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Sample records for cauliflower brassica oleracea

  1. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  2. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  3. Enzyme-assisted extraction enhancing the phenolic release from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) outer leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Nguyen Thai; Smagghe, Guy; Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Van Camp, John; Raes, Katleen

    2014-07-30

    Phenolic compounds are highly present in byproducts from the cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) harvest and are thus a valuable source for valorization toward phenolic-rich extracts. In this study, we aimed to optimize and characterize the release of individual phenolic compounds from outer leaves of cauliflower, using two commercially available polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, Viscozyme L and Rapidase. As major results, the optimal conditions for the enzyme treatment were: enzyme/substrate ratio of 0.2% for Viscozyme L and 0.5% for Rapidase, temperature 35 °C, and pH 4.0. Using a UPLC-HD-TOF-MS setup, the main phenolic compounds in the extracts were identified as kaempferol glycosides and their combinations with different hydroxycinnamic acids. The most abundant components were kaempferol-3-feruloyldiglucoside and kaempferol-3-glucoside (respectively, 37.8 and 58.4 mg rutin equiv/100 g dry weight). Incubation of the cauliflower outer leaves with the enzyme mixtures resulted in a significantly higher extraction yield of kaempferol-glucosides as compared to the control treatment.

  4. Valorization of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) by-products as a source of antioxidant phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorach, Rafael; Espín, Juan Carlos; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Ferreres, Federico

    2003-04-09

    The present study reports the development of two extraction protocols, with potential industrial applicability, to valorize cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) byproducts as a source of antioxidant phenolics. In addition, the nonionic polystyrene resin Amberlite XAD-2 was used to obtain purified extracts. The extract yield, phenolic content, phenolic yield, and correlation between the antioxidant activity and the phenolic content were studied. The water and ethanol protocols yield a phenolic content of 33.8 mg/g freeze-dried extract and 62.1 mg/g freeze-dried extract, respectively. This percentage increased considerably when the extracts were purified using Amberlite XAD-2 yielding a phenolic content of 186 mg/g freeze-dried extract (water extract) and 311.1 mg/g freeze-dried extract (ethanol extract). Cauliflower byproduct extracts showed significant free radical scavenging activity (vs both DPPH(*) and ABTS(*)(+) radicals), ferric reducing ability (FRAP assay), and capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation (ferric thiocyanate assay). In addition, the antioxidant activity was linearly correlated with the phenolics content. The results obtained indicate that the cauliflower byproducts are a cheap source of antioxidant phenolics very interesting from both the industrial point of view and the possible usefulness as ingredients to functionalize foodstuffs.

  5. Filmcoating the seed of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. convar. Capitata L.) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. Botrytis L.) with imidacloprid and spinosad to control insect pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ester, A.; Putter, de H.; Bilsen, van J.G.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Four field experiments were carried out between 1999 and 2001, to assess the protection against cabbage root fly larvae (Delia radicum), flea beetle (Phyllotreta nemorum and P. undulata), cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) and caterpillars achieved in white cabbage and cauliflower crops by filmco

  6. Effect of cooking on the concentration of bioactive compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Avenger) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. Alphina F1) grown in an organic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Luzia Caroline Ramos; de Oliveira, Viviani Ruffo; Hagen, Martine Elisabeth Kienzle; Jablonski, André; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Brassica vegetables have been shown to have antioxidant capacities due to the presence of carotenoids, flavonoids and vitamins. This study evaluates the influence of different processing conditions (boiling, steaming, microwaving and sous vide) on the stability of flavonoids, carotenoids and vitamin A in broccoli and cauliflower inflorescences grown in an organic system. Results indicated that sous vide processing resulted in greater antioxidant capacity and that all processes contributed in some way to an increased content of antioxidant compounds in both cauliflower and broccoli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of glycerolipid biosynthesis in non-green plastids from sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, C; Joyard, J; Douce, R

    1989-05-01

    The availability of methods to fractionate non-green plastids and to prepare their limiting envelope membranes [Alban, Joyard & Douce (1988) Plant Physiol. 88, 709-717] allowed a detailed analysis of the biosynthesis of lysophosphatidic acid, phosphatidic acid, diacylglycerol and monogalactosyl-diacylglycerol (MGDG) in two different types of non-green starch-containing plastids: plastids isolated from cauliflower buds and amyloplasts isolated from sycamore cells. An enzyme [acyl-ACP (acyl carrier protein):sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase) recovered in the soluble fraction of non-green plastids transfers oleic acid from oleoyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to form lysophosphatidic acid. Then a membrane-bound enzyme (acyl-ACP:monoacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase), localized in the envelope membrane, catalyses the acylation of the available sn-2 position of 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate by palmitic acid from palmitoyl-ACP. Therefore both the soluble phase and the envelope membranes are necessary for acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The major difference between cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) membranes is the very low level of phosphatidate phosphatase activity in sycamore envelope membrane. Therefore, very little diacylglycerol is available for MGDG synthesis in sycamore, compared with cauliflower. These findings are consistent with the similarities and differences described in lipid metabolism of mature chloroplasts from 'C18:3' and 'C16:3' plants (those with MGDG containing C18:3 and C16:3 fatty acids). Sycamore contains only C18 fatty acids in MGDG, and the envelope membranes from sycamore amyloplasts have a low phosphatidate phosphatase activity and therefore the enzymes of the Kornberg-Pricer pathway have a low efficiency of incorporation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate into MGDG. By contrast, cauliflower contains MGDG with C16:3 fatty acid, and the incorporation of sn-glycerol 3

  8. Rooting pattern and nitrogen uptake of three cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) F1-hbrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rather, K.; Schenk, M.K.; Everaarts, A.P.; Vethman, S.

    2000-01-01

    In a two-year field trial at the sites Ruthe (Germany, loess soil, Orthic Luvisol) and Schermer (The Netherlands, marine clay soil, Eutric Fluvisol) the cauliflower F1-hybrids Marine, Lindurian and Linford were compared in their efficiency of N use from limiting and optimum supplies of N. Limiting N

  9. Transcriptome analysis of ectopic chloroplast development in green curd cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis

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    Zhou Xiangjun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroplasts are the green plastids where photosynthesis takes place. The biogenesis of chloroplasts requires the coordinate expression of both nuclear and chloroplast genes and is regulated by developmental and environmental signals. Despite extensive studies of this process, the genetic basis and the regulatory control of chloroplast biogenesis and development remain to be elucidated. Results Green cauliflower mutant causes ectopic development of chloroplasts in the curd tissue of the plant, turning the otherwise white curd green. To investigate the transcriptional control of chloroplast development, we compared gene expression between green and white curds using the RNA-seq approach. Deep sequencing produced over 15 million reads with lengths of 86 base pairs from each cDNA library. A total of 7,155 genes were found to exhibit at least 3-fold changes in expression between green and white curds. These included light-regulated genes, genes encoding chloroplast constituents, and genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Moreover, we discovered that the cauliflower ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (BoHY5 was expressed higher in green curds than white curds and that 2616 HY5-targeted genes, including 1600 up-regulated genes and 1016 down-regulated genes, were differently expressed in green in comparison to white curd tissue. All these 1600 up-regulated genes were HY5-targeted genes in the light. Conclusions The genome-wide profiling of gene expression by RNA-seq in green curds led to the identification of large numbers of genes associated with chloroplast development, and suggested the role of regulatory genes in the high hierarchy of light signaling pathways in mediating the ectopic chloroplast development in the green curd cauliflower mutant.

  10. Promotive role of 5-aminolevulinic acid on chromium-induced morphological, photosynthetic, and oxidative changes in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rehan; Ali, Shafaqat; Hannan, Fakhir; Rizwan, Muhammad; Iqbal, Muhammad; Hassan, Zaidul; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Maqbool, Saliha; Abbas, Farhat

    2017-03-01

    Chromium (Cr) is among the most toxic pollutants in the environment that adversely affect the living organisms and physiological processes in different plants. The present study investigated the effect of 15 mg L(-1) of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) on morpho-physiological attributes of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis L.) under different Cr concentrations (0, 10, 100, and 200 μM) in the growth medium. The results showed that Cr stress decreased the growth, biomass, photosynthetic, and gas exchange parameters. Chromium stress enhanced the activities of enzymatic antioxidants, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) in response to oxidative stress caused by the elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and electrolyte leakage (EL) in both roots and leaves of cauliflower. Chromium concentrations and total Cr uptake were increased in leaves, stems, and roots with increasing Cr levels in the culture medium. Foliar application of ALA increased the plant growth parameters, biomass, gas exchange parameters, and photosynthetic pigments under Cr stress compared to the treatments without ALA. Foliar application ALA decreased the levels of MDA, EL, and H2O2 while further improved the performance of antioxidant in both leaves and roots compared to only Cr-stressed plant. Chromium concentrations and total Cr uptake were decreased by the ALA application compared to treatments without ALA application. The results of the present study indicated that foliar application of ALA might be beneficial in minimizing Cr uptake and its toxic effects in cauliflower.

  11. Curd development associated gene (CDAG1) in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) could result in enlarged organ size and increased biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Qingli; Qin, Erjun; Jin, Chuan; Wang, Yu; Wu, Mei; Shen, Guangshuang; Chen, Chengbin; Song, Wenqin; Wang, Chunguo

    2017-01-01

    The curd is a specialized organ and the most important product organ of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis). However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of curd formation and development remains largely unknown. In the present study, a novel homologous gene containing the Organ Size Related (OSR) domain, namely, CDAG1 (Curd Development Associated Gene 1) was identified in cauliflower. Quantitative analysis indicated that CDAG1 showed significantly higher transcript levels in young tissues. Functional analysis demonstrated that the ectopic overexpression of CDAG1 in Arabidopsis and cauliflower could significantly promote organ growth and result in larger organ size and increased biomass. Organ enlargement was predominantly due to increased cell number. In addition, 228 genes involved in the CDAG1-mediated regulatory network were discovered by transcriptome analysis. Among these genes, CDAG1 was confirmed to inhibit the transcriptional expression of the endogenous OSR genes, ARGOS and ARL, while a series of ethylene-responsive transcription factors (ERFs) were found to increased expression in 35S:CDAG1 transgenic Arabidopsis plants. This implies that CDAG1 may function in the ethylene-mediated signal pathway. These findings provide new insight into the function of OSR genes, and suggest potential applications of CDAG1 in breeding high-yielding crops.

  12. Colonization of cauliflower blossom (Brassica oleracea) by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, via flies (Calliphora vomitoria) can result in seed infestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Zouwen, van der P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Inoculation of cauliflower blossom with Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), by brush or pollination with blue bottle flies (Calliphora vomitoria) as a vector, can result in seed infestation. Two years of poly-tunnel experiments with fly inoculation of cauliflower has shown that in approxima

  13. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B

    2008-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is widely used for gene delivery in plants. However, commercial cultivars of crop plants are often recalcitrant to transformation because the protocols established for model varieties are not directly applicable to them. The genus Brassica includes the oil seed crop, canola (B. napus), and vegetable crop varieties of Brassica oleracea, including cauliflower, broccoli and cabbage. Here, we describe an efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using seedling explants that is applicable to various Brassica varieties; this protocol has been used to genetically engineer commercial cultivars of canola and cauliflower in our laboratory. Young seedling explants are inoculated with Agrobacterium on the day of explant preparation. Explants are grown for 1 week in the absence of a selective agent before being transferred to a selective medium to recover transgenic shoots. Transgenic shoots are subjected to an additional round of selection on medium containing higher levels of the selective agent and a low-carbohydrate source; this helps to eliminate false-positive plants. Use of seedling explants offers flexible experiment planning and a convenient explant source. Using this protocol, transgenic plants can be obtained in 2.5 to 3.5 months.

  14. Forced-air, vacuum, and hydro precooling of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis cv. Freemont: Part II. Determination of quality parameters during storage

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    Ilknur Alibas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cauliflower heads, which were precooled using four different methods including vacuum, forced-air, and high and low flow hydro precooling, were stored under controlled atmosphere and room conditions. Controlled atmosphere conditions (CA were as follows: 1°C temperature, 90 ± 5% relative humidity, and 0:21 [(%CO2:%O2 – (0:21 control] atmosphere composition. Room conditions (RC were: 22±1°C temperature and 55-60% humidity. Various quality parameters of the cauliflower heads were assessed during storage (days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 under controlled atmosphere and room conditions (days 0, 5, and 10. During storage, weight loss, deterioration rate, overall sensory quality score, hardness, and colour (L, a, b, C and α were evaluated. In the present study, the strength and quality parameters of cauliflower under CA and RC conditions were obtained. Vacuum precooling was found to be most suitable method before cauliflower was submitted to cold storage and sent to market. Furthermore, the storage of cauliflower without precooling resulted in a significant decrease in quality parameters.

  15. 抗虫基因转化花椰菜的研究%Transformation of insect-resistant gene into cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea L.Var.Botrytis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕玲玲; 雷建军; 宋明; 李立云; 曹必好

    2004-01-01

    通过根癌农杆菌介导,将抗虫基因-豇豆胰蛋白酶抑制剂(Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor,简称CpTI)基因导入花椰菜无菌苗的下胚轴和子叶中.卡那霉素(Kanamycin,简称Kan)的筛选浓度为15mg/L,抑制农杆菌生长的抗生素选用羧苄青霉素(Carbencillin,简称Carb),浓度为500mg/L.对所获得的14株Kan抗性植株进行PCR扩增,结果显示有8株为阳性;对PCR阳性植株进行Southern分子杂交检测,结果证明CpTI基因已被整合到花椰菜植株的基因组中.%Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor (CpTI) gene was transferred into the cotyledons and hypocotyls of cauliflower by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. The best selective concentration of kanamycin (kan) was 15 mg L-1. The concentration of carbencillin (carb) was 500 mg L-1. 14 transgenic cauliflower plants were obtained. The putative transformants were assayed by PCR and Southern blotting analysis. The results indicated that CpTI gene was transferred into cauliflower successfully.

  16. Distribution of Glucosinolates in Brassica oleracea cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, A; Aires, A; Rosa, E; Bloem, E; Stulen, I.; De Kok, LJ

    2004-01-01

    Glucosinolates are important secondary compounds, commonly found in Brassicaceae. To what extent these sulfur and nitrogen containing compounds contribute to the total sulfur pool was investigated. In various cultivars of Brassica oleracea viz. curly kale, pointed cabbage, red cabbage, savoy cabbage

  17. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O.T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  18. Efeito da acidificação, fermentação e adição de cálcio na qualidade de couve-flor (Brassica oleraceae L. processada pelo calor Effect of acidification, fermentation and addition of calcium on the quality of canned cauliflower (Brassica oleraceae L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Nogueira

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de fornecer informações, não encontradas na literatura, sobre o efeito da acidificação (cinco ácidos orgânicos, fermentação e adição de cálcio na qualidade de couve-flor (cultivar Shiromaru III, processada pelo calor. A qualidade da couve-flor processada foi avaliada através de análise física, química, microbiológica e sensorial, após dois meses de armazenamento à temperatura ambiente. Os resultados mostraram a possibilidade de processar couve-flor enlatada, de alta qualidade, em pequenas indústrias, com redução de gastos em equipamentos, instalações e energia. O procedimento da acidificação oferece também uma segurança maior para o consumidor, pois elimina possíveis riscos de incidência do botulismo.The present work was developed to provide information currently lacking in the literature on the effect of acidification (five organic acids, fermentation and addition of calcium on the quality of canned cauliflower (cultivar Shiromaru III. Quality evaluation of the processed cauliflowers was determined by physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial analysis, after a two month storage period at room temperature. The results showed the possibility of processing high quality canned cauliflowers by small canneries with low cost equipment and less energy requirement. The acidification procedure also implies in minor risks due to potential botulism incidence.

  19. Clubroot in the cole crops: the interaction between Plasmodiophora brassicae and Brassica oleracea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    The clubroot disease of the cole crops ( Brassica oleracea ) and other crucifers is caused by the fungus Plasmodiophora brassicae . It is an important disease, affecting an estimated 10 % of the total cultured area world-wide. The potential of cultural practices to reduce crop losses due to clubroot

  20. Low Temperature Affects Stem Cell Maintenance in Brassica oleracea Seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de Jennifer; Kodde, Jan; Severing, Edouard I.; Bonnema, Guusje; Angenent, Gerco C.; Immink, Richard G.H.; Groot, Steven P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the above ground tissues in higher plants originate from stem cells located in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Several plant species can suffer from spontaneous stem cell arrest resulting in lack of further shoot development. In Brassica oleracea this SAM arrest is known as blindness and oc

  1. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R.; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea a

  2. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R.; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea a

  3. The complete chloroplast genome of two Brassica species, Brassica nigra and B. Oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Young-Joo; Kim, Kyunghee; Kang, Sang-Ho; Perumal, Sampath; Lee, Jonghoon; Kim, Chang-Kug

    2017-03-01

    The two Brassica species, Brassica nigra and Brassica oleracea, are important agronomic crops. The chloroplast genome sequences were generated by de novo assembly using whole genome next-generation sequences. The chloroplast genomes of B. nigra and B. oleracea were 153 633 bp and 153 366 bp in size, respectively, and showed conserved typical chloroplast structure. The both chloroplast genomes contained a total of 114 genes including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that B. oleracea is closely related to B. rapa and B. napus but B. nigra is more diverse than the neighbor species Raphanus sativus.

  4. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

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    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  5. Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

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    Hazem A. H. Kataya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective action against oxidative stress of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea extract was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight. Throughout the experimental period (60 days, diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker, was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant increase in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease in catalase activity and in the total antioxidant capacity of the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion (1 g/kg body weight of B. oleracea extract for 60 days reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats. B. oleracea extract lowered blood glucose levels and restored renal function and body weight loss. In addition, B. oleracea extract attenuated the adverse effect of diabetes on malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity as well as catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity of diabetic kidneys. In conclusion, the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of B. oleracea extract may offer a potential therapeutic source for the treatment of diabetes.

  6. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of Brassica nigra introgression lines from somatic hybridization: a resource for cauliflower improvement

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    Guixiang Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Broad phenotypic variations were obtained previously in derivatives from the asymmetric somatic hybridization of cauliflower ‘Korso’ (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, 2n = 18, CC genome and black mustard ‘G1/1’ (Brassica nigra, 2n = 16, BB genome. However, the mechanisms underlying these variations were unknown. In this study, 28 putative introgression lines (ILs were pre-selected according to a series of morphological (leaf shape and color, plant height and branching, curd features, and flower traits and physiological (black rot/club root resistance characters. Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that these plants contained 18 chromosomes derived from ‘Korso’. Molecular marker (65 simple sequence repeats and 77 amplified fragment length polymorphisms analysis identified the presence of ‘G1/1’ DNA segments (average 7.5%. Additionally, DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences among the ILs, including sequence alterations, deletions, and variation in patterns of cytosine methylation. The frequency of fragments lost (5.1% was significantly higher than presence of novel bands (1.4%, and the presence of fragments specific to B. carinata (BBCC 2n = 34 were common (average 15.5%. Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis indicated that methylation changes were common and that hypermethylation (12.4% was more frequent than hypomethylation (4.8%. Our results suggested that asymmetric somatic hybridization and alien DNA introgression induced genetic and epigenetic alterations. Thus, these ILs represent an important, novel germplasm resource for cauliflower improvement that can be mined for diverse traits of interest to breeders and researchers.

  7. Identification and Expression Analysis of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes and Estimation of Glucosinolate Contents in Edible Organs of Brassica oleracea Subspecies

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    Go-Eun Yi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidative biochemical compounds that defend plants from insect and microbial attack. Glucosinolates are abundant in all cruciferous crops, including all vegetable and oilseed Brassica species. Here, we studied the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis genes and determined glucosinolate contents in the edible organs of a total of 12 genotypes of Brassica oleracea: three genotypes each from cabbage, kale, kohlrabi and cauliflower subspecies. Among the 81 genes analyzed by RT-PCR, 19 are transcription factor-related, two different sets of 25 genes are involved in aliphatic and indolic biosynthesis pathways and the rest are breakdown-related. The expression of glucosinolate-related genes in the stems of kohlrabi was remarkably different compared to leaves of cabbage and kale and florets of cauliflower as only eight genes out of 81 were expressed in the stem tissues of kohlrabi. In the stem tissue of kohlrabi, only one aliphatic transcription factor-related gene, Bol036286 (MYB28 and one indolic transcription factor-related gene, Bol030761 (MYB51, were expressed. The results indicated the expression of all genes is not essential for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Using HPLC analysis, a total of 16 different types of glucosinolates were identified in four subspecies, nine of them were aliphatic, four of them were indolic and one was aromatic. Cauliflower florets measured the highest number of 14 glucosinolates. Among the aliphatic glucosinolates, only gluconapin was found in the florets of cauliflower. Glucoiberverin and glucobrassicanapin contents were the highest in the stems of kohlrabi. The indolic methoxyglucobrassicin and aromatic gluconasturtiin accounted for the highest content in the florets of cauliflower. A further detailed investigation and analyses is required to discern the precise roles of each of the genes for aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis in the edible organs.

  8. Isothiocyanates, Nitriles, and Epithionitriles from Glucosinolates Are Affected by Genotype and Developmental Stage in Brassica oleracea Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska S. Hanschen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables of the Brassica oleracea group, such as broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage, play an important role for glucosinolate consumption in the human diet. Upon maceration of the vegetable tissue, glucosinolates are degraded enzymatically to form volatile isothiocyanates, nitriles, and epithionitriles. However, only the uptake of isothiocyanates is linked to the cancer-preventive effects. Thus, it is of great interest to evaluate especially the isothiocyanate formation. Here, we studied the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products in sprouts and fully developed vegetable heads of different genotypes of the five B. oleracea varieties: broccoli, cauliflower as well as white, red, and savoy cabbages. Further, the effect of ontogeny (developmental stages during the head development on the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products was evaluated at three different developmental stages (mini, fully developed, and over-mature head. Broccoli and red cabbage were mainly rich in 4-(methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate (glucoraphanin, whereas cauliflower, savoy cabbage and white cabbage contained mainly 2-propenyl (sinigrin and 3-(methylsulfinylpropyl glucosinolate (glucoiberin. Upon hydrolysis, epithionitriles or nitriles were often observed to be the main hydrolysis products, with 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane being most abundant with up to 5.7 μmol/g fresh weight in white cabbage sprouts. Notably, sprouts often contained more than 10 times more glucosinolates or their hydrolysis products compared to fully developed vegetables. Moreover, during head development, both glucosinolate concentrations as well as hydrolysis product concentrations changed and mini heads contained the highest isothiocyanate concentrations. Thus, from a cancer-preventive point of view, consumption of mini heads of the B. oleracea varieties is recommended.

  9. The pangenome of an agronomically important crop plant Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golicz, Agnieszka A; Bayer, Philipp E; Barker, Guy C; Edger, Patrick P; Kim, HyeRan; Martinez, Paula A; Chan, Chon Kit Kenneth; Severn-Ellis, Anita; McCombie, W Richard; Parkin, Isobel A P; Paterson, Andrew H; Pires, J Chris; Sharpe, Andrew G; Tang, Haibao; Teakle, Graham R; Town, Christopher D; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2016-11-11

    There is an increasing awareness that as a result of structural variation, a reference sequence representing a genome of a single individual is unable to capture all of the gene repertoire found in the species. A large number of genes affected by presence/absence and copy number variation suggest that it may contribute to phenotypic and agronomic trait diversity. Here we show by analysis of the Brassica oleracea pangenome that nearly 20% of genes are affected by presence/absence variation. Several genes displaying presence/absence variation are annotated with functions related to major agronomic traits, including disease resistance, flowering time, glucosinolate metabolism and vitamin biosynthesis.

  10. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-10-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea accessions representing various morphotypes and identified signals of selection at the mesohexaploid subgenome level. For cabbage morphotypes with their typical leaf-heading trait, we identified four subgenome loci that show signs of parallel selection among subgenomes within B. rapa, as well as four such loci within B. oleracea. Fifteen subgenome loci are under selection and are shared by these two species. We also detected strong subgenome parallel selection linked to the domestication of the tuberous morphotypes, turnip (B. rapa) and kohlrabi (B. oleracea). Overall, we demonstrated that the mesohexaploidization of the two Brassica genomes contributed to their diversification into heading and tuber-forming morphotypes through convergent subgenome parallel selection of paralogous genes.

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of black mustard (Brassica nigra; BB) and comparison with Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Terachi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    Crop species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) consist of three monogenomic species and three amphidiploid species resulting from interspecific hybridizations among them. Until now, mitochondrial genome sequences were available for only five of these species. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the sixth species, Brassica nigra (nuclear genome constitution BB), and compared it with those of Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC). The genome was assembled into a 232 145 bp circular sequence that is slightly larger than that of B. oleracea (219 952 bp). The genome of B. nigra contained 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 17 tRNA genes. The cox2-2 gene present in B. oleracea was absent in B. nigra. Although the nucleotide sequences of 52 genes were identical between B. nigra and B. carinata, the second exon of rps3 showed differences including an insertion/deletion (indel) and nucleotide substitutions. A PCR test to detect the indel revealed intraspecific variation in rps3, and in one line of B. nigra it amplified a DNA fragment of the size expected for B. carinata. In addition, the B. carinata lines tested here produced DNA fragments of the size expected for B. nigra. The results indicate that at least two mitotypes of B. nigra were present in the maternal parents of B. carinata.

  12. Identification of antioxidant capacity -related QTLs in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Tamara; Cartea, María Elena; Velasco, Pablo; Soengas, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Brassica vegetables possess high levels of antioxidant metabolites associated with beneficial health effects including vitamins, carotenoids, anthocyanins, soluble sugars and phenolics. Until now, no reports have been documented on the genetic basis of the antioxidant activity (AA) in Brassicas and the content of metabolites with AA like phenolics, anthocyanins and carotenoids. For this reason, this study aimed to: (1) study the relationship among different electron transfer (ET) methods for measuring AA, (2) study the relationship between these methods and phenolic, carotenoid and anthocyanin content, and (3) find QTLs of AA measured with ET assays and for phenolic, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents in leaves and flower buds in a DH population of B. oleracea as an early step in order to identify genes related to these traits. Low correlation coefficients among different methods for measuring AA suggest that it is necessary to employ more than one method at the same time. A total of 19 QTLs were detected for all traits. For AA methods, seven QTLs were found in leaves and six QTLs were found in flower buds. Meanwhile, for the content of metabolites with AA, two QTLs were found in leaves and four QTLs were found in flower buds. AA of the mapping population is related to phenolic compounds but also to carotenoid content. Three genomic regions determined variation for more than one ET method measuring AA. After the syntenic analysis with A. thaliana, several candidate genes related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis are proposed for the QTLs found.

  13. Metabolic profiling and biological capacity of Pieris brassicae fed with kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Fernandes, Fátima; Oliveira, Jorge M A; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-06-01

    Phenolic and organic acid profiles of aqueous extracts from Pieris brassicae material and the host kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) leaves were determined by HPLC/UV-DAD/MS(n)-ESI and HPLC-UV, respectively. The identified phenolics included acylated and nonacylated flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acyl gentiobiosides, and sulphate phenolics. Kale exhibited the highest content (11g/kg lyophilized extract), while no phenolics were identified in the butterflies or exuviae. Nine different organic acids were characterized in the materials, with kale showing the highest amount (112g/kg lyophilized extract). With the exception of the exuviae extract, the rest were screened for bioactivity. Using spectrophotometric microassays, all exhibited antiradical capacity against DPPH and NO in a concentration-dependent way, whereas only kale and excrement extracts were active against superoxide. All displayed activity on intestinal smooth muscle, albeit with distinct relaxation-contraction profiles. Larvae and butterfly extracts were more efficacious for intestinal relaxation than was kale extract, whereas excrement extract evoked only contractions, thus evidencing their different compositions. Collectively, these results show that P. brassicae sequesters and metabolizes kale's phenolic compounds. Moreover, the extract's bioactivities suggest that they may constitute an interesting source of bioactive compounds whose complex chemical structures preclude either synthesis or isolation.

  14. Metabolism of the insecticide metofluthrin in cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Daisuke; Fukushima, Masao; Fujisawa, Takuo; Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2012-03-14

    The metabolic fate of metofluthrin [2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)benzyl (E,Z)-(1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(prop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate] separately labeled with (14)C at the carbonyl carbon and the α-position of the 4-methoxymethylbenzyl ring was studied in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ). An acetonitrile solution of (14)C-metofluthrin at 431 g ai ha(-1) was once applied topically to cabbage leaves at head-forming stage, and the plants were grown for up to 14 days. Each isomer of metofluthrin applied onto the leaf surface rapidly volatilized into the air and was scarcely translocated to the untreated portion. On the leaf surface, metofluthrin was primarily degraded through ozonolysis of the propenyl side chain to produce the secondary ozonide, which further decomposed to the corresponding aldehyde and carboxylic acid derivatives. In the leaf tissues, the 1R-trans-Z isomer was mainly metabolized to its dihydrodiol derivative probably via an epoxy intermediate followed by saccharide conjugation in parallel with the ester cleavage, whereas no specific metabolite was dominant for the 1R-trans-E isomer. Isomerization of metofluthrin at the cyclopropyl ring was negligible for both isomers. In this study, the chemical structure of each secondary ozonide derivative was fully elucidated by the various modes of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy together with cochromatography with the synthetic standard, and their cis/trans configuration was examined by the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) difference NMR spectrum.

  15. Biofumigation using a wild Brassica oleracea accession with high glucosinolate content affects beneficial soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuluaga, D.L.; Ommen Kloeke van, A.E.E.; Verkerk, R.; Röling, W.F.M.; Ellers, J.; Roelofs, D.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study explores the biofumigation effects of glucosinolate (GSL) containing Brassica oleracea plant material on beneficial, non-target soil organisms, and aims to relate those effects to differences in GSL profiles. Methods Leaf material of purple sprouting broccoli ‘Santee’, Savoy cabbage

  16. Linkage mapping of a dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Lou, P.; Bonnema, A.B.; Yang, Boujun; He, H.; Zhang, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 (c, cabbage; d, dominant) was identified as a spontaneous mutation in the spring cabbage line 79-399-3. The Ms-cd1 gene is successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several Brassica oleracea cultivars in China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of collard landraces and their relationship to other Brassica oleracea crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landraces have the potential to provide a reservoir of genetic diversity for crop improvement to combat the genetic erosion of the food supply. A landrace collection of the vitamin-rich specialty crop collard (Brassica oleracea var. viridis) was genetically characterized to assess its potential for ...

  18. Host plant resistance towards the cabbage whitefly in Brassica oleracea and its wild relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, K. T B; Broekgaarden, C.; Voorrips, R. E.; Bas, N.; Visser, R. G F; Vosman, B.

    2014-01-01

    The cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) is a phloem-feeding insect that is a serious problem in Brassica oleracea crops like Brussels sprouts, kale and savoy cabbage. In order to develop whitefly-resistant varieties it is essential to identify effective sources of resistance. In this study, we s

  19. Phloem-specific resistance in Brassica oleracea against the whitefly Aleyrodes proletella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekgaarden, C.; Riviere, P.; Steenhuis-Broers, M.M.; Cuenca, M.; Kos, M.; Vosman, B.

    2012-01-01

    The cabbage whitefly [Aleyrodes proletella L. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)] is becoming a serious pest in Brassica oleracea L. (Brassicaceae) crops. However, almost nothing is known about the interaction of this insect with its host plants. Previous studies have shown differences in the natural occurren

  20. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expression. We fo...

  1. Linkage mapping of a dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Lou, P.; Bonnema, A.B.; Yang, Boujun; He, H.; Zhang, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 (c, cabbage; d, dominant) was identified as a spontaneous mutation in the spring cabbage line 79-399-3. The Ms-cd1 gene is successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several Brassica oleracea cultivars in China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (A

  2. Gene expression programs during Brassica oleracea seed maturation, osmopriming and germination process and the stress tolerance level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeda, Y.; Konings, M.C.J.M.; Vorst, O.F.J.; Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Stoopen, G.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Kodde, J.; Bino, R.J.; Groot, S.P.C.; Geest, van der A.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    During seed maturation and germination, major changes in physiological status, gene expression, and metabolic events take place. Using chlorophyll sorting, osmopriming, and different drying regimes, Brassica oleracea seed lots of different maturity, stress tolerance, and germination behavior were cr

  3. Effect of salicylic acid (SA) and brassinolide (BR) on growth and drought resistance of cauliflower( Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis ) seedlings%水杨酸和油菜素内酯对花椰菜幼苗生长及抗旱性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓丽; 罗立津; 黄丽岚; 杨秀红; 吴慧玲

    2011-01-01

    In order to discuss the effect of salicylic acid (SA) and brassinolide (BR) on growth and drought resistance of cauliflower seedlings, the cauliflower cultivar, Xuefeng was used as the material, different concentrations of SA and BR were applied to the whole seedlings by foliar spray when the fourth true leaves were expanded fully and treated with drought stress in pot experiment, with sterile deionized water alone as control. The results showed that SA and BR increased the index of high quality seedlings, DW - FW percent of top, root-shoot ratio, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and chlorophyll content and promoted high quality seedling forming of cauliflower seedlings, but had no effect on intercellular CO2 concentmtion. The SA concentration with the best effect was 50 mg/L and BR was at 0.01 mg/L. Under drought stress, 50 mg/L SA and 0.01 mg/L BR obviously alleviated the decline of soluble protein content, increased SOD activity, decreased POD activity, and alleviated the accumulation of proline and MDAin cauliflower seedlings' leaves. It was concluded that application of exogenous SA and BR could improve growth status of cauliflower seedlings and alleviate the cauliflower damage by drought stress to some extent, and the 50 mg/L SA and 0.01 mg/L BR were the optimal concentration for cauliflower seedlings under this experimental condition.%为了探讨外源水杨酸(SA)、油菜素内酯(BR)对花椰菜幼苗生长及抗旱性的影响,以花椰菜品种雪峰为材料,采用盆栽法,于幼苗第4片真叶展开时,分别喷施不同浓度SA和BR溶液,并进行干旱胁迫,清水处理为对照.结果表明,一定浓度的SA、BR处理均可提高壮苗指数、地上部干物质含量、根冠比及净光合速率、气孔导度、蒸腾速率和叶绿素含量,促进壮苗的形成,改善生长状况,但对胞间CO2浓度无作用.干旱胁迫下,50 mg/L SA和0.01mg/L BR可以有效减缓干旱胁迫后的花椰菜幼苗叶片

  4. A homolog of the RPS2 disease resistance gene is constitutively expressed in Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvas Celia C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified disease resistance gene homologs in Brassica oleracea and assessed their expression in lines resistant and susceptible to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc. Two DNA fragments of approximately 2.5 kb (BI-16/RPS2 and Lc201/RPS2 were amplified by PCR from two Brassica lines using primers based on an RPS2 homologous sequence previously described in the Brassica oleracea ecotype B117. The sequences of these fragments shared high similarity (95-98% with RPS2 homologs from various Brassica species. The digestion of these fragments with restriction enzymes revealed polymorphisms at the Xba I restriction sites. The length polymorphisms were used as a co-dominant marker in an F2 population developed to segregate for resistance to Xcc, the causal agent of black rot. Linkage analysis showed no significant association between the marker and quantitative trait loci for black rot. RT-PCR with specific primers yielded an expected 453 bp fragment that corresponded to the RPS2 homologs in both resistant and susceptible lines inoculated with the pathogen, as well as in non-inoculated control plants. These results suggest that these homologs are constitutively expressed in B. oleracea.

  5. Genome-wide identification of aquaporin encoding genes in Brassica oleracea and their phylogenetic sequence comparison to Brassica crops and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehn, Till A; Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Bernhardt, Nadine; Hartmann, Anja; Bienert, Gerd P

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are essential channel proteins that regulate plant water homeostasis and the uptake and distribution of uncharged solutes such as metalloids, urea, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Despite their importance as crop plants, little is known about AQP gene and protein function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and other Brassica species. The recent releases of the genome sequences of B. oleracea and Brassica rapa allow comparative genomic studies in these species to investigate the evolution and features of Brassica genes and proteins. In this study, we identified all AQP genes in B. oleracea by a genome-wide survey. In total, 67 genes of four plant AQP subfamilies were identified. Their full-length gene sequences and locations on chromosomes and scaffolds were manually curated. The identification of six additional full-length AQP sequences in the B. rapa genome added to the recently published AQP protein family of this species. A phylogenetic analysis of AQPs of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. oleracea, B. rapa allowed us to follow AQP evolution in closely related species and to systematically classify and (re-) name these isoforms. Thirty-three groups of AQP-orthologous genes were identified between B. oleracea and Arabidopsis and their expression was analyzed in different organs. The two selectivity filters, gene structure and coding sequences were highly conserved within each AQP subfamily while sequence variations in some introns and untranslated regions were frequent. These data suggest a similar substrate selectivity and function of Brassica AQPs compared to Arabidopsis orthologs. The comparative analyses of all AQP subfamilies in three Brassicaceae species give initial insights into AQP evolution in these taxa. Based on the genome-wide AQP identification in B. oleracea and the sequence analysis and reprocessing of Brassica AQP information, our dataset provides a sequence resource for further investigations of the physiological and molecular functions of

  6. ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF FRESH LEAF OF BRASSICA OLERACEAE LINN. VAR. ACEPHALA (D.C ALEF (BRASSICACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbaje, Esther Oluwatoyin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Brassica oleraceae (BOL is the common cabbage and a familiar garden plant, widely used as spice all over the world. Cabbage is an excellent source of Vitamin C and has been widely employed locally to treat acute inflammation and peptic ulcers. The present study aimed at evaluating the anti¬ulcer activity of Brassica oleraceae, while identifying the phytoconstituents responsible for the observed effects and exploring some of the possible mechanisms of its anti¬ulcer activity, using standard laboratory procedures. Doses of 100, 300 and 750 mg / kg of Brassica oleraceae were separately administered to groups of overnight fasted rats, with appropriate standard drugs using Ethanol / HCl, Indomethacin and Cysteamine models to explore anti¬ulcer property of BOL on the stomach and duodenum respectively. The extract in a dose¬ dependent fashion, offered better protection against the ulcerogens in the gastric ulcer models, when compared with the positive control groups. However, the smallest dose of 100 mg / kg recorded the highest percentage protection in the cysteamine group. Up to 1200 mg / kg i.p and 10,000 mg / kg oral doses of Brassica oleraceae did not produce any mortality in mice. Phytochemical constituents identified included alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phlobatannins, anthraquinones and saponins. The pH was 8.5. The present study has validated the local use of Brassica oleraceae in the treatment of peptic ulcer and the speculated mechanisms of action could be through acid neutralization, cytoprotection and antioxidation by flavonoids.

  7. Genome-wide identification of aquaporin encoding genes in Brassica oleracea and their phylogenetic sequence comparison to Brassica crops and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Arvid Diehn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are essential channel proteins that regulate plant water homeostasis and the uptake and distribution of uncharged solutes such as metalloids, urea, ammonia and carbon dioxide. Despite their importance as crop plants, little is known about AQP gene and protein function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea and other Brassica species. The recent releases of the genome sequences of B. oleracea and B. rapa allow comparative genomic studies in these species to investigate the evolution and features of Brassica genes and proteins.In this study, we identified all AQP genes in B. oleracea by a genome-wide survey. In total, 67 genes of four plant AQP subfamilies were identified. Their full-length gene sequences and locations on chromosomes and scaffolds were manually curated. The identification of six additional full-length AQP sequences in the B. rapa genome added to the recently published AQP protein family of this species. A phylogenetic analysis of AQPs of A. thaliana, B. oleracea, B. rapa allowed us to follow AQP evolution in closely related species and to systematically classify and (re- name these isoforms. Thirty-three groups of AQP-orthologous genes were identified between B. oleracea and Arabidopsis and their expression was analyzed in different organs. The two selectivity filters, gene structure and coding sequences were highly conserved within each AQP subfamily while sequence variations in some introns and untranslated regions were frequent. These data suggest a similar substrate selectivity and function of Brassica AQPs compared to Arabidopsis orthologs. The comparative analyses of all AQP subfamilies in three Brassicaceae species give initial insights into AQP evolution in these taxa. Based on the genome-wide AQP identification in B. oleracea and the sequence analysis and reprocessing of Brassica AQP information, our dataset provides a sequence resource for further investigations of the physiological and molecular functions of

  8. Characterization and quantification of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. Convar. acephala Var. sabellica) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Helle; Aaby, Kjersti; Borge, Grethe Iren A

    2009-04-08

    Kale is a leafy green vegetable belonging to the Brassicaceae family, a group of vegetables including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts, with a high content of health-promoting phytochemicals. The flavonoids and hydroxycinammic acids of curly kale ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. oleracea convar. acephala (DC.) Alef. var. sabellica L.), a variety of kale, were characterized and identified primarily through HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analysis. Thirty-two phenolic compounds including glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol and derivatives of p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, and caffeic acid were tentatively identified, providing a more complete identification of phenolic compounds in curly kale than previously reported. Moreover, three hydroxycinnamic acids and one flavonoid with an unusual high grade of glycosylation, quercetin-3-disinapoyl-triglucoside-7-diglucoside, have been tentatively identified for the first time. The influence of different extraction conditions (extraction method, solvent type, solvent/solid ratio, and duration of extraction) was investigated. The total flavonol and hydroxycinnamic acid contents in curly kale determined as rutin equivalents (RE) were 646 and 204 mg of RE/100 g of fresh weight (fw), respectively. The contents of individual flavonoids ranged from 2 to 159 mg of RE/100 g of fw, with main compounds kaempferol-3-sinapoyl-diglucoside-7-diglucoside (18.7%) and quercetin-3-sinapoyl-diglucoside-7-diglucoside (16.5%). After acidic hydrolysis, two flavonol aglycones were identified in curly kale, quercetin and kaempferol, with total contents of 44 and 58 mg/100 g of fw, respectively.

  9. Generation and characterization of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien addition lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ai xia Gu; Shu Xing Shen; Yan Hua Wang; Jian Jun Zhao; Shu Xin Xuan; Xue Ping Chen; Xiao Feng Li; Shuang Xia Luo; Yu Jing Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage group-specific markers as B. oleracea linkage groups C2, C3, C6, C7 and C8. Based on the chromosomal karyotype of root tip cells, these five MAALs added individual chromosomes from B. oleracea var. capitata: chr 1 (the longest), chr 2 or 3, chr 5 (small locus of 25S rDNA), chr 7 (satellite-carrying) and chr 9 (the shortest). Five disomic alien addition lines were then generated by selfing their corresponding MAALs.

  10. A physical map of Brassica oleracea shows complexity of chromosomal changes following recursive paleopolyploidizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giattina Emily

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of the Brassica species has been recursively affected by polyploidy events, and comparison to their relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, provides means to explore their genomic complexity. Results A genome-wide physical map of a rapid-cycling strain of B. oleracea was constructed by integrating high-information-content fingerprinting (HICF of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones with hybridization to sequence-tagged probes. Using 2907 contigs of two or more BACs, we performed several lines of comparative genomic analysis. Interspecific DNA synteny is much better preserved in euchromatin than heterochromatin, showing the qualitative difference in evolution of these respective genomic domains. About 67% of contigs can be aligned to the Arabidopsis genome, with 96.5% corresponding to euchromatic regions, and 3.5% (shown to contain repetitive sequences to pericentromeric regions. Overgo probe hybridization data showed that contigs aligned to Arabidopsis euchromatin contain ~80% of low-copy-number genes, while genes with high copy number are much more frequently associated with pericentromeric regions. We identified 39 interchromosomal breakpoints during the diversification of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, a relatively high level of genomic change since their divergence. Comparison of the B. oleracea physical map with Arabidopsis and other available eudicot genomes showed appreciable 'shadowing' produced by more ancient polyploidies, resulting in a web of relatedness among contigs which increased genomic complexity. Conclusions A high-resolution genetically-anchored physical map sheds light on Brassica genome organization and advances positional cloning of specific genes, and may help to validate genome sequence assembly and alignment to chromosomes. All the physical mapping data is freely shared at a WebFPC site (http://lulu.pgml.uga.edu/fpc/WebAGCoL/brassica/WebFPC/; Temporarily password-protected: account

  11. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9-12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3-9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6-12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants.

  12. Whole genome shotgun sequencing of Brassica oleracea and its application to gene discovery and annotation in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Ayele, Mulu; Haas, Brian J.; Kumar, Nikhil; Wu, Hank; Xiao, Yongli; Van Aken, Susan; Utterback, Teresa R.; WORTMAN, Jennifer R.; White, Owen R.; Town, Christopher D

    2005-01-01

    Through comparative studies of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana and its close relative Brassica oleracea, we have identified conserved regions that represent potentially functional sequences overlooked by previous Arabidopsis genome annotation methods. A total of 454,274 whole genome shotgun sequences covering 283 Mb (0.44×) of the estimated 650 Mb Brassica genome were searched against the Arabidopsis genome, and conserved Arabidopsis genome sequences (CAGSs) were identified. Of these ...

  13. Phytotoxic Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of exogenous application of cinnamic acid (CA on growth and metabolism in growing seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage in hydroponic culture. CA was added at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM concentrations. CA has shown inhibitory effects on shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. CA significantly decreased the photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content. Graded concentrations of CA increased lipid peroxidation and sugar content. The increasing concentrations of CA significantly increased the antioxidative enzyme activities viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase against the oxidative stress caused by CA.

  14. Phenolic compounds in external leaves of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreres, F; Valentão, P; Llorach, R.; Pinheiro, C.; Cardoso, L; Pereira, J.A.; Seabra, R.M.; Andrade, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Glycosylated kaempferol derivatives from the external leaves of tronchuda cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. var. costataDC) characterized by reversed-phase HPLC-DAD-MS/MS-ESI were kaempferol 3- Osophorotrioside- 7-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O- (methoxycaffeoyl/caffeoyl)sophoroside-7- O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside-7-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophorotrioside-7-O-sophoroside, kaempferol 3- O-sophoroside-7- O-sophoroside, kaempferol 3- O-tetraglucoside-7- O-sophoroside, kaempf...

  15. Grünkohl (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica): Untersuchungen zur Diversität verschiedener Sorten

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Grünkohl ist besonders im Norden Deutschlands jedem ein Begriff und beliebt als wohlschmeckendes und traditionelles Wintergemüse. Doch Grünkohl ist nicht gleich Grünkohl. Das sollte im Rahmen dieser Arbeit schnell deutlich werden, als 12 kommerziell im Handel erhältliche sowie 12 alte ostfriesische Landsorten dieser zum Gemüsekohl (Brassica oleracea) gehörenden Pflanze untersucht worden sind. Das Augenmerk dieser Arbeit richtet sich auf den Anbau der Pflanzen (Wachstumsgeschwindigkeit und -ve...

  16. Colorless Chlorophyll Catabolites in Senescent Florets of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two “nonfluorescent” Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type “nonfluorescent” Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25620234

  17. Plastid transformation in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) by the biolistic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Menq-Jiau; Yang, Ming-Te; Chu, Wan-Ru; Liu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Scientists are using biotechnology in addition to traditional breeding methods to develop new cabbage varieties with desirable traits. Recent biotechnological advances in chloroplast transformation technology have opened new avenues for crop improvement. In 2007, we developed a stable plastid transformation system for cabbage and reported the successful transformation of the cry1Ab gene into the cabbage chloroplast genome. This chapter describes the methods for cabbage transformation using biolistic procedures. The following sections are included in this protocol: preparation of donor materials, coating gold particles with DNA, biolistic bombardment, as well as the regeneration and selection of transplastomic cabbage plants. The establishment of a plastid transformation system for cabbage offers new possibilities for introducing new agronomic and horticultural traits into Brassica crops.

  18. Changes in the proteome of xylem sap in Brassica oleracea in response to Fusarium oxysporum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijing ePu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conlutinans (Foc is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change >=2 fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and ten of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  19. Changes in the Proteome of Xylem Sap in Brassica oleracea in Response to Fusarium oxysporum Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zijing; Ino, Yoko; Kimura, Yayoi; Tago, Asumi; Shimizu, Motoki; Natsume, Satoshi; Sano, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Ryo; Kaneko, Kentaro; Shea, Daniel J.; Fukai, Eigo; Fuji, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Hisashi; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conlutinans (Foc) is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change > = 2-fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and 10 of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions. PMID:26870056

  20. Changes in the Proteome of Xylem Sap in Brassica oleracea in Response to Fusarium oxysporum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zijing; Ino, Yoko; Kimura, Yayoi; Tago, Asumi; Shimizu, Motoki; Natsume, Satoshi; Sano, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Ryo; Kaneko, Kentaro; Shea, Daniel J; Fukai, Eigo; Fuji, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Hisashi; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conlutinans (Foc) is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change > = 2-fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and 10 of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  1. Herbivore-induced plant responses in Brassica oleracea prevail over effects of constitutive resistance and result in enhanced herbivore attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, E.H.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dam, van N.M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    2. Here we studied the effect of early-season herbivory by caterpillars of Pieris rapae on the composition of the insect herbivore community on domesticated Brassica oleracea plants. We compared the effect of herbivory on two cultivars that differ in the degree of susceptibility to herbivores to ana

  2. Phytohormone profile in Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea plants grown under Zn deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Albacete, Alfonso; Torre-González, Alejandro de la; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-10-01

    Phytohormones, structurally diverse compounds, are involved in multiple processes within plants, such as controlling plant growth and stress response. Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants and its deficiency causes large economic losses in crops. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the role of phytohormones in the Zn-deficiency response of two economically important species, i.e. Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea. For this, these two species were grown hydroponically with different Zn-application rates: 10 μM Zn as control and 0.1 μM Zn as deficiency treatment and phytohormone concentration was determined by U-HPLC-MS. Zn deficiency resulted in a substantial loss of biomass in L. sativa plants that was correlated with a decline in growth-promoting hormones such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), and gibberellins (GAs). However these hormones increased or stabilized their concentrations in B. oleracea and could help to maintain the biomass in this species. A lower concentration of stress-signaling hormones such as ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and also CKs might be involved in Zn uptake in L. sativa while a rise in GA4, isopentenyl adenine (iP), and ACC and a fall in JA and SA might contribute to a better Zn-utilization efficiency (ZnUtE), as observed in B. oleracea plants.

  3. Glutathione Transferases Superfamily: Cold-Inducible Expression of Distinct GST Genes in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Harshavardhanan; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Kim, HyeRan; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-07-27

    Plants, as sessile organisms, can suffer serious growth and developmental consequences under cold stress conditions. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are ubiquitous and multifunctional conjugating proteins, which play a major role in stress responses by preventing oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Currently, understanding of their function(s) during different biochemical and signaling pathways under cold stress condition remain unclear. In this study, using combined computational strategy, we identified 65 Brassica oleracea glutathione transferases (BoGST) and characterized them based on evolutionary analysis into 11 classes. Inter-species and intra-species duplication was evident between BoGSTs and Arabidopsis GSTs. Based on localization analyses, we propose possible pathways in which GST genes are involved during cold stress. Further, expression analysis of the predicted putative functions for GST genes were investigated in two cold contrasting genotypes (cold tolerance and susceptible) under cold condition, most of these genes were highly expressed at 6 h and 1 h in the cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) lines, respectively. Overall, BoGSTU19, BoGSTU24, BoGSTF10 are candidate genes highly expressed in B. oleracea. Further investigation of GST superfamily in B. oleracea will aid in understanding complex mechanism underlying cold tolerance in plants.

  4. Glutathione Transferases Superfamily: Cold-Inducible Expression of Distinct GST Genes in Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshavardhanan Vijayakumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants, as sessile organisms, can suffer serious growth and developmental consequences under cold stress conditions. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18 are ubiquitous and multifunctional conjugating proteins, which play a major role in stress responses by preventing oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS. Currently, understanding of their function(s during different biochemical and signaling pathways under cold stress condition remain unclear. In this study, using combined computational strategy, we identified 65 Brassica oleracea glutathione transferases (BoGST and characterized them based on evolutionary analysis into 11 classes. Inter-species and intra-species duplication was evident between BoGSTs and Arabidopsis GSTs. Based on localization analyses, we propose possible pathways in which GST genes are involved during cold stress. Further, expression analysis of the predicted putative functions for GST genes were investigated in two cold contrasting genotypes (cold tolerance and susceptible under cold condition, most of these genes were highly expressed at 6 h and 1 h in the cold tolerant (CT and cold susceptible (CS lines, respectively. Overall, BoGSTU19, BoGSTU24, BoGSTF10 are candidate genes highly expressed in B. oleracea. Further investigation of GST superfamily in B. oleracea will aid in understanding complex mechanism underlying cold tolerance in plants.

  5. Interspecific Hybridization of Brassica campestris x B.Oleracea Through Ovary Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-qing; SONG Wen-jian; TANG Gui-xiang; ZHOU Wei-jun

    2004-01-01

    Using three varieties of Brassica campestris, Hauarad (708), Maoshan-3 (714) and Youbai (715),as the maternal plants and one variety of Brassica oleracea Jingfeng-1 (6012) as paternal plants, crosses were made to produce interspecific hybrids through ovary culture techniques.The ovaries from the cross between B. campestris × B.oleracea (708 × 6012 and 714 × 6012) were cultured and ovary culture was more effective in terms of obtained seeds when ovaries were cultured in vitro at 9 d after pollination (DAP). While for the cross of 715 × 6012, it was better when ovaries in vitro cultured at 12 DAP. Among three cross combinations, the cross of 714 × 6012 showed the best response and 43 seeds per ovary were obtained. Among the media studied, the ovaries from the cross of 708 × 6012 cultured on MS media supplemented with 3.0 mg L-1 BA × 0.1 mg L-1 NAA showed better response, and its rate of seeds per ovary reached 44.0%.While the ovaries from the other two crosses (714 × 6012 and 715 × 6012) showed the best response when cultured on B5 media supplemented with 3.0 mg L-1 BA + 0.2 mg L-1 NAA, and the rates of seeds per ovary reached 72.0 and 60.0%, respectively. All seeds obtained from the three cross combinations were cultured on the MS media supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 BA + 0.05 mg L-1 NAA,and the seeds from the cross of 715 × 6012 showed the best germination response and the percentage of germinations reached 66.7%. The regenerated plantlets were obtained from these seedlings after cultured on the MS media supplemented with 0.05 mg L-1 NAA. Cytological study showed that these regenerated plants were all true hybrids of B.campestris × B.oleracea.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of ectopic chloroplast development in green curd cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloroplasts are the green plastids where photosynthesis takes place. The biogenesis of chloroplasts requires the coordinate expression of both nuclear and chloroplast genes and is regulated by developmental and environmental signals. Despite extensive studies of this process, the genetic basis and ...

  7. The Influence of pH on Microspore Embryogenesis of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Oana CRISTEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In vitro microspore culture is one of the top techniques utilised now-a-days for the obtaining of double haploid plants in many plant species, including Brassica. The pH of the medium is a critical factor for the success of In vitro microspore culture as it influences the invertase enzyme activity, translated at cellular level through an acceleration or reduction of sucrose cleavage. The results published until now shows rather contradictory findings, as the response of microspores have been proved to be highly depending on genotypes, most of them being focused on Brassica napus. Thus, in the present study, the effect of different NLN liquid medium pH, ranging between 5.0 to 7.0 were tested in order to establish the most suitable pH for the expression of embryogenic competences of microspores cultivated on medium In vitro and ultimately for the obtaining of microspore-derived embryos. Among the 11 values of pH tested, the best results were obtained on variants with pH 5.8 and 6.0, both in what concern the maintaining of microspores viability and the number of microspore-derived embryos. The findings of the present study provide a strong base for the establishment of an efficient protocol for the In vitro culture of microspore at Brassica oleracea L. genotypes with Romanian origin.

  8. {sup 60}Co irradiation effect on color in minimally processed cauliflower (Brassica spp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Santillo, Amanda G.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: thaisecfnunes@hotmail.com; Michels, Robert [Hydrofarm Comercio e Representacao de Produtos Agricolas Ltda., Sao Roque, SP (Brazil); Pitombo, Ronaldo N.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental

    2009-07-01

    Irradiation is a well-established process with clearly documented safety and efficacy. Consumers require a quality product that is convenient and has fresh-like characteristics and take product appearance, like color, into consideration as a primary criterion; it is considered a key role in food choice, food preference and acceptability. The objective of the present work was to investigate color degradation of cauliflower treated with gamma radiation during 14 days. Cauliflower irradiated samples with 0 and 1.5 kGy showed significant differences for value 'L' on the 10th and 14th day, respectively for value 'b' only the 0 kGy sample showed significant difference on day 10 of storage. On day 10 of shelf-life the irradiated cauliflower with doses of 1 and 1.5 kGy became more yellow compared to the control. The authors concluded that the treatment with low gamma radiation doses keeps the quality of fresh-cut vegetables. (author)

  9. Genome-wide comparative analysis of 20 miniature inverted-repeat transposable element families in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Sampath

    Full Text Available Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs are ubiquitous, non-autonomous class II transposable elements. Here, we conducted genome-wide comparative analysis of 20 MITE families in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and Arabidopsis thaliana. A total of 5894 and 6026 MITE members belonging to the 20 families were found in the whole genome pseudo-chromosome sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively. Meanwhile, only four of the 20 families, comprising 573 members, were identified in the Arabidopsis genome, indicating that most of the families were activated in the Brassica genus after divergence from Arabidopsis. Copy numbers varied from 4 to 1459 for each MITE family, and there was up to 6-fold variation between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In particular, analysis of intact members showed that whereas eleven families were present in similar copy numbers in B. rapa and B. oleracea, nine families showed copy number variation ranging from 2- to 16-fold. Four of those families (BraSto-3, BraTo-3, 4, 5 were more abundant in B. rapa, and the other five (BraSto-1, BraSto-4, BraTo-1, 7 and BraHAT-1 were more abundant in B. oleracea. Overall, 54% and 51% of the MITEs resided in or within 2 kb of a gene in the B. rapa and B. oleracea genomes, respectively. Notably, 92 MITEs were found within the CDS of annotated genes, suggesting that MITEs might play roles in diversification of genes in the recently triplicated Brassica genome. MITE insertion polymorphism (MIP analysis of 289 MITE members showed that 52% and 23% were polymorphic at the inter- and intra-species levels, respectively, indicating that there has been recent MITE activity in the Brassica genome. These recently activated MITE families with abundant MIP will provide useful resources for molecular breeding and identification of novel functional genes arising from MITE insertion.

  10. Valor nutricional e potencial nutracêutico de inflorescências de couve-nabo (Brassica napus var napus) e couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleraceae var costata).

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Batista, Cátia Emanuela Oliveira; Carvalho, Ana Maria; FERREIRA, ISABEL C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Na Península Ibérica as verduras (silvestres ou tradicionalmente cultivadas) têm sido alimentos importantes na dieta humana. O valor nutricional de verduras e os seus benefícios para a saúde têm sido reconhecidos como importantes alvos de investigação. Os grelos, inflorescências da couve-nabo (Brassica napus L. var. napus) e os espigos, inflorescências da couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC.) são exemplos de espécies tradicionalmente cultivadas e amplamente consumidas nas re...

  11. Valor nutricional e potencial nutracêutico de inflorescências de couve-nabo (Brassica napus var napus) e couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleraceae var costata).

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Batista, Cátia Emanuela Oliveira; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Na Península Ibérica as verduras (silvestres ou tradicionalmente cultivadas) têm sido alimentos importantes na dieta humana. O valor nutricional de verduras e os seus benefícios para a saúde têm sido reconhecidos como importantes alvos de investigação. Os grelos, inflorescências da couve-nabo (Brassica napus L. var. napus) e os espigos, inflorescências da couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC.) são exemplos de espécies tradicionalmente cultivadas e amplamente consumidas nas re...

  12. EFFECTS OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF BROCOLI (BRASSICA OLERACEA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kandil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in research and production station, El- Nubaria location, National Research Centre, Egypt during winter season, 2008, to study the effect of different solution fertilizers formula and organic manure on vegetative growth, heads yield quantity and quality as well as nutrient composition of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica.The obtained results showed that all mineral solution fertilizers gave a significant synergistic effect for broccoli growth, yield quantity and quality as well as nutrients composition compared the control (mineral N, P, K recommended fertilizers. The mineral formula 19: 19: 19 recorded the highest growth heads, yield and quality along with mineral content in broccoli. Using farmyard manure plus inorganic fertilizers enhanced all growth and yield parameters. Applying farmyard manure plus the mineral solution fertilizer formula 19: 19: 19 caused the superior and optimum figures of broccoli growth, mineral composition as well as heads yield quantity and quality. Organic manure alone recorded the lowest one.

  13. Effect of Different Growth State of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) on Low Temperature Induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xin-mei; LI Yue-fang; YU Xi-hong

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the responding of different growth state on low temperature in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), we took prematurity broccoli hybrid as the objects. It was found that growth state was varied under different sowing time , moreover, stem became wider with the increasing of light density at the same leaf age.Seedling age of responding to low temperature vernalization only when they grew five leaves above and with over 3.03± 0.07 centimeter stalk width in "Qingfeng Broccoli 103". The older leaf age was and the stronger plant was, the more sensitive and the shorter demanded duration time on low temperature was, and the shorter time required when the plants entered into critical period of floral bud differentiation.

  14. Anthocyanin Accumulation and Molecular Analysis of Correlated Genes in Purple Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Zongli; Zhu, Mingku; Zhu, Zhiguo; Wang, Zhijin; Tian, Shibing; Chen, Guoping

    2015-04-29

    Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.) is an important dietary vegetable cultivated and consumed widely for the round swollen stem. Purple kohlrabi shows abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and swollen stem. Here, different kinds of anthocyanins were separated and identified from the purple kohlrabi cultivar (Kolibri) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. In order to study the molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple kohlrabi, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and regulatory genes in purple kohlrabi and a green cultivar (Winner) was examined by quantitative PCR. In comparison with the colorless parts in the two cultivars, most of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and two transcription factors were drastically upregulated in the purple tissues. To study the effects of light shed on the anthocyanin accumulation of kohlrabi, total anthocyanin contents and transcripts of associated genes were analyzed in sprouts of both cultivars grown under light and dark conditions.

  15. Diversity of Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica): Glucosinolate Content and Phylogenetic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Christoph; Müller, Anja; Kuhnert, Nikolai; Albach, Dirk

    2016-04-27

    Recently, kale has become popular due to nutritive components beneficial for human health. It is an important source of phytochemicals such as glucosinolates that trigger associated cancer-preventive activity. However, nutritional value varies among glucosinolates and among cultivars. Here, we start a systematic determination of the content of five glucosinolates in 25 kale varieties and 11 non-kale Brassica oleracea cultivars by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) and compare the profiles with results from the analysis of SNPs derived from a KASP genotyping assay. Our results demonstrate that the glucosinolate levels differ markedly among varieties of different origin. Comparison of the phytochemical data with phylogenetic relationships revealed that the common name kale refers to at least three different groups. German, American, and Italian kales differ morphologically and phytochemically. Landraces do not show outstanding glucosinolate levels. Our results demonstrate the diversity of kale and the importance of preserving a broad genepool for future breeding purposes.

