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Sample records for caudate volume reductions

  1. Hippocampal and caudate volume reductions in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte; Rasmussen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    enlargement and hippocampal and caudate volume reductions are morphological traits of antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia. METHODS: We obtained high-resolution 3-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans for 38 antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients and 43 matched...... healthy controls by use of a 3-T scanner. We warped the brain images to each other by use of a high-dimensional intersubject registration algorithm. We performed voxel-wise group comparisons with permutation tests. We performed small volume correction for the hippocampus, caudate and ventricles by use...... that hippocampal and caudate volumes were decreased in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. We found no ventricular enlargement, differences in global volume or significant associations between tissue volume and duration of untreated illness or psychopathology. The hippocampal volume reductions appeared...

  2. Hippocampal and caudate volume reductions in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte; Rasmussen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    enlargement and hippocampal and caudate volume reductions are morphological traits of antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia. METHODS: We obtained high-resolution 3-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans for 38 antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients and 43 matched...

  3. Developmentally stable whole-brain volume reductions and developmentally sensitive caudate and putamen volume alterations in those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, Corina U; Bralten, Janita; Mennes, Maarten; O'Dwyer, Laurence; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Rommelse, Nanda; Schweren, Lizanne J S; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hartman, Catharina A; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V; Franke, Barbara; Zwiers, Marcel P; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2015-05-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder. It has been linked to reductions in total brain volume and subcortical abnormalities. However, owing to heterogeneity within and between studies and limited sample sizes, findings on the neuroanatomical substrates of ADHD have shown considerable variability. Moreover, it remains unclear whether neuroanatomical alterations linked to ADHD are also present in the unaffected siblings of those with ADHD. To examine whether ADHD is linked to alterations in whole-brain and subcortical volumes and to study familial underpinnings of brain volumetric alterations in ADHD. In this cross-sectional study, we included participants from the large and carefully phenotyped Dutch NeuroIMAGE sample (collected from September 2009-December 2012) consisting of 307 participants with ADHD, 169 of their unaffected siblings, and 196 typically developing control individuals (mean age, 17.21 years; age range, 8-30 years). Whole-brain volumes (total brain and gray and white matter volumes) and volumes of subcortical regions (nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, hippocampus, putamen, thalamus, and brainstem) were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans using automated tissue segmentation. Regression analyses revealed that relative to control individuals, participants with ADHD had a 2.5% smaller total brain (β = -31.92; 95% CI, -52.69 to -11.16; P = .0027) and a 3% smaller total gray matter volume (β = -22.51; 95% CI, -35.07 to -9.96; P = .0005), while total white matter volume was unaltered (β = -10.10; 95% CI, -20.73 to 0.53; P = .06). Unaffected siblings had total brain and total gray matter volumes intermediate to participants with ADHD and control individuals. Significant age-by-diagnosis interactions showed that older age was linked to smaller caudate (P brain volume) in control individuals, whereas age was unrelated to these volumes in

  4. Subcortical intelligence: caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioplene, Rachael G; G Ryman, Sephira; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo; Jung, Rex E; DeYoung, Colin G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association between intelligence and caudate volume in three large independent samples of healthy adults (total N = 517). Regression of IQ onto bilateral caudate volume controlling for age, sex, and total brain volume indicated a significant positive correlation between caudate volume and intelligence, with a comparable magnitude of effect across each of the three samples. No other subcortical structures were independently associated with IQ, suggesting a specific biological link between caudate morphology and intelligence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Caudate volumes in childhood predict symptom severity in adults with Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H; Leckman, James F; Zhu, Hongtu; Peterson, Bradley S

    2005-10-25

    Most children with Tourette syndrome (TS) experience a marked decline in the severity of tic symptoms during adolescence. Currently no clinical measures can predict whose tic symptoms will persist into adulthood. Previous cross-sectional imaging studies have identified reduced caudate nucleus volumes in subjects with TS. To evaluate whether caudate nucleus volumes in childhood can predict the severity of tic or obsessive-compulsive symptoms at follow-up in early adulthood. In a prospective longitudinal study, clinical status and basal ganglia volumes of 43 children with TS were measured on high-resolution magnetic resonance images before age 14 years. Follow-up clinical assessments were conducted after age 16 years, an average of 7.5 years later. Linear regression and Tobit regression analyses were used to assess the association of basal ganglia volumes measured in childhood with the severity of tic and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms at the time of childhood MRI and at follow-up in early adulthood. Volumes of the caudate nucleus correlated significantly and inversely with the severity of tic and OCD symptoms in early adulthood. Caudate volumes did not correlate with the severity of symptoms at the time of the MRI scan. Caudate volumes in children with Tourette syndrome predict the severity of tic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in early adulthood. This study provides compelling evidence that morphologic disturbances of the caudate nucleus within cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits are central to the persistence of both tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms into adulthood.

  6. Dispositional mindfulness co-varies with smaller amygdala and caudate volumes in community adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne A Taren

    Full Text Available Mindfulness, a psychological process reflecting attention and awareness to what is happening in the present moment, has been associated with increased well-being and decreased depression and anxiety in both healthy and patient populations. However, little research has explored underlying neural pathways. Recent work suggests that mindfulness (and mindfulness training interventions may foster neuroplastic changes in cortico-limbic circuits responsible for stress and emotion regulation. Building on this work, we hypothesized that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness would be associated with decreased grey matter volume in the amgydala. In the present study, a self-report measure of dispositional mindfulness and structural MRI images were obtained from 155 healthy community adults. Volumetric analyses showed that higher dispositional mindfulness is associated with decreased grey matter volume in the right amygdala, and exploratory analyses revealed that higher dispositional mindfulness is also associated with decreased grey matter volume in the left caudate. Moreover, secondary analyses indicate that these amygdala and caudate volume associations persist after controlling for relevant demographic and individual difference factors (i.e., age, total grey matter volume, neuroticism, depression. Such volumetric differences may help explain why mindful individuals have reduced stress reactivity, and suggest new candidate structural neurobiological pathways linking mindfulness with mental and physical health outcomes.

