WorldWideScience

Sample records for caulking

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the exterior caulk of San Francisco Bay Area buildings, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterhaus, Susan; McKee, Lester J; Yee, Donald; Kass, Jamie M; Wong, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Extensive evidence of the adverse impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to wildlife, domestic animals, and humans has now been documented for over 40 years. Despite the ban on production and new use of PCBs in the United States in 1979, a number of fish consumption advisories remain in effect, and there remains considerable uncertainty regarding ongoing environmental sources and management alternatives. Using a blind sampling approach, 25 caulk samples were collected from the exterior of ten buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area and analyzed for PCBs using congener-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chlorine using portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). PCBs were detected in 88% of the caulk samples collected from the study area buildings, with 40% exceeding 50 ppm. Detectable PCB concentrations ranged from 1 to 220,000 ppm. These data are consistent with previous studies in other cities that have identified relatively high concentrations of PCBs in concrete and masonry buildings built between 1950 and 1980. Portable XRF was not a good predictor of the PCB content in caulk and the results indicate that portable XRF analysis may only be useful for identifying caulk that contains low concentrations of Cl (≤ 10,000 ppm) and by extension low or no PCBs. A geographic information system-based approach was used to estimate that 10,500 kg of PCBs remain in interior and exterior caulk in buildings located in the study area, which equates to an average of 4.7 kg PCBs per building. The presence of high concentrations in the exterior caulk of currently standing buildings suggests that building caulk may be an ongoing source of PCBs to the San Francisco Bay Area environment. Further studies to expand the currently small international dataset on PCBs in caulking materials in buildings of countries that produced or imported PCBs appear justified in the context of both human health and possible ongoing environmental release.

  2. Process Design of a Ball Joint, Considering Caulking and Pull-Out Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Su Sin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A ball joint for an automobile steering system is a pivot component which is connected to knuckle and lower control arm. The manufacturing process for its caulking comprises spinning and deforming. In this study, the process was simulated by flexible multibody dynamics. The caulking was evaluated qualitatively through numerical analysis and inspecting a plastically deformed shape. The structural responses of a ball joint, namely, pull-out strength and stiffness, are commonly investigated in the development process. Thus, following the caulking analysis, the structural responses were considered. In addition, three design variables related to the manufacturing process were defined, and the effects of design variables with respect to pull-out strength, caulking depth, and maximum stress were obtained by introducing the DOE using an L9 orthogonal array. Finally, the optimum design maximizing the pull-out strength was suggested. For the final design, the caulking quality and the pull-out strength were investigated by making six samples and their tests.

  3. PEMBUATAN SISTEM KONTROL MESIN CAULKING ROD GUIDE OTOMATIS MENGGUNAKAN PLC OMRON CPM1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahril Ardi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kenaikan tingkat produksi shock absorber perusahaan manufaktur membuat proses produksi harus berjalan dengan baik . Pipa proses pemotongan pada mendempul panduan mesin batang memiliki beberapa masalah yang harus diatasi . Untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut kemudian melakukan modifikasi mesin batang mendempul yang secara otomatis dapat mengurangi waktu siklus pada proses mendempul batang dari 4,5 detik per potong sehingga tingkat produksi memotong garis pipa dapat ditingkatkan . Sistem kontrol otomatis mendempul mesin batang panduan ini dirancang untuk menggunakan Programmable Logic Controller (PLC

  4. CATALOG OF MATERIALS AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS - VOLUME 1. INSULATION, WALLCOVERINGS, RESI- LIENT FLOOR COVERINGS, CARPET, ADHESIVES, SEALANTS AND CAULKS, AND PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses and presents data on constituents and emissions from products that have the potential to impact the indoor air environment. t is a tool to be used by researchers to help organize the study of materials as potential sources of indoor air emissions. ncluded are...

  5. Evaluation of resins for provisional restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, J O; Haveman, C W; Butzin, C

    1992-06-01

    An in vivo study of two resin materials (Barricaid and Caulk Temporary Crown and Bridge Resin) was done to determine the retention, post-operative sensitivity, and fabrication time of provisional restorations made from these materials. Following the placement of these resins in 67 intracoronal cavity preparations of 19 adult patients, a baseline evaluation was made which included a clinical examination and color slides. Twenty-four hours after the temporary restorations were placed, the patients completed evaluations of the post-operative sensitivity experienced. There was no difference in post-operative sensitivity between the teeth restored with Barricaid or Caulk Temporary Crown and Bridge Resin. At the insertion appointment of the final restoration, the interim restoration's success rate was determined. There was no difference between the retention of the two provisional materials. Fabrication time was significantly different with Barricaid restorations requiring less than one-half the fabrication time of the Caulk Temporary Crown and Bridge Resin material. PMID:1388950

  6. Estudio comparativo de tres sistemas adhesivos de grabado total, con diferentes solventes en condiciones de dentina húmeda y seca. (Estudio in Vitro)

    OpenAIRE

    Orellana Jaimes, Noé

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el comportamiento de los sistemas adhesivos de grabado total XP Bond (Caulk- Dentsply), Prime & Bond NT (Caulk-Dentsply) y Excite (Ivoclar/Vivadent), en las pruebas de monitoreo in Vitro de microtensión pre y post envejecido, micro-filtración, evaluación de la zona de interdifusiòn y simulación de interacción química de elementos básicos. Materiales y Métodos: Con el propósito de valorar el desempeño de los sistemas adhesivos de grabado tot...

  7. 49 CFR 192.275 - Cast iron pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cast iron pipe. 192.275 Section 192.275... Cast iron pipe. (a) Each caulked bell and spigot joint in cast iron pipe must be sealed with mechanical leak clamps. (b) Each mechanical joint in cast iron pipe must have a gasket made of a...

  8. 76 FR 45771 - Foreign-Trade Zone 26-Atlanta, GA; Application for Manufacturing Authority; Makita Corporation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ...; resins; caulk; glues and adhesives; vinyl cases; vinyl tubes; labels; plastic bags; water tanks; plastic grips; rubber knobs and handles; plastic cases; dust bag assemblies; tool belts; grinding wheels; tapping screws; lock lever connectors; cotters and cotter pins; lock and spring pins; cup washers;...

  9. Cytotoxicity of polyurethane dimethacrylate derived from palm oil polyol.

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Kasim, N.H.; AL-Sanabani, F.; Muhamad, S.; Gan, SN

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity effect of polyurethane dimethacrylate monomer derived from palm oil polyol (PUDMA) and 2 experimental composite resins based on these monomer PUDMA- based composites) compared to an experimental Bis-GMA/TEGDMA-based composite and EsthetX flowable composite (Dentsply, Caulk, USA). Methods: The experimental composite resins were prepared by mixing 0.25 and 0.75 by weight camphorquinone and ethyl (4-dimethyl amino) benzoate wit...

  10. Recording dowel pin position with plastic logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, H W; Draheim, R N

    1986-01-01

    Six readily available plastic materials were evaluated for use as a log for locating the ends of die dowel pins. Seven criteria were divided into two main categories of adherence qualities of the material and useability. Cost was the third category evaluated and compared. Color and availability were also considered. Forty-two sophomore dental students accomplished 84 evaluations. Plasticine and Weatherstrip Caulking Cord were found to meet all criteria best. PMID:3511239

  11. The effect of various polishing systems on the surface roughness of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Atabek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of three finishing and polishing systems on the surface roughness of nano-manufactured composite resins. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Nano-ceramic Ceram-X (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany, nano-filled Premise (Kerr Corporation, Orange, NJ, USA and nano-filled Clearfil Majestic (Kuraray Medical Inc., Tokyo, Japan composite resins were tested. Forty samples of each material were cured under matrix strips. The samples were then randomly assigned into four test groups: 1 unpolished; 2 polished with burs out of resin reinforced by zircon-rich glass fiber (Stainbuster, Abrasive Technology, Inc., Lewis Center, OH, USA; 3 polished with aluminum oxide impregnated polymer points (Enhance Finishing System, Dentsply Caulk, Milford, DE, USA followed by diamond impregnated micro-polishing points (PoGo, Dentsply Caulk; and 4 polished with aluminum oxide disks (Sof-Lex, Dentsply Caulk. The sample surface roughness values (Ra were determined using a profilometer, and the surfaces were observed under a scanning electron microscope. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in surface roughness were detected among the finishing and polishing systems (p>0.05. However, all finishing and polishing techniques created statistically rougher surfaces than the control group (p<0.05. The mean Ra values of the finishing and polishing systems were ranked as follows: Mylar strip < Enhance Finishing System+PoGo < Stainbuster < Sof-Lex. These findings were confirmed by scanning electron microscope photomicrographs. CONCLUSION: All polishing systems produced clinically acceptable surface roughness on the tested composite materials. The smoothest surfaces were achieved using the nano-ceramic composites with the Enhance Finishing System and PoGo.

  12. DNA Damage, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Apoptosis Induction Caused by Lead in Human Leukemia Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yedjou, Clement G.; Tchounwou, Hervey M.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the industrial use of lead has been significantly reduced from paints and ceramic products, caulking, and pipe solder. Despite this progress, lead exposure continues to be a significant public health concern. The main goal of this research was to determine the in vitro mechanisms of lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] to induce DNA damage, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest in human leukemia (HL-60) cells. To reach our goal, HL-60 cells were treated with different concentrations of Pb(NO3)...

  13. Thermionic plasma injection for the Lockheed Martin T4 Compact Fusion Reactor experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Jonathon

    2015-11-01

    Lockheed Martin's Compact Fusion Reactor (CFR) concept relies on diamagnetic confinement in a magnetically encapsulated linear ring cusp geometry. Plasma injection into cusp field configurations requires careful deliberation. Previous work has shown that axial injection via a plasma gun is capable of achieving high-beta conditions in cusp configurations. We present a pulsed, high power thermionic plasma source and the associated magnetic field topology for plasma injection into the caulked-cusp magnetic field. The resulting plasma fueling and cross-field diffusion is discussed.

