrate for analyzing a metabolite, which revealed that theobroxide applied exogenously to the roots was converted into 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyltheobroxide.

  11. Complete sterility studies in three mutants of cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) walp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Dapaah, H. K.; Singh, B. B.; Fatokun, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    Three completely-sterile cowpea mutants IT85D-3625, IT85D-3628, IT85D-3641 obtained from spontaneous mutation and gamma irradiation were-characterized. Reciprocal crosses between them and fertile plants failed to set pods. These lines showed significant differences with respect to various traits such as number of pollen grain per anther, anther length and width, plant height, anther indehiscence,unopened flower buds, and premature abortion of pods and seeds. The major cause of sterility was chromosome aberrations. Complete sterility in each of the three lines was conditioned by a simple recessive gene pair. Sterility in each of the three mutants was associated with floral aberrations. The symbols cs 1 , cs 2 and cs 3 are being assigned to IT85D-3625, IT85D-2628 and IT85D-3641 respectively. The three mutants were homogeneous with reference to sterility inheritance. (au)

  12. A novel mutation in TFL1 homolog affecting determinacy in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekar, P; Reddy, K S

    2015-02-01

    Mutations in the widely conserved Arabidopsis Terminal Flower 1 (TFL1) gene and its homologs have been demonstrated to result in determinacy across genera, the knowledge of which is lacking in cowpea. Understanding the molecular events leading to determinacy of apical meristems could hasten development of cowpea varieties with suitable ideotypes. Isolation and characterization of a novel mutation in cowpea TFL1 homolog (VuTFL1) affecting determinacy is reported here for the first time. Cowpea TFL1 homolog was amplified using primers designed based on conserved sequences in related genera and sequence variation was analysed in three gamma ray-induced determinate mutants, their indeterminate parent "EC394763" and two indeterminate varieties. The analyses of sequence variation exposed a novel SNP distinguishing the determinate mutants from the indeterminate types. The non-synonymous point mutation in exon 4 at position 1,176 resulted from transversion of cytosine (C) to adenine (A) leading to an amino acid change (Pro-136 to His) in determinate mutants. The effect of the mutation on protein function and stability was predicted to be detrimental using different bioinformatics/computational tools. The functionally significant novel substitution mutation is hypothesized to affect determinacy in the cowpea mutants. Development of suitable regeneration protocols in this hitherto recalcitrant crop and subsequent complementation assay in mutants or over-expressing assay in parents could decisively conclude the role of the SNP in regulating determinacy in these cowpea mutants.

  13. 1H NMR spectra dataset and solid-state NMR data of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G.; Silva, Lorena M. A.; Teofilo, Elizita M.

    2017-01-01

    In this article the NMR data from chemical shifts, coupling constants, and structures of all the characterized compounds were provided, beyond a complementary PCA evaluation for the corresponding manuscript (E.G. Alves Filho, L.M.A. Silva, E.M. Teofilo, F.H. Larsen, E.S. de Brito, 2017) [3]. In a...

  14. Genetic differentiation and diversity upon genotype and phenotype in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The evolution of species is complex and subtle, which always associates with the genetic variation and environment adaption during active/ passive spread or migration. In crops, this process is usually driven and influenced by human activities such as domestication, cultivation and immigration. One ...

  15. Additive interactions of unrelated viruses in mixed infections of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsa, Imade Y; Kareem, Kehinde T

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of single infections and co-infections of three unrelated viruses on three cowpea cultivars (one commercial cowpea cultivar "White" and 2 IITA lines; IT81D-985 and TVu 76). The plants were inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV), genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture (double and triple) at 10, 20, and 30 days after planting (DAP). The treated plants were assessed for susceptibility to the viruses, growth, and yield. In all cases of infection, early inoculation resulted in higher disease severity compared with late infection. The virus treated cowpea plants were relatively shorter than buffer inoculated control plants except the IT81D-985 plants that were taller and produced more foliage. Single infections by CABMV, CMeV, and SBMV led to a complete loss of seeds in the three cowpea cultivars at 10 DAP; only cultivar White produced some seeds at 30 DAP. Double and triple virus infections led to a total loss of seeds in all three cowpea cultivars. None of the virus infected IITA lines produced any seeds except IT81D-985 plants co-infected with CABMV and SBMV at 30 DAP with a reduction of 80%. Overall, the commercial cultivar "White" was the least susceptible to the virus treatments and produced the most yield (flowers, pods, and seeds). CABMV was the most aggressive of these viruses and early single inoculations with this virus resulted in the premature death of some of the seedlings. The presence of the Potyvirus, CABMV in the double virus infections did not appear to increase disease severity or yield loss. There was no strong evidence for synergistic interactions between the viruses in the double virus mixtures.

  16. Association mapping of aphid resistance in USDA cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) core collection using SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora) is a destructive insect pest of cowpea, as well as other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. The utilization of aphid resistance in cowpea breeding is one of the most efficient and environmental friendly methods to contro...

  17. Kinetics of Thermal Inactivation of Peroxidase and Color Degradation of African Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawire, Michael; Oey, Indrawati; Mathooko, Francis M; Njoroge, Charles K; Shitanda, Douglas; Hendrickx, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea leaves form an important part of the diet for many Kenyans, and they are normally consumed after a lengthy cooking process leading to the inactivation of peroxidase (POD) that could be used as an indicator for the potential shelf life of the vegetables. However, color degradation can simultaneously occur, leading to poor consumer acceptance of the product. The kinetics of POD in situ thermal (for thermal treatments in the range of 75 to 100 °C/120 min) inactivation showed a biphasic first-order model, with Arrhenius temperature dependence of the rate constant. The kinetic parameters using a reference temperature (Tref ) of 80 °C were determined for both the heat-labile phase (kref = 11.52 ± 0.95 × 10(-2) min(-1) and Ea of 109.67 ± 6.20 kJ/mol) and the heat-stable isoenzyme fraction (kref = 0.29 ± 0.07 × 10(-2) min(-1) and Ea of 256.93 ± 15.27 kJ/mol). Color degradation (L*, a*, and b* value) during thermal treatment was investigated, in particular as the "a*" value (the value of green color). Thermal degradation (thermal treatments between 55 and 80 °C per 90 min) of the green color of the leaves followed a fractional conversion model and the temperature dependence of the inactivation rate constant can be described using the Arrhenius law. The kinetic parameters using a reference temperature (TrefC = 70 °C) were determined as krefC = 13.53 ± 0.01 × 10(-2) min(-1) and EaC = 88.78 ± 3.21 kJ/mol. The results indicate that severe inactivation of POD (as an indicator for improved shelf life of the cooked vegetables) is accompanied by severe color degradation and that conventional cooking methods (typically 10 min/100 °C) lead to a high residual POD activity suggesting a limited shelf life of the cooked vegetables. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Ozone phytotoxicity in relation to stress ethylene evolution and stomatal resistance in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adepipe, N.O.; Tingey, D.T.

    1979-01-01

    In greenhouse experiments, the ozone sensitivities of three cowpea cultivars differing in growth habits and some physiological traits were determined and related to stress ethylene production and leaf diffusive resistance. The cultivars were more sensitive at the 3-leaf than at the 2-leaf stages of growth. There was no consistent leaf injury at less than 0.50 ..mu..l/l of ozone for 2 hr. At an ozone concentration of 1.0 ..mu..l/l for 2 hr. the cultivar Adzuki exhibited marked leaf injury, amounting to over 80% symptom coverage of the leaf surface while New Era and Ife Brown sustained leaf injury maxima of 58 and 35% respectively. Stress ethylene production did not differ among the cultivars. While ozone increased stomatal diffusive resistance in all cultivars, there were not significant differences among the cultivars.

  19. Evaluation of the Genetic Variation of Cowpea Landraces (Vigna unguiculata from Western Cameroon Using Qualitative Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toscani NGOMPE-DEFFO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the genetic diversity and analysis of the genetic relationship between accessions of a crop species is a key step in breeding superior cultivars. The main objective of the hereby study was to determine the genetic variation between 30 cowpea accessions collected throughout the eight divisions of the Western Region of Cameroon using qualitative traits. Phenotypic variation of these accessions was evaluated using diversity indices and cluster analyses. A total of twenty qualitative traits were used for the study. Fifteen of them (75% were polymorphic, displaying each at least two phenotypic classes. The monomorphic characters were growth pattern, leaf color, leaf hairiness, plant hairiness and pod hairiness, each with only one phenotypic class. Results showed a relatively significant level of genetic diversity among the studied cowpea accessions. Overall, the average of the observed and effective number of phenotypic classes per qualitative trait were Na = 2.350 and Ne = 1.828 respectively. The Nei’s genetic diversity and the Shannon weaver diversity index were He = 0.369, ranging from zero (monomorphic trait to 0.655 (growth habit and H’ = 0.609, ranging from zero (monomorphic trait to 0.996 (seed crowding, respectively. The dendrogram constructed from the twenty qualitative traits revealed 05 accessions clusters with the number of accessions in each cluster varying from one to eleven. Information obtained from this study is likely be useful for future cowpea breeding program.

  20. Determination of some mineral components of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asante, I.K; Acheampong, A.O.; Adu-Dapaah, H.

    2007-01-01

    Some mineral elements in the seeds of the cowpea were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The cowpea cultivars were made up of improved varieties (Soronko, Gbeho, Ayiyi, Asontem, Asontem1, Bengpla, Asetenapa and Adom), farmers' accessions (87/7, 87/1, 87/27, 87/147, 87/34, 87/49, 87/83, 87/157, 87/149, 87/30, 87/153, 96/046, 87/137, 96/129, BTB 96/091, OAA 96/30, BTB 96/054), and experimental materials (IT870-677-2, Caroni, Kaase Market, 1977 and 1239). A total of 14 elements (Al, Ca, Mg, V, Mn, Br, Cl, K, Na, Zn, Cu, Ta, Si and In) were detected in the seeds of the 30 cowpea cultivars. Five of the elements (Na, K, Mg, Ca and Cl) identified are classified as major elements in the human body, while four (Mn, Zn, V, Si) are trace elements. The major elements K, Na, Ca, Mg and Cl were detected in high concentration in cultivars 96/129, 87/137, Ayiyi, 87/34 and 87/49, respectively. The trace elements Mn, Zn, V, Si, Cu and Al were detected in high concentration in cultivars 87/34, 87/27, 87/34, Bengpla, 87/34 and 87/34, respectively. From the results the following accessions could be selected and incorporated into a cowpea mineral nutritional improvement programme: 96/129, 87/137, Ayiyi, 87/34, 87/49 and 87/27. The presence of the five major elements and the trace elements indicates that cowpea has a rich source of mineral elements and, therefore, can be used to improve the diet of both humans and livestock. (au)

  1. 1H NMR spectra dataset and solid-state NMR data of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Silva, Lorena M A; Teofilo, Elizita M; Larsen, Flemming H; de Brito, Edy S

    2017-04-01

    In this article the NMR data from chemical shifts, coupling constants, and structures of all the characterized compounds were provided, beyond a complementary PCA evaluation for the corresponding manuscript (E.G. Alves Filho, L.M.A. Silva, E.M. Teofilo, F.H. Larsen, E.S. de Brito, 2017) [3]. In addition, a complementary assessment from solid-state NMR data was provided. For further chemometric analysis, numerical matrices from the raw 1 H NMR data were made available in Microsoft Excel workbook format (.xls).

  2. Sinorhizobium fredii USDA257 Translocates NopP into Vigna unguiculata Root Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs), which are found in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, inject virulence proteins directly into host cells during infection. T3SSs are also present in some strains of rhizobia, bacteria that form symbiotic associations with legumes and fix nitrogen in speciali...

  3. Dual-purpose cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) straw as sole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L.) Walp.) (IT89KD-391; IT86D-716; IT86D-719; IT81D-994) using 24 West African dwarf (WAD) rams solefed the straw over a 60-d period. Voluntary dry matter (57 to 88 g kg-1 W0.75 d-1), organic matter (OM) ranged from 50.5 to 78.9 g kg-1 ...

  4. Tolérance à l\\'acidité chez Vigna unguiculata en symbiose avec les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pour la souche acido tolérante VUXY1, l\\'effet n\\'est pas significatif (14% du PS des nodules), alors qu\\'il l\\'est pour la souche acido sensible VUID1 (36% du PS des nodules). Le pH optimal est de 5 pour la nodulation, la croissance végétale et l\\'absorption de l\\'azote. La souche VUID1 semble plus sensible à l\\'acidité, mais ...

  5. Variabilité des Composés Phénoliques chez Vigna unguiculata (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inoculation de 10 souches de mycorhizes sur la synthèse des composés phénoliques du niébé en serre et l\\'effet de la double inoculation des biofertilisants rhizobien et mycorhizien sur la synthèse des composes phénoliques, en conditions de ...

  6. Gas exchange and mass distribution of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) under water deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona-Ayala Carlos Enrique; Alfredo Jarma-Orozco; Hermes Araméndiz-Tatis; Marvin Perneth-Montaño; César Augusto Vergara-Córdoba

    2013-01-01

    Drought tolerance is important for the survival and productivity of plants in environments where drought periods are increasing as a result of climate variability attributable to natural causes and climate change caused by human activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE=A/gs) as a function of soil moisture content over a period of drought and the post-stress recovery of 14 cowpe...

  7. Gas exchange and mass distribution of the cowpea (vigna unguiculata [l.] walp.) under water deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona Ayala, Carlos Enrique; Jarma Orozco, Alfredo De Jesús; AraméndizTatis, Hermes; Perneth Montaño, Marvin José; Vergara Córdoba, César Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Drought tolerance is important for the survival and productivityof plants in environments where drought periods areincreasing as a result of climate variability attributable tonatural causes and climate change caused by human activities.The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamicsof photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and intrinsicwater-use efficiency (WUE=A/gs) as a function of soil moisturecontent over a period of drought and the post-stress recoveryof 14 cowpea genoty...

  8. Symbiotic functioning and bradyrhizobial biodiversity of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakora Felix D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea is the most important food grain legume in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, no study has so far assessed rhizobial biodiversity and/or nodule functioning in relation to strain IGS types at the continent level. In this study, 9 cowpea genotypes were planted in field experiments in Botswana, South Africa and Ghana with the aim of i trapping indigenous cowpea root-nodule bacteria (cowpea "rhizobia" in the 3 countries for isolation, molecular characterisation using PCR-RFLP analysis, and sequencing of the 16S - 23S rDNA IGS gene, ii quantifying N-fixed in the cowpea genotypes using the 15N natural abundance technique, and iii relating the levels of nodule functioning (i.e. N-fixed to the IGS types found inside nodules. Results Field measurements of N2 fixation revealed significant differences in plant growth, δ15N values, %Ndfa and amounts of N-fixed between and among the 9 cowpea genotypes in Ghana and South Africa. Following DNA analysis of 270 nodules from the 9 genotypes, 18 strain IGS types were found. Relating nodule function to the 18 IGS types revealed significant differences in IGS type N2-fixing efficiencies. Sequencing the 16S - 23S rDNA gene also revealed 4 clusters, with cluster 2 forming a distinct group that may be a new Bradyrhizobium species. Taken together, our data indicated greater biodiversity of cowpea bradyrhizobia in South Africa relative to Botswana and Ghana. Conclusions We have shown that cowpea is strongly dependant on N2 fixation for its N nutrition in both South Africa and Ghana. Strain IGS type symbiotic efficiency was assessed for the first time in this study, and a positive correlation was discernible where there was sole nodule occupancy. The differences in IGS type diversity and symbiotic efficiency probably accounts for the genotype × environment interaction that makes it difficult to select superior genotypes for use across Africa. The root-nodule bacteria nodulating cowpea in this study all belonged to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Some strains from Southern Africa were phylogenetically very distinct, suggesting a new Bradyrhizobium species.

  9. Association analysis of salt tolerance in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) at germination and seedling stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea is one of the most important cultivated legumes in Africa. The worldwide annual production in cowpea dry seed is 5.4 million metric tons. However, cowpea is unfavorably affected by salinity stress at germination and seedling stages, which is exacerbated by the effects of climate change. The l...

  10. Gas exchange and mass distribution of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. under water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardona-Ayala Carlos Enrique

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought tolerance is important for the survival and productivity of plants in environments where drought periods are increasing as a result of climate variability attributable to natural causes and climate change caused by human activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs and intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE=A/gs as a function of soil moisture content over a period of drought and the post-stress recovery of 14 cowpea genotypes. The studied genotypes tolerated soil moisture tensions close to -2 Mpa with no permanent wilting. Starting at a soil hydric potential of -0.7 MP a, decreases in photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs and transpiration (E were evident, as well as an increase in A/gs, which varied by genotype. Estimating with regression models allowed for the discrimination of the degrees of drought tolerance between the cultivars. At 4 days after resuming hydration, no significant differences were found between the means of A, gs, A/gs and E, suggesting drought tolerance in all genotypes. The genotypes: L-047 and L-034 conserved between 4 and 6 leaves, displaying the highest delayed leaf senescence during drought. Furthermore, they presented the highest biomass at 16 days post-stress recovery

  11. Comparison of phyto-accumulation of metals by Vigna unguiculata L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three viable seeds of bean and maize were planted in a set of 60 bags of sandy loam soil with no history of crude oil contamination, which served as control, 180 bags of sandy ... The values of Cu, Pb, Zn and Fe decreased in the crude oil contaminated soil and increased in both seedlings as the number of days increased.

  12. REQUERIMENTO HÍDRICO E COEFICIENTE DE CULTURA DO MILHO E FEIJÃO-CAUPI EM SISTEMAS EXCLUSIVO E CONSORCIADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIANA SANDRA BASTOS DE SOUZA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the water requirement and crop coefficient for the different phenological stages on corn plants ( Zea mays L. and cowpea plants ( Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp in intercropping and sole cropping systems under the climatic conditions of the Brazilian semiarid. The experiment was conducted in the city of Petrolina, PE. Shoots total dry mass and photosynthetically active radiation intercepted for both crops were monitored. Furthermore, it was obtained the evapotranspiration (ETc by the soil water balance method. With these data and reference evapotranspiration it was obtained crop coefficient (Kc, which were subsequent- ly used to adjust models as a function of accumulated degree days. With the results, it was found the water re- quirements from maize and cowpea intercropped system were greater than the sole system. Kc in the inter- cropped system was 0.90, 1.30, 1.20 and 0.72 for maize and 0.86, 1.30, 1.21 and 0.91 for cowpea, respectively, for the vegetative, flowering, grain filling and ripening stages. In the sole system, these values were, 0.86, 1.23, 0.97 and 0.52 for maize and 0.68, 1.02, 1.06 and 0.63 for cowpea in those phases mentioned. The variations of the Kc values for both systems and cultures have been associated to the increase of biomass and light intercep- tion. The Gaussian model adjusted properly described the relationship between Kc and accumulated degree days.

  13. COMPOSICIÓN NUTRICIONAL Y FACTORES ANTINUTRICIONAL DE ESPECIES POCO CONOCIDAS DE VIGNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnamadasamy Kalidass

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Las semillas de Vigna trilobata, V. radiata var. sublobata, V. umbellata, V. unguiculata subsp. cylindrica, V. aconitifolia, V. vexillata and V. bourneae se colectaron de diferentes regiones geográficas en el oeste de Ghats Tamil Nadu. Se analizó su composición proximal y mineral, vitaminas (niacina y ácido ascórbico, perfiles de ácidos grasos, perfiles de aminoácidos de la proteína total de la semillas, digestibilidad de la proteína in vitro (IVPD y algunos factores antinutricionales. La proteína cruda tuvo un rango entre 18.24 a 26.12%, lípidos totales de 3.8 a 6.48%, fibra dietética total de 3.42 a 7.48%, cenizas de 3.10 a 4.12% y carbohidratos de 59.44 a 72.06%. Los valores de energía de la semilla estuvieron entre 1584.87 a 1644.34 kJ100g-1MS, los cuales fueron comparables con otras leguminosas. Los perfiles de ácidos grasos de todas las especies de Vigna revelaron altas concentraciones de ácido oleico, linoleico y linolenico. Los perfiles de aminoácidos esenciales del total de proteína de la semilla se compararon favorablemente con los requerimientos de la FAO/WHO (1991, con excepción de ciertas deficiencias de aminoácidos azufrados en todas las especies de Vigna El IVPD de las diferentes especies de Vigna tuvo un rango de 70.38 a 79.12%. Sustancias antinutricionales como el total de fenoles libres, taninos, L-DOPA (3-4 dihidroxifenilalanina, ácido fitico, cinacina hidrogenada, actividad inhibidora de la tripsina, oligosacáridos y actividad fitohematoaglutinadora también se determinaron. Los factores antinutricionales que fueron detectados, se presume que presentan una pequeña significancia si los frijoles son procesados correctamente.

  14. Respostas antioxidativas em nódulos de caupi inoculado com bradyrhizobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayssa Dias Batista

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O nitrogênio é considerado elemento essencial para as plantas, pois está presente na composição das mais importantes biomoléculas. As plantas podem obter esse nitrogênio através do processo de fixação biológica pela simbiose entre a planta e as bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio. A fixação biológica do nitrogênio pode ser afetada por fatores bióticos e abióticos que provocam estresse oxidativo na planta. O sistema antioxidativo enzimático envolve enzimas, como por exemplo dismutase de superóxido (SOD, catalase (CAT, peroxidase de fenóis (POX, que conferem proteção oxidativa às plantas. Desta forma, objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o metabolismo antioxidativo em nódulos de plantas de feijão-caupi inoculadas com Bradyrhizobium sp. (estirpe BR 3267. Os resultados mostraram que a inoculação com Bradyrhizobiumsp. foi efetiva e resultou em baixo acúmulo de amônia e diminuição do estresse oxidativo. Concluiu-se que a inoculação de caupi comBradyrhizobium sp. foi efetiva em estimular as enzimas envolvidas no processo oxidativo (SOD, POX e CAT. Estas enzimas foram eficientes na remoção das espécies reativas de oxigênio e promoveram proteção oxidativa para plantas de caupi.

