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Sample records for caulobacter sp infection

  1. Caulobacter hibisci sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere of Hibiscus syriacus L. (Mugunghwa flower).

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    Moya, Gabriela; Yan, Zheng-Fei; Won, KyungHwa; Yang, Jung-Eun; Wang, Qi-Jun; Kook, MooChang; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2017-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, smooth, bright yellow-pigmented, aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive and rod-shaped bacterial strain was isolated from rhizosphere of Hibiscus syriacus L. (Mugunghwa flower) located in Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi, South Korea. Cells were dimorphic, non-motile or non-stalked, and motile by means of peritrichous flagellum. The strain, named THG-AG3.4T, grew at 15-35 °C, at pH 6.5-9.0 and in the presence of 0-1.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain THG-AG3.4T was most closely related to Caulobacter segnis ATCC 21756T (98.64 % similarity), Caulobacter vibrioides CB51T (98.57 %) and Caulobacter henricii ATCC 15253T (97.41 %). The DNA G+C content of strain THG-AG3.4T was 64.0 mol%. In DNA-DNA hybridization, the DNA-DNA relatedness between strain THG-AG3.4T and its closest phylogenetic neighbour was below 55.0 %. The predominant isoprenoid quinone detected in strain THG-AG3.4T was ubiquinone-10 (Q-10). The major polar lipids were found to be an unidentified lipid, two unidentified phosphoglycolipids, five unidentified glycolipids, eight unidentified aminolipids and phosphatidylglycerol. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c). Thus, based on the report of the phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic characterization of strain THG-AG3.4T, it has been concluded that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Caulobacter, for which the name Caulobacter hibisci sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-AG3.4T (=KACC 18849T=CCTCC AB 2016077T).

  2. Infecting Pacific Herring with Ichthyophonus sp. in the laboratory

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    Hershberger, Paul; Hart, Lucas; Mackenzie, Ashley; Yanney, M.L.; Conway, Carla M.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2015-01-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus sp. occurs in coastal populations of Pacific Herring Clupea pallasii throughout the northeast Pacific region, but the route(s) by which these planktivorous fish become infected is unknown. Several methods for establishing Ichthyophonus infections in laboratory challenges were examined. Infections were most effectively established after intraperitoneal (IP) injections with suspended parasite isolates from culture or after repeated feedings with infected fish tissues. Among groups that were offered the infected tissues, infection prevalence was greater after multiple feedings (65%) than after a single feeding (5%). Additionally, among groups that were exposed to parasite suspensions prepared from culture isolates, infection prevalence was greater after exposure by IP injection (74%) than after exposure via gastric intubation (12%); the flushing of parasite suspensions over the gills did not lead to infections in any of the experimental fish. Although the consumption of infected fish tissues is unlikely to be the primary route of Ichthyophonus sp. transmission in wild populations of Pacific Herring, this route may contribute to abnormally high infection prevalence in areas where juveniles have access to infected offal.

  3. Infecting Pacific Herring with Ichthyophonus sp. in the Laboratory.

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    Hershberger, P K; Hart, L M; MacKenzie, A H; Yanney, M L; Conway, C M; Elliott, D G

    2015-12-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus sp. occurs in coastal populations of Pacific Herring Clupea pallasii throughout the northeast Pacific region, but the route(s) by which these planktivorous fish become infected is unknown. Several methods for establishing Ichthyophonus infections in laboratory challenges were examined. Infections were most effectively established after intraperitoneal (IP) injections with suspended parasite isolates from culture or after repeated feedings with infected fish tissues. Among groups that were offered the infected tissues, infection prevalence was greater after multiple feedings (65%) than after a single feeding (5%). Additionally, among groups that were exposed to parasite suspensions prepared from culture isolates, infection prevalence was greater after exposure by IP injection (74%) than after exposure via gastric intubation (12%); the flushing of parasite suspensions over the gills did not lead to infections in any of the experimental fish. Although the consumption of infected fish tissues is unlikely to be the primary route of Ichthyophonus sp. transmission in wild populations of Pacific Herring, this route may contribute to abnormally high infection prevalence in areas where juveniles have access to infected offal.

  4. Growth Conditions Regulate the Requirements for Caulobacter Chromosome Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shebelut, Conrad W.; Jensen, Rasmus Bugge; Gitai, Zemer

    2009-01-01

    Growth environments are important metabolic and developmental regulators. Here we demonstrate a growth environment-dependent effect on Caulobacter chromosome segregation of a small-molecule inhibitor of the MreB bacterial actin cytoskeleton. Our results also implicate ParAB as important segregation...... determinants, suggesting that multiple distinct mechanisms can mediate Caulobacter chromosome segregation and that their relative contributions can be environmentally regulated....

  5. Experimental infection in Cavia porcellus by infected Amblyomma ovale nymphs with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain).

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    Brustolin, Joice Magali; da Silva Krawczak, Felipe; Alves, Marta Elena Machado; Weiller, Maria Amélia; de Souza, Camila Lopes; Rosa, Fábio Brum; Cadore, Gustavo Cauduro; Dos Anjos Lopes, Sônia Terezinha; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Sangioni, Luís Antônio

    2018-03-01

    This study describes experimental infection of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) infested with naturally infected Amblyomma ovale nymphs with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain), and the capacity of A. ovale nymphs to transmit this bacterium. Twenty-six guinea pigs were divided into the following groups: G1, 10 animals infested with uninfected A. ovale nymphs; G2, 10 animals infested with nymphs infected with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain); and G3, 6 animals without tick infestation. Blood samples were taken 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-infestation for serological and hematological tests. For histopathological analysis and rickettsial DNA detection, fragments of the spleen, lung, brain, and liver were harvested after euthanasia. The average feeding period for nymphs was 6.6 days for G1 and 6 days for G2. Hemolymph and PCR assays, performed to detect the causative agent in ticks, indicated that in G1, all ticks were negative, and in G2, all nymphs were positive by PCR and 80% (8/10) was positive by hemolymph tests. The only clinical change was skin scarring at the tick attachment site. Hematological parameters indicated leukopenia and total plasma protein (TPP) increased with decreased platelets in G1. In G2, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, monocytosis, an increase in platelets, and reduced TPP were observed. Only G2 guinea pigs were seroconverted (80%; 8/10). Histopathology tests indicated mild, diffuse hemosiderosis and mild, multifocal, follicular hyperplasia in the spleen. Molecular analysis did not detect Rickettsia sp. DNA in C. porcellus tissues. We demonstrated the capacity of A. ovale nymphs to transmit Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain) to guinea pigs.

  6. Infection Vibrio sp. Bacteria on Kappaphycus Seaweed Varieties Brown and Green

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    Irmawati, Yuni; Sudirjo, Fien

    2017-10-01

    Disease in seaweed or ice-ice, until today is still a major problem in the cultivation of seaweed. Changes in extreme environmental conditions is a trigger factor of ice-ice, which can result in seaweed susceptible to infection with pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria Vibrio sp. This research aims to determine the bacteria Vibrio sp. infection in seaweed Kappaphycus varieties of brown and green. Vibrio sp. bacteria isolated in the infected seaweed thallus ice-ice, grown on TCBS media, purification, gram staining and biochemical tests. Vibrio sp. infected to seaweed Kappaphycus brown and green varieties in containers controlled by different density, 105 CFU/ml, 106 CFU/ml and 107CFU/ml. Observations were made to change clinical effect in thallus seaweed for 14 days of observation. The results obtained show that the levels of infection bacteria Vibrio sp. higher in seaweed Kappaphycus green varieties both in density 105 CFU/ml, 106 CFU/ml and 107CFU/ml, when compared with varieties brown.

  7. More than a Tad: spatiotemporal control of Caulobacter pili.

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    Mignolet, Johann; Panis, Gaël; Viollier, Patrick H

    2018-04-01

    The Type IV pilus (T4P) is a powerful and sophisticated bacterial nanomachine involved in numerous cellular processes, including adhesion, DNA uptake and motility. Aside from the well-described subtype T4aP of the Gram-negative genera, including Myxococcus, Pseudomonas and Neisseria, the Tad (tight adherence) pilus secretion system re-shuffles homologous parts from other secretion systems along with uncharacterized components into a new type of protein translocation apparatus. A representative of the Tad apparatus, the Caulobacter crescentus pilus assembly (Cpa) machine is built exclusively at the newborn cell pole once per cell cycle. Recent comprehensive genetic analyses unearthed a myriad of spatiotemporal determinants acting on the Tad/Cpa system, many of which are conserved in other α-proteobacteria, including obligate intracellular pathogens and symbionts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum treatment of moribund Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) infected with Cryptosporidium sp.

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    Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R; Bostwick, E F

    1999-01-01

    Therapy based on the protective passive immunity of hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC) was applied to 12 moribund Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) infected with Cryptosporidium sp. The geckos were lethargic and moderately to severely emaciated, weighing on average 36% of the baseline body weight value. Seven gastric HBC treatments at 1-week intervals each decreased the relative output of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts and the prevalence of oocyst-positive fecal specimens. Histologically, after 8 weeks of therapy, seven out of 12 geckos had only single developmental stages of Cryptosporidium sp. in the intestinal epithelium, and three, one and one geckos had low, moderate and high numbers, respectively, of the pathogen developmental stages. The HBC therapy was efficacious in decreasing the parasite load in moribund geckos. Morphometric and immunologic analysis of Cryptosporidium sp. oocyst isolates originating from Leopard geckos (E. macularius) demonstrated differences between gecko-derived oocyst isolates and isolates of C. serpentis recovered from snakes.

  9. Proliferative enteritis in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) associated with Cryptosporidium sp. infection.

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    Terrell, Scott P; Uhl, Elizabeth W; Funk, Richard S

    2003-03-01

    Twenty-three leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) with various clinical histories of weight loss, anorexia, lethargy, and diarrhea were submitted either intact or as biopsy specimens to the University of Florida Anatomic Pathology Service. Gross necropsy findings in the intact geckos included marked reduction of subcutaneous adipose tissue stores at the tail base and mild thickening and reddening of the small intestine. Histologic examination revealed Cryptosporidium sp. infection associated with hyperplasia and mononuclear inflammation of the small intestine in all geckos. Parasites and lesions were only rarely observed in the stomach and large intestine of geckos. The histologic and ultrastructural lesions in the small intestine of leopard geckos infected with Cryptosporidium sp. have not been well characterized previously. This report implicates Cryptosporidium sp. as the cause of disease in the geckos and describes the range of histologic lesions observed.

  10. Microarray analysis identified Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici genes involved in infection and sporulation.

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    Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) causes stripe rust, one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. To identify Pst genes involved in infection and sporulation, a custom oligonucleotide Genechip was made using sequences of 442 genes selected from Pst cDNA libraries. Microarray analy...

  11. Ichthyophonus sp. (Ichthyophonae, Ichthyophonida) infection in a South American amphibian, the hylid frog Hypsiboas pulchellus.

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    Borteiro, Claudio; Verdes, José Manuel; Cruz, Juan Carlos; Sabalsagaray, María Jesús; Kolenc, Francisco; Martínez Debat, Claudio; Ubilla, Martín

    2015-04-01

    We report infection by Ichthyophonus sp. in a South American amphibian, the hylid frog Hypsiboas pulchellus in Uruguay. This frog had a large subcutaneous mass over the urostyle and dorsal musculature comprised of parasitic cysts with mild granulomatous inflammation but otherwise appeared healthy.

  12. The phylogenetic position of Amoebophrya sp. infecting Gymnodinium sanguineum.

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    Gunderson, J H; Goss, S H; Coats, D W

    1999-01-01

    The small-subunit rRNA sequence of a species of Amoebophrya infecting Gymnodinium sanguineum in Chesapeake Bay was obtained and compared to the small subunit rRNA sequences of other protists. Phylogenetic trees constructed with the new sequence place Amoebophrya between the remaining dinoflagellates and other protists.

  13. Ichthyobodo salmonis sp. n. (Ichthyobodonidae, Kinetoplastida), an euryhaline ectoparasite infecting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

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    ISAKSEN, TROND E.; KARLSBAKK, EGIL; WATANABE, KUNINORI; NYLUND, ARE

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Phylogenetic analyses of SSU rDNA sequences have previously revealed the existence of 2 Ichthyobodo species able to infect Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Ichthyobodo necator sensu stricto (s.s.) is assumed to be a freshwater parasite, while a genetically distinct but undescribed species, Ichthyobodo sp. II sensu Todal et al. (2004) have been detected on Atlantic salmon in both fresh- and seawater. In the present study a morphological description of Ichthyobodo sp. II from the gills of salmon reared in fresh-, brackish- and seawater is presented, using both light- and electron microscopy. Comparative morphometry show that Ichthyobodo sp. II from both freshwater and seawater displays a different cell shape, and is significantly smaller than I. necator s.s. Also, ultrastructural characteristics distinguish these two species, notably differences in the attachment region and the presence of spine-like surface projections in Ichthyobodo sp. II. Based on both unique SSU rDNA sequences and morphological characteristics, we conclude that Ichthyobodo sp. II. represents a novel species for which we propose the name Ichthyobodo salmonis sp. n. PMID:21756424

  14. [Cryptosporidium sp infections and other intestinal parasites in food handlers from Zulia state, Venezuela].

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    Freites, Azael; Colmenares, Deisy; Pérez, Marly; García, María; Díaz de Suárez, Odelis

    2009-03-01

    Cryptosporidiosis in food handlers from Venezuela is unknown, being this an important public health problem in immunosuppressed patients. To determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp and other intestinal parasites in food handlers from Zulia State, one hundred nineteen fecal samples were evaluated by wet mount, concentrated according to Ritchie and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Fourteen (11.8%) were positive for Cryptosporidium sp and associated with other protozoosis (P Entamoeba coli (17.6%). The most frequent pathogenic protozoa was Giardia lamblia (13.4%), followed by the complex Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (9.2%). 4.1% were positive for intestinal helminthes. The infection by Cryptosporidium sp is frequent in food handlers from Zulia State. Given to the results of this investigation and the nonexistence of studies in this population, is necessary to deepen in the impact of this parasitism in food handlers and the consumers of their products.

  15. Effectivity of Musa paradisiaca extract to control Saprolegnia sp. infection on giant gourami larvae

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    Sri Nuryati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Larval stage of giant gourami is a critical period due to fungal infection, such as Saprolegnia sp. infection. There are some plants which have antiseptic compound like banana Musa paradisiaca. This research was aimed to examine the effectiveness of the banana stem extract M. paradisiaca to control Saprolegnia sp. infection on giant gurami larvae through immersion. Eight-day old gorami larvae (at the initial of 0.5±0.03 cm was reared in an aquarium sized 25×25×25 cm3 at the density of 8 fry/L. Culture media were added banana stem extract at the dose of 0; 0.08; 0.12; and 0.16 g/L during 21 days of rearing period. Challenge test was performed for 14 days by giving Saprolegnia sp. spores at the density of 104 cells/mL and banana stem extract. The treatment dose of 0.16 g/L has showen survival 100% than positive control  after the challenge test. Keywords: giant gourami, Musa paradisiaca, Saprolegnia sp., fry  ABSTRAK Fase larva ikan gurami merupakan masa kritis terhadap infeksi cendawan, seperti jenis Saprolegnia sp. Beberapa tanaman memiliki daya antiseptik seperti tanaman pisang ambon Musa paradisiaca. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efektivitas ekstrak batang pisang ambon M. paradisiaca dalam mengurangi infeksi Saprolegnia sp. pada larva ikan gurami melalui media pemeliharaan. Larva gurami umur delapan hari (panjang larva 0,5+0,03 cm dipelihara pada akuarium berukuran 25×25×25 cm3 dengan padat tebar 8 ekor/L. Media pemeliharaan diberi ekstrak batang pisang ambon dosis 0; 0,08; 0,12; dan 0,16 g/L selama 21 hari. Uji tantang dilakukan selama 14 hari dengan pemberian spora Saprolegnia sp. kepadatan 104 sel/mL dan ekstrak batang pisang ambon. Perlakuan dosis 0,16 g/L memberikan kelangsungan hidup sebesar 100% yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan perlakuan kontrol positif setelah uji tantang. Kata kunci: giant gourami, Musa paradisiaca, Saprolegnia sp., larva

  16. Viability and infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. in post-mortem Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii.

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    Kocan, Richard; Hart, Lucas; Lewandowski, Naomi; Hershberger, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Ichthyophonus-infected Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii , were allowed to decompose in ambient seawater then serially sampled for 29 days to evaluate parasite viability and infectivity for Pacific staghorn sculpin, Leptocottus armatus . Ichthyophonus sp. was viable in decomposing herring tissues for at least 29 days post-mortem and could be transmitted via ingestion to sculpin for up to 5 days. The parasite underwent morphologic changes during the first 48 hr following death of the host that were similar to those previously reported, but as host tissue decomposition progressed, several previously un-described forms of the parasite were observed. The significance of long-term survival and continued morphologic transformation in the post-mortem host is unknown, but it could represent a saprozoic phase of the parasite life cycle that has survival value for Ichthyophonus sp.

  17. Successful treatment of an invasive fungal infection caused by Talaromyces sp. with voriconazole

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    Uluhan Sili

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections (IFI are on the rise due to increasing numbers of immunosuppressed and critically ill patients. A malignant-looking pulmonary nodule in an immunosuppressed patient may indeed be caused by a fungal organism. We report a patient, who was eventually diagnosed with an IFI caused by an agent of hyalohyphomycosis, Talaromyces sp. determined via molecular methods and succesfully treated with voriconazole.

  18. Correction of the Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 genome annotation.

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    Bert Ely

    Full Text Available Bacterial genome annotations are accumulating rapidly in the GenBank database and the use of automated annotation technologies to create these annotations has become the norm. However, these automated methods commonly result in a small, but significant percentage of genome annotation errors. To improve accuracy and reliability, we analyzed the Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 genome utilizing computer programs Artemis and MICheck to manually examine the third codon position GC content, alignment to a third codon position GC frame plot peak, and matches in the GenBank database. We identified 11 new genes, modified the start site of 113 genes, and changed the reading frame of 38 genes that had been incorrectly annotated. Furthermore, our manual method of identifying protein-coding genes allowed us to remove 112 non-coding regions that had been designated as coding regions. The improved NA1000 genome annotation resulted in a reduction in the use of rare codons since noncoding regions with atypical codon usage were removed from the annotation and 49 new coding regions were added to the annotation. Thus, a more accurate codon usage table was generated as well. These results demonstrate that a comparison of the location of peaks third codon position GC content to the location of protein coding regions could be used to verify the annotation of any genome that has a GC content that is greater than 60%.

  19. Ultrastructural identification of Ehrlich ia sp in an experimentally infected dog in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, N.; Martinez, M.; Arraga Alvarado, C.; Bretana, A.; Pacheco, I.; Comach, G.

    1999-01-01

    This study is the first report made in Venezuela concerning the ultrastructural characteristics of Ehrlich ia sp in mononuclear blood cells from an experimentally infected dog. The animal developed clinical manifestations characteristic of the infection, and typical intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were clearly seen in blood smears stained with modified Giemsa examined by light microscopy. Microorganisms were visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The cytoplasmic inclusions, consisted of membrane-lined vacuole-containing elementary bodies. The organisms were extremely pleomorphic. Elementary bodies were surrounded by two distinct membranes and each was constituted by electro-dense granules. These findings corresponded to the described electron microscopy morphology which characterizes the Ehrlich ia genus

  20. Differential response of banana cultivars to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection for Chitinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morpurgo, R.; Duren, M. Van; Grasso, G.; Afza, R.

    1997-01-01

    Six banana clones with varying levels of resistance were inoculated with conidial suspension of races 1 and 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Chitanase activity in the corm and root tissues was monitored before and after infection to relate with the field resistance or susceptibility of banana cultivars. Resistant clones showed high constitutive chitinase activity in roots and a rapid response to infection. The results suggest that chitinase could be considered as part of a complex mechanism leading to disease resistance. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs

  1. Differential response of banana cultivars to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection for Chitinase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morpurgo, R; Duren, M Van; Grasso, G; Afza, R [Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1997-07-01

    Six banana clones with varying levels of resistance were inoculated with conidial suspension of races 1 and 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Chitanase activity in the corm and root tissues was monitored before and after infection to relate with the field resistance or susceptibility of banana cultivars. Resistant clones showed high constitutive chitinase activity in roots and a rapid response to infection. The results suggest that chitinase could be considered as part of a complex mechanism leading to disease resistance. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs.

  2. Genetic characterization and molecular survey of Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection in small ruminants and ixodid ticks in China.

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    Niu, Qingli; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Gao, Shandian; Pan, Yuping; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Babesia sp. Xinjiang is a large ovine Babesia species that was recently isolated in China. Compared with other ovine Babesia species, it has different morphological features, pathogenicity and vector tick species. The known transmitting vector is Hyalomma anatolicum. In this study, the distribution and the presence of Babesia sp. Xinjiang in small ruminants and ixodid ticks in China were assessed by specific nested-PCR assay based on the rap-1a gene. A total of 978 blood samples from sheep or goats from 15 provinces and 797 tick specimens from vegetation from 10 provinces were collected and analysed for the presence of the Babesia sp. Xinjiang. Full-length and partial rap-1a of Babesia sp. Xinjiang were amplified from field samples. The PCR results were further confirmed by DNA sequencing. Overall, 38 (3.89%) blood samples and 51 (6.4%) tick samples were positive for Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection. The highest presence (26.92%) was found in blood samples from Yunnan province, while H. qinghaiensis ticks with the highest presence of infection (21.3%) were from Gansu province. This study identified for the first time Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection in H. longicornis tick species. The rap-1a sequences of Babesia sp. Xinjiang from field blood and tick samples indicated 100% identity. The presence of Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection may increase in China. Novel potential transmitting vectors might be more extensive than previously thought. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Infection of Gymnodinium sanguineum by the dinoflagellate Amoebophrya sp.: effect of nutrient environment on parasite generation time, reproduction, and infectivity.

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    Yih, W; Coats, D W

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary attempts to culture Amoebophrya sp., a parasite of Gymnodinium sanguineum from Chesapeake Bay, indicated that success may be influenced by water quality. To explore that possibility, we determined development time, reproductive output, and infectivity of progeny (i.e. dinospores) for Amoebophyra sp. maintained on G. sanguineum grown in four different culture media. The duration of the parasite's intracellular growth phase showed no significant difference among treatments; however, the time required for completion of multiple parasite generations did, with elapsed time to the middle of the third generation being shorter in nutrient-replete media. Parasites of hosts grown in nutrient-replete medium also produced three to four times more dinospores than those infecting hosts under low-nutrient conditions, with mean values of 380 and 130 dinospores/host, respectively. Dinospore production relative to host biovolume also differed, with peak values of 7.4 per 1,000 microm3 host for nutrient-replete medium and 4.8 per 1,000 microm3 host for nutrient-limited medium. Furthermore, dinospores produced by "high-nutrient" parasites had a higher success rate than those formed by "low-nutrient" parasites. Results suggest that Amoebophrya sp. is well adapted to exploit G. sanguineum populations in nutrient-enriched environments.

  4. Morganella sp. rods – characteristics, infections, mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics 

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    Patrycja Zalas-Więcek

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Morganella genus is one member of the tribe Proteae, which also includes the genera Proteus and Providencia. These bacteria are commonly present in the environment.Morganella sp. rods are known to be a causative agent of opportunistic hospital infections, mainly urinary tract, wound and blood infections of severe and high mortality, even in cases of an appropriate antibiotic.These bacteria may produce many virulence factors, for example urease, hemolysins, LPS, adhesins and enzymes hydrolyzing and modifying antibiotics commonly used to treat infections.Understanding the diverse biological properties of these rods may be of importance in the development of effective methods of prevention and control of infections with their participation. 

  5. Predominance of Blastocystis sp. Infection among School Children in Peninsular Malaysia.

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    Nithyamathi, Kalimuthu; Chandramathi, Samudi; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest cross-sectional study in recent years was carried out to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among urban and rural school children from five states namely Selangor, Perak, Pahang, Kedah and Johor in Peninsula Malaysia. This information would be vital for school authorities to influence strategies for providing better health especially in terms of reducing intestinal parasitism. A total of 3776 stool cups was distributed to 26 schools throughout the country. 1760 (46.61%) responded. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in both rural and urban areas was 13.3%, with Blastocystis sp (10.6%) being the most predominant, followed by Trichuris trichiura (3.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.5%) and hook worm infection (0.9%). Only rural school children had helminthic infection. In general Perak had the highest infection (37.2%, total, n = 317), followed by Selangor (10.4%, total, n = 729), Pahang (8.6%, total, n = 221), Kedah (6.2%, total, n = 195) and Johor (3.4%, total, n = 298). School children from rural schools had higher infection (13.7%, total, n = 922) than urban school children (7.2%, total, n = 838). Subtype (ST) 3 (54.3%) is the most predominant ST with persons infected with only ST1 and ST3 showing symptoms. Blastocystis sp infection significantly associated with low household income, low parent's education and presence of symptoms (p<0.05). It is critical that we institute deworming and treatment to eradicate the parasite especially in rural school children.

  6. Infection Courts in Watermelon Plants Leading to Seed Infestation by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

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    Petkar, Aparna; Ji, Pingsheng

    2017-07-01

    Fusarium wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum is a seed-transmitted disease that causes significant yield loss in watermelon production. The pathogen may infect watermelon seeds latently, which can be an important inoculum source and contribute to severe disease outbreak. However, information regarding infection courts of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum leading to infestation of watermelon seeds is limited. To determine how seeds in watermelon fruit can be infested by F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum during the watermelon growing season, greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 where watermelon flowers and immature fruit were inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum. Seeds were extracted from mature watermelon fruit, and infestation of watermelon seeds was determined by isolation of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum and further confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Inoculation of the pericarp of immature fruit resulted in 17.8 to 54.4% of infested seeds under field conditions and 0.6 to 12.8% of infested seeds under greenhouse conditions when seeds were not surface disinfested prior to isolation. Seed infestation was also detected in 0 to 4.5% of the seeds when seeds were surface disinfested prior to isolation. Inoculation of pistil resulted in 0 to 7.2% and 0 to 18.3% of infested seeds under greenhouse and field conditions when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Inoculation of peduncle resulted in 0.6 to 6.1% and 0 to 10.0% of infested seeds in the greenhouse and field experiments when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Seed infestation was also detected in all the experiments using real-time PCR assay when pericarp or pistil was inoculated, and in three of four experiments when peduncle was inoculated, regardless of whether seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested. Pericarp and peduncle of immature watermelon fruit

  7. [Fungal infectivities of implanted catheters due to Candida sp. Biofilms formation and resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddiki, S M L; Boucherit-Otmani, Z; Boucherit, K; Kunkel, D

    2015-06-01

    Candidemia are the most common fungal infections in hospitals. However, the catheters are subject to be altered by Candida biofilms which increase the risk of invasive nosocomial infections due to the high resistance to antifungal agents. Therefore, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of planktonic (MIC) and sessile cells (CIMS) were evaluated. To review the in vivo biofilms structures of Candida sp. formed on the inner and/or external surfaces of collected catheters, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The level of biofilm resistance was assessed against two conventional antifungal agents: amphotericin B (AmB), which belongs to the class of polyenes, and fluconazole (FLZ) which is an azole. The SEM observation of biofilms of Candida sp. reveals complex structures. Compared to MICs, the calculation of CIMS showed an increase of 32 times with AmB and of 128 times with FLZ. Catheters offer an ideal surface to Candida sp. to form biofilms. This complex structure induces the increase of the resistance of sessile cells against two antifungal agents, AmB and FLZ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Infected Donor Biomass and Active Feeding Increase Waterborne Transmission of Ichthyophonus sp. to Rainbow Trout Sentinels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPatra, S E; Kocan, R M

    2016-06-01

    The precise nature of Ichthyophonus sp. transmission among wild fishes has eluded description for over a century. Transmission among piscivores is direct, via ingestion of infected prey, but there is also evidence for waterborne transmission between infected and uninfected individuals. Transmission among planktivores is believed to be via a waterborne infectious cell, but definitive proof of this mechanism has not been forthcoming. To explore possible mechanisms of transmission we used Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss as a model system and examined the consequence of housing infected donor fish with uninfected (sentinel) fish, without physical contact. We examined two variables linked to transmission: (1) feeding and nonfeeding sentinel fish, and (2) biomass of infected donor fish. Specific-pathogen free sentinel trout were placed in fine-mesh baskets suspended in tanks containing varying numbers of larger Ichthyophonus-infected donor fish and held for 10 weeks, during which time they were examined by in vitro explant culture for the presence of Ichthyophonus. Treatment groups consisted of fed and unfed sentinels housed with infected donors of increasing biomass. After 10 weeks infection prevalence in fed sentinels was significantly higher than in unfed sentinels, and Ichthyophonus was detected earlier in fed fish than in unfed fish. There was no correlation between infection prevalence and donor biomass in fed sentinels, but there was a strong correlation between infection prevalence and increasing donor biomass in unfed sentinels. These data suggest that Ichthyophonus is maintained in wild fish populations by two distinct mechanisms: (1) waterborne infectious cells ingested directly from the water by planktivores, and (2) both infected prey and waterborne infectious cells ingested by piscivores. Received November 13, 2015; accepted February 13, 2016.

  9. First clinical case report of Cytauxzoon sp. infection in a domestic cat in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legroux, Jean-Pierre; Halos, Lénaïg; René-Martellet, Magalie; Servonnet, Marielle; Pingret, Jean-Luc; Bourdoiseau, Gilles; Baneth, Gad; Chabanne, Luc

    2017-03-29

    Feline cytauxzoonosis is an emerging infection caused by tick-transmitted apicomplexan parasites of the genus Cytauxzoon. The association of clinical disease with Cytauxzoon infection appears to be limited to C. felis infections in the Americas. Sporadic infections of wild and domestic felids with Cytauxzoon sp. were recently described in European countries but clinical reports of the infection are rare and incomplete. This case report brings new interesting information on cytauxzoonosis expression in Europe. A 9-years-old castrated European shorthair cat living in rural area of north-eastern France (Saint Sauveur, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region), without any travel history was presented for consultation due to hyperthermia, anorexia, depression and prolonged fever that didn't respond to antibiotic therapy. The cat had outdoor access with a history of vagrancy and was adequately vaccinated (core vaccines and FeLV vaccine). During biological investigations, intraerythrocytic inclusions were observed on blood smear and were further investigated by PCR analysis and sequencing. Molecular analyses confirmed Cytauxzoon sp. infection. The cat was treated with a subcutaneous injection of imidocarb dipropionate (3.5 mg/kg). One week after treatment, the cat improved clinically, although parasitic inclusions within erythrocytes persisted, and only a mild lymphocytosis was found. Two weeks after treatment, the cat appeared in excellent health, appetite was normal and parasitemia was negative. However, one month after treatment the cat relapsed with hyperthermia, anorexia, and depression. Blood smears and PCR were once again positive. Subsequently, the cat received an additional dose of imidocarb dipropionate (3.5 mg/kg SC) and recovered rapidly without other clinical signs. Two weeks after the second imidocarb injection, the cat was hit by a car and died. This case provides the first clinical description of infection by Cytauxzoon sp. in a domestic cat in France. These

  10. Coordination between chromosome replication, segregation, and cell division in Caulobacter crescentus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bugge

    2006-01-01

    Progression through the Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle is coupled to a cellular differentiation program. The swarmer cell is replicationally quiescent, and DNA replication initiates at the swarmer-to-stalked cell transition. There is a very short delay between initiation of DNA replication...

  11. Genome Sequence of Selenium-Solubilizing Bacterium Caulobacter vibrioides T5M6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yihua; Qin, Yanan; Kot, Witold

    2016-01-01

    Caulobacter vibrioides T5M6 is a Gram-negative strain that strongly solubilizes selenium (Se) mineral into Se(IV) and was isolated from a selenium mining area in Enshi, southwest China. This strain produces the phytohormone IAA and promotes plant growth. Here we present the genome of this strain...

  12. Prevention of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection on Penaeus monodon by Immersion in CEPM Extract of Avicennia sp. and Sonneratia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wahjuningrum

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality and survival rate are still being the problem that hampers the productivity of black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon culture.  Impaired quality of larval shrimp and environmental conditions can confer shrimp be infected by diseases, including viruses such as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV.  Prevention of disease infection using chemicals can offer negative impacts on water, pathogen resistance and consumers.  This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of an alternative prevention compound as liquid mangrove extract (CEPM from Avicennia sp. and Sonneratia sp. By immersion in different dose of CEPM, i.e. 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm, the patogenicity of WSSV was found to be different.  Patogenicity of WSSV decreased after treatment by CEPM, hence this could be used to induce shrimp immunity.  Optimum dose of CEPM was 250 ppm, which could increased survival rate of shrimp after challenging by WSSV, up to 98.4% shrimp survived. Keywrods: WSSV, black tiger shrimp, extract, Avicennia sp., Sonneratia sp.   ABSTRAK Kualitas dan kelangsungan hidup merupakan masalah yang masih membatasi produktivitas budidaya udang windu Penaeus monodon. Kondisi udang dan kualitas lingkungan yang kurang baik dapat menyebabkan udang terserang penyakit, termasuk yang disebabkan oleh virus termasuk white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Upaya pengendaliannya menggunakan bahan kimia secara berlebih dapat menimbulkan dampak negatif bagi lingkungan perairan, kesehatan konsumen dan menimbulkan resistensi patogen. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui efektivitas bahan alternatif berupa cairan ekstrak pohon mangrove (CEPM dari jenis Avicennia sp. dan Sonneratia sp. sebagai upaya pencegahan. Dengan perendaman beberapa konsentrasi yang berbeda (250, 500, 750 dan 1000 ppm penggunaan cairan ekstrak pohon mangrove (CEPM Avicennia sp. dan Sonneratia sp., memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap patogenitas WSSV dan udang uji pada setiap perlakuan. Tingkat

  13. Helicobacter sp. MIT 01-6451 infection during fetal and neonatal life in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Hitoki; Nakanishi, Tai; Takagi, Toshikazu; Ohsawa, Makiko; Kubo, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Takemoto, Takahira; Ohsawa, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter sp. MIT 01-6451 has been detected in SPF mice kept in Japan. To characterize strain MIT 01-6451, its infection route during fetal and neonatal life and effects on pregnancy were investigated using immunocompetent and immunodeficient mouse strains (BALB/c, C57BL/6, and SCID). MIT 01-6451 was detected in the uterus, vagina, and mammary glands of 50% of infected SCID mice, whereas these tissues were all negative in immunocompetent mice. No fetal infections with MIT 01-6451 were detected at 16-18 days after pregnancy in any mouse strain. In newborn mice, MIT 01-6451 was detected in intestinal tissue of C57BL/6 and SCID mice at 9-11 days after birth, but not in BALB/c mice. The IgA and IgG titers to MIT 01-6451 in sera of C57BL/6 female mice were significantly lower than those of BALB/c mice. Although no significant differences in the number of newborns per litter were observed between MIT 01-6451-infected and MIT 01-6451-free dams, the birth rate was lower in infected SCID mice than in control SCID mice. The present results indicated that MIT 01-6451 infects newborn mice after birth rather than by vertical transmission to the fetus via the placenta and that MIT 01-6451 infection shows opportunistically negative effects on the birth rate. In addition, the maternal immune response may affect infection of newborn mice with MIT 01-6451 through breast milk.

  14. Natural infection of free-range chickens with the ascarid nematode Toxocara sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-da-Silva, Danielle R; da Paz, Jeanne S; Fortunato, Viviane R; Beltrame, Marcus A V; Valli, Luis C P; Pereira, Fausto E L

    2015-11-01

    Human toxocariasis may be acquired by eating raw chicken liver. However, there are no reports on the prevalence of natural infection of chickens with Toxocara. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies as indicators of natural infection with Toxocara, in free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State, Brazil. An ELISA test with secretory and excretory Toxocara canis antigens was used. Negative controls were 20 industrial chickens reared in a high hygiene standard environment. Positive control serum was from a chicken infected with embryonated eggs of T. canis. Sera were adsorbed with Ascaridia galli extract to reduce cross-reactivity. Cut-off was the mean plus four times the standard deviation of optical density (OD) in negative group. One hundred and fifty-seven sera from free-range chicken were investigated. Results showed 58.5% of the chickens were positive with ELISA test; 12.7% had OD over the positive control and may be considered as true infected chickens. The results between the cut-off and the positive control may include infections with low titers of antibodies or may represent serum scar of past infection or may be the result of cross-reaction with other nematodes rather than A. galli which is used for the adsorption of sera. In conclusion, high prevalence of Toxocara sp. antibodies demonstrates natural infection of free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State which may represent a risk of infection with this nematode in people who have the habit of eating raw or undercooked chicken meat or viscera. The results also suggest that chickens may be useful as sentinels to detect soil contaminated with Toxocara eggs.

  15. Characterization of Uranium Tolerance and Biomineralization Potential of Caulobacter crescentus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D.

    2015-12-01

    Due to its high toxicity and mobility, U(VI) poses a major environmental threat to ecosystems. The ubiquitous aerobic bacterium Caulobacter cresecentus is an attractive candidate for U(VI) bioremediation because of its ability to survive in low-nutrient environments (5, 6), tolerate high U concentrations and mineralize U(VI) aerobically through the formation of uranyl phosphate (U-Pi) precipitates. Despite these attractive environmental properties, both a systems level understanding of the adaptive response pathways involved in U tolerance and the environmental conditions affecting the biomineralization process and stability of biogenic U-Pi minerals remain limited. By measuring changes in both mRNA and protein expression during exposure to high U levels, we have identified the core stress response pathways involved in U tolerance. Pathways associated with heat shock, lipospolysaccharide biosynthesis and transport, outer membrane lipoprotein transport and outermembrane assembly were highly induced at both the RNA and protein levels. Correspondingly, removal of integral components of proteolysis pathways including clpA, clpS and degP significantly reduced U tolerance under biomineralization conditions. Surprisingly, in contrast to many other heavy metals, U did not cause oxidative stress or DNA damage. Together, these analyses indicate that U predominately targets the outermembrane and causes mis-folding of both cytoplasmic and extracytoplasmic proteins. Efforts are currently underway to characterize the morphological and structural properties of biogenic U-Pi minerals and the environmental factors that influence their production and stability. Preliminary AFM studies suggest that U-Pi minerals formed under biomineralization conditions appear morphologically distinct from those formed abiotically between U(VI) and inorganic phosphate. Additionally, we observed that biomineralization tolerates a wide pH range (pH 6-9). Our long-range goal is the development of a

  16. Co-infection of Sarcocystis sp. and Hadjelia truncata in fantail pigeons (Columba livia domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khordadmehr

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hadjelia truncata belongs to the family Habronematidae which affects different groups of birds such as Columbiformes. A large number of Sarcocystis sp. may infect birds as intermediate hosts, but wild Columbiformes, include pigeons, are rarely affected. The present study describes mixed infection of two pigeon flocks with sarcocystosis and nematodiasis (H. truncata which had neurologic and gas-trointestinal clinical signs. The common clinical signs included progressive weight loss, pectoral muscle atrophy, white diarrhoea, depression, torticollis, paralysis, trembling, and 23.4% mortality. At necropsy, a large number of nematodes were detected in the gizzards and diagnosed as H. truncata in parasitological studies. For greater certainty, histopathological examination was conducted routinely. Different development stage of this nematode associated with severe inflammatory cells infiltration and necrosis were observed in tissue sections. Accidentally, the large number of Sarcocystis cysts was observed in tunica muscularis mucosa of gizzard associated with infiltration of inflammatory cells, hyaline degeneration and necrosis around degenerated cysts.

  17. Rickettsia vini n. sp. (Rickettsiaceae) infecting the tick Ixodes arboricola (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova, Marketa; Costa, Francisco B; Krause, Frantisek; Literak, Ivan; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-08-26

    Recently, a new rickettsia named 'Candidatus Rickettsia vini' belonging to the spotted fever group has been molecularly detected in Ixodes arboricola ticks in Spain, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Turkey, with prevalence reaching up to 100 %. The aim of this study was to isolate this rickettsia in pure culture, and to describe it as a new Rickettsia species. A total of 148 ornitophilic nidicolous ticks Ixodes arboricola were collected in a forest near Breclav (Czech Republic) and examined for rickettsiae. Shell vial technique was applied to isolate rickettsiae in Vero cells. Rickettsial isolation was confirmed by optical microscopy and sequencing of partial sequences of the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, ompB, and htrA. Laboratory guinea pigs and chickens were used for experimental infestations and infections. Animal blood sera were tested by immunofluorescence assay employing crude antigens of various rickettsiae. Rickettsia vini n. sp. was successfully isolated from three males of I. arboricola. Phylogenetic analysis of fragments of 1092, 590, 800, and 497 nucleotides of the gltA, ompA, ompB, and htrA genes, respectively, showed closest proximity of R. vini n. sp. to Rickettsia japonica and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis belonging to the spotted fever group. Experimental infection of guinea pigs and chickens with R. vini led to various levels of cross-reactions of R. vini-homologous antibodies with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', Rickettsia rhipicephali, Rickettsia bellii, and Rickettsia felis. Laboratory infestations by R. vini-infected I. arboricola larvae on chickens led to no seroconversion to R. vini n. sp., nor cross-reactions with R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, 'Ca. R. amblyommii', R. rhipicephali, R. bellii or R. felis. Our results suggest that R. vini n. sp. is possibly a tick endosymbiont, not pathogenic for guinea pigs and chickens. Regarding specific phenotypic characters and significant differences of DNA

  18. The maternal serological response to intrauterine Ureaplasma sp. infection and prediction of risk of preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demelza Jane Ireland

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth (PTB associated with intrauterine infection and inflammation (IUI is the major cause of early PTB less than 32 weeks gestation. Ureaplasma sp. are common commensals of the urogenital tract in pregnancy and are the most commonly identified microorganism in amniotic fluid of preterm pregnancies. While we have an understanding of the causal relationship between intraamniotic infection, inflammation and PTB, we are still unable to explain why vaginal Ureaplasma colonization is tolerated in some women but causes PTB in others. It is now known that placental tissues are frequently colonized by bacteria even in apparently healthy pregnancies delivered at term; usually this occurs in the absence of a significant local inflammatory response. It appears, therefore, that the site, nature and magnitude of the immune response to infiltrating microorganisms is key in determining pregnancy outcome. Some evidence exists that the maternal serological response to Ureaplasma sp. colonization may be predictive of adverse pregnancy outcome, although issues such as the importance of virulence factors (serovars and the timing, magnitude and functional consequences of the immune response await clarification. This mini-review discusses the evidence linking the maternal immune response to risk of PTB and the potential applications of maternal serological analysis for predicting obstetric outcome.

  19. Hepatozoon kisrae n. sp. infecting the lizard Agama stellio is transmitted by the tick Hyalomma cf. aegyptium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paperna I.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatozoon kisrae n. sp. was found infecting a starred lizard at a site in southeastern Samaria, Palestine. These lizards were also hosts to the ixodid tick Hyolomma cf. aegyptium, which was demonstrated to be the vector of this hemogregarine. Hepatozoon and tick infections occurred in lizards within a very restricted locality; at a second site, nearby, ticks occurred without Hepatozoon infection. Micro- and macromeronts occurred mainly in the lungs, while cyst-like merogonic stages, mainly dizoic, occurred in the liver. Mature intraerythrocytic gametocytes were stout and encapsulated. Development from oocysts to sporocysts took place in the tick hemocoel, and was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Lizards were successfully infected when fed on sporocyst-infected ticks or viscera of infected lizards. Ticks become infected when fed on infected lizards; sporogony was complete when the ticks reached adult stage, over 40 days after initial attachment.

  20. Perkinsus sp. infecting the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae from estuaries of the septentrional Northeast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Dantas-Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract The mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is an estuarine resource exploited by riverside communities in Northeast Brazil. Despite its socioeconomic importance, studies on the health status of this bivalve are scanty in this region. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence of the protozoan Perkinsus sp. in C. rhizophorae collected in August and September 2011 in three estuaries of the septentrional Northeast, Brazil: Jaguaribe (Ceará, Camurupim (Piauí and Carnaubeiras (Maranhão (n= 150 specimens/site. The samples were submitted to Ray’s fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM, PCR and histology assays. The RFTM assay revealed spherical, blue or bluish-black hypnospores of the genus Perkinsus in 50 specimens (Jaguaribe= 17.3%, Camurupim= 5.3%, Carnaubeiras= 10.6%. The intensity of the infection ranged from very light (1-10 cells per slide to severe (more than 40 cells in each of 10 fields of the slide for Jaguaribe; very light for Camurupim and very light to moderate (at least 40 cells observed in each of 10 fields of the slide for Carnaubeiras. When submitted to confirmatory PCR analysis, 6 cases were confirmed (Jaguaribe=3, Camurupim=1, Carnaubeiras=2. The histology confirmed 21 cases of infection in specimens from the three estuaries. Although local collectors have reported no mortality in oyster populations that might be attributed to infection by Perkinsus, health surveillance of oyster populations in the septentrional region of Northeast Brazil is advisable.

  1. Genetically distinct isolates of Spirocerca sp. from a naturally infected red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hansen, Mette Sif; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth; Larsen, Gitte; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2014-09-15

    Spirocerca lupi causes formation of nodules that may transform into sarcoma in the walls of aorta, esophagus and stomach of infected canids. In February 2013, post mortem examination of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) hunted in Denmark revealed the presence of several nodules containing adult worms of Spirocerca sp. in the stomach and the omentum. The nodules largely consisted of fibrous tissue with infiltration of mononuclear cells, neutrophilic granulocytes and macrophages with hemosiderin deposition. Parasitological examination by three copromicroscopic methods, sedimentation, flotation with saturated sugar-salt solution, and sieving failed to detect eggs of Spirocerca sp. in feces collected from the colon. This is the first report of spirocercosis in Denmark, and may have been caused by a recent introduction by migrating paratenic or definitive host. Analysis of two overlapping partial sequences of the cox1 gene, from individual worms, revealed distinct genetic variation (7-9%) between the Danish worms and isolates of S. lupi from Europe, Asia and Africa. This was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis that clearly separated the Danish worms from other isolates of S. lupi. The distinct genetic differences of the current worms compared to other isolates of S. lupi may suggest the presence of a cryptic species within Spirocerca. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of infection of Diplectanum sp. (Monogenea: Monopisthocolytea: Diplectanidae in Cynoscion analis Jenyns (Pisces: teleostei: Scianidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iannacone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 120 Cynoscion analis Jenyns were collected from Chorrillos fishmarket, Lima, Perú, between January and February 2000 and necropsied to study ectoparasite monogenean Diplectanum sp. from branchial filaments. This parasite was considered a core specie, because it parasites 2/3 hosts examined. Of the fishes collected 80 were female and 40 male. Females and males showed a standard length between 16,4-27,0 cm (mean = 21,08 ± 2,24 and 16,5-26,3 cm (mean = 20,47 ± 2,06, respectively. The prevalence of infection of Diplectanurn was 72,5%, mean intensity and abundance were 3,16 ± 2,84 and 2,29 ± 2,80 respectively. This monogenean showed an overclispersal spatial distribution (2,55 at level of fish hosts. We observed a correlation between mean intensity of infestation and standard length of C. analis. Males (4,14 ± 3,75 showed a higher mean intensity than females (2,67 ± 2,14. A high prevalence, intensity and abundance of Diplectanum to 11 gill was found. However, we did not find neither preference when we separated each gill in three parts (fore, middle and hind respectively. Finally, we compared our results of population assemblages of other ectoparasite monogeneans in marine fishes. Diplectanurn sp. is a new record to C. analis and to Peru.

  3. A Study of Fish Lice (Argulus Sp. Infection in Freshwater Food Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aalberg K.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Argulus sp., commonly referred to as fish lice, are crustacean ectoparasites of fishes. The hematophagous parasites attach to and feed off the integument of their hosts. Outbreaks of epizootics have been reported worldwide, causing mass mortalities and having serious economic implications for fish farms and culture efforts. Argulus fish lice may also serve as vectors of infectious diseases and as intermediate hosts of other parasites. Two native European species, A. foliaceus and A. coregoni, as well as the invasive Japanese fish louse A. japonicus, have previously been recorded in Slovakia. This study investigated samples collected at fish farms and culture sites of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., Pike-perch (Sander lucioperca L. and Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis M. in Eastern Slovakia, as well as samples collected from live fish imported to the Slovak Republic. A quantitative description of the of Argulus sp. was recorded from each locality. Samples from Common carp were identified as the invasive A. japonicus, and samples from Pike-perch and Brook trout were identified as A. foliaceus. Evidence of a mixed infection of Pike-perch with both A. foliaceus and A. japonicus was found in samples from Zemplínska Šírava, which was substantiated by electron microscopic examination. Morphometric characteristics were measured and averages and ranges produced for each species and sex.

  4. Temporal controls of the asymmetric cell division cycle in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghua Li

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric cell division cycle of Caulobacter crescentus is orchestrated by an elaborate gene-protein regulatory network, centered on three major control proteins, DnaA, GcrA and CtrA. The regulatory network is cast into a quantitative computational model to investigate in a systematic fashion how these three proteins control the relevant genetic, biochemical and physiological properties of proliferating bacteria. Different controls for both swarmer and stalked cell cycles are represented in the mathematical scheme. The model is validated against observed phenotypes of wild-type cells and relevant mutants, and it predicts the phenotypes of novel mutants and of known mutants under novel experimental conditions. Because the cell cycle control proteins of Caulobacter are conserved across many species of alpha-proteobacteria, the model we are proposing here may be applicable to other genera of importance to agriculture and medicine (e.g., Rhizobium, Brucella.

  5. Temporal controls of the asymmetric cell division cycle in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghua; Brazhnik, Paul; Sobral, Bruno; Tyson, John J

    2009-08-01

    The asymmetric cell division cycle of Caulobacter crescentus is orchestrated by an elaborate gene-protein regulatory network, centered on three major control proteins, DnaA, GcrA and CtrA. The regulatory network is cast into a quantitative computational model to investigate in a systematic fashion how these three proteins control the relevant genetic, biochemical and physiological properties of proliferating bacteria. Different controls for both swarmer and stalked cell cycles are represented in the mathematical scheme. The model is validated against observed phenotypes of wild-type cells and relevant mutants, and it predicts the phenotypes of novel mutants and of known mutants under novel experimental conditions. Because the cell cycle control proteins of Caulobacter are conserved across many species of alpha-proteobacteria, the model we are proposing here may be applicable to other genera of importance to agriculture and medicine (e.g., Rhizobium, Brucella).

  6. Nocardia kroppenstedtii sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from a lung transplant patient with a pulmonary infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jones, Amanda L

    2014-03-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain N1286(T), isolated from a lung transplant patient with a pulmonary infection, was provisionally assigned to the genus Nocardia. The strain had chemotaxonomic and morphological properties typical of members of the genus Nocardia and formed a distinct phyletic line in the Nocardia 16S rRNA gene tree. Isolate N1286(T) was most closely related to Nocardia farcinica DSM 43665(T) (99.8% gene sequence similarity) but could be distinguished from the latter by the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness. These strains were also distinguishable on the basis of a broad range of phenotypic properties. It is concluded that strain N1286(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nocardia for which the name Nocardia kroppenstedtii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is N1286(T) ( = DSM 45810(T) = NCTC 13617(T)).

  7. New record and phylogenetic affinities of the oomycete Olpidiopsis feldmanni infecting Asparagopsis sp. (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kyle; Uljević, Ante; Tsirigoti, Amerssa; Antolić, Boris; Katsaros, Christos; Nikolić, Vedran; van West, Pieter; Küpper, Frithjof C

    2015-11-17

    A new geographic record of the oomycete Olpidiopsis feldmanni infecting the tetrasporophytic stage of the red alga Asparagopsis sp. from the Adriatic Sea, confirmed through morphological identification, allowed us to expand previous observations of this organism. Ultrastructural investigations of environmental material showed a large central vacuole and a cell wall thicker than previously reported from other basal oomycete pathogens of algae. Phylogenetic analysis closely associates O. feldmanni to O. bostrychiae concurrent with structural observations. This constitutes the first genetic characterisation of an Olpidiopsis species that was initially described before 1960, adding to the genetic data of 3 other marine Olpidiopsis species established and genetically characterised in the last 2 decades. The paper discusses concurrences of the ultrastructural observations made here and in previous studies of the marine Olpidiopsis species with those made on the freshwater species.

  8. Proteome of Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle publicty accessible on SWICZ server

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vohradský, Jiří; Janda, Ivan; Grunenfelder, B.; Berndt, P.; Roder, D.; Langen, H.; Weiser, Jaroslav; Jenal, U.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2003), s. 1874-7882 ISSN 1615-9853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/03/0293; GA AV ČR IAA5020211 Grant - others:GA Swiss National Science Foundation fellowship(XX) 31-59050.99 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : bioinformatics * caulobacter * crescentus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.766, year: 2003

  9. Experimental infection in Notodiaptomus sp. (Crustacea: Calanoida with larvae of Camallanus sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae Infecção experimental em Notodiaptomus sp. (Crustacea: Calanoida com larvas de Camallanus sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Martins

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This trial registered the experimental infection viability with nematode larvae Camallanus sp. in Notodiaptomus sp., a crustacean, which can be an intermediate host. Adult females of nematode were dissected from the intestines of Xiphophorus maculatus (Osteichthyes: Poeciliidae, at a fish farm in the State of São Paulo. Females were slightly compressed for larvae release, collected with Pasteur pipette and separated on Petri dishes with 9ml filtered water at 28.1ºC, from zooplankton culture. Treatments consisted of Petri dishes with 60 and 105 copepods, in which 120, 150 and 210 larvae of nematode were added in four replications. Twenty-four and 36h after exposition to the larvae, the copepods were fixed in 70% alcohol to record the amount of fixed larvae. Twenty four hours after exposition, 60 copepods group with 120 larvae showed significantly higher prevalence (46.5% when compared to 105 copepods and 120 larvae (33.2%. Thus, these answers suggested that 120 larvae were enough for a successful infectivity. Experimental infection was available and so, it was used as a pattern to life cycle studies of camallanid nematodes and hosts susceptibility tests.A viabilidade da infecção experimental com larvas do nematóide Camallanus sp. em Notodiaptomus sp., crustáceo com potencial para hospedeiro intermediário foi avaliada. Fêmeas adultas do nematóide foram extraídas de Xiphophorus maculatus (Osteichthyes: Poeciliidae, provenientes de piscicultura de peixes ornamentais no estado de São Paulo. As fêmeas foram ligeiramente pressionadas para liberar as larvas, coletadas com pipeta Pasteur e separadas em placas de Petri contendo 9ml de água filtrada a 28,1ºC do próprio cultivo de zooplâncton. Os tratamentos consistiram de placas contendo 60 e 105 copépodes onde se adicionou 120, 150 e 210 larvas de nematóides em quatro repetições. Nos tempos de 24 e 36h após a exposição às larvas, os copépodes foram fixados em álcool 70% para

  10. The Caulobacter crescentus phage phiCbK: genomics of a canonical phage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Jason J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterium Caulobacter crescentus is a popular model for the study of cell cycle regulation and senescence. The large prolate siphophage phiCbK has been an important tool in C. crescentus biology, and has been studied in its own right as a model for viral morphogenesis. Although a system of some interest, to date little genomic information is available on phiCbK or its relatives. Results Five novel phiCbK-like C. crescentus bacteriophages, CcrMagneto, CcrSwift, CcrKarma, CcrRogue and CcrColossus, were isolated from the environment. The genomes of phage phiCbK and these five environmental phage isolates were obtained by 454 pyrosequencing. The phiCbK-like phage genomes range in size from 205 kb encoding 318 proteins (phiCbK to 280 kb encoding 448 proteins (CcrColossus, and were found to contain nonpermuted terminal redundancies of 10 to 17 kb. A novel method of terminal ligation was developed to map genomic termini, which confirmed termini predicted by coverage analysis. This suggests that sequence coverage discontinuities may be useable as predictors of genomic termini in phage genomes. Genomic modules encoding virion morphogenesis, lysis and DNA replication proteins were identified. The phiCbK-like phages were also found to encode a number of intriguing proteins; all contain a clearly T7-like DNA polymerase, and five of the six encode a possible homolog of the C. crescentus cell cycle regulator GcrA, which may allow the phage to alter the host cell’s replicative state. The structural proteome of phage phiCbK was determined, identifying the portal, major and minor capsid proteins, the tail tape measure and possible tail fiber proteins. All six phage genomes are clearly related; phiCbK, CcrMagneto, CcrSwift, CcrKarma and CcrRogue form a group related at the DNA level, while CcrColossus is more diverged but retains significant similarity at the protein level. Conclusions Due to their lack of any apparent relationship to

  11. Whole-genome transcriptional analysis of heavy metal stresses inCaulobacter crescentus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Ping; Brodie, Eoin L.; Suzuki, Yohey; McAdams, Harley H.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2005-09-21

    The bacterium Caulobacter crescentus and related stalkbacterial species are known for their distinctive ability to live in lownutrient environments, a characteristic of most heavy metal contaminatedsites. Caulobacter crescentus is a model organism for studying cell cycleregulation with well developed genetics. We have identified the pathwaysresponding to heavy metal toxicity in C. crescentus to provide insightsfor possible application of Caulobacter to environmental restoration. Weexposed C. crescentus cells to four heavy metals (chromium, cadmium,selenium and uranium) and analyzed genome wide transcriptional activitiespost exposure using a Affymetrix GeneChip microarray. C. crescentusshowed surprisingly high tolerance to uranium, a possible mechanism forwhich may be formation of extracellular calcium-uranium-phosphateprecipitates. The principal response to these metals was protectionagainst oxidative stress (up-regulation of manganese-dependent superoxidedismutase, sodA). Glutathione S-transferase, thioredoxin, glutaredoxinsand DNA repair enzymes responded most strongly to cadmium and chromate.The cadmium and chromium stress response also focused on reducing theintracellular metal concentration, with multiple efflux pumps employed toremove cadmium while a sulfate transporter was down-regulated to reducenon-specific uptake of chromium. Membrane proteins were also up-regulatedin response to most of the metals tested. A two-component signaltransduction system involved in the uranium response was identified.Several differentially regulated transcripts from regions previously notknown to encode proteins were identified, demonstrating the advantage ofevaluating the transcriptome using whole genome microarrays.

  12. Decrease of microscopic Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence during pregnancy following IPTp-SP implementation in urban cities of Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyou-Akotet, M K; Mawili-Mboumba, D P; Kendjo, E; Moutandou Chiesa, S; Tshibola Mbuyi, M L; Tsoumbou-Bakana, G; Zong, J; Ambounda, N; Kombila, M

    2016-06-01

    Six years after the implementation of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in Gabon, its impact on placental malaria and pregnancy outcomes remains unknown. Age, gestational data, use of IPTp-SP and birth weight were recorded during a hospital-based cross-sectional survey performed in 2011 in 387 women at the end of pregnancy. Malaria prevalence was 6.7 and 5.3% in peripheral and placental blood respectively. Overall, 59.0% women took at least two IPTp-SP doses which was associated with 50% reduction of Plasmodium; (P.) falciparum infection in primigravidae. Previous malaria treatment was a risk factor for peripheral P. falciparum infection, while uptake of IPTp-SP was associated with reduced parasitaemia. Anaemia prevalence was 38.0%, low birth weight and prematurity rates were 6.0 and 12.0% respectively. Young age was associated with a higher frequency of malaria, anaemia, low birth weight and preterm delivery (pprevalence during pregnancy significantly declined between 2005 and 2011, following IPTp-SP implementation in Gabon. Young women and paucigravidae remain the most susceptible to malaria and associated outcomes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Cryptococcus sp abdominal infection in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency under secondary prophylaxis with fluconazole; Infeccao abdominal por Cryptococcus sp em paciente com imunodeficiencia adquirida em uso de profilaxia secundaria com fluconazol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho, Rosane Luiza; Zarehdinne, Monica [Infectologia do Hospital Eduardo de Menezes Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peixoto, Arley; Tardieu Junior, Jose [Medicina da Faculdade de Saude e Ecologia Humana - FASEH, Vespasiano, MG (Brazil); Pedroso, Enio Roberto Pietra [Departamento de Clinica Medica da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    This paper reports on a Cryptococcus sp infection relapse in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency three years after the first episode, when her T CD4+ lymphocyte count was high and she was making regular use of antiretroviral drugs. (author)

  14. Isolation of a novel Orientia species (O. chuto sp. nov.) from a patient infected in Dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzard, Leonard; Fuller, Andrew; Blacksell, Stuart D; Paris, Daniel H; Richards, Allen L; Aukkanit, Nuntipa; Nguyen, Chelsea; Jiang, Ju; Fenwick, Stan; Day, Nicholas P J; Graves, Stephen; Stenos, John

    2010-12-01

    In July 2006, an Australian tourist returning from Dubai, in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), developed acute scrub typhus. Her signs and symptoms included fever, myalgia, headache, rash, and eschar. Orientia tsutsugamushi serology demonstrated a 4-fold rise in antibody titers in paired serum collections (1:512 to 1:8,192), with the sera reacting strongest against the Gilliam strain antigen. An Orientia species was isolated by the in vitro culture of the patient's acute blood taken prior to antibiotic treatment. The gene sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (rrs), partial 56-kDa gene, and the full open reading frame 47-kDa gene was performed, and comparisons of this new Orientia sp. isolate to previously characterized strains demonstrated significant sequence diversity. The closest homology to the rrs sequence of the new Orientia sp. isolate was with three strains of O. tsutsugamushi (Ikeda, Kato, and Karp), with a nucleotide sequence similarity of 98.5%. The closest homology to the 47-kDa gene sequence was with O. tsutsugamushi strain Gilliam, with a nucleotide similarity of 82.3%, while the closest homology to the 56-kDa gene sequence was with O. tsutsugamushi strain TA686, with a nucleotide similarity of 53.1%. The molecular divergence and geographically unique origin lead us to believe that this organism should be considered a novel species. Therefore, we have proposed the name "Orientia chuto," and the prototype strain of this species is strain Dubai, named after the location in which the patient was infected.

  15. Wilted cucumber plants infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum do not suffer from water shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuming; Wang, Min; Li, Yingrui; Gu, Zechen; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2017-09-01

    Fusarium wilt is primarily a soil-borne disease and results in yield loss and quality decline in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The main symptom of fusarium wilt is the wilting of entire plant, which could be caused by a fungal toxin(s) or blockage of water transport. To investigate whether this wilt arises from water shortage, the physiological responses of hydroponically grown cucumber plants subjected to water stress using polyethylene glycol (PEG, 6000) were compared with those of plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Parameters reflecting plant water status were measured 8d after the start of treatment. Leaf gas exchange parameters and temperature were measured with a LI-COR portable open photosynthesis system and by thermal imaging. Chlorophyll fluorescence and chloroplast structures were assessed by imaging pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Cucumber water balance was altered after FOC infection, with decreased water absorption and hydraulic conductivity. However, the responses of cucumber leaves to FOC and PEG differed in leaf regions. Under water stress, measures of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) and chlorophyll fluorescence indicated that the leaf edge was more seriously injured, with a higher leaf temperature and disrupted leaf water status compared with the centre. Here, abscisic acid (ABA) and proline were negatively correlated with water potential. In contrast, under FOC infection, membrane damage and a higher temperature were observed in the leaf centre while ABA and proline did not vary with water potential. Cytologically, FOC-infected cucumber leaves exhibited circular chloroplasts and swelled starch grains in the leaf centre, in which they again differed from PEG-stressed cucumber leaves. This study illustrates the non-causal relationship between fusarium wilt and water transport blockage. Although leaf wilt occurred in both water stress and FOC infection, the

  16. The fungus Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. causes skin infections that resemble white-nose syndrome of hibernating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Minnis, Andrew M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Redell, Jennifer A.; White, J. Paul; Kaarakka, Heather M.; Muller, Laura K.; Lindner, David L.; Verant, Michelle L.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Blehert, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, USA, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species ofTrichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, USA. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS.

  17. The fungus Trichophyton redellii sp. Nov. Causes skin infections that resemble white-nose syndrome of hibernating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Minnis, Andrew M; Meteyer, Carol U; Redell, Jennifer A; White, J Paul; Kaarakka, Heather M; Muller, Laura K; Lindner, Daniel L; Verant, Michelle L; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Blehert, David S

    2015-01-01

    Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, US, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species of Trichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, US. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS.

  18. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Musa sp. leaf extracts against multidrug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, Ponmurugan; Mustaffa, Muhammed

    2013-09-01

    To investigate different Musa sp. leave extracts of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol were evaluated for antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant pathogens causing nosocomial infection by agar well diffusion method and also antioxidant activities. The four different Musa species leaves were extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antibacterial susceptibility test, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum inhibitory bacterial concentration were determined by agar well diffusion method. Total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity was determined. All the Musa sp. extracts showed moderate antibacterial activities expect Musa paradisiaca with the inhibition zone ranging from 8.0 to 18.6 mm. Among four species ethyl acetate extracts of Musa paradisiaca showed highest activity against tested pathogens particularly E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Citrobacter sp. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were within the value of 15.63- 250 µg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentrations were ranging from 31.25- 250 µg/mL. Antioxidant activity of Musa acuminate exhibited maximum activity among other three Musa species. The present study concluded that among the different Musa species, Musa paradisiaca displayed efficient antibacterial activity followed by Musa acuminata against multi-drug resistant nosocomial infection causing pathogens. Further, an extensive study is needed to identify the bioactive compounds, mode of action and toxic effect in vivo of Musa sp.

  19. Course of infection by Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) and B. divergens in sheep depends on the production of IFNgamma and IL10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, G; Chauvin, A; Yin, H; Luo, J; Moreau, E

    2010-02-01

    Ovine babesiosis is an important disease in China and responsible for economic losses. Several Babesia strains are involved, but Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) and Babesia sp. BQ1 (Ningxian) are particularly prevalent in the Guansu region. Babesia divergens, in contrast, can experimentally infect spleen-intact sheep, but does not induce clinical signs. The immune response of spleen-intact sheep to Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) and to B. divergens was therefore compared to identify the immune mechanisms involved in pathogenicity. The greater pathogenicity of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) than that of B. divergens was confirmed: sheep infected with Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan), but not with B. divergens, developed hyperthermia and showed patent parasitaemia in Giemsa-stained blood smears from the ear vein. Furthermore, more parasites were also detected in the blood from the jugular vein of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan)-infected sheep. Pathogenicity of Babesia spp. involved cellular responses, but not humoral responses. Interferon-gamma was produced only by specifically activated PBMC from B. divergens-infected sheep and interleukin-10 only by specifically activated PBMC from Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan)-infected sheep. The role of these cytokines in the course of infection by Babesia spp. is discussed.