  14. Primjena ljepljenih (»Maryland«) mostova

    OpenAIRE

    Žgombić, Ante; Braut, Zvonimir; Kraljević, Krešimir; Vukovojac, Stanko

    1988-01-01

    U 50 pacijenata primijenjena je tehnika jetkanja za retenciju mostova. Korištena je slitina Rexillium III (Jenevie Industries, Wallingford Co) i vezivo Comspan (L. D. Caulk Co., M ilfo rd Del.). Terapijski rezultati adhezivnih (jetkanih) mostova ovise o različitim faktorima: pažljive i pravilne indikacije, točnog plana rada, minimalne preparacije zuba nosača, odgovarajuće metode retencije metalnog dijela nadomjestka te vrste veziva i dentalne slitine. Klinička primjena mostova za lijepljenje...

  15. 体育%Sport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    美国“走钢索的人”百尺高空徒手挑战极限 Walking on "the Mexican Caulk Gun" 近日,在美国加州死亡谷国家公园,探险爱好者Andy Lewis在没有任何安全装备的情况下,赤脚走过一条离地面约百尺高、长达45英尺的松线式索道。

  16. Bronchoalveolar casting using formalin-fixed canine lungs and a low viscosity silicone rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettum, J A

    1993-06-01

    A method for creating tough, flexible, bronchoalveolar casts from formalin-fixed canine lung is described. A lung was washed using simple methods and fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin. While still wet with formalin, an intact lobe was injected with silicone sealant, Silastic 734 RTV (Room Temperature Vulcanizing), using a caulk gun. Following digestion with protease and corrosion with potassium hydroxide, a bronchoalveolar cast was recovered giving detail as shown using scanning electron microscopy or conveniently seen by stereo light microscopy. This method should be useful for micro-anatomy studies of normal and diseased lungs. PMID:8393308

  17. PCB remediation in schools: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathleen W; Minegishi, Taeko; Cummiskey, Cynthia Campisano; Fragala, Matt A; Hartman, Ross; MacIntosh, David L

    2016-02-01

    Growing awareness of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in legacy caulk and other construction materials of schools has created a need for information on best practices to control human exposures and comply with applicable regulations. A concise review of approaches and techniques for management of building-related PCBs is the focus of this paper. Engineering and administrative controls that block pathways of PCB transport, dilute concentrations of PCBs in indoor air or other exposure media, or establish uses of building space that mitigate exposure can be effective initial responses to identification of PCBs in a building. Mitigation measures also provide time for school officials to plan a longer-term remediation strategy and to secure the necessary resources. These longer-term strategies typically involve removal of caulk or other primary sources of PCBs as well as nearby masonry or other materials contaminated with PCBs by the primary sources. The costs of managing PCB-containing building materials from assessment through ultimate disposal can be substantial. Optimizing the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of remediation programs requires aligning a thorough understanding of sources and exposure pathways with the most appropriate mitigation and abatement methods. PMID:25994266

  18. STS-114 Flight Day 5 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Highlights of Day 5 of the STS-114 Return to Flight mission (Commander Eileen Collins, Pilot James Kelly, Mission Specialists Soichi Noguchi, Stephen Robinson, Andrew Thomas, Wendy Lawrence, and Charles Camarda) include video coverage of an extravehiclular activity (EVA) by Noguchi and Robinson. The other crew members of Discovery are seen on the flight deck and mid-deck helping the astronauts to suit-up. The objectives of the EVA are to test repair techniques on sample tiles in the shuttle's payload bay, to repair electrical equipment for a gyroscope on the International Space Station (ISS), and to install a replacement GPS antenna on the ISS. Noguchi and Robinson use a caulk gun and a putty knife to repair the sample tiles. The video contains several Earth views, including one of Baja California.

  19. Measurement of PCB emissions from building surfaces using a novel portable emission test cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Helle Vibeke;

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in building materials like caulks and paints from 1930 e1970s and in some cases that caused elevated PCB concentrations in the indoor air at levels considered harmful to occupant health. PCBs are semivolatile organic compounds and capable of spreading from...... the original source to adjacent materials, indoor air and via adsorption from the air to indoor surfaces, causing secondary contaminations. Remediation of buildings with unsatisfactory indoor air concentrations is a complex and difficult task due to the secondary contamination of building materials...... and there is a need to prioritise remediation measures on different materials. An inexpensive and portable emission test cell was developed to resemble indoor conditions in relation to the area specific ventilation rate. Emissions were measured using the test cell in the laboratory on freshly made PCB paint. Further...

  20. Measurement of PCB emissions from building surfaces using a novel portable emission test cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Helle Vibeke;

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in building materials like caulks and paints from 1930 e1970s and in some cases that caused elevated PCB concentrations in the indoor air at levels considered harmful to occupant health. PCBs are semivolatile organic compounds and capable of spreading from...... and there is a need to prioritise remediation measures on different materials. An inexpensive and portable emission test cell was developed to resemble indoor conditions in relation to the area specific ventilation rate. Emissions were measured using the test cell in the laboratory on freshly made PCB paint. Further......, the chamber was used for determining emissions from PCB-containing building materials in the field as well as remediated walls. The measurements showed that sorption of PCBs to chamber walls was insignificant after 2-4 days of exposure to the source. Over a period of two weeks emission rates did not change...

  1. Passive solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  2. Polymer materials and component evaluation in acidic-radiation environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celina, M.; Gillen, K. T.; Malone, G. M.; Clough, R. L.; Nelson, W. H.

    2001-07-01

    Polymeric materials used for cable/wire insulation, electrical connectors, O-rings, seals, and in critical components such as motors, level switches and resistive thermo-devices were evaluated under accelerated degradation conditions in combined radiation-oxidative elevated-temperature acidic-vapor (nitric/oxalic) environments relevant to conditions in isotope processing facilities. Experiments included the assessment of individual materials such as PEEK, polyimides, polyolefin based cable insulation, EPDM rubbers, various epoxy systems, commercial caulking materials as well as some functional testing of components. We discuss how to conduct laboratory experiments to simulate such complex hostile environments, describe some degradation effects encountered, and evaluate the impact on appropriate material and component selection.

  3. 掺加粉煤灰和矿粉对嵌缝加固胶泥性能的试验研究%Experimental research on admixture of fly ash and mineral powder on the properties of reinforced cement sealing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡向阳; 何忠茂; 何廷树

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the fly ash and mineral powder on the properties of cement sealing,Experimental research on different age, different content of fly ash and mineral powder to cement caulking compressive strength.And use the SEM ,mercury injection apparatus to analyze its microcosmic mechanism.Experiment shows that the fly ash and mineral powder after sealing isometric substitute cement in the cement caulking, the flexural compressive strength with the increase of the dosage of admixture showed a trend of decline.Double mixing fly ash mineral powder group of microscopic test results show that the most probable aperture smaller than single mixing fly ash mineral group,and double mixing group later hydration products is rich,is conducive to the growth of the late strength.%为了研究粉煤灰、矿粉对嵌缝胶泥性能的影响,对粉煤灰、矿粉不同龄期不同掺量的嵌缝胶泥进行抗折、抗压强度试验。并使用SEM、压汞仪分析其微观机理。试验表明:粉煤灰、矿粉在等量取代嵌缝胶泥中的水泥之后,其抗折抗压强度随掺合料掺量的增加呈现下降趋势。双掺粉煤灰矿粉组的微观测试结果显示其最可几孔径小于单掺粉煤灰矿粉组,且双掺组后期的水化产物丰富,有利于后期强度的增长。

  4. Influence of dentin contamination by temporary cements on the bond strength of adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimeri Hebling

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the bond strength of adhesive systems to dentin contaminated by temporary cements with or without eugenol. Method: Flat dentin surfaces were obtained from twenty-four human third molars. With exception of the control group (n=8, the surfaces were covered with Interim Restorative Material (Caulk Dentsplay, Milford, DE, USA or Cavit (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA and kept in an oven at 37oC for seven days. After removing the cements, the adhesive systems Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA or Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan were applied in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommendations, and then the crowns were constructed in of resin composite. The teeth were sectioned into specimens with a cross-sectional bond area of 0.81mm2, which were sub mitted to microtensile testing in a mechanical test machine at an actuator speed of 0.5mm/min. The data were analyzed by t- and ANOVA tests, complemented by Tukey tests (α=0.05. Results: For Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA, bond strength did not differ statistically (p>0.05 for all the experimental conditions. For Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan, only the Interim Restorative Material (Caulk Dentsplay, Milford, DE, USA Group showed significantly lower bond strength (30.1±13.8 MPa in comparison with the other groups; control (38.9±13.5 MPa and Cavit (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA (42.1±11.0 MPa, which showed no significant difference between them.Conclusion: It was concluded that the previous covering of dentin with temporary cement containing eugenol had a deleterious effect on the adhesive performance of the self-etching system only.

  5. The effect of one-step and multi-step polishing systems on surface texture of two different resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashetty Kusum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the surface roughness of two direct resin composites polished with one-step and multi-step polishing systems. Materials and Methods: The resin composites examined in this study include minifill-hybrid composite Esthet-X (DENTSPLY/Caulk, Milford, DE, USA and packable composite Solitaire II (Heraeus Kulzer, Inc., Southbend. A total of 42 discs (10 3 2 mm, 21 specimens of each restorative material were fabricated. Seven specimens per composite group received no polishing treatment and served as control. For each composite group, the specimens were randomly divided into two polishing systems: One-step PoGo (Dentsply/Caulk, Milford, DE, USA and multi-step Super Snap (Shofu, Inc. Kyoto, Japan. Polishing systems were applied according to the manufacturer′s instructions after being ground wet with 1200 grit silicon carbide paper. The surface roughness values were determined using a profilometer. Results: Data was subjected to student′s t test at a significance level of 0.05. The smoothest surfaces were achieved under Mylar strips in both the composite groups. Mean Ra values ranged from 0.09 to 0.3 mm for Esthet-X group and from 0.18 to 0.3 mm for Solitaire II with different polishing systems. The ranking of the order of surface roughness on the basis of the type of composite was as follows: Esthet-X , Solitaire II for PoGo system and Esthet-X 5 Solitaire II for Super Snap; and the ranking for the polishing system was: PoGo , Super Snap (P # 0.05. Conclusion: The one-step polishing system (PoGo produced better surface quality in terms of roughness than the multi-step system (Super Snap for minifill-hybrid composite (Esthet-X, and it was equivalent to Super Snap for packable composites (Solitaire II. Minifill-hybrid presented a better surface finish than Solitaire II when PoGo polishing system was used. No significant difference was present in surface roughness between both

  6. Energy use test facility: CAC-DOE solar air heater test report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    The solar air heater testing demonstrated an attractive application for residential space heating, especially appealing to the do-it-yourself market. Simple improvements in construction, such as caulking of the glazing, could increase collector performance at little cost. The operating cost of the fan was insignificant, being less than $0.05/week. Tested in its as-shipped configuration at 96.1 cfm (3 cfm/ft (2)), the useful energy delivered averaged 20,000 Btu/day for six days in December. The electrical consumption of the fan was approximately 1 kWh. Doubling the flowrate did not increase collector performance appreciably. A TRNSYS computer simulation model for this solar air heater design was validated by comparing the measured test data on Jaunary 4, 1981 with calculated values. TRNSYS predicted that measured collector outlet temperatures within +- 1.20F and the energy delivered within +- 3%. The excellent agreement was obtained by adjusting the collector loss coefficient to an unrealistically low value; therefore, a parametric study is recommended to determine the model sensitivity to varying different parameters. A first-order collector efficiency curve was derived from the TRNSYS simulations which compared well with the curve defined by the clear-day measured data.