  15. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean), V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1) and susceptible (V5) accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD) markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits. PMID:26398819

  16. Seletividade e eficiência de herbicidas no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Antonio Cuzato Mancuso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A falta de conhecimento sobre herbicidas para o manejo químico das plantas daninhas é uma das principais limitações para a expansão da cultura do feijão-caupi, na região centro-sul do Brasil. Com o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade e a eficiência de herbicidas na cultura do feijão-caupi, foram conduzidos dois experimentos de campo, um com a cultivar BRS Guariba e, outro, com BRS Novaera, em Botucatu-SP. Em ambos os experimentos, o delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 + 2, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelas combinações de três herbicidas (bentazona, fomesafem e diclosulam com duas épocas de aplicação (inicial e tardio, além de uma testemunha capinada e, outra, sem capina. O herbicida diclosulam provocou elevada fitotoxicidade e reduziu a população de plantas, enquanto o bentazona proporcionou os menores níveis de fitointoxicação aos dois cultivares de feijão-caupi. O fomesafem, especialmente quando aplicado na fase inicial, foi o mais eficaz no controle das plantas daninhas e, mesmo causando fitotoxicidade à cultura do feijão-caupi, propiciou população de plantas adequada, bem como produtividades de grãos semelhantes às obtidas com a testemunha capinada. Assim, conclui-se que o herbicida fomesafem é o mais eficiente para ambas a's cultivares de feijão-caupi.

  17. Comportamento hídrico e crescimento do feijão vigna cultivado em solos salinizados Hydric behaviour and growth of cowpea cultivated in salinized soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. M. Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A salinização dos solos reduz a capacidade das plantas de absorver água o que, em geral, provoca diminuição na sua taxa de crescimento. As respostas das plantas ao estresse salino são melhor correlacionadas com o potencial osmótico do que com a condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação do solo. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, evapotranspiração e potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro vigna [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.] conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brasil. Os tratamentos constaram de um arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 composto de duas texturas de solo e quatro níveis de salinidade do solo (4, 8 e 12 dS m-1 a 25 ºC além da testemunha sem a adição de sais com cinco repetições. Concluiu-se que a salinidade do solo causa redução no consumo de água, no potencial osmótico foliar, na altura das plantas, no número de folhas e na biomassa seca da parte aérea do feijoeiro vigna.Soil salinization reduces the capacity of plants to absorb water, and in general causes decrease in plant growth. Plant responses to salt stress are better correlated with osmotic potential compared to electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract. In order to evaluate the effect of salt stress on growth, water use and leaf osmotic potential of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.], an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (Recife-PE, Brazil. The Treatments were in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, comprising of two soil textures and four levels of soil salinity (4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 at 25 °C, and the control without salt addition with five replications. It was concluded that soil salinity causes reduction in water consumption, leaf osmotic potential, plant height, number of leaves and dry biomass of shoot of cowpea.

  18. ( Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt) au Burkina Faso

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aperçu de la culture du voandzou ( Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt) au Burkina Faso: enjeux et perspectives d'amélioration de sa productivité. ... Foliar diseases and insects in stock are major biotic constraints. Producers retain the seed in cans tightly closed. The average cycle of cultivated varieties is 90 days. The favorite ...

  19. SISTEMAS DE MANEJO E EFEITO RESIDUAL DO POTÁSSIO NA PRODUTIVIDADE E NUTRIÇÃO DO FEIJÃO-CAUPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESSIVALDO RODRIGUES GALVÃO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp] have great social and economic importance for the Para State. It grows well in areas with low precipitation and two crop cycles can be obtained annually. This study aimed to assess the effect of the residual fertilization from a previous culture (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench and crop systems on cowpea yield and macronutrient concentration on leaves of three cowpea cultivars (BRS- Milênio, BRS-Urubuquara e BRS-Guariba. The study was conducted at the UFRA. The treatments were two crop systems (minimum tillage and conventional, four levels of potassium (50, 100, 200 e 300 kg de KCl ha-1 applied to a previous sorghum culture and the three cowpea cultivars. Treatments were organized as a three (4 x 2 x 3 factor experiment on a randomized complete block design. The soil was a yellow latosol. In each ex- periment plot five plants were selected to determine shoot dry matter and foliar nutrient concentration. Grain yield was determined after harvesting all plants on the experiment plot. The residual KCl fertilization affected foliar nutrient content, but did not affect shoot dry mass or yield of grain. Yield was higher in the minimum tillage system. Highest yield (1590 kg ha-1 was recorded int the cv. ‘Guariba’ when 100 kg of KCl ha-1 had been used in the previous crop. The highest content of leaf N and K was found in cowpea under minimum till- age system. The amount of P and Mg were higher in the conventional system whereas the amount of Ca did not change.

  20. Utilization of applied phosphorus by greengram (Vigna radiata L. Wilzek), bengal gram (Cicer arietinum L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) in soils of Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thind, S.S.; Rishi, A.K.; Goswami, N.N.

    1990-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were conducted at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the utilization of applied P by three pulse crops (greengram, Bengal gram and cowpea) on twelve soils of Delhi State. Diammonium phosphate (DAP) solution tagged with 32 P was used in the study at the rate of 30, 60 and 90 kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 . Maximum response of these legumes were noted at 60 kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 , irrespective of the type of soils. The per cent utilization of P declined from 22.2 to 16.1 as the level of P increased from 30 to 90 kg/ha in cowpea but showed less P utilization in greengram (8.0 to 7.4) and Bengal gram (4.9 to 5.1), respectively. The extent of decrease in per cent P utilization of added phosphate was more in Mehrauli, Palam, Kakra, Hisar, Ghoga, Hiranki and Wazirabad soils. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Utility of adzuki bean [ Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, 78 mapped simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers representing 11 linkage groups of adzuki bean were evaluated for transferability to mungbean and related Vigna spp. 41 markers amplified characteristic bands in at least one Vigna species. The transferability percentage across the genotypes ranged ...

  2. Effect of temperature and relative-humidity on the development of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Vigna unguiculata; Efeito da temperatura e umidade relativa do ar no desenvolvimento de Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) em Vigna unguiculata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Tiago C. Costa; Geremias, Leandro D; Parra, Jose R.P. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: tcclima@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: geremias@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    This research aimed to study the influence of temperature and relative-humidity (RH) on the development of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard during the egg-adult period, in cowpea, to provide essential information for future biological control projects against the pest. An inverse relation was observed between temperature increase in the range from 15 deg C to 32 deg C and development duration. Larval survival was not affected in the temperature range studied, while a high mortality of pupae was observed at 32 deg C (59.9%). RH did not affect the development time of the immature stages, although it influenced their survival. The lower developmental temperature threshold obtained for the egg-adult period was low (7.3 deg C) when compared with other species of Liriomyza, and was rather low for the larval stage (3.4 deg C ). Based on the thermal requirements for L. sativae, it was possible to estimate the occurrence of 24.5 annual generations at a melon producing region in state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. For laboratory rearing aimed at biological control pest programs, the best rearing conditions are 30 deg C and 50% RH for the larval stage and 90% RH for the pupal stage. (author)

  3. Uniformidade de sementes de genótipos de feijão-caupi cultivados em dois ambientes no Estado de Roraima

    OpenAIRE

    Arruda, Katherine Rodrigues; Smiderle, Oscar José; Vilarinho, Aloisio Alcantara

    2010-01-01

    Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a uniformidade de sementes de 19 genótipos de feijão-caupi cultivados em dois ambientes no Estado de Roraima. Foram utilizadas sementes produzidas nos Campos Experimentais Serra da Prata (CESP) e do Monte Cristo (CEMC) pertencentes a Embrapa Roraima, produzidas durante o ano de 2008. Amostras de 400 g de sementes de feijão-caupi foram separadas e pesadas. Após a pesagem, cada amostra foi classificada por cinco peneiras de crivos redondos e oblongos...

  4. Field studies of sweet potatoes and cowpeas in response to elevated carbon dioxide. Progress report. [Ipomoea batatas; Vigna unguiculata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical effects of enriched CO/sub 2/ on sweet potatoes and cowpeas were studied in open top chambers. The main task was to assemble equipment to generate test atmospheres of CO/sub 2/ in the field, using open top chambers as the basic exposure unit for studying the response of sweet potatoes and cowpeas to enriched CO/sub 2/. Plant responses to CO/sub 2/ in open top chambers have been demonstrated by several investigators in a variety of crops. This study focused on growth and development of both sweet potatoes and cowpeas at levels of CO/sub 2/ ranging from the ambient level of 354 ppM to 659 ppM. The effects of CO/sub 2/ on leaf and stem weights, stem length, leaf area, and stomatal number and conductance were studied on both species. Additional studies on sweet potatoes included the effects of CO/sub 2/ on the weight, chemical content and quality of tubers. Additional studies on cowpeas included the effects of CO/sub 2/ on the weight of seeds and rate of nitrogen fixation. 27 figs., 35 tabs. (ACR)

  5. Translocation and distribution of 14C-photosynthate in asparagus bean [vigna unguiculata W. ssp. sesquipedals (L.) Verd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Houcheng; Guan Peicong; Chen Riyuan

    1996-01-01

    Photosynthate translocation and distribution were studied by feeding 14 CO 2 on different leaf position during vegetative and reproductive periods in asparagus bean, cv. Jinsui and New-green. Radioactivity were measured in different organs after leaves being labelled 24 hours. The results showed that photosynthate export rate was lower (54.85%) during vegetative period and it was higher (average 88.74%) during reproductive period and increased with the rise of leaf position. Photosynthate were translated to both upper and lower organs during vegetative period, more than 95% of photosynthate was transported to stem and leaf. During reproductive period, photosynthate of leaf on upper, middle, lower leaf position were transported to each organ, mainly to pod, few to others. Photosynthate was mainly transported to nearby pods. Distribution of photosynthate was mainly controlled by podding condition and development of pods

  6. Date et densité optimales de semis du niébé [Vigna unguiculata (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 avr. 2014 ... Investigacion sobre sistemas de produccion agricola para el pequeno agricultor del tropico. Turrialba 25:283-293. Steiner K.G., 1984. Intercropping in tropical smallholder agriculture with special reference to west Africa. Second edition. Deutsche Gesellschaft fur. Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ).

  7. Nutritional quality of germinated cowpea flour (Vigna unguiculata) and its application in home prepared powdered weaning foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapa, P; Normah, H; Zamaliah, M M; Asmah, R; Mohamad, K

    2001-01-01

    Amino acid profiles, protein digestibility, corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), chemical scores, essential amino acid indexes, and calculated biological values of controlcowpea flour (CCF), germinated cowpea flour (GCF) prepared from cowpeas germinated at 25 degrees C for either 24 h or 48 h and weaning foods prepared from cowpea flours were determined. Locally available rice, cowpea flour, banana-pumpkin slurry, and skim milk powder and sucrose in the ratio 35:35:15:15:5 were used to formulate weaning food containing not less than 15% protein. The ingredients were cooked into a slurry and oven-dried to produce flakes. The nutritional and sensory qualities of the weaning products were evaluated. Germination had little effect on the amino acid profile of cowpeas. In vitro protein quality and starch digestibility were improved in germinated cowpea flour. The PDCAAS of 24 h germinated cowpea flour (GCF) weaning food was higher (55.49%) than CCF-weaning food (46.74%). Vitamin A activity in 24 h GCF weaning food was higher than in CCF-weaning food. In vitro starch digestibilities of 24 h GCF and 48 h GCF-weaning foods were higher than that of CCF weaning food. The 24 h GCF-weaning food which had a higher overall acceptability score by sensory panelist than 48 h GCF and CCF-weaning food is recommended for household consumption.

  8. Evaluation of dwarf mutant of cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.) developed through gamma irradiation for nitrogen fixation characters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjana, G.; Thimmaiah, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    A dwarf mutant developed through gamma-irradiation and mutation breeding of its parent cowpea variety, namely KBC-1 has been characterized for nitrogen-fixation characters such as root nodule acetylene reduction activity (ARA) and legthemoglobin content at different days after sowing (DAS). Significant variations in these characters were noticed among the varieties and for interactions between the varieties and DAS. The ARA was nearly one-and-a half fold higher in the mutant at both 30 (12.69 μmoles)C 2 H 4 formed/h/g fr.wt. of nodules) and 50 DAS (6.74 μmoles) over its parent (9.20 and 4.46 μmoles at 30 and 50 DAS, respectively). Further, the ARA in the mutant decreased linearly with an increase in the DAS. The leghemoglobin (Lb) content was also higher in the mutant over the parent at all the DAS. However, it decreased linearly with an increase in the DAS in both the mutant and the parent. The highest leghemoglobin content was noticed at 30 DAS in both mutant (2.1 mg/g fr. wt. of nodules) and the parent (1.45 mg/g). Thus, the dwarf cowpea mutant was found to be associated with higher nitrogen-fixing ability which could be exploited in future breeding programmes. (author)

  9. Effect of temperature and relative-humidity on the development of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Vigna unguiculata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Tiago C. Costa; Geremias, Leandro D; Parra, Jose R.P.

    2009-01-01

    This research aimed to study the influence of temperature and relative-humidity (RH) on the development of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard during the egg-adult period, in cowpea, to provide essential information for future biological control projects against the pest. An inverse relation was observed between temperature increase in the range from 15 deg C to 32 deg C and development duration. Larval survival was not affected in the temperature range studied, while a high mortality of pupae was observed at 32 deg C (59.9%). RH did not affect the development time of the immature stages, although it influenced their survival. The lower developmental temperature threshold obtained for the egg-adult period was low (7.3 deg C) when compared with other species of Liriomyza, and was rather low for the larval stage (3.4 deg C ). Based on the thermal requirements for L. sativae, it was possible to estimate the occurrence of 24.5 annual generations at a melon producing region in state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. For laboratory rearing aimed at biological control pest programs, the best rearing conditions are 30 deg C and 50% RH for the larval stage and 90% RH for the pupal stage. (author)

  10. [Effect of temperature and relative-humidity on the development of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Vigna unguiculata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Tiago C Costa; Geremias, Leandro D; Parra, José R P

    2009-01-01

    This research aimed to study the influence of temperature and relative-humidity (RH) on the development of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard during the egg-adult period, in cowpea, to provide essential information for future biological control projects against the pest. An inverse relation was observed between temperature increase in the range from 15 degrees Celsius to 32 degrees Celsius and development duration. Larval survival was not affected in the temperature range studied, while a high mortality of pupae was observed at 32 degrees Celsius (59.9%). RH did not affect the development time of the immature stages, although it influenced their survival. The lower developmental temperature threshold obtained for the egg-adult period was low (7.3 degrees Celsius) when compared with other species of Liriomyza, and was rather low for the larval stage (3.4 degrees Celsius). Based on the thermal requirements for L. sativae, it was possible to estimate the occurrence of 24.5 annual generations at a melon producing region in state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. For laboratory rearing aimed at biological control pest programs, the best rearing conditions are 30 degrees Celsius and 50% RH for the larval stage and 90% RH for the pupal stage.

  11. Lucrative status of improved dual purpose cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., Walp in Damboa, Borno State, North-Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.H. Gabdo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.Thisstudydivulgedthecost-returnsanalysisbetweenimproveddualpurposecowpea (IDPCvarietiesandothernon-IDPC/localcowpeavarieties in Azir, Damboa town, Kuboa and Sabongari villages of Damboa local council, Borno State, Nigeria. Socio-economic stratification of the villages into Low Population Low Market (LPLM and Low Population High Market (LPHM on the basis of human demographic profile and proximity to wholesale market were the criteria adopted for selecting the villages for this study. A total of 150 cowpea farmers responded to the questionnaire instrument; administered between December, 2006 and February, 2007. Results of the budgetary techniques used show that adopters of IDPC varieties generate $386.01ha-1 as net income as against $248.37ha-1 for the non-IDPC adopters; proportional to 55.42% rise in net income per hectare of cowpea resulting from the impact factor of IDPC adoption alone. Similarly, farmers in Sabongari village realized the highest net income of $491.99ha-1 as against Azir the lowest net income of $247.21ha-1 across the four villages owing to demand factor; interplay between human population and proximity to wholesale market; both in favour of Sabongari but none in favour of Azir. In terms of ratios, farmers in Sabongari were adjudged as more lucrative across adopters’ category, socio-economic domain and villages respectively owing to higher return on sale ratio and lower operating ratio. Azir and Sabongari villages were found to exhibit potentiality for comparative cost advantage and comparative sales advantage respectively. Thus, the research concludes that an expansion path for cowpea is feasible if cultivation and sales are premised on cost and sales advantages.

  12. Physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour produced from gamma irradiated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, L. Walp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darfour, B.; Wilson, D.D.; Ofosu, D.O.; Ocloo, F.C.K.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour obtained from gamma irradiated cowpea. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy with the unirradiated cultivars serving as controls. The samples were hammer milled, sieved and stored at 4 °C for analysis. Physical, proximate, functional, pasting properties were determined using appropriate methods. In general, the irradiation dose applied to cowpea for insect control did not significantly affect the physical and proximate properties of the flour. However, significant increase (p<0.05) was achieved in paste bulk density, water and oil absorption capacities, foam capacities and least gelation concentrations of flour in general, which may be attributed to the irradiation. The radiation reduced the swelling power and water solubility index significantly. The peak temperature, peak viscosity and setback viscosity of the pastes were significantly (p<0.05) reduced while breakdown viscosity was significantly (p<0.05) increased by the radiation. It was established that the doses used on cowpea affected both the functional and pasting properties of the flour. - Highlights: ► We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation of cowpea on quality characteristics of its resultant flour. ► Flour was prepared from four cowpea cultivars irradiated at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. ► Proximate and physical properties of flour from irradiated cowpea were generally not affected by the radiation doses used. ► Functional properties of flour samples were affected by gamma irradiation of cowpea. ► Pasting parameters studied were also affected by the radiation at various radiation doses.

  13. Evaluation of Dual-purpose Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Varieties for Grain and Fodder Production at Shika, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omokanye, AT.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-year field study of eight new and one check dual-purpose cowpea varieties was carried out to evaluate their grain and fodder production potential. Germination and seedling establishment were both high and greater than 80%.Mean dry fodder and seed yields varied from 1,262 to 3,598 kg/ha and 528 to 1,149 kg/ha respectively, with varieties IAR 4/48/15-1, IAR 72 and TVU 12349 retaining larger amounts (> 50% of fresh green leaves at pod harvest during the dry season. Crude protein (CP content of fodder averaged between 15.2 and 21.6%. There were more pods/plant for varieties IAR 4/48/15-1, IAR 7/180-4-5 and TVU 12349. 100-seed weight was highest with IT89KD-288 and Kananado (check. Fodder yield, pods/plant and leaf content were moderately correlated with seed yield. Results showed that varieties TVU 12349, IT89KD-288, IAR 2/180/4-12 and IAR 4/48/15-1 appeared suitable for both fodder and grain production. The use of appropriate cowpea varieties to enhance farmer income in an integrated production system is suggested.

  14. Evaluation of Dual-purpose Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Varieties for Grain and Fodder Production at Shika, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Omokanye, AT.; Onifade, OS.; Amodu, JT.; Balogun, RO.; Kallah, MS.

    2003-01-01

    A three-year field study of eight new and one check dual-purpose cowpea varieties was carried out to evaluate their grain and fodder production potential. Germination and seedling establishment were both high and greater than 80%.Mean dry fodder and seed yields varied from 1,262 to 3,598 kg/ha and 528 to 1,149 kg/ha respectively, with varieties IAR 4/48/15-1, IAR 72 and TVU 12349 retaining larger amounts (> 50%) of fresh green leaves at pod harvest during the dry season. Crude protein (CP)...

  15. Date et densité optimales de semis du niébé [ Vigna unguiculata (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectifs : Au Sénégal, la production de mil est faible à cause de plusieurs facteurs parmi lesquels la pauvreté des sols, la pression des adventices. Ce présent travail envisage l'utilisation des cultures associées (mil et niébé) pour lutter contre les adventices et améliorer à la fois la qualité des sols et la production agricole.