  16. Kinetics of Changes in Glucosinolate Concentrations during Long-Term Cooking of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. alba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volden, J.; Wicklund, T.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2008-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are the predominant dietary source of glucosinolates (GLS) that can be degraded in the intestinal tract into isothiocyanates, which have been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties. The effects of pilot-scale long-term boiling on GLS in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. s

  17. Factors affecting the glucosinolate content of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Pablo; Cartea, María Elena; Gonzalez, Carmen; Vilar, Marta; Ordas, Amando

    2007-02-07

    Kales (Brassica oleracea acephala group) are important vegetable crops in traditional farming systems in the Iberian Peninsula. They are grown throughout the year to harvest their leaves and flower buds. The glucosinolate content of kales is dependent upon the environmental factors, plant part examined, phenological stage of plant growth, and level of insect damage. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the changes in the total and individual glucosinolate concentrations during plant development and to determine if significant variation of glucosinolate levels can be explained by insect pests attack and other environmental factors in four locations in northwestern Spain. The total glucosinolate concentration in leaves of B. oleracea increased with plant age from seedling to early flowering stages. At that stage, the aliphatic glucosinolate content in leaves of B. oleracea declined drastically over time as the content in the flower buds increased. The highest contents of indolyl glucosinolate (glucobrassicin) and of the aromatic glucosinolate occurred in leaves harvested at the optimum consumption stage while flower buds contained the highest concentration of aliphatic glucosinolates, especially sinigrin. Sinigrin is reported to have anticarcinogenic properties. There appears to be a loss of total and individual glucosinolate concentrations related to pest attack. Leaves damaged by lepidopterous pests contained a lower total glucosinolate content (25.8 micromol g-1 dw) than undamaged leaves (41 micromol g-1 dw). The amounts of sinigrin, glucoiberin, and glucobrassicin were also lowest in insect-damaged leaves. Environmental factors such as soil properties and temperature appear to influence the glucosinolate content in leaves although more research on this subject is needed.

  18. Effect of Calcium Chloride and Cooling on Post-Harvest Brussels Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Rincón Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the demand of crucifers has increased and particularly of Brussels sprouts (Brassica genus, species Brassica oleracea L.; mainly due to their functional properties; however, this vegetable is perishable and with inadequate techniques in postharvest handling, considerable losses are generated. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of calcium chloride and cooling on postharvest behavior of Brussels sprouts. A completely randomized design was performed, treatments corresponded to three storage temperatures (4°C, 8°C and temperature (18°C and three concentrations of calcium chloride (0%, 2% and 4% were used. Sprouts were harvested at commercial maturity on a farm irrigation district in Usochicamocha, Boyacá Department; of uniform size, excellent plant health and free from mechanical damage conditions. For 19 days of storage, weight loss, respiratory rate and total chlorophyll were measured. Sprouts stored at room temperature lasted 11days postharvest, while cooled lasted for 19 days. A significant effect in reducing weight loss between those sprouts which were stored at 4°C and 8°C and treated with calcium chloride solution at 4% was observed. For the respiratory rate was observed a significant reduction insprouts stored at 4°C. Therefore the most favorable temperature for the storage of Brussels sprouts is 4°C and calcium chloride solution 4%,useful information for producers and marketers.

  19. BoS: a large and diverse family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wessler, Susan R

    2005-05-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous non-LTR retrotransposons that populate eukaryotic genomes. Numerous SINE families have been identified in animals, whereas only a few have been described in plants. Here we describe a new family of SINEs, named BoS, that is widespread in Brassicaceae and present at approximately 2000 copies in Brassica oleracea. In addition to sharing a modular structure and target site preference with previously described SINEs, BoS elements have several unusual features. First, the head regions of BoS RNAs can adopt a distinct hairpin-like secondary structure. Second, with 15 distinct subfamilies, BoS represents one of the most diverse SINE families described to date. Third, several of the subfamilies have a mosaic structure that has arisen through the exchange of sequences between existing subfamilies, possibly during retrotransposition. Analysis of BoS subfamilies indicate that they were active during various time periods through the evolution of Brassicaceae and that active elements may still reside in some Brassica species. As such, BoS elements may be a valuable tool as phylogenetic makers for resolving outstanding issues in the evolution of species in the Brassicaceae family.

  20. Heterodera schachtii nematodes interfere with aphid-plant relations on Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, W H Gera; De Boer, Wietse; Termorshuizen, Aad J; Meyer, Katrin M; Schneider, Johannes H M; Van Der Putten, Wim H; Van Dam, Nicole M

    2013-09-01

    Aboveground and belowground herbivore species modify plant defense responses differently. Simultaneous attack can lead to non-additive effects on primary and secondary metabolite composition in roots and shoots. We previously found that aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) population growth on Brassica oleracea was reduced on plants that were infested with nematodes (Heterodera schachtii) prior (4 weeks) to aphid infestation. Here, we examined how infection with root-feeding nematodes affected primary and secondary metabolites in the host plant and whether this could explain the increase in aphid doubling time from 3.8 to 6.7 days. We hypothesized that the effects of herbivores on plant metabolites would depend on the presence of the other herbivore and that nematode-induced changes in primary metabolites would correlate with reduced aphid performance. Total glucosinolate concentration in the leaves was not affected by nematode presence, but the composition of glucosinolates shifted, as gluconapin concentrations were reduced, while gluconapoleiferin concentrations increased in plants exposed to nematodes. Aphid presence increased 4-methoxyglucobrassicin concentrations in leaves, which correlated positively with the number of aphids per plant. Nematodes decreased amino acid and sugar concentrations in the phloem. Aphid population doubling time correlated negatively with amino acids and glucosinolate levels in leaves, whereas these correlations were non-significant when nematodes were present. In conclusion, the effects of an herbivore on plant metabolites were independent of the presence of another herbivore. Nematode presence reduced aphid population growth and disturbed feeding relations between plants and aphids.

  1. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS acc...

  2. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of bZIP Transcription Factors in Brassica oleracea under Cold Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Indeok; Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Kang, Jong-Goo; Chung, Mi-Young; Kim, Young-Wook; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Cabbages (Brassica oleracea L.) are an important vegetable crop around world, and cold temperature is among the most significant abiotic stresses causing agricultural losses, especially in cabbage crops. Plant bZIP transcription factors play diverse roles in biotic/abiotic stress responses. In this study, 119 putative BolbZIP transcription factors were identified using amino acid sequences from several bZIP domain consensus sequences. The BolbZIP members were classified into 63 categories bas...

  3. Physiological and biochemical adverse effects of heavy metals on Brassica oleracea grown in Sanganer area, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I

    2012-04-01

    The paper reveals results of a study carried out in agricultural fields of Sanganer town in India. This town is situated 20 km away from the heart of Jaipur city. In the study area (Amanishah Nalla Sanganer, Jaipur) vegetables are grown in the fields receiving sewerage and textile wastewater. Water, soil and crop (plant samples) were collected from the agricultural fields of Sanganer for analysis. Wastewater (from Amanishsh Nalla) used as irrigation water in agricultural fields of Sanganer town was found to contain 6.127 mg/ L of zinc, 7.116 mg/L of Copper, 5.114 mg/L of Chromium and 4.774 mg/L of lead as the highest amount of respective heavy metals. Soil from agricultural fields was found to contain 11.247 mg/g of zinc, 6.410 mg/g of Copper, 3.514 mg/g of Chromium and 2.619 mg/g of lead. Brassica oleracea (plant material) grown in the Sanganer area was analysed for heavy metal contents. Plant fruit contained 5.730 mg/g of zinc, 7.380 mg/g of Copper, 5.940 mg/g of Chromium and 2.170 mg/g of lead as the highest amount of heavy metals. Use of wasterwater alters the nutritional value of the vegetables grown here and in long run consumption of such vegetables may impose health hazards in human beings, which is a matter of concern.

  4. Molecular Modeling of Myrosinase from Brassica oleracea: A Structural Investigation of Sinigrin Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathishkumar Natarajan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrosinase, which is present in cruciferous plant species, plays an important role in the hydrolysis of glycosides such as glucosinolates and is involved in plant defense. Brassicaceae myrosinases are diverse although they share common ancestry, and structural knowledge about myrosinases from cabbage (Brassica oleracea was needed. To address this, we constructed a three-dimensional model structure of myrosinase based on Sinapis alba structures using Iterative Threading ASSEmbly Refinement server (I-TASSER webserver, and refined model coordinates were evaluated with ProQ and Verify3D. The resulting model was predicted with β/α fold, ten conserved N-glycosylation sites, and three disulfide bridges. In addition, this model shared features with the known Sinapis alba myrosinase structure. To obtain a better understanding of myrosinase–sinigrin interaction, the refined model was docked using Autodock Vina with crucial key amino acids. The key nucleophile residues GLN207 and GLU427 were found to interact with sinigrin to form a hydrogen bond. Further, 20-ns molecular dynamics simulation was performed to examine myrosinase–sinigrin complex stability, revealing that residue GLU207 maintained its hydrogen bond stability throughout the entire simulation and structural orientation was similar to that of the docked state. This conceptual model should be useful for understanding the structural features of myrosinase and their binding orientation with sinigrin.

  5. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins).

  6. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu2+ in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu2+ indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu2+ the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins.

  7. Brassica oleracea MATE encodes a citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinxin; Li, Ren; Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Haijun; Xing, Yanxia; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Na; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2014-08-01

    The secretion of organic acid anions from roots is an important mechanism for plant aluminum (Al) tolerance. Here we report cloning and characterizing BoMATE (KF031944), a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family gene from cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The expression of BoMATE was more abundant in roots than in shoots, and it was highly induced by Al treatment. The (14)C-citrate efflux experiments in oocytes demonstrated that BoMATE is a citrate transporter. Electrophysiological analysis and SIET analysis of Xenopus oocytes expressing BoMATE indicated BoMATE is activated by Al. Transient expression of BoMATE in onion epidermal cells demonstrated that it localized to the plasma membrane. Compared with the wild-type Arabidopsis, the transgenic lines constitutively overexpressing BoMATE enhanced Al tolerance and increased citrate secretion. In addition, Arabidopsis transgenic lines had a lower K(+) efflux and higher H(+) efflux, in the presence of Al, than control wild type in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). This is the first direct evidence that MATE protein is involved in the K(+) and H(+) flux in response to Al treatment. Taken together, our results show that BoMATE is an Al-induced citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  8. Functional properties of a chitinase promoter from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGGUOQING; YONGYANBAI; 等

    1996-01-01

    The 5'-region of the chitinase gene cabch29,derived from Brassica oleracea var.capitata,has been sequenced and analyzed for cis-acting elements important in controlling gene expression in transgenic tobacco plants.Different 5'-deletion fragments were linked to reporter gene β-glucuronidase (GUS) as translational fusions,and the expression of these chimeric genes was analyzed in vegetative organs and tissues.Sequences up to-651 showed some basal GUS activity with nearly equal levels in wounded and intact tissues.The addition of further upstream sequences(-651 to-1284) enhanced expression level,and the expression driven by this fragment was inducible by a factor of two to three-fold by wounding.Histochemical analysis of different tissue from transgenic plants that contain cabch29 promoter-gus fusion gene demonstrated woundinducible and tissue-specific cabch29 promoter activity in plants containing the 1308 base pair fragment.The location of GUS activity appears to be cell-specific,being highest in vascular cells and epidermal cells of stem,leaf and roots.Meanwhile,the temporal and spatial expression of cabch29-GUS fusion gene has been investigated.Among the different vegetative organs,a high level of GUS activity was observed in stem and a moderate one in roots;whereas,wounding stress led to a high level of GUS in stem and moderate one in leaf.

  9. Purification and characterization of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) myrosinase (β-thioglucosidase glucohydrolase).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Andrea; Angulo, Alejandro; Cabañas, Fernanda

    2014-12-03

    Myrosinase (β-thioglucosidase glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.147) from broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by concanavalin A affinity chromatography, with an intermediate dialysis step, resulting in 88% recovery and 1318-fold purification. These are the highest values reported for the purification of any myrosinase. The subunits of broccoli myrosinase have a molecular mass of 50-55 kDa. The native molecular mass of myrosinase was 157 kDa, and accordingly, it is composed of three subunits. The maximum activity was observed at 40 °C and at pH below 5.0. Kinetic assays demonstrated that broccoli myrosinase is subjected to substrate (sinigrin) inhibition. The Michaelis-Menten model, considering substrate inhibition, gave Vmax equal to 0.246 μmol min(-1), Km equal to 0.086 mM, and K(I) equal to 0.368 mM. This is the first study about purification and characterization of broccoli myrosinase.

  10. In vivo examination of the anticoagulant effect of the Brassica oleracea methanol extract

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    Khan Rafeeq Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticoagulant effect of the methanol extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (MEB was examined in rabbits. The animals were divided into five groups, each comprising seven animals. Three groups were administered increasing doses of MEB (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg, respectively; one group received warfarin (0.54 mg/kg; animals in the control group received saline (1 ml/day equivalent to the volume of doses applied to the treated and standard animals. Biochemical tests were performed on the 16th and 31st days of dosing. Animals that were administered MEB (500 mg MEB/kg 30 days displayed increases of 24.07 s, 28.79 s and 4.08 s in activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT, fibrinogen (Fg and thrombin time (TT. Compared to the control, the increase in aPTT and Fg was highly significant and the increase in TT was significant. The anticoagulant effect exhibited by MEB in rabbits may be due to inactivation or inhibition of factors affecting coagulation.

  11. Collembola Diversity between Chemical Pesticide and Bioinsecticide in Broccoli Farm (Brassica oleraceae var. italica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjaya, Y.; Suhara

    2017-02-01

    The existance of Collembola diversity was determined by how land system work. Farming systems with excessive pesticide application can reduce number of Collembola. On the other hand nowaday people aware of environment by using bioinsecticide. The Method were comparing two land system which use Chemical pestisice and Bioinsecticide. Procedure were using Trapping wells (PMS) in three plots; T0: control without treatment, T1: Chemical Insecticide, T2 : Bioinsecticide for 24 hours. The factors that measure are abiotic factors by taking 10 grams of soil planting Broccoli (Brassica oleraceae var Italica), after 24 hours of taking separates it with other land animals, then identifying Collembola species were using Microcam based on identification book of Collembola. The result showed that density and Biodiversity of land system bioinsecticide was the highest value and indic. It was found also that in Broccoli farm dicovered 3 Familia and 8 species of Collembola both litter and soil. Species found that Isotomurus sp, Seira sp, Lepidosira sp, Coecobrya sp, Callyntura sp, Homidia sp, Sallina sp and Ascocytrus sp, three Family is derived from Isotomidae, Entomobryidae and Paronellid.

  12. Deep roots of Brassica oleracea have high uptake of 15N-nitrate to 2 meters soil depth

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, H.L.; Thorup-Kristensen, K

    2006-01-01

    • Deep roots may be important for uptake of NO3- by annual crops. A field experiment with the deep rooted crop curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala (DC.) Alef. var. sabellica L.) was performed to investigate root distribution and N uptake in deep soil layers. • Root distribution was investigated by use of minirhizotrons and root extractions to 2.4 m depth. The capacity for crop N uptake was studied by deep 15NO3- placement followed by analysis of plant 15N content after 3-30 d...

  13. Composition and antioxidant activity of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala raw and cooked

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    Izabela Bodziarczyk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Cabbage vegetables, like Brassica group, are perceived as very valuable food products. They have a very good nutritive value, high antioxidant activity and pro-healthy potential. Especially, kale (Brassica oleraceaL. var.acephala is characterized by good nutritional and pro-healthy properties, but this vegetable is not popular in Poland. The aim of this work was to assess the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of kale variety Winterbor F1 and investigation of cooking process on selected characteristics. Material and methods. The chemical composition and antioxidant activity were determined in leaves of kale Winterbor F1 variety after three subsequent years of growing. In one season, analyses were performed on raw and cooked leaves. Results. The investigated kale was characterized by high average contents of: β-carotene (6.40 mg/100 g f.m., vitamin C (62.27 mg/100 g f.m., alimentary fiber (8.39 g/100 g f.m. and ash (2.11 g/100 g f.m.. The average amounts of nitrites (III and (V were 3.36 mg NaNO2/kg f.m. and 1206.4 mg NaNO3/kg f.m., respectively. The investigated kale contained polyphenolic compounds at average level of 574.9 mg of chlorogenic acid/100 g f.m., and its antioxidant activity measured as ABTS radical scavenging ability was 33.22 μM Trolox/g of fresh vegetable. It was observed a significant lowering of antioxidant compounds as a result of cooking. The losses of vitamin C were at about 89%, polyphenols at the level of 56%, in calculation on dry mass of the product. The highest stability was shown in the case of beta-carotene, for which the losses were at about 5%. Antioxidant activity of cooked vegetable lowered and reached the level of 38%. There were also some losses observed in macro-components from 13% for zinc to 47% for sodium. The contents of harmful nitrites and nitrates in calculation on dry mass were significantly lower as a result of cooking, by 67% and 78%, respectively. Conclusion. Winterbor F1

  14. Salinity in the germination of Brassicas oleracea L. var. itálica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilson Pinheiro Lopes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The demand for vegetable seeds with high quality and the achievement of vigorous seedlings is increasing, because these characteristics determine the success of the production. The use of some areas such as arid and semiarid regions runs into some obstacles such as salinity and potential sodicity of water used for irrigation, whose main purpose is to provide adequate moisture for growth and development of plants in order to increase productivity and consequently, reduce the effects of drought. This study aims to assess the seed germination and vigor of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. itálica cv. Santana, under the influence of salt stress. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Analysis of Seeds and Seedlings of the Centro de Ciências e Tecnologia Agroalimentar da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB-Pombal, in completely randomized design, with treatments arranged in 2x5 factorial scheme, corresponding to two lots of seeds (not aged and aged and osmotic potentials of five soaking solution (0, –0.2, –0.4, –0.6 and –0.8 MPa. Seeds were germinated in Petri dishes on two sheets of filter paper moistened with saline (NaCl at different concentrations and maintained in germination temperature of 20-30º C and photoperiod-eight hours, after were subjected to assessment of their physiological quality through tests of germination and vigor. The presence of salts in the soaking solution resulted in decreased seed vigor as the osmotic potential of the soaking solution has become more negative, indicating that the seeds of broccoli cultivar Santana has low tolerance to salinity.

  15. Effect of extracts of the reproductive organs of brassica oleracea L. on morphogenesis in Vitro

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    R.N. KIRAKOSJAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, cabbage is the most common vegetable. The reason is very tasty and chemical composition. It contains 2,6-5,7% sugar, 1,1-2,3% of the proteins, minerals phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, iodine, etc. The most important problem of selection is still reducing the time to development new varieties.Broad prospects in the intensification of the selection process opens the application of modern techniques of applied genetics and applied biotechnology, combined with hybridization and selection. Great theoretical and practical interest, in particular, the use of haploidy. Method dihaploids allows significant acceleration of the process of selection of all cultivated plants.Work carried out on varieties and F1 hybrids of the genus Brassica: cabbage (B. oleracea L.: F1 hybrid Jubilei, line ET1 and AMF 3L. Plants - donors were grown in a greenhouse of the Breeding Timofeev-station of RSAU-MTAA during the year. Objects of our research were isolated anthers, microspores, ovaries and ovules of cabbage.Studied the effects of extracts derived from the reproductive organs of cabbage. As the solvent used: DMSO, acetone, alcohol and water. The extracts were added to a sterile medium. For cabbage we have optimized steps of obtaining regenerated plants by direct embryogenesis from microspores of isolated anthers. Found that the presence of hormones in MS medium at a concentration of NAA 1 mg / l, Dropp - 0.01 mg / l stimulated the process of direct embryogenesis. In these conditions the microspores in anther maintain their viability for a long growing in in vitro. The addition of DMSO-based extracts and acetone resulted in the induction of development of the ovaries and ovules. This was manifested in the growth of the ovaries and the formation of larger ovules. In variants with water and alcohol, this effect was not observed.

  16. Fine Mapping and Transcriptome Analysis Reveal Candidate Genes Associated with Hybrid Lethality in Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiliang; Hu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xue, Yuqian; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Liu, Xing; Liu, Zezhou; Lv, Honghao; Zhuang, Mu

    2017-06-05

    Hybrid lethality is a deleterious phenotype that is vital to species evolution. We previously reported hybrid lethality in cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and performed preliminary mapping of related genes. In the present study, the fine mapping of hybrid lethal genes revealed that BoHL1 was located on chromosome C1 between BoHLTO124 and BoHLTO130, with an interval of 101 kb. BoHL2 was confirmed to be between insertion-deletion (InDels) markers HL234 and HL235 on C4, with a marker interval of 70 kb. Twenty-eight and nine annotated genes were found within the two intervals of BoHL1 and BoHL2, respectively. We also applied RNA-Seq to analyze hybrid lethality in cabbage. In the region of BoHL1, seven differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and five resistance (R)-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo1g153320 and Bo1g153380) were found, whereas in the region of BoHL2, two DEGs and four R-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo4g173780 and Bo4g173810) were found. Along with studies in which R genes were frequently involved in hybrid lethality in other plants, these interesting R-DEGs may be good candidates associated with hybrid lethality. We also used SNP/InDel analyses and quantitative real-time PCR to confirm the results. This work provides new insight into the mechanisms of hybrid lethality in cabbage.

  17. The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Willigen, de P.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was studied in four field experiments. The methods of application were broadcast application vs band placement and split application. Maximum uptake of nitrogen b

  18. Atmospheric H2S as sulphur source for Brassica oleracea : Consequences for the activity of the enzymes of the assimilatory sulphate reduction pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, S; Stulen, I.; Suter, M; Brunold, C; De Kok, LJ

    2001-01-01

    Short-term exposure of Brassica oleracea L. (curly kale) to atmospheric H2S levels (0.2-0.8 muL .L-1), which an sufficient to meet the plants sulphur requirement, resulted in a decrease in the activity of adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate reductase (APR) in the shoot. The reduction in APR activity was ma

  19. Impact of atmospheric sulfur deposition on sulfur metabolism in plants : H2S as sulfur source for sulfur deprived Brassica oleracea L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kok, L.J.; Stuiver, C.E.E.; Rubinigg, M.; Westerman, S.; Grill, D.

    1997-01-01

    Brassica oleracea L. was rather insensitive to atmospheric H2S: growth was only negatively affected at greater than or equal to 0.4 mu l l(-1). Shoots formed a sink for H2S and the uptake rate showed saturation kinetics with respect to the atmospheric concentration. The H2S uptake rate was high in c

  20. Evaluation of antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage on Wistar rat gastric ulceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Amaro de Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata is an herbaceous and leafy plant which belongs to the Brassicaceae family, native to coastal southern and Western Europe. Used in cooking for its nutritional value also has known anti-inflammatory activity. OBJECTIVE We studied the antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (AEB in order to validate ethnobotanical claims regarding the plant use in the gastric disorders. METHOD: Acute gastric ulcers were induced in rats by the oral administration of acetylsalicylic acid. The gastroprotective potential of the AEB (0.250, 0.500 and 1.000 mg.kg-1/body weight was compared with omeprazole (20 mg.kg-1/body weight. RESULTS: The stomach analysis indicated that treatment with AEB inhibited the gastric damage. The gastroprotective activity as evidenced by its significant inhibition in the formation of ulcers induced by chemical agent with a maximum of 99.44% curation (250 mg.kg-1 body weight in acetylsalicylic acid-induced ulcers. CONCLUSIONS: The AEB demonstrated good antiulcerogenic activities which justify the inclusion of this plant in the management of gastric disorders. Further experiments are underway to determine which antiulcer mechanisms involved in gastroprotection.

  1. PENERAPAN PANJANG TALANG DAN JARAK TANAM DENGAN SISTEM HIDROPONIK NFT (Nutrient Film Technique PADA TANAMAN KAILAN (Brassica oleraceae var. alboglabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daviv Zali Vidianto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kailan vegetables is one kind of high economic value that can be grown in hydroponic NFT (Nutrient Film Technique. The purpose of this study to determine the effect of chamfer length and spacing of the system hydroponic NFT (Nutrient Film Technique on the growth and yield kailan (Brassica oleraceae var. Alboglabra. The research has been done in the greenhouse of the Faculty of Agriculture, University Department Agroekoteknologi Trunojoyo Madura District Kamal village Telang Bangkalan. Tat is was conducted in February-May 2012. Research using methods completely randomized design (CRD with non factorial treatment chamfer length 2 m with spacing of 15 cm (P1J1, chamfer length 2 m with spacing of 20 cm (P1J2, chamfer length of 4 m with spacing of 15 cm (P2J1 and chamfer length of 4 m with spacing of 20 cm (P2J2. The materials used are kailan seeds, fertilizers and hydroponics Goodplant acetic acid (CH3COOH. Observations were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan continued Test Distance (UJD level of 5%. P1J1 (chamfer length of 2 meters and 15 cm plant spacing gives the best effect on the variable root length, number of leaves and plant canopy wet weight. The treatment does’n effect to variable leaf area, root wet weight, dry weight, and root dry weight of the plant canopyKeyword : Brassica oleraceae var. Alboglabra, hydroponik NFT, chamfer length and spacing

  2. Karyotyping of Brassica oleracea L.based on rDNA and Cot-1 DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Taixia; WU Chunhong; HUANG Jinyong; WEI Wenhui

    2007-01-01

    To explore an effective and reliable karyotyping method in Brassica crop plants,Cot-1 DNA was isolated from Brassica oleracea genome,labeled as probe with Biotin-Nick Translation Mix kit,in situ hybridized to mitotic spreads,and where specific fluorescent bands showed on each chromosome pair.25S and 5S rDNA were labeled as probes with DIG-Nick Translation Mix kit and Biotin-Nick Translation Mix kit,respectively,in situ hybridized to mitotic preparations,where 25S rDNA could be detected on two chromosome pairs and 5S rDNA on only one.Cot-1 DNA contains rDNA and chromosome sites identity between Cot-1 DNA and 25S rDNA was determined by dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization.All these showed that the karyotyping technique based on a combination of rDNA and Cot-1 DNA chromosome landmarks is superior to all but one.A more exact karyotype ofB.oleracea has been analyzed based on a combination of rDNA sites,Cot-1 DNA fluorescent bands,chromosome lengths and arm ratios.

  3. Effect of chlormequat (cycocel) on the growth of ornamental cabbage and kale (Brassica oleracea) cultivars 'Kamome White' and 'Nagoya Red'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour, Abdollah; Hashemabadi, Davood; Sedaghathoor, Shahram; Kaviani, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of concentration and application method of chlormequat (cycocel), a plant growth retardant, on plant height and some other traits in Brassica oleracea cultivars 'Kamome White' and 'Nagoya Red' was assessed. Plant growth retardants are commonly applied to limit stem elongation and produce a more compact plant. The experiment was done as a factorial in randomized completely blocks design (RCBD) with four replications. Plants (40 days after transplanting) were sprayed and drenched with 500, 1000 and 1500 mg l(-1) cycocel. In each experiment, control untreated plants. Data were recorded the 60 and 90 days after transplanting. Based on analysis of variance (ANOVA), the effect of different treatments and their interaction on all traits was significant at 0.05 or 0.01 level of probability. Treatment of 1500 mg I(-1) cycocel resulted in about 50 and 20% shorter plants than control plants, 60 and 90 days after transplant. The growth of Brassica oleracea cultivar 'Kamome White' and 'Nagoya Red' decreased with increased cycocel concentration. Foliar sprays of cycocel controlled plant height of both cultivars. Results indicated that the shortest plants (9.94 and 11.59 cm) were those sprayed with 1500 mg l(-1) cycocel in cultivar 'Kamome White' after 60 and 90 days, respectively. The largest number of leaves (33.94) and highest leaf diameter (9.39 cm) occurred in cv. 'Nagoya Red', when drench was used. Maximum dry matter (14.31%) accumulated in cv. 'Nagoya Red', treated with spray.

  4. Analysis of F1 hybrid and BC1 monosomic alien addition line plants from Brassica oleracea × Sinapis alba by GISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Wenhui; ZHANG Sufeng; LI Jun; WANG Lijun; CHEN Bo; FANG Xiaoping; WANG Zhuan; LUO Lixia

    2006-01-01

    Sterile and semi-fertile F1 plants were obtained by intergeneric sexual hybridization between paternal Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra (genome CC, 2n=18) and maternal Sinapis alba (genome SS, 2n=24), BC1 plants were obtained by backcrossing between paternal B. oleracea and maternal semi-fertile F1 plants. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) combined with dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (dcFISH) showed that sterile F1 plants contained 21 chromosomes consisting of one B. oleracea chromosome set and one S.alba chromosome set, belonging to expected hybrids,and semi-fertile F1 plants contained 30 chromosomes consisting of two B. oleracea chromosome sets and one S. alba chromosome set. It is obvious that the semi-fertile F1 plants belong to unexpected hybrids.1 -3 trivalents were detected at meiotic metaphase I of semi-fertile F1 pollen mother cells (PMCs). Different separation ratios of S chromosomes were detected at anaphase I. A monosomic alien addition line(MAAL) was identified by GISH-dcFISH from BC1plants; it contained 19 chromosomes consisting of 18 C chromosomes and 1 S chromosome. At meiotic metaphase I, 9 divalents from B. oleracea and one univalent from S. alba could be detected. Sometimes,one putative C-S trivalent could also be detected.The achievement of B. oleracea-S, alba monosomic alien addition lines lays a foundation for gene introgression, location and cloning.

  5. Comparative evolution history of SINEs in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea: evidence for a high rate of SINE loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, A; Pélissier, T; Bousquet-Antonelli, C; Deragon, J M

    2005-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana belong to the Brassicaceae(Cruciferae) family and diverged 16 to 19 million years ago. Although the genome size of B. oleracea (approximately 600 million base pairs) is more than four times that of A. thaliana (approximately 130 million base pairs), their gene content is believed to be very similar with more than 85% sequence identity in the coding region. Therefore, this important difference in genome size is likely to reflect a different rate of non-coding DNA accumulation. Transposable elements (TEs) constitute a major fraction of non-coding DNA in plant species. A different rate in TE accumulation between two closely related species can result in significant genome size variations in a short evolutionary period. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retroposons that have invaded the genome of most eukaryote species. Several SINE families are present in B. oleracea and A. thaliana and we found that two of them (called RathE1 and RathE2) are present in both species. In this study, the tempo of evolution of RathE1 and RathE2 SINE families in both species was compared. We observed that most B. oleracea RathE2 SINEs are "young" (close to the consensus sequence) and abundant while elements from this family are more degenerated and much less abundant in A. thaliana. However, the situation is different for the RathE1 SINE family for which the youngest elements are found in A. thaliana. Surprisingly, no SINE was found to occupy the same (orthologous) genomic locus in both species suggesting that either these SINE families were not amplified at a significant rate in the common ancestor of the two species or that older elements were lost and only the recent (lineage-specific) insertions remain. To test this latter hypothesis, loci containing a recently inserted SINE in the A. thaliana col-0 ecotype were selected and characterized in several other A. thaliana ecotypes. In addition to the expected SINE containing

  6. Cauliflower Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray What's Cauliflower Ear? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cauliflower Ear? Print A A A Have you ever seen someone whose ear looks bumpy and lumpy? The person might have ...

  7. Synchronizing legume residue nutrient release with Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) uptake in a Nitrosol of Kabete, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onwonga, Richard N.; Chepkoech, Caroline; Wahome, R.G.

    fertility improvement for crop production e.g. kales (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) under organic farming systems. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) are leguminous crops commonly intercropped with kales (Genga, 2014) and their influence on crop yield and soil nutrient status...... has been widely studied (Nduku 2014, Genga 2014; Onwonga et al., 2015). There is however a dearth of information with respect to synchronization of nutrient released by legume residues with pattern of nutrient uptake by kales to match their demand. The objective of the current study was therefore...... to assess decomposition and nutrient release rates of chickpea and lupin residues and kale nutrient uptake patterns for better synchrony of nutrient supply and demand....

  8. UTILIZACIÓN DEL SUBPRODUCTO DE FIQUE: LICOR VERDE, COMO CONTROLADOR DE PLAGAS EN EL CULTIVO DE REPOLLO (Brassica oleracea DO FIQUE SUBPRODUTOS UTILIZAÇÃO: LICOR VERDE COMO UM CONTROLADOR DE PRAGAS NA CULTURA DO REPOLHO (Brassica oleracea FIQUE SUBPRODUCT UTILIZATION: GREEN LIQUOR AS A PEST CONTROL IN THE CULTURE OFCABBAGE (Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHON F. IMBACHÍ-HOYOS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En el vivero forestal 'La Florida' de la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Cauca CRC, se evaluó el efecto del extracto de fique (Furcraea sp como controlador de plagas en el cultivo de repollo (Brassica oleracea. Se utilizaron cuatro tratamientos (blanco, solución extracto de fique al 30% v/v, 20% v/v, 10% v/v. Las mediciones se hicieron durante seis semanas para vigor, altura, diámetro, daño por plagas y daño por enfermedades. La aplicación fue de una vez durante las tres primeras semanas; y las tres siguientes la aplicación fue de dos por semana. Los resultados se analizaron utilizando el paquete estadístico SPSS 11.5, se realizó una ANOVA con un nivel de confianza del 95% (p = 0,05 y una prueba de Tuckey. El análisis muestra que la aplicación del extracto dos veces por semana (extracto de fique al 30% v/v, presentó el mejor control de plagas, disminuyendo la presencia de daños por las plagas: mariposa blanca (Pieris sp. palomilla (Plutella xylostella y áfidos (Brevicoryne brassicae y Myzus persicae.No viveiro floresta 'La Florida' da Corporação Autônoma Regional do Cauca (CRC se abalizou o efeito do extrato de fique (Furcraea sp como controlador de plagas no cultivo de repolho (Brassica oleracea. Utilizarão- se quatro tratamentos (Branco, solução extrato de fique a 30% v/v, 20% v/v e 10% v/v. As medições fizeram-se durante seis semanas para vigor, altura, diâmetro, dano por pragas y dano por enfermidades. A aplicação foi de uma vez durante as três primeiras semanas; y as três seguintes a aplicação foi de duas por semanas. Os resultados analisaram-se utilizando o paquete estadístico SPSS 11.5, realizaram-se uma ANOVA com um nível de confiança dos 95% (p = 0,05 e uma proba de Tuckey. A análise mostra que a aplicação do extrato duas vezes por semana (extrato de fique a 30% v/v, apresentou o melhor controle de pragas reduzindo a presencia de danos por as pragas: Borboleta branca (Pieris sp, mariposa (Plutella

  9. Cloning and sequence analysis of a mutation-type cinnamate 4-hydroxylase gene from Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anhe CHEN; Jiana LI; Yourong CHAI; Rui WANG; Jun LU

    2008-01-01

    A 2431-bp full-length cinnamate 4-hydroxylase gene, BoC4H, was cloned from Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.. It contains 2 introns. Its mRNA is 1715 bp, encoding a deduced 481-amino-acid polypeptide with wide homologies to C4Hs from other plants. It possesses cytochrome P450 conserved domains and motifs such as the haem-iron binding motif, the E-R-R triad, the T-con-taining binding pocket motif and the hinge motif neces-sary for optimal orientation of the enzyme. It also has most of the canonical C4H/CYP73A5-featured sub-strate-recognition sites (SRSs) and active site residues. However, owing to a single-base deletion at C2242 and subsequent frame shift within the 3' coding region as com-pared with C4H genes from Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants, BoC4H shows a 36-aa deletion/variation at its C-terminus and the SRS6 motif together with active site residues therein are absent. Thus BoC4H may be of no function or low activity. BoC4H is a membrane protein and is probably associated with the endoplasmic reticu-lure. Its secondary structure is dominated by alpha helices and random coils. The Swiss-Model could not predict its tertiary structure. B. oleracea contains a C4H gene family with at least 5 members.

  10. Identification of metabolic QTLs and candidate genes for glucosinolate synthesis in Brassica oleracea leaves, seeds and flower buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sotelo

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are major secondary metabolites found in the Brassicaceae family. These compounds play an essential role in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses, but more interestingly they have beneficial effects on human health. We performed a genetic analysis in order to identify the genome regions regulating glucosinolates biosynthesis in a DH mapping population of Brassica oleracea. In order to obtain a general overview of regulation in the whole plant, analyses were performed in the three major organs where glucosinolates are synthesized (leaves, seeds and flower buds. Eighty two significant QTLs were detected, which explained a broad range of variability in terms of individual and total glucosinolate (GSL content. A meta-analysis rendered eighteen consensus QTLs. Thirteen of them regulated more than one glucosinolate and its content. In spite of the considerable variability of glucosinolate content and profiles across the organ, some of these consensus QTLs were identified in more than one tissue. Consensus QTLs control the GSL content by interacting epistatically in complex networks. Based on in silico analysis within the B. oleracea genome along with synteny with Arabidopsis, we propose seven major candidate loci that regulate GSL biosynthesis in the Brassicaceae family. Three of these loci control the content of aliphatic GSL and four of them control the content of indolic glucosinolates. GSL-ALK plays a central role in determining aliphatic GSL variation directly and by interacting epistatically with other loci, thus suggesting its regulatory effect.

  11. Cloning and analysis of a γ-tocopherol methyltransferase gene from Brassica oleracea and the function of its recombinant protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The full-length cDNA (BoTMT) of γ-TMT is obtained from Brassica oleracea by 3′- and 5′-RACE methods. The 1265 bp cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1044 bp, which encodes a protein of 347 amino acids with a predicted chloroplast transit peptide and two S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-binding domains. Sequence analysis shows that the deduced protein shares 41.8%~86.5% similarity to known γ-TMTs. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR reveals that BoTMT is expressed preferentially in flowers and leaves of B. oleracea. The recombinant γ-TMT protein is obtained by cloning its encoding region into the prokaryotic expression vector pET30a. The protein expressed in E. coli accounts for 22% of total bacterial protein. The enzyme activity assay indicates that the recombinant protein has relatively high activity to convert γ-tocopherol to α-tocopherol in vitro.

  12. Identification of metabolic QTLs and candidate genes for glucosinolate synthesis in Brassica oleracea leaves, seeds and flower buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Tamara; Soengas, Pilar; Velasco, Pablo; Rodríguez, Víctor M; Cartea, María Elena

    2014-01-01

    Glucosinolates are major secondary metabolites found in the Brassicaceae family. These compounds play an essential role in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses, but more interestingly they have beneficial effects on human health. We performed a genetic analysis in order to identify the genome regions regulating glucosinolates biosynthesis in a DH mapping population of Brassica oleracea. In order to obtain a general overview of regulation in the whole plant, analyses were performed in the three major organs where glucosinolates are synthesized (leaves, seeds and flower buds). Eighty two significant QTLs were detected, which explained a broad range of variability in terms of individual and total glucosinolate (GSL) content. A meta-analysis rendered eighteen consensus QTLs. Thirteen of them regulated more than one glucosinolate and its content. In spite of the considerable variability of glucosinolate content and profiles across the organ, some of these consensus QTLs were identified in more than one tissue. Consensus QTLs control the GSL content by interacting epistatically in complex networks. Based on in silico analysis within the B. oleracea genome along with synteny with Arabidopsis, we propose seven major candidate loci that regulate GSL biosynthesis in the Brassicaceae family. Three of these loci control the content of aliphatic GSL and four of them control the content of indolic glucosinolates. GSL-ALK plays a central role in determining aliphatic GSL variation directly and by interacting epistatically with other loci, thus suggesting its regulatory effect.

  13. Screening and Identifying Two Specific Molecular Markers in Maintainer Line of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var.botrytis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.G. Wang; J.M. Gao; H. Li; Y. Gu; X.Q. Chen; W.Q. Song

    2007-01-01

    @@ Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait that prevents the production of function pollen, but maintains female fertility. It has been widely used in breeding programs to product F1 hybrid seed in some crops (Hanson, 1991).

  14. A comparison of Peronospora parasitica (Downy mildew) isolates from Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea using amplified fragment length polymorphism and internal transcribed spacer 1 sequence analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmany, A P; Lynn, J R; Tör, M; Holub, E B; Beynon, J L

    2000-07-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences from 27 Peronospora parasitica isolates (collected from Arabidopsis thaliana or Brassica oleracea), 5 Albugo candida isolates (from the same hosts and from Capsella bursa-pastoris), and 1 Bremia lactucae isolate (from Lactuca sativa) were compared. The AFLP analysis divided the isolates into five groups that correlated with taxonomic species and, in most cases, with host origin. The only exception was a group consisting of A. candida isolates from both B. oleracea and C. bursa-pastoris. ITS1 sequence analysis divided the isolates into the same five groups, demonstrated the divergence between P. parasitica isolates from A. thaliana and B. oleracea, and, using previously published ITS1 sequences, clearly showed the relationship between A. candida isolates from different hosts.

  15. Influence of Light and Temperature on Gene Expression Leading to Accumulation of Specific Flavonol Glycosides and Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives in Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica)

    OpenAIRE

    Neugart, Susanne; Krumbein, Angelika; Zrenner, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Light intensity and temperature are very important signals for the regulation of plant growth and development. Plants subjected to less favorable light or temperature conditions often respond with accumulation of secondary metabolites. Some of these metabolites have been identified as bioactive compounds, considered to exert positive effects on human health when consumed regularly. In order to test a typical range of growth parameters for the winter crop Brassica oleracea var. sabellica, plan...

  16. Influence of light and temperature on gene expression leading to accumulation of specific flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica)

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne eNeugart; Angelika eKrumbein; Rita Maria eZrenner

    2016-01-01

    Light intensity and temperature are very important signals for the regulation of plant growth and development. Plants subjected to less favorable light or temperature conditions often respond with accumulation of secondary metabolites. Some of these metabolites have been identified as bioactive compounds, considered to exert positive effects on human health when consumed regularly. In order to test a typical range of growth parameters for the winter crop Brassica oleracea var. sabellica, plan...

  17. Biological effects of pollution and problems of the environment in the region of Birsesti (Town of Jiu), Romania. [Triticum vulgare; Zea mays; Brassica oleracea; Vitis vinifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionescu, A.; Neamu, G.

    1973-01-01

    The vegetation around Birsesti showed diminished chlorophyll pigment by as much as 20% below control plants. In Triticum vulgare, Zea mays and Brassica oleracea there was a reduction in functioning stomata. The mechanical blockage by cement dust induced changes in the leaf veins. Plant productivity and dry weight were reduced. A reduction of 250% in Vitis vinifera cultivation was reduced to about 1/3 that of unaffected areas. 16 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  18. The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    OpenAIRE

    Everaarts, A.P.; Willigen, de, P.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was studied in four field experiments. The methods of application were broadcast application vs band placement and split application. Maximum uptake of nitrogen by the crop was around 300 kg ha-1. In one experiment, band placement positively influenced nitrogen uptake. Split application did not influence nitrogen uptake. Nitrogen application resulted in a h...

  19. Impact of Vermicompost on Growth and Development of Cabbage, Brassica oleracea Linn. and their Sucking Pest, Brevicoryne brassicae Linn. (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulusew Getnet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to produce vermicompost from organic solid wastes by using red earth worm, Eisenia fetida and to check growth promoting and pest suppression properties on cabbage, Brassica oleracea. The mass of 100 kg of various organic waste sources were collected from Gondar and used to prepare vermicompost. The vermicompost was prepared in the month of June-August 2011 and tested on cabbage, B. oleracea from October 2011 to February 2012. Vermicompost was applied at the rate of 25, 50, 100 and 200 gm/plant individually. Each application 10 plants were selected and vermicompost application was continued on bimonthly basis. Totally 40 plants were used for control group in which 10 plants were selected randomly. Total number of leaves per plant; leaf length and width; plant stand height and root length; cabbage head round distance and weight and aphid population built-up were the parameters studied in experimental and control cabbage plants. Significant differences (p<0.05; LSD were observed in the growth and development and pest infestation level between vermicompost applied and control plants. The number of plant stand height, cabbage head, leaves of cabbage were also significantly different (p<0.05; LSD in experimental cabbage compared to control. Maximum number of cabbage plant was infested by aphid in control than experimental groups. In conclusion vermicompost have significant impact on cabbage growth promotion and reduce the aphid infestation. In future using vermicompost to all kinds of crops and adopting it as commercial fertilizer may create job opportunity to small scale farming society. Also, in this ever escalating cost of chemical fertilizers, the use of vermicompost seems to be quite reasonable in agro-management and should be inclusive as one of the elements of poverty alleviation strategies in such as Ethiopian context.

  20. Nutritional and nutraceutical potential of rape (Brassica napus L. Var. napus) and "tronchuda" cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. Var. costata) inflorescences

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Cátia Emanuela Oliveira; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Two traditional cultivated vegetables highly consumed among Northern Portuguese regions were tested for their chemical composition, nutritional profile and in vitro antioxidant properties using four assays: 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of -carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The studied varieties of two Brassica species, locally known as “grelos” (rap...

  1. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation in minimally processed vegetables of Brassica oleracea species; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama em vegetais da especie Brassica oleracea minimamente processados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    The consumption of collard greens (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has been inversely associated with morbidity and mortality caused by degenerative diseases. These species are highly consumed in Brazil, which enables its use as minimally processed (MP). The growing worldwide concern with the storage, nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food has led to many studies aimed at microbiological analysis, vitamin and shelf life. To improve the quality of these products, radiation processing can be effective in maintaining the quality of the product, rather compromising their nutritional values and sensory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses of 0, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy on the reduction of microbiota in these plants, and analyze their nutritional and sensory characteristics. The methodology used in this study was microbiological analysis, colorimetric analysis, analysis of phenolic compounds, antioxidant analysis and sensory analysis. The microbiological analysis showed a decrease in the development of populations of aerobic microorganisms, psychotropic and yeast and mold with increasing doses of radiation. The sensory analysis showed no significant difference between different times of cooking analyzed. The analysis of phenolic compounds, significant differences between the samples, suggesting that with increasing dose of irradiation was an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds found in broccoli and collard greens MP. It can be observed that the sample of control collard greens showed high antioxidant activity and for the samples treated by irradiation was a decrease of percentage. In contrast the samples of broccoli show an increase in the rate of scavenging DPPH with increase of the dose of radiation. The colorimetric analysis revealed that for samples of MP collard greens and broccoli foil of no significant differences, but for samples of

  2. Preliminary Studies on Isozymes and Protein of Hybrid from Brassica napus × Brassica oleracea%甘蓝型油菜(Eru CMS)与甘蓝种间杂种的同工酶和蛋白质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红美; 徐跃进; 万正杰

    2011-01-01

    经胚抢救获得甘蓝型油菜(Brassica napus L.)(Eru CMS)与甘蓝(Brassica oleracea L.var.capitata L.)种间杂种,前期经过流式细胞仪、柱头染色体数目、花粉活力等分析获得一些真杂种.利用电泳法,对真杂种植株的3种同工酶(SOD、EST、COD)和蛋白质进行详细分析,了解了杂种与亲本的同工酶和蛋白质的特性差异.结果表明,杂种与亲本之间的同工酶和蛋白质存在较明显的差异:杂种的SOD、COD的酶带表现为偏父本甘蓝型;杂种的EST的酶带表现为偏母本油菜型;杂种的蛋白质电泳表现为不仅具有双亲的特征蛋白带,也有其自身特征蛋白带.%Brassica napus x Brassica oleracea hybrids were obtained by embryo rescue technology and identified by flow cytometry analysis, chromosome count of stigma cells, and pollen viability tests. Patterns of isozyme and protein of the real hybrids were studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition, isozyme (SOD, EST, and COD) and protein patterns were compared with those of the parents, with obvious variations observed. Results also showed that the SOD and COD patterns of the hybrids were similar to Brassica oleracea, while the EST pattern was similar to the female parent. The protein pattern mainly showed parental complements, with new bonds also possessing their own characters.

  3. Spent Mushroom Waste as a Media Replacement for Peat Moss in Kai-Lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sendi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peat moss (PM is the most widely used growing substrate for the pot culture. Due to diminishing availability and increasing price of PM, researchers are looking for viable alternatives for peat as a growth media component for potted plants. A pot study was conducted with a view to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom waste (SMW for Kai-lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra production replacing peat moss (PM in growth media. The treatments evaluated were 100% PM (control, 100% SMW, and mixtures of SMW and PM in different ratios like 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 (v/v with/without NPK amendment. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications per treatment. Chemical properties like pH and salinity level (EC of SMW were within the acceptable range of crop production but, nutrient content, especially nitrogen content was not enough to provide sufficient nutrition to plant for normal growth. Only PM (100% and SMW and PM mixture in 1 : 1 ratio with NPK amendment performed equally in terms of Kai-lan growth. This study confirms the feasibility of replacing PM by SMW up to a maximum of 50% in the growth media and suggests that NPK supplementation from inorganic sources is to ensure a higher productivity of Kai-lan.

  4. Spent mushroom waste as a media replacement for peat moss in Kai-Lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendi, H; Mohamed, M T M; Anwar, M P; Saud, H M

    2013-01-01

    Peat moss (PM) is the most widely used growing substrate for the pot culture. Due to diminishing availability and increasing price of PM, researchers are looking for viable alternatives for peat as a growth media component for potted plants. A pot study was conducted with a view to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom waste (SMW) for Kai-lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra) production replacing peat moss (PM) in growth media. The treatments evaluated were 100% PM (control), 100% SMW, and mixtures of SMW and PM in different ratios like 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 (v/v) with/without NPK amendment. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications per treatment. Chemical properties like pH and salinity level (EC) of SMW were within the acceptable range of crop production but, nutrient content, especially nitrogen content was not enough to provide sufficient nutrition to plant for normal growth. Only PM (100%) and SMW and PM mixture in 1 : 1 ratio with NPK amendment performed equally in terms of Kai-lan growth. This study confirms the feasibility of replacing PM by SMW up to a maximum of 50% in the growth media and suggests that NPK supplementation from inorganic sources is to ensure a higher productivity of Kai-lan.

  5. Biotechnological applications in in vitro plant regeneration studies of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Biotechnology holds promise for genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop of the family Brassicaceae. However, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during commercial cultivation of broccoli. Establishment of a reliable, reproducible and efficient in vitro plant regeneration system with cell and tissue culture is a vital prerequisite for biotechnological application of crop improvement programme. An in vitro plant regeneration technique refers to culturing, cell division, cell multiplication, de-differentiation and differentiation of cells, protoplasts, tissues and organs on defined liquid/solid medium under aseptic and controlled environment. Recent progress in the field of plant tissue culture has made this area one of the most dynamic and promising in experimental biology. There are many published reports on in vitro plant regeneration studies in broccoli including direct organogenesis, indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. This review summarizes those plant regeneration studies in broccoli that could be helpful in drawing the attention of the researchers and scientists to work on it to produce healthy, biotic and abiotic stress resistant plant material and to carry out genetic transformation studies for the production of transgenic plants.

  6. Differential Responses of Two Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Italica Cultivars to Salinity and Nutritional Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokri Zaghdoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative responses of two broccoli cultivars (Brassica oleracea var. Italica, cv. Parthenon and cv. Naxos to a 15 d exposure to different NaCl levels were investigated. Salinity led to increased concentrations of Na+ and Cl− ions in both cultivars, a disruption of the endogenous minerals levels in the shoots and roots—that varied with the cultivar and salt concentration—and decreases in the osmotic potential (Ψπ, root hydraulic conductance (L0, and stomatal conductance (Gs. The reduced biomass of Naxos at moderate NaCl indicates greater sensitivity to salinity, compared with Parthenon. Parthenon accumulated more soluble sugars, for osmotic adjustment, whereas Naxos accumulated proline, which gave the two cultivars differing nutritional characteristics. The total glucosinolates (GSLs content was not affected by salinity in Parthenon while it decreased significantly in Naxos as a consequence of the decrease in the indole GSL. However, Naxos accumulated more aliphatic GSLs under salt stress than Parthenon, which confers on this cultivar a greater nutritional value when cultivated under salinity.These results suggest that, at distinct salinity levels, each broccoli cultivar adopts a specific strategy, indicating the crucial role of the genetic background on the organoleptic and nutritional properties that each cultivar acquires.

  7. Characteristic of phenolic compound and antioxidant activity of fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp.) beverage by lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryati, Yati; Susilowati, Agustine; Melanie, Hakiki; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp.) has a relatively high nutrient content, especially as a source of vitamins, minerals and fiber and contain bioactive compounds that act as antioxidants. In order to increase the nutritional value and innovate new products, fermentation process involving rich-antioxidants lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was done. The aim of this study is to determine the content of bioactive components, such as total polyphenols, total acid and antioxidant activity of the mixed culture of LAB (L. bulgaricus, S. thermophulus, L. acidophilus, Bd. bifidum)-fermented broccoli extracts. Ratio of fermented broccoli extract and concentration of starter cultureLAB was varied in the range of 5, 10, 15 and 20% (v/v), and the alterations of characteristics of the fermented broccoli extract, before and after fermentation (0 and 24 hours), were evaluated. The results showed that fermentation functional beverage broccoli with different concentrations of LAB cultures affect the antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, total acid and total cell of LAB generated. The optimum conditions obtained for the highest antioxidant activity of 6.74%, at aculture concentration of 20% during fermentation time of 24 h with a pH value of 4.29, total sugar of 10.89%, total acids of 0.97%, total polyphenols of 0.076%, and total LAB of 13.02 + 0.05 log cfu /ml.

  8. Oviposition behavior and performance aspects of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catta-Preta Patrícia Diniz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Host part selection by ovipositing females of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala was determined in greenhouse and field. Performance of offspring (larval period, efficiency of food utilization, number of eggs/female and others was investigated under laboratory conditions. In the field, the number of A. monuste egg clutches on the apical and medium parts of kale leaves was greater than on the basal part. In greenhouse, A. monuste exhibited a strong preference for the apical part of kale leaves for ovipositing. The best results on food utilization indices, pupal mass and female wing size were obtained with the leaf apical part. This part of kale leaves exhibited the highest nitrogen and protein concentration and the smallest water content, when compared to the other leaf parts. However, the apical part of the leaves seems not to provide ovipositing females with enough protection against birds, making them easy preys in the field. We suggest that good relationship between oviposition preference and performance of offspring was hindered by predation in field conditions.

  9. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing BoRS1 gene from Brassica oleracea var. acephala show enhanced tolerance to water stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dongqin Tang; Hongmei Qian; Lingxia Zhao; Danfeng Huang; Kexuan Tang

    2005-12-01

    Water stress is by far the leading environmental stress limiting crop yields worldwide. Genetic engineering techniques hold great promise for developing crop cultivars with high tolerance to water stress. In this study, the Brassica oleracea var. acephala BoRS1 gene was transferred into tobacco through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation. The transgenic status and transgene expression of the transgenic plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, Southern hybridization and semi-quantitative one step RT-PCR analysis respectively. Subsequently, the growth status under water stress, and physiological responses to water stress of transgenic tobacco were studied. The results showed that the transgenic plants exhibited better growth status under water stress condition compared to the untransformed control plants. In physiological assessment of water tolerance, transgenic plants showed more dry matter accumulation and maintained significantly higher levels of leaf chlorophyll content along with increasing levels of water stress than the untransformed control plants. This study shows that BoRS1 is a candidate gene in the engineering of crops for enhanced water stress tolerance.

  10. Site-Specific Gene Targeting Using Transcription Activator-Like Effector (TALE)-Based Nuclease in Brassica oleracea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zijian Sun; Nianzu Li; Guodong Huang; Junqiang Xu; Yu Pan; Zhimin Wang; Qinglin Tang; Ming Song; Xiaojia Wang

    2013-01-01

    Site-specific recognition modules with DNA nuclease have tremendous potential as molecular tools for genome targeting. The type III transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) contain a DNA binding domain consisting of tandem repeats that can be engineered to bind user-defined specific DNA sequences. We demonstrated that customized TALE-based nucleases (TALENs), constructed using a method called“unit assembly”, specifically target the endogenous FRIGIDA gene in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. The results indicate that the TALENs bound to the target site and cleaved double-strand DNA in vitro and in vivo, whereas the effector binding elements have a 23 bp spacer. The T7 endonuclease I assay and sequencing data show that TALENs made double-strand breaks, which were repaired by a non-homologous end-joining pathway within the target sequence. These data show the feasibility of applying customized TALENs to target and modify the genome with deletions in those organisms that are still in lacking gene target methods to provide germplasms in breeding improvement.

  11. Site-specific gene targeting using transcription activator-like effector (TALE)-based nuclease in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zijian; Li, Nianzu; Huang, Guodong; Xu, Junqiang; Pan, Yu; Wang, Zhimin; Tang, Qinglin; Song, Ming; Wang, Xiaojia

    2013-11-01

    Site-specific recognition modules with DNA nuclease have tremendous potential as molecular tools for genome targeting. The type III transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) contain a DNA binding domain consisting of tandem repeats that can be engineered to bind user-defined specific DNA sequences. We demonstrated that customized TALE-based nucleases (TALENs), constructed using a method called "unit assembly", specifically target the endogenous FRIGIDA gene in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. The results indicate that the TALENs bound to the target site and cleaved double-strand DNA in vitro and in vivo, whereas the effector binding elements have a 23 bp spacer. The T7 endonuclease I assay and sequencing data show that TALENs made double-strand breaks, which were repaired by a non-homologous end-joining pathway within the target sequence. These data show the feasibility of applying customized TALENs to target and modify the genome with deletions in those organisms that are still in lacking gene target methods to provide germplasms in breeding improvement.

  12. The effect of seedling chilling on glutathione content, catalase and peroxidase activity in Brassica oleracea L. var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wojciechowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to determine the possible relationship between Brassica oleracea var. italica seedlings stored at 2°C in the dark for seven and fourteen days, respectively, and the level of certain antioxidant parameters in particular organs. A parallel objective of the experiment was to determine if the reaction of seedlings to low temperature might be persistent in fully developed plants until harvest time. After 14 days of chilling a significant increase in the glutathione content was observed in the seedling leaves in comparison to the non-chilled plants. During vegetation in field conditions this effect was maintained in leaves up to the stage of formation of flower buds. At harvest the highest content of glutathione was demonstrated in broccoli heads, obtained from plants, which were previously chilled in the seedling phase for two weeks. Peroxidase activity in broccoli seedlings increased each year of the three-year study due to the duration of the cooling time, whereas in the case of catalase the changes were not so distinct. At harvest time the activity of both enzymes in the leaves and flower buds fluctuated according to the particular year of study.

  13. Plants know where it hurts: root and shoot jasmonic acid induction elicit differential responses in Brassica oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom O G Tytgat

    Full Text Available Plants respond to herbivore attack by rapidly inducing defenses that are mainly regulated by jasmonic acid (JA. Due to the systemic nature of induced defenses, attack by root herbivores can also result in a shoot response and vice versa, causing interactions between above- and belowground herbivores. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions. We investigated whether plants respond differently when roots or shoots are induced. We mimicked herbivore attack by applying JA to the roots or shoots of Brassica oleracea and analyzed molecular and chemical responses in both organs. In shoots, an immediate and massive change in primary and secondary metabolism was observed. In roots, the JA-induced response was less extensive and qualitatively different from that in the shoots. Strikingly, in both roots and shoots we also observed differential responses in primary metabolism, development as well as defense specific traits depending on whether the JA induction had been below- or aboveground. We conclude that the JA response is not only tissue-specific but also dependent on the organ that was induced. Already very early in the JA signaling pathway the differential response was observed. This indicates that both organs have a different JA signaling cascade, and that the signal eliciting systemic responses contains information about the site of induction, thus providing plants with a mechanism to tailor their responses specifically to the organ that is damaged.

  14. Molecular cloning and primary sequence analysis of a gene encoding a putative shitinase gene in Brassica oleracea var.capitata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGGUOQING; YONGYANBAI; 等

    1996-01-01

    Chitinase,which catalyzes the hydrolysis of the β-1,4-acetyl-D-glucosamine linkages of the fungal cell wall polymer chitin,is involved in inducible plants defense system.By construction of cabbage(Brassica oleracea var. capitata) genomic library and screening the library with pRCH8,a probe of rice chitinase gene fragment,a chitinase genomic sequence was isolated.The complete uncleotide sequence of the putative cabbage chitinase gene (cabch29) was determined,with its longest open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 413 aa.This polypeptide consists of a 21 aa N-terminal signal peptide,two chitin-binding domains different from those of other classes of plant chitinases,and a catalytic domain.Homology analysis illustrated that this cabch29 gene has 58.8% identity at the nucleotide level with the pRCH8 ORF probe and has 50% identity at the amino acid level tiwh the catalytic domains of chitinase from bean,maize and sugar beet.Meanwhile,several kinds of cis-elements,such as TATA box,CAAT box,GATA motif,ASF-1 binding site,wound-response elements and AATAAA,have also been discovered in the flanking region of cabch29 gene.

  15. Responses of growing Japanese quails that received selenium from selenium enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Chinrasri, Orawan; Pakmaruek, Pornpan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Thosaikham, Withpol; Aengwanich, Worapol

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of selenium (Se) from Se-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.) on the performance and Se concentrations in tissues of growing Japanese quails. Two hundred quails were divided into five treatments. Each treatment consisted of four replicates and each replicate contained ten quails in a completely randomize design. The experiment was conducted for 5 weeks. The treatments were T1, control diet; T2, control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite; T3, T4, and T5, control diet plus 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched kale sprout. The results revealed that Se supplementation had no impact on feed intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of quails (p > 0.05). However, Se supplementation from both sodium selenite and Se-enriched kale sprout increased (p kale sprout. The results indicate that Se from Se-enriched kale sprout offers no advantage over Se from sodium selenite on tissue Se concentration.

  16. Isotopic labeling and LC-APCI-MS quantification for investigating absorption of carotenoids and phylloquinone from kale (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilich, Anne C; Britz, Steven J; Clevidence, Beverly A; Novotny, Janet A

    2003-08-13

    The ability to study bioavailability of nutrients from foods is an important step in determining the health impact of those nutrients. This work describes a method for studying the bioavailability of nutrients from kale (Brassica oleracea var. Acephala) by labeling the nutrients with carbon-13, feeding the kale to an adult volunteer, and analyzing plasma samples for labeled nutrients. Results showed that conditions for producing atmospheric intrinsically labeled kale had no detrimental effect on plant growth. Lutein, beta-carotene, retinol, and phylloquinone were analyzed using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Analysis of plasma samples showed that labeled lutein peaked in plasma at 11 h (0.23 microM), beta-carotene peaked at 8 (0.058 microM) and 24 h (0.062 microM), retinol peaked at 24 h (0.10 microM), and phylloquinone peaked at 7 h (3.0 nM). This method of labeling kale with (13)C was successful for producing clearly defined kinetic curves for (13)C-lutein,(13)C-beta-carotene, (13)C-retinol, and (13)C-phylloquinone.

  17. Molecular Cloning, Expression Pattern and Genotypic Effects on Glucoraphanin Biosynthetic Related Genes in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ling; Chen, Changming; Chen, Guoju; Cao, Bihao; Lei, Jianjun

    2015-11-11

    Glucoraphanin is a plant secondary metabolite that is involved in plant defense and imparts health-promoting properties to cruciferous vegetables. In this study, three genes involved in glucoraphanin metabolism, branched-chain aminotransferase 4 (BCAT4), methylthioalkylmalate synthase 1 (MAM1) and dihomomethionine N-hydroxylase (CYP79F1), were cloned from Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey). Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis identified these genes and confirmed the evolutionary status of Chinese kale. The transcript levels of BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 were higher in cotyledon, leaf and stem compared with flower and silique. BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 were expressed throughout leaf development with lower transcript levels during the younger stages. Glucoraphanin content varied extensively among different varieties, which ranged from 0.25 to 2.73 µmol·g(-1) DW (dry weight). Expression levels of BCAT4 and MAM1 were high at vegetative-reproductive transition phase, while CYP79F1 was expressed high at reproductive phase. BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 were expressed significantly high in genotypes with high glucoraphanin content. All the results provided a better understanding of the roles of BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 in the glucoraphanin biosynthesis of Chinese kale.