  7. Dispositional Mindfulness Co-Varies with Smaller Amygdala and Caudate Volumes in Community Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A.; Creswell, J. David; Gianaros, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness, a psychological process reflecting attention and awareness to what is happening in the present moment, has been associated with increased well-being and decreased depression and anxiety in both healthy and patient populations. However, little research has explored underlying neural pathways. Recent work suggests that mindfulness (and mindfulness training interventions) may foster neuroplastic changes in cortico-limbic circuits responsible for stress and emotion regulation. Building on this work, we hypothesized that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness would be associated with decreased grey matter volume in the amgydala. In the present study, a self-report measure of dispositional mindfulness and structural MRI images were obtained from 155 healthy community adults. Volumetric analyses showed that higher dispositional mindfulness is associated with decreased grey matter volume in the right amygdala, and exploratory analyses revealed that higher dispositional mindfulness is also associated with decreased grey matter volume in the left caudate. Moreover, secondary analyses indicate that these amygdala and caudate volume associations persist after controlling for relevant demographic and individual difference factors (i.e., age, total grey matter volume, neuroticism, depression). Such volumetric differences may help explain why mindful individuals have reduced stress reactivity, and suggest new candidate structural neurobiological pathways linking mindfulness with mental and physical health outcomes. PMID:23717632

  8. Egocentric and allocentric visuospatial working memory in premotor Huntington's disease: A double dissociation with caudate and hippocampal volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possin, Katherine L; Kim, Hosung; Geschwind, Michael D; Moskowitz, Tacie; Johnson, Erica T; Sha, Sharon J; Apple, Alexandra; Xu, Duan; Miller, Bruce L; Finkbeiner, Steven; Hess, Christopher P; Kramer, Joel H

    2017-07-01

    Our brains represent spatial information in egocentric (self-based) or allocentric (landmark-based) coordinates. Rodent studies have demonstrated a critical role for the caudate in egocentric navigation and the hippocampus in allocentric navigation. We administered tests of egocentric and allocentric working memory to individuals with premotor Huntington's disease (pmHD), which is associated with early caudate nucleus atrophy, and controls. Each test had 80 trials during which subjects were asked to remember 2 locations over 1-sec delays. The only difference between these otherwise identical tests was that locations could only be coded in self-based or landmark-based coordinates. We applied a multiatlas-based segmentation algorithm and computed point-wise Jacobian determinants to measure regional variations in caudate and hippocampal volumes from 3T MRI. As predicted, the pmHD patients were significantly more impaired on egocentric working memory. Only egocentric accuracy correlated with caudate volumes, specifically the dorsolateral caudate head, right more than left, a region that receives dense efferents from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, only allocentric accuracy correlated with hippocampal volumes, specifically intermediate and posterior regions that connect strongly with parahippocampal and posterior parietal cortices. These results indicate that the distinction between egocentric and allocentric navigation applies to working memory. The dorsolateral caudate is important for egocentric working memory, which can explain the disproportionate impairment in pmHD. Allocentric working memory, in contrast, relies on the hippocampus and is relatively spared in pmHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Resting-state functional connectivity bias of middle temporal gyrus and caudate with altered gray matter volume in major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqiong Ma

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies have indicated that the structure deficits and resting-state functional connectivity (FC imbalances in cortico-limbic circuitry might underline the pathophysiology of MDD. Using structure and functional MRI, our aim is to investigate gray matter abnormalities in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD and treatment-responsive depression (TSD, and test whether the altered gray matter is associated with altered FC. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate the regions with gray matter abnormality and FC analysis was further conducted between each gray matter abnormal region and the remaining voxels in the brain. Using one-way analysis of variance, we found significant gray matter abnormalities in the right middle temporal cortex (MTG and bilateral caudate among the TRD, TSD and healthy controls. For the FC of the right MTG, we found that both the patients with TRD and TSD showed altered connectivity mainly in the default-mode network (DMN. For the FC of the right caudate, both patient groups showed altered connectivity in the frontal regions. Our results revealed the gray matter reduction of right MTG and bilateral caudate, and disrupted functional connection to widely distributed circuitry in DMN and frontal regions, respectively. These results suggest that the abnormal DMN and reward circuit activity might be biomarkers of depression trait.

  10. Reduced frontal cortical thickness and increased caudate volume within fronto-striatal circuits in young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangding; Yuan, Kai; Cai, Chenxi; Feng, Dan; Yin, Junsen; Bi, Yanzhi; Shi, Sha; Yu, Dahua; Jin, Chenwang; von Deneen, Karen M; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Smoking during early adulthood results in neurophysiological and brain structural changes that may promote nicotine dependence later in life. Previous studies have revealed the important roles of fronto-striatal circuits in the pathology of nicotine dependence; however, few studies have focused on both cortical thickness and subcortical striatal volume differences between young adult smokers and nonsmokers. Twenty-seven young male adult smokers and 22 age-, education- and gender-matched nonsmokers were recruited in the present study. The cortical thickness and striatal volume differences of young adult smokers and age-matched nonsmokers were investigated in the present study and then correlated with pack-years and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). The following results were obtained: (1) young adult smokers showed significant cortical thinning in the frontal cortex (left caudal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)), left insula, left middle temporal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, and right parahippocampus; (2) in regards to subcortical striatal volume, the volume of the right caudate was larger in young adult smokers than nonsmokers; and (3) the cortical thickness of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and OFC were associated with nicotine dependence severity (FTND) and cumulative amount of nicotine intake (pack-years) in smokers, respectively. This study revealed reduced frontal cortical thickness and increased caudate volume in the fronto-striatal circuits in young adult smokers compared to nonsmokers. These deficits suggest an imbalance between cognitive control (reduced protection factors) and reward drive behaviours (increased risk factors) associated with nicotine addiction and relapse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Volume reduction by oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuribayashi, H.; Hasegawa, A.; Koshiba, Y.; Yamanaka, A.

    1984-01-01

    JGC Corporation has been actively investigating the treatment of various combustible and organic wastes generated at nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants. In particular, JGC has analyzed three new technologies which produce dramatic volume reductions and complete conversion of wastes into inorganic substances for durable storage and disposal. Those technologies are; Incineration, Wet oxidation and Photooxidation. Incineration is an excellent volume reducer for combustible wastes, and wet oxidation, using hydrogen peroxide, is also a good way for reducing spent ion-exchange resins without any off-gas problems. Photooxidation is a new technology to purify polluted water for recycled use in the stations without th release of contaminated water to the environment. Polluted water may include NH4+, detergents, chelating agents and other organic decontamination agents. These VR technologies are all based on ''Oxidation'' from which the title of this paper comes

  12. Segmentation and volumetric analysis of the caudate nucleus in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiji, Sudevan; Smitha, Karavallil Achuthan; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Pillai, Vellara Pappukutty Mahadevan; Jayasree, Ramapurath S