  16. Biopotency of serine protease inhibitors from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds on digestive proteases and the development of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-05-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (PIs) have been described in many plant species and are universal throughout the plant kingdom, where trypsin inhibitors is the most common type. In the present study, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was detected in the seed flour extracts of 13 selected cultivars/accessions of cowpea. Two cowpea cultivars, Cream7 and Buff, were found to have higher trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory potential compared to other tested cultivars for which they have been selected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Cream7-purified proteins showed two bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) corresponding to molecular mass of 17.10 and 14.90 kDa, while the purified protein from Buff cultivar showed a single band corresponding mass of 16.50 kDa. The purified inhibitors were stable at temperature below 60°C and were active at wide range of pH from 2 to 12. The kinetic analysis revealed noncompetitive type of inhibition for both inhibitors against both enzymes. The inhibitor constant (Ki ) values suggested high affinity between inhibitors and enzymes. Purified inhibitors were found to have deep and negative effects on the mean larval weight, larval mortality, pupation, and mean pupal weight of Spodoptera littoralis, where Buff PI was more effective than Cream7 PI. It may be concluded that cowpea PI gene(s) could be potential insect control protein for future studies in developing insect-resistant transgenic plants. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Drought increases cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) susceptibility to cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) at early stage of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodolpho G G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Martins, Thiago F; Varela, Anna L N; Souza, Pedro F N; Lobo, Ana K M; Silva, Fredy D A; Silveira, Joaquim A G; Oliveira, Jose T A

    2016-12-01

    The physiological and biochemical responses of a drought tolerant, virus-susceptible cowpea genotype exposed to drought stress (D), infected by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) (V), and to these two combined stresses (DV), at 2 and 6 days post viral inoculation (DPI), were evaluated. Gas exchange parameters (net photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and internal CO 2 partial pressure) were reduced in D and DV at 2 and 6 DPI compared to control plants (C). Photosynthesis was reduced by stomatal and biochemical limitations. Water use efficiency increased at 2 DPI in D, DV, and V, but at 6 DPI only in D and DV compared to C. Photochemical parameters (effective quantum efficiency of photosystem II and electron transport rate) decreased in D and DV compared to C, especially at 6 DPI. The potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II did not change, indicating reversible photoinhibition of photosystem II. In DV, catalase decreased at 2 and 6 DPI, ascorbate peroxidase increased at 2 DPI, but decreased at 6 DPI. Hydrogen peroxide increased at 2 and 6 DPI. Peroxidase increased at 6 DPI and chitinase at 2 and 6 DPI. β-1,3-glucanase decreased in DV at 6 DPI compared to V. Drought increased cowpea susceptibility to CPSMV at 2 DPI, as verified by RT-PCR. However, at 6 DPI, the cowpea plants overcome this effect. Likewise, CPSMV increased the negative effects of drought at 2 DPI, but not at 6 DPI. It was concluded that the responses to combined stresses are not additive and cannot be extrapolated from the study of individual stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential use of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) stover treated with white-rot fungi as rabbit feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ederson; Pinheiro, Victor; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Cone, John W; Marques, Guilhermina; Silva, Valéria; Ferreira, Luis; Rodrigues, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    Lignin inhibitory effects within the cell wall structure constitute a serious drawback in maximizing the utilization of fibrous feedstuffs in animal feeding. Therefore treatments that promote efficient delignification of these materials must be applied. This study evaluated the potential of white-rot fungi to upgrade the nutritive value of cowpea stover for rabbit feeding. There was an increase in the crude protein content of all substrates as a result of fungi treatments, reaching a net gain of 13% for Pleurotus citrinopileatus incubation. Overall, net losses of dry and organic matter occurred during fungi treatments. Although the fiber content remained identical, higher consumption of cell wall contents was measured for P. citrinopileatus incubation (between 40 and 45%). The incubation period did not influence lignin degradation for any of the fungi treatments. Differences within the fungal degradation mechanisms indicate that P. citrinopileatus treatment was most effective, enhancing in vitro organic matter digestibility by around 30% compared with the control. Treatment of cowpea stover with P. citrinopileatus led to an efficient delignification process which resulted in higher in vitro organic matter digestibility, showing its potential in the nutritional valorization of this feedstuff. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Monitoring and exposure assessment of pesticide residues in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) from five provinces of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Zhibo; Xu, Zhi; Luo, Jinhui; Xie, Defang

    2016-11-01

    Residues of 14 pesticides were determined in 150 cowpea samples collected in five southern Chinese provinces in 2013 and 2014.70% samples were detected one or more residues. 61.3% samples were illegal mainly because of detection of unauthorized pesticides. 14.0% samples contained more than three pesticides. Deterministic and probabilistic methods were used to assess the chronic and acute risk of pesticides in cowpea to eight subgroups of people. Deterministic assessment showed that the estimated short-term intakes (ESTIs) of carbofuran were 1199.4%-2621.9% of the acute reference doses (ARfD) while the rates were 985.9%-4114.7% using probabilistic assessment. Probabilistic assessment showed 4.2%-7.8% subjects may suffer from unacceptable acute risk from carbofuran contaminated cowpeas from the five provinces (especially children). But undue concern is not necessary, because all the estimations are based on conservative assumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic Diversity of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Accession in Kenya Gene Bank Based on Simple Sequence Repeat Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamalwa, Emily N; Muoma, John; Wekesa, Clabe

    2016-01-01

    Increased agricultural production is an urgent issue. Projected global population is 9 million people by mid of this century. Estimation projects death of 1 million people for lack of food quality (micronutrient deficit) and quantity (protein deficit). Majority of these people will be living in developing countries. Other global challenges include shrinking cultivable lands, salinity, and flooding due to climate changes, new emerging pathogens, and pests. These affect crop production. Furthermore, they are major threats to crop genetic resources and food security. Genetic diversity in cultivated crops indicates gene pool richness. It is the greatest resource for plant breeders to select lines that enhance food security. This study was conducted by Masinde Muliro University to evaluate genetic diversity in 19 cowpea accessions from Kenya national gene bank. Accessions clustered into two major groups. High divergence was observed between accessions from Ethiopia and Australia and those from Western Kenya. Upper Volta accessions were closely related to those from Western Kenya. Low variation was observed between accessions from Eastern and Rift Valley than those from Western and Coastal regions of Kenya. Diversity obtained in this study can further be exploited for the improvement of cowpea in Kenya as a measure of food security.

  1. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) Metabolomics: Osmoprotection as a Physiological Strategy for Drought Stress Resistance and Improved Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goufo, Piebiep; Moutinho-Pereira, José M; Jorge, Tiago F; Correia, Carlos M; Oliveira, Manuela R; Rosa, Eduardo A S; António, Carla; Trindade, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Plants usually tolerate drought by producing organic solutes, which can either act as compatible osmolytes for maintaining turgor, or radical scavengers for protecting cellular functions. However, these two properties of organic solutes are often indistinguishable during stress progression. This study looked at individualizing properties of osmotic adjustment vs. osmoprotection in plants, using cowpea as the model species. Two cultivars were grown in well-watered soil, drought conditions, or drought followed by rewatering through fruit formation. Osmoadaptation was investigated in leaves and roots using photosynthetic traits, water homoeostasis, inorganic ions, and primary and secondary metabolites. Multifactorial analyses indicated allocation of high quantities of amino acids, sugars, and proanthocyanidins into roots, presumably linked to their role in growth and initial stress perception. Physiological and metabolic changes developed in parallel and drought/recovery responses showed a progressive acclimation of the cowpea plant to stress. Of the 88 metabolites studied, proline, galactinol, and a quercetin derivative responded the most to drought as highlighted by multivariate analyses, and their correlations with yield indicated beneficial effects. These metabolites accumulated differently in roots, but similarly in leaves, suggesting a more conservative strategy to cope with drought in the aerial parts. Changes in these compounds roughly reflected energy investment in protective mechanisms, although the ability of plants to adjust osmotically through inorganic ions uptake could not be discounted.

  2. Transformation of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata with a Full-Length DNA Copy of Cowpea Mosaic Virus M-RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, Jacques; Goldbach, Rob

    1987-01-01

    A full-length DNA copy of the M-RNA of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), supplied with either the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) or the nopaline synthase promoter from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, was introduced into the T-DNA region of a Ti-plasmid-derived gene vector and transferred to

  3. Natural infection of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houssou, P.A.; Ahohuendo, B.C.; Fandohan, P.

    2009-01-01

    Natural infection of cowpea by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa were studied. Cowpea samples were collected at harvest (T0) and after three months of storage (T3) from the four agro-ecological zones of the country. A total of 92 representative samples were analyse...

  4. Morphological and Genetic Diversity of Rhizobia Nodulating Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) from Agricultural Soils of Lower Eastern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondieki, Damaris K; Nyaboga, Evans N; Wagacha, John M; Mwaura, Francis B

    2017-01-01

    Limited nitrogen (N) content in the soil is a major challenge to sustainable and high crop production in many developing countries. The nitrogen fixing symbiosis of legumes with rhizobia plays an important role in supplying sufficient N for legumes and subsequent nonleguminous crops. To identify rhizobia strains which are suitable for bioinoculant production, characterization of rhizobia is a prerequisite. The objective of this study was to assess the morphological and genetic diversity of rhizobia that nodulates cowpea in agricultural soils of lower eastern Kenya. Twenty-eight rhizobia isolates were recovered from soil samples collected from farmers' fields in Machakos, Makueni, and Kitui counties in lower eastern Kenya and characterized based on morphological characteristics. Thirteen representative isolates were selected and characterized using BOX repetitive element PCR fingerprinting. Based on the dendrogram generated from morphological characteristics, the test isolates were distributed into two major clusters at a similarity of 75%. Phylogenetic tree, based on BOX repetitive element PCR, grouped the isolates into two clusters at 90% similarity level. The clustering of the isolates did not show a relationship to the origin of soil samples, although the isolates were genetically diverse. This study is a prerequisite to the selection of suitable cowpea rhizobia to develop bioinoculants for sustainable crop production in Kenya.

  5. Quality characteristics of gamma irradiated cowpea (vigna unguiculata, L. walp) cultivars in Ghana and their resultant flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darfour, B.

    2010-01-01

    Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. During storage, cowpeas may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects) which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. These losses can be minimized by irradiating the stored cowpea against microorganisms and insects attacks primarily Callosobruchus maculatus. The aim of this study was to evaluate quality characteristics of gamma irradiated cowpea cultivars and their resultant flours. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 0.75 kGy, 1.0 kGy and 1.5 kGy. The unirradiated cultivars were used as controls. A portion of the samples were hammer milled, passed through sieve of 250μm and stored at 4 o C for analysis. Physicochemical, functional, pasting and sensory properties were determined using standards and/or appropriate methods. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were also determined. Radiosensitivity and storage studies on Callosobruchus maculatus were also done for one month. In general, significant effect (p 0.05) affected by the irradiation. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by the radiation. Generally, significant increase (p o C. There was no significant (p > 0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p > 0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. Irradiating at even a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the insects on average within eight days. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the percent mortality between the irradiated and the non-irradiated weevils. The percent mortality increased with increase in the radiation dose. It was established that at the lower doses studied although the radiation effect did not follow any clear pattern with increase in the radiation dose, there was significant (p < 0.05) effect on some proximate parameters (protein, fat, moisture and mineral), functional and pasting properties. The radiation did not affect sensory qualities and acceptability of the cowpea seeds. For cowpea insects disinfestation a radiation dose of 0.25 kGy would be economically beneficial. (au)

  6. Genetic mapping and legume synteny of aphid resistance in African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) grown in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Bao-Lam; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Ndeve, Arsenio; Wanamaker, Steve; Lucas, Mitchell R; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A

    The cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora Koch (CPA) is a destructive insect pest of cowpea, a staple legume crop in Sub-Saharan Africa and other semiarid warm tropics and subtropics. In California, CPA causes damage on all local cultivars from early vegetative to pod development growth stages. Sources of CPA resistance are available in African cowpea germplasm. However, their utilization in breeding is limited by the lack of information on inheritance, genomic location and marker linkage associations of the resistance determinants. In the research reported here, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between a susceptible California blackeye cultivar (CB27) and a resistant African breeding line (IT97K-556-6) was genotyped with 1,536 SNP markers. The RILs and parents were phenotyped for CPA resistance using field-based screenings during two main crop seasons in a 'hotspot' location for this pest within the primary growing region of the Central Valley of California. One minor and one major quantitative trait locus (QTL) were consistently mapped on linkage groups 1 and 7, respectively, both with favorable alleles contributed from IT97K-556-6. The major QTL appeared dominant based on a validation test in a related F2 population. SNP markers flanking each QTL were positioned in physical contigs carrying genes involved in plant defense based on synteny with related legumes. These markers could be used to introgress resistance alleles from IT97K-556-6 into susceptible local blackeye varieties by backcrossing.

  7. Distribution and Phylogeny of Microsymbionts Associated with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Nodulation in Three Agroecological Regions of Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidebe, Ifeoma N; Jaiswal, Sanjay K; Dakora, Felix D

    2018-01-15

    Cowpea derives most of its N nutrition from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) via symbiotic bacteroids in root nodules. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the diversity and biogeographic distribution of bacterial microsymbionts nodulating cowpea and other indigenous legumes are not well understood, though needed for increased legume production. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution and phylogenies of rhizobia at different agroecological regions of Mozambique using PCR of the BOX element (BOX-PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-RFLP), and sequence analysis of ribosomal, symbiotic, and housekeeping genes. A total of 122 microsymbionts isolated from two cowpea varieties (IT-1263 and IT-18) grouped into 17 clades within the BOX-PCR dendrogram. The PCR-ITS analysis yielded 17 ITS types for the bacterial isolates, while ITS-RFLP analysis placed all test isolates in six distinct clusters (I to VI). BLAST n sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and four housekeeping genes ( glnII , gyrB , recA , and rpoB ) showed their alignment with Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium species. The results revealed a group of highly diverse and adapted cowpea-nodulating microsymbionts which included Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi , Bradyrhizobium arachidis , Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense , and a novel Bradyrhizobium sp., as well as Rhizobium tropici , Rhizobium pusense , and Neorhizobium galegae in Mozambican soils. Discordances observed in single-gene phylogenies could be attributed to horizontal gene transfer and/or subsequent recombinations of the genes. Natural deletion of 60 bp of the gyrB region was observed in isolate TUTVU7; however, this deletion effect on DNA gyrase function still needs to be confirmed. The inconsistency of nifH with core gene phylogenies suggested differences in the evolutionary history of both chromosomal and symbiotic genes. IMPORTANCE A diverse group of both Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium species responsible for cowpea nodulation in Mozambique was found in this study. Future studies could prove useful in evaluating these bacterial isolates for symbiotic efficiency and strain competitiveness in Mozambican soils. Copyright © 2018 Chidebe et al.

  8. Genetic control and transgressive segregation of zinc, iron, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and sodium accumulation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes Santos, C A; Boiteux, L S

    2015-01-16

    Cowpea crop, through combining a range of essential minerals with high quality proteins, plays an important role in providing nutritional security to human population living in semi-arid regions. Studies on genetics of biofortification with essential minerals are still quite scarce, and the major objective of the present study was to provide genetic information on development of cowpea cultivars with high seed mineral contents. Genetic parameters heritability and minimum number of genes were estimated for seed accumulation of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sodium (Na). Generation mean and variance analyses were conducted using contrasting parental lines, F₁, F₂, and backcross populations derived from IT97K-1042-3 x BRS Tapaihum and IT97K-1042-3 x Canapu crosses. High narrow-sense heritability (h²) values were found for accumulation of Fe (65-86%), P (74-77%), and K (77-88%), whereas moderate h(2) values were observed for accumulation of Ca (41-56%), Zn (51-83%), and Na (50-55%) in seeds. Significant additive genetic effects as well as parental mean effects were detected in both crosses for all minerals, whereas epistasis was important genetic component in Zn content. The minimum number of genes controlling the accumulation of minerals ranged from two (K) to 11 (P). Transgressive segregation was observed in F2 populations of both crosses for all minerals analyzed. The results suggest that, although under either oligogenic or polygenic control, the seed content of these six minerals in cowpea can be improved via standard breeding methods largely used for self-pollinated crops.

  9. Essential oil optimizes the susceptibility of Callosobruchus maculatus and enhances the nutritional qualities of stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akami, Mazarin; Chakira, Hamada; Andongma, Awawing A; Khaeso, Kanjana; Gbaye, Olajire A; Nicolas, Njintang Y; Nukenine, E-N; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2017-08-01

    The intensive use of synthetic pesticides in cowpea storage has led to the development of resistance by Callosobruchus maculatus and subsequent degradation of grain quality. In an attempt to circumvent these constraints, the susceptibility of C. maculatus to 2,2-dichlorovinyldimethyl phosphate (DDVP) and Lippia adoensis essential oil (EO) was investigated and variations in the proportions of nutritional values of treated grains 150 days after storage were assessed. The survival rate was recorded after five generations. The resistance index and biochemical parameters of grains were determined. The results from this study revealed that the survival rate and resistance index significantly increased proportionally with damage in DDVP treatments ( r  = 0.889; p  = 0.018) while in EO treatments, those values remained low without significant variations ( p  = 0.0764) throughout the generations. DDVP stored grains yielded higher crude protein values, but lower carbohydrates, tannins, phenolics and minerals compared to EO. Eighteen amino acids were detected in EO treated grains and 14 in DDVP which was devoid of albumin and prolamin. Lippia adoensis EO could therefore represent a safe alternative bio-pesticide to cope with insect resistance and enhance the nutritional qualities of stored cowpea seeds.

  10. Morphological and Genetic Diversity of Rhizobia Nodulating Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. from Agricultural Soils of Lower Eastern Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris K. Ondieki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited nitrogen (N content in the soil is a major challenge to sustainable and high crop production in many developing countries. The nitrogen fixing symbiosis of legumes with rhizobia plays an important role in supplying sufficient N for legumes and subsequent nonleguminous crops. To identify rhizobia strains which are suitable for bioinoculant production, characterization of rhizobia is a prerequisite. The objective of this study was to assess the morphological and genetic diversity of rhizobia that nodulates cowpea in agricultural soils of lower eastern Kenya. Twenty-eight rhizobia isolates were recovered from soil samples collected from farmers’ fields in Machakos, Makueni, and Kitui counties in lower eastern Kenya and characterized based on morphological characteristics. Thirteen representative isolates were selected and characterized using BOX repetitive element PCR fingerprinting. Based on the dendrogram generated from morphological characteristics, the test isolates were distributed into two major clusters at a similarity of 75%. Phylogenetic tree, based on BOX repetitive element PCR, grouped the isolates into two clusters at 90% similarity level. The clustering of the isolates did not show a relationship to the origin of soil samples, although the isolates were genetically diverse. This study is a prerequisite to the selection of suitable cowpea rhizobia to develop bioinoculants for sustainable crop production in Kenya.

  11. Modeling of the water uptake process for cowpea seeds (vigna unguiculata l.) under common treatment and microwave treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirhan, E.

    2015-01-01

    The water uptake kinetics of cowpea seeds were carried out at two different water absorption treatments - common treatment and microwave treatment - to evaluate the effects of rehydration temperatures and microwave output powers on rehydration. Water uptake of cowpea seeds during soaking in water was studied at various temperatures of 20 - 45 degree C, and at various microwave output powers of 180 - 900 W. As the rehydration temperature and microwave output power increased, the water uptake of cowpea seeds increased and the rehydration time decreased. The Peleg and Richards Models were capable of predicting water uptake of cowpea seeds undergoing common treatment and microwave treatment, respectively. The effective diffusivity values were evaluated by fitting experimental absorption data to Fick second law of diffusion. The effective diffusivity coefficients for cowpea seeds varied from 7.75*10-11 to 1.99*10-10 m2/s and from 2.23*10-9 to 9.78*10-9 m2/s for common treatment and microwave treatment, respectively. (author)

  12. Effects of light quality on pod elongation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Seiya; Ario, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Andressa Camila Seiko; Tomita, Yuki; Murayama, Naoki; Taniguchi, Takatoshi; Hamaoka, Norimitsu; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari; Ishibashi, Yushi

    2017-06-03

    Soybean pods are located at the nodes, where they are in the shadow, whereas cowpea pods are located outside of the leaves and are exposed to sunlight. To compare the effects of light quality on pod growth in soybean and cowpea, we measured the length of pods treated with white, blue, red or far-red light. In both species, pods elongated faster during the dark period than during the light period in all light treatments except red light treatment in cowpea. Red light significantly suppressed pod elongation in soybean during the dark and light periods. On the other hand, the elongation of cowpea pods treated with red light markedly promoted during the light period. These results suggested that the difference in the pod set sites between soybean and cowpea might account for the difference in their red light responses for pod growth.

  13. Genetic Diversity of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Accession in Kenya Gene Bank Based on Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily N. Wamalwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased agricultural production is an urgent issue. Projected global population is 9 million people by mid of this century. Estimation projects death of 1 million people for lack of food quality (micronutrient deficit and quantity (protein deficit. Majority of these people will be living in developing countries. Other global challenges include shrinking cultivable lands, salinity, and flooding due to climate changes, new emerging pathogens, and pests. These affect crop production. Furthermore, they are major threats to crop genetic resources and food security. Genetic diversity in cultivated crops indicates gene pool richness. It is the greatest resource for plant breeders to select lines that enhance food security. This study was conducted by Masinde Muliro University to evaluate genetic diversity in 19 cowpea accessions from Kenya national gene bank. Accessions clustered into two major groups. High divergence was observed between accessions from Ethiopia and Australia and those from Western Kenya. Upper Volta accessions were closely related to those from Western Kenya. Low variation was observed between accessions from Eastern and Rift Valley than those from Western and Coastal regions of Kenya. Diversity obtained in this study can further be exploited for the improvement of cowpea in Kenya as a measure of food security.

  14. Estimation of dinitrogen fixation by cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) using residual soil 15N in poppy (Papaver somniferum L) cowpea sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, D.D.; Chand, Sukhmal; Anwar, M.

    1994-01-01

    Estimation of dinitrogen fixation by cowpea was carried out under greenhouse conditions using pots each containing 12 kg soil. Different 15 N sources included residual soil 15 N where urea was applied to opium poppy before planting of cowpea as fixing and maize as non-fixing crop. Other N sources were labelled urea, 15 N labelled poppy straw, and labelled urea + unlabelled poppy straw. The amount of N 2 fixed varied with the source of 15 N in soil. Plant material treatment gave a higher estimate at 40 days, whereas the estimate was highest with residual 15 N at 75 days. Such variation is attributed to variation in 1 5N enrichment which can be reduced by utilizing the residual 15 N which gives a more stable enrichment of soil 15 N with time. It may also alleviate the errors resulting from the differential pattern of 15 N uptake by fixing and nonfixing plant due to temporal variation in 15 N enrichment in soil. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Inheritance of Early Maturity in Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Genotypes under Rain Fed Conditions in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Yaw Owusu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at Savanna Agricultural Research Institute in 2015 cropping season to examine the inheritance of early maturity among an extra-early maturing landrace Sanzi and a medium maturing variety Padi-Tuya and their progenies. The results indicated highly significant (P0.05 were observed between F1 and RF1, implying absence of maternal effect. The segregation ratio in the F2 population for early and medium maturity fitted into the ratio 3 : 1, indicating single dominant gene mode of inheritance. Significant positive correlations were found between DNPM, DFFI, DFF, and DFPM; hence selection criteria to improve early maturity of cowpea should focus on these traits. Grain yield also had significant positive correlations with maturity indices indicating high grain yield is associated with late maturity; therefore, high grain yield should be considered alongside early maturity when selecting progenies for earliness.