  20. Viruses Infecting a Freshwater Filamentous Cyanobacterium (Nostoc sp. Encode a Functional CRISPR Array and a Proteobacterial DNA Polymerase B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Chénard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the first genomic characterization of viruses infecting Nostoc, a genus of ecologically important cyanobacteria that are widespread in freshwater. Cyanophages A-1 and N-1 were isolated in the 1970s and infect Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7210 but remained genomically uncharacterized. Their 68,304- and 64,960-bp genomes are strikingly different from those of other sequenced cyanophages. Many putative genes that code for proteins with known functions are similar to those found in filamentous cyanobacteria, showing a long evolutionary history in their host. Cyanophage N-1 encodes a CRISPR array that is transcribed during infection and is similar to the DR5 family of CRISPRs commonly found in cyanobacteria. The presence of a host-related CRISPR array in a cyanophage suggests that the phage can transfer the CRISPR among related cyanobacteria and thereby provide resistance to infection with competing phages. Both viruses also encode a distinct DNA polymerase B that is closely related to those found in plasmids of Cyanothece sp. strain PCC 7424, Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, and Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413. These polymerases form a distinct evolutionary group that is more closely related to DNA polymerases of proteobacteria than to those of other viruses. This suggests that the polymerase was acquired from a proteobacterium by an ancestral virus and transferred to the cyanobacterial plasmid. Many other open reading frames are similar to a prophage-like element in the genome of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7524. The Nostoc cyanophages reveal a history of gene transfers between filamentous cyanobacteria and their viruses that have helped to forge the evolutionary trajectory of this previously unrecognized group of phages.

  1. Evaluation of dna extraction methods of the Salmonella sp. bacterium in artificially infected chickens eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina dos Reis Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Ferreira A.C.dosR. & dos Santos B.M. [Evaluation of dna extraction methods of the Salmonella sp. bacterium in artificially infected chickens eggs.] Avaliação de três métodos de extração de DNA de Salmonella sp. em ovos de galinhas contaminados artificialmente. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:115-119, 2015. Departamento de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Campus Universitário, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n, Viçosa, MG 36571-000, Brasil. E-mail: bmsantos@ufv.br The present study evaluated the efficiency of different protocols for the genomic DNA extraction of Salmonella bacteria in chicken eggs free of specific pathogens – SPF. Seventy-five eggs were used and divided into five groups with fifteen eggs each. Three of the five groups of eggs were inoculated with enteric Salmonella cultures. One of the five groups was inoculated with Escherichia coli bacterium culture. And another group of eggs was the negative control that received saline solution 0.85% infertile. The eggs were incubated on a temperature that varied from 20 to 25°C during 24, 48 and 72 hours. Five yolks of each group were collected every 24 hours. These yolks were homogenized and centrifuged during 10 minutes. The supernatant was rejected. After the discard, PBS ph 7.2 was added and centrifuged again. The sediment obtained of each group was used for the extraction of bacterial genomic DNA. Silica particles and a commercial kit were utilized as the extraction methods. The extracted DNA was kept on a temperature of 20°C until the evaluation through PCR. The primers utilized were related with the invA gene and they were the following: 5’ GTA AAA TTA TCG CCA CGT TCG GGC AA 3’ and 5’ TCA TCG CAC CGT CAA AGG AAC C 3’. The amplification products were visualized in transilluminator with ultraviolet light. The obtained results through the bacterial DNA extractions demonstrated that the extraction method utilizing silica particles was

  2. Hepatozoon martis n. sp. (Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae): Morphological and pathological features of a Hepatozoon species infecting martens (family Mustelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodžić, Adnan; Alić, Amer; Beck, Relja; Beck, Ana; Huber, Doroteja; Otranto, Domenico; Baneth, Gad; Duscher, Georg G

    2018-05-01

    Species of the genus Hepatozoon (Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae) are arthropod-transmitted protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts. In the present study, we describe a new species of Hepatozoon primarily infecting martens and propose the name Hepatozoon martis n. sp., based on its unique morphological, molecular and pathogenic features. The overall prevalence of infection with H. martis n. sp. assessed by PCR in European pine martens (Martes martes) from Bosnia and Herzegovina and stone martens (Martes foina) from Croatia was 100% and 64%, respectively. Gamonts were found in neutrophils and monocytes, and various developmental stages were described in tissue cross-sections. Hepatozoon martis n. sp. shows a high predilection for muscle tissue, and the heart was the most frequently affected organ among the tissues tested by histopathology. Microscopically, pyogranulomatous lesions associated with the presence of the parasitic forms were observed in the cardiac and skeletal muscles of all positive animals examined. Furthermore, the possible existence of alternative, non-vectorial routes of transmission is discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Desmozoon lepeophtherii n. gen., n. sp., (Microsporidia: Enterocytozoonidae infecting the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Mark A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A microsporidian was previously reported to infect the crustacean parasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837 (Copepoda, Caligidae, on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. in Scotland. The microsporidian was shown to be a novel species with a molecular phylogenetic relationship to Nucleospora (Enterocytozoonidae, but the original report did not assign it to a genus or species. Further studies examined the development of the microsporidian in L. salmonis using electron microscopy and re-evaluated the molecular findings using new sequence data available for the group. Here we report a full description for the microsporidian and assign it to a new genus and species. Results The microsporidian infects subcuticular cells that lie on the innermost region of the epidermal tissue layer beneath the cuticle and along the internal haemocoelic divisions. The mature spores are sub-spherical with a single nucleus and an isofilar polar filament with 5-8 turns in a double coil. The entire development is in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm and is polysporous. During early merogony, a diplokaryotic nuclear arrangement exists which is absent throughout the rest of the developmental cycle. Large merogonial plasmodia form which divide to form single uninucleate sporonts. Sporogonial plasmodia were not observed; instead, binucleate sporonts divide to form two sporoblasts. Prior to final division, there is a precocious development of the polar filament extrusion apparatus which is associated with large electron lucent inclusions (ELIs. Analyses of DNA sequences reveal that the microsporidian is robustly supported in a clade with other members of the Enterocytozoonidae and confirms a close phylogenetic relationship with Nucleospora. Conclusion The ultrastructural findings of the precocious development of the polar filament and the presence of ELIs are consistent with those of the Enterocytozoonidae. However, the confirmed presence

  4. Molecular identification of badger-associated Babesia sp. DNA in dogs: updated phylogeny of piroplasms infecting Caniformia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Horváth, Gábor; Takács, Nóra; Kontschán, Jenő; Szőke, Krisztina; Farkas, Róbert

    2018-04-11

    Piroplasms are unicellular, tick-borne parasites. Among them, during the past decade, an increasing diversity of Babesia spp. has been reported from wild carnivores. On the other hand, despite the known contact of domestic and wild carnivores (e.g. during hunting), and a number of ixodid tick species they share, data on the infection of dogs with babesiae from other families of carnivores are rare. In this study blood samples were collected from 90 dogs and five road-killed badgers. Ticks were also removed from these animals. The DNA was extracted from all blood samples, and from 33 ticks of badgers, followed by molecular analysis for piroplasms with PCR and sequencing, as well as by phylogenetic comparison of detected genotypes with piroplasms infecting carnivores. Eleven of 90 blood DNA extracts from dogs, and all five samples from badgers were PCR-positive for piroplasms. In addition to the presence of B. canis DNA in five dogs, sequencing identified the DNA of badger-associated "Babesia sp. Meles-Hu1" in six dogs and in all five badgers. The DNA of "Babesia sp. Meles-Hu1" occurred significantly more frequently in dogs often taken to forests (i.e. the preferred habitat of badgers in Hungary), than in dogs without this characteristic. Moreover, detection of DNA from this Babesia sp. was significantly associated with hunting dogs in comparison with dogs not used for hunting. Two PCR-positive dogs (in one of which the DNA of the badger-associated Babesia sp. was identified, whereas in the other the DNA of B. canis was present) showed clinical signs of babesiosis. Engorged specimens of both I. canisuga and I. hexagonus were collected from badgers with parasitaemia, but only I. canisuga contained the DNA of "Babesia sp. Meles-Hu1". This means a significant association of the DNA from "Babesia sp. Meles-Hu1" with I. canisuga. Phylogenetically, "Babesia sp. Meles-Hu1" belonged to the "B. microti" group. This is the first detection of the DNA from a badger

  5. Motion of single MreB bacterial actin proteins in Caulobacter show treadmilling in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerner, W. E.; Kim, Soyeon; Gitai, Zemer; Kinkhabwala, Anika; McAdams, Harley; Shapiro, Lucy

    2006-03-01

    Ensemble imaging of a bacterial actin homologue, the MreB protein, suggests that the MreB proteins form a dynamic filamentous spiral along the long axis of the cell in Caulobacter crescentus. MreB contracts and expands along the cell axis and plays an important role in cell shape and polarity maintenance, as well as chromosome segregation and translocation of the origin of replication during cell division. In this study we investigated the real-time polymerization of MreB in Caulobacter crescentus using single-molecule fluorescence imaging. With time-lapse imaging, polymerized MreB could be distinguished from cytoplasmic MreB monomers, because single monomeric MreB showed fast motion characteristic of Brownian diffusion, while single polymerized MreB displayed slow, directed motion. This directional movement of labeled MreB in the growing polymer implies that treadmilling is the predominant mechanism in MreB filament formation. These single-molecule imaging experiments provide the first available information on the velocity of bacterial actin polymerization in a living cell.

  6. SMC Progressively Aligns Chromosomal Arms in Caulobacter crescentus but Is Antagonized by Convergent Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngat T. Tran

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC complex plays an important role in chromosome organization and segregation in most living organisms. In Caulobacter crescentus, SMC is required to align the left and the right arms of the chromosome that run in parallel down the long axis of the cell. However, the mechanism of SMC-mediated alignment of chromosomal arms remains elusive. Here, using genome-wide methods and microscopy of single cells, we show that Caulobacter SMC is recruited to the centromeric parS site and that SMC-mediated arm alignment depends on the chromosome-partitioning protein ParB. We provide evidence that SMC likely tethers the parS-proximal regions of the chromosomal arms together, promoting arm alignment. Furthermore, we show that highly transcribed genes near parS that are oriented against SMC translocation disrupt arm alignment, suggesting that head-on transcription interferes with SMC translocation. Our results demonstrate a tight interdependence of bacterial chromosome organization and global patterns of transcription.

  7. Viruses Infecting a Freshwater Filamentous Cyanobacterium (Nostoc sp.) Encode a Functional CRISPR Array and a Proteobacterial DNA Polymerase B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chénard, Caroline; Wirth, Jennifer F; Suttle, Curtis A

    2016-06-14

    Here we present the first genomic characterization of viruses infecting Nostoc, a genus of ecologically important cyanobacteria that are widespread in freshwater. Cyanophages A-1 and N-1 were isolated in the 1970s and infect Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7210 but remained genomically uncharacterized. Their 68,304- and 64,960-bp genomes are strikingly different from those of other sequenced cyanophages. Many putative genes that code for proteins with known functions are similar to those found in filamentous cyanobacteria, showing a long evolutionary history in their host. Cyanophage N-1 encodes a CRISPR array that is transcribed during infection and is similar to the DR5 family of CRISPRs commonly found in cyanobacteria. The presence of a host-related CRISPR array in a cyanophage suggests that the phage can transfer the CRISPR among related cyanobacteria and thereby provide resistance to infection with competing phages. Both viruses also encode a distinct DNA polymerase B that is closely related to those found in plasmids of Cyanothece sp. strain PCC 7424, Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, and Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413. These polymerases form a distinct evolutionary group that is more closely related to DNA polymerases of proteobacteria than to those of other viruses. This suggests that the polymerase was acquired from a proteobacterium by an ancestral virus and transferred to the cyanobacterial plasmid. Many other open reading frames are similar to a prophage-like element in the genome of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7524. The Nostoc cyanophages reveal a history of gene transfers between filamentous cyanobacteria and their viruses that have helped to forge the evolutionary trajectory of this previously unrecognized group of phages. Filamentous cyanobacteria belonging to the genus Nostoc are widespread and ecologically important in freshwater, yet little is known about the genomic content of their viruses. Here we report the first genomic analysis of cyanophages infecting

  8. A case of probable mixed-infection with Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola sp.: CT and parasitological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Yun; Lee, Yun-Sik; Yun, Ji Hye; Kim, Jeong Ju; Choi, Won Hyung; Oh, In Hwan; Song, Hyun Ouk; Chu, Jong Phil

    2010-06-01

    We report here a human case probably mixed-infected with Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola sp. who was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) scan, serological findings, and/or fecal examination. The patient was a 43-year-old Korean female and was admitted to Kyung Hee University Hospital with the complaints of fever and abdominal pain. On admission, marked eosinophilia was noted in her peripheral blood. CT scan showed specific lesions for clonorchiasis and fascioliasis in the liver, along with lesions suggestive of amebic abscess. Micro-ELISA revealed positive results for the 2 helminthic infections. Eggs of C. sinensis and trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica were observed in the stool. Treatment with praziquantel followed by metronidazole and tinidazole reduced abnormalities in the liver and eosinophilia. This is the first case report of a possible co-infection with 2 kinds of liver flukes in the Republic of Korea.

  9. Factors influencing Dipylidium sp. infection in a free-ranging social carnivore, the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Marion L; Kurze, Christoph; Wilhelm, Kerstin; Benhaiem, Sarah; Hofer, Heribert

    2013-12-01

    We provide the first genetic sequence data for a Dipylidium species from a wild carnivore plus an analysis of the effects of ecological, demographic, physiological and behavioural factors on Dipylidium sp. infection prevalence in a social carnivore, the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Our sequence data from a mitochondrial gene fragment (1176 base pair long) had a similarity of between 99% and 89% to Dipylidium caninum. We determined infection prevalence in 146 faecal samples from 124 known animals in three social groups (termed clans) using molecular screening and Dipylidium proglottid presence. Our analysis revealed significantly higher infection prevalence in juveniles (55%) than adults (15.8%), indicating that predominantly juveniles maintained infection in clans. The likelihood of infection in juveniles significantly: (1) increased as the number of adults and older juveniles (>6 months) at communal dens increased, implying a positive relationship between this factor and the size of the intermediate host (probably a flea species) population at communal dens; (2) decreased as the number of younger juveniles (Dipylidium fecundity and hence decrease infection prevalence in the den flea population. Our study provides useful insights into Dipylidium epidemiology in a social carnivore population subject to large fluctuations in prey abundance.

  10. Factors influencing Dipylidium sp. infection in a free-ranging social carnivore, the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta)☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Marion L.; Kurze, Christoph; Wilhelm, Kerstin; Benhaiem, Sarah; Hofer, Heribert

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first genetic sequence data for a Dipylidium species from a wild carnivore plus an analysis of the effects of ecological, demographic, physiological and behavioural factors on Dipylidium sp. infection prevalence in a social carnivore, the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Our sequence data from a mitochondrial gene fragment (1176 base pair long) had a similarity of between 99% and 89% to Dipylidium caninum. We determined infection prevalence in 146 faecal samples from 124 known animals in three social groups (termed clans) using molecular screening and Dipylidium proglottid presence. Our analysis revealed significantly higher infection prevalence in juveniles (55%) than adults (15.8%), indicating that predominantly juveniles maintained infection in clans. The likelihood of infection in juveniles significantly: (1) increased as the number of adults and older juveniles (>6 months) at communal dens increased, implying a positive relationship between this factor and the size of the intermediate host (probably a flea species) population at communal dens; (2) decreased as the number of younger juveniles (Dipylidium fecundity and hence decrease infection prevalence in the den flea population. Our study provides useful insights into Dipylidium epidemiology in a social carnivore population subject to large fluctuations in prey abundance. PMID:24533344

  11. S-layer proteins from Lactobacillus sp. inhibit bacterial infection by blockage of DC-SIGN cell receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado Acosta, Mariano; Ruzal, Sandra M; Cordo, Sandra M

    2016-11-01

    Many species of Lactobacillus sp. possess Surface(s) layer proteins in their envelope. Among other important characteristics S-layer from Lactobacillus acidophilus binds to the cellular receptor DC-SIGN (Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Non-integrin; CD209), which is involved in adhesion and infection of several families of bacteria. In this report we investigate the activity of new S-layer proteins from the Lactobacillus family (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus kefiri) over the infection of representative microorganisms important to human health. After the treatment of DC-SIGN expressing cells with these proteins, we were able to diminish bacterial infection by up to 79% in both gram negative and mycobacterial models. We discovered that pre-treatment of the bacteria with S-layers from Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus brevis reduced bacteria viability but also prevent infection by the pathogenic bacteria. We also proved the importance of the glycosylation of the S-layer from Lactobacillus kefiri in the binding to the receptor and thus inhibition of infection. This novel characteristic of the S-layers proteins may contribute to the already reported pathogen exclusion activity for these Lactobacillus probiotic strains; and might be also considered as a novel enzymatic antimicrobial agents to inhibit bacterial infection and entry to host cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hepatic Calyptospora sp. (Apicomplexa) infection in a wild-born, aquarium-held clutch of juvenile arapaima Arapaima gigas (Osteoglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Christopher J; Poynton, Sarah L; Schulman, F Yvonne; Rietcheck, Randall L; Garner, Michael M

    2006-06-12

    From Manaus, Brazil, 12 juvenile arapaima Arapaima gigas were imported to the United States and sent to 2 public aquaria, 1 private hobbyist, and 1 retailer. All 12 fish became ill within 4 to 6 wk of arrival, with signs of anorexia, lethargy, depigmentation, and ascites, and subsequently died despite antibiotic and anthelminthic therapy. Gross necropsies of 7 fish revealed serosanguinous coelomic effusion in all 7 fish, and branchial monogeneosis in 3 of 6 fish. The monogeneans from 1 fish were identified as Dawestrema cycloancistrium (Ancyrocephalinae). Histologic examination of 7 fish showed a variety of lesions, principally in the liver, gills, brain and gastro-intestinal tract. Numerous coccidian oocysts replaced 15 to 33% of the liver parenchyma in 6 of 7 fish examined. Light and transmission electron microscopy revealed that each oocyst contained 4 pyriform sporocysts bearing numerous sporopodia on their tapering, posterior end; approximately 25 to 30% of the length of the sporocyst was adorned. Each sporocyst was covered by a thin, membranous veil, contained 2 sporozoites, and stained brilliant pink with the Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast method. This morphology is consistent with that of Calyptospora sp. (Lack of fresh material precluded determination to species.) This is the first report of Calyptospora sp. in arapaima. The Calyptospora sp. infection probably contributed to the morbidity and mortality of the captive arapaima.

  13. Caulobacter crescentus Cell Cycle-Regulated DNA Methyltransferase Uses a Novel Mechanism for Substrate Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Clayton B; Yakubov, Aziz B; Reich, Norbert O

    2017-08-01

    Caulobacter crescentus relies on DNA methylation by the cell cycle-regulated methyltransferase (CcrM) in addition to key transcription factors to control the cell cycle and direct cellular differentiation. CcrM is shown here to efficiently methylate its cognate recognition site 5'-GANTC-3' in single-stranded and hemimethylated double-stranded DNA. We report the K m , k cat , k methylation , and K d for single-stranded and hemimethylated substrates, revealing discrimination of 10 7 -fold for noncognate sequences. The enzyme also shows a similar discrimination against single-stranded RNA. Two independent assays clearly show that CcrM is highly processive with single-stranded and hemimethylated DNA. Collectively, the data provide evidence that CcrM and other DNA-modifying enzymes may use a new mechanism to recognize DNA in a key epigenetic process.

  14. Examination on the protein profiles of salivary glands of P. berghei infected anopheles Sp. post gamma irradiation using SDS-PAGE technique for developing malaria vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetriana, D.; Syaifudin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Sporozoite is a step of malaria parasitic live cycle that is most invasive and appropriate vaccine candidate. Result of experiments showed that malaria vaccine created by attenuating Plasmodium sp sporozoites with gamma rays was proven more effective. Study on the effects of irradiation to the profiles of protein in vaccine development is also important. The aim of this research was to examine the protein profile of salivary glands in sporozoite infected Anopheles sp post gamma irradiation using Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) technique. Examination covered the infection of Anopheles sp with Plasmodium sp, maintenance of infected mosquitoes for 14-16 days to obtain sporozoites, in vivo - in vitro irradiation of mosquitoes, preparation of salivary glands, electrophoresis on 10% SDS-PAGE, and Commassie blue staining. Results showed a different protein profile of infected and non infected salivary glands of Anopheles sp. There was additional protein band numbers at higher dose of irradiation (200 Gy) from sporozoite protein of P. berghei (MW 62 kDa). However, no difference of the profiles of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) observed among gamma irradiation doses of 150, 175 and 200 Gy. These results provide basic information that would lead to further study on the role of sporozoite proteins in malaria vaccine development. (author)

  15. The Maternal Serological Response to Intrauterine Ureaplasma sp. Infection and Prediction of Risk of Pre-Term Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Demelza J.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-term birth (PTB) associated with intrauterine infection and inflammation (IUI) is the major cause of early PTB less than 32 weeks of gestation. Ureaplasma spp. are common commensals of the urogenital tract in pregnancy and are the most commonly identified microorganisms in amniotic fluid of pre-term pregnancies. While we have an understanding of the causal relationship between intra-amniotic infection, inflammation and PTB, we are still unable to explain why vaginal Ureaplasma sp. colonization is tolerated in some women but causes PTB in others. It is now known that placental tissues are frequently colonized by bacteria even in apparently healthy pregnancies delivered at term; usually this occurs in the absence of a significant local inflammatory response. It appears, therefore, that the site, nature, and magnitude of the immune response to infiltrating microorganisms are key in determining pregnancy outcome. Some evidence exists that the maternal serological response to Ureaplasma sp. colonization may be predictive of adverse pregnancy outcome, although issues such as the importance of virulence factors (serovars) and the timing, magnitude, and functional consequences of the immune response await clarification. This mini-review discusses the evidence linking the maternal immune response to risk of PTB and the potential applications of maternal serological analysis for predicting obstetric outcome. PMID:25538708

  16. Secondary Metabolic Profiles of Two Cultivars of Piper nigrum (Black Pepper) Resulting from Infection by Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Shirlley F M; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Kato, Massuo J; de Lemos, Oriel F; Xavier, Luciana P; Maia, José Guilherme S; Ramos, Alessandra de R; Setzer, William N; da Silva, Joyce Kelly do R

    2017-12-07

    Bragantina and Cingapura are the main black pepper ( Piper nigrum L.) cultivars and the Pará state is the largest producer in Brazil with about 90% of national production, representing the third largest production in the world. The infection of Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis , the causal agent of Fusarium disease in black pepper, was monitored on the cultivars Bragantina (susceptible) and Cingapura (tolerant), during 45 days' post infection (dpi). Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the volatile concentrates of both cultivars showed that the Bragantina responded with the production of higher contents of α-bisabolol at 21 dpi and a decrease of elemol, mostly at 30 dpi; while Cingapura displayed an decrease of δ-elemene production, except at 15 dpi. The phenolic content determined by the Folin Ciocalteu method showed an increase in the leaves of plants inoculated at 7 dpi (Bragantina) and 7-15 dpi (Cingapura); in the roots, the infection caused a phenolic content decrease in Bragantina cultivar at 45 dpi and an increase in the Cingapura cultivar at 15, 30 and 45 dpi. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis of the root extracts showed a qualitative variation of alkamides during infection. The results indicated that there is a possible relationship between secondary metabolites and tolerance against phytopathogens.

  17. Comparative evaluation of Amblyomma ovale ticks infected and noninfected by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, the agent of an emerging rickettsiosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczak, Felipe S; Agostinho, Washington C; Polo, Gina; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, a novel spotted fever group rickettsiosis was reported in the Atlantic rainforest coast of Brazil. The etiological agent was identified as Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, and the tick Amblyomma ovale was incriminated as the presumed vector. The present study evaluated under laboratory conditions four colonies of A. ovale: two started from engorged females that were naturally infected by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest (designated as infected groups); the two others started from noninfected females (designated as control groups). All colonies were reared in parallel from F0 engorged female to F2 unfed nymphs. Tick-naïve vesper mice (Calomys callosus) or domestic rabbits were used for feeding of each tick stage. Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest was preserved by transstadial maintenance and transovarial transmission in A. ovale ticks for at least 2 generations (from F0 females to F2 nymphs), because nearly 100% of the tested larvae, nymphs, and adults from the infected groups were shown by PCR to contain rickettsial DNA. All vesper mice and rabbits infested by larvae and nymphs, and 50% of the rabbits infested by adults from the infected groups seroconverted, indicating that these tick stages were vector competent for Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. Expressive differences in mortality rates and reproductive performance were observed between engorged females from the infected and control groups, as indicated by 75.0% and 97.1% oviposition success, respectively, and significantly lower egg mass weight, conversion efficiency index, and percentage of egg hatching for the infected groups. Our results indicate that A. ovale can act as a natural reservoir for Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. However, due to deleterious effect caused by this rickettsial agent on engorged females, amplifier vertebrate hosts might be necessary for persistent perpetuation of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in A. ovale under

  18. A Study of Fish Lice (Argulus Sp.) Infection in Freshwater Food Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Aalberg K.; Koščová L.; Šmiga Ľ.; Košuth P.; Koščo J.; Oros M.; Barčák D.; Lazar P.

    2016-01-01

    Argulus sp., commonly referred to as fish lice, are crustacean ectoparasites of fishes. The hematophagous parasites attach to and feed off the integument of their hosts. Outbreaks of epizootics have been reported worldwide, causing mass mortalities and having serious economic implications for fish farms and culture efforts. Argulus fish lice may also serve as vectors of infectious diseases and as intermediate hosts of other parasites. Two native European species, A. foliaceus and A. coregoni,...

  19. Evaluation of the contamination of infecting larvae of nematodes on pasture of Cynodon sp. in a milk producing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Augusto Perazza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the contamination of infecting larvae of parasitic nematodes in cattle on Cynodon sp. pasture. The research was conducted in a milkproduction system situated in the town of Boa Esperança, in the southern region of Minas Gerais state, during the fall-winter seasons 2008. The samples of the grass were collected in ten points inserted into an outline in “W”, previously designed, in the period of morning between at 7:30 and 8:30, observing the presence of dew in all the collections performed. The samples were CUT close to the soil and separated in half, which constituted an upper and lower sample of each collecting point, their being afterwards placed into plastic bag, identified and carried to a plastic foam box . The samples were processed singly. The infecting larvae (L3 were identified and the amount per kilogram of dry matter in forage was estimated (L3/kg DM. The climatic conditions such as temperature, air relative humidity and rainfall enabled the development of the free life stages throughout the period. Even at low rainfall rates during the months of May to August, the counts of the amount of larvae in the pastures were high. Under the conditions of the dry period (Fall/Winter, the L3 forms of Cooperia sp. presented an expressive predominance in relation to the other genera throughout the period. The greatest amount of infecting larvae of this species was found in the months of July and August in the upper pasture, while for the samples of the lower part were found peaks in the months of June and August. The large number of genera of pathogenic helminths to animals in this study along the drier seasons of the year, especially in the upper pasture, demonstrates the importance of these agents as cause of losses in milk production in Minas Gerais state.

  20. Unusual Necrotizing Encephalitis in Raccoons and Skunks Concurrently Infected With Canine Distemper Virus and Sarcocystis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiski, S V; Sisó, S; Church, M E; Cartoceti, A N; Barr, B; Pesavento, P A

    2016-05-01

    Canine distemper virus commonly infects free-ranging, terrestrial mesopredators throughout the United States. Due to the immunosuppressive effects of the virus, concurrent opportunistic infections are also common. Among these, secondary systemic protozoal infections have been described in a number of species. We report an unusual presentation of necrotizing encephalitis associated withSarcocystissp in four raccoons and one skunk concurrently infected with canine distemper virus. Lesions were characterized by variably sized necrotizing cavitations composed of abundant mineral admixed with inflammatory cells and protozoa.Sarcocystissp was confirmed via immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody toSarcocystis neurona The pathologic changes are similar to lesions in human AIDS patients infected withToxoplasma gondii. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Are European lobsters (Homarus gammarus) susceptible to infection by a temperate Hematodinium sp.?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Charlotte E; Rowley, Andrew F

    2015-05-01

    Hematodinium spp. infect over 40 species of crustaceans worldwide, but have not been reported to infect the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. In this study, Hematodinium parasites (a mixture of uni- and multinucleate trophont-like stages) were taken from donor crabs (Cancer pagurus) and injected into juvenile H. gammarus. Juvenile C. pagurus were also injected with the same inoculum. Haemolymph was taken at regular intervals and examined for the presence of Hematodinium using light microscopy and PCR, in two separate experiments of duration 4 and 8months. All lobsters were negative for Hematodinium whilst the C. pagurus challenged became infected. It is concluded that European lobsters are not susceptible to infection with a clade of Hematodinium that infects C. pagurus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetically distinct isolates of Spirocerca sp. from a naturally infected red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hansen, Mette Sif; Chriél, Mariann

    2014-01-01

    sugar-salt solu-tion, and sieving failed to detect eggs of Spirocerca sp. in feces collected from the colon.This is the first report of spirocercosis in Denmark, and may have been caused by a recentintroduction by migrating paratenic or definitive host. Analysis of two overlapping par-tial sequences...... of the cox1 gene, from individual worms, revealed distinct genetic variation(7–9%) between the Danish worms and isolates of S. lupi from Europe, Asia and Africa.This was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis that clearly separated the Danish worms fromother isolates of S. lupi. The distinct genetic differences...

  3. Novel Infection Site and Ecology of Cryptic Didymocystis sp. (Trematoda) in the Fish Scomberomorus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrandt, Meagan N; Andres, Michael J; Powers, Sean P; Overstreet, Robin M

    2016-06-01

    An undescribed, cryptic species of Didymocystis, as determined from sequences of 2 ribosomal genes and superficially similar to Didymocystis scomberomori ( MacCallum and MacCallum, 1916 ), infected the skin of the Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus , in the north-central Gulf of Mexico (GOM). An analysis of 558 fish from 2011 to 2013 from Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida panhandle showed the prevalence of the trematode varied both spatially and temporally but not with sex of the fish host. Month, year, and geographic location were identified by a negative binomial generalized linear model as indicators of the abundance and intensity of infection. Prevalence, abundance, and intensity of infection were greatest in spring and fall months off the Florida panhandle. Furthermore, the abundance and intensity of infection correlated negatively with fork length, weight, and gonad weight of mature fish but positively with longitude. Therefore, smaller adult fish tended to be more infected than larger adults, and prevalence and intensity increased from west to east (Louisiana to Florida). Spatial and temporal trends seemed to result from physical factors (e.g., water temperature, salinity, bottom type), but they also coincided with the annual migration of S. maculatus as fish moved northward along the GOM coastline from the southern tip of Florida in the spring months and returned in the fall, being present in the north-central GOM from late spring through fall. This pattern suggests the possibility that acquisition of infections occurred from a molluscan host in waters off the Florida panhandle.

  4. Release of infectious cells from epidermal ulcers in Ichthyophonus sp.-infected Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii): evidence for multiple mechanisms of transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, Richard M; Gregg, Jacob L; Hershberger, Paul K

    2010-04-01

    A common clinical sign of ichthyophoniasis in herring and trout is "sandpaper" skin, a roughening of the epidermis characterized by the appearance of small papules, followed by ulceration and sloughing of the epithelium; early investigators hypothesized that these ulcers might be a means of transmitting the parasite, Ichthyophonus sp., without the necessity of ingesting an infected host. We examined the cells associated with the epidermal lesions and confirmed that they were viable Ichthyophonus sp. cells that were readily released from the skin into the mucous layer and ultimately into the aquatic environment. The released cells were infectious when injected into the body cavity of specific-pathogen-free herring. Our hypothesis is that different mechanisms of transmission occur in carnivorous and planktivorous hosts: Planktonic feeders become infected by ingestion of ulcer-derived cells, while carnivores become infected by ingestion of whole infected fish.

  5. Release of infectious cells from epidermal ulcers in Ichthyophonus sp.–infected Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii): Evidence for multiple mechanisms of transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Kocan, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    A common clinical sign of ichthyophoniasis in herring and trout is “sandpaper” skin, a roughening of the epidermis characterized by the appearance of small papules, followed by ulceration and sloughing of the epithelium; early investigators hypothesized that these ulcers might be a means of transmitting the parasite, Ichthyophonus sp., without the necessity of ingesting an infected host. We examined the cells associated with the epidermal lesions and confirmed that they were viable Ichthyophonus sp. cells that were readily released from the skin into the mucous layer and ultimately into the aquatic environment. The released cells were infectious when injected into the body cavity of specific-pathogen-free herring. Our hypothesis is that different mechanisms of transmission occur in carnivorous and planktivorous hosts: Planktonic feeders become infected by ingestion of ulcer-derived cells, while carnivores become infected by ingestion of whole infected fish.

  6. First Insights into the Genome of Fructobacillus sp. EFB-N1, Isolated from Honey Bee Larva Infected with European Foulbrood

    OpenAIRE

    Djukic, Marvin; Daniel, Rolf; Poehlein, Anja

    2015-01-01

    European foulbrood is a worldwide disease affecting the honey bee brood. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Fructobacillus sp. EFB-N1, which was isolated from an infected honey bee larva derived from a Swiss European foulbrood outbreak. The genome consists of 68 contigs and harbors 1,629 predicted protein-encoding genes.

  7. INFECTION BY Rickettsia felis IN OPOSSUMS (Didelphis sp.) FROM YUCATAN, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peniche-Lara, Gaspar; Ruiz-Piña, Hugo A; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique; Dzul-Rosado, Karla; Zavala-Castro, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emergent pathogen and the causative agent of a typhus-like rickettsiosis in the Americas. Its transmission cycle involves fleas as biological vectors (mainly Ctenocephalides felis) and multiple domestic and synanthropic mammal hosts. Nonetheless, the role of mammals in the cycle of R. felis is not well understood and many efforts are ongoing in different countries of America to clarify it. The present study describes for the first time in Mexico the infection of two species of opossum (Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis) by R. felis. A diagnosis was carried out from blood samples by molecular methods through the gltA and 17 kDa genes and sequence determination. Eighty-seven opossum samples were analyzed and 28 were found to be infected (32.1%) from five out of the six studied localities of Yucatan. These findings enable recognition of the potential epidemiological implications for public health of the presence of infected synanthropic Didelphis in households.

  8. Description of Leishmania (Leishmania forattinii sp. n., a new parasite infecting opossums and rodents in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaide L. A. Yoshida

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available A new parasite species of Leishmania is described, L. (Leishmania forattinii sp. n., which was isolated from a pooled triturate of liver and spleen of a opossum (Didelphis marsupialis aurita and from skin samples from a rodent (Proechmys iheringi denigratus, captured in primary forest on the Atlantic Cost of Brazil. Our results on the basis of biological and molecular criteria indicate that this taxonomically distinct parasite ias a new species of the L. mexicana complex, but closely related to L. (L. aristidesi Laison & shaw, 1979, as revelated by phenetic and phylogenetic numerical analyses of the enzyme data. L. forattinii was clearly distinguishable from other Leishmania species of the genus usisng enzyme electrophoresis, monoclonal antibodies, molecular karyotypes, analysis of restriction enzyme digestion patterns of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA, as well as the use of kDNA hybridization procedures.

  9. Diphtheroid colitis in a Boa constrictor infected with amphibian Entamoeba sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Barbara; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2008-05-06

    A female boa (Boa constrictor) from a zoological collection was submitted for necropsy after sudden death. Prominent pathological findings included a diphtheroid colitis, endoparasitism, focal pneumonia and inclusion bodies typical for inclusion body disease (IBD). In the colon entamoebae were identified, which differed in size and distribution from Entamoeba invadens. Gene sequence analysis of the 18S ribosomal RNA revealed 100% similarity with an Entamoeba species from the African bullfrog (Pyxicephalus adspersus), probably Entamoeba ranarum. The snake was possibly immunosuppressed, and the source of infection remains unclear. This is the first report of an infection with an amphibian Entamoeba species associated with colitis in a snake.

  10. Effect of Pseudomonas sp. MT5 baths on Flavobacterium columnare infection of rainbow trout and on microbial diversity on fish skin and gills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomalainen, L R; Tiirola, M A; Valtonen, E T

    2005-01-25

    Use of Pseudomonas sp. strain MT5 to prevent and treat Flavobacterium columnare infection was studied in 2 experiments with fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In the first experiment, length heterogeneity analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragments (LH-PCR) was used to assess the effect of antagonistic baths on the microbial diversity of healthy and experimentally infected fish. In the 148 samples studied, no difference was found between bathed and unbathed fish, and 3 fragment lengths were detected most frequently: 500 (in 75.7% of the samples), 523 (62.2%) and 517 bp (40.5%). The species contributing to these fragment sizes were Pseudomonas sp., Rhodococcus sp. and F. columnare, respectively. A specific PCR for detection of Pseudomonas sp. MT5 was designed, but none of the tissue samples were found to be positive, most likely indicating poor adhesion of the strain during bathing. LH-PCR was found to be a more powerful tool for detecting F. columnare in fish tissue than traditional culture methods (chi2 = 3.9, df = 1, p < 0.05). Antagonistic baths had no effect on the outbreak of infection or on fish mortality. F. columnare was also detected in healthy fish prior to and after experimental infection, indicating that these fish were carriers of the disease. In the second experiment, intensive Pseudomonas sp. MT5 antagonistic baths were given daily to rainbow trout suffering from a natural columnaris infection. Again, the antagonistic bacteria had no effect on fish mortality, which reached 95 % in both control and antagonist-treated groups in 7 d.

  11. Qualidade espermática de sêmen de cães naturalmente infectados por Leishmania sp: Semen quality of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    É. Labat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se alterações espermáticas associadas à infecção por leishmaniose no sêmen de cães naturalmente infectados, utilizando-se, durante oito semanas consecutivas, ejaculados de seis cães soronegativos e seis cães soropositivos. As amostras foram colhidas uma vez por semana e avaliadas quanto ao volume, concentração, motilidade, vigor, morfologia espermática, integridade da cromatina, avaliação simultânea da integridade da membrana plasmática, acrossoma e potencial mitocondrial. Concomitantemente foram dosadas a proteína total do plasma seminal e sanguíneo. A leishmaniose visceral causou aumento dos defeitos maiores e menores nos espermatozoides dos animais acometidos pelo estágio moderado a severo da doença. Em estágios mais avançados da enfermidade, a integridade das membranas acrossomal e plasmática foi afetada negativamente. Não foi possível estabelecer um critério quanto à avaliação do potencial mitocondrial. A incidência de alterações morfológicas nos animais acometidos não promoveu aumento de injurias à cromatina. Todos os animais com leishmaniose apresentaram hiperproteinemia do sêmen.The spermatic changes associated with the natural infection in dogs by Leishmania sp was evaluated during eight consecutive weeks, using ejaculates of six seronegative and six seropositive dogs. The samples were collected once a week and evaluated for volume, concentration, motility, vigor, sperm morphology, chromatin integrity, simultaneous evaluation of the plasmatic membrane integrity, acrosome, and mitochondrial potential. The total proteins of the seminal plasma and blood were measured. The visceral leishmaniasis caused increase of major and minor defects in spermatozoa of animals attacked by moderate to severe stages of the disease. In more advanced stages of the illness, the acrosomal and plasmatic membranes integrity was adversely affected. It was not possible to establish a pattern refering the evaluation of

  12. Control of cell division and the spatial localization of assembled gene products in Caulobacter crescentus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments are described that examine the role of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) in the regulation of cell division in Caulobacter crescentus; and the spatial localization of methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) in C. crescentus swarmer and predivisional cells. In the analysis of PBP function, in vivo and in vitro assays are used to directly label C. crescentus PBPs with [ 3 H] penicillin G in wild type strain CB15, in a series of conditional cell division mutants and in new temperature sensitive cephalosporin C resistant mutants PC8002 and PC8003. 14 PBPs are characterized and a high molecular weight PBP (PBP 1B) that is required for cell division is identified. PBP 1B competes for β-lactams that induce filament formation and may be a high affinity binding protein. A second high molecular weight PBP (PBP 1C) is also associated with defective cell division. The examination of PBP patterns in synchronous swarmer cells reveals that the in vivo activity of PBP 1B and PBP 1C increases at the time that the cell division pathway is initiated. None of the PBPs, however, appear to be differentially localized in the C. crescentus cell. In the analysis of MCP localization, in vivo and in vitro assays are used to directly label C. crescentus MCPs with methyl- 3 H. MCPs are examined in flagellated and non-flagellated vesicles prepared from cells by immunoaffinity chromatography

  13. Biomineralization of Uranium by PhoY Phosphatase Activity Aids Cell Survival in Caulobacter crescentus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yung, M C [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jiao, Y [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-07-22

    Caulobacter crescentus is known to tolerate high levels of uranium [U(VI)], but its detoxification mechanism is poorly understood. Here we show that C. crescentus is able to facilitate U(VI) biomineralization through the formation of U-Pi precipitates via its native alkaline phosphatase activity. The U-Pi precipitates, deposited on the cell surface in the form of meta-autunite structures, have a lower U/Pi ratio than do chemically produced precipitates. The enzyme that is responsible for the phosphatase activity and thus the biomineralization process is identified as PhoY, a periplasmic alkaline phosphatase with broad substrate specificity. Furthermore, PhoY is shown to confer a survival advantage on C. crescentus toward U(VI) under both growth and nongrowth conditions. Results obtained in this study thus highlight U(VI) biomineralization as a resistance mechanism in microbes, which not only improves our understanding of bacterium-mineral interactions but also aids in defining potential ecological niches for metal-resistant bacteria.

  14. Efficacy of a Gal-lectin subunit vaccine against experimental Entamoeba histolytica infection and colitis in baboons (Papio sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Alla, Mohamed D; Wolf, Roman; White, Gary L; Kosanke, Stanley D; Cary, David; Verweij, Jaco J; Zhang, Mie-Jie; Ravdin, Jonathan I

    2012-04-26

    To determine the efficacy of a Gal-lectin based intranasal synthetic peptide vaccine, we developed a new experimental primate model of Entamoeba histolytica intestinal infection. Release of xenic E. histolytica trophozoites (5×10(6)) into the small bowel of baboons (Papio sp.) resulted in a rapid intestinal anti-amebic antibody response and a brief infection; however, release of trophozoites directly into the cecum (5 baboons) elicited a sustained E. histolytica infection, as determined by quantitative fecal PCR, and an ulcerative, inflammatory colitis observed on colonoscopy and histopathology. In three controlled experiments, baboons received four immunizations at seven day intervals of 1600 μg of the vaccine/nostril, with Cholera toxin, 20 μg/nostril as adjuvant; vaccinated (n=6) and control baboons (n=6) baboons were then challenged via colonoscopy with xenic trophozoites (5×10(6)). During 90 days of follow up, 250 of 415 (60.24%) fecal samples in control baboons had a (+) PCR for E. histolytica, compared to only 36 of 423 (8.51%) samples from vaccinated baboons (P<0.001). All 6 vaccinated baboons were free of infection by the 51st day after challenge, 5 of 6 controls positive had (+) fecal PCRs for up to 126 days post-challenge (P=0.019). Inflammatory colitis developed in 4 of 6 control baboons post-challenge, with invasive E. histolytica trophozoites present in 2 of the 4 on histopathology. There was no evidence of inflammatory colitis or parasite invasion in any of the vaccinated baboons; there was a strong inverse correlation between positive ELISA OD value indicating the presence of intestinal anti-peptide IgA antibodies and baboons having a positive fecal PCR CT value, P<0.001. In conclusion, we developed a novel primate model of E. histolytica intestinal infection and demonstrated that a Gal-lectin-based intranasal synthetic peptide vaccine was highly efficacious in preventing experimental E. histolytica infection and colitis in baboons. Copyright

  15. Infection with a Hepatozoon sp. closely related to Hepatozoon felis in a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex -Pseudalopex -gymnocercus) co-infected with canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Diab, Santiago S; Uzal, Francisco A; Fresneda, Karina; Rossi, Daniel; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Baneth, Gad

    2012-05-25

    A species of Hepatozoon closely related to Hepatozoon felis found in the skeletal and cardiac muscle of a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) is described. The fox was euthanized after showing severe incoordination. On necropsy and histopathology there was bilateral, diffuse, severe, sub-acute, necrotizing bronchointerstitial pneumonia, with intracytoplasmic and intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies. Canine distemper virus was detected by immunohistochemistry in the bronchiolar epithelium, syncytial cells, alveolar macrophages and pneumocytes. The skeletal muscle and myocardium contained multiple round to oval protozoan cysts ranging from 64 μm × 75 μm to 98 μm × 122 μm, with a central eosinophilic meront-like core surrounded by concentric rings of mucinous material resembling Hepatozoon americanum cysts but smaller in size. Macrophages within rare pyogranulomas and monocytes/macrophages in adjacent sinusoidal blood vessels in the skeletal muscle contained intracytoplasmic round protozoa consistent with merozoites or developing gamonts of Hepatozoon. Hepatozoon sp. infection was confirmed by PCR of skeletal muscle and the sequenced 18S rRNA PCR product was found to be 99% identical to H. felis by BLAST analysis and deposited in GenBank as accession number HQ020489. It clustered together in the phylogenetic analysis with published H. felis sequences and separately from H. canis, H. americanum and other Hepatozoon species. However, the close relatedness of the fox Hepatozoon to H. felis does not rule out infection with a different and possibly unknown Hepatozoon species. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Isolation of a variant Porphyromonas sp. from polymicrobial infections in central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, David A; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Bryant, Mary Jean; Jones, Rebekah D; Kania, Stephen A

    2011-01-01

    Isolates of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria from reptiles have only occasionally been identified to the genus and species level in the veterinary medical literature. In particular, reports identifying Porphyromonas spp. from infections in reptiles are scarce. The present report describes unique Porphyromonas isolates obtained from necrosuppurative infections in central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). The isolates grew in the presence of oxygen, were strongly hemolytic, and did not produce detectable black, iron porphyrin pigment. Biochemical identification kit numeric biocodes gave high but unreliable probabilities (>99.9%) for identification as Porphyromonas gingivalis. Partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of the isolates were identical to each other and shared 91% identity with those of Porphyromonas gulae. The isolates may represent a new reptile-associated Porphyromonas species.

  17. Ketoconazole modulates the infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. (Mesomycetozoa) in vivo in experimentally injected European sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontoria, Francisco; González, Ma Angeles; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Palenzuela, Oswaldo; Alvarez-Pellitero, Pilar

    2013-09-03

    In vitro studies have confirmed the inhibitory effect of the azol-derivative ketoconazole (KZ) on the growth of Ichthyophonus, an important pathogen causing epizootics in wild and cultured fish. We evaluated the effect of KZ in vivo in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax experimentally infected with the same Ichthyophonus isolate. Liposomes were used to vehiculate different doses of KZ to increase the effect on Ichthyophonus and lower the toxicity of the drug, and KZ toxicity was assessed in cultured sea bass juveniles. We also studied the effect of liposome-vehiculated KZ included in medicated food on ichthyophoniasis. KZ causes clear toxic effects in D. labrax juveniles at doses >80 mg kg-1, apparent in the reduced survival of fish and histological alterations to livers, kidneys and spleens. Fish injected with Ichthyophonus and treated with KZ dosages of ≤80 mg kg-1 d-1 presented lower ichthyophoniasis prevalence, fewer organs infected per fish, and fewer spores in the affected organs than the untreated fish. KZ seems to delay the onset of infection, but cannot stop further progression once established. However, this behaviour is not clearly reflected in the biometric and haematological data collected from these fish. We hypothesise that KZ's delaying effect would increase, if lower infective doses (more similar to natural situations) were used. The drug administration vehicle (liposomes vs. emulsions) did not affect the results. Our data confirm the potential utility of KZ in treating ichthyophoniasis and reveal its low toxicity for sea bass. Nevertheless, the optimal dose and appropriate application protocol remain to be determined.

  18. Ketoconazole modulates the infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. (Mesomycetozoa) in vivo in experimentally injected European sea bass

    OpenAIRE

    Hontoria, Francisco; González, Mª Ángeles; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Palenzuela, Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro studies have confirmed the inhibitory effect of the azol-derivative ketoconazole (KZ) on the growth of Ichthyophonus, an important pathogen causing epizootics in wild and cultured fish. We evaluated the effect of KZ in vivo in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax experimentally infected with the same Ichthyophonus isolate. Liposomes were used to vehiculate different doses of KZ to increase the effect on Ichthyophonus and lower the toxicity of the drug, and KZ toxicity was assessed ...

  19. Development of infection with Streptococcus bovis and Aspergillus sp. in irradiated mice after glycopeptide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, I.; Tom, S.P.; Ledney, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of ofloxacin and glycopeptides was evaluated for the treatment of infections arising in C3H/HeN female mice irradiated with 8.3 Gy from a 60 Co source. The 21 day regimen began 72 h after irradiation when each of five sets of experimental animals received three antimicrobial therapy regimens and a saline-treated control group. With 40 mice in each group, 20 were used to monitor survival, 20 for the recovery of bacteria from the liver culture. Treatment groups were oral ofloxacin; oral or intramuscular vancomycin oral teicoplanin, ofloxacin and vancomycin; ofloxacin and teicoplanin; or saline. Bacteria recovered from saline treated mice were Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus spp. By comparison, fewer Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from ofloxacin treated mice and fewer Streptococcus spp. in both vancomycin and teicoplanin treated mice. However, glycopeptide-treated mice developed infection with Aspergillis fumigatus and glycopeptide resistant Streptococcus bovis. Mortality rates within 60 days of irradiation were 100% in all treatment and control groups with the exception of ofloxacin which was 25%-35%. These data suggest that glycopeptide therapy increases rates of systemic infection with fungi and antibiotic resistant bacteria in irradiated mice. (Author)

  20. Development of infection with Streptococcus bovis and Aspergillus sp. in irradiated mice after glycopeptide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brook, I.; Tom, S.P.; Ledney, G.D. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1993-11-01

    The use of ofloxacin and glycopeptides was evaluated for the treatment of infections arising in C3H/HeN female mice irradiated with 8.3 Gy from a [sup 60]Co source. The 21 day regimen began 72 h after irradiation when each of five sets of experimental animals received three antimicrobial therapy regimens and a saline-treated control group. With 40 mice in each group, 20 were used to monitor survival, 20 for the recovery of bacteria from the liver culture. Treatment groups were oral ofloxacin; oral or intramuscular vancomycin oral teicoplanin, ofloxacin and vancomycin; ofloxacin and teicoplanin; or saline. Bacteria recovered from saline treated mice were Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus spp. By comparison, fewer Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from ofloxacin treated mice and fewer Streptococcus spp. in both vancomycin and teicoplanin treated mice. However, glycopeptide-treated mice developed infection with Aspergillis fumigatus and glycopeptide resistant Streptococcus bovis. Mortality rates within 60 days of irradiation were 100% in all treatment and control groups with the exception of ofloxacin which was 25%-35%. These data suggest that glycopeptide therapy increases rates of systemic infection with fungi and antibiotic resistant bacteria in irradiated mice. (Author).

  1. INFECTION BY Rickettsia felis IN OPOSSUMS (Didelphis sp. FROM YUCATAN, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar PENICHE-LARA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia felis is an emergent pathogen and the causative agent of a typhus-like rickettsiosis in the Americas. Its transmission cycle involves fleas as biological vectors (mainly Ctenocephalides felis and multiple domestic and synanthropic mammal hosts. Nonetheless, the role of mammals in the cycle of R. felis is not well understood and many efforts are ongoing in different countries of America to clarify it. The present study describes for the first time in Mexico the infection of two species of opossum (Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis by R. felis. A diagnosis was carried out from blood samples by molecular methods through the gltAand 17 kDa genes and sequence determination. Eighty-seven opossum samples were analyzed and 28 were found to be infected (32.1% from five out of the six studied localities of Yucatan. These findings enable recognition of the potential epidemiological implications for public health of the presence of infected synanthropic Didelphis in households.

  2. Detection of Cryptosporidium sp infection by PCR and modified acid fast staining from potassium dichromate preserved stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Kurniawan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim To identify the frequency of Cryptosporidium infection in children below 3 years old by examining concentrated long term preserved stool using PCR detection of 18S rRNA gene and compared with modified acid fast staining technique.Methods Hundred eighty eight stools from children ≤ 3 years old were stored for 13 months in 2.5% K2Cr2O7 solution at 40C. Cryptosporidium oocysts were isolated by water-ether concentration technique. The concentrates were smeared onto object glass and stained with modified acid fast staining, and the rest of the concentrates were DNA extracted by freezing and thawing cycles and proteinase K digestion, then direct PCR was done to detect 18S rRNA gene.Result The proportion of positive stools for Cryptosporidium sp by acid fast staining from concentrated stools and 18S rRNA PCR were 4.8% and 34.6% respectively, which showed statistically significant difference.Conclusion The frequency of Cryptosporidium infection among children ≤ 3 years old was very high and stool storage in K2Cr2O7 for 13 months did not affect the PCR result. High prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection indicated high transmission in that area and the potential to be transmitted to other individuals such as the immunocompromised. (Med J Indones 2009;18:147-52Key words: 18S rRNA, cryptosporidiosis

  3. Nitrogen-responsive genes are differentially regulated in planta during Fusarium oxyspsorum f. sp. lycopersici infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divon, Hege H; Rothan-Denoyes, Beatrice; Davydov, Olga; DI Pietro, Antonio; Fluhr, Robert

    2005-07-01

    SUMMARY Nitrogen is an essential growth component whose availability will limit microbial spread, and as such it serves as a key control point in dictating an organism's adaptation to various environments. Little is known about fungal nutrition in planta. To enhance our understanding of this process we examined the transcriptional adaptation of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, the causal agent for vascular wilt in tomato, during nutritional stress and plant colonization. Using RT-PCR and microarray technology we compared fungal gene expression in planta to axenic nitrogen starvation culture. Several expressed sequence tags, representing at least four genes, were identified that are concomitantly induced during nitrogen starvation and in planta growth. Three of these genes show similarity to a general amino acid permease, a peptide transporter and an uricase, all functioning in organic nitrogen acquisition. We further show that these genes represent a distinguishable subset of the nitrogen-responsive transcripts that respond to amino acids commonly available in the plant. Our results indicate that nitrogen starvation partially mimics in planta growth conditions, and further suggest that minute levels of organic nitrogen sources dictate the final outcome of fungal gene expression in planta. The nature of the identified transcripts suggests modes of nutrient uptake and survival for Fusarium during colonization.

  4. Isolation of a Novel Orientia Species (O. chuto sp. nov.) from a Patient Infected in Dubai ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzard, Leonard; Fuller, Andrew; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Paris, Daniel H.; Richards, Allen L.; Aukkanit, Nuntipa; Nguyen, Chelsea; Jiang, Ju; Fenwick, Stan; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Graves, Stephen; Stenos, John

    2010-01-01

    In July 2006, an Australian tourist returning from Dubai, in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), developed acute scrub typhus. Her signs and symptoms included fever, myalgia, headache, rash, and eschar. Orientia tsutsugamushi serology demonstrated a 4-fold rise in antibody titers in paired serum collections (1:512 to 1:8,192), with the sera reacting strongest against the Gilliam strain antigen. An Orientia species was isolated by the in vitro culture of the patient's acute blood taken prior to antibiotic treatment. The gene sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (rrs), partial 56-kDa gene, and the full open reading frame 47-kDa gene was performed, and comparisons of this new Orientia sp. isolate to previously characterized strains demonstrated significant sequence diversity. The closest homology to the rrs sequence of the new Orientia sp. isolate was with three strains of O. tsutsugamushi (Ikeda, Kato, and Karp), with a nucleotide sequence similarity of 98.5%. The closest homology to the 47-kDa gene sequence was with O. tsutsugamushi strain Gilliam, with a nucleotide similarity of 82.3%, while the closest homology to the 56-kDa gene sequence was with O. tsutsugamushi strain TA686, with a nucleotide similarity of 53.1%. The molecular divergence and geographically unique origin lead us to believe that this organism should be considered a novel species. Therefore, we have proposed the name “Orientia chuto,” and the prototype strain of this species is strain Dubai, named after the location in which the patient was infected. PMID:20926708

  5. The Presence Of Rat And House Sanitation Associated With Leptospira sp. Bacterial Infection In Rats (A Cross Sectional Study In Semarang, Central Java Province, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyani, Endang; Martini, Martini; Saraswati, Lintang Dian

    2018-02-01

    The Gajah Mungkur sub-district in Semarang, Indonesia had highest leptospirosis cases (reported in human with seven infected and one dead) in 2015. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between house sanitation and density of rats with Leptospira sp. infection in rats. The study design was cross sectional observational analytic. The number of 308 trapswere placed in study sites over three consecutive nights afterwards. Every houses were placed with four traps, inside and outside. Trapped rats were anesthetized with atropine dose from 0.02 to 0.05 mg/kg body weight of rats continued with Ketamine HCL dose of 50-100 mg/kg body weight of rats by injecting in the thick thigh muscle of it. After that, identification of rats by species and gender then continues with surgery in which a kidney sample was taken to confirm the presence of bacteria Leptospirasp using PCR techniques. The trap installed in 77 houses which later had further observation on house sanitation which includes the existence of a pile of used goods, food storage, garbage can, and the presence of the ceiling, windows and other ventilation.Data was analyzed using distribution frequency and bivariate chi-square test. We had 100 rats captured with live traps as the samples.The proportion of Rattusnorvegicuswas 27% (14.8% positive Leptospira sp.infection) and Rattustanezumi 73% (11%positive Leptospira sp.infection). The proportion of male and female rats were almost equal. The statistic test result was significant between the density of rats (p = 0.0001, OR 12.833, 95%CI: 1.565-105.261) and sex of rats (p = 0.019, OR 0.095, 95%CI: 0.012-0.769) with Leptospira sp. infection in rats. The number of rats may increase the infection of Leptospirasp., especially female rats and poor condition of house sanitation. It is recommended to improve house sanitation and regularly trapping rats.

  6. Infecção natural por Cryptosporidium sp. em aves domésticas comercializadas em mercados municipais do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Natural infection by Cryptosporidium sp. in domestic fowls sold at local markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Saucier Gomes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar a dinâmica, a ocorrência, a morfometria de oocistos e os períodos patentes de Cryptosporidium sp. em aves domésticas, patos (Anas platyrhynchos, pintos (Gallus gallus e codornas (Coturnix japonica, naturalmente infectadas, provenientes de dois mercados municipais do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (RJ. Houve diferenças quanto à ocorrência da infecção entre os dois locais e entre pintos e patos, mas não entre codornas. Para a morfometria, foram observadas diferenças estatísticas nas medidas dos diâmetros maior e menor e para o índice morfométrico calculado (P0,05. Na comparação do período de eliminação, patos tiveram um maior período com maiores quantidades de oocistos eliminados. Codornas e pintos apresentaram dinâmica de eliminação semelhante e não houve diferença quanto à concentração de oocistos. Pintos foram mais susceptíveis à infecção seguidos por patos e codornas. Pode-se concluir que a infecção natural por Cryptoporidium sp. foi frequente nas aves estudadas. Patos, pintos e codornas podem ser disseminadores do protozoário em mercados municipais do Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Assim, podem constituir risco de infecção.The objective of the current study was comparing the dynamic and occurrence of Cryptosporidium sp., as well as the morphometry and elimination period of oocysts in naturally infected ducks (Anas platyrhynchos, chickens (Gallus gallus and Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica from two local markets of Rio de Janeiro, RJ. There were significant differences considering the occurrence of infection between the two markets, and also between chickens and ducks, but not among Japanese quails. Also, significant statistical differences were observed in morphometry, considering the major and minor diameters of oocysts and the calculated morphometric index (P0.05. According to the elimination period, ducks eliminated oocysts for a longer period and in a higher number

  7. The small protein MbiA interacts with MreB and modulates cell shape in Caulobacter crescentus

    OpenAIRE

    Yakhnina, Anastasiya A.; Gitai, Zemer

    2012-01-01

    In Caulobacter crescentus, the actin homologue MreB is critical for cell shape maintenance. Despite the central importance of MreB for cell morphology and viability, very little is known about MreB-interacting factors. Here, we use an overexpression approach to identify a novel MreB interactor, MbiA. MbiA interacts with MreB in both biochemical and genetic assays, colocalizes with MreB throughout the cell cycle, and relies on MreB for its localization. MbiA over-expression mimics the loss of ...

  8. First record of Microsporeans and Myxosporeans (Protozoa) infecting some Arabian Gulf fishes off the coasts of the Emirates and Qatar with a description of Myxobolus Arabicus n. sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardousha, M.; El-Tantawy, S.

    2002-01-01

    During a comprehensive survey carried out on helminth parasites of Arabian Gulf fishes mainly from the coasts of Emirates and Qatar, two microsporeans and three myxosporeans Protozoa were reported and described for the first time. The microsporeans included Nosema sauridae and Glugea stephani. Nosema sauridae was very common among lizard fish Saurida undosquamis which were caught from the Emirati coasts (56%) and also Qatari coasts (28%). Glugea stephani infected Psettodes erumei at the Emirati coasts with a prevalence of 10%. The myxosporideans comprised Myxobolus arabicus n. sp. from the body cavity of Plectorhynchus schotaf (Emirati coasts, 11%), Kudoa sp. from the musculature of Lutjanus fulviflamma (Emirati coasts, 8%) and also the heart wall of Caranx malabricus (Qatari coasts, 11%) and Henneguya sp. from the gills and mouth skin of Epinephelus tauvina (Emirati coasts, 7%). Fresh cysts and spores were described and photographed in situ. (author)

  9. Minimum Requirements of Flagellation and Motility for Infection of Agrobacterium sp. Strain H13-3 by Flagellotropic Bacteriophage 7-7-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jiun Y.; Broadway, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The flagellotropic phage 7-7-1 specifically adsorbs to Agrobacterium sp. strain H13-3 (formerly Rhizobium lupini H13-3) flagella for efficient host infection. The Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 flagellum is complex and consists of three flagellin proteins: the primary flagellin FlaA, which is essential for motility, and the secondary flagellins FlaB and FlaD, which have minor functions in motility. Using quantitative infectivity assays, we showed that absence of FlaD had no effect on phage infection, while absence of FlaB resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in infectivity. A flaA deletion strain, which produces straight and severely truncated flagella, experienced a significantly reduced infectivity, similar to that of a flaB flaD strain, which produces a low number of straight flagella. A strain lacking all three flagellin genes is phage resistant. In addition to flagellation, flagellar rotation is required for infection. A strain that is nonmotile due to an in-frame deletion in the gene encoding the motor component MotA is resistant to phage infection. We also generated two strains with point mutations in the motA gene resulting in replacement of the conserved charged residue Glu98, which is important for modulation of rotary speed. A change to the neutral Gln caused the flagellar motor to rotate at a constant high speed, allowing a 2.2-fold-enhanced infectivity. A change to the positively charged Lys caused a jiggly motility phenotype with very slow flagellar rotation, which significantly reduced the efficiency of infection. In conclusion, flagellar number and length, as well as speed of flagellar rotation, are important determinants for infection by phage 7-7-1. PMID:22865074

  10. Ultrastructural morphology and phylogeny of Henneguya gilbert n. sp. (Myxozoa) infecting the teleostean Cyphocharax gilbert (Characiformes: Curimatidae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Graça; São Clemente, Sérgio C; Lopes, Leila; Rocha, Sónia; Felizardo, Nilza; Oliveira, Elsa; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Azevedo, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes light and ultrastructural observations and molecular analysis of a fish-infecting myxosporean, Henneguya gilbert n. sp., which was found infecting the gill epithelium of the commercially important freshwater teleost fish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae) collected in the estuarine region of Guandu River, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The parasite occurs in the gills, forming whitish spherical to ellipsoidal polysporic cysts measuring up to ~ 750 μm, and displaying asynchronous development. Mature myxospores are ellipsoidal with a bifurcated caudal process. The length, width and thickness of the body of the myxospore are 12.0 × 5.3 × 3.6 μm, respectively; two equal caudal processes are 16.8 μm long, and the total length of the myxospore is 27.2 μm. There are two unequal polar capsules: the larger measures 5.5 μm length × 1.3 μm width and has a polar filament with 9-10 coils; the smaller is 4.0 μm long × 1.3 μm wide and has a polar filament with 7-8 coils. The sporoplasm is binucleated and presents a spherical vacuole surrounded by numerous globular sporoplasmosomes. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the small subunit rRNA sequencing, using maximum likelihood method reveals the parasite clustering together with other myxobolids that are histozoic and parasitize freshwater fish of the order Characiformes, thereby strengthening the contention that the host phylogenetic relationships and aquatic environment are the strongest evolutionary signals for myxosporeans of the family Myxobolidae.

  11. Ultrastructure and Pathology of Microsporidium phytoseiuli n. sp. Infecting the Predatory Mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnson; Steiner; Keddie

    1996-11-01

    Ultrastructure and pathology of Microsporidium phytoseiuli n. sp. infecting the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot is described using light and transmission electron microscopy. Infected mites showed no gross, external symptoms. All observed stages of the parasite had unpaired nuclei. Schizonts were commonly observed within nuclei of digestive cells of the ventriculus and within the cytoplasm of cells lining the cecal wall and in muscle tissue underlying it. Sporoblasts and spores occurred in the nuclei and cytoplasm of digestive cells within the ventriculus, in cortical regions of the sub- and supraesophageal ganglia, within the cecal wall and muscle tissue, and in parenchyma cells underlying the cuticle. Mature spores were also observed in developing eggs within gravid females. These were broad- to elongate-ovoid, measured 4.33 ± 0.35 x 1.27 ± 0.15 &mgr;m (electron micrographs), 5.37 ± 0.46 x 2.22 ± 0.17 &mgr;m (fixed and stained), and 5.88 ± 0.34 x 2.22 ± 0.19 &mgr;m (fresh) and had an isolfilar polar filament coiled 12 to 15 times within the posterior two-thirds. Within cells, individual spores appeared to be in direct contact with host cytoplasm, while groups of spores were infrequently observed within interfacial envelopes. Groups of 4, 8, to more than 16 spores were observed by light microscopy, while 8 was the maximum observed by electron microscopy. No spores were observed in Tetranychus urticae, a mite used as food during this study.

  12. Functional characterization of two SOS-regulated genes involved in mitomycin C resistance in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Kulishev, Carina O; Alves, Ingrid R; Valencia, Estela Y; Pidhirnyj, María I; Fernández-Silva, Frank S; Rodrigues, Ticiane R; Guzzo, Cristiane R; Galhardo, Rodrigo S

    2015-09-01

    The SOS response is a universal bacterial regulon involved in the cellular response to DNA damage and other forms of stress. In Caulobacter crescentus, previous work has identified a plethora of genes that are part of the SOS regulon, but the biological roles of several of them remain to be determined. In this study, we report that two genes, hereafter named mmcA and mmcB, are involved in the defense against DNA damage caused by mitomycin C (MMC), but not against lesions induced by other common DNA damaging agents, such as UVC light, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and hydrogen peroxide. mmcA is a conserved gene that encodes a member of the glyoxalases/dioxygenases protein family, and acts independently of known DNA repair pathways. On the other hand, epistasis analysis showed that mmcB acts in the same pathway as imuC (dnaE2), and is required specifically for MMC-induced mutagenesis, but not for that induced by UV light, suggesting a role for MmcB in translesion synthesis-dependent repair of MMC damage. We show that the lack of MMC-induced mutability in the mmcB strain is not caused by lack of proper SOS induction of the imuABC operon, involved in translesion synthesis (TLS) in C. crescentus. Based on this data and on structural analysis of a close homolog, we propose that MmcB is an endonuclease which creates substrates for ImuABC-mediated TLS patches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Single molecules of the bacterial actin MreB undergo directed treadmilling motion in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Yeon; Gitai, Zemer; Kinkhabwala, Anika; Shapiro, Lucy; Moerner, W E

    2006-07-18

    The actin cytoskeleton represents a key regulator of multiple essential cellular functions in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In eukaryotes, these functions depend on the orchestrated dynamics of actin filament assembly and disassembly. However, the dynamics of the bacterial actin homolog MreB have yet to be examined in vivo. In this study, we observed the motion of single fluorescent MreB-yellow fluorescent protein fusions in living Caulobacter cells in a background of unlabeled MreB. With time-lapse imaging, polymerized MreB [filamentous MreB (fMreB)] and unpolymerized MreB [globular MreB (gMreB)] monomers could be distinguished: gMreB showed fast motion that was characteristic of Brownian diffusion, whereas the labeled molecules in fMreB displayed slow, directed motion. This directional movement of labeled MreB in the growing polymer provides an indication that, like actin, MreB monomers treadmill through MreB filaments by preferential polymerization at one filament end and depolymerization at the other filament end. From these data, we extract several characteristics of single MreB filaments, including that they are, on average, much shorter than the cell length and that the direction of their polarized assembly seems to be independent of the overall cellular polarity. Thus, MreB, like actin, exhibits treadmilling behavior in vivo, and the long MreB structures that have been visualized in multiple bacterial species seem to represent bundles of short filaments that lack a uniform global polarity.