  7. Preparation and using phantom lesions to practice fine needle aspiration biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidham, Vinod B; Varsegi, George M; D'Amore, Krista; Shidham, Anjani

    2009-01-01

    Currently, health workers including residents and fellows do not have a suitable phantom model to practice the fine- needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) procedure. In the past, we standardized a model consisting of latex glove containing fresh cattle liver for practicing FNAB. However, this model is difficult to organize and prepare on short notice, with the procurement of fresh cattle liver being the most challenging aspect. Handling of liver with contamination-related problems is also a significant draw back. In addition, the glove material leaks after a few needle passes, with resulting mess. We have established a novel simple method of embedding a small piece of sausage or banana in a commercially available silicone rubber caulk. This model allows the retention of vacuum seal and aspiration of material from the embedded specimen, resembling an actual FNAB procedure on clinical mass lesions. The aspirated material in the needle hub can be processed similar to the specimens procured during an actual FNAB procedure, facilitating additional proficiency in smear preparation and staining. PMID:19893483

  8. Project report: Tritiated oil repackaging highlighting the ISMS process. Historical radioactive and mixed waste disposal request validation and waste disposal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schriner, J.A. [Automated Solutions of Albuquerque, Inc., NM (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) was established to define a framework for the essential functions of managing work safely. There are five Safety Management Functions in the model of the ISMS process: (1) work planning, (2) hazards analysis, (3) hazards control, (4) work performance, and (5) feedback and improve. Recent activities at the Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility underscored the importance and effectiveness of integrating the ISMS process to safely manage high-hazard work with a minimum of personnel in a timely and efficient manner. This report describes how project personnel followed the framework of the ISMS process to successfully repackage tritium-contaminated oils. The main objective was to open the boxes without allowing the gaseous tritium oxide, which had built up inside the boxes, to release into the sorting room. The boxes would be vented out the building stack until tritium concentration levels were acceptable. The carboys would be repackaged into 30-gallon drums and caulked shut. Sealing the drums would decrease the tritium off-gassing into the RMWMF.

  9. Dioxin-like PCB in indoor air contaminated with different sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzow, B.G.J.; Mohr, S.; Ostendorp, G. [Landesamt fuer Gesundheit und Arbeitssicherheit des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek (Germany); Kerst, M.; Koerner, W. [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz, Augsburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been used in public building constructions for various purposes in the 1960s and 1970s, mainly as an additive to concrete, caulking, grout, paints, as a major constitutent of permanent elastic Thiokol rubber sealants and flame retardant coatings of acoustic ceiling tiles. Offgazing of semivolatile PCB from building materials can nowadays still result in considerable house-dust contamination and in indoor air concentrations exceeding 10,000 ng/m{sup 3}. In Germany, PCB levels in indoor air in non-occupational settings have been regulated with a tolerable total PCB concentration of 300 ng /m{sup 3} and an intervention level of 3000 ng/m{sup 3}. Lower re-entry criteria have been proposed by Michaud et al. Technical mixtures of PCB contain dioxin-like non- and mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners and are contaminated with trace amounts of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and mainly dibenzofurans (PCDF), sharing overlapping toxic effects and physicochemical properties. We report here on levels of dioxinlike PCB measured in buildings with various PCB sources and correlations among PCDD/PCDF and dioxin-like PCB and di-ortho PCB.

  10. Composite rebonding to stainless steel metal using different bonding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Shalan, T A; Till, M J; Feigal, R J

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the in vitro bond strengths of composite rebonded to stainless steel crown metal (SS) using five different bonding agents after composite to SS bond failure had been produced. The adhesive systems were applied to the failed bonds following the manufacturers' instructions and, as a control, composite was bonded to SS without using a bonding agent. Each group was then divided into two subgroups: mechanically prepared (MP), in which the SS was roughened by a diamond bur, and unprepared (NMP), in which no modification of the SS was done. ESPE VISIO-GEM composite was placed in a plastic mold and light cured to the treated SS. Samples were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 72 hr, thermocycled for 500 cycles between 5 and 55 degrees C, and mounted in an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Caulk's Adhesive System provided significantly higher rebond strength (228.97 +/- 106.9 kg/cm2) than the other materials, and mechanical surface preparation offered no significant advantages.

  11. Development of electrical cable penetration for secondary containment vessel of BWR type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The penetration holes in the walls and floors of the secondary containment vessel of the nuclear power plants must be air-tight, shielded against the radiation, and fire-resistant. At present, the penetration holes are air-tightened with iron plates and sealing material after the cables are laid. However, installation of a number of cables and its sealing work now pose a serious problem in nuclear power plant construction in relation to the installation of reactor system components. The authors have recently developed a method for electric wall penetration in an attempt to solve this problem. This method is provided with prefabricated cable portions for wall penetration, reducing field work, saving labor in wiring work through use of multicore cables, and increasing the reliability of the sealing and caulking work. This wall penetration consists of an iron sleeves to be embedded into the wall, a header-plate, and an assembly of modules in which a specified number of insulated conductors are set up, and furthermore termination boxes are installed on both ends of the penetration holes. This paper deals with the design standard and construction of the wall penetration and the results of tests which were performed under various environmental conditions, which has shown excellent properties, such as sealing quality and electric characteristics, of the wall penetration. (author)

  12. The effect of spiked boots on logger safety, productivity and workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, P; Parker, R

    1994-04-01

    Analysis of 1657 lost-time logging accidents in the New Zealand logging industry (1985-1991) indicates that 17.5% were as a result of slips, trips and falls and a total of 2870 days were lost. Most (56%) of these slipping, tripping and falling accidents occurred in the felling and delimbing phase of the logging operation, where 37% of the workforce are employed. In an attempt to reduce the number of slipping injuries to loggers employed in felling and delimbing, a study of the effectiveness of spike-soled (caulk) boots was undertaken. Four loggers were intensively observed at work, by continuous time-study methods, while wearing their conventional rubber-soled boots and then spike-soled boots. The number of slips, work methods used, physiological workload and productivity were compared for loggers wearing the two footwear types. Results indicated that spike-soled boots were associated with a significant reduction in the frequency of slips and had no adverse effect on work methods, physiological workload or productivity. Spike-soled boots are now being promoted for use by loggers in New Zealand as a simple method to reduce slipping, tripping and falling accidents. PMID:15676957

  13. Complexation-Coprecipitation Synthesis and Characterization of Neodymium and Antimony Doped SnO2 Conductive Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Nd and Sb doped SnO2 conductive nanoparticles were prepared by the complexation-coprecipitation method with Sn, Sb2O3 and Nd2O3 as the raw materials. Thermal behavior, crystal phase, and structure of the prepared conductive nanoparticles were characterized by TG/DSC/DTG, FTIR, XRD and TEM techniques, respectively. The resistivity of the prepared conductive nanoparticles was 0.12 Ω·cm. TG/DSC/DTG curves show that the precursors lose weight completely before 750 ℃. FTIR spectrum shows that the vibration peaks are wide peaks in 731~617 cm-1, and the Nd and Sb doped SnO2 conductive nanoparticles have intense absorption in 4000~2000 cm-1. Nd and Sb doped SnO2 have a structure of tetragonal rutile, and complex doping is achieved well by complexation-coprecipitation method and is recognized as replacement doping or caulking doping. TME shows that the particles are weakly agglomerated, and the size of the particles calcined at 1000 ℃ ranges about 10 nm to 30 nm.

  14. Mechanical Properties of Surface-Charged Poly(Methyl Methacrylate as Denture Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang E. Park

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the mechanical properties of a new surface-modified denture resin for its suitability as denture base material. This experimental resin is made by copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MA to poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA to produce a negative charge. Four experimental groups consisted of Orthodontic Dental Resin (DENTSPLY Caulk as a control and three groups of modified PMMA (mPMMA produced at differing ratios of methacrylic acid (5 : 95, 10 : 90, and 20 : 80 MA : MMA. A 3-point flexural test using the Instron Universal Testing Machine (Instron Corp. measured force-deflection curves and a complete stress versus strain history to calculate the transverse strength, transverse deflection, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity. Analysis of Variance and Scheffe Post-test were performed on the data. Resins with increased methacrylic acid content exhibited lower strength values for the measured physical properties. The most significant decrease occurred as the methacrylic acid content was increased to 20% mPMMA. No significant differences at P<.05 were found in all parameters tested between the Control and 5% mPMMA.

  15. Air quality during demolition and recovery activities in post-Katrina New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikrishna, Raghunathan; Lee, Han-Woong; Mbuligwe, Stephen; Valsaraj, K T; Pardue, John H

    2010-07-01

    Air samples were collected during demolition and cleanup operations in the Lakeview district of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, in late 2005 during the period immediately after Hurricane Katrina. Three different high-volume air samples were collected around waste collection areas that were created to temporarily hold the debris from the cleanup of residential properties in the area. Particulate concentrations were elevated and included crystalline fibers associated with asbestos. Metal concentrations on particulate matter resembled those measured in sediments deposited by floodwaters with the exception of Ba, which was elevated at all three locations. The highest organic contaminant concentration measured on particulates was the pesticide Ziram (Zinc, bis[diethylcarbamodithioato-S,S']-, [T-4]-) at 2,200 microg/g of particulate matter during sampling period 2. Ziram is used in latex paint, adhesives, caulking, and wallboard as a preservative. Fungal isolates developed from particulate air samples included species associated with disease including Aspergillus and Penicillium species. These data represent the most comprehensive assessment of demolition activities during the period immediately after Hurricane Katrina.