  16. Potential use of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) stover treated with white-rot fungi as rabbit feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrade, Ederson; Pinheiro, Victor; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Cone, John W.; Marques, Guilhermina; Silva, Valéria; Ferreira, Luis; Rodrigues, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lignin inhibitory effects within the cell wall structure constitute a serious drawback in maximizing the utilization of fibrous feedstuffs in animal feeding. Therefore treatments that promote efficient delignification of these materials must be applied. This study evaluated the

  17. Bowman-Birk Protease Inhibitor from Vigna unguiculata Seeds Enhances the Action of Bradykinin-Related Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice da Cunha M. Álvares

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolysis of bradykinin (Bk by different classes of proteases in plasma and tissues leads to a decrease in its half-life. Here, Bk actions on smooth muscle and in vivo cardiovascular assays in association with a protease inhibitor, Black eyed-pea trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI and also under the effect of trypsin and chymotrypsin were evaluated. Two synthetic Bk-related peptides, Bk1 and Bk2, were used to investigate the importance of additional C-terminal amino acid residues on serine protease activity. BTCI forms complexes with Bk and analogues at pH 5.0, 7.4 and 9.0, presenting binding constants ranging from 103 to 104 M−1. Formation of BTCI-Bk complexes is probably driven by hydrophobic forces, coupled with slight conformational changes in BTCI. In vitro assays using guinea pig (Cavia porcellus ileum showed that Bk retains the ability to induce smooth muscle contraction in the presence of BTCI. Moreover, no alteration in the inhibitory activity of BTCI in complex with Bk and analogous was observed. When the BTCI and BTCI-Bk complexes were tested in vivo, a decrease of vascular resistance and consequent hypotension and potentiating renal and aortic vasodilatation induced by Bk and Bk2 infusions was observed. These results indicate that BTCI-Bk complexes may be a reliable strategy to act as a carrier and protective approach for Bk-related peptides against plasma serine proteases cleavage, leading to an increase in their half-life. These findings also indicate that BTCI could remain stable in some tissues to inhibit chymotrypsin or trypsin-like enzymes that cleave and inactivate bradykinin in situ.

  18. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Metabolomics: Osmoprotection as a Physiological Strategy for Drought Stress Resistance and Improved Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piebiep Goufo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants usually tolerate drought by producing organic solutes, which can either act as compatible osmolytes for maintaining turgor, or radical scavengers for protecting cellular functions. However, these two properties of organic solutes are often indistinguishable during stress progression. This study looked at individualizing properties of osmotic adjustment vs. osmoprotection in plants, using cowpea as the model species. Two cultivars were grown in well-watered soil, drought conditions, or drought followed by rewatering through fruit formation. Osmoadaptation was investigated in leaves and roots using photosynthetic traits, water homoeostasis, inorganic ions, and primary and secondary metabolites. Multifactorial analyses indicated allocation of high quantities of amino acids, sugars, and proanthocyanidins into roots, presumably linked to their role in growth and initial stress perception. Physiological and metabolic changes developed in parallel and drought/recovery responses showed a progressive acclimation of the cowpea plant to stress. Of the 88 metabolites studied, proline, galactinol, and a quercetin derivative responded the most to drought as highlighted by multivariate analyses, and their correlations with yield indicated beneficial effects. These metabolites accumulated differently in roots, but similarly in leaves, suggesting a more conservative strategy to cope with drought in the aerial parts. Changes in these compounds roughly reflected energy investment in protective mechanisms, although the ability of plants to adjust osmotically through inorganic ions uptake could not be discounted.

  19. Crescimento e respostas enzimáticas do feijoeiro caupi sob estresse hídrico e nematoide de galhas

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Carmem C. M. de; Pedrosa, Elvira M. R.; Rolim, Mario M.; Oliveira Filho, Ronaldo A. de; Souza, Marcela A. L. M. de; Pereira Filho, João V.

    2015-01-01

    Considerando a importância do feijoeiro caupi no Nordeste brasileiro, o presente estudo teve, por objetivo, avaliar o crescimento e os aspectos bioquímicos do cultivar EPACE-10 submetido a estresse hídrico e parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita em condições de casa de vegetação. O delineamento adotado foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 2 (com e sem nematoide) × 2 (com e sem estresse hídrico), com seis repetições. O nível de estresse hídrico aplicado (50% da capacidade do campo) diminu...

  20. Composição elementar e caracterização da fração lipídica de seis cultivares de caupi Biochemical composition and characterization of lipid fraction of six cowpea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando E. R. Castellón

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A composição bioquímica elementar de sementes de seis cultivares de feijão de corda (Vigna unguiculata foi determinada e a fração lipídica de cada cultivar, caracterizada. Os resultados sugerem que todas as farinhas de semente compartilham composição bioquímica similar, embora as cultivares Br-14 e CE-315 difiram das Br-9 e Br-17 no teor de umidade. As frações lipídicas purificadas foram caracterizadas quanto ao teor e tipos de ácidos graxos presentes. A cultivar Br-17 possui alto conteúdo de ácido palmítico (58,2% e o menor conteúdo de ácido linoléico (6,4% enquanto a Vita 7 apresenta alto conteúdo de ácido linoléico (21,8% e relativamente baixo conteúdo de ácido palmítico (41% em uma base comparativa. Os ácidos graxos pentacosanóico e eicosanóico representam a fração lipídica menor e o primeiro não ocorre em CE-315. Os resultados sugerem que diferentes cultivares obtidas por melhoramento genético podem apresentar diferenças quantitativas e qualitativas na composição bioquímica; assim, diferenças na capacidade germinativa, resistência a predadores no campo de plantio e no armazenamento, poderiam estar relacionadas à inibição ou estímulo da expressão de genes codificadores da síntese de moléculas relevantes, que refletem diferenças de composição, como demonstrado neste trabalho.The biochemical composition of the seeds of six bean - Vigna unguiculata (Walp cultivars was determined and the lipid fraction of each of these cultivars was characterized. The results suggest that all analyzed seed flours share similar biochemical composition, although the cultivars Br-14 and CE-315 differ in relation to Br-9 and Br-17 in water content. The purified fatty acid fractions were characterized according to their lipid content. The cultivar Br-17 possesses high content of palmitic acid (58.2% and low content of linoleic acid (6.4% while Vita 7 possesses high contents of linoleic acid (21.8% and relatively low

  1. Petiolar anatomy of eight Nigerian species of Vigna savi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ambacensis, V.gracillis, V. racemosa, V. reticulata, V. subterranea, V. triloba, V. unguiculata and V. vexillata were carried out. Anatomically significant features were found in the petioles of the taxa investigated. The presence of crystal sand crystals in ...

  2. Densidade populacional do feijÃo-caupi sob nÃveis de irrigaÃÃo

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Raquel Mendes de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    O feijÃo-caupi à uma cultura tradicionalmente produzida nas regiÃes Norte e Nordeste. No estado do PiauÃ, seu baixo rendimento mÃdio ainda persiste nos dias atuais, apesar da cultura ser bem adaptada Ãs condiÃÃes edafoclimÃticas da regiÃo e de existirem cultivares melhoradas disponÃveis no mercado. Assim, estudos que descrevam melhores prÃticas de manejo da cultura com a combinaÃÃo adequada da densidade de plantas e lÃmina de irrigaÃÃo, sÃo importantes à medida que sÃo capazes de apresentar a...

  3. Gamma radiosensitivity in common bean plant and cowpea; Gama radiossensitividade em feijoeiro comum e caupi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Sandra da Silva; Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    An indispensable step in mutation induction experiments is the determination of the sensitivity to mutagens to be used. Taking this into consideration the radiosensitivity of bean cultivars Carioca, Princesa (P. vulgaris L.), and IPA-206 [V. unguiculata (L.) Walp] to gamma rays from a {sup 60} Co source was evaluated. Sets of seeds (40 seeds/sample) were irradiated with 100, 150, 200, 250 Gy, and compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. Bean and cowpea seeds were respectively inoculated with a suspension of Rhizobium (SEMIA-4077) and Bradyrhizobium (SEMIA-6145) strains. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction determined at 15 days after emergence (15-DAE), and also through dry matter yield of above-ground part and root nodules at 40-DAE. Seedling height was significantly reduced with increased dose of radiation in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height for P. vulgaris cultivar Princesa was set up between 150-250 Gy. Cowpea (IPA-206) was less sensitive to radiation than common bean cultivars, considering the dose range of radiation studied, and a 75% seedling height reduction was reached in the range of 150-250 Gy. Dry mater yield of the above-ground part, root and nodule, were inversely related to the doses. It is recommended a dose range of 300-350 Gy for mutation breeding purposes using the cowpea cultivar (IPA-206). (author)

  4. Heat stable peroxidases from Vigna species (V) | Mbassi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoots of three landraces of a Vigna species from two climatic areas of Cameroon were evaluated for their content of heat-resistant peroxidases. The peroxidase activity in the three landraces was detected with a greater catalytic efficiency for oxidation of O-dianisidine relative to ABTS (2, 2'-azino-bis-(3- ...

  5. Genetic diversity of Bambara groundnut ( Vigna subterranea (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existence of genetic diversity in germplasm collections is crucial for cultivar development. Genetic relationships among 105 Bambara groundnuts (Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc.) accessions from Kenya were evaluated using 12 microsatellite markers. The Bambara landraces were collected from farmers in the western ...

  6. Response of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (l.) Verdc.) to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soils in Botswana are known to be poor in phosphorus. Information is lacking on the P requirements of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) in Botswana soils and soil moisture can also limit P uptake. Elsewhere the response of bambara groundnut to P fertilization is contradictory. The effects of phosphorus (P) ...

  7. Centromeric banding pattern of mitotic chromosomes in Vigna vexillata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vigna vexillata chromosome characterization was carried out using the Leishman C- banding technique. The results showed that the chromosomes mostly exhibited bands at both the centromeric and telomeric regions. These bands will serve, as a valuable marker for the identification of the chromosomes. Chromosomes 2 ...

  8. Analysis of genetic diversity in bambara groundnut [ Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to assess genetic diversity among 100 selected bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc] landraces from a diverse geographic area of Tanzania. Eleven informative AFLP primer combinations generated a total of 49 scorable polymorphic amplification ...

  9. Purification and characterization of amine oxidase from Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amine oxidases (AO) are a group of enzymes that catalyze oxidative deamination of various amines and thus are of potential use in analytical applications. Amine oxidase from five-day-old Vigna mungo L. seedlings (VAO) was purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation and Q-Sepharose chromatography to 544 ...

  10. Selection and evaluation of Rhizobial strains of Vigna radiata L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Selection and evaluation of Rhizobial strains of Vigna radiata L. beneficial to ... This study aimed to select suitable strains that can be used as inoculants to enhance legume production and simultaneously reduce the use of ... contributor to natural or biological N2 fixation and allows legumes to grow in the ...

  11. In vitro culture of Bambara groundnut [ Vigna subrerranea (L.) Verdc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A technique was developed to induce callus formation and differentiation using leaf, petiole and root explants from Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.]. The combinations and concentrations of different growth regulators were shown to be critical factors in the frequency of callus formation, as well as, in the ...

  12. Cytogenice Studies on Bambara groundnut ( Vigna subterranea (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reports the result of analysis of chromosomes of Vigna subterranea performed in the mitotic prometaphase and metaphase stages using conventional techniques. The somatic chromosome study was done using the shoot meristem as the root tips persistently showed very low mitotic indices. The result revealed ...

  13. Seed quality characteristics of a bambara groundnut ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L.) is an underutilised African legume that fits the same ecological niche as Arachis hypogea. It is still cultivated using landraces and little is known about their seed quality. The current study evaluated seed quality characteristics (viability and vigour) of a local landrace on the basis of ...

  14. Recovery of herbicide-resistant Azuki bean [ Vigna angularis (Wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the bar gene as determined by assaying for resistance to bialaphos applied directly to leaves. This result demonstrates the feasibility of introducing potentially useful agronomic traits into azuki bean through genetic engineering. Key Words: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, bar gene, bialaphos, transgenic, Vigna angulazris.

  15. Genetic diversity in green gram [Vigna radiata (L.)] landraces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Green gram [Vigna radiata (L.)] landraces were collected from various localities of Southern Tamil Nadu, India, to determine the extent of genetic diversity at DNA level by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis using 20 decamer primers. All the primers produced polymorphic amplification products with some ...

  16. Genetic diversity of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FORRESTER

    2015-01-28

    Jan 28, 2015 ... The existence of genetic diversity in germplasm collections is crucial for cultivar development. Genetic relationships among 105 Bambara groundnuts (Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc.) accessions from Kenya were evaluated using 12 microsatellite markers. The Bambara landraces were collected from farmers ...

  17. Biofertilizing efficiency of Sargassum polycystum extract on growth and biochemical composition of Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath B

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of marine brown alga Sargassum polycystum extract on growth and biochemical parameters of Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo. Methods: Different concentrations of algal extracts (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, 4.0%, and 5.0% were prepared and applied to the crops at every 10-day intervals under natural conditions. After 30 d, the plants were harvested to evaluate the growth and biochemical parameters. Results: Seaweed liquid fertilizers treated seedlings showed maximum growth in 3.0% concentration when compared to the untreated seedlings. Similarly, biochemical parameters such as photosynthetic pigments, protein, reducing sugar, total sugar and amino acids exhibited increases in 3.0% concentration seaweed extract. Decreases in growth and biochemical parameters were noticed in concentrations higher than 3.0%. Conclusions: Presence of micronutrients and growth regulating substances in the liquid extract help healthier and faster productivity of the crop.

  18. Produção de feijão-caupi e gergelim consorciado com mamoneira no Semiárido paraibano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Freitas Furtado

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os componentes de produção do feijão-caupi e gergelim, consorciado com a mamoneira no semiárido paraibano. O experimento foi desenvolvido no período de março a novembro de 2011 em condições de campo em Pombal, Paraíba. Realizou-se sob delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso com três sistemas de cultivo em dois ensaios experimentais: feijão-caupi (cv. BRS Novaera e gergelim (cv. BRS Seda em monocultivo, consórcio com mamona cv. IAC 2028 e consórcio com mamona cv. BRS Nordestina, com 4 repetições, totalizando 12 parcelas experimentais em cada ensaio. O consórcio com a mamoneira reduz os componentes de produção e produção do feijão-caupi e gergelim, sendo a cv. BRS Nordestina mais competitiva. Considerando as variáveis estudadas, a melhor opção para cultivo consorciado do feijão-caupi ou gergelim na região é a cv. IAC 2028. Production of cowpea and sesame intercropped with castor bean in semiarid region of ParaibaAbstract: The objective was to evaluate yield components of cowpea and sesame grown as secondary crops, intercropping with castor bean in the semiarid region of Paraiba. The experiment was carried out from March to November 2011 under field conditions in Pombal, Paraíba state. Three experimental systems were used in a randomized block design in two experimental trials: cowpea (cv. BRS Novaera and sesame (cv. BRS Seda in monoculture, intercropping with castor bean cv. IAC 2028 and intercropping with castor bean cv. BRS Nordestina, with 4 replicates, totaling 12 experimental plot in each trial. The intercrop with castor bean reduces yield components and yield of cowpea and sesame, with an cv. BRS Nordestina more competitive. Considering the variables studied, the best option for intercropping cowpea or sesame in the region is the cv. IAC 2028.

  19. Promoção do crescimento vegetal e diversidade genética de bactérias isoladas de nódulos de feijão-caupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Martins da Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de promoção do crescimento vegetal e a diversidade genética de bactérias isoladas de nódulos de feijão-caupi cultivado em solos do Cerrado piauiense. Avaliaram-se 26 estirpes quanto à capacidade de fixar nitrogênio em vida livre, solubilizar fosfatos inorgânicos, produzir ácido-3-indolacético (AIA na ausência e na presença do aminoácido triptofano (100 mg L-1, produzir nódulos e promover o crescimento de feijão-caupi em vasos Leonard. Nenhuma estirpe fixou nitrogênio em vida livre, e 69% foram capazes de solubilizar fosfato de cálcio in vitro. Na presença de triptofano, todas as estirpes foram capazes de sintetizar o AIA em meio 79, e 80% sintetizaram o AIA em meio DYGS. Apenas quatro estirpes nodularam o feijão-caupi. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA identificou as estirpes nodulíferas como pertencentes aos gêneros Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium, Bacillus e Paenibacillus. Entre as estirpes não nodulíferas promotoras do crescimento do feijão-caupi, estão os gêneros Bacillus e Paenibacillus.

  20. Avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de feijão-caupi pelo teste de condutividade elétrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Aparecida Silva Batista

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A medição da condutividade elétrica da solução de embebição de sementes é um procedimento recomendado para avaliar o vigor de sementes de ervilha, sugerido para as de soja. Para as de outras plantas, porém, ainda não está bem fundamentada. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de feijão-caupi. Para isso, o estudo foi conduzido, utilizando-se acessos de feijão-caupi, representados por quatro lotes de sementes. Foram realizados os testes de germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, emergência de plântulas e de condutividade elétrica, usando-se a temperatura de 25 ºC; volumes de água para embebição de 75 e 100 mL, amostras de 25 e 50 sementes; e períodos de embebição de 2, 4, 8, 12 e 24 horas. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, avaliando-se os efeitos de lotes. Diante dos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que o teste de condutividade elétrica foi eficiente na separação dos lotes de sementes em diferentes níveis de vigor.

  1. Fluxo de calor sensível em cultivo de feijão-caupi Sensible heat flux in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. de S Lima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou comparar o fluxo de calor sensível obtido pelo método do balanço de energia-razão de Bowen (H_B e pelo método aerodinâmico (H_A, em uma área de 4 ha cultivada com feijão-caupi em Areia-PB (6º 58' 12" S e 35º 42' 15" O, 620 m. Foram coletados dados de saldo de radiação, fluxo de calor no solo, temperatura e umidade do solo, temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, velocidade do vento e precipitação pluvial, os quais eram lidos a cada minuto, e armazenados, em uma central de aquisição de dados, como médias a cada 30 min, com exceção da pluviometria, cujo valor foi totalizado no período. Obteve-se excelente concordância entre H_A e H_B, com um índice "d " de 0,980, um erro padrão (EP de 14,88 W m-2, e sem diferença significativa entre H_A e H_B, pelo teste t-Student. Deste modo, o método aerodinâmico pode ser usado em conjunto com medidas de saldo de radiação e de fluxo de calor no solo, para se estimar o fluxo de calor latente e, consequentemente, a evapotranspiração da cultura do feijão-caupi, para as condições edafoclimáticas do Brejo Paraibano.A study was performed to compare the bulk aerodynamic (H_A and Bowen ratio energy balance (H_B methods in the estimation of the sensible heat flux in a cowpea crop. Data of net radiation, soil heat flux, soil water content, soil temperature, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and rainfall were collected on 30-min time intervals in an area of 4 ha belonging to the municipality of Areia, PB (6º 58' 12" S e 35º 42' 15" W, 620 m. Results showed that there was a good agreement between H_A and H_B with an index "d" of 0.98 and standard error of estimate (SEE of 14.88 W m-2, no significant difference between H_A H_B, by the t-Student test. Thus, the bulk aerodynamic method can be used in conjunction with measurements of net radiation and soil heat flux to estimate the evapotranspiration of the cowpea under soil and climatic condition of

  2. Uranium remediation using modified Vigna radiata waste biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeem, Hafiza; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Sadaf, Sana; Iqbal, Munawar

    2017-01-01

    Present study was designed to explore the possibility of Vigna radiata biomass for recovery of uranium ions. Various fundamental process parameters i.e., pH, contact time, temperature and initial uranium ions concentration were optimized and maximum uranium removal (230 mg/g) was achieved at pH 4, biosorbent dose 0.05 g, contact time 60 min contact time and temperature 40 °C using 400 mg/L uranium ions concentration. The biomass was also pre-treated by different physical and chemical pretreatments to check out their effect on the adsorption capacity. Different kinetic and equilibrium models were applied to the experimental data to understand the uranium adsorption mechanism. Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model explained well the adsorption of uranium ions onto Vigna radiata biomass. The biomass physical and chemical pretreatments significantly affected the uranium adsorption and CH 3 COOH 0.15 M solution found out to be efficient for de-sorption. FT-IR analysis of native and loaded biomass confirmed the involvement of carbonyl and hydroxyl groups in the uranium adsorption process. The results outcome revealed that Vigna radiata biomass can be used for uranium adsorption in view of low cost and high adsorption efficiency. - Highlights: • Uranium (U) adsorption was carried out using modified low cast V. radiata biomass. • At optimized conditions, up to 230 mg/g U adsorption was achieved. • CH 3 COOH solution found out to be efficient for U recovery. • FT-IR study confirmed the involvement of carbonyl and hydroxyl in U adsorption. • Modified V. radiata biomass could be used as for the adsorption of radioactive metal adsorption.

  3. Effect of garlic extraction on injury by cowpea, Curculio Chalcodermes aenus Boheman (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae), and other pests, to cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions among findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. In a field plot test, the effects of garlic extract on control of th...

  4. A novel feedstuff: ensiling of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) stover and apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) mixtures. Evaluation of the nutritive value, fermentation quality and aerobic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ederson; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana; Silva, Valéria; Pinheiro, Victor; Rodrigues, Miguel; Ferreira, Luis

    2017-10-01

    Agro-industrial by-products are of low economic value as foods for human consumption but may have potential value as animal feedstuffs. This study evaluated a novel feedstuff, ensiled discarded apple (85%) and cowpea stover (15%) mixtures with two different ensiling periods (45 and 60 days), regarding the nutritive value, fermentation quality and aerobic stability. Generally, no differences (P > 0.05) were observed between ensiling periods for nutritive value and fermentation characteristics. Silages were stable after ensiling, presenting high lactic acid (77.3 g kg -1 dry matter (DM)) and acetic acid (54.7 g kg -1 DM) and low ethanol (15.7 g kg -1 DM) and NH 3 -N (105.6 g kg -1 total N) concentrations. No butyric acid was detected in silages, and they were aerobically stable for up to 216 h. Lactic acid bacteria numbers were high at silo opening (7.14 log colony-forming units (CFU) g -1 ), while Enterobacteriaceae were not detected and yeasts/moulds were low (2.44 log CFU g -1 ). Yeast/mould and Enterobacteriaceae numbers grew considerably during 12 days of air exposure. A mixture of low calibre discarded apples with cowpea stover can be used as animal feed after the ensiling process owing to its nutritive value and long aerobic stability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Effects of volatiles from Maruca vitrata larvae and caterpillar-infested flowers of their host plant Vigna unguiculata on the foraging behavior of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamò, M.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Apanteles taragamae is a promising candidate for the biological control of the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata, which recently has been introduced into Benin. The effects of volatiles from cowpea and peabush flowers and Maruca vitrata larvae on host selection behavior of the

  6. In vitro Control of Anthracnose Disease of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp caused by Colletotrichum destructivum with Cyathula prostrata L and Diodia scandens SW leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Ikechukwu Ogu

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that C. prostrata and D. scandens leaf extract have the potentials as veritable control agents of anthracnose disease of cowpea in Africa. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 29-36

  7. Effet positif de la fertilisation phosphatée sur les composantes du rendement du niébé (Vigna unguiculata L. en Tunisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Naceur, M.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive effect of phosphate fertilization on component's yield of cowpea in Tunisia. Among the small lakes in the flooded area of the river Akagera, in eastern Rwanda, lake Ihema (area : 90 km2, mean depth : 4 m is the most important. The density of phytoplankton in the water is high but dissolved salts concentration is low. Ichtyofauna of the lake consists of 34 species which were occasionally exploited by tanzanian fishermen. That is why, since 1980, the government of Rwanda with the aid of the Belgian Cooperation Agency for Development have initiated an official fishery. Total yield, fishing effort and financial investments are analysed over a 7 years period (1981 to 1987 in order to precise the socio-economical efficiency of this cooperation project. Total fishery effort and total yield have increased regularly until 1983, reaching 186 tons with a fishing effort of 9.231 outings. Since that year, the production has stabilized at a level of 156-199 t/year with only two taxa exploited : Tilapia spp and Clarias gariepinus. The analysis of book-keeping and annual accountant balance of the Ihema fishery shows that the annual exploitation ratio fluctuates between 81 and 142, 5 % ; this indicates a difficult control of the expenditures at least during some years (1984, 1985 and 1986. The profit ratio shows a positive return (± 10 % since 1981 to 1983, then a depression during 1984 and a continual increase during the next years to become positive again in 1987. Continuous evaluations of these simple parameters allowed to take some actions in order to maintain the efficiency of the fishery. This new activity will be maintained if there is a good fish stock management and rigorous accounts.