  14. Superresolution imaging in live Caulobacter crescentus cells using photoswitchable enhanced yellow fluorescent protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biteen, Julie S.; Thompson, Michael A.; Tselentis, Nicole K.; Shapiro, Lucy; Moerner, W. E.

    2009-02-01

    Recently, photoactivation and photoswitching were used to control single-molecule fluorescent labels and produce images of cellular structures beyond the optical diffraction limit (e.g., PALM, FPALM, and STORM). While previous live-cell studies relied on sophisticated photoactivatable fluorescent proteins, we show in the present work that superresolution imaging can be performed with fusions to the commonly used fluorescent protein EYFP. Rather than being photoactivated, however, EYFP can be reactivated with violet light after apparent photobleaching. In each cycle after initial imaging, only a sparse subset fluorophores is reactivated and localized, and the final image is then generated from the measured single-molecule positions. Because these methods are based on the imaging nanometer-sized single-molecule emitters and on the use of an active control mechanism to produce sparse sub-ensembles, we suggest the phrase "Single-Molecule Active-Control Microscopy" (SMACM) as an inclusive term for this general imaging strategy. In this paper, we address limitations arising from physiologically imposed upper boundaries on the fluorophore concentration by employing dark time-lapse periods to allow single-molecule motions to fill in filamentous structures, increasing the effective labeling concentration while localizing each emitter at most once per resolution-limited spot. We image cell-cycle-dependent superstructures of the bacterial actin protein MreB in live Caulobacter crescentus cells with sub-40-nm resolution for the first time. Furthermore, we quantify the reactivation quantum yield of EYFP, and find this to be 1.6 x 10-6, on par with conventional photoswitchable fluorescent proteins like Dronpa. These studies show that EYFP is a useful emitter for in vivo superresolution imaging of intracellular structures in bacterial cells.

  15. Phosphate starvation triggers production and secretion of an extracellular lipoprotein in Caulobacter crescentus.

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    Sophie Le Blastier

    Full Text Available Life in oligotrophic environments necessitates quick adaptive responses to a sudden lack of nutrients. Secretion of specific degradative enzymes into the extracellular medium is a means to mobilize the required nutrient from nearby sources. The aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus must often face changes in its environment such as phosphate limitation. Evidence reported in this paper indicates that under phosphate starvation, C. crescentus produces a membrane surface-anchored lipoprotein named ElpS subsequently released into the extracellular medium. A complete set of 12 genes encoding a type II secretion system (T2SS is located adjacent to the elpS locus in the C. crescentus genome. Deletion of this T2SS impairs release of ElpS in the environment, which surprisingly remains present at the cell surface, indicating that the T2SS is not involved in the translocation of ElpS to the outer membrane but rather in its release. Accordingly, treatment with protease inhibitors prevents release of ElpS in the extracellular medium suggesting that ElpS secretion relies on a T2SS-secreted protease. Finally, secretion of ElpS is associated with an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity in culture supernatants, suggesting a role of the secreted protein in inorganic phosphate mobilization. In conclusion, we have shown that upon phosphate starvation, C. crescentus produces an outer membrane bound lipoprotein, ElpS, which is further cleaved and released in the extracellular medium in a T2SS-dependent manner. Our data suggest that ElpS is associated with an alkaline phosphatase activity, thereby allowing the bacterium to gather inorganic phosphates from a poor environment.

  16. Mutations in the nucleotide binding pocket of MreB can alter cell curvature and polar morphology in Caulobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Natalie A; Pincus, Zachary; Fisher, Isabelle C; Shapiro, Lucy; Theriot, Julie A

    2011-07-01

    The maintenance of cell shape in Caulobacter crescentus requires the essential gene mreB, which encodes a member of the actin superfamily and the target of the antibiotic, A22. We isolated 35 unique A22-resistant Caulobacter strains with single amino acid substitutions near the nucleotide binding site of MreB. Mutations that alter cell curvature and mislocalize the intermediate filament crescentin cluster on the back surface of MreB's structure. Another subset have variable cell widths, with wide cell bodies and actively growing thin extensions of the cell poles that concentrate fluorescent MreB. We found that the extent to which MreB localization is perturbed is linearly correlated with the development of pointed cell poles and variable cell widths. Further, we find that a mutation to glycine of two conserved aspartic acid residues that are important for nucleotide hydrolysis in other members of the actin superfamily abolishes robust midcell recruitment of MreB but supports a normal rate of growth. These mutant strains provide novel insight into how MreB's protein structure, subcellular localization, and activity contribute to its function in bacterial cell shape. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The use of Curcuma longa extract to control Edwardsiella tarda infection on Clarias sp.

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    Dinamella Wahjuningrum

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT  Target production of catfish in aquaculture can be reached by suppressing the pathogenic bacterial infection. Previous works had shown that turmeric Curcuma longa has antibacterial activity. The objectives of this research were to determine the best method of extraction and to evaluate the efficacy of turmeric extract as feed additive to control Edwardsiella tarda disease in catfish culture. Briefly, the objective was achieved through in vitro assay based on inhibition ability of extraction method against E. tarda, while the following objective was obtained through in vivo assay based on their survival during challenge test either as preventive or curative measurement. A complete randomized design with three replications was used for each assay. Furthermore, challenge test was done by mean intraperitoneal injection at concentration 106 cfu/mL of E. tarda (LD50. The results showed that 15 minutes decoction method allowed the best inhibition with diameter 7.42 mm of clear zone and then curative measurement using turmeric extract could be the best application against E. tarda since it gave 86.67% of survival. Clinical signs such as swelling, hemoraghic, body ulcer, gastroentritis and gaseous captivity were observed on challenged fish. However, there were no significant different among treatments for specific growth, body weight, and absolute length parameters.  Keywords: Edwardsiella tarda, extraction, turmeric, catfish, inhibition zone  ABSTRAK Peningkatan produksi ikan lele dapat dicapai melalui pencegahan infeksi penyakit bakterial. Hasil beberapa penelitian membuktikan bahwa kunyit Curcuma longa terbukti memiliki zat aktif yang bersifat antibakteri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mencari metode ekstraksi terbaik dan mengevaluasi efektivitas penambahan ekstrak kunyit pada pakan untuk pengendalian patogen Edwardsiella tarda pada ikan lele. Metoda ekstraksi kunyit diuji secara in vitro dengan metoda zona hambat, sedangkan efikasi

  18. Immunological responses of the mangrove oysters Crassostrea gasar naturally infected by Perkinsus sp. in the Mamanguape Estuary, Paraíba state (Northeastern, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando; Hégaret, Hélène; Soudant, Philippe; Farias, Natanael Dantas; Schlindwein, Aline Daiane; Mirella da Silva, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    Perkinsus genus includes protozoan parasites of marine mollusks, especially bivalves. In the last four years, this parasite has been detected in mangrove oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae and Crassostrea gasar from the Northeastern region of Brazil. Hemocytes are the key cells of the oyster immune system, being responsible for a variety of cellular and humoral reactions, such as phagocytosis, encapsulation and the release of several effector molecules that control the invasion and proliferation of microorganisms. In Brazil, there is little information on perkinsosis and none on the immune responses of native oysters' species against Perkinsus spp. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of natural infection by Perkinsus sp. on the immunological parameters of mangrove oysters C. gasar cultured in the Mamanguape River Estuary (Paraíba, Brazil). Adults oysters (N = 40/month) were sampled in December 2011, March, May, August and October 2012. Gills were removed and used to determine the presence and intensity of the Perkinsus sp. infection, according to a scale of four levels (1-4), using the Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium assay. Immunological parameters were measured in hemolymph samples by flow cytometry, including: total hemocyte count (THC), differential hemocyte count (DHC), cell mortality, phagocytic capacity, and production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). The plasma was used to determine the hemagglutination activity. The results showed the occurrence of Perkinsus sp. with the highest mean prevalence (93.3%) seen so far in oyster populations in Brazil. Despite that, no oyster mortality was associated. In contrast, we observed an increase in hemocyte mortality and a suppression of two of the main defense mechanisms, phagocytosis and ROS production in infected oysters. The increase in the percentage of blast-like cells on the hemolymph, and the increase in THC in oysters heavily infected (at the maximum intensity, 4) suggest an induction of

  19. Infeccion natural de Speothos venaticus (Carnivora: Canidae por estadios adultos de Lagochilascaris sp. Natural infection of Speothos venaticus (Carnívora: Canidae by adult Lagochilascaris sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio S. Volcán G.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Un ejemplar adulto macho de Speothos venaticus Lund, 1842 fue muerto accidentalmente en una vía de penetración rural, situada en la región Noroeste del Estado Bolívar, Venezuela, en el Municipio donde desde hace 16 años vive una paciente con lagochilascariasis. El animal conservado durante un mes por congelación y desprovisto de su piel y cabeza fue autopsiado, hallándose en la tráquea dos especímenes adultos hembras y grávidos de Lagochilascaris sp., los cuales presentaban algunas características morfológicas de sus partes blandas diferentes a Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909; entretanto, distintivos estables como son la forma de los interlabios, la localización de la vulva y particularmente el tamaño y número de las depresiones de la cáscara de los huevos, inclinan a pensar que se trata de aquel parásito, a pesar de no haberse hallado vermes machos que permitiesen el estudio de las espículas y su ducto eyaculador. Fueron localizadas en cortes histológicos de laringe y tráquea profundamente situadas, secciones de formas degeneradas con características atribuíbles a Lagochilascaris sp.An adult male Speothos venaticus Lund (bush dog was found killed on a rural road in the Northeast of Bolívar State, in a locality where a patient with lagochilascariasis has lived for the past 16 years. The animal was frozen for 1 month, and after removal of the head and skin, was autopsied. Two adult gravid females of Lagochilascaris sp. were found in the trachea. Certain morphological characteristics of the soft parts differed from the description given for Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909; however, stable characters, such as the form of the interlabials, the location of the vulva, and particulary the size and number of depressions of the egg shell appear to indicate that the worms are of the above mentioned species. Unfortunately, no males were found for study of the spicules and ejaculatory duct. In histological sections of the larynx

  20. Genome and proteome analysis of 7-7-1, a flagellotropic phage infecting Agrobacterium sp H13-3

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    Kropinski Andrew M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flagellotropic phage 7-7-1 infects motile cells of Agrobacterium sp H13-3 by attaching to and traveling along the rotating flagellar filament to the secondary receptor at the base, where it injects its DNA into the host cell. Here we describe the complete genomic sequence of 69,391 base pairs of this unusual bacteriophage. Methods The sequence of the 7-7-1 genome was determined by pyro(454sequencing to a coverage of 378-fold. It was annotated using MyRAST and a variety of internet resources. The structural proteome was analyzed by SDS-PAGE coupled electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS. Results Sequence annotation and a structural proteome analysis revealed 127 open reading frames, 84 of which are unique. In six cases 7-7-1 proteins showed sequence similarity to proteins from the virulent Burkholderia myovirus BcepB1A. Unique features of the 7-7-1 genome are the physical separation of the genes encoding the small (orf100 and large (orf112 subunits of the DNA packaging complex and the apparent lack of a holin-lysin cassette. Proteomic analysis revealed the presence of 24 structural proteins, five of which were identified as baseplate (orf7, putative tail fibre (orf102, portal (orf113, major capsid (orf115 and tail sheath (orf126 proteins. In the latter case, the N-terminus was removed during capsid maturation, probably by a putative prohead protease (orf114.

  1. Plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria versus pathogenic infections: an example of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheem Shahzad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogenic attacks are one of the major threats to the growth and productivity of crop plants. Currently, instead of synthetic fungicides, the use of plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes has been considered intriguingly eco-friendly in nature. Here, we aimed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antagonistic approach by using seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 against pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The results revealed significant suppression of pathogenic fungal growth by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vitro. Further to this, we inoculated tomato plants with RWL-1 and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in the root zone. The results showed that the growth attributes and biomass were significantly enhanced by endophytic-inoculation during disease incidence as compared to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici infected plants. Under pathogenic infection, the RWL-1-applied plants showed increased amino acid metabolism of cell wall related (e.g., aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine (Ser, and proline (Pro as compared to diseased plants. In case of endogenous phytohormones, significantly lower amount of jasmonic acid (JA and higher amount of salicylic acid (SA contents was recorded in RWL-1-treated diseased plants. The phytohormones regulation in disease incidences might be correlated with the ability of RWL-1 to produce organic acids (e.g., succinic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and citric acid during the inoculation and infection of tomato plants. The current findings suggest that RWL-1 inoculation promoted and rescued plant growth by modulating defense hormones and regulating amino acids. This suggests that bacterial endophytes could be used for possible control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in an eco-friendly way.

  2. Regulation of the activity of the dual-function DnaA protein in Caulobacter crescentus.

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    Carmen Fernandez-Fernandez

    Full Text Available DnaA is a conserved essential bacterial protein that acts as the initiator of chromosomal replication as well as a master transcriptional regulator in Caulobacter crescentus. Thus, the intracellular levels of active DnaA need to be tightly regulated during the cell cycle. Our previous work suggested that DnaA may be regulated at the level of its activity by the replisome-associated protein HdaA. Here, we describe the construction of a mutant DnaA protein [DnaA(R357A]. The R357 residue in the AAA+ domain of the C. crescentus DnaA protein is equivalent to the R334 residue of the E. coli DnaA protein, which is required for the Regulatory Inactivation of DnaA (RIDA. We found that the expression of the DnaA(R357A mutant protein in C. crescentus, but not the expression of the wild-type DnaA protein at similar levels, causes a severe phenotype of over-initiation of chromosomal replication and that it blocks cell division. Thus, the mutant DnaA(R357A protein is hyper-active to promote the initiation of DNA replication, compared to the wild-type DnaA protein. DnaA(R357A could not replace DnaA in vivo, indicating that the switch in DnaA activity once chromosomal replication has started may be an essential process in C. crescentus. We propose that the inactivation of DnaA is the main mechanism ensuring that chromosomal replication starts only once per cell cycle. We further observed that the R357A substitution in DnaA does not promote the activity of DnaA as a direct transcriptional activator of four important genes, encoding HdaA, the GcrA master cell cycle regulator, the FtsZ cell division protein and the MipZ spatial regulator of cell division. Thus, the AAA+ domain of DnaA may play a role in temporally regulating the bifunctionality of DnaA by reallocating DnaA molecules from initiating DNA replication to transcribing genes within the unique DnaA regulon of C. crescentus.

  3. The Presence Of Rat And House Sanitation Associated With Leptospira sp. Bacterial Infection In Rats (A Cross Sectional Study In Semarang, Central Java Province, Indonesia

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    Setiyani Endang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gajah Mungkur sub-district in Semarang, Indonesia had highest leptospirosis cases (reported in human with seven infected and one dead in 2015. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between house sanitation and density of rats with Leptospira sp. infection in rats. The study design was cross sectional observational analytic. The number of 308 trapswere placed in study sites over three consecutive nights afterwards. Every houses were placed with four traps, inside and outside. Trapped rats were anesthetized with atropine dose from 0.02 to 0.05 mg/kg body weight of rats continued with Ketamine HCL dose of 50-100 mg/kg body weight of rats by injecting in the thick thigh muscle of it. After that, identification of rats by species and gender then continues with surgery in which a kidney sample was taken to confirm the presence of bacteria Leptospirasp using PCR techniques. The trap installed in 77 houses which later had further observation on house sanitation which includes the existence of a pile of used goods, food storage, garbage can, and the presence of the ceiling, windows and other ventilation.Data was analyzed using distribution frequency and bivariate chi-square test. We had 100 rats captured with live traps as the samples.The proportion of Rattusnorvegicuswas 27% (14.8% positive Leptospira sp.infection and Rattustanezumi 73% (11%positive Leptospira sp.infection. The proportion of male and female rats were almost equal. The statistic test result was significant between the density of rats (p = 0.0001, OR 12.833, 95%CI: 1.565-105.261 and sex of rats (p = 0.019, OR 0.095, 95%CI: 0.012–0.769 with Leptospira sp. infection in rats. The number of rats may increase the infection of Leptospirasp., especially female rats and poor condition of house sanitation. It is recommended to improve house sanitation and regularly trapping rats.

  4. Parasitism performance and fitness of Cotesia vestalis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae infected with Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae: implications in integrated pest management strategy.

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    Nadia Kermani

    Full Text Available The diamondback moth (DBM Plutella xylostella (L. has traditionally been managed using synthetic insecticides. However, the increasing resistance of DBM to insecticides offers an impetus to practice integrated pest management (IPM strategies by exploiting its natural enemies such as pathogens, parasitoids, and predators. Nevertheless, the interactions between pathogens and parasitoids and/or predators might affect the effectiveness of the parasitoids in regulating the host population. Thus, the parasitism rate of Nosema-infected DBM by Cotesia vestalis (Haliday (Hym., Braconidae can be negatively influenced by such interactions. In this study, we investigated the effects of Nosema infection in DBM on the parasitism performance of C. vestalis. The results of no-choice test showed that C. vestalis had a higher parasitism rate on non-infected host larvae than on Nosema-treated host larvae. The C. vestalis individuals that emerged from Nosema-infected DBM (F1 and their progeny (F2 had smaller pupae, a decreased rate of emergence, lowered fecundity, and a prolonged development period compared to those of the control group. DBM infection by Nosema sp. also negatively affected the morphometrics of C. vestalis. The eggs of female C. vestalis that developed in Nosema-infected DBM were larger than those of females that developed in non-infected DBM. These detrimental effects on the F1 and F2 generations of C. vestalis might severely impact the effectiveness of combining pathogens and parasitoids as parts of an IPM strategy for DBM control.

  5. Efecto de la Infección de Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea en Hospederos Alternos / Effect of Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea Infection on Alternate Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Ivón Magaly Arcila Aristizábal; Elena Paola González Jaimes; Catalina María Zuluaga Amaya; Mauricio Alejandro Marín Montoya; José Miguel Cotes Torres

    2014-01-01

    Resumen. Como una de las posibles medidas de manejo deaplicación práctica para la reducción de inóculo de Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea en suelos infestados con quistosoros del patógeno, se evaluó la incidencia de su infección en diferentes plantas hospederas durante tres siembras consecutivas. Las siembras se realizaron en macetas que contenían 2 kg de suelo previamente inoculados con una concentración de 1x105quistosoros.g-1 de suelo; las cosechas de las plantas se realizaron c...

  6. Efecto de la Infección de Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea en Hospederos Alternos / Effect of Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea Infection on Alternate Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivón Magaly Arcila Aristizábal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Como una de las posibles medidas de manejo deaplicación práctica para la reducción de inóculo de Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea en suelos infestados con quistosoros del patógeno, se evaluó la incidencia de su infección en diferentes plantas hospederas durante tres siembras consecutivas. Las siembras se realizaron en macetas que contenían 2 kg de suelo previamente inoculados con una concentración de 1x105quistosoros.g-1 de suelo; las cosechas de las plantas se realizaron cada tres meses, seleccionando dos muestras de raíz por maceta, una para observación de estructuras del patógeno por microscopía de luz, previa tinción con azul de tripano al 0,05% y otra para detección molecular mediante PCR en tiempo real (qPCR. Para el análisis estadístico se evaluaron los modelos Exponencial y Monomolecular, con el objetivo de seleccionar el que mejor se ajustara a los datos obtenidos. Según el valor estimado para la incidencia de estructuras del patógeno en las raíces, en las especiesCyphomandra betacea, Physalis peruvianum, Solanumnigrum, Allium cepa, Solanum quitoense y Rumex crispus,se reduce la presencia de quistosoros y zoosporangios después de tres siembras consecutivas en condiciones de casa de malla, mientras que en las especies Petroselinum crispum, Pennisetum clandestinum, Zea mays y Solanum lycopersicum se aumenta la incidencia de estructuras de S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea en las raíces. / Abstract. Trap crops have been considered an alternative strategy to reduce the inoculum of soil pathogens such as Spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea. In this work, the incidence of this pathogen was evaluated at three consecutive sowings using different alternative hosts. Plants were sown in pots containing 2 kg of soil inoculated with 1x105 cystosori per gram and harvested every three months. Roots were tested for the presence of cystosori and zoosporangia using light microscopy

  7. Phylogenetic relationships among members of the Fusarium solani species complex in human infections and the descriptions of F. keratoplasticum sp. nov. and F. petroliphilum stat. nov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Short, Dylan P.G.; O’Donnell, Kerry; Thrane, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium species are frequently associated with mycotic keratitis and, to a lesser extent, cases of localized and disseminated infections. The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) is the most common group of fusaria associated with human infectious diseases. Several studies to date have revealed...... dozens of strongly supported phylogenetic species within this important evolutionary clade, though little work has been done to improve the taxonomy and understanding of the reproductive mode and phenotypes of the predominant clinically relevant species. Here we described Fusarium keratoplasticum sp. nov...

  8. Coccidia, X-cell pseudotumors and Ichthyophonus sp. infections in walleye pollock (Theregra chalcogramma) from Auke Bay, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, W D; Kent, M L; Meyers, T R

    1991-01-01

    One hundred twenty-five walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) were collected from Auke Bay, Alaska (USA) in 1985 and examined for histologic evidence of disease-causing infectious agents in 1987. A Goussia sp.-like coccidium was found in the kidney tubules of 75% and an Eimeria sp.-like coccidium was found in the intestine of 18% of the fish examined. The kidney coccidium was associated with sloughing of the tubular epithelium, peritubular fibrosis and granuloma formation. The intestinal coccidium was associated with severe tissue displacement and inflammation. In addition, X-cell pseudotumors were observed in the pseudobranchs (4%), and the fungus Ichthyophonus sp. was observed in the kidney, intestine or brain of 2% of the pollock.

  9. MICROBIAL COMMUNITY OF BLACK BAND DISEASE ON INFECTION, HEALTHY, AND DEAD PART OF SCLERACTINIAN Montipora sp. COLONY AT SERIBU ISLANDS, INDONESIA

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    Ofri Johan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is crucial to understand the microbial community associated with the host when attempting to discern the pathogen responsible for disease outbreaks in scleractinian corals. This study determines changes in the bacterial community associated with Montipora sp. in response to black band disease in Indonesian waters. Healthy, diseased, and dead Montipora sp. (n = 3 for each sample type per location were collected from three different locations (Pari Island, Pramuka Island, and Peteloran Island. DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis was carried out to identify the bacterial community associated with each sample type and histological analysis was conducted to identify pathogens associated with specific tissues. Various Desulfovibrio species were found as novelty to be associated with infection samples, including Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio magneticus, and Desulfovibrio gigas, Bacillus benzoevorans, Bacillus farraginis in genus which previously associated with pathogenicity in corals. Various bacterial species associated with uninfected corals were lost in diseased and dead samples. Unlike healthy samples, coral tissues such as the epidermis, endodermis, zooxanthellae were not present on dead samples under histological observation. Liberated zooxanthellae and cyanobacteria were found in black band diseased Montipora sp. samples.

  10. Prevalence of and management factors contributing to Cryptosporidium sp. infection in pre-weaned and post-weaned calves in Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhid, Aida; Robertson, Ian; Ng, Josephine; Ryan, Una

    2011-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify species and determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. shedding in pre-weaned and post-weaned dairy calves and to identify management factors that may be contributing to disease. A total of 240 calf faecal samples were collected from 16 farms in two districts in Johor, Malaysia, and screened by PCR. The overall Cryptosporidium prevalence was 27.1%. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in pre-weaned calves was 32.4% for C. parvum, 26.5% for C. bovis, followed by C. andersoni (20.6%), C. ryanae (11.8%) and mixed sp. (8.8%). The prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in post-weaned calves was 35% for C. bovis followed by C. andersoni and C. ryanae (30% each) and mixed sp. (5%). Subtyping analysis of 8 of the 11 C. parvum isolates at the gp60 locus identified five isolates as IIdA15G1, one as IIa18A3R1 and two isolates as IIa17G2R1. Management factors that increased the risk of Cryptosporidium infection included having other cattle farms close by, feeding calves with saleable milk, keeping pre-weaned calves in pens with slatted floors and keeping post-weaned calves in pens with a sand floor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphological, histopathological and molecular characterization of Thelohanellus theinensis n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxosporea) infecting an Indian major carp, Labeo bata in a cold water wetland in Punjab (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya; Kaur, Harpreet

    2017-09-01

    A myxozoan parasite belonging to the genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 (Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) was isolated from the gill lamellae of Labeo bata (Hamilton, 1822) inhabiting Ranjit Sagar Wetland in Northern parts of Punjab, India. Histopathology of the infected gills indicated lamellar distortion due to the presence of plasmodia. The intensity of infection was recorded to be moderate as indicated by gill plasmodial index (GPI = 2). The plasmodia were microscopic, ovoid, creamish white, 2.0-4.0 mm in diameter containing 300-400 number of myxospores. The myxospores were broadly pyriform in shape, measuring 8.27 × 4.41 µm, having a prominent pore at the anterior end. The polar capsule was pyriform in shape, measuring 4.15 × 4.10 µm, containing a polar filament coiled perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of myxospore body making 6-7 turns. At molecular level, the analysis of 18S rDNA sequence of T. theinensis n. sp. demonstrated maximum homogeneity of 99 % with T. filli (KR340464) as only 2 gaps were found due to the difference of the last 20 base pairs at the 3' end of T. theinensis n. sp. The current study emphasizes the need for caution when dealing with members of species complex.

  12. An endoglucanase is involved in infection of rice roots by the not-cellulose-metabolizing endophyte Azoarcus sp. strain BH72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara; Maes, Tamara; Gemmer, Sabrina; Van Montagu, Marc; Hurek, Thomas

    2006-02-01

    The nitrogen-fixing endophyte Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 infects roots of Kallar grass and rice inter- and intra-cellularly and can spread systemically into shoots without causing symptoms of plant disease. Although cellulose or its breakdown products do not support growth, this strain expresses an endoglucanase, which might be involved in infection. Sequence analysis of eglA places the secreted 34-kDa protein into the glycosyl hydrolases family 5, with highest relatedness (40% identity) to endoglucanases of the phytopathogenic bacteria Xanthomonas campestris and Ralstonia solanacearum. Transcriptional regulation studied by eglA:: gusA fusion was not significantly affected by cellulose or its breakdown products or by microaerobiosis. Strongest induction (threefold) was obtained in bacteria grown in close vicinity to rice roots. Visible sites of expression were the emergence points of lateral roots and root tips, which are the primary regions of ingress into the root. To study the role in endophytic colonization, eglA was inactivated by transposon mutagenesis. Systemic spreading of the eglA mutant and of a pilAB mutant into the rice shoot could no longer be detected by polymerase chain reaction. Microscopic inspection of infection revealed that the intracellular colonization of root epidermis cells was significantly reduced in the eglA- mutant BHE6 compared with the wild type and partially restored in the complementation mutant BHRE2 expressing eglA. This provides evidence that Azoarcus sp. endoglucanase is an important determinant for successful endophytic colonization of rice roots, suggesting an active bacterial colonization process.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas sp. causing infections in trauma patients: A 6 year experience from a south asian country

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    Nonika Rajkumari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance to Pseudomonas sp. has spread to such a level irrespective of the type of patients, that its pattern of distribution and antibiotic resistance needs to be studied in detail, especially in trauma patients and hence the study. A 6 year study was carried out among trauma patients to see the trend and type of resistance prevalent in the apex hospital for trauma care in India among nonduplicate isolates where multidrug-resistance (MDR, cross-resistance and pan-drug resistance in Pseudomonas sp. were analyzed. Of the total 2,269 isolates obtained, the species, which was maximally isolated was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2,224, 98%. The highest level of resistance was seen in tetracycline (2,166, 95.5%, P < 0.001 and chloramphenicol (2,160, 95.2%, P < 0.001 and least in meropenem (1,739, 76.7%, P < 0.003. Of the total, 1,692 (74.6% isolates were MDR in which P. aeruginosa (75% were maximum. MDR Pseudomonas is slowing increasing since the beginning of the study period. Of 1,797 imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolated during the study period, 1,763 (98% showed resistance to ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin, suggesting that cross-resistance may have developed for imipenem due to prior use of fluoroquinolones. Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas sp. is fast becoming a problem in trauma patients, especially in those who requires prolong hospital stay, which calls for proper antimicrobial stewardship.

  14. Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea infecting the south European toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae from a hypersaline environment in Italy

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    Huyse Tine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, non-native species of Gambusia (Poeciliidae have been used to control larval stages of the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta Reinert, Harbach et Kitching, 2004 throughout Italy. The potential utility of indigenous populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae as an appropriate alternative biological control is currently being explored. A sub-sample of ten fish collected from Cervia Saline, Italy (salinity 65 ppt; 30°C to assess their reproductive capability in captivity, harboured a moderate infection of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea. A subsequent morphological and molecular study identified this as being a new species. Results Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. is described from the skin, fins and gills of A. fasciatus. Light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM examination of the opisthaptoral armature and their comparison with all other recorded species suggested morphological similarities to Gyrodactylus rugiensoides Huyse et Volckaert, 2002 from Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas. Features of the ventral bar, however, permit its discrimination from G. rugiensoides. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene and a comparison with all species listed in GenBank confirmed they are unique and represent a new species (most similar to Gyrodactylus anguillae Ergens, 1960, 8.3% pair-wise distance based on 5.8S+ITS2. This represents the first species of Gyrodactylus to be described from Aphanius and, to date, has the longest ITS1 (774 bp sequenced from any Gyrodactylus. Additional sampling of Cervia Saline throughout the year, found G. salinae n. sp. to persist in conditions ranging from 35 ppt and 5°C in December to 65 ppt and 30°C in July, while in captivity a low level of infection was present, even in freshwater conditions (0 ppt. Conclusions The ability of G. salinae n. sp. to tolerate a wide

  15. Effect of SOS-induced levels of imuABC on spontaneous and damage-induced mutagenesis in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ingrid R; Lima-Noronha, Marco A; Silva, Larissa G; Fernández-Silva, Frank S; Freitas, Aline Luiza D; Marques, Marilis V; Galhardo, Rodrigo S

    2017-11-01

    imuABC (imuAB dnaE2) genes are responsible for SOS-mutagenesis in Caulobacter crescentus and other bacterial species devoid of umuDC. In this work, we have constructed operator-constitutive mutants of the imuABC operon. We used this genetic tool to investigate the effect of SOS-induced levels of these genes upon both spontaneous and damage-induced mutagenesis. We showed that constitutive expression of imuABC does not increase spontaneous or damage-induced mutagenesis, nor increases cellular resistance to DNA-damaging agents. Nevertheless, the presence of the operator-constitutive mutation rescues mutagenesis in a recA background, indicating that imuABC are the only genes required at SOS-induced levels for translesion synthesis (TLS) in C. crescentus. Furthermore, these data also show that TLS mediated by ImuABC does not require RecA, unlike umuDC-dependent mutagenesis in E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. MreB drives de novo rod morphogenesis in Caulobacter crescentus via remodeling of the cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Constantin N; Poggio, Sebastian; Charbon, Godefroid; Pucheault, Mathieu; Vollmer, Waldemar; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2010-03-01

    MreB, the bacterial actin-like cytoskeleton, is required for the rod morphology of many bacterial species. Disruption of MreB function results in loss of rod morphology and cell rounding. Here, we show that the widely used MreB inhibitor A22 causes MreB-independent growth inhibition that varies with the drug concentration, culture medium conditions, and bacterial species tested. MP265, an A22 structural analog, is less toxic than A22 for growth yet equally efficient for disrupting the MreB cytoskeleton. The action of A22 and MP265 is enhanced by basic pH of the culture medium. Using this knowledge and the rapid reversibility of drug action, we examined the restoration of rod shape in lemon-shaped Caulobacter crescentus cells pretreated with MP265 or A22 under nontoxic conditions. We found that reversible restoration of MreB function after drug removal causes extensive morphological changes including a remarkable cell thinning accompanied with elongation, cell branching, and shedding of outer membrane vesicles. We also thoroughly characterized the composition of C. crescentus peptidoglycan by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry and showed that MreB disruption and recovery of rod shape following restoration of MreB function are accompanied by considerable changes in composition. Our results provide insight into MreB function in peptidoglycan remodeling and rod shape morphogenesis and suggest that MreB promotes the transglycosylase activity of penicillin-binding proteins.

  17. The small protein MbiA interacts with MreB and modulates cell shape in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhnina, Anastasiya A; Gitai, Zemer

    2012-09-01

    In Caulobacter crescentus, the actin homologue MreB is critical for cell shape maintenance. Despite the central importance of MreB for cell morphology and viability, very little is known about MreB-interacting factors. Here, we use an overexpression approach to identify a novel MreB interactor, MbiA. MbiA interacts with MreB in both biochemical and genetic assays, colocalizes with MreB throughout the cell cycle, and relies on MreB for its localization. MbiA overexpression mimics the loss of MreB function, severely perturbing cell morphology, inhibiting growth and inducing cell lysis. Additionally, mbiA deletion shows a synthetic growth phenotype with a hypomorphic allele of the MreB interactor RodZ, suggesting that these two MreB-interacting proteins either have partially redundant functions or participate in the same functional complex. Our work thus establishes MbiA as a novel cell shape regulator that appears to function through regulating MreB, and opens avenues for discovery of more MreB-regulating factors by showing that overexpression screens are a valuable tool for uncovering potentially redundant cell shape effectors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. First description of Leishmania (Viannia) infection in Evandromyia saulensis, Pressatia sp. and Trichophoromyia auraensis (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a transmission area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Acre state, Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo-Pereira, Thais; de Pita-Pereira, Daniela; Boité, Mariana Côrtes; Melo, Myllena; da Costa-Rego, Taiana Amancio; Fuzari, Andressa Alencastre; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Britto, Constança

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the sandfly fauna to evaluate natural infection indexes are still limited in the Brazilian Amazon, a region with an increasing incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here, by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction directed to Leishmania kDNA and hybridisation, we were able to identify L. (Viannia) subgenus in 12 out of 173 sandflies captured in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre state, revealing a positivity of 6.94%. By sequencing the Leishmania 234 bp-hsp70 amplified products from positive samples, infection by L. (V.) braziliensis was confirmed in five sandflies: one Evandromyia saulensis, three Trichophoromyia auraensis and one Pressatia sp. The finding of L. (Viannia) DNA in two Ev. saulensis corresponds to the first record of possible infection associated with this sandfly. Moreover, our study reveals for the first time in Brazil, Th. auraensis and Pressatia sp. infected by L. (Viannia) parasites. PMID:28076470

  19. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência de enteroparasitoses em cinco fazendas de Holambra-SP, Brasil

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    Jun Kobayashi

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 14% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods.Uma pesquisa coproparasitológica foi realizada em 222 habitantes de cinco fazendas de Holambra, localizada a 30 km ao norte de Campinas, SP, Brasil, em outubro de 1992. Aproximadamente 70% dos habitantes apresentaram pelo menos um tipo de parasitose intestinal. O índice de positividade das 6 espécies de helmintos e de 7 protozoários na população foi o seguinte: Ascaris lumbricoides (5,4%; Trichuris trichiura (8,6%; Necator americanus (19,8%; Strongyloides stercoralis (10,4%; Enterobius vermiculares (1,4%; Hymenolepis nana (0,9%; Entamoeba histolytica (3,2%; E. hartmanni (2,7%; E. coli (9,9%; Endolimax nana (14,0%; Iodamoeba butschlii (2,3%; Giardia lamblia (10,4%; Blastocystis hominis (37,4%. O índice de positividade para infecção por helmitos foi aparentemente maior na população mais jovem (menores de 16 anos do que no grupo de população com idades acima de 16 anos, ao contrário do índice de infecção pelos protozo

  20. Application of gamma radiation for recovery of papers infected by fungi: case study about Sao Luiz do Paraitinga, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auada, Fernanda Mokdessi; Bardi, Marcelo Augusto Gonçalves; Machado, Luci Diva Brocardo, E-mail: fmokdessi@usp.br, E-mail: lmachado@ipen.br, E-mail: marcelo.bardi@usf.edu.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade São Francisco (USF), Bragança Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The material studied in this work was flooded in the city of Sao Luiz do Paraitinga, SP, Brazil on January 2010 during a record flood suffered by the river that pass through the region. The documentary collection belonging to the City Hall underwent emergency drying and recovery treatments including irradiation with gamma rays to the destruction of various cellulosic fungi. Seven record books with many pages in blank and presenting severe fungal and mold infestation were provided by the Public Archive of the State of Sao Paulo, in charge of the damaged official documents, as samples for the present investigation on the effects of gamma radiation in the recovery and preservation of paper supported collections that are victims of biological contamination. This study represents a very rare possibility of working with a real object of actual use, which suffered a real disaster, and not with material prepared in laboratory and subjected to a forged flood situation. (author)

  1. Application of gamma radiation for recovery of papers infected by fungi: case study about Sao Luiz do Paraitinga, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auada, Fernanda Mokdessi; Bardi, Marcelo Augusto Gonçalves; Machado, Luci Diva Brocardo

    2017-01-01

    The material studied in this work was flooded in the city of Sao Luiz do Paraitinga, SP, Brazil on January 2010 during a record flood suffered by the river that pass through the region. The documentary collection belonging to the City Hall underwent emergency drying and recovery treatments including irradiation with gamma rays to the destruction of various cellulosic fungi. Seven record books with many pages in blank and presenting severe fungal and mold infestation were provided by the Public Archive of the State of Sao Paulo, in charge of the damaged official documents, as samples for the present investigation on the effects of gamma radiation in the recovery and preservation of paper supported collections that are victims of biological contamination. This study represents a very rare possibility of working with a real object of actual use, which suffered a real disaster, and not with material prepared in laboratory and subjected to a forged flood situation. (author)

  2. Ultrastructural and molecular characterization of Glugea serranus n. sp., a microsporidian infecting the blacktail comber, Serranus atricauda (Teleostei: Serranidae), in the Madeira Archipelago (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Graça; Rocha, Sónia; Costa, Graça; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Azevedo, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    A new microsporidian infecting the connective tissue of the coelomic cavity of the blacktail comber Serranus atricauda, in the Madeira Archipelago (Portugal), is described on the basis of morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular features. The microsporidian formed large whitish xenomas adhering to the peritoneal visceral organs of the host. Each xenoma consisted of a single hypertrophic cell, in the cytoplasm of which mature spores proliferated within parasitophorous vacuoles surrounded by numerous collagen fibers. Mature spores were ellipsoidal and uninucleated, measuring an average of 6.5 ± 0.5 μm in length and 3.4 ± 0.6 μm in width. The anchoring disk of the polar filament was subterminal, laterally shifted from the anterior pole of the spore. The isofilar polar filament coiled in 18-19 turns, forming two rows that surrounded the posterior vacuole. The latter occupied about one third of the spore length. The polaroplast surrounding the apical and uncoiled portion of the polar filament displayed two distinct regions: a lamellar region and an electron-dense globule. Molecular analysis of the rRNA genes, including the internal transcribed spacer region, and phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood and neighbor joining demonstrated that this microsporidian parasite clustered with some Glugea species. Based on the differences found both at the morphological and molecular levels, to other members of the genus Glugea, the microsporidian infecting the blacktail comber is considered a new species, thus named Glugea serranus n. sp.

  3. A rapid genotyping method for an obligate fungal pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici, based on DNA extraction from infected leaf and Multiplex PCR genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjalbert Jérôme

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (PST, an obligate fungal pathogen causing wheat yellow/stripe rust, a serious disease, has been used to understand the evolution of crop pathogen using molecular markers. However, numerous questions regarding its evolutionary history and recent migration routes still remains to be addressed, which need the genotyping of a large number of isolates, a process that is limited by both DNA extraction and genotyping methods. To address the two issues, we developed here a method for direct DNA extraction from infected leaves combined with optimized SSR multiplexing. Findings We report here an efficient protocol for direct fungal DNA extraction from infected leaves, avoiding the costly and time consuming step of spore multiplication. The genotyping strategy we propose, amplified a total of 20 SSRs in three Multiplex PCR reactions, which were highly polymorphic and were able to differentiate different PST populations with high efficiency and accuracy. Conclusion These two developments enabled a genotyping strategy that could contribute to the development of molecular epidemiology of yellow rust disease, both at a regional or worldwide scale.

  4. Atividades hidrolíticas de amostras de conteúdo do intestino delgado de bovinos adultos, infectados ou não por Eurytrema sp, determinadas por difusão radial enzimática Hydrolytic activities of small intestine content as determined by radial enzyme diffusion in Eurytrema sp infected or non infected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacífico Antônio Diniz Belém

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Empregando-se difusão radial enzimática em ágar gel, atividades hidrolíticas de amostras de conteúdo do intestino delgado de 38 bovinos adultos de matadouro foram mensuradas em animais agrupados como possuidores de pâncreas hígidos (controle e parasitados por Eurytrema sp, estes, segundo dois graus de infecção reconhecidos. Para tal, foram empregados quatro substratos, dos quais caseinato de cálcio e óleo de milho tiveram de ser desconsiderados porque, no caso deles, não houve formação de halos ou estes apresentaram limites imprecisos. Apesar desses problemas não terem ocorrido quando o substrato era leite em pó desnatado ou amido, as atividades hidrolíticas encontradas foram equivalentes, independentemente da condição de parasitismo e grau de infecção verificados (P>0,05. Concluiu-se, então, que a técnica de difusão radial enzimática, pelo menos com os substratos empregados, foi incapaz de acusar disfunções pancreáticas exócrinas em bovinos infectados por Eurytrema sp.Hidrolitic activities of small intestine content as determined by radial enzyme diffusion in agar gel containing calcium caseinate, corn oil, starch or skimmed milk were measured in 38 mature cattle from slaughterhouse. Each one were identified as normal or infected and then classified into two different grades according to pancreatic ducts lesions and parasite burden. The substrates calcium caseinate and corn oil did not shown cleared zones in several radial enzyme diffusion tests or it was difficult to get a correct measure of the diameters. Such problems, however, were not observed with starch and skimmed milk. In these cases, hidrolitic activities were similar in both control and Eurytrema sp infected groups, despite of the pancreatic duct lesions and parasite load (P>0.05. So, it was concluded that the radial enzyme diffusion method couldn’t shown any exocrine pancreatic disfunction in Eurytrema sp infected cattle.

  5. Turning off flagellum rotation requires the pleiotropic gene pleD: pleA, pleC, and pleD define two morphogenic pathways in Caulobacter crescentus.

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, J M; Newton, A

    1989-01-01

    We have identified mutations in three pleiotropic genes, pleA, pleC, and pleD, that are required for differentiation in Caulobacter crescentus. pleA and pleC mutants were isolated in an extensive screen for strains defective in both motility and adsorption of polar bacteriophage phi CbK; using temperature-sensitive alleles, we determined the time at which the two genes act. pleA was required for a short period at 0.7 of the swarmer cell cycle for flagellum biosynthesis, whereas pleC was requi...

  6. Two Outer Membrane Proteins Contribute to Caulobacter crescentus Cellular Fitness by Preventing Intracellular S-Layer Protein Accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overton, K. Wesley; Park, Dan M.; Yung, Mimi C.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Smit, John; Jiao, Yongqin

    2016-09-23

    ABSTRACT

    Surface layers, or S-layers, are two-dimensional protein arrays that form the outermost layer of many bacteria and archaea. They serve several functions, including physical protection of the cell from environmental threats. The high abundance of S-layer proteins necessitates a highly efficient export mechanism to transport the S-layer protein from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior.Caulobacter crescentusis unique in that it has two homologous, seemingly redundant outer membrane proteins, RsaFaand RsaFb, which together with other components form a type I protein translocation pathway for S-layer export. These proteins have homology toEscherichia coliTolC, the outer membrane channel of multidrug efflux pumps. Here we provide evidence that, unlike TolC, RsaFaand RsaFbare not involved in either the maintenance of membrane stability or the active export of antimicrobial compounds. Rather, RsaFaand RsaFbare required to prevent intracellular accumulation and aggregation of the S-layer protein RsaA; deletion of RsaFaand RsaFbled to a general growth defect and lowered cellular fitness. Using Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), we show that loss of both RsaFaand RsaFbled to accumulation of insoluble RsaA in the cytoplasm, which in turn caused upregulation of a number of genes involved in protein misfolding and degradation pathways. These findings provide new insight into the requirement for RsaFaand RsaFbin cellular fitness and tolerance to antimicrobial agents and further our understanding of the S-layer export mechanism on both the transcriptional and translational levels in

  7. Expectations of vertical transmission of hiv from HIV-infected mothers in a research process at Sorocaba/SP

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo de Assis Pereira; Denise Moraes Horiy; Evelise de Oliveira Proença; Acácio Sidinei Almeida Santos

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Vertical transmission of AIDS is defined as a transmission that occurs from mother to child during pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding and is today the main route of HIV infection in children under 13 in the world. Objective: in order to understand the history of life and the therapeutic itinerary of HIV positive pregnant women, it was conducted a study with a qualitative approach to social phenomenology as theoretical and methodological references. Methods: For the st...

  8. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Subodh K; Nanda, Satyabrata; Joshi, Raj K

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of post-transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, six conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L.) were analyzed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in garlic seedlings post-treatment with FOC for 72 h. The induction of miR394 expression during FOC infection was restricted to the basal stem plate tissue, the primary site of infection. Garlic miR394 was also upregulated by exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Two putative targets of miR394 encoding F-box domain and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) family proteins were predicted and verified using 5' RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcript levels of the predicted targets were significantly reduced in garlic plants exposed to FOC. When garlic cultivars with variable sensitivity to FOC were exposed to the pathogen, an upregulation of miR394 and down regulation of the targets were observed in both varieties. However, the expression pattern was delayed in the resistant genotypes. These results suggest that miR394 functions in negative modulation of FOC resistance and the difference in timing and levels of expression in variable genotypes could be examined as markers for selection of FOC resistant garlic cultivars.

  9. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L

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    Subodh Kumar Chand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of post transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, 6 conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L. were analysed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in garlic seedlings post treatment with FOC for 72 h. The induction of miR394 expression during FOC infection was restricted to the basal stem plate tissue, the primary site of infection. Garlic miR394 was also upregulated by exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Two putative targets of miR394 encoding F-box domain and cytochrome P450 (CYP450 family proteins were predicted and verified using 5’ RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends assay. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcript levels of the predicted targets were significantly reduced in garlic plants exposed to FOC. When garlic cultivars with variable sensitivity to FOC were exposed to the pathogen, an upregulation of miR394 and down regulation of the targets were observed in both varieties. However, the expression pattern was delayed in the resistant genotypes. These results suggest that miR394 functions in negative modulation of FOC resistance and the difference in timing and levels of expression in variable genotypes could be examined as markers for selection of FOC resistant garlic cultivars.

  10. Selection and differentiation of Bacillus spp. Antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and Alternaria solani infecting Tomato.

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    Shanmugam, Veerubommu; Atri, Kamini; Gupta, Samriti; Kanoujia, Nandina; Naruka, Digvijay Singh

    2011-03-01

    Antagonistic Bacillus spp. displaying in vitro production of siderophore, chitinase, and β-1,3-glucanase were identified from dual culture assays. In independent greenhouse studies, seed bacterization and soil application of Bacillus atrophaeus S2BC-2 challenge inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (FOL) and Alternaria solani (AS) recorded low percent disease index of 25.3 and 28.7, respectively, over nonbacterised pathogen control (44.3 and 56.4). The low disease incidence corroborated with tomato growth promotion with high vigor index (8,041.2) and fresh plant weight (82.5 g) on challenge inoculation with FOL. Analysis of root and leaf samples in rhizobacterial treatment challenged with FOL and AS revealed maximum induction of chitinase (1.9 and 1.7 U/mg of protein, respectively) and β-1,3-glucanase (23.5 and 19.2 U/mg of protein, respectively). In native gel activity assays, the rhizobacterial treatment on challenge inoculation strongly expressed three high intensity PO isoforms along with one low intensity isoform. In studies on genetic diversity of the Bacillus strains by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR) and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) patterns, ARDRA was more highly discriminant than REP-PCR and allowed grouping of the strains and differentiation of the antagonistic strains from other isolates.

  11. First report of Coelomomyces santabrancae sp. nov. (Blastocladiomycetes: Blastocladiales) infecting mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in central Brazil.

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    Rueda-Páramo, M E; Montalva, C; Arruda, W; Fernandes, É K K; Luz, C; Humber, R A

    2017-10-01

    A project from 2013 to 2017 sought to discover pathogenic fungi and oomycetes from dipteran species that are vectors of major diseases of humans and animals in central Brazil and to begin evaluating the potential of these pathogens as potential biological control agents concentrated on mosquito larvae. Some collecting sites proved to be especially productive for pathogens of naturally occurring mosquito species and for placements of healthy sentinel larvae of Aedes aegypti in various sorts of containers in a gallery forest in the Santa Branca Ecoturismo Private Reserve of Natural Patrimony (RPPN) near Terezópolis de Goiás (GO). Collections during May-April of 2016 and February 2017 yielded a few dead mosquito larvae of an undetermined Onirion sp. (Culicidae: Sabethini) whose hemocoels contained many ovoid, thick-walled, yellow-golden to golden-brown, ovoid thick-walled resistant sporangia, 38.3±4×22.8±2.3µm, decorated by numerous, closely and randomly spaced punctations of variable size and shape. These were the first indisputable collections from Brazil of any Coelomomyces species. Comparisons of the morphology of these sporangia with those of other species of Coelomomyces, confirmed that this Brazilian fungus represented a new species that is described here as Coelomomyces santabrancae. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Cohesive Properties of the Caulobacter crescentus Holdfast Adhesin Are Regulated by a Novel c-di-GMP Effector Protein

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    Kathrin S. Sprecher

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available When encountering surfaces, many bacteria produce adhesins to facilitate their initial attachment and to irreversibly glue themselves to the solid substrate. A central molecule regulating the processes of this motile-sessile transition is the second messenger c-di-GMP, which stimulates the production of a variety of exopolysaccharide adhesins in different bacterial model organisms. In Caulobacter crescentus, c-di-GMP regulates the synthesis of the polar holdfast adhesin during the cell cycle, yet the molecular and cellular details of this control are currently unknown. Here we identify HfsK, a member of a versatile N-acetyltransferase family, as a novel c-di-GMP effector involved in holdfast biogenesis. Cells lacking HfsK form highly malleable holdfast structures with reduced adhesive strength that cannot support surface colonization. We present indirect evidence that HfsK modifies the polysaccharide component of holdfast to buttress its cohesive properties. HfsK is a soluble protein but associates with the cell membrane during most of the cell cycle. Coincident with peak c-di-GMP levels during the C. crescentus cell cycle, HfsK relocalizes to the cytosol in a c-di-GMP-dependent manner. Our results indicate that this c-di-GMP-mediated dynamic positioning controls HfsK activity, leading to its inactivation at high c-di-GMP levels. A short C-terminal extension is essential for the membrane association, c-di-GMP binding, and activity of HfsK. We propose a model in which c-di-GMP binding leads to the dispersal and inactivation of HfsK as part of holdfast biogenesis progression.

  13. Serologic response in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus infected with Brucella sp. using a dolphin-specific indirect ELISA.

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    Meegan, Jenny; Dunn, J Lawrence; Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Smith, Cynthia R; Sidor, Inga; Jensen, Eric D; Van Bonn, William G; Pugh, Roberta; Ficht, Thomas; Adams, L Garry; Nielsen, Klaus; Romano, Tracy A

    2012-12-03

    Marine-origin Brucella infections and serologic evidence of exposure have been documented in multiple cetacean species. A dolphin-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to screen bottlenose dolphin sera for anti-Brucella antibodies. A total of 131 serum samples collected over a 2 to 18 yr period from 6 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus with confirmed Brucella infections were analyzed for the presence and magnitude of antibody titers against marine-origin Brucella to compare individual antibody responses to various disease manifestations. Additionally, an epidemiologic serologic survey of a managed population of 64 bottlenose dolphins was performed to evaluate for the presence of antibodies and to determine whether there were any clinical pathology predictors for exposure or infection. The serologic results revealed that the dolphins with Brucella-associated abortions were seronegative for 7 to 18 yr until after the abortion and maintained positive titers for several years, with 2 of 3 animals returning to seronegative status. In contrast, the dolphins with Brucella-associated pulmonary or bone lesions maintained persistent positive titers for 2 to 18 yr. The population serosurvey revealed no significant differences in antibody levels among males and females, and dolphins between the ages of 17 and 25 yr were 6.8 times more likely to be Brucella antibody positive compared to those that were younger or older. Seropositive dolphins did not have significant inflammation compared to seronegative dolphins but were more likely to have higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Among 16 dolphins that tested seropositive, 13 (81.3%) had previously been seropositive for at least 3 to 5 yr.

  14. MicroRNA regulated defense responses in Triticum aestivum L. during Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici infection.

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    Gupta, Om Prakash; Permar, Vipin; Koundal, Vikas; Singh, Uday Dhari; Praveen, Shelly

    2012-02-01

    Plants have evolved diverse mechanism to recognize pathogen attack and triggers defense responses. These defense responses alter host cellular function regulated by endogenous, small, non-coding miRNAs. To understand the mechanism of miRNAs regulated cellular functions during stem rust infection in wheat, we investigated eight different miRNAs viz. miR159, miR164, miR167, miR171, miR444, miR408, miR1129 and miR1138, involved in three different independent cellular defense response to infection. The investigation reveals that at the initiation of disease, accumulation of miRNAs might be playing a key role in hypersensitive response (HR) from host, which diminishes at the maturation stage. This suggests a possible host-fungal synergistic relation leading to susceptibility. Differential expression of these miRNAs in presence and absence of R gene provides a probable explanation of miRNA regulated R gene mediated independent pathways.

  15. Bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) asymptomatically infected with Devriesea agamarum are a source of persistent clinical infection in captive colonies of dab lizards (Uromastyx sp.).

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    Devloo, R; Martel, A; Hellebuyck, T; Vranckx, K; Haesebrouck, F; Pasmans, F

    2011-06-02

    Devriesea agamarum causes dermatitis and septicaemia in a variety of lizards, notably those belonging to the genus Uromastyx, whereas other species such as bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) seem to be asymptomatic carriers. Using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), the relatedness between 69 D. agamarum isolates was examined. The isolates derived from 44 diseased lizards, of which 31 belonged to the genus Uromastyx, and from 25 healthy lizards, of which 21 were bearded dragons. Eight AFLP genotypes were obtained, four of which comprised 93% of the isolates. These four genotypes were each present in 2, 2, 8 and 13 different captive colonies. Up to three genotypes were isolated from a single infected colony simultaneously. On two occasions, the same genotype was found in healthy bearded dragons and diseased Uromastyx lizards from the same colony, confirming the role of the former as an asymptomatic source of infection for the latter. Two genotypes, comprising 12 isolates, were exclusively associated with diseased Uromastyx lizards, suggesting strain dependent host adaptation. Finally, D. agamarum was shown to be able to persist for at least seven years in a lizard colony, persistently causing severe disease in several lizard species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov., a scotochromogenic, rapidly growing species is able to infect human macrophage cell line.

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    Ramaprasad, E V V; Rizvi, A; Banerjee, S; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2016-11-01

    Gram-stain-positive, acid-fast-positive, rapidly growing, rod-shaped bacteria (designated as strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431) were isolated from paddy cultivated soils on the Western Ghats of India. Phylogenetic analysis placed the three strains among the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium tokaiense 47503T (98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Mycobacterium murale MA112/96T (98.8 %) and a few other Mycobacterium species. The level of DNA-DNA reassociation of the three strains with M. tokaiense DSM 44635T was 23.4±4 % (26.1±3 %, reciprocal analysis) and 21.4±2 % (22.1±4 %, reciprocal analysis). The three novel strains shared >99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA reassociation values >85 %. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated sequences (3071 bp) of four housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB and sodA) revealed that strain JC290T is clearly distinct from all other Mycobacteriumspecies. The three strains had diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositolmannosides, unidentified phospholipids, unidentified glycolipids and an unidentified lipid as polar lipids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone for all three strains was MK-9(H2). Fatty acids were C17 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C19 : 1ω7c/C19 : 1ω6c for all the three strains. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it was concluded that strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431 are members of a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium and for which the name Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC290T (=KCTC 39560T=LMG 28809T).

  17. Cushing's disease due to mixed pituitary adenoma-gangliocytoma of the posterior pituitary gland presenting with Aspergillus sp. sinus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridenstine, Mark; Kerr, Janice M; Lillehei, Kevin O; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Bette K

    2013-01-01

    Gangliocytic lesions of the pituitary gland producing Cushing's disease are extremely rare entities that may exist with or without a pituitary adenoma. The latter have been designated mixed pituitary adenoma-gangliocytomas, the majority of which produce growth hormone, not adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), and are localized to the anterior gland. We now report an immunocompetent woman with hypercortisolism who presented with an intranasal aspergilloma eroding the bony sellar floor. The fungal ball was contiguous with, and extended into, a large neurohypophyseal-centered mass. Transsphenoidal resection revealed a gangliocytic lesion of the posterior gland with small clusters of intimately admixed ACTH-immunoreactive adenoma cells as the cause of her Cushing's disease. Rare transitional sizes and shapes of cells coupled with immunohistochemical findings supported interpretation as advanced neuronal metaplasia within an ACTH adenoma. This mixed ACTH adenoma-gangliocytoma is the first example to present clinically with an opportunistic infection.

  18. Serological survey for Leishmania sp. infection in wild animals from the municipality of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil

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    EM Voltarelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania sp. infection was investigated in wild animals from the Ingá Park, in the municipality of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil, where American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is an endemic disease. Sixty-five mammals, comprising Didelphis albiventris, Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Cebus apella, Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, Procyon cancrivorus and Nasua nasua, were captured. Blood samples were collected for parasite cultivation. Antibodies were investigated by direct agglutination test (DAT using Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis as antigen. Flagellates were observed in blood cultures of 14 (35.9% Didelphis albiventris. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in 31 (51.6% specimens of Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Cebus apella, Dasyprocta azarae, Procyon cancrivorus and Nasua nasua. These results suggest that Cerdocyon thous and Lycalopex vetulus (crab-eating fox, Cebus apella (capuchin monkey, Dasyprocta azarae (agouti, Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon and Nasua nasua (coati play an important role in the ACL transmission cycle in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil.

  19. Molecular evidence of the multiple genotype infection of a wild Hokkaido brown bear (Ursus arctos yesoensis) by Babesia sp. UR1.

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    Jinnai, Michio; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Nakajima, Rui; Hirata, Haruyuki; Fujisawa, Kohei; Shiraki, Hiromi; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Nasuno, Toyohiko; Ishihara, Chiaki

    2010-10-11

    A frozen-stored blood clot of a wild brown bear cub Ursus arctos yesoensis that had been captured in Hokkaido, Japan was examined for piroplasma infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two 18S ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequences were generated. One 1565-bp sequence showed the highest similarity with B. gibsoni (95.9% identity) but, phylogenetically, was found to belong to a distinct lineage. The other sequence (1709-bp) could not be definitively assigned to a described taxon, sharing only limited homology to the closest named species (90.1% identity with C. felis). In order to enhance information obtained from the SSU rDNA sequence, further detection and sequence analysis of the CCTeta gene sequence were done revealing the simultaneous presence of three closely related genotypes (all in a monophyletic lineage) within a single bear host. This finding suggested the possibility that a new Babesia species (Babesia sp. UR1) might have been maintained in nature in wild brown bears. While the parasite's biology is yet unknown, to our knowledge, this is, excepting the single case documentation in 1910 of a hemoparasite in a bear at Russian zoo, the first reported case of piroplasms inhabiting a bear species. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Freqüência de Serratia sp em Infecções Urinárias de pacientes internados na Santa Casa de Misericórdia em Fortaleza Frequency of Serratia sp in urine infections of intern patients in the Santa Casa de Misericórdia in Fortaleza

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    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente a Serratia é considerada um importante patógeno humano, o qual tem sido encontrado como agente causal de infecções hospitalares principalmente infecções do trato urinário. Verificamos a freqüência da Serratia sp em amostras de urina, em pacientes internados. Foram estudadas 1197 amostras das quais 15 foram positivas para Serratia sp. As espécies encontradas foram: 7 Serratia liquefaciens (46,7%, 5 Serratia odorífera (33,3% e 3 Serratia rubidaea (20%.In the present time the Serratia is considered an important human pathogen, which has been found as causal agent of nosocomial infections mainly urine infections. We verify the frequency of the Serratia sp in urine samples, in intern patients. Were studied 1197 urine samples, this study show 15 positive for the Serratia sp. The species found were: 7 Serratia liquefaciens (46,7%, 5 Serratia odorífera (33,3% and 3 Serratia rubidaea (20%.

  1. Expectations of vertical transmission of hiv from HIV-infected mothers in a research process at Sorocaba/SP

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    Danilo de Assis Pereira

    2014-04-01

    Introduction: Vertical transmission of AIDS is defined as a transmission that occurs from mother to child during pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding and is today the main route of HIV infection in children under 13 in the world. Objective: in order to understand the history of life and the therapeutic itinerary of HIV positive pregnant women, it was conducted a study with a qualitative approach to social phenomenology as theoretical and methodological references. Methods: For the study, a Likert-type questionnaire and a semi structured interview were applied for each participant. Results and Discussion: The study revealed the dilemmas faced and the actions taken by these women, HIV positive mothers, waiting for the diagnosis of the fetus, both participants in the Zero Vertical Transmission Program Clinic STD / AIDS in the city of Sorocaba, state of São Paulo. Prejudice and stigma related to AIDS is the leading source stressful and promoter of social isolation of this population, which faces the prejudice by relying mainly on their children and on their religiosity/spirituality as the second largest mainstay. Women often do not see their companion as supportive and fight back the situation of suffering, anguish, fear, and disappointment with their own courage and hope to overcome the adversity caused by the disease. Conclusion: The implications of this study suggest the risk and protective factors promoting resilience in this clientele, besides suggesting creating spaces that encourage discussion of the medical context, cultural, social and economic development in which these women are entered and that influence their daily decisions

  2. Natural infection of gastrointestinal nematodes in long-nosed armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 from Pantanal wetlands, Aquidauana sub-region, Mato Grosso do Sul State, with the description of Hadrostrongylus speciosum n. gen. et n. sp. (Molineidae: Anoplostrongylinae).

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    Lux Hoppe, Estevam G; do Nascimento, Adjair Antonio

    2007-03-15

    This study evaluated the gastrointestinal helminth fauna of long-nosed armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus, from the Pantanal wetlands, Aquidauana sub-region, Aquidauana County, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Thirteen species of nematodes, comprising seven genera and four families, were recovered from their gastrointestinal tracts. The following descriptors of infection were determined: prevalence, variation of intensity, average intensity and abundance. Hadrostrongylus speciosum n. gen. et n. sp. is first described here.

  3. BQP35 is a novel member of the intrinsically unstructured protein (IUP) family which is a potential antigen for the sero-diagnosis of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guiquan; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Liu, Junlong; Ma, Miling; Rogniaux, Hélène; Liu, Aihong; Niu, Qingli; Li, Youquan; Ren, Qiaoyun; Luo, Jianxun; Chauvin, Alain; Yin, Hong

    2012-07-06

    A new gene of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) (BQP35) was cloned by screening a merozoite cDNA expression library with infected sheep serum and using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA was 1140bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 936bp encoding a 35-kDa predicted polypeptide with 311 amino acid residues. Comparison of BQP35 cDNA and genomic DNA sequences showed that BQP35 does not possess an intron. Recombinant BQP35 (rBQP35), expressed in a prokaryotic expression system, showed abnormally slow migration on SDS-PAGE. Gel shifting, amino acid sequence and in silico disorder region prediction indicated that BQP35 protein has characteristics of intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs). This is the first description of such proteins in the Babesia genus. BQP35 induced antibodies production as early as one week after Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) infection in sheep. No cross-reaction was observed with sera from sheep infected with other ovine piroplasms dominant in China, except with Babesia sp. Tianzhu. The interest of BQP35 as a diagnostic antigen is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Description of Acleotrema maculatus sp. nov. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae infecting the spotted coral grouper Plectropomus maculatus (F:Serranidea from the Red Sea and its histopathological impact

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    Kareem Morsy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acleotrema maculatus sp. nov. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae was described from the gills of The spotted coral grouper Plectropomus maculatus (F:Serranidea, Forsskal, 1775. Fish were collected from boot landing sites and fishermen at different water locations along the Red Sea at Hurghada City, Egypt. The morphology and morphometric characterization of the recovered worms were described by means of light microscopy. Eight (53.3% out 15 specimens of P. maculatus were infected. Most of the infected fish had very pale gills. Morphologically, the adult worm of A. maculatus sp. nov., possessed a body which was elongated, fusiform with a total length 0.86–0.90 (0.88 ± 0.02 mm, and a maximum width 0.09–0.13 (0.11 ± 0.02 mm at the level of ovary. Haptor, broad, differentiated from the rest of the body, measured 0.04–0.08 (0.06 ± 0.02 mm and provided with continuous rows of squamodiscs. Two pairs of lateral hamuli, three bars and 14 marginal hooklets were also observed. Lateral (dorsal bars two, stout, dumbbell-shaped, measured 0.052–0.056 (0.054 ± 0.002 mm in length. Ventral bar slender, with transverse groove, measured 0.09–0.11 (0.10 ± 0.01 mm in length. Ventral hamuli measured 0.02–0.06 (0.04 ± 0.02 mm in total length with an outer root that was very long measured 0.016–0.02 (0.018 ± 0.002, stout, slightly notched at broad proximal end; inner root was conical and measured 0.013–0.017 (0.015 ± 0.002 mm, with shaft measured 0.025–0.029 (0.027 ± 0.002 mm and point length 0.007–0.009 (0.008 ± 0.002 mm. Dorsal hamuli measured 0.034–0.038 (0.036 ± 0.002 in total length; base large, stout, with only lateral rudiment of roots; blade and point were long and curved with shaft length measured 0.024–0.028 (0.026 ± 0.002 mm and 0.02–0.06 (0.04 ± 0.02 mm point length. The worm is hermaphrodite, male copulatory organ measured 0.058–0.062 (0.060 ± 0.002 mm in length with a sclerotized part composed of

  5. Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata, Psidium guajava and Piper betle as Prevention on Motile Aeromonad Septicaemia Infection in African Catfish (Clarias sp.