  18. Gold nanoparticles synthesized by Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) acting as antimicrobial agents against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piruthiviraj, Prakash; Margret, Anita; Krishnamurthy, Poornima Priyadharsani

    2016-04-01

    Production of antimicrobial agents through the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using green technology has been extensively made consistent by various researchers; yet, this study uses the flower bud's aqueous extracts of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) as a reducing agent for chloroauric acid (1 mM). After 30 min of incubation, synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) was observed by a change in extract color from pale yellow to purple color. Synthesis of AuNps was confirmed in UV-visible spectroscopy at the range of approximately 560 nm. The SEM analysis showed the average nanoparticles size of 12-22 nm. The antimicrobial activity of AuNps was analyzed by subjecting it to human pathogenic bacteria (Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumonia) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) using disc diffusion method. The broccoli-synthesized AuNps showed the efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of above-mentioned microbes. It was confirmed that AuNps have the best antimicrobial agent compared to the standard antibiotics (Gentamicin and Fluconazole). When the concentrations of AuNps were increased (10, 25, and 50 µg/ml), the sensitivity zone also increased for all the tested microbes. The synthesized AuNps are capable of rendering high antimicrobial efficacy and, hence, have a great potential in the preparation of drugs used against major bacterial and fungal diseases in humans.

  19. RESIDU PESTISIDA PADA SAYURAN KUBIS (Brassica oleracea L. DAN KACANG PANJANG ( Vigna sinensis L. YANG DIPASARKAN DI PASAR BADUNG DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Agung Sudewa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides residue of organophosphate and carbamate i.e. diazinon, chlorpyriphos, fentoate, carbaril and BPMC were tested on cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. and long bean (Vigna sinensis L.. The purpose of this study was to know the level of pesticides residue remaining on cabbage and long bean marketed in Badung Market, Denpasar.The samples were determined proportionally based on purposive sampling method. The proportion of sample was 10% of the total cabbage and snake bean sold in Badung market.Result of present study showed that residue of insecticides such as diazinon, chlorpyriphos, fentoate, carbaril, and BPMC remaining on the head of cabbage and snake bean marketed in Badung market was affected by the frequencies of their use in the field, in which chlorpyriphos was used by 60-65% of the farmers and carbaril by 40% of the farmers. Their residues on cabbage anf snake bean were 0.525 ppm and 1.296 ppm for chlorpyriphos (organophosphate; 0.303 ppm and 0.471 ppm for carbaril (carbamate. These result suggested that residue of chlorpyriphos on cabbage and snake bean were higher than MRL (Maximum Residue Limit for vegetable crops, i.e. 0.5 ppm.

  20. Genomic Changes in Resynthesized Brassica napus and Their Effect on Gene Expression and Phenotype

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert T. Gaeta; J. Chris Pires; Federico Iniguez-Luy; Enrique Leon; Thomas C. Osborn

    2007-01-01

    .... We analyzed genetic, epigenetic, gene expression, and phenotypic changes in ∼50 resynthesized Brassica napus lines independently derived by hybridizing double haploids of Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa...

  1. Nutritional and nutraceutical potential of rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus) and "tronchuda" cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. var. costata) inflorescences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Cátia; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-06-01

    Two traditional cultivated vegetables highly consumed among Northern Portuguese regions were tested for their chemical composition, nutritional profile and in vitro antioxidant properties using four assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The studied varieties of two Brassica species, locally known as "grelos" (rape) and "espigos" ("tronchuda" cabbage) are nutritionally well-balanced vegetables; particularly "tronchuda" cabbage revealed the highest levels of moisture, proteins, fat, energy, β-carotene and vitamin C; rape gave the highest contents of ash, carbohydrates, sugars (including fructose, glucose, sucrose and raffinose), essential n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid, and the best ratios of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 fatty acids, tocopherols, lycopene, chlorophylls, phenolics, flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant properties. The health benefits associated to the antioxidant properties reinforce their contribution to a healthy and balanced diet, highlight the interest of their consumption, validate the empirical use and add new values to traditional/regional products which have been used for a long time.

  2. Lecitina, silicone e amido na adubação foliar de couve (Brassica oleracea L. Lecithin, silicon and starch in the foliar feeding on collard green (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmany Aires Cunha Martins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar os efeitos que a lecitina, amido e silicone possam ter na eficiência da adubação foliar, utilizando-se sais e quelatos como fonte de micronutrientes. Para isso foi realizado um experimento em que avaliaram-se os efeitos da adição de diferentes adjuvantes em relação à absorção e translocação de zinco e manganês na forma de sais e quelatos. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições, com quatro fatores em estudo e dois níveis cada, perfazendo um fatorial 2x2x2x2, totalizando dezesseis tratamentos. Além dos tratamentos, foi adicionada testemunha como tratamento adicional, perfazendo, assim, um total de 102 parcelas. Cada parcela foi constituída por um vaso, contendo uma planta de couve-manteiga (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.. Os tratamentos constaram de combinações entre 2 fontes (sulfato e quelato e de presença ou ausência de três substâncias na calda de pulverização: lecitina de soja desengordurada, um siliconado comercial e gel de amido de mandioca. A determinação dos efeitos constituiu-se na análise do teor de zinco e manganês nas folhas novas 30 dias após a pulverização. A adição de lecitina aumentou a absorção do sulfato de zinco ao passo que o produto siliconado aumentou a absorção do zinco quelatizado. Tanto a lecitina quanto o produto siliconado, quando adicionados à calda de pulverização, aumentaram o teor de manganês. O gel de amido não aumentou a absorção de nenhum micronutriente.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of lecithin, starch and silicon may have in the efficiency of foliar feeding, using salts and chelates as source of nutrients. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse condition at Univerdidade Federal de Goiás (Jataí unit - GO, set in a completely randomized design, with six replications, four factors in study and two levels each, making a 2x2x2x2 factorial

  3. Fine-Mapping and Analysis of Cgl1, a Gene Conferring Glossy Trait in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zezhou; Fang, Zhiyuan; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Sun, Peitian; Tang, Jun; Liu, Dongming; Zhang, Zhenxian; Yang, Limei

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular waxes covering the outer plant surface impart a whitish appearance. Wax-less cabbage mutant shows glossy in leaf surface and plays important roles in riching cabbage germplasm resources and breeding brilliant green cabbage. This is the first report describing the characterization and fine-mapping of a wax biosynthesis gene using a novel glossy Brassica oleracea mutant. In the present paper, we identified a glossy cabbage mutant (line10Q-961) with a brilliant green phenotype. Genetic analyses indicated that the glossy trait was controlled by a single recessive gene. Preliminary mapping results using an F2 population containing 189 recessive individuals revealed that the Cgl1 gene was located at the end of chromosome C08. Several new markers closely linked to the target gene were designed according to the cabbage reference genome sequence. Another population of 1,172 recessive F2 individuals was used to fine-map the Cgl1 gene to a 188.7-kb interval between the C08SSR61 simple sequence repeat marker and the end of chromosome C08. There were 33 genes located in this region. According to gene annotation and homology analyses, the Bol018504 gene, which is a homolog of CER1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, was the most likely candidate for the Cgl1 gene. Its coding and promoter regions were sequenced, which indicated that the RNA splice site was altered because of a 2,722-bp insertion in the first intron of Bol018504 in the glossy mutant. Based on the FGENESH 2.6 prediction and sequence alignments, the PLN02869 domain, which controls fatty aldehyde decarbonylase activity, was absent from the Bol018504 gene of the 10Q-961 glossy mutant. We inferred that the inserted sequence in Bol018504 may result in the glossy cabbage mutant. This study represents the first step toward the characterization of cuticular wax biosynthesis in B. oleracea, and may contribute to the breeding of new cabbage varieties exhibiting a brilliant green phenotype.

  4. Estimation of genetic diversity Among Turkish kale populations (Brassica oleracea var. acephala L.) using RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumus, A; Balkaya, A

    2007-04-01

    20 populations of kale (B. oleracea var. acephala L.) selected from 127 populations for fresh consumption terms of yield and leaf quality characteristics as superior types using weight-based ranking method from the Black Sea Region of Turkey were evaluated at the DNA level using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers compared to some morphological characters. The 7 primers selected from 100 decamers used generated 110 bands, of which 60 (54.5%) were polymorphic. Jaccard's genetic distances were calculated and dendogram was generated using the UPGMA algorithm. The dendogram obtained were classified into three main groups and four subgroups. The accessions showed a limited clustering in compare to morphological characters such as the number of leaf, leaf intentation of the margin, leaf and midrib color and thickness of midrib than geographical characteristics. Leaf color and midrib thickness characters clustered in the same group as OR49 and G18 accessions; S20, G6 and OR37 accessions, respectively.

  5. Simultaneous extraction and quantitation of carotenoids, chlorophylls, and tocopherols in Brassica vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Ivette; Yousef, Gad G; Brown, Allan F

    2012-07-25

    Brassica oleracea vegetables, such as broccoli (B. oleracea L. var. italica) and cauliflower (B. oleracea L. var. botrytis), are known to contain bioactive compounds associated with health, including three classes of photosynthetic lipid-soluble compounds: carotenoids, chlorophylls, and tocopherols. Carotenoids and chlorophylls are photosynthetic pigments. Tocopherols have vitamin E activity. Due to genetic and environmental variables, the amounts present in vegetables are not constant. To aid breeders in the development of Brassica cultivars with higher provitamin A and vitamin E contents and antioxidant activity, a more efficient method was developed to quantitate carotenoids, chlorophylls, and tocopherols in the edible portions of broccoli and cauliflower. The novel UPLC method separated five carotenoids, two chlorophylls, and two tocopherols in a single 30 min run, reducing the run time by half compared to previously published protocols. The objective of the study was to develop a faster, more effective extraction and quantitation methodology to screen large populations of Brassica germplasm, thus aiding breeders in producing superior vegetables with enhanced phytonutrient profiles.

  6. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS accessions contained the ogu orf138-related DNA fragment and the key genes of nap CMS, pol CMS, and tour CMS were not detected. The 39 CMS accessions were divided into five groups using six orf138-related and two simple sequence repeat markers. We observed that ogu CMS R3 constituted 79.49% of the CMS sources. CMS6 and CMS26 were differentiated from the other accessions using a specific primer. CMS32 was distinguished from the other accessions based on a 78-nucleotide deletion at the same locus as the orf138-related sequence. When the coefficient was about 0.90, five CMS accessions (13CMS6, 13CMS23, 13CMS24, 13CMS37, and 13CMS39) exhibiting abnormal floral organs with poor seed setting were grouped together. The polymerase chain reaction amplification profiles for these five accessions differed from those of the other accessions. We identified eight useful molecular markers that can be used to detect CMS types during broccoli breeding. Our data also provide important information relevant to future studies on the possible origins and molecular mechanisms of CMS in broccoli.

  7. Potency of microfiltration membrane process in purifying broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as functional food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, Agustine; Aspiyanto, Maryati, Yati; Melanie, Hakiki; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-01-01

    Purifying broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) using mixture of L. bulgaricus, S. thermopillus, L. acidophillusand Bifidobacteriumbifidum and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as carbon source have been performed to recover biomass concentrate for probiotic and antioxidant. Purification of fermented broccoli was conducted through microfiltration (MF) membrane of 0.15 µm at stirrer rotation speed 400 rpm, room temperature and pressure 40 psia for 30 minutes. Fermented broccoli produced via fermentation process with fermentation time 0 (initial) and 48 hours, and LAB concentration 10% and 20% (v/v) represented as biomass of A, B, C and D. The experimental result showed that based on selectivity of total organic acids, separating optimization was achieved at biomass D (fermentation time 48 hours and mixed LAB culture concentration 20%). Concentrate composition produced in this condition were total acids 6.04%, total solids 24.31%, total polyphenol 0.0252%, reducing sugar 68.25 mg/mL, total sugars 30.89 mg/mL, and dissolved protein 28.54 mg/mL with pH 3.94. In this condition, recovery of biomass concentrate of D for total acids 5.64 folds, total solids 1.82 folds, total polyphenol 3.03 folds, reducing sugar 1.16 folds, total sugars 1.19 folds, and dissolved protein 0.67 folds compared with feed (initial process). Identification of monomer of biomass concentrate D as polyphenol derivatives at T2,01 and T3.01 gave monomer with molecular weight (MW) 192.78 Dalton (Da.), and monomer with MW 191.08, 191.49 and 192.07 Da., while lactic acid derivatives showed MW 251.13, 251.6 and 252.14, and monomer with MW 250.63, 252.14 and 254.22 Da.

  8. Novel bioresources for studies of Brassica oleracea: identification of a kale MYB transcription factor responsible for glucosinolate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Ryoichi; Hasumi, Akiko; Nishizawa, Osamu Ishizaki; Sasaki, Katsunori; Kuwahara, Ayuko; Sawada, Yuji; Totoki, Yasushi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Li, Yimeng; Saito, Kazuki; Ogawa, Toshiya; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2013-10-01

    Plants belonging to the Brassicaceae family exhibit species-specific profiles of glucosinolates (GSLs), a class of defence compounds against pathogens and insects. GSLs also exhibit various human health-promoting properties. Among them, glucoraphanin (aliphatic 4-methylsulphinylbutyl GSL) has attracted the most attention because it hydrolyses to form a potent anticancer compound. Increased interest in developing commercial varieties of Brassicaceae crops with desirable GSL profiles has led to attempts to identify genes that are potentially valuable for controlling GSL biosynthesis. However, little attention has been focused on genes of kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). In this study, we established full-length kale cDNA libraries containing 59 904 clones, which were used to generate an expressed sequence tag (EST) data set with 119 204 entries. The EST data set clarified genes related to the GSL biosynthesis pathway in kale. We specifically focused on BoMYB29, a homolog of Arabidopsis MYB29/PMG2/HAG3, not only to characterize its function but also to demonstrate its usability as a biological resource. BoMYB29 overexpression in wild-type Arabidopsis enhanced the expression of aliphatic GSL biosynthetic genes and the accumulation of aliphatic GSLs. When expressed in the myb28myb29 mutant, which exhibited no detectable aliphatic GSLs, BoMYB29 restored the expression of biosynthetic genes and aliphatic GSL accumulation. Interestingly, the ratio of methylsulphinyl GSL content, including glucoraphanin, to that of methylthio GSLs was greatly increased, indicating the suitability of BoMYB29 as a regulator for increasing methylsulphinyl GSL content. Our results indicate that these biological resources can facilitate further identification of genes useful for modifications of GSL profiles and accumulation in kale.

  9. Small RNA Sequencing Reveals Differential miRNA Expression in the Early Development of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Yu; Wu, Mei; Li, Lihong; Jin, Chuan; Zhang, Qingli; Chen, Chengbin; Song, Wenqin; Wang, Chunguo

    2017-01-01

    Pollen development is an important and complex biological process in the sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Although the cytological characteristics of pollen development are well defined, the regulation of its early stages remains largely unknown. In the present study, miRNAs were explored in the early development of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) pollen. A total of 333 known miRNAs that originated from 235 miRNA families were detected. Fifty-five novel miRNA candidates were identified. Sixty of the 333 known miRNAs and 49 of the 55 predicted novel miRNAs exhibited significantly differential expression profiling in the three distinct developmental stages of broccoli pollen. Among these differentially expressed miRNAs, miRNAs that would be involved in the developmental phase transition from uninucleate microspores to binucleate pollen grains or from binucleate to trinucleate pollen grains were identified. miRNAs that showed significantly enriched expression in a specific early stage of broccoli pollen development were also observed. In addition, 552 targets for 127 known miRNAs and 69 targets for 40 predicted novel miRNAs were bioinformatically identified. Functional annotation and GO (Gene Ontology) analysis indicated that the putative miRNA targets showed significant enrichment in GO terms that were related to plant organ formation and morphogenesis. Some of enriched GO terms were detected for the targets directly involved in plant male reproduction development. These findings provided new insights into the functions of miRNA-mediated regulatory networks in broccoli pollen development.

  10. Interactions between atmospheric and pedospheric sulfur nutrition : Impact of short-term H2S exposure on the uptake and distribution of S-35-sulfate in roots and shoots of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wonisch, A; Weidner, W; Tausz, M; Westerman, S; De Kok, LJ; Grill, D

    2005-01-01

    Curlykale (Brassica oleracea L., Brassicaceae) was exposed to 0 and 400 nl l(-1) H2S and simultaneously transferred to a 25% Hoagland nutrient solution containing S-35-sulfate for 24 h. H2S exposure hardly affected the contents of the different sulfur pools, but resulted in a decrease in the level o

  11. Interactions between atmospheric and pedospheric sulfur nutrition : Impact of short-term H2S exposure on the uptake and distribution of S-35-sulfate in roots and shoots of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wonisch, A; Weidner, W; Tausz, M; Westerman, S; De Kok, LJ; Grill, D

    2005-01-01

    Curlykale (Brassica oleracea L., Brassicaceae) was exposed to 0 and 400 nl l(-1) H2S and simultaneously transferred to a 25% Hoagland nutrient solution containing S-35-sulfate for 24 h. H2S exposure hardly affected the contents of the different sulfur pools, but resulted in a decrease in the level

  12. Atmospheric H2S as sulfur source for Brassica oleracea : kinetics of H2S uptake and activity of O-acetylserine (thiol)lyase as affected by sulfur nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, CEE; De Kok, LJ

    2001-01-01

    The uptake of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by shoots of curly kale (Brassica oleracea) showed saturation kinetics with respect to the atmospheric concentration. The kinetics are largely determined by the rate of metabolism of the absorbed H,S into cysteine, catalyzed by O-acetylserine (thiol)lyase, and ca

  13. Atmospheric H2S as sulfur source for Brassica oleracea : kinetics of H2S uptake and activity of O-acetylserine (thiol)lyase as affected by sulfur nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, CEE; De Kok, LJ

    The uptake of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by shoots of curly kale (Brassica oleracea) showed saturation kinetics with respect to the atmospheric concentration. The kinetics are largely determined by the rate of metabolism of the absorbed H,S into cysteine, catalyzed by O-acetylserine (thiol)lyase, and

  14. Glucosinolate biosynthesis in hairy root cultures of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Woo Tae; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Nam, Sang-Yong; Jho, Kwang Hyun; Park, Sang Un

    2013-02-01

    Here we present previously unreported glucosinolate production by hairy root cultures of broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica). Growth media greatly influenced the growth and glucosinolate content of hairy root cultures of broccoli. Seven glucosinolates, glucoraphanin, gluconapin, glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, gluconasturtiin, and neoglucobrassicin, were identified by analysis of the broccoli hairy root cultures. Both half and full strength B5 and SH media enabled the highest accumulation of glucosinolates. In most cases, the levels of glucosinolates were higher in SH and BS media. Among the 7 glucosinolates, the accumulation of neoglucobrassicin was very high, irrespective of growth medium. The neoglucobrassicin content was 7.4-fold higher in SH medium than 1/2 MS, in which its level was the lowest. The 1/2 B5 medium supported the production of the highest amounts of glucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, the levels for which were 36.2- and 7.9- fold higher, respectively, than their lowest content in 1/2 MS medium. The 1/2 SH medium enabled the highest accumulation of glucoraphanin and gluconapin in the broccoli hairy root cultures, whose levels were 1.8- and 4.6-fold higher, respectively, than their lowest content in 1/2 MS medium. Our results suggest that hairy root cultures of broccoli could be a valuable alternative approach for the production of glucosinolate compounds.

  15. Influence of light and temperature on gene expression leading to accumulation of specific flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eNeugart

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Light intensity and temperature are very important signals for the regulation of plant growth and development. Plants subjected to less favorable light or temperature conditions often respond with accumulation of secondary metabolites. Some of these metabolites have been identified as bioactive compounds, considered to exert positive effects on human health when consumed regularly. In order to test a typical range of growth parameters for the winter crop Brassica oleracea var. sabellica, plants were grown either at 400 µmol m-2 s-1 or 100 µmol m-2 s-1 at 10°C, or at 400 µmol m-2 s-1 with 5°C or 15°C. The higher light intensity overall increased flavonol content of leaves, favoring the main quercetin glycosides, a caffeic acid monoacylated kaempferol triglycoside, and disinapoyl-gentiobiose. The higher temperature mainly increased the hydroxycinnamic acid derivative disinapoyl-gentiobiose, while at lower temperature synthesis is in favor of very complex sinapic acid acylated flavonol tetraglycosides such as kaempferol-3-O-sinapoyl-sophoroside-7-O-diglucoside. A global analysis of light and temperature dependent alterations of gene expression in B. oleracea var. sabellica leaves was performed with the most comprehensive Brassica microarray. When compared to the light experiment much less genes were differentially expressed in kale leaves grown at 5°C or 15°C. A structured evaluation of differentially expressed genes revealed the expected enrichment in the functional categories of e.g. protein degradation at different light intensities or phytohormone metabolism at different temperature. Genes of the secondary metabolism namely phenylpropanoids are significantly enriched with both treatments. Thus, the genome of B. oleracea was screened for predicted genes putatively involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. All identified B. oleracea genes were analyzed for their most specific 60-mer oligonucleotides

  16. Influence of Light and Temperature on Gene Expression Leading to Accumulation of Specific Flavonol Glycosides and Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives in Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugart, Susanne; Krumbein, Angelika; Zrenner, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Light intensity and temperature are very important signals for the regulation of plant growth and development. Plants subjected to less favorable light or temperature conditions often respond with accumulation of secondary metabolites. Some of these metabolites have been identified as bioactive compounds, considered to exert positive effects on human health when consumed regularly. In order to test a typical range of growth parameters for the winter crop Brassica oleracea var. sabellica, plants were grown either at 400 μmol m(-2) s(-1) or 100 μmol m(-2) s(-1) at 10°C, or at 400 μmol m(-2) s(-1) with 5 or 15°C. The higher light intensity overall increased flavonol content of leaves, favoring the main quercetin glycosides, a caffeic acid monoacylated kaempferol triglycoside, and disinapoyl-gentiobiose. The higher temperature mainly increased the hydroxycinnamic acid derivative disinapoyl-gentiobiose, while at lower temperature synthesis is in favor of very complex sinapic acid acylated flavonol tetraglycosides such as kaempferol-3-O-sinapoyl-sophoroside-7-O-diglucoside. A global analysis of light and temperature dependent alterations of gene expression in B. oleracea var. sabellica leaves was performed with the most comprehensive Brassica microarray. When compared to the light experiment much less genes were differentially expressed in kale leaves grown at 5 or 15°C. A structured evaluation of differentially expressed genes revealed the expected enrichment in the functional categories of e.g. protein degradation at different light intensities or phytohormone metabolism at different temperature. Genes of the secondary metabolism namely phenylpropanoids are significantly enriched with both treatments. Thus, the genome of B. oleracea was screened for predicted genes putatively involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. All identified B. oleracea genes were analyzed for their most specific 60-mer oligonucleotides present on the

  17. Fibrillarin methylates H2A in RNA polymerase I trans-active promoters in Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lloyd eLoza-Muller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibrillarin is a well conserved methyltransferase involved in several if not all of the more than 100 methylations sites in rRNA which are essential for proper ribosome function. It is mainly localized in the nucleoli and Cajal bodies inside the cell nucleus where it exerts most of its functions. In plants, fibrillarin binds directly the guide RNA together with Nop56, Nop58 and 15.5ka proteins to form a snoRNP complex that selects the sites to be methylated in pre-processing of ribosomal RNA. Recently, the yeast counterpart NOP1 was found to methylate histone H2A in the nucleolar regions. Here we show that plant fibrillarin can also methylate histone H2A. In Brassica floral meristem cells the methylated histone H2A is mainly localized in the nucleolus but unlike yeast or human cells it also localize in the periphery of the nucleus. In specialized transport cells the pattern is altered and it exhibits a more diffuse staining in the nucleus for methylated histone H2A as well as for fibrillarin. Here we also show that plant fibrillarin is capable of interacting with H2A and carry out its methylation in the rDNA promoter.

  18. Fibrillarin methylates H2A in RNA polymerase I trans-active promoters in Brassica oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza-Muller, Lloyd; Rodríguez-Corona, Ulises; Sobol, Margarita; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C.; Hozak, Pavel; Castano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Fibrillarin is a well conserved methyltransferase involved in several if not all of the more than 100 methylations sites in rRNA which are essential for proper ribosome function. It is mainly localized in the nucleoli and Cajal bodies inside the cell nucleus where it exerts most of its functions. In plants, fibrillarin binds directly the guide RNA together with Nop56, Nop58, and 15.5ka proteins to form a snoRNP complex that selects the sites to be methylated in pre-processing of ribosomal RNA. Recently, the yeast counterpart NOP1 was found to methylate histone H2A in the nucleolar regions. Here we show that plant fibrillarin can also methylate histone H2A. In Brassica floral meristem cells the methylated histone H2A is mainly localized in the nucleolus but unlike yeast or human cells it also localize in the periphery of the nucleus. In specialized transport cells the pattern is altered and it exhibits a more diffuse staining in the nucleus for methylated histone H2A as well as for fibrillarin. Here we also show that plant fibrillarin is capable of interacting with H2A and carry out its methylation in the rDNA promoter. PMID:26594224

  19. Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Induce Subspecies-Specific Patterns of Glucosinolate Accumulation and Gene Expression in Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go-Eun Yi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates have anti-carcinogenic properties. In the recent decades, the genetics of glucosinolate biosynthesis has been widely studied, however, the expression of specific genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis under exogenous phytohormone treatment has not been explored at the subspecies level in Brassica oleracea. Such data are vital for strategies aimed at selective exploitation of glucosinolate profiles. This study quantified the expression of 38 glucosinolate biosynthesis-related genes in three B. oleracea subspecies, namely cabbage, broccoli and kale, and catalogued associations between gene expression and increased contents of individual glucosinolates under methyl jasmonate (MeJA and salicylic acid (SA treatments. Glucosinolate accumulation and gene expression in response to phytohormone elicitation was subspecies specific. For instance, cabbage leaves showed enhanced accumulation of the aliphatic glucoiberin, progoitrin, sinigrin and indolic neoglucobrassicin under both MeJA and SA treatment. MeJA treatment induced strikingly higher accumulation of glucobrassicin (GBS in cabbage and kale and of neoglucobrassicin (NGBS in broccoli compared to controls. Notably higher expression of ST5a (Bol026200, CYP81F1 (Bol028913, Bol028914 and CYP81F4 genes was associated with significantly higher GBS accumulation under MeJA treatment compared to controls in all three subspecies. CYP81F4 genes, trans-activated by MYB34 genes, were expressed at remarkably high levels in all three subspecies under MeJA treatment, which also induced in higher indolic NGBS accumulation in all three subspecies. Remarkably higher expression of MYB28 (Bol036286, ST5b, ST5c, AOP2, FMOGS-OX5 (Bol031350 and GSL-OH (Bol033373 was associated with much higher contents of aliphatic glucosinolates in kale leaves compared to the other two subspecies. The genes expressed highly could be utilized in strategies to selectively increase glucosinolate compounds in B. oleracea

  20. Molecular Characterization of MYB28 Involved in Aliphatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are Brassicaceae-specific secondary metabolites that act as crop protectants, flavor precursors, and cancer-prevention agents, which shows strong evidences of anticarcinogentic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. MYB28, the R2R3-MYB28 transcription factor, directly activates genes involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. In this study, the MYB28 homology (BoaMYB28 was identified in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence indicated that the cDNA of BoaMYB28 was 1257 bp with an ORF of 1020 bp. The deduced BoaMYB28 protein was a polypeptide of 339 amino acid with a putative molecular mass of 38 kDa and a pI of 6.87. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis showed that BoaMYB28 was most closely related to MYB28 homologs from the Brassicaceae family. The expression levels of BoaMYB28 varies across the tissues and developmental stages. BoaMYB28 transcript levels were higher in leaves and stems compared with those in cotyledons, flowers, and siliques. BoaMYB28 was expressed across all developmental leaf stages, with higher transcript accumulation in mature and inflorescence leaves. Over-expression and RNAi studies showed that BoaMYB28 retains the basic MYB28 gene function as a major transcriptional regulator of aliphatic glucosinolate pathway. The results indicated that over-expression and RNAi lines showed no visible difference on plant morphology. The contents of aliphatic glucosinolates and transcript levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes increased in over-expression lines and decreased in RNAi lines. In over-expression lines, aliphatic glucosinolate contents were 1.5- to 3-fold higher than those in the wild-type, while expression levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes were 1.5- to 4-fold higher than those in the wild-type. In contrast, the contents of aliphatic glucosinolates and transcript levels of aliphatic glucosinolate

  1. EFFECT OF HIGH INTENSITY LED LIGHT ON THE GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF BROCCOLI SEEDLINGS (BRASSICA OLERACEA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Paniagua-Pardo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dado su alto valor nutricional y los beneficios a la salud por los compuestos anticancerígenos que posee, el brócoli (Brassica oleraceaL. se ha convertido en un cultivo de importancia dentro de las hortalizas, por lo que es necesario incrementar su consumo y producción por la sociedad mexicana. Esta investigación planteó como objetivo evaluar el efecto de la luz LED de alta intensidad de distinta longitud de onda (rojo, azul y verde, en germinación y crecimiento de plántulas de brócoli, evaluando las variables velocidad de germinación (VG, porcentaje de germinación (PGF, longitud media de hipocótilo (LMH, peso fresco (PF y seco (PS de las plántulas, en busca de alternativas de iluminación para la producción en ambiente controlado. Los tiempos de exposición con luz roja, azul y verde, proveniente de LEDs de alta intensidad fueron de 12, seis y tres horas, con un complemento de tiempo para los últimos dos tratamientos con luz LED blanca. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente al azar, con cuatro repeticiones de 30 semillas por unidad experimental. Se obtuvieron diferencias estadísticas significativas entre los tratamientos de las variables evaluadas. Los tratamientos con luz roja presentaron los mayores valores de VG, donde el rojo por 12 horas fue el mejor con incrementos del 25% contra el control. La variable LMH en el tratamiento verde por 12 horas tuvo incremento del 39% respecto al control, convirtiéndose en el mejor. Por otro lado, en la variable PF, el mayor peso se presentó en el tratamiento verde por 12 horas con un incremento contra el control del 16%. Finalmente en la variable PS, el mayor peso se presentó en el tratamiento rojo por 12 horas con un incremento contra el control del 6%. Estos resultados mostraron que las respuestas fisiológicas producidas por la exposición a distintas longitudes de onda de luz LED de alta intensidad en semilla de brócoli variaron de acuerdo con el tiempo de exposición y

  2. Supercritical CO2 extraction, chemical characterisation and antioxidant potential of Brassica oleracea var capitata against HO·, O2(·-) and ROO·.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Prá, Valéria; Dolwitsch, Carolina Bolssoni; da Silveira, Géssica Domingos; Porte, Liliane; Frizzo, Clarissa; Tres, Marcus Vinicius; Mossi, Vinicius; Mazutti, Marcio Antonio; do Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; Bohrer, Denise; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Viana, Carine; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos

    2013-12-15

    In this work were extracted bioactive compounds from Brassica oleracea var capitata using supercritical CO2 and evaluated the antioxidant potential of the extracts. Five extractions were accomplished to investigate the influence of pressure (10-25 MPa) and temperature (20-60 °C) in the extraction yield, chemical composition and antioxidant potential towards peroxyl, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The highest extraction yield was obtained at 60 °C and 25 MPa, which was 0.47 wt% (run 2). In the characterisation of the extracts obtained was possible the identification of sulforaphane and iberin nitrile that present known biological properties. The extracts of all runs presented antioxidant activities towards the three radicals, but the highest activities for all radicals were using the extracts obtained in the run 2. The use of supercritical CO2 extraction to obtain bioactive compounds of B. oleracea var capitata showed to be a promising alternative to conventional extraction methods, since allowed the extraction of compounds with scientific and industrial interest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nondestructive Optical Sensing of Flavonols and Chlorophyll in White Head Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba) Grown under Different Nitrogen Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agati, Giovanni; Tuccio, Lorenza; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Chmiel, Tomasz; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Artur; Grzegorzewska, Maria; Kosson, Ryszard; Kaniszewski, Stanislaw

    2016-01-13

    A multiparametric optical sensor was used to nondestructively estimate phytochemical compounds in white cabbage leaves directly in the field. An experimental site of 1980 white cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), under different nitrogen (N) treatments, was mapped by measuring leaf transmittance and chlorophyll fluorescence screening in one leaf/cabbage head. The provided indices of flavonols (FLAV) and chlorophyll (CHL) displayed the opposite response to applied N rates, decreasing and increasing, respectively. The combined nitrogen balance index (NBI = CHL/FLAV) calculated was able to discriminate all of the plots under four N regimens (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg/ha) and was correlated with the leaf N content determined destructively. CHL and FLAV were properly calibrated against chlorophyll (R(2) = 0.945) and flavonol (R(2) = 0.932) leaf contents, respectively, by using a homographic fit function. The proposed optical sensing of cabbage crops can be used to estimate the N status of plants and perform precision fertilization to maintain acceptable crop yield levels and, additionally, to rapidly detect health-promoting flavonol antioxidants in Brassica plants.

  4. Characterization, quantification, and yearly variation of the naturally occurring polyphenols in a common red variety of curly kale ( Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala var. sabellica cv. 'Redbor').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Helle; Aaby, Kjersti; Borge, Grethe Iren A

    2010-11-10

    This study focuses on the characterization and quantification of polyphenols in the edible leaves of red curly kale ( Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala (DC.) Alef. var. sabellica L.), variety 'Redbor F1 hybrid'. The kale was grown at an experimental field (59° 40' N) in the years 2007-2009. The analysis of kale extract by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS has allowed the determination of 47 different acylated and nonacylated flavonoid glycosides and complex hydroxycinnamic acids. Those compounds included mono- to tetraglycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, and cyanidin and derivatives of p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, and caffeic acid. Among the compounds characterized, four flavonols, three anthocyanins, and three phenolic acids were identified in the Brassica family for the first time. Aglycones and conjugated polyphenols were quantified by HPLC-DAD using commercially available standards. The main flavonol, anthocyanin, and phenolic acid were kaempferol-3-sinapoyl-diglucoside-7-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-sinapoyl-feruloyl-diglucoside-5-glucoside, and disinapoyl-diglucoside, respectively, each representing 9.8, 10.3, and 4.9% of the total amount of 872 mg polyphenol equivalents per 100 g of fresh kale. Variations between individual plants and growing seasons were of the same order of magnitude for total phenolics and total monomeric anthocyanins.

  5. Characterization of interploid hybrids from crosses between Brassica juncea and B. oleracea and the production of yellow-seeded B. napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Zhu, Lixia; Qi, Liping; Ke, Hongmei; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Ma, Chaozhi; Fu, Tingdong

    2012-06-01

    Yellow-seeded Brassica napus was for the first time developed from interspecific crosses using yellow-seeded B. juncea (AABB), yellow-seeded B. oleracea (CC), and black-seeded artificial B. napus (AACC). Three different mating approaches were undertaken to eliminate B-genome chromosomes after trigenomic hexaploids (AABBCC) were generated. Hybrids (AABCC, ABCC) from crosses AABBCC × AACC, AABBCC × CC and ABCC × AACC were advanced by continuous selfing in approach 1, 2 and 3, respectively. To provide more insight into Brassica genome evolution and the cytological basis for B. napus resynthesis in each approach, B-genome chromosome pairing and segregation were intensively analyzed in AABCC and ABCC plants using genomic in situ hybridization methods. The frequencies at which B-genome chromosomes underwent autosyndesis and allosyndesis were generally higher in ABCC than in AABCC plants. The difference was statistically significant for allosyndesis but not autosyndesis. Abnormal distributions of B-genome chromosomes were encountered at anaphase I, including chromosome lagging and precocious sister centromere separation of univalents. These abnormalities were observed at a significantly higher frequency in AABCC than in ABCC plants, which resulted in more rapid B-genome chromosome elimination in the AABCC derivatives. Yellow or yellow-brown seeds were obtained in all approaches, although true-breeding yellow-seeded B. napus was developed only in approaches 2 and 3. The efficiency of the B. napus construction approaches was in the order 1 > 3 > 2 whereas this order was 3 > 2 > 1 with respect to the construction of yellow-seeded B. napus. The results are discussed in relation to Brassica genome evolution and the development and utilization of the yellow-seeded B. napus obtained here.

  6. brassica oleracea l

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2012-09-11

    Sep 11, 2012 ... role in promoting the somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis, which led its wide spread ... chambers with controlled light, humidity and temperature control at ... colour of the callus varied between white green (Figure 3).

  7. Acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO sub 2 in five C sub 3 species. [Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, Brassica oleracea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sage, R.F. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA)); Sharkey, T.D. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Seemann, J.R. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno (USA))

    1989-02-01

    The effect of long-term (weeks to months) CO{sub 2} enhancement on (a) the gas-exchange characteristics, (b) the content and activation state of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco), and (c) leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll, and dry weight per area were studied in five C{sub 3} species (Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, and Brassica oleracea) grown at CO{sub 2} partial pressures of 300 or 900 to 1000 microbars. Long-term exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} affected the CO{sub 2} response of photosynthesis in one of three ways: (a) the initial slope of the CO{sub 2} response was unaffected, but the photosynthetic rate at high CO{sub 2} increased (S. tuberosum); (b) the initial slope decreased but the CO{sub 2}-saturated rate of photosynthesis decreased (B. oleracea, S. melongena). In all five species, growth at high CO{sub 2} increased the extent to which photosynthesis was stimulated following a decrease in the partial pressure of O{sub 2} or an increase in measurement CO{sub 2} above 600 microbars. This stimulation indicates that a limitation on photosynthesis by the capacity to regenerate orthophosphate was reduced or absent after acclimation to high CO{sub 2}. Leaf nitrogen per area either increased (S. tuberosum, S. melongena) or was little changed by CO{sub 2} enhancement. The content of rubisco was lower in only two of the fives species, yet its activation state was 19% to 48% lower in all five species following long-term exposure to high CO{sub 2}. These results indicate that during growth in CO{sub 2}-enriched air, leaf rubisco content remains in excess of that required to support the observed photosynthetic rates.

  8. Evaluation of the effects of homeopathic medicines on the seed germination of Brassica oleracea L. var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Monteiro Siqueira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aiming to increase the productivity and achieve production levels that meet the market demands, agriculture makes use of pesticides and fertilizers. Fertilizers are natural or artificial substances that contain chemical elements and physical proprieties that enhance plant growth and productivity [1]. However, the addition of fertilizers has generated environmental impacts that jeopardize the sustainability of agricultural ecosystems in the medium and long term [2]. Fertilizers are associated with eutrophication of rivers and lakes [2], soil erosion [3], among others. The organic agriculture is an alternative for the use of additives, which aims to enhance the efficient use of nonrenewable natural resources, and utilization of renewable natural resources and biological processes aligned to biodiversity, the environment, economic development and quality of human life [4]. The use of homeopathy for the cultivation of plants is into the organic agriculture. Homeopathic medicines can lead to greater plant growth, the elimination of pests and soil enrichment, without presenting environmental impacts, or damage to the consumer or for the handler. Aim: The objective of this study is to find on the homeopathic medicine an alternative method for the use of fertilizers in order to increase the germination of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica. Methodology: Seeds of broccoli will be treated with homeopathic medicines for phosphorus and gibberelic acid in the following method and scale 6cH, 30cH and 200cH, according with the 3rd edition of the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. These seeds will be cultured on Petri dishes in a MS medium. The dilution and the agitation water on the same high dilutions above, are used as a growth control, in the same way, gibberelic acid, a hormone, widely used commercially as a fertilizer, is also used as control. The applications will be made six days a week. It will be conducted a seedlings count

  9. Effects of seed priming, salinity and methyl jasmonate treatment on bioactive composition of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (white and red varieties) sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassini, Ismahen; Baenas, Nieves; Moreno, Diego A; Carvajal, Micaela; Boughanmi, Neziha; Martinez Ballesta, Maria Del Carmen

    2017-06-01

    Brassica spp. sprouts are rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds, especially glucosinolates and phenolic acid derivatives, and the composition of these young germinating seeds can be altered by several external factors. In this study two cabbage varieties (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, red and white) were studied using seed priming (KCl 50 mmol L(-1) ; NaCl 150 mmol L(-1) ) and MeJA spraying (25 µmol L(-1) ) to elicit the phytochemical content of edible sprouts. The red variety was richer in glucosinolates and phenolic compounds than the white one but not in mineral nutrients. Seed priming enhanced the potassium (K) content and flavonols in both varieties, while the total content of glucosinolates was reduced after seed priming only in the red variety. The white variety responded better than the red one to KCl seed priming, increasing the flavonols (89%). Salinity did not induce any change in the phytochemical content of these two varieties. Elicitation with sprayed MeJA was effective in significantly increasing the content of indolic glucosinolates glucobrassicin (5.7-fold) and neoglucobrassicin (9.7-fold) in the red cultivar. In the white variety, in addition to glucobrassicin (19.4-fold) and neoglucobrassicin (9.4-fold), 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin (2.3-fold) was also enhanced. MeJA also elicited significant amounts of anthocyanins (41%) and chlorogenic acid derivatives (329%) in the white variety. KCl seed priming and MeJA elicitation promoted the phytochemical composition of the cabbage varieties, especially in the white variety. The application of NaCl resulted in less efficient elicitation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Culture and fusion of pollen protoplasts of Brassica oleracea L. var. italica with haploid mesophyll protoplasts of B. rapa L. ssp. pekinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Ryschka, U; Marthe, F; Klocke, E; Schumann, G; Zhao, H

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid callus was formed from the successful protoplast fusion between pollen protoplasts of Brassica oleracea var. italica and haploid mesophyll protoplasts of Brassica rapa. The pollen protoplast isolation frequency in broccoli was highly related to the ratio of trinucleate pollens in the male gametophyte population. Large quantities of pollen protoplasts with high vigor could be isolated, and the isolation frequency reached up to 90% in 6.0-7.0 mm long flower buds with about 94.7% trinucleate-stage pollens. Pollen protoplasts could be collected and purified by discontinuous gradient centrifugation. In 1% Na-alginate embedding culture, cell divisions were observed but no further development was found. The haploid mesophyll protoplasts were isolated from in vitro haploid plants of B. rapa. Results strongly showed the variability in culturability of mesophyll protoplasts from different haploid lines. Both pollen protoplasts and haploid mesophyll protoplasts retained a stable round shape in the designed prefusion solution with an osmotic pressure of 0.74 osmol/kg. Polyethylene glycol was used for the protoplast fusion, and 40% polyethylene glycol 4000 enabled the highest fusion frequency of about 20%. Some postfusion protoplasts showed cell divisions up to callus proliferation. Calli were screened by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis for their hybrid character. Results revealed the existence of the hybrid calli. Some of the hybrid calli grew well with green color and shoot primordia. According to our knowledge, this is the first report about a hybrid formation between two haploid protoplasts. Potential comprehensive applications, as well as problems of this technique, are discussed.

  11. Seleção e produção de sementes em hortaliças: com referência especial ao gênero Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Brieger

    1942-01-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary work with vegetables was described and special reference was-made to the group Brassica oleracea. a Plants flowering easily in Piracicaba and probably in the whole State of São Paulo. To this group belongs the lettuce, endive, chichory, carrot, radish, kale, brocoli and cauliflower. b Plants where special treatment is necessary for flowering, as cabbage. c Plants that did not flower up to this moment, as Svisschard beet and beet. Three main factors contribute for the seedless condition in the group cabbage : lack of flowering, anormalities of the flowers and self-sterility. The preliminary experiments in controling these factors seem to indicate the possibility of seed production in this group. The systematics of the two species Brassica oleracea (Europe and Brassica juncea (Oriental Asia was discussed. The economical differences in the group Brassica oleracea are controled by Mendelian factors with complicate types of interaction. It is not necessary to look for special places in the State of São Paulo for vegetable experiments but the possibility of better results in the future, with appropriate conditions, is emphasized.

  12. Effects of the 3D-clinorotation on endogenous substances of broccoli sprout (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and its food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, K.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Miyagawa, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges in this century We are studying on space agriculture to provide foods for space living people However careful assessment should be made on the effects of exotic environment on the endogenous production of biologically active substances and food safety of plants cultivated in space Broccoli sprout Brassica oleracea var italica is known to produce sulforaphane 4-methylsulfinybutyl isothiocyanate which is effective to function as an antioxidant and enhance immunity Because of such substance it is recognized to be good food materials Broccoli sprouts were then cultivated for 3 days under the 3D-clinorotation The amount of sulforaphane produced by this treatment showed no significant difference compared to the ground control Secondly we examined population of microorganisms adhered on the surface of sprout cultivated under the 3D-clinorotation Number of the microorganisms colony formed was statistically higher than the control Mold species was identified to penicillium sp based on the microscopic observation Poor construction of plant cell wall elements cellulose lignin etc is well known effects of microgravity Defense function of the broccoli plant cells might be weakened against microorganism We also speculate other possible causes for the high rate of contamination such as photosynthetic activity of the plant or microclimate air flow heat transport and humidity around the seedling affected by pseudo-microgravity or the 3D-clinorotation Those factors may relate to the difference in proliferation

  13. VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF A NUMBER OF INTRODUCED BROCCOLI CULTIVARS (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. IN BATUR VILLAGE, KINTAMANI DISTRICT, BANGLI REGENCY, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Kadek Raleni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. is a vegetable crop belongs to Brassicaceae family. Broccoli has high nutrition, high in fiber and contains isotiacyanate that has anticancer activity. Broccoli market in Indonesia, particularly in modern supermarkets, increases 15-20% per year, however, productivity was still low, therefore effort to increase broccoli production in Indonesia need to be investigated. Field trial was conducted at Batur Village, Kintamani District, Bangli Regency, Bali, to find out cultivars that were adapted in tropical region. Introduced cultivars being trialed were ‘Alborada’, ‘Belstar’, ‘Fiesta’, ‘Sarasota’, ‘Bay Meadows’, ‘Castle Dome’, ‘Liutenant’, ‘Iron Man’, ‘Marathon’, ‘Green Gold’, ‘Imperial’, ‘Green Magic’ and ‘Lucky’ as control. Variable observed were vegetative growth, curding period, and productivity of each cultivar. This study employed Randomized Completely Block Design with 3 replicates (plots and 8 plants each plot. Data were analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of variance on Costat program, followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT on 1% level. Results show that each cultivar varied in adaptability in tropical region. ‘Castle Dome’ has the highest productivity, while ‘Fiesta’ was the lowest.

  14. Antiamnesic Effect of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Leaves on Amyloid Beta (Aβ)1-42-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon Kyeong; Ha, Jeong Su; Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Jin Yong; Lee, Du Sang; Guo, Tian Jiao; Lee, Uk; Kim, Dae-Ok; Heo, Ho Jin

    2016-05-04

    To examine the antiamnesic effects of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) leaves, we performed in vitro and in vivo tests on amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity. The chloroform fraction from broccoli leaves (CBL) showed a remarkable neuronal cell-protective effect and an inhibition against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The ameliorating effect of CBL on Aβ1-42-induced learning and memory impairment was evaluated by Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests. The results indicated improving cognitive function in the CBL group. After the behavioral tests, antioxidant effects were detected by superoxide dismutase (SOD), oxidized glutathione (GSH)/total GSH, and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays, and inhibition against AChE was also presented in the brain. Finally, oxo-dihydroxy-octadecenoic acid (oxo-DHODE) and trihydroxy-octadecenoic acid (THODE) as main compounds were identified by quadrupole time-of-flight ultraperformance liquid chromatography (Q-TOF UPLC-MS) analysis. Therefore, our studies suggest that CBL could be used as a natural resource for ameliorating Aβ1-42-induced learning and memory impairment.

  15. Characterization of fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. and spinach (Amaranthus sp. produced using microfiltration membrane as folic acid source for smart food formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilowati Agustine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purifying and drying both fermented biomasses of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. and spinach (Amaranthus sp. by Kombucha culture has been conducted to recover concentrate and powder of folic acid. The aims of this study is to determine the differences of particles characteristics and compositions of concentrate and powder from both mentioned folic acid source through Micro Filtration (MF membrane and without MF membrane. The best folic acid produced by MF membrane process (room temperature, stirrer rotation speed 400 rpm, pressure 40 psia and 30 minutes and drying (30 °C, 22 cm Hg and 24 hours were resulted in biomass of the concentrate and powder with compositions of total solids 6.29 % and 96.91 %, total polyphenol 0.25 % and 0.06 %, folic acid 58.8 μg/mL and 54.33 μg/mL, reducing sugar 105.34 mg/mL and 441.39 mg/mL, and total acids 0.57 % and 2.33 %, respectively. In optimum condition, fermented spinach concentrate contributed to particles distribution with diameter size (Ø between 0,4 and 100 μm (75.45 %, and with Ø between 100 and 1000 μm (26.3 %, otherwise, the process without MF membrane was resulted the particles distribution respectively 74.1 % and 25.9% by each interval of Ø.

  16. Changes in SeMSC, Glucosinolates and Sulforaphane Levels, and in Proteome Profile in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica Fertilized with Sodium Selenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moenne

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC, total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica. Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 mmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  17. Phenotypic plasticity of Myzus persicae (Hemíptera: Aphididae raised on Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale and Raphanus sativus L. (radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peppe Fernanda Borja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of variability generated by phenotypic plasticity is crucial for predicting evolutionary patterns in insect-plant systems. Given sufficient variation for plasticity, host race formation can be favored and maintained, even simpatrically. The plasticity of size and performance (assessed by the lifetime fitness index r m of six clones of Myzus persicae was tested, with replicates allowed to develop on two hosts, kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala and radish (Raphanus sativus. The clones showed significant variability in their plasticity. Reaction norms varied through generations and negative genetic correlation, although not significant, tend to increase with the duration of host use. The lack of plasticity in lifetime fitness among generalist clones occurred as an after-effect of the highly plastic determinants. Significant morphological plasticity in host used was observed, but no variation in the plastic responses (GxE interaction was detected. Strong selection for a larger size occurred among individuals reared on radish, the most unfavorable host. Morphological plasticity in general body size (in a multivariate sense was not linear related to fitness plasticity. These observations suggest that a high potential for the evolution of host divergence favors host race formation.

  18. A Co-Dominant Marker BoE332 Applied to Marker-Assisted Selection of Homozygous Male-Sterile Plants in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; ZHUANG Mu; FANG Zhi-yuan; WANG Qing-biao; ZHANG Yang-yong; LIU Yu-mei; YANG Li-mei; CHENG Fei

    2013-01-01

    The dominant genic male sterility (DGMS) gene CDMs399-3 derived from a spontaneous mutation in the line 79-399-3 of spring cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), has been successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several cabbage cultivars in China. During the development of dominant male sterility lines in cabbage, the conventional identification of homozygous male-sterile plants (CDMs399-3/CDMs399-3) is a laborious and time-consuming process. For marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the gene CDMs399-3 transferred into key spring cabbage line 397, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR) and SSR technology were used to identify markers that were linked to CDMs399-3 based on method of bulked segregant analysis (BSA). By screening a set of 978 EST-SSRs and 395 SSRs, a marker BoE332 linked to the CDMs399-3 at a distance of 3.6 cM in the genetic background of cabbage line 397 were identified. 7 homozygous male-sterile plants in population P1170 with 20 plants were obtained finally via MAS of BoE332. Thus, BoE332 will greatly facilitate the transferring of the gene CDMs399-3 into the key spring cabbage line 397 and improve the application of DGMS in cabbage hybrid breeding.

  19. A large-scale introgression of genomic components of Brassica rapa into B. napus by the bridge of hexaploid derived from hybridization between B. napus and B. oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinfei; Mei, Jiaqin; Zhang, Yongjing; Li, Jiana; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun; Qian, Wei

    2013-08-01

    Brassica rapa (AA) has been used to widen the genetic basis of B. napus (AACC), which is a new but important oilseed crop worldwide. In the present study, we have proposed a strategy to develop new type B. napus carrying genomic components of B. rapa by crossing B. rapa with hexaploid (AACCCC) derived from B. napus and B. oleracea (CC). The hexaploid exhibited large flowers and high frequency of normal chromosome segregation, resulting in good seed set (average of 4.48 and 12.53 seeds per pod by self and open pollination, respectively) and high pollen fertility (average of 87.05 %). It was easy to develop new type B. napus by crossing the hexaploid with 142 lines of B. rapa from three ecotype groups, with the average crossability of 9.24 seeds per pod. The genetic variation of new type B. napus was diverse from that of current B. napus, especially in the A subgenome, revealed by genome-specific simple sequence repeat markers. Our data suggest that the strategy proposed here is a large-scale and highly efficient method to introgress genomic components of B. rapa into B. napus.

  20. Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis reveal a rapid expansion and functional divergence of duplicated genes in the WRKY gene family of cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiu-Yang; Xia, En-Hua; Liu, Fei-Hu; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2015-02-15

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs), one of the ten largest TF families in higher plants, play important roles in regulating plant development and resistance. To date, little is known about the WRKY TF family in Brassica oleracea. Recently, the completed genome sequence of cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata) allows us to systematically analyze WRKY genes in this species. A total of 148 WRKY genes were characterized and classified into seven subgroups that belong to three major groups. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses revealed that the repertoire of cabbage WRKY genes was derived from a common ancestor shared with Arabidopsis thaliana. The B. oleracea WRKY genes were found to be preferentially retained after the whole-genome triplication (WGT) event in its recent ancestor, suggesting that the WGT event had largely contributed to a rapid expansion of the WRKY gene family in B. oleracea. The analysis of RNA-Seq data from various tissues (i.e., roots, stems, leaves, buds, flowers and siliques) revealed that most of the identified WRKY genes were positively expressed in cabbage, and a large portion of them exhibited patterns of differential and tissue-specific expression, demonstrating that these gene members might play essential roles in plant developmental processes. Comparative analysis of the expression level among duplicated genes showed that gene expression divergence was evidently presented among cabbage WRKY paralogs, indicating functional divergence of these duplicated WRKY genes.

  1. Effects of Biofertilizer Containing Microbial of N-fixer, P Solubilizer and Plant Growth Factor Producer on Cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. Capitata Growth And Soil Enzymatic Activities: A Greenhouse Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarjiya Antonius

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this greenhouse study was to evaluate the effects of four different concentrations of biofertilizers containing Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. and Streptomyces sp. on soil properties and to evaluate the growth of Brassica oleraceae var. capitata. The application treatments included control (no fertilizer and four concentration of diluted biofertilizer per pot (20 ml, 40 ml, 60 mland 80 ml. The application of biofertilizer containing benefi cial bacteria signifi cantly increased the growth of B. oleraceae. The useof biofertilizer resulted higher biomass weight and length as well as root length. This greenhouse study also indicated that differentamount of biofertilizer application had almost similar effects. Microbial inoculum not only increased plant harvest, but also improvedsoil properties, such as number of microorganisms, respiration and urease activities.

  2. Fluctuación poblacional y parasitismo de larvas de Copitarsia Decolora Guenée, Plutella Xylostella L. y Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera) en Brassica Oleracea L.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    La fluctuación poblacional y los porcentajes de parasitismo se determinaron para larvas de Copitarsia decolora (Guenée), Plutella xylostella L. y Trichoplusia ni Hübner, asociadas con Brassica oleracea L. en tres variedades, col, coliflor y brócoli, durante abril de 2004 a abril de 2005, en Acatzingo, Puebla, México. Se realizaron muestreos al azar cada 14 días en 10 plantas por variedad; las larvas totales fueron contabilizadas, colectadas y mantenidas en una cámara de cría a 27º C ± 1º C y ...

  3. Efekat ekspresije gena za protein-kinazu 1 duvana (NPK1) kod transformisanih biljaka karfiola (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) na razvoj tolerancije prema povišenim koncentracijama NaCI in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović, Suzana M.

    2015-01-01

    Biljke su neprekidno izloţene razliĉitim vrstama stresa iz spoljašnje sredine, koji nepovoljno utiĉu na njihov rast i razviće. Povećan salinitet zemljišta je jedan od faktora spoljašnje sredine, koji u velikoj meri ograniĉava produktivnost gajenih biljaka. Karfiol (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis), je znaĉajna povrtarska kultura koja je, kao i ostale povrtarske kupusnjaĉe, podloţna uticaju razliĉitih stresnih faktora, pa i povećanom salinitetu usled intenzivnog zalivanja. Uz klasiĉne metod...

  4. EFICIÊNCIA DE INSETICIDAS PARA O CONTROLE DE Plutella xylostella (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE) NA CULTURA DO REPOLHO (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) COMPARISON OF INSECTICIDE CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS OF Plutella xylostella (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE) IN CABBAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Shigeo Takatsuka; Hellen Georgia Santana; Paulo Marçal Fernandes; Cecilia Czepak; Camilo de Lelis Rocha

    2007-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi conduzido em uma área sob plantio contínuo de repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) em Goianápolis - GO, no período de setembro a novembro de 1996, visando comparar inseticidas para o controle da traça-das-crucíferas (Plutella xylostella). O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos u...

  5. Identification and characterization of interspecific hybrids from Brassica napus (Eru CMS) ×Brassica oleracea%甘蓝型油菜与甘蓝种间杂种的鉴定及特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红美; 徐跃进; 万正杰

    2011-01-01

    Hybrids from Brassica napus × Brassica oleracea were obtained by embryo rescue techniques,which is an effective approach for increasing the resources of male sterility of Brassica oleracea.Both the DNA content and chromosome number of hybrids were the mid-parent values.Characteristics of the hybrid were investigated.The results showed that hybrids were morphologically similar to parents during the growing periods, while inclined to the female parent during flowering.But hybrids had strong heterosis of growth.The leaf structure, chloroplast number in stomata guard cell, the floral organ, and the early flowering periods of hybrids were mid-parent, except the mutated leaf structure of mosaic hybrid.Hybrids had their own unique peroxidase isozymes bands.Test of the pollen viability showed that hybrids bore only non-viability pollens with 100% sterility.Backcross generation could be obtained only through embryo rescue techniques to overcome barriers of hybridization.%采用新型甘蓝型油菜细胞质雄性不育源(Eru CMS)为材料,通过杂交与胚抢救技术,获得甘蓝型油菜与甘蓝的种问杂种,对杂种进行鉴定并对杂种性状进行研究.用流式细胞仪和染色体计数鉴定后发现,真杂种的DNA含量为两亲本的中间值,并且染色体数目均为28条.通过对真杂种特性进行研究,结果表明:杂种植株幼苗形态都介于亲本之间,生长后期则偏向甘蓝型油菜,具有超亲本的杂种优势;花叶杂种的叶片结构出现了变异,而绿叶杂种的叶片结构介于亲本之间;杂种的气孔保卫细胞叶绿体数量、初花期和花器官形态也都介于亲本之间;杂种具有自身特异的过氧化物同工酶酶带;杂种不育株率和不育度均为100%,花粉无活力,以甘蓝为轮回亲本与杂种回交仍存在杂交障碍,需借助胚抢救技术获得回交1代.

  6. RESIDUOS DE PLAGUICIDAS ORGANOFOSFORADOS EN CABEZUELA DE BRÓCOLI (Brassica oleracea) DETERMINADOS POR CROMATOGRAFÍA DE GASES

    OpenAIRE

    Ma. Antonia PÉREZ; Segura, Antonio; Rosario GARCÍA; Teresa COLINAS; Pérez, Mario; Vázquez, Antonio; Navarro, Hermilio

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo documenta el historial de manejo de plagas del cultivo de brócoli y determinación de los residuos de plaguicidas organofosforados mediante cromatografía de gases en cabezuelas listas para su comercialización en 23 sitios de producción. Los resultados indican que las plagas de mayor incidencia en el brócoli son Brevicoryne brassicae, Trichoplusia ni, Copitarsia consueta, Artogeia rapae, Trialeurodes sp y Bermisia tabaci, reportadas con una frecuencia de 82.5, 80, 80, 70 y 37.7 % p...

  7. MALDI-TOF characterization of hGH1 produced by hairy root cultures of Brassica oleracea var. italica grown in an airlift with mesh bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Edgar García; Ramírez, Emma Gloria Ramos; Gúzman, Octavio Gómez; Calva, Graciano Calva; Ariza-Castolo, Armando; Pérez-Vargas, Josefina; Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Expression systems based on plant cells, tissue, and organ cultures have been investigated as an alternative for production of human therapeutic proteins in bioreactors. In this work, hairy root cultures of Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli) were established in an airlift with mesh bioreactor to produce isoform 1 of the human growth hormone (hGH1) as a model therapeutic protein. The hGH1 cDNA was cloned into the pCAMBIA1105.1 binary vector to induce hairy roots in hypocotyls of broccoli plantlets via Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Most of the infected plantlets (90%) developed hairy roots when inoculated before the appearance of true leaves, and keeping the emerging roots attached to hypocotyl explants during transfer to solid Schenk and Hildebrandt medium. The incorporation of the cDNA into the hairy root genome was confirmed by PCR amplification from genomic DNA. The expression and structure of the transgenic hGH1 was assessed by ELISA, western blot, and MALDITOF-MS analysis of the purified protein extracted from the biomass of hairy roots cultivated in bioreactor for 24 days. Production of hGH1 was 5.1 ± 0.42 µg/g dry weight (DW) for flask cultures, and 7.8 ± 0.3 µg/g DW for bioreactor, with productivity of 0.68 ± 0.05 and 1.5 ± 0.06 µg/g DW*days, respectively, indicating that the production of hGH1 was not affected by the growth rate, but might be affected by the culture system. These results demonstrate that hairy root cultures of broccoli have potential as an alternative expression system for production of hGH1, and might also be useful for production of other therapeutic proteins.

  8. Optimization of in vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation with heat-resistant cDNA in Brassica oleracea subsp. italica cv. Green Marvel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanfar, Seyed Ali; Aziz, Maheran Abdul; Saud, Halimi Mohd; Abdullah, Janna Ong

    2015-11-01

    An efficient system for shoot regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Brassica oleracea cv. Green Marvel cultivar is described. This study focuses on developing shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants of broccoli cv. Green Marvel using thidiazuron (TDZ), zeatin, and kinetin, the optimization of factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the hypocotyl explants with heat-resistant cDNA, followed by the confirmation of transgenicity of the regenerants. High shoot regeneration was observed in 0.05-0.1 mg dm(-3) TDZ. TDZ at 0.1 mg dm(-3) produced among the highest percentage of shoot regeneration (96.67 %) and mean number of shoot formation (6.17). The highest percentage (13.33 %) and mean number (0.17) of putative transformant production were on hypocotyl explants subjected to preculture on shoot regeneration medium (SRM) with 200 µM acetosyringone. On optimization of bacterial density and inoculation time, the highest percentage and mean number of putative transformant production were on hypocotyl explants inoculated with a bacterial dilution of 1:5 for 30 min. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay indicated a transformation efficiency of 8.33 %. The luciferase assay showed stable integration of the Arabidopsis thaliana HSP101 (AtHSP101) cDNA in the transgenic broccoli regenerants. Three out of five transgenic lines confirmed through PCR showed positive hybridization bands of the AtHSP101 cDNA through Southern blot analysis. The presence of AtHSP101 transcripts in the three transgenic broccoli lines indicated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed the expression of the gene. In conclusion, an improved regeneration system has been established from hypocotyl explants of broccoli followed by successful transformation with AtHSP101 for resistance to high temperature.

  9. Influence of fermentation conditions on glucosinolates, ascorbigen, and ascorbic acid content in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv. Taler) cultivated in different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Peñas, E; Frias, J; Ciska, E; Honke, J; Piskula, M K; Kozlowska, H; Vidal-Valverde, C

    2009-01-01

    The content of glucosinolates (GLS), ascorbigen, and ascorbic acid in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv. Taler) cultivated in different seasons (summer and winter) was determined, before and after spontaneous and starter-induced fermentation. Different salt concentrations (0.5% NaCl or 1.5% NaCl) were used for sauerkraut production. Glucoiberin, sinigrin, and glucobrassicin were dominating in raw white cabbage cultivated either in winter or summer seasons. Ascorbigen precursor, glucobrassicin, was found higher in cabbage cultivated in winter (2.54 micromol/g dw) than those grown in summer (1.83 micromol/g dw). Cabbage fermented for 7 d was found to contain only traces of some GLS irrespective of the fermentation conditions used. Ascorbigen synthesis occurred during white cabbage fermentation. Brining cabbage at low salt concentration (0.5% NaCl) improved ascorbigen content in sauerkraut after 7 d of fermentation at 25 degrees C. The highest ascorbigen concentration was observed in low-sodium (0.5% NaCl) sauerkraut produced from cabbage cultivated in winter submitted to either natural (109.0 micromol/100 g dw) or starter-induced fermentation (108.3 and 104.6 micromol/100 g dw in cabbages fermented by L. plantarum and L. mesenteroides, respectively). Ascorbic acid content was found higher in cabbage cultivated in summer and fermentation process led to significant reductions. Therefore, the selection of cabbages with high glucobrassicin content and the production of low-sodium sauerkrauts may provide enhanced health benefits towards prevention of chronic diseases.