  8. Effect of thermal treatments on the chemical and biological value of irradiated and non-irradiated cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dario, A.C.; Salgado, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Chemical and nutritional characteristics of irradiated and nonirradiated cowpea bean at 0.2 kGy submitted to several thermal treatments were studied. The cowpea bean flours irradiated at 0.2 kGy were superior to those non-irradiated concerning digestibility and the flours submitted to microwave oven were superior to those cooked under low pressure, autoclaved or even raw from the nutritional point of view. As to the presence of anti-nutritional factors, the results showed that the variety of cowpea bean under research presented neither trypsin inhibitor nor haemagglutinin activity, however, regarding tannin, a 0.006% content was found and considered negligible

  9. Cowpea pod (Vigna unguiculata) biomass as a low-cost biosorbent for removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyo, U; Moyo, M

    2017-01-01

    The use of cowpea pod (CPP) biomass for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution was investigated. The effects of factors such as dosage concentration (0.2 to 1.6 g L -1 ), pH (2 to 8), contact time (5 to 120 min), metal ion concentrations (10 to 80 mg L -1 ) and temperature (20 to 50 °C) were examined through batch studies. The biosorption data conformed best to the Langmuir model at the three working temperatures (20, 30 and 40 °C) as revealed by the correlation coefficients (R 2 ) which were greater than 0.940. The maximum sorption capacity of the CPP for Pb(II) was 32.96 mg g -1 at 313 K. Furthermore, the kinetic data fitted well to the pseudo-second-order model as it had the lowest sum of square error (SSE) values and correlation coefficients close to unity (R 2  > 0.999). The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔS° and ΔH°) showed that the biosorption process was spontaneous, feasible and endothermic. The results obtained in the present study indicated that cowpea pod biomass could be used for the effective removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution.

  10. Impact of the energy crop Jatropha curcas L. on the composition of rhizobial populations nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and acacia (Acacia seyal L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Amadou; Duponnois, Robin; Floury, Antoine; Laguerre, Gisèle; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Baudoin, Ezékiel

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas, a Euphorbiaceae species that produces many toxicants, is increasingly planted as an agrofuel plant in Senegal. The purpose of this study was to determine whether soil priming induced by J. curcas monoculture could alter the rhizobial populations that nodulate cowpea and acacia, two locally widespread legumes. Soil samples were transferred into a greenhouse from three fields previously cultivated with Jatropha for 1, 2, and 15 years, and the two trap legumes were grown in them. Control soil samples were also taken from adjacent Jatropha-fallow plots. Both legumes tended to develop fewer but larger nodules when grown in Jatropha soils. Nearly all the nifH sequences amplified from nodule DNA were affiliated to the Bradyrhizobium genus. Only sequences from Acacia seyal nodules grown in the most recent Jatropha plantation were related to the Mesorhizobium genus, which was much a more conventional finding on A. seyal than the unexpected Bradyrhizobium genus. Apart from this particular case, only minor differences were found in the respective compositions of Jatropha soil versus control soil rhizobial populations. Lastly, the structure of these rhizobial populations was systematically imbalanced owing to the overwhelming dominance of a very small number of nifH genotypes, some of which were identical across soil types or even sites. Despite these weak and sparse effects on rhizobial diversity, future investigations should focus on the characterization of the nitrogen-fixing abilities of the predominant rhizobial strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of farmyard manure on some morphological and biochemical parameters of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seedling grown in cadmium-treated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asagba, Samuel Ogheneovo; Ezedom, Theresa; Kadiri, Helen

    2017-10-01

    The present study aims to assess the effects of the two kinds of farmyard manure (poultry and pig manures) as amendments for soil on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in plants using cowpea seedlings as plant model. Cd toxicity was evaluated by assessing the effect of the metal on the growth rate and antioxidant status as well as the ability of the plant to metabolise xenobiotic. There was a significantly (p  0.05) different from control. Like in the case of SOD, the Cd-induced inhibition of the activity of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes, aldehyde oxidase and sulphite oxidase remained significantly (p  0.05) different from control. In conclusion, the findings of the study revealed that supplementation of Cd-treated soils with pig and poultry manures reversed effects of Cd on cowpea seedlings. However, poultry manure was more effective than pig manure in ameliorating the effects of Cd.

  12. Grain legume improvement in Ghana with induced mutagenesis - Special reference to winged bean Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC and cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquaah, G.; Klu, G.Y.P.

    1983-01-01

    Two varieties each of winged bean and cowpea were exposed to various doses of gamma irradiation from a 60 Co source. Seed emergence, seedling height, seedling survival, plant survival at maturity, and plant and pod fertility were all progressively reduced with increasing dosage of irradiation. Mutants isolated in th M 2 for winged bean included a single stem erect mutant, a multiple branch bush, early, extra long-poded, strap and a spectrum of seed size and colour mutants. In cowpea an erect mutant was isolated. (author)

  13. Genotype evaluation of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) using 1H qNMR combined with exploratory tools and solid-state NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G.; Silva, Lorena M. A.; Teofilo, Elizita M.

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this study was to apply a non-targeted chemometric analysis (principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis using the heat map approach) of NMR data to investigate the variability of organic compounds in nine genotype cowpea seeds, without any complex pre-tr...

  14. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)-based association analysis for plant growth habit in worldwide Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea is a legume widely grown in Africa, North, Central and South America, and Asia. The Cowpea plant growth habits consist of erect, semi-prostrate, and prostrate types. Developing a cultivar while considering plant growth habit is essential within a breeding program since the need for a particul...

  15. Genotype evaluation of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) using 1H qNMR combined with exploratory tools and solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Silva, Lorena M A; Teofilo, Elizita M; Larsen, Flemming H; de Brito, Edy S

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this study was to apply a non-targeted chemometric analysis (principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis using the heat map approach) of NMR data to investigate the variability of organic compounds in nine genotype cowpea seeds, without any complex pre-treatment. In general, both exploratory tools show that Tvu 233, CE-584, and Setentão genotypes presented higher amount mainly of raffinose and Tvu 382 presented the highest content of choline and least content of raffinose. The evaluation of the aromatic region showed the Setentão genotype with highest content of niacin/vitamin B3 whereas Tvu 382 with lowest amount. To investigate rigid and mobile components in the seeds cotyledon, 13 C CP and SP/MAS solid-state NMR experiments were performed. The cotyledon of the cowpea comprised a rigid part consisting of starch as well as a soft portion made of starch, fatty acids, and protein. The variable contact time experiment suggests the presence of lipid-amylose complexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Production in Pichia pastoris, antifungal activity and crystal structure of a class I chitinase from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata): Insights into sugar binding mode and hydrolytic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landim, Patrícia G Castro; Correia, Tuana O; Silva, Fredy D A; Nepomuceno, Denise R; Costa, Helen P S; Pereira, Humberto M; Lobo, Marina D P; Moreno, Frederico B M B; Brandão-Neto, José; Medeiros, Suelen C; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Oliveira, José T A; Sousa, Bruno L; Barroso-Neto, Ito L; Freire, Valder N; Carvalho, Cristina P S; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C O; Grangeiro, Thalles B

    2017-04-01

    A cowpea class I chitinase (VuChiI) was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris. The recombinant protein was secreted into the culture medium and purified by affinity chromatography on a chitin matrix. The purified chitinase migrated on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as two closely-related bands with apparent molecular masses of 34 and 37 kDa. The identity of these bands as VuChiI was demonstrated by mass spectrometry analysis of tryptic peptides and N-terminal amino acid sequencing. The recombinant chitinase was able to hydrolyze colloidal chitin but did not exhibit enzymatic activity toward synthetic substrates. The highest hydrolytic activity of the cowpea chitinase toward colloidal chitin was observed at pH 5.0. Furthermore, most VuChiI activity (approximately 92%) was retained after heating to 50 °C for 30 min, whereas treatment with 5 mM Cu 2+ caused a reduction of 67% in the enzyme's chitinolytic activity. The recombinant protein had antifungal activity as revealed by its ability to inhibit the spore germination and mycelial growth of Penicillium herquei. The three-dimensional structure of VuChiI was resolved at a resolution of 1.55 Å by molecular replacement. The refined model had 245 amino acid residues and 381 water molecules, and the final R-factor and R free values were 14.78 and 17.22%, respectively. The catalytic domain of VuChiI adopts an α-helix-rich fold, stabilized by 3 disulfide bridges and possessing a wide catalytic cleft. Analysis of the crystallographic model and molecular docking calculations using chito-oligosaccharides provided evidences about the VuChiI residues involved in sugar binding and catalysis, and a possible mechanism of antifungal action is suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  17. Supplementation of irradiated and non-irradiated cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) protein with cereal proteins - supplementation of soup with a protein blend of appropriate nutritional value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dario, A.C.; Salgado, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The quality of the cowpea bean protein was improved through supplementations with flours from beans exposed to microwave oven treated with cereal proteins such as wheat, rice, corn, and sorghum. Biological assays results with these blends showed that the casein exceeded the other diets concerning digestibility only; however, in parameters such as biological value, net protein utilization (NPU), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and nutritional efficiency ratio (NER), no significant differences occurred. Among all elaborated blends, the one with irradiated beans submitted to microwave oven for 30 minutes (65%) + rice (35%) presented the best results. The soup elaborated with the best supplemented blend was satisfactory concerning color, odor, flavor and texture

  18. H2O2 plays an important role in the lifestyle of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Ygor R G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Barreto, Ana L H; Freire-Filho, Francisco R; Oliveira, Jose T A

    2015-08-01

    Plant-fungus interactions usually generate H(2)O(2) in the infected plant tissue. H(2)O(2) has a direct antimicrobial effect and is involved in the cross-linking of cell walls, signaling, induction of gene expression, hypersensitive cell death and induced systemic acquired resistance. This has raised the hypothesis that H(2)O(2) manipulation by pharmacological compounds could alter the lifestyle of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with the BR-3-Tracuateua cowpea genotype. The primary leaves of cowpea were excised, infiltrated with salicylic acid (SA), glucose oxidase + glucose (GO/G), catalase (CAT) or diphenyliodonium chloride (DPI), followed by spore inoculation on the adaxial leaf surface. SA or GO/G-treated plantlets showed increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and lipid peroxidation. The fungus used a subcuticular, intramural necrotrophic strategy, and developed secondary hyphae associated with the quick spread and rapid killing of host cells. However, CAT or DPI-treated leaves exhibited decreased H(2)O(2) concentration and lipid peroxidation and the fungus developed intracellular hemibiotrophic infection with vesicles, in addition to primary and secondary hyphal formation. These results suggest that H(2)O(2) plays an important role in the cowpea (C. gloeosporioides) pathosystem given that it affected fungal lifestyle during interaction. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Label-free Proteomic Reveals that Cowpea Severe Mosaic Virus Transiently Suppresses the Host Leaf Protein Accumulation During the Compatible Interaction with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Ana L S; Oliveira, Jose T A; de Souza, Gustavo A; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2016-12-02

    Viruses are important plant pathogens that threaten diverse crops worldwide. Diseases caused by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) have drawn attention because of the serious damages they cause to economically important crops including cowpea. This work was undertaken to quantify and identify the responsive proteins of a susceptible cowpea genotype infected with CPSMV, in comparison with mock-inoculated controls, using label-free quantitative proteomics and databanks, aiming at providing insights on the molecular basis of this compatible interaction. Cowpea leaves were mock- or CPSMV-inoculated and 2 and 6 days later proteins were extracted and analyzed. More than 3000 proteins were identified (data available via ProteomeXchange, identifier PXD005025) and 75 and 55 of them differentially accumulated in response to CPSMV, at 2 and 6 DAI, respectively. At 2 DAI, 76% of the proteins decreased in amount and 24% increased. However, at 6 DAI, 100% of the identified proteins increased. Thus, CPSMV transiently suppresses the synthesis of proteins involved particularly in the redox homeostasis, protein synthesis, defense, stress, RNA/DNA metabolism, signaling, and other functions, allowing viral invasion and spread in cowpea tissues.

  20. Relating sensory profiles of canned amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus), cleome (Cleome gynandra), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) leaves to consumer acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeoziri, Isiguzoro O; Kinnear, Marise; de Kock, Henriëtta L

    2018-04-01

    The younger generation of South Africans generally do not consume traditional meals prepared using African green leafy vegetables, primarily because they are regarded as bitter, "poverty" foods. Canning of these vegetables could create value-added products that can be sold in the commercial market. Descriptive sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance testing with young females were used to assess the potential of such products. The sensory attributes of amaranth, cleome and cowpea leaves canned in brine and in a cream sauce were described using 21 attributes grouped by aroma, taste, texture/mouthfeel and aftertaste. Amaranth and Swiss chard products were described as sweet with a popcorn-like aroma. Cleome products were described as bitter, sour, pungent, chemical-tasting, astringent, sandy with a metallic mouthfeel and strong aftertaste. Cowpea products were described as having woody and tobacco aromas as well as a chewy and cohesive texture. Among the products canned with a cream sauce, young female consumers preferred amaranth and Swiss chard; cowpea was less liked, while cleome was least liked. Canned amaranth leaves have potential as a commercial product that may be well liked by young consumers. The cowpea leaves product has consumer potential, but the formulation needs revision, while canned cleome leaves need further research work. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effect of Osmopriming Duration on Germination, Emergence, and Early Growth of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. in the Sudan Savanna of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed osmopriming could be a sustainable method to increase crop establishment, uniform emergence, and growth of plant on the field. Laboratory and field studies were carried out in 2010 cropping season at Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, to study the effect of seed osmopriming duration on the germination, emergence, and growth of cowpea seeds. Treatments consisted of three osmopriming duration (soaking in 1% KNO3 salt for 6, 8, and 10 hrs, one hydroprimed control (10 hr, and an unprimed control. These five treatments were laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD replicated four times. The results showed that osmopriming with KNO3 for different durations was at par but was superior to unprimed treatments in terms of seed germination, emergence, plant height, and dry matter accumulation at 3 weeks after sowing. From this study, it can therefore be concluded that seeds of cowpea could be primed (both hydro and osmopriming for increased performance. However, osmopriming with KNO3 salt (soaked in 1% KNO3 salt solution and dried before sowing for 6 hours could result in greater seed germination and seedling height than hydropriming.

  2. INFLUENCE OF CROPPING SYSTEM AND WEED MANAGEMENT PRACTICE ON EMERGENCE, GROWTH OF WEEDS, YIELD OF MAIZE (Zea mays L. AND COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Ogar Takim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cropping system and weed management practice on weed seedling emergence, weed biomass production and yield of maize and cowpea were examined at Ilorin, in the southern Guinea savanna (9°29' N, 4°35' E and 307 m ASL of Nigeria. Weed emergence occurred throughout the 3-15 weeks after planting (WAP. Forty-three weed species belonging to 38 genera within 20 families were encountered. Fimbristylis littoralis Gaudet, Tridax procumbens L and Eleusine indica Gaertn were the most prevalent weed species. Cropping system and weed management practice significantly affected weed emergence. Significantly (p≤0.05 lower number of weeds emerged in the intercropped and herbicide treated plots while higher weed densities and weed biomass were recorded in the uncropped and unweeded control plots than in the other plots. While aggregate crop yields were significantly higher in the intercropped than in the sole plots, component crop yields were higher under the sole cropping than in the intercrop. The implication of the results on weed management is discussed.

  3. Genetic and physical mapping of candidate genes for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum race 3 in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marti Pottorff

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum (Fot is a soil-borne fungal pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease in cowpea. Fot race 3 is one of the major pathogens affecting cowpea production in California. Identification of Fot race 3 resistance determinants will expedite delivery of improved cultivars by replacing time-consuming phenotypic screening with selection based on perfect markers, thereby generating successful cultivars in a shorter time period. Resistance to Fot race 3 was studied in the RIL population California Blackeye 27 (resistant x 24-125B-1 (susceptible. Biparental mapping identified a Fot race 3 resistance locus, Fot3-1, which spanned 3.56 cM on linkage group one of the CB27 x 24-125B-1 genetic map. A marker-trait association narrowed the resistance locus to a 1.2 cM region and identified SNP marker 1_1107 as co-segregating with Fot3-1 resistance. Macro and microsynteny was observed for the Fot3-1 locus region in Glycine max where six disease resistance genes were observed in the two syntenic regions of soybean chromosomes 9 and 15. Fot3-1 was identified on the cowpea physical map on BAC clone CH093L18, spanning approximately 208,868 bp on BAC contig250. The Fot3-1 locus was narrowed to 0.5 cM distance on the cowpea genetic map linkage group 6, flanked by SNP markers 1_0860 and 1_1107. BAC clone CH093L18 was sequenced and four cowpea sequences with similarity to leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine protein kinases were identified and are cowpea candidate genes for the Fot3-1 locus. This study has shown how readily candidate genes can be identified for simply inherited agronomic traits when appropriate genetic stocks and integrated genomic resources are available. High co-linearity between cowpea and soybean genomes illustrated that utilizing synteny can transfer knowledge from a reference legume to legumes with less complete genomic resources. Identification of Fot race 3 resistance genes will enable transfer into high yielding cowpea varieties using marker-assisted selection (MAS.

  4. The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp and its response to the application of humic acids (HA´s in Canton Jipijapa in Ecuador

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    Ayón Fernando

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in the Jipijapa canton, Manabi province of Ecuador, with the following objectives: i to identify the dose of humic acid in the caupí crop, ii to determine the time for foliar application of humic acid, and iii determine the marginal rate of return in terms of cost/benefit. A plot in experimental design of completely randomized blocks (DCRB with factorial arrangement of 4 x 3 with four replications was implemented. The variables plant height (PH, stem diameter (SD, sheath length (SL, number of decks (ND and average weight of decks (AWD were evaluated. The results showed that to improve cowpea production, the addition of significant amounts of iron is required. The dose of leaf application was 1000 cm3/ha of humic acids, the PH was 48.76 cm and SD of 9.66 mm. The time for foliar application of humic acids was at 30 days, the length of pod was obtained with 21.16 cm and numbers of decks with 14.34. For the weight of the mallets, the treatment was the application to the 15 days after the sowing. There was a high and significant correlation between PH and SD (0.54. When the economic analysis was carried out, the T8 treatment, 1000 cm3/ha of humic acid was applied, applied 30 days after sowing was the one with the marginal return rate with 271.43%.

  5. Effect of gamma radiation of 60Co in the variability of chinese bean [Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walpers] en R4M4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmeron E, J.; Bueno J, J.E.; Valencia E, F.; Cervantes S, T.; Cruz T, E. De la

    2007-01-01

    Selection of plants of Chinese bean coming from seed irradiated with gammas of 60 Co in the generation R 4 M 4 (fourth recurrent irradiation, fourth segregate generation) were carried out, taking as selection approaches the plant architecture, the numbers of sheaths for plant, sheath longitude, position of the sheaths, grain size and resistance to plagues and illnesses. 17 lines were selected for grain and 3 lines with fodder characteristics of black grain color were also obtained. (Author)

  6. Interação genótipo x ambiente em genótipos de feijão-caupi semiprostrado via modelos mistos

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    Francisco Eduardo Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A metodologia de modelos mistos (REML/BLUP tem sido empregada para estudar os efeitos da interação genótipo x ambiente (G x E em várias culturas, como: arroz, feijão, cana-de-açúcar, cajueiro e eucalipto, porém ainda não foi aplicada em feijão-caupi. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar simultaneamente genótipos de feijão-caupi semiprostrado cultivados no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, via modelos mistos, que reúnam alta adaptabilidade, estabilidade e produtividade de grãos. Foram conduzidos quatro ensaios de valor de cultivo e uso com genótipos de genótipos de feijão-caupi nos anos de 2005 e 2006 em Aquidauana, Chapadão do Sul e Dourados. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados, com 20 genótipos e 4 repetições. Os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados pela metodologia REML/BLUP, e a seleção baseou-se no método da média harmônica do desempenho relativo dos valores genéticos (MHPRVG, em três estratégias: seleção com base no valor genético predito, tendo-se considerado o desempenho médio dos genótipos em todos os ambientes (sem efeito de interação ou o desempenho em cada ambiente (com efeito da interação; e seleção simultânea quanto à produtividade de grãos, estabilidade e adaptabilidade. Os genótipos BRS Paraguaçu, MNC99-542F-5 e MNC99-508G-1 podem ser cultivados em vários ambientes, pois reúnem alta produtividade de grãos, adaptabilidade e estabilidade. A herdabilidade da média dos genótipos apresentou magnitude variando de moderada a alta, fato que indica excelentes possibilidades para a seleção, permitindo acurácia seletiva de 82%.