  16. Analysis on the Covering Technique of Medium and Large Coach Outer Skin%大中型客车外蒙皮覆盖技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟

    2013-01-01

    国内大客车的外蒙皮一般采用玻璃钢或冲压件,蒙皮之间的接缝都是采用填充玻璃钢树脂或刮腻子来解决。这种填缝结构容易开裂、漏水,而且在生产过程中粉尘污染比较大。国外的客车普遍都采用冲压件蒙皮,接缝处采用填缝胶来处理,能很好地避免这些问题。%The outer skin of large coaches is domestically made of fiberglass or stamping parts, the seam between outer skins is filled with fiberglass or putty powder. This structure is easy to crack and leaking,and the dust pollution in the production process is relatively remarkable. The coach outer skin abroad is widely made of stamping parts and the seam is filled with caulking glue, this structure can be very helpful to avoid above problems.

  17. An investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During this study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures -- caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors -- have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality. 87 tabs.

  18. Indoor air quality issues related to the acquisition of conservation in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M.C.; Hadley, D.L.; Marseille, T.J.

    1990-09-01

    The quality of indoor air in commercial buildings is dependent on the complex interaction between sources of indoor pollutants, environmental factors within buildings such as temperature and humidity, the removal of air pollutants by air-cleaning devices, and the removal and dilution of pollutants from outside air. To the extent that energy conservation measures (ECMs) may affect a number of these factors, the relationship between ECMs and indoor air quality is difficult to predict. Energy conservation measures may affect pollutant levels in other ways. Conservation measures, such as caulking and insulation, may introduce sources of indoor pollutants. Measures that reduce mechanical ventilation may allow pollutants to build up inside structures. Finally, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may provide surface areas for the growth of biogenic agents, or may encourage the dissemination of pollutants throughout a building. Information about indoor air quality and ventilation in both new and existing commercial buildings is summarized in this report. Sick building syndrome and specific pollutants are discussed, as are broader issues such as ventilation, general mitigation techniques, and the interaction between energy conservation activities and indoor air quality. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this review to aid the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in its assessment of potential environmental effects resulting from conservation activities in commercial buildings. 76 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. Air-Leakage Control Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, Jim; Washington State Energy Office; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-05-01

    This manual is for builders and designers who are interested in building energy-efficient homes. The purpose of the manual is to provide the how and why'' of controlling air leakage by means of a system called the Simple Caulk and Seal'' (SIMPLE{center dot}CS) system. This manual provides an overview of the purpose and contents of the manual; It discusses the forces that affect air leakage in homes and the benefits of controlling air leakage. Also discussed are two earlier approaches for controlling air leakage and the problems with these approaches. It describes the SIMPLE-{center dot}CS system. It outlines the standard components of the building envelope that require sealing and provides guidelines for sealing them. It outlines a step-by-step procedure for analyzing and planning the sealing effort. The procedure includes (1) identifying areas to be sealed, (2) determining the most effective and convenient stage of construction in which to do the sealing, and (3) designating the appropriate crew member or trade to be responsible for the sealing.

  20. Air-leakage control manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, J. [Washington State Energy Office, Olympia, WA (United States)

    1991-05-01

    This manual is for builders and designers who are interested in building energy-efficient homes. The purpose of the manual is to provide the ``how and why`` of controlling air leakage by means of a system called the ``Simple Caulk and Seal`` (SIMPLE{center_dot}CS) system. This manual provides an overview of the purpose and contents of the manual; It discusses the forces that affect air leakage in homes and the benefits of controlling air leakage. Also discussed are two earlier approaches for controlling air leakage and the problems with these approaches. It describes the SIMPLE-{center_dot}CS system. It outlines the standard components of the building envelope that require sealing and provides guidelines for sealing them. It outlines a step-by-step procedure for analyzing and planning the sealing effort. The procedure includes (1) identifying areas to be sealed, (2) determining the most effective and convenient stage of construction in which to do the sealing, and (3) designating the appropriate crew member or trade to be responsible for the sealing.

  1. Catchment science on a shoestring -- Luddites, labor, and a little high-tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, J. B.; Denner, J. C.; Clark, S. F.; Chalmers, A.; Smith, T. E.; Sebestyen, S. D.; McGlynn, B.; Hjerdt, K. N.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2004-05-01

    At Sleepers River Research Watershed in northeastern Vermont, the USGS has operated a long-term global change hydrology site with a limited equipment budget for more than 12 years. Most of the research takes place at a remote 41-ha catchment without A/C power, 15-minutes walk from the nearest road. The overall approach of the project is the combined use of hydrologic, chemical, and isotopic measurements to understand hydrologic flow paths and biogeochemical evolution of waters. Measurements and water samples are taken at various nodes in the system. Some of our cost-effective ways to conduct these measurements include: (1) a horse to pull a drill rig for installing wells in the catchment; (2) small stream V-notch weirs fashioned from plywood and plexiglas (12 years and going strong); (3) a knocking pole penetrometer to determine soil depths and infer soil properties; (4) solar panels to charge batteries; (5) frost depth measurements using methylene blue solution in flexible tubing suspended within PVC housing (6) two versions of snowmelt lysimeters constructed of PVC pipe and plexiglas (both silicone caulk and duct tape were used on the latter); (7) arrays of washing machine peepers, which are small inexpensive on/off float sensors mounted at land surface to determine surface saturation (recorded with a datalogger). These creative low-cost solutions to "getting the job done" have helped to keep this long-term site operating during budget shortfalls.

  2. Effect of frequency and amplitude of vibration and role of a surfactant on void formation in models poured from polyvinyl siloxane impressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kulashekar Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : To determine whether the frequency and amplitude of vibration and the use of surfactant has any effect on the formation of voids on the cast surface, poured from a polyvinyl siloxane impression material, using a mechanical model vibrator. Materials and Methods : A total of 100 impressions of a master die were made using Reprosil, Type 1, Medium Viscosity, Regular body, and Dentsply Caulk. The test group was subdivided into a surfactant and non-surfactant group, 50 impressions each. The impressions were poured in a dental stone with a mechanical model vibrator that was set at a vibration frequency of 3000 cycles / minute (low and 6000 cycles / minute (high with the help of a knob. The resultant casts were examined with a Stereomicroscope (LABOMED CZM4 under x10 magnifications. Results : For the low and high frequencies, when surfactant and non-surfactant groups were compared, for all the amplitudes and for both the material groups, the surfactant groups resulted in fewer void formations and showed very high statistical significance (P-value = 0.001. Conclusions : The lowest mean voids were obtained for high frequency surfactant groups. Reprosil: High frequency amplitude 2 being the most prominent, produced the least mean voids (mean = 23.2000, P = 0.001, very highly significant. In comparison, the surfactant groups produced the least voids for both frequencies.

  3. Polymerization shrinkage evaluation of three packable composite resins using a gas pycnometer Avaliação da contração de polimerização de três resinas compactáveis, medida por picnômetro a gás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Amore

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern restorative dentistry has been playing an outstanding role lately since composite resins, allied to adhesive systems, have been widely applied on anterior and posterior teeth restorations. The evolution of composite resins has mostly been verified due to the improvement of their aesthetic behavior and the increase in their compressive and abrasive strengths. In spite of these developments, the polymerization shrinkage inherent to the material has been a major deficiency that, so far, has been impossible to avoid. Using a gas pycnometry, this research investigated the polymerization shrinkage of three packable composite resins: Filtek P60 (3M, Prodigy Condensable (Kerr, and SureFil (Dentsply/Caulk, varying the distance from the light source to the surface of the resins (2 mm or 10 mm. The pycnometer Accupyc 1330 (Micromeritics, USA precisely records helium displacement, allowing fast and reliable measurements of the volume of composite resin immediately before and after polymerization, without interference of temperature or humidity. Results were not found to be statistically different for the three tested resins, either for 2 mm or 10 mm-distance from the light source to the composite surface.A Odontologia Restauradora moderna tem se destacado nos últimos anos e as resinas compostas, aliadas aos sistemas adesivos, têm sido muito empregadas para restaurações de dentes anteriores e posteriores. A evolução das resinas compostas tem sido constatada na melhoria do seu comportamento estético e no aumento da sua resistência à compressão e à abrasão. Apesar dos avanços mencionados, a contração de polimerização, inerente a esse material, continua sendo uma grande deficiência e, por enquanto, impossível de ser evitada. Nesta pesquisa a contração de polimerização de três resinas compostas compactáveis, Filtek P60 (3M, Prodigy Condensável (Kerr e SureFil (Dentsply/Caulk, variando-se a distância entre a fonte de luz e a

  4. One-bottle adhesives: in vitro analysis of solvent volatilization and sealing ability Adesivos de frasco único: análise in vitro da volatilização do solvente e do selamento marginal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Garcia Lima

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the solvent volatilization rate and evaluate the sealing ability of different one-bottle adhesives that were in constant clinical use - an ethanol/water-based adhesive (Single Bond, 3M/ESPE - SB and an acetone-based adhesive (Prime & Bond 2.1, Dentsply/Caulk - PB. Nine bottles of each agent were collected from the clinics of a dental school, and new ones were used as controls. The weight of all bottles and of empty bottles was determined using an analytical balance. A drop of each solution was dispensed onto the balance, taking its initial weight (IW and, after 10 min, its final weight (FW. The IW/FW ratio was used to determine the solvent’s volatilization rate. The bottles with the highest evaporation levels (SB Control and PB Control and with the lowest evaporation levels (SB Test and PB Test of each agent were applied in Class V restorations with margins in dentin. Specimens were thermocycled and immersed in a 0.5% basic fuchsin solution. Dye penetration was evaluated under magnification and the data were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test. Solvent volatilization was faster for the acetone-based adhesive. IW/FW ratios ranged from 1.239 to 1.515 for SB, and from 3.488 to 6.476 for PB. The PB-Control and SB-Control groups exhibited similar microleakage patterns. The highest dye penetration scores were found for the PB-Test group (p O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a taxa de volatilização do solvente e a capacidade de selamento de diferentes adesivos de frasco único que estavam em constante uso clínico - um à base de etanol/água (Single Bond, 3M/ESPE e um à base de acetona (Prime & Bond 2.1, Dentsply/Caulk. Nove frascos de cada agente foram coletados das clínicas da faculdade e outros novos foram utilizados como controle. Os pesos de todos os frascos e de frascos vazios foram determinados em uma balança analítica. Uma gota de cada solução foi dispensada na balança, tomando-se seu peso