  10. Water balance and N-metabolism in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) plants depending on nitrogen source under salt stress and elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoud, Chokri; Carvajal, Micaela; Ferchichi, Ali; Del Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, María

    2016-11-15

    Elevated [CO2] and salinity in the soils are considered part of the effects of future environmental conditions in arid and semi-arid areas. While it is known that soil salinization decreases plant growth, an increased atmospheric [CO2] may ameliorate the negative effects of salt stress. However, there is a lack of information about the form in which inorganic nitrogen source may influence plant performance under both conditions. Single factor responses and the interactive effects of two [CO2] (380 and 800ppm), three different NO3(-)/NH4(+) ratios in the nutrient solution (100/0, 50/50 and 0/100, with a total N concentration of 3.5mM) and two NaCl concentrations (0 and 80mM) on growth, leaf gas exchange parameters in relation to root hydraulic conductance and N-assimilating enzymes of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) plants were determined. The results showed that a reduced NO3(-) or co-provision of NO3(-) and NH4(+) could be an optimal source of inorganic N for broccoli plants. In addition, elevated [CO2] ameliorated the effect of salt exposure on the plant growth through an enhanced rate of photosynthesis, even at low N-concentration. However, NO3(-) or NO3(-)/NH4(+) co-provision display differential plant response to salt stress regarding water balance, which was associated to N metabolism. The results may contribute to our understanding of N-fertilization modes under increasing atmospheric [CO2] to cope with salt stress, where variations in N nutrition significantly influenced plant response.

  11. A putative functional MYB transcription factor induced by low temperature regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple kale (Brassica Oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Hu, Zongli; Zhang, Yanjie; Li, Yali; Zhou, Shuang; Chen, Guoping

    2012-02-01

    The purple kale (Brassica Oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor) is a mutation in kales, giving the mutant phenotype of brilliant purple color in the interior. Total anthocyanin analysis showed that the amount of anthocyanins in the purple kale was up to 1.73 mg g(-1) while no anthocyanin was detected in the white kale. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple kale, we analyzed the expression of structural genes and some transcription factors associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple cultivar "Red Dove" and the white cultivar "White Dove". The result showed that nearly all the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes showed higher expression levels in the purple cultivar than in the white cultivar, especially for DFR and ANS, they were barely detected in the white cultivar. Interestingly, the fact that a R2R3 MYB transcription factor named BoPAP1 was extremely up-regulated in the purple kale and induced by low temperature attracted our attention. Further sequence analysis showed that BoPAP1 shared high similarity with AtPAP1 and BoMYB1. In addition, the anthocyanin accumulation in the purple kale is strongly induced by the low temperature stress. The total anthocyanin contents in the purple kale under low temperature were about 50-fold higher than the plants grown in the greenhouse. The expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes C4H, F3H, DFR, ANS and UFGT were all enhanced under the low temperature. These evidences strongly suggest that BoPAP1 may play an important role in activating the anthocyanin structural genes for the abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the purple kale.

  12. Low and moderate photosynthetically active radiation affects the flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) dependent on two low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugart, Susanne; Fiol, Michaela; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Zrenner, Rita; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2013-11-01

    Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) contains a large number of naturally occurring structurally different non-acylated and acylated flavonol glycosides as well as hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of low and moderate photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and how these levels interact with low temperature in these phenolic compounds. Juvenile kale plants were treated with PAR levels from 200 to 800 μmol m(-2) s(-1) at 5 and 10 °C under defined conditions in climate chambers. Of the investigated 20 compounds, 11 and 17 compounds were influenced by PAR and temperature, respectively. In addition, an interaction between PAR and temperature was found for eight compounds. The response of the phenolic compounds to PAR was structure-dependent. While quercetin triglycosides increased with higher PAR at 5 and 10 °C, the kaempferol triglycosides exhibited the highest concentrations at 400 μmol m(-2) s(-1). In contrast, kaempferol diglycosides exhibited the highest concentrations at increased PAR levels of 600 and 800 μmol m(-2) s(-1) at 10 °C. However, key genes of flavonol biosynthesis were influenced by temperature but remained unaffected by PAR. Furthermore, there was no interaction between the PAR level and the low temperature in the response of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in kale with the exception of caffeoylquinic acid, which decreased with higher PAR levels of 600 and 800 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and at a lower temperature. In conclusion, PAR and its interaction with temperature could be a suitable tool for modifying the profile of phenolic compounds.

  13. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Reinildes; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-01-01

    Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  14. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinildes Silva-Filho

    Full Text Available Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  15. Agronomic parameters in broccoli ( Brassica oleraceae L. var. Italica in convencional, organic and natural crop systems/ Parâmetros agronômicos em couve-brócolos ( Brassica oleraceae L. var. Italica em sistema convencional, orgânico e natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manoel Oliveira Janeiro Neves

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Agronomic parameters were assessed in broccoli ( Brassica oleraceae L. var. italica, cv. Legacy, in different cultivation systems: Natural 1 [incorporation of elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. “Napier” (50 ton/ha, Bokashi compost (1,5 ton/ ha and EM-4 spraying (20 l/ha]; Natural 2 [Bokashi compost (1,5 ton/ ha and EM-4 spraying (20 l/ha]; Conventional (NPK in the planting + bórax + dressing N]; Organic [organic compost (1 kg/plant]. Plants high were assessed 30, 45 and 60 days after planting; cycle; fresh weight; shelf life and dried weight were also evaluated. Fresh weight of leaves and stems in conventional was higher then in organic treatment. Inflorescence fresh weight, leaves and stems dried weight and shelf life were similar among treatments. The inflorescence fresh and dried weight from conventional were higher than those from Organic and Natural 1. Cycle found in Natural 1 was longer than the other treatments.Parâmetros agronômicos foram avaliados em couve-brócolos ( Brassica oleraceae L . var. italica, cv. Legacy, em quatro sistemas de cultivo: Natural 1 [incorporação de capim elefante Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. “Napier” (50 ton/ha, composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ ha e pulverização de EM-4 (20 l/ha]; Natural 2 [incorporação de composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ ha e pulverização de EM-4 (20 l/ha]; Convencional [NPK no plantio + bórax + N em cobertura]; Orgânico [aplicação de composto (1 kg/planta]. Avaliou-se a altura das plantas aos 30, 45 e 60 dias após o transplantio; duração do ciclo, peso fresco, período de conservação pós-colheita e peso seco. O peso fresco da parte vegetativa obtido no sistema convencional foi superior ao sistema orgânico. O peso fresco e seco da inflorescência obtido no sistema convencional, foi superior àquele obtido nos sistemas Orgânico e Natural 1. O ciclo no sistema Natural 1 foi mais longo do que nos outros tratamentos.

  16. Occurrence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pammel, 1895 Dowson 1939, on Brassicas in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Radunović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassicas form the most important group of vegetable crops in Montenegro. The cabbage(Brassica oleracea var. capitata is most commonly grown, although other brassicas,particularly kale, Brussels sprout, cauliflower and broccoli, have been increasingly producedsince recently. One of the specialties of vegetable production in Montenegro is growing ofcollard (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, which is the simplest variety of the Brassica oleraceaspecies and in the nearest relation with their wild ancestor – the sylvestris variety.Diseases are the main restrictive factors for successful production of these vegetables.Susceptibility of the cultivars and inadequate control often result in more or less damagedcrops in some plots.Causal agents of brassica diseases, especially bacterial, have not been investigated inMontenegro until 2009. Since the symptoms observed in 2009 were „V” shaped leaf edgenecrosis and black rot of vascular tissue, it was assumed that they were caused by plantpathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.Samples of the infected plants were collected from different localities in Montenegro.Isolation and identification of the bacterium were performed using laboratory methodsaccording to Schaad (1980, Lelliott and Stead (1987 and Arsenijević (1997. Examinationof chosen bacterial isolates was conducted using both, classical bacteriological methods(examination of their pathogenic, morphological, cultivation and biochemical and physiologicalcharacteristics, and ELISA test.The obtained results confirmed the presence of X.campestris pv. campestris (Pammel,1895 Dowson 1939, on cabbage, kale, broccoli and collard in Montenegro. This is the firstexperimental evidence that collard is the host of X. campestris pv. campestris in Montenegro.

  17. Genetic analyses of agronomic and seed quality traits of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guoqing Zhang; Weijun Zhou

    2006-04-01

    The heritability, the number of segregating genes and the type of gene interaction of nine agronomic traits were analysed based on F2 populations of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea through ovary culture. The nine traits—plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, length of pod, seed weight per plant and 1000-seed weight—had heritabilities of 0.927, 0.215, 0.172, 0.381, 0.360, 0.972, 0.952, 0.516 and 0.987 respectively, while the mean numbers of controlling genes for these characters were 7.4, 10.4, 9.9, 12.9, 11.5, 21.7, 20.5, 19.8 and 6.4 respectively. According to estimated coefficients of skewness and kurtosis of the traits tested, no significant gene interaction was found for plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight. Seed yield per plant is an important target for oilseed production. In partial correlation analysis, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight were positively correlated with seed yield per plant. On the other hand, length of pod was negatively correlated ($r = -0.69$) with seed yield per plant. Other agronomic characters had no significant correlation to seed yield per plant. In this experiment, the linear regressions of seed yield per plant and other agronomic traits were also analysed. The linear regression equation was $y = 0.074x_{8} + 1.819x_{9} + 6.72x_{12} - 60.78 (R^{2} = 0.993)$, where $x_{8}$, $x_{9}$ and $x_{12}$ represent number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight respectively. The experiment also showed that erucic acid and oil contents of seeds from F2 plants were lower than those of their maternal parents. However, glucosinolate content was higher than that of the maternal plants. As for protein content, similar results were found in the F2 plants and

  18. Characterization of the regulatory network of BoMYB2 in controlling anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple cauliflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Li-Wei; Li, Li

    2012-10-01

    Purple cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) Graffiti represents a unique mutant in conferring ectopic anthocyanin biosynthesis, which is caused by the tissue-specific activation of BoMYB2, an ortholog of Arabidopsis PAP2 or MYB113. To gain a better understanding of the regulatory network of anthocyanin biosynthesis, we investigated the interaction among cauliflower MYB-bHLH-WD40 network proteins and examined the interplay of BoMYB2 with various bHLH transcription factors in planta. Yeast two-hybrid studies revealed that cauliflower BoMYBs along with the other regulators formed the MYB-bHLH-WD40 complexes and BobHLH1 acted as a bridge between BoMYB and BoWD40-1 proteins. Different BoMYBs exhibited different binding activity to BobHLH1. Examination of the BoMYB2 transgenic lines in Arabidopsis bHLH mutant backgrounds demonstrated that TT8, EGL3, and GL3 were all involved in the BoMYB2-mediated anthocyanin biosynthesis. Expression of BoMYB2 in Arabidopsis caused up-regulation of AtTT8 and AtEGL3 as well as a subset of anthocyanin structural genes encoding flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase. Taken together, our results show that MYB-bHLH-WD40 network transcription factors regulated the bHLH gene expression, which may represent a critical feature in the control of anthocyanin biosynthesis. BoMYB2 together with various BobHLHs specifically regulated the late anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Our findings provide additional information for the complicated regulatory network of anthocyanin biosynthesis and the transcriptional regulation of transcription factors in vegetable crops.

  19. Influência de genótipos de couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. na biologia de Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae Influence of cabbage genotypes (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. on the biology of Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Leal Boiça Junior

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a influência de alguns genótipos de couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. no desenvolvimento de Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Os genótipos avaliados foram: Manteiga de Ribeirão Pires I-2620, Roxa I-919, Manteiga de São José, Manteiga de Monte Alegre, Pires 2 de Campinas, Couve Comum, Couve de Arthur Nogueira 2, Couve de Arthur Nogueira 1. Lagartas recém-eclodidas foram mantida em discos foliares de 8 cm de diâmetro para cada genótipo. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, longevidade e fecundidade de adultos, utilizando análises paramétricas e de agrupamentos para interpretação dos dados. Observou-se um prolongamento em dias no ciclo de P. xylostella, aumento no peso de pupa e maiores valores de viabilidade e fecundidade, durante a segunda geração. O genótipo Couve de Arthur Nogueira 2 foi menos favorável ao desenvolvimento de P. xylostella nas duas gerações, e Couve Comum demonstrou maior influência negativa ao inseto na segunda geração. Manteiga de Ribeirão Pires I-2620 foi o mais suscetível nas duas gerações, agrupando com este na segunda geração Pires 2 de Campinas e Manteiga de São José.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cabbage genotypes (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. on growth of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. The genotypes evaluated were: Manteiga of Ribeirão Pires I-2620, Roxa I919, Manteiga of São José, Manteiga of Monte Alegre, Pires 2 of Campinas, Couve Comum, Couve of Arthur Nogueira 2, Couve of Arthur Nogueira 1. Neonate larvae were reared in 8 cm leaf discs of each genotype. The parameters evaluated were: period and viability of the larval and pupal stages, sex ratio, longevity and fecundity of adults. Parametric and Cluster analyses were used for data analysis. Overall, it was observed a developmental delay in the P

  20. Estudo comparativo das alterações de processamento no brócoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Itálica) submetido a diferentes processos de congelamento e períodos de estocagem

    OpenAIRE

    Damian, Andréa Clara Spoladore

    2000-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias. Amostras de brócoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Itálica) foram congeladas por 3 métodos diferentes e armazenadas com a finalidade de analisar a textura e a microestrutura (rompimento da parede celular) do brócoli. O brócoli foi selecionado e separado de acordo com o diâmetro de caule (@ 5 mm), branqueado e congelado em freezer a -18°C pelo método lento, a -50°C em congelador de placas pelo método r...

  1. 滇东北冷凉山区夏秋青花菜无公害栽培技术%Cultivation techniques of Brassica oleracea var. Italica in northeast Yunnan mountain in summer and autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金传友; 马卫; 黄吉美; 许钱友; 王朝武

    2012-01-01

    Northeast Yunnan mountain climate is cool in summer and autumn, suitable for Brassica oleracea. Based on years of pro- duction practice, a set of non-pollution cultivation techniques of the Brassiea olerctcea for northeast Yunnan mountain in summer and autumn was introduced including selecting species, nurturing seedlings, planting specifications, fertilizer and water management, pest control, harvesting and so on.%摘要:滇东北山区夏秋季节气候温凉,适于种植反季青花菜,文章结合多年生产实践,从品种选择、培育壮苗、规格定植、肥水管理、病虫防治、适时采收等措施总结介绍一套滇东北冷凉山区夏秋青花菜无公害栽培技术。

  2. CONTROLE QUÍMICO DOS PULG��ES Mysus persicae E Brevicoryne brassicae NA CULTURA DA COUVE-FLOR COM INSETICIDAS APLICADOS NA FORMA DE ESGUICHO CHEMICAL CONTROL OF APHIDS Mizus persicae AND Brevicoryne brassicae ON CAULIFLOWER WITH INSECTICIDES APPLIED IN TRANSPLANT HOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selby Pereira dos Santos

    2007-09-01

    style="font-family: Times New Roman,serif;">persicae and Brevicoryne brassicae, in cauliflower, through insecticide Confidor 700 GRDA and Confidor 200 SC, was evaluated in an experimental area of the Federal University of Goiás, in May 1998. Two dosages for each one of the insecticides, as standard insecticide (Tamaron and a witness were used. Confidor 700 GRDA and Confidor 200 SC were applied at only turn in the transplanted holes, with a coastal atomizer, using jet beak. The evaluation of the results of M. persicae consisted of counting the nymphs and adults in leaves chosen by chance in plants of the central line of the parcels 35 days after the treatments. The same method was employed for the evaluation of B. brassicae 48 days after the chemical control. The treatment with Tamaron Br was applied in form of weekly applications. Confidor 700 GRDA and 200 SC controlled the aphids M. persicae and B. brassicae efficiently on the cauliflower, in minor dosages, being superior to Tamaron Br, as far as the control of

  3. Efeito de extratos de plantas silvestres da família Solanaceae sobre o controle de Brevicoryne brassicae em couve (Brassica oleracea var. acephala Extracts effect of wild plants of the Solanaceae family on Brevicoryne brassicae control in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Braga Lovatto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi testar o efeito de extratos de plantas silvestres da família Solanaceae disponíveis na região do Vale do Rio Pardo, RS, sobre o pulgão-da-couve (Brevicoryne brassicae, praga agrícola de significativa importância. Nove espécies tóxicas de Solanaceae estão disponíveis na região de estudo: seis pertencem ao gênero Solanum, uma ao gênero Brugmansia e duas são cultivadas e pertencem ao gênero Nicotiana e Capsicum. A fim de determinar a capacidade de repelência e o efeito inseticida, foram testadas as seguintes espécies: B. suaveolens (trombeteira, C. annuum var. variegated (pimenta-de-jardim, N. tabacum var. virginia (fumo, S. aculeatissimum (joá-bravo, S. americanum (erva-moura, S. diflorum (tomatinho, S. fastigiatum var. acicularium (jurubeba, S. fastigiatum var. fastigiatum (jurubeba e S. sisymbriifolium (arrebenta-cavalo. Para obtenção dos extratos foram utilizadas folhas, flores e frutos aplicando-se duas técnicas distintas de elaboração: decocção do material fresco e extração a frio do material seco. Quanto à capacidade de repelência dos extratos, os tratamentos utilizando material fresco de S. fastigiatum var. acicularium (frutos verdes e maduros, 2,5% e 5% de concentração e S. diflorum (frutos verdes e maduros, 2,5% e 5% de concentração demonstraram maior eficácia. Nos testes sobre a biologia do inseto os tratamentos mais eficazes como inseticida foram S. fastigiatum var. fastigiatum e var. acicularium (folhas a 10% de concentração.The objective of this study was to test the effect of plant extracts from Solanaceae available in Vale do Rio Pardo region, RS, on the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae, agricultural pest of significant importance. Nine toxic Solanaceae species are available in the area of study: six are wild belonging to the genus Solanum, one to the genus Brugmansia, and two are cultivated and belong to the genus Nicotiana and Capsicum. To determine the

  4. Matromorfie in Brassica oleracea L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenink, A.H.

    1975-01-01

    INLEIDINGDe ontwikkeling van een diploid embryo uit een onbevruchte eicel van een diploide plant, mede ten gevolge van de stimulerende invloed van soort- of geslachtsvreemd pollen, wordt matromorfie of pseudogame diploide parthenogenese genoemd (EENINK, 1974a).Afwijkingen in kern- of celdelingen, di

  5. Phytopathological and nutraceutical evaluation of cauliflower plants treated with high dilutions of arsenic trioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucietta Betti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This research aimed at verifying the effects of highly diluted (HD treatments on cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. plants both healthy and inoculated by the fungus Alternaria brassicicola, causing the dark leaf spot disease. In vitro spore germination assays (A, growth chamber experiments (B and field trials (C were performed. Material and Methods: (A: spore suspensions were prepared in HD treatments and their inhibiting effect on germination was recorded microscopically after incubation at 25°C for 5 h. (B: the same treatments were tested in plants artificially inoculated with the fungus. The infection level on leaves was blindly evaluated by a previously defined infection scale. (C: the field was divided into plots according to a complete randomized block design. In the first trial (i, plants were artificially inoculated and weekly treated; the infection level was evaluated on cauliflower heads. The second trial (ii was performed on the same field with the aim to induce a natural infection, mediated by infected crop residues. Measurement endpoints concerned the evaluation of some physiological parameters along with the glucosinolate content on cauliflower heads. Results: (A: arsenic trioxide (As 35x and 35x diluted 1:5000 and Cuprum 5x induced highly significant inhibition of germination rate (-60% vs. control. (B: As 35x and Cu 3 g/l induced a significant decrease of mean infection level (-50%. (C: in (i, a significant reduction of disease symptoms on heads was recorded for As 35x and Cu 3 g/l (-45%. In (ii natural fungal infection did not occur due to dry weather conditions; physiological and nutraceutical analyses of healthy heads demonstrated that As 35x induced a significant increase of both head size and glucosinolate content. Discussion: Some evidences on the efficacy of arsenic, at different decimal and centesimal HD, in fungal and viral disease control were previously reported [1]. In the present study the

  6. Intra-specific variation in wild Brassica oleracea for aphid-induced plant responses and consequences for caterpillar–parasitoid interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Dicke, M.; Harvey, J.A.; Gols, R.

    2014-01-01

    [KEYWORDS: Cabbage Diadegma semiclausum Herbivory Leaf chewers Mamestra brassicae Microplitis mediator Plutella xylostella phloem feeders] Herbivore-induced plant responses not only influence the initiating attackers, but also other herbivores feeding on the same host plant simultaneously or at a di

  7. Rhizosphere effect on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in manure-amended soil during cabbage (Brassica oleracea) cultivation under tropical field conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongeng, Duncan; Muyanja, Charles; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Geeraerd, Annemie H; Springael, Dirk

    2011-09-15

    The effect of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) rhizosphere on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in manure-amended soils under tropical field conditions was investigated in the Central Agro-Ecological Zone of Uganda. Three-week old cabbage seedlings were transplanted and cultivated for 120 days on manure-amended soil inoculated with 4 or 7 log CFU/g non-virulent E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium. Cabbage rhizosphere did not affect survival of the 4log CFU/g inocula in manure-amended soil and the two enteric bacteria were not detected on/in cabbage leaves at harvest. The 7 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium survived in bulk soil for a maximum of 80 and 96 days, respectively, but the organisms remained culturable in cabbage rhizosphere up to the time of harvest. At 7 log CFU/g inoculum, E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium contamination on cabbage leaves occurred throughout the cultivation period. Leaf surface sterilisation with 1% AgNO(3) indicated that the organisms were present superficially and in protected locations on the leaves. These results demonstrate that under tropical field conditions, cabbage rhizosphere enhances the persistence of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in manure-amended soil at high inoculum density and is associated with long-term contamination of the leaves.

  8. Clonación del cDNA del gen de la insulina humana en raíces aéreas de Brassica oleracea var italica (brócoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice García Reyes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La insulina humana es una proteína de actividad hormonal que regula los niveles de glucosa en sangre. Cuando la insulina falla se desarrolla el padecimiento conocido como diabetes. La insulina se ha expresado en bacterias, levaduras, hongos, células animales y sistemas vegetales por biotecnología vegetal. En este trabajo presentamos los resultados del uso de raíces transformadas de Brassica oleracea var italica (Brocoli para producir insulina humana. Materiales y Métodos: El cDNA del correspondiente gen humano fue transfectado a Brocoli via Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA9402 con el vector pCAMBIA1105.1. La transformación del tejido de raíces fue confirmada por PCR, reacciones de restricción y ensayos de B-glucuronidasa. Resultados y Discusión: La presencia del cDNA correspondiente a preproinsulina y proinsulina fue B-glucuronidasa positiva para varias de las líneas. Aunque el rendimiento fue variable, cinco líneas mostraron valores apropiados con potencial para ser usadas como modelo de estudio en la producción en biorreactores.

  9. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE BORO, NA PRESENÇA E AUSÊNCIA DE MATÉRIA ORGÂNICA, NA CULTURA DO REPOLHO (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT BORAX RATES AND MANURE ON CABBAGE (Brassica oleraceae var. Capitata Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro José Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de diferentes níveis de boro na cultura do repolho, na presença e ausência de matéria orgânica, foi instalado na Escola de Agronomia da UFG um experimento em blocos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas, com 3 repetições. A cultivar utilizada foi Matsukase. Os tratamentos com boro constaram da aplicação de 0, 20, 40, 80, 160 e 320 kg/ha de Bórax comercial, combinadas com doses de 0 e 75 t/ha de esterco de curral. A adubação orgânica aumentou o diâmetro, a altura e o peso de cabeça, mas as relações peso de cabeça/peso total e diâmetro/altura de cabeça não apresentaram diferenças significativas. A aplicação de boro apresentou respostas significativas, na ausência de adubação orgânica, para peso de cabeça, altura de cabeça e relação peso/diâmetro de cabeça. A produção física máxima foi estimada para uma dosagem de 101 kg/ha de bórax. Na presença de adubação orgânica, não houve efeito significativo da adubação com Bórax sobre a produção do repolho.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Adubação orgânica; boro; Brassica oleraceae var. captata; repolho.

    The experiment was carried out at Goiás Federal University (UFG, Brazil, in order to verify the effect of different borax levels in presence or absence of manure, for cabbage cv. Matsukase crop. Boron was applied at 0, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 kg/ha of commercial Borax, combined to doses of 0 or 75 ton/ha corral manure. Organic fertilization increased head diameter, height and weight, but did not interfere on head weight/total weight nor head diameter/head height ratios. Boron application showed significant responses when organic fertilization was absent, regarding to head weight, head height and weight/head diameter ratio. The highest

  10. Breeding a New Cauliflower Variety Dashu with High Quality Early-Maturing and Heat-Resistant%优质早熟耐热花椰菜新品种大暑的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伯华; 朱德雄; 汪坤乾; 喻朝霞

    2014-01-01

    Dashu is a new early-maturing and heat-resistant cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L.) hybrid F1, crossed self incompatible line 04D-676-5-5-3-2 with inbred line 05E-12-1. The plant graw vigorously with about 65 cm high and the dark green leaves were covered by more wax powder. Its inner leaves protected the ball by long and erect growth. The cauliflower curd was very white and tight and did not come loose flowers. The cauliflower was a semicircle, weighed 1.3 kg and the mature period was 65 days. It is resistant to black rot,downy mildew, soft rot, strong heat,etc. It has been extended in Hubei,Yunnan,Anhui,Hunan,Gansu,Shandong,Jiangsu,Zhejiang,Henan,Hebei,Liaoning,Heilongjiang,etc.%大暑是由自交不亲和系04D-676-5-5-3-2和自交系05E-12-1配制而成的优质早熟耐热花椰菜(Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L.)一代杂交种。植株生长势强,株高一般为65 cm左右;叶片较深绿色,蜡粉多;中内叶较长,直立生长,保护花球;花球洁白且非常紧实,不散花、呈半圆状,成熟期一般为65 d,单球重1.3 kg左右;较抗黑腐病,抗霜霉病、软腐病等,耐热性强。目前大暑已在湖北、云南、安徽、湖南、甘肃、山东、江苏、浙江、河南、河北、辽宁、黑龙江等地大面积示范推广。

  11. 福建漳州青花菜栽培钾肥施用技术优选%Research on the Application Techniques of Potassium Fertilizers of Brassica oleracea var. italica in Zhangzhou of Fujian, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彬

    2013-01-01

    以青花菜品种‘炎秀’Brassica oleracea var.italica‘yanxiu’为材料,通过设置钾肥横向与纵向施肥的田间试验,探讨青花菜最佳钾肥用量和最佳钾肥运筹。结果表明,在设定氮、磷肥施用量分别为30.0 kg/667.7 m2、10.0 kg/667.7 m2的条件下,钾肥不同施用量对青花菜的株高、苗期功能叶片数、植株扩展度及全株重(去根)、单球重均有一定的影响,当钾肥施用量为19.1 kg/667.7 m2时,其产量最高,为1763.5 kg/hm2;在同样氮、磷肥的背景条件下,钾肥施用量以15.0 kg/667.7 m2,按基肥/追肥不同比例进行施用,青花菜所表现的株高、苗期功能叶片数、植株扩展度及全株重、单球重等形态及产量指标均有所差异,当基肥∶追肥按0.2∶0.8进行施用时,该产量指标均明显高于其它配比的处理。%Vertical and lateral field fertilizing experiments were conducted to investigate the best potassium (K) fertilizer consumption and application of Brassica oleracea var. italica ‘yanxiu’ in Zhangzhou. The results indicated that the different application of potassium had a certain effect on broccoli height, numbers of the functional leveas in seedling stage, plant slump flow, the whole weight (without root) and single head weight that the N fertilizer and P fertilizer were applied at a respective rate of 30 kg/667.7 m2 and 10.0 kg/667.7 m2, the highest yield of broccoli was 1763.5 kg/hm2 with 19.1 kg/667.7 m2 of K fertilizer input; at the same background of N, P fertilizer, the potassium fertilizer was 15.0 kg/667.7 m2 , according to the different proportion of potassium fertilizer as basal manure and top dressing on broccoli, the height, numbers of the seedling functional leveas, plant slump flow, the whole weight, single head weight and the yield index all have some difference, the proportion of basal manure and top dressing was 0.2∶0.8, the production index were higher than other

  12. EFICIÊNCIA DE INSETICIDAS PARA O CONTROLE DE Plutella xylostella (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE NA CULTURA DO REPOLHO (Brassica oleracea var. capitata COMPARISON OF INSECTICIDE CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS OF Plutella xylostella (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE IN CABBAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Shigeo Takatsuka

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho foi conduzido em uma área sob plantio contínuo de repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata em Goianápolis - GO, no período de setembro a novembro de 1996, visando comparar inseticidas para o controle da traça-das-crucíferas (Plutella xylostella. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: teflubenzuron, nas doses de 25 mL, 30 mL e 40 mL de produto comercial (p.c./100 L de água; chlorfenapyr, nas doses de 30 mL, 50 mL e 100 mL de p.c./100 L de água; deltamethrin, na dose de 30 mL de p.c./100 L de água; e testemunha. Para cada tratamento realizaram-se aplicações semanais após o transplantio. As avaliações foram realizadas na colheita, contando-se o número de furos causados pela traça, em cinco cabeças comerciais de repolho, tomadas ao acaso, por parcela. Pôde-se concluir que os inseticidas teflubenzuron e chlorfenapyr foram mais eficientes que deltamethrin no controle da traça-das-crucíferas P. xylostella nas doses testadas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Inseticida; traça; controle químico.

    The research was carried out in an area under continuous cabbage cropping (Brassica oleracea var. capitata in Goianápolis, Goiás State, Brazil, from September to November 1996. The aim was to compare insecticides for diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella control. The experimental design was randomized blocks with eight treatments and four replications. The treatments were teflubenzuron in the doses of 25 mL, 30 mL and 40 mL of commercial product (c.p. / 100 L of water; chlorfenapyr in the doses of 30 mL, 50 mL and 100 mL of c.p./ 100 L of water; deltamethrin in the dose of 30 mL of c.p. / 100 L of water; and control. Treatments were applied weekly

  13. 转拟南芥P5CS1基因增强羽衣甘蓝的耐旱性%Expression of AtP5CS1 Gene Enhanced Drought Tolerance of Transgenic Brassica oleracea Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿雁; 李大红

    2014-01-01

    To increase drought tolerance in Brassica oleracea,Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana was transferred to B. oleracea plants mediated by agrobacterium, the P5CS1 mRNA expression, proline content, root traits, dry weight, fresh weight and whole plant survival rate of trans-genic lines and wild type plants under drought stress were detected. The results showed that under 15%PEG6000 osmotic stress, the expression of P5CS1 mRNA was signiifcantly increased. The proline content of transgenic plants was 2.4 times that of the wild type. The length of taproot, lateral root length, lateral root num-ber, the fresh weight and dry weight of whole plant were higher than those of the wild type, and the dry weight/fresh weight was lower than those of the wild type. The average survival of transgenic plants was 78%, signiif-cantly higher than that of wide type. These data showed AtP5CS1 gene expression in B. oleracea signiifcantly improved drought tolerance of transgenic plants.%为提高羽衣甘蓝的耐旱性,本文将拟南芥Δ1-吡咯啉-5-羧酸合成酶(P5CS1)基因经农杆菌介导转入羽衣甘蓝植株中,检测转基因株系与野生型植株在干旱胁迫下P5CS1 mRNA表达量、幼苗脯氨酸含量、株系根系性状、整株干重、鲜重和整株存活率。结果表明,在15%PEG6000渗透胁迫下,转基因植株的P5CS1基因mRNA表达量明显增加,转基因植株脯氨酸含量是野生型的2.4倍;主根长、最长侧根长、侧根数目、整株干重和鲜重均高于野生型,干重/鲜重则低于野生型,转基因植株的平均存活率为78%,极显著高于野生型。数据显示, AtP5CS1基因在羽衣甘蓝中的表达明显改善了转基因植株的耐旱性。

  14. Epidemiological studies on Brassica vegetables and cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Verhagen, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the epidemiological data concerning the cancer-preventive effect of brassica vegetables, including cabbage, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. The protective effect of brassicas against cancer may be due to their relatively high content of glucosinolat

  15. A review of mechanisms underlying anticarcinogenicity by brassica vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Verhagen, H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Poppel, G. van

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms by which brassica vegetables might decrease the risk of cancer are reviewed in this paper. Brassicas, including all types of cabbages, broccoli, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts, may be protective against cancer due to their relatively high glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are us

  16. 基于SRK和SCR序列的甘蓝自交不亲和系单倍型分析%Haplotype Analysis of Brassica oleracea Self-Incompatible Lines Based on SRK and SCR Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高启国; 韦静宜; 朱利泉; 王小佳

    2011-01-01

    采用RT-PCR和其他分子生物学方法,以甘蓝自交不亲和系E1和F1柱头cDNA为模板扩增SRKE1和SRKF1基因,以花药cDNA为模板扩增SCRE1和SCRF1基因.经序列比对首次证明E1和F1材料分别为S28和S7单倍型.经三维结构分析,预测SCRE1上C5-C6和C7-C8之间氨基酸序列决定SCRE1的单倍型特异性,SRKE1上TNNSFYSRLKVS序列决定了SRKE1的单倍型特异性,并对两者相对作用的关键氨基酸住点进行了分析.%The cDNA fragment of SRK was amplified from the stigma cDNA of the self-incompatible lines of Brassica oleracea E1 and Fl, and that of SCR was amplified from theor anther cDNA by RT-PCR and other methods of molecular biology. Based on sequence alignment, E1 and F1 were firstly proved to be S28 and S7 haplotype, respectively. Analysis of the threedimensional structures of SCRE1 and SRKEI suggested that the amino acid sequence between C5-C6 and C7-C8 of SCRE1 decides its haplotype specificity and the peptide of TNNSFYSRLKVS decides the haplotype specificity of SRKE1. The amino acids important for SCRE, and SRKE1 self-recognition and interaction were discussed. The above results provided a theoretical foundation for further analysis of the mechanism of interaction between SCR and SRK.

  17. The effect of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization on yield and quality of kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea, L. Efeito da adubagem com o nitrogénio e enxofre ao rédito e à qualidade das couves-rábanos (Brassica oleracea, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Losák

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In a greenhouse pot experiment with kohlrabi, variety Luna, we explored the joint effect of N (0.6 g N per pot = 6 kg of soil and S in the soil (25-35-45 mg kg-1 of S on yields, on N, S and NO3- content in tubers and leaves, and on alterations in the amino acids concentration in the tubers. S fertilisation had no effect on tuber yields. The ranges of N content in tubers and leaves were narrow (between 1.42-1.48 % N and 1.21-1.35 % N, respectively and the effect of S fertilisation was insignificant. S concentration in the tubers ranged between 0.59 and 0.64 % S. S fertilisation had a more pronounced effect on the S concentration in leaf tissues where it increased from 0.50 to 0.58 or to 0.76 % S under the applied dose. The NO3- content was higher in tubers than in leaves. Increasing the S level in the soil significantly reduced NO3- concentrations in the tubers by 42.2-53.6 % and in the leaves by 8.8-21.7 %. Increasing the S content in the soil reduced the concentration of cysteine + methionine by 16-28 %. The values of valine, tyrosine, aspartic acid and serine were constant. In the S0, S1, and S2 treatments the levels of threonine, isoleucine, leucine, arginine, the sum of essential amino acids and alanine decreased from 37 to 9 %. The histidine concentration increased with increasing S fertilisation. S fertilisation of kohlrabi can be recommended to stabilize the yield and reduce the undesirable NO3- contained in the parts used for consumption.Deficiência aguda de S no solo tem sido observada na Europa desde os anos 1980. O couve-rábano é uma das plantas com maior exigência nesse nutriente e sua interação com o N é frequentemente relatada na literatura. Este trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação visando testar o efeito da aplicação de S, na presença de N, na produção e qualidade de couve-rábano (Brassica oleracea, L., variedade Lua. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos contendo 6 kg de solo, aos quais foram aplicados 0

  18. Antiproliferative effects of fresh and thermal processed green and red cultivars of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Helle; Grimmer, Stine; Aaby, Kjersti; Saha, Shikha; Borge, Grethe Iren A

    2012-08-01

    Brassica vegetables contain a diverse range of phytochemicals with biological properties such as antioxidant and anticancer activity. However, knowledge about how biological activities are affected by processing is lacking. A green cultivar and a red cultivar of curly kale were evaluated for water/methanol-soluble phytochemicals before and after processing involving blanching, freeze storage, and boil-in-bag heat treatment. In both kale cultivars, processing resulted in a significant decrease of total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, and content and distribution of flavonols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, glucosinolates, and vitamin C. Interestingly, the red curly kale cultivar had a higher capacity to withstand thermal loss of phytochemicals. The extracts of both green and red curly kale inhibited the cell proliferation of three human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29, and HCT 116). However, extracts from fresh plant material had a significantly stronger antiproliferative effect than extracts from processed plant material.

  19. Effect of devernalization on the transition from vegetative to prefloral phase of the broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica cv. 'Fiesta' shoot meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Zenkteler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphological and histological changes which occur in the cold-induced apical meristem of broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica cv. ‘Fiesta’ during transition from the vegetative to the generative phase have been demonstrated in our previous investigations. Now, a light microscopic study on the micromorphological parameters of the tunica and corpus of the meristem was undertaken to ascertain their association with devernalisation. Changes in the apex of broccoli seedlings grown for 26 days at 24oC, succeeded by 35 days of cold treatment (16oC - vernalization followed by 14 days of warm treatment (24oC - devernalization, were studied and described. Microscopic analysis according to the new method of slide preparation showed cytohistological zonation and the spatial distribution of cells in the central and peripheral zones of the broccoli shoot meristem more precisely than possible hitherto. Comparison between subsequent stages of meristem reorganization after devernalization revealed variation in the structure of the apex during its transition to the evocation phase of flowering. The results of measurements show that the tunica width changes irregularly, increasing from its minimum value (112.39±5.78 μm through the medium one to the maximum values (260.32±2.50, to decrease again, while its height increased and decreased sinusoidally from its minimum value (21.52±4.30μm to the maximum one (76.98±7.44μm and then decreasing again to the minimum value (21.52±4.30. The stratification of the tunica as well as its width and height revealed relatively low variation within the analyzed time. These structural traits correlated with cold/warm treatments may be further utilized in the broccoli breeding programme against developmental disturbances.

  20. Screening of Chinese brassica species for anti-cancer sulforaphane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... different Chinese Brassica oleracea L. varieties were analyzed by HPLC ... Key words: Sulforaphane, erucin, brassica seed, diet supplement. ... broccoli (B. Capitata L. var. italica) and shepherd's purse (Capsella ... extracts was determined by GC-FID or HPLC. ..... Antioxidant functions of sulforaphane: a.

  1. 两类甘蓝雄性不育系种子产量构成因素分析%Analysis of Seed Yield Components between Two Cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var.capitata L.) Male Sterile Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆彪; 方智远; 张扬勇; 刘玉梅; 杨丽梅; 庄木; 陈琛

    2011-01-01

    The differences of seed yield and component factors among dominant genie male sterile line DGMS02-12, cytoplasmic male sterile line CMSR302-12 and inbred line of cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. Capitata L. ) 02-12 were studied. The results showed that the differences of seed yield per plant and plot yield between DGMS02-12 and CMSR302-12 were significant. The whole plant valid siliqua and seeds per siliqua were the main factors for the differences of seed yield between these two male sterile lines of cabbage. The seed yield at the 1st branch account for more than 80% of per plant seed yield, and there were significantly positive correlations and high path coefficient between seed yield and seeds per siliqua and the valid siliqua at the 1st branch.%以结球甘蓝自交系02-12及其回交转育多代育成的显性核基因雄性不育系(DGMS)和细胞质雄性不育系(CMS)为试材,对其制种产量及种子产量构成因素进行分析.结果表明:显性核基因雄性不育系材料DGMS02-12与细胞质雄性不育系材料CMSR302-12在单株产量和小区产量方面存在显著差异,并且全株有效荚数和每荚种子粒数是两种类型甘蓝雄性不育系间制种产量存在差异的主要构成因素.其中,一级分枝种子产量占单株产量的80%以上,一级分枝有效荚数、每荚种子粒数与制种产量有显著的相关性和较高的通径系数.

  2. Effect of Magnetic Field on Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. Seed Germination and Studies on Its Mechanism%磁场对结球甘蓝种子萌发的影响及机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔路路; 于海霞; 李景富; 姜景彬; 许向阳

    2014-01-01

    以结球甘蓝种子为试材,采用正交试验和均匀试验方法,研究了磁场强度、作用时间及处理前种子浸泡时间对各发芽指标的影响以及各影响因素的主次顺序,并对磁场参数中磁场强度和作用时间进行大范围筛选,更进一步从可溶性蛋白含量、丙二醛含量、抗氧化酶活性等方面探讨磁场处理提高种子活力的作用机理。结果表明:适宜的磁场处理可以促进种子萌发,提高种子活力,以20℃蒸馏水浸泡8 h 后1000~3500 GS 磁场处理1~6 min 为宜,但长时间、大强度磁场处理反而抑制种子萌发;磁场强度为种子萌发的主要影响因子,作用时间和浸泡时间的主次顺序因发芽指标的不同而不同;与对照相比,磁场处理的种子萌发期间可溶性蛋白含量降低或升高的速率、MDA 含量下降的幅度和速率、3种抗氧化酶活性上升的速率均加快,从而提高种子活力。%Taking Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. seed as experimental material,the effect of magnetic field intensity,and magnetic acting time and seed soaking time before treatment on seed germination index and primary and secondary relations between all factors were studied by orthogonal test and uniform test method.Then the large scale screening of magnetic field intensity and magnetic acting time were carried out to further investigate the mechanism of using magnetic field treatment to improve seed vigor from the view points of soluble protein content,malondialdehyde content,and antioxidant enzyme activity.The results indicated that suitable magnetic field treatment could promote seed germination and improve seed vigor.Magnetic field intensity was the main factor affecting seed germination.The primary and secondary order of action time and soaking time were varied with different germination indexes. Seed germination was inhibited by too high magnetic field intensity for a long time. Soaking seed in 20

  3. 羽衣甘蓝种子主要品质性状的表现及其相关性%Performance and Correlation of Main Quality Traits in Kale (Brassica oleracea var.acephala) Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐章林; 李加纳

    2012-01-01

    148 lines of kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) from germplasm resource and advanced generation were selected randomly to analyze the characteristics and correlation of oil, protein, glucosinolates and seven fatty acid compositions in mature seed. The results showed that the average contents of oil and protein were 29.48% and 45.13% respectively, with a total content of oil plus protein was 74.61%. Maximum variation was observed on glucosinolates with a coefficient of variation reached 31.72% . Among .seven fatty acid compositions, the contents of oleic and erucic acids were the highest, followed by linoleic, palmitic d stearic acids were the lowest in mature seed. Except glucosinolates and stearic acid, the rest 9 traits presented a jingle-peak normal distribution. Correlation analysis indicated that significant or very significant correlations were ex stent among the quality traits and this was similar to that of three types of rapeseed ( B. napus L. , B. campestris L. i nd B. juncea Coss. ) . There were some excellent germplasm resources in kale which could be utilized directly in bleeding of high quality rapeseed.%随机挑选148份羽衣甘蓝种质资源和高世代材料,分析了成熟种子的含油量、蛋白质、硫苷和7种主要脂肪酸成分的表现特征及其相关性.结果表明:羽表甘蓝成熟种子平均含油量为29.48%,平均蛋白质含量为45.13%,含油量和蛋白质总量为74.61%.硫苷含量的变幅最大,变异系数为31.72%.7种主要脂肪酸成分中,油酸和芥酸的含量较高,其次为亚油酸,棕榈酸和硬脂酸的含量较低.除硫苷含量和硬脂酸含量外,其余9个性状的表现均呈单峰正态分布.相关性分析表明,大多数性状间都具有显著或极显著的相关性,这与对甘蓝型、白菜型和芥菜型3种类型油菜的研究结果相一致.在羽衣甘蓝中存在一些优异的种质资源,通过筛选可以在油菜优质育种中加以利用.

  4. BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF KALE (Brassica oleracea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... of Agricultural Sciences P.O. Box 7013-75007, Uppsala, Sweden, P. G. ... supply chain could increase the risk of pathogen contamination thus .... manufacturing industries, meat processing plant, ... study site was based on size of the kale farmer ..... in wetlands and from vehicle emissions In: Cole, D.C.,.

  5. Nitrogen balance during growth of cauliflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    The potential for loss of nitrogen to the environment during growth of cauliflower was investigated. A comparison was made between cauliflower growth and nitrogen uptake without, and with, nitrogen application of the recommended amount (=225 kg ha-1 minus mineral nitrogen in the soil layer 0–60 cm,

  6. Resposta da couve Tronchuda (Brassica oleracea var. costata à aplicação de azoto e boro e de um fertilizante orgânico autorizado em Agricultura Biológica Tall cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. costata response to the application of nitrogen, boron and an organic amendment permitted in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    .The Portuguese are one of the greatest brassica consumers in the entire world. Tall cabbage is grown in Portugal over an area greater than 1000 ha. Tall cabbage consumption is very popular at Christmas time. In this work, results from nitrogen and boron application, as conventional fertilisers, and from the use of Dix10, an organic amendment (˜ 10 % total N permitted in organic farming, are reported. Young cabbage plants were prepared in a greenhouse in micro-pots and transplanted with protected roots on August 29, 2005, spaced at 0.8x0.5 m between and within rows. The soil was loamy textured with 0.83 % organic matter, pH(H2O 5.2, and with median P and high K content levels. Six treatments were established: SAd treatment, without any fertilization; Dix10, applied in a rate equivalent to 80 kg N/ha; NB and N+, with 80 and 160 kg N/ha as urea, respectively; and B-and B+ treatments, without B and with 4.4 kg B/ha as borax. Boron treatments were fertilised with 80 kg N/ha and N treatments with 2.2 kg B/ha. Thus, NB is a median treatment with 80 kg N/ha and 2.2 kg B/ha. SAd plants yielded 13.7 Mg biomass/ha and took up 33.9 kg N/ha and 40.9 g B/ha, which are values significantly lower than that obtained on fertilised plots. In Dix10 treatment, cabbage yielded 18 Mg biomass/ha and took up 45.1 and 51.3 g B/ha. NB treatment produced higher biomass (38.6 Mg/ha and N uptake (107.9 kg/ha than SAd and Dix10 treatments. N+ treatment did not increase the yield, neither N uptake if compared with NB. B+ treatment has not any influence in biomass yield but increased tissue B content and B uptake. In N+ treatment there was a significant decrease in tissue B concentration and B uptake, which suggests antagonism of N over the uptake of B. The biomass yields and the apparent N and B recoveries showed that the lower biomass yielded in SAd and Dix10 treatments were due to a shortage of soil N availability in these treatments during the growing season.

  7. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Fresh and Processed White Cauliflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad A. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica species are very rich in health-promoting phytochemicals, including phenolic compounds, vitamin C, and minerals. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different blanching (i.e., water and steam and cooking (i.e., water boiling, steam boiling, microwaving, and stir-frying methods on the nutrient components, phytochemical contents (i.e., polyphenols, carotenoids, flavonoid, and ascorbic acid, antioxidant activity measured by DPPH assay, and phenolic profiles of white cauliflower. Results showed that water boiling and water blanching processes had a great effect on the nutrient components and caused significant losses of dry matter, protein, and mineral and phytochemical contents. However, steam treatments (blanching and cooking, stir-frying, and microwaving presented the lowest reductions. Methanolic extract of fresh cauliflower had significantly the highest antioxidant activity (68.91% followed by the extracts of steam-blanched, steam-boiled, stir-fried, and microwaved cauliflower 61.83%, 59.15%, 58.93%, and 58.24%, respectively. HPLC analysis revealed that the predominant phenolics of raw cauliflower were protocatechuic acid (192.45, quercetin (202.4, pyrogallol (18.9, vanillic acid (11.90, coumaric acid (6.94, and kaempferol (25.91 mg/100 g DW, respectively.

  8. Cytogenetics of intergeneric hybrids between Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the sexual intergeneric hybrids between the cultivated Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus, both complete separation and partial separation of the parental genomes were found to occur during mitosis and meiosis under genetic control. The cytogenetics of these hybrids was species-specific for Brassica parents. The different chromosome behavior of hybrids with three Brassica diploids ( B. campestris , B. nigra and B. oleracea ) might contribute to the different cytogenetics of hybrids with three tetraploids ( B. napus, B. juncea and B. carinata). Owing to the parental genome separation, Brassica homozygous plants and aneuploids with various chromosome constitutions were identifiable in the progenies of these hybrids, which were valuable for the study of the structure and evolution of Brassica genome and for the breeding of Brassica crops.

  9. Characterization of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase from Brassica and Lactuca spp. and its modulation during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichá, Tereza; Činčalová, Lucie; Kopečný, David; Sedlářová, Michaela; Kopečná, Martina; Luhová, Lenka; Petřivalský, Marek

    2016-12-08

    Cellular homeostasis of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), a major cache of nitric oxide bioactivity in plants, is controlled by the NADH-dependent S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) belonging to the family of class III alcohol dehydrogenases (EC 1.1.1.1). GSNOR is a key regulator of S-nitrosothiol metabolism and is involved in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. This study was focused on GSNOR from two important crop plants, cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, BoGSNOR) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa, LsGSNOR). Both purified recombinant GSNORs were characterized in vitro and found to exists as dimers, exhibit high thermal stability and substrate preference towards GSNO, although both enzymes have dehydrogenase activity with a broad range of long-chain alcohols and ω-hydroxy fatty acids in presence of NAD(+). Data on enzyme affinities to their cofactors NADH and NAD(+) obtained by isothermal titration calorimetry suggest the high affinity to NADH might underline the GSNOR capacity to function in the intracellular environment. GSNOR activity and gene expression peak during early developmental stages of lettuce and cauliflower at 20 and 30 days after germination, respectively. GSNOR activity was also measured in four other Lactuca spp. genotypes with different degree of resistance to biotrophic pathogen Bremia lactucae. Higher GSNOR activities were found in non-infected plants of susceptible genotypes L. sativa UCDM2 and L. serriola as compared to resistant genotypes. GSNOR and GSNO were localized by confocal laser scanning microscopy in vascular bundles and in epidermal and parenchymal cells of leaf cross-sections. The presented results bring new insight in the role of GSNOR in the regulation of S-nitrosothiol levels in plant growth and development.

  10. 构建结球甘蓝K IN基因在叶绿体基因组定点表达的载体%Construction of Chloroplast Site-specific Integration Expression Vector Harboring KIN Gene of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶鹏; 黄小云; 李必元; 王五宏; 岳智臣; 雷娟利; 钟新民

    2015-01-01

    获得叶绿体基因组定点整合表达载体是开展结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组的遗传转化研究的第一步。本研究克隆了CMS结球甘蓝的抗冻蛋白K IN基因,发现该基因定位于结球甘蓝的2号染色体上。通过构建中间载体pKA和pAI,将K IN基因的编码区构建到了CMS结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组定点整合表达载体pIKAA中。该载体以TrnA 和TrnI基因片段作为同源整合片段,能整合到CMS结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组中。此外,该载体是双顺反子形式的,即在转录的单条mRNA上,同时包含了K IN和aadA 基因编码区。将pIKAA转化到大肠杆菌中,结果显示转化有该载体的大肠杆菌能够在含有氨苄青霉素(AMP)和壮观霉素(SPEC)的固体LB平板中生长。研究结果可为后期CMS结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组的遗传转化体系的建立奠定基础。%To construct chloroplast site-specific integration expression vector is the first step for carrying on genetic transformation of cabbage chloroplast genome (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.). In this study, antifree-ze protein KIN gene was cloned from cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.), and was located in 2 chromosome in B. oleracea genome. By constructing the intermediate vector pKA and pAI, coding region of KIN gene was inserted into the site-specific integration expression vector (pIKAA) of CMS cabbage chloroplast. Due to the fragments of TrnA and TrnI used as homologous integration fragments, the pIKAA could target to chloroplast genomes of CMS cabbage. In addition, the pIKAA vector was bicistronic. The single transcribed mRNA from the pIKAA vector contained simultaneously coding regions of KIN and aadA gene. The vector was transformed into E. coli that can grow in LB containing ampicillin and spectinomycin. The study might lay essential basis in establishment of genetic transformation system of chloroplast genome of CMS cabbage.

  11. Novas linhagens de repôlho e couve-flor para o Estado de São Paulo Improved cabbage and cauliflower types for São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leocádio de Souza Camargo

    1956-01-01

    ça, e a colheita dura cêrca de 60 dias. Iniciou-se o melhoramento da couve-flor "Campinas" em 1944, de material adquirido em casa comercial de São Paulo, com o nome "Quatro Estações". Após alguns anos de trabalho, criaram-se na E. E. Central em Campinas e na E. E. de Monte Alegre do Sul, linhagens muito boas. A variedade "Campinas" (I.A.C. n.° 1587 é de média precocidade, tendo produzido em 1950 e 1951, em campo de cooperação, respectivamente 398 e 1244 kg de sementes, ou uma média de 30 g por planta, ou sejam, 60 g por m², Para produção de sementes a melhor época de semeadura é fevereiro. As cabeças formam-se em junho e desde 120 dias após, as sementes são colhidas, durando a colheita 16 dias em média.Investigations on the cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. and cauliflower (B. oleracea var. cauliflora, Gars, D.C. plants at the Instituto Agronômico and its various experiment stations were intensified since 1941. From 1944 on, a great deal of attention has been given to the variety problem, to improvement of local and imported types, and to their seed production. Seventy four varieties of cabbage and 59 varieties of cauliflower have been tested. The majority of these grew well in the cool season, when the average monthly temperature was around 22.5°C during the vegetative period and about 16.6°C at the time when heads were formed. In order to supply the local markets with cabbage and cauliflower during the warmer months, attention was turned to types that were capable of making satisfactory growth and forming heads during those months of the year when temperature was high. The local variety of cabbage named "Louco" (I.A.C. N.° 758, as well as the cauliflower Early Benares from India, could be cultivated in summer and fall in most mparts of São Paulo. Satisfactory growth of these types was obtained at average monthly temperatures from 20.4 to 22.6°C, and good heading when the average monthly was from 18 to 22.2°C. Improvement of the

  12. 植物原生质体全能性表达及其在甘蓝类蔬菜育种上的应用%Totipotency Expression of Plant Protoplast and Its Application in Brassica oleracea L.Vegetable Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛小光; 顾宏辉; 赵振卿; 虞慧芳; 王建升; 张晓辉

    2011-01-01

    The isolated protoplasts, exposed cells without coated cell wall, own the totipotency to regenerate a whole plant under appropriate culture conditions. Separation, culture and reproduction technology of plant protoplast is a platform for plant breeding, gene engineering and cell physiology study. Therefore it is of important significance. This paper expounds the obtain, culture and regeneration etc key technology in the process of protoplast totipotency expression, and their application in Brassica oleracea vegetables breeding. Existing problems in protoplast technology were discussed. Suggestions were proposed for improving plant protoplast culture system and for this work in the near future.%植物原生质体指植物除去细胞壁后被质膜包被的裸露细胞,在适当培养条件下具有再生成完整植株的全能性.植物原生质体分离、培养及植株再生技术是进行植物育种、基因工程、遗传理论及细胞生理特性研究的平台,具有重要的研究意义.本文概述了植物原生质体全能性表达过程中原生质体的获得、培养和再生等关键技术环节及其在甘蓝类蔬菜育种上的应用,同时讨论了原生质体培养技术中存在的问题,并且对完善植物原生质体培养体系及今后的工作方向提出了建议.

  13. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Partial cDNA of Male Determinant Factor of Self-incompatibility from Six Brassica oleracea L.%六种甘蓝自交不亲和雄性决定因子部分cDNA的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗兵; 朱利泉; 薛丽琰; 孙海燕; 张贺翠; 余浩; 杨昆; 王小佳

    2012-01-01

    Many flowering plants possess a self-incompatibility system to prevent inbreeding. In Brassica oleracea, self-incompatibility is genetically controlled by S-locus cysteine rich protein (SCR) and S-locus receptor kinase (SRK). The SCR is the determinant of pollen S-haplotype specificity. In order to compare the structure of the gene and molecular characterization of the protein among the allelic SCRs, the nested PCR primers were designed on the basis of the conserved amino acids in the signal peptide's cleavage site and the ploy A of mRNA. Here we cloned partial cDNA sequence of SCR from six Brassica oleracea L. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of SCR in D3, El, 240, Al, Nl and Gl were 319, 311, 290, 288, 385 and 377 bp, respectively, which all encompassed 3'UTR. Their coding regions predicted a protein of 58, 58, 58, 58, 58 and 55 amino acids, respectively. The protein sequences were identical between SCR-D3 and SCR3. SCR-El, SCR-240, SCR-Al and SCR-El also had the same sequences, and they were all identical to the SCR7. The SCR of Gl was a new S haplotype gene. Although SCR -El, SCR-240, SCR-Al and SCR-El were the same S haplotype, their 3'UTR were different. For example, the length, the polyadenylation signal and the adenine nucleotide's content were different among them. Sequencing and bioinformatic analysis indicated that there were some differences in the secondary structure and the 3-dimentional structure of the six SCRs, suggesting that the interactions of SCR with SRK required strict complementary space. All SCRs had potential phosphorylation sites, but no glycosylation sites. It showed that the phosphorylation of SCR might play roles in signal transduction of self-incompatibility. Furthermore, the amino acid residues interacting with SRK were situated on the surface of the SCR molecule, and most of these amino acid residues were basic amino acid. So, we suggested that the process of SCR interacting with SRK required the participation of the

  14. SSR marker variations in Brassica species provide insight into the origin and evolution of Brassica amphidiploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Kunwar Harendra; Singh, Lal; Nanjundan, Joghee; Khan, Yasin Jeshima; Singh, Dhiraj

    2018-01-01

    Oilseed Brassica represents an important group of oilseed crops with a long history of evolution and cultivation. To understand the origin and evolution of Brassica amphidiploids, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to unravel genetic variations in three diploids and three amphidiploid Brassica species of U's triangle along with Eruca sativa as an outlier. Of 124 Brassica-derived SSR loci assayed, 100% cross-transferability was obtained for B. juncea and three subspecies of B. rapa, while lowest cross-transferability (91.93%) was obtained for Eruca sativa. The average % age of cross-transferability across all the seven species was 98.15%. The number of alleles detected at each locus ranged from one to six with an average of 3.41 alleles per primer pair. Neighbor-Joining-based dendrogram divided all the 40 accessions into two main groups composed of B. juncea/B. nigra/B. rapa and B. carinata/B. napus/B. oleracea. C-genome of oilseed Brassica species remained relatively more conserved than A- and B-genome. A- genome present in B. juncea and B. napus seems distinct from each other and hence provides great opportunity for generating diversity through synthesizing amphidiploids from different sources of A- genome. B. juncea had least intra-specific distance indicating narrow genetic base. B. rapa appears to be more primitive species from which other two diploid species might have evolved. The SSR marker set developed in this study will assist in DNA fingerprinting of various Brassica species cultivars, evaluating the genetic diversity in Brassica germplasm, genome mapping and construction of linkage maps, gene tagging and various other genomics-related studies in Brassica species. Further, the evolutionary relationship established among various Brassica species would assist in formulating suitable breeding strategies for widening the genetic base of Brassica amphidiploids by exploiting the genetic diversity present in diploid progenitor gene pools.

  15. Effects of defoliation on growth of cauliflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, van den R.; Grevsen, K.; Thorup Kristensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments were performed with defoliation of young cauliflower plants in the field. The leaves were removed 3–6 weeks after planting and about 65 f the leaf area were removed. After defoliation, several plant processes contributed to compensate for the loss of leaf area. Right after defoliat

  16. Postharvest characteristics of two cultivars of cauliflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenilson Mroginski de Souza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The cauliflower has a great economic importance, especially for small producers, and it turns out to be a profitable crop in small areas. However, at postharvest period it is difficult to store it at a given room temperature due to sweating and a heavy breathing process, which leads to a discoloration of the inflorescence. Thus, the current study aimed to characterize the postharvest storage of cauliflower hybrids Snow Mystique and Graffiti kept at room temperature corresponding to an air temperature of 20 ± 2oC and a relative humidity (RH of 75%. Evaluations were made every three days during a period of 12 days of storage. The parameters studied were percentage of weight loss in fresh weight terms, firmness of stem, soluble solids, pH and measurable acidity. By evaluating the results, it was concluded that the cauliflower is not supposed to be stored at an air temperature of 20 ± 2oC and a 75% RH for more than three days, since the inflorescence presented a high water loss through the transpiration process under the environmental conditions in study.

  17. The Molecular Characteristics of Ogura Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Related Gene orf138 in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata)%甘蓝细胞质雄性不育相关基因orf138的分子特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琴; 康宗利; 简元才; 丁云花; 康俊根

    2012-01-01

    以甘蓝Ogura细胞质雄性不育系为材料,找出能够有效鉴定由orf138导致的甘蓝CMS的标记,并明确此基因在甘蓝Ogu CMS基因组中的位置.根据萝卜CMS相关基因orf138的序列信息,设计特异引物,并在甘蓝不同类型不育系和保持系中鉴定PCR产物的稳定性.随后利用Tail-PCR技术,扩增获得此基因的侧翼序列并进行了生物信息学分析.根据orf138的全长序列设计引物B0138300BF/R,在甘蓝不育型材料中,能够稳定扩增出300 bp左右的单一条带,而在其他细胞质不育类型和可育材料中均未扩出条带,经多次验证结果稳定可靠.甘蓝中orf138的上下游侧翼序列有效碱基1789 bp,通过生物信息学分析,获得包括起始密码和终止密码的orf138的完整序列共417 bp.同源性比对结果显示:与甘蓝型油菜、白菜和萝卜的or38片段具有高度保守性.分析侧翼序列表明甘蓝orf138的3’端是由ORF83、trnfM、ORF125等基因片段构成的一个复杂序列.获得了甘蓝OguCMS特异的分子鉴定标记,明确了orf138在甘蓝线粒体中的位置,以上结果为甘蓝雄性不育的进一步研究奠定良好的基础.%The objective was to develop effective specific markers of Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogu CMS) line in Brassica oleracea and illustrate the upstream and downstream genome sequence arrangement of the CMS gene orf!38. The orfl38 gene fragment in cabbage CMS line was amplified based on specific primers designed according to radish orfl38 gene sequence information. The upstream and downstream mitochondrion sequences of orfl38 sterile line were identified by use of Tail-PCR technology. Ogu CMS specific primer B0I38300 BF/R was designed according to the full-length sequence of orf138. It could stably amplify a single PCR product of about 300 bp in OguCMS cabbage line, while never in fertile maintainer lines and other types of cytoplasmic male sterility lines. Upstream and downstream flanking sequence of

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population...... structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations. Wild...... populations remained distinct from cultivated material. Additionally, most wild populations were distinctively isolated from each other. On the other hand, it was not possible to molecularly distinguish even geographically distant leafy kale populations from each other or from different B. oleracea crops...

  19. Evaluation of glucosinolate levels throughout the production chain of Brassica vegetables towards a novel predictive modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.