  7. Avaliação de genótipos de caupi sob salinidade Assessment of cowpea genotypes under salinity

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    José P. Dantas

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos ensaios em abrigo telado de vegetação com cobertura de telha de fibra de vidro com o objetivo de se avaliar a tolerância de 50 genótipos de caupi sob salinidade. Os tratamentos de salinidade aplicados no solo, em termos de condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação (CE, foram: CE1 - 0,3, CE2 - 3,0, CE3 - 6,0, CE4 - 9,0 e CE5 - 12,0 dS m-1. Os genótipos foram classificados para tolerância à salinidade com base na redução percentual do peso de matéria seca da parte aérea. No tratamento CE2, 36 genótipos foram tolerantes (T, 12 moderadamente tolerantes (MT e 2 moderadamente sensíveis (MS; no tratamento CE3, 3 foram T, 14 MT, 30 MS e 3 sensíveis (S; no tratamento CE4, um foi MS e 49 S e, no tratamento CE5, todos foram S. O teor de proteína nos grãos foi influenciado pela salinidade e variou de genótipo para genótipo.To assess the tolerance of 50 cowpea genotypes under salinity, experiments were conducted in greenhouse covered with fiberglass sheets. The salinity treatments applied in terms of electrical conductivity of saturation extract of soil (EC were EC1 - 0.3; EC2 - 3.0; EC3 - 6.0; EC4 - 9.0 and EC5 - 12.0 dS m-1. The genotypes were classified for the salinity tolerance on the basis of the reduction in dry weight (% of shoot. Under EC2, 36 genotypes were tolerant (T, 12 moderately tolerant (MT and 2 moderately susceptible (MS; under EC3, 3 were T, 14 MT, 30 MS and 3 susceptible (S; under EC4, one was MS and 49 S and under EC5, all were S. The protein content of seed was influenced by salinity and varied with the genotype.

  8. Acúmulo de massa seca em feijão-caupi sob adubação orgânica

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    Paulo Cássio Alves Linhares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-caupi responde bem à adubação orgânica, aumentando sua produtividade quando o solo é adubado com estercos de animais, compostos orgânicos, húmus de minhoca e biofertilizante. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar o acúmulo de massa seca do feijão-caupi em função de diferentes quantidades de húmus de minhoca incorporadas ao solo e biofertilizantes orgânicos nas condições do semiárido nordestino. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de campo, na Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, em delineamento experimental em blocos completos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 4 x 2, com 5 repetições. O primeiro fator correspondeu a quatro quantidades de húmus de minhoca incorporadas ao solo (0,0; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 kg m-1 e o segundo fator, duas adubações via foliar na forma líquida (biofertilizante comum e húmus de minhoca. Avaliaram-se os rendimentos de massa seca da: folha, caule, raiz, parte aera, total e da relação parte/aérea. Não houve interação significativa entre os fatores tratamentos testados para nenhuma das características avaliadas. O maior acúmulo de massa seca do feijão-caupi foi registrado com a incorporação ao solo de 0,14 Kg m-1 de húmus de minhoca. Em termos de valores absolutos, o biofertilizante comum proporcionou maior massa seca do feijão-caupi.Dry matter accumulation in cowpea under organic fertilizationAbstract: Cowpea responds well to organic fertilization, increasing its productivity when the soil is fertilized with animal manures, organic compounds, earthworm humus and biofertilizer. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate the dry mass accumulation of cowpea as a function of different amounts of earthworm humus incorporated in the soil and organic biofertilizers under the conditions of the northeastern semi-arid region. The experiment was conducted under field conditions, at Universidade Estaudal da Paraíba, in a randomized complete block design, in the 4 x 2 factorial scheme, with

  9. Teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos em caupi inoculado com rizóbio e em condições salinas

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    Jailma Ribeiro de Andrade

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A salinidade é um fator estressante que limita a produção das culturas quando encontra-se em quantidades além do limiar tolerável pelas mesmas. Nesse sentido objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o teor de clorofila a, b, total e carotenóides em feijoeiro caupi irrigado com diferentes níveis de água salina. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG, a qual, está localizada na zona centro oriental do Estado da Paraíba, no Planalto da Borborema, cujas coordenadas geográficas são latitude sul 7º13’11’’, longitude oeste 35º53’31’’ e altitude de 547,56 m. As variáveis avaliadas foram: clorofilas a, clorofila b, carotenóides, relação clorofila a/clorofila b e relação clorofila total/ carotenóides. A interação de rizóbios e salinidade não teve efeito significativo sobre as variáveis. Já o fator sal isolado foi significativo sobre todas as variáveis avaliadas. Os teores de clorofilas e carotenóides indicam as condições do aparato fotossintético em feijoeiro caupi quando submetido a estresse salino.

  10. Compatibilidade do tratamento de sementes de feijão-caupi com fungicidas e inoculação com estirpes de Bradyrhizobium

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    Manoel Luiz da Silva Neto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a compatibilidade do tratamento de sementes com fungicidas e a inoculação com estirpes de Bradyrhizobium em feijão-caupi. Em laboratório, avaliou-se a sobrevivência de células nas sementes da cultivar BRS Guariba, tratadas ou não com fungicidas (fludioxonil, carbendazim, carbendazim + thiram e carboxin + thiram e inoculadas ou não com Bradyrhizobium (estirpes UFLA3-84, BR 3267, INPA3-11B e BR 3262. Em casa de vegetação, conduziu-se experimento em vasos de Leonard, com os mesmos tratamentos. Foram avaliados: massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, além de número e massa de nódulos 25 dias após a emergência das plantas. No campo, dois experimentos foram conduzidos, tendo-se utilizado a estirpe BR 3262, com aplicação de fungicidas nas sementes: um em área de primeiro cultivo e outro em área cultivada anteriormente com culturas anuais. Avaliaram-se, aos 35 dias, o número de nódulos, a massa de nódulos secos e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, e, na colheita, a produtividade de grãos. Os fungicidas não tiveram efeito significativo sobre a sobrevivência de Bradyrhizobium, a nodulação das plantas e o rendimento de grãos, que, em média, foi superior a 1.200 kg ha-1. O tratamento de sementes de feijão-caupi com fungicidas é compatível com a inoculação das estirpes avaliadas.

  11. Expressão gênica induzida por estresses abióticos em nódulos de feijão-caupi

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    Helder Anderson Pinto da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito isolado ou simultâneo dos estresses hídrico e térmico na expressão gênica em nódulos de feijão-caupi. A bactéria Bradyrhizobium japonicum (estirpe BR 3267 foi inoculada em sementes de feijão-caupi da cultivar IPA 206 e, 35 dias após a germinação, as plantas foram submetidas a diferentes regimes de disponibilidade hídrica e a estresse térmico, em casa de vegetação. Para a identificação dos genes diferencialmente expressos, foi utilizada a técnica de cDNA-AFLP, tendo-se isolado 67 fragmentos derivados de transcritos (FDTs diferencialmente expressos. Após o sequenciamento dos FDTs e das análises de similaridade, com uso do programa Blastx, foram identificados 14 genes diferencialmente expressos envolvidos em diferentes processos metabólicos. O padrão de expressão de seis genes sob estresse abiótico foi confirmado por RT-qPCR, e observou-se indução de genes pertencentes a diferentes categorias funcionais, como biossíntese de ácido abscísico, sinalização celular, transportador de prolina e biossíntese de lipídeos de membranas. A expressão desses genes indica sua participação em processos relacionados à proteção dos nódulos ao estresse abiótico.

  12. O estresse salino retarda o desenvolvimento morfofisiológico e a ativação de galactosidases de parede celular em caules de Vigna unguiculata Salt stress delays morphophysiological development and activation of cell wall galactosidases in Vigna unguiculata stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Bonfim Sudério

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de examinar o envolvimento das α- e β-galactosidases na expansão celular de caules de plântulas de feijão-de-corda submetidas a estresse salino durante o estabelecimento da plântula, e de analisar os efeitos do estresse salino no desenvolvimento das plântulas e nas atividades enzimáticas, sementes de feijão-de-corda Pitiúba foram semeadas em água destilada e em solução de NaCl 100 mM. Foram coletados caules em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento e com diferentes tempos após a semeadura. Avaliou-se o crescimento através das medidas de comprimento e das matérias fresca e seca dos caules. A salinidade tanto inibiu como retardou o crescimento dos caules. Os efeitos do NaCl nas atividades galactosidásicas de parede celular foram estudados in vivo e in vitro. A inibição e o retardamento do crescimento dos caules correlacionaram-se com as variações em atividades galactosidásicas. As galactosidases de parede celular de caules de plântulas tiveram suas atividades inibidas com o aumento da concentração de sal no meio de reação. A partir de 250 mM de NaCl as β-galactosidases foram mais sensíveis ao sal que α-galactosidases.In order to examine the participation of α- and β-galactosidases in the cell expansion of stems from cowpea seedlings submitted to salt stress during plant establishment as well as to analyze the effect of salt stress on the development of seedlings and enzymatic activities, Pitiúba cowpea seeds were sown in distilled water and in 100 mM NaCl. Throughout seed germination and seedling development, stems were harvested from seedlings at different stages of development and at different times after planting. Growth was evaluated by measuring stem length and fresh and dry mass of stems. Salinity both inhibited and delayed the growth of seedling stems. The effects of NaCl on galactosidase activities of the cell wall were studied, both in vivo and in vitro. Galactosidase activities in vivo were related to effects of NaCl inhibition and delay of stem development. The increase in salt concentration inhibited isolated galactosidase activity of cell wall from stems of seedlings. Starting at 250 mM NaCl, β-galactosidases were more sensitive to salt than α-galactosidases.

  13. Effect of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in the variability of chinese bean [Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walpers] en R{sub 4}M{sub 4}; Efecto de la radiacion gamma de {sup 60}Co en la variabilidad de frijol chino [Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walpers] en R{sub 4}M{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron E, J.; Bueno J, J.E.; Valencia E, F. [CSAEGro, Iguala, Guerrero, Tel and Fax 01 733 (33) 24328 (Mexico); Cervantes S, T. [IREGEP (Mexico); Cruz T, E. De la [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: csaegro@prodigy.net.mx

    2007-07-01

    Selection of plants of Chinese bean coming from seed irradiated with gammas of {sup 60}Co in the generation R{sub 4}M{sub 4} (fourth recurrent irradiation, fourth segregate generation) were carried out, taking as selection approaches the plant architecture, the numbers of sheaths for plant, sheath longitude, position of the sheaths, grain size and resistance to plagues and illnesses. 17 lines were selected for grain and 3 lines with fodder characteristics of black grain color were also obtained. (Author)

  14. Modificação da concentração de amido resistente em feijão macassar (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp por tratamento hidrotérmico e congelamento Modification of the concentration of resistant starch in macassar bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp hydrothermal process and freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Magalhães Salgado

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a importância das propriedades funcionais do amido resistente para a saúde, o elevado consumo de feijão macassar no Nordeste brasileiro e os efeitos do processo térmico e da estocagem sobre a estrutura do amido, foi realizado este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de diferentes tratamentos hidrotérmicos (cocção sob pressão e sem pressão e do armazenamento a 20ºC por 15 e 30 dias, sobre a formação de amido resistente do feijão macassar em dois estádios de maturação (verde e seco. Para analisar os fatores combinados foi realizado um planejamento fatorial do tipo 2³ com três variáveis independentes (fatores e uma variável dependente (resposta. Todas as variáveis exerceram efeitos significativos na produção de AR e a maior formação foi registrada para o feijão seco devido à hidratação prévia a cocção sem pressão, além do tempo de armazenamento congelado de 30 dias. No que diz respeito às analises físicas, após os tratamentos hidrotérmicos, ocorreram transformações nos padrões de cristalinidade e no aspecto morfológico dos feijões.Considering the importance of the functional properties of resistant starch for health, the high consumption of the macassar bean in the northeast of Brazil and the effects of the thermal process and storage on the structure of the starch, this work was implemented to evaluate the influence of different hydrothermal treatments (cooking under pressure and whithout pressure and of storage at 20ºC for 15 and 30 days, on the formation of resistant starch in the macassar bean, in two stages of maturation (green and dryed. To analyse the combined factors, a factorial design type 2³ was realized with three independent variables (factors and one dependent variable (response. All the variables exercised significant effects on the production of the resistant starch and the highest formation was registered for the dried bean due to the previous hydration before cooking without pressure, as well as the 30 day frozen storage. Concerning the physics analysis after the hydrothermic treatments there are transformations in the cristalinity patterns and in the morphologic aspect of the beans.

  15. Associações genotípicas entre componentes de produção e caracteres agronômicos em feijão-caupi

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    Odiluza Maria Saldanha de Oliveira

    Full Text Available A análise de coeficiente de correlação é uma importante ferramenta no estudo da associação entre os caracteres de feijão-caupi e para avaliar a contribuição de cada fator na produtividade desta cultura. Objetivou-se investigar as relações genotípicas entre a produtividade de grãos em feijão-caupi e alguns componentes de produção e características agronômicas, utilizando a análise de trilha para decompor as correlações em seus efeitos diretos e indiretos. O experimento foi realizado no período de maio a agosto de 2010. Foram utilizadas as cultivares BR8 Caldeirão, IPEAN V69, BRS Guariba e BR17 Gurguéia. Estimou-se as correlações genotípicas entre pares de caracteres e seus efeitos diretos e indiretos considerando os componentes de produção (número de vagens.planta-1 e número de sementes.vagem-1, caracteres agronômicos (altura da planta, área foliar e peso da matéria seca da parte aérea e a produtividade de grãos. O diagrama de trilha com duas cadeias mostrou-se adequado em explicar as relações entre componentes primários, secundários e produtividade, considerando as altas estimativas dos coeficientes de determinação (R² e baixos efeitos residuais. O número de vagens.planta-1 e a área foliar foram os caracteres mais correlacionados com a produtividade e se mostram eficientes em praticar-se seleção indireta, com o intuito de obter ganhos genéticos sobre o rendimento de grãos. Também mostraram ser caracteres importantes sobre os efeitos indiretos do número de sementes vagem-1, altura da planta e peso da matéria seca da parte aérea.

  16. Eficiência simbiótica de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium isoladas de solo do Cerrado em caupi Symbiotic efficiency of cowpea Bradyrhizobium strains in Cerrado soils

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    Jerri Édson Zilli

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as relações filogenéticas de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium e a contribuição destas estirpes para a fixação biológica de nitrogênio em caupi, em solos do Cerrado. Na avaliação da relação filogenética, o gene 16S rDNA de cada uma das estirpes foi amplificado e seqüenciado, e para a análise da eficiência simbiótica, determinou-se: N total, matéria seca das plantas, massa de nódulos e redução de acetileno, em casa de vegetação, e ocupação nodular, em experimento de campo. A maioria das estirpes estudadas pertence a B. elkanii e, pelo menos dez das estirpes, independentemente da espécie, apresentaram bom desempenho quanto à fixação biológica de N2. As estirpes BR3262, BR3280 (caracterizadas como B. elkanii e BR3267, BR3287 e BR3288 (Bradyrhizobium sp. mostram-se como inoculantes potenciais para o caupi, em razão do bom desempenho tanto na eficiência simbiótica quanto na ocupação nodular.The obejctive of this study was to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships of Bradyrhizobium strains, and the contribution of these strains to cowpea biological nitrogen fixation in Cerrado soils. To elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among strains, their 16S rDNA gene was extracted, amplified and sequenced. In order to evaluate the symbiotic efficiency, total N, plant dry matter, nodular mass and acetylene reduction in a greenhouse experiment, and nodular occupation, in a field experiment, were determined. Most part of the strains belonge to B. elkanii, and at least ten of the analyzed strains, independently of the species, presented high capacity to fix N2. The strains BR3262, BR3280 (characterized as B. elkanii, BR3267, BR3287 and BR3288 (Bradyrhizobium sp. exhibit a potential as inoculant for cowpea, due to their high biological nitrogen fixation.

  17. Germinação e crescimento inicial de variedades de feijão caupi submetidas a diferentes concentrações salinas

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    Daniela Siqueira Coelho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de variedades tolerantes ao estresse salino tem sido essencial para o estabelecimento de culturas comerciais em áreas salinas. O objetivou-se avaliar a germinação e o crescimento inicial de plântulas de quatro variedades de feijão caupi submetidas a diferentes níveis de estresse salino. As sementes das cultivares BRS Tapaihum, BRS Pujante, BRS Acauã e BRS Marataoã foram semeadas em espumas, dispostas em bandejas e umedecidas com as seguintes concentrações de NaCl: 0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 mM. Foram determinadas as variáveis: percentual de germinação, índice de velocidade de emergência, tempo médio, frequência relativa de germinação, comprimento da parte aérea e teor de água das plântulas. As variedades de feijão caupi apresentaram perda na capacidade germinativa a partir da concentração de 50 mM de NaCl. Também foi verificado que a incidência da salinidade promoveu uma diminuição da velocidade com que as variedades realizaram seus eventos bioquímicos, fisiológicos, morfogênicos necessários ao processo de germinação e formação das novas plantas.Germination and initial growth of cowpea cultivars under salinity stressAbstract: The use of varieties tolerant to salinity stress conditions has been essential for the crops establishment in are asthat experience with this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the germination process and early growth of seedlings of four varieties of cowpea under different levels of salinity. The seeds of BRS Tapaihum, BRS Pujante, BRS Acauã and BRS Marataoã were sown in foam, arranged in tray sand watered with the following NaCl concentrations: 0,50, 100, 150 and 200mM. The analized variables were Percentage of Germination, Emergence Speed Index, mean time, Relative Germination frequency, shoot length and water content of seedling. The cowpea varieties showed loss of germination capacity from 50 mM NaCl concentration. It was also verified that the salinity

  18. Serrated leaf mutant in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, I.A.; Ghulam, Sarwar; Yousaf, Ali; Saleem, M.

    1988-01-01

    Dry dormant seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) were treated with gamma rays (15, 30 and 60 kR). The serrated leaf mutation was noticed in M 2 of cultivar Pak 32 treated with 60 kR. Cf 14 plants, 3 showed the altered leaf structure and the others were normal. The feature of this mutant was the deep serration of leaflet margins. The mutant had large thick leaflets with prominent venation. The mutant bred true in the M 3 and successive generation. Details of the morphological characteristics of the mutant are presented. The mutant exhibited slower growth particularly during the early stages of development, flowered later and attained shorter height. There was an increase in the number of pods, in seed weight and in seed protein content, but number of seed per pod was considerably reduced. The seed coat colour showed a change from green to yellowish green. In the mutant's flowers the stamina were placed much below the stigma level and the stigma sometimes protruded the corolla. Outcrossing of 4% recorded in some of the mutant lines revealed a reduced cleistogamy. The low number of seeds per pod in the mutant could be due to reduced pollen fertility. The mutant behaved as monogenic recessive. The symbols SL/sl are proposed for this allelic pair. The mutant may have use as a green manure crop because of its large foliage and for the breeders as a genetic marker

  19. USO DE BIOPREPARADOS EN EL COMPOSTAJE DE RESIDUOS ORGÁNICOS URBANOS

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    Einstein Churchill Aveiga Villacis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la aplicación de biopreparados microbianos como aceleradores del proceso de compostaje de residuos orgánicos generados en la Universidad Laica Eloy Alfaro de Manabí. En el proceso se emplearon cajoneras de madera que contenian 170 kg de material inicial, el cual fue inoculado con los aceleradores del proceso de compostaje, ensayando tres variantes: T1, testigo (sin inoculo; T2, EM comercial y T3, microorganismos nativos. El inóculo fue asperjado al inicio del proceso de compostaje que duró ocho semanas, en este lapso se monitoreó pH, humedad y temperatura. Al final del proceso se tomó una muestra compuesta de cada tratamiento y se realizaron determinaciones físico-químicas y pruebas de fitotoxicidad empleando semillas de caupi (Vigna unguiculata. Los resultados determinaron que la temperatura, pH y humedad no variaron significativamente; sin embargo, los indicadores de estabilidad y madurez del compost (C/N, MO, N, P, microelementos y porcentaje de germinación de semillas de caupi fueron favorables en el compost que había sido inoculado con microorganismos nativos, alcanzando valores óptimos, según la norma técnica colombiana 5167. Los resultados demuestran que los inóculos son eficientes en el proceso de compostaje y que el compost obtenido puede ser utilizado con fines agrícolas.

  20. Nodulation studies with induced mutants of black gram (Vigna mungo L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahna, S.K.; Garg, Rekha; Parvateesam, M.

    1990-01-01

    Mutation breeding has been widely used to generate genetic variability in plants, but reports of mutations affecting the root system are less common. In the present work, black gram (Vigna mungo L. var T9), has been used for studies on the effect of induced mutations on nodulation patterns

  1. Growth, nodulation and yield of black gram [ Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of EM application and two strains of nitrogen fixing Bradyrhizobium japonicum (TAL- 102 and MN-S) on plant growth, nodulation and yield of black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] in different soil amendment systems including unamended soil, farmyard manure ...

  2. Genetic diversity of the Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) as assessed by SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somta, P; Chankaew, S; Rungnoi, O; Srinives, P

    2011-11-01

    Bambara groundnut ( Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an important African legume crop. In this study, a collection consisting of 240 accessions was analyzed using 22 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In total, 166 alleles were detected, with a mean of 7.59 alleles per locus. Allelic and gene diversities were higher in the west African and Cameroon/Nigeria regions with 6.68 and 6.18 alleles per locus, and 0.601 and 0.571, respectively. The genetic distance showed high similarity between west African and Cameroon/Nigeria accessions. Principal coordinate analyses and neighbor-joining analysis consistently revealed that the majority of west African accessions were grouped with Cameroon/Nigeria accessions, but they were differentiated from east African, central African, and southeast Asian accessions. Population structure analysis showed that two subpopulations existed, and most of the east African accessions were restricted to one subpopulation with some Cameroon/Nigeria accessions, whereas most of the west African accessions were associated with most of the Cameroon/Nigeria accessions in the other subpopulation. Comparison with SSR analysis of other Vigna cultigens, i.e., cultivated azuki bean ( Vigna angularis ) and mungbean ( Vigna radiata ), reveals that the mean gene diversity of Bambara groundnut was lower than azuki bean but higher than mungbean.