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    D. Wahjuningrum

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available An effort to prevent Motile Aeromonad Septicaemia (MAS disease in African catfish (Clarias sp. performed using antibiotic was less safety and expensive ways.  An herbal medicine may be able to be a safety and cheap way to prevent of the MAS disease.  This study was conducted to determine efficacy of herbal medicine combination of sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata, daun jambu (Psidium guajava and daun sirih (Piper betle. Herbal medicines were mixed to diet and fish were fed on the diet containing the herbal medicine for 7 days of rearing.  The dosage of herbal medicine per 100 gram of diet was PI (1.0 g sambiloto, 0.75 g daun jambu and 0.25 g daun sirih, PII (1.0 g sambiloto,  0.50 g daun jambu,  0.50 g daun sirih, and PIII (1.0 g sambiloto, 0.25 g daun jambu, and 0.75 g daun sirih.  On 8th day, fish were injected intramuscularly with 1 ml of Aeromonas hydrophila (105 cfu/ml every 1 kg of fish.  Clinical symptom, feed response, fish weight, number of fish survive and visually changing of internal organs.  The results of study indicated that administration of herbal medicine A. paniculata, P. guajava and P. betle mixed into the diet effectively prevented A. hydrophila infection.  Combination of 1.0 gram A. paniculata, 0.75 gram P. guajava and 0.25 gram P. betle gave higher efficacy against A. hydrophila infection. Keywords: Andrographis paniculata, Psidium guajava, Piper betle, Motile Aeromonad septicaemia, African catfish   ABSTRAK Upaya penanggulangan penyakit MAS (Motil Aeromonad Septicaemia pada ikan lele dumbo (Clarias sp. yang dilakukan menggunakan antibiotik cenderung kurang aman dan mahal. Pencegahan menggunakan obat herbal diharapkan dapat mengatasi masalah tersebut secara aman dan murah.  Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui efektivitas obat herbal kombinasi sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata, daun jambu biji (Psidium guajava dan sirih (Piper betle dengan dosis berbeda yang diberikan melalui pakan selama 7 hari.

  6. Light and scanning electron microscopy of Henneguya arapaima n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) and histology of infected sites in pirarucu (Arapaima gigas: Pisces: Arapaimidae) from the Araguaia River, Brazil.

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    Feijó, M M; Arana, S; Ceccarelli, P S; Adriano, E A

    2008-10-20

    In this report, we describe Henneguya arapaima n. sp., a parasite of the gill arch and gall bladder of Arapaima gigas (pirarucu) collected in the Araguaia River, in the municipality of Nova Crixás, Goiás State, central Brazil. The plasmodia were white, round or ellipsoidal and measured 200-600 microm. Parasite development was asynchronous and the mature spores were fusiform and had smooth wall. The spores measurements were (range, with means+/-S.D. in parentheses): total length-48.4-53.1 microm (51.6+/-3.4 microm), body length-13.5-15.2 microm (14.2+/-0.8 microm), body width-5.1-6.1 microm (5.7+/-0.5 microm), body thickness-4.7-5.3 microm (4.9+/-0.2 microm) and caudal process length-38.0-41.2 microm (38.3+/-2.9 microm). The polar capsules were elongated and of unequal size, with lengths of 6.3-6.8 microm (6.5+/-0.2) and 6.2-6.6 microm (6.3+/-0.1) for the longest and shortest axes, respectively. Capsule width was 1.4-1.6 microm (1.5+/-0.1). Histological analysis showed that the plasmodia occurred in the tunica adventitia of the gall bladder and were delimited by a thin capsule of connective tissue. In the gill arch, the plasmodia were also surrounded by connective tissue similar to the endomesium of striated skeletal muscle cells. Sixty-five juvenile specimens of A. gigas weighing 1.0-25.0 kg were examined, 17 (26.1%) of which were infected. Of these, 14 (82.3%) had cysts in the gall bladder, two (11.7%) had cysts in the gill arch and only one (5.9%) had cysts in both organs. When the fish were grouped by weight, the prevalence of infection in fish weighing up to 10.0 kg (20.7%) was significantly lower than in fish weighing 10.1-25.0 kg (50%) (G=3.93; d.f.=1; p<0.05).

  7. The risk of exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Babesia sp. and co-infections in Ixodes ricinus ticks on the territory of Niepołomice forest (southern Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asman, Marek; Nowak, Magdalena; Cuber, Piotr; Strzelczyk, Joanna; Szilman, Ewa; Szilman, Piotr; Trapp, Gizela; Siuda, Krzysztof; Solarz, Krzysztof; Wiczkowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Niepołomice Forest is located about 20 kilometers east of Cracow (Malopolska province, southern Poland). Its natural and touristic values, as well as wide range of hosts occurring within indicate this to be an area of high risk of exposure to Ixodes ricinus and tick-borne diseases it transfers. I. ricinus is a common species in Poland and Europe. Its seasonal activity begins in Poland in the early spring, and ends with late autumn. A total number of 129 specimens of I. ricinus was collected by flagging in Niepołomice Forest. DNA was isolated by ammonia method from 30 randomly-selected individuals. PCR was used to detect tick-borne pathogens with primers specific for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Babesia sp. Molecular studies confirmed the presence of all three pathogens in I. ricinus. A. phagocytophilum was found in 76.7%, Babesia sp., 60%, B. burgdorferi s. l., in 3.3% of studied ticks. A. phagocytophilum co-infection with Babesia sp., was found in 46.7% of the specimens. A co-infection of all three tested pathogens was recorded in one case (3.3%). In Poland the problem of tick-borne diseases is a growing issue, therefore people residing in southern Polish touristic areas should be informed about the prevention and protection against ticks.

  8. The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo can infect and immortalize cattle leukocytes and encodes divergent orthologues of Theileria parva antigen genes

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    R.P. Bishop

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo, which is genetically very closely related to T. parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T. parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T. parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T. parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo, using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T. parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. ‘Deep 454 pyrosequencing’ of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo. This strongly suggests that R. appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo. Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo. is a distinct species from T. parva.

  9. Two pectin lyase genes, pnl-1 and pnl-2, from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae differ in a cellulose-binding domain and in their expression during infection of Malva pusilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yangdou; Shih, Jenny; Li, Jieran; Goodwin, Paul H

    2002-07-01

    Two pectin lyase genes, designated pnl-1 and pnl-2, were cloned from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae, a pathogen of round-leaved mallow (Malva pusilla). pnl-1 was isolated using cDNA from infected plant material; pnl-2 was isolated using cDNA from 3-day-old mycelia grown in mallow-cell-wall extract (MCWE) broth. pnl-1 is the first pectinase gene described thus far to encode a cellulose-binding domain (CBD), which is common in cellulases and xylanases, whereas pnl-2 encodes a pectin lyase that lacks a CBD. In pure culture, pnl-1 expression could be detected when purified pectin or glucose was the sole carbon source, but not when MCWE was the sole carbon source. The lack of pnl-1 expression appeared to be due to gene repression by some unknown factor(s) in the cell-wall extract. In contrast, expression of pnl-2 was detected in cultures when MCWE, but not when purified pectin or glucose, was the sole carbon source. In infected tissue, detection of pnl-1 expression by Northern-blot hybridization and by RT-PCR began with the onset of the necrotrophic phase of infection. Expression ofpnl-2 was not detectable by Northern-blot hybridization, but was observed byRT-PCR in both the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of infection. The differences between pnl-1 and pnl-2 (i.e. pnl-1 encoding a CBD and differences in the expression patterns of both genes) may be related to the requirements of C. gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae to be able to grow in host tissue under the different conditions present during the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of infection.

  10. In vitro and in vivo effects of Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus sp. on Fusarium acuminatum, Botrytis cinerea and Aspergillus niger infecting cucumber

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    Jasmina Zdravković

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L is an important member of the Cucurbitaceae family. Production of healthy nursery is necessary for high-quality production of this crop in greenhouses and in fields. With the idea of minimizing the use of pesticides and mineral fertilizers to preserve soil quality, we investigated the effects of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB on growth promotion and protection of cucumber plants from phytopathogenic fungi. The effects of Pseudomonas spp. strains with different antifungal activities and Bacillus sp. Q10 strain with PGP activity were tested on cucumber plants. Antagonistic activity of Pseudomonas spp. against the growth of several phytopathogenic fungi isolated from cucumber: F. acuminatum, B. cinerea and A. niger, was observed. The influences of overnight cultures, supernatants and heat-stable antifungal factors were tested on the phytopathogenic fungi in vitro. Pseudomonas sp. K35 and K24 strains were more effective than P. chlororaphis Q16 and Pseudomonas sp. K27, showing 70-80% of fungal growth inhibition regardless of culture or fraction applied. The good antagonists that belong to pseudomonads and Bacillus sp. Q10 strain were used as mixtures for estimation of plant growth and health promoting effects on cucumber plants. Growth dynamics differed depending on the applied strain of Pseudomonas sp. The M3 treatment (a mixture of Bacillus sp. Q10 and P. chlororaphis Q16 stimulated the initial phase of growth, while M4 (a mixture of Bacillus sp. Q10 and Pseudomonas sp. K24 resulted in the maximal height at the final measurement. Significant differences in leaf and plant weight (M4, and leaf weight (M5, containing K35 strain were found after the treatments. No significant differences in chlorophyll and NBI level were observed in any of the tested combinations. The obtained results suggested that M3 was suitable for stimulation of the early phase of cucumber growth, while the mixtures M4 and M5 improved plant

  11. RAP-1a is the main rhoptry-associated-protein-1 (RAP-1) recognized during infection with Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) (B. motasi-like phylogenetic group), a pathogen of sheep in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Bonsergent, Claire; Rogniaux, Hélène; Guan, Guiquan; Malandrin, Laurence; Moreau, Emmanuelle

    2016-12-15

    Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) is one of the parasites isolated from infected sheep in China that belongs to the B. motasi-like phylogenetic group. The rhoptry-associated-protein 1 (rap-1) locus in this group consists of a complex organization of 12 genes of three main types: 6 rap-1a variants intercalated with 5 identical copies of rap-1b and a single 3' ending rap-1c gene. In the present study, transcription analysis performed by standard RT-PCR demonstrated that the three different rap-1 gene types and the four rap-1a variants were transcribed by the parasite cultivated in vitro. Peptides, specific for each rap-1 type gene, were selected in putative linear B-epitopes and used to raise polyclonal rabbit antisera. Using these sera, the same expression pattern of RAP-1 proteins was found in parasites cultivated in vitro or collected from acute infection whereas only RAP-1a67 was detectable in merozoite extracts. However, ELISA performed with recombinant RAP-1a67, RAP-1b or RAP-1c and sera from infected sheep demonstrated that RAP-1a67 is the main RAP-1 recognized during infection, even if some infected sheep also recognized RAP-1b and/or RAP-1c. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-16

    characteristic in severe gram-negative sepsis. Hypertriglyceridemia results from an increase in hepatic synthesis in combination with diminished activity of...induced stress, and tissue repair (1). The magnitude and type of nutritional losses caused by an infection reflect both the severity and duration of an... several functional forms of nutrient loss must be anticipated. Functional losses are defined as the within-body losses of nutrients due to infection

  13. A Caulobacter MreB mutant with irregular cell shape exhibits compensatory widening to maintain a preferred surface area to volume ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Leigh K.; Dye, Natalie A.; Theriot, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Rod-shaped bacteria typically elongate at a uniform width. To investigate the genetic and physiological determinants involved in this process, we studied a mutation in the morphogenetic protein MreB in Caulobacter crescentus that gives rise to cells with a variable-width phenotype, where cells have regions that are both thinner and wider than wild-type. During growth, individual cells develop a balance of wide and thin regions, and mutant MreB dynamically localizes to poles and thin regions. Surprisingly, the surface area to volume ratio of these irregularly-shaped cells is, on average, very similar to wild-type. We propose that, while mutant MreB localizes to thin regions and promotes rod-like growth there, wide regions develop as a compensatory mechanism, allowing cells to maintain a wild-type-like surface area to volume ratio. To support this model, we have shown that cell widening is abrogated in growth conditions that promote higher surface area to volume ratios, and we have observed individual cells with high ratios return to wild-type levels over several hours by developing wide regions, suggesting that compensation can take place at the level of individual cells. PMID:25266768

  14. Immobilization of bacterial S-layer proteins from Caulobacter crescentus on iron oxide-based nanocomposite: synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of zincite-coated Fe₂O₃ nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Neda

    2014-05-05

    Zinc oxide was coated on Fe2O3 nanoparticles using sol-gel spin-coating. Caulobacter crescentus have a crystalline surface layer (S-layer), which consist of one protein or glycoprotein species. The immobilization of bacterial S-layers obtained from C. crescentus on zincite-coated nanoparticles of iron oxide was investigated. The SDS PAGE results of S-layers isolated from C. crescentus showed the weight of 50 KDa. Nanoparticles of the Fe2O3 and zinc oxide were synthesized by a sol-gel technique. Fe2O3 nanoparticles with an average size of 50 nm were successfully prepared by the proper deposition of zinc oxide onto iron oxide nanoparticles surface annealed at 450 °C. The samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential gene expression, induced by salicylic acid and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici infection, in tomato Expressão diferencial de genes induzida por ácido salicílico e por Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, em tomateiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Oliveira Jordão do Amaral

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the transcript profile of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., during Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici infection and after foliar application of salicylic acid. The suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH technique was used to generate a cDNA library enriched for transcripts differentially expressed. A total of 307 clones was identified in two subtractive libraries, which allowed the isolation of several defense-related genes that play roles in different mechanisms of plant resistance to phytopathogens. Genes with unknown roles were also isolated from the two libraries, which indicates the possibility of identifying new genes not yet reported in studies of stress/defense response. The SSH technique is effective for identification of resistance genes activated by salicylic acid and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici infection. Not only the application of this technique enables a cost effective isolation of differentially expressed sequences, but also it allows the identification of novel sequences in tomato from a relative small number of sequences.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o perfil de transcritos em plantas de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., durante a infecção com Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici e após a aplicação foliar de ácido salicílico. A técnica de hibridização subtrativa por supressão (SSH foi utilizada para gerar uma biblioteca de cDNA enriquecida por transcritos diferencialmente expressos. Foram identificados 307 clones, em duas bibliotecas subtrativas, que permitiram o isolamento de diversos genes de defesa com função em diferentes processos relacionados à resistência vegetal contra patógenos. Também foram isolados, nas duas bibliotecas, genes com função desconhecida, o que indica a possibilidade de identificação de novos genes que ainda não tenham sido relatados em estudos anteriores de resposta a estresses e defesa, em plantas

  16. Babesia behnkei sp. nov., a novel Babesia species infecting isolated populations of Wagner's gerbil, Dipodillus dasyurus, from the Sinai Mountains, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Alsarraf, Mohammed; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Mohallal, Eman M E; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Behnke-Borowczyk, Jolanta; Zalat, Sammy; Gilbert, Francis; Welc-Falęciak, Renata

    2014-12-09

    Although a number of new species of Babesia/Theileria have been described recently, there are still relatively few reports of species from Africa. In this study based on the evaluation of morphology and phylogenetic relationships, we describe a novel species from Wagner's gerbil, Babesia behnkei n. sp. Rodents (n = 1021) were sampled in four montane valleys (wadies) in 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2012 in the Sinai Mountains, Egypt. The overall prevalence of Babesia spp. was highest in the Wagner's gerbil (Dipodillus dasyurus; 38.7%) in comparison to the prevalence in the spiny mice species, Acomys dimidiatus and A. russatus. Morphological investigations were conducted for the comparison of trophozoites of the novel species of Babesia with the B. microti King's 67 reference strain. Thirty-two isolates derived from D. dasyurus over a 9 year period (2004-2012) from two wadies (29 isolates from Wadi Gebel and 3 from Wadi El-Arbaein) were investigated by microscopic, molecular and phylogenetic analysis. A near-full-length sequence of the 18S rRNA gene and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region were amplified, sequenced and used for the construction of phylogenetic trees. A novel species of Babesia was identified in two isolated populations of D. dasyurus. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA and ITS2 sequences revealed that B. behnkei n. sp. is most closely related to B. lengau from cheetahs from South Africa and to Nearctic species found only in North America (the pathogenic B. duncani and B. conradae) and that it is more distant to the cosmopolitan rodent parasite B. microti. Trophozoites of B. behnkei were smaller and less polymorphic than trophozoites of B. microti. Babesia behnkei n. sp. is a novel species of the 'Duncani group' maintained in isolated populations of Dipodillus dasyurus occurring in the Sinai Mountains of Egypt.

  17. SP. Pescado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Gendre

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nell'occhiello di un articolo dal titolo Il Peru dei de[Jini rosa e de/la grande pioggia si legge: "da una partenza  in aereo al «pescado»  che ti  sfamera."1 Questa parola spagnola, giustamente chiusa tra caporali, a noi pare molto interes­ sante, perche, nonostante l'apparenza, non ha nulla da spartire sotto i1 profilo se­ mantico con l'it. pescato. lnfatti, tutti i piu importanti dizionari della lingua italiana, di ieri e di oggi, etimologici e non 2, registrano  accanto a pescata,  ii lemma pescato, 3 ma lo spiegano come "quantita di pesce catturato nel corso di una battuta o di una stagione di pesca",4 mentre lo sp. pescado  indica i1 "pesce (solo nel senso di: pesGe pescato da mangiare [...]".s

  18. Parasitic infections in African pangolin ( Manis temminckii ) from Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amblyomma sp.). Oochoristica sp. (100%) and Amblyomma sp. (75%) were the most prevalent parasites. Both male and female pangolins recorded equal prevalence (100%) of infection, however, mean intensity of parasites was higher in males ...

  19. Black flies (Diptera : Simuliidae attracted to humans and water buffalos and natural infections with filarial larvae, probably Onchocerca sp., in northern Thailand

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    Takaoka H.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Several Simulium species were investigated as to their biting habits and natural infections with filarial larvae at Ban Pan Fan, Chiang Mai Province, in northern Thailand. Female adults flies landing on or flighting around a human and a water buffalo were collected during the daytime from 06.00 to 19.00 hours on 22 June 2001. As a result, 217 S. nodosum, 86 S. asakoae and two S. nigrogilvum were obtained from a human attractant, and 416 S. nodosum, 25 S. nakhonense, 16 S. asakoae, four 5. fenestratum and two S. nigrogilvum, from a water buffalo. The blood-feeding was confirmed only for S. nodosum and S. nigrogilvum on humans, and for S. nodosum and S. nakhonense on water buffalos. Dissections of these simuliids showed that S. nodosum was naturally infected with developing filarial larvae. Two types of microfilariae were distinguished but only one type of infective larvae. These larvae resembled Onchocerca suzukii, a parasite from a wild Japanese bovid, suggesting that an unknown Onchocerca species from ruminants was transmitted in Thailand. Infection rates with all stages of larvae and third-stage larvae were 2.3 % (14/608 and 1 .0 % (6/608, respectively. This is the first report of natural infections of black flies with Onchocerca larvae in Southeast Asia, and the involved black fly species is shown to be not only anthropophilic but also zoophilic in this region.

  20. Ovos de Toxocara sp. e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em praça pública de Lavras, MG Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil

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    Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral e cutânea são zoonoses parasitárias causadas pela infecção da larva de Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp., respectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. e ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solos coletadas de praças públicas e de áreas de recreação infantil de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, por meio da técnica de centrífugo-flutuação e do método de Baermann. A ocorrência de ovos de Toxocara sp. e, ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi observada em 69,6% (16/23 das amostras de solo coletadas de praças públicas. A contaminação somente por ovos de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solo coletadas em escolas/creches foi de 22,2% (4/18. A percentagem de amostras de areia coletadas de escolas/creches contaminadas somente com larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi de 11,1% (2/18. Praças públicas são as áreas com maior risco potencial de infecção por Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp. Exame coproparasitológico realizado em 174 amostras de fezes de cães observou 58% e 23%, respectivamente, com ovos de Ancylostoma sp. e Toxocara sp.Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans are parasitic zoonoses caused by the infection of larval nematodes Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. respectively. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination by Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. eggs and larva of soil samples collected from public parks and children's playground areas in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using both Baermann's method and centrifugal flotation technique. Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. eggs were observed in soil samples collected from public squares in 17.4% (4/23 and 69.6 (16/23 respectively. In schools and child day care settings the contamination by Ancylostoma sp. larva in sand samples was 11.1% (2/18. Public parks are settings of more potential risk of Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. infection. Stool parasitology testing of 174 stool

  1. Presence of amastigotes in the central nervous system of hamsters infected with Leishmania sp. Presença de amastigotas em sistema nervoso central de hamster infectado com Leishmania sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe chronic disease caused by Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi. Better knowledge on the effects caused by this disease can help develop adequate clinical management and treatment. Parasitological and immunohistochemical studies were performed golden hamsters Mesocricetus auratus infected with bone marrow from individuals with VL in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, central-west Brazil. The effects of parasitism in the spleen, liver, kidneys, lungs, heart and brain of the animals were examined. Eighteen hamsters were inoculated intraperitoneally, and six healthy animals were used as negative controls. The animals were kept in the animal house and checked for clinical signs. Specimens of each organ were examined for the presence of amastigotes. Immunohistochemical technique was performed in all brain specimens and organs negative on the direct examination of parasites. Direct examination of amastigotes was positive in the spleen and liver of all infected animals; 33.3% showed the parasite in the kidneys and lungs, and 16.7% in the heart. Parasitic forms were seen in 83.3% (15/18 of the brain examined. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the results of the direct examination, except in two specimens of lung tissue and in the brain specimens. Other studies are needed to further clarify the effect of the parasite in the central nervous system.A leishmaniose visceral (LV é uma doença crônica grave, causada pelo parasito Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi. Esclarecer as alterações provocadas pela doença é fundamental para que se adotem condutas clínicas e de tratamento adequadas. Com o objetivo de analisar a infecção experimental em hamsters da linhagem golden, Mesocricetus auratus, infectados com tecido de medula óssea de pacientes com LV no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, foram realizados estudos parasitológicos e de imunomarcação. Foi verificada a distribuição do parasitismo no baço, f

  2. Preventive and therapeutic administration of an indigenous Lactobacillus sp. strain against Proteus mirabilis ascending urinary tract infection in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Martín; Scavone, Paola; Zunino, Pablo

    2005-07-01

    Probiotics are increasingly being considered as non-pharmaceutical and safe potential alternatives for the treatment and prevention of a variety of pathologies including urinary tract infections. These are the most common infections in medical practice and are frequently treated with antibiotics, which have generated an intense selective pressure over bacterial populations. Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of urinary tract infections in catheterised patients and people with abnormalities of the urinary tract. In this work we isolated, identified and characterised an indigenous Lactobacillus murinus strain (LbO2) from the vaginal tract of a female mouse. In vitro characterisation of LbO2 included acid and bile salts tolerance, growth in urine, adherence to uroepithelial cells and in vitro antimicrobial activity. The selected strain showed interesting properties, suitable for its use as a probiotic. The ability of LbO2 to prevent and even treat ascending P. mirabilis urinary tract infection was assessed using an experimental model in the mouse. Kidney and bladder P. mirabilis counts were significantly lower in mice preventively treated with the probiotic than in non-treated mice. When LbO2 was used for therapeutic treatment, bladder counts of treated mice were significantly lower although no significant differences were detected in P. mirabilis kidney colonisation of treated and non-treated animals. These results are encouraging and prompt further research related to probiotic strains and the basis of their effects for their use in human and animal health.

  3. Detection of hemoplasma and Bartonella species and co-infection with retroviruses in cats subjected to a spaying/neutering program in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil Detecção de hemoplasmas e Bartonella sp. e co-infecção com retrovírus em gatos submetidos a um programa de castração/esterilização em Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil

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    Caroline Plácidi de Bortoli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemotrophic mycoplasmas and Bartonella species are important pathogens that circulate between cats and invertebrate hosts, occasionally causing diseases in humans. Nevertheless, there are few reports on occurrences of these agents in cats in Brazil. The present study aimed to detect the presence of hemoplasma and Bartonella DNA by means of PCR and sequencing. FIV antigens and anti-FeLV antibodies, were studied by using a commercial kit on blood and serum samples, respectively, among 46 cats that were sampled during a spaying/neutering campaign conducted in Jaboticabal, SP. Three (6.5% cats were positive for hemoplasmas: two (4.3% for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and one (2.2% for both M. haemofelis and 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. One of the two 'Candidatus M. haemominutum'-infected cats was also positive for FeLV antigens and showed antibodies for FIV. Two cats (4.3% were positive for B. henselae. One of them was also positive for FeLV antigens. Eight cats (17.4% were positive for FeLV, and just one (2.2% showed anti-FIV antibodies. Bartonella species and hemoplasmas associated with infection due to retroviruses can circulate among apparently healthy cats.Micoplasmas hemotróficos e espécies de Bartonella são importantes patógenos que circulam entre gatos e hospedeiros invertebrados, causando ocasionalmente doenças no homem. Apesar disto, poucos são os estudos acerca da ocorrência destes agentes entre gatos no Brasil. O presente estudo objetivou detectar o DNA de hemoplasmas e Bartonella sp. pela PCR e sequenciamento. Antígeno de FIV e anticorpos anti-FeLV foram estudados utilizando um "kit" comercial, em amostras de sangue e soro, respectivamente, de 46 gatos amostrados em uma campanha de castração em Jaboticabal, SP. Três gatos (6,5% foram positivos para hemoplasmas: dois (4,3% para 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' e um (2,2% para M. haemofelis and 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. Um dos gatos positivos para 'Candidatus M. haemominutum

  4. Draft genome sequences of six neonatal meningitis-causing escherichia coli isolates (SP-4, SP-5, SP-13, SP-16, SP-46, and SP-65)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli isolates (SP-4, SP-5, SP-13, SP-16, SP-46, and SP-65) were recovered from infants in the Netherlands from 1989 to 1997. Here, we report the draft genome sequences for these six E. coli isolates, which are currently being used to validate food safety processing te...

  5. Detection of Brucella sp. infection through serological, microbiological, and molecular methods applied to buffaloes in Maranhão State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Larissa Sarmento; Sá, Joicy Cortez; Dos Santos Ribeiro, Diego Luiz; Chaves, Nancyleni Pinto; da Silva Mol, Juliana Pinto; Santos, Renato Lima; da Paixão, Tatiane Alves; de Carvalho Neta, Alcina Vieira

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the current study is to diagnose Brucella spp. infection using methods such as serology, bacterial isolation, and molecular analysis in buffaloes bred in Maranhão State. In order to do so, 390 samples of buffalo serum were subjected to serological tests, to Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and to 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) combined with slow agglutination test (SAT). Vaginal swabs were collected from seropositive animals and subjected to bacterial isolation and to generic PCR. According to the serological test, 16 animals had a positive reaction to the confirmatory test (2-ME/SAT). As for bacterial isolation, three samples resulted in the isolation of Brucella spp.-characteristic colonies, which were confirmed through PCR. These results confirmed Brucella spp. infection in the buffalo herd from Maranhão State.

  6. Identification of Biomarkers for Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Infection and in Silico Studies in Musa paradisiaca Cultivar Puttabale through Proteomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Venkatesh; Venkatarangaiah, Krishna; Krishnappa, Pradeepa; Shimoga Rajanna, Santosh Kumar; Deeplanaik, Nagaraja; Chandra Pal, Anup; Kini, Kukkundoor Ramachandra

    2016-02-24

    Panama wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is one of the major disease constraints of banana production. Previously, we reported the disease resistance Musa paradisiaca cv. puttabale clones developed from Ethylmethanesulfonate and Foc culture filtrate against Foc inoculation. Here, the same resistant clones and susceptible clones were used for the study of protein accumulation against Foc inoculation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), their expression pattern and an in silico approach. The present investigation revealed mass-spectrometry identified 16 proteins that were over accumulated and 5 proteins that were under accumulated as compared to the control. The polyphosphoinositide binding protein ssh2p (PBPssh2p) and Indoleacetic acid-induced-like (IAA) protein showed significant up-regulation and down-regulation. The docking of the pathogenesis-related protein (PR) with the fungal protein endopolygalacturonase (PG) exemplify the three ionic interactions and seven hydrophobic residues that tends to good interaction at the active site of PG with free energy of assembly dissociation (1.5 kcal/mol). The protein-ligand docking of the Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase chloroplastic-like protein (PMSRc) with the ligand β-1,3 glucan showed minimum binding energy (-6.48 kcal/mol) and docking energy (-8.2 kcal/mol) with an interaction of nine amino-acid residues. These explorations accelerate the research in designing the host pathogen interaction studies for the better management of diseases.

  7. Identification of Biomarkers for Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Infection and in Silico Studies in Musa paradisiaca Cultivar Puttabale through Proteomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Ramu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Panama wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc is one of the major disease constraints of banana production. Previously, we reported the disease resistance Musa paradisiaca cv. puttabale clones developed from Ethylmethanesulfonate and Foc culture filtrate against Foc inoculation. Here, the same resistant clones and susceptible clones were used for the study of protein accumulation against Foc inoculation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, their expression pattern and an in silico approach. The present investigation revealed mass-spectrometry identified 16 proteins that were over accumulated and 5 proteins that were under accumulated as compared to the control. The polyphosphoinositide binding protein ssh2p (PBPssh2p and Indoleacetic acid-induced-like (IAA protein showed significant up-regulation and down-regulation. The docking of the pathogenesis-related protein (PR with the fungal protein endopolygalacturonase (PG exemplify the three ionic interactions and seven hydrophobic residues that tends to good interaction at the active site of PG with free energy of assembly dissociation (1.5 kcal/mol. The protein-ligand docking of the Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase chloroplastic-like protein (PMSRc with the ligand β-1,3 glucan showed minimum binding energy (−6.48 kcal/mol and docking energy (−8.2 kcal/mol with an interaction of nine amino-acid residues. These explorations accelerate the research in designing the host pathogen interaction studies for the better management of diseases.

  8. Detection of Cryptosporidium sp infection by PCR and modified acid fast staining from potassium dichromate preserved stool

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes Kurniawan; Sri W. Dwintasari; Herbowo A. Soetomenggolo; Septelia I. Wanandi

    2009-01-01

    Aim To identify the frequency of Cryptosporidium infection in children below 3 years old by examining concentrated long term preserved stool using PCR detection of 18S rRNA gene and compared with modified acid fast staining technique.Methods Hundred eighty eight stools from children ≤ 3 years old were stored for 13 months in 2.5% K2Cr2O7 solution at 40C. Cryptosporidium oocysts were isolated by water-ether concentration technique. The concentrates were smeared onto object glass and stained wi...

  9. Neoandracantha peruensis n. gen. n. sp. (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae described from cystacanths infecting the ghost crab Ocypode gaudichaudii on the Peruvian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Omar M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cystacanths of Neoandracantha peruensis n. gen. n. sp. are described from the ghost crab Ocypode gaudichaudii collected from the Pacific coast of Peru. While it is uncommon to describe acanthocephalan taxa from immature stages, the presence of clear-cut distinguishing features separating the present material from its nearest congeneric taxa, and the absence of adults, justifies the erection N. peruensis. The new genus is distinguished by having three separate fields of trunk spines. Specimens of N. peruensis have a slender trunk with two anterior swellings, 3 separate fields of spines on the foretrunk swelling, and no genital spines on the hindtrunk. The proboscis of the new species is heavily armored with 21–22 longitudinal rows of 22 hooks each. Hook no. 14 is more robust ventrally than dorsally. Cystacanths of N. peruensis also have a long tubular hindtrunk and the males have diagonal testes in the midtrunk swelling. Specimens of the closely related Andracantha Schmidt, 1975 have anteriorly enlarged pear-shaped Corynosoma-like trunks, only two fields of anterior trunk spines with occasional genital spines, and bilateral or tandem testes. Proboscides of species of Andracantha have considerably fewer hooks that gradually decrease in size posteriorly. The taxonomic component of this work is amplified by metal analysis of hooks and spines that shows a marked amount of magnesium (Mg in hooks but not in spines. The highest level of sulfur (S was found in the outer layer of hooks and anterior spines. The metal footprint of hooks and spines varies in different species of acanthocephalans and has an interspecific diagnostic value.

  10. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of an l-arabinonate dehydratase from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii and a d-xylonate dehydratase from Caulobacter crescentus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mubinur [University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, PO Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Andberg, Martina; Koivula, Anu [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, PO Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT Espoo (Finland); Rouvinen, Juha; Hakulinen, Nina, E-mail: nina.hakulinen@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, PO Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2016-07-13

    l-Arabinonate dehydratase and d-xylonate dehydratase from the IlvD/EDD family were crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data sets were collected to resolutions of 2.40 and 2.66 Å from crystals of l-arabinonate dehydratase and d-xylonate dehydratase, respectively. l-Arabinonate dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.25) and d-xylonate dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.82) are two enzymes that are involved in a nonphosphorylative oxidation pathway of pentose sugars. l-Arabinonate dehydratase converts l-arabinonate into 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-l-arabinonate, and d-xylonate dehydratase catalyzes the dehydration of d-xylonate to 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-d-xylonate. l-Arabinonate and d-xylonate dehydratases belong to the IlvD/EDD family, together with 6-phosphogluconate dehydratases and dihydroxyacid dehydratases. No crystal structure of any l-arabinonate or d-xylonate dehydratase is available in the PDB. In this study, recombinant l-arabinonate dehydratase from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (RlArDHT) and d-xylonate dehydratase from Caulobacter crescentus (CcXyDHT) were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by the use of affinity chromatography followed by gel-filtration chromatography. The purified proteins were crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. Crystals of RlArDHT that diffracted to 2.40 Å resolution were obtained using sodium formate as a precipitating agent. They belonged to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 106.07, b = 208.61, c = 147.09 Å, β = 90.43°. Eight RlArDHT molecules (two tetramers) in the asymmetric unit give a V{sub M} value of 3.2 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 62%. Crystals of CcXyDHT that diffracted to 2.66 Å resolution were obtained using sodium formate and polyethylene glycol 3350. They belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 270.42, b = 236.13, c = 65.17 Å, β = 97.38°. Four CcXyDHT molecules (a tetramer) in the asymmetric unit give a V{sub M

  11. Identificación morfológica de Ehrlichia sp. en las plaquetas de pacientes con infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, en Venezuela Morphologic identification of Ehrlichia sp. in the platelets of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene del Carmen de Tamí

    2004-11-01

    immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS after a variable period during which the individual can develop different types of opportunistic infections whose severity depends on his/her immune status. Human ehrlichiosis is a newly-recognized tick-borne infectious disease caused by Ehrlichia spp., which are obligate intracellular, Gram-negative bacteria showing tropism for blood cells (leukocytes and platelets. In Venezuela, the disease was first recognized in humans in 1994, when intra-cytoplasmic microcolonies (morula were found in human platelets. METHODS: We collected peripheral blood samples from 87 HIV-positive persons that were received at the Immunology Laboratory of the Oncology and Hematology Institute in Caracas, Venezuela, one of the country's referral centers for cases of HIV infection. Slides prepared from buffy coat that had been stained with Wright's solution and sealed with resin for preservation were examined retrospectively under the light microscope. RESULTS: Ehrlichia spp. were found in the platelets of 12 of the 87 (13.8% patients whose slides were examined. CONCLUSION: The presence of Ehrlichia sp. in the platelets of HIV-positive patients suggests that ehrlichiosis should be among the differential diagnoses of opportunistic infection in this group of patients.

  12. In-planta Sporulation Capacity Enhances Infectivity and Rhizospheric Competitiveness of Frankia Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotin-Galvan, Laetitia; Pozzi, Adrien C; Schwob, Guillaume; Fournier, Pascale; Fernandez, Maria P; Herrera-Belaroussi, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Frankia Sp+ strains maintain their ability to sporulate in symbiosis with actinorhizal plants, producing abundant sporangia inside host plant cells, in contrast to Sp- strains, which are unable to perform in-planta sporulation. We herein examined the role of in-planta sporulation in Frankia infectivity and competitiveness for root infection. Fifteen strains belonging to different Sp+ and Sp- phylogenetic lineages were inoculated on seedlings of Alnus glutinosa (Ag) and A. incana (Ai). Strain competitiveness was investigated by performing Sp-/Sp+ co-inoculations. Plant inoculations were standardized using crushed nodules obtained under laboratory-controlled conditions (same plant species, age, and environmental factors). Specific oligonucleotide primers were developed to identify Frankia Sp+ and/or Sp- strains in the resulting nodules. Single inoculation experiments showed that (i) infectivity by Sp+ strains was significantly greater than that by Sp- strains, (ii) genetically divergent Sp+ strains exhibited different infective abilities, and (iii) Sp+ and Sp- strains showed different host preferences according to the origin (host species) of the inocula. Co-inoculations of Sp+ and Sp- strains revealed the greater competitiveness of Sp+ strains (98.3 to 100% of Sp+ nodules, with up to 15.6% nodules containing both Sp+ and Sp- strains). The results of the present study highlight differences in Sp+/Sp- strain ecological behaviors and provide new insights to strengthen the obligate symbiont hypothesis for Sp+ strains.

  13. Brucella abortus Cell Cycle and Infection Are Coordinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Xavier; Crosson, Sean; Matroule, Jean-Yves; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2015-12-01

    Brucellae are facultative intracellular pathogens. The recent development of methods and genetically engineered strains allowed the description of cell-cycle progression of Brucella abortus, including unipolar growth and the ordered initiation of chromosomal replication. B. abortus cell-cycle progression is coordinated with intracellular trafficking in the endosomal compartments. Bacteria are first blocked at the G1 stage, growth and chromosome replication being resumed shortly before reaching the intracellular proliferation compartment. The control mechanisms of cell cycle are similar to those reported for the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, and they are crucial for survival in the host cell. The development of single-cell analyses could also be applied to other bacterial pathogens to investigate their cell-cycle progression during infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Infecções hospitalares no município de Araraquara, SP (Brasil Study of infections acquired in hospitals in Araraquara (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Pechmann Mendonça

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi demonstrada a etiologia das infecções adquiridas em hospitais da cidade de Araraquara, S. Paulo, Brasil, verificando-se o comportamento das bactérias isoladas frente a 10 antimicrobianos. A metodologia bacteriológica seguida conduziu à especiação bacteriana, com exceção do estafilococos que foi identificado através da fagotipagem. Dos 171 processos infecciosos, adquiridos nos hospitais no período de setembro de 1974 a maio de 1975, foram isolados 211 microrganismos, sendo 73,0% de bactérias Gram negativas e 27,0% de bactérias Gram positivas. Verificou-se um alto nível de resistência à maioria dos antibióticos. As bactérias Gram negativas apresentaram menor resistência à Gentamicina (22,2%, enquanto as Gram positivas apresentaram menor resistência à Cefalotina (17,7%, à Fosfomicina (25,5% e à Gentamicina (29,4%. Os resultados permitiram antever sérias dificuldades quanto à ação dos antimicrobianos sobre as bactérias, assim como a intensa disseminação das bactérias Gram negativas, especialmente a Escherichia coli e as Pseudomonas.The ethiology of the infections acquired in the City Hospitals and the behaviour of isolated bacteria by means of ten (10 antimicrobians, were demonstrated. The bacteriologic methodology was followed which conducted to the identification only of the bacterian species, except Stafilococci that were individualized through phagotyping. A hundred and seventy one (171 infectious processes in hospitals were collected from September, 1974 to May, 1975 from these processes, two hundred and eleven (211 microorganisms were isolated, 72.99% being Gram negative and 27.05% Gram positive. A high level of antibiotic resistence was verified. The Gram negative bacteria presented smaller resistence to Gentamicine and the Gram positive, a better sensibility to Cefalotine, Fosfomicine and Gentamicine. An analysis of the results allows us to foresee serious difficulties as regards the action of

  15. Serum-surfactant SP-D correlates inversely to lung function in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Hanne Vebert; Holmskov, Uffe; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects the lungs causing infections and inflammation. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an innate defense lectin primarily secreted in the lungs. We investigated the influence of the SP-D Met11Thr polymorphism on CF lung function; and serum SP-D as a marker for CF...

  16. Laboratory acquired infection by the virus SP H 114202 (Arenavirus: Arenaviridae: clinical and laboratory findings Infecção humana adquirida em laboratório causada pelo virus SP H 114202 (Arenavirus: família Arenaviridae: aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Here in is described the clinical and laboratorial findings of a laboratory-acquired infection caused by the virus SP H 114202 (Arenavirus, family Arenaviridae a recently discovered agent responsible for a viral hemorrhagic fever. The patient was sick for 13 days. The disease had an abrupt onset characterized by high fever (39ºC., headache, chills and myalgias for 8 days. In addition, on the 3rd day, the patient developed nauseas and vomiting, and in the 10th, epigastralgia, diarrheia and gengivorrhagia. Leucopenia was seen within the 1 st week of onset, with counts as low as 2,500 white cells per mm³. Counts performed after the 23th day of the onset were within normal limits. With the exception of moderate lymphocitosis, no changes were observed in differential counts. An increase in the liter of antibodies by complement fixation, neutralization and ELISA (IgM was detected. Suckling mice and baby hamsters were inoculated intracerebrally with 0.02 ml of blood samples collected in the 2nd and 7th days of disease. Attempts to isolate the virus were also made in Vero cells. No virus was isolated. This virus was isolated before in a single occasion in São Paulo State, in 1990, from the blood of a patient with hemorrhagic fever with a fatal outcome. The manipulation of the virus under study, must be done carefully, since the transmission can occur through aerosols.São descritos os achados clínico-laboratoriais da infecção acidental pelo virus SP H 114202 (Arenavirus, família Arenaviridae, um virus novo causador de febre hemorrágica humana. O paciente, técnico de laboratório, apresentou quadro febril por 13 dias. A doença cursou com febre elevada ( 39ºC. diária, cefaléia, calefrios e mialgias por 8 dias. A partir do 3º dia surgiram náuseas, vômitos alimentares e anorexia e no 10º dia, epigastralgia, diarréia e gengivorragia. Laboratorialmente, foram observadas as seguintes alterações: leucopenia gradativa com linfocitose a medida

  17. ExaSP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-09-08

    ExaSP2 is a reference implementation of typical linear algebra algorithms and workloads for a quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) electronic structure code. The algorithm is based on a recursive second-order Fermi-Operator expansion method (SP2) and is tailored for density functional based tight-binding calculations of material systems.

  18. Sp100 colocalizes with HPV replication foci and restricts the productive stage of the infectious cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley H Stepp

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We have shown previously that Sp100 (a component of the ND10 nuclear body represses transcription, replication and establishment of incoming human papillomavirus (HPV DNA in the early stages of infection. In this follow up study, we show that Sp100 does not substantially regulate viral infection in the maintenance phase, however at late stages of infection Sp100 interacts with amplifying viral genomes to repress viral processes. We find that Sp100 localizes to HPV16 replication foci generated in primary keratinocytes, to HPV31 replication foci that form in differentiated cells, and to HPV16 replication foci in CIN 1 cervical biopsies. To analyze this further, Sp100 was down regulated by siRNA treatment of differentiating HPV31 containing cells and levels of viral transcription and replication were assessed. This revealed that Sp100 represses viral transcription and replication in differentiated cells. Analysis of Sp100 binding to viral chromatin showed that Sp100 bound across the viral genome, and that binding increased at late stages of infection. Therefore, Sp100 represses the HPV life cycle at both early and late stages of infection.

  19. Freqüência de Serratia sp em Infecções Urinárias de pacientes internados na Santa Casa de Misericórdia em Fortaleza Frequency of Serratia sp in urine infections of intern patients in the Santa Casa de Misericórdia in Fortaleza

    OpenAIRE

    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes; Fabrizio Coelho Cezafar; Maria do Socorro de Sena Andrade; Maria Valdenir Abreu de Paula Rocha; Francisco Afrânio Cunha

    2004-01-01

    Atualmente a Serratia é considerada um importante patógeno humano, o qual tem sido encontrado como agente causal de infecções hospitalares principalmente infecções do trato urinário. Verificamos a freqüência da Serratia sp em amostras de urina, em pacientes internados. Foram estudadas 1197 amostras das quais 15 foram positivas para Serratia sp. As espécies encontradas foram: 7 Serratia liquefaciens (46,7%), 5 Serratia odorífera (33,3%) e 3 Serratia rubidaea (20%).In the present time the Serra...

  20. Surfactant protein A (SP-A)-mediated clearance of Staphylococcus aureus involves binding of SP-A to the staphylococcal adhesin eap and the macrophage receptors SP-A receptor 210 and scavenger receptor class A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever-Chroneos, Zvjezdana; Krupa, Agnieszka; Davis, Jeremy; Hasan, Misbah; Yang, Ching-Hui; Szeliga, Jacek; Herrmann, Mathias; Hussain, Muzafar; Geisbrecht, Brian V; Kobzik, Lester; Chroneos, Zissis C

    2011-02-11

    Staphylococcus aureus causes life-threatening pneumonia in hospitals and deadly superinfection during viral influenza. The current study investigated the role of surfactant protein A (SP-A) in opsonization and clearance of S. aureus. Previous studies showed that SP-A mediates phagocytosis via the SP-A receptor 210 (SP-R210). Here, we show that SP-R210 mediates binding and control of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus by macrophages. We determined that SP-A binds S. aureus through the extracellular adhesin Eap. Consequently, SP-A enhanced macrophage uptake of Eap-expressing (Eap(+)) but not Eap-deficient (Eap(-)) S. aureus. In a reciprocal fashion, SP-A failed to enhance uptake of Eap(+) S. aureus in peritoneal Raw264.7 macrophages with a dominant negative mutation (SP-R210(DN)) blocking surface expression of SP-R210. Accordingly, WT mice cleared infection with Eap(+) but succumbed to sublethal infection with Eap- S. aureus. However, SP-R210(DN) cells compensated by increasing non-opsonic phagocytosis of Eap(+) S. aureus via the scavenger receptor scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), while non-opsonic uptake of Eap(-) S. aureus was impaired. Macrophages express two isoforms: SP-R210(L) and SP-R210(S). The results show that WT alveolar macrophages are distinguished by expression of SP-R210(L), whereas SR-A(-/-) alveolar macrophages are deficient in SP-R210(L) expressing only SP-R210(S). Accordingly, SR-A(-/-) mice were highly susceptible to both Eap(+) and Eap(-) S. aureus. The lungs of susceptible mice generated abnormal inflammatory responses that were associated with impaired killing and persistence of S. aureus infection in the lung. In conclusion, alveolar macrophage SP-R210(L) mediates recognition and killing of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus in vivo, coordinating inflammatory responses and resolution of S. aureus pneumonia through interaction with SR-A.

  1. Ocorrência de infecção natural de Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758 em Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 no Vale do Paraíba, SP, Brasil Natural infection by Fasciola hepatica in Lymnaea columella in the Paraíba river valley, S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Tiduko Ueta

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram registradas em Piquete, no vale do rio Paraíba do Sul (SP, Brasil, taxas de 1,22% e 0,14% de infecção natural em Lymnaea columella, por Fasciola hepatica. Em um único exemplar de Lymnaea columella dentre os 1.052 examinados, foram observadas rédias com xifidiocercárias, rédias com cercárias de Fasciola hepatica e metacercárias de Echinostomatidae.Infection rates of 1.22% and 0.14% were obtained in Lymnaea columella snails naturally infected by Fasciola hepatica. Samples of the snails were collected in Piquete, a municipality of Paraíba do Sul, a river valley area in the State of S. Paulo. Also observed was one of the 1052 specimen of the Lymnaea columella rediae which had xiphidiocercariae and rediae with Fasciola hepatica cercariae and metacercariae of Echinostomatidae.

  2. SP-100 Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truscello, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    The SP-100 Program is expected to go through three phases: technology assessment and advancement, ground testing, and flight qualification. Currently the program is in the two- to three-year technology assessment and advancement stage. Goals are to identify the space nuclear power system concept that best meets anticipated requirements of future space missions, assess the technical feasibility of that concept, and establish a cost and schedule for developing the concept. The SP-100 Project Office has begun the implementation activities needed to meet these goals. With regard to refractory alloys, a better data base will be required before we move ahead in the program from technology assessment to ground demonstration

  3. Taenia sp. in human burial from Kan River, East Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepchenko, Sergey Mikhailovich; Ivanov, Sergey Nikolaevich; Vybornov, Anton Vasilevich; Alekseevich, Tsybankov Alexander; Sergeyevich, Slavinsky Vyacheslav; Lysenko, Danil Nikolaevich; Matveev, Vyacheslav Evgenievich

    2017-05-01

    We present an arhaeoparasitological analysis of a unique burial from the Neftprovod II burial ground in East Siberia, which dated from the Bronze Age. Analysis of a sediment sample from the sacral region of the pelvis revealed the presence of Taenia sp. eggs. Because uncooked animal tissue is the primary source of Taenia, this indicated that the individual was likely consuming raw or undercooked meat of roe deer, red deer, or elk infected with Taenia. This finding represents the oldest case of a human infected with Taenia sp. from Eastern Siberia and Russia.

  4. Avaliação da atividade antifúngica de extratos de gengibre e eucalipto in vitro e em fibras de bananeira infectadas com Helminthosporium sp = Evaluation of antifungal activity in vitro of ginger and eucalypt extracts on banana fibers infected with Helminthosporium sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvirgem Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a fungitoxicidade dos extratos brutos aquosos (EBA de gengibre (Zingiber officinalis e eucalipto (Corymbia citriodora sobre o fungo Helminthosporium sp. Este patógeno foi identificado nas fibras do pseudocaule da bananeira, as quais são utilizadas na fabricação de artesanato local. Foram avaliados o crescimento micelial e esporulação do fungo in vitro, além do crescimento da colônia fúngica nas fibras tratadas com os extratos das plantas. As fibras receberam os seguintes tratamentos:preventivo (P, curativo (C e T0, sendo que neste último, a inoculação e o tratamento com os EBAs foram realizados simultaneamente. Os resultados in vitro mostraram que, dos extratostestados, eucalipto foi mais eficiente na redução do crescimento micelial e produção de esporos do fungo. Com relação ao tratamento in vivo, verificou se que apenas as fibras tratadas preventivamente com o EBA de eucalipto não foram afetadas por Helminthosporium sp.The present work aimed to evaluate the fungitoxicity of ginger (Zingiber officinalis and eucalypt’s (Corymbia citriodora aqueouscrude extracts (ACE concerning the Helminthosporium sp fungus. This pathogen was identified in the fibers of banana pseudostem, used in local handicraft production. The fungus mycelial growth and sporulation were evaluated in vitro, as well as the growth of funguscolony on banana fibers treated with these plant extracts. The fibers received the following treatments: preventative, curative and T0 (the inoculation process and the treatments with the ACEs were used at the same time. The in vitro results showed that the eucalypt crude extract was the most efficient in mycelial growth and in reduction of spores production. As for the in vivo treatment, it was observed that fibers, preventatively treated with eucalypt ACE, were not affected by Helminthosporium sp.

  5. Borrelia bissettiae sp. nov. and Borrelia californiensis sp. nov. prevail in diverse enzootic transmission cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margos, Gabriele; Lane, Robert S; Fedorova, Natalia; Koloczek, Johannes; Piesman, Joseph; Hojgaard, Andrias; Sing, Andreas; Fingerle, Volker

    2016-03-01

    Two species of the genus Borrelia , Borrelia bissettiae sp. nov. and Borrelia californiensis sp. nov., were first described by Postic and co-workers on the basis of genetic analyses of several loci. Multilocus sequence analysis of eight housekeeping loci confirmed that these two Borrelia genomospecies are distinct members of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. B. bissettiae sp. nov. was initially described in transmission cycles involving Neotoma fuscipes wood rats and Ixodes pacificus ticks in California, and Neotoma mexicana and Ixodes spinipalpis in Colorado. The preferred host of B. californiensis sp. nov. appears to be the California kangaroo rat, Dipodomys californicus ; Ixodes jellisoni , I. spinipalipis and I. pacificus ticks are naturally infected with it. Thus, the ecological associations of the two genomospecies and their genetic distance from all other known Borrelia genomospecies species justify their description as separate genomospecies: B. bissettiae sp. nov. (type strain DN127 T  = DSM 17990 T  =  CIP 109136 T ) and B. californiensis (type strain CA446 T  = DSM 17989 T  = ATCC BAA-2689 T ).

  6. Cryptosporidium sp. in lizards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koudela, Břetislav; Modrý, D.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (1998), s. 8 ISSN 1066-5234. [Cryptosporidium sp. in lazards. 01.01.1998-02.01.1998, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA508/95/0273; GA AV ČR IPP2020702 Subject RIV: fp - Other Medical Disciplines

  7. Merozoite proteins from Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) as potential antigens for serodiagnosis by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, G Q; Chauvin, A; Rogniaux, H; Luo, J X; Yin, H; Moreau, E

    2010-05-01

    Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) is a Babesia isolated from sheep infested with Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis in China, and is closely related to B. motasi based on the 18S rRNA gene sequence. In the present study, an ELISA was developed with merozoite antigens of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) (BQMA) purified from in vitro culture. When the positive threshold was chosen as 30% of the antibodies rate, evaluated with 198 negative sera, the specificity was 95.5%. Except for Babesia sp. Tianzhu, there was no cross-reaction between BQMA and positive sera from Babesia sp. BQ1 (Ningxian)-, Babesia sp. Hebei-, Babesia sp. Xinjiang-, Theileria luwenshuni-, T. uilenbergi-, or Anaplasma ovis-infected sheep, which are the dominant haemoparasites of small ruminants in China. Specific antibodies against Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) were produced 1 or 2 weeks post-infection and a high level of antibodies persisted for more than 8 months in experimentally infected sheep. This ELISA was tested on 974 sera collected from field-grazing sheep in 3 counties of Gansu province, northwestern China to evaluate the seroprevalence of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) infection and the average positive rate was 66.84%. The feasibility of increasing the specificity of this BQMA-based ELISA, by using some BQMA antigens for serodiagnosis is discussed.

  8. Linking surfactant protein SP-D and IL-13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qaseem, Asif S; Sonar, Sanchaita; Mahajan, Lakshna

    2012-01-01

    of allergen-IgE interaction, histamine release by sensitised mast cells, downregulation of specific IgE production, suppression of pulmonary and peripheral eosinophilia, inhibition of mechanisms that cause airway remodelling, and induction of apoptosis in sensitised eosinophils. SP-D can also shift helper T......Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an innate immune molecule that plays a protective role against lung infection, allergy, asthma and inflammation. In vivo experiments with murine models have shown that SP-D can protect against allergic challenge via a range of mechanisms including inhibition...... cell polarisation following in vivo allergenic challenge, from pathogenic Th2 to a protective Th1 cytokine response. Interestingly, SP-D gene deficient (-/-) mice show an IL-13 over-expressing phenotype. IL-13 has been shown to be involved in the development of asthma. Transgenic mice over...

  9. Avaliação da atividade antifúngica de extratos de gengibre e eucalipto in vitro e em fibras de bananeira infectadas com Helminthosporium sp = Evaluation of antifungal activity in vitro of ginger and eucalypt extracts on banana fibers infected with Helminthosporium sp

    OpenAIRE

    Edvirgem Rodrigues; Kátia Regina Freitas Schwan-Estrada; José Renato Stangarlin; Maria Eugenia Silva Cruz; Ana Cristina Grade Fiori-Tutida

    2006-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a fungitoxicidade dos extratos brutos aquosos (EBA) de gengibre (Zingiber officinalis) e eucalipto (Corymbia citriodora) sobre o fungo Helminthosporium sp. Este patógeno foi identificado nas fibras do pseudocaule da bananeira, as quais são utilizadas na fabricação de artesanato local. Foram avaliados o crescimento micelial e esporulação do fungo in vitro, além do crescimento da colônia fúngica nas fibras tratadas com os extratos das plantas. As f...

  10. Impact of serum SP-A and SP-D levels on comparison and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Ju, Qing; Cao, Jing; Tang, Wenze; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and objective: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has a poor prognosis in general; however, it is heterogeneous to detect relative biomarkers for predicting the disease progression. Serum biomarkers can be conveniently collected to detect and help to differentially diagnose IPF and predict IPF prognosis. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the use of serum surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D) for differential diagnosis and prognosis of IPF. Methods: Relevant articles were searched in PubMed, Embase, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases and reviewed by 2 independent readers. Standard mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the difference in serum levels of SP-A/D among patients with IPF, when compared to patients with non-IPF interstitial lung disease (ILD), pulmonary infection, and healthy control. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI were used to compare the relative risk of mortality. Results: Twenty-one articles (totalling 1289 IPF patients) were included in final meta-analysis. Serum SP-A levels were significantly higher in patients with IPF than in patients with non-IPF ILD (SMD: 1.108 [0.584, 1.632], P infection (SMD: 1.320 [0.999, 1.640], P SMD: 2.802 [1.901, 3.702], P SMD: 0.459 [−0.000, 0.919], P = .050). Serum SP-D levels were significantly higher in patients with IPF than in patients with pulmonary infection (SMD: 1.308 [0.813, 1.803], P SMD: 2.235 [1.739, 2.731], P < .001). Risk of death in patients with IPF and elevated serum SP-A was increased 39% compared to patients with low SP-A groups. Elevated SP-D increased risk by 111% when compared to low SP-D. In acute exacerbation of IPF, serum SP-A/D were higher than those in stable stage. The comparisons and prognosis might be different in Asian and Caucasian patients. Conclusions: Serum SP-A/D detection might be useful for differential diagnosis and prediction of survival in patients with IPF. PMID:28591049

  11. Experimental in vitro transmission of Babesia sp. (EU1) by Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Sarah; Brisseau, Nadine; Hermouet, Axelle; Jouglin, Maggy; Chauvin, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Babesia sp. (EU1), first characterized in 2003, has been implicated in human cases of babesiosis in Italy, Austria and Germany. It has been identified in roe deer and in its suspected tick vector, Ixodes ricinus, in several European countries. The aim of the present study was to validate the competence of I. ricinus as a vector of Babesia sp. (EU1) via experimental infections. For this purpose, a parasite strain isolated from roe deer was cloned in sheep erythrocytes. After experimental infections, parasite DNA was successfully amplified by PCR in both eggs and larvae originating from infected I. ricinus females and in the salivary glands of females exposed to Babesia sp. (EU1) as nymphs. We also demonstrate that infected females were able to transmit parasite DNA during a new blood meal. Together with previous epidemiological studies, these results validate I. ricinus as a competent vector for Babesia sp. (EU1).

  12. Fungal infection in the tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) and in other crustaceans from the Cochin Backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.; Meenakshikunjamma, P.P.; Purushan, K.S.

    Infection of the two species of fungi (Phycomycetes) in the tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) and three species in amphipods (Gammarus sp.) and tanaeidaceans (Apseudes sp.) was observed. Of the two pathogens in the shrimp, Leptolegnia marina produced...

  13. Dual host specificity of phage SP6 is facilitated by tailspike rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Jiagang [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, McGovern Medical School at UTHealth, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Park, Taehyun [Center for Infectious Disease, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Morado, Dustin R. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, McGovern Medical School at UTHealth, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Hughes, Kelly T. [Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Molineux, Ian J., E-mail: molineux@austin.utexas.edu [Center for Infectious Disease, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Liu, Jun, E-mail: Jun.Liu.1@uth.tmc.edu [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, McGovern Medical School at UTHealth, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Bacteriophage SP6 exhibits dual-host adsorption specificity. The SP6 tailspikes are recognized as important in host range determination but the mechanisms underlying dual host specificity are unknown. Cryo-electron tomography and sub-tomogram classification were used to analyze the SP6 virion with a particular focus on the interaction of tailspikes with host membranes. The SP6 tail is surrounded by six V-shaped structures that interconnect in forming a hand-over-hand hexameric garland. Each V-shaped structure consists of two trimeric tailspike proteins: gp46 and gp47, connected through the adaptor protein gp37. SP6 infection of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Newport results in distinguishable changes in tailspike orientation, providing the first direct demonstration how tailspikes can confer dual host adsorption specificity. SP6 also infects S. Typhimurium strains lacking O antigen; in these infections tailspikes have no apparent specific role and the phage tail must therefore interact with a distinct host receptor to allow infection. - Highlights: •Cryo-electron tomography reveals the structural basis for dual host specificity. •Sub-tomogram classification reveals distinct orientations of the tailspikes during infection of different hosts. •Tailspike-adaptor modules rotate as they bind different O antigens. •In the absence of any O antigen, tailspikes bind weakly and without specificity to LPS. •Interaction of the phage tail with LPS is essential for infection.

  14. Toleransi Tanaman Peneduh Polyalthia longifolia dan Pterocarpus indicus terhadap Ganoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Muslimah Widyastuti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of Urban Trees Polyalthia longifolia and Pterocarpus indicus to Infection of  the red root rot fungus Ganoderma sp. Urban trees on the Gadjah Mada University (UGM area play an important role in increasing environmental qualities as well as in supporting the teaching and learning processes. However, red root rot disease caused by Basidiomycete Ganoderma sp. has severely infected some existing urban trees. This experiment was aimed to determine the susceptibility of Polyalthia longifolia (glodokan and Pterocarpus indicus (angsana to the infection of Ganoderma sp. Identification of infected trees was performed in UGM area. Further steps were carried out to achieve those objectives : (1 isolation of Ganoderma spp. and testing of Koch’s postulate and (2 examination of the susceptibility of  P. longifolia and P. indicus to infection of Ganoderma sp. The susceptibility test of P. longifolia and P. indicus to Ganoderma sp. indicated that P. longifolia was more resistant to fungal pathogen infection than that of P. indicus. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that P. longifolia is a species that is more suitable than P. indicus.  P. longifolia should be planted on the areas that have been infested with inocula of Ganoderma sp..

  15. Control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. in cultures of Arthrospira sp. Control de Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. en cultivos de Arthrospira sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Méndez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. has been developed in many countries for the production of proteins, pigments and other compounds. Outdoor mass cultures are often affected by biological contamination, drastically reducing productivity as far as bringing death. This study evaluates the control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. with two chemical compounds: urea (U and ammonium bicarbonate (AB, in laboratory conditions and outdoor mass culture of Arthrospira sp. The lethal concentration 100 (LC100 at 24 h for Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. determined was of 60-80 mg L-1 (U and 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. The average effective inhibition concentration for 50% of the population (IC50 in Arthrospira sp., after 72 h, was 80 mg L-1 (U and 150 mg L-1 (AB. The application of doses of 60 mg L-1 (U or 100 mg L-1 (AB in the outdoor mass culture of this contaminated microalga, completely inhibited grazing and did not affect the growth of Arthrospira sp. but rather promoted rapid recovery of algal density at levels prior to infestation. These compounds provided an economical and effective control of predators in cultures of Arthrospira sp.El cultivo de la cianobacteria Arthrospira sp. ha sido desarrollado en muchos países para la obtención de proteínas, pigmentos y otros compuestos. Cultivo que a nivel industrial se ve afectado frecuentemente por contaminación biológica, reduciendo drásticamente la productividad hasta causar la muerte. Este estudio evalúa el control de Branchionus sp. y de Amoeba sp. con dos compuestos químicos, la urea (U y bicarbonato de amonio (AB en cultivos de Arthrospira sp. La concentración letal 100 (LC100 determinada a las 24 h para Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. fue de 60-80 mg L-1 (U y 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. La concentración media de inhibición efectiva, después de 72 h, para el 50% de la población (IC50 en Arthrospira fue de 80 mg L-1 (U y 150 mg L-1 (AB. La aplicación de dosis de 60 mg L-1 (U ó 100 mg L-1 (AB en

  16. Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Rose Anne; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Nishi, Letícia; Araujo, Silvana Marques

    2008-08-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency disease (CRI) leads to uremia in hemodialysis patients and induces a state of immunodepression that results in higher frequencies of infections and diarrhea. Hemodialysis patients resident in the city of Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil were analyzed from April 2006 through September 2007 for Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites and for associated diarrhea. Fecal samples from 86 hemodialysis patients and 146 healthy (reference) persons were examined by standard methods for detecting ova, larvae and cysts, which included preservation in 10% formalin and the Kinyoun method. Thirty-three hemodialysis patients (45.1%) and 36 reference individuals (25.7%) were found to be parasitized. The differences in the percentages of parasitism and polyparasitism between the reference group and the chronic renal patients was significant (p= 0.0318 and 0.0019, respectively). Blastocystis sp. (18%-20.1%), Endolimax nana (14%-16.3%), Cryptosporidium sp. (4%-4.7%) and Entamoeba coli (4%-4.7%) were the most frequent protozoa found in the hemodialysis patients. Parasitism was not significantly associated with diarrhea (p=0.9947) or with decreased white blood cell counts (p=0.7046) in these individuals. Because parasitic infections may be an important comorbidity factor in hemodialysis patients, we suggest that parasitological stool examinations, especially for Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium sp., be included in routine medical follow-up examinations of these patients.

  17. Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Anne Kulik

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency disease (CRI leads to uremia in hemodialysis patients and induces a state of immunodepression that results in higher frequencies of infections and diarrhea. Hemodialysis patients resident in the city of Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil were analyzed from April 2006 through September 2007 for Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites and for associated diarrhea. Fecal samples from 86 hemodialysis patients and 146 healthy (reference persons were examined by standard methods for detecting ova, larvae and cysts, which included preservation in 10% formalin and the Kinyoun method. Thirty-three hemodialysis patients (45.1% and 36 reference individuals (25.7% were found to be parasitized. The differences in the percentages of parasitism and polyparasitism between the reference group and the chronic renal patients was significant (p= 0.0318 and 0.0019, respectively. Blastocystis sp. (18%-20.1%, Endolimax nana (14%-16.3%, Cryptosporidium sp. (4%-4.7% and Entamoeba coli (4%-4.7% were the most frequent protozoa found in the hemodialysis patients. Parasitism was not significantly associated with diarrhea (p=0.9947 or with decreased white blood cell counts (p=0.7046 in these individuals. Because parasitic infections may be an important comorbidity factor in hemodialysis patients, we suggest that parasitological stool examinations, especially for Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium sp., be included in routine medical follow-up examinations of these patients.

  18. Laboratory diagnosis of amebiasis in a sample of students from southeastern Brazil and a comparison of microscopy with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of infections with Entamoeba sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Valeriana Valadares; Conceição, Abiqueila da Silva; Maximiano, Leandro Henrique Silva; Belligoli, Leonardo de Queiroz Gomes; Silva, Eduardo Sergio da

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on amebiasis have been reassessed since Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar were first recognized as distinct species. Because the morphological similarity of these species renders microscopic diagnosis unreliable, additional tools are required to discriminate between Entamoeba species. The objectives of our study were to compare microscopy with ELISA kit (IVD®) results, to diagnose E. histolytica infection, and to determine the prevalence of amebiasis in a sample of students from southeastern Brazil. In this study, diagnosis was based on microscopy due to its capacity for revealing potential cysts/trophozoites and on two commercial kits for antigen detection in stool samples. For 1,403 samples collected from students aged 6 to 14 years who were living in Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, microscopy underestimated the number of individuals infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar (5.7% prevalence) compared with the ELISA kit (IVD®)-based diagnoses (15.7% for E. histolytica/E. dispar). A comparison of the ELISA (IVD®) and light microscopy results returned a 20% sensitivity, 97% specificity, low positive predictive value, and high negative predictive value for microscopy. An ELISA kit (TechLab®) that was specific for E. histolytica detected a 3.1% (43/1403) prevalence for E. histolytica infection. The ELISA kit (IVD®) can be used as an alternative screening tool. The high prevalence of E. histolytica infection detected in this study warrants the implementation of actions directed toward health promotion and preventive measures.