  5. Remediation Technologies Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    groundwater tainted by chlorinated solvents once used to clean rocket engine components. The award-winning innovation (Spinoff 2010) is now NASA s most licensed technology to date. PCBs in paint presented a new challenge. Removing the launch stand for recycling proved a difficult operation; the toxic paint had to be fully stripped from the steel structure, a lengthy and costly process that required the stripped paint to be treated before disposal. Noting the lack of efficient, environmentally friendly options for dealing with PCBs, Quinn and her colleagues developed the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS). AMTS is a paste consisting of a solvent solution containing microscale particles of activated zero-valent metal. When applied to a painted surface, the paste extracts and degrades the PCBs into benign byproducts while leaving the paint on the structure. This provides a superior alternative to other methods for PCB remediation, such as stripping the paint or incinerating the structure, which prevents reuse and can release volatized PCBs into the air. Since its development, AMTS has proven to be a valuable solution for removing PCBs from paint, caulking, and various insulation and filler materials in older buildings, naval ships, and former munitions facilities where the presence of PCBs interferes with methods for removing trace explosive materials. Miles of potentially toxic caulking join sections of runways at airports. Any of these materials installed before 1979 potentially contain PCBs, Quinn says. "This is not just a NASA problem," she says. "It s a global problem."

  6. Influence of glazed zirconia on dual-cure luting agent bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, T A; Borges, G A; Borges, L H; Platt, J A; Correr-Sobrinho, L

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the influence of a novel surface treatment that uses a low-fusing porcelain glaze for promoting a bond between zirconia-based ceramic and a dual-cure resin luting agent. Bond strengths were compared with those from airborne particle abrasion, hydrofluoric acid etching, and silanization-treated surfaces. Twenty-four yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Cercon Smart Ceramics, Degudent, Hanau, Germany) discs were fabricated and received eight surface treatments: group 1: 110 μm aluminum oxide air-borne particle abrasion; group 2: 110 μm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion and silane; group 3: 50 μm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion; group 4: 50 pm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion and silane; group 5: glaze and hydrofluoric acid;group 6: glaze, hydrofluoric acid, and silane;group 7: glaze and 50 pm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion; and group 8: glaze,50 pm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion and silane. After treatment, Enforce resin cement (Dentsply, Caulk, Milford, DE, USA) was used to fill an iris cut from microbore Tygontubing that was put on the ceramic surface to create 30 cylinders of resin cement in each treatment group (n=30). Micro shear bond test-ing was performed at a cross head speed of 0.5mm/min. One-way analysis of variance, and multiple comparisons were made using Tukey's test (phydrofluoric acid showed bond strength values statistically superior to groups that utilized conventional airborne particle abrasion treatments with 50 or 110 pm aluminum oxide (phydrofluoric acid showed bond strength values statistically superior to remaining groups (p<0.001). Treatment of zirconia ceramic surfaces with a glaze of low-fusing porcelain significantly increased the bond strength of a dual-cure resin luting agent to the ceramic surface.

  7. Analysis on Key Points for Construction of V-type Filter%V型滤池施工要点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建华

    2012-01-01

    结合参与裕园工业区净水厂V型滤池施工的实际情况,针对V型滤池的关键部位,探讨了V型滤池施工过程的技术要点及施工措施.在此工程施工实践中,总结了滤板、滤梁的施工及注意事项,H型槽及槽下的配气孔、配水孔施工,V型槽下表冲孔的施工方法,排水槽施工注意事项,确保滤板之间及滤板与池壁之间的缝隙密封严密,滤池内部尺寸的控制,滤池施工中的防渗漏处理,滤板安装嵌缝前必须注重对滤池底部的清洁等.%Combining with the actual construction of V-type filter in water purification plant of Yuyuan Industrial Zone, the technical main points and construction measures for the key positions of V-type filter were discussed. During the construction practice, some aspects were summarized as follows; filter board and filter beam construction and matters needing attention, construction of H groove and air and water distribution holes under the groove, construction of surface sweeping holes under V-type groove, points for attention in drainage channel construction, assurance of a tight seal between filter boards and between filter board and filter wall, control of internal filter size, seepage prevention treatment during filter construction, cleaning of filter bottom before caulking and so on.

  8. Formula for the Removal and Remediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Painted Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Loftin, Kathleen; Geiger, Cherie

    2010-01-01

    An activated metal treatment system (AMTS) removes and destroys polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) found in painted structures or within the binding or caulking material on structures. It may be applied using a "paint-on and wipe-off" process that leaves the structure PCB-free and virtually unaltered in physical form. AMTS is used in conjunction with a solvent solution capable of donating hydrogen atoms. AMTS as a treatment technology has two functions: first, to extract PCBs from the material, and second, to degrade the extracted PCBs. The process for removing PCBs from structures is accomplished as an independent step to the degradation process. The goal is to extract the PCBs out of the paint, without destroying the paint, and to partition the PCBs into an environmentally friendly solvent. The research to date indicates this can be accomplished within the first 24 hours of AMTS contact with the paint. PCBs are extremely hydrophobic and prefer to be in the AMTS over the hardened paint or binder material. The solvent selected must be used to open, but not to destroy, the paint s polymeric lattice structure, allowing pathways for PCB movement out of the paint and into the solvent. A number of solvent systems were tested and are available for use within the AMTS. The second process of the AMTS is the degradation or dehalogenation of the PCBs. The solvent selection for this process is limited to solvents that are capable of donating a hydrogen atom to the PCB structure. Additional AMTS formulation properties that must be addressed for each site-specific application include viscosity and stability. The AMTS must be thick enough to remain where it is applied. Several thickening agents have been tested. Adding a stabilizing agent ensures that the AMTS will not evaporate and leave unprotected, activated metal exposed. During AMTS formulation testing, a number of reagents were evaluated to ensure the rate of dehalogenation was not inhibited by its addition to the system.

  9. Design and Delivery of a Filter for Removal of Siloxanes from the ISS Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Layne; Kayatin, Matthew; Perry, Jay; Agui, Juan; Green, Robert; Gentry, Gregory; Bowman, Elizabeth; Wilson, Mark; Rector, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) has been identified as a problematic chemical contaminant aboard ISS. This contaminant was initially identified in the ISS condensate and in the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) product water in 2010 when an increasing total organic carbon (TOC) trend was detected in the water produced by the WPA. DMSD is not a crew health hazard at the levels observed in the product water, but it may degrade the performance of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) which uses product produced by the WPA for electrolysis. In addition, DMSD can prevent the effective operation of the WPA catalytic reactor, and necessitates early replacement of Multifiltration Beds in the WPA. An investigation into the source of DMSD has determined that polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMSs) are hydrolyzing in the Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) to form DMSD. PDMSs are prevalent aboard ISS from a variety of sources, including crew hygiene products, adhesives, caulks, lubricants, and various nonmetallics. TPDMSs are also implicated in CHX hydrophilic coating degradation, rendering it hydrophobic and adversely affecting its ability to effectively transmit water to the condensate bus. Eventually this loss in performance results in water droplets in the air flow out of the CHX core, which can lead to microbial growth in the air ducts and can impact the performance of downstream systems. Design concepts have now been developed for removing PDMS in the air stream before it can reach the CHX core, thus preventing degradation of the coating and decomposition of the PDMS to DMSD. This paper summarizes the current status of the effort to deliver filters to ISS for removing PDMSs from the atmosphere before they can adversely impact the performance of the CHX coating and the WPA.

  10. Repair of amalgam restorations with conventional and bonded amalgam: an in vitro study = Reparo de restaurações de amálgama com amálgama adesivo e convencional: estudo in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popoff, Daniela Araújo Veloso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a microinfiltração em restaurações de amálgama com reparo em amálgama ou amálgama adesivo. Métodos: Trinta pré-molares humanos extraídos foram restaurados com amálgama. Simu- lou-se um defeito nas restaurações reparado com: G1 - amálgama (n=15 (Permite C-SDI; G2 - amálgama adesivo (n=15 (Caulk 34% Condicionador dentário Gel – Dentsply + Prime & Bond 2. 1 – Dentsply + Permite C-SDI. Os dentes foram imersos em solução de nitrato de prata a 50%, termociclados e então, secionados longitudinalmente através da restauração e examinados por três examinadores usando um estereomicroscópio. A microinfiltração foi avaliada pela penetração de corante com uma escala de 0 a 4. Diferenças entre os grupos foram verificadas pelos testes Kruskal Wallis e Dunn. Resultados: Na interface reparo/dente, a técnica de reparo com amálgama adesivo foi signi- ficativamente mais efetiva, apresentando menor microinfiltração (escore 0=53. 3%, P= 0,0012. Já na interface reparo/restauração, houve menor microinfiltração nas restaurações reparadas com amálgama convencional (escore 0=86. 7%, P<0,001. Conclusão: Nenhum dos materiais eliminou a microinfiltração completamente. O uso de sistemas adesivos tem efeito significativo no selamento da interface reparo/dente, entretanto para interface reparo/restauração, ele pode aumentar a microinfiltração