  3. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with effects on resistance to flower bud thrips ( Megalurothrips sjostedti ) identified in recombinant inbred lines of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp)

  4. Desempenho agronômico e divergência genética entre genótipos de feijão-caupi cultivados no ecótono Cerrado/Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Antônio da Silva Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desempenho agronômico e a divergência genética entre genótipos de feijão-caupi cultivados na região do ecótono Cerrado/Pantanal. O experimento foi conduzido no ano de 2008 na área experimental da Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Unidade Universitária de Aquidauana (UEMS/UUA. Os tratamentos consistiram de 20 genótipos de feijão-caupi dispostos em delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Avaliaram-se os seguintes caracteres: início do florescimento, início de maturação, massa de cinco vagens, massa de grãos de cinco vagens, índice de grãos, massa de 100 grãos e produtividade de grãos. A divergência genética entre os tratamentos foi determinada com base na análise de agrupamento e nas variáveis canônicas. O genótipo BRS 17-Gurgueia apresentou maior produtividade de grãos. Híbridos com maior efeito heterótico serão obtidos do cruzamento entre a linhagem Pingo-de-ouro-2 com as cultivares BRS 17-Gurgueia e BRS-Paraguassu.

  5. Comportamento dos preços de milho e feijão caupi no mercado do estado do Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A agricultura de subsistência (geralmente milho e feijão caupi é a atividade econômica mais importante na Região Nordeste, sendo a baixa disponibilidade de água o principal obstáculo para a produção agrícola. O estudo dos preços dessas culturas torna-se importante ferramenta de tomada de decisão por parte de produtores, sendo a análise de sazonalidade a metodologia mais empregada no âmbito de análise de preços. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a sazonalidade dos preços do milho e feijão caupi produzidas no Estado do Ceará. Foi analisado o período de janeiro de 2005 à dezembro de 2014. A determinação dos índices estacionais de preços para a realização da análise de sazonalidade foi realizada através do método da média aritmética móvel centrada em 12 meses. O índice foi utilizado com a base em dezembro de 2014. Com a série de preços deflacionados calculou-se a média móvel centrada para cada mês a partir mês de julho de 2005 até o mês de junho de 2014. Com as médias determinadas calculou-se o IEP (índice estacional de preço. As culturas de milho e feijão apresentam padrões distintos de sazonalidade, podendo esta característica servir de base para o planejamento de produtores. Behavior of corn prices and bean cowpea marketing of Ceará stateAbstract: The subsistence agriculture (usually corn and cowpea is the most important economic activity in the Northeast and the availability of water is the main obstacle to agricultural production. The study price of these cultures it is important decision-making tool by producers, and seasonality analysis methodology employed within more price analysis. This study aimed to analyze the seasonality of prices of the maize and cowpea produced in the state of Ceará. Analyzed the period from January 2005 to December 2014. The determination of seasonal price indices for the realization of seasonality analysis was performed using the method of mobile

  6. Interação entre salinidade e bioestimulante na cultura do feijão caupi Interaction between water salinity and biostimulant in the cowpea plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A. de Oliveira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a interação entre salinidade e o uso de bioestimulante (Stimulate® sobre o desenvolvimento do feijão caupi. A semeadura foi feita em vasos utilizando-se, como substrato, um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo. O experimento obedeceu a um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 7. Os tratamentos se constituíram da combinação de dois níveis de sais da água de irrigação e seis formas de aplicação de bioestimulante (Ausência, Tratamento de sementes, Foliar aos 20 dias após semeadura (DAS, Foliar aos 40 DAS, Tratamentos de sementes + Foliar aos 20 DAS, Tratamento de sementes + foliar aos 40 DAS e Aplicação foliar aos 20 e 40 DAS. Foram realizadas duas avaliações não destrutivas (20 e 40 DAS e uma destrutiva (60 DAS e avaliados a altura, o número de folhas, a área foliar e a massa seca de folhas, de caule e da parte aérea. Todos os parâmetros fisiológicos avaliados foram afetados pela salinidade. Nas formas de aplicação adotadas o bioestimulante não proporcionou melhorias no desenvolvimento das plantas quando submetidas ao estresse salino; a salinidade inibiu o efeito benéfico do bioestimulante sobre o desenvolvimento do feijão caupi; enfim, o uso de bioestimulante não é viável em plantas cultivadas sob estresse salino.The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between salinity levels of the water and the use of biostimulant (Stimulate® in the initial development stage of cowpea plants. The sowing of seeds was done in pots, using as a substrate Alfissol and two plants per pot. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 x 7 factorial scheme. The treatments consisted of combination of two salinity levels (0.5 and 5.0 dS m-1 with seven biostimulant application forms (without application, seed treatment, sprinkled 20 days after sowing (DAS, sprinkled 40 DAS, seed treatment + sprinkled 20 DAS, seed treatment + sprinkled 40 DAS and sprinkled

  7. Crescimento de feijão caupi ‘BRS Pajeú’ irrigado com água salina e adubação nitrogenada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elysson Marcks Gonçalves Andrade

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O uso de águas salinas na agricultura constitui uma alternativa importante e uma realidade cada vez mais próxima, tendo em vista a reduzida disponibilidade de recursos hídricos de boa qualidade e à crescente necessidade de expansão da produção agrícola. Neste sentido, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a influência da irrigação com água de diferentes salinidades associada à adubação nitrogenada, sobre o crescimento do feijão-caupi cv. BRS Pajeú, em experimento conduzido em lisímetros sob condições de casa-de-vegetação no CTRN/UFCG. Utilizou-se a aleatorização em bloco em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, com três repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos da combinação de cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação - CEa (0,9; 1,8; 2,7; 3,6 e 4,5 dS m-1 e cinco doses de nitrogênio (70; 100; 130; 160 e 190% da dose recomendada para ensaio em vasos. O número folhas, o diâmetro do caule e a taxa de crescimento absoluto e relativo em diâmetro e altura da cv. BRS Pajeú reduziram acentuadamente, quando submetida a níveis de CEa maior que 0,9 dS m-1; O feijão caupi BRS Pajeú não respondeu a adoção de doses crescentes de adubação nitrogenada; À interação entre os fatores salinidade da água de irrigação versus doses de nitrogênio não afetou nenhuma variável de crescimento avaliada aos 30 DAS. Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso

  8. Effect of weeding on the growth, yield and yield contributing characters of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Akter, R.; Samad, M.A.; Zaman, F.; Islam, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh to assess the effect of weeding on growth, yield and yield contributing characters of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) cv. BINA mung- 4 during October 2011 to February 2012. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The trial comprised seven treatments namely, T1 = no weeding, T2 = one-stage weeding (Emergence-Flowering), T3 = one-stage weed...

  9. Responses of wild Vigna species/sub-species to yellow mosaic disease viruses, detected by a PCR-based method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Kumar GAUTAM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight accessions of wild Vigna species/sub-species were grown to verify their reactions to yellow mosaic disease (YMD, under field conditions in New Delhi (India during 2012 and 2013. Symptoms of YMD that developed on wild Vigna were similar to those observed on cultivated species. Symptomatic plants produced few flowers and pods with reduced seed size. The infection coefficient was in the range of 0–71%. The causal virus was identified by PCR using species-specific primers to detect all the four viruses responsible for YMD in pulse crops. All the YMD-affected wild Vigna species/sub-species accessions were infected by Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV, with positive amplification of the targeted DNA fragment, except one accession of V. hainiana (IC331450 which was infected with Mungbean yellow mosaic virus. This indicated that MYMIV is the predominant virus causing yellow mosaic in wild species/sub-species of Vigna at New Delhi. Eight accessions belonging to V. synthetic allotetraploid, V. umbellata, V. mungo var. mungo, V. trilobata, V. trinervia var. bourneae, V. radiata var. sublobata and V. dalzelliana were completely free from YMD and gave negative PCR results with primers specific to all the four viruses. This confirms resistance to YMD in these wild Vigna species.

  10. Efeito da adição de lodo de curtume na fertilidade do solo, nodulação e rendimento de matéria seca do Caupi Effect of tannery sludge addition on soil fertility, nodulation and dry matter yield of Cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyla Rafaelly Gramosa Teixeira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do lodo de curtume sobre a fertilidade do solo, a nodulação e rendimento de matéria seca do caupi. O estudo foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação, utilizando-se lodo de curtume adicionado ao solo, sendo em seguida plantadas sementes de caupi inoculadas com Bradyrhizobium sp. Os dados foram coletados aos 35 e 49 dias após a emergência das plantas. O lodo de curtume elevou o pH e os teores de matéria orgânica, cálcio e sódio do solo. Além disso, houve aumento na salinidade do solo com a aplicação do resíduo. Por outro lado, houve um incremento no rendimento de matéria seca do caupi com a adição do lodo de curtume, embora, em altas doses, o resíduo tenha diminuído a nodulação do caupi pela estirpe de Bradyrhizobium sp inoculada.The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effect of tannery sludge addition on soil fertility, nodulation and dry matter yield by cowpea. The study was conducted in greenhouse using tannery sludge applied to soil, and cowpea seeds inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. Data were collected at 35 and 49 days after plant emergence. Tannery sludge increased soil pH and organic matter, calcium and sodium content. There was an increase in soil salinity with application of the residue. There was also an increase in the dry matter yield of cowpea with tannery sludge addition, however, in higher rates, the residue decreased the Bradyrhizobium sp nodulation.

  11. Rendimento de feijão-caupi cultivado com esterco bovino e adubo mineral Yield of cowpea-beans cultivated with bovine manure and mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar P. Oliveira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-caupi, conhecido no Nordeste Brasileiro por feijão-macassar ou feijão-de-corda é uma das principais culturas desta região, consumido sob a forma de grãos secos ou grãos verdes, tipo ervilha. Na Paraíba detém 75% das áreas de cultivo com feijão, sendo que o baixo rendimento é atribuído à falta de estudos sobre nutrição mineral. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de esterco bovino, na presença ou ausência de adubo mineral, sobre o rendimento de vagens, de grãos verdes e secos do feijão-caupi, cultivar IPA 206. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal da Paraíba, em Areia, de setembro/1998 a janeiro/1999, em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, onde o primeiro fator correspondeu às doses de esterco bovino (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40 t/ha e, o segundo fator à presença e ausência de adubo mineral, em quatro repetições. O rendimento máximo estimado de vagens (9,64 t/ha foi obtido com 25 t/ha de esterco bovino na presença do adubo mineral, enquanto que na ausência de adubo mineral o rendimento de vagens aumentou com a elevação das doses de esterco bovino, na ordem de 49,3 kg/ha para cada tonelada de esterco bovino adicionado ao solo. O rendimento de grãos verdes na presença de adubo mineral atingiu valor máximo estimado (6,8 t/ha na dose ótima estimada de 17 t/ha de esterco bovino. Na ausência de adubo mineral, o rendimento de grãos verdes, aumentou com a elevação das doses de esterco bovino, na ordem de 47,9 kg/ha para cada tonelada de esterco bovino adicionado ao solo. O rendimento de grãos secos na presença de adubo mineral atingiu valor máximo estimado (3,03 t/ha na dose de 21 t/ha de esterco bovino, enquanto na ausência de adubo mineral a dose de 25 t/ha de esterco bovino foi responsável pelo rendimento máximo de grãos secos (2,00 t/ha.The cowpea-bean, known in the Brazilian

  12. Evaluation de l\\'activité insecticide de deux plantes Hyptis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation de l\\'activité insecticide de deux plantes Hyptis suaveolens (Linn) et Khaya senegalensis (A. Juss) sur les insectes ravageurs du niébé ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.)/Use of two insecticidial plants for sustainable cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) protection.

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fayinminnu, OO. Vol 10, No 1 (2010) - Articles The toxicological effect of paraquat post emergence herbicide on growth characteristics of cowpea (vigna unguiculata (l.) Walp) Abstract PDF · Vol 10, No 2 (2010) - Articles Effect of paraquat as post emergence herbicide on yield of cowpea (vigna unguiculata (l) walp).

  14. biostudy on vigna sinensis beetle, callosobruchus chinensis l.and its control by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, A.I.A.

    2005-01-01

    the present study carried out to determine: 1.the effects of the separate and combined effect of bacillus thuringiensis and gamma radiation on some biological aspects of callosobruchus chinensis. 2. the weight loss in infected seeds and total population of the pest after store it for different on adult beetles to determine the proteins, lipids and carbohydrates contents. 4. some analysis in the cowpea vigna anguiculata seeds to investigate the nutritive value after different treatments with bacillus thuringiensis (b.t) and gamma radiation

  15. Overwintering of Uranotaenia unguiculata adult females in central Europe: a possible way of persistence of the putative new lineage of West Nile virus?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Straková, Petra; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; Venclíková, Kristýna; Seidel, B.; Tóth, S.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schaffner, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2015), s. 364-365 ISSN 8756-971X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : mosquito * mosquito-borne virus es * overwintering * Uranotaenia unguiculata * West Nile virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.824, year: 2015

  16. Polyamine levels as related to growth, differentiation and senescence in protoplast-derived cultures of Vigna aconitifolia and Avena sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur Sawhney, R.; Shekhawat, N. S.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    We have previously reported that aseptically cultured mesophyll protoplasts of Vigna divide rapidly and regenerate into complete plants, while mesophyll protoplasts of Avena divide only sporadically and senesce rapidly after isolation. We measured polyamine titers in such cultures of Vigna and Avena, to study possible correlations between polyamines and cellular behavior. We also deliberately altered polyamine titer by the use of selective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, noting the effects on internal polyamine titer, cell division activity and regenerative events. In Vigna cultures, levels of free and bound putrescine and spermidine increased dramatically as cell division and differentiation progressed. The increase in bound polyamines was largest in embryoid-forming callus tissue while free polyamine titer was highest in root-forming callus. In Avena cultures, the levels of total polyamines decreased as the protoplast senesced. The presence of the inhibitors alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (specific inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) and dicyclohexylamine (inhibitor of spermidine synthase) reduced cell division and organogenesis in Vigna cultures. Addition of low concentration of polyamines to such cultures containing inhibitors or removal of inhibitors from the culture medium restored the progress of growth and differentiation with concomitant increase in polyamine levels.

  17. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.

    OpenAIRE

    Ganapathy Selvam G.; Balamurugan M.; Thinakaran T.; Sivakumar K

    2013-01-01

    The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

  18. Identification of cowpea genotypes for drought tolerance Identificação de genótipos de feijão-caupi tolerantes à seca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Alves Bastos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The genotypes selection for drought tolerance is very important for world food production, principally in arid regions or sites with irregular rain distribution. The objective of this work was to identify cowpea genotypes with drought tolerance and water stress sensitivity characteristics. Two experiments were carried out with 20 treatments and four replications, one under water deficit during reproductive phase and another one under full irrigation. The water deficit was obtained applying half the water depth required by cowpea. The leaf area index, chlorophyll content, grain components and grain yield were evaluated. The water deficit reduced 20% the leaf area index, 16% the chlorophyll content, 175% the pod number per plant and 60% the grain yield. The genotypes Santo Inácio and Tracuateua-192 present sensitivity to water deficit in soil andBRS-Paraguaçu, Pingo-de-ouro-1-2 and Pingo-de-ouro-2 show behavior for drought tolerance.A seleção de genótipos com tolerância à seca é essencial para a produção de alimentos no mundo, especialmente em regiões de clima árido ou com má distribuição de chuvas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar genótipos com características de tolerância e sensibilidade ao estresse hídrico. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em campo, um sob déficit hídrico durante a fase reprodutiva e outro sob irrigação plena, ambos em um delineamento de blocos ao acaso com 20 tratamentos (genótipos e quatro repetições. O déficit hídrico foi obtido aplicando-se, aproximadamente, metade da lâmina requerida pela cultura do feijão-caupi. Foram avaliados o índice de área foliar, teor de clorofila, componentes de produção e o rendimento de grãos. O déficit hídrico reduziu em 20% o índice médio de área foliar, 16% o índice médio de clorofila, 175% o número médio de vagens por planta e em 60% a produção de grãos. Os genótipos Santo Inácio e Tracuateua-192 são sensíveis ao d

  19. The behavior, ecology and control of legume flower thrips, #Megalurothrips sjostedti# (Trybom) in cowpea #Vigna unguiculata# (L.) towards the development of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Abtew, Andnet Bayleyegn

    2015-01-01

    The overarching aim of this thesis is to investigate the behaviour and ecology of the legume flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom and develop alternative control method. Its specific goals are to: (1) assess pest problems and management methods practiced by grain legume producers, and identifying the cropping systems in the study areas in Kenya; (2) study the impact of climate change on the geographic distribution of legume flower thrips on cowpea growing regions of Sub Saharn Africa...

  20. Expression in Escherichia coli of cysteine protease inhibitors from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata): The crystal structure of a single-domain cystatin gives insights on its thermal and pH stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro Júnior, José Edvar; Valadares, Napoleão Fonseca; Pereira, Humberto D'Muniz; Dyszy, Fábio Henrique; da Costa Filho, Antônio José; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; de Oliveira, Adeliana Silva; da Silveira Carvalho, Cristina Paiva; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa

    2017-09-01

    Two cysteine proteinase inhibitors from cowpea, VuCys1 and VuCys2, were produced in E. coli ArcticExpress (DE3). The recombinant products strongly inhibited papain and chymopapain as well as the midgut proteases from Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, a bruchid that uses cysteine proteases as major digestive enzymes. Heat treatment at 100°C for up to 60min or incubation at various pH values caused little reduction in the papain inhibitory activity of both inhibitors. Moreover, minor conformational variations, as probed by circular dichroism spectroscopy, were observed after VuCys1 and VuCys2 were subjected to these treatments. The crystal structure of VuCys1 was determined at a resolution of 1.95Å, revealing a domain-swapped dimer in the asymmetric unit. However, the two lobes of the domain-swapped dimer are positioned closer to each other in VuCys1 in comparison to other similar cystatin structures. Moreover, some polar residues from opposite lobes recruit water molecules, forming a hydrogen bond network that mediates contacts between the lobes, thus generating an extended open interface. Due to the closer distance between the lobes, a small hydrophobic core is also formed, further stabilizing the folded domain-swapped dimer. These structural features might account for the extraordinary thermal and pH stability of VuCys1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The toxic effect of Vu-Defr, a defensin from Vigna unguiculata seeds, on Leishmania amazonensis is associated with reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial dysfunction and plasma membrane perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Géssika Silva; Carvalho, Lais Pessanha; Melo, Edésio José Tenório de; Gomes, Valdirene Moreira; Carvalho, André de Oliveira

    2018-03-27

    Plant defensins are plant antimicrobial peptides that present diverse biological activities in vitro, including the elimination of Leishmania amazonensis. Plant defensins are considered promising candidates for the development of new drugs. This protozoan genus has great epidemiological importance and the mechanism behind the protozoan death by defensins is unknown, thus, we chose L. amazonesis for this study. The aim of the work was to analyze the possible toxic mechanisms of Vu-Defr against L. amazonensis. For analyses, the antimicrobial assay was repeated as previously described, and after 24 h, an aliquot of the culture was tested for viability, membrane perturbation, mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide inductions. The results of these analyses indicated that after interaction with L. amazonensis, the Vu-Defr causes elimination of promastigotes from culture, membrane perturbation, mitochondrial membrane collapse and reactive oxygen species induction. Our analysis demonstrated that NO is not produced after Vu-Defr and L. amazonensis interaction. In conclusion, our work strives to help to fill the gap relating to effects caused by plant defensins on protozoan and thus better understand the mechanism of action of this peptide against L. amazonensis.

  2. Bioactivity of Powder and Extracts from Garlic, Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and Spring Onion, Allium fistulosum L. (Alliaceae against Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae on Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp (Leguminosae Seeds

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    Abiodun A. Denloye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to investigate the bioactivity of powders, extracts, and essential oils from Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and A. fistulosum L. (Liliaceae against adults, eggs, and larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. On the basis of 48 hr median lethal toxicity (LC50, test plant powders and extracts from A. sativum were more toxic to C. maculatus adults than those from A. fistulosum. The 48 hr LC50 values for the powder against the test insect species were 9.66 g/kg and 26.29 g/kg for A. sativum and A. fistulosum, respectively. Also the 48 hr LC50 values obtained show that aqueous extracts of the test plant species, 0.11 g/L (A. sativum and 0.411 g/L (A. fistulosum were more toxic to C. maculatus than the corresponding ethanol extracts. There was no significant difference in the toxicity of vapours from the two test plant species against C. maculatus, although A. sativum gave lower values. The study shows that A. sativum and A. fistulosum have potentials for protecting stored cowpea from damage by C. maculatus.

  3. A comparative study between detached leaf and plastic growth pouches techniques on the infection of pseudocercospora leaf spot disease of cowpea cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsiri, N; Laohasiriwong, S

    2009-03-01

    This glasshouse experiment was carried out in the 2004 at the Department of Agricultural Production, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 4400, Northeast Thailand to compare amounts of infection of Pseudocercospora leaf spot disease in leaves of cowpea cultivars being screened between detached leaf and plastic growth pouches techniques. The experiment was laid in a factorial arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. KVC7, IT81D-1228-14-1 and KKU25 cowpea cultivars were used as factor A, detached leaf and plastic growth pouches techniques were used as factor B and four levels of the concentrations of the spores of the disease, i.e., 0, l x 10(4), 5 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(5) of disease forming units mL(-1) of distilled water were used as factor C. The results showed that KVC7 and IT81D-1228-14-1 cultivars possessed immune and high resistant properties against the disease, respectively, whereas KKU25 cultivar ranked as a susceptible cultivar. Detached leaf technique gave higher amount of infection of the disease than plastic growth pouches technique and the differences were highly significant. A plentiful amount of Infected disease was attained with an inoculation rate of l x 10(5) forming units mL(-1) of distilled water, which was considered too high and the most appropriate concentrations for use lie on both concentrations, i.e., 1 x 10(4) and 5 x 10(4) forming units mL(-1) of distilled water. An interaction among factors AxBxC was severely found with KKU25 cultivar, particularly on day 28 after inoculation, whilst other two cultivars gave a minute amount of disease incidences (%) where detached leaf technique gave much higher disease incidences than plastic growth pouches technique, thus detached leaf technique should be of higher advantages.