    2013-09-01

    A quantitative volumetric analysis of caudate nucleus can provide valuable information in early diagnosis and prognosis of patients with Alzheimer's diseases (AD). Purpose of the study is to estimate the volume of segmented caudate nucleus from MR images and to correlate the variation in the segmented volume with respect to the total brain volume. We have also tried to evaluate the caudate nucleus atrophy with the age related atrophy of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a group of Alzheimer's disease patients. 3D fast low angle shot (3D FLASH) brain MR images of 15 AD patients, 15 normal volunteers and 15 patients who had normally diagnosed MR images were included in the study. Brain tissue and caudate nuclei were segmented using the statistical parametric mapping package and a semi-automatic tool, respectively and the volumes were estimated. Volume of segmented caudate nucleus is correlated with respect to the total brain volume. Further, the caudate nucleus atrophy is estimated with the age related atrophy of WM, GM and CSF in a group of AD patients. Significant reduction in the caudate volume of AD patients was observed compared to that of the normal volunteers. Statistical analysis also showed significant variation in the volume of GM and CSF of AD patients. Among the patients who had normal appearing brain, 33% showed significant changes in the caudate volume. We hypothesize that these changes can be considered as an indication of early AD. The method of volumetric analysis of brain structures is simple and effective way of early diagnosis of neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease. We have illustrated this with the observed changes in the volume of caudate nucleus in a group of patients. A detailed study with more subjects will be useful in correlating these results for early diagnosis of AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Segmentation and volumetric analysis of the caudate nucleus in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiji, Sudevan, E-mail: jijiaiswaryap@gmail.com [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695581, Kerala (India); Smitha, Karavallil Achuthan, E-mail: mithamahesh@gmail.com [Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum 695012, Kerala (India); Gupta, Arun Kumar, E-mail: gupta209@gmail.com [Department of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore (India); Pillai, Vellara Pappukutty Mahadevan, E-mail: vpmpillai9@gmail.com [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695581, Kerala (India); Jayasree, Ramapurath S., E-mail: jayashreemenon@gmail.com [Biophotonics and Imaging Lab, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum 695012, Kerala (India)

    2013-09-15

    Objectives: A quantitative volumetric analysis of caudate nucleus can provide valuable information in early diagnosis and prognosis of patients with Alzheimer's diseases (AD). Purpose of the study is to estimate the volume of segmented caudate nucleus from MR images and to correlate the variation in the segmented volume with respect to the total brain volume. We have also tried to evaluate the caudate nucleus atrophy with the age related atrophy of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a group of Alzheimer's disease patients. Methods: 3D fast low angle shot (3D FLASH) brain MR images of 15 AD patients, 15 normal volunteers and 15 patients who had normally diagnosed MR images were included in the study. Brain tissue and caudate nuclei were segmented using the statistical parametric mapping package and a semi-automatic tool, respectively and the volumes were estimated. Volume of segmented caudate nucleus is correlated with respect to the total brain volume. Further, the caudate nucleus atrophy is estimated with the age related atrophy of WM, GM and CSF in a group of AD patients. Results: Significant reduction in the caudate volume of AD patients was observed compared to that of the normal volunteers. Statistical analysis also showed significant variation in the volume of GM and CSF of AD patients. Among the patients who had normal appearing brain, 33% showed significant changes in the caudate volume. We hypothesize that these changes can be considered as an indication of early AD. Conclusion: The method of volumetric analysis of brain structures is simple and effective way of early diagnosis of neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease. We have illustrated this with the observed changes in the volume of caudate nucleus in a group of patients. A detailed study with more subjects will be useful in correlating these results for early diagnosis of AD.

  14. Segmentation and volumetric analysis of the caudate nucleus in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiji, Sudevan; Smitha, Karavallil Achuthan; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Pillai, Vellara Pappukutty Mahadevan; Jayasree, Ramapurath S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: A quantitative volumetric analysis of caudate nucleus can provide valuable information in early diagnosis and prognosis of patients with Alzheimer's diseases (AD). Purpose of the study is to estimate the volume of segmented caudate nucleus from MR images and to correlate the variation in the segmented volume with respect to the total brain volume. We have also tried to evaluate the caudate nucleus atrophy with the age related atrophy of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a group of Alzheimer's disease patients. Methods: 3D fast low angle shot (3D FLASH) brain MR images of 15 AD patients, 15 normal volunteers and 15 patients who had normally diagnosed MR images were included in the study. Brain tissue and caudate nuclei were segmented using the statistical parametric mapping package and a semi-automatic tool, respectively and the volumes were estimated. Volume of segmented caudate nucleus is correlated with respect to the total brain volume. Further, the caudate nucleus atrophy is estimated with the age related atrophy of WM, GM and CSF in a group of AD patients. Results: Significant reduction in the caudate volume of AD patients was observed compared to that of the normal volunteers. Statistical analysis also showed significant variation in the volume of GM and CSF of AD patients. Among the patients who had normal appearing brain, 33% showed significant changes in the caudate volume. We hypothesize that these changes can be considered as an indication of early AD. Conclusion: The method of volumetric analysis of brain structures is simple and effective way of early diagnosis of neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease. We have illustrated this with the observed changes in the volume of caudate nucleus in a group of patients. A detailed study with more subjects will be useful in correlating these results for early diagnosis of AD

  15. Design for volume reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally packaging design-for-sustainability (DfS) strongly focuses on resource conservation and material recycling. The type and amount of materials used has been the driver in design. For consumer electronics (CE) products this weight-based approach is too limited; a volume-based approach is

  16. Lung volume reduction for emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pallav L; Herth, Felix J; van Geffen, Wouter H; Deslee, Gaetan; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2017-02-01

    Advanced emphysema is a lung disease in which alveolar capillary units are destroyed and supporting tissue is lost. The combined effect of reduced gas exchange and changes in airway dynamics impairs expiratory airflow and leads to progressive air trapping. Pharmacological therapies have limited effects. Surgical resection of the most destroyed sections of the lung can improve pulmonary function and exercise capacity but its benefit is tempered by significant morbidity. This issue stimulated a search for novel approaches to lung volume reduction. Alternative minimally invasive approaches using bronchoscopic techniques including valves, coils, vapour thermal ablation, and sclerosant agents have been at the forefront of these developments. Insertion of endobronchial valves in selected patients could have benefits that are comparable with lung volume reduction surgery. Endobronchial coils might have a role in the treatment of patients with emphysema with severe hyperinflation and less parenchymal destruction. Use of vapour thermal energy or a sclerosant might allow focal treatment but the unpredictability of the inflammatory response limits their current use. In this Review, we aim to summarise clinical trial evidence on lung volume reduction and provide guidance on patient selection for available therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Aggression and quantitative MRI measures of caudate in patients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoptman, Matthew J; Volavka, Jan; Czobor, Pál; Gerig, Guido; Chakos, Miranda; Blocher, Joseph; Citrome, Leslie L; Sheitman, Brain; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Bilder, Robert M

    2006-01-01

    Caudate dysfunction is implicated in schizophrenia. However, little is known about the relationship between aggression and caudate volumes. Forty-nine patients received magnetic resonance imaging scanning in a double-blind treatment study in which aggression was measured. Caudate volumes were computed using a semiautomated method. The authors measured aggression with the Overt Aggression Scale and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Larger caudate volumes were associated with greater levels of aggression. The relationship between aggression and caudate volumes may be related to the iatrogenic effects of long-term treatment with typical antipsychotic agents or to a direct effect of schizophrenic processes on the caudate.