  11. DNA Damage, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Apoptosis Induction Caused by Lead in Human Leukemia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedjou, Clement G; Tchounwou, Hervey M; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the industrial use of lead has been significantly reduced from paints and ceramic products, caulking, and pipe solder. Despite this progress, lead exposure continues to be a significant public health concern. The main goal of this research was to determine the in vitro mechanisms of lead nitrate [Pb(NO₃)₂] to induce DNA damage, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest in human leukemia (HL-60) cells. To reach our goal, HL-60 cells were treated with different concentrations of Pb(NO₃)₂ for 24 h. Live cells and necrotic death cells were measured by the propidium idiode (PI) assay using the cellometer vision. Cell apoptosis was measured by the flow cytometry and DNA laddering. Cell cycle analysis was evaluated by the flow cytometry. The result of the PI demonstrated a significant (p rupture by Pb(NO₃)₂ compared to the control. Data generated from the comet assay indicated a concentration-dependent increase in DNA damage, showing a significant increase (p < 0.05) in comet tail-length and percentages of DNA cleavage. Data generated from the flow cytometry assessment indicated that Pb(NO₃)₂ exposure significantly (p < 0.05) increased the proportion of caspase-3 positive cells (apoptotic cells) compared to the control. The flow cytometry assessment also indicated Pb(NO₃)₂ exposure caused cell cycle arrest at the G₀/G₁ checkpoint. The result of DNA laddering assay showed presence of DNA smear in the agarose gel with little presence of DNA fragments in the treated cells compared to the control. In summary, Pb(NO₃)₂ inhibits HL-60 cells proliferation by not only inducing DNA damage and cell cycle arrest at the G₀/G₁ checkpoint but also triggering the apoptosis through caspase-3 activation and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation accompanied by secondary necrosis. We believe that our study provides a new insight into the mechanisms of Pb(NO₃)₂ exposure and its associated adverse health effects. PMID:26703663

  12. Influence of glazed zirconia on dual-cure luting agent bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, T A; Borges, G A; Borges, L H; Platt, J A; Correr-Sobrinho, L

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the influence of a novel surface treatment that uses a low-fusing porcelain glaze for promoting a bond between zirconia-based ceramic and a dual-cure resin luting agent. Bond strengths were compared with those from airborne particle abrasion, hydrofluoric acid etching, and silanization-treated surfaces. Twenty-four yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Cercon Smart Ceramics, Degudent, Hanau, Germany) discs were fabricated and received eight surface treatments: group 1: 110 μm aluminum oxide air-borne particle abrasion; group 2: 110 μm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion and silane; group 3: 50 μm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion; group 4: 50 pm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion and silane; group 5: glaze and hydrofluoric acid;group 6: glaze, hydrofluoric acid, and silane;group 7: glaze and 50 pm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion; and group 8: glaze,50 pm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion and silane. After treatment, Enforce resin cement (Dentsply, Caulk, Milford, DE, USA) was used to fill an iris cut from microbore Tygontubing that was put on the ceramic surface to create 30 cylinders of resin cement in each treatment group (n=30). Micro shear bond test-ing was performed at a cross head speed of 0.5mm/min. One-way analysis of variance, and multiple comparisons were made using Tukey's test (pglaze with airborne particle abrasion or hydrofluoric acid showed bond strength values statistically superior to groups that utilized conventional airborne particle abrasion treatments with 50 or 110 pm aluminum oxide (pglaze and hydrofluoric acid showed bond strength values statistically superior to remaining groups (pceramic surfaces with a glaze of low-fusing porcelain significantly increased the bond strength of a dual-cure resin luting agent to the ceramic surface. PMID:22166107

  13. Collector sealants and breathing. Mid-term report, September 25, 1978-May 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M. A.; Yeoman, F. A.; Luck, R. M.; Navish, Jr, F. W.; Meier, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of this program are: (1) to investigate the pertinent properties of a variety of possible sealants for solar collectors and identify the most promising candidates and to study the effect of breathing in flat-plate, thermal solar collector units. The study involves two types of sealants, Class PS which includes performed seals or gaskets and Class SC which includes sealing compounds or caulks. It is the intent of the study to obtain data regarding initial properties of candidate elastomers from manufacturers and from the technical literature and to use those sources to provide data pertaining to endurance of these materials under environmental service conditions. Where necessary, these data are being augmented by experimental measurements. Environmental stresses to be evaluated by these measuremets include elevated temperatures, moisture, ultraviolet light, ozone and oxygen, and fungus. The second major area of the work involves a study of the effects of materials used and design on the durability of solar collectors. Factors such as design, fabrication, materials of construction, seals and sealing techniques and absorber plate coatings were observed on actual field units removed from service. Such phenomena as leakage, corrosion and formation of deposits on glazing and absorber plate were noted. An evaluation of the properties of several desiccants is being made in order to provide means to mitigate the deleterious effects of water on collector life.Absorbents for organic degradation products of sealants are also being investigated in order to protect the glazing and absorber plate from deposited coatings. Since adsorbents and desiccants in general tend to take up both waer and organic decomposition products, relative affinities of a number of these agents for water and for organic compounds are being determined.

  14. Engineering Application of Lightweight Slab with Steel Frame%钢骨架轻型板的工程应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈剑峰

    2014-01-01

    从材料性能、施工工艺与经济性等方面,对新型建筑材料钢骨架轻型板与轻钢结构、传统钢筋混凝土结构材料作了对比分析,阐述了钢骨架轻型板的产品优势。在此基础上,结合某工程应用实例,从安装工艺、嵌缝施工、质量保证措施等方面,探讨了钢骨架轻型板施工的关键质量控制点。实践证明,钢骨架轻型板能满足现代建筑对轻质、节能、环保的要求,同时能缩短施工工期,节约工程造价,值得推广。%This paper conducts a comparative analysis on new building material lightweight slab with steel frame and traditional reinforced concrete structural materials from the aspects of construction technology and economy, and elaborates product advantages of the lightweight slab with steel frame. On this basis, it studies the key quality control points of the construction of lightweight slab with steel frame, with an engineering ap-plication example, in terms of the installation process, caulking construction, quality assurance measures. Practice has proved that the lightweight slab with steel frame can meet modern building for lightweight, ener-gy-saving, environmental protection requirements, and can shorten the construction period, reduce the project cost, and worth promoting.

  15. Injuries to plants from controlled environment contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, T. W.

    The use of controlled environments is subject to problems from contaminants emitted from materials of the system and from plants. Many contaminants are difficult to identify because injurious dosages are very low, there is a lack of information on what compounds injure plants, because species and cultivars differ greatly in their sensitivity to injury and injury symptoms often are not distinctive. Plastics have been shown to emit many different volatile compounds. The compound, di-butyl phthalate, contained in certain flexible plastics, has been shown to be very toxic to plants. Other injuries have been produced by caulking compounds and bonded screening. Paints have been shown to release xylene that is toxic to plants. Steam for humidification can cause problems because of hydroxylamines and other compounds added to steam used for heating to control fungal growth in return lines. Mercury, from broken thermometers is a particular problem in growth chambers because small quantities can collect in cracks and slowly volatilize to slow growth of plants. Plants themselves release large quantities of volatile hydrocarbons, with ethylene being the commonly recognized chemical that can be damaging when allowed to accumulate. People release large quantities of carbon dioxide which can cause variations in the rate of growth of plants. Contaminant problems can be controlled through filtering of the air or ventilation with make-up air, however the potential for problems is always present and careful testing should be undertaken with the particular species and cultivars being grown to insure that there are no toxic agents altering growth in each particular controlled environment being utilized.

  16. Collector sealants and breathing. Final Report, 25 September 1978-31 December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M A; Luck, R M; Yeoman, F A; Navish, Jr, F W

    1980-02-20

    The objectives of this program were: (1) to investigate the pertinent properties of a variety of possible sealants for solar collectors and identify the most promising candidates, and (2) to study the effect of breathing in flat-plate, thermal solar collector units. The study involved two types of sealants, Class PS which includes preformed seals or gaskets and Class SC which includes sealing compounds or caulks. It was the intent of the study to obtain data regarding initial properties of candidate elastomers from manufacturers and from the technical literature and to use those sources to provide data pertaining to endurance of these materials under environmental service conditions. Where necessary, these data were augmented by experimental measurements. Environmental stresses evaluated by these measurements included elevated temperatures, moisture, ultraviolet light, ozone and oxygen, and fungus. The second major area of the work involved a study of the effects of materials used and design on the durability of solar collectors. Factors such as design, fabrication, materials of construction, seals and sealing techniques and absorber plate coatings were observed on actual field units removed from service. Such phenomena as leakage, corrosion and formation of deposits on glazing and absorber plate were noted. An evaluation of the properties of several desiccants was made in order to providemeans to mitigate the deleterious effects of water on collector life. Adsorbents for organic degradation products of sealants were also investigated in order to protect the glazing and absorber plate from deposited coatings. Since adsorbents and desiccants in general tend to take up both water and organic decomposition products, relative affinities of a number of these agents for water and for organic compounds were determined . Results are presented in detail.

  17. Conceptual design and technology development of containment structure in Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual design of FER (Fusion Experimental Reactor) containment structure and its associated R and D activities, conducted from '89 to '90, are described. The FER containment structure system which mainly consists of a vacuum vessel, shielding structures, in-vessel replaceable components, ports, a cooling pipe system, has been developed to fullfil the required function. As an initial stage of R and D activities, the elemental technologies common to a tokamak reactor have been developed. Among them, a locking mechanism for supporting in-vessel replaceable components and a technique for insulation/conduction are described. For the locking mechanism, a caulking cotter driven by hydraulic pressure has been employed. Three kinds of hydraulic driving mechanism have been manufactured by trial: a 'piston jack' type, a 'bellows' type and a 'flexible tube' type. In the latter type, the stroke is obtained by changing the cross section of the flexible tube from a flat racetrack shape to a fat shape by hydraulic pressure. As the result of preliminary performance test, the shape of 'flexible tube' has been found to be improved. For the insulation coating, Al2O3 has been selected as the material and a plasma spray method has been applied as the coating procedure. For the conduction coating, Cr3C2 has been selected as the material and JET-KOTE method has been applied as the coating procedure. Both methods have been successfully developed and have been confirmed to be applicable the actual machine. A one fifth scale model has been fabricated in order to verify the design feasibility, mainly geometrical consistency. Then some design modifications were found to be needed for some of the components based on the manufacturing experience. (author)

  18. Flexural and diametral tensile strength of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Della Bona

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the flexural strength (sf and the diametral tensile strength (st of light-cured composite resins, testing the hypothesis that there is a positive relation between these properties. Twenty specimens were fabricated for each material (Filtek Z250- 3M-Espe; AM- Amelogen, Ultradent; VE- Vit-l-escence, Ultradent; EX- Esthet-X, Dentsply/Caulk, following ISO 4049 and ANSI/ADA 27 specifications and the manufacturers’ instructions. For the st test, cylindrical shaped (4 mm x 6 mm specimens (n = 10 were placed with their long axes perpendicular to the applied compressive load at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. The sf was measured using the 3-point bending test, in which bar shaped specimens (n = 10 were tested at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Both tests were performed in a universal testing machine (EMIC 2000 recording the fracture load (N. Strength values (MPa were calculated and statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey (a = 0.05. The mean and standard deviation values (MPa were Z250-45.06 ± 5.7; AM-35.61 ± 5.4; VE-34.45 ± 7.8; and EX-42.87 ± 6.6 for st; and Z250-126.52 ± 3.3; AM-87.75 ± 3.8; VE-104.66 ± 4.4; and EX-119.48 ± 2.1 for sf. EX and Z250 showed higher st and sf values than the other materials evaluated (p < 0.05, which followed a decreasing trend of mean values. The results confirmed the study hypothesis, showing a positive relation between the material properties examined.