  19. Laboratory diagnosis of amebiasis in a sample of students from southeastern Brazil and a comparison of microscopy with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of infections with Entamoeba sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriana Valadares Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epidemiological studies on amebiasis have been reassessed since Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar were first recognized as distinct species. Because the morphological similarity of these species renders microscopic diagnosis unreliable, additional tools are required to discriminate between Entamoeba species. The objectives of our study were to compare microscopy with ELISA kit (IVD® results, to diagnose E. histolytica infection, and to determine the prevalence of amebiasis in a sample of students from southeastern Brazil. Methods: In this study, diagnosis was based on microscopy due to its capacity for revealing potential cysts/trophozoites and on two commercial kits for antigen detection in stool samples. Results: For 1,403 samples collected from students aged 6 to 14 years who were living in Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, microscopy underestimated the number of individuals infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar (5.7% prevalence compared with the ELISA kit (IVD®-based diagnoses (15.7% for E. histolytica/E. dispar. A comparison of the ELISA (IVD® and light microscopy results returned a 20% sensitivity, 97% specificity, low positive predictive value, and high negative predictive value for microscopy. An ELISA kit (TechLab® that was specific for E. histolytica detected a 3.1% (43/1403 prevalence for E. histolytica infection. Conclusions: The ELISA kit (IVD® can be used as an alternative screening tool. The high prevalence of E. histolytica infection detected in this study warrants the implementation of actions directed toward health promotion and preventive measures.

  20. Avaliação longitudinal da infecção por parvovírus B19 entre grávidas em Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil Longitudinal evaluation of parvovirus B19 infection among pregnant women at Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vitola Gonçalves

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a taxa de soroprevalência contra o parvovírus B19 (PB19 entre grávidas e a taxa de soroconversão dessa infecção durante a gravidez. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo realizado no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo. Na primeira fase do estudo foram avaliadas 245 grávidas com idade gestacional menor que 16 semanas, para aferição da soroprevalência da infecção PB19, utilizando o método ELISA. De acordo com os resultados sorológicos, classificou-se a infecção pelo PB19 em aguda (IgM positivo e IgG negativo ou positivo ou remota (IgM negativo e IgG positivo. Na segunda fase do estudo, 73 grávidas soronegativas foram novamente testadas durante a internação para o parto (IgM e IgG, objetivando aferir a taxa de soroconversão durante a gravidez. RESULTADOS: a prevalência da infecção PB19 até a 16ª semana de gravidez foi de 62,9% (IC 95%: 56,8-68,9, divididas em infecção aguda (8,1% e remota (54,8%. Das 73 grávidas soronegativas que submeteram-se a novo teste no momento do parto, sete (9,6% apresentaram soroconversão durante a gravidez (IC 95%: 2,8-16,3, sendo duas com infecção aguda (2,7% e cinco com infecção remota (6,9%. A prevalência final da infecção por PB19 durante a gravidez foi de 72,5%. CONCLUSÕES: considerando que apenas a infecção aguda pelo PB19 está associada a risco de transmissão vertical, a soroprevalência relativamente alta desta infecção entre grávidas estaria protegendo os fetos contra esta forma de disseminação do vírus. Apesar da elevada taxa de soroconversão para PB19 durante a gravidez, não foi observado nenhum caso de infecção sintomática entre os recém-nascidos.PURPOSE: to evaluate the rate of seropositivity for parvovirus B19 (PB19 among pregnant women and the rate of seroconversion against this infection during pregnancy. METHODS: prospective study carried out in the Hospital of the Medical School of

  1. Ozone Technology for Pathogenic Bacteria of Shrimp (Vibrio sp.) Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulansarie, Ria; Dyah Pita Rengga, Wara; Rustamadji

    2018-03-01

    One of important marine commodities in Indonesia, shrimps are susceptible with Vibrio sp bacteria infection. That infection must be cleared. One of the technologies for disinfecting Vibrio sp. is ozone technology. In this research, Vibrio sp. is a pathogenic bacterium which infects Penaeus vannamei. Ozone technology is applied for threatening Vibrio sp. In this research, ozonation was performed in different pH. Those are neutral, acid (pH=4), and base (pH=9). The sample was water from shrimp embankment from Balai Besar Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau (BBPBAP) located in Jepara. That water was the habitat of Penaeus vannamei shrimp. The brand of ozonator used in this research was “AQUATIC”. The used ozonator in this research had 0,0325 g/hour concentration. The flow rate of sample used in this research was 2 L/minute. The ozonation process was performed in continuous system. A tank, pipe, pump, which was connected with microfilter, flowmeter and ozone generator were the main tools in this research. It used flowmeter and valve to set the flow rate scalable as desired. The first step was the insert of 5 L sample into the receptacle. Then, by using a pump, a sample supplied to the microfilter to be filtered and passed into the flow meter. The flow rate was set to 2 LPM. Furthermore, gas from ozonator passed to the flow for the disinfection of bacteria and then was recycled to the tank and the process run continuously. Samples of the results of ozonation were taken periodically from time 0, 3, 7, 12, 18, 24 to 30 minutes. The samples of the research were analyzed using Total Plate Count (TPC) test in BBPBAP Jepara to determine the number of Vibrio sp. bacteria. The result of this research was the optimal condition for pathogenic bacteria of shrimp (Vibrio sp.) ozonation was in neutral condition.

  2. SP mountain data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  3. Descriptions of Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina) from Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, V V S; Somvanshi, Vishal S; Bajaj, Harish K

    2015-03-01

    Two different nematodes were isolated from the bark of Albizia lebbeck trees; one from insect infested and another from noninfested, healthy tree. Based on the biological, morphological, and molecular evidences, the nematodes are described as Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina). Deladenus albizicus n. sp., isolated from insect-infested tree, multiplied on the fungus Nigrospora oryzae. Myceliophagous females of this nematode reproduced by parthenogenesis and spermathecae were indistinct. Infective females, readily produced in the cultures, are dorsally curved. Only one type of males containing small-sized sperms in their genital tracts were produced in the culture. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.75 to 1.71 mm, a = 32.3 to 50.8, b = 9.3 to 11.2, b' = 5.2 to 7.3, c = 27.2 to 35.6, V = 91.0 to 93.3, c' = 2.0 to 2.9, stylet = 11 to 12 µm, excretory pore in the region of median pharyngeal bulb, 43 to 47 µm anterior to hemizonid. Deladenus processus n. sp., isolated from bark of healthy A. lebbeck tree, was cultured on Alternaria alternata. Myceliophagous females reproduced by amphimixis and their spermathecae contained rounded sperms. Infective females were never produced, even in old cultures. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.76 to 0.99 mm, a = 34 to 49, b = 13.3 to 17.7, b' = 3.8 to 5.8, c = 19.6 to 22.8, V = 92.2 to 93.5, c' = 2.7 to 3.5, stylet = 6 to 7 µm, excretory pore in the proximity of hemizonid, tail conoid, tapering from both sides to a long pointed central process. It is proposed to classify Deladenus species in three groups: durus, siricidicola, and laricis groups based on female and spermatogonia dimorphism, mode of reproduction, and insect parasitism.

  4. SP-100 Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Mahaffey, M.K.; Miller, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    Preparatory activities are well under way at Hanford to convert the 309 Containment Building and its associated service wing to a 2.5 MWt nuclear test facility for the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) test. Preliminary design is complete, encompassing facility modifications, a secondary heat transport system, a large vacuum system to enclose the high temperature reactor, a test assembly cell and handling system, control and data processing systems, and safety and auxiliary systems. The design makes extensive use of existing equipment to minimize technical risk and cost. Refurbishment of this equipment is 75% complete. The facility has been cleared of obstructing equipment from its earlier reactor test. Current activities are focusing on definitive design and preparation of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) aimed at procurement and construction approvals and schedules to achieve reactor criticality by January 1992. 6 refs

  5. Vaginal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ Home Body Your reproductive health Vaginal infections Vaginal infections Help for infections If you have pain, ... infections and how to prevent them. Types of vaginal infections top Two common vaginal infections are bacterial ...

  6. Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center > Infective Endocarditis Menu Topics Topics FAQs Infective Endocarditis En español Infective endocarditis is an infection of ... time, congestive heart failure (CHF). What causes infective endocarditis? The infection that leads to endocarditis can be ...

  7. Field evidence for leech-borne transmission of amphibian Ichthyophonus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffel, Thomas R; Dillard, James R; Hudson, Peter J

    2006-12-01

    Parasites have been implicated in mass mortality events and population declines of amphibians around the world. One pathogen associated with mortality events in North America is an Ichthyophonus sp.-like organism that affects red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) and several frog species, yet little is known about the distribution of this pathogen in wild populations or the mechanism of transmission. In an effort to identify factors influencing the distribution and abundance of this pathogen, we measured Ichthyophonus sp. prevalence and a series of factors that could contribute to transmission in 16 newt populations during spring 2004. In contrast to our initial hypotheses of trophic transmission, several lines of evidence suggested a role for the amphibian leech (Placobdella picta) in Ichthyophonus sp. transmission. We propose the mechanistic hypothesis that a leech acquires Ichthyophonus sp. infection when inserting its proboscis into the muscles beneath the skin of infected newts and transmits the infection to other newts in subsequent feeding bouts. We also found effects of host sex, body mass, and breeding condition on Ichthyophonus sp. prevalence and the number of attached leeches. The number of leeches attached to newts was strongly related to the proportion of newt habitat containing emergent vegetation, suggesting that anthropogenic eutrophication might lead to more frequent or severe outbreaks of Ichthyophonus sp. infection in amphibians.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Microbispora sp. Strain ATCC-PTA-5024, Producing the Lantibiotic NAI-107

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosio, M.; Gallo, G.; Pozzi, R.

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Microbispora sp. strain ATCC-PTA-5024, a soil isolate that produces NAI-107, a new lantibiotic with the potential to treat life-threatening infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. The draft genome of strain Microbispora sp. ATCC...

  9. Nectonema zealandica n. sp. (Nematomorpha: Nectonematoidea) parasitising the purple rock crab Hemigrapsus edwardsi (Brachyura: Decapoda) in New Zealand, with notes on the prevalence of infection and host defence reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinar, G; Brockerhoff, A M

    2001-10-01

    A new species of marine hairworm, Nectonema zealandica (Nematomorpha: Nectonematoidea), is described from the purple rock crab Hemigrapsus edwardsi Hilgendorf from the South Island, New Zealand. This is the first record of Nectonema in the South Pacific Ocean and the southernmost locality for the genus. The description is based on juveniles and pre-adults taken from crabs. The new species is characterised by its stomal structure, presence of four cephalic papillae, mesenchyme arranged in eight lobes in pre-adults, insertion of muscle layer increasing body diameter at the septum and translucent anterior chamber. Data on the prevalence of infection over a three-year period, rates of parasitism in relation to host sex and size, and host defence reactions are presented. A list of all reported hosts of nectonematids is included.

  10. Bradysia sp. em morangueiro Bradysia sp. in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Radin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available No trabalho, relatam-se os primeiros registros de Bradysia sp. (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae em morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., cultivado no Município de Eldorado do Sul, RS. O cultivo foi realizado em sacolas com três metros de comprimento, preenchidas com substrato composto de casca de arroz e turfa, dispostas horizontalmente sobre bancadas de madeira, em ambiente protegido. A presença de Bradysia sp. foi observada na segunda quinzena de agosto de 2005. Neste trabalho, estão descritos os sintomas apresentados no morangueiro pela praga, prováveis conseqüências sobre o aparecimento de doenças e uma breve descrição morfológica da Bradysia sp., adulto e fase larval.This paper describes the first record of Bradysia sp. (Insecta; Diptera; Sciaridae in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cultivated in the city of Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Strawberry was planted in plastic bags filled with a mixture of burnt rice hulls and peat and cultivated in a greenhouse. The presence of Bradysia sp was noticed in the second fortnight of August, 2005. The symptoms in strawberry and the probable consequences in terms of disease arising were described in the present study, as well as the morphological characterization of Bradysia sp. and its illustrations.

  11. Yersinia pekkanenii sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murros-Kontiainen, Anna; Johansson, Per; Niskanen, Taina; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Korkeala, Hannu; Björkroth, Johanna

    2011-10-01

    The taxonomic position of three strains from water, soil and lettuce samples was studied by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strains were reported to lack the virulence-encoding genes inv and virF in a previous study. Controversially, API 20 E and some other phenotypic tests suggested that the strains belong to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which prompted this polyphasic taxonomic study. In both the phylogenetic analyses of four housekeeping genes (glnA, gyrB, recA and HSP60) and numerical analyses of HindIII and EcoRI ribopatterns, the strains formed a separate group within the genus Yersinia. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains were related to Yersinia aldovae and Yersinia mollaretii, but DNA-DNA hybridization analysis differentiated them from these species. Based on the results of the phylogenetic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses, a novel species, Yersinia pekkanenii sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is ÅYV7.1KOH2(T) ( = DSM 22769(T)  = LMG 25369(T)).

  12. Ecological characterisation of the Colombian entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Torres, M C; Sáenz, A

    2013-05-01

    The entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708 (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) isolated from soil in Alcalá, Valle del Cauca (Colombia) was characterised ecologically using Galleria mellonella larvae (L) (Pyralidae: Galleriinae) as hosts. The effect of temperature on the viability, infectivity and reproduction, and of moisture on infectivity and storage in liquid were evaluated in infective juveniles (IJs). Significant differences were found in the viability, infectivity and reproduction of the IJs at different temperatures. No nematodes were recovered at 5 °C and 10 °C, and at 35 °C no infectivity was observed. Average daily nematode recovery was best at 25 °C, and survival of the IJs was low in substrates presenting 13% moisture. The optimal storage temperature for Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708 was between 20 °C and 30 °C, keeping its infectivity for up to 8 weeks.

  13. Kinerja probiotik Bacillus sp. pada pendederan benih ikan lele Clarias sp. yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Sukenda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to assess performance of Bacillus sp. probiotic on catfish juvenile Clarias sp. infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. The probiotic content in the diets were 0% (K+ and K-, 1%, and 2% in duplicates. This experiment used randomized design with four treatments and two replications. Juveniles with average body weight of 3.22±0.15 g/fish were reared in the 1.5×2.8×0.5 m3 pond with density of 800 fish/pond. Fish were reared for 30 days and fed three times a day at rate 8% of  total body weight. At day 31, catfish were challenged by A. hydrophila 0.1 mL (106 cfu/mL. Post infection observation was carried out ten days with density 10 fish/aquaria. The result showed that fish fed diet containing 2% probiotic gave the best probiotic performance with survival rate of catfish 83.33% after challenged, spesific growth rate 5.40%, and 0,75 of feed conversion ratio. The results of the blood profile showed significantly better results in the treatment of probiotics compared to the positive control after challenge test A. hydrophila. Probiotic Bacillus sp. has given as much as 2% on feed provides better performance on catfish juvenile. Keywords: probiotic, Bacillus sp., A. hydrophila, catfish juvenille, growth  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kinerja probiotik Bacillus sp. dalam pakan pada pendederan benih ikan lele Clarias sp. yang diinfeksi bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan yaitu kandungan probiotik dalam pakan perlakuan yaitu 0% (K+ dan K-, 1%,  dan 2%, masing-masing dengan dua ulangan. Ikan lele yang digunakan memiliki bobot rata-rata 3,22±0,15 g/ekor, dipelihara dalam kolam terpal berukuran 1,5×2,8×0,5 m3 dengan kepadatan 800 ekor/kolam. Ikan dipelihara selama 30 hari dengan frekuensi pemberian pakan tiga kali sehari sebanyak 8% dari bobot tubuh ikan. Hari ke-31 benih lele diinjeksi bakteri A. hydrophila dosis 0,1 m

  14. Antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum sp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... Key words: Antimicrobial peptides, Capsicum sp, Capsicum chinense, chili pepper, agronomical options, ..... of this human activity is resumed by the simple phrase: produce .... It will be interesting to scale the AMPs extraction.

  15. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of oxytetracycline-resistant isolates of Stenotrophomonas sp. and Serratia sp. associated with Costa Rican crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C; Wachlin, A; Altendorf, K; García, F; Lipski, A

    2007-12-01

    To ameliorate the identification, evaluate the diversity, and determine the antimicrobial sensitivity of 19 oxytetracycline-resistant isolates of Stenotrophomonas sp. and Serratia sp. associated with Costa Rican crops. Phenotypical, chemotaxonomical, and molecular data allocated most isolates to the species Sten. maltophilia and Ser. marcescens. The API profiles, antimicrobial resistance patterns (ATB system), and BOX-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genomic fingerprints of isolates of Stenotrophomonas sp. exhibited a higher degree of heterogeneity than those obtained for the isolates of Serratia sp. The former group of bacteria exhibited multiresistance to antimicrobials. In contrast, isolates of Serratia sp. were sensitive to the majority of the drugs tested. Changes in the results of the antibiograms throughout incubation, which indicate an induction of tolerance, were observed for isolates of both the species. Minimum inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline, determined using E-test stripes, were rather elevated. The occurrence of two species of opportunistic pathogens in crop-associated materials poses a risk to consumers in the community. The phenotypic and genotypic data presented could support epidemiologist and physicians dealing with infections caused by environmental strains of these taxa.

  16. Protective Effect of Surfactant Protein D in Pulmonary Vaccinia Virus Infection: Implication of A27 Viral Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Perino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV was used as a surrogate of variola virus (VARV (genus Orthopoxvirus, the causative agent of smallpox, to study Orthopoxvirus infection. VARV is principally transmitted between humans by aerosol droplets. Once inhaled, VARV first infects the respiratory tract where it could encounter surfactant components, such as soluble pattern recognition receptors. Surfactant protein D (SP-D, constitutively present in the lining fluids of the respiratory tract, plays important roles in innate host defense against virus infection. We investigated the role of SP-D in VACV infection and studied the A27 viral protein involvement in the interaction with SP-D. Interaction between SP-D and VACV caused viral inhibition in a lung cell model. Interaction of SP-D with VACV was mediated by the A27 viral protein. Binding required Ca2+ and interactions were blocked in the presence of excess of SP-D saccharide ligands. A27, which lacks glycosylation, directly interacted with SP-D. The interaction between SP-D and the viral particle was also observed using electron microscopy. Infection of mice lacking SP-D (SP-D-/- resulted in increased mortality compared to SP-D+/+ mice. Altogether, our data show that SP-D participates in host defense against the vaccinia virus infection and that the interaction occurs with the viral surface protein A27.

  17. Pseudane-VII Isolated from Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2 Ameliorates LPS-Induced Inflammatory Response In Vitro and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Mi Eun Kim; Inae Jung; Jong Suk Lee; Ju Yong Na; Woo Jung Kim; Young-Ok Kim; Yong-Duk Park; Jun Sik Lee

    2017-01-01

    The ocean is a rich resource of flora, fauna, food, and biological products. We found a wild-type bacterial strain, Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2, from marine water and isolated various secondary metabolites. Pseudane-VII is a compound isolated from the Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2 metabolite that possesses anti-melanogenic activity. Inflammation is a response of the innate immune system to microbial infections. Macrophages have a critical role in fighting microbial infections and inflammation. Recent...

  18. Neorickettsia risticii, Rickettsia sp. and Bartonella sp. in Tadarida brasiliensis bats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; De Salvo, María N; La Rosa, Isabel; Dohmen, Federico E Gury

    2017-06-01

    Bats are potential reservoirs of many vector-borne bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to detect species of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, Rickettsia, Borrelia and Bartonella in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis, Molossidae) from Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Between 2012 and 2013, 61 T. brasiliensis from urban areas of Buenos Aires city were studied. The samples were molecularly screened by PCR and sequencing. Five bats (8.2%) were positive to Neorickettsia risticii, one (1.6%) was positive to Rickettsia sp. and three bats (4.9%) to Bartonella sp. For molecular characterization, the positive samples were subjected to amplification and sequencing of a fragment of p51 gene for N. risticii, a fragment of citrate synthase gene (gltA) for Rickettsia genus and a fragment of gltA for Bartonella genus. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using the maximum-likelihood method. Phylogenetic analysis of N. risticii detect in our study revealed that it relates to findings in the USA West Coast; Rickettsia sp. detected is phylogenetically within R. bellii group, which also includes many other Rickettsia endosymbionts of insects; and Bartonella sp. found is related to various Bartonella spp. described in Vespertilionidae bats, which are phylogenetically related to Molossidae. Our results are in accordance to previous findings, which demonstrate that insectivorous bats could be infected with vector-borne bacteria representing a potential risk to public health. Future research is necessary to clarify the circulation of these pathogens in bats from Buenos Aires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women in Western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, Michael D.; van Eijk, Annemieke M.; ter Kuile, Feiko O. van; Ayisi, John G.; Parise, Monica E.; Kager, Piet A.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Steketee, Richard; Nettey, Henry

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is among the most commonly used antimalarial drugs during pregnancy, yet the pharmacokinetics of SP are unknown in pregnant women. HIV-infected (HIV(+)) women require more frequent doses of intermittent preventive therapy with SP than do HIV-uninfected

  20. The Pathology of Infection in the Department of Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seong Gyu [Dept. of Radiology, Dong a University Medical Center, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyo Yeong [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to understand the bacteriologic contamination level of radiological equipment which have frequent contacts with patients in the Department of Radiology of an university hospital in Busan area. Before sterilizing in-patient of the radiology rooms, MRSA, VRE, acinetobacter baumannii, candida albicans, and enterococcus sp. were detected. After sterilization, all the bacteria were not found. As examine times become longer, more bacteria were detected and after 7 hours, bacillus sp.(GPR), CNS, acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterococcus sp. were detected. After examining infected patients, bacillus sp.(GPR), VRE, enterococcus sp. CNS, and micrococcus sp. were detected and on the hands of radiological technologists, CNS, enterococcus sp. escherichia coli, and enterobacter sp. were detected. Similar species of bacteria were detected from each radiology room, but pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected on the handles of portable radiological equipment and the chair in the waiting room. Therefore, it is the most important to regularly sterilize radiological equipment and devices which have frequent contacts with patients and to sterilize them right after the use of infected patients in order to prevent the spread of infection. Also, thorough hand washing, education on infection and management for the characteristics of Department of Radiology should be performed for the systematic prevention of infection.

  1. The Pathology of Infection in the Department of Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Seong Gyu; Lee, Hyo Yeong

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to understand the bacteriologic contamination level of radiological equipment which have frequent contacts with patients in the Department of Radiology of an university hospital in Busan area. Before sterilizing in-patient of the radiology rooms, MRSA, VRE, acinetobacter baumannii, candida albicans, and enterococcus sp. were detected. After sterilization, all the bacteria were not found. As examine times become longer, more bacteria were detected and after 7 hours, bacillus sp.(GPR), CNS, acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterococcus sp. were detected. After examining infected patients, bacillus sp.(GPR), VRE, enterococcus sp. CNS, and micrococcus sp. were detected and on the hands of radiological technologists, CNS, enterococcus sp. escherichia coli, and enterobacter sp. were detected. Similar species of bacteria were detected from each radiology room, but pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected on the handles of portable radiological equipment and the chair in the waiting room. Therefore, it is the most important to regularly sterilize radiological equipment and devices which have frequent contacts with patients and to sterilize them right after the use of infected patients in order to prevent the spread of infection. Also, thorough hand washing, education on infection and management for the characteristics of Department of Radiology should be performed for the systematic prevention of infection.

  2. Frequency and intensity of infection by helminths in cattle slaughtered at the abattior, of the northwest of region state of São Paulo, Brazil/ Freqüência e intensidade parasitária de helmintos gastrintestinais em bovinos abatidos em frigorífico da região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo Ferraz Lima

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasitary gastrointestinal helminths frequency and intensity were studied in 48 female bovines, with different zebu and taurine crossbreeding degrees, ages ranging between 24 and 30 months, from eight counties in the Northwest of São Paulo State, slaughtered at Frigorífico Montenegro, Araçatuba, São Paulo (Brazil and four animals were monthly necropsied over one year. The identified gastrointestinal helminth species were: Cooperia punctata, Cooperia pectinata, Haemonchus similis, Haemonchus placei and Oesophagostomum radiatum. Among the 48 animals, 21 (43,8% were carrying Haemonchus spp. The Haemonchus similis and the Haemonchus placei species were identified isolated at an equivalent rate (10,4%, being simultaneous infection registered in 22,9% of the cases. In small intestine, 26 bovines (54,2% showed Cooperia punctata. Ten male Cooperia pectinata were identified in only one bovine that also carried 310 Cooperia punctata. In the large intestine, 20 bovines (41,7% showed Oesophagostomum radiatum. Mixed infections occurred in 52,1% of the animals, simple infections in 12%, and 22,9% of the bovines did not have gastrointestinal helminths.A freqüência e a intensidade parasitária de helmintos gastrintestinais foram estudadas em 48 bovinos, fêmeas, com diferentes graus de cruzamento de raças zebuínas e taurinas, de faixa etária entre 24 a 30 meses, provenientes de oito municípios da região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo e abatidos no Frigorífico Montenegro, Araçatuba, SP, sacrificando-se quatro animais mensalmente, ao longo de um ano. As espécies de helmintos identificadas foram: Cooperia punctata, Cooperia pectinata, Haemonchus similis, Haemonchus placei e Oesophagostomum radiatum. Dos animais examinados, 21 (43,8% estavam parasitados por Haemonchus spp. As espécies H. similis e H. placei foram identificadas isoladamente em igual proporção (10,4% em dez bovinos, sendo que a infecção simultânea foi registrada em outros 11

  3. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV and Leishmania sp. in domestic cats in the Midwest of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Poffo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This search aimed to investigate FIV and FeLV infections in domestic cats, analysing the epidemiological profile of the disease as well as additional infection with Leishmania sp. We evaluated 88 domestic cats for the presence of FIV, FeLV and Leishmania sp. infection. Eleven (12.5% cats were positive for FIV infection, four (4.5% were positive for FeLV, and two were co-infected. However, none was infected with Leishmania sp. The prevalence for FIV infection was higher than FeLV, and those observed in other regions, but no factor was associated with the infection by FIV and FeLV in this study.

  4. Optimasi Air Perasan Buah Merah (Pandanus sp. Pada Pemeriksaan Telur Cacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Oktari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Worm infections or can be called by worming included into an infection caused by a parasite. Soil Transmitted Helminths Intestinal Nematodes are worms groups are in their life cycle to reach the infective stage requires soil with certain conditions. Eosin 2% is the dye that is used in the examination of Intestinal Nematode worm eggs. Red fruit (Pandanus sp. which is a natural plant material and acidic contain carotenoids which produces orange-red pigment. Beta carotene is the predominant pigment of red-orange color that is found naturally in plants and fruits. The aim of this research is to determine the best concentration from variation of red fruit (Pandanus sp. juice that optimally to color the eggs of the worm. Research conducted experiments with various concentration ratio of red fruit (Pandanus sp. juice and distilled water (1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5. From this research it found that the results indicate the ratio of concentrations of red fruit (Pandanus sp. juice and distilled water (1:2 can be used as an alternative reagent eosin 2% for their examination of worm eggs. But in the visual field that uses red fruit (Pandanus sp. juice and distilled water (1:2 still looks much dirt as a nuisance and does not give a contrasting background. It can conclude that red fruit (Pandanus sp. juice can use to color the eggs of the worm.

  5. Falhas na identificação da infecção pelo HIV durante a gravidez em São Paulo, SP, 1998 Deficiencies in diagnosing HIV-infection during pregnancy in Brazil, 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HHS Marques

    2002-08-01

    riscos e da necessidade de tratamento.OBJECTIVE: The increasing number of women with AIDS in the state of São Paulo has lead to the implementation of a series of measures to reduce mother-to-child HIV transmission. The objective of this study was to evaluate these measures' deficiencies regarding coverage and quality of prenatal care in some HIV reference services in the state of São Paulo. METHODS: All HIV-positive women, aged 18 years or more, who gave birth in 1998 were interviewed when they came for a visit with an infectologist or a pediatrician in three cities (São Paulo, Santos and São José do Rio Preto of the state of São Paulo. A structured questionnaire was applied. Prenatal care and time of their HIV infection diagnosis (before, during or after pregnancy were assessed. RESULTS: Of 116 women interviewed, 109/116 (94% had attended a prenatal care service during pregnancy, 64% had their first visit in the first trimester and 80% had 3 or more visits during pregnancy. The mean age of those who attended a prenatal service was 29.1 years, higher than those who did not attend any service (24.3 years. The HIV-positive status was known by 45%, 38% and 17% of the women before pregnancy, during pregnancy and after delivery, respectively. HIV testing was offered to 82% who did not know their serologic status, and among these, only 56% were informed about the importance of getting tested. The basic health care units (UBS were less efficient in conveying information to the mothers about their children's infection risk (p=0.037 and their treatment needs (p=0.014. CONCLUSIONS: The main deficiencies identified were lack of HIV testing during pregnancy and inadequate information. Though basic health care units are the most important source of care for this population, its contribution to the understanding of risks and treatment needs was the most unsatisfactory.

  6. Impact of serum SP-A and SP-D levels on comparison and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Ju, Qing; Cao, Jing; Tang, Wenze; Zhang, Jian

    2017-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has a poor prognosis in general; however, it is heterogeneous to detect relative biomarkers for predicting the disease progression. Serum biomarkers can be conveniently collected to detect and help to differentially diagnose IPF and predict IPF prognosis. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the use of serum surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D) for differential diagnosis and prognosis of IPF. Relevant articles were searched in PubMed, Embase, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases and reviewed by 2 independent readers. Standard mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the difference in serum levels of SP-A/D among patients with IPF, when compared to patients with non-IPF interstitial lung disease (ILD), pulmonary infection, and healthy control. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI were used to compare the relative risk of mortality. Twenty-one articles (totalling 1289 IPF patients) were included in final meta-analysis. Serum SP-A levels were significantly higher in patients with IPF than in patients with non-IPF ILD (SMD: 1.108 [0.584, 1.632], P infection (SMD: 1.320 [0.999, 1.640], P SMD: 2.802 [1.901, 3.702], P SMD: 0.459 [-0.000, 0.919], P = .050). Serum SP-D levels were significantly higher in patients with IPF than in patients with pulmonary infection (SMD: 1.308 [0.813, 1.803], P SMD: 2.235 [1.739, 2.731], P < .001). Risk of death in patients with IPF and elevated serum SP-A was increased 39% compared to patients with low SP-A groups. Elevated SP-D increased risk by 111% when compared to low SP-D. In acute exacerbation of IPF, serum SP-A/D were higher than those in stable stage. The comparisons and prognosis might be different in Asian and Caucasian patients. Serum SP-A/D detection might be useful for differential diagnosis and prediction of survival in patients with IPF.

  7. Polymorphisms of SP110 are associated with both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis among the Vietnamese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Gregory J; Sy, Dinh Ngoc; Nhung, Nguyen Viet; Yu, Bing; Ellis, Magda K; Van Hung, Nguyen; Cuong, Nguyen Kim; Thi Lien, Luu; Marks, Guy B; Saunders, Bernadette M; Britton, Warwick J

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet the reasons why only 10% of people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis go on to develop clinical disease are poorly understood. Genetically determined variation in the host immune response is one factor influencing the response to M. tuberculosis. SP110 is an interferon-responsive nuclear body protein with critical roles in cell cycling, apoptosis and immunity to infection. However association studies of the gene with clinical TB in different populations have produced conflicting results. To examine the importance of the SP110 gene in immunity to TB in the Vietnamese we conducted a case-control genetic association study of 24 SP110 variants, in 663 patients with microbiologically proven TB and 566 unaffected control subjects from three tertiary hospitals in northern Vietnam. Five SNPs within SP110 were associated with all forms of TB, including four SNPs at the C terminus (rs10208770, rs10498244, rs16826860, rs11678451) under a dominant model and one SNP under a recessive model, rs7601176. Two of these SNPs were associated with pulmonary TB (rs10208770 and rs16826860) and one with extra-pulmonary TB (rs10498244). SP110 variants were associated with increased susceptibility to both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in the Vietnamese. Genetic variants in SP110 may influence macrophage signaling responses and apoptosis during M. tuberculosis infection, however further research is required to establish the mechanism by which SP110 influences immunity to tuberculosis infection.

  8. Seroprevalencia de Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. Ehrlichia sp. en trabajadores rurales del departamento de Sucre, Colombia Seroprevalence of Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. in rural workers of Sucre, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ríos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determinar la seroprevalencia de Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. y Ehrlichia sp. en trabajadores de áreas rurales del departamento de Sucre. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio escriptivo, prospectivo, de corte transversal, que pretendió determinar la seroprevalencia e Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. y Ehrlichia sp. en 90 trabajadores de áreas rurales del departamento de Sucre. Se estableció la presencia de anticuerpos séricos anti-IgM específicos anti-Leptospira por la técnica de ELISA indirecta. Para la determinación de Rickettsia sp. y Ehrlichia sp. se uso la técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Resultados. La población evaluada estaba compuesta por 27 (30% ordeñadores, 21 (23% jornaleros, 18 (20% profesionales del campo y 24 (27% que realizaban otras actividades. Ventidós (24% muestras resultaron positivas en alguna de las pruebas. De éstas, 12 (13,3% fueron positivas para Leptospira sp., 7 (7,8% para Rickettsia sp. y 3 (3,3% ara Ehrlichia sp. Conclusión. Este fue el primer estudio que se llevó a cabo en el departamento de Sucre y permitió demostrar que existe una prevalencia importante de Leptospira p.,Rickettsia sp. y Ehrlichia sp.. Los factores de riesgo ocupacional fueron factores determinantes en la seropositividad.Objective. To determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. in agricultural workers of Sucre. Methods. A descriptive prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in ninety rural workers of Sucre. Presence of serum antibodies anti-IgM specific anti-Leptospira by indirect ELISA was established. For the determination of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia indirect inmunoflorescence was used. Results.The population was composed by 27 (30% milkers, 21 (23% day workers, 18 farm professionals (20% and 24 (26% workers in others activities. A total of 22 (24% samples were positive to some test. Twelve (13.3% were positive to Leptospira sp., seven (7.8% to Rickettsia sp

  9. SP-100 reactor cell activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, A.D.

    1991-09-01

    There are plans to test the SP-100 space reactor for 2 yr in the test facility shown in Figure 1. The vacuum vessel will be in the reactor experiment (RX) cell surrounded by an inert gas atmosphere. It is proposed that the reactor test cell could contain removable-water- shielding tanks to reduce the residual activation dose rates in the test cell after the tests are completed. This reduction will allow the facility to be considered for other uses after the SP-100 tests are completed. The radiation dose rates in the test cell were calculated for several configurations of water-shielding tanks to help evaluate this concept

  10. Heterorhabditis sp. (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae): A Nematode Parasite Isolated from the Banded Cucumber Beetle Diabrotica balteata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, C. S.; Fassuliotis, G.

    1985-01-01

    A nematode identified as Heterorhabditis sp. was discovered in June 1982 in larval cadavers of the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata, in soil on wooded land. Effective beetle control (over 95%) was obtained when larvae were exposed to potted soil containing infective stage nematode juveniles or infected larval cadavers. The nematode was propagated in vivo on larvae of D. balteata, Diaphania nitidalis (the pickleworm), and Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth). This Heterorhabditis sp. has promising potential as a biocontrol agent for the banded cucumber beetle. PMID:19294074

  11. Identification of a serine proteinase homolog (Sp-SPH) involved in immune defense in the mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiu-xia; Liu, Hai-peng; Chen, Rong-yuan; Shen, Kai-li; Wang, Ke-jian

    2013-01-01

    Clip domain serine proteinase homologs are involved in many biological processes including immune response. To identify the immune function of a serine proteinase homolog (Sp-SPH), originally isolated from hemocytes of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain, the Sp-SPH was expressed recombinantly and purified for further studies. It was found that the Sp-SPH protein could bind to a number of bacteria (including Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahemolyticus), bacterial cell wall components such as lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan (PGN), and β-1, 3-glucan of fungus. But no direct antibacterial activity of Sp-SPH protein was shown by using minimum inhibitory concentration or minimum bactericidal concentration assays. Nevertheless, the Sp-SPH protein was found to significantly enhance the crab hemocyte adhesion activity (paired t-test, Pparahemolyticus which were both recognized by Sp-SPH protein, if pre-incubated with Sp-SPH protein, respectively. Whereas, the crabs died much faster when challenged with Vibrio alginolyiicus, a pathogenic bacterium not recognized by Sp-SPH protein, compared to those of crabs challenged with A. hydrophila or V. parahemolyticus when pre-coated with Sp-SPH protein. Taken together, these data suggested that Sp-SPH molecule might play an important role in immune defense against bacterial infection in the mud crab S. paramamosain.

  12. Identification of a Serine Proteinase Homolog (Sp-SPH) Involved in Immune Defense in the Mud Crab Scylla paramamosain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiu-xia; Liu, Hai-peng; Chen, Rong-yuan; Shen, Kai-li; Wang, Ke-jian

    2013-01-01

    Clip domain serine proteinase homologs are involved in many biological processes including immune response. To identify the immune function of a serine proteinase homolog (Sp-SPH), originally isolated from hemocytes of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain, the Sp-SPH was expressed recombinantly and purified for further studies. It was found that the Sp-SPH protein could bind to a number of bacteria (including Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahemolyticus), bacterial cell wall components such as lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan (PGN), and β-1, 3-glucan of fungus. But no direct antibacterial activity of Sp-SPH protein was shown by using minimum inhibitory concentration or minimum bactericidal concentration assays. Nevertheless, the Sp-SPH protein was found to significantly enhance the crab hemocyte adhesion activity (paired t-test, Pparahemolyticus which were both recognized by Sp-SPH protein, if pre-incubated with Sp-SPH protein, respectively. Whereas, the crabs died much faster when challenged with Vibrio alginolyiicus, a pathogenic bacterium not recognized by Sp-SPH protein, compared to those of crabs challenged with A. hydrophila or V. parahemolyticus when pre-coated with Sp-SPH protein. Taken together, these data suggested that Sp-SPH molecule might play an important role in immune defense against bacterial infection in the mud crab S. paramamosain. PMID:23724001

  13. [Influence of staphylococcin T on Enterococcus sp. growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białucha, Agata; Kozuszko, Sylwia; Gospodarek, Eugenia; Bugalski, Roman Marian; Gierlotka, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesised, extracellular bacterial products. Generally, spectrum of inhibition is limited to the same or closely related species to bacteriocin producer. Staphylococcin T is produced by Staphylococcus cohnii strain. The present study concerns influence of StT to 267 Enterococcus sp. strains growth isolated between 2003 and 2006 in Department of Microbiology University Hospital of dr. A. Jurasz in Bydgoszcz. S. cohnii T antagonistic ability evaluated towards bacteries on Mueller-Hinton Agar (bio Mérieux) in aerobic conditions. After 24 and 48 hours tested enterococci suspensions were plated perpendiculary. Susceptibility to antibiotics was assessed by disc diffusion method according to the guideless of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and National Reference Centre for Antimicrobial Susceptibility. Among Enterococcus sp. strains tested 7.1% were sensitive to StT. The highest percentage of sensitive enterococci isolated from wound swabs, urine, blood and pus. Enterococcus faecium strains dominated (63.2%) among enterococci sensitive to StT. Moderate inhibition degree on S. cohnii T bacteriocin action was observed in majority sensitive enterococci strains. Enterococcus sp. sensitive to StT strains were frequently multidrug resistant (68.4%). According to the study results and increasing resistance to antibiotics, StT could be an alternative agent used to treat infections caused by Enterococcus sp.

  14. Ocorrência de Babesia sp em pequenos roedores no Brasil Occurrence of Babesia sp in small rodents in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Gazeta

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi analisada a ocorrência de babesiose em pequenos roedores nos municípios de Silva Jardim e Nova lguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram capturados 44 roedores de seis espécies diferentes e entre eles a prevalência da infecção foi de 27,3%. Rattus norvegicus foi considerado o principal reservatório (50,0% e Oligoryzomys nigripes como novo hospedeiro para Babesia sp. Este foi o primeiro relato de Babesia sp. em roedores no Brasil. A freqüência de roedores positivos e o risco de infecção dos roedores não diferiram entre as áreas estudadas.The occurrence of babesiosis was studied in 44 small rodents of six species captured in Silva Jardim and Nova lguaçu counties, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The prevalence of injection was 27.3%. Rattus norvegicus was considered as the main reservoir and Oligoryzomys nigripes as a new host to Babesia sp. The frequency and the risk of rodent infection were considered equal among the studied areas. This is the first report of Babesia sp in small rodents in Brazil.

  15. Hepatitis From Spiroplasma sp. in an Immunocompromised Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, N J; Tini, G M; Weber, A; Gaspert, A; Husmann, L; Bloemberg, G; Boehler, A; Benden, C

    2015-09-01

    A 70-year-old lung transplant recipient patient was admitted with fever, nausea, abdominal pain, peripheral edema and pronounced weakness. An initial work-up for presumed infection revealed cholestatic hepatitis, leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia, but failed to detect a pathogen. An increased glucose uptake exclusively in the liver was demonstrated by positron emission tomography. Liver biopsy showed basophilic inclusions in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Broad- range 16S rRNA gene PCR followed by sequence analysis yielded Spiroplasma sp. in two independent blood samples and the liver biopsy, confirming Spiroplasma sp. as the causative agent. Antibiotic treatment with doxycycline and azithromycin led to complete recovery. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  16. Nematode Infections Are Risk Factors for Staphylococcal Infection in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra F Moreira-Silva

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Nematode infection may be a risk factor for pyogenic liver abscess in children and we hypothesized that the immunomodulation induced by those parasites would be a risk factor for any staphylococcal infection in children. The present study was designed to compare, within the same hospital, the frequency of intestinal nematodes and Toxocara infection in children with and without staphylococcal infections. From October 1997 to February 1998, 80 children with staphylococcal infection and 110 children with other diseases were submitted to fecal examination, serology for Toxocara sp., evaluation of plasma immunoglobulin levels, and eosinophil counts. Mean age, gender distribution, birthplace, and socioeconomic conditions did not differ significantly between the two groups. Frequency of intestinal nematodes and positive serology for Toxocara, were remarkably higher in children with staphylococcal infections than in the non-staphylococcal group. There was a significant correlation between intestinal nematodes or Toxocara infection and staphylococcal infection in children, reinforced by higher eosinophil counts and higher IgE levels in these children than in the control group. One possible explanation for this association would be the enhancement of bacterial infection by the immunomodulation induced by helminth infections, due to strong activation of the Th2 subset of lymphocytes by antigens from larvae and adult worms.

  17. Molecular evidence of a new Babesia sp. in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozubek, Sezayi; Aktas, Munir

    2017-01-15

    In this study, a novel Babesia sp. infecting goats was detected and its phylogenetic relationship to related species was determined. A total of 200 blood samples collected from sheep (n=78) and goats (n=122) were examined in the study. The V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene of the novel Babesia sp. was amplified by PCR and analysed using a reverse line blot hybridization assay adapted for small ruminants. Samples from seven goats hybridized to Theileria/Babesia catch-all and Babesia catch-all probes and did not hybridize to any species-specific probe tested, suggesting the presence of an unrecognized Babesia species or genotype. Sequencing results showed the isolate to clearly differ from ovine Babesia species and genotypes currently available in the GenBank database. The isolate showed 90.9%, 93.5%, and 93.4% identity to B. ovis, B. motasi, and B. crassa, respectively and 91-93% similarity to Babesia genotypes recently described in small ruminants. The highest homology (∼96-97%) observed was with Babesia odocoilei, Babesia sp. EU1, and Babesia divergens. The new isolate was provisionally designated Babesia sp. The study contributes to better insight into the distribution and phylogenetic diversity of piroplasms in small ruminants. The survey indicated a high prevalence of piroplasms in small ruminants (21.5%). Of those detected, T. ovis was the most prevalent (17%), followed by Babesia sp. (3.5%), and B. ovis (2%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The pathogenesis of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. narcissi and the role of antagonistic bulb-borne fungi in the chemical control of basal rot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. narcissi

    Basal plates and roots of narcissus were infected by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. narcissi (Cooke & Massee) Snyder &

  19. Serratia sp. bacteremia in Canberra, Australia: a population-based study over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, H J; Collignon, P J; Whiting, P T; Kennedy, K J

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this paper was to determine the population incidence and clinical features of Serratia sp. bacteremia in Canberra, Australia. Demographic and clinical data were collected prospectively for episodes of Serratia sp. bacteremia over a 10-year period, and was confined to Canberra residents using residential postal codes. Thirty-eight episodes of Serratia sp. bacteremia occurred, with a yearly incidence of 1.03 per 100,000 population. The majority of episodes occurred in males (68%). The respiratory tract was the most common focus of infection (21%). Twenty-nine percent of episodes were community-associated. A further 18% of episodes had their onset in the community but were healthcare-associated. The 7-day and 6-month mortality rates were 5 and 37%, respectively. Antibiotic resistance to gentamicin (3%) and ciprofloxacin (0%) was low. Serratia sp. bacteremia is more common than generally appreciated, with a large proportion (47%) of episodes having their onset in the community.

  20. Etiology of spontaneous pneumothorax in 105 HIV-infected patients without highly active antiretroviral therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, Antonio; Perez-Camacho, Ines; Lozano, Fernando; Santos, Jesus; Camacho, Angela; Serrano, Ascencion; Cordero, Elisa; Jimenez, Francisco; Torres-Tortosa, Manuel; Torre-Cisneros, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) is a frequent complication in non-treated HIV-infected patients as a complication of opportunistic infections and tumours. Objective: To analyse the aetiology of SP in non-treated HIV patients. Patients and methods: Observational study of SP cases observed in a cohort of 9831 of non-treated HIV-infected patients attended in seven Spanish hospitals. Results: 105 patients (1.06%) developed SP. The aetiological cause was identified in 89 patients. The major causes identified were: bacterial pneumonia (36 subjects, 34.3%); Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) (31 patients, 29.5%); and pulmonary tuberculosis (17 cases, 15.2%). The most common cause of SP in drugs users was bacterial pneumonia (40%), whereas PJP was more common (65%) in sexual transmitted HIV-patients. The most common cause of bilateral SP was PJP (62.5%) whereas unilateral SP was most commonly associated with bacterial pneumonia (40.2%). The most common cause of SP in patients with a CD4+ lymphocyte count >200 cells/ml and in patients without AIDS criteria was bacterial pneumonia. PJP was the more common cause in patients with a CD4+ lymphocyte count <200 cells/ml or with AIDS. Conclusion: The incidence of SP in non-treated HIV-infected patients was 1.06%. The aetiology was related to the patients risk practices and to their degree of immunosuppression. Bacterial pneumonia was the most common cause of SP.

  1. First detection of Nosema sp., microsporidian parasites of honeybees (Apis mellifera in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Azeem S. Abdel-Baki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nosema sp. is recorded in Saudi Arabia for the first time, in adult Apis mellifera collected from apiaries in Riyadh city. Samples of 100 workers were collected and examined for the infection with Nosema sp. 5% of the bees were found positively infected with Nosema sp. Spores were oval to elliptical shaped and measuring 6.4 (5.0–7.0 μm in length, 3.4 (3.0–4.5 μm in width. The conclusive identification of the present Nosema species will preclude until further ultrastructure and molecular studies. The present study concluded that intensive surveys are prerequisite to identify the species of Nosema and to estimate their distribution and prevalence in different regions of Saudi Arabia.

  2. Penicillium araracuarense sp. nov., Penicillium elleniae sp. nov., Penicillium penarojense sp. nov., Penicillium vanderhammenii sp. nov. and Penicillium wotroi sp. nov., isolated from leaf litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Jos; López-Quintero, Carlos A; Frisvad, Jens C; Boekhout, Teun; Theelen, Bart; Franco-Molano, Ana Esperanza; Samson, Robert A

    2011-06-01

    Several species of the genus Penicillium were isolated during a survey of the mycobiota of leaf litter and soil in Colombian Amazon forest. Five species, Penicillium penarojense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 113178(T) = IBT 23262(T)), Penicillium wotroi sp. nov. (type strain CBS 118171(T) = IBT 23253(T)), Penicillium araracuarense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 113149(T) = IBT 23247(T)), Penicillium elleniae sp. nov. (type strain CBS 118135(T) = IBT 23229(T)) and Penicillium vanderhammenii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 126216(T) = IBT 23203(T)) are described here as novel species. Their taxonomic novelty was determined using a polyphasic approach, combining phenotypic, molecular (ITS and partial β-tubulin sequences) and extrolite data. Phylogenetic analyses showed that each novel species formed a unique clade for both loci analysed and that they were most closely related to Penicillium simplicissimum, Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium daleae and Penicillium brasilianum. An overview of the phylogeny of this taxonomically difficult group is presented, and 33 species are accepted. Each of the five novel species had a unique extrolite profile of known and uncharacterized metabolites and various compounds, such as penicillic acid, andrastin A, pulvilloric acid, paxillin, paspaline and janthitrem, were commonly produced by these phylogenetically related species. The novel species had a high growth rate on agar media, but could be distinguished from each other by several macro- and microscopical characteristics.

  3. Neues vom Heringsparasiten Ichthyophonus sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Seit dem Massensterben von Heringen entlang der schwedischen Südküste im Sommer 1991, aufgrund einer Infektion mit dem parasitischen Pilz Ichthyophonus sp., wird der Gesundheitszustand der Heringsbestände in den europäischen Seegebieten intensiv überwacht. Diese Untersuchungen, an denen sich auch die Bundesforschungsanstalt für Fischerei beteiligt, werden koordiniert von der "Arbeitsgruppe über Pathologie und Krankheiten mariner Organismen" des Internationalen Rates für Meeresforschung (IC...

  4. Prevalence of Pasteuria SP. on Renfirom Nematode in a Georgia Cotton Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasteuria species are bacterial parasites of nematodes and have been associated with suppression of root-knot, sting, and cyst nematode populations. Little is known about the Pasteuria sp. infecting the reniform nematode. While sampling a cotton field study near Cochran, GA, we found Pasteuria spo...

  5. Pinworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinworm infection Overview Pinworm infection is the most common type of intestinal worm infection in the United States and one of the most common worldwide. Pinworms are thin and white, measuring about 1/4 ...

  6. DISTRIBUSI Solen sp DI PERAIRAN KABUPATEN BANGKALAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ari Wahyuni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available DISTRIBUTION OF Solen sp IN BANGKALAN WATERSSolen sp potential needs to be developed on the island of Madura, particularly in Bangkalan. Solen sp utilization has increased which has the potential to overfishing. Therefore, this study aims to determine the density of Solen sp and their ecology in the waters Modung village, Modung District, Bangkalan. The experiment was conducted in April 2015 using the descriptive method. The materials used include Solen sp and physico-chemical parameters of the environment (temperature, salinity, pH, and substrate. The analyzes were conducted at the Laboratory of Marine Science, Department of Marine Sciences, Trunojoyo University of Madura by using the tool grabsampler, sieveshaker, and pipetting with gravimetric method. The analysis shows the range of values of temperature between 29-300C, salinity between 31-32 ppt, pH were 7.9-8.0 and the type of substrate in the form of sandy mud, as well as the density of Solen sp from 8-10 individuals/m2. All measurement results indicate normal conditions and in accordance with the sea water quality standard for marine life, which can be a suitable habitat for the growth and development of Solen sp. This condition is thought to affect the density of Solen sp.Keywords: Bangkalan, density, distribution, Solen sp, substrate.ABSTRAKPotensi Solen sp perlu dikembangkan di pulau Madura, khususnya di Kabupaten Bangkalan. Pemanfaatan Solen sp mengalami peningkatan sehingga berpotensi overfishing. Untuk itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kepadatan Solen sp dan ekologinya di perairan desa Modung, Kecamatan Modung, Kabupaten Bangkalan. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan April 2015 dengan metode deskriptif. Materi dan bahan yang digunakan diantaranya Solen sp dan parameter fisika-kimia lingkungan (suhu, salinitas, pH, dan substrat. Analisa dilakukan di Laboratorium Ilmu Kelautan, Program studi/Jurusan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas Trunojoyo Madura dengan menggunakan alat

  7. Epizootiology of the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. in the American blue crab Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, G A; Shields, J D

    2000-11-14

    Hematodinium sp. is a parasitic dinoflagellate that infects and kills blue crabs Callinectes sapidus. Periodic outbreaks of dinoflagellate infections with subsequent high host mortalities prompted a study of the epizootiology and distribution of the crab pathogen. Hemolymph samples from over 13000 crabs were assessed for infections over 8 yr. Moderate to high prevalences were found at several locations along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. In the coastal bays of Maryland and Virginia, prevalence followed a seasonal pattern, with a sharp peak in late autumn. Infections were significantly more prevalent in crabs measuring less than 30 mm carapace width; host sex did not influence prevalence. Prevalences were highest in crabs collected from salinities of 26 to 30%o; no infected crabs were found in salinities below 11%o. Intensity of infection did not vary among crab sizes, molt stages, or sexes. Naturally and experimentally infected crabs died over 35 and 55 d in captivity, with a mean time to death of approximately 13 and 42 d, respectively. Several other crustaceans, including gammaridean amphipods, xanthid (mud) crabs, and the green crab Carcinus maenus, were found with Hematodinium-like infections. Considering its widespread distribution and high pathogenicity, we suggest that Hematodinium sp. represents a significant threat to blue crab populations in high salinity estuaries along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the USA.

  8. Growth and Cultivation of the Unusual Generalized Transducing Bacillus Bacteriophage SP-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Martha J.; Goldberg, Ivan D.

    1971-01-01

    Additional properties of SP-15, a generalized transducing bacteriophage notable for the ability to transfer an unusually large fragment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis, are presented together with improved methods that enhance its utility. Simple means have been found to provide the rigid control over moisture that is necessary for the assay of plaque-forming units (PFU). Reproducible procedures for propagating transducing phage, which depend upon an appropriate mixing of PFU with uninfected bacteria, have replaced less reliable methods that utilized infected spores. Transduction of B. subtilis W-23 increased linearly when MgSO4 in recipient cell-SP-15 mixtures was increased from 0.005 to 0.03 m. Methods have been developed that protect SP-15 from the damaging effects of CsCl and of osmotic shock subsequent to dilution. Evidence that the PFU and transducing particles of lysates decay at the same slow rate during extended storage suggests that the decay is a result of damage to protein rather than to DNA. One-step growth experiments, in which SP-15 was propagated on B. subtilis W-23-Sr/1 mg, indicated a latent period of 100 min, a rise period of 60 min, and a burst size of 25 to 34 PFU per infected cell. These findings suggest explanations for some of the technical difficulties SP-15 has presented. PMID:4999971

  9. The Effectiveness of Extracts Basil Leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) against Saprolegnia sp. by in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarno; Luthfi Hakim, Muhammad; Kusdarwati, Rahayu

    2017-02-01

    Saprolegnia SP. is a fungi which is opportunistic and generally as a secondary pathogen on fish. Saprolegnia sp. infects epidermis tissue that begins at the head or fins and can spread over the entire surface of the body. The result of the using of chemicals to control infections of Saprolegnia spp. can cause pollution of the environment and harm the consumer. The purpose of this research was to determine the potential and the minimum concentration of extracts basil leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) as antifungi against the growth of Saprolegnia sp. by vitro. The research was held in Fish Quarantine Kelas I Juanda Suarabaya in January 2015. A positive result was obtained in the test of the effectiveness of basil leaves in inhibiting the growth of the fungus Saprolegnia sp. Concentration of the extract given to treatment 90% and 100% was able to inhibit the growth of Saprolegnia sp., indicated by the formation of the inhibitory zones at a concentration of treatment, and had the best results on the concentration of 100%.

  10. Identifikasi Molekuler Fitoplasma yang Berasosiasi dengan Tanaman Kaktus Hias Opuntia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariny Prasetya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cactus species (Opuntia sp. is a popular ornamental succulent plant. Some ornamental cactus species in Indonesia showing proliferation and green mosaic pattern symptoms have been reported to be associated with phytoplasma infection. However, further molecular identification for accurate classification of the causal phytoplasma has not been done.  This study aimed to diagnose phytoplasma associated with Opuntia sp. based on molecular methods involving PCR standard combined with nested-PCR, cloning and DNA sequencing. Standard PCR was carried out using P1/P7 primers followed by nested-PCR using R16F2n/R16R2 or fU5/rU3 primer pairs which amplify the 16S rRNA gene targets of 1.2 kb and 880 bp, respectively. Amplified fragment of nested-PCR using R16F2n/R16R2 primers was chosen to be cloned and sequenced for further identification and classification of phytoplasma.  BLASTn analysis showed that the phytoplasma from Opuntia sp. was closely related to 16SrII group. Phylogenetic analysis and in silico RFLP indicated that phytoplasma strain infecting Opuntia sp. was a member of subgroup 16SrII-C (cactus witches’ broom phytoplasma. This is a newly report of cactus witches’ broom phytoplasma on Opuntia sp. in Indonesia.   

  11. Introduction to the SP theory of intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, J Gerard

    2018-01-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to the "Theory of Intelligence" and its realisation in the "SP Computer Model". The overall goal of the SP programme of research, in accordance with long-established principles in science, has been the simplification and integration of observations and concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, mathematics, and human learning, perception, and cognition. In broad terms, the SP system is a brain-like system that takes in "New" infor...

  12. Cloning and characterisation of the SpToll gene from green mud crab, Scylla paramamosain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhongyang; Qiao, Jie; Zhang, Yueling; Guo, Lingling; Huang, He; Yan, Fang; Li, Yuanyou; Wang, Xiuying

    2012-05-01

    Toll/Toll-like receptors (TLRs), one of the most important pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), play a crucial role in innate immune responses in both invertebrates and vertebrates. In this study, we cloned and characterised a Toll gene from Scylla paramamosain (SpToll). Bioinformatic analysis predicted that SpToll contained one open reading frame of 3018bp and encoded a single-pass transmembrane domain protein of 1005 amino acids. Further, SpToll could be clustered into one branch along with other arthropod Tolls in a phylogenetic tree. SpToll transcripts could be detected by RT-PCR from all tissues examined including the heart, gill, hepatopancreas, stomach, intestine, muscle, eyestalk and hemocytes. Infection by Vibrio parahemolyticus up-regulated SpToll mRNA expression in hemocytes after 48h. The profile of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) domain of SpToll in three healthy crabs was then evaluated. Two hundred and twenty SNPs with a frequency of about 1.0-4.0% were identified in hemocyte DNA/cDNA. Surprisingly, the adenine to guanine transition at position 1372 (c.1372A>G) had a frequency of about 50%. Finally, the results showed that challenge with V. parahemolyticus stimulated the appearance of two sets of SNPs in crabs. More importantly, the c.1372A>G mutation could contribute to a low mortality after V. parahemolyticus infection and introduce variation of charge and secondary structure into the SpToll polypeptide. In summary, these studies suggested a novel Toll homologue in crab and identified a SNP with potential pathogen-resistant activities. The result will be important for the investigation of crab immune defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of Cynobacteria, Limnothrix sp. and Leptolyngbya sp. from Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anas, A.; Vinothkumar, S.; Gupta, S.; Jasmin, C.; Joseph, V.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Nair, S.

    The hexane fractions of the marine cyanobacteria: Leptolyngbya sp. and Limnothrix sp., collected from Arabian Sea were found to display promising antioxidant properties than their ethyl acetate fraction during radical scavenging ABTS/DPPH assays (IC...

  14. Xylanolytic enzyme systems in Arthrobacter sp MTCC 5214 and Lactobacillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Jalal, T.

    The production of extracellular xylanolytic enzymes such as xylanase, alfa-L-arabinofuranosidase (alfa-l-AFase), and acetyl xylan esterase (Axe) by marine Arthrobacter sp and Lactobacillus sp was investigated using different carbon sources Induction...

  15. Áreas de vulnerabilidade para co-infecção HIV-aids/TB em Ribeirão Preto, SP Áreas de vulnerabilidad para coinfección VIH-sida/TB en Ribeirao Preto, Sureste de Brasil Areas of vulnerability to HIV/TB co-infection in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia Firmino Brunello

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar áreas de vulnerabilidade para os casos novos de co-infecção HIV/tuberculose (TB. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo ecológico realizado por meio do georreferenciamento dos casos novos de HIV/TB notificados em Ribeirão Preto, SP, em 2006. Os dados foram obtidos do sistema de informação estadual paulista de notificação de TB. Os casos novos de co-infecção HIV/TB foram analisados conforme características sociodemográficas e clínicas e, posteriormente, georreferenciados na base cartográfica do município segundo endereço residencial. Os setores do município foram categorizados em três níveis socioeconômicos: inferior, intermediário e superior, com base na análise de componentes principais das variáveis do censo demográfico de 2000 (renda, instrução e percentagem de domicílios com cinco ou mais moradores. Foi calculada a incidência da co-infecção HIV/TB para cada nível socioeconômico. RESULTADOS: A co-infecção HIV/TB acometeu mais adultos do sexo masculino em idade economicamente ativa e a forma pulmonar da TB foi a mais comum. A distribuição espacial mostrou que as incidências nas áreas com níveis socioeconômicos intermediários e inferiores (8,3 e 11,5 casos por 100 mil habitantes, respectivamente foram superiores àquela (4,8 casos por 100 mil habitantes de nível socioeconômico superior. CONCLUSÕES: A taxa de incidência de co-infecção HIV/TB analisada por níveis socioeconômicos mostrou padraÞo espacial de distribuiçaÞo não homogêneo e apresentou valores mais altos em áreas de maior vulnerabilidade social. O estudo diagnosticou aìreas geograìficas prioritaìrias para o controle da co-infecção e a tecnologia do sistema de informação geográfica pode ser empregada no planejamento das ações em saúde pelos gestores municipais.OBJETIVO: Identificar áreas de vulnerabilidad para los casos nuevos de coinfección VIH/tuberculosis (TB. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo ecol

  16. First record of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Estrella; González, Luis Miguel; Chaparro, Alberto; Benzal, Jesús; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Masero, José A; Colominas-Ciuró, Roger; Vidal, Virginia; Barbosa, Andrés

    2016-04-01

    This is the first reported case of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins, specifically a population of Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) in the Vapour Col penguin rookery in Deception Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica. We collected peripheral blood from 50 adult and 30 chick Chinstrap penguins. Examination of the samples by microscopy showed intraerythrocytic forms morphologically similar to other avian Babesia species in 12 Chinstrap penguin adults and seven chicks. The estimated parasitaemias ranged from 0.25×10(-2)% to 0.75×10(-2)%. Despite the low number of parasites found in blood smears, semi-nested PCR assays yielded a 274 bp fragment in 12 of the 19 positive blood samples found by microscopy. Sequencing revealed that the fragment was 97% similar to Babesia sp. 18S rRNA from Australian Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) confirming presence of the parasite. Parasite prevalence estimated by microscopy in adults and chicks was higher (24% vs. 23.3%, respectively) than found by semi-nested PCR (16% vs. 13.3% respectively). Although sampled penguins were apparently healthy, the effect of Babesia infection in these penguins is unknown. The identification of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins is an important finding. Ixodes uriae, as the only tick species present in the Antarctic Peninsula, is the key to understanding the natural history of this parasite. Future work should address the transmission dynamics and pathogenicity of Babesia sp. in Chinstrap penguin as well as in other penguin species, such as Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) and Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), present within the tick distribution range in the Antarctic Peninsula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of a serine proteinase homolog (Sp-SPH involved in immune defense in the mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-xia Zhang

    Full Text Available Clip domain serine proteinase homologs are involved in many biological processes including immune response. To identify the immune function of a serine proteinase homolog (Sp-SPH, originally isolated from hemocytes of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain, the Sp-SPH was expressed recombinantly and purified for further studies. It was found that the Sp-SPH protein could bind to a number of bacteria (including Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahemolyticus, bacterial cell wall components such as lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan (PGN, and β-1, 3-glucan of fungus. But no direct antibacterial activity of Sp-SPH protein was shown by using minimum inhibitory concentration or minimum bactericidal concentration assays. Nevertheless, the Sp-SPH protein was found to significantly enhance the crab hemocyte adhesion activity (paired t-test, P<0.05, and increase phenoloxidase activity if triggered by PGN in vitro (paired t-test, P<0.05. Importantly, the Sp-SPH protein was demonstrated to promote the survival rate of the animals after challenge with A. hydrophila or V. parahemolyticus which were both recognized by Sp-SPH protein, if pre-incubated with Sp-SPH protein, respectively. Whereas, the crabs died much faster when challenged with Vibrio alginolyiicus, a pathogenic bacterium not recognized by Sp-SPH protein, compared to those of crabs challenged with A. hydrophila or V. parahemolyticus when pre-coated with Sp-SPH protein. Taken together, these data suggested that Sp-SPH molecule might play an important role in immune defense against bacterial infection in the mud crab S. paramamosain.

  18. Elevated plasma surfactant protein D (SP-D) levels and a direct correlation with anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-specific IgG antibody in SARS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Y P; Liu, Z H; Wei, R

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary SP-D is a defence lectin promoting clearance of viral infections. SP-D is recognized to bind the S protein of SARS-CoV and enhance phagocytosis. Moreover, systemic SP-D is widely used as a biomarker of alveolar integrity. We investigated the relation between plasma SP-D, SARS-type pneum......Pulmonary SP-D is a defence lectin promoting clearance of viral infections. SP-D is recognized to bind the S protein of SARS-CoV and enhance phagocytosis. Moreover, systemic SP-D is widely used as a biomarker of alveolar integrity. We investigated the relation between plasma SP-D, SARS......-type pneumonia and the SARS-specific IgG response. Sixteen patients with SARS, 19 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (Streptococcus pneumonia) and 16 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study. Plasma SP-D and anti-SARS-CoV N protein IgG were measured using ELISA. SP-D was significantly...... elevated in SARS-type pneumonia [median (95% CI), 453 (379-963) ng/ml versus controls 218 (160-362) ng/ml, P protein IgG (r(2) = 0.5995, P = 0.02). The possible re-emergence of SARS or SARS-like infections suggests a need...

  19. C-type lectin B (SpCTL-B) regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides and promotes phagocytosis in mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Limin; Sun, Wanwei; Zhang, Ming; Ma, Hongyu; Zhang, Yueling; Zhang, Xinxu; Li, Shengkang

    2018-07-01

    RNA transcriptional level and protein translational level in mud crab. Meantime, the phagocytosis rate and the expression of three phagocytosis related genes were declined after RNAi of SpCTL-B in hemocytes in mud crab. Collectively, our results suggest that SpCTL-B might play its roles as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) in immune response towards pathogens infection through influencing the expression of AMPs and the phagocytosis of hemocytes in mud crab S. paramamosain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium Oxysporum F.sp. Cubense) dengan Trichoderma SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Sudirman, Albertus; Sumardiyono, Christanti; Widyastuti, Siti Muslimah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag), second...