  18. Aggression and Quantitative MRI Measures of Caudate in Patients With Chronic Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hoptman, Matthew J.; Volavka, Jan; Czobor, Pál; Gerig, Guido; Chakos, Miranda; Blocher, Joseph; Citrome, Leslie L.; Sheitman, Brain; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Bilder, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Caudate dysfunction is implicated in schizophrenia. However, little is known about the relationship between aggression and caudate volumes. Forty-nine patients received magnetic resonance imaging scanning in a double-blind treatment study in which aggression was measured. Caudate volumes were computed using a semiautomated method. The authors measured aggression with the Overt Aggression Scale and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Larger caudate volumes were associated with greater le...

  19. Finding of increased caudate nucleus in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, K; Bohbot, V D; Bogdanovic, N; Selbaek, G; Braekhus, A; Engedal, K

    2018-02-01

    A recently published study using an automated MRI volumetry method (NeuroQuant®) unexpectedly demonstrated larger caudate nucleus volume in patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) compared to patients with subjective and mild cognitive impairment (SCI and MCI). The aim of this study was to explore this finding. The caudate nucleus and the hippocampus volumes were measured (both expressed as ratios of intracranial volume) in a total of 257 patients with SCI and MCI according to the Winblad criteria and AD according to ICD-10 criteria. Demographic data, cognitive measures, and APOE-ɛ4 status were collected. Compared with non-dementia patients (SCI and MCI), AD patients were older, more of them were female, and they had a larger caudate nucleus volume and smaller hippocampus volume (P<.001). In multiple linear regression analysis, age and female sex were associated with larger caudate nucleus volume, but neither diagnosis nor memory function was. Age, gender, and memory function were associated with hippocampus volume, and age and memory function were associated with caudate nucleus/hippocampus ratio. A larger caudate nucleus volume in AD patients was partly explained by older age and being female. These results are further discussed in the context of (1) the caudate nucleus possibly serving as a mechanism for temporary compensation; (2) methodological properties of automated volumetry of this brain region; and (3) neuropathological alterations. Further studies are needed to fully understand the role of the caudate nucleus in AD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Anaesthesia for Lung Volume Reduction Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    coplasty, denervation of the lung, and stabilization and fixa- tion of the trachea. None of these techniques resulted in any substantial benefit to the patients. Surgical management. Lung volume reduction surgery as an approach to the man- agement of severe emphysema was first described by Brantigan in 1959.6 In this ...

  1. Geode process achieves high volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presli, D.

    1988-01-01

    A system of power reactor liquid waste processing and packaging applied in the USA is described. The system comprises two independent parts including a crystallization device and a cementation one. A 300-fold reduction of the waste volume under the 1135 l/h productivity is provided

  2. Waste volume reduction by spray drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscano, Rodrigo A.; Tello, Clédola C. O. de, E-mail: Rodrigotoscano1@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The operation of nuclear facilities generates liquid wastes which require treatment to control the chemical compounds and removal of radioactive contaminants. These wastes can come from the cooling of the primary reactor system, from the reactor pool decontamination, washing of contaminated clothing, among others. The ion exchange resin constitutes the largest fraction of this waste, classified as low and intermediate level of radiation. According to CNEN Standard 8.01, the minimization of the volume and activity of the radioactive waste generated in the operation of a nuclear installation, radiative installation, industrial mining installation or radioactive waste deposit should be ensured. In addition, one of the acceptance criteria for wastes in repositories required by CNEN NN 6.09 is that it be solid or solidified. Thus, these wastes must be reduced in volume and solidified to meet the standards and the safety of the population and the environment. The objective of this work is to find a solution that associates the least generation of packaged waste and the acceptance criteria of waste for the deposition in the national repository. This work presents a proposal of reduction of the volume of the liquid wastes generated by nuclear facilities by drying by for reduction of volume for a greater incorporation of wastes in cement. Using spray dryer, an 18% reduction in the production of cemented waste products was observed in relation to the method currently used with compressive strength measurement above the standard, and it is believed that this value may increase in future tests. (author)

  3. Reductions in Corpus Callosum Volume Partially Mediate Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevie C. Biffen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Disproportionate volume reductions in the basal ganglia, corpus callosum (CC and hippocampus have been reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE. However, few studies have investigated these reductions in high prevalence communities, such as the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and only one study made use of manual tracing, the gold standard of volumetric analysis. The present study examined the effects of PAE on subcortical neuroanatomy using manual tracing and the relation of volumetric reductions in these regions to IQ and performance on the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C, a list learning task sensitive to PAE. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired, using a sequence optimized for morphometric neuroanatomical analysis, on a Siemens 3T Allegra MRI scanner from 71 right-handed, 9- to 11-year-old children [9 fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS, 19 partial FAS (PFAS, 24 non-syndromal heavily exposed (HE and 19 non-exposed controls]. Frequency of maternal drinking was ascertained prospectively during pregnancy using timeline follow-back interviews. PAE was examined in relation to volumes of the CC and left and right caudate nuclei, nucleus accumbens and hippocampi. All structures were manually traced using Multitracer. Higher levels of PAE were associated with reductions in CC volume after adjustment for TIV. Although the effect of PAE on CC was confounded with smoking and lead exposure, additional analyses showed that it was not accounted for by these exposures. Amongst dysmorphic children, smaller CC was associated with poorer IQ and CVLT-C scores and statistically mediated the effect of PAE on IQ. In addition, higher levels of PAE were associated with bilateral volume reductions in caudate nuclei and hippocampi, effects that remained significant after control for TIV, child sex and age, socioeconomic status, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and childhood lead exposure. These data confirm

  4. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fout, Nathaniel [UC DAVIS; Ma, Kwan - Liu [UC DAVIS

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the

  5. Volume reduction of contaminated filter wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttedahl, O.I.; Terada, K.