  19. PCB-containing wood floor finish is a likely source of elevated PCBs in residents' blood, household air and dust: a case study of exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seryak Liesel M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent pollutants identified worldwide as human blood and breast milk contaminants. Because they bioaccumulate, consumption of meat, fish, and dairy products predicts human blood concentrations. PCBs were also used widely in building materials, including caulks and paints, but few studies have evaluated the contribution of these exposures to body burden. Methods In an earlier study, we detected PCBs in indoor air in 31% of 120 homes on Cape Cod, MA. Two of the homes had much higher concentrations than the rest, so we retested to verify the initial finding, evaluate blood PCB concentrations of residents, and identify the PCB source. Results Air and dust concentrations remained elevated over 5 years between initial and follow-up sampling. Blood serum concentrations of PCBs in residents of the homes were generally elevated above the 95th percentile of a representative sample of the US population. Serum concentrations in residents and air and dust concentrations were especially high in a home where a resident reported use of PCB-containing floor finish in the past, and where the floor of one room was sanded and refinished just prior to sample collection. Conclusion This case-study suggests that PCB residues in homes may be more significant contributors to overall exposure than diet for some people, and that use of a commercially-available PCB-containing wood floor finish in residences during the 1950s and 1960s is an overlooked but potentially important source of current PCB exposure in the general population.

  20. Pulpal responses to bacterial contamination following dentin bridging beneath hard-setting calcium hydroxide and self-etching adhesive resin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitasako, Yuichi; Ikeda, Masaomi; Tagami, Junji

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the pulp healing to bacterial contamination beneath a hard-setting calcium hydroxide (DY: Dycal, L.D. Caulk Co.) and a self-etching adhesive resin (2V: Clearfil Liner Bond 2V, Kuraray Medical Inc.) following dentin bridge formation. Class V cavities were prepared on 30 monkey teeth, and the pulps were exposed with a carbide bur through the cavity floor. Each exposed pulp was capped with either DY or 2V. The cavities were restored with a hybrid resin composite. The resin composite was removed at 180 days after capping, and then cavities were left open to the oral environment for 2 weeks to obtain bacteria contamination DY (BDY) and 2V (B2V; n = 10). A non-bacterial-contaminated group capped with DY was used as control. After bacterial challenges, inflammatory cell infiltration, incidence and differentiation of dentin bridges were evaluated histologically. There were significant differences in the presence of inflammatory cell infiltration among all groups (P < 0.05). No moderate or severe inflammatory reaction was found in Group DY. Group BDY showed moderate or severe inflammatory cell infiltration in 50%, and showed four necrotic specimens. Although no statistically significant difference was found in the formation and differentiation of dentin bridges among all groups, tunnel defects in dentin bridges were detected in 70% (DY), 80% (BDY), and 50% (B2V). Group B2V showed a significantly lower presence of inflammatory cell infiltration than Group BDY (P < 0.05). Bonding agent is supposed to seal the exposure site, and the remaining bonding agent on the cavities was effective as the barrier in the dentin bridges after bacterial challenges.

  1. DNA Damage, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Apoptosis Induction Caused by Lead in Human Leukemia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedjou, Clement G; Tchounwou, Hervey M; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the industrial use of lead has been significantly reduced from paints and ceramic products, caulking, and pipe solder. Despite this progress, lead exposure continues to be a significant public health concern. The main goal of this research was to determine the in vitro mechanisms of lead nitrate [Pb(NO₃)₂] to induce DNA damage, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest in human leukemia (HL-60) cells. To reach our goal, HL-60 cells were treated with different concentrations of Pb(NO₃)₂ for 24 h. Live cells and necrotic death cells were measured by the propidium idiode (PI) assay using the cellometer vision. Cell apoptosis was measured by the flow cytometry and DNA laddering. Cell cycle analysis was evaluated by the flow cytometry. The result of the PI demonstrated a significant (p cell death in Pb(NO₃)₂-treated cells, indicative of membrane rupture by Pb(NO₃)₂ compared to the control. Data generated from the comet assay indicated a concentration-dependent increase in DNA damage, showing a significant increase (p cells (apoptotic cells) compared to the control. The flow cytometry assessment also indicated Pb(NO₃)₂ exposure caused cell cycle arrest at the G₀/G₁ checkpoint. The result of DNA laddering assay showed presence of DNA smear in the agarose gel with little presence of DNA fragments in the treated cells compared to the control. In summary, Pb(NO₃)₂ inhibits HL-60 cells proliferation by not only inducing DNA damage and cell cycle arrest at the G₀/G₁ checkpoint but also triggering the apoptosis through caspase-3 activation and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation accompanied by secondary necrosis. We believe that our study provides a new insight into the mechanisms of Pb(NO₃)₂ exposure and its associated adverse health effects.

  2. INFORMATION: Management Alert on the Department's Monitoring of the Weatherization Assistance Program in the State of Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-12-01

    Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program received $5 billion to improve the energy efficiency of homes owned or occupied by low income persons, reduce their total residential expenditures, and improve their health and safety. Since the Recovery Act was enacted in February 2009, the Department has awarded weatherization grants to every state, the District of Columbia and five territories. Because of the unprecedented level of funding and the risks associated with spending vast amounts of money in a relatively short period of time, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) initiated a series of audits designed to evaluate the Program's internal control structures at both the Federal and state levels. As part of our work, we are in the process of reviewing Weatherization Program internal controls for the State of Illinois. We are also currently performing identical audits in the States of North Carolina, Pennsylvania and Virginia. Under the Recovery Act and the Department's Program, the State of Illinois received $242 million to weatherize 26,933 homes. The State of Illinois awarded these funds to 35 local agencies responsible for determining recipients' eligibility, contracting for the installation of the weatherization work, and conducting final inspections to ensure that work on homes was done in accordance with requirements. Inspectors working for the local agencies are required to evaluate the quality of mechanical and architectural improvements, such as furnace installations and window caulking, and certify that the work performed meets established standards. Under a Department approved plan in place at the time of our review, state officials were required to evaluate the sufficiency of local agency monitoring controls and to inspect the work performed on at least five percent of the units weatherized with Department funds during the program year for each

  3. MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH ON SHOREA JAVANICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. TORQUEBIAU*

    1987-01-01

    establishment of a permanent tree plantation, constitutes an efficient agroforestry system which is extensively described by Michon 1984, 1985; Michon et al 1984; and Torquebiau 1984. The resin of Shorea javanica is traditionally used for torches, caulking boats, batik coloring, etc., and is now exported to industrial countries where there is market for uses such as food additives, cosmetics, paints, varnishes a

  4. DNA Damage, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Apoptosis Induction Caused by Lead in Human Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement G. Yedjou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the industrial use of lead has been significantly reduced from paints and ceramic products, caulking, and pipe solder. Despite this progress, lead exposure continues to be a significant public health concern. The main goal of this research was to determine the in vitro mechanisms of lead nitrate [Pb(NO32] to induce DNA damage, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest in human leukemia (HL-60 cells. To reach our goal, HL-60 cells were treated with different concentrations of Pb(NO32 for 24 h. Live cells and necrotic death cells were measured by the propidium idiode (PI assay using the cellometer vision. Cell apoptosis was measured by the flow cytometry and DNA laddering. Cell cycle analysis was evaluated by the flow cytometry. The result of the PI demonstrated a significant (p < 0.05 increase of necrotic cell death in Pb(NO32-treated cells, indicative of membrane rupture by Pb(NO32 compared to the control. Data generated from the comet assay indicated a concentration-dependent increase in DNA damage, showing a significant increase (p < 0.05 in comet tail-length and percentages of DNA cleavage. Data generated from the flow cytometry assessment indicated that Pb(NO32 exposure significantly (p < 0.05 increased the proportion of caspase-3 positive cells (apoptotic cells compared to the control. The flow cytometry assessment also indicated Pb(NO32 exposure caused cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 checkpoint. The result of DNA laddering assay showed presence of DNA smear in the agarose gel with little presence of DNA fragments in the treated cells compared to the control. In summary, Pb(NO32 inhibits HL-60 cells proliferation by not only inducing DNA damage and cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 checkpoint but also triggering the apoptosis through caspase-3 activation and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation accompanied by secondary necrosis. We believe that our study provides a new insight into the mechanisms of Pb(NO32 exposure and its associated adverse

  5. An evaluation of changes and recovery in the olfactory epithelium in mice after inhalation exposure to methylethylketoxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul E; Bolte, Henry F; Derelanko, Michael J; Hardisty, Jerry F; Rinehart, William E

    2002-12-01

    Methylethylketoxime, also known as MEKO or 2-butanone oxime (CAS No. 96-29-7), is a clear, colorless to light yellow liquid at room temperature. It is an industrial antioxidant used as an antiskinning agent in alkyd paint, an industrial blocking agent for urethane polymers, and a corrosion inhibitor in industrial boilers, and can be found in some adhesives and silicone caulking products. Male CD-1 mice were exposed 6 h/day, 5 days/wk, for 1, 2, 4, or 13 wk via whole-body inhalation exposures to MEKO vapor concentrations of 0, 3 +/- 0.1, 10 +/- 0.3, 30 +/- 1, or 100 +/- 2 ppm (10 mice/group/interval). Satellite animals were removed after 1, 2, 4, or 13 wk of exposure and allowed to recover for 4 or 13 wk (5 mice/group/interval). After termination, the nasal turbinates were evaluated microscopically, and cross-sectional nasal maps of the lesions were prepared. At the end of the 1-, 2-, 4-, and 13-wk exposure periods, degeneration of the olfactory epithelium lining the dorsal meatus was seen in the anterior region of the nasal cavity. In a few instances, the olfactory epithelium covering the tips of the nasoturbinal scrolls projecting into the dorsal region of the nasal cavity was also degenerated. Large areas of olfactory epithelium lying laterally and posteriorly were unaffected. In general, approximately 10% or less of the total olfactory tissue was affected. In several instances, the degenerated olfactory epithelium was reepithelialized by squamous/squamoid and/or respiratory types of epithelium. Degeneration, which was dose related in incidence and severity, was seen in mice exposed to 30 and 100 ppm after 1 wk of exposure and in several mice exposed to 10 ppm after 13 wk of exposure. The incidence and severity of the degeneration present after 1 wk of exposure did not increase with the longer exposures. The olfactory degeneration was reversible. Recovery was complete within 4 wk following exposures at 10 ppm and nearly complete within 13 wk after exposures at 30