  1. Selective C(sp2)-C(sp) bond cleavage: the nitrogenation of alkynes to amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chong; Feng, Peng; Ou, Yang; Shen, Tao; Wang, Teng; Jiao, Ning

    2013-07-22

    Breakthrough: A novel catalyzed direct highly selective C(sp2)-C(sp) bond functionalization of alkynes to amides has been developed. Nitrogenation is achieved by the highly selective C(sp2)-C(sp) bond cleavage of aryl-substituted alkynes. The oxidant-free and mild conditions and wide substrate scope make this method very practical. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. First report of Anisakis sp. in Epinephelus sp. in East Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Annytha Ina Rohi Detha; Diana Agustiani Wuri; Julianty Almet; Yuni Riwu; Christin Melky

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The present research was conducted to identify the prevalence of Anisakis sp. as fish-borne zoonoses in Epinephelus sp. in territorial waters of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Materials and methods: A total of 50 fish (Epinephelus sp.) were collected from Kupang Fish Market in East Nusa Tenggara. Identification of Anisakis sp. was performed based on morphological observations considering shape of ventriculus, boring tooth, and mucron using binocular microscope. Results: Prev...

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Blastocystis sp. in Various Animal Groups from Two French Zoos and Evaluation of Potential Zoonotic Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Cian

    Full Text Available Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal parasite infecting humans and a wide range of animals worldwide. It exhibits an extensive genetic diversity and 17 subtypes (STs have thus far been identified in mammalian and avian hosts. Since several STs are common to humans and animals, it was proposed that a proportion of human infections may result from zoonotic transmission. However, the contribution of each animal source to human infection remains to be clarified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to expand our knowledge of the epidemiology and host specificity of this parasite by performing the largest epidemiological survey ever conducted in animal groups in terms of numbers of species screened. A total of 307 stool samples from 161 mammalian and non-mammalian species in two French zoos were screened by real-time PCR for the presence of Blastocystis sp. Overall, 32.2% of the animal samples and 37.9% of the species tested were shown to be infected with the parasite. A total of 111 animal Blastocystis sp. isolates were subtyped, and 11 of the 17 mammalian and avian STs as well as additional STs previously identified in reptiles and insects were found with a varying prevalence according to animal groups. These data were combined with those obtained from previous surveys to evaluate the potential risk of zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis sp. through the comparison of ST distribution between human and animal hosts. This suggests that non-human primates, artiodactyls and birds may serve as reservoirs for human infection, especially in animal handlers. In contrast, other mammals such as carnivores, and non-mammalian groups including reptiles and insects, do not seem to represent significant sources of Blastocystis sp. infection in humans. In further studies, more intensive sampling and screening of potential new animal hosts will reinforce these statements and expand our understanding of the circulation of Blastocystis sp. in animal and human

  4. Low prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in active ulcerative colitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, N G; Bart, A; Verhaar, N; van Nood, E; Kootte, R; de Groot, P F; D'Haens, G R; Ponsioen, C Y; van Gool, T

    2015-05-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is thought to originate from a disbalance in the interplay between the gut microbiota and the innate and adaptive immune system. Apart from the bacterial microbiota, there might be other organisms, such as parasites or viruses, that could play a role in the aetiology of UC. The primary objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in a cohort of patients with active UC and compare that to the prevalence in healthy controls. We studied patients with active UC confirmed by endoscopy included in a randomised prospective trial on the faecal transplantation for UC. A cohort of healthy subjects who served as donors in randomised trials on faecal transplantation were controls. Healthy subjects did not have gastrointestinal symptoms and were extensively screened for infectious diseases by a screenings questionnaire, extensive serologic assessment for viruses and stool analysis. Potential parasitic infections such as Blastocystis were diagnosed with the triple faeces test (TFT). The prevalence of Blastocystis sp. were compared between groups by Chi-square testing. A total of 168 subjects were included, of whom 45 had active UC [median age 39.0 years, interquartile range (IQR) 32.5-49.0, 49 % male] and 123 were healthy subjects (median age 27 years, IQR 22.0-37.0, 54 % male). Blastocystis sp. was present in the faeces of 40/123 (32.5 %) healthy subjects and 6/45 (13.3 %) UC patients (p = 0.014). Infection with Blastocystis is significantly less frequent in UC patients as compared to healthy controls.

  5. IAA-producing Penicillium sp. NICS01 triggers plant growth and suppresses Fusarium sp.-induced oxidative stress in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Shim, Kang-Bo; Lee, Byeong-Won; Hwang, Chung-Dong; Pae, Suk-Bok; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Sung-Up; Lee, Choon-Ki; Baek, In-Youl

    2013-06-28

    Application of rhizospheric fungi is an effective and environmentally friendly method of improving plant growth and controlling many plant diseases. The current study was aimed to identify phytohormone-producing fungi from soil, to understand their roles in sesame plant growth, and to control Fusarium disease. Three predominant fungi (PNF1, PNF2, and PNF3) isolated from the rhizospheric soil of peanut plants were screened for their growth-promoting efficiency on sesame seedlings. Among these isolates, PNF2 significantly increased the shoot length and fresh weight of seedlings compared with controls. Analysis of the fungal culture filtrate showed a higher concentration of indole acetic acid in PNF2 than in the other isolates. PNF2 was identified as Penicillium sp. on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. The in vitro biocontrol activity of Penicillium sp. against Fusarium sp. was exhibited by a 49% inhibition of mycelial growth in a dual culture bioassay and by hyphal injuries as observed by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, greenhouse experiments revealed that Fusarium inhibited growth in sesame plants by damaging lipid membranes and reducing protein content. Co-cultivation with Penicillium sp. mitigated Fusarium-induced oxidative stress in sesame plants by limiting membrane lipid peroxidation, and by increasing the protein concentration, levels of antioxidants such as total polyphenols, and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities. Thus, our findings suggest that Penicillium sp. is a potent plant growthpromoting fungus that has the ability to ameliorate damage caused by Fusarium infection in sesame cultivation.

  6. Contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. em solo no município de Moreno, Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lancart de Lima

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The contaminated soil with Toxocara sp. eggs is an important factor of risk to development of the zoonotic disease. Human infection is acquired by ingestion of embryonated Toxocara sp. eggs with contaminated water, food and also with dirt hands contaminated too. Usually Toxocara sp. infected dogs and cats, but sometimes humans can be affected, mainly children, causing visceral larva migrans. The goal of this study was determine the prevalence of Toxocara eggs in the sand of the locality Cidade Evangelica dos orfaos, Moreno County, northeast of Brazil. Twenty-five soil samples were collected and analyzed by centrifugal flotation technique by using zinc sulfate solution at 33%. The analysis of soil samples showed 12% (3/25 of some contamination level of sand by Toxocara sp eggs. As human can be infect by accidental ingestion of embryonated Toxocara eggs, the results of this research suggest the adoption of measures who prevent the transmission of this zoonotic disease.

  7. Binding of human collectins (SP-A and MBP) to influenza virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, R; Haurum, J S; Thiel, S; Sim, R B

    1994-01-01

    Collectins are a group of soluble proteins each of which has collagenous domains and non-collagenous globular domains, the latter containing the consensus residues found in C-type lectins. Members of the collectin family are the serum proteins mannan-binding protein (MBP), conglutinin, CL-43, and the lung-associated proteins surfactant protein A (SP-A) and surfactant protein D (SP-D). MBP and conglutinin have been shown previously to bind to influenza viruses and to inhibit the infectivity an...

  8. Pseudoxanthomonas koreensis sp. nov. and Pseudoxanthomonas daejeonensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deok-Chun; Im, Wan-Taek; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2005-03-01

    Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria, T7-09(T) and TR6-08(T), were isolated from soil from a ginseng field in South Korea and characterized to determine their taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the two isolates shared 99.5 % sequence similarity. Strains T7-09(T) and TR6-08(T) were shown to belong to the Proteobacteria and showed the highest levels of sequence similarity to Pseudoxanthomonas broegbernensis DSM 12573(T) (98.1 %), Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana AMX 26B(T) (97.4-97.5 %), Pseudoxanthomonas japonensis 12-3(T) (96.5-96.6 %), Pseudoxanthomonas taiwanensis ATCC BAA-404(T) (95.7 %) and Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 33913(T) (96.3-96.5 %). The sequence similarity values with respect to any species with validly published names in related genera were less than 96.5 %. The detection of a quinone system with Q-8 as the predominant compound and a fatty acid profile with C(15 : 0) iso as the predominant acid supported the assignment of the novel isolates to the order 'Xanthomonadales'. The two isolates could be distinguished from the established species of the genus Pseudoxanthomonas by the presence of quantitative unsaturated fatty acid C(17 : 1) iso omega9c and by their unique biochemical profiles. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization clearly demonstrated that T7-09(T) and TR6-08(T) represent separate species. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that T7-09(T) (=KCTC 12208(T)=IAM 15116(T)) and TR6-08(T) (=KCTC 12207(T)=IAM 15115(T)) be classified as the type strains of two novel Pseudoxanthomonas species, for which the names Pseudoxanthomonas koreensis sp. nov. and Pseudoxanthomonas daejeonensis sp. nov., respectively, are proposed.

  9. Frequency of parasites and Salmonella infection in captive maned-wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, kept in Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilioli R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815 from 11 Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were screened to investigate the presence of parasites and Salmonella infection by parasitological diagnostic methods and fecal selective culture. The most frequent ecto and endoparasites found were Ctenocephalides felis (56.2%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (12.5%, Ancylostoma caninum (45.1%, Strongyloides sp. (29.0%, Uncinaria stenocephala (3.2%, Capillaria sp. (3.2%, Entamoeba sp. (22.9%, Sarcocystis sp. (29.0%, Cryptosporidium sp. (19.3%, Eimeria sp. (19.3%, Giardia sp. (9.6% and Isospora sp. (3.2%. Four different serotypes of Salmonella were identified in six animals (25%. Only one infected animal showed clinical signs of diarrhea. The ability to harbor Salmonella spp. as normal nonpathogenic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract may be a physiological adaptation of this specie.

  10. Co-infecção por Mycobacterium tuberculosis e vírus da imunodeficiência humana: uma análise epidemiológica em Taubaté (SP Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus: an epidemiological analysis in the city of Taubaté, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Miranda de Carvalho

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir os principais aspectos da co-infecção por Mycobacterium tuberculosis e vírus da imunodeficiência humana no município de Taubaté (SP nos anos de 2001 e 2002. MÉTODOS: Este trabalho apresenta o levantamento epidemiológico dos casos de tuberculose ocorridos em Taubaté em 2001 e 2002. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 250 casos de tuberculose, dos quais 70 corresponderam a casos de sorologia positiva para o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (28%, 95 de sorologia negativa (38%, e para 85 pacientes a sorologia não foi realizada (34%. Com relação ao primeiro grupo houve predomínio do sexo masculino e da faixa etária de 30 a 40 anos, a forma clínica de tuberculose mais comum foi a pulmonar (65,71% e a taxa de cura foi de 59,38% . No grupo de pacientes para os quais não se comprovou a co-infecção também predominou o sexo masculino e ocorrência na mesma faixa etária, sendo a forma clínica mais comum também a pulmonar (70,55% e a taxa de cura foi de 81,63%. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que o vírus da imunodeficiência humana é importante na epidemiologia da tuberculose e, portanto, o teste sorológico para o vírus da imunodeficiência humana deve ser realizado quando se diagnostica a presença de tuberculose.OBJECTIVE: To discuss the main aspects of co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus in the city of Taubaté (located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil in 2001 and 2002. METHODS: This study presents epidemiological data on tuberculosis cases occurring in Taubaté in 2001 and 2002. RESULTS: Of the 250 cases of tuberculosis analyzed, 70 (28% presented human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity, 95 (38% presented human immunodeficiency virus seronegativity, and 85 (34% were patients who had not been submitted to serological testing. In the first group (tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity, males from 30 to 40 years of age predominated, the most common clinical

  11. Bacteriophage SP6 encodes a second tailspike protein that recognizes Salmonella enterica serogroups C2 and C3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhart, Dana; Williams, Steven R.; Scholl, Dean

    2017-01-01

    SP6 is a salmonella phage closely related to coliphage K1-5. K1-5 is notable in that it encodes two polysaccharide-degrading tailspike proteins, an endosialidase that allows it to infect E. coli K1, and a lyase that enables it to infect K5 strains. SP6 is similar to K1-5 except that it encodes a P22-like endorhamnosidase tailspike, gp46, allowing it to infect group B Salmonella. We show here that SP6 can also infect Salmonella serogroups C 2 and C 3 and that a mutation in a putative second tailspike, gp47, eliminates this specificity. Gene 47 was fused to the coding region of the N-terminal portion of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa R2 pyocin tail fiber and expressed in trans such that the fusion protein becomes incorporated into pyocin particles. These pyocins, termed AvR2-SP47, killed serogroups C 2 and C 3 Salmonella. We conclude that SP6 encodes two tail proteins providing it a broad host range among Salmonella enterica. - Highlights: • SP6 is a “dual specificity” bacteriophage that encodes two different receptor binding proteins giving it a broad host range. • These receptor binding proteins can be used to re-target the spectrum of R-type bacteriocins to Salmonella enterica. • Both SP6 and the engineered R-type bacteriocins can kill the Salmonella serovars most associated with human disease making them attractive for development as antimicrobial agents.

  12. Polymorphisms of SP110 are associated with both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis among the Vietnamese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Fox

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an infectious disease that remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet the reasons why only 10% of people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis go on to develop clinical disease are poorly understood. Genetically determined variation in the host immune response is one factor influencing the response to M. tuberculosis. SP110 is an interferon-responsive nuclear body protein with critical roles in cell cycling, apoptosis and immunity to infection. However association studies of the gene with clinical TB in different populations have produced conflicting results.To examine the importance of the SP110 gene in immunity to TB in the Vietnamese we conducted a case-control genetic association study of 24 SP110 variants, in 663 patients with microbiologically proven TB and 566 unaffected control subjects from three tertiary hospitals in northern Vietnam.Five SNPs within SP110 were associated with all forms of TB, including four SNPs at the C terminus (rs10208770, rs10498244, rs16826860, rs11678451 under a dominant model and one SNP under a recessive model, rs7601176. Two of these SNPs were associated with pulmonary TB (rs10208770 and rs16826860 and one with extra-pulmonary TB (rs10498244.SP110 variants were associated with increased susceptibility to both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in the Vietnamese. Genetic variants in SP110 may influence macrophage signaling responses and apoptosis during M. tuberculosis infection, however further research is required to establish the mechanism by which SP110 influences immunity to tuberculosis infection.

  13. Polymorphisms of SP110 Are Associated with both Pulmonary and Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis among the Vietnamese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Gregory J.; Sy, Dinh Ngoc; Nhung, Nguyen Viet; Yu, Bing; Ellis, Magda K.; Van Hung, Nguyen; Cuong, Nguyen Kim; Thi Lien, Luu; Marks, Guy B.; Saunders, Bernadette M.; Britton, Warwick J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet the reasons why only 10% of people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis go on to develop clinical disease are poorly understood. Genetically determined variation in the host immune response is one factor influencing the response to M. tuberculosis. SP110 is an interferon-responsive nuclear body protein with critical roles in cell cycling, apoptosis and immunity to infection. However association studies of the gene with clinical TB in different populations have produced conflicting results. Methods To examine the importance of the SP110 gene in immunity to TB in the Vietnamese we conducted a case-control genetic association study of 24 SP110 variants, in 663 patients with microbiologically proven TB and 566 unaffected control subjects from three tertiary hospitals in northern Vietnam. Results Five SNPs within SP110 were associated with all forms of TB, including four SNPs at the C terminus (rs10208770, rs10498244, rs16826860, rs11678451) under a dominant model and one SNP under a recessive model, rs7601176. Two of these SNPs were associated with pulmonary TB (rs10208770 and rs16826860) and one with extra-pulmonary TB (rs10498244). Conclusion SP110 variants were associated with increased susceptibility to both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in the Vietnamese. Genetic variants in SP110 may influence macrophage signaling responses and apoptosis during M. tuberculosis infection, however further research is required to establish the mechanism by which SP110 influences immunity to tuberculosis infection. PMID:25006821

  14. Effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection on the adherence of pathogenic bacteria to human epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faden, H.; Hong, J.J.; Ogra, P.L.

    1986-03-01

    The effect of RSV infection on the adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Haemophilus influenzae (HI) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) to human epithelial cells was determined. RSV-infected Hep-2 cell cultures at different stages of expression of surface viral antigens and bacteria labeled with /sup 3/H-thymidine were employed to examine the kinetics of bacterial adherence to virus-infected cells. RSV infection did not alter the magnitude of adherence of HI or SA to HEp-2 cells. However, adherence of SP to HEp-2 cells was significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced by prior RSV infection. The degree of adherence was directly related to the amount of viral antigen expressed on the cell surface. The adherence was temperature dependent, with maximal adherence observed at 37/sup 0/C. Heat-inactivation of SP did not alter adherence characteristics. These data suggest that RSV infection increases adherence of SP to the surface of epithelial cells in vitro. Since attachment of bacteria to mucosal surfaces is the first step in many infections, it is suggested that viral infections of epithelial cells render them more susceptible to bacterial adherence. Thus, RSV infection in vivo may predispose children to SP infections, such as in otitis media, by increasing colonization with SP.

  15. Specialised predation by Palpimanus sp. (Araneae: Palpimanidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the first detailed report on the natural prey and the prey-capture tactics of a Palpimanus sp. from Entebbe (Uganda). Although this species fed occasionally on insects, its dominant prey in the field was other spiders, especially jumping spiders (Salticidae) and their eggs. Encounters between Palpimanus sp. and ...

  16. Kultivasi Scenedesmus SP. Pada Medium Air Limbah

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaroe, Mujizat

    2011-01-01

    Proses fotosintesis pada mikroalga membutuhkan CO2 dan cahaya matahari serta nutrien untuk pertumbuhannya. Kultivasi Scenedesmus sp. pada medium air limbah bertujuan guna mencukupi kebutuhan mikroalga akan nutrien dan mengurangi masukan dari bahan kimia yang terkandung dalam air limbah tersebut ke lingkungan. Kultivasi Scenedesmus sp. dilakukan selama tujuh hari pada medium air limbah industri tanpa penambahan nutri...

  17. Morphological and hematological studies of Trypanosoma spp. infecting ornamental armored catfish from Guamá River-PA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Y. Fujimoto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 281 specimens of freshwater armored ornamental fish species (Leporacanthicus galaxias, Lasiancistrus saetiger, Cochliodon sp., Hypostomus sp., Pseudacanthicus spinosus, Ancistrus sp. and Rineloricaria cf. lanceolata were captured at the hydrological basin of Guamá River, Pará, Brazil. The infection by Trypanosoma spp. was inspected. The morphological and morphometric characterization of the parasites and the hematological parameters were determined. Leporacanthicus galaxias and Pseudacanthicus spinosus presented 100% infection prevalence, and the other species showed a variable prevalence of infection. The parasites showed clearly different morphotypes and dimensions, and probably belong to different species. The hematological response to the infection varied with the host. Cochliodon sp. showed no differences between infected and not infected fish. In other species several modifications on some hematological parameters were found, but apparently without causing disease. It is emphasized the possibility of introduction of the parasites in new environments due to the artificial movements of these ornamental fish.

  18. Guide til gode spørgeskemaer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Henning

    Spørgeskemaundersøgelser bliver ofte brugt til at dokumentere forskellige forhold og begrunde politiske beslutninger. Men resultaterne kan være forbundet med stor usikkerhed. Det kræver omhu og stor sproglig formåen at udarbejde spørgeskemaer. Seniorforsker Henning Olsen har i flere år arbejdet med...... viden om, hvordan folk forstår sproglige meddelelser og genkalder sig informationer. I guiden behandles emner som fx styrende problemstillinger og spørgsmåls fokus og neutralitet, formulering af åbne eller lukkede spørgsmål og svarkategorier, tematiske spørgeforløb, aflastning af svarpersoners...

  19. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing [3- 14 C] glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO 2 . Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with [3- 14 C]glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with [3- 14 C]glyphosate revealed that [3- 14 C]sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates

  20. Trichoderma sp. dalam Pengendalian Penyakit Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Tomat

    OpenAIRE

    Novita, Trias

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peran Trichoderma sp dalam pengendalianpenyakit layu fusarium pada tanaman tomat. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Rumah Kaca FakultasPertanian Universitas Jambi, perlakuannya terdiri dari : t0 = tanpa Trichoderma sp; t1 = 25 gTrichoderma sp/8 kg media; t2 = 50 g Trichoderma sp/8 kg media; t3 = 75 g Trichoderma sp/8 kgmedia; dan t4 = 100 g Trichoderma sp /8 kg media. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Trichodermasp berperan dalam mengendalikan penyakit layu...

  1. INTERAKSI ANTARA Trichoderma Harzianum, Penicillium SP. DAN Pseudomonas SP. SERTA KAPASITAS ANTAGONISMENYA TERHADAP Phytophthora CapsicilN VITRO*[Interaction Among Trichoderma Harzianum, Penicillium SP., Pseudomonas SP. and Antagonism Capacities Against Phy

    OpenAIRE

    Suharna, Nandang

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary study has been done to know antagonism capacities of three isolates of Trichoderma harzianum, two isolates of Penicillium sp.and one isolate of Pseudomonas sp.against Phytophthora capsici in vitro and interaction among those six antagonists.The highest antagonism capacity possessed by Penicillium sp. KN1, respectively followed by Penicillium sp.KN2,Pseudomonas sp. GH1 and the three T. harzianum isolates. Except for those three T. harzianum isolates, the two Penicillium sp.isolat...

  2. SP140L, an Evolutionarily Recent Member of the SP100 Family, Is an Autoantigen in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Saare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The SP100 family members comprise a set of closely related genes on chromosome 2q37.1. The widely expressed SP100 and the leukocyte-specific proteins SP110 and SP140 have been associated with transcriptional regulation and various human diseases. Here, we have characterized the SP100 family member SP140L. The genome sequence analysis showed the formation of SP140L gene through rearrangements of the two neighboring genes, SP100 and SP140, during the evolution of higher primates. The SP140L expression is interferon-inducible with high transcript levels in B cells and other peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Subcellularly, SP140L colocalizes with SP100 and SP140 in nuclear structures that are devoid of SP110, PML, or p300 proteins. Similarly to SP100 and SP140 protein, we detected serum autoantibodies to SP140L in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis using luciferase immunoprecipitation system and immunoblotting assays. In conclusion, our results show that SP140L is phylogenetically recent member of SP100 proteins and acts as an autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis patients.

  3. First Report of Granulicatella sp. Endocarditis in a Kidney Transplant Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Jota de Paula

    Full Text Available Abstract Granulicatella and Abiotrophia are genera of fastidious Gram-positive cocci commensal of the oral, genitourinary, and intestinal flora. We report the first case of infective endocarditis caused by Granulicatella sp. in a kidney transplant recipient. A 67-year-old male kidney transplant recipient was admitted to the hospital for investigation of fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. On physical examination, he was dehydrated. Laboratory tests identified impaired renal function (creatinine level of 15.5 mg/dl; reference, 3.0 mg/dl, metabolic acidosis, and electrolyte disturbances. Cryptosporidium sp. was identified as the cause of the diarrhea, and the infection was treated with nitazoxanide. On admission, cultures of blood, urine, and stool samples were negative. Echocardiography results were normal. Despite the antimicrobial treatment, the fever persisted. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed infective endocarditis of the mitral valve, and Granulicatella spp. were isolated in blood cultures. Although the patient was treated with penicillin and amikacin, he evolved to septic shock of pulmonary origin and died. Infective endocarditis caused by Granulicatella sp. should be suspected in cases of culture-negative endocarditis.

  4. Application technology for the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis indica and Steinernema sp. (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) to control Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Luiz C.; Raetano, Carlos G. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Producao Vegetal - Defesa Fitossanitaria]. E-mails: lcgarcia@fca.unesp.br; raetano@fca.unesp.br; Leite, Luis G. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Controle Biologico]. E-mail: lgleite@biologico.sp.gov.br

    2008-05-15

    The effects of different application technologies were evaluated on the concentration, viability, and efficiency of infective juveniles of the nematodes Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar and David and Steinernema sp. (IBCB-n6) to control Spodoptera frugiperda Smith on corn plants. Two hundred and eighty infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. were required to kill 100% third-instar fall army worms in petri dishes, as compared to 400 infective juveniles of the H. indica nematode to obtain 75% fall army worm control. It is possible to spray entomopathogenic nematodes without significant loss in their concentration and viability, with equipment that produces electrical charges to the spraying mix, and with those using hydraulic and rotary nozzle tips. The concentrations of infective juveniles of H. indica and Steinernema sp. nematodes were reduced by 28% and 53%, respectively, when hydraulic spraying nozzles that require 100-mesh filtrating elements were used. Tensoactive agents of the organo silicone and ethoxylate groups did not affect the viability of infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. juveniles. Spraying corn plants (V6 growth stage) with up to 288 million infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. per hectare, diluted in the spraying mix up to 800 L ha{sup -1}, with 0.01% ethoxylate tensoactive agent, or at the same volume followed by artificial rain (6 mm water depth) was not sufficient to control S. frugiperda in a controlled environment. (author)

  5. Application technology for the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis indica and Steinernema sp. (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) to control Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Luiz C.; Raetano, Carlos G.; Leite, Luis G.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of different application technologies were evaluated on the concentration, viability, and efficiency of infective juveniles of the nematodes Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar and David and Steinernema sp. (IBCB-n6) to control Spodoptera frugiperda Smith on corn plants. Two hundred and eighty infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. were required to kill 100% third-instar fall army worms in petri dishes, as compared to 400 infective juveniles of the H. indica nematode to obtain 75% fall army worm control. It is possible to spray entomopathogenic nematodes without significant loss in their concentration and viability, with equipment that produces electrical charges to the spraying mix, and with those using hydraulic and rotary nozzle tips. The concentrations of infective juveniles of H. indica and Steinernema sp. nematodes were reduced by 28% and 53%, respectively, when hydraulic spraying nozzles that require 100-mesh filtrating elements were used. Tensoactive agents of the organo silicone and ethoxylate groups did not affect the viability of infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. juveniles. Spraying corn plants (V6 growth stage) with up to 288 million infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. per hectare, diluted in the spraying mix up to 800 L ha -1 , with 0.01% ethoxylate tensoactive agent, or at the same volume followed by artificial rain (6 mm water depth) was not sufficient to control S. frugiperda in a controlled environment. (author)

  6. Entamoeba bangladeshi nov. sp., Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Royer, TL; Gilchrist, C; Kabir, M; Arju, T; Ralston, KS; Haque, R; Clark, CG; Petri, WAJr

    2012-01-01

    : TO THE EDITOR: Diarrheal diseases have a major effect on global health, particularly the health of malnourished children (1). The enteric parasites Entamoeba histolytica and E. moshkovskii are potential causes of diarrheal disease in children (2). For the past 20 years, we have been studying Entamoeba infections in children from the urban slum of Mirpur in Dhaka, Bangladesh (3).

  7. Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Infective Endocarditis Updated:Mar 29,2018 View an illustration of endocarditis Infective ... procedure. Web Booklets on Congenital Heart Defects These online publications describe many defects and the procedures used ...

  8. MRSA Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to spread and sometimes become life-threatening. MRSA infections may affect your: Bloodstream Lungs Heart Bones Joints Prevention Preventing HA-MRSA In the hospital, people who are infected or colonized with MRSA ...

  9. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You usually get it from eating contaminated food, especially raw ... You can also get it from drinking contaminated water or raw milk, or handling infected animal feces ( ...

  10. Staph Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... infection. People with skin problems like burns or eczema may be more likely to get staph skin ...

  11. Rotavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotavirus is a virus that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all ... the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...

  12. Babesia spp. in European wild ruminant species: parasite diversity and risk factors for infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Adam O; Mathis, Alexander; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2014-06-13

    Babesia are tick-borne parasites that are increasingly considered as a threat to animal and public health. We aimed to assess the role of European free-ranging wild ruminants as maintenance mammalian hosts for Babesia species and to determine risk factors for infection. EDTA blood was collected from 222 roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus), 231 red deer (Cervus e. elaphus), 267 Alpine chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra) and 264 Alpine ibex (Capra i. ibex) from all over Switzerland and analysed by PCR with pan-Babesia primers targeting the 18S rRNA gene, primers specific for B. capreoli and Babesia sp. EU1, and by sequencing. Babesia species, including B. divergens, B. capreoli, Babesia sp. EU1, Babesia sp. CH1 and B. motasi, were detected in 10.7% of all samples. Five individuals were co-infected with two Babesia species. Infection with specific Babesia varied widely between host species. Cervidae were significantly more infected with Babesia spp. than Caprinae. Babesia capreoli and Babesia sp. EU1 were mostly found in roe deer (prevalences 17.1% and 7.7%, respectively) and B. divergens and Babesia sp. CH1 only in red deer. Factors significantly associated with infection were low altitude and young age. Identification of Babesia sp. CH1 in red deer, co-infection with multiple Babesia species and infection of wild Caprinae with B. motasi and Babesia sp. EU1 are novel findings. We propose wild Caprinae as spillover or accidental hosts for Babesia species but wild Cervidae as mammalian reservoir hosts for B. capreoli, possibly Babesia sp. EU1 and Babesia sp. CH1, whereas their role regarding B. divergens is more elusive.

  13. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Tiwari, Ratnakar; Srivastava, Vikas; Singh, Tej Bali; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for ant...

  14. Isolation and characterization of Babesia pecorum sp. nov. from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouglin, Maggy; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G; de la Cotte, Nathalie; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Gortázar, Christian; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Bastian, Suzanne; de la Fuente, José; Malandrin, Laurence

    2014-08-26

    The diversity of Babesia species infecting cervids in parts of central and southern Spain was analyzed by collecting blood from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Babesia sp. was isolated in vitro from two red deer herds in Cádiz and Ciudad Real. The number of Babesia sp. carriers differed between the two herds: 36/77 in Cádiz and 1/35 in Ciudad Real. Hyalomma lusitanicum was the most prevalent tick species identified on the Cádiz farm vegetation and on sampled animals, and is therefore a candidate vector. The molecular characteristics of 21 isolates were determined by complete (8 isolates) or partial (13 isolates) 18S rRNA gene sequencing. The sequences were highly similar (over 99.4% identity) and 6 sequence types were identified at the level of one herd only, demonstrating a rather high genetic diversity. They formed a monophyletic clade, and members of the three main sequence types shared a similar morphology and the same erythrocyte susceptibility pattern. This clade also included Babesia sp. Xinjiang isolated from sheep in China and Babesia sp. identified in giraffe in South Africa, with identities higher than 98.3% and statistically relevant phylogenetic support. None of the biological properties analyzed for both Babesia from red deer and Babesia sp. Xinjiang allowed their differentiation (ability to develop in vitro in erythrocytes from cattle and sheep, as well as in erythrocytes from different cervids, unsuccessful infection of calves). We propose the Babesia isolated from red deer as a new species named B. pecorum. Whether Babesia sp. Xinjiang and the Babesia characterized in South Africa belong to the same species is debated.

  15. Shigella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Shigella Infections KidsHealth / For Parents / Shigella Infections What's in ... Doctor Print en español Infecciones por Shigella About Shigella Shigella are bacteria that can infect the digestive ...

  16. Antibacterial Actions and Potential Phototoxic Effects of Volatile oils of Foeniculum sp. (fennel, Salvia sp. (sage, Vitis sp. (grape, Lavandula sp. (lavender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Ayse Erdogan Eliuz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the volatile compounds of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel, Salvia officinalis (sage, Vitis vinifera (grape, Lavandula angustifolia (lavender were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS using the Nist and Willey libraries. It was determined that the main components of Foeniculum sp. were anethole (41.11%, carvacrol (9.18%. whereas main components of Salvia sp were 1.8 cineole (34.09%, caryophyllene (10.95%, camphor (9.44%, α-pinene (8.42%. Vitis sp. contained linoleic acid (36.98%, 2,4-decadienal (30.79%. Finally, volatile component of Lavandula sp. was linalool (33.57%, linalyl acetate (30.74%. Photoxic antibacterial activity of volatile oil of those plants against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25293, Klebsiella pneumoniae (10031, Salmonella thyphimurium, Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25925, Enterococcus feacalis (ATCC 29212 were examined by using disc diffusion method. We demonstrated that volatile oil effectively can be activated by a standard LED light. In vitro, significant phototoxicity was demonstrated by volatile oil of Foeniculum sp. and Vitis sp. (P < 0.05, while minor phototoxicity was induced by Lavandula sp. Therefore, volatile oil of plant can be considered as a potential photosensitizer in the photochemical therapy.

  17. Multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infection following intermittent preventive treatment in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchholz, Ulrike; Kobbe, Robin; Danquah, Ina; Zanger, Philipp; Reither, Klaus; Abruquah, Harry H.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Ziniel, Peter; May, Jürgen; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.

    2010-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment in infants with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTi-SP) reduces malaria morbidity by 20% to 33%. Potentially, however, this intervention may compromise the acquisition of immunity, including the tolerance towards multiple infections with Plasmodium falciparum.

  18. Multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infection following intermittent preventive treatment in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchholz, U.; Kobbe, R.; Danquah, I.; Zanger, P.; Reither, K.; Abruquah, H.H.; Grobusch, M.P.; Ziniel, P.; May, J.; Mockenhaupt, F.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Intermittent preventive treatment in infants with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTi-SP) reduces malaria morbidity by 20% to 33%. Potentially, however, this intervention may compromise the acquisition of immunity, including the tolerance towards multiple infections with Plasmodium

  19. Effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection on the adherence of pathogenic bacteria to human epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faden, H.; Hong, J.J.; Ogra, P.L.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of RSV infection on the adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Haemophilus influenzae (HI) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) to human epithelial cells was determined. RSV-infected Hep-2 cell cultures at different stages of expression of surface viral antigens and bacteria labeled with 3 H-thymidine were employed to examine the kinetics of bacterial adherence to virus-infected cells. RSV infection did not alter the magnitude of adherence of HI or SA to HEp-2 cells. However, adherence of SP to HEp-2 cells was significantly (P 0 C. Heat-inactivation of SP did not alter adherence characteristics. These data suggest that RSV infection increases adherence of SP to the surface of epithelial cells in vitro. Since attachment of bacteria to mucosal surfaces is the first step in many infections, it is suggested that viral infections of epithelial cells render them more susceptible to bacterial adherence. Thus, RSV infection in vivo may predispose children to SP infections, such as in otitis media, by increasing colonization with SP

  20. Prevalência e vulnerabilidade à infecção pelo HIV de moradores de rua em São Paulo, SP Prevalencia y vulnerabilidad a la infección por VIH en personas que viven en la calle en Sao Paulo, Brasil Prevalence and vulnerability of homeless people to HIV infection in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Grangeiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência e o perfil de vulnerabilidade ao HIV de moradores de rua. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com amostra não probabilística de 1.405 moradores de rua usuários de instituições de acolhimento de São Paulo, SP, de 2006 a 2007. Foi realizado teste anti-HIV e aplicado questionário estruturado. O perfil de vulnerabilidade foi analisado pela frequência do uso do preservativo, considerando mais vulneráveis os que referiram o uso nunca ou às vezes. Foram utilizadas regressões logística e multinomial para estimar as medidas de efeito e intervalos de 95% de confiança. RESULTADOS: Houve predominância do sexo masculino (85,6%, média de 40,9 anos, ter cursado o ensino fundamental (72,0% e cor não branca (71,5%. A prática homo/bissexual foi referida por 15,7% e a parceria ocasional por 62,0%. O número médio de parcerias em um ano foi de 5,4 e mais da metade (55,7% referiu uso de drogas na vida, dos quais 25,7% relataram uso frequente. No total, 39,6% mencionaram ter tido uma doença sexualmente transmissível e 38,3% relataram o uso do preservativo em todas as relações sexuais. A prevalência do HIV foi de 4,9% (17,4% dos quais apresentaram também sorologia positiva para sífilis. Pouco mais da metade (55,4% tinha acesso a ações de prevenção. A maior prevalência do HIV esteve associada a ser mais jovem (OR 18 a 29 anos = 4,0 [IC95% 1,54;10,46], história de doença sexualmente transmissível (OR = 3,3 [IC95% 1,87;5,73]; prática homossexual (OR = 3,0 [IC95% 1,28;6,92] e à presença de sífilis (OR = 2,4 [IC95% 1,13;4,93]. O grupo de maior vulnerabilidade foi caracterizado por ser mulher, jovem, ter prática homossexual, número reduzido de parcerias, parceria fixa, uso de drogas e álcool e não ter acesso a ações de prevenção e apoio social. CONCLUSÕES: O impacto da epidemia entre moradores de rua é elevado, refletindo um ciclo que conjuga exclusão, vulnerabilidade social e acesso limitado

  1. Discovery of Maritrema jebuensis n. sp. (Digenea: Microphallidae) from the Asian Shore Crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ok-Sik; Lee, Hye-Jung; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Lee, Seung-Ha; Park, Il-Yong; Oh, Sang-Ah; Chai, Jong-Yil; Seo, Min

    2010-12-01

    Maritrema spp. (Digenea: Microphallidae) are parasites of birds, but have not been found in the Republic of Korea. In this study, metacercariae of Maritrema sp. were discovered in the Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, caught in the mud-flats of Jebu-do, Hwasung-gun, Gyeonggi-do, and the adult flukes were confirmed by experimental infection into mice. Based on the symmetric ribbon-like vitellarium, adult flukes of Maritrema sp. were identified, but did not belong to previously described species in terms of the following morphologic characteristics: ceca reaching to the lateral wall at the anterior border of the ovary; ventral sucker larger than oral sucker; a prominent metraterm; and vitellarium forming a complete ring. Hence, we named this microphallid M. jebuensis n. sp. after the island where the second intermediate hosts were collected. From this study, it has been shown that Maritrema sp. is distributed in Korea and transmitted by the Asian shore crab, H. sanguineus.

  2. Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan): molecular evidence of experimental transmission to sheep by Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis and Haemaphysalis longicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guiquan; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Liu, Junlong; Hao, Xuefen; Ma, Miling; Luo, Jianxun; Chauvin, Alain; Yin, Hong

    2010-06-01

    Ovine babesiosis is an economically important disease induced by tick transmitted haemoparasites throughout the world. In China, several ovine Babesia strains have been isolated from field-collected ticks or sheep blood during the last two decades but little is known about the vector ticks and transmission pattern. Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) is a Babesia strain infective for sheep and goats, isolated from blood of sheep experimentally infested with Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis collected in field. In the present study, we explored the experimental transmission of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) to sheep by H. qinghaiensis and Haemaphysalis longicornis. Based on the evidence from nested PCR, it suggested that H. qinghaiensis and H. longicornis are the potential vector ticks of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) and that larvae, nymphs and adults of both tick species were able to transmit Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) to sheep. Parasites could be detected in the blood, by specific nested PCR, for one month post-infestation.

  3. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in aquatic mammals in northern and northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, João Carlos; Lima, Danielle Dos; da Silva, Edson Moura; Moreira, André Lucas de Oliveira; Marmontel, Miriam; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; Amaral, Rodrigo de; Lazzarini, Stella Maris; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2017-09-20

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoans that can infect humans and wild and domestic animals. Due to the growing importance of diseases caused by protozoan parasites in aquatic species, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in aquatic and marine mammals in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil. We collected 553 fecal samples from 15 species of wild-ranging and captive aquatic mammals in northern and northeastern Brazil. All samples were analyzed by the Kinyoun technique for identification of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. Giardia sp. cysts were identified by means of the centrifugal-flotation technique in zinc sulfate solution. Subsequently, all samples were submitted for direct immunofluorescence testing. The overall frequency of infection was 15.55% (86/553) for Cryptosporidium spp. and 9.04% (50/553) for Giardia sp. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in samples from 5 species: neotropical river otter Lontra longicaudis (15.28%), giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis (41.66%), Guiana dolphin Sotalia guianensis (9.67%), Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis (16.03%), and Antillean manatee T. manatus (13.79%). Giardia sp. was identified in L. longicaudis (9.23%), P. brasiliensis (29.16%), pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps (100%), dwarf sperm whale K. sima (25%), S. guianensis (9.67%), T. inunguis (3.81%), and T. manatus (10.34%). This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. in L. longicaudis, P. brasiliensis, and S. guianensis, while the occurrence of Giardia sp., in addition to the 2 otter species, was also identified in manatees, thus extending the number of hosts susceptible to these parasitic agents.

  4. TurboSP and the Topological Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Belavin, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    TurboSP was originally proposed as an alternative to Full stream in LHCb data flow. TurboSP is a data flow strategy which not only selects events that should be preserved, like in Full stream, but also provides selective persistence. This is achieved by saving candidates and subset of the reconstruction. During this summer project we investigated the physics viability of using TurboSP with the topological lines and found out a possibility to reduce the number of kept tracks per event by two times while keeping a ratio of fully picked up interesting decay modes on $\\sim 97 \\%$ level.

  5. Trypanosoma sp. diversity in Amazonian bats (Chiroptera; Mammalia) from Acre State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Francisco C B; Lisboa, Cristiane V; Xavier, Samanta C C; Dario, Maria A; Verde, Rair de S; Calouro, Armando M; Roque, André Luiz R; Jansen, Ana M

    2017-11-16

    Bats are ancient hosts of Trypanosoma species and their flying ability, longevity and adaptability to distinct environments indicate that they are efficient dispersers of parasites. Bats from Acre state (Amazon Biome) were collected in four expeditions conducted in an urban forest (Parque Zoobotânico) and one relatively more preserved area (Seringal Cahoeira) in Rio Branco and Xapuri municipalities. Trypanosoma sp. infection was detected by hemoculture and fresh blood examination. Isolated parasite species were identified by the similarity of the obtained DNA sequence from 18S rDNA polymerase chain reaction and reference strains. Overall, 367 bats from 23 genera and 32 species were examined. Chiropterofauna composition was specific to each municipality, although Artibeus sp. and Carollia sp. prevailed throughout. Trypanosoma sp. infection was detected in 85 bats (23·2%). The most widely distributed and prevalent genotypes were (in order) Trypanosoma cruzi TcI, T. cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, T. cruzi TcIV and Trypanosoma rangeli. At least one still-undescribed Trypanosoma species was also detected in this study. The detection of T. cruzi TcI and TcIV (the ones associated with Chagas disease in Amazon biome) demonstrates the putative importance of these mammal hosts in the epidemiology of the disease in the Acre State.

  6. Identification of an entomopathogenic bacterium, Serratia sp. ANU101, and its hemolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonggyun; Kim, Keunseob; Seo, Jiae; Shrestha, Sony; Kim, Hosanna H; Nalini, Madanagopal; Yi, Youngkeun

    2009-03-01

    Four different bacterial colonies were isolated from an old stock of an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema monticolum. They all showed entomopathogenicity to final instar larvae of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, by hemocoelic injection. However, they varied in colony form, susceptibility to antibiotics, and postmortem change of the infected host insects. Biolog microbial identification and 16S rDNA sequence analyses indicate that these are four different species classified into different bacterial genera. owing to high entomopathogenicity and a cadaver color of infected insect host, Serratia sp. was selected as a main symbiotic bacterial species and analyzed for its pathogenicity. Although no virulence of Serratia sp. was detected at oral administration, the bacteria gave significant synergistic pathogenicity to fifth instar S. exigua when it was treated along with a spore-forming entomopathogenic bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. The synergistic effect was explained by an immunosuppressive effect of Serratia sp. by its high cytotoxic effect on hemocytes of S. exigua, because Serratia sp. caused septicemia of S. exigua when the bacterial cells were injected into S. exigua hemocoel. The cytotoxic factor(s) was present in the culture medium because the sterilized culture broth possessed high potency in the cytotoxicity, which was specific to granular cells and plasmatocytes, two main immune-associated hemocytes in insects.

  7. Lama Penyimpanan, Karakterisasi Fisiologi, dan Viabilitas Bakteri Endofit Bacillus sp. dalam Formula Tepung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana putri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria can be formulated to retain its ability as disease control agents. Three of endophytic bacteria which had the capability to suppress infection of Meloidogyne sp, and to enhance pepper growth were gained from the previous study. This research was aimed to evaluate the influence of storage time on the viability of endophytic bacteria, Bacillus sp. AA2, Bacillus sp. MER and MSJ, and to study its physiological charaterization during storage. The formulation evaluated in this study was : formulation 1 (50 g talc, 1 g pepton, 0.5 g CMC, and brown sugar 1.5 g, formulation 2 (50 g talc, 1 g pepton, 0.5 g CMC, and 1.5 g white sugar, formulation 3 (50 g talc, 1 g pepton, 0.5 g CMC, 1 g yeast extract, and 1.5 gwhite sugar and formulation 4 (50 g talc, 1 g pepton, 0.5 g CMC, 1 g yeast extract, 3 mL molasses, 1 gbentonite, 0.75 g calcium carbonate, and 1 g dextrose. The results of the bacterial characterization showed that Bacillus sp AA2 and Bacillus sp MER belongs to Gram positive, produced lipase and protease enzyme, as well as  IAA hormone. N2 fixation is only existed in Bacillussp. AA2 and MSJ isolate. The highest viability was shown on MSJ isolate with 2.5×106 cfu mL-1. in the fourth formulation, whereas Bacillus sp. AA2 and Bacillus sp. MER viability was 1.9×106 cfu mL-1. and 1.2×106 cfu mL-1. , respectively. 

  8. Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BP modulates pepper growth and resistance against Phytophthora capsici

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.M.; Hamayun, M.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2016-01-01

    Biological control of crop diseases is desirable for sustainable agriculture as it minimizes chemical inputs in the agricultural system and promotes eco-friendly environment. We analyzed the favorable role of Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BP against the pathogen Phytophthora capsici in pepper. We screen thirty rhizobateria for their anti-pathogen activity, and found that Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BP exhibits maximum growth inhibition of the pathogen P. capsici. The bacterium inoculation to pepper plants significantly enhanced growth attributes of pepper in infected and control treatments. The total proteins (10.9%), and the amino acids viz. glycine (4.08 ug/g), leucine (3.3 ug/g), and alanine (3.26 ug/g) were preset in considerably higher quantities in Burkholderia sp. applied treatments as compare to control. The systemic acquired resistance (SAR) of the host plant was up-regulated by Burkholderia sp. KCTC, as endogenous salicylic acid (235.5 ng/g) and jasmonic acid (22.8 ng/g) levels were found higher in such treatments. It was concluded that Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BP mitigates the adverse effects of P. capsici on pepper crop and can improve crop productivity at the field level. (author)

  9. Etiologic study of urinary tract infection in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Mery Kogika

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections were documented in 51 dogs. Several factors such as etiologic agents, localization of the infection, predisposing factors, sex, age, and breed were considered. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI was based on bacteriological investigation and it was considered positive when urine sample collected by catheterization contained more than 105 bacteria/ml. Mixed infection was found in 4 of the infected dogs, totallizing 55 isolates. Among them, Escherichia coli (35.3% was the most frequently isolated, followed by Staphylococcus sp. (23.5%, Proteus mirabilis (15.7%, Streptococcus sp. (13.7%, Klebsiella sp. (9.8%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.9%, Enterobacter cloacae (2.0%, Citrobacter freundii (2.0% and Providencia rettgeri (2.0%. As to antimicrobial susceptibility, norfloxacin and gentamicin were successful for the treatment of gram-negative microorganisms, while the most effective drugs for gram-positive bacteria were cephalothin and nitrofurantoin. UTI was observed more frequently in Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd; male dogs were more involved, and pyelonephritis was the predominant disease observed. Infection was seen in all ages, but the frequency was higher in middle aged dogs. Urolithiasis were observed as common predisposing or underlying factors to UTI being, cither Staphylococcus sp. or Proteus mirabilis isolated in those cases which alkaline urine pH was observed.

  10. Surfactant Protein D modulates HIV infection of both T-cells and dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Madsen

    Full Text Available Surfactant Protein D (SP-D is an oligomerized C-type lectin molecule with immunomodulatory properties and involvement in lung surfactant homeostasis in the respiratory tract. SP-D binds to the enveloped viruses, influenza A virus and respiratory syncytial virus and inhibits their replication in vitro and in vivo. SP-D has been shown to bind to HIV via the HIV envelope protein gp120 and inhibit infectivity in vitro. Here we show that SP-D binds to different strains of HIV (BaL and IIIB and the binding occurs at both pH 7.4 and 5.0 resembling physiological relevant pH values found in the body and the female urogenital tract, respectively. The binding of SP-D to HIV particles and gp120 was inhibited by the presence of several hexoses with mannose found to be the strongest inhibitor. Competition studies showed that soluble CD4 and CVN did not interfere with the interaction between SP-D and gp120. However, soluble recombinant DC-SIGN was shown to inhibit the binding between SP-D and gp120. SP-D agglutinated HIV and gp120 in a calcium dependent manner. SP-D inhibited the infectivity of HIV strains at both pH values of 7.4 and 5.0 in a concentration dependent manner. The inhibition of the infectivity was abolished by the presence of mannose. SP-D enhanced the binding of HIV to immature monocyte derived dendritic cells (iMDDCs and was also found to enhance HIV capture and transfer to the T-cell like line PM1. These results suggest that SP-D can bind to and inhibit direct infection of T-cells by HIV but also enhance the transfer of infectious HIV particles from DCs to T-cells in vivo.

  11. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense dengan Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus Sudirman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag, second factor was time of Trichoderma culture application (2 weeks before Foc inoculation, at same time with Foc inoculation and 2 weeks after Foc inoculation. Trichoderma sp. was cultured in mixed rice brand and chaff medium. The disease intensity was observed with scoring system of wilting leaves (0–4. The results showed that Trichoderma sp. was antagonistic against Foc in vitro and inhibited 86% of Foc colony development. Mechanism of antagonism between Trichoderma sp. and Foc was hyperparasitism. Trichoderma hyphae coiled around Foc hyphae. Lysis of Foc hyphae was occurred at the attached site of Trichoderma hyphae on Foc hyphae. Added banana seedling with Trichoderma sp. Culture reduced disease intensity of Fusarium wilt. Suggested dose of Trichoderma culture application in glass house was 25 g/polybag, given at the same time with Foc inoculation. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan Trichoderma sp. untuk pengendalian penyakit layu fusarium pisang di rumah kaca. Penelitian meliputi pengujian daya hambat Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc in vitro dan kemampuan menekan intensitas penyakit di rumah kaca. Penelitian in vitro meliputi uji antagonisme dan mekanismenya yang dilakukan secara dual culture. Uji pengaruh Trichoderma sp. terhadap penyakit layu Fusarium dilakukan di rumah kaca dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial. Faktor pertama adalah dosis biakan Trichoderma sp., dengan tiga aras (0, 25, 50 g/per bibit dalam polibag. Faktor kedua

  12. MORPHOLOGICAL IDENTIFICATION OF DIAPORTHE/PHOMOPSIS SP. ISOLATED FROM XANTHIUM ITALICUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draženka Jurković

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Diaporthe/Phomopsis sp. was isolated from Xanthium italicum (Italian cockleburr for the first time in Eastern Croatia during 2004 year. As Diaporthe/Phomopsis species are known as pathogens of soybean, sunflower and other arable crops, it is important to study alternative hosts as a possible source of inoculum from an epidemiological point of view. This paper describes symptoms of infection on X. italicum, pathogen morphological and cultural characters on potato-dextrose agar (PDA, biometrical values of reproductive structures (pycnidia, beta conidia, perithecia, asci and ascospores of naturally infected plants and of cultures grown on PDA. Results obtained from undertaken studies indicate that our Phomopsis sp. isolates from X. italicum belong to the group of P. helianthi.

  13. Detection of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekawati, ER; Yusmiati, S. N. H.

    2018-01-01

    Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) has high level of zinc and protein, which is beneficial for therapeutic function for malnourished particularly stunting case in children. Zinc in animal foods is more absorbable than that from vegetable food. Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) is rich in nutrient and an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms. This research aimed to identify the contamination of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa). This was observation research with laboratory analysis. Salmonella sp. and Vibrio sp. were detected from blood cockle. Total plate count was determine of the total amount of the bacteria. Results detected from 20 samples of blood cockle showed that all samples were negative of Salmonella sp. and 1 sample positive Vibrio sp. The result of total plate count bacteria was < 5 x 105 colony/g sample.

  14. Superhard sp2–sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes with tunable electronic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Hu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Four sp2–sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes are proposed on the basis of first principles calculations. These four carbon allotropes are energetically more favorable than graphite under suitable pressure conditions. They can be assembled from graphite through intralayer wrinkling and interlayer buckling, which is similar to the formation of diamond from graphite. For one of the sp2–sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes, mC24, the electron diffraction patterns match these of i-carbon, which is synthesized from shock-compressed graphite (H. Hirai and K. Kondo, Science, 1991, 253, 772. The allotropes exhibit tunable electronic characteristics from metallic to semiconductive with band gaps comparable to those of silicon allotropes. They are all superhard materials with Vickers hardness values comparable to that of cubic BN. The sp2–sp3 hybrid carbon allotroes are promising materials for photovoltaic electronic devices, and abrasive and grinding tools.

  15. Parasitic and fungal infections in synanthropic rodents in an area of urban expansion, Aracaju, Sergipe State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v36i1.19760

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Oliveira Guimarães

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the prevalence of parasitic and fungal infections in rodents in an area of urban expansion, Aracaju, Brazil. Traps were placed in the area from December 2011 to January 2013. Blood samples, faeces and hair were collected from the animals. We collected a total of 47 rodents; 44 were Rattus rattus, and 3 were Mus musculus. Parasitological evaluation revealed the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta infection in both rodent species. The nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera and Syphacia obvelata were found in M. musculus, and the commensal Entamoeba coli was found in R. rattus. We observed that 69.2% of the R. rattus and 33.3% of the M. musculus were infected with the haemoparasite Babesia sp. The differential leukocyte count revealed normal (72.3%, neutrophilic (15.9% and lymphocytic (11.4% profiles. The evaluation showed the following species of fungi in the rodents: Aspergillus sp. (77.1%, Penicillium sp. (28.6%, Cladosporium sp. (14.3%, Mucor sp. (14.3%, Curvularia sp. (8.6%, Acremonium sp. (8.6%, Chrysosporium sp. (2.9%, Syncephalostrum sp. (2.9%, Alternaria sp. (2.9%, Trichophyton sp. (2.9% and Scopulariopsis sp. (2.9%. The parasites and fungi found in rodents are potentially zoonotic, and the presence of these household animals demonstrates their potential role as reservoirs and disseminators of fungal and parasitic infections.

  16. Marked reduction in prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anemia in HIV-infected pregnant women taking cotrimoxazole with or without sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine intermittent preventive therapy during pregnancy in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapito-Tembo, Atupele; Meshnick, Steven R.; van Hensbroek, Michaël Boele; Phiri, Kamija; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Mwapasa, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness of cotrimoxazole (CTX) compared with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) intermittent-preventive-therapy (IPTp) for malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women is unknown. We examined effectiveness of CTX with or without SP-IPTp versus SP-IPTp at reducing malaria parasitemia and anemia. From

  17. The FonSIX6 gene acts as an avirulence effector in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum - watermelon pathosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are three generally accepted Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) physiological races (0, 1, and 2) that infect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Among them, race 1 is the most prevalent on watermelon throughout the world, while race 2 is highly aggressive to all commercial watermelon cultivar...

  18. EOP Gold Coral (Gerardia sp.) Growth Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gold coral (Gerardia sp.) trees that were inspected years earlier on Pisces submersible dives were revisited and their change in size measured. The fishery for...

  19. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  20. SP (4,R) symmetry in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    A classification of nuclear states according to the noncompact sympletic Lie algebras sp(2n,R), n = 1, 2, 3, is investigated. Such a classification has recently been shown to be physically meaningful. This classification scheme is the appropriate generalization fo Elliott's SU 3 model of rotational states in deformed light nuclei to include core excitations. A restricted classification according to the Lie algebra, sp(4,R), is motivated. Truncation of the model space to a single sp(4,R) irreducible representation allows the inclusion of states possessing very high excitation energy. An sp(4,R) model study is performed on S = T = 0 positive-parity rotational bands in the deformed light nuclei 16 O and 24 Mg. States are included in the model space that possess up to 10h ω in excitation energy. Results for the B(E2) transition rates compare favorable with experiment, without resort to effective charges

  1. Progress in SP-100 tribological coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, P.J.; Roy, P.; Schuster, G.B.; Busboom, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The SP-100 reactor will operate at temperatures up to 1500K in high vacuum. To address the SP-100 needs, a tribology development program has been established at GE to investigate candidate coating materials. Materials were selected based on their high thermodynamic stability, high melting point, compatibility with the substrate, and coefficients of thermal expansion similar to niobium-1% zirconium-the candidate structural material for SP-100. An additional requirement was that the deposition processes should be commercially available to coat large components. This paper presents the details regarding the SP-100 Tribology Development Program including background information, specific bearing requirements, basis for coating material selection, testing methods and the initial results covering the early years of this program

  2. Expression of sheep pathogen Babesia sp. Xinjiang rhoptry-associated protein 1 and evaluation of its diagnostic potential by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Yu, Peifa; Pan, Yuping; Zhai, Bintao; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Yin, Hong

    2016-12-01

    Ovine babesiosis is one of the most important tick-borne haemoparasitic diseases of small ruminants. The ovine parasite Babesia sp. Xinjiang is widespread in China. In this study, recombinant full-length XJrRAP-1aα2 (rhoptry-associated protein 1aα2) and C-terminal XJrRAP-1aα2 CT of Babesia sp. Xinjiang were expressed and used to evaluate their diagnostic potential for Babesia sp. Xinjiang infections by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Purified XJrRAP-1aα2 was tested for reactivity with sera from animals experimentally infected with Babesia sp. Xinjiang and other haemoparasites using Western blotting and ELISA. The results showed no cross-reactivities between XJrRAP-1aα2 CT and sera from animals infected by other pathogens. High level of antibodies against RAP-1a usually lasted 10 weeks post-infection (wpi). A total of 3690 serum samples from small ruminants in 23 provinces located in 59 different regions of China were tested by ELISA. The results indicated that the average positive rate was 30·43%, and the infections were found in all of the investigated provinces. This is the first report on the expression and potential use of a recombinant XJrRAP-1aα2 CT antigen for the development of serological assays for the diagnosis of ovine babesiosis, caused by Babesia sp. Xinjiang.

  3. Immunologic Quality Improvement of Racing Pigeon Squabs Through Induction of Cropmilk Using Probiotic Lactobacillus SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Irianto, Agus; Budiyanto, B Heru

    2004-01-01

    Probiotic is live microbial cells supplementation that has beneficial effect to the host. Feeding adult pigeons (Columba livia) with food supplemented with probiotic, Lactobacillus sp., at concentration 106,108, and 1010 cells g-1 respectively have been done in order to improve the immunologic quality of the squabs. Immunologic response namely the number and activity of kidney’s macrophage were examined. Also, the pathologic signs which developed following artificial infection by intramuscula...

  4. Silencing the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 Genes in Tomato Reduces Abscisic Acid—Mediated Drought Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major threat to agriculture production worldwide. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs play a pivotal role in sensing and converting stress signals into appropriate responses so that plants can adapt and survive. To examine the function of MAPKs in the drought tolerance of tomato plants, we silenced the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 genes in wild-type plants using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS method. The results indicate that silencing the individual genes or co-silencing SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 reduced the drought tolerance of tomato plants by varying degrees. Co-silencing SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 impaired abscisic acid (ABA-induced and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced stomatal closure and enhanced ABA-induced H2O2 production. Similar results were observed when silencing SpMPK3 alone, but not when SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 were individually silenced. These data suggest that the functions of SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 are redundant, and they overlap with that of SpMPK3 in drought stress signaling pathways. In addition, we found that SpMPK3 may regulate H2O2 levels by mediating the expression of CAT1. Hence, SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 may play crucial roles in enhancing tomato plants’ drought tolerance by influencing stomatal activity and H2O2 production via the ABA-H2O2 pathway.

  5. Cellulose powder from Cladophora sp. algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, R; Gustafsson, C; Nutt, A; Iversen, T; Nyström, C

    1998-01-01

    The surface are and crystallinity was measured on a cellulose powder made from Cladophora sp. algae. The algae cellulose powder was found to have a very high surface area (63.4 m2/g, N2 gas adsorption) and build up of cellulose with a high crystallinity (approximately 100%, solid state NMR). The high surface area was confirmed by calculations from atomic force microscope imaging of microfibrils from Cladophora sp. algae.

  6. Acanthamoeba sp.: un caso de queratitis no relacionada con el uso de lentes de contacto Acanthamoeba sp.: a case report in a non-contact lens wearer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Menghi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La queratitis por Acanthamoeba sp. generalmente se relaciona con el uso de lentes de contacto y en menor proporción se vincula con el contacto con agua contaminada. Se caracteriza por una disminución de la capacidad visual y la presencia de un fuerte dolor ocular. al examen clínico, puede confundirse con una infección herpética. Si la infección no es diagnosticada y tratada a tiempo en forma adecuada, puede culminar en la perforación de la córnea y, eventualmente, en la pérdida del ojo. en este trabajo se informa uno de los pocos casos registrados de queratitis por Acanthamoeba sp. no relacionada con el uso de lentes de contacto.Acanthamoeba sp. keratitis is generally related to wearing contact lenses, and, to a lesser extent, to contaminated water. it is characterized by reduced visual capacity and the presence of severe ocular pain. Clinically, it can be mistaken for a herpes infection. if it is not diagnosed, and timely and adequately treated, it can result in corneal perforation and, eventually, in vision loss. One of the few registered cases of Acanthamoeba sp. keratitis not related to the use of contact lenses is herein reported.

  7. PATOGENISITAS BAKTERI LAYU PISANG (RALSTONIA SP. PADA BEBERAPA TANAMAN LAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titik Nur Aeny1 .

    2011-10-01

    Pathogenicity of banana wilt  bacteria (Ralstonia sp. on  several other  plants.  This experiment was conducted to investigate the pathogenicity of bacterial wilt of banana pathogen (Ralstonia sp. isolated from infected plants in Lampung on tomato, chili pepper, eggplant, and ginger.  The experiment was conducted in Laboratory of Plant Protection Department,  Faculty of Agricultural University of Lampung, from May 1999 to February 2000.  Treatments in this experiment were arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications. The treatments were tomato, eggplant, chili pepper, and  ginger.  Banana was used as the control. The results of this experiment showed that up to 30 days after inoculation, the bacteria isolated from banana found  in Lampung was not able to cause symptom on tomato,  chili pepper, eggplant, nor ginger. However, this bacteria caused wilting on banana eight days after inoculation; the incubation period of this bacteria on banana was eight days.

  8. Babesial vector tick defensin against Babesia sp. parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Naotoshi; Battsetseg, Badgar; Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Xuan, Xuenan; Oliver, James H; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2007-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are major components of host innate immunity, a well-conserved, evolutionarily ancient defensive mechanism. Infectious disease-bearing vector ticks are thought to possess specific defense molecules against the transmitted pathogens that have been acquired during their evolution. We found in the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis a novel parasiticidal peptide named longicin that may have evolved from a common ancestral peptide resembling spider and scorpion toxins. H. longicornis is the primary vector for Babesia sp. parasites in Japan. Longicin also displayed bactericidal and fungicidal properties that resemble those of defensin homologues from invertebrates and vertebrates. Longicin showed a remarkable ability to inhibit the proliferation of merozoites, an erythrocyte blood stage of equine Babesia equi, by killing the parasites. Longicin was localized at the surface of the Babesia sp. parasites, as demonstrated by confocal microscopic analysis. In an in vivo experiment, longicin induced significant reduction of parasitemia in animals infected with the zoonotic and murine B. microti. Moreover, RNA interference data demonstrated that endogenous longicin is able to directly kill the canine B. gibsoni, thus indicating that it may play a role in regulating the vectorial capacity in the vector tick H. longicornis. Theoretically, longicin may serve as a model for the development of chemotherapeutic compounds against tick-borne disease organisms.

  9. Antifungal activity of indigenous bacillus sp. isolate Q3 against marshmallow mycobiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jošić Dragana Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marshmallow is a host of a number of saprophytic and parasitic fungi in Serbia. The seeds of marshmallow are contaminated with fungi from different genera, especially Alternaria and Fusarium, which significantly reduced seed germination and caused seedling decay. In this study we investigate antagnonism of indigenous Bacillus sp. isolate Q3 against marshmallow mycopopulation. Bacillus sp. Q3 was isolated from maize rhizosphere, characterized by polyphasic approch and tested for plant growth promoting treats. Bacillus sp. Q3 produced antifungal metabolites with growth inhibition activity against numerous fungi in dual culture: 61.8% of Alternaria alternata, 74.8% of Myrothecium verrucaria and 33.6% of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. That effect could be caused by different antifungal metabolites including siderophores, hydrolytic enzymes, organic acids and indole acetic acid (IAA. Suppression of natural marshmallow seed infection by Q3 isolate was observed. The seeds were immersed in different concentrations of bacterial suspension during 2h and their infections by phytopathogenic fungi were estimated. The results showed significant reduction of seed infection by Alternaria spp. The presented results indicate possible application of this isolate as promising biological agent for control of marshmallow seed pathogenic fungi.

  10. Reproductive Strategies of the Insidious Fish Ectoparasite, Neobenedenia sp. (Capsalidae: Monogenea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh Hoai, Truong; Hutson, Kate S.

    2014-01-01

    Fish monogeneans are lethal parasites in aquaculture. We provide the first experimental evidence that a notorious fish monogenean, Neobenedenia sp., can produce viable eggs in isolation for three consecutive generations. We infected individual, isolated, farmed barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch) with a single oncomiracidium (larva) of the hermaphroditic monogenean Neobenedenia sp. Isolated parasites reached sexual maturity at day 10 post-hatch (24°C, 35‰) and laid ∼3,300 embryonated eggs over 17 days. Egg production rapidly increased following sexually maturity on day 10 (58±15 eggs) and peaked on day 15 (496±68 eggs) before gradually decreasing. Neobenedenia sp. exhibited egg laying and egg hatching rhythms. Parasites laid eggs continuously, but egg production increased in periods of darkness (64.3%), while the majority of oncomiracidia (81%) emerged from eggs in the first three hours of light. Eggs laid by isolated ‘parent’ parasites hatched and individual emerging oncomiracidia were used to infect more individual, isolated fish, with three consecutive, isolated, parasite generations (F1, F2 and F3) raised in the laboratory. Infection success and egg hatching success did not differ between generations. Our data show that one parasite, in the absence of a mate, presents a severe threat to captive fish populations. PMID:25264931

  11. Helminths of wild hybrid marmosets (Callithrix sp. living in an environment with high human activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Oliveira Tavela

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the helminth fauna in hybrid, non-native marmosets, through analysis of fecal samples. The study involved 51 marmosets (genus Callithrix from five groups living in places with levels of human impact in Viçosa-MG. The marmosets were caught using a multiple-entrance trap and were anaesthetized. Feces were collected, refrigerated and analyzed by means of the sedimentation technique (Hoffmann-Pons-Janner. Eggs and parasites were identified, but not counted. Most of the marmosets (86% were parasitized by at least one genus of helminths. Among the infected marmosets, 37% presented co-infection. The intestinal helminths comprised four different taxa: Primasubulura jacchi, Ancylostomatidae, Prosthenorchis sp. and Dilepididae.P. jacchi and Ancylostomatidae had higher prevalences (> 80% and > 40%, respectively and were found in all marmoset groups. Dilepididae species were found in almost all the groups, but only accounted for around 30% of the marmosets. Prosthenorchis sp. showed a relatively low prevalence (< 10% and was only found in one group. Although two parasites are commonly found in marmosets and other primates (P. jacchi and Prosthenorchis sp., our study is the first record for Ancylostomatidae and Dilepididae. Factors like marmosets' feeding behavior and their contact with humans and other species of nonhuman primates seem to be determinants of infection among marmosets.