    1976-01-01

    Reported are details of a pilot project to design and construct a compactor to reduce the handling of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters used in air filtration systems at facilities where radioactive materials are processed. In such systems at Rocky Flats Plant, filters require frequent change and removal. Large quantities are used and will be increased for future operations. With the completion of the pilot model, it has been demonstrated that volume reductions of more than 80% can be achieved and cost savings will be realized also

  6. Lung volume reduction surgery for diffuse emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Agteren, Joseph Em; Carson, Kristin V; Tiong, Leong Ung; Smith, Brian J

    2016-10-14

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) performed to treat patients with severe diffuse emphysema was reintroduced in the nineties. Lung volume reduction surgery aims to resect damaged emphysematous lung tissue, thereby increasing elastic properties of the lung. This treatment is hypothesised to improve long-term daily functioning and quality of life, although it may be costly and may be associated with risks of morbidity and mortality. Ten years have passed since the last version of this review was prepared, prompting us to perform an update. The objective of this review was to gather all available evidence from randomised controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) versus non-surgical standard therapy in improving health outcomes for patients with severe diffuse emphysema. Secondary objectives included determining which subgroup of patients benefit from LVRS and for which patients LVRS is contraindicated, to establish the postoperative complications of LVRS and its morbidity and mortality, to determine which surgical approaches for LVRS are most effective and to calculate the cost-effectiveness of LVRS. We identified RCTs by using the Cochrane Airways Group Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) register, in addition to the online clinical trials registers. Searches are current to April 2016. We included RCTs that studied the safety and efficacy of LVRS in participants with diffuse emphysema. We excluded studies that investigated giant or bullous emphysema. Two independent review authors assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data. When possible, we combined data from more than one study in a meta-analysis using RevMan 5 software. We identified two new studies (89 participants) in this updated review. A total of 11 studies (1760 participants) met the entry criteria of the review, one of which accounted for 68% of recruited participants. The quality of evidence ranged from low to moderate owing to an unclear risk

  7. Emphysema. Imaging for endoscopic lung volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storbeck, B.; Oldigs, M.; Rabe, K.F.; Weber, C.; University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by two entities, the more airway-predominant type (''bronchitis'') on the one hand, and emphysema-predominant type on the other. Imaging via high-resolution computed tomography plays an important role in phenotyping COPD. For patients with advanced lung emphysema, new endoscopic lung volume reduction therapies (ELVR) have been developed. Proper selection of suitable patients requires thin-section reconstruction of volumetric CT image data sets also in coronal and sagittal orientation are required. In the current manuscript we will describe emphysema subtypes (centrilobular, paraseptal, panlobular), options for quantifying emphysema and this importance of regional distribution (homogeneous or heterogeneous, target area) as this is crucial for patient selection. Analysis of the interlobular fissures is obligatory despite the lack of standardization, as incomplete fissures indicate collateral ventilation (CV) via parenchymal bridges, which is an important criterion in choosing endoscopic methods of LVR. Every radiologist should be familiar with modern LVR therapies such as valves and coils, and furthermore should know what a lung doctor expects from radiologic evaluation (before and after ELVR). Finally we present a checklist as a quick reference for all steps concerning imaging for ELVR.

  8. Update on Nonsurgical Lung Volume Reduction Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alberto Neder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a surge of interest in endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR strategies for advanced COPD. Valve implants, coil implants, biological LVR (BioLVR, bronchial thermal vapour ablation, and airway stents are used to induce lung deflation with the ultimate goal of improving respiratory mechanics and chronic dyspnea. Patients presenting with severe air trapping (e.g., inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity (TLC 225% predicted and thoracic hyperinflation (TLC > 150% predicted have the greatest potential to derive benefit from ELVR procedures. Pre-LVRS or ELVR assessment should ideally include cardiological evaluation, high resolution CT scan, ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy, full pulmonary function tests, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. ELVR procedures are currently available in selected Canadian research centers as part of ethically approved clinical trials. If a decision is made to offer an ELVR procedure, one-way valves are the first option in the presence of complete lobar exclusion and no significant collateral ventilation. When the fissure is not complete, when collateral ventilation is evident in heterogeneous emphysema or when emphysema is homogeneous, coil implants or BioLVR (in that order are the next logical alternatives.

  9. Two years changes in the development of caudate nucleus are involved in restricted repetitive behaviors in 2–5-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Qiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Caudate nucleus volume is enlarged in autism spectrum disorder (ASD and is associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs. However, the trajectory of caudate nucleus volume in RRBs of young children remains unclear. Caudate nucleus volume was measured in 36 children with ASD and 18 matched 2–3-year-old subjects with developmentally delayed (DD at baseline (Time 1 and at 2-year follow-up (Time 2. The differential growth rate in caudate nucleus volume was calculated. Further, the relationships between the development of caudate nucleus volume and RRBs were analyzed. Our results showed that caudate nucleus volume was significantly larger in the ASD group at both time points and the magnitude of enlargement was greater at Time 2. The rate of caudate nucleus growth during this 2-year interval was faster in children with ASD than DD. Right caudate nucleus volume growth was negatively correlated with RRBs. Findings from this study suggest developmental abnormalities of caudate nucleus volume in ASD. Longitudinal MRI studies are needed to explore the correlation between atypical growth patterns of caudate nucleus and phenotype of RRBs.

  10. October 2015 Phoenix pulmonary journal club: lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew M

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The October 2015 pulmonary journal club focused on the review of older studies evaluating lung volume reduction surgery and how this has transitioned toward the development of non-surgical modes of lung volume reduction. The physiology behind dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a complex process. One of the proposed mechanisms has been hyperinflation associated with air trapping. In the mid 1990s studies by Cooper and Peterson (1 offered a promising approach in which lung volume reduction (LVR could improve ventilatory mechanics and improve dyspnea. As the procedure gained more popularity, additional larger scale trials were performed to support its validity. We reviewed 2 studies looking at lung volume reduction. The first was "The Effect of Lung Volume Reduction Surgery In Patients With Severe Emphysema” (2 . This was a smaller, randomized controlled trial (RCT that looked at 2 groups of 24 patients. Once group received LVR while the ...

  11. Shape Abnormalities of the Caudate Nucleus Correlate with Poorer Gait and Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macfarlane, Matthew D; Looi, Jeffrey C L; Walterfang, Mark

    2015-01-01

    published method and volumes calculated. The relationships between volume and physical performance on the SPPB were investigated with shape analysis using the spherical harmonic shape description toolkit. RESULTS: There was no correlation between the severity of WMHs and striatal volumes. Caudate nuclei...... volume correlated with performance on the SPPB at baseline but not at follow-up, with subsequent shape analysis showing left caudate changes occurred in areas corresponding to inputs of the dorsolateral prefrontal, premotor, and motor cortex. There was no correlation between putamen volumes...