    2002-01-01

     Glucosinolates are a group of plant secondary metabolites, that can have important implications for human health. Vegetables of the Brassica genus, including cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower and kohlrabi contribute almost exclusively to our intake of

  20. Genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in the sequenced Brassica crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Zhan, Jiepeng; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2014-02-01

    Although much research has been conducted, the pattern of microsatellite distribution has remained ambiguous, and the development/utilization of microsatellite markers has still been limited/inefficient in Brassica, due to the lack of genome sequences. In view of this, we conducted genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in three recently sequenced Brassica crops: Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and Brassica napus. The analysed microsatellite characteristics of these Brassica species were highly similar or almost identical, which suggests that the pattern of microsatellite distribution is likely conservative in Brassica. The genomic distribution of microsatellites was highly non-uniform and positively or negatively correlated with genes or transposable elements, respectively. Of the total of 115 869, 185 662 and 356 522 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed with high frequencies (408.2, 343.8 and 356.2 per Mb or one every 2.45, 2.91 and 2.81 kb, respectively), most represented new SSR markers, the majority had determined physical positions, and a large number were genic or putative single-locus SSR markers. We also constructed a comprehensive database for the newly developed SSR markers, which was integrated with public Brassica SSR markers and annotated genome components. The genome-wide SSR markers developed in this study provide a useful tool to extend the annotated genome resources of sequenced Brassica species to genetic study/breeding in different Brassica species.

  1. Cloning and Expression of an Ogura Cytoplasmic Male Sterile (OguCMS)-related MYB Transcription Factor in Brassica oleracea var.capitata%甘蓝胞质雄性不育(OguCMS)相关的MYB转录因子BoMYB1的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 康宗利; 刘海霞; 康俊根

    2012-01-01

    Ogura cytoplasmic male sterile (OguCMS) is the most widely used male sterile type in cabbage breeding. MYB transcription factors play a key role in regulation of plant defense response and multiple development processes. In present experiment, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor which down regulated 10.3 times in cabbage (Brasska okracea var. capitata) OguCMS lines was cloned by SMART RACE strategy.The full-length cDNA of B0MYB1 was 1 141 bp, which contained a 196 bp long 5' untranslated region, a 246 bp long 3' untranslated region and a 699 bp long open reading frame (GenBank accession number: JN703995). It was localized in the nucleus by subcellular localization prediction. It was an anther preferentially expressed gene in cabbage, which reached its expression peak in the late development. It was induced by the regulation of plant hormones salicylic acid(SA) and jasmonate methyl (JA-ME), and consequently regulated the expression of anther development genes. The experimental results suggests that B0MYB1 may be one of the important genes which involved in OguCMS anther development.%萝卜胞质雄性不育(OguCMS)是目前甘蓝中应用较广的雄性不育类型,MYB转录因子具有调控植物防御应答反应和多个发育过程的作用.本实验以在甘蓝(Brassica oleracea var.capitata)OguCMS花药中下调10.3倍的EST序列为信息探针,结合电子克隆及RACE技术,得到一个与甘蓝OguCMS雄性不育相关的MYB转录因子全长cDNA,命名为BoMYB1(GenBank登录号:JN703995).经亚细胞定位预测,该基因定位于细胞核,全长1 141 bp,包含一个长度为196 bp的5’非翻译区、246 bp的3’非翻译区和一个699 bp的开放阅读框.该基因在花药中具表达优势,并在花药发育晚期出现表达高峰,受植物激素水杨酸(SA)和茉莉酸甲酯(JA-ME)的调控,诱导花药发育基因的表达.实验结果提示,BoMY B1可能是参与OguCMS花药发育的重要基因之一.

  2. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cauliflower: optimization of protocol and development of Bt-transgenic cauliflower

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Chakrabarty; N Viswakarma; S R Bhat; P B Kirti; B D Singh; V L Chopra

    2002-09-01

    A number of factors that are known to influence genetic transformation were evaluated to optimize Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of hypocotyl explants of cauliflower variety Pusa Snowball K-1. The binary vector p35SGUSINT mobilized into Agrobacterium strain GV2260 was used for transformation and transient GUS expression was used as the basis for identifying the most appropriate conditions for transformation. Explant age, preculture period, bacterial strain and density were found to be critical determinants of transformation efficiency. Using the optimized protocol, the synthetic cryIA(b) gene was mobilized into cauliflower. Molecular analyses of transgenics established the integration and expression of the transgene. Insect bioassays indicated the effectiveness of the transgene against infestation by diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) larvae.

  3. A Phylogenetic Analysis of Chloroplast Genomes Elucidates the Relationships of the Six Economically Important Brassica Species Comprising the Triangle of U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xiaowu; Sun, Rifei; Bonnema, Guusje; Borm, Theo J. A.

    2017-01-01

    The Brassica genus comprises many economically important worldwide cultivated crops. The well-established model of the Brassica genus, U’s triangle, consists of three basic diploid plant species (Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Brassica nigra) and three amphidiploid species (Brassica napus, Brassica juncea, and Brassica carinata) that arose through interspecific hybridizations. Despite being extensively studied because of its commercial relevance, several aspects of the origin of the Brassica species and the relationships within and among these six species still remain open questions. Here, we successfully de novo assembled 60 complete chloroplast genomes of Brassica genotypes of all six species. A complete map of the single nucleotide variants and insertions and deletions in the chloroplast genomes of different Brassica species was produced. The chloroplast genome consists of a Large and a Small Single Copy (LSC and SSC) region between two inverted repeats, and while these regions of chloroplast genomes have very different molecular evolutionary rates, phylogenetic analyses of different regions yielded no contradicting topologies and separated the Brassica genus into four clades. B. carinata and B. juncea share their chloroplast genome with one of their hybridization donors B. nigra and B. rapa, respectively, which fits the U model. B. rapa, surprisingly, shows evidence of two types of chloroplast genomes, with one type specific to some Italian broccoletto accessions. B. napus clearly has evidence for two independent hybridization events, as it contains either B. rapa chloroplast genomes. The divergence estimation suggests that B. nigra and B. carinata diverged from the main Brassica clade 13.7 million years ago (Mya), while B. rapa and B. oleracea diverged at 2.18 Mya. The use of the complete chloroplast DNA sequence not only provides insights into comparative genome analysis but also paves the way for a better understanding of the phylogenetic

  4. Differential effects of H2S on cytoplasmic and nuclear thiol concentrations in different tissues of Brassica roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, M; De Kok, LJ; Weidner, W; Tausz, M

    2002-01-01

    H2S-fumigation experiments with the sulphur-demanding plant Brassica oleracea L. (hybrid curly kale) were carried out to modulate glutathione levels in root tip cells. Plants were exposed in small fumigation cabinets to 0.4 mul 1(-1) H2S for 96 h. The data obtained by HPLC analysis of bimane-labeled

  5. Chemical diversity in Brassica oleracea affects biodiversity of insect herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, E.H.; Dam, van N.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2009-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in plants plays a major role in the composition and diversity of the associated insect community. Resistance traits of plants are likely candidates mediating community composition. However, it is debated whether total concentrations of chemical compounds or specific compounds

  6. Stability of head weight in cabbage accessions (Brassica oleracea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... INTRODUCTION. Identification of high yielding and stable accession across ... Plant breeders, to address the ... because variability in performance of any genotype could ... their direct and indirect effects on grain yield are of ..... agronomic traits of NS maize hybrids, A periodical of Scientific Res. on Field.

  7. Chemopreventive functional food through selenium biofortification of cauliflower plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Oancea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a biotechnological approach for production of cauliflower as safe functional food, with an optimal content of chemopreventive compounds, by a protective biofortification, through selenium application together with betaine and spraying adjuvants. In the control and treated cauliflower plants we determined the amount of total selenium, glucosinolates (sulforaphane and SAH (S-Adenosyl-homocysteine. We also assayed the chemopreventive effects of compounds formed in the treated cruciferous plants through in vitro tests, using human colorectal tumor cell line (CaCo2. Extracts of plants treated with selenium applied together with betaine and spraying adjuvant were significantly more active on reduction of tumoral cell viability than the extract of control plants. Cauliflower plants, obtained after our treatments for protective biofortification, were used to feed rabbits, for 10 days. The ingestion of biofortified cauliflower did not modify the hematological and biochemical parameters on the laboratory animals.

  8. CAULIFLOWER EAR AND SKIN INFECTIONS AMONG WRESTLERS IN TEHRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Kordi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to describe the magnitude of the selected sports medicine problems (i.e. cauliflower ear and skin infections among wrestlers in Tehran. A number of 411 wrestlers were randomly selected from wrestling clubs in Tehran employing cluster sample setting method. The participants were interviewed using a specially designed and validated questionnaire. Nearly half of the participants (44% had "cauliflower ears". Only 23% of these participants had received any kind of treatment for their acute ear haematomas that are known to result in "cauliflower ears". The prevalence of reported hearing loss among participants with cauliflower ears (11.5%, 95%CI: 6.9 to 16.2 was significantly more than this prevalence among those participants without cauliflower ears (1.8%, 95%CI: 0.1 to 3.5 (p < 0.05. More than half of the participants (52% had skin infection diagnosed by a physician during the previous year. This study has identified evidence of an increase in hearing loss as a possible side effect of either cauliflower ear or ear injury in wrestling in Iran. There has been an outbreak of ringworm and there is a significant potential for an outbreak of impetigo among wrestlers in Tehran

  9. Transgene directionally integrated into C-genome of Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiaoping; WANG Zhuan; LI Jun; LUO Lixia; HU Qiong

    2006-01-01

    Integration of a transgene into a C-genome chromosome plays an important role in reducing ecological risk of transgenic Brassica napus.To obtain C-genome transgenic B. napus, herbicide-resistant bar gene was firstly transferred into B.oleracea var. a/bog/abra mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Then using the transgenic B. oleracea as paternal plants and 8 nontransgenic varieties of B. rapa as maternal plants, Cgenome transgenic B. napus with bar gene was artificially resynthesized by means of ovary culture and chromosome doubling. Among 67 lines of the resynthesized B. napus, 31 were positive, and 36 were negative according to PCR test for bar gene. At least 2 plants from each line were kept for PPT spray confirmation. The result was in consistence with the PCR test. Genomic Southern blotting of three randomly chosen lines also showed that bar gene had been integrated into the genome of resynthesized B. napus lines.

  10. QTL Mapping of Leafy Heads by Genome Resequencing in the RIL Population of Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Yu; Han Wang; Weili Zhong; Jinjuan Bai; Pinglin Liu; Yuke He

    2013-01-01

    Leaf heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are important vegetables that supply mineral nutrients, crude fiber and vitamins in the human diet. Head size, head shape, head weight, and heading time contribute to yield and quality. In an attempt to investigate genetic basis of leafy head in Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), we took advantage of recent technical advances of genome resequencing to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using...

  11. Genetic characterization of glossy-leafed mutant broccoli lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glossy mutants of Brassica oleracea L. have reduced or altered epicuticular wax on the surface of their leaves as compared to wild-type plants, conveying a shiny green appearance. Mutations conferring glossiness are common and have been found in most B. oleracea crop varieties, including cauliflower...

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert; Branca, Ferdinando; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2014-12-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations. Wild populations remained distinct from cultivated material. Additionally, most wild populations were distinctively isolated from each other. On the other hand, it was not possible to molecularly distinguish even geographically distant leafy kale populations from each other or from different B. oleracea crops. It was possible to detect inter-crossing between leafy kales and B. rupestris. Findings from this study illustrate the existing level of genetic diversity in the B. oleracea gene pool. Individual populations (either wild or leafy kales) with higher levels of genetic diversity have been identified and suggestions are given for an informed conservation strategy. Domestication hypotheses are also discussed.

  13. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourato, Miguel P.; Moreira, Inês N.; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R.; Sales, Joana R.; Louro Martins, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra. PMID:26247945

  14. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel P. Mourato

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra.

  15. 77 FR 6772 - United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service.... In addition, AMS proposes to permit mixed color packs, heads less than 4 inches in diameter, and to...

  16. Estimation of cauliflower mass transfer parameters during convective drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Medine; Doymaz, İbrahim

    2016-05-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments such as citric acid and hot water blanching and air temperature on drying and rehydration characteristics of cauliflower slices. Experiments were carried out at four different drying air temperatures of 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C with the air velocity of 2.0 m/s. It was observed that drying and rehydration characteristics of cauliflower slices were greatly influenced by air temperature and pre-treatment. Six commonly used mathematical models were evaluated to predict the drying kinetics of cauliflower slices. The Midilli et al. model described the drying behaviour of cauliflower slices at all temperatures better than other models. The values of effective moisture diffusivities (D eff ) were determined using Fick's law of diffusion and were between 4.09 × 10-9 and 1.88 × 10-8 m2/s. Activation energy was estimated by an Arrhenius type equation and was 23.40, 29.09 and 26.39 kJ/mol for citric acid, blanch and control samples, respectively.

  17. Estimation of cauliflower mass transfer parameters during convective drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Medine; Doymaz, İbrahim

    2017-02-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments such as citric acid and hot water blanching and air temperature on drying and rehydration characteristics of cauliflower slices. Experiments were carried out at four different drying air temperatures of 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C with the air velocity of 2.0 m/s. It was observed that drying and rehydration characteristics of cauliflower slices were greatly influenced by air temperature and pre-treatment. Six commonly used mathematical models were evaluated to predict the drying kinetics of cauliflower slices. The Midilli et al. model described the drying behaviour of cauliflower slices at all temperatures better than other models. The values of effective moisture diffusivities ( D eff ) were determined using Fick's law of diffusion and were between 4.09 × 10-9 and 1.88 × 10-8 m2/s. Activation energy was estimated by an Arrhenius type equation and was 23.40, 29.09 and 26.39 kJ/mol for citric acid, blanch and control samples, respectively.

  18. Development of cauliflower and its consequences for cultivation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, R.

    1990-01-01

    From a number of cauliflower crops, grown during several years, plant development was related to the environmental conditions (mainly temperature). After transplanting three developmental phases could be recognized: juvenility, curd induction and curd growth, Variation in time of curd maturity was m

  19. Effects of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai over Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin in broccoli, in Escagüey, municipality of Rangel, Mérida State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Labrador Morales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of Trichoderma harzianum in suppressing clubroot of brassicas, which is caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, was tested on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck, in field conditions, in Escagüey, municipality of Rangel, Merida State, Venezuela. The experiment showed that the applications of a biopesticide based on this antagonist had a significant effect on the percentage of health plants and the crop yields, in dependence of the dose used. In addition, the relation benefits/cost was also favorable. These results showed that, for these particular conditions, P. brassicae is an adequate biological alternative to control the clubroot of brassicas, no aggressive to environment and human beings, useful for the transition phase toward a sustainable agriculture, without chemical pesticides.

  20. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  1. Factors Affecting Adoption of Recommended Cauliflower Production Technology in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Raj Dhital

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Binary logit regression model of econometrics was used to identify the factors affecting adoption of recommended agricultural technology by the commercial farmers of Nepal. A survey was carried out in 2012 in 120 households from Kavre district, Nepal. The objective was to appraise factors affecting adoption of recommended technology of cauliflower, finding out the level of adoption, identifying the constraints of cauliflower cultivation, assessing the perceived level of satisfaction and studying the relationship of certain selected variables on the adoption. Education, Occupation, contact with Personal Localite sources of information, Group membership and Experience were the most influencing factors for adoption of recommended technology. Though, other factors were not strong enough to contribute significantly but indirectly influence the adoption decision of farmers as combined effects. Occupation was found as negatively associated. Landholding size was strongly and positively influencing among the non significant factors. The level of satisfaction and the constraints of cauliflower production were also identified. Transfer of technology will be effective if and only if the client adopts the technology. For an effective transfer of technology, it is better to go for activities for the welfare of the socioeconomic factors of the farmers.

  2. Comparative mapping of Brassica juncea and Arabidopsis thaliana using Intron Polymorphism (IP markers: homoeologous relationships, diversification and evolution of the A, B and C Brassica genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Vibha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive mapping efforts are currently underway for the establishment of comparative genomics between the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana and various Brassica species. Most of these studies have deployed RFLP markers, the use of which is a laborious and time-consuming process. We therefore tested the efficacy of PCR-based Intron Polymorphism (IP markers to analyze genome-wide synteny between the oilseed crop, Brassica juncea (AABB genome and A. thaliana and analyzed the arrangement of 24 (previously described genomic block segments in the A, B and C Brassica genomes to study the evolutionary events contributing to karyotype variations in the three diploid Brassica genomes. Results IP markers were highly efficient and generated easily discernable polymorphisms on agarose gels. Comparative analysis of the segmental organization of the A and B genomes of B. juncea (present study with the A and B genomes of B. napus and B. nigra respectively (described earlier, revealed a high degree of colinearity suggesting minimal macro-level changes after polyploidization. The ancestral block arrangements that remained unaltered during evolution and the karyotype rearrangements that originated in the Oleracea lineage after its divergence from Rapa lineage were identified. Genomic rearrangements leading to the gain or loss of one chromosome each between the A-B and A-C lineages were deciphered. Complete homoeology in terms of block organization was found between three linkage groups (LG each for the A-B and A-C genomes. Based on the homoeology shared between the A, B and C genomes, a new nomenclature for the B genome LGs was assigned to establish uniformity in the international Brassica LG nomenclature code. Conclusion IP markers were highly effective in generating comparative relationships between Arabidopsis and various Brassica species. Comparative genomics between the three Brassica lineages established the major rearrangements

  3. Comparison of bioactive phytochemical content and release of isothiocyanates in selected brassica sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Bagatta, Manuela; Pagnotta, Eleonora; Angelino, Donato; Gennari, Lorenzo; Ninfali, Paolino; Rollin, Patrick; Iori, Renato

    2013-11-01

    The consumption of brassica sprouts as raw vegetables provides a fair amount of glucosinolates (GLs) and active plant myrosinase, which enables the breakdown of GLs into health-promoting isothiocyanates (ITCs). This study reports the determination of the main constituents related to human health found in edible sprouts of two Brassica oleracea varieties, broccoli and Tuscan black kale, and two Raphanus sativus varieties, Daikon and Sango. Radish sprouts exhibited the highest ability to produce ITCs, with Daikon showing the greatest level of conversion of GLs into bioactive ITCs (96.5%), followed by Sango (90.0%). Tuscan black kale gave a value of 68.5%, whereas broccoli displayed the lowest with 18.7%. ITCs were not the exclusive GL breakdown products in the two B. oleracea varieties, since nitriles were also produced, thus accounting for the lower conversion observed. Measuring the release of plant ITCs is a valuable tool in predicting the potential level of exposure to these bioactive compounds after the consumption of raw brassica sprouts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship between antibrowning, anti-radical and reducing capacity of Brassica and Allium extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela C Bustos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous vegetable extracts from Allium and Brassica families were assayed for antibrowning capacity and related to their anti-radical and reducing power activities. The treatment  of mushrooms and avocado slices, with white cabbage, cauliflower, garlic and scallion extracts, reduced color changes during storage at 4 °C and -18 °C. Storage temperature and the type of extract employed influenced change of color variables. The contribution of polyphenols on measured antioxidant activity of extracts was also discussed. Allium antibrowning properties were closely related to antioxidant capacity, while the Brassica extracts were less effective. Treatment with Allium extracts extended the storage time of frozen and refrigerated mushrooms and avocado slices, in comparison with untreated samples.

  5. Inheritance and expression patterns of BN28, a low temperature induced gene in Brassica napus, throughout the Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, G P; Nykiforuk, C L; Johnson-Flanagan, A M; Boothe, J G

    1996-08-01

    Molecular genetics is becoming an important tool in the breeding and selection of agronomically important traits. BN28 is a low temperature induced gene in Brassicaceae species. PCR and Southern blot analysis indicate that BN28 is polymorphic in the three diploid genomes: Brassica rapa (AA), Brassica nigra (BB), and Brassica oleracea (CC). Of the allotetraploids, Brassica napus (AACC) is the only species to have inherited homologous genes from both parental genomes. Brassica juncea (AABB) and Brassica carinata (BBCC) have inherited homologues from the AA and CC genomes, respectively, while Sinapsis arvensis (SS) contains a single homologue from the BB genome and Sinapsis alba (dd) appears to be different from all the diploid parents. All species show message induction when exposed to low temperature. However, differences in expression were noticed at the protein level, with silencing occurring in the BB genome at the level of translation. Results suggest that silencing is occurring in diploid species where duplication may not have occurred. Molecular characterization and inheritance of BN28 homologues in the Brassicaceae may play an important role in determining their quantitative function during exposure to low temperature. Key words : Brassicaceae, BN28, inheritance, polymorphism.

  6. Multiple Evolutionary Events Involved in Maintaining Homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin-Long; Ma, Xian-Feng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Berkey, Robert; Yang, Hui; Niu, Ying-Ze; Fan, Jing; Li, Yan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8) locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs) in Brassica rapa and three in Brassica oleracea (BoHRs). Brassica napus (Bn) is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs). It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here, we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion, and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants. PMID:27493652

  7. Multiple Evolutionary Events Involved in Maintaining Homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin-Long; Ma, Xian-Feng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Berkey, Robert; Yang, Hui; Niu, Ying-Ze; Fan, Jing; Li, Yan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8) locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs) in Brassica rapa and three in Brassica oleracea (BoHRs). Brassica napus (Bn) is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs). It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here, we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion, and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants.

  8. Effects of inoculum potential on screening for resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae in greenhouse trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Robak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Several factors, including growth medium, inoculum density, and inoculum storage affected the reaction of resistant and susceptible Brassicas to Plasmodiophora brassicae in the greenhouse. A high level of disease was achieved using Peat-litte mix R and a commercial greenhouse mix. There was litte difference in disease incidence when spore suspensions were pipeted into planting holes or when seedlings were dipped into spore suspensions. Seedlings transplanted from sand or Petri dishes gave higher levels of disease than direct seeding. Two-year frozen storage of clubs reduced the inoculum potential to a level unable to define resistance. Inoculum levels of 103-7 spores per ml from fresh clubs, or 105-7 spores per ml from clubs frozen for 2 or 4 years, produced 90% club incidence of susceptible cauliflower and Chinese cabbage, A concentration of only 106-8 spores per ml from fresh clubs was required for maximum disease expression in a cauliflower line partially resistant to clubroot.

  9. Flutuação populacional e distribuição vertical de Brevicoryne brassicae (L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae em couve Populational fluctuation and vertical (within-plant distribution of Brevicoryne brassicae (L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae on kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Cividanes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da dinâmica populacional e da distribuição vertical de insetos pragas em plantas hospedeiras é fundamental para o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo integrado de pragas. No presente trabalho efetuou-se um levantamento populacional de formas ápteras do pulgão Brevicoryne brassicae (L., visando determinar a época de maior densidade populacional e a distribuição vertical em plantas de couve, (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC., cultivadas em Jaboticabal, SP. O estudo foi realizado durante as safras de brássicas de 1998 e 1999, efetuando-se correção da acidez do solo por meio de aplicação de calcário apenas no campo utilizado em 1998. A amostragem dos pulgões foi feita visualmente em folhas classificadas em três categorias: apical, mediana e basal. Nas duas safras estudadas, a infestação de B. brassicae na couve atingiu a maior densidade populacional em setembro, diminuindo rapidamente a seguir. Nos dois campos não se observou a mesma distribuição de B. brassicae em folhas apicais, medianas e basais. Os fatores que podem ter contribuído para as diferenças observadas no padrão de distribuição do pulgão devem estar relacionados com a precipitação pluvial e o calcário magnesiano.The knowledge of the population dynamics and vertical distribution of insect pests in host plants are fundamental for the development of programs of integrated pest management. In the present work, a population survey of apterous cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L., was carried out aiming to determine the period when this aphid reachs the highest population density and the within-plant distributions on its common host, kale, Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC., cultivated in Jaboticabal, State of São Paulo. The study took place during the 1998 and 1999 Brassica seasons, and limestone treatment was only made in the field cultivated in 1998. The cabbage aphid was sampled by visual search on leaves classified in three

  10. Phylogenetic Analysis on SLG and SRK Genes in Brassica and Raphanus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yu-tang; MA Chao-zhi; FU Ting-dong; TU Jin-xing

    2005-01-01

    S-locus genes were cloned from three Brassica napus and three B. campestris lines by using PCR walking and homologue sequence methods. A phylogenetic gene tree was constructed based on the six cloned genes and fifty-one previously reported SLG/SRK genes of Brassica and Raphanus. The SLGs from R. sativus were dispersed in the phylogenetic tree intermingling with SLG/SRKs from B. oleracea, B. napus and B. campestris. The SLG/SRK genes of class Ⅱ clustered independently in one group. The SLG/SRK genes of class Ⅰ showed to be more divergent than class Ⅱ genes. These results suggested that the divergence of class Ⅰ and class Ⅱ should have occurred before the differentiation of the genera Brassica and Raphanus. In addition, SLG and SRK of the same S haplotypes belonged to the same class. It suggested that class-Ⅰ and class-Ⅱ group divergence occurred first, and then SLG and SRK diverged. The three SC SRK genes from B. napus and B. campestris were grouped into one cluster, displaying difference from the SC SLG of B.oleracea. These three SC SRK genes were close to SI SRK of SI1300, SI271 and guanyou in phylogenetic relationships.These results indicated that SC and SI genes diverged more recently. It is not clear yet whether the differentiation of SC and SI genes was earlier than the differentiation of Brassica and Raphanus. Studies based on more genes are necessary for a comprehensive elucidation of the phylogenetic relationships in Brassicaceae.

  11. Observation of Pollen Mother Cell Meiosis and Male Gametophyte Development in Brassica oleracea L.var.acephala DC.%羽衣甘蓝花粉母细胞减数分裂及雄配子体发育观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏跃; 赵桂华; 杨鹤同; 朱耀; 李玉进; 张蜀宁

    2011-01-01

    The chromosome preparation technique was adopted to examine the meiosis process of pollen mother cells and the development of the male gametophytes in kale from the cytological angle. The results indicated that the meiosis process of kale was as the same as the other Brassica species.the pollen mother cells carried on their meiosis and cytokinesis simultaneously and their tetrads were mainly tetrahedral or decussate types (There appeared nine bivalents in diakinesis and chromosome numbers could be counted in this period ;At metaphases Ⅰ and Ⅱ there is a small number of chromosomes scattering outside their equa-torial plate. At anaphase Ⅰ and Ⅱ there appeared a very few lagged chromosomes; At tetrad stage a small number of abnormal tetrads with micronuclei were visible; The length of bud is about 2.0 to 2. 2 mm in side-placed nucleus period. Microspore was eventually developed to the three-cell pollen with three apertures,the abnormal pollens made up about 1.3% in matured pollens.%采用常规压片法对羽衣甘蓝花粉母细胞减数分裂及雄配子体发育进行了细胞学观察,结果显示:羽衣甘蓝减数分裂类似甘蓝种,细胞质分裂为同时型,四分体以正四面体型或十字交叉型为主;终变期有9个二价体,此时可进行染色体计数;中期Ⅰ和Ⅱ少数细胞中可见赤道板外染色体,后期Ⅰ和Ⅱ存在落后染色体,四分体时期可观察到少量含微核的异常四分体;单棱靠边期时花蕾长度约为2.0~2.2 mm,小孢子经过发育最终成为3-细胞型花粉并具3个萌发孔,成熟花粉中败育花粉比率为1.3%.

  12. How-To-Do-It: Using Cauliflower to Demonstrate Plant Tissue Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldeman, Janice H.; Ellis, Jane P.

    1988-01-01

    Presents techniques used for disinfestation of plant material, preparation of equipment and media, and laboratory procedures for tissue culture using cauliflower. Details methods for preparing solutions and plant propagation by cloning. (CW)

  13. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Plant Metabolites in Brassicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de C.H.; Schipper, A.; Hall, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    The Brassicaceae family comprises a variety of plant species that are of high economic importance as -vegetables or industrial crops. This includes crops such as Brassica rapa (turnip, Bok Choi), B. oleracea (cabbages, broccoli, cauliflower, etc.), and B. napus (oil seed rape), and also includes the

  14. A novel method for efficient and abundant production of Phytophthora brassicae zoospores on Brussels sprout leaf discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govers Francine

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora species are notorious oomycete pathogens that cause diseases on a wide range of plants. Our understanding how these pathogens are able to infect their host plants will benefit greatly from information obtained from model systems representative for plant-Phytophthora interactions. One attractive model system is the interaction between Arabidopsis and Phytophthora brassicae. Under laboratory conditions, Arabidopsis can be easily infected with mycelial plugs as inoculum. In the disease cycle, however, sporangia or zoospores are the infectious propagules. Since the current P. brassicae zoospore isolation methods are generally regarded as inefficient, we aimed at developing an alternative method for obtaining high concentrations of P. brassicae zoospores. Results P. brassicae isolates were tested for pathogenicity on Brussels sprout plants (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera. Microscopic examination of leaves, stems and roots infected with a GFP-tagged transformant of P. brassicae clearly demonstrated the susceptibility of the various tissues. Leaf discs were cut from infected Brussels sprout leaves, transferred to microwell plates and submerged in small amounts of water. In the leaf discs the hyphae proliferated and abundant formation of zoosporangia was observed. Upon maturation the zoosporangia released zoospores in high amounts and zoospore production continued during a period of at least four weeks. The zoospores were shown to be infectious on Brussels sprouts and Arabidopsis. Conclusion The in vitro leaf disc method established from P. brassicae infected Brussels sprout leaves facilitates convenient and high-throughput production of infectious zoospores and is thus suitable to drive small and large scale inoculation experiments. The system has the advantage that zoospores are produced continuously over a period of at least one month.

  15. Reaction of Cauliflower Genotypes to Black Rot of Crucifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lincon Rafael; da Silva, Renan César Dias; Cardoso, Atalita Francis; de Mello Pelá, Gláucia; Carvalho, Daniel Diego Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate six cauliflower genotypes regarding their resistance to black rot and their production performance. To do so, it was conducted two field experiments in Ipameri, Goiás, Brazil, in 2012 and 2013. It was used a randomized block design, with four replications (total of 24 plots). Each plot consisted of three planting lines 2.5 m long (six plants/line), spaced 1.0 m apart, for a total area of 7.5 m2. Evaluations of black rot severity were performed at 45 days after transplanting, this is, 75 days after sowing (DAS), and yield evaluations at 90 to 105 DAS. The Verona 184 genotype was the most resistant to black rot, showing 1.87 and 2.25% of leaf area covered by black rot symptom (LACBRS) in 2012 and 2013. However, it was not among the most productive materials. The yield of the genotypes varied between 15.14 and 25.83 t/ha in both years, Lisvera F1 (21.78 and 24.60 t/ha) and Cindy (19.95 and 23.56 t/ha) being the most productive. However, Lisvera F1 showed 6.37 and 9.37% of LACBRS and Cindy showed 14.25 and 14.87% of LACBRS in 2012 and 2013, being both considered as tolerant to black rot. PMID:26060437

  16. Reaction of Cauliflower Genotypes to Black Rot of Crucifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincon Rafael da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate six cauliflower genotypes regarding their resistance to black rot and their production performance. To do so, it was conducted two field experiments in Ipameri, Goiás, Brazil, in 2012 and 2013. It was used a randomized block design, with four replications (total of 24 plots. Each plot consisted of three planting lines 2.5 m long (six plants/line, spaced 1.0 m apart, for a total area of 7.5 m². Evaluations of black rot severity were performed at 45 days after transplanting, this is, 75 days after sowing (DAS, and yield evaluations at 90 to 105 DAS. The Verona 184 genotype was the most resistant to black rot, showing 1.87 and 2.25% of leaf area covered by black rot symptom (LACBRS in 2012 and 2013. However, it was not among the most productive materials. The yield of the genotypes varied between 15.14 and 25.83 t/ha in both years, Lisvera F1 (21.78 and 24.60 t/ha and Cindy (19.95 and 23.56 t/ha being the most productive. However, Lisvera F1 showed 6.37 and 9.37% of LACBRS and Cindy showed 14.25 and 14.87% of LACBRS in 2012 and 2013, being both considered as tolerant to black rot.

  17. Nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracae var. capitata seedlings affected by the different nitrogen fertilizer forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Turan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different nitrogen fertilizer (potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, urea and farmyard manure on nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata seedlings were studied. pH of the plant growth niedia was higher in the nitrate fertilizer treatment than the ammonium and other fertilizer forms. NO3--N application increased NRA in plant, but NH4+-N decreased NRA in plant. Harvesting date and different fertilizer doses increased NRA while NH4+-N decreased plant nitrate uptake. There was a significant relationship between NRA and fertilizer types.

  18. An Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatoghraphy-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) Method for the Rapid and Sensitive Determination of Sulforaphane and Sulforaphane Nitrile in Brassica Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez Jubete, Laura; Thomas J. Smyth; Valverde, Juan; Dilip K. Rai; Barry-Ryan, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    A rapid UPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile from Brassica Oleracea L. This method was developed utilising an Acquity BEH C8 column with gradient elution combined with tandem mass spectrometry detection, using positive ion electrospray ionisation in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, matrix effects and recovery. The retention time...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: cabbage [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _oleracea_S.png Brassica_oleracea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&...t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=NS ...

  20. Nucleotide polymorphism affecting FLC expression underpins heading date variation in horticultural brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Judith A; Soumpourou, Eleni; Lister, Clare; Ligthart, Jan-Dick; Kennedy, Sue; Dean, Caroline

    2016-09-01

    Variation in flowering time and response to overwintering has been exploited to breed brassica vegetables that can be harvested year-round. Our knowledge of flowering time control now enables the investigation of the molecular basis of this important variation. Here, we show that a major determinant of heading date variation in Brassica oleracea is from variation in vernalization response through allelic variation at FLOWERING LOCUS C.C2 (BoFLC4). We characterize two alleles of BoFLC.C2 that are both functional and confer a requirement for vernalization, but they show distinct expression dynamics in response to cold. Complementation experiments in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that the allelic variation results from cis polymorphism at BoFLC.C2, which quantitatively influences the degree of cold-induced epigenetic silencing. This results in one allelic variant conferring consistently later heading under both glasshouse and field conditions through reduced environmental sensitivity. Our results suggest that breeding of brassica varieties for commercially valuable variation in heading date has been achieved through the selection of cis polymorphism at FLC, similar to that underpinning natural variation in A. thaliana. This understanding will allow for the selection of alleles with distinct sensitivities to cold and robust heading dates under variable climatic conditions, and will facilitate the breeding of varieties more resistant to climate change.

  1. Plant-based fertilizers for organic vegetable production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jørn Nygaard; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    with cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis) and kale (Brassica oleracea sabellica) supplied with organic matter consisting of a wide range of plant species with varying nutrient concentrations. Further, field experiments were conducted with leek (Allium porrum) and celery (Apium graveolens dulce) supplied...... with high P and S concentrations increased the nutrient uptake and yield of pot-grown cauliflower and kale. Field experiments showed that the production of cauliflower and kale decreased when the carbon-to-nitrogen (C : N) ratio of applied green manure increased. In kale, for example, application of 160 kg...... N ha–1 in early harvested lucerne (Medicago sativa) with a C : N ratio of 10 resulted in the highest kale production whereas application of an equal amount of N in late harvested lucerne with a C : N ratio of 20 produced 34% less. Differences in vegetable production were not due to the amount of N...

  2. Immunomodulatory activity of Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate from broccoli (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejass, P; Kuttan, G

    2007-08-01

    The effect of Sulforaphane on the immune system was studied using BALB/c mice. Intraperitoneal administration of five doses of Sulforaphane (500 microg/dose/animal/day) was found to enhance the total WBC count (12,950 cells/mm3) on 9th day. Bone marrow cellularity (23 x 10(6) cells/femur) and number of alpha-esterase positive cells (1346.66/4000 cells) were also increased by the administration of Sulforaphane. Treatment with Sulforaphane along with the antigen, sheep red blood cells (SRBC), produced an enhancement in the circulating antibody titre and the number of plaque forming cells (PFC) in the spleen. Maximum number of PFC (315.83 PFC/10(6) spleen cells) was obtained on the 6th day. Administration of Sulforaphane also showed an enhancement in the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages. Moreover administration of Sulforaphane significantly reduced the elevated level of TNF-alpha production by LPS stimulated macrophages. These results indicate the immunomodulatory activity of Sulforaphane.

  3. Impact of thermal processing on sulforaphane yield from broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Grace C; Farnham, Mark; Jeffery, Elizabeth H

    2012-07-11

    In broccoli, sulforaphane forms when the glucosinolate glucoraphanin is hydrolyzed by the endogenous plant thiohydrolase myrosinase. A myrosinase cofactor directs hydrolysis away from the formation of bioactive sulforaphane and toward an inactive product, sulforaphane nitrile. The cofactor is more heat sensitive than myrosinase, presenting an opportunity to preferentially direct hydrolysis toward sulforaphane formation through regulation of thermal processing. Four broccoli cultivars were microwave heated, boiled, or steamed for various lengths of time. Production of nitrile during hydrolysis of unheated broccoli varied among cultivars from 91 to 52% of hydrolysis products (Pinnacle > Marathon > Patriot > Brigadier). Boiling and microwave heating caused an initial loss of nitrile, with a concomitant increase in sulforaphane, followed by loss of sulforaphane, all within 1 min. In contrast, steaming enhanced sulforaphane yield between 1.0 and 3.0 min in all but Brigadier. These data are proof of concept that steaming for 1.0-3.0 min provides less nitrile and more sulforaphane yield from a broccoli meal.

  4. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  5. Metabolic profiling of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and other secondary metabolites in kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woo Tae; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Suhyoung; Lee, Sang-Won; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Uddin, Md Romij; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Sang Un

    2012-08-22

    We profiled and quantified glucosinolates, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and other secondary metabolites in the skin and flesh of pale green and purple kohlrabis. Analysis of these distinct kohlrabis revealed the presence of 8 glucosinolates, 12 anthocyanins, 2 carotenoids, and 7 phenylpropanoids. Glucosinolate contents varied among the different parts and types of kohlrabi. Glucoerucin contents were 4-fold higher in the flesh of purple kohlrabi than those in the skin. Among the 12 anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-(feruloyl)(sinapoyl) diglucoside-5-glucoside levels were the highest. Carotenoid levels were much higher in the skins than the flesh of both types of kohlrabi. The levels of most phenylpropanoids were higher in purple kohlrabi than in pale green ones. trans-Cinnamic acid content was 12.7-fold higher in the flesh of purple kohlrabi than that in the pale green ones. Thus, the amounts of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and phenylpropanoids varied widely, and the variations in these compounds between the two types of kohlrabi were significant.

  6. Histopathology of Brassica oleracea var. capitata subvar. alba infected with Heterodera cruciferae Franklin, 1945 (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because anatomical changes induced by the cabbage cyst nematode (Heterodera cruciferae) have been insufficiently characterized, here we describe these changes in the root tissues of white head cabbage varieties commonly grown in the Black Sea Region of Turkey, where cabbage-growing areas are heavily...

  7. The utilization of Vallisneria aethiopica, Brassica oleracea and Pennisetum clandestinum by Tilapia rendalli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlophe, S. N.; Moyo, N. A. G.

    A common lawn grass; kikuyu grass, an abundant vegetable; cabbage and vallisneria a common macrophyte were tested for utilisation by two size classes of a herbivorous fish, Tilapia rendalli held in glass aquarium tanks. The test feeds were given to sub-adult T. rendalli for 133 days at 8% body weight and juvenile fish for 84 days at 15% body weight. Sub-adult and juvenile fish fed kikuyu grass attained a higher specific growth rate, higher protein efficiency ratio and better food conversion ratio than those fed cabbage and vallisneria. This is explained by the differences in the protein content, higher levels of lysine and the sulphur-containing amino acid, methionine in kikuyu grass. Palatability studies of the juveniles also showed that kikuyu was most preferred. However, sub-adults preferred vallisneria, kikuyu and cabbage respectively. The possible reasons for the selection are discussed.

  8. Effects of intraspecific variation in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) on soil organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Van Dam, N.M.; Biere, A.

    2010-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in plants can affect soil organisms. However, little is known about whether the magnitude of the effect depends on the degree of interaction with the roots. We analyzed effects of plant intraspecific variation on root herbivores and other soil organisms that interact directly

  9. Impact of thermal processing on sulforaphane yield from broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In broccoli, sulforaphane forms when the glucosinolate glucoraphanin is hydrolyzed by the endogenous plant thiohydrolase myrosinase. A myrosinase cofactor directs hydrolysis away from formation of bioactive sulforaphane and toward an inactive product, sulforaphane nitrile. The cofactor is more hea...

  10. Database derived microsatellite markers (SSRs) for cultivar differentiation in Brassica oleracea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louarn, S; Torp, A M; Holme, Inger;

    2007-01-01

    the remaining eight cultivars were differentiated from the rest in four inseparable pairs. All SSR markers, except one, produced a polymorphic information content (PIC value) of 0.5 or above. The average diversity for all markers within the tested material was 0.64. There was no major difference...

  11. Genotypic and climatic influence on the antioxidant activity of flavonoids in Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietz, Michaela; Weckmüller, Annika; Schmidt, Susanne; Rohn, Sascha; Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, Angelika; Kroh, Lothar W

    2010-02-24

    The influence of genotype and climatic factors, e.g. mean temperature and mean global radiation level, on the antioxidant activity of kale was investigated. Therefore, eight kale cultivars, hybrid and traditional, old cultivars, were grown in a field experiment and harvested at four different times. In addition to the investigation of the total phenolic content, the overall antioxidant activity was determined by TEAC assay and electron spin resonance spectrometry. A special aim was to characterize the contribution of single flavonoids to the overall antioxidant activity using an HPLC-online TEAC approach. The antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content were influenced by the genotype and the eco-physiological factors. The HPLC-online TEAC results showed that not all flavonol glycosides contribute to the overall antioxidant activity in the same manner. Taking the results of the structural analysis obtained by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) into account, distinct structure-antioxidant relationships have been observed.

  12. Safety assessment and detection method of genetically modified Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea cv. alboglabra ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hui; Lu, Chien-Te; Lin, Hsin-Tang; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2009-03-11

    Sporamins are tuberous storage proteins and account for 80% of soluble protein in sweet potato tubers with trypsin-inhibitory activity. The expression of sporamin protein in transgenic Chinese kale (line BoA 3-1) conferred insecticidal activity toward corn earworm [ Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)] in a previous report. In this study, we present a preliminary safety assessment of transgenic Chinese kale BoA 3-1. Bioinformatic and simulated gastric fluid (SGF) analyses were performed to evaluate the allergenicity of sporamin protein. The substantial equivalence between transgenic Chinese kale and its wild-type host has been demonstrated by the comparison of important constituents. A reliable real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method was also developed to control sample quality. Despite the results of most evaluations in this study being negative, the safety of sporamin in transgenic Chinese kale BoA 3-1 was uncluded because of the allergenic risk revealed by bioinformatic analysis.

  13. Effects of Growth Temperature and Postharvest Cooling on Anthocyanin Profiles in Juvenile and Mature Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socquet-Juglard, Didier; Bennett, Alexandra A; Manns, David C; Mansfield, Anna Katharine; Robbins, Rebecca J; Collins, Thomas M; Griffiths, Phillip D

    2016-02-24

    The effects of growth temperatures on anthocyanin content and profile were tested on juvenile cabbage and kale plants. The effects of cold storage time were evaluated on both juvenile and mature plants. The anthocyanin content in juvenile plants ranged from 3.82 mg of cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside equivalent (Cy equiv)/g of dry matter (dm) at 25 °C to 10.00 mg of Cy equiv/g of dm at 16 °C, with up to 76% diacylated anthocyanins. Cold storage of juvenile plants decreased the total amount of anthocyanins but increased the diacylated anthocyanin content by 3-5%. In mature plants, cold storage reduced the total anthocyanin content from 22 to 12.23 mg/g after 5 weeks of storage in red cabbage, while the total anthocyanin content increased after 2 weeks of storage from 2.34 to 3.66 mg of Cy equiv/g of dm in kale without having any effect on acylation in either morphotype. The results obtained in this study will be useful for optimizing anthocyanin production.

  14. Brassica oleracea como fuente de compuestos biosaludables: aproximación genética

    OpenAIRE

    Sotelo Pérez, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Fecha de lectura de tesis 2015-03-04.-- 253 páginas.-- Dña. Mª Elena Cartea González, Investigadora Científica del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas y Dña. Pilar Soengas Fernández, Científica titular del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, ambas investigadoras de la Misión Biológica de Galicia, en Pontevedra.-- Memoria presentada por Tamara Sotelo Pérez para la obtención del grado de Doctor con Mención Internacional por la Universidad de Vigo

  15. Plant traits associated with resistance to Thrips tabaci in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Steenhuis, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2008-01-01

    Thrips tabaci is a major problem in the cultivation of cabbage for storage, as this pest causes symptoms that necessitate the removal of affected leaves from the product. Between cabbage varieties large differences in susceptibility occur. This study aimed to identify plant traits associated with th

  16. Effects of intraspecific variation in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata) on soil ogranisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Putten, van der W.H.; Dam, van N.M.; Biere, A.

    2010-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in plants can affect soil organisms. However, little is known about whether the magnitude of the effect depends on the degree of interaction with the roots. We analyzed effects of plant intraspecific variation on root herbivores and other soil organisms that interact directly

  17. Plant traits associated with resistance to Thrips tabaci in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Steenhuis, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2008-01-01

    Thrips tabaci is a major problem in the cultivation of cabbage for storage, as this pest causes symptoms that necessitate the removal of affected leaves from the product. Between cabbage varieties large differences in susceptibility occur. This study aimed to identify plant traits associated with th

  18. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Supply on Spinach(Spinacia oleracea L.) Growth and SoilMineral N Residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Effects of conventional and optimized water and nitrogen managements on spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)growth and soil mineral N (Nmin) residues were compared in an open field experiment in which water balance method and N recommendation with the KNS-system were included. It was shown that the conventional water treatment (seasonal irrigated amount: 175 mm) reduced spinach growth compared to the water balance treatments (seasonal irrigated amount: 80 and 85 mm) at the same N supply level due to N loss through leaching caused by excessive water supply. Although 309 kg N ha-1 was applied in the conventional N treatment, compared to 82 and 66 kg N ha-1 in the optimum N treatments, no significant difference in crop yield was investigated between the N treatments with the same irrigation practice. N uptake in spinach and soil residual Nmin contents were also significantly affected by the irrigation practices. The conventional water supply not only decreased water use efficiency, but also resulted in excessive NO-3-N being leached below the root zone. In order to meet the same target value of N requirement for the next crop, cauliflower, based on the KNS-system, at least extra 50 kg N ha-1 was needed in the conventional water treatments in comparison to the water balance treatment.

  19. Analysis of Some Pesticide Residues in Cauliflower by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheheli Islam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Increased use of chemicals on vegetables started gaining momentum and continued its up-trend in Bangladesh. Wide spread use of pesticides in agriculture concern of residue accumulation, which may remain in food and agricultural environment causing concern of human health and risking ecological balance. Attempt made to ensure that their applications were correct and safe and result in no residues in food beyond codex developed maximum residue limits. Approach: This study reported a method based on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC for determination of pesticide residues used in Cauliflower. Cauliflower sprayed with, 4 different pesticides (diazinon, malathion, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin at recommended dose and double of recommended dose were analyzed for their residual contents. Samples were collected at same day after application of pesticide. Commercial samples of cauliflowers were collected from different markets of Dhaka city. Reversed-phase HPLC system with UV detection was used for the separation, identification and quantification of all these analytes using acetonitrile-water (70:30, v/v as mobile phase. Results: Limit of detection of 0.02 mg kg-1 was obtained. Calibration curves that constructed for the analytes spiked into samples followed linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (R2>0.990. In the analysis, from vegetables treated with diazinon and chlorpyrifos at recommended and double of recommended doses, residual amounts above respective MRL values were found. Conclusion: Method used permitted the determination of these pesticides in cauliflower at concentration level demanded by current legislation. Attention paid on excess use or abuse of pesticides by judicious application for safety of public health in Bangladesh. Additional data to monitor residues in food and to fill gaps in current knowledge would be helpful in assessing human exposure risks from ingestion of contaminated

  20. The effect of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization on the yield and content of sulforaphane and nitrates in cauliflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Čekey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field experiment with cauliflower, we investigated the effect of four different variants of nitrogen and suplhur fertilization on quantity and quality of cauliflower in the term of sulforaphane content and nitrate accumulation. The influence of fertilization was statistically significant between control variant and fertilization variants and in both experimental years within all parameters of cauliflower yield. The highest yield of cauliflower was reached at the variant 4 when it was fertilized on the level of nutrients N:S = 250:60 kg.ha−1. The increase of yield against control variant represented value 26.6%. The applied fertilization positively affected on the accumulation sulforaphane in the cauliflower. Its highest content was determined at the variant 4 (N:S = 250:60 kg.ha−1. In comparison with control variant, the sulforaphane content was increased about 18.4%. On the other side, applied nutrition resulted in increased accumulation of nitrates in the cauliflower. The most increase of nitrate content, compared to the control variant, was also ascertained at the variant 4 (about 31.4%.The gathered data point towards to the possibility and way how we could effect on the increased accumulation of sulforaphane in cauliflower florets. This sphere of fertilization effect on the sulforaphane content is not sufficiently explored well. Our aim is to continue in this research subject and to find way how to cultivate vegetables with higher content of health-promoting compounds.

  1. Plant genetics. Early allopolyploid evolution in the post-Neolithic Brassica napus oilseed genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub, Boulos; Denoeud, France; Liu, Shengyi; Parkin, Isobel A P; Tang, Haibao; Wang, Xiyin; Chiquet, Julien; Belcram, Harry; Tong, Chaobo; Samans, Birgit; Corréa, Margot; Da Silva, Corinne; Just, Jérémy; Falentin, Cyril; Koh, Chu Shin; Le Clainche, Isabelle; Bernard, Maria; Bento, Pascal; Noel, Benjamin; Labadie, Karine; Alberti, Adriana; Charles, Mathieu; Arnaud, Dominique; Guo, Hui; Daviaud, Christian; Alamery, Salman; Jabbari, Kamel; Zhao, Meixia; Edger, Patrick P; Chelaifa, Houda; Tack, David; Lassalle, Gilles; Mestiri, Imen; Schnel, Nicolas; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Fan, Guangyi; Renault, Victor; Bayer, Philippe E; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Manoli, Sahana; Lee, Tae-Ho; Thi, Vinh Ha Dinh; Chalabi, Smahane; Hu, Qiong; Fan, Chuchuan; Tollenaere, Reece; Lu, Yunhai; Battail, Christophe; Shen, Jinxiong; Sidebottom, Christine H D; Wang, Xinfa; Canaguier, Aurélie; Chauveau, Aurélie; Bérard, Aurélie; Deniot, Gwenaëlle; Guan, Mei; Liu, Zhongsong; Sun, Fengming; Lim, Yong Pyo; Lyons, Eric; Town, Christopher D; Bancroft, Ian; Wang, Xiaowu; Meng, Jinling; Ma, Jianxin; Pires, J Chris; King, Graham J; Brunel, Dominique; Delourme, Régine; Renard, Michel; Aury, Jean-Marc; Adams, Keith L; Batley, Jacqueline; Snowdon, Rod J; Tost, Jorg; Edwards, David; Zhou, Yongming; Hua, Wei; Sharpe, Andrew G; Paterson, Andrew H; Guan, Chunyun; Wincker, Patrick

    2014-08-22

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was formed ~7500 years ago by hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea, followed by chromosome doubling, a process known as allopolyploidy. Together with more ancient polyploidizations, this conferred an aggregate 72× genome multiplication since the origin of angiosperms and high gene content. We examined the B. napus genome and the consequences of its recent duplication. The constituent An and Cn subgenomes are engaged in subtle structural, functional, and epigenetic cross-talk, with abundant homeologous exchanges. Incipient gene loss and expression divergence have begun. Selection in B. napus oilseed types has accelerated the loss of glucosinolate genes, while preserving expansion of oil biosynthesis genes. These processes provide insights into allopolyploid evolution and its relationship with crop domestication and improvement. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Euterpe oleracea Roots and Leaflets

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Euterpe oleracea (açaí) is a palm tree well known for the high antioxidant activity of its berries used as dietary supplements. Little is known about the biological activity and the composition of its vegetative organs. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of root and leaflet extracts of Euterpe oleracea (E. oleracea) and characterize their phytochemicals. E. oleracea roots and leaflets extracts were screened in different chemical antioxidant assays (DPPH—2,...

  3. Cloning of fatty acid elongase1 gene and molecular identification of A and C genome in Brassica species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) genes of Brassic napus were cloned from two cultivars, i.e. Zhong- shuan No. 9 with low erucic acid content, and Zhongyou 821 with high erucic acid content, using the degenerate PCR primers. The sequence analysis showed that there was no intron within the FAE1 genes. The FAE1 genes from Zhongyou 821 contained a coding sequence of 1521 nucleotides, and those cloned from Zhongshuan No. 9 contained a 1517 bp coding sequence. Alignment of the FAE1 sequences from Brassica rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus detected 31 single nucleotide polymorphic sites (2.03%), which resulted in 7 amino-acid substitutions. Further analysis indicated that 19 SNPs were genome-specific, of which, 95% were synonymous mutations. The nucleotide substitution at po- sition 1217 in the FAE1 genes led to a specific site of restricted cleavage. An AvrII cleavage site was present only in the C genome genes and absent in the A genome FAE1 genes. Digestion profile of the FAE1 sequences from B. rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus produced with AvrII confirmed that the FAE1 genes of B. oleracea origin was recognized and digested, while that of B. rapa origin could not. The results indicated that by AvrII cleavage it was possible to distinguish B. rapa from B. oleracea and be- tween the A and C genome of B. napus. In addition, the FAE1 genes could be used as marker genes to detect the pollen flow of B. napus, thus providing an alternative method for risk assessment of gene flow.

  4. Multiple evolutionary events involved in maintaining homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8 locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs in Brassica rapa and three in B. oleracea (BoHRs. B. napus (Bn is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs. It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane (EHM encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants.

  5. Preparation of cauliflower-like bismuth sulfide and itsapplication in electrochemical sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Xiang Wang; Feng Gao; Shun Xing Li; Wen Weng; Zheng Shui Hu

    2008-01-01

    A solvothermal process was developed for the preparation of cauliflower-like Bi2S3 from N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)solution of bismuth nitrate [Bi(NO3)3.5H2O] and thioacetamide (TAA) with 2-undecyl-1-dithioureido-ethyl-imidazoline (SUDEI)as the morphology-controlling agent. The obtained Bi2S3 products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM),scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), etc. The sensing properties of Bi2S3 with differentmorphologies were evaluated by the electrochemical analysis of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) coexisting solution.The results showed that cauliflower-like Bi2S3 showed a better resolving ability than rod-like Bi2S3 for the simultaneousdetermination of DA and AA.2008 Qing Xiang Wang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Monosomic Addition Lines of Flowering Chinese Cabbage (B. campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis L. H. Bailey)-Chinese Kale (B. oleracea L. var. alboglabra L. H. Bailey)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi-ne; ZHANG Cheng-he; XUAN Shu-xin; MAN Hong; LIU Hai-he; SHEN Shu-xing

    2008-01-01

    Interspecific alien addition lines have played significant roles in gene mapping, intergenomic gene transfer and chromosomal homoeological identification between closely related species. Selection of alien addition lines was conducted by karyotype analysis and morphological observation with the reference of parents. Triploid interspecies hybrid (AAC, 2n=3x=29) was obtained from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis Qinglu 9601 (tetraploid, AAAA, 2n=4x=40)×B. oleracea vat. alboglabra Baihua 9705 (diploid, CC, 2n=2x=18) by immature hybrid embryo culture in vitro. Five different alien monosomic addition lines (AA+C2, AA+C3, AA+C4, AA+C6, AA+C7) were obtained from the backcross progenies of AAC×AA. Each alien monosomic addition line has some specific morphological characters. It is feasible to obtain alien addition lines from the progenies of AAC×AA by karyotype analysis and morphological observation based on the reference of parents.

  7. A rich TILLING resource for studying gene function in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoah Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brassicaceae family includes the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as a number of agronomically important species such as oilseed crops (in particular Brassica napus, B. juncea and B. rapa and vegetables (eg. B. rapa and B. oleracea. Separated by only 10-20 million years, Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana are closely related, and it is expected that knowledge obtained relating to Arabidopsis growth and development can be translated into Brassicas for crop improvement. Moreover, certain aspects of plant development are sufficiently different between Brassica and Arabidopsis to warrant studies to be carried out directly in the crop species. However, mutating individual genes in the amphidiploid Brassicas such as B. napus and B. juncea may, on the other hand, not give rise to expected phenotypes as the genomes of these species can contain up to six orthologues per single-copy Arabidopsis gene. In order to elucidate and possibly exploit the function of redundant genes for oilseed rape crop improvement, it may therefore be more efficient to study the effects in one of the diploid Brassica species such as B. rapa. Moreover, the ongoing sequencing of the B. rapa genome makes this species a highly attractive model for Brassica research and genetic resource development. Results Seeds from the diploid Brassica A genome species, B. rapa were treated with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS to produce a TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes population for reverse genetics studies. We used the B. rapa genotype, R-o-18, which has a similar developmental ontogeny to an oilseed rape crop. Hence this resource is expected to be well suited for studying traits with relevance to yield and quality of oilseed rape. DNA was isolated from a total of 9,216 M2 plants and pooled to form the basis of the TILLING platform. Analysis of six genes revealed a high level of mutations with a density of about one per 60 kb. This

  8. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat ) and stomatal conductance (gssat ) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates.

  9. WRR4, a broad-spectrum TIR-NB-LRR gene from Arabidopsis thaliana that confers white rust resistance in transgenic oilseed Brassica crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Mohammad Hossein; Holub, Eric B; Kindrachuk, Colin; Omidi, Mansour; Bozorgmanesh-Frad, Ghazaleh; Rimmer, S Roger

    2010-03-01

    White blister rust caused by Albugo candida (Pers.) Kuntze is a common and often devastating disease of oilseed and vegetable brassica crops worldwide. Physiological races of the parasite have been described, including races 2, 7 and 9 from Brassica juncea, B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively, and race 4 from Capsella bursa-pastoris (the type host). A gene named WRR4 has been characterized recently from polygenic resistance in the wild brassica relative Arabidopsis thaliana (accession Columbia) that confers broad-spectrum white rust resistance (WRR) to all four of the above Al. candida races. This gene encodes a TIR-NB-LRR (Toll-like/interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat) protein which, as with other known functional members in this subclass of intracellular receptor-like proteins, requires the expression of the lipase-like defence regulator, enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1). Thus, we used RNA interference-mediated suppression of EDS1 in a white rust-resistant breeding line of B. napus (transformed with a construct designed from the A. thaliana EDS1 gene) to determine whether defence signalling via EDS1 is functionally intact in this oilseed brassica. The eds1-suppressed lines were fully susceptible following inoculation with either race 2 or 7 isolates of Al. candida. We then transformed white rust-susceptible cultivars of B. juncea (susceptible to race 2) and B. napus (susceptible to race 7) with the WRR4 gene from A. thaliana. The WRR4-transformed lines were resistant to the corresponding Al. candida race for each host species. The combined data indicate that WRR4 could potentially provide a novel source of white rust resistance in oilseed and vegetable brassica crops.

  10. Effect of successive cauliflower plantings and Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 inoculations on disease suppressiveness of a suppressive and a conducive soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Scheper, R.W.A.; Schilder, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Disease suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 in cauliflower was studied in two marine clay soils with a sandy loam texture. The soils had a different cropping history. One soil had a long-term (40 years) cauliflower history and was suppressive, the other soil was conducive and came from

  11. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Euterpe oleracea Roots and Leaflets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Brunschwig

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Euterpe oleracea (açaí is a palm tree well known for the high antioxidant activity of its berries used as dietary supplements. Little is known about the biological activity and the composition of its vegetative organs. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of root and leaflet extracts of Euterpe oleracea (E. oleracea and characterize their phytochemicals. E. oleracea roots and leaflets extracts were screened in different chemical antioxidant assays (DPPH—2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, FRAP—ferric feducing antioxidant power, and ORAC—oxygen radical absorbance capacity, in a DNA nicking assay and in a cellular antioxidant activity assay. Their polyphenolic profiles were determined by UV and LC-MS/MS. E. oleracea leaflets had higher antioxidant activity than E. oleracea berries, and leaflets of Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua, as well as similar antioxidant activity to green tea. E. oleracea leaflet extracts were more complex than root extracts, with fourteen compounds, including caffeoylquinic acids and C-glycosyl derivatives of apigenin and luteolin. In the roots, six caffeoylquinic and caffeoylshikimic acids were identified. Qualitative compositions of E. oleracea, Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua leaflets were quite similar, whereas the quantitative compositions were quite different. These results provide new prospects for the valorization of roots and leaflets of E. oleracea in the pharmaceutical, food or cosmetic industry, as they are currently by-products of the açaí industry.

  12. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Euterpe oleracea Roots and Leaflets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunschwig, Christel; Leba, Louis-Jérôme; Saout, Mona; Martial, Karine; Bereau, Didier; Robinson, Jean-Charles

    2016-01-01

    Euterpe oleracea (açaí) is a palm tree well known for the high antioxidant activity of its berries used as dietary supplements. Little is known about the biological activity and the composition of its vegetative organs. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of root and leaflet extracts of Euterpe oleracea (E. oleracea) and characterize their phytochemicals. E. oleracea roots and leaflets extracts were screened in different chemical antioxidant assays (DPPH—2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, FRAP—ferric feducing antioxidant power, and ORAC—oxygen radical absorbance capacity), in a DNA nicking assay and in a cellular antioxidant activity assay. Their polyphenolic profiles were determined by UV and LC-MS/MS. E. oleracea leaflets had higher antioxidant activity than E. oleracea berries, and leaflets of Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua, as well as similar antioxidant activity to green tea. E. oleracea leaflet extracts were more complex than root extracts, with fourteen compounds, including caffeoylquinic acids and C-glycosyl derivatives of apigenin and luteolin. In the roots, six caffeoylquinic and caffeoylshikimic acids were identified. Qualitative compositions of E. oleracea, Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua leaflets were quite similar, whereas the quantitative compositions were quite different. These results provide new prospects for the valorization of roots and leaflets of E. oleracea in the pharmaceutical, food or cosmetic industry, as they are currently by-products of the açaí industry. PMID:28036089

  13. Hypolipidemic Activity of Spinacia Oleracea L. in Atherogenic Diet Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar Giri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Spinacia oleracea (spinach of family Amaranthaceae is an important plant used traditionally for medicinal purposes. Hyperlipidemia was induced by treated orally with atherogenic diet. In atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic model, the rats receiving Spinacia oleracea powder showed significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein and elevation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Spinacia oleracea was found to possess significant hypolipidemic activity. The results also suggest that Spinacia oleracea powder at 200mg and 400 mg/kg b.wt. concentrations are an excellent lipid-lowering agent.

  14. Endophyte-mediated interactions between cauliflower, the herbivore Spodoptera litura, and the ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tamanreet; Singh, Bahaderjeet; Kaur, Amarjeet; Kaur, Sanehdeep

    2015-10-01

    Fungal endosymbionts in plants may influence interactions among plants, herbivores and their parasitoids through the production of secondary metabolites. We used a lepidopteran pest and its generalist parasitoid to test the effect of endophyte-infected plants on a third trophic level. Endophytic fungi, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger, isolated from Acacia arabica, were used to infect cauliflower plants. We found that the presence of the endophyte in the plants significantly extended the development period of Spodoptera litura (Fab.) larvae. Feeding of the host on endophyte-infected plants further adversely affected the development and performance of its parasitoid, Bracon hebetor (Say). A negative impact was also recorded for longevity and fecundity of endophyte-naive parasitoid females due to the parasitization of host larvae fed on endophyte-infected plants. The presence of endophytes in the diet of the host larvae significantly prolonged the development of the parasitoid. A strong detrimental effect was also recorded for larval survival and emergence of parasitoid adults. The longevity and parasitism rate of female wasps were reduced significantly due to the ingestion of endophyte-infected cauliflower plants by S. litura larvae. Overall, we found that both endophytic fungi had a negative impact on the parasitoid.