  4. KOMPOSISI PROKSIMAT DAN KANDUNGAN BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT OYEK TERBAIK DARI PERLAKUAN PENAMBAHAN KACANG TUNGGAK (Vigna unguiculata BERDASARKAN TINGKAT KESUKAANNYA Proximate Composition and Lactic Acid Bacteria of The Best Oyek from The Treatment of Cowpeas

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    Bayu Kanetro

    2015-10-01

    peningkatan kadar protein dan kandungan bakteri asam laktat (BAL oyek terbaik dengan penambahan kacang tunggak dibandingkan oyek tanpa penambahan kacang tunggak (kontrol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa oyek terbaik yang diterima panelis dan tingkat kesukaannya tidak berbeda nyata dengan kontrol yaitu oyek dengan penambahan tepung kacang tunggak yang dikecambahkan sebesar 30%. Kadar protein oyek tersebut meningkat 4,9 kali terhadap kontrol. Kandungan bakteri asam laktat menurun selama pengolahan growol menjadi oyek. Kandungan bakteri asamlaktat oyek tersebut lebih tinggi daripada kontrol yaitu berturut-turut 3,10 x 103 dan 4,0 x 101 (CFU/g sampel. Kata kunci: Oyek, protein, bakteri asam laktat, perkecambahan, kacang tunggak

  5. COMPONENTES DE PRODUÇÃO DO FEIJÃO VIGNA SOB ESTRESSE SALINO E DOSES DE NITROGÊNIO

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    Guilherme de Freitas Furtado

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-caupi é uma cultura de grande importância econômica e alimentar, sendo muito cultivada no semiárido brasileiro, porém, faz-se necessário otimizar a utilização da água, sendo possível, através medidas como a viabilização do uso de águas salinas. Objetivou-se avaliar os componentes de produção e qualidade pós-colheita dos grãos de feijão-caupi cv. BRS Pajeú, submetido a diferentes níveis de salinidade da água e adubação nitrogenada. O experimento foi desenvolvido em lisímetros de drenagem, no período de junho a setembro de 2013 em ambiente protegido da UEAg/CTRN/UFCG. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial (5x5, sendo cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação - CEa (0,9; 1,8; 2,7; 3,6 e 4,5 dS m-1 e cinco doses de adubação nitrogenada (70; 100; 130; 160 e 190% da recomendação indicada para ensaio em vaso. Avaliaram-se o número de vagens por planta (NVP, comprimento médio de vagens (CV, diâmetro médio de vagens (DV, peso de mil grãos (PMIL, percentagem de debulha de grãos (PD, porcentagem de cinzas, de proteínas, de umidade, o pH, a condutividade elétrica e a acidez titulável. A irrigação com água salina proporcionou redução do NVP e DV, no entanto verificou-se incremento na PD com o aumento da CEa. O CV não foi influenciado pelos tratamentos aplicados, sendo em média 18,20 cm. A adubação nitrogenada afetou positivamente o PMIL do feijão-caupi. O incremento da dose de fertilização de nitrogênio elevou a porcentagem de cinzas dos grãos de feijão-caupi. Houve interação entre a salinidade da água de irrigação e a fertilização nitrogenada para a porcentagem de proteínas.

  6. [Use of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis in a fermented dairy drink].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Trujillo, Lesma; Guerra, Marisa

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new kind fermented dairy drink, partially substituted with clear varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (caraota) and Vigna sinensis (frijol). The formulation of fermented dairy drinks included sterile extracts of caraota and frijol, as partial substitutes which replaced milk: 10, 20 and 30%. The mixtures were inoculated with 2% of a mixture of Lactobacillus acidophillus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. and were incubated at 42 degrees C for 7 hours. Mango and guava jams were used as flavorings at 20%. On the basis of the sensorial evaluation the mixtures 10% frijol-mango, 10% frijol-guava, 30% caraota-mango and 20% caraota-guava were selected. In the selected fermented dairy drinks, the levels of protein, soluble and insoluble fiber, available and resistant starches were increased and the protein digestibility was 81%. The technical feasibility of partial substitution of milk with extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris or Vigna sinensis. For the elaboration of a fermented dairy drink similar to the liquid yogurt kind was demonstrated.

  7. Comparative Studies of Nitrogen Fixing Potential of Desmodium ramississimon and Vigna unquiculata for Soil Fertility Management

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    Ngwu, OE.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of large numbers of legume species in the tropics with potentials for nitrogen fixation could be exploited to supply nitrogen, if they can be integrated into the farming system. The N2 – fixing potential of a native herbaceous leguminous species namely, Desmodium ramississimon (Dm and grain legume, Vigna unquiculata (Cp were studied in the green house and field, on three types of soil. In both situations, nodulation was influenced by the soil type. Nsukka soil, which had sandy texture, highest level of available phosphorus among the soils investigated in the study and moderate level of other plant nutrients (Mg and K enhanced nodulation, which supported N-fixation. Soil type also influenced the quantity of N accumulated by each species, but had no effect on nitrogen concentration in the different plant parts. Desmodium ramississimon had higher nodule weight and accumulated more nitrogen and fixed more N2 than Vigna unquiculata in the three soils. The mean nodule dry weights were in the ranges of 61.6- 239.2 mg/plant for Dm in the three soils as compared to the range 3.2-31.4 mg/plant for Cp. Symbiotic dependence of DM varied with soil type ranging from 63.62% in Adani soil to 88% in Nkpologu soil, whereas Cp had the least symbiotic dependence value. These trends were confirmed in the field thereby indicating that Desmodium ramississimon had greater N2- potential than the cultivated legume studied.

  8. Morphology of seeds and seedlings of four species of Vigna Savi (Leguminosae, Phaseolinae

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    Fabiana Soledad Ojeda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Four neotropical species of Vigna Savi (Leguminosae, Phaseolinae have potential value as forage crops or ornamentals and could be cultivated in tropical or subtropical areas, even on floodplains. In order to obtain useful data for their culture and taxonomy, the seed morphology, germination pattern (hypogeal or epigeal and seedling development were studied. The studied species belong to different sections of the genus: V. adenantha (G.F.W. Meyer Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier (Sect. Leptospron; V. candida (Vell. Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier (Sect. Sigmoidotropis; V. caracalla (L. Verdc. (Sect. Caracallae and V. luteola (Jacq. Benth. (Sect. Vigna. The seeds were collected during fieldwork conducted in northwestern and northeastern Argentina. The qualitative and quantitative characters of the seeds were registered, after which they were sown. The development of the emerged seedlings was followed, first in a greenhouse and thereafter in open field. We recorded the type of germination, the thigmotropic movements of the hypocotyl and of the stem, seedling architecture and plant longevity. These traits allowed us to differentiate the species and construct an identification key that could be useful for agronomic or floricultural purposes. The data obtained partially support the current taxonomic treatment of the genus.

  9. Produtividade de raízes de mandioca consorciada com milho e caupi em sistema orgânico Yield of cassava roots intercropped with corn and cowpea in an organic system

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    Antonio Carlos Pries Devide

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados sistemas orgânicos de produção de mandioca "de mesa", em Seropédica (RJ. O experimento constou dos seguintes tratamentos: monocultivo de mandioca (cv. IAC 576-70 e consórcios com milho experimental (cv. Eldorado, caupi (cv. Mauá e milho+caupi. O manejo orgânico foi padronizado e toda a área experimental irrigada durante o período de permanência do milho no sistema. Do milho, foram colhidas espigas verdes (imaturas e a parte aérea acamada na superfície do solo. O caupi foi incluído como adubo verde e cortado na floração, sendo mantidos os resíduos na superfície do solo. Ambos os consortes ocuparam as entrelinhas da mandioca, de modo alternado, semeados após a primeira capina da cultura principal. A cultivar IAC 576-70 mostrou-se adaptada ao manejo orgânico, com produtividade de raízes de padrão comercial próxima a 31 Mg ha-1. Não houve diferenças significativas entre o monocultivo e os três tipos de consórcios testados. A inclusão do milho representou potencial de renda adicional ao produtor, colhendo-se, em média, 18.125 espigas ha-1, o que correspondeu a 5,1 Mg ha-1. Os resíduos provenientes da roçada do caupi proporcionaram um aporte de biomassa fresca de 12 Mg ha-1, com uma expressiva contribuição em nitrogênio (cerca de 44 kg de N ha-1. A fabácea (leguminosa cobriu por completo as entrelinhas da mandioca, demonstrando seu potencial de controle à erosão e a ervas espontâneas. O consórcio triplo mostrou-se vantajoso tendo em vista que a receita obtida com a venda do milho verde justificaria os custos da irrigação, além dos benefícios da inclusão do caupi e da não interferência dos consortes na produtividade da mandioca.Organic systems were evaluated for cassava root production directed to human comsumption in natura, at Seropédica-RJ. Treatments consisted of: cassava ('IAC 576-70' in single cropping and its intercropping with corn ('Eldorado', cowpea ('Mauá' or corn plus cowpea

  10. Bradyrhizobium inoculation and nitrogen fertilization on cowpea grown in different soils = Inoculação com Bradyrhizobium e adubação nitrogenada em feijão-caupi cultivado em diferentes solos

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    Kelter Carvalho dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF can be limited by the high availability of nitrogen (N. The soil clay fraction and organic matter content control the availability of N, and it is possible that these attributes affect the symbiotic fixation in soils fertilized with N. Based in that assumption, the objective with this study was to evaluate the effect of N fertilization on biological fixation in cowpea grown in five soils, with wide variation in their physical, chemical and and mineralogical attributes, representative of the growing areas of savannah of Roraima. The experiment was carried out in polyethylene pots in randomized blocks design with factorial arrangement 5x5, 5 soils (LAdx; LVd; PAdx; PVAd; RYve, 4 doses of nitrogen (0, 20,40, 80 kg ha-1 in inoculated plants and a control (without inoculation and nitrogen fertilization, with 4 replications. The seeds of BRS Guariba were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium strain BR 3262. The variables studied were: number, size and mass of the pod, root dry mass, nodule number and dry weight of nodules. The BNF provided an increase in the variables studied in all soils. N levels in inoculated plants provided significant increases varying between soil classes, 3–18% for yield components and 8-70% for the other variables. Nitrogen fertilization affects nodulation in cowpea, being restrictive in some soils. = A fixação biológica do nitrogênio (FBN pode ser limitada pela alta disponibilidade de nitrogênio (N. A fração argila e o teor de matéria orgânica do solo controlam a disponibilidade do N, sendo possível que esses atributos venham a interferir na fixação simbiótica em solos adubados com N. Com base nesse pressuposto, objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o efeito da adubação nitrogenada na fixação biológica do N em feijão-caupi cultivado em cinco solos, com ampla variação nos seus atributos físicos, químicos e mineralógicos, representativos das áreas de cultivo da Savana

  11. Uniformidade de sementes de genótipos de feijão-caupi cultivados em dois ambientes no Estado de Roraima. = Seeds uniformity from cowpea genotypes cultivated in two environments of the State of Roraima.

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    Katherine Rodrigues Arruda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available - Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a uniformidade de sementes de 19 genótipos de feijão-caupi cultivados em dois ambientes no Estado de Roraima. Foram utilizadas sementes produzidas nos Campos Experimentais Serra da Prata (CESP e do Monte Cristo (CEMC pertencentes a Embrapa Roraima, produzidas durante o ano de 2008. Amostras de 400 g de sementes de feijão-caupi foram separadas e pesadas. Após a pesagem, cada amostra foi classifi cada por cinco peneiras de crivos redondos e oblongos de diferentes dimensões. As sementes retidas em cada peneira foram pesadas separadamente. Sementes da maior porção foram avaliadas quanto a massa de mil sementes e germinação. Na análise dos resultados de uniformidade verificou-se que 89,5% das sementes produzidas no CEMC são maiores que 4,5 x 22 mm e no CESP 90,0%. Quanto a massa média de mil sementes não se verifica diferenças entre os dois ambientes, e entre os materiais variação de 127,5 a 219,6 g. As sementes do CESP apresentam qualidade fisiológica superior as do CEMC. = The objective of this study was to evaluated the uniformity of seeds from 19 cowpea genotypes in two environment of Roraima State. The seeds utilized were produced in the experimental fields of Serra da Prata (CESP and Monte Cristo (CEMC, belonging to Embrapa Roraima. Samples of 400 g of cowpea seeds were separated and weighed and classified by five sieves with round and oblong holes of different dimensions, being weighed separately. Seeds retained in each sieve were weighed separately. Seeds withheld in 4.5 x 22 mm sieve were assessed according to mass of a thousand seeds and germination. Results showed that 89.5 % of seeds produced in CEMC are bigger than 4.5 x 22 mm and in CESP 9 0.0%. Concerning to average mass of a thousand seeds, no differences were verified between the two environments, while materials ranged from 127.5 to 219.6 g. Seeds of CESP showed physiological quality superior than CEMC.

  12. Solid state characterization and rheological properties of native and modified Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean starches

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    Michael Odeniyi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the suitability of native, pregelatinized and carboxymethylated Vigna subterranean (Bambara nut starches for pharmaceutical applications, through their characterization by means of physicochemical, rheological, thermal, morphological and instrumental spectroscopic methods. The native starch was extracted from Bambara nut, after which it was used to prepare both pregelatinized and carboxymethylated forms. Microscopy revealed increased in granular size on modification. Both pregelatinized and carboxymethylated Bambara starches had better flow properties and swellability compared to the native starch. Native Bambara starch had greater tendency to retrogradation, was more sensitive to heat and heat change, these were alleviated by both pregelatinization and carboxymethylation. DSC confirmed that carboxymethylated Bambara starch was the most thermally stable starch. Presence of functional groups and crystallinity were established by FTIR and XRD, respectively. Native and modified Bambara starches can be used as locally and readily available alternative excipients in pharmaceutical formulations.

  13. A Determination of Potential α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Azuki Beans (Vigna angularis

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    Guixing Ren

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A 70% ethanol extract from azuki beans (Vigna angularis was extracted further with CH2Cl2, EtOAc and n-BuOH to afford four fractions: CH2Cl2-soluble, EtOAc-soluble, n-BuOH-soluble and residual extract fractions. The EtOAc-soluble fractions showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Two pure flavonoid compounds, vitexin and isovitexin, were isolated (using the enzyme assay-guide fractionation method from the EtOAc-soluble fractions. We further evaluated the interaction between the flavonoid compounds and α-glucosidase by fluorescence spectroscopy. Vitexin and isovitexin showed high inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 0.4 mg·mL−1 and 4.8 mg·mL−1, respectively. This is the first study of the active compositions of azuki beans against α-glucosidase.

  14. Utilization of Diamine Oxidase Enzyme from Mung Bean Sprouts (Vigna radiata L) for Histamine biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Abdul; Wahab, A. W.; Raya, I.; Natsir, H.; Arif, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    This research is aimed to utilize the diamine oxidase enzyme (DAO) which isolated from mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata L) to develop histamine biosensors based on electode enzyme with the amperometric method (cyclic voltammetry).The DAO enzyme is trapped inside the membrane of chitin-cellulose acetate 2:1 and glutaraldehyde which super imposed on a Pt electrode. Histamine will be oxidized by DAO enzyme to produce aldehydes and H2O2 that acting as electron transfer mediators.The performance of biosensors will be measured at various concentrations of glutaraldehyde, temperature changes and different range of pH. Recently, it has been found that the optimal conditions obtained from the paramaters as follows; at 25% of glutaraldehyde, temperature of 37°C and pH of 7.4. Eventually, the results provided an expectation for applying histamine biosensors in determining the freshness and safety of fish specifically skombroidae families.

  15. Cell phone radiations affect early growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through biochemical alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of wireless technologies, particularly of cell phones, has increased the health risks among living organisms including plants. We investigated the impact of cell phone electromagentic field (EMF) radiations (power density, 8.55 microW cm(-2)) on germination, early growth, proteins and carbohydrate contents, and activities of some enzymes in Vigna radiata. Cell phone EMF radiations significantly reduced the seedling length and dry weight of V radiata after exposure for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h. Furthermore, the contents of proteins and carbohydrates were reduced in EMF-exposed plants. However, the activities of proteases, alpha-amylases, beta-amylases, polyphenol oxidases, and peroxidases were enhanced in EMF-exposed radicles indicating their role in providing protection against EMF-induced stress. The study concludes that cell phone EMFs impair early growth of V radiata seedlings by inducing biochemical changes.

  16. Genetic diversity in Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L.) germplasm revealed by RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadou, H I; Bebeli, P J; Kaltsikes, P J

    2001-12-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess genetic diversity in Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L.) germplasm using 25 African accessions from the collection in the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. Fifty random decamer primers were screened to assess their ability to detect polymorphism in bambara; 17 of them were selected for this study. Considerable genetic diversity was found among the V. subterranea accessions studied. The relationships among the 25 accessions were studied by cluster analysis. The dendrograms showed two main groups of accessions mainly along the lines of their geographic origin. It is concluded that RAPD can be used for germplasm classification in bambara groundnut and hence for improving this crop.

  17. AgNO3 boosted high-frequency shoot regeneration in Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookkan, Muruganantham; Andy, Ganapathi

    2014-01-01

    In order to further increase shoot regeneration frequency of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper., the effects of AgNO3 on this process was investigated in this study. The shoot tip and cotyledonary node explants were cultured on MS salts B5 Vitamins medium containing BA+TDZ+Ads+AgNO3 for multiple shoot induction. AgNO3 influenced the shoot bud formation and their subsequent proliferation. The best medium composition for multiple shoot induction was BA, TDZ combination with Ads and AgNO3 in MSB5 medium. Maximum 39 shoots in cotyledonary node and 22 shoots in shoot tip were obtained per explants after 4 - 6 wk. of culture. Elongation and rooting were performed in GA3 (0.6mg/l) and IBA (0.4mg/L) containing media respectively. The in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized in green house and successfully transplanted to the field with a survival rate of 78%.

  18. Yield and Quality of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata (l. R. Wilczek Seeds Produced in Poland

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    Kamil MISIAK

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to do field and laboratory assessments of yield and quality of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek seeds cultivated in Western Poland. Mean yield of seeds per plant was higher for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. than for mung one: 13.1 g and 2.58 g, respectively. The mean 1000 mung seeds weight was 50.9 g and their germination – 78 %. Germination capacities of seeds of both beans in the field were similar. Mung beans, compared to common bean, had much smaller seeds, started to bloom later and produced mature seeds later than the latter. Mung bean seeds had more total proteins and Magnesium and Copper than common bean seeds. In Western Poland, production of high quality mung bean seeds was possible.

  19. Consórcios de caupi e milho em cultivo orgânico para produção de grãos e espigas verdes Cowpea and corn intercrops in organic farming system aiming at production of immature beans and spikes

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    Rejane E Guedes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available No período de outono-inverno-primavera de 2007, foi conduzido um estudo em Seropédica, Região Metropolitana do estado do Rio de Janeiro (Baixada Fluminense, com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes tipos de consórcio entre caupi (cv. Mauá e milho (cv. AG-1051, em sistema orgânico de produção. O experimento foi instalado em área de Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de diferentes épocas ou intervalos de tempo de semeadura do caupi em relação à do milho, a saber: (E1 21 dias antes do milho; (E2 14 dias antes do milho; (E3 7 dias antes do milho; e (E4 no mesmo dia do milho. Tratamentos correspondentes aos cultivos solteiros do caupi e do milho foram incluídos, ambos semeados na data do tratamento E4. O cultivo consorciado com o caupi não interferiu na produtividade do milho em espigas verdes e também em termos de comprimento e diâmetro basal dessas espigas, independentemente do intervalo entre semeaduras. Com referência ao caupi, a produtividade em grãos verdes no cultivo solteiro foi superior à dos consórcios com o milho. Os valores obtidos para os Índices de Equivalência de Área (IEA, foram todos acima de 1,0, indicando que os consórcios foram eficientes quanto ao desempenho agronômico/biológico. Considerando, ainda a produtividade de cada cultura participante do consórcio, a semeadura do caupi antecipada de 21 dias em relação à do milho afigura-se mais adequada ao manejo orgânico adotado e às condições edafoclimáticas da região.Covering the period of autumn-winter-spring of 2007, a study was performed in Seropédica, Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, to evaluate different intercroppings between cowpea (cv. Mauá and corn (cv. AG-1051 under organic farming system. The experiment was carried out in an area of ultisol employing a randomized block design with four replicates. Treatments consisted of four intervals of

  20. Vigna radiata as a New Source for Biotransformation of Hydroquinone to Arbutin

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    Zahra Tofighi, Mohsen Amini, Mahzad Shirzadi, Hamideh Mirhabibi, Negar Ghazi Saeedi, Narguess Yassa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The suspension culture of Vigna radiata was selected for biotransformation of hydroquinone to its β-D-glucoside form (arbutin as an important therapeutic and cosmetic compound. Methods: The biotransformation efficiency of a Vigna radiata cell culture in addition to different concentrations of hydroquinone (6-20 mg/100 ml was investigated after 24 hours in comparison to an Echinacea purpurea cell culture and attempts were made to increase the efficacy of the process by adding elicitors. Results: Arbutin was accumulated in cells and found in the media only in insignificant amounts. The arbutin content of the biomass extracts of V. radiata and E. purpurea was different, ranging from 0.78 to 1.89% and 2.00 to 3.55% of dry weight, respectively. V. radiata demonstrated a bioconversion efficiency of 55.82% after adding 8 mg/100 ml precursor, which was comparable with result of 69.53% for E. purpurea cells after adding 10 mg/100 ml hydroquinone (P>0.05. In both cultures, adding hydroquinone in two portions with a 24-hour interval increased the biotransformation efficiency. Different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (25, 50, and 100 µM and chitosan (50 and 100 µg/ml as elicitors increased the bio-efficiency percentage of the V. radiata culture in comparison with the flask containing only hydroquinone. Conclusion: This is the first report of the biotransformation possibility of V. radiata cultures. It was observed the bioconversion capacity increased by adding hydroquinone in two portions, which was comparable to adding an elicitor.