  12. Disc volume reduction with percutaneous nucleoplasty in an animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kasch

    Full Text Available STUDY DESIGN: We assessed volume following nucleoplasty disc decompression in lower lumbar spines from cadaveric pigs using 7.1Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. PURPOSE: To investigate coblation-induced volume reductions as a possible mechanism underlying nucleoplasty. METHODS: We assessed volume following nucleoplastic disc decompression in pig spines using 7.1-Tesla MRI. Volumetry was performed in lumbar discs of 21 postmortem pigs. A preoperative image data set was obtained, volume was determined, and either disc decompression or placebo therapy was performed in a randomized manner. Group 1 (nucleoplasty group was treated according to the usual nucleoplasty protocol with coblation current applied to 6 channels for 10 seconds each in an application field of 360°; in group 2 (placebo group the same procedure was performed but without coblation current. After the procedure, a second data set was generated and volumes calculated and matched with the preoperative measurements in a blinded manner. To analyze the effectiveness of nucleoplasty, volumes between treatment and placebo groups were compared. RESULTS: The average preoperative nucleus volume was 0.994 ml (SD: 0.298 ml. In the nucleoplasty group (n = 21 volume was reduced by an average of 0.087 ml (SD: 0.110 ml or 7.14%. In the placebo group (n = 21 volume was increased by an average of 0.075 ml (SD: 0.075 ml or 8.94%. The average nucleoplasty-induced volume reduction was 0.162 ml (SD: 0.124 ml or 16.08%. Volume reduction in lumbar discs was significant in favor of the nucleoplasty group (p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that nucleoplasty has a volume-reducing effect on the lumbar nucleus pulposus in an animal model. Furthermore, we show the volume reduction to be a coblation effect of nucleoplasty in porcine discs.

  13. Volume reduction techniques for solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    This report gives an account of some of the techniques in current use in the UK for the treatment of solid radioactive wastes to reduce their volume prior to storage or disposal. Reference is also made to current research and development projects. It is based on a report presented at a recent International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Committee when this subject was the main theme. An IAEA Technical Series report covering techniques in use in all parts of the world should be published within the next two years. (author)

  14. Lung volume reduction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathognomonic features of advanced emphysema include a markedly reduced alveolar surface area due to the formation of blebs and bullae and significantly reduced elastic recoil. The aim of lung volume reduction, which can be achieved by either surgery or endoscopic techniques, is volume loss of the targeted, diseased ...

  15. Waste volume reduction by acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Divine, J.R.

    1975-06-01

    Acid digestion is a process being developed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington, to reduce the volume of alpha-contaminated combustible waste by converting it into a non-combustible residue. Typical waste materials such as polyvinylchloride (PVC), polyethylene, paper and other cellulosic materials, ion exchange resin, all types of rubber, etc., are digested in hot (230 0 C--270 0 C) concentrated sulfuric acid containing nitric acid oxidant to form inert residues generally having less than four percent of their original volume and less than twenty-five percent of their original mass. The process is currently being tested using non-radioactive waste in an Acid Digestion Test Unit (ADTU) with all glass equipment. Engineering tests to date have shown acid digestion to be a potentially attractive method for treating combustible waste materials. Based on results of the engineering tests, an acid digestion pilot unit capable of treating radioactive wastes is being designed and constructed. Design capacity of the pilot unit for radioactive waste will be 100 kg of waste per day. (U.S.)

  16. Why do we have a caudate nucleus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villablanca, Jaime R

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand the physiological role of the caudate nucleus, we combine here our laboratory data on cats with reports of patients with selective damage to this nucleus. Cats with bilateral removal of the caudate nuclei showed a stereotyped behavior consisting of persistently approaching and then following a person, another cat, or any object, and attempting to contact the target. Simultaneously, the animals exhibited a friendly disposition and persistent docility together with purring and forelimbs treading/kneading. The magnitude and duration of this behavior was proportional to the extent of the removal reaching a maximum after ablations of 65% or more of the caudate tissue. These cats were hyperactive but they had lost the feline elegance of movements. Additional features of acaudate cats were: (1) postural and accuracy deficits (plus perseveration) in paw usage tasks including bar pressing for food reward; (2) cognitive and perceptual impairments on a T-maze battery of tasks and on the bar pressing tasks; (3) blockage or blunting of the species-specific behavioral response to a single injection of morphine; Unilateral caudate nucleus removal did not produce global behavioral effects, but only deficit in the contralateral paw contact placing reaction and paw usage/bar pressing. Moreover and surprisingly, we found hypertrophy of the ipsilateral caudate nucleus following prenatal focal neocortical removal. The findings in human were also behavioral (not neurological) and also occurred with unilateral caudate damage. The main manifestations consisted of loss of drive (apathy), obsessive-compulsive behavior, cognitive deficits, stimulus-bound perseverative behavior, and hyperactivity. Based on all of the above data we propose that the specific function of the caudate nucleus is to control approach-attachment behavior, ranging from plain approach to a target, to romantic love. This putative function would account well for the caudate involvement in the

  17. Volume reduction equipment for low-level radwastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, J.; Schlich, E.

    1982-01-01

    Volume reduction of low-level radwaste has been used for years in Germany to reduce the on-site storage capacity which is required until an ultimate disposal site is available. The incineration of trash is a well established cost effective method for dry active waste volume reduction and now liquid radwaste treatment is gaining the operational experience which establishes it as a routine procedure. Resin pyrolysis is a promising new development which when successfully implemented will augment the other systems by safely volume reducing a radwaste which is of increasing concern

  18. Executive dysfunction correlates with caudate nucleus atrophy in patients with white matter changes on MRI: A subset of LADIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macfarlane, Matthew Duncan; Looi, Jeffrey Chee Leong; Walterfang, Mark

    2013-01-01

    and falls in cross-sectional and follow-up studies. Frontostriatal (or frontosubcortical) brain circuits may serve many of these functions, with the caudate nuclei playing a role in convergence of cognitive functions. This study aimed to determine whether reduced caudate volume relates to cognitive...... functions (executive functions, memory functions and speed of processing) and WMC. We determined caudate nuclei volumes, through manual tracing, on a subgroup of the LADIS study (n=66) from four centres with baseline and 3-year follow-up MRI scans. Regression analysis was used to assess relationships...