  15. Nutritional status of the cauliflower cultivar 'verona' grown with omission of out added macronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Matheus Saraiva; Cecílio Filho, Arthur Bernardes; de Carvalho, Leonardo Bianco

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of plant nutritional status allows an understanding of the physiological responses of plants to crop fertilization. A hydroponic experiment evaluated the symptoms of macronutrient deficiency in cauliflower 'Verona' and determined: a) the macronutrient contents of foliar tissues when visual symptoms were observed, b) macronutrients content of foliar and inflorescence tissues at harvest. The effect of nutrient deficiency on inflorescence mass was also evaluated. Nitrogen deficiency caused chlorosis followed by purple color in the old leaves, while P deficiency caused only chlorosis in old leaves. Chlorosis at the edge of old leaves progressing to the center of the leaves was observed with the omission of K, and after was observed necrosis in the chlorotic areas. Ca deficiency caused tip burn in new leaves, while Mg deficiency caused internerval chlorosis in old leaves. The omission of each macronutrient reduced inflorescence dry matter. This deleterious effect was larger for N, P, and K deficiencies, reducing inflorescence dry matter by 87, 49, and 42%, respectively. When the nutrient solutions without N, P, K, Ca, or Mg were supplied to cauliflower plants, the macronutrient contents at harvest were 8.8, 0.6, 3.5, 13.0, and 0.8 g kg-1 in the foliar tissues and 27.3, 2.2, 21.6, 1.1, and 0.7 g kg-1 in the inflorescence tissues, respectively.

  16. Screening Brassica species for glucosinolate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Bomford, Michael; Vincelli, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs), a group of compounds found in Brassica plants, are toxic to some soil-borne plant pathogens because of the toxicity of their hydrolysis products, isothiocyanates. Other phytochemicals found in Brassica plants, such as phenols and ascorbic acid, may compliment the activity of GSLs. A survey of Brassica accessions from the national germplasm repository was conducted to identify potential cover crops that could be soil-incorporated for use as biofumigants. Ten Brassica accessions that demonstrated relative cold tolerance, rapid maturity, and superior biomass production were selected. The selected accessions were grown under three climatic conditions (fall greenhouse, winter high tunnel, and spring field) to investigate whether growing conditions affect their GSL, phenol, and ascorbic acid content. The selected accessions included seven accessions of Brassica juncea (Indian mustard), one of Brassica napus (oil seed rape), one of Brassica campestris (field mustard), and one of Eruca sativa (arugula). Separation of GSLs from the selected Brassica accessions was achieved using ion-exchange sephadex in disposable pipette tips. Quantification of total GSLs was based on inactivation of the endogenous thioglucosidase and liberation of the glucose moiety from the GSL molecule by addition of standardized thioglucosidase (myrosinase) and colorimetry. GSL concentration of greenhouse, high tunnel, and field-grown shoots (leaves and stems) averaged 24, 40 and 76 micromoles g(-1) fresh weight, respectively. Accessions of B. juncea generally had the highest GSL content. A comparison of accessions revealed that Ames 8887 of B. juncea contained the greatest GSL concentration, but had the lowest biomass yield and ascorbic acid concentration, in part because phytochemical concentration tended to be negatively correlated with biomass yield. More promising was B. juncea accession 'Pacific Gold' which coupled high biomass yield with above-average GSL production, but

  17. Biologia floral do açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Martius).

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    O presente estudo avalia a biologia floral em uma população natural de açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) no estuário amazônico, localizado na Ilha do Combu, Município de Acará, Pará (48º25´W; 1º25´S). O período de estudo foi de um ano (janeiro a dezembro de 1991). Os resultados mostraram que Euterpe oleracea é uma espécie monóica, dicógama e protândrica; as brácteas abrem-se cinco dias após maturação; as flores masculinas permanecem de 10 a 12 dias nas inflorescências e as flores femininas ...

  18. Synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Portulaca oleracea L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbazi Nafeseh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: To evaluate the influences of aqueous extracts of plant parts (stem, leaves, and root of Portulaca oleracea L. on bioformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs.   Materials and Methods: Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by different plant part extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. was carried out and formation of nanoparticles were confirmed and evaluated using UV-Visible spectroscopy and AFM. Results: The plant extracts exposed with silver nitrate showed gradual change in color of the extract from yellow to dark brown. Different silver nanoperticles were formed using extracts of different plant parts. Conclusion: It seems that the plant parts differ in their ability to act as a reducing and capping agent.

  19. Bronchodilatory effect of Portulaca oleracea in airways of asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, F; Boskabady, M H; Borushaki, M T; Tohidi, M

    2004-07-01

    Therapeutic effects of Portulaca oleracea for respiratory diseases are indicated in ancient Iranian medical books. The relaxant effect of this plant have also been observed on smooth muscle tissue in previous studies. Therefore, in the present study, the bronchodilatory effect of the boiled extract of Portulaca oleracea in the airway of asthmatic patients was examined. The relaxant effect of the orally administered 0.25 ml/kg of 5% boiled extract in comparison with 3 mg/kg oral theophylline and 200 microg inhaled salbutamol was studied by measuring forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MEF(25-75)), and specific airway conductance (sGaw). The FEV1, PEF, MEF(25-75), and sGaw were measured before, administration and repeated 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after administration of the oral extract and theopylline. For inhaled salbutamol measurements were performed 5, 15, 30, and 60 min post-inhalation. Results showed that the boiled extract of Portulaca oleracea caused significant increases in all measured pulmonary function tests (PFTs), (P < 0.05 to P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between the maximum increase in measured PFTs due to the boiled extract and theophylline. However, maximum increase in PEF and MEF(25-75) due to the boiled extract were significantly lower than those of salbutamol (P < 0.05 for both cases). The onset of brochodilatory effect of extract was similar to that of theophylline beginning 60 min, but the effect of extract decline after 120 min after administration. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that Portulaca oleracea has a relatively potent but transient bronchodilatory effect on asthmatic airways.

  20. Molecular Cloning, Expression Analysis and Localization of Exo70A1 Related to Self Incompatibility in Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestrisssp. chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; GE Ting-ting; PENG Hai-tao; WANG Cheng; LIU Tong-kun; HOU Xi-lin; LI Ying

    2013-01-01

    The exocyst is a conserved protein complex, and required for vesicles tethering, fusion and polarized exocytosis. Exo70A1, the exocyst subunit, is essential for assembly of the exocyst complex. To better understand potential roles of Exo70A1 in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestrisssp. chinensis), we obtained the full-length cDNA ofExo70A1 gene, which consisted of 1917 bp and encoded a protein of 638 amino acids. BlastX showed BcExo70A1 shared 94.9% identity with Brassica oleraceavar. acephala (AEI26267.1), and clustered into a same group with other homologues inB. oleracea var. acephala andBrassica napus. Subcellular localization analysis showed BcExo70A1 was localized to punctate structures in cytosol of onion epithelial cells. Results showed that BcExo70A1 was widely presented in stamens, young stems, petals, unpollinated pistils, roots and leaves of self compatible and incompatible plants. The transcripts ofBcExo70A1 in non-heading Chinese cabbage declined during initial 1.5 h after incompatible pollination, while an opposite trend was presented after compatible pollination. Our study reveals that BcExo70A1 could play essential roles in plant growth and development, and is related to the rejection of self pollen in non-heading Chinese cabbage.

  1. Transcriptional activation of a MYB gene controls the tissue-specific anthocyanin accumulation in a purple cauliflower mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavonoids such as anthocyanins possess significant health benefits to humans and play important physiological roles in plants. An interesting Purple gene mutation in cauliflower confers an abnormal pattern of anthocyanin accumulation, giving intense purple color in very young leaves, curds, and see...

  2. Steam Cooking Significantly Improves in Vitro Bile Acid Binding of Beets, Eggplant, Asparagus, Carrots, Green Beans and Cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative healthful potential of cooked beets, okra, eggplant, asparagus, carrots, green beans, cauliflower and turnips was evaluated by determining their in vitro bile acid binding using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile at a duodenal physiological pH of 6.3. Six treatments and two...

  3. Overproduction of stromal ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase in H2O 2-accumulating Brassica napus leaf protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Satoh, Mamoru; Kado, Sayaka; Mishina, Kohei; Anma, Misato; Enami, Kazuhiko; Hanaoka, Mitsumasa; Watanabe, Masami

    2014-12-01

    The isolation of Brassica napus leaf protoplasts induces reactive oxygen species generation and accumulation in the chloroplasts. An activated isoform of NADPH oxidase-like protein was detected in the protoplasts and the protoplast chloroplasts. The purpose of this study is to define the NADH oxidase-like activities in the H2O2-accumulating protoplast chloroplasts. Proteomic analysis of this protein revealed an isoform of ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase (FNR1). While leaves highly expressed the LFNR1 transcript, protoplasts decreased the expression significantly. The protoplast chloroplasts predominantly expressed soluble FNR1 proteins. While the albino leaves of white kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor cv. white pigeon) expressed FNR1 protein at the same level as B. napus leaves, the protoplasts of albino leaves displayed reduced FNR1 expression. The albino leaf protoplasts of white kale generated and accumulated H2O2 in the cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane. Intracellular pH showed that the chloroplasts were acidic, which suggest that excess H(+) was generated in chloroplast stroma. NADPH content of the protoplast chloroplasts increased by over sixfold during the isolation of protoplasts. This study reports a possibility of mediating electrons to oxygen by an overproduced soluble FNR, and suggests that the FNR has a function in utilizing any excess reducing power of NADPH.

  4. Plant extracts in the control of aphids Brevicoryne brassicae (L. and Myzus persicae (SulzerExtratos vegetais no controle dos afídeos Brevicoryne brassicae (L. e Myzus persicae (Sulzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Reginato Ávila

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Were accomplished the effect of plant extracts of clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum L., horsetail (Equisetum hyemale L., coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. on Brevicoryne brassicae (L., 1758 and Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 aphids in cabbage Brassica oleracea (L.. The treatments consisted of plant extracts prepared fresh and dry (concentrations of 2.5; 5.0; and 10% and the controls insecticide acephate and water. These solutions were sprayed on cabbage discs placed on agar in Petri dishes, containing twenty adult aphids. In sequence, the Petri dishes were sealed with plastic film and this procedure was repeated for the two aphid species studied. The assessment of the number of live nymphs and adults occurred at 1, 12, 24, and 72 hours after installation. The extracts of coriander and tobacco prepared in a concentration of 10% showed toxic effects similar to the organophosphate insecticide acephate, on adults and nymphs of the aphids Brevicoryne brassicae and Myzus persicae. Coriander revealed a promising alternative that deserves detailed studies regarding the performance of its active ingredients and dosage determination in order to provide a safe herbal product to control insects.Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos vegetais de alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L., cavalinha (Equisetum hyemale L., coentro (Coriandrum sativum L. e fumo (Nicotiana tabacum L. sobre os pulgões Brevicoryne brassicae (L., 1758 e Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 em couve Brassica oleracea (L.. Os tratamentos consistiram de extratos vegetais preparados a fresco e seco (nas concentrações de 2,5; 5,0 e 10%, do padrão inseticida acefato e de água. As soluções assim obtidas foram pulverizadas em discos de couve colocados sobre agar em placas de Petri, contendo vinte pulgões adultos. Na sequência, as placas de Petri foram vedadas com filme plástico transparente, sendo este procedimento repetido para as duas espécies de afídeos. A avalia

  5. Detoxification of microcystin-LR in water by Portulaca oleracea cv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Takatoshi; Okuhata, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Jeon, Bong-Seok; Park, Ho-Dong

    2014-03-01

    Microcystin-LR (0.02 μg/ml) in the hydroculture medium of Portulaca oleracea cv., became below the detection level (microcystin estimated with protein phosphatase inhibition assay, however, remained at 37% of the initial level, indicating that microcystin-LR was transformed by P. oleracea cv. into unknown compound(s) of lower toxicity.

  6. Variation of glucoraphanin and glucobrassicin: anticancer components in Brassica during processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Me-Hea Park

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of cold storage and three common cooking practices, blanching, sauteing, and microwave cooking at different time intervals, on the content of glucosinolate (GSL anticancer components in six Brassica vegetables were investigated. Eleven GSLs including progoitrin, glucoraphanin, sinigrin, glucoalyssin, gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin, glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, gluconasturtiin, and neoglucobrassicin were quantified using LC-MS and HPLC. Storage at 4 ºC indicated no significant loss of GSLs in broccoli, kohlrabi, and cabbage, and approximately 90-100% of the total concentration of aliphatic and indolyl GSLs were detected. Interestingly, glucoraphanin and glucobrassicin, known as a cancer prevention agents, increased approximately above 50% in broccoli, kohlrabi, and cabbage, while the amount of glucobrassicin decreased by 5% in cauliflower for 5 days at 4 ºC. Blanching of broccoli at 120 sec significantly (36% decreased total GSLs; however, sautéing and microwaving decreased by13-26%. Individual GSLs have different response at blanching. These findings suggest that different processing methods for each vegetable would be preferred to preserve the nutritional qualities.

  7. Comparison of Glucosinolate Profiles in Different Tissues of Nine Brassica Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Ram Bhandari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolate (GSL profiles and concentrations in various tissues (seeds, sprouts, mature root, and shoot were determined and compared across nine Brassica species, including cauliflower, cabbage, broccoli, radish, baemuchae, pakchoi, Chinese cabbage, leaf mustard, and kale. The compositions and concentrations of individual GSLs varied among crops, tissues, and growth stages. Seeds had highest total GSL concentrations in most of crops, whereas shoots had the lowest GSL concentrations. Aliphatic GSL concentrations were the highest in seeds, followed by that in sprouts, shoots, and roots. Indole GSL concentration was the highest in the root or shoot tissues in most of the crops. In contrast, aromatic GSL concentrations were highest in roots. Of the nine crops examined, broccoli exhibited the highest total GSL concentration in seeds (110.76 µmol·g−1 and sprouts (162.19 µmol·g−1, whereas leaf mustard exhibited the highest total GSL concentration in shoots (61.76 µmol·g−1 and roots (73.61 µmol·g−1. The lowest GSL concentrations were observed in radish across all tissues examined.

  8. Inheritance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) RAPD markers in a backcross progeny with Brassica campestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.R.; Jensen, J.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars/transgenic lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were crossed (as females) with different cultivars/populations of Brassica campestris. All cross combinations produced seed, with an average seed set per pollination of 9.8. Backcrossing of selected interspecific hybrids (as...

  9. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaling, E.; Papazian, S.; Poelman, E.H.; Holopainen, J.K.; Albrectsen, B.R.; Blande, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under eleva

  10. Captan and fenitrothion dissipation in field-treated cauliflowers and effect of household processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Cruz, María L; Barreda, Mercedes; Villarroya, Mercedes; Peruga, Arantzazu; Llanos, Susana; García-Baudín, José M

    2006-07-01

    Field trial studies have been performed with captan and fenitrothion on cauliflower to propose maximum residue limits and to study the dissipation of the pesticides. Residue levels have been determined at different times following good laboratory practice using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The behaviour of residue levels of these compounds after household processing has been analysed using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Seven days after treatment, residue levels of captan could be detected, but not of fenitrothion. The half-lives of dissipation for captan and fenitrothion were calculated as 0.9 and 1.8 days respectively. Washing did not significantly affect the residual amounts of captan and fenitrothion observed in raw vegetables; however, after cooking, captan had degraded completely, whereas residue levels of fenitrothion were not modified significantly.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships within and among Brassica species from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogenetic relationships within and among Brassica species from RAPD loci ... The genus Brassica comprises economically important oilseed and vegetable crops. ... genetic diversity for conservation, cultivar classification and molecular ...

  12. Performance of generalist and specialist herbivores and their endoparasitoids differs on cultivated and wild Brassica populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gols, Rieta; Bukovinszky, Tibor; van Dam, Nicole M; Dicke, Marcel; Bullock, James M; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2008-02-01

    Through artificial selection, domesticated plants often contain modified levels of primary and secondary metabolites compared to their wild progenitors. It is hypothesized that the changed chemistry of cultivated plants will affect the performance of insects associated with these plants. In this paper, the development of several specialist and generalist herbivores and their endoparasitoids were compared when reared on a wild and cultivated population of cabbage, Brassica oleracea, and a recently established feral Brassica species. Irrespective of insect species or the degree of dietary specialization, herbivores and parasitoids developed most poorly on the wild population. For the specialists, plant population influenced only development time and adult body mass, whereas for the generalists, plant populations also affected egg-to-adult survival. Two parasitoid species, a generalist (Diadegma fenestrale) and a specialist (D. semiclausum), were reared from the same host (Plutella xylostella). Performance of D. semiclausum was closely linked to that of its host, whereas the correlation between survival of D. fenestrale and host performance was less clear. Plants in the Brassicaceae characteristically produce defense-related glucosinolates (GS). Levels of GS in leaves of undamaged plants were significantly higher in plants from the wild population than from the domesticated populations. Moreover, total GS concentrations increased significantly in wild plants after herbivory, but not in domesticated or feral plants. The results of this study reveal that a cabbage cultivar and plants from a wild cabbage population exhibit significant differences in quality in terms of their effects on the growth and development of insect herbivores and their natural enemies. Although cultivated plants have proved to be model systems in agroecology, we argue that some caution should be applied to evolutionary explanations derived from studies on domesticated plants, unless some knowledge

  13. Comparative transcriptome analyses reveal a special glucosinolate metabolism mechanism in Brassica alboglabra sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongfang Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Brassica sprouts contain abundant phytochemicals, especially glucosinolates (GSs. Various methods have been used to enhance GS content in sprouts. However, the molecular basis of GS metabolism in sprouts remains an open question. Here we employed RNA-seq analysis to compare the transcriptomes of high-GS (JL-08 and low-GS (JL-09 Brassica alboglabra sprouts. Paired-end Illumina RNA-seq reads were generated and mapped to the B. oleracea reference genome. The differentially expressed genes were analyzed between JL-08 and JL-09. Among these, 1,477 genes were up-regulated and 1,239 down-regulated in JL-09 compared with JL-08. Enrichment analysis of these differentially expressed genes showed that the GS biosynthesis had the smallest enrichment factor and the highest Q value of all metabolic pathways in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, indicating the main metabolic difference between JL-08 and JL-09 is the GS biosynthetic pathway. Thirty-seven genes of the sequenced data were annotated as putatively involved in GS biosynthesis, degradation and regulation, of which 11 were differentially expressed in JL-08 and JL-09. The expression level of GS degradation enzyme myrosinase in high-GS JL-08 was lower compared with low-GS JL-09. Surprisingly, in high-GS JL-08, the expression levels of GS biosynthesis genes were also lower than those in low-GS JL-09. As the GS contents in sprouts are determined by dynamic equilibrium of seed stored GS mobilization, de novo synthesis, degradation, and extra transport, the result of this study leads us to suggest that efforts to increase GS content should focus on either raising GS content in seeds or decreasing myrosinase activity, rather than improving the expression level of GS biosynthesis genes in sprouts.

  14. Transfer of auxinic herbicide resistance from Brassica kaber to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa through embryo rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithila, J; Hall, J Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides are widely used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Prolonged use of auxinic herbicides has resulted in the evolution of resistance to these herbicides in some biotypes of Brassica kaber (wild mustard), a common weed in agricultural crops. In this study, auxinic herbicide resistance from B. kaber was transferred to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa, two commercially important Brassica crops, by traditional breeding coupled with in vitro embryo rescue. A high frequency of embryo regeneration and hybrid plant establishment was achieved. Transfer of auxinic herbicide resistance from B. kaber to the hybrids was assessed by whole-plant screening of hybrids with dicamba, a widely used auxinic herbicide. Furthermore, the hybrids were tested for fertility (both pollen and pistil) and their ability to produce backcross progeny. The auxinic herbicide-resistant trait was introgressed into B. juncea by backcross breeding. DNA ploidy of the hybrids as well as of the backcross progeny was estimated by flow cytometry. Creation of auxinic herbicide-resistant Brassica crops by non-transgenic approaches should facilitate effective weed control, encourage less tillage, provide herbicide rotation options, minimize occurrence of herbicide resistance, and increase acceptance of these crops.

  15. The Potency of Krokot (Portulaca oleracea) as Functional Food Ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Irawan, Daisy; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Wijaya, Hanny

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia has many auxiliary plants that may have nutritional and or environmental benefits, so that it may increase the yield of the main crops. Krokot (Portulaca oleracea), one of the auxiliary plants, was traditionally consumed in many parts of the world for its delicacy and medicinal benefits. Our research indicated that krokot has high potency to improve the health status of the community. It has 5.4 mg/100 g of b-carotene, 22.2 mg/100 g of vitamin C, and significant amount of folic acid...

  16. Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Graham J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left to right (i.e. genus – species – genome – gene name – locus – allele. Indicative examples are provided, and the considerations and recommendations for use are discussed, including outlining the relationship with functionally well-characterized Arabidopsis orthologues. A Brassica Gene Registry has been established under the auspices of the Multinational Brassica Genome Project that will enable management of gene names within the research community, and includes provisional allocation of standard names to genes previously described in the literature or in sequence repositories. The proposed standardization of Brassica gene nomenclature has been distributed to editors of plant and genetics journals and curators of sequence repositories, so that it can be adopted universally.

  17. Genetic differentiation among sexually compatible relatives of Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipan Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of gene flow between Brassica napus L. and its sexually compatible relatives that could be found in the wild in Slovenia was performed by microsatellite analysis using fifteen selected primer pairs. Genotypes included in the study were obtained from the field survey of sexually compatible relatives of B. napus in natural habitats around Slovenia and from reference collections. Two different wild species of all the presented sexually compatible relatives of B. napus were found in Slovenia, B. rapa and Sinapis arvensis. The reference genotypes included varieties and wild forms from internal collections as marketable seeds or from gene banks. Reference genotypes were represented by the following species and subspecies: B. napus ssp. napobrassica, B. napus ssp. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. rapa ssp. oleifera, Diplotaxis muralis; D. tenuifolia, Raphanus raphanistrum, R. sativus, R. sativus var. oleiformis, Rapistrum rugosum, S. alba and S. arvensis. Estimation of gene flow described by average number of migrants was 0.72 followed by 0.20 migrants. Due to the observed gene migrations, genetic drift and selection, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not met. The mean number of alleles over all loci was 16.9, the average polymorphic information content was 0.43. We found four highly divergent and polymorphic loci (Na12-C08, Na10-A08, Ni3-G04b and BRMS-050 at statistically significant level (p<0.05 of gene flow detected. Over all gene diversity intra-individual among populations (0.55 was lower than inter-individual among population (0.77. The results of genetic linkages based standard genetic distance and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering method, generally divided the genotypes in three divergent groups. Similar results were obtained by principal coordinate analysis where three main groups were constructed according to three factors. A real number of genetic clusters demonstrated a clear separation between populations

  18. QTL mapping of leafy heads by genome resequencing in the RIL population of Brassica rapa.

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    Xiang Yu

    Full Text Available Leaf heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea, Chinese cabbage (B. rapa, and lettuce (Lactuca sativa are important vegetables that supply mineral nutrients, crude fiber and vitamins in the human diet. Head size, head shape, head weight, and heading time contribute to yield and quality. In an attempt to investigate genetic basis of leafy head in Chinese cabbage (B. rapa, we took advantage of recent technical advances of genome resequencing to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping using 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from the cross between heading and non-heading Chinese cabbage. The resequenced genomes of the parents uncovered more than 1 million SNPs. Genotyping of RILs using the high-quality SNPs assisted by Hidden Markov Model (HMM generated a recombination map. The raw genetic map revealed some physical assembly error and missing fragments in the reference genome that reduced the quality of SNP genotyping. By deletion of the genetic markers in which recombination rates higher than 20%, we have obtained a high-quality genetic map with 2209 markers and detected 18 QTLs for 6 head traits, from which 3 candidate genes were selected. These QTLs provide the foundation for study of genetic basis of leafy heads and the other complex traits.

  19. QTL mapping of leafy heads by genome resequencing in the RIL population of Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Wang, Han; Zhong, Weili; Bai, Jinjuan; Liu, Pinglin; He, Yuke

    2013-01-01

    Leaf heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are important vegetables that supply mineral nutrients, crude fiber and vitamins in the human diet. Head size, head shape, head weight, and heading time contribute to yield and quality. In an attempt to investigate genetic basis of leafy head in Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), we took advantage of recent technical advances of genome resequencing to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between heading and non-heading Chinese cabbage. The resequenced genomes of the parents uncovered more than 1 million SNPs. Genotyping of RILs using the high-quality SNPs assisted by Hidden Markov Model (HMM) generated a recombination map. The raw genetic map revealed some physical assembly error and missing fragments in the reference genome that reduced the quality of SNP genotyping. By deletion of the genetic markers in which recombination rates higher than 20%, we have obtained a high-quality genetic map with 2209 markers and detected 18 QTLs for 6 head traits, from which 3 candidate genes were selected. These QTLs provide the foundation for study of genetic basis of leafy heads and the other complex traits.

  20. Arsenic and lead uptake by Brassicas grown on an old orchard site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Maya P; McBride, Murray B

    2015-12-15

    Arugula (Eruca sativa) and collards (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), were grown at a former orchard where soils had been variably contaminated by lead arsenate pesticides. To test for the effect of compost on As and Pb transfer into plants, compost was added (0, 5, and 10% DW) to five plots representing a wide range of soil Pb and As. Arugula accumulated about 5 times higher As concentrations in above-ground tissues than collards, with high variability in individual plant concentrations. Soil to arugula transfer (uptake) coefficients were higher for As than for Pb, and increased with soil As. Crop concentrations of Pb varied widely within replicate samples of both arugula and collards. Arugula contamination by Pb was significantly correlated to soil total Pb, but collard contamination was not. Evidence was found using Al as an indicator of soil particle contamination of plant tissues that Pb in arugula was primarily due to soil particle deposition on foliar surfaces. Compost amendments reduced 0.01 M CaCl2 -extractable Pb but increased extractable As in the orchard soils. However, compost had the beneficial effect of reducing both As and Pb concentrations in harvested arugula grown on most of the plots.

  1. Optimized design of a nanostructured SPCE-based multipurpose biosensing platform formed by ferrocene-tethered electrochemically-deposited cauliflower-shaped gold nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Wicem Argoubi; Maroua Saadaoui; Sami Ben Aoun; Noureddine Raouafi

    2015-01-01

    The demand for on-site nanodevices is constantly increasing. The technology development for the design of such devices is highly regarded. In this work, we report the design of a disposable platform that is structured with cauliflower-shaped gold nanoparticles (cfAuNPs) and we show its applications in immunosensing and enzyme-based detection. The electrochemical reduction of Au(III) allows for the electrodeposition of highly dispersed cauliflower-shaped gold nanoparticles on the surface of sc...

  2. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon, E-mail: sompon-999@hotmail.com [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Phopin, Kamonrat [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Prachayasittikul, Virapong [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide residues significantly. • To be safe, washing vegetables before consumption is advisable.

  3. Effects of different substrates and salinity on growth and yield of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica in soilless culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a very serious problem for agricultural development, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. On the other hand, many benefits of soilless culture have caused the expansion of these systems in these areas. In this research, in order to investigate the effects of different substrates and salinity stress on physiological characteristics and yield of broccoli, an experiment was conducted as factorial, in which the main factor was substrate (cocopeat, perlite, sand, 25% cocopeat+75% perlite, 25% perlite+75% cocopeat and 50% peat+50% pumice and the sub factor was salinity stress (0, 100 and 150 mM NaCl with 4 replications. Results indicated that substrate, different levels of salinity and their interaction had significant effects on morphological characteristics, days to flowering, fresh and dry weight of leaves, nutrients concentration and weight of the broccoli head. Maximum values of the aforementioned factors were observed in the zero salinity level and 50% peat+50% pumice substrate. This means that substrate can be effective on the effect of salinity on plants. High levels of salinity caused a reduction in growth and yield of broccoli and this growth reduction was accompanied by the reduction of chlorophyll and content of Ca, K, and Fe and increased Na and Cl concentration in leaf tissue. The best growing medium, either in saline or non-saline conditions, was 50% peat+50% pumice. Although broccoli growth was not suitable in perlite medium, this substrate caused its early maturing. In this experiment, salinity treatment reduced the head weight of broccoli, in addition to decreasing the quality of yield. According to the results, 50% peat+50 pumice is recommended as a proper substrate for production of broccoli.

  4. Evaluation of Image Analysis to Determine the N-Fertilizer Demand of Broccoli Plants (Brassica oleracea convar. botrytis var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Graeff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous models have been developed for calculating optimum decision rules for nitrogen fertilization based on remote sensing techniques. New technologies related to digital image analysis may provide an alternative method to estimate nutrient status faster and more efficiently than current techniques. A series of field studies was conducted to determine the applicability of digital image analysis for nitrogen demand estimates in broccoli plants. Digital images were taken under constant light conditions in various wavelength ranges (380–1300 nm using a digital imager. Images were processed for the parameters ∗ and ∗ in the ∗∗∗ color system. The image analysis showed a close correlation between the nitrogen status of broccoli plants and the parameter ∗ of the ∗∗∗ color system especially in the wavelength ranges 510780 and 516780 nm. The relationship between nutrient concentration in leaf dry matter and the parameters ∗ was used to determine the N fertilizer demand within the cultivation period. Estimated N amounts were applied as top dressing four weeks after setting and were 100 kg ha−1 lower than the standard fertilizer rate. Calculated N balances indicated a total uptake of applied N amounts in the image-based N treatments without considerable yield loss. Thus, digital image analysis proved to be an effective means of determining nitrogen status and adjusting fertilizer applications to preserve or enhance crop quality and yield considering sustainability.

  5. ADAPTABILITY, FERTILIZER EFFECT AND NUTRITION CONTENT OF VARIOUS BROCCOLI CULTIVAR (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica INTRODUCED IN KOPANG, CENTRAL LOMBOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenul Gafari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to determine adaptability of eight introduced broccoli cultivars in the tropical climate, the effect of fertilizers, as well as determine the content of vitamin A, C and fiber owned by the cultivar. This research was using randomized complete block design ( RCBD with two factors. The first factorsare different broccoli cultivars namely Broccoli 'Lucky', Broccoli 'B - 106', Broccoli 'B-116', Broccoli 'B-112', Broccoli 'Green 2109' F1, Broccoli 'Green calabrase' and Broccoli 'Green Magic 'and Broccoli' Mujur'as a control. The second factors fertilizer of ZA, manure and urea. This research was performed in Kopang, Central Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, for seven months from December 2014 to Juni 2015.Analysis of the nutrient content was done at the Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, University of Mataram, Lombok. Parameters observed in this research were plant height, number and weight of leaves, and quality of curd. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA if significantly different then tested further by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT at 5% level. The results showed all the cultivars able to adapt. Broccoli 'B-106' is a cultivar that has the quality and quantity of curd most excellent and able to adapt to high temperatures. ZA fertilizer application will produce curd weight and diameter greater than that ofmanure or urea. The research also showed that cultivar B-112 has the highest content of vitamin A, B-116 has the highest vitamin C and Green 2109F1 has the highest fibers.

  6. The response of broccoli (Brassica oleracea convar. italica) varieties on foliar application of selenium: uptake, translocation, and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šindelářová, Kristýna; Száková, Jiřina; Tremlová, Jana; Mestek, Oto; Praus, Lukáš; Kaňa, Antonín; Najmanová, Jana; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    A model small-scale field experiment was set up to investigate selenium (Se) uptake by four different varieties of broccoli plants, as well as the effect of Se foliar application on the uptake of essential elements for plants calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). Foliar application of sodium selenate (Na2SeO4) was carried out at two rates (25 and 50 g Se/ha), and an untreated control variant was included. Analyses of individual parts of broccoli were performed, whereby it was found that Se in the plant accumulates mainly in the flower heads and slightly less in the leaves, stems, and roots, regardless of the Se rate and broccoli variety. In most cases, there was a statistically significant increase of Se content in all parts of the plant, while there was no confirmed systematic influence of the addition of Se on the changing intake of other monitored elements. Selenization of broccoli leads to an effective increase in the Se content at a rate of 25 g/ha, whereas the higher rate did not result in a substantial increase of Se content compared to the lower rate in all varieties. Therefore, the rate of 25 g/ha can be recommended as effective to produce broccoli with an increased Se content suitable for consumption. Moreover, Se application resulted in an adequate increase of the main organic compounds of Se, such as selenocystine (SeCys2), selenomethionine (SeMet), and Se-methylselenocysteine (Se-MeSeCys).

  7. pH dependent salinity-boron interactions impact yield, biomass, evapotranspiration and boron uptake in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil pH is known to influence many important biochemical processes in plants and soils, however its role in salinity - boron interactions affecting plant growth and ion relations has not been examined. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the interactive effects of salinity, boron and soil ...

  8. Expression Profiling of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata Inbred Lines Reveals Their Association with Glucosinolate Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hasan Khan Robin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are the biochemical compounds that provide defense to plants against pathogens and herbivores. In this study, the relative expression level of 48 glucosinolate biosynthesis genes was explored in four morphologically-different cabbage inbred lines by qPCR analysis. The content of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate molecules present in those cabbage lines was also estimated by HPLC analysis. The possible association between glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression level was explored by principal component analysis (PCA. The genotype-dependent variation in the relative expression level of different aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes is the novel result of this study. A total of eight different types of glucosinolates, including five aliphatic and three indolic glucosinolates, was detected in four cabbage lines. Three inbred lines BN3383, BN4059 and BN4072 had no glucoraphanin, sinigrin and gluconapin detected, but the inbred line BN3273 had these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA revealed that a higher expression level of ST5b genes and lower expression of GSL-OH was associated with the accumulation of these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA further revealed that comparatively higher accumulation of neoglucobrassicin in the inbred line, BN4072, was associated with a high level of expression of MYB34 (Bol017062 and CYP81F1 genes. The Dof1 and IQD1 genes probably trans-activated the genes related to biosynthesis of glucoerucin and methoxyglucobrassicin for their comparatively higher accumulation in the BN4059 and BN4072 lines compared to the other two lines, BN3273 and BN3383. A comparatively higher progoitrin level in BN3273 was probably associated with the higher expression level of the GSL-OH gene. The cabbage inbred line BN3383 accounted for the significantly higher relative expression level for the 12 genes out of 48, but this line had comparatively lower total glucosinolates detected compared to the other three cabbage lines. The reason for the genotypic variation in gene expression and glucosinolate accumulation is a subject of further investigation.

  9. Neuroprotective Effect of Brassica oleracea Sprouts Crude Juice in a Cellular Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Alessandra Masci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available β-Amyloid peptide (Aβ aberrant production and aggregation are major factors implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, causing neuronal death via oxidative stress. Several studies have highlighted the importance of polyphenolic antioxidant compounds in the treatment of AD, but complex food matrices, characterized by a different relative content of these phytochemicals, have been neglected. In the present study, we analyzed the protective effect on SH-SY5Y cells treated with the fragment Aβ25–35 by two crude juices of broccoli sprouts containing different amounts of phenolic compounds as a result of different growth conditions. Both juices protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death as evidenced by cell viability, nuclear chromatin condensation, and apoptotic body formation measurements. These effects were mediated by the modulation of the mitochondrial function and of the HSP70 gene transcription and expression. Furthermore, the juices upregulated the intracellular glutathione content and mRNA levels or activity of antioxidant enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1, thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2. Although the effects of the two juices were similar, the juice enriched in phenolic compounds showed a greater efficacy in inducing the activation of the Nrf2 signalling pathway.

  10. Metallo-proteinase from the seedlings of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica): : Preparation, partial characterization and substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilimowska-Pelc, A; Dryjański, M; Zal, T; Wilusz, T

    1991-10-01

    Metallo-proteinase from 8-d-old seedlings of kale was isolated. The enzyme was extracted with 1% NaCl, concentrated by ammonium sulfate and finally purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The isolated enzyme had a molecular weight of 22.4 kDa and showed a maximum activity at pH 9.0 using casein as a substrate. Proteolytic activity of proteinase was inhibited by chelators. The inhibition by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) was abolished by some divalent metals ions, especially by Zn(2+). The enzyme showed activity against the synthetic peptides Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Leu-pNA and Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA, and hydrolized the following peptide bonds in the oxidized insulin B-chain: Leu6-Cya7, Leu15-Tyr16, Leu17-Val18 and Phe25-Tyr26.

  11. Efecto de la aplicación de cachaza fresca al cultivo de repollo (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata L.

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    Andrés Esteban Plata-Mujica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La  cachaza  fresca  de  trapiche  panelero  es  un subproducto de la producción de panela. En la Hoya del Río Suárez este material es arrojado al medio ambiente,  lo cual causa contaminación. La  cachaza  presenta  alto  potencial  como enmienda orgánica y fuente de nutrientes. Con el objetivo de evaluar su efecto sobre el cultivo de repollo,  se aplicaron 5 dosis de cachaza fresca al suelo (0, 5, 10, 15 ý 20 t·ha-1, la mezcla de 10 t·ha-1  cachaza  y  50%  del  requerimiento  de fertilización  química,  y  la  totalidad  de  la fertilización  química.  Se  utilizó  un  diseño completamente al azar. La cachaza fue aplicada 20 días antes del  trasplante y en  la cosecha se evaluó el rendimiento, área foliar, masa fresca y masa seca. Con diferencias estadísticas, el mejor tratamiento fue la mezcla de 10 t·ha-1 cachaza y 50% del requerimiento de fertilización química, el cual  fue  responsable del mayor  rendimiento del cultivo, área  foliar, masa  fresca de cabeza, raíz y total, masa seca de cabeza, hojas y total. Con 0 ý 20 t·ha-1 de cachaza no hubo formación de  cabeza  en  las  plantas,  por  deficiencias  y excesos nutricionales,  respectivamente. Así,  la cachaza  fresca  en mezcla  con  el  fertilizante químico se convierte en una buena alternativa de fertilización del cultivo de repollo, lo cual, a la  vez,  permite darle  un  uso  adecuado  a  este material orgánico.

  12. QUALIDADE MICROBIOLÓGICA DE COUVE MANTEIGA (BRASSICA OLERACEA MINIMAMENTE PROCESSADA COMERCIALIZADA EM SÃO PAULO, BRASIL

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    Gracielle Gesteira Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da procura por alimentos prontos para consumo incentiva o desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias para o processamento de alimentos. Dentro desse contexto, alimentos frescos atraem os consumidores, promovendo a ascensão de produtos de conveniência com vida útil prolongada, qualidade sensorial e nutritiva. Os vegetais minimamente processados são aqueles que passaram por modificações físicas, ou seja, foram descascados, picados, torneados e ralados, entre outros processos, mas mantidos na forma fresca e, metabolicamente, ativos. Esses produtos são sensíveis à deterioração, bem como podem ser veículos de micro-organismos patogênicos ao homem. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica de quatro marcas de folhas de couve manteiga, minimamente processadas, declaradas como higienizadas, comercializadas em supermercados localizados na área metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo. A temperatura de conservação foi mensurada nos locais de venda. As análises microbiológicas realizadas foram contagem padrão de mesófilos aeróbios, leveduras e bolores, teste qualitativo para avaliação da presença de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli. Todos os produtos apresentaram temperaturas acima de 10°C (14,3 ± 1,9°C, valor este acima da recomendação do fabricante (8°C e legislação vigente (<10°C por mais que 4 horas. A contagem de mesófilos, leveduras e fungos também apresentou valores acima dos preconizados, 1,0x108±9,5x107; 7,3x107 ± 8,0x107,respectivamente. Foi observada a presença de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli, em todas as amostras, pelo teste qualitativo. Concluiu-se que os produtos analisados, uma vez declarados como higienizados, estavam impróprios para o pronto consumo, sugerindo inadequação no processo de higienização e conservação por parte dos fabricantes e distribuidores, respectivamente. Faz-se necessária a intensificação de ações dos órgãos de fiscalização e saúde.

  13. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN KUBIS MERAH (Brassica oleraceae var. TERHADAP AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN TINGKAT KESUKAAN KONSUMEN PADA BISKUIT TEPUNG BIJI RAMBUTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Ristiana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rambutan seed flour could be utilized as a food especially as source of carbohydrate, fat, and protein. Red cabbage could be used as natural food color because of their anthocyanin content. The aims of the research were to investigate the effect of red cabbage to the antioxidant activity and consumer preference of rambutan seed flour biscuit. This research was use completed randomized design with 9 combinations and 2 replications. The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity was biscuit made by 50 g of rambutan seed flour addition and 20% of red cabbage extract, e.i 19.48 % radical scavenging activity (RSA of DPPH. But biscuit which was most prefere by panel test was only 25 g of rambutan seed flour without any addition of red cabbage extract. Rambutan seed flour and red cabbage addition to the biscuit did affect the antioxidant activity and the consumer preference of the biscuit.

  14. Use of Heat Stress Responsive Gene Expression Levels for Early Selection of Heat Tolerant Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheul Ahn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage is a relatively robust vegetable at low temperatures. However, at high temperatures, cabbage has disadvantages, such as reduced disease tolerance and lower yields. Thus, selection of heat-tolerant cabbage is an important goal in cabbage breeding. Easier or faster selection of superior varieties of cabbage, which are tolerant to heat and disease and have improved taste and quality, can be achieved with molecular and biological methods. We compared heat-responsive gene expression between a heat-tolerant cabbage line (HTCL, “HO”, and a heat-sensitive cabbage line (HSCL, “JK”, by Genechip assay. Expression levels of specific heat stress-related genes were increased in response to high-temperature stress, according to Genechip assays. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR to compare expression levels of these heat stress-related genes in four HTCLs and four HSCLs. Transcript levels for heat shock protein BoHsp70 and transcription factor BoGRAS (SCL13 were more strongly expressed only in all HTCLs compared to all HSCLs, showing much lower level expressions at the young plant stage under heat stress (HS. Thus, we suggest that expression levels of these genes may be early selection markers for HTCLs in cabbage breeding. In addition, several genes that are involved in the secondary metabolite pathway were differentially regulated in HTCL and HSCL exposed to heat stress.

  15. Effect of time of day for harvest and postharvest treatments on the sugar metabolism of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Hasperue

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available     Loss of sugars contributes to accelerate postharvest senescence of broccoli. Several treatments have been developed to delay senescence, but in many cases their effects on sugar metabolism were not analyzed. We studied the effect of harvest at different times of day (08:00, 13:00 and 18:00 h and of several postharvest treatments as heat treatment (HT, modified atmosphere (MA and 1-methylcylcopropene (1-MCP on sugar levels and activities of enzymes related to sucrose and starch degradation. Harvesting at the end of day delayed the loss of chlorophylls and caused the lowest decrement in sugars, although no differences in invertase, sucrose synthase and β-amylase activities were detected among samples. Treatments of MA and 1-MCP caused a lower loss of glucose and fructose, while HT caused a lower decrement of sucrose. Treated samples maintained higher levels of chlorophylls. The treatments reduced the activity of invertase and sucrose synthase and induced higher levels of β-amylase activity. Harvesting at the end of day and performing simultaneously a MA treatment could be a good combination to maintain the green color of the inflorescence and sugar levels during postharvest of broccoli.

  16. Efecto de la aplicación de cachaza fresca al cultivo de repollo (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Esteban Plata-Mujica; Fabio Emilio Forero-Ulloa; Helber Enrique Balaguera-López; Pablo Antonio Serrano-Cely

    2011-01-01

    La  cachaza  fresca  de  trapiche  panelero  es  un subproducto de la producción de panela. En la Hoya del Río Suárez este material es arrojado al medio ambiente,  lo cual causa contaminación. La  cachaza  presenta  alto  potencial  como enmienda orgánica y fuente de nutrientes. Con el objetivo de evaluar su efecto sobre el cultivo de repollo,  se aplicaron 5 dosis de cachaza fresca al suelo (0, 5, 10, 15 ý 20 t·ha-1), la mezcla de 10 t·ha-1  cachaza  y  50%  del  requerimiento  de fertilizac...

  17. The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive, is the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, the main glucosinolate in broccoli. The hydrolysis requires myrosinase isoenzyme to be present in sufficient activity; however, processing leads to its denaturation and hence reduced hydrolysis. In this study, the effect of adding mustard seeds, which contain a more resilient isoform of myrosinase, to processed broccoli was investigated with a view to intensify the formation of sulforaphane. Thermal inactivation of myrosinase from both broccoli and mustard seeds was studied. Thermal degradation of broccoli glucoraphanin was investigated in addition to the effects of thermal processing on the formation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Limited thermal degradation of glucoraphanin (less than 12%) was observed when broccoli was placed in vacuum sealed bag (sous vide) and cooked in a water bath at 100°C for 8 and 12 min. Boiling broccoli in water prevented the formation of any significant levels of sulforaphane due to inactivated myrosinase. However, addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the formation of sulforaphane.

  18. Rapid estimation of glucosinolate thermal degradation rate constants in leaves of Chinese kale and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) in two seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Kristin; Verkerk, Ruud; Bonnema, Guusje; Dekker, Matthijs

    2012-08-15

    Kinetic modeling was used as a tool to quantitatively estimate glucosinolate thermal degradation rate constants. Literature shows that thermal degradation rates differ in different vegetables. Well-characterized plant material, leaves of broccoli and Chinese kale plants grown in two seasons, was used in the study. It was shown that a first-order reaction is appropriate to model glucosinolate degradation independent from the season. No difference in degradation rate constants of structurally identical glucosinolates was found between broccoli and Chinese kale leaves when grown in the same season. However, glucosinolate degradation rate constants were highly affected by the season (20-80% increase in spring compared to autumn). These results suggest that differences in glucosinolate degradation rate constants can be due to variation in environmental as well as genetic factors. Furthermore, a methodology to estimate rate constants rapidly is provided to enable the analysis of high sample numbers for future studies.

  19. Efficacy of selenium from hydroponically produced selenium-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.) in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Pakmaruek, Pornpan; Chinrasri, Orawan; Aengwanich, Worapol; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee; Maneetong, Sarunya; Chantiratikul, Piyanete

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of Se from hydroponically produced Se-enriched kale sprout (HPSeKS) on performance, carcass characteristics, tissue Se concentration, and physiological responses of broilers in comparison to that of Se from Se-enriched yeast and sodium selenite. Three hundred and sixty male broilers, 10 days of age, were assigned to 6 groups, 4 replicates of 15 broilers each, according to the completely randomized design. The dietary treatments were the following: T1: control diet; T2: control diet plus 0.3 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite; T3: control diet plus 0.3 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched yeast; and T4, T5, and T6: control diet plus 0.3, 1.0, and 2.0 mg Se/kg from HPSeKS, respectively. The results found that dietary Se supplementation did not (p > 0.05) alter performance and carcass characteristics of broilers. Se supplementation increased (p < 0.05) Se concentrations in the liver and kidney of broilers. Heart tissue Se concentration of broilers fed Se from sodium selenite was lower (p < 0.05) than that of broilers fed Se from HPSeKS and Se-enriched yeast. Selenium from HPSeKS increased higher (p < 0.05) GSH-Px activity when compared to Se from sodium selenite and Se-enriched yeast. The results indicated that the efficacy of Se from HPSeKS was comparable in increasing tissue Se concentration, but higher in improving GSH-Px activity in Rbc when compared to those of Se from Se-enriched yeast.

  20. Structural features and complement-fixing activity of pectin from three Brassica oleracea varieties: white cabbage, kale, and red kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, Anne Berit; Westereng, Bjørge; Yousif, Osman; Holtekjølen, Ann Katrin; Michaelsen, Terje E; Knutsen, Svein H

    2007-02-01

    Leaves of different cabbage species are used both as food and as wound healing remedies in traditional medicine. This supposed wound healing activity might be connected to presence of immunomodulating water soluble polysaccharides. To study this, three different cabbage varieties, white cabbage (W), kale (K), and red kale (RK), were pretreated with 80% ethanol and then extracted with water at 50 degrees C and 100 degrees C for isolation of polysaccharide-containing fractions. The fractions were analyzed for monosaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages, Mw distribution, protein content, and phenolic compounds and then tested for complement-fixing activity. All fractions contained pectin type polysaccharides with linkages corresponding to homogalacturonan and hairy regions. Those extracted at 50 degrees C contained higher amounts of neutral side chains and were more active in the complement-fixation test than those extracted at 100 degrees C. The fractions can be ranged by decreasing activity: K-50 > RK-50 > W-50 approximately = K-100 > RK100 approximately = W-100. Studies on structure-activity relationships (SAR) employing multivariate statistical analysis strongly suggest that the magnitude of the measured activity is influenced by the content of certain side chains in the polymers. High activity correlates to large neutral side chains with high amounts of (1-->6)- and (1-->3,6)-linked Gal and low amounts of (1-->4)-linked GalA but not on molecular weight distribution of the polymers.

  1. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC-MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake.

  2. Plastid mRNAs are neither spliced nor edited in maize and cauliflower mitochondrial in organello systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bolle, Nina; Hinrichsen, Inga; Kempken, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The process of RNA editing in chloroplasts and higher plant mitochondria displays some similarities, raising the question of common or similar components in editing apparatus of these two organelles. To investigate the ability of plant mitochondria to edit plastid transcripts, we employed a previously established mitochondrial maize and cauliflower in organello system. Two plastid genes, Zea mays ndhB and ycf3 containing group II introns and several editing sites, were introduced into mitocho...

  3. The expression of foreign gene under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus 35s RNA promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangHao; BaiYongyan

    1990-01-01

    The promoter region of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35s RNA was employed to construct an intermediate expression vector which can be used in Ti plasmid system of Agrobacterium iumefaciens.The original plasmid,which contains a polylinker between CaMV 35s RNA and its 3' termination signal in pUC18 was modified to have another antibiotic resistance marker (kanamycin resistance gene Kmr) to facilitate the selection of recombinant with Ti plasmid.Octopine synthase (ocs) structural gene was inserted into this vector downstream of CaMV 35s RNA promoter.This chimaeric gene was introduced into integrative Ti plasmid vector pGV 3850,and then transformed into Nicotiana tobaccum the chimaeric gene into tobacco cells.In both cases,the expression of ocs gene was demonstrated.The amount of octopine was much more than the nopaline synthesized by nopaline synthase (nos) gene transferred at the same time with Ti plasmid vector.This demonstrated that CaMV 35s RNA promoter is stronger in transcriptional function than the promoter of nos in tobacco cells.

  4. The founder-cell transcriptome in the Arabidopsis apetala1 cauliflower inflorescence meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Anneke; Thoma, Rahere; Abdallah, Ali Taleb; Frommolt, Peter; Werr, Wolfgang; Chandler, John William

    2016-11-03

    Although the pattern of lateral organ formation from apical meristems establishes species-specific plant architecture, the positional information that confers cell fate to cells as they transit to the meristem flanks where they differentiate, remains largely unknown. We have combined fluorescence-activated cell sorting and RNA-seq to characterise the cell-type-specific transcriptome at the earliest developmental time-point of lateral organ formation using DORNRÖSCHEN-LIKE::GFP to mark founder-cell populations at the periphery of the inflorescence meristem (IM) in apetala1 cauliflower double mutants, which overproliferate IMs. Within the lateral organ founder-cell population at the inflorescence meristem, floral primordium identity genes are upregulated and stem-cell identity markers are downregulated. Additional differentially expressed transcripts are involved in polarity generation and boundary formation, and in epigenetic and post-translational changes. However, only subtle transcriptional reprogramming within the global auxin network was observed. The transcriptional network of differentially expressed genes supports the hypothesis that lateral organ founder-cell specification involves the creation of polarity from the centre to the periphery of the IM and the establishment of a boundary from surrounding cells, consistent with bract initiation. However, contrary to the established paradigm that sites of auxin response maxima pre-pattern lateral organ initiation in the IM, auxin response might play a minor role in the earliest stages of lateral floral initiation.

  5. Study on Control Polysilicon Surface Cauliflower%多晶硅表面菜花控制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶升东; 孙运德; 刘丹丹; 潘小龙

    2016-01-01

    The reduction process of rod-shaped polysilicon was affected by the amount of feed, ratio of feed, temperature and gas field, and the surface morphology of silicon rods was also affected by the surface temperature of silicon rod and the feed distribution in the reducing furnace. The effects of the load current in silicon rods, the bright and clean of furnace wall and the structure of feed nozzle on the surface cauliflower were discussed. The results showed that the appropriate load current in silicon rods was made the surface thermal field of silicon rods distribution uniformity, and T≤Tmax , the surface cauliflower on silicon rods reduced. The wall of furnace was more bright and smooth with the lower cauliflower ratio and electricity consumption. The feed nozzle diameter decreased and height increased, the surface cauliflower in beam of silicon rods would decrease, the downfallen of silicon rods was easier in the early stage of the polysilicon production. The spiral nozzle can uniform the distribution of feed, both to reduce the surface cauliflower of silicon rods and avoid reducing downfallen rods in furnace.%棒状多晶硅的还原过程受进料量、进料配比、温度和气场等因素的影响,硅棒表面形貌也受到温度和物料在还原炉内分布的影响。通过还原炉内硅棒加载电流、炉筒壁面光洁度、进料喷嘴结构对菜花的影响进行研究,结果表明:(1)加载电流适宜,使硅棒表面温场分布均匀,且T≤Tmax,可减少硅棒表面菜花;(2)炉筒壁越光洁,菜花占比及电单耗越低;(3)进料喷嘴口径变小、高度增加,多晶硅横梁菜花降低,但前期易倒棒,而螺旋形喷嘴可降低硅棒表面菜花及还原炉倒棒率。

  6. Effects of Portulaca Oleracea on Insulin Resistance in Rats with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈岚; 陆付耳

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of Portulaca oleracea, a Chinese medicinal herb, on insulin resistance in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Experimental model of T2DM was established by injection of streptozotocin (25mg/kg) and feeding with high calorie forage. The effects of Portulaca oleracea on oral glucose tolerance, serum levels of insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol and free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity index were all observed. Results: Portulaca oleracea could reduce the body weight, improve the impaired glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism, decrease serum free fatty acids, attenuate hyperinsulinemia and elevate insulin sensitivity. Conclusion: Portulaca oleracea could improve insulin resistance in rats with T2DM, and the mechanism might be related to its actions in improving lipid metabolism and decreasing free fatty acids.

  7. LIFE-CYCLE PARAMETERS OF Copitarsia uncilata (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE ON THREE NATURAL DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Milena Castro Marquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the life cycle of Copitarsia uncilata Burgos & Leiva (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae under laboratory conditions without photophase and a second experiment with photophase of 12 hours on three natural diets. The life cycle of C. uncilata was significantly shorter for females (76.46 ± 1.01 days, p=0.033 reared on alstroemeria (Alstroemeria sp. diet without photophase, and for males (79.78 ± 0.36 days, p=0.046 reared on broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica, with photophase. The emergence of the adults was 100% and 80% from larvae fed on alstroemeria, 90.9% and 88.88% for individuals fed on broccoli, 86.2% and 50% for those fed on cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, without and with photophase respectively. The sex ratio (male:female of individuals reared without photophase, evidenced a higher rate of females on alstroemeria (1:1.3, followed by cauliflower (1:0.6 and broccoli (1:0.5. In the experiment with photophase, the sex ratio was higher on alstroemeria (1:1.5, followed by cauliflower (1:0.9 and broccoli (1:0.6. As a conclusion, the most suitable diet for laboratory mass rearing in terms of life cycle parameters of C. uncilata is broccoli followed by alstroemeria and cauliflower.

  8. Altered Fruit and Seed Development of Transgenic Rapeseed (Brassica napus Over-Expressing MicroRNA394.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bo Song

    Full Text Available Fruit and seed development in plants is a complex biological process mainly involved in input and biosynthesis of many storage compounds such as proteins and oils. Although the basic biochemical pathways for production of the storage metabolites in plants are well characterized, their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we functionally identified rapeseed (Brassica napus miR394 with its target gene Brassica napus leaf curling responsiveness (BnLCR to dissect a role of miR394 during the fruit and seed development. Transgenic rapeseed plants over-expressing miR394 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. miR394 over-expression plants exhibited a delayed flowering time and enlarged size of plants, leaf blade, pods and seed body, but developed seeds with higher contents of protein and glucosinolates (GLS and lower levels of oil accumulation as compared to wild-type. Over-expression of miR394 altered the fatty acid (FA composition by increasing several FA species such as C16:0 and C18:0 and unsaturated species of C20:1 and C22:1 but lowering C18:3. This change was accompanied by induction of genes coding for transcription factors of FA synthesis including leafy cotyledon1 (BnLEC1, BnLEC2, and FUSCA3 (FUS3. Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in fruit development and seed patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter was used for monitoring the auxin response in Arabidopsis siliques and demonstrated that the DR5 gene was strongly expressed. These results suggest that BnmiR394 is involved in rapeseed fruit and seed development.

  9. Effect of Portulaca oleracea extracts on growth performance and microbial populations in ceca of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X H; He, X; Yang, X F; Zhong, X H

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Portulaca oleracea extracts on growth performance and microbial populations in the ceca of broilers. A total of 120 one-day-old broilers were randomly divided into 3 groups. Portulaca oleracea extracts were added to diets at 0.2 and 0.4% (wt/wt; POL-0.2, POL-0.4), respectively. The control (CON) group was administered with no P. oleracea extract supplementation. Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded every 2 wk. On d 28 and 42, the cecal contents were collected and assayed for Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium populations. Additionally, the pH of the ileum and cecum was measured. The results showed that both on d 28 and 42 BW gain of P. oleracea extract supplementation groups was significantly higher, whereas the feed conversion ratio was lower (P < 0.05) compared with CON. On d 28 and 42, significantly (P < 0.05) fewer E. coli were recovered from ceca of broilers provided with the POL-0.2 diet than from broilers provided with the control diet. The quantities of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium of POL-0.2 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than CON. Results showed P. oleracea extracts have no distinct influence on intestinal pH. These data suggest that P. oleracea extract supplementation significantly altered the cecal bacterial community without affecting the intestinal pH.

  10. Large-scale cauliflower-shaped hierarchical copper nanostructures for efficient photothermal conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peixun; Wu, Hui; Zhong, Minlin; Zhang, Hongjun; Bai, Benfeng; Jin, Guofan

    2016-07-01

    Efficient solar energy harvesting and photothermal conversion have essential importance for many practical applications. Here, we present a laser-induced cauliflower-shaped hierarchical surface nanostructure on a copper surface, which exhibits extremely high omnidirectional absorption efficiency over a broad electromagnetic spectral range from the UV to the near-infrared region. The measured average hemispherical absorptance is as high as 98% within the wavelength range of 200-800 nm, and the angle dependent specular reflectance stays below 0.1% within the 0-60° incident angle. Such a structured copper surface can exhibit an apparent heating up effect under the sunlight illumination. In the experiment of evaporating water, the structured surface yields an overall photothermal conversion efficiency over 60% under an illuminating solar power density of ~1 kW m-2. The presented technology provides a cost-effective, reliable, and simple way for realizing broadband omnidirectional light absorptive metal surfaces for efficient solar energy harvesting and utilization, which is highly demanded in various light harvesting, anti-reflection, and photothermal conversion applications. Since the structure is directly formed by femtosecond laser writing, it is quite suitable for mass production and can be easily extended to a large surface area.Efficient solar energy harvesting and photothermal conversion have essential importance for many practical applications. Here, we present a laser-induced cauliflower-shaped hierarchical surface nanostructure on a copper surface, which exhibits extremely high omnidirectional absorption efficiency over a broad electromagnetic spectral range from the UV to the near-infrared region. The measured average hemispherical absorptance is as high as 98% within the wavelength range of 200-800 nm, and the angle dependent specular reflectance stays below 0.1% within the 0-60° incident angle. Such a structured copper surface can exhibit an apparent

  11. Antibacterial Attributes of Apigenin, Isolated from Portulaca oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayaka, Hanumantappa B; Londonkar, Ramesh L; Umesh, Madire K; Tukappa, Asha

    2014-01-01

    The flavonoid apigenin was isolated from aerial part of P. oleracea L. The dried sample of plant was powdered and subjected to soxhlet extractor by adding 80 mL of ethanol : water (70 : 30). The extract was centrifuged at 11000 rpm for 30 min; supernatant was taken for further use. The fraction was concentrated and subjected to PTLC. The R f value of isolated apigenin was calculated (0.82). Purified material was also subjected to its IR spectra, LC-MS, NMR, and HPLC for structural elucidation. The apigenin so-obtained was subjected to antibacterial activity on five pathogenic bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes; among all the bacterial strains, Salmonella typhimurium (17.36 ± 0.18) and Proteus mirabilis (19.12 ± 0.01) have shown maximum diameter of inhibition zone for flavonoid and remaining bacterial strains have shown moderate diameter of inhibition zone when compared with control values 14.56 ± 0.21 and 11.68 ± 0.13, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the flavonoid isolated from P. oleracea L. was tested at the concentration ranging from undiluted sample to 10 mg per mL of concentration. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) for the flavonoid for all tested bacterial strains was found to be >4 mg per mL. Hence, the apigenin has antibacterial property and can be used to develop antibacterial drugs.

  12. Antibacterial Attributes of Apigenin, Isolated from Portulaca oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumantappa B. Nayaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid apigenin was isolated from aerial part of P. oleracea L. The dried sample of plant was powdered and subjected to soxhlet extractor by adding 80 mL of ethanol : water (70 : 30. The extract was centrifuged at 11000 rpm for 30 min; supernatant was taken for further use. The fraction was concentrated and subjected to PTLC. The Rf value of isolated apigenin was calculated (0.82. Purified material was also subjected to its IR spectra, LC-MS, NMR, and HPLC for structural elucidation. The apigenin so-obtained was subjected to antibacterial activity on five pathogenic bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes; among all the bacterial strains, Salmonella typhimurium (17.36 ± 0.18 and Proteus mirabilis (19.12 ±  0.01 have shown maximum diameter of inhibition zone for flavonoid and remaining bacterial strains have shown moderate diameter of inhibition zone when compared with control values 14.56 ±  0.21 and 11.68 ± 0.13, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the flavonoid isolated from P. oleracea L. was tested at the concentration ranging from undiluted sample to 10 mg per mL of concentration. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC for the flavonoid for all tested bacterial strains was found to be >4 mg per mL. Hence, the apigenin has antibacterial property and can be used to develop antibacterial drugs.

  13. Optimizing isothiocyanate formation during enzymatic glucosinolate breakdown by adjusting pH value, temperature and dilution in Brassica vegetables and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschen, Franziska S.; Klopsch, Rebecca; Oliviero, Teresa; Schreiner, Monika; Verkerk, Ruud; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of glucosinolate-rich Brassicales vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cancer with enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates playing a key role. However, formation of health-promoting isothiocyanates is inhibited by the epithiospecifier protein in favour of nitriles and epithionitriles. Domestic processing conditions, such as changes in pH value, temperature or dilution, might also affect isothiocyanate formation. Therefore, the influences of these three factors were evaluated in accessions of Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Arabidopsis thaliana. Mathematical modelling was performed to determine optimal isothiocyanate formation conditions and to obtain knowledge on the kinetics of the reactions. At 22 °C and endogenous plant pH, nearly all investigated plants formed nitriles and epithionitriles instead of health-promoting isothiocyanates. Response surface models, however, clearly demonstrated that upon change in pH to domestic acidic (pH 4) or basic pH values (pH 8), isothiocyanate formation considerably increases. While temperature also affects this process, the pH value has the greatest impact. Further, a kinetic model showed that isothiocyanate formation strongly increases due to dilution. Finally, the results show that isothiocyanate intake can be strongly increased by optimizing the conditions of preparation of Brassicales vegetables.