  6. El hastial sur de la catedral de León: patología existente derivada de la utilización de azufre en el retacado de grapas y tochos en las obras de restauración realizadas en el siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diez García-Olalla, J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the restorations carried out in the nineteenth century in the cathedral of Leon, the architect-restorers Juan de Madrazo and Demetrio de los Rios proposed in their projects the use of liquid sulphur to caulk iron or bronze staples, or billets that linked edge elements and solids from the masonry. This solution, not previously used, has produced important construction pathology in the south gable today: cracks in a large number of blocks and partial detachment of them. Some of these detachments have been falling to the court of the temple with the risk to cause harm to people and things. It is worth to point out that this unpublished work has a great importance because, according to the content of the projects of both architects, this practice spread to more parts of the monument, so this localized pathology is expected to manifest itself in other areas with the consequent risk.Durante las restauraciones efectuadas en el siglo xix en la catedral de León, los arquitectos restauradores Juan de Madrazo y Demetrio de los Ríos propusieron en sus proyectos el empleo de azufre líquido para retacar los tochos y engrapados de hierro o bronce que enlazaban los elementos de remate y los sólidos de las fábricas. Esta solución, no utilizada con anterioridad, ha dado lugar a la aparición hoy en día de una importante patología en el hastial sur: la fractura de un gran número de sillares y el desprendimiento parcial de éstos, cayendo al atrio del templo con el consecuente peligro. Este trabajo es una contribución inédita que reviste gran importancia porque, según el contenido de los proyectos de ambos arquitectos, esta práctica se extendió a más partes del monumento, por lo que esta patología localizada es previsible que se manifieste en otras zonas del mismo con el consecuente riesgo.

  7. CO2浸渍器磨损面的修复%Repair of Worn Surface of CO2 Impregnator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢少龙

    2011-01-01

    为了修复CO2浸渍器磨损面,防止CO2发生泄漏,保证膨胀烟丝的正常生产,选用德国特种低温耐磨材料UTP34N作为修复面的熔合层和填充层,以难熔金属的碳化物为硬质相、以钢为粘接剂、用粉末冶金方法制得的合金Co-WC作为外层喷涂材料,利用冷焊堆焊和超声速热喷涂技术对CO2浸渍器门盖和锁环的磨损面进行了局部修复.修复后,浸渍器门盖和罐体之间密封间隙由2.1mm减少到0.8mm,使用超过1.25倍压力的水压进行试验,密封效果良好,达到了安全和工艺要求,延长了门盖和锁环的使用寿命.%In order to repair the worn surface of C02 impregnator to prevent C02 leaking, special low temperature wear-resistant material UTP34N of Germany was chosen as the fusion layer and caulking layer material of repaired surface and alloy Co-WC ( an alloy from powder metallurgy comprising carbide of high melting metal as hard phase and steel as cementing phase) as surface layer spray coating material, the impregnator's lid and annular lock were partially repaired with cold-welding surfacing and supersonic thermal spraying. After repairing, the clearance between the lid and impregnator's body reduced from 2. 1 to 0. 8 mm; the results of hydraulic pressure test conducted under more than 1. 25 times pressure indicated that the seal ability was satisfactory in terms of safety and technology; and the working life of lid and annular lock were prolonged.

  8. Current developments in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for use in geology, forensics, and nuclear nonproliferation research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerly, Joshua D. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-08-26

    This dissertation focused on new applications of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The diverse fields that were investigated show the versatility of the technique. In Chapter 2, LA-ICP-MS was used to investigate the rare earth element (REE) profiles of garnets from the Broken Hill Deposit in New South Wales, Australia. The normalized REE profiles helped to shed new light on the formation of deposits of sulfide ores. This information may be helpful in identifying the location of sulfide ore deposits in other locations. New sources of metals such as Pg, Zn, and Ag, produced from these ores, are needed to sustain our current technological society. The application of LA-ICP-MS presented in Chapter 3 is the forensics analysis of automotive putty and caulking. The elemental analysis of these materials was combined with the use of Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The PCA comparison was able to differentiate the automotive putty samples by manufacturer and lot number. The analysis of caulk was able to show a differentiation based on manufacturer, but no clear differentiation was shown by lot number. This differentiation may allow matching of evidence in the future. This will require many more analyses and the construction of a database made up of many different samples. The 4th chapter was a study of the capabilities of LA-ICP-MS for fast and precise analysis of particle ensembles for nuclear nonproliferation applications. Laser ablation has the ability to spatially resolve particle ensembles which may contain uranium or other actinides from other particles present in a sample. This is of importance in samples obtained from air on filter media. The particle ensembles of interest may be mixed in amongst dust and other particulates. A problem arises when ablating these particle ensembles directly from the filter media. Dust particles other than ones of interest may be accidentally entrained in the aerosol of the ablated particle

  9. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL COMPLIANCE ISSUES IN THE 21ST CENTURY: POORLY RECOGNIZED AND POTENTIALLY DEVASTATING-8162

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-one years have passed since the United States Congress passed the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) [1]. The 1976 law essentially eliminated future production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) within the United States and greatly limited the use of previously manufactured PCBs and PCB products. The ultimate objective of the law was the complete elimination of these chemicals due to concerns about their potentially toxic effects on health and the environment. PCBs were manufactured in the United States between 1929 and 1977. They were highly valued for their fire and heat-resistance properties and for their chemical stability. As a result, PCBs were used in a variety of thermally and/or chemically stressful applications. They did not conduct electricity and therefore were particularly well-suited for use as insulating fluids in high-voltage electric equipment. PCBs were also used in various other applications, such as in hydraulic and heat transfer fluids. Strict controls on the use and disposal of PCBs were imposed by the TSCA implementing regulations at 40 CFR 761 [2]. As a result, most heavy users of PCB products worked hard to curtail their PCB use. Many organizations that once used substantial amounts of PCBs, subsequently declared themselves ''PCB free''. Unfortunately, in many cases, these ''PCB-free'' declarations were premature, as PCBs were used in many more applications than insulating fluids. From the 1990s and to the present day, PCBs increasingly have been discovered in non-liquid forms. These materials were used or installed in facilities constructed before the 1979 ''PCB ban''. Examples include applied paints and coatings, caulking, pre-formed joint filler, and plastic or rubber wire and cable insulation. Proper identification of these materials is necessary for appropriate and compliant waste management during decommissioning and deactivation (D and D) activities. PCBs can pose other significant waste management issues for D and D

  10. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Compliance Issues in the 21. Century: Poorly Recognized and Potentially Devastating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-one years have passed since the United States Congress passed the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The 1976 law essentially eliminated future production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) within the United States and greatly limited the use of previously manufactured PCBs and PCB products. The ultimate objective of the law was the complete elimination of these chemicals due to concerns about their potentially toxic effects on health and the environment. PCBs were manufactured in the United States between 1929 and 1977. They were highly valued for their fire and heat-resistance properties and for their chemical stability. As a result, PCBs were used in a variety of thermally and/or chemically stressful applications. They did not conduct electricity and therefore were particularly well-suited for use as insulating fluids in high-voltage electric equipment. PCBs were also used in various other applications, such as in hydraulic and heat transfer fluids. Strict controls on the use and disposal of PCBs were imposed by the TSCA implementing regulations at 40 CFR 761. As a result, most heavy users of PCB products worked hard to curtail their PCB use. Many organizations that once used substantial amounts of PCBs, subsequently declared themselves 'PCB free'. Unfortunately, in many cases, these 'PCB-free' declarations were premature, as PCBs were used in many more applications than insulating fluids. From the 1990's and to the present day, PCBs increasingly have been discovered in non-liquid forms. These materials were used or installed in facilities constructed before the 1979 'PCB ban'. Examples include applied paints and coatings, caulking, pre-formed joint filler, and plastic or rubber wire and cable insulation. Proper identification of these materials is necessary for appropriate and compliant waste management during deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) activities. PCBs can pose other significant waste management issues for D and D projects

  11. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL COMPLIANCE ISSUES IN THE 21ST CENTURY: POORLY RECOGNIZED AND POTENTIALLY DEVASTATING-8162

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, N

    2007-11-20

    Thirty-one years have passed since the United States Congress passed the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) [1]. The 1976 law essentially eliminated future production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) within the United States and greatly limited the use of previously manufactured PCBs and PCB products. The ultimate objective of the law was the complete elimination of these chemicals due to concerns about their potentially toxic effects on health and the environment. PCBs were manufactured in the United States between 1929 and 1977. They were highly valued for their fire and heat-resistance properties and for their chemical stability. As a result, PCBs were used in a variety of thermally and/or chemically stressful applications. They did not conduct electricity and therefore were particularly well-suited for use as insulating fluids in high-voltage electric equipment. PCBs were also used in various other applications, such as in hydraulic and heat transfer fluids. Strict controls on the use and disposal of PCBs were imposed by the TSCA implementing regulations at 40 CFR 761 [2]. As a result, most heavy users of PCB products worked hard to curtail their PCB use. Many organizations that once used substantial amounts of PCBs, subsequently declared themselves ''PCB free''. Unfortunately, in many cases, these ''PCB-free'' declarations were premature, as PCBs were used in many more applications than insulating fluids. From the 1990s and to the present day, PCBs increasingly have been discovered in non-liquid forms. These materials were used or installed in facilities constructed before the 1979 ''PCB ban''. Examples include applied paints and coatings, caulking, pre-formed joint filler, and plastic or rubber wire and cable insulation. Proper identification of these materials is necessary for appropriate and compliant waste management during decommissioning and deactivation (D&D) activities. PCBs can pose other