  19. Radwaste volume reduction and solidification by General Electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, T.A.; Weech, M.E.; Miller, G.P.; Eberle, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Since 1978 General Electric has been actively engaged in developing a volume reduction and solidifcation system or treatment of radwaste generated in commercial nuclear power plants. The studies have been aimed at defining an integrated system that would be directly responsive to the rapid evolving needs of the industry for the volume reduction and solidification of low-level radwaste. The resulting General Electric Volume Reduction System (GEVRS) is an integrated system based on two processes: the first uses azeotropic distillation technology and is called AZTECH, and the second is controlled-air incineration...called INCA. The AZTECH process serves to remove water from concentrated salt solutions, ion exchange resins and filter sludge slurries and then encapsulates the dried solids into a dense plastic product. The INCA unit serves to reduce combustible wastes to ashes suitable for encapsulation into the same plastic product produced by AZTECH

  20. Insular volume reduction in patients with social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko eKawaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that social anxiety disorder (SAD is highly prevalent, there have been only a few structural imaging studies. Moreover, most of them reported about a volume reduction in amygdala which plays a key role in the neural function of SAD. Insula is another region of interest. Its hyperactivity in regard to processing negative emotional information or interoceptive awareness has been detected in patients with SAD. Referring to these studies, we hypothesized that insular volumes might reduce in patients with SAD and made a comparison of insular volumes between 13 patients with SAD and 18 healthy controls with matched age and gender using voxel-based morphometry. As a result, we found a significant volume reduction in insula in the SAD group. Our results suggest that the patients with SAD might have an insular volume reduction apart from amygdala. Since insula plays a critical role in the pathology of SAD, more attention should be paid not only to functional study but also morphometrical study of insula.

  1. Volume reduction philosophy and techniques in use or planned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    Siting and development of nuclear waste disposal facilities is an expensive task. In the private sector, such developments face siting and licensing issues, public intervention, and technology challenges. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) faces similar challenges in the management of waste generated by the research and production facilities. Volume reduction can be used to lengthen the service life of existing facilities. A wide variety of volume reduction techniques are applied to different waste forms. Compressible waste is compacted into drums, cardboard and metal boxes, and the loaded drums are supercompacted into smaller units. Large metallic items are size-reduced and melted for recycle or sent to shallow land burial. Anaerobic digestion is a process that can reduce cellulosic and animal wastes by 80%. Incinerators of all types have been investigated for application to nuclear wastes and a number of installations operate or are constructing units for low-level and transuranic solid and liquid combustibles. Technology may help solve many of the problems in volume reduction, but the human element also has an important part in solving the puzzle. Aggressive educational campaigns at two sites have proved very successful in reducing waste generation. This overview of volume reduction is intended to transfer the current information from many DOE facilities. 44 references, 85 figures, 5 tables.

  2. Volume reduction philosophy and techniques in use or planned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    Siting and development of nuclear waste disposal facilities is an expensive task. In the private sector, such developments face siting and licensing issues, public intervention, and technology challenges. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) faces similar challenges in the management of waste generated by the research and production facilities. Volume reduction can be used to lengthen the service life of existing facilities. A wide variety of volume reduction techniques are applied to different waste forms. Compressible waste is compacted into drums, cardboard and metal boxes, and the loaded drums are supercompacted into smaller units. Large metallic items are size-reduced and melted for recycle or sent to shallow land burial. Anaerobic digestion is a process that can reduce cellulosic and animal wastes by 80%. Incinerators of all types have been investigated for application to nuclear wastes and a number of installations operate or are constructing units for low-level and transuranic solid and liquid combustibles. Technology may help solve many of the problems in volume reduction, but the human element also has an important part in solving the puzzle. Aggressive educational campaigns at two sites have proved very successful in reducing waste generation. This overview of volume reduction is intended to transfer the current information from many DOE facilities. 44 references, 85 figures, 5 tables

  3. Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction : An Expert Panel Recommendation - Update 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herth, Felix J. F.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Criner, Gerard J.; Shah, Pallav L.

    2017-01-01

    Interest in endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) technologies for emphysema is consistently growing. In the last couple of months, several endoscopic options (e.g., endo-or intrabronchial valves, coil implants, and thermal vapor ablation) that have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials

  4. Time for the Global Rollout of Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koegelenberg, Coenraad F. N.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Shah, Pallav L.; Theron, Johan; Dheda, Keertan; Allwood, Brian W.; Herth, Felix J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remains one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality globally. The disease is generally managed with pharmacotherapy, as well as guidance about smoking cessation and pulmonary rehabilitation. Endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) has been proposed

  5. Recycle operations as a methodology for radioactive waste volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The costs for packaging, transportation and burial of low-level radioactive metallic waste have become so expensive that an alternate method of decontamination for volume reduction prior to disposal can now be justified. The operation of a large-scale centralized recycle center for decontamination of selected low level radioactive waste has been proven to be an effective method for waste volume reduction and for retrieving valuable materials for unlimited use. The centralized recycle center concept allows application of state-of-the-art decontamination technology resulting in a reduction in utility disposal costs and a reduction in overall net amount of material being buried. Examples of specific decontamination process activities at the centralized facility will be reviewed along with a discussion of the economic impact of decontamination for recycling and volume reduction. Based on almost two years of operation of a centralized decontamination facility, a demonstrated capability exists. The concept has been cost effective and proves that valuable resources can be recycled

  6. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Radioactive Burnable and Metal Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. Y.; Lee, Y. J.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K.; Choi, Y. K.; Cho, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    A large quantity of radioactive waste was generated during the decommissioning projects. For the purpose of the volume reduction and clearance for decommissioning wastes from decommissioning projects, the incineration and high melting technology has been selected for the decommissioning wastes treatment. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Incinerator burns waste at high temperature. Incineration of a mixture of chemically hazardous and radioactive materials, known as 'mixed waste,' has two principal goals: to reduce the volume and total chemical toxicity of the waste. Incineration itself does not destroy the metals or reduce the radioactivity of the waste. A proven melting technology is currently used for low-level waste (LLW) at several facilities worldwide. These facilities use melting as a means of processing LLW for unrestricted release of the metal or for recycling within the nuclear sector. About 16.4 tons of decommissioning combustible waste has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incineration. The incineration facility operated quite smoothly through the analysis major critical parameters of off-gas

  7. Reduction of thyroid volume following radioiodine therapy for functional autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luster, M.; Jacob, M.; Thelen, M.H.; Michalowski, U.; Deutsch, U.; Reiners, C.