  12. Infection status with helminthes in feral cats purchased from a market in Busan, Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon Mok; Chai, Jong Yil

    2005-09-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the infection status with helminth in a group of feral cats in Korea. More than 29 helminth species including adults or eggs were detected in visceral and fecal samples of the examined cats. Among these were a host of nematodes, including toxocarids, Ancylostoma sp. and the larva of Anisakis simplex; trematodes, including Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Pharyngostomum cordatum, Metagonimus spp., Heterophyes nocens, Pygidiopsis summa, Heterophyopsis continua, Stictodora fuscata, Stictodora lari, Acanthotrema felis, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Centrocestus armatus, Procerovum varium, Cryptocotyle sp., Echinostoma revolutum, Echinostoma hortense, Echinochasmus japonicus, Stephanoprora sp., Plagiorchis muris, Neodiplostomum sp. and diplostomulum. We also detected a variety of cestodes, including Spirometra erinacei, Taenia taeniaeformis and unidentified species of tapeworm. We also found examples of the acanthocephalan, Bolbosoma sp. In our assessment of the stools, we detected at least 12 species of helminth eggs. These findings confirmed that feral cats in Korea are infected with a variety of helminth parasite species. Furthermore, among the helminths detected, E. pancreaticum, S. fuscata, S. lari, A. felis, S. falcatus, C. armatus, P. varium, Cryptocotyle sp., E. revolutum, E. japonicus, Stephanoprora sp., P. muris, Neodiplostomum sp. and Bolbosoma sp. represent helminth fauna which have not been reported previously in feral cats in the Republic of Korea.

  13. Parasites infecting the cultured oyster Crassostrea gasar (Adanson, 1757) in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Vianna, Rogério Tubino; Vieira, Cairé Barreto; Farias, Natanael Dantas; Da Silva, Patricia Mirella

    2015-05-01

    The oyster Crassostrea gasar is a species widely used as food and a source of income for the local population of the estuaries of Northeast Brazil. Perkinsus marinus and Perkinsus olseni are deleterious parasites for oyster farming and were recently detected in Brazil. In this study, a histopathologic survey of the oyster C. gasar cultured in the estuary of the River Mamanguape (Paraíba State) was performed. Adult oysters were collected in December 2011 and March, May, August and October 2012 and processed for histology and Perkinsus sp. identification by molecular analyses. Histopathological analysis revealed the presence of parasitic organisms including viral gametocytic hypertrophy, prokaryote-like colonies, protozoans (Perkinsus sp. and Nematopsis sp.) and metazoans (Tylocephalum sp. and cestodes). Other commensal organisms were also detected (the protozoan Ancistrocoma sp. and the turbellarian Urastoma sp.). The protozoan parasite Perkinsus sp. had the highest overall prevalence among the symbiotic organisms studied (48.9%), followed by Nematopsis sp. (36.3%). The other organisms were only sporadically observed. Only the protozoan Perkinsus sp. caused alterations in the oysters' infected organs. Molecular analyses confirmed the presence of P. marinus, P. olseni and Perkinsus beihaiensis infecting the oyster C. gasar. This is the first report of P. beihaiensis in this oyster species.

  14. Penggunaan Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma SP. Dan Gliocladium SP. Untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pada Tanaman Bawang Merah (Allium Ascalonicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Ramadhina, Arie Ramadhina; Lisnawita, Lisnawita; Lubis, Lahmuddin

    2013-01-01

    The use of antagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. for controlling wilt(Fusarium oxysporum) in red onion plants. The aim of the research was to know the effectiviness ofantagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. in controlling wilt in red onion plants.The research used non-factorial RAK (random group design) with eight treatments: control, 10grams of F. oxysporum, 12 grams of Trichoderma sp., 18 grams of Trichoderma sp., 24 grams ofTrichoderma sp., and 12 grams ...

  15. Hepatozoon langii n. sp. and Hepatozoon vacuolatus n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Adele-orina: Hepatozoidae) from the crag lizard (Sauria: Cordylidae) Pseudocordylus langi from the North Eastern Drakensberg escarpment, Eastern Free State, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van As, Johann; Davies, Angela J; Smit, Nico J

    2013-01-22

    Two new haemogregarine species, Hepatozoon langii n. sp. and Hepatozoon vacuolatus n. sp., are described from the pe-ripheral blood of the high altitude crag lizard, Pseudocordylus langi, collected between October 2006 and April 2009 from the North Eastern Drakensberg, Eastern Free State. Hepatozoon langii n. sp. has maturing and mature gamonts that appear encapsulated and have narrow, curved tails. Their cytoplasm stains pinkish-purple with Giemsa, while their nuclei are pur-ple stained with stranded chromatin. Mature gamonts measure 19.1 ± 1.0 (15.4-28.1) μm long by 6.2 ± 1.1 (3.5-7.9) μm wide. Hepatozoon vacuolatus n. sp. gamonts are mostly broader at one pole than the other, have bluish-pink cytoplasm characterised by distinctive rounded and oval vacuoles, and demonstrate pink granules with Giemsa staining. Nuclei stain purple and are mainly coarsely granular. Mature gamonts measure 16.5 ± 1.0 (14.7 - 17.6) μm long by 5.9 ± 1.2 (4.0 - 7.7) μm wide. Both species parasitize erythroblasts, as well as erythrocytes and can dehaemoglobinize the cytoplasm of their host cells. Hepatozoon langii n. sp occurred in the absence of H. vacuolatus n. sp., but the latter haemogregarine always formed mixed infections with the former; no stages intermediate between the two haemogregarine types were observed.

  16. Molecular detection of Theileria and Babesia infections in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Kursat; Aydin, M Fatih; Dumanli, Nazir; Aktas, Munir

    2008-12-20

    This study was carried out to determine the presence and distribution of tick-borne haemoprotozoan parasites (Theileria and Babesia) in apparently healthy cattle in the East Black Sea Region of Turkey. A total of 389 blood samples were collected from the animals of various ages in six provinces in the region. Prevalence of infection was determined by reverse line blot (RLB) assay. The hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was amplified with a set of primers for members of the genera Theileria and Babesia. Amplified PCR products were hybridized onto a membrane to which generic- and species-specific oligonucleotide probes were covalently linked. RLB hybridization identified infection in 16.19% of the samples. Blood smears were also examined microscopically for Theileria and/or Babesia spp. and 5.14% were positive. All samples shown to be positive by microscopy also tested positive with RLB assay. Two Theileria (T. annulata and T. buffeli/orientalis) and three Babesia (B. bigemina, B. major and Babesia sp.) species or genotypes were identified in the region. Babesia sp. genotype shared 99% similarity with the previously reported sequences of Babesia sp. Kashi 1, Babesia sp. Kashi 2 and Babesia sp. Kayseri 1. The most frequently found species was T. buffeli/orientalis, present in 11.56% of the samples. T. annulata was identified in five samples (1.28%). Babesia infections were less frequently detected: B. bigemina was found in three samples (0.77%), B. major in two samples (0.51%) and Babesia sp. in five samples (1.28%). A single animal infected with T. buffeli/orientalis was also infected with B. bigemina.

  17. Influence of Moraxella sp. colonization on the kidney proteome of farmed gilthead sea breams (Sparus aurata, L.

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    Viale Iolanda

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, presence of Moraxella sp. in internal organs of fish is not considered detrimental for fish farming. However, bacterial colonization of internal organs can affect fish wellness and decrease growth rate, stress resistance, and immune response. Recently, there have been reports by farmers concerning slow growth, poor feed conversion, and low average weight increase of fish farmed in offshore floating sea cages, often associated with internal organ colonization by Moraxella sp. Therefore, presence of these opportunistic bacteria deserves further investigations for elucidating incidence and impact on fish metabolism. Results A total of 960 gilthead sea breams (Sparus aurata, L., collected along 17 months from four offshore sea cage plants and two natural lagoons in Sardinia, were subjected to routine microbiological examination of internal organs throughout the production cycle. Thirteen subjects (1.35% were found positive for Moraxella sp. in the kidney (7, brain (3, eye (1, spleen (1, and perivisceral fat (1. In order to investigate the influence of Moraxella sp. colonization, positive and negative kidney samples were subjected to a differential proteomics study by means of 2-D PAGE and mass spectrometry. Interestingly, Moraxella sp. infected kidneys displayed a concerted upregulation of several mitochondrial enzymes compared to negative tissues, reinforcing previous observations following lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge in fish. Conclusions Presence of Moraxella sp. in farmed sea bream kidney is able to induce proteome alterations similar to those described following LPS challenge in other fish species. This study revealed that Moraxella sp. might be causing metabolic alterations in fish, and provided indications on proteins that could be investigated as markers of infection by Gram-negative bacteria within farming plants.

  18. Serine proteases SP1 and SP13 mediate the melanization response of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, against entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yuan; Liu, Yang; Shen, Dongxu; Hong, Fang; Wang, Guirong; An, Chunju

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to entomopathogenic fungi is one approach for insect pest control. Little is known about the immune interactions between fungus and its insect host. Melanization is a prominent immune response in insects in defending against pathogens such as bacteria and fungi. Clip domain serine proteases in insect plasma have been implicated in the activation of prophenoloxidase, a key enzyme in the melanization. The relationship between host melanization and the infection by a fungus needs to be established. We report here that the injection of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana induced both melanin synthesis and phenoloxidase activity in its host insect, the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée). qRT-PCR analysis showed several distinct patterns of expression of 13 clip-domain serine proteases in response to the challenge of fungi, with seven increased, two decreased, and four unchanged. Of special interest among these clip-domain serine protease genes are SP1 and SP13, the orthologs of Manduca sexta HP6 and PAP1 which are involved in the prophenoloxidase activation pathway. Recombinant O. furnacalis SP1 was found to activate proSP13 and induce the phenoloxidase activity in corn borer plasma. Additionally, SP13 was determined to directly cleave prophenoloxidase and therefore act as the prophenoloxidase activating protease. Our work thus reveals a biochemical mechanism in the melanization in corn borer associated with the challenge by B. bassiana injection. These insights could provide valuable information for better understanding the immune responses of Asian corn borer against B. bassiana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Interaction of uranium with Pleurotus sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozaki, Naofumi; Ozaki, Takuro; Samadfam, Mohammad

    2002-01-01

    Uptake of uranium by higher fungi, such as mushroom is little elucidated. We have studied the interaction of uranium with Pleurotus sp. (a mushroom) in pure culture over a wide range of U concentration (50-3000 mg/L). The Pleurotus sp. was cultured in two different media. One was rice bran medium, and the other was agar (yeast extract, peptone and dextrose) medium. The uptake of uranium in Pleurotus sp. was examined by alpha ray autoradiography (A,A), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and scanning microcopy (SEM) equipped with EDS. In the agar medium, the higher uranium concentration gave lower growth of mycelia, and no fruiting body was observed. In the rice bran medium, the fruiting body was grown at U concentrations up to 1000 mg/L. The AA and XRF analysis showed that uranium taken up in the fruiting body was below the detection limit. The SEM-EDS analysis indicated that U was distributed in the limited region and was not transported to the mycelia far from U containing medium. It is concluded that uranium affects the growth of Pleurotus sp., and little uranium is taken up by Pleurotus sp. during the growth of both mycelia and fruiting body. (author)

  20. A putative serine protease, SpSsp1, from Saprolegnia parasitica is recognised by sera of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Kirsty L.; Anderson, Victoria L.; Davis, Katie S.; Van Den Berg, Albert H.; Christie, James S.; Löbach, Lars; Faruk, Ali Reza; Wawra, Stephan; Secombes, Chris J.; Van West, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Saprolegniosis, the disease caused by Saprolegnia sp., results in considerable economic losses in aquaculture. Current control methods are inadequate, as they are either largely ineffective or present environmental and fish health concerns. Vaccination of fish presents an attractive alternative to these control methods. Therefore we set out to identify suitable antigens that could help generate a fish vaccine against Saprolegnia parasitica. Unexpectedly, antibodies against S. parasitica were found in serum from healthy rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The antibodies detected a single band in secreted proteins that were run on a one-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel, which corresponded to two protein spots on a two-dimensional gel. The proteins were analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Mascot and bioinformatic analysis resulted in the identification of a single secreted protein, SpSsp1, of 481 amino acid residues, containing a subtilisin domain. Expression analysis demonstrated that SpSsp1 is highly expressed in all tested mycelial stages of S. parasitica. Investigation of other non-infected trout from several fish farms in the United Kingdom showed similar activity in their sera towards SpSsp1. Several fish that had no visible saprolegniosis showed an antibody response towards SpSsp1 suggesting that SpSsp1 might be a useful candidate for future vaccination trial experiments. PMID:25088077

  1. Infective larvae of five Onchocerca species from experimentally infected Simulium species in an area of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda M.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfilariae of five Onchocerca species, O. dewittei japonica (the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Oita, Kyushu, Japan from wild boar (Sus scrofa, O. skrjabini and O. eberhardi from sika deer (Cervus nippon, O. lienalis from cattle, and an as yet unnamed Onchocerca sp. from wild boar, were injected intrathoracically into newly-emerged black flies of several species from Oita to search the potential vector(s of these parasites and identify their infective larvae. Development of O. dewittei japonica microfilariae to the infective larvae occurred in Simulium aokii, S. arakawae, S. bidentatum, S. japonicum, S. quinquestriatum, and S. rufibasis while development of infective larvae of O. skrjabini, O. eberhardi, and the unnamed Onchocerca sp. was observed in S. aokii, S. arakawae, and S. bidentatum. Development of O. lienalis microfilaria to infective larvae occurred in S. arakawae. Based on the morphology of infective larvae obtained, we proposed a key of identification of Onchocerca infective larvae found in Oita. We also reconsider the identification of three types of infective larvae previously recovered from Simulium species captured at cattle sheds: the large type I larvae that may be an undescribed species; the small type III identified as O. lienalis may include O. skrjabini too; the intermediary type II that may be O. gutturosa, or O. dewittei japonica, or the unnamed Onchocerca sp. of wild boar.

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_L.png Synecho...cystis_sp_PCC_6803_NL.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_S.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_NS.png http://bi...osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synecho...cystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synecho...cystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis

  3. Inducible Expression of the De-Novo Designed Antimicrobial Peptide SP1-1 in Tomato Confers Resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areli Herrera Diaz

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are small peptides with less than 50 amino acids and are part of the innate immune response in almost all organisms, including bacteria, vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. AMPs are active against a broad-spectrum of pathogens. The inducible expression of AMPs in plants is a promising approach to combat plant pathogens with minimal negative side effects, such as phytotoxicity or infertility. In this study, inducible expression of the de-novo designed AMP SP1-1 in Micro Tom tomato protected tomato fruits against bacterial spot disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. The peptide SP1-1 was targeted to the apoplast which is the primary infection site for plant pathogens, by fusing SP1-1 peptide to the signal peptide RsAFP1 of radish (Raphanus sativus. The pathogen inducibility of the expression was enabled by using an optimized inducible 4XW2/4XS promoter. As a result, the tomato fruits of independently generated SP1-1 transgenic lines were significantly more resistant to X. campestris pv. vesicatoria than WT tomato fruits. In transgenic lines, bacterial infection was reduced up to 65% in comparison to the infection of WT plants. Our study demonstrates that the combination of the 4XW2/4XS cis-element from parsley with the synthetic antimicrobial peptide SP1-1 is a good alternative to protect tomato fruits against infections with X. campestris pv. vesicatoria.

  4. Five novel Wickerhamomyces- and Metschnikowia-related yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov., Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov., Candida danieliae sp. nov., Candida robnettiae sp. nov. and Candida eppingiae sp. nov., isolated from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent; Smith, Maudy Th

    On the basis of nucleotide divergences in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) domain of the rRNA gene, five novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov. (CBS 8565(T)  = JCM 17246(T)), Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov. (CBS 8584(T)  = JCM

  5. Rotavirus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sue E.; Ramani, Sasirekha; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Svensson, Lennart; Hagbom, Marie; Franco, Manuel A.; Greenberg, Harry B.; O’Ryan, Miguel; Kang, Gagandeep; Desselberger, Ulrich; Estes, Mary K.

    2017-01-01

    Rotavirus infections are a leading cause of severe, dehydrating gastroenteritis in children rotavirus over a decade ago, rotavirus infections still result in >200,000 deaths annually, mostly in low-income countries. Rotavirus primarily infects enterocytes and induces diarrhoea through the destruction of absorptive enterocytes (leading to malabsorption), intestinal secretion stimulated by rotavirus non-structural protein 4 and activation of the enteric nervous system. In addition, rotavirus infections can lead to antigenaemia (which is associated with more severe manifestations of acute gastroenteritis) and viraemia, and rotavirus can replicate in systemic sites, although this is limited. Reinfections with rotavirus are common throughout life, although the disease severity is reduced with repeat infections. The immune correlates of protection against rotavirus reinfection and recovery from infection are poorly understood, although rotavirus-specific immunoglobulin A has a role in both aspects. The management of rotavirus infection focuses on the prevention and treatment of dehydration, although the use of antiviral and anti-emetic drugs can be indicated in some cases. PMID:29119972

  6. SP2Bench: A SPARQL Performance Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael; Hornung, Thomas; Meier, Michael; Pinkel, Christoph; Lausen, Georg

    A meaningful analysis and comparison of both existing storage schemes for RDF data and evaluation approaches for SPARQL queries necessitates a comprehensive and universal benchmark platform. We present SP2Bench, a publicly available, language-specific performance benchmark for the SPARQL query language. SP2Bench is settled in the DBLP scenario and comprises a data generator for creating arbitrarily large DBLP-like documents and a set of carefully designed benchmark queries. The generated documents mirror vital key characteristics and social-world distributions encountered in the original DBLP data set, while the queries implement meaningful requests on top of this data, covering a variety of SPARQL operator constellations and RDF access patterns. In this chapter, we discuss requirements and desiderata for SPARQL benchmarks and present the SP2Bench framework, including its data generator, benchmark queries and performance metrics.

  7. The gamma ray spectrometer GA.SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzacco, D [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    1992-08-01

    GA.SP is a general purpose 4{pi} detector array for advanced {gamma}-spectroscopy and, in the same time, a suitable system for reaction mechanism studies. The detector is sited at the LNL Tandem+Linac accelerator and has been built as a joint project of INFN Padova, LNL, Milano and Firenze. The array consists of 40 Compton suppressed HPGe detectors and of a 4{pi} calorimeter composed of 80 BGO crystals. The detector houses a reaction chamber of 34 cm diameter where a charged particles multiplicity filter composed of 40 Si detectors is going to be installed. Evaporation residues produced in the centre of GA.SP can be injected into the recoil mass spectrometer (RMS, named CAMEL) in use at LNL, without the need to remove any of the gamma detectors. The coupled operation of GA.SP, RMS and Si ball will give a unique instrument for identification and study of weak reaction channels. (author). 6 figs.

  8. The gamma ray spectrometer GA.SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzacco, D.

    1992-01-01

    GA.SP is a general purpose 4π detector array for advanced γ-spectroscopy and, in the same time, a suitable system for reaction mechanism studies. The detector is sited at the LNL Tandem+Linac accelerator and has been built as a joint project of INFN Padova, LNL, Milano and Firenze. The array consists of 40 Compton suppressed HPGe detectors and of a 4π calorimeter composed of 80 BGO crystals. The detector houses a reaction chamber of 34 cm diameter where a charged particles multiplicity filter composed of 40 Si detectors is going to be installed. Evaporation residues produced in the centre of GA.SP can be injected into the recoil mass spectrometer (RMS, named CAMEL) in use at LNL, without the need to remove any of the gamma detectors. The coupled operation of GA.SP, RMS and Si ball will give a unique instrument for identification and study of weak reaction channels. (author). 6 figs

  9. SP-100/Brayton power system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    Use of closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion technology has been investigated for use with SP-100 reactors for space power systems. The CBC power conversion technology is being developed by Rockwell International under the Dynamic Isotype Power System (DIPS) and Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power system programs to provide highly efficient power conversion with radioisotype and solar collector heat sources. Characteristics including mass, radiator area, thermal power, and operating temperatures for systems utilizing SP-100 reactor and CBC power conversion technology were determined for systems in the 10-to 100-kWe power range. Possible SP-100 reactor/CBC power system configurations are presented. Advantages of CBC power conversion technology with regard to reactor thermal power, operating temperature, and development status are discussed

  10. Detection of thermophilic Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages by methods ISO 10272: 2006 in Curitiba - Parana State - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Konell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the detection of Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages using the methods ISO 10272-1 and ISO 10272-2. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter sp. in the samples tested was 16.67%, representing a serious risk to the health of consumers, particularly if measures guaranteeing proper cooking of foods and prevention of cross-contamination are not adopted. Furthermore, the majority of campylobacteriosis cases in humans are caused by consumption or improper handling of contaminated raw or undercooked poultry meat, which constitute the main vehicle of this infection.

  11. First molecular evidence of potentially zoonotic Babesia microti and Babesia sp. EU1 in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Lempereur, L.; De Cat, A.; Caron, Y.; Madder, M.; Claerebout, E.; Saegerman, C.; Losson, B.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first molecular evidence of the presence of Babesia sp. EU1 and Babesia microti in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Belgium. A 1-year national survey collected 1005 ticks from cats and dogs. A polymerase chain reaction technique amplifying a part of the 18S rRNA gene detected Babesia spp. in 11 out of 841 selected and validated tick extracts. Subsequent sequencing identified Ba. microti (n = 3) and Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 6). This study has demonstrated a low infection rate (1.31% with 95% ...

  12. INFECTIONS IN THALASSEMIA AND HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Rund

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    SpFirst" style="margin: 0cm 70.9pt 0pt 0cm; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 200%; text-align: justify; mso-add-space: auto;"> 

    The clinical approach to thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies, specifically Sickle Cell Disease (SCD, based on transfusions, iron chelation and bone marrow transplantation has ameliorated their prognosis. Nevertheless, infections still may cause serious complications in these patients. The susceptibility to infections in thalassemia and SCD arises both from a large spectrum of immunological abnormalities and from exposure to specific infectious agents. Four fundamental issues will be focused upon as central causes of immune dysfunction: the diseases themselves; iron overload, transfusion therapy and the role of the spleen. Thalassemia and SCD differ in their pathogenesis and clinical course. It will be outlined how these differences affect immune dysfunction, the risk of infections and the types of most frequent infections in each disease. Moreover, since transfusions are a fundamental tool for treating these patients, their safety is paramount in reducing the risks of infections. In recent years, careful surveillance worldwide and improvements in laboratory tests reduced greatly transfusion transmitted infections, but the problem is not completely resolved. Finally, selected topics will be discussed regarding Parvovirus B19 and transfusion transmitted infections as well as the prevention of infectious risk postsplenectomy or in presence of functional asplenia.

  13. Efektifitas Nannochloropsis sp. terhadap sistem imun non-spesifik ikan mas Cyprinus carpio yang diinfeksi Virus Herpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafik Lamadi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the effect of Nannochlorpsisis sp. against the common carp (Cyprinus carpio leukocyte profile, infected with Koi Hepesvirus (KHV. The  descriptive observational method wa used in this study. This research was conducted for 4 weeks, using common carp length 12±0,3 cm as many as 7 fish. The tested experiment was P1: without infested by Nannochlorpsisis sp. and KH; P2: Infested by  Nannochlorpsisis sp. and without KHV infected; P3: Infected by Nannochloropsis sp. and KHV; P4;  Not infected by Nannochlorpsisis sp. and  infected by KHV. Evey tratment in three replications. The results showed that the highest total leukocyte was obtained in P3 (37.600 cells/ml, followed by  P4 (29.650 cells / ml, P2 (28,500 cells / ml and P1 (21,150 cells / ml. Leukocyte differentiation test on P1 (neutrophil 6.2%, lymphocyte 68.0%, monocyte 17.0%, P2 (neutrophil 6.6%, lymphocyte 72.3%, monocyte 18.3%, P3 (neutrophil 7.9%, lymphocyte 66.1%, monocytes 24.3%, P4 (neutrophils 11.2%, lymphocytes 57.6%, monocytes 37.6%. The higher survivla rate was recorded in P2 (100%. It is concluded that  Nannochloropsis sp. can enhance the common carp immune sytem. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian Nannochlorpsis sp. terhadap profil leukosit ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio yang terinfeksi Koi Herves Virus (KHV. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif observasional dengan membandingkan hasil pada perlakuan 1 P1: (tanpa pemberian Nannochlorpsis sp. dan tidak diinfeksi KHV, 2 P2 (diberikan Nannochlorpsis sp dan tanpa diinfeksi KHV, 3 P3 (diberikan Nannochlorpsisis sp dan diinfeksi KHV, 4 P4 (tanpa pemberian Nannochlorpsis sp. dan diinfeksi KHV, masing-masing perlakukan 3 kali ulangan. Penelitian ini dilakukan selama 4 minggu dengan menggunakan Ikan mas berukuran 12±0,3  cm sebanyak 120 ekor. Hasil perhitungan total leukosit tertinggi diperoleh pada P3 (37.600 sel/ml, selanjutnya berturut-turut  P4 (29.650  sel

  14. Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans sp. nov. causes lethal chytridiomycosis in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, An; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Blooi, Mark; Bert, Wim; Ducatelle, Richard; Fisher, Matthew C; Woeltjes, Antonius; Bosman, Wilbert; Chiers, Koen; Bossuyt, Franky; Pasmans, Frank

    2013-09-17

    The current biodiversity crisis encompasses a sixth mass extinction event affecting the entire class of amphibians. The infectious disease chytridiomycosis is considered one of the major drivers of global amphibian population decline and extinction and is thought to be caused by a single species of aquatic fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. However, several amphibian population declines remain unexplained, among them a steep decrease in fire salamander populations (Salamandra salamandra) that has brought this species to the edge of local extinction. Here we isolated and characterized a unique chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans sp. nov., from this salamander population. This chytrid causes erosive skin disease and rapid mortality in experimentally infected fire salamanders and was present in skin lesions of salamanders found dead during the decline event. Together with the closely related B. dendrobatidis, this taxon forms a well-supported chytridiomycete clade, adapted to vertebrate hosts and highly pathogenic to amphibians. However, the lower thermal growth preference of B. salamandrivorans, compared with B. dendrobatidis, and resistance of midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans) to experimental infection with B. salamandrivorans suggest differential niche occupation of the two chytrid fungi.

  15. Reclassification of Theileria annae as Babesia vulpes sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, Gad; Florin-Christensen, Monica; Cardoso, Luís; Schnittger, Leonhard

    2015-04-08

    shown to have a leukocyte stage, as expected in Theileria, do not infect humans and rodents as B. microti, and cluster phylogenetically as a separate species, this study proposes to name this parasite Babesia vulpes sp. nov., after its natural host, the red fox V. vulpes.

  16. Modifications of Sp(2) covariant superfield quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D.M.; Moshin, P.Yu

    2003-12-04

    We propose a modification of the Sp(2) covariant superfield quantization to realize a superalgebra of generating operators isomorphic to the massless limit of the corresponding superalgebra of the osp(1,2) covariant formalism. The modified scheme ensures the compatibility of the superalgebra of generating operators with extended BRST symmetry without imposing restrictions eliminating superfield components from the quantum action. The formalism coincides with the Sp(2) covariant superfield scheme and with the massless limit of the osp(1,2) covariant quantization in particular cases of gauge-fixing and solutions of the quantum master equations.

  17. SP-100 converter multicouple thermoelectric cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kull, R.A.; Terrill, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The General Electric Company is under contract to DOE to design, fabricate, and test an SP-100 Ground Engineering System. This paper provides a description of the SP-100 space reactor power system configuration, and a more detailed description of the power conversion subsystem (PCSS) and the key building block of the power converter, the thermoelectric cell. The functions of the various elements of the PCSS and the cells are also presented. These cells convert the thermal energy from the reactor into electrical power at the desired voltage while being conductively coupled to the hot and cold side heat exchangers to maximize the power output and system specific power

  18. Fatty acid composition of Spirulina sp., Chlorella sp. and Chaetoceros sp. microalgae and introduction as potential new sources to extinct omega 3 and omega 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homan Gorjzdadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out to determine the oil fatty acids from two special species of microalgae; Spirulina sp.,Chlorella sp. and also Chaetoceros sp. collected from Bahmanshir River. Materials and Methods: Sampling of microalgae Chaetoceros sp. from Bahmanshir River was under taken using bottle samplers during spring season of 2013. Microalgae Spirulina sp. and Chlorella sp. were supplied from Shrimp Research Institute of Iran in Bushehr Province. Samples then were cultured under controlled laboratory conditions and mass culture for 100 liters was undertaken. Isolation of microalgae species from water of cultured media was carried out using filtration and centrifugation methods. The fatty acid compositions were determined by Gas – FID chromatography. Results: Results showed that regarding Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA obtained from purified culture of Chaetoceros sp., Spirulina sp. and Chlorella sp. the maximum amount of total fatty acids were belonged to palmitic acids (C16:0 with 15.21%, 30.1% and 25.17% of total fatty acids  respectively. Analysis of Mono Unsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA showed that in the Oleic acid was maximum amount of 34% in Spirulina sp. In addition the amount of MUFA in Chlorella sp. was 16.37% of total fatty acids. On the other hand the amount of palmeotic acid in purified culture of Chaetoceros sp. was 30.33% from total content of fatty acids. Analysis of Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA, Linoleic acid (C18:2 (Omega 6, revealed maximum percentage in Spirulina sp. with 18.8%. Results of Alpha linoleic acid (C18:3 (Omega3 analysis showed maximum amount of 9.66% in Chlorella sp. compared to other microalgae with lower omega 3 contents. Spirulina sp. contained maximum amount of Linoleic acid (C18:2 with 18.8% of total fatty acids. Therefore, Spirulina sp. can be considered as a rich source of omega 6 for the purpose of fatty acid extractions. The presence of PUFA in Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. was

  19. Prevalence and genetic diversity of the intestinal parasites Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in household dogs in France and evaluation of zoonotic transmission risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Marwan; Bories, Jessica; El Safadi, Dima; Poirel, Marie-Thérèse; Gantois, Nausicaa; Benamrouz-Vanneste, Sadia; Delhaes, Laurence; Hugonnard, Marine; Certad, Gabriela; Zenner, Lionel; Viscogliosi, Eric

    2015-11-30

    Several parasites including the protozoa Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. may be causative agents of gastrointestinal symptoms in domestic dogs, and there may be a potential risk of transmission to owners. While France is one of the largest European countries in terms of its canine population, little data is available about the molecular epidemiology of these two parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in household dogs in France, and to evaluate the zoonotic risk of Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. by genotyping the corresponding isolates. To this end, 116 faecal samples were collected from household dogs regardless of breed, age or gender, living in the Lyons area, France. Various intestinal protozoa and helminths were identified by light microscopy. Screening for Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were subsequently performed by PCR targeting the small subunit (SSU) rDNA coding region, followed by direct sequencing of the PCR products and analysis of the sequences obtained for genotyping. The overall prevalence of dogs infected with at least one gastrointestinal parasite was 42.2% (49/116). After light microscopy examination of faecal samples, the most common parasites found were the protozoa Giardia sp. (25.0%) and Cystoisospora sp. (19.8%). Using molecular methods, four dogs (3.4%) were shown to be infected by Blastocystis sp. and carried either subtype (ST) 2, commonly identified in various animal groups, or ST10, frequently found in bovids. Three dogs (2.6%) were positive for C. canis, infecting humans episodically. The low prevalence of both parasites, combined with the identification of C. canis and Blastocystis sp. ST2 and ST10 in the canine population, strongly suggests that dogs play a negligible role as zoonotic reservoirs for both parasites and do not seem to be natural hosts of Blastocystis sp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) as a starter culture for accelerating fish sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akolkar, A V; Durai, D; Desai, A J

    2010-07-01

    Application of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) for the acceleration of fish sauce fermentation. Traditional fish sauce fermentation was mimicked using Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) as starter culture. Protease activity, peptide release and α-amino content (parameters used to monitor the progress of the fermentation) were high at day 10 in tests and day 20 in un-inoculated controls. The total protein and nitrogen contents were also high in tests compared with controls. The amino acid profile observed at the end of fermentation in experimental samples, when compared with the commercial sauce preparation, was found to be better with respect to flavour and aroma contributing amino acids as well as essential amino acid lysine. Microflora analysis of the final fish sauce revealed the absence of any nonhalophilic or halotolerant micro-organisms. The protease-producing halophilic isolates obtained from the fish sauce of eviscerated and uneviscerated controls were identified as Halobacterium sp. F1 and F2, respectively, by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Exogenous augmentation of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) accelerated the fish sauce fermentation process with an additive effect on the existing natural microflora present in the fish during fermentation. Halobacterium sp SP1(1), therefore, can be used as an important starter culture for accelerating the fish fermentation process, which is attributed to its extracellular protease. The present study is the first report on use of Halobacterium species as a starter culture for accelerating fish sauce fermentation. Use of halobacterial starter cultures may revolutionize the process in fish sauce industries by reducing the fermentation time and making the process more economical with improved nutritive value of product. Journal compilation © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to Indian Government works.

  1. 76 FR 56876 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 9779, 9779(SP), 9783, 9783(SP), 9787, 9787(SP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... and 9789(SP), Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS). DATES: Written comments should be received on or before November 14, 2011 to be assured of consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS). OMB...

  2. Molecular detection of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon sp. in domestic and stray cats from Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Regañón, David; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Ayllón, Tania; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Baneth, Gad; Calleja-Bueno, Lydia; García-Sancho, Mercedes; Agulla, Beatriz; Sainz, Ángel

    2017-03-13

    Different species of apicomplexan protozoans of the genera Hepatozoon and Cytauxzoon can infect domestic cats, but their epidemiology and clinical relevance are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess the molecular prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon spp. and to identify associated risk factors and clinical and laboratory abnormalities in a population of cats from Madrid, Spain. Six hundred and forty-four client-owned and stray cats from Madrid, Spain, were included in this study. DNA samples were analyzed by two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to detect a partial sequence of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon spp. In order to evaluate possible associations between infection by these protozoans and epidemiological or clinical parameters, data were collected related to: the season of sample collection, age, gender, spayed/neutered status, breed, living area, lifestyle, outdoor access, contact with other animals, prey on wild animals, history of tick or flea infestation, travel history, ectoparasiticide treatment, previous blood transfusion, previous tetracycline administration in the last 60 days, Feline Leukemia virus (FeLV) and Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV) status, positivity to other vector-borne diseases, the presence or absence of clinical signs and hematological or biochemical alterations. DNA of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon sp. was amplified from the blood of 10 (1.6%) and 8 (1.2%) cats, respectively. Previous treatment with tetracyclines in the last 60 days, previous administration of blood transfusion, a decrease in haematocrit and an increase in creatinine were associated with Hepatozoon spp. infection. Cytauxzoon sp. infection was more frequent in samples collected during the winter months and in cats living in rural areas. This infection was associated with a FIV-positive status. Some of the cats that were positive for Hepatozoon spp. or Cytauxzoon sp. had been exposed to other vector

  3. Hookworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intestinal wall and suck blood, which results in iron deficiency anemia and protein loss. Adult worms and larvae are ... problems that may result from hookworm infection include: Iron deficiency anemia , caused by loss of blood Nutritional deficiencies Severe ...

  4. Breast infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastitis; Infection - breast tissue; Breast abscess ... must continue to breastfeed or pump to relieve breast swelling from milk production. In case if the abscess does not go away, needle aspiration under ultrasound ...

  5. Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus Ernst

    A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that the vast majority of the total microbial biomass exists as biofilms. Aggregation of bacteria was first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677, but only recently recognized...... as being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections...... such as diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well...

  6. Spinal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the wound and re-closing to more extensive debridements and removal of infected tissues. In some cases ... will want to obtain cultures to determine the type of bacteria or fungus that is causing the ...

  7. Neonatal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause serious problems such as heart disease, brain damage, deafness, visual impairment, or even miscarriage. Infection later in the pregnancy may lead to less severe effects on the fetus but can still cause problems ...

  8. Anaerobic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a dental infection or procedure such as a tooth extraction or oral surgery or after trauma to the ... diagnosed, your doctor may treat it with intravenous antibiotics (eg, penicillin, ampicillin) for 4 to 6 weeks, ...

  9. Staph Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... within your body, to produce infections affecting: Internal organs, such as your brain, heart or lungs Bones and muscles Surgically implanted devices, such as artificial joints or cardiac pacemakers Toxic shock syndrome This ...

  10. Campylobacter infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stool sample testing for white blood cells Stool culture for Campylobacter jejuni Treatment The infection almost always ... some salty foods, such as pretzels, soup, and sports drinks. Eat some high-potassium foods, such as ...

  11. Hemoparasites in a wild primate: Infection patterns suggest interaction of Plasmodium and Babesia in a lemur species

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Springer; Claudia Fichtel; Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer; Fabian H. Leendertz; Peter M. Kappeler

    2015-01-01

    Hemoparasites can cause serious morbidity in humans and animals and often involve wildlife reservoirs. Understanding patterns of hemoparasite infections in natural populations can therefore inform about emerging disease risks, especially in the light of climate change and human disruption of natural ecosystems. We investigated the effects of host age, sex, host group size and season on infection patterns of Plasmodium sp., Babesia sp. and filarial nematodes in a population of wild Malagasy pr...

  12. Bacteriophage SP6 encodes a second tailspike protein that recognizes Salmonella enterica serogroups C{sub 2} and C{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhart, Dana; Williams, Steven R.; Scholl, Dean, E-mail: dean@avidbiotics.com

    2017-07-15

    SP6 is a salmonella phage closely related to coliphage K1-5. K1-5 is notable in that it encodes two polysaccharide-degrading tailspike proteins, an endosialidase that allows it to infect E. coli K1, and a lyase that enables it to infect K5 strains. SP6 is similar to K1-5 except that it encodes a P22-like endorhamnosidase tailspike, gp46, allowing it to infect group B Salmonella. We show here that SP6 can also infect Salmonella serogroups C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} and that a mutation in a putative second tailspike, gp47, eliminates this specificity. Gene 47 was fused to the coding region of the N-terminal portion of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa R2 pyocin tail fiber and expressed in trans such that the fusion protein becomes incorporated into pyocin particles. These pyocins, termed AvR2-SP47, killed serogroups C{sub 2} and C{sub 3}Salmonella. We conclude that SP6 encodes two tail proteins providing it a broad host range among Salmonella enterica. - Highlights: • SP6 is a “dual specificity” bacteriophage that encodes two different receptor binding proteins giving it a broad host range. • These receptor binding proteins can be used to re-target the spectrum of R-type bacteriocins to Salmonella enterica. • Both SP6 and the engineered R-type bacteriocins can kill the Salmonella serovars most associated with human disease making them attractive for development as antimicrobial agents.

  13. Puerperal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenbach, D A; Wager, G P

    1980-12-01

    This comprehensive review on puerperal infections covers risk factors, causative bacteria, pathophysiology, diagnosis, therapy of specific entities, and prevention. Puerperal infection is problematic to define especially with antibiotics that change the course of fever. I may present as endometritis (most common), myometritis, parametritis, pelvic abscess, salpingitis, septic pelvic thrombophlebitis or septicemia, and also includes infections of the urinary tract, episiotomy, surgical wounds, lacerations or breast. Each of these is discussed in terms of contributing factors, microbiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and complications. Risk factors in general are cesarean section, premature rupture of the membranes, internal fetal monitoring, general anesthesia, pelvic examinations. The most common bacterial involved are group B and other streptococci, E. coli, Gardnerella vaginalis, Gram positive anaerobic cocci, Mycoplasma and pre-existing Chlamydial infections. Diagnosis of the causative organism is difficult because of polyinfection and difficulty of getting a sterile endometrial swab. Diagnosis of the infection is equally difficult because of the wide variety of symptoms: fever, abnormal lochia, tachycardia, tenderness, mass and abnormal bowel sounds are common. Therapy depends of the responsible microorganism, although 3 empirical tactics are suggested while awaiting results of culture: 1) choose an antibiotic for the most common aerobic bacteria; 2) an antibiotic effective against B. fragilis and one for aerobic bacteria, e.g. clindamycin and an aminoglycoside; 3) a nontoxic antibiotic active against most aerobic and anaerobic organisms, e.g. doxycycline or cefoxitin. An example of an infection recently described is pudendal-paracervical block infection, often signaled by severe hip pain. It is associated with vaginal bacteria, is usually complicated by abscess even with antibiotic coverage, and may end in paraplegia or fatal sepsis

  14. Spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tali, E. Turgut; Gueltekin, Serap

    2005-01-01

    Spinal infections have an increasing prevalence among the general population. Definitive diagnosis based solely on clinical grounds is usually not possible and radiological imaging is used in almost all patients. The primary aim of the authors is to present an overview of spinal infections located in epidural, intradural and intramedullary compartments and to provide diagnostic clues regarding different imaging modalities, particularly MRI, to the practicing physicians and radiologists. (orig.)

  15. SP-A binding sites on bovine alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaga, S; Plattner, H; Schlepper-Schaefer, J

    1998-11-25

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) binding to bovine alveolar macrophages was examined in order to characterize SP-A binding proteins on the cell surface and to isolate putative receptors from these cells that could be obtained in large amounts. Human SP-A, unlabeled or labeled with gold particles, was bound to freshly isolated macrophages and analyzed with ELISA or the transmission electron microscope. Binding of SP-A was inhibited by Ca2+ chelation, by an excess of unlabeled SP-A, or by the presence of 20 mg/ml mannan. We conclude that bovine alveolar macrophages expose binding sites for SP-A that are specific and that depend on Ca2+ and on mannose residues. For isolation of SP-A receptors with homologous SP-A as ligand we isolated SP-A from bovine lung lavage. SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified SP-A showed a protein of 32-36 kDa. Functional integrity of the protein was demonstrated. Bovine SP-A bound to Dynabeads was used to isolate SP-A binding proteins. From the fractionated and blotted proteins of the receptor preparation two proteins bound SP-A in a Ca2+-dependent manner, a 40-kDa protein showing mannose dependency and a 210-kDa protein, showing no mannose sensitivity. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  16. Biological control of Orobanche aegyptiaca by Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. Orobanchein northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, H; Okhovvat, S M

    2008-01-01

    Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca) is one of the most serious weed pathogen on many plants all over the world, especially in northwest Iran. It causes damage on some plants particularly on tomato, cucumber and other dicotyledonous crops in zanjan province. Broomrape as weed, caused reductions in crop yield, adversely affected crop quality, and resulted in loss of cultivated land due to reduced crop alternatives. Since there were no any chemical methods and other proper technique to control this plant parasite we tried to find a good mechanism for its management in the fields. Our study showed there was a specific species, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. orobonche that had infected Broomrapes naturally in the field. In point of fact the species was isolated from naturally infected Broomrape in studied Locations. Our surveys showed F. oxysporum f. sp. orobanche caused disease on orobanche spp. in different agricultural fields. Although there were other fungal species which can nearly manage the orobanche but it can be fungal pathogen to other plants. However the best fungal isolate can be F. oxysporum f. sp. orobanche since it may not be pathogen for other plants.

  17. TYPE A VIRAL HEPATITIS: EFFECT OF CHLORINE ON INFECTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of (HOCl) treatment on the infectivity of hepatitis A virus (HAV). Prodromal chimpanzee feces, shown to induce hepatitis in marmosets (Saginus sp.), was clarified (JA 20/8K/30 min/5C), the virus precipitated with 7% PEG 6000...

  18. Certain growth related attributes of bunchy top virus infected banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) on morpho-physiological characteristics of banana (Musa sp.) cv., Basrai plants was assessed. Healthy and BBTV infected samples of banana were collected from its open fields and micro-propagated aseptically. These plantlets were established in wire-house for three months.

  19. A Japanese powdery mildew isolate with exceptionally large infection efficience on Mlo-resistant barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkjær, M.F.; Jensen, H.P.; Østergård, Hanne

    1995-01-01

    A Japanese field isolate (Race I) of Erysiphe graminis f,sp. hordei was tested on 17 barley lines carrying the mlo powdery mildew resistance gene. Race I produced many successful infections with infection type larger than or equal to 2 on six lines (M66, MC20, SR1, SR7, Atem and Totem). On the re...

  20. Inter-chromosomal transfer of immune regulation during infection of barley with the powdery mildew pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildews infect over 9,500 plant species, causing critical yield loss. Powdery mildew disease of barley is caused by the Ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh) and has become a model for the interactions among obligate biotrophs and their cereal hosts. Successful infection r...

  1. Disinfection of Penicillium-infected Wheat Seed by Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-ah Jeon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Olgeurumil were infected with Penicillium sp. at mean infection rate of 83%. Penicillium sp. was detected in endosperm with bran but not in embryo. Gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2 effectively inhibited growth of Penicillium sp. at concentration of 5 to 20 mg/ml. As treatment duration was extended from 1 to 3 h, growth of Penicillium sp. was completely suppressed even at 10 mg/ml. There was no significant reduction in the incidence of Penicillium sp. at 30% relative humidity (RH. However, the incidence of Penicillium sp. was 27.7% at 50% RH, further those were 3.5% and 0.2% at 70% and 80% RH, respectively. Seed germination was not affected by ClO2 treatment at all the RH conditions. Water-soaked seeds (30% seed moisture content showed a drastic reduction in the incidence of Penicillium sp. when treated at more than 10 mg/ml of ClO2. The incidences of Penicillium sp. were 3.3, 1.8 and 1.2% at 10, 15 and 20 mg/ml, respectively. The incidence of Penicillium sp. in dry seeds with 9.7% seed moisture content did not reduce when treated with 5 and 10 mg/ml at 50% RH although it tended to decrease as ClO2 concentration increased to 20 mg/ml. Seed germination was not affected by ClO2 treatment at the tested concentrations. These results indicated that gaseous ClO2 was effective disinfectant to wheat seeds infected with Penicillium sp. and that the effectiveness of ClO2 strongly increased when moisture content around or inside of the seed was increased.

  2. Gilliamella intestini sp. nov., Gilliamella bombicola sp. nov., Gilliamella bombi sp. nov. and Gilliamella mensalis sp. nov.: Four novel Gilliamella species isolated from the bumblebee gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praet, Jessy; Cnockaert, Margo; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Vandamme, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Spectra of five isolates (LMG 28358 T , LMG 29879 T , LMG 29880 T , LMG 28359 T and R-53705) obtained from gut samples of wild bumblebees of Bombus pascuorum, Bombus lapidarius and Bombus terrestris were grouped into four MALDI-TOF MS clusters. RAPD analysis revealed an identical DNA fingerprint for LMG 28359 T and R-53705 which also grouped in the same MALDI-TOF MS cluster, while different DNA fingerprints were obtained for the other isolates. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of the four different strains identified Gilliamella apicola NCIMB 14804 T as nearest neighbour species. Average nucleotide identity values of draft genome sequences of the four isolates and of G. apicola NCIMB 14804 T were below the 96% threshold value for species delineation and all four strains and G. apicola NCIMB 14804 T were phenotypically distinct. Together, the draft genome sequences and phylogenetic and phenotypic data indicate that the four strains represent four novel Gilliamella species for which we propose the names Gilliamella intestini sp. nov., with LMG 28358 T as the type strain, Gilliamella bombicola sp. nov., with LMG 28359 T as the type strain, Gilliamella bombi sp. nov., with LMG 29879 T as the type strain and Gilliamella mensalis sp. nov., with LMG 29880 T as the type strain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: lcvieira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Rafael V. de P., E-mail: rafael@itatijuca.com [Itatijuca Biotech, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A., E-mail: edson.silva2@unioeste.br [Universidade Estadual do Oeste Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  4. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T.; Ferreira, Rafael V. de P.; Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  5. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. ...

  6. Rhodotorula bloemfonteinensis sp. nov., Rhodotorula eucalyptica sp. nov., Rhodotorula orientis sp. nov. and Rhodotorula pini sp. nov., yeasts isolated from monoterpene-rich environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Carolina H; Smit, Martha S; Albertyn, Jacobus

    2011-09-01

    Recent rDNA sequencing of 25 isolates from a previous study, during which limonene-utilizing yeasts were isolated from monoterpene-rich environments by using 1,4-disubstituted cyclohexanes as sole carbon sources, led to the identification of four hitherto unknown Rhodotorula species. Analyses of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 region as well as the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domain indicated that two isolates (CBS 8499(T) and CBS 10736) were identical and were closely related to Rhodotorula cycloclastica, a previously described limonene-utilizing yeast. These novel isolates differed from known yeast species and could be distinguished from R. cycloclastica by standard physiological tests. The other three isolates represent three novel Rhodotorula species, closely related to Sporobolomyces magnisporus. These three species could also be distinguished from other Rhodotorula species by standard physiological tests. Based on these results, we suggest that the new isolates represent novel species, for which the names Rhodotorula eucalyptica sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8499(T)  = NRRL Y-48408(T)), Rhodotorula pini sp. nov. (type strain CBS 10735(T)  = NRRL Y-48410(T)), Rhodotorula bloemfonteinensis sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8598(T)  = NRRL Y-48407(T)) and Rhodotorula orientis sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8594(T)  = NRRL Y-48719(T)) are proposed. R. eucalyptica and R. pini can also utilize limonene.

  7. Test af spørgeskema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i •design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, •formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, •metoder til at analysere resultaterne....

  8. Lipid contents of the sponge Haliclona sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Several fatty acids, sterols, batyl alcohol and its analogs and an N-acylated sphingosine (ceramide) have been isolated from the lipid fraction of the extract of the sponge Haliclona sp. The major sterol is found to be cholesterol (54%), followed...

  9. Optisk scanning af spørgeskemaer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Aksel

    / 1000 felter= 0.370 (95% CI: 0.160-0.729), (p= 0.020)). Der var ingen statistisk forskel mellem optisk scanning (fejl/ 1000 felter= 0.046 (95% CI: 0.001-0.258)) og manuel dobbelt indtastning (p=1.000). Konklusioner: Optisk scanning er et godt alternativ til manuel dobbelt indtastning for spørgeskema med......Formål og baggrund: Patient rapporterede outcomes i form af spørgeskemaer bruges i øgende grad i sundhedssektoren både i klinisk praksis og forskning. Ofte bruges spørgeskemaer i papirformat. Manuel dobbelt indtastning er defineret som guld standard for overføring af data til et elektronisk format......, men processen er tidkrævende. Optisk scanning af spørgeskemaer med automatisk registrering af svar kan være et alternativ, men videre validering af metoden er nødvendig. Design: 200 patienter blev tilfældigt udvalgt fra en kohorte på 5777 patienter der tidligere havde svaret på to forskellige...

  10. Aerococcus sp. with an antimycobacterial effect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... In this study, we reported data on a strain that was isolated from different areas of Fez. (Morocco), which ... sp. The antibacterial activity of the genus Aerococcus have .... able to amplify the 16S rRNA gene from eubacteria.

  11. Botrallin from the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of the mycelia from the endophytic fungus. Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, associated with the hybrid 'Neva' of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L., led to the isolation of one compound coded as P12-1 which was identified as botrallin (1,7-.

  12. The astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthesis pathway in Sphingomonas sp. PB304

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Se Hyeuk; Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Bun Yeol

    2014-01-01

    A major carotenoid in Sphingomonas sp. PB304, originally isolated from a river in Daejon City, South Korea, was identified as astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside. Gene clusters encoding the astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthetic enzymes were identified by screening Sphingomonas sp. PB304 fosmid...

  13. SP-100 initial startup and restart control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfen, Frank J.; Wong, Kwok K.; Switick, Dennis M.; Shukla, Jaikaran N.

    Startup control strategies for SP-100 are described. Revised control and operating strategies are discussed which have been developed and tested using the SP-100 dynamic simulation model Aries-GFS (Generic Flight System).

  14. Haplosporidium raabei n. sp. (Haplosporidia): a parasite of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, D P; Giambérini, L; Stokes, N A; Burreson, E M; Ovcharenko, M A

    2012-04-01

    Extensive connective tissue lysis is a common outcome of haplosporidian infection. Although such infections in marine invertebrates are well documented, they are relatively rarely observed in freshwater invertebrates. Herein, we report a field study using a comprehensive series of methodologies (histology, dissection, electron microscopy, gene sequence analysis, and molecular phylogenetics) to investigate the morphology, taxonomy, systematics, geographical distribution, pathogenicity, and seasonal and annual prevalence of a haplosporidian observed in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha. Based on its genetic sequence, morphology, and host, we describe Haplosporidium raabei n. sp. from D. polymorpha - the first haplosporidian species from a freshwater bivalve. Haplosporidium raabei is rare as we observed it in histological sections in only 0·7% of the zebra mussels collected from 43 water bodies across 11 European countries and in none that were collected from 10 water bodies in the United States. In contrast to its low prevalences, disease intensities were quite high with 79·5% of infections advanced to sporogenesis.

  15. Zoonotic Trichomonas tenax and a new trichomonad species, Trichomonas brixi n. sp., from the oral cavities of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerová, Pavlína; Tachezy, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Trichomonads are known to inhabit the oral cavities of various mammals, including dogs, cats and horses. However, little attention has been paid to species identification, prevalence and zoonotic potential of these parasites, although their hosts live in close proximity with humans. According to the original description, oral trichomonads in dogs and cats belong to the genus Tetratrichomonas. Interestingly, later investigations suggested that the oral cavities of dogs and cats could be infected with different species of the genus Trichomonas, including the human oral cavity parasite Trichomonas tenax. Thus, in this study we investigated the occurrence of oral trichomonads in 111 domestic dogs and 122 cats using cell cultivation methods, nested PCR analyses, and the sequencing of ITS1-5.8rRNA-ITS2 regions. We found that both dogs and cats harbour T. tenax, with prevalences of 8.1% and 4.1%, respectively. Considerably more dogs were infected with different species of the genus Trichomonas (30.6%), which we also identified in cats (6.6%). An analysis of the potential risk factors suggested that dogs of more than 3years old or with dental disease signs are more frequently infected with Trichomonas sp. than younger dogs or dogs without the disease signs, and that crossbreed dogs revealed increased rates of infection in comparison with purebred dogs. An analysis of the cat population suggested that Trichomonas sp. infection is lower in younger and crossbreed cats. Although the morphology of Trichomonas sp. is very similar to that of T. tenax, based on a phylogenetic analysis of ITS1-5.8rRNA-ITS2 regions and the ssrRNA genes, we consider Trichomonas sp. to represent a new trichomonad species, for which we propose the name Trichomonas brixi. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Complete genome sequence of Serratia sp. YD25 (KCTC 42987) presenting strong antagonistic activities to various pathogenic fungi and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chun; Liu, Yibo; Sun, Yan; Li, Zhi

    2017-03-10

    Serratia sp. YD25 (KCTC 42987) was originally isolated from rhizosphere soil in a continuous cropping tobacco-planting farm. Here, we show that its metabolites efficiently suppress the growth of various important pathogenic fungi and bacteria, causing infection in both plants and humans. In addition, Serratia sp. YD25 has a special trait of simultaneous production of both serrawettin W2 and prodigiosin, two important bioactive secondary metabolites produced by Serratia strains. Such co-production has not been reported in other Serratia strains. The complete genome sequence of Serratia sp. YD25 is presented, which is valuable for further exploration of its biotechnological applications in agriculture and medicine. The genome sequence reported here is also useful for understanding the unique regulatory mechanisms underlying biosynthesis of active compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Methylobacterium suomiense sp. nov. and Methylobacterium lusitanum sp. nov., aerobic, pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, Nina V; Trotsenko, Yuri A; Kuznetsov, Boris B; Tourova, Tatjana P; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S

    2002-05-01

    Two aerobic, pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria, strains F20T and RXM(T), are described taxonomically. On the basis of their phenotypic and genotypic properties, the isolates are proposed as novel species of the genus Methylobacterium, Methylobacterium suomiense sp. nov. (type strain F20T = VKM B-2238T = NCIMB 13778T) and Methylobacterium lusitanum sp. nov. (type strain RXMT = VKM B-2239T = NCIMB 13779T).

  18. Analisis Fosfor pada Cacing Tanah (Megascolex sp. dan Fridericia sp.) Secara Spektrofotometri Sinar Tampak

    OpenAIRE

    Safira, Cut Shafa

    2015-01-01

    Earthworm is natural resource which can be used for medication due to its highly amount of minerals. One of these minerals is phosphorus. The aim of this research are to identify, determine and know the difference content of phosphorus in Megascolex sp. and Fridericia sp. Qualitative analysis shows positive results with addition of ammonium molybdate 4% and BaCl2 5%. Quantitative analysis was done using visible spectrophotometer with ascorbic acid method, measuring blu-colored molybdenum ...

  19. Nanocrystalline sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} carbons: CVD synthesis and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terranova, M. L. [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via Della Ricerca Scientifica, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche—MinimaLab (Italy); Rossi, M. [Università degli Studi di Roma “Sapienza,” via A. Scarpa, Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l’Ingegneria and Centro di Ricerca per le Nanotecnologie Applicate all’Ingegneria (CNIS) (Italy); Tamburri, E., E-mail: emanuela.tamburri@uniroma2.it [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via Della Ricerca Scientifica, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche—MinimaLab (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The design and production of innovative materials based on nanocrystalline sp{sup 2}- and sp{sup 3}-coordinated carbons is presently a focus of the scientific community. We present a review of the nanostructures obtained in our labs using a series of synthetic routes, which make use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques for the selective production of non-planar graphitic nanostructures, nanocrystalline diamonds, and hybrid two-phase nanostructures.

  20. Metode Direct Polymerase Chain Reaction untuk Melacak Campylobacter sp. pada Daging Ayam (DIRECT POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION METHOD FOR DETECTION CAMPYLOBACTER SP. OF POULTRY MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriani .

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter sp. is the most commonly reported as agent of foodborne zoonosis causing acutegastroenteritis in humans. Poultry meat is considered as a major source of C. jejuni infection in human.The conventional methods for detecting foodborne bacteria is time-consuming which rely on the of thebacteria in culture media, followed by biochemical identification. In this study polymerase chain reaction(PCR technique was used for rapid identification of the pathogenic Campylobacter sp. The samples usedwere 298 chicken carcass with sold in supermarkets and traditional markets, and were carried out inaccordance the isolation protocol ISO/ DIS 10272-1994. Identification was performed using biochemicalAPI Campy. The direct PCR (DPCR assay with two sets of primers was employed for isolation andidentification of C. jejuni and C. coli. The result of the isolation and identification both by conventional orPCR methods showed that chicken carcasses both from supermarket and traditional market werecontaminated with C. jejuni and or C. coli. Prevalence of Campylobacter sp. contamination in chicken meatwas higher by DPCR (62.6% than by conventional (19.8%, indicating that DPCR technique was moresensitive than conventional method with detection limit for C. jejuni was103 cfu/ml.

  1. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections > A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections (PDF, ... Embed Subscribe To receive Publications email updates Submit Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are most often caused ...

  2. Hepatozoon apri n. sp. (Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae) from the Japanese wild boar Sus scrofa leucomystax (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mizuki; Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Tobiume, Miki; Akamatsu, Shigeru; Matsuo, Kayoko; Moribe, Junji; Ike, Kazunori

    2017-12-01

    Hepatozoon apri n. sp. is described from Japanese wild boars Sus scrofa leucomystax in Japan. The gamonts in the peripheral blood leukocytes were 11.6 ± 1.4 × 6.7 ± 1.3 μm in size. The meronts in the muscle tissues were 35.0-47.5 μm in length and 26.5-30 μm in width. A high rate (53.0%) of infection was found by nested PCR using muscle specimens from 181 wild boars captured in Tokushima, Japan. A phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed that H. apri n. sp. detected in wild boars is closely related to Hepatozoon spp. isolated from carnivores. This is the first description of a species belonging to the genus Hepatozoon detected in ungulates.

  3. Morphological description and molecular detection of Pestalotiopsis sp. on hazelnut in Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasić, T.; Jevremović, D.; Krnjaja, V.; Leposavić, A.; Anđelković, S.; Živković, S.; Paunović, S.

    2017-07-01

    In autumn 2015, hazelnut plants with leaf blight symptoms were noticed in a commercial plantation in the Province of Vojvodina, Serbia. Symptomatic samples were collected and submitted to laboratory analysis. Based on morphological characterization, the fungus isolated from the material was initially identified as Pestalotiopsis sp. Pathogenicity tests showed that two selected isolates infected hazelnut leaves and fruits that developed symptoms after artificial inoculation. The pathogen was re-isolated from diseased leaves and fruits, confirming Koch’s postulates. Molecular identification was performed with sequence and phylogenetic analysis of ITS, EF1-α, and TUB genomic regions. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the results of the morphological identification. The detection of Pestalotiopsis sp., a causal agent of leaf blight on hazelnut in Serbia, is one of a few reports of these pathogenic fungi on hazelnut.

  4. Cerebral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karampekios, Spyros [University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Hesselink, John [UCSD, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Despite the development of many effective antibiotic therapies and the general improvement in hygiene and health care systems all over the world, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection has increased significantly in the past 15 years. This can be attributed primarily to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its devastating effect on the immune system and secondarily to various immunosuppressive agents that are being used in aggressive cancer treatment and in organ transplantations. The brain particularly is protected from infection by the calvarium, meninges and blood brain barrier. However, different types of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, can reach the brain hematogenously or, less likely, by direct extension from an adjacent infected focus. The early detection and specific diagnosis of infection are of great importance, since brain infections are potentially treatable diseases. Imaging studies play a crucial role in the diagnostic process, along with the history (exposure to infectious agents), host factors (open head trauma, CSF leak, sinusitis, otitis, immune status), physical examination and laboratory analysis of CSF. (orig.)

  5. Cerebral infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karampekios, Spyros; Hesselink, John

    2005-01-01

    Despite the development of many effective antibiotic therapies and the general improvement in hygiene and health care systems all over the world, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection has increased significantly in the past 15 years. This can be attributed primarily to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its devastating effect on the immune system and secondarily to various immunosuppressive agents that are being used in aggressive cancer treatment and in organ transplantations. The brain particularly is protected from infection by the calvarium, meninges and blood brain barrier. However, different types of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, can reach the brain hematogenously or, less likely, by direct extension from an adjacent infected focus. The early detection and specific diagnosis of infection are of great importance, since brain infections are potentially treatable diseases. Imaging studies play a crucial role in the diagnostic process, along with the history (exposure to infectious agents), host factors (open head trauma, CSF leak, sinusitis, otitis, immune status), physical examination and laboratory analysis of CSF. (orig.)

  6. Differences in nutrient uptake capacity of the benthic filamentous algae Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. under varying N/P conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junzhuo; Vyverman, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The N/P ratio of wastewater can vary greatly and directly affect algal growth and nutrient removal process. Three benthic filamentous algae species Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. were isolated from a periphyton bioreactor and cultured under laboratory conditions on varying N/P ratios to determine their ability to remove nitrate and phosphorus. The N/P ratio significantly influenced the algal growth and phosphorus uptake process. Appropriate N/P ratios for nitrogen and phosphorus removal were 5-15, 7-10 and 7-20 for Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp., respectively. Within these respective ranges, Cladophora sp. had the highest biomass production, while Pseudanabaena sp. had the highest nitrogen and phosphorus contents. This study indicated that Cladophora sp. had a high capacity of removing phosphorus from wastewaters of low N/P ratio, and Pseudanabaena sp. was highly suitable for removing nitrogen from wastewaters with high N/P ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anomalous self potential (sp) log signatures observed in a water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical logging was done after drilling had been completed in a water well at Okwudor, South Eastern Nigeria. Three electric logs were run viz: Self Potential (SP), Resistivity N16″ and N64″ logs. An anomaly was observed in the SP log. The SP results from this well show some deviation from the standard norm.

  8. Biosorption of chromium by mangrove-derived Aplanochytrium sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbial dried biomass of Thraustochytrids is used as bioadsorbent for the removal of the chromium in aqueous solution. In this investigation, three species of Thraustochydrids namely Aplanochytrium sp., Thraustochytrium sp. and Schizochytrium sp. were tested for the efficiency of chromium accumulation by culturing ...

  9. Babesia peircei sp. nov. from the jackass penguin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1992-01-09

    Jan 9, 1992 ... An avian piroplasm, Babesia peircei sp. nov. is described from the jackass penguin Spheniscus demersus. Morphological differences between Babesia peircei sp. nov. and the other valid Babesia spp. are discussed together with the possible vectors. 'n Voal-piroplasma, Babesia peircei sp. nov. afkomstig ...

  10. Environmental conditions affecting exopolysaccharide production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Ochrobactrum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Nur Koçberber; Dönmez, Gönül

    2008-06-15

    Three different chromium-resistant microorganisms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Ochrobactrum sp.) were tested with regard to their EPS production at different pH levels, temperatures, Cr(VI) concentrations, and incubation periods. The optimum pH level was 7 for P. aeruginosa and Micrococcus sp., while it was 8 for Ochrobactrum sp. according to the highest EPS amount at 100 mg/L Cr(VI) concentration. The highest production of EPSs by the three bacteria was obtained under different environmental conditions. P. aeruginosa produced the highest EPS (863.3 mg/L) after incubation for 96 h on media with 50 mg/L Cr(VI) at 20 degrees C, Micrococcus sp. gave the highest yield (444.6 mg/L) after incubation for 72 h on media with 100 mg/L Cr(VI) at the same temperature, and Ochrobactrum sp. had the highest production (430.5 mg/L) on media with 150 mg/L Cr(VI) at 30 degrees C at the end of 48 h of incubation.

  11. Remote sensing data of SP Mountain and SP Lava flow in North-Central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, G.G.; Elachi, C.; Farr, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    Multifrequency airborne radar image data of SP Mountain [Official name of feature (U.S. Geological Survey, 1970)] and SP flow (and vicinity) in north-central Arizona were obtained in diverse viewing directions and direct and cross-polarization, then compared with surface and aerial photography, LANDSAT multispectral scanner data, airborne thermal infrared imagery, surface geology, and surface roughness statistics. The extremely blocky, basaltic andesite of SP flow is significantly brighter on direct-polarization K-band (0.9-cm wavelength) images than on cross-polarized images taken simultaneously. Conversely, for the longer wavelength (25 cm) L-band radar images, the cross-polarization image returns from SP flow are brighter than the direct-polarized image. This effect is explained by multiple scattering and the strong wavelength dependence of polarization effects caused by the rectilinear basaltic andesite scatters. Two distinct types of surface relief on SP flow, one extremely blocky, the other subdued, are found to be clearly discriminated on the visible and thermal wavelength images but are separable only on the longer wavelength L-band radar image data. The inability of the K- and X- (3-cm wavelength) band radars to portray the differences in roughness between the two SP flow surface units is attributed to the radar frequency dependence of the surface-relief scale, which, described as the Rayleigh criterion, represents the transition between quasispecular and primarily diffuse backscatter. ?? 1980.