  14. Increased Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and rooting efficiencies in canola (Brassica napus L.) from hypocotyl segment explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoza, V.; Stewart, C. N.

    2003-01-01

    An efficient protocol for the production of transgenic Brassica napus cv. Westar plants was developed by optimizing two important parameters: preconditioning time and co-cultivation time. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was performed using hypocotyls as explant tissue. Two variants of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encoding gene--mGFP5-ER and eGFP--both under the constitutive expression of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, were used for the experiments. Optimizing the preconditioning time to 72 h and co-cultivation time with Agrobacterium to 48 h provided the increase in the transformation efficiency from a baseline of 4% to 25%. With mGFP5-ER, the transformation rate was 17% and with eGFP it was 25%. Transgenic shoots were selected on 200 mg/l kanamycin. Rooting efficiency was 100% on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with 10 g/l sucrose and 0.5 mg/l indole butyric acid in the presence of kanamycin.

  15. Transcriptome profile analysis of young floral buds of fertile and sterile plants from the self-pollinated offspring of the hybrid between novel restorer line NR1 and Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertile and sterile plants were derived from the self-pollinated offspring of the F1 hybrid between the novel restorer line NR1 and the Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus. To elucidate gene expression and regulation caused by the A and C subgenomes of B. napus, as well as the alien chromosome and cytoplasm from Sinapis arvensis during the development of young floral buds, we performed a genome-wide high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing for young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Results In this study, equal amounts of total RNAs taken from young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants were sequenced using the Illumina/Solexa platform. After filtered out low quality data, a total of 2,760,574 and 2,714,441 clean tags were remained in the two libraries, from which 242,163 (Ste and 253,507 (Fer distinct tags were obtained. All distinct sequencing tags were annotated using all possible CATG+17-nt sequences of the genome and transcriptome of Brassica rapa and those of Brassica oleracea as the reference sequences, respectively. In total, 3231 genes of B. rapa and 3371 genes of B. oleracea were detected with significant differential expression levels. GO and pathway-based analyses were performed to determine and further to understand the biological functions of those differentially expressed genes (DEGs. In addition, there were 1089 specially expressed unknown tags in Fer, which were neither mapped to B. oleracea nor to B. rapa, and these unique tags were presumed to arise basically from the added alien chromosome of S. arvensis. Fifteen genes were randomly selected and their expression levels were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, and fourteen of them showed consistent expression patterns with the digital gene expression (DGE data. Conclusions A number of genes were differentially expressed between the young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Some of these genes may be candidates for future research on CMS in

  16. The fusion of genomes leads to more options: A comparative investigation on the desulfo-glucosinolate sulfotransferases of Brassica napus and homologous proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, Felix; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2015-06-01

    Sulfotransferases (SOTs) (EC 2.8.2.-) play a crucial role in the glucosinolate (Gl) biosynthesis, by catalyzing the final step of the core glucosinolate formation. In Arabidopsis thaliana the three desulfo (ds)-Gl SOTs AtSOT16, AtSOT17 and AtSOT18 were previously characterized, showing different affinities to ds-Gls. But can the knowledge about these SOTs be generally transferred to other Gl-synthesizing plants? It was investigated how many SOTs are present in the economically relevant crop plant Brassica napus L., and if it is possible to predict their characteristics by sequence analysis. The recently sequenced B. napus is a hybrid of Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. By database research, 71 putative functional BnSOT family members were identified and at least eleven of those are putative ds-Gl SOTs. Besides the homologs of AtSOT16 - 18, phylogenetic analyses revealed new subfamilies of ds-Gl SOTs, which are not present in A. thaliana. Three of the B. napus ds-Gl SOT proteins were expressed and purified, and characterized by determining the substrate affinities to different ds-Gls. Two of them, BnSOT16-a and BnSOT16-b, showed a significantly higher affinity to an indolic ds-Gl, similarly to AtSOT16. Additionally, BnSOT17-a was characterized and showed a higher affinity to long chained aliphatic Gls, similarly to AtSOT17. Identification of homologs to AtSOT18 was less reliable, because putative SOT18 sequences are more heterogeneous and confirmation of similar characteristics was not possible.

  17. Cauliflower mosaic virus protein P6 inhibits signaling responses to salicylic acid and regulates innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Love

    Full Text Available Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV encodes a multifunctional protein P6 that is required for translation of the 35S RNA and also acts as a suppressor of RNA silencing. Here we demonstrate that P6 additionally acts as a pathogenicity effector of an unique and novel type, modifying NPR1 (a key regulator of salicylic acid (SA- and jasmonic acid (JA-dependent signaling and inhibiting SA-dependent defence responses We find that that transgene-mediated expression of P6 in Arabidopsis and transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana has profound effects on defence signaling, suppressing expression of representative SA-responsive genes and increasing expression of representative JA-responsive genes. Relative to wild-type Arabidopsis P6-expressing transgenics had greatly reduced expression of PR-1 following SA-treatment, infection by CaMV or inoculation with an avirulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst. Similarly transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana of P6 (including a mutant form defective in translational transactivation activity suppressed PR-1a transcript accumulation in response to Agrobacterium infiltration and following SA-treatment. As well as suppressing the expression of representative SA-regulated genes, P6-transgenic Arabidopsis showed greatly enhanced susceptibility to both virulent and avirulent Pst (titres elevated 10 to 30-fold compared to non-transgenic controls but reduced susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Necrosis following SA-treatment or inoculation with avirulent Pst was reduced and delayed in P6-transgenics. NPR1 an important regulator of SA/JA crosstalk, was more highly expressed in the presence of P6 and introduction of the P6 transgene into a transgenic line expressing an NPR1:GFP fusion resulted in greatly increased fluorescence in nuclei even in the absence of SA. Thus in the presence of P6 an inactive form of NPR1 is mislocalized in the nucleus even in uninduced plants

  18. Protective Effect of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Portulaca Oleracea Against Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity

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    Gholamreza Karimi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sPortulaca oleracea L. is a herbaceous weed from portulacaceae family. It can be found in many parts of the world. Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that P. oleracea have antioxidant effects. The protective effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of P. oleracea against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity was studied in rats.Materials and MethodsSingle intraperitoneal injection of 4 mg/kg cisplatin was administrated to rats. After 5 days, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum creatinine (Scr concentration were determined. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts, before and after cisplatin injection on BUN and Scr, as well as morphological renal damage, was evaluated. ResultsIt was indicated that treatment with aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. oleracea in the highest dose (0.8 and 2 g/ kg, 6 and 12 hr before cisplatin injection reduced BUN and Scr. Tubular necrotic damage was not observed either. ConclusionResults suggest that P. oleracea extract may protect against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity and might serve as a novel combination agent with cisplan to limit renal injury.

  19. RAPESEED (Brassica napus and Brassica campestris) A NEW OILSEED CROP FOR TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    KURAL, Aynur

    1995-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus and Brassica campestris L.) is an important oil crop in many parts of the world. Rapeseed is well-adapted to cool, moist growing conditions and requires fewer heat units than either soybean or sunflower for maturity. Rapeseed oil can be used for human consumption (Canola) and ındustrial purposes. Oil from Canola cultivars must contain less than 2% erucic acid compared with 40-45% in industrial use rape varieties. The meal remaining after oil extraction of Canola seed ...

  20. Analysis of gene expression in resynthesized Brassica napus Allopolyploids using arabidopsis 70mer oligo microarrays.

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    Robert T Gaeta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies in resynthesized Brassica napus allopolyploids indicate that homoeologous chromosome exchanges in advanced generations (S(5ratio6 alter gene expression through the loss and doubling of homoeologous genes within the rearrangements. Rearrangements may also indirectly affect global gene expression if homoeologous copies of gene regulators within rearrangements have differential affects on the transcription of genes in networks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We utilized Arabidopsis 70mer oligonucleotide microarrays for exploring gene expression in three resynthesized B. napus lineages at the S(0ratio1 and S(5ratio6 generations as well as their diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. oleracea. Differential gene expression between the progenitors and additive (midparent expression in the allopolyploids were tested. The S(5ratio6 lines differed in the number of genetic rearrangements, allowing us to test if the number of genes displaying nonadditive expression was related to the number of rearrangements. Estimates using per-gene and common variance ANOVA models indicated that 6-15% of 26,107 genes were differentially expressed between the progenitors. Individual allopolyploids showed nonadditive expression for 1.6-32% of all genes. Less than 0.3% of genes displayed nonadditive expression in all S(0ratio1 lines and 0.1-0.2% were nonadditive among all S(5ratio6 lines. Differentially expressed genes in the polyploids were over-represented by genes differential between the progenitors. The total number of differentially expressed genes was correlated with the number of genetic changes in S(5ratio6 lines under the common variance model; however, there was no relationship using a per-gene variance model, and many genes showed nonadditive expression in S(0ratio1 lines. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Few genes reproducibly demonstrated nonadditive expression among lineages, suggesting few changes resulted from a general response to polyploidization

  1. Origins of the amphiploid species Brassica napus L. investigated by chloroplast and nuclear molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allender Charlotte J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amphiploid species Brassica napus (oilseed rape, Canola is a globally important oil crop yielding food, biofuels and industrial compounds such as lubricants and surfactants. Identification of the likely ancestors of each of the two genomes (designated A and C found in B. napus would facilitate incorporation of novel alleles from the wider Brassica genepool in oilseed rape crop genetic improvement programmes. Knowledge of the closest extant relatives of the genotypes involved in the initial formation of B. napus would also allow further investigation of the genetic factors required for the formation of a stable amphiploid and permit the more efficient creation of fully fertile re-synthesised B. napus. We have used a combination of chloroplast and nuclear genetic markers to investigate the closest extant relatives of the original maternal progenitors of B. napus. This was based on a comprehensive sampling of the relevant genepools, including 83 accessions of A genome B. rapa L. (both wild and cultivated types, 94 accessions of B. napus and 181 accessions of C genome wild and cultivated B. oleracea L. and related species. Results Three chloroplast haplotypes occurred in B. napus. The most prevalent haplotype (found in 79% of accessions was not present within the C genome accessions but was found at low frequencies in B. rapa. Chloroplast haplotypes characteristic of B. napus were found in a small number of wild and weedy B. rapa populations, and also in two accessions of cultivated B. rapa 'brocoletto'. Whilst introgression of the B. napus chloroplast type in the wild and weedy B. rapa populations has been proposed by other studies, the presence of this haplotype within the two brocoletto accessions is unexplained. Conclusions The distribution of chloroplast haplotypes eliminate any of the C genome species as being the maternal ancestor of the majority of the B. napus accessions. The presence of multiple chloroplast

  2. Influence of MnO2 decorated Fe nano cauliflowers on microwave absorption and impedance matching of polyvinylbutyral (PVB) matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Pritom J.; Porwal, Mayuri; Vinoy, K. J.; Ramamurthy, Praveen C.; Madras, Giridhar

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a promising, polyvinyl butryl (PVB)-MnO2 decorated Fe composite was synthesised and microwave absorption properties were studied for the most important frequency ranges i.e., X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz) and Ku-band (12.4-18 GHz). The microwave absorption of Fe nano cauliflower structure can be enhanced by MnO2 nanofiber coating. 10 wt% Fe-MnO2 nano cauliflower loaded PVB composite films (2 mm thick) shows an appreciable increase in microwave absorption properties. In X-band, the reflection loss (RL) of this composite decreases almost linearly to -7.5 dB, whereas in the Ku-band the minimum RL was found to be -15.7 dB at 14.7 GHz. Here it was observed that impedance matching is the primarily important factor responsible for enhanced microwave absorption. Further, enhancement of EM attenuation constant (α), dielectrics, scattering attenuation also bolsters the obtained results. This polymer composite can be considered as a novel microwave absorbing coating material.

  3. Cauliflower-Like Co3O4/Three-Dimensional Graphene Composite for High Performance Supercapacitor Applications

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    Huili Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cauliflower-like Co3O4/three-dimensional (3D graphene nanocomposite material was synthesized by a facile two-step synthesis route (heat reduction of graphite oxide (GO and hydrothermal synthesis of Co3O4. The phase composition, morphology, and structure of the as-obtained products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Electrochemical properties as supercapacitor electrode materials were systematically investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV and constant current charge-discharge tests. It was found that the Co3O4/3D graphene composite showed a maximum specific capacitance of 863 F g−1, which was obtained by means of CVs at a scan rate of 1 mV s−1 in 6 M KOH aqueous solution. Moreover, the composite exhibited improved cycling stability after 1,000 cycles. The good supercapacitor performance is ascribed to the combination of 3D graphene and cauliflower-like Co3O4, which leads to a strong synergistic effect to remarkably boost the utilization ratio of Co3O4 and graphene for high capacitance.

  4. Dispersal behaviour of Trichogramma brassicae in maize fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suverkropp, B.P.; Bigler, F.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Glue-sprayed maize plants were used to study dispersal behaviour of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko (Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae) in maize fields. To estimate the distance covered during an initial flight, T. brassicae were studied in a field cage with 73 glue-sprayed plants. Mo

  5. MorphologiCal and Cytogenetic Analysis on the Advanced Generations of Generic Hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang ZHAO; Dezhi DU; Zaiyun LI

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to reveal the genetic changes of advanced generation hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus. [Method] The morphological characteristics such as the plant shape, branching sites, leaf shape, leaf color, primary branches and secondary branches, as well as the cytolog- ical characteristics of the advanced generation hybrids (Fs-F10) between B. napus and O. violaceus were observed. [Result] The morphology analysis revealed that the hybrid progeny was more like B. rapa in leaf shape, leaf color, plant shape and ear- ly flowering phenotype, whereas more like B. napus in number of secondary branch- es, silique length and 1 000-seed weight. Analysis on the cytogenetics characteristics showed that these advanced inbred progenies were hypoploids with less than 38 chromosomes; moreover, all the chromosomes from O. violaceus had been lost. Chromosome pairings at meiotic diakinesis of hybrids between the advanced inbred progenies and B. rapa revealed that chromosomes lost in hypoploids possibly be- longed to the C genome of B. oleracea. With generations developing, chromosomes number of plants from two populations gradually increased and developed into the number of B. napus (2n=38). [Conclusion] This study will provide reference to reveal the source of chromosome lost in hypoploids and the morphological change of hybrids.

  6. Simultaneous determination of sulphoraphane and sulphoraphane nitrile in Brassica vegetables using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Jubete, Laura; Smyth, Thomas J; Valverde, Juan; Rai, Dilip K; Barry-Ryan, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Several analytical methods exist for the determination of sulphoraphane or sulphoraphane nitrile from biological matrices and plant extracts. However, no UPLC-MS/MS method exists for the simultaneous detection of both. To develop and validate an UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous analysis of sulphoraphane and sulphoraphane nitrile from Brassica oleracea L. ssp. italica This method was developed utilising an Acquity BEH C8 column with gradient elution combined with tandem mass spectrometry, using positive electrospray ionisation in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The retention times for sulphoraphane and sulphoraphane nitrile were 0.4 and 0.6 min respectively, and total run time was 3 min. The method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, matrix effects and recovery. The method was employed to determine glucoraphanin hydrolysis products in broccoli and the predominant product was found to vary depending on the variety tested. It was also applied to the accurate determination of sulphoraphane and sulphoraphane nitrile in broccoli samples hydrolysed under different conditions. It was observed that the formation of sulphoraphane and sulphoraphane nitrile was influenced by the temperature of the reaction. The validated UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous detection of sulphoraphane and sulphoraphane nitrile was shown to be applicable to broccoli plants and is expected to be applicable to other cruciferous sources. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Development of new restorer lines for CMS ogura system with the use of resynthesized oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szała, Laurencja; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Popławska, Wiesława; Liersch, Alina; Olejnik, Anna; Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Bocianowski, Jan; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Resynthesized (RS) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is potentially of great interest for hybrid breeding. However, a major problem with the direct use of RS B. napus is the quality of seed oil (high level of erucic acid) and seed meal (high glucosinolate content), which does not comply with double-low quality oilseed rape. Thus, additional developments are needed before RS B. napus can be introduced into breeding practice. In this study, RS oilseed rape was obtained through crosses between B. rapa ssp. chinensis var. chinensis and B. oleracea ssp. acephala var. sabellica. RS plant was then crossed with double-low (00) winter oilseed rape lines containing the Rfo gene for Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS ogu) system. Populations of doubled haploids (DH) were developed from these F1 hybrids using the microspore in vitro culture method. The seeds of semi-RS DH lines were analyzed for erucic acid and glucosinolate content. Among the populations of semi-RS DHs four 00-quality lines with the Rfo gene were selected. Using 344 AFLP markers to estimate genetic relatedness, we showed that the RS lines and semi-RS lines formed clusters that were clearly distinct from 96 winter oilseed rape parental lines of F1 hybrids.

  8. Functional properties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) phytochemicals and bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph L; Moreau, Régis

    2016-08-10

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against common chronic diseases, such as cancer, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Leafy green vegetables, in particular, are recognized as having substantial health-promoting activities that are attributed to the functional properties of their nutrients and non-essential chemical compounds. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is widely regarded as a functional food due to its diverse nutritional composition, which includes vitamins and minerals, and to its phytochemicals and bioactives that promote health beyond basic nutrition. Spinach-derived phytochemicals and bioactives are able to (i) scavenge reactive oxygen species and prevent macromolecular oxidative damage, (ii) modulate expression and activity of genes involved in metabolism, proliferation, inflammation, and antioxidant defence, and (iii) curb food intake by inducing secretion of satiety hormones. These biological activities contribute to the anti-cancer, anti-obesity, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic properties of spinach. Despite these valuable attributes, spinach consumption remains low in comparison to other leafy green vegetables. This review examines the functional properties of spinach in cell culture, animals and humans with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which spinach-derived non-essential phytochemicals and bioactives, such as glycolipids and thylakoids, impart their health benefits.

  9. Looking for a substituent of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) chloroplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying Ping; Yeoh, Loo Yew; Chee, Swee Yong; Lim, Tuck Meng

    2017-04-01

    Spinach's chloroplasts electron transport features are often adapted to build biofuel cells or biosensors for environment conservation. This approach may raise food security issues. The present study aimed to test on in vitro functional activity of chloroplasts from selected underutilized leaves of: Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) in comparison with spinach (Spinacia oleracea). The leaves' electrical conductivity was measured to evaluate the initial cell permeability. We applied Hill's reaction to determine the photoreduction capacity of the chloroplasts. Initial electrical conductivity of leaves ranged from 11.5 to 18.5 µs/cm/g followed the order of water lettucequality marker for the leaves' chloroplasts. Chloroplasts of oil palm frond and water lettuce showed low photoreduction rate of 14 to 22%. On the other hand, the chloroplasts of both spinach and pandan leaves exerted an initial photoreduction rate which was above 90%. The photoreduction rate of these chloroplasts remained to above 60% even after 30 day-storage at -20°C. In comparison with spinach, pandan leaves' chloroplasts possessed similar in vitro functional activity and storage stability at 4°C and -20°C. This warrants further investigation on chloroplasts of pandan leaves for higher-value applications.

  10. Somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos of Euterpe oleracea Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledo Ana da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the morphogenetic responses of zygotic embryos of açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart. submitted to several conditions of in vitro culture. Several research experiments were conducted, in laboratory, using vegetable material collected from açai palm plants at Embrapa Amazon Oriental, Belém-PA, Brazil. It was possible to verify the expression of a direct, repetitive and no-synchronized model of somatic embryogenesis in mature zygotic embryos cultivated in primary MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (339.36 muM and transferred to a secondary MS medium in the presence of NAA (0.537 muM and 2iP (12.30 muM. The conversion of somatic embryos into seedlings was reached after 210 days with the transfer of the cultures to a third medium with sucrose and mineral salts concentrations reduced to a half, without growth regulators.

  11. 花椰菜——黑芥体细胞杂交获得抗黑腐病异附加系新材料%New Alien Additon Lines Resistance to Black Rot Generated by Somatic Hybridization Between Cauliflower and Black Mustard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂香; 严红; 曾兴莹; 盛小光; 唐宇; 韩硕; 宗梅; 陆坤; 刘凡

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the asymmetrical somatic hybrids of cauliflower and Brassica nigra and their selfed or backcrossed progenies were analysed using morphological, cytological and molecular methods. Fifty advanced selfing or backcrossing descendants were obtained. Besides 30 lines with an intermediate morphology to that of the parents, there were 20 lines with a nuclear DNA content below 2.24 pg · cell-1 and chromosomes number less than 28 displaying the cauliflower-like morphology. Combining with successive black rot resistance assay, a set of alien additon lines were obtained, in which 12 lines with high resistance, 17 lines being resistant, those accounted for 14% of the total materials tested. Three plants (PFCN29 BC3-3-5, PFCNI6-1 S2BC3-107 and PFCN14-1 S1BC4-123) displayed a more cauliflower-like morphology and high resistance to Xcc strain CH15 were confirmed to have a total set of cauliflower chromosomes added with 2, 7 and 8 B. nigra-derived chromosomes respectively by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) .%以花椰菜——黑芥体细胞杂种的自交及回交后代为材料,建立了结合抗病性人工接种鉴定,流式细胞仪DNA含量分析,B基因组特异分子标记和染色体原位杂交的大规模群体分析技术,在50份高代自交及回交材料中筛选获得了20份形态学特征偏向花椰菜,30份呈花椰菜一黑芥中间类型的材料。细胞DNA含量检测(FLC)及染色体计数结果表明,偏花椰菜的类型,DNA含量基本在2.24Pg·cell^-1以下,染色体数在28条以下。经连续3年黑腐病病菌人工接种鉴定,获得高抗株系12个,抗性株系17个,占全部受试材料的14%。对其中3个(PFCN29BC3-3-5、PFCNl6-1S2BC3-107和PFCNl4-1S1BC4—123)形态偏花椰菜且高抗黑腐病的植株进行基因组原位杂交,结果显示其分别为花椰菜染色体组附加了2、7和8条黑芥染色体的异附加系材料。这些植株可以用于后续的研究和

  12. BRAD, the genetics and genomics database for Brassica plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pingxia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brassica species include both vegetable and oilseed crops, which are very important to the daily life of common human beings. Meanwhile, the Brassica species represent an excellent system for studying numerous aspects of plant biology, specifically for the analysis of genome evolution following polyploidy, so it is also very important for scientific research. Now, the genome of Brassica rapa has already been assembled, it is the time to do deep mining of the genome data. Description BRAD, the Brassica database, is a web-based resource focusing on genome scale genetic and genomic data for important Brassica crops. BRAD was built based on the first whole genome sequence and on further data analysis of the Brassica A genome species, Brassica rapa (Chiifu-401-42. It provides datasets, such as the complete genome sequence of B. rapa, which was de novo assembled from Illumina GA II short reads and from BAC clone sequences, predicted genes and associated annotations, non coding RNAs, transposable elements (TE, B. rapa genes' orthologous to those in A. thaliana, as well as genetic markers and linkage maps. BRAD offers useful searching and data mining tools, including search across annotation datasets, search for syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and to search the flanking regions of a certain target, as well as the tools of BLAST and Gbrowse. BRAD allows users to enter almost any kind of information, such as a B. rapa or A. thaliana gene ID, physical position or genetic marker. Conclusion BRAD, a new database which focuses on the genetics and genomics of the Brassica plants has been developed, it aims at helping scientists and breeders to fully and efficiently use the information of genome data of Brassica plants. BRAD will be continuously updated and can be accessed through http://brassicadb.org.

  13. The cauliflower-like black crusts on sandstones: A natural passive sampler to evaluate the surrounding environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Héctor; Maguregui, Maite; García-Florentino, Cristina; Carrero, Jose Antonio; Salcedo, Isabel; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Black crust in buildings can be formed as a result of different kind of chemical and physical reactions between the stone surface and environmental factors (e.g. acid aerosols emitted to the atmosphere, airborne particulate matter, etc.). Moreover, biological colonizations can also be present on them. This kind of pathology is widely present in limestones, but fewer are the case study dealing with the characterization of black crusts on sandstones. In this work we present an innovative methodology based on the use of cauliflower-like black crusts formed on sandstone material as natural passive sampler to evaluate the environmental pollution related with the emission of natural (crustal particles and marine aerosol particles) and metallic elements in the airborne particulate matter from the surrounding atmosphere. To illustrate its usefulness, different cauliflower-like black crusts growing in areas protected from the rain growing in an historical construction, La Galea Fortress, made up of sandstone and placed in the Abra Bay (Getxo, Basque Country, Spain) were characterized. This area suffers the anthropogenic emissions coming from the surrounding industry, traffic, sea port, and the natural ones coming from the surrounding marine atmosphere. The applied analytical methodology began with a previous elemental in situ screening in order to evaluate and compare the presence of the metals trapped in black crusts from different orientations using a hand-held energy dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer. After this preliminary study, samples of black crusts were taken in order to characterize them in the laboratory using molecular techniques (Raman spectroscopy and XRD) and elemental techniques (ICP-MS, SEM-EDS and micro energy dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence). With the last two elemental techniques, imaging analyses were performed at different lateral resolutions in order to observe the distribution of the metals and other kind of particles trapped in the black

  14. SPINACIA OLERACEA LINN: A PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHARMACOLOGICAL OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaikwad Priyanka Subhash

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbal and natural products of folk medicine have been used for centuries in every culture throughout the world. Scientists and medical professionals have shown increased interest in this field as they recognize the true health benefits of these remedies. “Let food be your medicine and let medicine be your food” was advised by the father of medicine, Hippocrates, over two million ago. It’s still true today that “you are what you eat.” Spinach is a leafy green vegetable that came originally from south-western Asia and is now grown in most parts of the world. Scientifically it is known as Spincia oleracea Linn. (Family-Chenopodiaceae. Though Spinach is most often used as a food, it has medicinal value as well. Spinach is packed with vitamins such as vitamin C, vitamin A and vitamin E and minerals like magnesium, manganese, iron, calcium and folic acid. Spinach is also a good source of chlorophyll, which is known to aid in digestion. Spinach is also rich in the carotenoids beta-carotene and lutein. It is a good source of the bioflavonoid quercetin with many other flavonoids which exhibits anti-oxidant, antiproliferative, antiinfammatory, antihistaminic, CNS depressant, protection against gamma radiation, hepatoprotective properties in addition to its many other benefits. Spinach is also used to prevent the bone loss associated with osteoporosis and for its anti-inflammatory properties in easing the pain of arthritis. Spinach is good for the heart and circulatory system and has energy-boosting properties. Spinach is truly one of nature's most perfect foods.

  15. The fate of populations of Euterpe oleracea harvested for palm heart in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallejo, M.I.; Galeano, G.; Bernal, R.; Zuidema, P.

    2014-01-01

    Palm heart is an important non-timber forest product obtained from various palm species in tropical forests. We studied the effect of four decades of palm heart extraction from the clonal palm Euterpe oleracea at the southern Pacific coast of Colombia. We monitored populations that had been subject

  16. Phytoremediation of fluoride with garden ornamentals Nerium oleander, Portulaca oleracea, and Pogonatherum crinitum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Rahul V; Desai, Shaileshkumar B; Bhujbal, Sourabh S; Watharkar, Anuprita D; Biradar, Shivtej P; Pawar, Pankaj K; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2017-03-01

    Nursery grown plants of Nerium oleander, Pogonatherum crinitum, and Portulaca oleracea were observed to remove fluoride up to 92, 80, and 73%, respectively, from NaF solution at the concentration of 10 mg L(-1) within 15 days. Concentration range of 10-50 mg L(-1) of fluoride revealed a constant decrease of removal from 92 to 51% within 15 days by N. oleander, while the biomass (one to five plants) showed enhancement in removal from 74 to 98% in 10 days. Translocation and bioaccumulation factors calculated after fluoride contents in roots and leaves of N. oleander, P. crinitum, and P. oleracea were 1.85, 1.19, and 1.43, and 9.8, 3.6, and 2.2, respectively. P . oleracea, P. crinitum, and N. oleander showed reductions in chlorophyll contents by 40, 57 and 25 and 8%, carbohydrates by 50, 44, and 16%, and proteins by 38, 53, and 15%, respectively. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the roots of P. oleracea, P. crinitum, and N. oleander were observed to be induced by 400, 383, and 500%; 80, 105, and 424%; and 153, 77, and 71%, respectively, while the leaves showed induction in SOD, CAT, and GPX activities by 550, 315, and 165%; 196, 227, and 243%; and 280, 242, and 184%, respectively. Results endorsed the superiority of N. oleander for fluoride removal over other plant species.

  17. The fate of populations of Euterpe oleracea harvested for palm heart in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallejo, M.I.; Galeano, G.; Bernal, R.; Zuidema, P.

    2014-01-01

    Palm heart is an important non-timber forest product obtained from various palm species in tropical forests. We studied the effect of four decades of palm heart extraction from the clonal palm Euterpe oleracea at the southern Pacific coast of Colombia. We monitored populations that had been subject

  18. Development of a breeding strategy for nitrogen use efficiency in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan Navarrete, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is one of the most consumed leafy vegetables worldwide and it is considered to be highly nutritious. Spinach is a short-cycle leafy crop that has a high demand for nitrogen in order to rapidly come to a harvestable product that has the required dark green colour within

  19. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea in combination with lycopene in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anusha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Portulaca oleracea (P. oleracea in combination with lycopene against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods : Hepatotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (0.1 ml/kg b.w for 14 days. The aqueous extract of P. oleracea in combination with lycopene (50 mg/kg b.w was administered to the experimental animals at two selected doses for 14 days. The hepatoprotective activity of the combination was evaluated by the liver function marker enzymes in the serum [aspartate transaminases (AST, alanine transaminases (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (Alk.P, total bilirubin (TB, total protein (TP and total cholesterol (TC], pentobarbitone induced sleeping time (PST and histopathological studies of liver. Results : Both the treatment groups showed hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity by significantly restoring the levels of serum enzymes to normal which was comparable to that of silymarin group. Besides, the results obtained from PST and histopathological results also support the study. Conclusions : The oral administration of P. oleracea in combination with lycopene significantly ameliorates CCl 4 hepatotoxicity in rats.

  20. Identification of expressed genes during infection of chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) by Plasmodiophora brassicae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundelin, Thomas; Jensen, Dan Funck; Lübeck, Mette

    2011-01-01

    is impossible. Discovery of genes expressed during infection and gene organization are the first steps toward a better understanding of the pathogen–host interaction. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to search for the P. brassicae genes expressed during plant infection. One-hundred and forty...... ESTs were found of which 49% proved to be P. brassicae genes. Ten novel P. brassicae genes were identified, and the genomic sequences surrounding four of the ESTs were acquired using genome walking. Alignment of the ESTs and the genomic DNA sequences confirmed that P. brassicae genes are intron rich...... and that the introns are small. These results show that it is possible to discover new P. brassicae genes from a mixed pool of both plant and pathogen cDNA. The results also revealed that some of the P. brassicae genes expressed in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) were identical to the genes expressed...

  1. Oil Body Biogenesis during Brassica napus Embryogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Qing He; Yan Wu

    2009-01-01

    Although the oil body is known to be an important membrane enclosed compartment for oil storage in seeds, we have little understanding about its biogenesis during embryogenesis. In the present study we investigated the oil body emergence and variations in Brassica napus cv. Topas. The results demonstrate that the oil bodies could be detected already at the heart stage, at the same time as the embryos began to tum green, and the starch grains accumulated in the chloroplast stroma. In comparison, we have studied the development of oil bodies between Arabidopsis thaliana wild type (Col) and the low-seed-oil mutant wrinkled1-3. We observed that the oil body development in the embryos of Col is similar to that of B. napus cv. Topas, and that the size of the oil bodies was obviously smaller in the embryos of wrinkled1-3. Our results suggest that the oil body biogenesis might be coupled with the embryo chloroplast.

  2. Euterpe oleracea Mart. extract prevents vascular remodeling and endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Silva Cristino Cordeiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary. We assessed the effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí seed extract (ASE rich in proanthocyanidins and catechin on vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress associated with hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. SHR and control rats were treated with ASE (200 mg/kg/day or vehicle for 10 weeks. In the rat mesenteric arterial bed (MAB, acetylcholine response, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD 1 expressions were studied. The antioxidant enzyme activity, oxidative damage and nitrite quantification were assessed in MAB and heart homogenates. eNOS immunohistochemistry and histological analysis was carried out on aortic sections. ASE was able to attenuate the hypertension and prevent the endothelial dysfunction in MAB of SHR. The increased levels of protein carbonylation and associated low levels of nitrite in MAB and heart of SHR were attenuated by ASE. The up-regulation of eNOS and SOD1 expression and the increased activity of SOD in MAB from SHR were normalized by ASE. In aorta from SHR, ASE prevented the increase in media thickness, media:lumen ratio and the decrease in the percentage of elastic fibers. Our results suggest that ASE produces antihypertensive effect and prevents the vascular dysfunction in SHR, through mechanisms involving antioxidant effects and NO production. Industrial relevance. Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Açaí has been considered one of the most important medicinal plants of the Amazon by its beneficial effects in the treatment of fever, pain, inflammation and anemia. More recently, Euterpe oleracea Mart. has been reported to reduce blood pressure with an important antioxidant property. The present research reports the protective effect of the extract of the seeds from Euterpe oleraca Mart. against high blood pressure and the associated vascular structural and functional changes. The test for antihypertensive and vascular anti-hypertrophic effect of the hydro

  3. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be Hepato-and/or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are generally regarded as “safe” feed for cattle during late summer and fall in New Zealand. However, when Pithomyces chartarum spore counts are high there are epidemics of sporidesmin toxicity (...

  4. Levantamento da intensidade da alternariose e da podridão negra em cultivos orgânicos de brássicas em Pernambuco e Santa Catarina Survey of the intensity of Alternaria black spot and black rot on brassica species under organic farming systems in Pernambuco and Santa Catarina states, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A M Peruch

    2006-12-01

    organic farming systems with different brassicas. High prevalence of the diseases was registered in both states, except on Chinese cabbage in Santa Catarina. Prevalence of Alternaria black spot was 100% on broccoli fields in Pernambuco, as well as on cauliflower in both states, while the black rot reached that level on broccoli and cauliflower fields in Santa Catarina. On the average of the different brassica species, the diseases were more prevalent in Pernambuco than in Santa Catarina. However, when the severity averages of each disease were considered, no significant differences were observed between the two states, although the climatic conditions were highly different. The Alternaria black spot severity varied among the brassica species in Pernambuco, being lower on kale. In Santa Catarina no significant differences were observed among the brassicas species. In relation to the black rot, only in Santa Catarina was there a difference in the disease severity, with the lowest level on Chinese cabbage. No significant correlations were observed either between severity levels of Alternaria black spot and black rot, neither between disease severity and total number of plants or plant age.

  5. Aplicación de tratamiento térmico, recubrimiento comestible y baño químico como tratamientos poscosecha para la conservación de hortalizas mínimamente procesadas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Escobar Hernández, Alejandro; Márquez Cardozo, Carlos Julio; Restrepo Flores, Claudia Estela; Cano Salazar, Jaime Andrés; Patiño Gómez, Jairo Humberto

    2014-01-01

    ... mínimamente procesadas: brócoli (Brassica oleracea var. Itálica), coliflor (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis), zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), apio (Apium graveolens), zanahoria (Daucus carota) y chayote (Sechium edule...

  6. Response Surface Modelling of Noradrenaline Production in Hairy Root Culture of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghorbani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. is an annual plant as one of the natural sources for noradrenaline hormone. In this research, hairy root culture of purslane was established by using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834. In the following, Box-Behnken model of response surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize B5 medium for the growth of P. oleracea L. hairy root line. According to the results, modelling and optimization conditions, including sucrose, CaCl2.H2O, H2PO4 and NO3-/NH4+ concentrations on maximum dry weight (0.155 g and noradrenaline content (0.36 mg.g-1 DW was predicted. These optimal conditions predicted by RSM were confirmed the enhancement of noradrenaline production as an application potential for production by hairy root cultures.

  7. Neuroprotective Effects of Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) against Rotenone In Vitro Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Alencar Kolinski Machado; Ana Cristina Andreazza; Tatiane Morgana da Silva; Aline Augusti Boligon; Vanusa do Nascimento; Gustavo Scola; Angela Duong; Francine Carla Cadoná; Euler Esteves Ribeiro; Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric diseases, such as bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ), have a very complex pathophysiology. Several current studies describe an association between psychiatric illness and mitochondrial dysfunction and consequent cellular modifications, including lipid, protein, and DNA damage, caused by cellular oxidative stress. Euterpe oleracea (açaí) is a powerful antioxidant fruit. Açaí is an Amazonian palm fruit primarily found in the lowlands of the Amazonian rainforest, part...

  8. EVALUATION OF FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SPINACIA OLERACEA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEVARAJAN NATARAJAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world the percentage of people using chemical drugs increases with their side effects. “THE BOON GIVEN TO OUR EARTH IS THE HERBS”. Spinach is gaining importance world wide over as a potential source of new drugs to combat a variety of ailments as this species contains molecules credited with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihepatic as well as anticancerous. One such plant is Spinacia oleracea L. medicinal plant belonging to the family Amaranthaceae. The aim of present study was to screen the antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical activities of leaves and stem of Spinacia oleracea L. The results highlighted that aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves showed better antioxidant activity followed by the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts. The antimicrobial activity of various extracts of S. oleracea expressed moderate to better inhibitory effect against Bacillus substilis, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The leaf extracts showed maximum effect than stem extracts. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of this plant, showed the presence of major phytochemicals. This study supports the leaf extracts may be used as an effective antioxidant and antimicrobial agents to combat various ailments caused by the free radicals and the microbial species.

  9. Genome-Wide Gene Expressions Respond Differently to A-subgenome Origins in Brassica napus Synthetic Hybrids and Natural Allotetraploid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dawei; Pan, Qi; Tan, Chen; Zhu, Bin; Ge, Xianhong; Shao, Yujiao; Li, Zaiyun

    2016-01-01

    The young allotetraploid Brassica napus (2n = 38, AACC) is one of models to study genomic responses to allopolyploidization. The extraction of AA component from natural B. napus and then restitution of progenitor B. rapa should provide a unique opportunity to reveal the genome interplay for gene expressions during the evolution. Herein, B. napus hybrids (2n = 19, AC) between the extracted and extant B. rapa (2n = 20, AA) and the same B. oleracea genotype (2n = 18, CC) were studied by RNA-seq and compared with natural B. napus donor, to reveal the gene expression changes from hybridization and domestication and the effects of A genome with different origins. Upon the initial merger of two diploid genomes, additive gene expression was prevalent in these two hybrids, for non-additively expressed genes only represented a small portion of total expressed genes. A high proportion of genes exhibited expression level dominance, with no preference to either of the parental genomes. Comparison of homoeolog expressions also showed no bias toward any genomes and the parental expression patterns were often maintained in the hybrids and natural allotetraploids. Although, the overall patterns of gene expression were highly conserved between two hybrids, the extracted B. rapa responded less and appeared more compatible for hybridization than the extant B. rapa. Our results suggested that expression level dominance and homoeolog expressions bias were balanced at the initial stage of genome merger, and such balance were largely maintained during the domestication of B. napus, despite the increased extent over time. PMID:27790227

  10. Phosphate-assisted phytoremediation of arsenic by Brassica napus and Brassica juncea: Morphological and physiological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Bibi, Irshad; Fatimah, Ayesha; Shahid, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Wang, Hailong; Ok, Yong Sik; Bashir, Safdar; Murtaza, Behzad; Saqib, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal

    2017-07-03

    In this study, we examined the potential role of phosphate (P; 0, 50, 100 mg kg(-1)) on growth, gas exchange attributes, and photosynthetic pigments of Brassica napus and Brassica juncea under arsenic (As) stress (0, 25, 50, 75 mg kg(-1)) in a pot experiment. Results revealed that phosphate supplementation (P100) to As-stressed plants significantly increased shoot As concentration, dry biomass yield, and As uptake, in addition to the improved morphological and gas exchange attributes and photosynthetic pigments over P0. However, phosphate-assisted increase in As uptake was substantially (up to two times) greater for B. napus, notably due to higher shoot As concentration and dry biomass yield, compared to B. juncea at the P100 level. While phosphate addition in soil (P100) led to enhanced shoot As concentration in B. juncea, it reduced shoot dry biomass, primarily after 50 and 75 mg kg(-1) As treatments. The translocation factor and bioconcentration factor values of B. napus were higher than B. juncea for all As levels in the presence of phosphate. This study demonstrates that phosphate supplementation has a potential to improve As phytoextraction efficiency, predominantly for B. napus, by minimizing As-induced damage to plant growth, as well as by improving the physiological and photosynthetic attributes.

  11. Determination of Cadmium, Lead and Zinc in Vegetables in Jaipur (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Verma, P S

    2014-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectroscopic method was used for the determination of Lead, Cadmium and Zinc in vegetables grown in and around Jaipur food stuffs irrigated with industrial waste water. Vegetable samples were collected after maturity, and analyzed, such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea), ladyfinger (Abelmoschus esulentus), pepper mint (Menthe pipereta), brinjal (Solanum melongena), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), onion (Allium cepa), radish (Raphanus sativus), pointedgourd (Trichosanthes dioica), bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria), chilies (Capsicum annum), ribbedgourd (Luffa acutangula) and pumpkin (Curcurbites pepo). The concentration of Lead ranged between 1.40-71.06 ppm, Cadmium 0.61-34.48 ppm and Zinc 0.39-187.26 ppm in vegetable samples. The results reveal that urban consumers are at greater risk of purchasing fresh vegetables with high levels of heavy metal, beyond the permissible limits, as defined by the Indian Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and WHO.

  12. EVALUATION OF ANTI ARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF PET – ETHER EXTRACT OF PORTULACA OLERACEA (Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mallikarjuna Rao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the antiarrthritic activity of petroleum-ether extract of Portulaca oleracea. The petroleum-ether extract of Portulaca oleracea was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Acute toxicity studies were carried out in Male Wistar rats and anti-arthritic activity by Fruends adjuant arthritis model. Phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and triterpenoids. Acute toxicity studies showed that the extract was non-toxic upto a maximum dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. Petroleum-ether extract exhibited significant anti-arthritic activity. The present study indicates that the petroleumether extract of Portulaca oleracea has a potential anti-arthritic activity can be used as anti-arthritic drug.

  13. Effects of Organic and Waste-Derived Fertilizers on Yield, Nitrogen and Glucosinolate Contents, and Sensory Quality of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øvsthus, Ingunn; Breland, Tor Arvid; Hagen, Sidsel Fiskaa; Brandt, Kirsten; Wold, Anne-Berit; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Seljåsen, Randi

    2015-12-23

    Organic vegetable production attempts to pursue multiple goals concerning influence on environment, production resources, and human health. In areas with limited availability of animal manure, there is a need for considering various off-farm nutrient resources for such production. Different organic and waste-derived fertilizer materials were used for broccoli production at two latitudes (58° and 67°) in Norway during two years. The fertilizer materials were applied at two rates of total N (80 and 170 kg ha(-1)) and compared with mineral fertilizer (170 kg ha(-1)) and no fertilizer. Broccoli yield was strongly influenced by fertilizer materials (algae meal < unfertilized control < sheep manure < extruded shrimp shell < anaerobically digested food waste < mineral fertilizer). Yield, but not glucosinolate content, was linearly correlated with estimated potentially plant-available N. However, extruded shrimp shell and mineral NPK fertilizer gave higher glucosinolate contents than sheep manure and no fertilizer. Sensory attributes were less affected by fertilizer material and plant-available N.

  14. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershøj, M; Steenfeldt, S

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120 g/hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, and egg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and β-carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange xanthophyll, tended to be higher in kale and eggs from hens receiving kale. 5. In conclusion, forage material, especially basil and kale, resulted in increased egg production and eggs of high and differentiable quality.

  15. Developmental and Genotypic Variation in Leaf Wax Content and Composition, and in Expression of Wax Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laila, Rawnak; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Suh, Mi Chung; Kim, Juyoung; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular waxes act as a protective barrier against environmental stresses. In the present study, we investigated developmental and genotypic variation in wax formation of cabbage lines, with a view to understand the related morphology, genetics and biochemistry. Our studies revealed that the relative expression levels of wax biosynthetic genes in the first-formed leaf of the highest-wax line remained constantly higher but were decreased in other genotypes with leaf aging. Similarly, the expression of most of the tested genes exhibited decrease from the inner leaves to the outer leaves of 5-month-old cabbage heads in the low-wax lines in contrast to the highest-wax line. In 10-week-old plants, expression of wax biosynthetic genes followed a quadratic function and was generally increased in the early developing leaves but substantially decreased at the older leaves. The waxy compounds in all cabbage lines were predominately C29-alkane, -secondary alcohol, and -ketone. Its deposition was increased with leaf age in 5-month-old plants. The high-wax lines had dense, prominent and larger crystals on the leaf surface compared to low-wax lines under scanning electron microscopy. Principal component analysis revealed that the higher expression of LTP2 genes in the lowest-wax line and the higher expression of CER3 gene in the highest-wax line were probably associated with the comparatively lower and higher wax content in those two lines, respectively. This study furthers our understanding of the relationships between the expression of wax biosynthetic genes and the wax deposition in cabbage lines. Highlight: In cabbage, expression of wax-biosynthetic genes was generally decreased in older and senescing leaves, while wax deposition was increased with leaf aging, and C29-hydrocarbon was predominant in the wax crystals. PMID:28119701

  16. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk...... colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120 g/ hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15 g...... with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and -carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange...

  17. AFLP analysis of genetic diversity in leafy kale (Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala (DC.) Alef.) landraces, cultivars and wild populations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stina; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, G.

    2011-01-01

    the relationship among them is due to seed dispersal through human interactions. Our results indicate that a kale population found in a natural habitat in Denmark was probably not truly wild but most likely an escape from a cultivated Danish kale that had subsequently become naturalized....... populations and one cultivar had the lowest diversity measures. The landraces that were most genetically diverse were from areas where kales are known to be extensively grown, suggesting in situ conservation in these areas as a supplement to storage of seeds in gene banks. An analysis of molecular variance...

  18. Overexpression of AtEDT1/HDG11 in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) Enhances Drought and Osmotic Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhangsheng; Sun, Binmei; Xu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Hao; Zou, Lifang; Chen, Guoju; Cao, Bihao; Chen, Changming; Lei, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by environmental stresses, including drought and high salinity. Improvement of drought and osmotic stress tolerance without yield decrease has been a great challenge in crop improvement. The Arabidopsis ENHANCED DROUGHT TOLERANCE1/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (AtEDT1/HDG11), a protein of the class IV HD-Zip family, has been demonstrated to significantly improve drought tolerance in Arabidopsis, rice, and pepper. Here, we report that AtEDT1/HDG11 confers drought and osmotic stress tolerance in the Chinese kale. AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression lines exhibit auxin-overproduction phenotypes, such as long hypocotyls, tall stems, more root hairs, and a larger root system architecture. Compared with the untransformed control, transgenic lines have significantly reduced stomatal density. In the leaves of transgenic Chinese kale plants, proline (Pro) content and reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activity was significantly increased after drought and osmotic stress, particularly compared to wild kale. More importantly, AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression leads to abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity, resulting in ABA inhibitor germination and induced stomatal closure. Consistent with observed phenotypes, the expression levels of auxin, ABA, and stress-related genes were also altered under both normal and/or stress conditions. Further analysis showed that AtEDT1/HDG11, as a transcription factor, can target the auxin biosynthesis gene YUCC6 and ABA response genes ABI3 and ABI5. Collectively, our results provide a new insight into the role of AtEDT1/HDG11 in enhancing abiotic stress resistance through auxin- and ABA-mediated signaling response in Chinese kale.

  19. Overexpression of AtEDT1/HDG11 in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra enhances drought and osmotic stress tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsheng Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants are constantly challenged by environmental stresses, including drought and high salinity. Improvement of drought and osmotic stress tolerance without yield decrease has been a great challenge in crop improvement. The Arabidopsis ENHANCED DROUGHT TOLERANCE1/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (AtEDT1/HDG11, a protein of the class IV HD-Zip family, has been demonstrated to significantly improve drought tolerance in Arabidopsis, rice and pepper. Here, we report that AtEDT1/HDG11 confers drought and osmotic stress tolerance in the Chinese kale. AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression lines exhibit auxin-overproduction phenotypes, such as long hypocotyls, tall stems, more root hairs and a larger root system architecture. Compared with the untransformed control, transgenic lines have significantly reduced stomatal density. In the leaves of transgenic Chinese kale plants, proline (Pro content and reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activity was significantly increased after drought and osmotic stress, particularly compared to wild kale. More importantly, AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression leads to abscisic acid (ABA hypersensitivity, resulting in ABA inhibitor germination and induced stomatal closure. Consistent with observed phenotypes, the expression levels of auxin, ABA and stress-related genes were also altered under both normal and/or stress conditions. Further analysis showed that AtEDT1/HDG11, as a transcription factor, can target the auxin biosynthesis gene YUCC6 and ABA response genes ABI3 and ABI5. Collectively, our results provide a new insight into the role of AtEDT1/HDG11 in enhancing abiotic stress resistance through auxin- and ABA- mediated signaling response in Chinese kale.

  20. Efecto de la exposición del semillero a coberturas de colores sobre el desarrollo y productividad del brócoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fánor Casierra-Posada; Javier F Rojas B

    2009-01-01

      Se estudió el efecto de diferentes rangos del espectro sobre el crecimiento de plántulas de brócoli. Se usaron películas plásticas de color amarillo, azul, naranja, transparente, y sin cobertura...

  1. Expresión de la hormona de crecimiento humano en cultivos de raíces aéreas de Brassica oleracea var. italica

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar García López; Octavio Gómez Gúzman; Emma Gloria Ramos-Ramírez; Armando Ariza-Castolo; Josefina Pérez-Vargas; Graciano Calva Calva

    2010-01-01

    Debido al crecimiento de la población humana mundial, las compañías farmacéuticas enfrentan una creciente demanda de proteínas terapéuticas, como anticuerpos, enzimas y hormonas; no obstante, las instalaciones y tecnologías existentes, como los cultivos de células animales y bacterianos pueden no resultar suficientes para cubrir esa demanda. Una alternativa es la utilización de la biotecnología vegetal para producir proteínas heterólogas. En este trabajo se presentan resultados del estudio de...

  2. How Efficient Is Apis cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Pollinating Cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata? Pollination Behavior, Pollinator Effectiveness, Pollinator Requirement, and Impact of Pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Johnson; Sah, Khushboo; Subbanna, Avupati Rns; Preetha, G; Gupta, JaiPrakash

    2017-06-01

    Cabbage is a cross-pollinated crop because of sporophytic self-incompatibility, and honey bees play an important role in its pollination. Though Asian honey bees, Apis cerana F., are used in pollination of cabbage, the rate of visitation, behavior, pollinator efficacy, and impact on seed-set are to be determined. Apis cerana occupy a share of 19.18% of all the flower visitors of cabbage in natural habitat of North Western Indian Himalayas. Pollination behavior in terms of peak activity, flowers processed per unit time, time spent per flower, and time spent in search of flowers are studied separately for both pollen and nectar foragers. Pollinator effectiveness as measured by seed set in flowers excluded from bee visitation, single bee visit, and unrestricted pollinator visits was 0.11. Studies on the impact of A. cerana bee pollination in cabbage seed production revealed an increase of 17.28% in siliqua per panicle, with 26.11% increase in seed yield. For assessing the requirement of A. cerana to pollinate one hectare of cabbage, flower availability and the speed with which the pollen and nectar foragers process the flowers are taken into consideration. A forager is estimated to pollinate 4,780 flowers a day, but cabbage flower requires 9.09 visits of A. cerana for optimum seed set. Thus, a maximum of 4,999 bee foragers or 8.33 colonies are needed to effectively pollinate 1 ha of cabbage. Though A. cerana is a good pollinator, our findings suggest that it is not an ideal pollinator of cabbage. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Intra-specific variation in wild Brassica oleracea for aphid-induced plant responses and consequences for caterpillar-parasitoid interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Dicke, M.; Harvey, J.A.; Gols, R.

    2014-01-01

    Herbivore-induced plant responses not only influence the initiating attackers, but also other herbivores feeding on the same host plant simultaneously or at a different time. Insects belonging to different feeding guilds are known to induce different responses in the host plant. Changes in a plant's

  4. The kinetic of key phytochemical compounds of non-heading and heading leafy Brassica oleracea landraces as affected by traditional cooking methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giambanelli, Elisa; Verkerk, Ruud; Antuono, D' L.F.; Oliviero, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kales are often a key ingredient of traditional foods, containing high amounts of indolic glucosinolates (precursors of indole-3-carbinol and ascorbigen), carotenoids and phenolics. The present trend to associate traditional foods crops with health-promoting properties suggested to in

  5. Wound Healing Effect of an Ointment Made From a Mixture of Brassica oleracea var, Punica granatum, and Plantago major L Extracts in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazafkan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background In Iranian traditional medicine, Punica granatum, cabbage, and plantago have been used to prompt wound healing. The effects of cabbage, Punica granatum, and Plantago in wound healing have been investigated to some extent, but no experimental study has been performed to assess the impact of an ointment containing all these three substances on wound healing. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of an ointment prepared from a mixture of cabbage, Punica granatum, and plantago on local wound healing in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods This experimental study was performed on 21 male Wistar rats. Firstly, a full thickness wound was created on rats flank, near the spine by a bistoury blade and forceps. Then they were randomly divided into three groups of seven rats as the control group, a positive control group (the treatment group with phenytoin, and the third one received a treatment with studied ointment. The wounds were evaluated on days three, six, nine, and 12. Results were compared by SPSS software using ANOVA test. Results The average percentage of wound healing in different groups on days 3, 6, 9 and 12 were as follows; 21.3%, 37.87%, 67.39% and 77.17% in control group; 24.98%, 34.21%, 70.74% and 88.55% in positive control group; and 32.35%, 61.27%, 94.53%, and 99.91%, in case group. A significant difference was observed between the control and case groups (P < 0.05. Conclusions Treatment with the studied ointment could promote wound healing.

  6. Influence of thermal processing on hydrolysis and stability of folate poly-gamma-glutamates in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), carrot (Daucus carota) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaka, Ann Wambui; Verlinde, Philippe; Mukisa, Ivan Muzira; Oey, Indrawati; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

    2010-04-14

    The folate poly-gamma-glutamate profile, their concentrations, and hydrolysis by endogenous gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) were evaluated in broccoli, carrot and tomato. Further studies on the effect of time and temperature on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis and stability were carried out in broccoli since this vegetable showed the highest long-chain and total folate poly-gamma-glutamate concentration. The evolution of l-ascorbic acid, total phenols and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values was evaluated in parallel. Upon thermal inactivation of GGH prior to crushing, it was observed that broccoli, carrot and tomato contained poly-gamma-glutamates with one to seven glutamate residues but differed in the predominant poly-gamma-glutamates. Crushing of raw broccoli, carrot and tomato resulted in significant poly-gamma-glutamate profile changes in broccoli and carrot (indicating GGH-catalyzed hydrolysis) but not in tomato. In this study, the actual crushing of raw broccoli matrix had a greater effect on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis than incubation conditions (0-30 min at 25-55 degrees C). During treatments at 25-140 degrees C, folate retention was higher at 80 and 100 degrees C than at the other temperatures. A similar trend in thermal stability was observed for folates, vitamin C, total phenols and TEAC value, an indication that conditions that result in endogenous antioxidants degradation might also result in folate degradation.

  7. Encapsulation of Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var.capitata L. f. rubra Anthocyanins by Spray Drying using Different Encapsulating Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahi Bernstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the drying air temperature (140 and 160°C and the concentration of encapsulating agents gum Arabic and polydextrose (10 and 15% on the physicochemical characteristics of the red cabbage extract obtained through extraction in acidulated water and drying using a spray dryer. The anthocyanin retention, antioxidant activity, water activity, solubility, color and microstructure of the final product were analyzed. Results showed that increase in the temperature did not cause significant changes in the anthocyanin quantity and antioxidant activity. The microscopic analysis revealed that for both the encapsulating agents, the absence of fissures and porosity in the particle surfaces produced powder with high solubility in water. The principal component analyses showed a strong correlation between the anthocyanin content and the antioxidant activity (r = 0.82 and luminosity (r = 0.81.

  8. Study on the Relationship Between the Ploidy Level of Microspore-Derived Plants and the Number of Chloroplast in Stomatal Guard Cells in Brassica oleracea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Su-xia; LIU Yu-mei; FANG Zhi-yuan; YANG Li-mei; ZHUANG Mu; ZHANG Yang-yong; SUN Pei-tian

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between the ploidy level of microspore-derived plants and chloroplast number in stomatal guard cells was studied in cabbage, broccoli, and Chinese kale. In the experiment, distribution statistics analysis and t-test were used to perform statistical analysis on chloroplast number of different ploidy level in those stomatal guard cells mentioned above, and morphology identifying and chromosome counting were used to test accuracy of counting chloroplast number in stomatal guard cells. The chloroplast average number in stomatal guard cells was very similar among the different leaf positions on the same plant and among the different locations in the same leaf, while the chloroplast number varied significantly among the different ploidy stoma in the same variety. All the distributions of the chloroplast number in different ploidy stoma were normal distribution fitted. A correlation has been established between ploidy and chloroplast number in the stomatal guard cells. In every single stoma of microspore-derived plants, the chloroplast number for a haploid should not be more than 10, diploids 11 to 15, and polyploids more than 15. The accuracy of this method for identification of different ploidy plants was 93.93%. Furthermore, the accuracy of this method was reliable and did not vary with the plants growth conditions. Therefore, the chromosome ploidy of plants derived from microspore culture in cabbage, broccoli, and Chinese kale can be identified by simply counting the chloroplast number in stomatal guard cells.

  9. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES TEMPOS DE COZIMENTO NOS TEORES DE FIBRAS ALIMENTARES EM FOLHAS DE BRÓCOLIS, COUVE-FLOR E COUVE (BRASSICA OLERACEA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Alessandra Teixeira dos SANTOS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram determinados os teores de fibras alimentares (FDA, FDN, lignina e pectinas das folhas de brócolis e couve-flor e comparados aos teores encontrados nas tradicionais folhas de couve. Os materiais estudados foram cultivados no município de Ijaci MG, com o objetivo da utilização integral dessas hortaliças como fonte alternativa de fibras. As folhas foram submetidas a cocção por seis diferentes tempos (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 minutos. Acompanhando o comportamento das diversas frações da fibra no material úmido e após secagem. Os resultados mostraram que as folhas de couve-flor e brócolis superaram a couve comum, que apresentou teores superiores apenas na fração FDA do material seco. Os resultados revelaram que as folhas das hortaliças analisadas podem ser consideradas como boas fontes de fibras insolúveis, mas não contribuem significativamente com a porção solúvel.

  10. Productivity and selenium concentrations in egg and tissue of laying quails fed selenium from hydroponically produced selenium-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinrasri, Orawan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Maneetong, Sarunya; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee; Chantiratikul, Anut

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Se from hydroponically produced Se-enriched kale sprout (HPSeKS) on productive performance, egg quality, and Se concentrations in egg and tissue of laying quails. Two-hundred quails, 63 days of age, were divided into four groups. Each group consisted of five replicates and each replicate had ten birds, according to a completely randomized design. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were T1 (control diet), T2 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite), T3 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched yeast), T4 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from HPSeKS). The findings revealed that productive performance and egg quality of quails were not altered (p > 0.05) by Se sources. Whole egg Se concentrations of quails fed Se from HPSeKS and Se-enriched yeast were higher (p  0.05), but higher (p < 0.05) than that of quails fed Se from sodium selenite. The results reveal that Se from HPSeKS did not change the performance and egg quality of quails. The effectiveness of Se from HPSeKS was comparable to that of Se-enriched yeast, which was higher than that of Se from sodium selenite.

  11. Nitrogen split dose fertilization, plant age and frost effects on phytochemical content and sensory properties of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenbaek, Marie; Jensen, Sidsel; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Kidmose, Ulla; Kristensen, Hanne L

    2016-04-15

    We investigated how concentrations of sensory relevant compounds: glucosinolates (GLSs), flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and sugars in kale responded to split dose and reduced nitrogen (N) fertilization, plant age and controlled frost exposure. In addition, frost effects on sensory properties combined with N supply were assessed. Seventeen week old kale plants showed decreased aliphatic GLSs at split dose N fertilization; whereas reduced N increased aliphatic and total GLSs. Ontogenetic effects were demonstrated for all compounds: sugars, aliphatic and total GLSs increased throughout plant development, whereas kaempferol and total flavonoid glycosides showed higher concentrations in 13 week old plants. Controlled frost exposure altered sugar composition slightly, but not GLSs or flavonoid glycosides. Reduced N supply resulted in less bitterness, astringency and pungent aroma, whereas frost exposure mainly influenced aroma and texture. N treatment explained most of the sensory variation. Producers should not rely on frost only to obtain altered sensory properties.

  12. Influence of cultivar and fertilizer approach on curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica). 1. Genetic diversity reflected in agronomic characteristics and phytochemical concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenbaek, Marie; Jensen, Sidsel; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Kidmose, Ulla; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2014-11-26

    The objectives were to investigate if genetic diversity among field-grown traditional and F1 hybrid kale cultivars was reflected in different agronomic characteristics and consequently glucosinolate (GLS) and flavonoid glycoside concentration. This study evaluated how nitrogen and sulfur supply and biomass allocation modified phytochemicals in two experiments with combinations of three cultivars and four N and two S application levels. Results showed less growth, and higher N concentration in the traditional cultivar 'Tiara' was associated with increased indole and total GLSs compared to traditional 'Høj Amager Toftø' and F1 hybrid 'Reflex' cultivars, which exhibited higher yield, lower N concentration, and different biomass allocation. S application increased total GLS concentration, whereas aliphatic GLS percentage decreased when N application increased. Decrease of six 'Reflex' GLSs besides quercetin glycosides and total flavonoid glycosides with increased N indicated higher N responsiveness for 'Reflex'. In conclusion, differences in agronomic characteristics were reflected in diverse phytochemical composition.

  13. Evaluation of genetic diversity in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. alboglabra Bailey) by using rapid amplified polymorphic DNA and sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Zhang, L G

    2014-02-14

    Chinese kale is an original Chinese vegetable of the Cruciferae family. To select suitable parents for hybrid breeding, we thoroughly analyzed the genetic diversity of Chinese kale. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) molecular markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity across 21 Chinese kale accessions from AVRDC and Guangzhou in China. A total of 104 bands were detected by 11 RAPD primers, of which 66 (63.5%) were polymorphic, and 229 polymorphic bands (68.4%) were observed in 335 bands amplified by 17 SRAP primer combinations. The dendrogram showed the grouping of the 21 accessions into 4 main clusters based on RAPD data, and into 6 clusters based on SRAP and combined data (RAPD + SRAP). The clustering of accessions based on SRAP data was consistent with petal colors. The Mantel test indicated a poor fit for the RAPD and SRAP data (r = 0.16). These results have an important implication for Chinese kale germplasm characterization and improvement.

  14. Identification of sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers linked to the red leaf trait in ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y S; Liu, Z Y; Li, Y F; Zhang, Y; Yang, X F; Feng, H

    2013-04-02

    Artistic diversiform leaf color is an important agronomic trait that affects the market value of ornamental kale. In the present study, genetic analysis showed that a single-dominant gene, Re (red leaf), determines the red leaf trait in ornamental kale. An F2 population consisting of 500 individuals from the cross of a red leaf double-haploid line 'D05' with a white leaf double-haploid line 'D10' was analyzed for the red leaf trait. By combining bulked segregant analysis and sequence-related amplified polymorphism technology, we identified 3 markers linked to the Re/re locus. A genetic map of the Re locus was constructed using these sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers. Two of the markers, Me8Em4 and Me8Em17, were located on one side of Re/re at distances of 2.2 and 6.4 cM, whereas the other marker, Me9Em11, was located on the other side of Re/re at a distance of 3.7 cM. These markers could be helpful for the subsequent cloning of the red trait gene and marker-assisted selection in ornamental kale breeding programs.

  15. Interaction of moderate UV-B exposure and temperature on the formation of structurally different flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugart, Susanne; Fiol, Michaela; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Zrenner, Rita; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2014-05-07

    Kale has a high number of structurally different flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. In this study we investigated the interaction of moderate UV-B radiation and temperature on these compounds. Kale plants were grown at daily mean temperatures of 5 or 15 °C and were exposed to five subsequent daily doses (each 0.25 kJ m(-2) d(-1)) of moderate UV-B radiation at 1 d intervals. Of 20 phenolic compounds, 11 were influenced by an interaction of UV-B radiation and temperature, e.g., monoacylated quercetin glycosides. Concomitantly, enhanced mRNA expression of flavonol 3'- hydroxylase showed an interaction of UV-B and temperature, highest at 0.75 kJ m(-2) and 15 °C. Kaempferol glycosides responded diversely and dependent on, e.g., the hydroxycinnamic acid residue. Compounds containing a catechol structure seem to be favored in the response to UV-B. Taken together, subsequent exposure to moderate UV-B radiation is a successful tool for enhancing the flavonoid profile of plants, and temperature should be considered.

  16. Ornamental Characteristics and Gardening Applications of Kale(Brassica oleracea var.acephala)%羽衣甘蓝的观赏特性及园林应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华渊; 李莹莹

    2011-01-01

    羽衣甘蓝具有明显的观赏特性和很高的园林应用价值,是我国华东地带深秋、冬季及早春重要的花坛材料.文章从株型、叶型、叶色、花序等方面分析了羽衣甘蓝的观赏特性,并探讨了其园林应用形式.

  17. The effect of three liquid bio-fertilizers in the production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criollo Escobar Hernando Artemio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In modern agriculture, the use of agrochemicals has grown considerably, increasing production costs and causing serious problems for the environment. The use of bio-fertilizers is a viable alternative to improve the profitability of crops, particularly for agriculture on medium and small-sized farms with intensive production systems, such as vegetables. Given that bio-fertilizers can be produced on the farm and used successfully in crop production, this research focused on the effect of three bio-fertilizers on the production of lettuce and cabbage, biweekly applications were made with liquid fertilizers produced from the manure of cows (BFC, guinea pigs (BFGp and pigs (BFPi and compared to a commercial foliar fertilizer (CFF and a control without an application. We observed the presence of Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces in the BFC and BFGp fertilizers and Bacillus in the BFPi fertilizer. The weight and head diameter and yield of lettuce and cabbage favored the bio-fertilizer applications compared to the control, but no statistical differences were found compared to the commercial foliar fertilizer (CFF. This behavior is attributed not only to the mineral content, but also to the presence of metabolite regulators of plant physiology, produced by the microbial action of the bio-fertilizers.

  18. Differences among cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var capitata) genotypes for Cd uptake and accumulation in fruiting portion and possible inhibition through use of silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soils may become progressively enriched with cadmium as a consequence of industrial activities, fertilization, and waste disposal. The current widespread interest in Cd uptake and translocation arises not only from its toxicity to plants, but also from the harmful health effects of its dietary inta...

  19. Adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate reductase is regulated differently in Allium cepa L. and Brassica oleracea L. upon exposure to H2S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durenkamp, Mark; De Kok, Lult J.; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    The reduction of adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate (APS) by APS reductase (APR) is considered to be one of the rate-limiting steps in the assimilation of sulphur in plants. In order to identify the mechanisms of regulation of this enzyme, the impact of atmospheric H2S exposure on mRNA expression, protein

  20. Modeling the kinetics of peroxidase inactivation, colour and texture changes of Portuguese cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC during UV-C light and heat blanching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui M.S. Cruz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of heat blanching and UV-C light followed by heat on Portuguese cabbage peroxidase (POD, colour and texture were studied in the temperature range of 80-95 °C. POD inactivation, lightness (L and yellowness (b colour changes were described by a first-order reaction model. The greenness (a colour and texture (firmness changes followed a two fraction kinetic model behaviour. The temperature effect was well described by the Arrhenius law.At lower temperatures the combined treatment showed higher POD inactivation. Colour and texture parameters did not show significant differences between treatments. Long processing times turned the leaves slightly darker, decreased greenness, yellowness and firmness. Short processing times increased the  firmness and greenness of the leaves. The treatment at 80 °C for 90 seconds reduced 90% of POD, retaining 98% of lightness and 92% of yellowness and improved the green colour (130% and firmness (125%. At 80 °C the heat blanching required 7.4 min to inactivate 90% of the enzyme activity, reducing lightness, greenness, yellowness and firmness to 92%, 68%, 62% and 61%, respectively. The present findings will help to optimize the Portuguese cabbage blanching conditions.

  1. PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCT RESIDUES IN APPLES, CAULIFLOWER, CEREALS, GRAPE, LETTUCE, PEAS, PEPPERS, POTATOES AND STRAWBERRIES OF THE SLOVENE ORIGIN IN 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena BAŠA ČESNIK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2006, 181 apple, cauliflower, cereal, grape, lettuce, pea, pepper, potato and strawberry samples from Slovene producers were analysed for plant protection product residues. The samples were analysed for the presence of 86 different active compounds using four analytical methods. In nine samples (5.0 % exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs were determined which is comparable with the results of the monitoring of plant protection product residues in products of plant origin in the European union, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein in 2005 (4.9 %.

  2. Classification of temperature response in germination of Brassicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since soil temperature affects germination and emergence of canola (Brassica napus L.), mustard [B. juncea (L.) Czerniak. and Sinapsis alba L.], and camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.], planting dates have to be adjusted to prevent crop failures. These crops can be used as biofuel feedstocks, a...

  3. Proteomic analysis of Brassica alboglabra in Response to Herbicide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aishah

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... enzymatic antioxidant system and also enzymes in photorespiratory ... effects of environmental stresses on Brassica by using 2-. DE have been ..... the effects of ABA treatments on ripening Vitis vinifera berries. J. Exp. Bot. ... mildew infection of leaf tissues of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine. (Vitis vinifera L.).

  4. Movement and host finding of Trichogramma brassicae on maize plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suverkropp, B.P.; Bigler, F.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Direct observation of searching patterns and residence times of Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko on maize plants were made at 18 degrees C and 25 degrees C. Temperature had a strong effect on the residence times: parasitoids spent an average of 44.9 minutes on the plant at 18 degrees C and 20.8 minut

  5. Quantitative trait loci for glucosinolate accumulation in Brassica rapa leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, P.; Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; He, Hongju; Hanhart, C.J.; Pino del Carpio, D.; Verkerk, R.; Custers, J.B.M.; Koornneef, M.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Glucosinolates and their breakdown products have been recognized for their effects on plant defense, human health, flavor and taste of cruciferous vegetables. Despite this importance, little is known about the regulation of the biosynthesis and degradation in Brassica rapa. Here, the identification

  6. Factors affecting the density of Brassica napus seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, L.; Jalink, H.; Denkert, R.; Reaney, M.

    2006-01-01

    Brassica napus seed is composed of low density oil (0.92 g.cm(-3)) and higher density solids (1.3-1.45 g.cm(-3)). Seed buoyant density may potentially be used to determine seed oil content and to separate seeds with different oil contents, however, we have found that seeds with the lowest buoyant

  7. Processing of Brassica seeds for feedstock in biofuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several Brassica species are currently being evaluated to develop regionalized production systems based on their suitability to the environment and with the prevailing practices of growing commodity food crops like wheat, corn, and soybeans. This integrated approach to farming will provide high qual...

  8. Manganese toxicity hardly affects sulfur metabolism in Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neves, M.I.; Prajapati, D.H.; Parmar, S.; Aghajanzadeh, T.; Hawkesford, M.J.; De Kok, L.J.; De Kok, L.J.; Haneklaus, S.H.; Hawkesford, M.J.; Schnug, E.

    2017-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant nutrient, though at elevated levels in plant tissues it may become toxic. The physiological basis for phytotoxicity is largely unclear. Exposure of Brassica rapa to elevated levels of Mn2+ in the nutrient solution resulted in decreased biomass production at ≥ 20

  9. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.

  10. Temperature-dependent development of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) on two brassicaceous host plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI GOLIZADEH; KARIM KAMALI; YAGHOUB FATHIPOUR; HABIB ABBASIPOUR

    2007-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the development of the Plutella xylostella(Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), was evaluated at eight constant temperatures (10, 15,20, 25, 28, 30, 32.5 and 35℃), with relative humidity of 65% and a photoperiod of 14:10(L: D) hours on two host plants, cauliflower, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and cabbage,Brassica oleracea var. capitata. The low temperature threshold was estimated to be 7.06℃and 7.84℃ and the thermal constant was 263.74 and 261.58 degree-days for P. xylostella on cauliflower and cabbage, respectively, using the linear model. Data were fitted to various nonlinear temperature-dependent models, and the low and high temperature thresholds, as well as the optimum temperature for development, has been estimated. Criteria of choice from the literature were used to evaluate models and to select the most suitable equation for P. xylostella development on each host plant. Conclusively, linear and Briere-2 models are recommended for the description of temperature-dependent development of P. xylostella on two host plants.

  11. Optimum timing of insecticide applications against diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in cole crops using threshold catches in sex pheromone traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V; Guerrero, A

    2001-01-01

    Field trials were conducted in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata), cauliflower (B oleracea var botrytis) and knol khol (B oleracea gongylodes) crops at two different locations in Karnataka State (India) to optimize the timing of insecticide applications to control the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, using sex pheromone traps. Our results indicate that applications of cartap hydrochloride as insecticide during a 12-24 h period after the pheromone traps had caught on average 8, 12 and 16 males per trap per night in cabbage, cauliflower and knol khol, respectively, were significantly more effective than regular insecticide sprays at 7, 9, 12 or 15 days after transplantation. This was demonstrated by estimation of the mean number of eggs and larvae per plant, the percentage of holes produced, as well as the marketable yield of the three crops at each location. A good correlation between the immature stages, infestation level, the estimated crop yield and the number of moths caught in pheromone traps was also found, indicating the usefulness of pheromone-based monitoring traps to predict population densities of the pest.

  12. Arabidopsis mutant bik1 exhibits strong resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis-induced kinase1 (BIK1, a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, plays an important role in resistance against pathogens and insects in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it remains unknown whether BIK1 functions against Plasmodiophora brassicae, an obligate biotrophic protist that attacks cruciferous plants and induces gall formation on roots. Here, we investigated the potential roles of receptors FLS2, BAK1 and BIK1 in the infection of P. brassicae cruciferous plants. Wild-type plants, fls2 and bak1 mutants showed typical symptom on roots, and the galls were filled with large quantities of resting spores, while bik1 mutant plants exhibited strong resistance to P. brassicae. Compared with that of the wild-type plants, the root hair and cortical infection rate of bik1 mutant were significantly reduced by about 40-50%. A considerable portion of bik1 roots failed to form typical galls. Even if some small galls were formed, they were filled with multinucleate secondary plasmodia. The bik1 plants accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS at infected roots than other mutants and wild-type plants. Exogenous salicylic acid (SA treatment alleviated the clubroot symptoms in wild-type plants, and the expression of the SA signaling marker gene PR1 was significantly increased in bik1. Both sid2 (salicylic acid induction-deficient 2 and npr1-1 (non-expresser of PR genes that regulate systemic acquired resistance (SAR mutants showed increased susceptibility to P. brassicae compared with wild-type plants. These results suggest that the resistance of bik1 to P. brassicae is possibly mediated by SA inducible mechanisms enhance the resistance to clubroot disease.

  13. ?cidos grasos, actividad antioxidante y antibacterial en extractos de verdolaga. (Portulaca Oleracea)

    OpenAIRE

    Moncayo Esp?n, Cristian Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Desde tiempos prehist?ricos las plantas medicinales han sido utilizadas para el tratamiento de diversas afecciones. Estas plantas han sido objeto de un sin n?mero de investigaciones con el fin de encontrar propiedades antioxidantes, antimicrobianas y antimutag?nicas. Portulaca oleracea o verdolaga, es una hierba nativa, rica en ?cidos grasos omega3 y vitaminas, que ha sido usada con fines medicinales. En el Ecuador, un pa?s rico en biodiversidad, se han encontrado dos especies end?micas perte...

  14. Flavonoids in baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.): Changes during plant growth and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergquist, S. Å. M.; Gertsson, U. E.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2005-01-01

    The variation in flavonoid concentration and composition was investigated in baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cv. Emilia sown on three occasions, each harvested at three growth stages at 6-day intervals. After harvest, leaves were stored in polypropylene bags at 2 or 10 degrees C. Flavonoids......-12% of the total flavonoid content. Total flavonoid content was relatively stable during normal retail storage conditions, although some of the individual flavonoid compounds showed considerable variation. The youngest plants had the highest flavonoid concentration, indicating that by harvesting the baby spinach...

  15. The amino acid sequence of cytochrome c from Spinacea oleracea L. (spinach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R H; Richardson, M; Scogin, R; Boulter, D

    1973-02-01

    The amino acid sequence of spinach (Spinacea oleracea L., var. Monster Viroflay) cytochrome c was determined on 1mumol of protein. The molecule consists of 111 residues and is homologous with other mitochondrial cytochromes c. Experimental details are given in a supplementary paper that has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50013, at the National Lending Library for Science and Technology, Boston Spa, Yorks. LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1973), 131, 5.

  16. Multispectral imaging as a potential tool for seed health testing of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M. Halkjaer; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Boelt, B.

    2011-01-01

    Seed health tests are time consuming and require substantial training for characterization of pathogenic fungi on seed. A new approach to use a multispectral vision system for identifying surface properties of different fungal infections has been tested in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) at Aarhus...... based on mean pixel intensity, Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) and classification by Jeffries-Matusita (JM) distance illustrates that a combination of Near Infrared spectra (NIR) and Visual spectra (VIS) is able to identify uninfected seeds from infected seeds ranging from 80-100%. Classification....... and Stemphylium spp. needs further development before practical application....

  17. Production of a reference transcriptome and transcriptomic database (PocilloporaBase for the cauliflower coral, Pocillopora damicornis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traylor-Knowles Nikki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motivated by the precarious state of the world's coral reefs, there is currently a keen interest in coral transcriptomics. By identifying changes in coral gene expression that are triggered by particular environmental stressors, we can begin to characterize coral stress responses at the molecular level, which should lead to the development of more powerful diagnostic tools for evaluating the health of corals in the field. Furthermore, the identification of genetic variants that are more or less resilient in the face of particular stressors will help us to develop more reliable prognoses for particular coral populations. Toward this end, we performed deep mRNA sequencing of the cauliflower coral, Pocillopora damicornis, a geographically widespread Indo-Pacific species that exhibits a great diversity of colony forms and is able to thrive in habitats subject to a wide range of human impacts. Importantly, P. damicornis is particularly amenable to laboratory culture. We collected specimens from three geographically isolated Hawaiian populations subjected to qualitatively different levels of human impact. We isolated RNA from colony fragments ("nubbins" exposed to four environmental stressors (heat, desiccation, peroxide, and hypo-saline conditions or control conditions. The RNA was pooled and sequenced using the 454 platform. Description Both the raw reads (n = 1, 116, 551 and the assembled contigs (n = 70, 786; mean length = 836 nucleotides were deposited in a new publicly available relational database called PocilloporaBase http://www.PocilloporaBase.org. Using BLASTX, 47.2% of the contigs were found to match a sequence in the NCBI database at an E-value threshold of ≤.001; 93.6% of those contigs with matches in the NCBI database appear to be of metazoan origin and 2.3% bacterial origin, while most of the remaining 4.1% match to other eukaryotes, including algae and amoebae. Conclusions P. damicornis now joins the handful of

  18. Preparation of Cauliflower-like ZnO Films by Chemical Bath Deposition:Photovoltaic Performance and Equivalent Circuit of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqiao Wang; Xia Cui; Yuan Zhang; Xiaorui Gao; Yueming Sun

    2013-01-01

    The uniform cauliflower-like ZnO films were deposited on the conducting substrate by a chemical bath deposition in urea/water solution.The film structure and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction,thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis,energy dispersive spectroscopy,selected area electron diffraction,field emission scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy.The average diameter of ZnO nanoparticles and the petal thickness were 25 nm and 8 μm,respectively.Dyesensitized solar cells based on the cauliflower-like ZnO film electrode showed the short-circuit current density of 6.08 mA/cm2,the open-circuit photovoltage of 0.66 V,the fill factor of 0.55 and the overall conversion efficiency of 2.18%.The equivalent circuit of cells based on the ZnO film electrodes was measured by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.Furthermore,the analysis of equivalent circuit provided the relationship between the cell performance and the interfacial resistance,such as the shunt resistance and the series resistance.

  19. Facile synthesis of nano cauliflower and nano broccoli like hierarchical superhydrophobic composite coating using PVDF/carbon soot particles via gelation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Bichitra Nanda; Balasubramanian, Kandasubramanian

    2014-12-15

    We have elucidated a cost effective fabrication technique to produce superhydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF/DMF/candle soot particle and PVDF/DMF/camphor soot particle composite) porous materials. The water repellent dry composite was formed by the interaction of non-solvent (methanol) into PVDF/carbon soot particles suspension in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). It is seen that longer quenching time effectively changes the surface morphology of dry composites. The nano broccoli like hierarchical microstructure with micro or nano scaled roughen surface was obtained for PVDF/DMF/camphor soot particle, which reveals water contact angle of 172° with roll off angle of 2°. However, composite coating of PVDF/DMF/candle soot particle shows nano cauliflower like hierarchical, which illustrates water contact angle of 169° with roll off angle of 3°. To elucidate the enhancement of water repellent property of PVDF composites, we further divulge the evolution mechanism of nano cauliflower and nano broccoli structure. In order to evaluate the water contact angle of PVDF composites, surface diffusion of water inside the pores is investigated. Furthermore, the addition of small amount of carbon soot particles in composite not only provides the crystallization of PVDF, but also leads to dramatical amendment of surface morphology which increases the surface texture and roughness for superhydrophobicity.

  20. Genetic diversity in Brassica species and Eruca sativa for yield associated parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Kanwal Mahwish; Farhatullah; Rabbani Ashiq M.; Iqbal Sidra; Fayyaz Laila; Afzal M.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica species are vulnerable to narrow genetic base due to the ignorance of their wild relatives which possess many superior characters. This study was aimed to explore the genetic diversity in five Brassica species from U triangle as well as in their wild relative Eruca sativa. For the complete insight of genetic diversity, four accessions, each from five species of genus Brassica along with one species of Eruca collected from different geographical loc...

  1. Genomic and transcriptomic alterations following hybridisation and genome doubling in trigenomic allohexaploid Brassica carinata × Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Zhao, Q; Mei, S; Wang, J

    2012-09-01

    Allopolyploidisation is a prominent evolutionary force that involves two major events: interspecific hybridisation and genome doubling. Both events have important functional consequences in shaping the genomic architecture of the neo-allopolyploids. The respective effects of hybridisation and genome doubling upon genomic and transcriptomic changes in Brassica allopolyploids are unresolved. In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) and cDNA-AFLP approaches were used to track genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional changes in both allohexaploid Brassica (ArArBcBcCcCc genome) and triploid hybrids (ArBcCc genome). Results from these groups were compared with each other and also to their parents Brassica carinata (BBCC genome) and Brassica rapa (AA genome). Rapid and dramatic genetic, DNA methylation and gene expression changes were detected in the triploid hybrids. During the shift from triploidy to allohexaploidy, some of the hybridisation-induced alterations underwent reversion. Additionally, novel genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional alterations were also detected. The proportions of A-genome-specific DNA methylation and gene expression alterations were significantly greater than those of BC-genome-specific alterations in the triploid hybrids. However, the two parental genomes were equally affected during the ploidy shift. Hemi-CCG methylation changes induced by hybridisation were recovered after genome doubling. Full-CG methylation changes were a more general process initiated in the hybrid and continued after genome doubling. These results indicate that genome doubling could ameliorate genomic and transcriptomic alterations induced by hybridisation and instigate additional alterations in trigenomic Brassica allohexaploids. Moreover, genome doubling also modified hybridisation-induced progenitor genome-biased alterations and epigenetic alteration characteristics.

  2. Radiation effects on Brassica seeds and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoli, Naresh; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation consists of high energy charged particles and affects biological systems, but because of its stochastic, non-directional nature is difficult to replicate on Earth. Radiation damages biological systems acutely at high doses or cumulatively at low doses through progressive changes in DNA organization. These damages lead to death or cause of mutations. While radiation biology typically focuses on mammalian or human systems, little is known as to how radiation affects plants. In addition, energetic ion beams are widely used to generate new mutants in plants considering their high-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) as compared to gamma rays and X-rays. Understanding the effect of ionizing radiation on plant provides a basis for studying effects of radiation on biological systems and will help mitigate (space) radiation damage in plants. We exposed dry and imbibed Brassica rapa seeds and seedling roots to proton beams of varying qualities and compared the theoretical penetration range of different energy levels with observable growth response. We used 1, 2 and 3 MeV protons in air at the varying fluences to investigate the effect of direct irradiation on the seeds (1012 - 1015 ions/cm2) and seedlings (1013 ions/cm2). The range of protons in the tissue was calculated using Monte-Carlo based SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) software. The simulation and biological results indicate that ions did not penetrate the tissue of dry or hydrated seeds at all used ion energies. Therefore the entire energy was transferred to the treated tissue. Irradiated seeds were germinated vertically under dim light and roots growth was observed for two days after imbibition. The LD50 of the germination was about 2×1014 ions/cm2 and about 5×1014 ions/cm2 for imbibed and dry seeds, respectively. Since seedlings are most sensitive to gravity, the change in gravitropic behavior is a convenient means to assess radiation damage on physiological responses other than direct tissue

  3. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Portulaca Oleracea on the serum concentreation of Hepatic enzymes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zarei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Hyperlipidemia can be cause a variety of diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and fatty liver and subsequent liver enzyme increases. The Portulaca Oleracea plant has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. Therefore, in this study the effect of Portulca Oleracea herb extract on serum liver enzymes including aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT or AST, alanine aminotransferase (SGPT or ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in rats were studied. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 60 Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=10. Control group with normal diet, fat diet group and other groups, the experimental group received the same diet plus fat Portulaca oleracea extract maximum dose (800, the mean dose of (400, and a minimum dose of (200 mg / kg or intraperitoneally injection (ip and sort of Atorvastatin (10 mg kg. After the end of this period (21 days, blood sampling was performed and collected data were analyzed using the t and Tukey test, and SPSS software version 11.5. Results Comparison of statistical results indicated that alanine aminotransferase (ALT and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP increase in the control group that received only fatty foods, while the experimental groups received extract of Portulaca Oleracea, and groups receiving Atorvastatin had reduced levels of liver enzymes. Conclusion: Regarding hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic antioxidant activity of the extract and its effect on reducing liver enzymes, plant extracts can be recommended to improve liver function.

  4. Diversity and Active Mechanism of Fengycin-Type Cyclopeptides from Bacillus subtilis XF-1 Against Plasmodiophora brassicae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xing Yu Li; ; Zi Chao Mao; Yue Hu Wang; Yi Xing Wu; Yue Qiu He; Chun Lin Long

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis XF-1, a strain with demonstrated ability to control clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, was studied to elucidate its mechanism of antifungal activity against P. brassicae...

  5. Identification of genes involved in the drought adaptation and recovery in Portulaca oleracea by differential display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Rodrigo Matías; Triassi, Agustina; Casas, María Isabel; Andreo, Carlos Santiago; Lara, María Valeria

    2015-05-01

    Portulaca oleracea is one of the richest plant sources of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and other compounds potentially valuable for nutrition. It is broadly established in arid, semiarid and well-watered fields, thus making it a promising candidate for research on abiotic stress resistance mechanisms. It is capable of withstanding severe drought and then of recovering upon rehydration. Here, the adaptation to drought and the posterior recovery was evaluated at transcriptomic level by differential display validated by qRT-PCR. Of the 2279 transcript-derived fragments amplified, 202 presented differential expression. Ninety of them were successfully isolated and sequenced. Selected genes were tested against different abiotic stresses in P. oleracea and the behavior of their orthologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana was also explored to seek for conserved response mechanisms. In drought adapted and in recovered plants changes in expression of many protein metabolism-, lipid metabolism- and stress-related genes were observed. Many genes with unknown function were detected, which also respond to other abiotic stresses. Some of them are also involved in the seed desiccation/imbibition process and thus would be of great interest for further research. The potential use of candidate genes to engineer drought tolerance improvement and recovery is discussed.

  6. Photosynthesis-Involvement in Modulation of Ascorbate and Glutathione in Euterpe oleracea Plants Exposed to Drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonia Machado BARBOSA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine if photosynthesis interferes with the modulation of antioxidant compounds in young Euterpe oleracea plants exposed to water deficiencies. A factorial, completely randomised experimental design was employed, and two water conditions (water deficit and control and four evaluation points (0, 6, 12 and 18 days were used, resulting in a total of eight measurements. The measured parameters included the water content and temperature of the leaf, gas exchange, electrolyte leakage, and antioxidant content. Compared to the control treatment, the net loss of photosynthesis due to water restriction increased by approximately 100% on the 18th day of drought. The ascorbate levels decreased due to water restriction, presenting significant differences on the 12th and 18th day. In some cases, the water deficit increased the glutathione content; however, significant effects were only observed on the 18th day after irrigation suspension. Water deficits had a negative impact on stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency. Additionally, increases in the glutathione content, electrolyte leakage, and malondialdehyde content were observed; however, the ascorbate content decreased. Our results confirmed that the rate of photosynthesis interfered with the modulation of ascorbate and glutathione in young Euterpe oleracea plants exposed to drought.

  7. [Population dynamics of the palm Euterpe oleracea (Arecaceae) from flooded forests in Choco, Colombian Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Diego A; Duque, Alvaro J; Muñoz, Edinson

    2010-03-01

    The palm Euterpe oleracea is a dominant and promising species in flood plains of the Atrato river, Choco region of Colombia. We assessed the population dynamics of this species through growth rates, mortality and recruitment patterns for a period of two and a half years. Dynamic rates were compared among mixed and pure flood plain palm forests. These forests types were associated to different flooding regimes. Trees and palms were thinned in a portion for each forest type, the rest was left undisturbed. We used projection matrices to follow population trends. Thinning increased the transition probability of smaller individuals, but decreased it for larger individuals, as is typical of light demanding species. Thinning also increased mortality rates in almost all size classes, but did not affect recruitment rates. Under natural conditions, the E. oleracea populations are in equilibrium in pure and mixed forests. Thinning increased population growth in both forest types, suggesting the role played by density-dependent processes on the population size of this species.

  8. Optimization of phytoremediation in Cd- contaminated soil by using Taguchi method in Spinacia oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Jahanbakhshi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is an environmental friendly technique to the cleanup of polluted soils, which combines the disciplines of plant, soil and microbiology. In this study, four factors including: cow manure, compost, urea fertilizer and Cd-resistant bacteria with three different levels in soils contaminated with cadmium using 50 mg kg-1 cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O were used to optimize of phytoremediation by Spinacia oleracea. Taguchi method has been used for experimental design. Results showed that significant factors in the order of importance were: cow manure, Cd- resistant batteries, urea fertilizer and compost. The optimum conditions for the selected levels were inoculate three types of bacteria (CC3, CC4, CC5, compost = 10 (g kg-1, urea fertilizer = 0.05 (g kg-1 and cow manure = 40 (g kg-1. The performance of` these conditions were estimated at 257.27 (mg kg-1. Cow manure is the most contribution to efficiency of phytoremediation in Spinacia oleracea.

  9. The Effects of Portulaca oleracea on Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Edema in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tan; Xiaosa, Wen; Ruirui, Qi; Wencai, Shi; Hailiang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tan Yue, Wen Xiaosa, Qi Ruirui, Shi Wencai, Xin Hailiang, and Li Min. The effects of Portulaca oleracea on hypoxia-induced pulmonary edema in mice. High Alt Med Biol 16:43–51, 2015—Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) is known as “a vegetable for long life” due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other pharmacological activities. However, the protective activity of the ethanol extract of PO (EEPO) against hypoxia-induced pulmonary edema has not been fully investigated. In this study, we exposed mice to a simulated altitude of 7000 meters for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h to observe changes in the water content and transvascular leakage of the mouse lung. It was found that transvascular leakage increased to the maximum in the mouse lung after 6 h exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Prophylactic administration of EEPO before hypoxic exposure markedly reduced the transvascular leakage and oxidative stress, and inhibited the upregulation of NF-kB in the mouse lung, as compared with the control group. In addition, EEPO significantly reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and cell adhesion molecules in the lungs of mice, as compared with the hypoxia group. Our results show that EEPO can reduce initial transvascular leakage and pulmonary edema under hypobaric hypoxia conditions. PMID:25761168

  10. Erosion of Brassica incana Genetic Resources: Causes and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscolo, A.; Settineri, G.; Mallamaci, C.; Papalia, T.; Sidari, M.

    2017-07-01

    Brassica incana Ten., possessing a number of useful agronomic traits, represents a precious genetic resource to be used in plant breeding programs to broaden the genetic base in most Brassica crop species. B. incana that grows on limestone cliffs is at risk of genetic erosion for environmental constraints and human activities. We studied the pedological conditions of a Calabrian site where the B. incana grows, and we correlated the soil properties to the physiological and biochemical aspects of B. incana to identify the causes and effects of the genetic erosion of this species. Our results evidenced that physical soil conditions did not affect B. incana growth and nutraceutical properties; conversely, biological soil properties modified its properties. We identified leaf pigments and secondary metabolites that can be used routinely as early warning indicators of plant threat, to evaluate in a short term the dynamic behavior of plants leading to species extinction.

  11. Moderate water stress prevents the postharvest decline of ascorbic acid in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) but not in spinach beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogren, Lars M; Beacham, Andrew M; Reade, John P H; Monaghan, James M

    2016-07-01

    Babyleaf salads such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and spinach beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. cicla var. cicla) are an important dietary source of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Such compounds may be important in disease prevention in consumers but the level of these compounds in leaves frequently declines after harvest. As such, methods to maintain antioxidant levels in fresh produce are being sought. Irrigation deficits were used to apply water stress to S. oleracea and B. vulgaris plants. This treatment prevented postharvest decline of leaf ascorbic acid content in S. oleracea but not in B. vulgaris. Ascorbic acid levels in leaves at harvest were unaffected by the treatment in both species compared to well-watered controls. We have shown that restricted irrigation provides a viable means to maintain leaf vitamin content after harvest in S. oleracea, an important finding for producers, retailers and consumers alike. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Differential regulation of gene products in newly synthesized Brassica napus allotetraploids is not related to protein function nor subcellular localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valot Benoît

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allopolyploidy is a preeminent process in plant evolution that results from the merger of distinct genomes in a common nucleus via inter-specific hybridization. Allopolyploid formation is usually related to genome-wide structural and functional changes though the underlying mechanisms operating during this "genomic shock" still remain poorly known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modifications occurring at the proteomic level following an allopolyploidization event and to determine whether these changes are related to functional properties of the proteins. In a previous report, we applied comparative proteomics to synthetic amphiploids of Brassica napus and to its diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. oleracea. Although several hundred polypeptides displayed additivity (i.e. mid-parent values in the amphiploids, many of them showed non-additivity. Here, we report the in silico functional characterization of the "non-additive" proteins (the ones with a non-additive pattern of regulation in synthetic B. napus. Results The complete set of non-additive proteins (335 in the stem and 205 in the root, as well as a subset of additive polypeptides (200 per organ, was identified by mass spectrometry. Several protein isoforms were found, and most of them (~55% displayed "different" or "opposite" patterns of regulation in the amphiploids, i.e. isoforms of the same protein showing both up-regulation and down-regulation in the synthetic B. napus compared to the mid-parent value. Components of protein complexes were identified of which ~50% also displayed "different" or "opposite" patterns of regulation in the allotetraploids. In silico functional categorization of the identified proteins was carried out, and showed that neither functional category nor metabolic pathway were systematically affected by non-additivity in the synthetic amphiploids. In addition, no subcellular compartment was found to be over- or under

  13. Pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, A.; Popova, A.; Xiao, Y.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Plant reproduction under spaceflight conditions has been problematic in the past. In order to determine what aspect of reproductive development is affected by microgravity, we studied pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. during 16 d in microgravity on the space shuttle (STS-87). Brassica is self-incompatible and requires mechanical transfer of pollen. Short-duration access to microgravity during parabolic flights on the KC-135A aircraft was used initially to confirm that equal numbers of pollen grains could be collected and transferred in the absence of gravity. Brassica was grown in the Plant Growth Facility flight hardware as follows. Three chambers each contained six plants that were 13 d old at launch. As these plants flowered, thin colored tape was used to indicate the date of hand pollination, resulting in silique populations aged 8-15 d postpollination at the end of the 16-d mission. The remaining three chambers contained dry seeds that germinated on orbit to produce 14-d-old plants just beginning to flower at the time of landing. Pollen produced by these plants had comparable viability (93%) with that produced in the 2-d-delayed ground control. Matched-age siliques yielded embryos of equivalent developmental stage in the spaceflight and ground control treatments. Carbohydrate and protein storage reserves in the embryos, assessed by cytochemical localization, were also comparable. In the spaceflight material, growth and development by embryos rescued from siliques 15 d after pollination lagged behind the ground controls by 12 d; however, in the subsequent generation, no differences between the two treatments were found. The results demonstrate that while no stage of reproductive development in Brassica is absolutely dependent upon gravity, lower embryo quality may result following development in microgravity.

  14. Brassica napus genome possesses extraordinary high number of CAMTA genes and CAMTA3 contributes to PAMP triggered immunity and resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafizur eRahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTAs play important roles in various plant biological processes including disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is one of the most important oil-producing crops worldwide. To date, compositon of CAMTAs in genomes of Brassica species and role of CAMTAs in resistance to the devastating necrotrophic fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are still unknown. In this study, 18 CAMTA genes were identified in oilseed rape genome through bioinformatics analyses, which were inherited from the nine copies each in its progenitors B. rapa and B. oleracea and represented the highest number of CAMTAs in a given plant species identified so far. Gene structure, protein domain organization and phylogentic analyses showed that the oilseed rape CAMTAs were structurally similar and clustered into three major groups as other plant CAMTAs, but had expanded subgroups CAMTA3 and CAMTA4 genes uniquely in rosids species occurring before formation of oilseed rape. A large number of stress response-related cis-elements existed in the 1.5 kb promoter regions of the BnCAMTA genes. BnCAMTA genes were expressed differentially in various organs and in response to treatments with plant hormones and the toxin oxalic acid (OA secreted by S. sclerotiorum as well as the pathogen inoculation. Remarkably, the expression of BnCAMTA3A1 and BnCAMTA3C1 was drastically induced in early phase of S. sclerotiorum infection, indicating their potential role in the interactions between oilseed rape and S. sclerotiorum. Furthermore, inoculation analyses using Arabidopsis camta mutants demonstrated that Atcamta3 mutant plants exhibited significantly smaller disease lesions than wild-type and other Atcamta mutant plants. In addition, compared with wild-type plants, Atcamta3 plants accumulated obviously more hydrogen peroxide in response to the PAMP chitin and exhibited much higher expression of the CGCG

  15. Enteric methane production and ruminal fermentation from forage brassica diets fed in continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassicas provide forage for livestock during the late fall when traditional perennial cool-season forages are not productive. However, little research exists on ruminal fermentation and methane(CH4) production of brassicas fed as forage. A continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess nutr...

  16. The effect of snowdrop lectin (GNA) delivered via artificial diet and transgenic plants on Eulophus pennicornis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the tomato moth Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, H A.; Fitches, E C.; Down, R E.; Marris, G C.; Edwards, J P.; Gatehouse, J A.; Gatehouse, A M.R.

    1999-11-01

    Snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA) has previously been shown to confer significant levels of protection against the lepidopteran pest Lacanobia oleracea when expressed in transgenic potato. The effect of GNA on the parasitism of L. oleracea by the gregarious ectoparasitoid Eulophus pennicornis was investigated. Maize-based, and potato leaf-based diets containing GNA, and excised transgenic potato leaves expressing GNA, were fed to L. oleracea larvae from the beginning of either the third or fourth larval instar. Lacanobia oleracea larvae were individually exposed to single mated adult female E. pennicornis parasitoids from the fifth instar onwards.The success of the wasp was not reduced by the presence of GNA in any of the diets, or by the length of feeding of the host prior to parasitism. However, the mean number of wasps that developed on L. oleracea reared from the third instar on the GNA-containing maize diet was significantly higher than on the controls (20.6 and 9.3 adults/host respectively). In all other cases differences were not significant. Eulophus pennicornis progeny that developed on L. oleracea reared on GNA-containing diets showed little or no alteration in size, longevity, egg load and fecundity when compared with wasps that had developed on hosts fed the respective control diets.The results suggest that expression of GNA in transgenic crops to confer resistance to lepidopteran pests will not adversely affect the ability of the ectoparasitoid E. pennicornis to utilise the pest species as a host.

  17. The exotic palm Roystonea oleracea (Jacq. O. F. Cook (Arecaceae on an island within the Atlantic Forest Biome: naturalization and influence on seedling recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Zucaratto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Here, we investigated the population structure of the exotic palm Roystonea oleracea in a swamp on an island within the Atlantic Forest Biome, evaluating its influence on the seedling recruitment of other plant species. The population structure was analyzed in six 4 × 30 m plots, within which we categorized all individuals by ontogenetic stage. The influence of R. oleracea on the seedling recruitment of other plant species was evaluated in 2 × 2 m plots established beneath palm crowns and in adjacent areas without palms. We recorded 53 R. oleracea individuals. The majority (56.6% of the R. oleracea population was composed of immature adults, followed by mature adults. The density, richness and diversity of seedling species differed significantly between areas beneath and away from palms, the values being lower beneath R. oleracea crowns. Our results indicate that R. oleracea recruitment does not require human intervention, the number of reproductive individuals characterizing successful naturalization. This underscores the need for management policies aimed at palm eradication in order to avoid reductions in biodiversity.

  18. Shotgun label-free proteomic analysis of clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae resistance conferred by the gene Rcr1 in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Song

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot, caused by the plasmodiophorid pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae, is one of the most serious diseases on Brassica crops worldwide and a major threat to canola production in western Canada. Host resistance is the key strategy for clubroot management on canola. Several clubroot resistance (CR genes have been identified, but the mechanisms associated with these CR genes are poorly understood. In the current study, a label-free shotgun proteomic approach was used to profile and compare the proteomes of B. rapa carrying and not carrying the CR gene Rcr1 upon P. brassicae infection. A total of 527 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs were identified between the resistant and susceptible samples, and functional annotation of these DAPs indicates that the perception of P. brassicae and activation of defense responses is triggered via an unique signaling pathway distinct from common modes of recognition receptors reported with many other plant-pathogen interactions; this pathway appears to act in a calcium-independent manner through a not-well defined cascade of mitogen-activated protein kinases and may require the ubiquitin-26S proteasome related to abiotic stresses, especially the cold-stress tolerance. Both up-regulation of defense-related and down-regulation of pathogenicity-related metabolism were observed in plants carrying Rcr1, and these functions may all contribute to the clubroot resistance mediated by this CR gene. These results, combined with those of transcriptomic analysis reported earlier, improved our understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with Rcr1 and clubroot resistance at large, and identified candidate metabolites or pathways for further confirmation of specific resistance mechanisms. Deploying CR genes with different modes of action may help improve the durability of clubroot resistance.

  19. Integration of linkage maps for the Amphidiploid Brassica napus and comparative mapping with Arabidopsis and Brassica rapa

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    Delourme Régine

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The large number of genetic linkage maps representing Brassica chromosomes constitute a potential platform for studying crop traits and genome evolution within Brassicaceae. However, the alignment of existing maps remains a major challenge. The integration of these genetic maps will enhance genetic resolution, and provide a means to navigate between sequence-tagged loci, and with contiguous genome sequences as these become available. Results We report the first genome-wide integration of Brassica maps based on an automated pipeline which involved collation of genome-wide genotype data for sequence-tagged markers scored on three extensively used amphidiploid Brassica napus (2n = 38 populations. Representative markers were selected from consolidated maps for each population, and skeleton bin maps were generated. The skeleton maps for the three populations were then combined to generate an integrated map for each LG, comparing two different approaches, one encapsulated in JoinMap and the other in MergeMap. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a integrated genetic map was generated using JoinMap, and includes 5,162 genetic markers mapped onto 2,196 loci, with a total genetic length of 1,792 cM. The map density of one locus every 0.82 cM, corresponding to 515 Kbp, increases by at least three-fold the locus and marker density within the original maps. Within the B. napus integrated map we identified 103 conserved collinearity blocks relative to Arabidopsis, including five previously unreported blocks. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a map was used to investigate the integrity and conservation of order proposed for genome sequence scaffolds generated from the constituent A genome of Brassica rapa. Conclusions Our results provide a comprehensive genetic integration of the B. napus genome from a range of sources, which we anticipate will provide valuable information for rapeseed and Canola research.

  20. Cauliflower-like SnO2 hollow microspheres as anode and carbon fiber as cathode for high performance quantum dot and dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Veerappan; Kong, Eui-Hyun; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Jang, Hyun Myung; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2014-02-01

    Cauliflower-like tin oxide (SnO2) hollow microspheres (HMS) sensitized with multilayer quantum dots (QDs) as photoanode and alternative stable, low-cost counter electrode are employed for the first time in QD-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Cauliflower-like SnO2 hollow spheres mainly consist of 50 nm-sized agglomerated nanoparticles; they possess a high internal surface area and light scattering in between the microspheres and shell layers. This makes them promising photoanode material for both QDSCs and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and chemical bath deposition (CBD) are used for QD-sensitizing the SnO2 microspheres. Additionally, carbon-nanofiber (CNF) with a unique structure is used as an alternative counter electrode (CE) and compared with the standard platinum (Pt) CE. Their electrocatalytic properties are measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and Tafel-polarization. Under 1 sun illumination, solar cells made with hollow SnO2 photoanode sandwiched with the stable CNF CE showed a power conversion efficiency of 2.5% in QDSCs and 3.0% for DSCs, which is quite promising with the standard Pt CE (QDSCs: 2.1%, and DSCs: 3.6%).Cauliflower-like tin oxide (SnO2) hollow microspheres (HMS) sensitized with multilayer quantum dots (QDs) as photoanode and alternative stable, low-cost counter electrode are employed for the first time in QD-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Cauliflower-like SnO2 hollow spheres mainly consist of 50 nm-sized agglomerated nanoparticles; they possess a high internal surface area and light scattering in between the microspheres and shell layers. This makes them promising photoanode material for both QDSCs and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and chemical bath deposition (CBD) are used for QD-sensitizing the SnO2 microspheres. Additionally, carbon-nanofiber (CNF) with a

  1. Optimized design of a nanostructured SPCE-based multipurpose biosensing platform formed by ferrocene-tethered electrochemically-deposited cauliflower-shaped gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wicem Argoubi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for on-site nanodevices is constantly increasing. The technology development for the design of such devices is highly regarded. In this work, we report the design of a disposable platform that is structured with cauliflower-shaped gold nanoparticles (cfAuNPs and we show its applications in immunosensing and enzyme-based detection. The electrochemical reduction of Au(III allows for the electrodeposition of highly dispersed cauliflower-shaped gold nanoparticles on the surface of screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs. The nanostructures were functionalized using ferrocenylmethyl lipoic acid ester which allowed for the tethering of the ferrocene group to gold, which serves as an electrochemical transducer/mediator. The bioconjugation of the surface with anti-human IgG antibody (α-hIgG or horseradish peroxidase (HRP enzyme yields biosensors, which have been applied for the selective electrochemical detection of human IgG (hIgG or H2O2 as model analytes, respectively. Parameters such as the number of sweeps, amount of charge generated from the oxidation of the electrodeposited gold, time of incubation and concentration of the ferrocene derivatives have been studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Selectivity and specificity tests have been also performed in the presence of potentially interfering substances to either hIgG or H2O2. Results showed that the devised immunosensor is endowed with good selectivity and specificity in the presence of several folds of competitive analytes. The enzyme-based platform showed a good catalytic activity towards H2O2 oxidation which predestined it to potential applications pertaining to enzymatic kinetics studies. The levels of hIgG in human serum and H2O2 in honey were successfully determined and served as assessment tools of the applicability of the platforms for real samples analysis.

  2. Couve-flor cultivada em substrato: marcha de absorção de macronutrientes e micronutrientes Cauliflower cultivated in substrate: progress of absorption of macro and micronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ursulino Alves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar marcha de absorção de macro e micronutrientes na couve-flor cultivada em substrato, um experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação da UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal, SP. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelas épocas de amostragem (20; 30; 40; 50; 60 e 70 dias após o transplante. Avaliaram-se os teores e acúmulo dos macro e micronutrientes da parte aérea e raiz. A maior demanda de nutriente aconteceu no período de 60 a 70 (DAT para macro e micronutrientes. A ordem decrescente dos macronutrientes acumulados pela couve-flor foi: K, N, S, P, Mg e Ca e os micro foi: Fe, Zn, B, Mn e Cu.With the objective of evaluating the progress of absorption of macro and micronutrients in cauliflower cultivated in substrate, an experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Universidade do Estado de São Paulo, in Jaboticabal, Brazil. The experimental desing used was randomized blocks, with six treatments and five replicates. The treatments comprised times of sampling (20; 30; 40; 50; 60 and 70 days after the transplant. The composition and accumulation of the macro and micronutrients of the shoot and root were evaluated. The biggest demand of nutrient happened in the period of 60 to 70 (DAT for macro and micronutrients. The decreasing order of the macronutrients accumulated by the cauliflower was K, N, S, P, Mg and Ca and for micronutrients Fe, Zn, B, Mn and Cu.

  3. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of two Brassica napus near-isogenic lines reveals a network of genes that influences seed oil accumulation

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    Jingxue Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus is an important oil seed crop, providing more than 13% of the world’s supply of edible oils. An in-depth knowledge of the gene network involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil is critical for the improvement of B. napus. Using available genomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified 1,750 acyl lipid metabolism (ALM genes that are distributed over 19 chromosomes in the B. napus genome. B. rapa and B. oleracea, two diploid progenitors of B. napus, contributed almost equally to the ALM genes. Genome collinearity analysis demonstrated that the majority of the ALM genes have arisen due to genome duplication or segmental duplication events. In addition, we profiled the expression patterns of the ALM genes in four different developmental stages. Furthermore, we developed two B. napus near isogenic lines (NILs. The high oil NIL, YC13-559, accumulates more than 10% of seed oil compared to the other, YC13-554. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of lipid biosynthesis-related regulatory genes in YC13-559, including SHOOTMERISTEMLESS, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1 (LEC1, LEC2, FUSCA3, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3, ABI4, ABI5, and WRINKLED1, as well as structural genes, such as ACETYL-CoA CARBOXYLASE, ACYL-CoA DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-CoA SYNTHETASES. We observed that several genes related to the phytohormones, gibberellins, jasmonate, and indole acetic acid, were differentially expressed in the NILs. Our findings provide a broad account of the numbers, distribution, and expression profiles of acyl lipid metabolism genes, as well as gene networks that potentially control oil accumulation in B. napus seeds. The upregulation of key regulatory and structural genes related to lipid biosynthesis likely plays a major role for the increased seed oil in YC13-559.

  4. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Two Brassica napus Near-Isogenic Lines Reveals a Network of Genes That Influences Seed Oil Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxue; Singh, Sanjay K.; Du, Chunfang; Li, Chen; Fan, Jianchun; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Yuan, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is an important oil seed crop, providing more than 13% of the world’s supply of edible oils. An in-depth knowledge of the gene network involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil is critical for the improvement of B. napus. Using available genomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified 1,750 acyl-lipid metabolism (ALM) genes that are distributed over 19 chromosomes in the B. napus genome. B. rapa and B. oleracea, two diploid progenitors of B. napus, contributed almost equally to the ALM genes. Genome collinearity analysis demonstrated that the majority of the ALM genes have arisen due to genome duplication or segmental duplication events. In addition, we profiled the expression patterns of the ALM genes in four different developmental stages. Furthermore, we developed two B. napus near isogenic lines (NILs). The high oil NIL, YC13-559, accumulates significantly higher (∼10%) seed oil compared to the other, YC13-554. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of lipid biosynthesis-related regulatory genes in YC13-559, including SHOOTMERISTEMLESS, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1 (LEC1), LEC2, FUSCA3, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3), ABI4, ABI5, and WRINKLED1, as well as structural genes, such as ACETYL-CoA CARBOXYLASE, ACYL-CoA DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-CoA SYNTHETASES. We observed that several genes related to the phytohormones, gibberellins, jasmonate, and indole acetic acid, were differentially expressed in the NILs. Our findings provide a broad account of the numbers, distribution, and expression profiles of acyl-lipid metabolism genes, as well as gene networks that potentially control oil accumulation in B. napus seeds. The upregulation of key regulatory and structural genes related to lipid biosynthesis likely plays a major role for the increased seed oil in YC13-559.

  5. Genetic diversity of functional food species Spinacia oleracea L. by protein markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M; Yousaf, Z; Haider, M S; Khalid, S; Rehman, H A; Younas, A; Arif, A

    2014-01-01

    Exploration of genetic diversity contributes primarily towards crop improvement. Spinaciaoleracea L. is a functional food species but unfortunately the genetic diversity of this vegetable is still unexplored. Therefore, this research was planned to explore the genetic diversity of S. oleracea by using morphological and protein markers. Protein profile of 25 accessions was generated on sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel. Total allelic variation of 27 bands was found. Out of these, 20 were polymorphic and the rest of the bands were monomorphic. Molecular weights of the bands ranged from 12.6 to 91.2 kDa. Major genetic differences were observed in accession 20541 (Peshawar) followed by 20180 (Lahore) and 19902 (AVRDC). Significant differences exist in the protein banding pattern. This variation can further be studied by advanced molecular techniques, including two-dimensional electrophoresis and DNA markers.

  6. Carotenoids and flavonoids in organically grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea L) genotypes after deep frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, U.; Knuthsen, Pia; Edelenbos, M.

    2001-01-01

    After frozen storage the content of individual carotenoids and flavonoids was determined in organically grown spinach genotypes (Spinacia oleracea L) which differed in leaf colour and shape. The spinach was sorted, washed, blanched in steam for 3 min and frozen in liquid nitrogen. After frozen...... storage the green colour was determined by sensory evaluation and HunterLab colorimetry. The content of individual chlorophylls, carotenoids and flavonoids was determined using HPLC. Lutein, beta -carotene, violaxanthin and 9 '-(Z)-neoxanthin were the main carotenoids in processed spinach. The total...... content of carotenoids varied from 176.6 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten in the lightest green genotype to 226.3 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten in the darkest green genotype. The highest content of beta -carotene (83.1 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten) was found in the dark green genotype. The content...

  7. Carotenoids and flavonoids in organically grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea L) genotypes after deep frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, U.; Knuthsen, Pia; Edelenbos, M.

    2001-01-01

    After frozen storage the content of individual carotenoids and flavonoids was determined in organically grown spinach genotypes (Spinacia oleracea L) which differed in leaf colour and shape. The spinach was sorted, washed, blanched in steam for 3 min and frozen in liquid nitrogen. After frozen...... storage the green colour was determined by sensory evaluation and HunterLab colorimetry. The content of individual chlorophylls, carotenoids and flavonoids was determined using HPLC. Lutein, beta -carotene, violaxanthin and 9 '-(Z)-neoxanthin were the main carotenoids in processed spinach. The total...... content of carotenoids varied from 176.6 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten in the lightest green genotype to 226.3 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten in the darkest green genotype. The highest content of beta -carotene (83.1 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten) was found in the dark green genotype. The content...

  8. Viabilidad del desarrollo de alimentos funcionales frescos por incorporación de aloe vera a la matriz estructural de endibia (Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum), brócoli (Brassica oleracea var. Itálica), coliflor (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis) y zanahoria (Daucus carota L.) mediante la técnica de impregnación a vacío

    OpenAIRE

    SANZANA RAMOS, SIGRID XIMENA

    2011-01-01

    El vínculo que une la alimentación y la salud es un aspecto que desde hace algunos años marca la evolución de la industria de los alimentos. El origen de los alimentos funcionales, es fruto de esta preocupación, ampliando el concepto de alimentación a la posibilidad de mantener y/o mejorar la salud. Los alimentos funcionales que incluyen, según definición del ILSI, a cualquier alimento o ingrediente del mismo que pueda producir para la salud un beneficio adicional al del valor nutritivo de...

  9. Fungos conidiais em Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaizeiro na Ilha do Combu, Pará-Brasil Conidial Fungi on Euterpe oleracea Mart. on Combu Island, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Corrêa de Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a ocorrência de fungos conidiais (hyphomycetes associados à decomposição de material vegetal morto de Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaizeiro na Área de Proteção Ambiental da ilha do Combu, município de Belém, Pará. Entre agosto de 2008 e abril de 2009, foram coletadas partes em decomposição de palmeiras de E. oleracea e mantidas em câmara-úmida durante sete dias. As estruturas reprodutivas dos fungos foram retiradas e montadas em lâminas semipermanentes para o estudo morfológico em microscopia óptica. O presente trabalho contém descrições, comentários, distribuição geográfica e ilustrações dos novos registros para o Brasil. Como resultados deste estudo foram identificados 45 táxons de hifomicetos. Todos são novos registros para a área de estudo, destes 11 representam novos registro para o Brasil e 12 para a Amazônia brasileira.The objective of this study was look for conidial fungi (hyphomycetes associated with decomposing, dead vegetative material of Euterpe oleracea Mart. collected on Combu Island (Belém, Pará, an environmentally protected area. From August 2008 to April 2009, decomposing parts of E. oleracea were collected and kept in a moist chamber for seven days. Somatic and reproductive fungal structures were extracted from the substrate and mounted on semi-permanent slides for morphological study using optical microscopy. This paper includes descriptions, comments, geographical distributions and illustrations of new records for Brazil. All these records are new for the study area, 11 are new records for Brazil, and 12 are new for the Brazilian Amazon.

  10. Genome-wide Investigation of microRNAs and Their Targets in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Root with Plasmodiophora brassicae Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Wei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has revealed that microRNAs play a pivotal role in the post transcriptional regulation of gene expression in response to pathogens in plants. However, there is little information available about the expression patterns of miRNAs and their targets in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis under Plasmodiophora brassicae stress. In the present study, using deep sequencing and degradome analysis, a genome-wide identification of miRNAs and their targets during P. brassicae stress was performed. A total of 221 known and 93 potentially novel miRNAs were successfully identified from two root libraries of one control (635-10CK and P. brassicae-treated Chinese cabbage samples (635-10T. Of these, 14 known and 10 potentially novel miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed after P. brassicae treatment. Degradome analysis revealed that the 223 target genes of the 75 miRNAs could be potentially cleaved. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis suggested that the putative target genes of the miRNAs were predominately involved in selenocompound metabolism and plant hormone signal transduction. Then the expression of 12 miRNAs was validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. These results provide insights into the miRNA-mediated regulatory networks underlying the stress response to the plant pathogen P. brassicae.

  11. Kitchen waste - a promising feed resource for livestock.

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    Hossain M.E.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to find out the chemical composition of different vegetable wastes to use them as feed for livestock to enhance their productivity as well as to reduce feed cost. Total 10 different types of vegetable wastes like Banana tree (Musa paradisiaca, Bean leaf (Lablab purpureus, Bilimbi leaf (Averrhoa bilimbi, Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, Pumpkin leaf (Cucurbita maxima, Radish (Raphanus sativus, Ridge guard (Luffa acutangula and Spinach (Spinacea oleracea available in different areas of Chittagong, Bangladesh were collected. Samples were chopped and tested immediately for moisture content and remaining samples were sun-dried and processed using standard procedure. Chemical analyses of the samples were carried out in triplicate for Dry matter (DM, Crude protein (CP, Crude fiber (CF, Nitrogen free extract (NFE, Ether extract (EE and Ash. Metabolizable energy (ME was calculated mathematically for all samples by using standard formula. Results indicated that, crude protein content in Banana tree was 15.6 g/100g, Bean leaf 28.2 g/100g, Bilimbi leaf 11.9 g/100g, Cabbage 18.9 g/100g, Cauliflower 17.3 g/100g, Pumpkin 12.9 g/100g, Pumpkin leaf 25.0 g/100g, Radish 14.9 g/100g, Ridge guard 23.4 g/100g and Spinach 11.4 g/100g. In addition to crude protein, all samples contained substantial amount of crude fibre, nitrogen free extracts, ether extracts and ash. It could therefore be inferred that, the vegetable wastes could be incorporated in appreciable quantities for substituting the conventional feed resources of animal diet.

  12. Comparison of identification methods for resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and screening of resistant materials in cauliflower.%花椰菜菌核病抗性鉴定方法比较及抗病种质资源筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙溶溶; 彭真; 程琳; 邵泰良; 卢钢

    2011-01-01

    Three identification methods for the resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum previously-reported in Brassicaceae crops were compared using 5 cauliflower varieties under the same condition to develop the effective screening technique in cauliflower. The results showed that the correlation between inoculating mycelium agar disk to leaf axil at seedling stage, or inoculating mycelium agar disk to live leaf at heading stage and field inoculation were highly significant (r= 0.885 9 and 0.926 6, respectively), so these two methods could well identify resistance and susceptibility of cauliflower varieties. The method of inoculating mycelium agar disk to in vitro seedling leaf was not suitable for resistance identification of cauliflower. To screen resistant sources of cauliflower against S. Sclerotiorum, 21 breeding materials were tested with the method of inoculating mycelium agar disk to leaf axil at heading stage, using cauliflower variety 'nongle 45 days' as control. The results showed that there were two high resistant materials, 'shenliang golden flower' and 'changsheng 65 days' .%采用已报道的3种十字花科作物菌核病抗病性鉴定方法,在同一条件下,对5个已知抗性的花椰菜品种进行鉴定比较.结果表明:结球期琼脂块叶腋接种法、营养生长期琼脂块活体叶片法与大田接种鉴定的相关系数分别达到0.885 9和0.926 6,可有效反映抗、感品种的差异,可用于花椰菜菌核病抗性的快速鉴定;但营养生长期琼脂块离体叶片法用于抗性鉴定的效果不好;根据抗性鉴定方法的比较结果,选用结球期琼脂块叶腋接种法,以‘农乐45天’为对照,对21份花椰菜材料进行抗性鉴定,筛选获得了‘神良金花’和‘长胜65天’2份高抗材料.

  13. Mites in assai palms (Euterpe oleracea Mart. conducted under different cropping systems = Acarofauna em açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Mart. conduzido em diferentes sistemas de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Aguiar Rodrigues

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The assai palm (Euterpe oleracea is the most important palm tree of the genus Euterpe known in Brazil, which is grown under monocrop and intercrop systems. Despite its great usefulness, this palm tree is important for supplying two cost-effective food products, the fruit and the palm hearts. Due to its importance, the aim of this study was to carry out a survey of mite fauna present in assai crops in the town of São Luis, in the State of Maranhão, Brazil. Samples were collected monthly from August 2012 to July 2013, in assai groves under two systems of cultivation: monocrop and intercrop. A faunistic analysis was carried out using the ANAFAU software, when the following indices were determined: abundance, frequency, dominance, constancy and diversity. A total of 6,274 mites were found, with 4,748 in the intercrop system and 1,526 in the monocrop system. Among the occurrence of phytophagic mites, the families Tenuipalpidae and Tetranychidae were significant in both crops. For the families of predatory mites, the phytoseiid was considered super-dominant, super-abundant, super-frequent and constant; the species Amblyseius largoensis, Euseius concordis and Iphiseiodes zuluagai were dominant under both cropping systems, but the intercrop displayed greater diversity compared to the monocrop. For population dynamics, larger populations of mites were seen in periods of low rainfall under the two systems studied. = O açaizeiro (Euterpe oleraceae é a mais importante palmeira do gênero Euterpe conhecida no Brasil, que é cultivada em sistemas de cultivo solteiro e consorciado. Apesar da grande utilidade, esta palmeira se destaca no fornecimento de dois produtos alimentares economicamente rentáveis, os frutos e o palmito. Em razão da sua importância, objetivou-se com este trabalho realizar o levantamento da acarofauna presente em cultivos de açaizeiro no município de São Luís - Maranhão. As amostragens foram realizadas mensalmente, no per

  14. Study on the spectral response of Brassica Campestris L. leaf to the copper pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Brassica Campestis L. was cultivated in the soil at the laboratory. The red edge,the visual spectrum and the near-infrared spectrum of Brassica Campestis L. leaf were used to explore the spectral response of Brassica Campestis L. leaf to the copper stress. As the Cu content in the soil gets increased,the copper level in Brassica Campestris L. leaf would be increased,and the chlorophyll level in Brassica Campestris L. leaf would be decreased. As a result,the visual spectral reflectance (A1) of Brassica Campestris L. leaf is increased,and the blue-shift (moving towards the shorter waveband) degree (S) of the red edge (the ascending region of the re-flectivity at 680―740 nm) gets increased. However,the near-infrared spectral re-flectance (A2) decreases. With the correlation coefficient R2 more than 0.95,these parameters of A1,A2 and S can be perfectly used to simulate and predict the copper level in Brassica Campestris L. leaf.

  15. Tracing the transcriptomic changes in synthetic Trigenomic allohexaploids of Brassica using an RNA-Seq approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhao

    Full Text Available Polyploidization has played an important role in plant evolution and speciation, and newly formed allopolyploids have experienced rapid transcriptomic changes. Here, we compared the transcriptomic differences between a synthetic Brassica allohexaploid and its parents using a high-throughput RNA-Seq method. A total of 35,644,409 sequence reads were generated, and 32,642 genes were aligned from the data. Totals of 29,260, 29,060, and 29,697 genes were identified in Brassicarapa, Brassicacarinata, and Brassica allohexaploid, respectively. We compared 7,397 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, as well as 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid. We hypothesized that the higher ploidy level as well as secondary polyploidy might have influenced these changes. The majority of the 3,184 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its paternal parent, B. rapa, were involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, plant-pathogen interactions, photosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Among the 2,233 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its maternal parent, B. carinata, several played roles in plant-pathogen interactions, plant hormone signal transduction, ribosomes, limonene and pinene degradation, photosynthesis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. There were more significant differences in gene expression between the allohexaploid and its paternal parent than between it and its maternal parent, possibly partly because of cytoplasmic and maternal effects. Specific functional categories were enriched among the 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid compared with the additive genes; the categories included response to stimulus, immune system process, cellular process, metabolic process, rhythmic process, and pigmentation. Many transcription factor genes, methyltransferases, and methylation genes showed differential expression between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Our results demonstrate that the

  16. EFFECT OF EXTRACTS FROM GERANIACEAE PLANTS ON PIERIS BRASSICAE L.

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    MARIA WAWRZYNIAK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The conducted studies comprised the analyses of activity of extracts derived from selected plants of the Geranium family on some processes of large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae development (oviposition, survival of eggs and caterpillar feeding. The results proved that all tested extracts showed activity against large white butterfly. Geranium pratense L. and Geranium senquineum L. showed better activity than other Geranium plants. Water extracts from these species protected cabbage plants against laying eggs, while applied on eggs caused their mortality. Alcohol and water extracts from G. pratense L. and water extracts from G. senquineum L. increased an amount of food put on mass gain of caterpillars.