  12. Two new species of suctorians, Acineta satyanandani sp. nov. and Paracineta karunakarani sp. nov. epizoic on ostracods

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    Two, species of protozoic suctorians, Acineta satyanandani sp. nov. and Paracineta karunakarani sp. nov., are described. These were found attached on the body of the marine ostracod, Cypridina dentata (Muller), collected from the shelf and slope...

  13. Hemoparasites in a wild primate: Infection patterns suggest interaction of Plasmodium and Babesia in a lemur species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Springer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemoparasites can cause serious morbidity in humans and animals and often involve wildlife reservoirs. Understanding patterns of hemoparasite infections in natural populations can therefore inform about emerging disease risks, especially in the light of climate change and human disruption of natural ecosystems. We investigated the effects of host age, sex, host group size and season on infection patterns of Plasmodium sp., Babesia sp. and filarial nematodes in a population of wild Malagasy primates, Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi, as well as the effects of these infections on hematological variables. We tested 45 blood samples from 36 individuals and identified two species of Plasmodium, one species of Babesia and two species of filarial nematodes. Plasmodium spp. and Babesia sp. infections showed opposite patterns of age-dependency, with babesiosis being prevalent among young animals, while older animals were infected with Plasmodium sp. In addition, Babesia sp. infection was a statistically significant negative predictor of Plasmodium sp. infection. These results suggest that Plasmodium and Babesia parasites may interact within the host, either through cross-immunity or via resource competition, so that Plasmodium infections can only establish after babesiosis has resolved. We found no effects of host sex, host group size and season on hemoparasite infections. Infections showed high prevalences and did not influence hematological variables. This preliminary evidence supports the impression that the hosts and parasites considered in this study appear to be well-adapted to each other, resulting in persistent infections with low pathogenic and probably low zoonotic potential. Our results illustrate the crucial role of biodiversity in host-parasite relationships, specifically how within-host pathogen diversity may regulate the abundance of parasites.

  14. Hemoparasites in a wild primate: Infection patterns suggest interaction of Plasmodium and Babesia in a lemur species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrea; Fichtel, Claudia; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H; Kappeler, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    Hemoparasites can cause serious morbidity in humans and animals and often involve wildlife reservoirs. Understanding patterns of hemoparasite infections in natural populations can therefore inform about emerging disease risks, especially in the light of climate change and human disruption of natural ecosystems. We investigated the effects of host age, sex, host group size and season on infection patterns of Plasmodium sp., Babesia sp. and filarial nematodes in a population of wild Malagasy primates, Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi), as well as the effects of these infections on hematological variables. We tested 45 blood samples from 36 individuals and identified two species of Plasmodium, one species of Babesia and two species of filarial nematodes. Plasmodium spp. and Babesia sp. infections showed opposite patterns of age-dependency, with babesiosis being prevalent among young animals, while older animals were infected with Plasmodium sp. In addition, Babesia sp. infection was a statistically significant negative predictor of Plasmodium sp. infection. These results suggest that Plasmodium and Babesia parasites may interact within the host, either through cross-immunity or via resource competition, so that Plasmodium infections can only establish after babesiosis has resolved. We found no effects of host sex, host group size and season on hemoparasite infections. Infections showed high prevalences and did not influence hematological variables. This preliminary evidence supports the impression that the hosts and parasites considered in this study appear to be well-adapted to each other, resulting in persistent infections with low pathogenic and probably low zoonotic potential. Our results illustrate the crucial role of biodiversity in host-parasite relationships, specifically how within-host pathogen diversity may regulate the abundance of parasites.

  15. Hemoparasites in a wild primate: Infection patterns suggest interaction of Plasmodium and Babesia in a lemur species☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrea; Fichtel, Claudia; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Kappeler, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Hemoparasites can cause serious morbidity in humans and animals and often involve wildlife reservoirs. Understanding patterns of hemoparasite infections in natural populations can therefore inform about emerging disease risks, especially in the light of climate change and human disruption of natural ecosystems. We investigated the effects of host age, sex, host group size and season on infection patterns of Plasmodium sp., Babesia sp. and filarial nematodes in a population of wild Malagasy primates, Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi), as well as the effects of these infections on hematological variables. We tested 45 blood samples from 36 individuals and identified two species of Plasmodium, one species of Babesia and two species of filarial nematodes. Plasmodium spp. and Babesia sp. infections showed opposite patterns of age-dependency, with babesiosis being prevalent among young animals, while older animals were infected with Plasmodium sp. In addition, Babesia sp. infection was a statistically significant negative predictor of Plasmodium sp. infection. These results suggest that Plasmodium and Babesia parasites may interact within the host, either through cross-immunity or via resource competition, so that Plasmodium infections can only establish after babesiosis has resolved. We found no effects of host sex, host group size and season on hemoparasite infections. Infections showed high prevalences and did not influence hematological variables. This preliminary evidence supports the impression that the hosts and parasites considered in this study appear to be well-adapted to each other, resulting in persistent infections with low pathogenic and probably low zoonotic potential. Our results illustrate the crucial role of biodiversity in host-parasite relationships, specifically how within-host pathogen diversity may regulate the abundance of parasites. PMID:26767166

  16. Helminth Infections of Rodents and Their Zoonotic Importance in Boyer-Ahmad District, Southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad RANJBAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Rodents are considered as reservoirs of various zoonotic diseases including helminthic infections. The current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of helminth infections in rodents, in Boyer-Ahmad district, Southwestern Iran.Methods: Overall, 52 rodents were captured from various areas of the district by Sherman live traps. The animals were then euthanized and dissected. During necropsy, each organ was examined macroscopically for presence of any cyst or visible parasite. The gastrointestinal tract was removed and their contents were evaluated for larva or adult worms. Trichinella larvae in the rodents’ muscles were investigated by both digestion and pathological methods.Results: Twenty-eight (53.8% of the trapped rodents were male. The rodents were including 25 (48.1% Meriones persicus, 1(1.9% Calomyscus bailwardi, 1 (1.9% Arvicola terresterris, 7 (13.5% Rattus rattus, 8 (15.4% R. norvegicus, and 10 (19.2% Apodemus sylvaticus. Of them, 38 (73.0% were infected with at least one helminth. Collected rodents were infected with Hymenolepis diminuta (50%, Hymenolepis nana fraterna (28.8%, Skrjabinotaenia sp. (15.4%, Anoplocephalidae sp. (15.4%, Cysticercus fasciolaris (5.8%, Trichuris muris (36.5%, Aspiculuris tetraptera (15.4%, Syphacia sp. (5.7%, Rictularia sp. (15.4%, Trichostrongylus sp. (3.8%, and Gongylonema sp. (3.8%. M. persicus was the most (84% infected rodent, yet the differences between rodent genus and helminth infectivity were not statistically significant (P>0.05.Conclusion: The rodents in Boyer-Ahmad district are infected with different helminths infections that some of them are recognized as threat to human health.

  17. Helminth Infections of Rodents and Their Zoonotic Importance in Boyer-Ahmad District, Southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Mohammad Javad; Sarkari, Bahador; Mowlavi, Gholam Reza; Seifollahi, Zeinab; Moshfe, Abdolali; Abdolahi Khabisi, Samaneh; Mobedi, Iraj

    2017-01-01

    Rodents are considered as reservoirs of various zoonotic diseases including helminthic infections. The current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of helminth infections in rodents, in Boyer-Ahmad district, Southwestern Iran. Overall, 52 rodents were captured from various areas of the district by Sherman live traps. The animals were then euthanized and dissected. During necropsy, each organ was examined macroscopically for presence of any cyst or visible parasite. The gastrointestinal tract was removed and their contents were evaluated for larva or adult worms. Trichinella larvae in the rodents' muscles were investigated by both digestion and pathological methods. Twenty-eight (53.8%) of the trapped rodents were male. The rodents were including 25 (48.1%) Meriones persicus , 1(1.9%) Calomyscus bailwardi , 1 (1.9%) Arvicola terresterris , 7 (13.5%) Rattus rattus , 8 (15.4%) R. norvegicus , and 10 (19.2%) Apodemus sylvaticus . Of them, 38 (73.0%) were infected with at least one helminth. Collected rodents were infected with Hymenolepis diminuta (50%), Hymenolepis nana fraterna (28.8%), Skrjabinotaenia sp. (15.4%), Anoplocephalidae sp. (15.4%), Cysticercus fasciolaris (5.8%), Trichuris muris (36.5%), Aspiculuris tetraptera (15.4%), Syphacia sp. (5.7%), Rictularia sp. (15.4%), Trichostrongylus sp. (3.8%), and Gongylonema sp. (3.8%). M. persicus was the most (84%) infected rodent, yet the differences between rodent genus and helminth infectivity were not statistically significant ( P >0.05). The rodents in Boyer-Ahmad district are infected with different helminths infections that some of them are recognized as threat to human health.

  18. Description of Babesia duncani n.sp. (Apicomplexa: Babesiidae) from humans and its differentiation from other piroplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Patricia A; Kjemtrup, Anne M; Carreno, Ramon A; Thomford, John; Wainwright, Katlyn; Eberhard, Mark; Quick, Rob; Telford, Sam R; Herwaldt, Barbara L

    2006-06-01

    The morphologic, ultrastructural and genotypic characteristics of Babesia duncani n.sp. are described based on the characterization of two isolates (WA1, CA5) obtained from infected human patients in Washington and California. The intraerythrocytic stages of the parasite are morphologically indistinguishable from Babesia microti, which is the most commonly identified cause of human babesiosis in the USA. Intraerythrocytic trophozoites of B. duncani n.sp. are round to oval, with some piriform, ring and ameboid forms. Division occurs by intraerythrocytic schizogony, which results in the formation of merozoites in tetrads (syn. Maltese cross or quadruplet forms). The ultrastructural features of trophozoites and merozoites are similar to those described for B. microti and Theileria spp. However, intralymphocytic schizont stages characteristic of Theileria spp. have not been observed in infected humans. In phylogenetic analyses based on sequence data for the complete18S ribosomal RNA gene, B. duncani n.sp. lies in a distinct clade that includes isolates from humans, dogs and wildlife in the western United States but separate from Babesia sensu stricto, Theileria spp. and B. microti. ITS2 sequence analysis of the B. duncani n.sp. isolates (WA1, CA5) show that they are phylogenetically indistinguishable from each other and from two other human B. duncani-type parasites (CA6, WA2 clone1) but distinct from other Babesia and Theileria species sequenced. This analysis provides robust molecular support that the B. duncani n.sp. isolates are monophyletic and the same species. The morphologic characteristics together with the phylogenetic analysis of two genetic loci support the assertion that B. duncani n.sp. is a distinct species from other known Babesia spp. for which morphologic and sequence information are available.

  19. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of galvanized steel by Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in the presence of Ag–Cu ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilhan-Sungur, Esra, E-mail: esungur@istanbul.edu.tr [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Unsal-Istek, Tuba [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Cansever, Nurhan [Yıldız Technical University, Faculty of Chemistry-Metallurgy, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-07-15

    The effects of Ag–Cu ions on the microbiologically induced corrosion of galvanized steel in the presence of Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. were investigated. The corrosion behavior of galvanized steel was analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biofilm, corrosion products and Ag–Cu ions on the surfaces were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and elemental mapping. The biofilm layer formed by the Desulfovibrio sp. was stable covering the all surface of galvanized steel coupons, while that by Desulfosporosinus sp. was intermittent, highly porous and heterogeneous. It was found that both of the sulfate reducing bacteria species accelerated corrosion of the galvanized steel. However, it was detected that Desulfosporosinus sp. was more corrosive for galvanized steel than Desulfovibrio sp. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in biofilm clustered into patches on the galvanized steel surface when the culture contained toxic Ag–Cu ions. The ions affected the growth of the sulfate reducing bacteria strains in different ways and hence the corrosion behaviors. It was observed that the Ag–Cu ions affected negatively growth of Desulfosporosinus sp. especially after 24 h of exposure leading to a decrease in the corrosion rate of galvanized steel. However, Desulfovibrio sp. showed more corrosive effect in the presence of the ions according to the ions-free culture. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that corrosion products on the surfaces were mainly composed of Zn, S, Na, O and P. - Highlights: • Galvanized steel was corroded by Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. • Desulfosporosinus sp. is more corrosive than Desulfovibrio sp. • The Ag–Cu ions affected corrosion behavior of Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. on galvanized steel.

  20. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of nano-carbon particles with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.S.; Wu, B.J.; Deng, Q.Y. [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Guo, Y.B. [The Third People' s Hospital of Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Leng, Y.X., E-mail: yxleng@263.net [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Huang, N. [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Graphitization occurs during the long-term service of a diamond-like carbon (DLC) modified artificial joint. Then, DLC wear debris, which are carbon particles with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios and sizes ranging from the nano- to micro-meter scale produced. In this paper, to promote the application of DLC coating for artificial joint modification, the cytotoxicity of DLC debris (nano-carbon particles, NCs) with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios was studied. The microstructure and physical characteristics of NCs with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). Meanwhile, osteoblasts and macrophages were applied to characterize the cytotoxicity of the NCs. In vitro cytotoxicity assay results indicated that cells incubated with NCs of different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios had greater osteogenic capacity, and these particles caused a weaker immune response in comparison with CoCrMo particles. Taken together, the results indicated that NCs with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios presented a good cytocompatibility than CoCrMo particles. But no significant differences were observed among NCs with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios. The better cytocompatibility of NCs is mainly attributable to their surface charge. - Highlights: • NCs with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios have been successfully prepared by annealing treatment. • NCs with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios show good osteogenic capacity and lower immune response. • The good cytocompatibility of NCs is mainly dependent on its surface charge.

  1. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of galvanized steel by Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in the presence of Ag–Cu ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilhan-Sungur, Esra; Unsal-Istek, Tuba; Cansever, Nurhan

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Ag–Cu ions on the microbiologically induced corrosion of galvanized steel in the presence of Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. were investigated. The corrosion behavior of galvanized steel was analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biofilm, corrosion products and Ag–Cu ions on the surfaces were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and elemental mapping. The biofilm layer formed by the Desulfovibrio sp. was stable covering the all surface of galvanized steel coupons, while that by Desulfosporosinus sp. was intermittent, highly porous and heterogeneous. It was found that both of the sulfate reducing bacteria species accelerated corrosion of the galvanized steel. However, it was detected that Desulfosporosinus sp. was more corrosive for galvanized steel than Desulfovibrio sp. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in biofilm clustered into patches on the galvanized steel surface when the culture contained toxic Ag–Cu ions. The ions affected the growth of the sulfate reducing bacteria strains in different ways and hence the corrosion behaviors. It was observed that the Ag–Cu ions affected negatively growth of Desulfosporosinus sp. especially after 24 h of exposure leading to a decrease in the corrosion rate of galvanized steel. However, Desulfovibrio sp. showed more corrosive effect in the presence of the ions according to the ions-free culture. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that corrosion products on the surfaces were mainly composed of Zn, S, Na, O and P. - Highlights: • Galvanized steel was corroded by Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. • Desulfosporosinus sp. is more corrosive than Desulfovibrio sp. • The Ag–Cu ions affected corrosion behavior of Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. on galvanized steel

  2. Enhancement of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV Infection by Seminal Plasma and Semen Amyloids Implicates a New Target for the Prevention of HSV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilith Torres

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human herpesviruses cause different infectious diseases, resulting in world-wide health problems. Sexual transmission is a major route for the spread of both herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 and -2. Semen plays an important role in carrying the viral particle that invades the vaginal or rectal mucosa and, thereby, initiates viral replication. Previously, we demonstrated that the amyloid fibrils semenogelin (SEM and semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI, and seminal plasma (SP augment cytomegalovirus infection (Tang et al., J. Virol 2013. Whether SEM or SEVI amyloids or SP could also enhance other herpesvirus infections has not been examined. In this study, we found that the two amyloids as well as SP strongly enhance both HSV-1 and -2 infections in cell culture. Along with SP, SEM and SEVI amyloids enhanced viral entry and increased infection rates by more than 10-fold, as assessed by flow cytometry assay and fluorescence microscopy. Viral replication was increased by about 50- to 100-fold. Moreover, viral growth curve assays showed that SEM and SEVI amyloids, as well as SP, sped up the kinetics of HSV replication such that the virus reached its replicative peak more quickly. The interactions of SEM, SEVI, and SP with HSVs are direct. Furthermore, we discovered that the enhancing effects of SP, SEM, and SEVI can be significantly reduced by heparin, a sulfated polysaccharide with an anionic charge. It is probable that heparin abrogates said enhancing effects by interfering with the interaction of the viral particle and the amyloids, which interaction results in the binding of the viral particles and both SEM and SEVI.

  3. Cryptosporidium rubeyi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae in multiple Spermophilus ground squirrel species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunde Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previously we reported the unique Cryptosporidium sp. “c” genotype (e.g., Sbey03c, Sbey05c, Sbld05c, Sltl05c from three species of Spermophilus ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi, Spermophilus beldingi, Spermophilus lateralis located throughout California, USA. This follow-up work characterizes the morphology and animal infectivity of this novel genotype as the final step in proposing it as a new species of Cryptosporidium. Analysis of sequences of 18S rRNA, actin, and HSP70 genes of additional Cryptosporidium isolates from recently sampled California ground squirrels (S. beecheyi confirms the presence of the unique Sbey-c genotype in S. beecheyi. Phylogenetic and BLAST analysis indicates that the c-genotype in Spermophilus ground squirrels is distinct from Cryptosporidium species/genotypes from other host species currently available in GenBank. We propose to name this c-genotype found in Spermophilus ground squirrels as Cryptosporidium rubeyi n. sp. The mean size of C. rubeyi n. sp. oocysts is 4.67 (4.4–5.0 μm × 4.34 (4.0–5.0 μm, with a length/width index of 1.08 (n = 220. Oocysts of C. rubeyi n. sp. are not infectious to neonatal BALB/c mice and Holstein calves. GenBank accession numbers for C. rubeyi n. sp. are DQ295012, AY462233, and KM010224 for the 18S rRNA gene, KM010227 for the actin gene, and KM010229 for the HSP70 gene.

  4. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV-infected patients, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

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    Phimpha Paboriboune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection is an emerging problem in Laos. We conducted the first prospective study on intestinal parasites, including opportunistic protozoa, in newly diagnosed HIV infected patients, with or without diarrhea. The aims were to describe the spectrum of infections, to determine their prevalence and to assess their associations with diarrhea, CD4 cell count, place of residence and living conditions. METHODOLOGY: One to three stool samples over consecutive days were obtained from 137 patients. The Kato thick smear method, formalin-ethyl concentration and specific stains for coccidia and microsporidia diagnosis were performed on 260 stool samples. Baseline characteristics regarding relevant demographics, place of residence and living conditions, clinical features including diarrhea, were collected using a standardized questionnaire. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 137 patients were young (median age: 36 years and severely immunocompromised (83.9% at WHO stage 3 or 4, median CD4 cell count: 41/mm3. Diarrhea was present in 43.0% of patients. Parasite infection was found in 78.8% of patients, infection with at least two species in 49.6%. Prevalence rates of protozoan and helminth infections were similar (54.7% and 58.4% respectively. Blastocystis sp. was the most frequent protozoa (26.3%. Cryptosporidium sp., Cytoisospora belli and microsporidia, found at low prevalence rates (6.6%, 4.4%, 2.9%, respectively, were described for the first time in Laos. Cryptosporidium sp. was associated with persistent diarrhea. Strongyloides stercoralis was the most prevalent helminth following Opisthorchis viverrini (20.4% and 47.5% respectively. The most immunocompromised patients, as assessed by a CD4 count ≤ 50 cells/mm3, were more likely to be infected with intestinal parasites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV infection was mainly diagnosed at an advanced stage of immunosuppression in Lao patients. Intestinal parasite infections were highly prevalent

  5. Occurrence of the internal parasite Portunion sp. (Isopoda: Entoniscidae) and its effect on reproduction in intertidal crabs (Decapoda: Grapsidae) from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockerhoff, A M

    2004-12-01

    The parasite fauna of 4 intertidal grapsid crabs from New Zealand was studied between 1998 and 2000. The occurrence of an undescribed entoniscid species, Portunion sp. (Isopoda: Epicaridea), is presented. Portunion sp. was found in Cyclograpsus lavauxi (34.1%, n = 1650), Hemigrapsus crenulatus (19.0%, n = 2300), and Helice crassa (11.6%, n = 825) but was absent from Hemigrapsus sexdentatus (n = 636). Parasitized hosts contained mostly 1 female Portunion sp. but occasionally up to 7 females were found. One to 3 dwarf males typically occurred on each mature female Portunion sp. Most developmental stages of female Portunion sp. were found throughout the year, demonstrating that reproduction and infection occurred continuously. Portunion sp. differentially affected male and female hosts. Prevalence was generally higher in male hosts than in female hosts and increased significantly with host size. Female hosts were castrated, whereas males were not. Portunion sp., therefore, influenced the operational sex ratio in its host species, causing a more male-biased ratio.

  6. Interaction of Sp1 zinc finger with transport factor in the nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tatsuo; Kitamura, Haruka; Uwatoko, Chisana; Azumano, Makiko; Itoh, Kohji; Kuwahara, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Sp1 zinc fingers themselves interact with importin α. → Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a nuclear localization signal. → Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates the expression of many cellular genes, but the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 is not well understood. In this study, we revealed that GST-fused Sp1 protein bound to endogenous importin α in HeLa cells via the Sp1 zinc finger domains, which comprise the DNA binding domain of Sp1. It was found that the Sp1 zinc finger domains directly interacted with a wide range of importin α including the armadillo (arm) repeat domain and the C-terminal acidic domain. Furthermore, it turned out that all three zinc fingers of Sp1 are essential for binding to importin α. Taken together, these results suggest that the Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a NLS and Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner even though it possesses no classical NLSs.

  7. Efficacy of closantel against ivermectin- and fenbendazole-resistant Haemonchus sp. in sheep in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westers, T; Jones-Bitton, A; Menzies, P; Van Leeuwen, J; Poljak, Z; Peregrine, A S

    2016-09-15

    In Ontario, Canada, widespread resistance to ivermectin and fenbendazole, the only readily available ovine anthelmintics, has been documented, primarily in Haemonchus sp. In other parts of the world, closantel has been used to control such infections; however, the drug was not currently licensed for use in Canada and the USA. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on six client-owned farms in Ontario in 2013 and 2014 to determine the efficacy of closantel (Flukiver ® 5% Oral Suspension, Elanco Animal Health, 10mg/kg bodyweight) against ivermectin- and fenbendazole-resistant Haemonchus sp. infections in periparturient ewes and grazing lambs. Three farms were randomly assigned to treat all ewes, and three farms were randomly assigned to selectively treat individual ewes at lambing, using predetermined criteria. Fecal samples were collected from a minimum of 15 randomly selected ewes and 13 lambs per group on each farm at the time of treatment and approximately 14days later. Trichostrongyle-type fecal egg counts (FEC) were performed using a modified McMaster technique with a lower detection limit of 8.3 eggs per gram of feces (epg). Haemonchus-specific FECs were determined by multiplying FECs by the proportion of Haemonchus sp. identified from coproculture for each farm; Haemonchus-specific FEC reductions were calculated for each farm. Twenty grazing lambs had FECs conducted monthly, and when mean monthly FECs surpassed 200 epg, all lambs were randomly allocated to either closantel, positive control (ivermectin, fenbendazole, or levamisole) or negative control groups. Pre-treatment Haemonchus-specific mean FECs ranged from 27 to 3359 epg in ewes and 0-5698 epg in lambs. Efficacy of closantel against Haemonchus sp. ranged from 99% (95% CI: 97%-99%) to 100% in recently lambed ewes on all farms in both years (total n=274 ewes), and from 99% (95% CI: 98%-99%) to 100% in grazing lambs in both years on all but one farm (total n=171 lambs). On the latter farm, a whole

  8. Lung infection rates in two sympatric Tropiduridae lizard species by pentastomids and nematodes in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WO. Almeida

    Full Text Available We present data on pulmonary infection rates by parasites in the lizards Tropidurus hispidus Spix, 1825 and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 living sympatrically in the Chapada do Araripe mountain Range, northeastern Brazil. We found no parasite pulmonary infection in T. semitaeniatus. However, two pulmonary parasite species were found in the T. hispidus hosts, the pentastomid Raillietiella mottae Almeida, Freire and Lopes, 2008 and the nematode Rhabdias sp. Overall prevalence was 5%. Prevalence of R. mottae was 2.5% and corresponded to only one parasite on each infected host. Prevalence of Rhabdias sp. was 2.5% and the range of infection was 1-2 parasites per host. This represents the first record of Rhabdias infecting lizards of the family Tropiduridae in the Neotropical region. Furthermore, we present a comparison of parameters of infection by pulmonary parasites including some recent studies in Brazil.

  9. A superhard sp3 microporous carbon with direct bandgap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yilong; Xie, Chenlong; Xiong, Mei; Ma, Mengdong; Liu, Lingyu; Li, Zihe; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Gao, Guoying; Zhao, Zhisheng; Tian, Yongjun; Xu, Bo; He, Julong

    2017-12-01

    Carbon allotropes with distinct sp, sp2, and sp3 hybridization possess various different properties. Here, a novel all-sp3 hybridized tetragonal carbon, namely the P carbon, was predicted by the evolutionary particle swarm structural search. It demonstrated a low density among all-sp3 carbons, due to the corresponding distinctive microporous structure. P carbon is thermodynamically stable than the known C60 and could be formed through the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) compression. P carbon is a direct bandgap semiconductor displaying a strong and superhard nature. The unique combination of electrical and mechanical properties constitutes P carbon a potential superhard material for semiconductor industrial fields.

  10. Molecular characterization of Hepatozoon sp. from Brazilian dogs and its phylogenetic relationship with other Hepatozoon spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlano, M D; Teixeira, K R S; Scofield, A; Elisei, C; Yotoko, K S C; Fernandes, K R; Linhares, G F C; Ewing, S A; Massard, C L

    2007-04-10

    To characterize phylogenetically the species which causes canine hepatozoonosis at two rural areas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, we used universal or Hepatozoon spp. primer sets for the 18S SSU rRNA coding region. DNA extracts were obtained from blood samples of thirteen dogs naturally infected, from four experimentally infected, and from five puppies infected by vertical transmission from a dam, that was experimentally infected. DNA of sporozoites of Hepatozoon americanum was used as positive control. The amplification of DNA extracts from blood of dogs infected with sporozoites of Hepatozoon spp. was observed in the presence of primers to 18S SSU rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp., whereas DNA of H. americanum sporozoites was amplified in the presence of either universal or Hepatozoon spp.-specific primer sets; the amplified products were approximately 600bp in size. Cloned PCR products obtained from DNA extracts of blood from two dogs experimentally infected with Hepatozoon sp. were sequenced. The consensus sequence, derived from six sequence data sets, were blasted against sequences of 18S SSU rRNA of Hepatozoon spp. available at GenBank and aligned to homologous sequences to perform the phylogenetic analysis. This analysis clearly showed that our sequence clustered, independently of H. americanum sequences, within a group comprising other Hepatozoon canis sequences. Our results confirmed the hypothesis that the agent causing hepatozoonosis in the areas studied in Brazil is H. canis, supporting previous reports that were based on morphological and morphometric analyses.

  11. Quantitative and microscopic assessment of compatible and incompatible interactions between chickpea cultivars and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fernández, Daniel; Landa, Blanca B; Kang, Seogchan; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Navas-Cortés, Juan A

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, a main threat to global chickpea production, is managed mainly by resistant cultivars whose efficiency is curtailed by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. We characterized compatible and incompatible interactions by assessing the spatial-temporal pattern of infection and colonization of chickpea cvs. P-2245, JG-62 and WR-315 by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races 0 and 5 labeled with ZsGreen fluorescent protein using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The two races colonized the host root surface in both interactions with preferential colonization of the root apex and subapical root zone. In compatible interactions, the pathogen grew intercellularly in the root cortex, reached the xylem, and progressed upwards in the stem xylem, being the rate and intensity of stem colonization directly related with the degree of compatibility among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races and chickpea cultivars. In incompatible interactions, race 0 invaded and colonized 'JG-62' xylem vessels of root and stem but in 'WR-315', it remained in the intercellular spaces of the root cortex failing to reach the xylem, whereas race 5 progressed up to the hypocotyl. However, all incompatible interactions were asymptomatic. The differential patterns of colonization of chickpea cultivars by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races may be related to the operation of multiple resistance mechanisms.

  12. Quantitative and microscopic assessment of compatible and incompatible interactions between chickpea cultivars and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jiménez-Fernández

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, a main threat to global chickpea production, is managed mainly by resistant cultivars whose efficiency is curtailed by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. METHODOLOGY: We characterized compatible and incompatible interactions by assessing the spatial-temporal pattern of infection and colonization of chickpea cvs. P-2245, JG-62 and WR-315 by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races 0 and 5 labeled with ZsGreen fluorescent protein using confocal laser scanning microscopy. FINDINGS: The two races colonized the host root surface in both interactions with preferential colonization of the root apex and subapical root zone. In compatible interactions, the pathogen grew intercellularly in the root cortex, reached the xylem, and progressed upwards in the stem xylem, being the rate and intensity of stem colonization directly related with the degree of compatibility among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races and chickpea cultivars. In incompatible interactions, race 0 invaded and colonized 'JG-62' xylem vessels of root and stem but in 'WR-315', it remained in the intercellular spaces of the root cortex failing to reach the xylem, whereas race 5 progressed up to the hypocotyl. However, all incompatible interactions were asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: The differential patterns of colonization of chickpea cultivars by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races may be related to the operation of multiple resistance mechanisms.

  13. Genetic Adaptation of Achromobacter sp. during Persistence in the Lungs of Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Ridderberg

    Full Text Available Achromobacter species are increasingly isolated from the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis patients and often a chronic infection is established. How Achromobacter sp. adapts to the human host remains uncharacterised. By comparing longitudinally collected isolates of Achromobacter sp. isolated from five CF patients, we have investigated the within-host evolution of clonal lineages. The majority of identified mutations were isolate-specific suggesting co-evolution of several subpopulations from the original infecting isolate. The largest proportion of mutated genes were involved in the general metabolism of the bacterium, but genes involved in virulence and antimicrobial resistance were also affected. A number of virulence genes required for initiation of acute infection were selected against, e.g. genes of the type I and type III secretion systems and genes related to pilus and flagellum formation or function. Six antimicrobial resistance genes or their regulatory genes were mutated, including large deletions affecting the repressor genes of an RND-family efflux pump and a beta-lactamase. Convergent evolution was observed for five genes that were all implicated in bacterial virulence. Characterisation of genes involved in adaptation of Achromobacter to the human host is required for understanding the pathogen-host interaction and facilitate design of future therapeutic interventions.

  14. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contact with fecal matter (poop) from an infected person (especially a child in diapers). Household pets can carry and spread the bacteria to people. ... preparing food. Clean and disinfect toilets after the person with diarrhea uses them. Also, if a pet dog or cat has diarrhea, wash your hands ...

  15. Baylisascaris Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing baylisascariasis and on providing patients at risk of Baylisascaris infection with prevention messages.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  16. Hand Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Infections Email to a friend * required fields ...

  17. Metapneumovirus infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT), an acute upper respiratory tract infection of turkeys, and is also associated with swollen head syndrome (SHS) in chickens and egg production losses in layers. Since the first TRT reported in the late 1970s in South Africa, the virus...

  18. Sp6 and Sp8 Transcription Factors Control AER Formation and Dorsal-Ventral Patterning in Limb Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Endika; Delgado, Irene; Junco, Marisa; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Mansouri, Ahmed; Oberg, Kerby C.; Ros, Marian A.

    2014-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is critical for the outgrowth and patterning of the vertebrate limb. The induction of the AER is a complex process that relies on integrated interactions among the Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling pathways that operate within the ectoderm and between the ectoderm and the mesoderm of the early limb bud. The transcription factors Sp6 and Sp8 are expressed in the limb ectoderm and AER during limb development. Sp6 mutant mice display a mild syndactyly phenotype while Sp8 mutants exhibit severe limb truncations. Both mutants show defects in AER maturation and in dorsal-ventral patterning. To gain further insights into the role Sp6 and Sp8 play in limb development, we have produced mice lacking both Sp6 and Sp8 activity in the limb ectoderm. Remarkably, the elimination or significant reduction in Sp6;Sp8 gene dosage leads to tetra-amelia; initial budding occurs, but neither Fgf8 nor En1 are activated. Mutants bearing a single functional allele of Sp8 (Sp6−/−;Sp8+/−) exhibit a split-hand/foot malformation phenotype with double dorsal digit tips probably due to an irregular and immature AER that is not maintained in the center of the bud and on the abnormal expansion of Wnt7a expression to the ventral ectoderm. Our data are compatible with Sp6 and Sp8 working together and in a dose-dependent manner as indispensable mediators of Wnt/βcatenin and Bmp signaling in the limb ectoderm. We suggest that the function of these factors links proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral patterning. PMID:25166858

  19. Analysis list: SP2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SP2 Blood,Liver,Pluripotent stem cell + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyus...hu-u/hg19/target/SP2.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SP2.5.tsv http://dbarchive....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SP2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.Blood.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.Liver.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.Pluripotent_stem_cell.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc

  20. Biodegradation of resorcinol byPseudomonas sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nader Hajizadeh; Najibeh Shirzad; Ali Farzi; Mojtaba Salouti; Azra Momeni

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the ability ofPseudomonas sp. isolated from East Azarbaijan, Iran in bioremediation of resorcinol. Methods: Resorcinol biodegradation was evaluated using spectrophotometry and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Results:This isolate was able to remove up to 37.12% of resorcinol from contaminated water. Reusability experiments had confirmed the biodegradation process which produced seven intermediate compounds. These intermediates were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique. The products of resorcinol biodegradation were apparently 1, 4-cyclohexadiene, nonadecene, 2-heptadecanone, 1-isopropyl-2-methoxy-4-methylbenzene, hexadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, phenol and 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl). Conclusions: The findings revealed thatPseudomonas sp. is able to degrade resorcinol. Because of being an indigenous organism, this isolate is more compatible with the climate of the northwest region of Iran and possibly will be used for degradation of other similar aromatic compounds.

  1. SP-100 space reactor power system readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josloff, A.T.; Matteo, D.N.; Bailey, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System which is being developed by GE, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, to provide electrical power in the range of 10's to 100's of kW. The system represents an enabling technology for a wide variety of earth orbital and interplanetary science missions, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) stages, and lunar/Mars surface power for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The technology and design is now at a state of readiness to support the definition of early flight demonstration missions. Of particular importance is that SP-100 meets the demanding U.S. safety performance, reliability and life requirements. The system is scalable and flexible and can be configured to provide 10's to 100's of kWe without repeating development work and can meet DoD goals for an early, low-power demonstration flight in the 1996-1997 time frame

  2. Superfield quantization in Sp(2) covariant formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, P M

    2001-01-01

    The rules of the superfield Sp(2) covariant quantization of the arbitrary gauge theories for the case of the introduction of the gauging with the derivative equations for the gauge functional are generalized. The possibilities of realization of the expanded anti-brackets are considered and it is shown, that only one of the realizations is compatible with the transformations of the expanded BRST-symmetry in the form of super translations along the Grassmann superspace coordinates

  3. Spøgelsets egne ord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemzøe, Anker

    2012-01-01

    refleksioner over den gengangerscene, der åbner Shakespeares Hamlet. Ifølge Derridas ’hantologie’ opererer spøgelser i en eksistentiel tidslighed, der har at gøre med sorg, sprog og forvandling. Genremæssigt, tilføjer Gemzøe, har gengangeren det med at husere i tragedien. Med Derridas ’hantologie’ som en af de...

  4. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelli, Ivano E; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni; Manini, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We adopt a fair compromise of microscopic realism with a certain level of idealization in the model configurations, and predict a number of properties susceptible to comparison with experiment. (paper)

  5. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Ivano E.; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni; Manini, Nicola

    2012-03-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We adopt a fair compromise of microscopic realism with a certain level of idealization in the model configurations, and predict a number of properties susceptible to comparison with experiment.

  6. Commercial technologies from the SP-100 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truscello, V.C.; Fujita, T.; Mondt, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    For more than a decade, Jet Propulsion Labortory and Los Alamos have managed a multi-agency funded effort to develop a space reactor power system. This SP-100 Program has developed technologies required for space power systems that can be implemented in the industrial and commercial sectors to improve competitiveness in the global economy. Initial steps taken to transfer this technology from the laboratories to industrial and commercial entities within United States include: (1) identifying specific technologies having commercial potential; (2) distributing information describing the identified technologies and interacting with interested commercial and industrial entities to develop application-specific details and requirements; and (3) providing a technological data base that leads to transfer of technology or the forming of teaming arrangements to accomplish the transfer by tailoring the technology to meet application-specific requirements. SP-100 technologies having commercial potential encompass fabrication processes, devices, and components. Examples: a process for bonding refractory metals to graphite, a device to sense the position of an actuator and a component to enable rotating machines to operate without supplying lubrication (self-lubricating ball bearing). Shortly after the NASA Regional Technology Transfer Centers widely disseminated information covering SP-100 technologies, over one hundred expressions of interest were received, which indicate that there is a large potential benefit in transferring SP-100 technology. Interactions with industrial and commercial entities have identified a substantial need for creating teaming arrangements involving the interested entity and personnel from laboratories and their contractors, who have the knowledge and ability to tailor the technology to meet application-specific requirements. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  7. Thermomucor abortosporangium sp. nov. (Fungi: Mucorales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Swathi Sri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermomucor abortosporangium A. Swathi Sri & A. Subrahm., sp. nov. is described as the second species of Thermomucor. It differs from the type species of T. indicae-seudaticae in the branching pattern of sporangiophores, size and shape of sporangiospores and production of abortosporangia. Zygospores are reddish brown, globose, psilate, isogamic and formed at low (37°C temperature whilst the higher temperatures are prohibitive. The fungus grows well at 50°C on PDA, SMA and MEA.

  8. Polycystic echinococcosis in Colombia: the larval cestodes in infected rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, G A; Guzman, V H; Wells, E A; Angel, D

    1979-07-01

    Described are the characteristics of the polycystic larval cestodes found in an endemic area of echinococcosis in the Easter Plains of Colombia and the tissue reaction evoked in infected rodents. Of 848 free-ranging animals examined, polycystic hydatids were found in 44/93 Cuniculus paca and 1/369 Proechimys sp. None of 20 Dasyprocta fuliginosa examined was infected, but hunters provided a heart with hydatid cysts and information about two additional animals with infected livers. Recognition of an endemic area of polycystic echinococcosis provides a means to investigate the life cycle of the parasites and to study the histogenesis of the larval cestodes in susceptible laboratory animals.

  9. Evaluation of indirect TaSP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of tropical theileriosis in cattle (Bos indicus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amr M; Abdel-Rady, Ahmed; Ahmed, Laila S; El-Hosary, Amira

    2012-05-25

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of Theileria annulata surface protein (TaSP)-ELISA, in comparison with traditional microscopic test, for the diagnosis of T. annulata infection among Egyptian baladi cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Molecular confirmation of infection using T. annulata merozoite surface (Tams-1) target amplification by PCR was used as a gold standard. A total of 76 clinically suspected animals including 64 baladi cattle and 12 water buffaloes were investigated in the current study by the three methods. Based on the PCR-confirmed results, the evaluation study revealed higher sensitivity of TaSP-ELISA (72.9% and 75%) as compared to microscopic examination (58.3% and 50%) among cattle and buffaloes, respectively. On the other hand, the specificity of TaSP-ELISA in diagnosis of T. annulata infection was higher (87.5%) in baladi cattle as compared to water buffaloes (37.5%). In conclusion, TaSP-ELISA was shown to be suitable for the diagnosis of T. annulata infection in cattle under field conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Omics approaches to understand the nature of virulence in Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Kemen, Eric; Brown, James K. M.

    2009-01-01

    New genomic and transcriptomic methods greatly facilitate the study of the biology and evolution of fungal plant pathogens. The obligate biotrophic and asexually reproducing rust fungus Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (Pst) forms haustoria during plant infection and delivers proteins and other...

  11. Optimization of cellulase production by Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, H N; Ramanjaneyulu, G; Rajasekhar Reddy, B

    2016-12-01

    The production of cellulolytic enzymes (β-exoglucanase, β-endoglucanase and β-glucosidase) by Penicillium sp. on three different media in liquid shake culture conditions was compared. The organism exhibited relatively highest activity of endoglucanase among three enzymes measured at 7-day interval during the course of its growth on Czapek-Dox medium supplemented with 0.5 % (w/v) cellulose. Cellulose at 0.5 %, lactose at 0.5 %, sawdust at 0.5 %, yeast extract at 0.2 % as a nitrogen source, pH 5.0 and 30 °C temperature were found to be optimal for growth and cellulase production by Penicillium sp. Yields of Fpase, CMCase and β-glucosidase, attained on optimized medium with Penicillium sp. were 8.7, 25 and 9.52 U/ml, respectively with increment of 9.2, 5.9 and 43.8-folds over titers of the respective enzyme on unoptimised medium. Cellulase of the fungal culture with the ratio of β-glucosidase to Fpase greater than one will hold potential for biotechnological applications.

  12. Biosorption of 241Am by Candida sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunzhong; Zhang Taiming; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Jin Jiannan; Hua Xinfeng

    2003-01-01

    The biosorption of radionuclide 241 Am from solutions by Candida sp., and the influences of experimental conditions on the adsorption were studied. The results showed that the adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 4h and the optimum pH=2. No significant differences on 241 Am biosorption were observed at 10-45 degree C, or challenged with Au 3+ or Ag + , even 1500 times or 4500 times over 241 Am, respectively. The adsorption rate could reach 97.8% by dry Candida sp. of 0.82 g/L in 241 Am solutions (pH=2) of 5.6-111 MBq/L (44.04-873.0 μg/L) (C 0 ), with maximum adsorption capacity (W) of 63.5 MBq/g (501.8 μg/g), implying that the removal of 241 Am by Candida sp. from solutions was feasible. The relationship between activities (C 0 ) and adsorption capacities (W) of 241 Am indicated that the biosorption process could be described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm

  13. Biosorption of americium-241 by Candida sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunzhong; Zhang Taiming; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Jin Jiannan; Liao Jiali

    2003-01-01

    As an important radioisotope in nuclear industry and other fields, americium-241 is one of the most serious contamination concerns duo to its high toxicity and long half-life. In this experiment, the biosorption of 241 Am from solution by Candida sp., and the effects of various experimental conditions on the adsorption were investigated. The preliminary results showed that the adsorption of 241 Am by Candida sp. was efficient. 241 Am could be removed by Candida sp. of 0.82 g/L (dry weight) from 241 Am solutions of 5.6-111 MBq/L (44.3-877.2 μg/L)(C 0 ), with maximum adsorption rate (R) of 98% and maximum adsorption capacities (W) of 63.5 MBq/g biomass (dry weight) (501.8 μg/g). The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 4 hour and the optimum pH was pH = 2. No significant differences on 241 Am adsorption were observed at 10 C-45 C, or in solutions containing Au 3+ or Ag + , even 1500 times or 4500 times above the 241 Am concentration, respectively. The relationship between concentrations and adsorption capacities of 241 Am indicated the biosorption process should be described by a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. (orig.)

  14. High prevalence of the liver fluke Amphimerus sp. in domestic cats and dogs in an area for human amphimeriasis in Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Calvopiña

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Amphimerus sp. is a liver fluke which recently has been shown to have a high prevalence of infection among an indigenous group, Chachi, who reside in a tropical rainforest in the northwestern region of Ecuador. Since it is unknown which animals can act as a reservoir and/or definitive hosts for Amphimerus sp. in this endemic area, a study was done to determine the prevalence of infection in domestic cats and dogs. This information is important to understand the epidemiology, life cycle and control of this parasite.In July 2012, three Chachi communities located on Rio Cayapas, province of Esmeraldas, were surveyed. A total of 89 of the 109 registered households participated in the study. Of the 27 cats and 43 dogs found residing in the communities, stool samples were collected from 14 cats and 31 dogs (total of 45 animals and examined microscopically for the presence of Amphimerus eggs. The prevalence of infection was 71.4% in cats and 38.7% in dogs, with similar rates of infection in all three communities. Significantly more cats were infected than dogs (p = 0.042.The data show a high rate of Amphimerus sp. infection in domestic cats and dogs residing in Chachi communities. It can be concluded that these animals act as definitive and reservoir hosts for this liver fluke and that amphimeriasis is a zoonotic disease. These findings provide important epidemiological data which will aid in the development and implementation of control strategies against the transmission of Amphimerus.

  15. EFEKTIFITAS DAYA HAMBAT BAKTERI Streptomyces sp TERHADAP Erwinia sp PENYEBAB PENYAKIT BUSUK REBAH PADA TANAMAN LIDAH BUAYA (Aloe barbadensis Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARMILA TASNIM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp was conducted from December 2010 - June 2011 at the Laboratoryof Microbiology, Biology Department, Math and Science Faculty, UdayanaUniversity Bukit Jimbaran-Bali. Implementation stages of the research consisted ofisolation and testing of the antibiotic activity Streptomyces sp to inhibit growthbacterial pathogens Erwinia sp as a cause of disease in plants fallen foul (Soft rot ofAloe barbadensis Mill.The results of this study have eight isolates of Streptomyces spwith macroscopic and microscopic characters are varied. Furthermore, all isolateswere obtained and then tested against antibiotic activity to inhibit growth the bacteriaErwinia sp. Test results obtained by Streptomyces sp that has the most effective ininhibiting the ability of the bacteria Erwinia sp isolates are Streptomyces sp2for (45%.

  16. Henneguya sp. (Cnidospora:Myxosporida) parasitic in the heart of the bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, T R; Sawyer, T K; MacLean, S A

    1977-10-01

    A myxosporidan parasite, Henneguya sp., was discovered in the bulbus and truncus arteriosus of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix. Infected fish were captured from the Atlantic Ocean near Montauk Point, Long Island, New York, Raritan Bay, New Jersey, and Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. Comparative features of mature spores showed that they were similar to those of Henneguya sebasta Moser and Love 1975, from the bulbus arteriosus of seven species of California rockfish, Sebastes. Studies on growth stages of the parasite from both host species are necessary before a definite identification of the bluefish parasite can be made.

  17. Beneficial Effects of Rhodotorula sp. C11 on Growth and Disease Resistance of Juvenile Japanese Spiky Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, ZhiPing; Sun, JianMing; Xu, Zhe

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary administration of the live yeast, Rhodotorula sp. C11, on growth and disease resistance against Vibrio splendidus infection in juvenile Japanese spiky sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Sea cucumbers were fed diets containing Rhodotorula sp. C11 at 0 (control), 10⁴, 10⁵, and 10⁶ CFU/g of feed for 45 d. There were three replicate tanks per dietary treatment. The specific growth rates were higher in all sea cucumbers treated with Rhodotorula sp. C11 than in the controls. Following a challenge with V. splendidus NB13, the cumulative prevalence and mortality of sea cucumbers fed diets supplemented with Rhodotorula sp. C11 were lower than in animals fed the basal diet. In sea cucumbers fed diets supplemented with Rhodotorula sp. C11 for 42 d, the only viable yeast found in the intestine was Rhodotorula sp. C11, which had counts of 1.58-1.98 × 10⁴CFU/g. No yeast was isolated from the intestine of animals fed the basal diet. For the colonization study, 20 sea cucumbers from each dietary treatment were removed to separate tanks and fed the control diet from day 16 to day 46. The viable yeast (Rhodotorula sp. C11) counts in the intestine decreased to 60-80 CFU/g by day 37. Moreover, as demonstrated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, Rhodotorula sp. C11 colonization of the intestine could be detected until day 46. The differences in culture and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis may be due to differences in the sensitivity of both methods. The present result showed that Rhodotorula sp. C11 was able to successfully colonize the intestine of juvenile Japanese spiky sea cucumbers by dietary supplementation, which improved its growth and disease resistance.

  18. Seasonal distribution of gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep in a semiarid region, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima de Souza

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal distribution and gastrointestinal nematode parasite load in crossbred Santa Inês tracer lambs, and to correlate the rainfall during the study period with occurrences of parasitic infections. Sixty-four male tracer lambs between the ages of four and eight months were used in the study. Two tracer lambs were inserted into the herd every 28 days to determine the pattern of infective larvae available in the environment. Variation in the fecal egg count (FEC of nematodes was observed at the study site, with many samples containing undetectable parasite loads during the dry season. The larvae identified in coprocultures wereHaemonchus sp., Trichostrongylus sp.,Cooperia sp., Strongyloides sp. andOesophagostomum sp. The nematodes recovered at necropsy were Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Cooperia punctata, C. pectinata, Trichuris sp.,Oesophagostomum sp. and Skrajabinema ovis. The total number of larvae and the total number of immature and adult forms recovered from the tracers showed seasonal distributions that significantly correlated with the amount of rainfall received that month (p value ≅ 0.000 in all cases . The species H. contortus was predominant in the herd and should be considered to be main pathogenic nematode species in these hosts under these conditions.

  19. Seasonal distribution of gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep in a semiarid region, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Maria de Fátima; Pimentel-Neto, Manoel; de Pinho, André Luís Santos; da Silva, Rízia Maria; Farias, Albeísa Cleyse Batista; Guimarães, Marcos Pezzi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal distribution and gastrointestinal nematode parasite load in crossbred Santa Inês tracer lambs, and to correlate the rainfall during the study period with occurrences of parasitic infections. Sixty-four male tracer lambs between the ages of four and eight months were used in the study. Two tracer lambs were inserted into the herd every 28 days to determine the pattern of infective larvae available in the environment. Variation in the fecal egg count (FEC) of nematodes was observed at the study site, with many samples containing undetectable parasite loads during the dry season. The larvae identified in coprocultures were Haemonchus sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Cooperia sp., Strongyloides sp. and Oesophagostomum sp. The nematodes recovered at necropsy were Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Cooperia punctata, C. pectinata, Trichuris sp., Oesophagostomum sp. and Skrajabinema ovis. The total number of larvae and the total number of immature and adult forms recovered from the tracers showed seasonal distributions that significantly correlated with the amount of rainfall received that month (p value ≅ 0.000 in all cases ). The species H. contortus was predominant in the herd and should be considered to be main pathogenic nematode species in these hosts under these conditions.

  20. Porocephalus species (Pentastomida infecting Boa constrictor (Boidae and Lachesis muta (Viperidae in northeastern Brazil

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    Miriam Camargo Guarnieri

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has a great diversity of snakes, but there are few published works concerning parasitism in these animals. The present paper examined pulmonary infection by pentastomids in large snakes from northeastern Brazil, including six specimens of Boa constrictor and two examples of Lachesis muta from the Serpentarium of the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE, Brazil, all of which were collected in the Atlantic Coastal Forest. One specimen of B. constrictor was infected by Porocephalus sp. (intensity of infection 5.0 and one specimen of L. muta was infected by P. stilesi (intensity of infection 15.0.

  1. Frequency of Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida sp and Gardnerella vaginalis in cervical-vaginal smears in four different decades

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    Sheila Jorge Adad

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Vaginitis is one of the principal motives that lead women to seek out an obstetrician or gynecologist. Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis are responsible for 90% of the cases of infectious vaginitis. OBJECTIVE: To verify the frequency of the three main causative agents of vaginitis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida sp and Gardnerella vaginalis, in four different decades (1960's, 1970's, 1980's and 1990's. DESIGN: Retrospective. PLACE: A tertiary referral center. PARTICIPANTS: Patients attended to as gynecology and obstetrics outpatients at the Faculdade de Medicina do Triângulo Mineiro during the years 1968, 1978, 1988, 1998, taken as samples of each decade. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Diagnoses of infection by Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida sp and Gardnerella vaginalis were gathered from 20,356 cervical-vaginal cytology tests on patients attended to as gynecology outpatients at Faculdade de Medicina do Triângulo Mineiro during the years 1968, 1978, 1988, 1998, representing the four decades. The results were grouped according to the age group of the patients: under 20, between 20 and 29, between 30 and 39, between 40 and 49, and 50 or over. Statistical analysis was done via the chi-squared (Mantel-Haentzel test with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: In 1968 infections by Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida sp were diagnosed in 10% and 0.5% of the cytology tests and in 1978, 5.1% and 17.3%, respectively (P < 0.0001. Infection by Gardnerella vaginalis could only be evaluated in the latter two decades. In 1988, 19.8% of the women had positive tests for Gardnerella vaginalis, which was the most frequent agent in that year, diminishing in the subsequent decade to 15.9% (P < 0.0001. Candidiasis was the most frequent infection in 1998, detected in 22.5% of the tests (P < 0.0001. In a general manner, all the infections were most frequent among younger patients, especially those aged under 20, in all decades, whereas infections were

  2. The first report of new species: Trichuris landak n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwaningsih, Endang

    2013-02-01

    To study nematode parasites morphology of Hystrix javanica (H. javanica), both through the feces and internal organs. Feces were observed by direct smear method, internal organs were observed after dissecting the host. Specimens for light microscopy examination were fixed with 70% warm alcohol, cleared and mounted in lactophenol for wet mounting. Specimens for SEM examination were postfixed in cacodylate buffer and glutaraldehyde, dehydrated through a graded series of alcohol and freeze dried. The specimens were attached to stubs with double cello-tape, coated with gold and observed with a JSM5310 LV electron microscope. Figures were made with the aid of a drawing tube attached to Olympus compound microscope, other figures were photographs of scanning electron microscope images. Measurements were given in micrometers as the mean followed by the range in parentheses, unless otherwise stated. The nematode species found in the intestine of H. javanica are Gireterakis girardi and a new species, Trihuris landak. The new species differs with previously reported species from Hystrix because of having stylet and short cervical alae. The pattern of bacillary band is closed to Trichuris trichiurus, the species that infect human, but differs because the surface of its vulva is not covered with densely spine. The species of nematodes found on H. javanica were Gireterakis girardi and a new species Trichuris landak n.sp. Those two species are newly recorded in Indonesia.

  3. Nanoscale transformation of sp2 to sp3 of graphite by slow highly charged ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, T.; Hida, A.; Koguchi, Y.; Miyamoto, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Takai, H.; Maeda, K.; Aoyagi, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Nanoscale transformation of electronic states by highly charged ion (HCI) impact on graphite surfaces is described. The high potential energy of slow HCI, which induces multiple emission of electrons from the surface, provides a strong modification of the electronic states of the local area upon graphite surfaces. The HCI impact and the subsequent surface treatment either by electron injection from a scanning tunneling microscopy tip or by He-Cd laser irradiation induce a localized transition from sp 2 to sp 3 hybridization in graphite, resulting in the formation of nanoscale diamond-like structures (nanodiamond) at the impact region. From Raman spectroscopic measurements on sp 2 related peaks, it is found that the HCI irradiation creates vacancy complexes in contrast to ions having a lower charge state, which generate single vacancies. It is of interest that a single impact of HCI creates one nanodiamond structure, suggesting potential applications of HCI in nanoscale material processing

  4. Detection of a Rickettsia Closely Related to Rickettsia aeschlimannii, “Rickettsia heilongjiangensis,” Rickettsia sp. Strain RpA4, and Ehrlichia muris in Ticks Collected in Russia and Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Shpynov, Stanislav; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Rudakov, Nikolay; Tankibaev, Marat; Tarasevich, Irina; Raoult, Didier

    2004-01-01

    Using PCR, we screened 411 ticks from four genera collected in Russia and Kazakhstan for the presence of rickettsiae and ehrlichiae. In Russia, we detected “Rickettsia heilongjiangensis,” Rickettsia sp. strain RpA4, and Ehrlichia muris. In Kazakhstan, we detected Rickettsia sp. strain RpA4 and a rickettsia closely related to Rickettsia aeschlimannii. These agents should be considered in a differential diagnosis of tick-borne infections in these areas.

  5. Burkholderia humisilvae sp. nov., Burkholderia solisilvae sp. nov. and Burkholderia rhizosphaerae sp. nov., isolated from forest soil and rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Chan; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2015-09-01

    Strains Y-12(T) and Y-47(T) were isolated from mountain forest soil and strain WR43(T) was isolated from rhizosphere soil, at Daejeon, Korea. The three strains grew at 10-55 °C (optimal growth at 28-30 °C), at pH 3.0-8.0 (optimal growth at pH 6.0) and in the presence of 0-4.0% (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally in the absence of added NaCl. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the three strains were found to belong to the genus Burkholderia, showing the closest phylogenetic similarity to Burkholderia diazotrophica JPY461(T) (97.2-97.7%); the similarity between the three sequences ranged from 98.3 to 98.7%. Additionally, the three strains formed a distinct group in phylogenetic trees based on the housekeeping genes recA and gyrB. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-8, the major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C17  : 0 cyclo and the DNA G+C content of the novel isolates was 61.6-64.4 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness among the three strains and the type strains of the closest species of the genus Burkholderia was less than 50%. On the basis of 16S rRNA, recA and gyrB gene sequence similarities, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, the three strains represent three novel species within the genus Burkholderia, for which the names Burkholderia humisilvae sp. nov. (type strain Y-12(T)= KACC 17601(T) = NBRC 109933(T) = NCAIM B 02543(T)), Burkholderia solisilvae sp. nov. (type strain Y-47(T) = KACC 17602(T)= NBRC 109934(T) = NCAIM B 02539(T)) and Burkholderia rhizosphaerae sp. nov. (type strain WR43(T) = KACC 17603(T) = NBRC 109935(T) = NCAIM B 02541(T)) are proposed.

  6. Control of Ectoparasitic Monogenean Infestation on GIFT Tilapia (Oreochromis sp. using Salt Addition

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    Yani Hadiroseyani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ectoparasitic monogenean infestation is one of fish diseases which may cause mass mortality, therefore controlling the parasites is one of the important factors to ensure the success of aquaculture activities. Salt addition is one of disease curative and controlling techniques which is cheap, easy and environmental friendly as well as effective to control ectoparasites in freshwater environment. The objectives of this study were to examine monogenean parasites species in GIFT (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia tilapia, their tolerance to salt concentration and the most effective salt concentration to control the parasites. Identification, intensity and prevalence of parasitic monogenean were carried out on the external parts (body surface, fins and gills of 31 fishes. Subsequently, two different experiments were carried out  to determine parasites and fish resistance on various salt concentration at a range of 0 - 24 g/l with an interval of 2 g/l. To confirm the results of previous experiment, parasites infected fish was immersed in salt water at various concentration based on previous experiments. Two genera of monogenean were identified in GIFT tilapia, i.e. Gyrodactylus sp. on body surface and fins, and Cichlidogyrus sp. on gills with the same prevalence (100%. The intensity of those parasites was different, namely 27.84 ind/fish for Gyrodactylus sp. and 6.06 ind/fish for Cichlidogyrus sp. The intensity of both parasites was found to be lower as salt concentration increase. Salt concentration of 24 g/l was the most effective concentration to reduce parasites infestation and could totally treat the infested fish within 6 days. Keyword : tilapia, Oreochromis, monogenea, parasite and salt     ABSTRAK Serangan monogenea ektoparasitik merupakan salah satu masalah penyakit ikan yang dapat menyebabkan kematian masal, sehingga pengendaliannya merupakan salah satu kunci keberhasilan dalam usaha budidaya. Garam merupakan agen penyembuh atau

  7. Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Schumann, Peter; Pukall, Rüdiger; Dicks, Leon M T

    2012-03-01

    Five strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from faeces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and a red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). The five isolates clustered inside the phylogenetic group of the genus Bifidobacterium but did not show high sequence similarities between the isolates and to known species in the genus by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sequence analyses of dnaJ1 and hsp60 also indicated their independent phylogenetic positions to each other in the Bifidobacterium cluster. DNA G+C contents of the species ranged from 57.3 to 66.3 mol%, which is within the values recorded for Bifidobacterium species. All isolates showed fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Based on the data provided, the five isolates represent five novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-1(T) = JCM 17295(T) = DSM 23975(T)), Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-5(T) = JCM 17296(T) = DSM 23973(T)), Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-1(T) = JCM 17297(T) = DSM 23967(T)), Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-3(T) = JCM 17298(T) = DSM 23968(T)) and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-4(T) = JCM 17299(T) = DSM 23969(T)) are proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Fermentation of Azolla sp. leaves and the utilization as a feed ingredient of tilapia Oreochromis sp.

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    Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to study the effect of incubation period on the nutritional content of Azolla sp. meal fermented by Trichoderma harzianum, and its optimum supplementation level in the feed of tilapia Oreochromis sp. In incubation period treatments, fermentation of Azolla meal was performed in two, six, eight, and ten days (AF2, AF6, AF8, AF10 using Trichoderma harzianum as the fermentor. The fish used in this study was tilapia Oreochromis sp. with an average weight of 10.59±1.29 g. The design of the feeding treatments was repeletting commercial feed with Azolla leaves by with different supplementation levels, i.e. 0% (A/control, 30% (B, 60% (C, and 90% (D. Faecal collection for digestibility measurement was conducted for 15 days and fish growth rate was observed for 40 days. Azolla meal fermented for two days (AF2 showed the best results among the other treatments with a crude fiber decrease of 37.19% and protein increase of 38.65%. The results of this study indicate that fermentation can increase the nutritional quality of Azolla meal and its most optimal supplementation level in the diet of tilapia is 30%.Keywords: crude fiber, Azolla sp., tilapiaABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama waktu fermentasi daun mata lele Azolla sp. menggunakan kapang Trichoderma harzianum serta dosis optimal dalam pakan ikan nila Oreochromis sp. Proses fermentasi tepung daun mata lele dilakukan selama dua, enam, delapan, dan sepuluh hari (AF2, AF6, AF8, AF10. Ikan uji pada penelitian ini menggunakan ikan nila Oreochromis sp. dengan bobot rata-rata 10,59±1,29 g yang ditebar sebanyak 6 ekor/akuarium berukuran 50×45×30 cm3. Sebagai pakan perlakuan yakni repeletting daun mata lele dengan pakan komersil pada tingkat suplementasi 0% (A/kontrol, 30% (B, 60% (C, dan 90% (D. Pemeliharaan ikan uji dan pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan feses ikan untuk uji ketercernaan selama 15 hari dan mengamati pertumbuhan

  9. Isolation of C11 Cyclopentenones from Two Didemnid Species, Lissoclinum sp. and Diplosoma sp.

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    Katsuhiro Ueda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of new C11 cyclopentenones 1-7 was isolated, together with four known metabolites 9/10, 12 and 13, from the extract of the didemnid ascidian Lissoclinum sp. The other didemnid ascidian Diplosoma sp. contained didemnenones 1, 2 and 5, and five known metabolites 8-12. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against three human cancer cell lines (HCT116, A431 and A549.

  10. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  11. Hepatozoon apri n. sp. (Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae from the Japanese wild boar Sus scrofa leucomystax (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla

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    Mizuki Yamamoto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatozoon apri n. sp. is described from Japanese wild boars Sus scrofa leucomystax in Japan. The gamonts in the peripheral blood leukocytes were 11.6 ± 1.4 × 6.7 ± 1.3 μm in size. The meronts in the muscle tissues were 35.0–47.5 μm in length and 26.5–30 μm in width. A high rate (53.0% of infection was found by nested PCR using muscle specimens from 181 wild boars captured in Tokushima, Japan. A phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed that H. apri n. sp. detected in wild boars is closely related to Hepatozoon spp. isolated from carnivores. This is the first description of a species belonging to the genus Hepatozoon detected in ungulates. Keywords: Sus scrofa leucomystax, Hepatozoonosis, Wild boar, Hepatozoon apri n. sp., 18S rRNA gene, Japan

  12. Rapid Assessment of the Toxicity of Fungal Compounds Using Luminescent Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67

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    Qijie Jian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Most tropical fruits after harvest are very perishable because of fungal infection. Since some pathogenic fungi can produce hazardous compounds such as mycotoxins, novel rapid and effective methods to assess those hazardous compounds are urgently needed. Herein we report that Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67, a luminescent bacterium, can be used to rapidly assess the toxicities of mycotoxins and cultures from mycotoxin-producing pathogens. A good correlation (R2 > 0.98 between concentrations of the mycotoxins (fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, patulin, and citrinin and the luminous intensity of V. qinghaiensis sp. Q67 was obtained. Furthermore, significant correlations (R2 > 0.96 between the amount of mycotoxin and the luminous intensity from the cultures of 10 major mycotoxin-producing pathogens were also observed. In addition, Fusarium proliferatum (half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 = 17.49% exhibited greater luminescence suppression than Fusarium semitectum (IC50 = 92.56% or Fusarium oxysporum (IC50 = 28.61%, which was in agreement with the existing higher levels of fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, and deoxynivalenol, which were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. These results suggest that V. qinghaiensis sp. Q67 is a promising alternative for the rapid evaluation of the toxicity of fungal mycotoxins.

  13. Role of surfactant protein A (SP-A)/lipid interactions for SP-A functions in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, C

    2001-01-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A), an oligomeric glycoprotein, is a member of a group of proteins named collectins that contain collagen-like and Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate recognition domains. SP-A interacts with a broad range of amphipathic lipids (glycerophospholipids, sphingophospholipids, glycosphingolipids, lipid A, and lipoglycans) that are present in surfactant or microbial membranes. This review summarizes SP-A/lipid interaction studies regarding the lipid system used (i.e., phospholipid vesicles, phospholipid monolayers, and lipids immobilized on silica or adsorbed on a solid support). The effect of calcium, ionic strength, and pH on the binding of SP-A to lipids and the subsequent lipid aggregation process is discussed. Current evidence suggests that hydrophobic-binding forces are involved in the peripherical association of SP-A to membranes. It is also proposed that fluid and liquid-ordered phase coexistence in surfactant membranes might favor partition of SP-A into those membranes. The binding of SP-A to surfactant membranes containing hydrophobic surfactant peptides makes possible the formation of a membrane reservoir in the alveolar fluid that is protected by SP-A against inactivation and improves the rate of surfactant film formation. In addition, the interaction of SP-A with membranes might enhance the affinity of SP-A for terminal carbohydrates of glycolipids or glycoproteins on the surface of invading microorganisms.

  14. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource.

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    Akanksha Srivastava

    Full Text Available An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732 were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus and five strains screened for anticancer potential using human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29 and human kidney adenocarcinoma (A498 cancer cell lines. Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 were the most potent as determined by examination of morphological features and by inhibition of growth by graded concentrations of crude extracts and thin-layer chromatography (TLC eluates. Cell cycle analysis and multiplex assays using cancer biomarkers also confirmed Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as cancer drug resources. Apoptotic studies in the cells of A498 (cancer and MCF-10A (normal human epithelial exposed to crude extracts and TLC fractions revealed no significant impact on MCF-10A cells emphasizing its importance in the development of anticancer drug. Identification of biomolecules from these extracts are in progress.

  15. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Tiwari, Ratnakar; Srivastava, Vikas; Singh, Tej Bali; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for anticancer potential using human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and human kidney adenocarcinoma (A498) cancer cell lines. Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 were the most potent as determined by examination of morphological features and by inhibition of growth by graded concentrations of crude extracts and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) eluates. Cell cycle analysis and multip