    1995-01-01

    In a retrospective study we evaluated the data of 112 patients who underwent radioiodine treatment for functional autonomy of the thyroid at Essen University Hospital from 1988 to 1993. Therapeutic activities of radioiodine were administered after individual determination of activity for intended radiation doses (150-300 Gy) taking into consideration autonomously functioning volume, maximum uptake, and effective half-life. The achieved dose was calculated by means of measurement of the radioiodine kinetics during therapy. Depending on the type of autonomous function of the thyroid (solitary autonomously functioning nodule, multiple autonomously functioning nodules, autonomously functioning thyroid tissue) volume reductions between 39 and 46% were found approximately 6 months after treatment. (orig.) [de

  8. Solid waste treatment volume reduction by compaction or incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigreux, B.; Carpentier, S.

    1986-01-01

    A short presentation is made of various techniques available for volume reduction by compaction of solid waste produced during nuclear plant operation. A long industrial experience has been accumulated in France on such compactors. Incineration is the most performing method of volume reduction for combustible waste. The CEA Group and SGN have developed a very reliable, simple and safe incinerator which operates with excess air and at high temperature. Sorting and feeding of the waste, ash discharge and transportation to the conditioning unit, gas treatment, are included in the system. The adding of a programmable controller makes it fully automated. The system is described with some detail and recent performance measurements are given [fr

  9. Solid waste treatment volume reduction by compaction or incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigreux, B.; Carpentier, S.

    1985-01-01

    A short presentation is made of various techniques available for volume reduction by compaction of solid waste produced during nuclear plant operation. A long industrial experience has been accumulated in France on such compactors. Incineration is the most performing method of volume reduction for combustible waste. The CEA Group and SGN have developed a very reliable, simple and safe incinerator which operates with excess air and at high temperature. Sorting and feeding of the waste, ash discharge and transportation to the conditioning unit, gas treatment, are included in the system. The adding of a programmable controller makes it fully automated. The system is described with some detail and recent performance measurements are given [fr

  10. Geode process achieves high volume reduction [of power plant wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presley, David.

    1987-01-01

    The Geode process is a two-step crystallisation and cementation process for power plant liquid wastes. The process is carried out in two steps. The first step provides volume reduction of the liquid waste stream by use of a Mobile Crystalliser Unit; the second step immobilises and stabilises the concentrated waste solution in disposable liners by use of a Mobile Cement Solidification Unit. (author)

  11. [Lung volume reduction surgery for severe pulmonary emphysema in Iceland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Sverrir I; Johannsson, Kristinn B; Guðjónsdóttir, Marta; Jónsson, Steinn; Beck, Hans J; Magnusson, Bjorn; Gudbjartsson, Tomas

    2011-12-01

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) can benefit patients with severe emphysema. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of LVRS performed in Iceland. A prospective study of 16 consecutive patients who underwent bilateral LVRS through median sternotomy between January 1996 and December 2008. All patients had disabling dyspnea, lung hyperinflation, and emphysema with upper lobe predominance. Preoperatively all patients underwent pulmonary rehabilitation. Spirometry, lung volumes, arterial blood gases and exercise capacity were measured before and after surgery. Mean follow-up time was 8.7 years. Mean age was 59.2 ± 5.9 years. All patients had a history of heavy smoking. There was no perioperative mortality and survival was 100%, 93%, and 63% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and the forced vital capacity (FVC) improved significantly after surgery by 35% (plung capacity, residual volume and partial pressure of CO2 also showed statistically significant improvements but exercise capacity, O2 consumption and diffusing capacity of the lung for CO did not change. Prolonged air leak (≥ 7 days) was the most common complication (n=7). Five patients required reoperation, most commonly for sternal dehiscence (n=4). In this small prospective study, FEV1 and FVC increased and lung volumes and PaCO2 improved after LVRS. Long term survival was satisfactory although complications such as reoperations for sternal dehiscence were common and hospital stay therefore often prolonged.

  12. Lung Volume Reduction in Pulmonary Emphysema from the Radiologist's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doellinger, F; Huebner, R H; Kuhnigk, J M; Poellinger, A

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary emphysema causes decrease in lung function due to irreversible dilatation of intrapulmonary air spaces, which is linked to high morbidity and mortality. Lung volume reduction (LVR) is an invasive therapeutical option for pulmonary emphysema in order to improve ventilation mechanics. LVR can be carried out by lung resection surgery or different minimally invasive endoscopical procedures. All LVR-options require mandatory preinterventional evaluation to detect hyperinflated dysfunctional lung areas as target structures for treatment. Quantitative computed tomography can determine the volume percentage of emphysematous lung and its topographical distribution based on the lung's radiodensity. Modern techniques allow for lobebased quantification that facilitates treatment planning. Clinical tests still play the most important role in post-interventional therapy monitoring, but CT is crucial in the detection of postoperative complications and foreshadows the method's high potential in sophisticated experimental studies. Within the last ten years, LVR with endobronchial valves has become an extensively researched minimally-invasive treatment option. However, this therapy is considerably complicated by the frequent occurrence of functional interlobar shunts. The presence of "collateral ventilation" has to be ruled out prior to valve implantations, as the presence of these extraanatomical connections between different lobes may jeopardize the success of therapy. Recent experimental studies evaluated the automatic detection of incomplete lobar fissures from CT scans, because they are considered to be a predictor for the existence of shunts. To date, these methods are yet to show acceptable results. Today, surgical and various minimal invasive methods of lung volume reduction are in use. Radiological and nuclear medical examinations are helpful in the evaluation of an appropriate lung area. Imaging can detect periinterventional complications. Reduction of lung

  13. Hippocampal volume reduction in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Children with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS, a genetic disorder characterized by diminished drive to breathe during sleep and impaired CO(2 sensitivity, show brain structural and functional changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans, with impaired responses in specific hippocampal regions, suggesting localized injury.We assessed total volume and regional variation in hippocampal surface morphology to identify areas affected in the syndrome. We studied 18 CCHS (mean age+/-std: 15.1+/-2.2 years; 8 female and 32 healthy control (age 15.2+/-2.4 years; 14 female children, and traced hippocampi on 1 mm(3 resolution T1-weighted scans, collected with a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner. Regional hippocampal volume variations, adjusted for cranial volume, were compared between groups based on t-tests of surface distances to the structure midline, with correction for multiple comparisons. Significant tissue losses emerged in CCHS patients on the left side, with a trend for loss on the right; however, most areas affected on the left also showed equivalent right-sided volume reductions. Reduced regional volumes appeared in the left rostral hippocampus, bilateral areas in mid and mid-to-caudal regions, and a dorsal-caudal region, adjacent to the fimbria.The volume losses may result from hypoxic exposure following hypoventilation during sleep-disordered breathing, or from developmental or vascular consequences of genetic mutations in the syndrome. The sites of change overlap regions of abnormal functional responses to respiratory and autonomic challenges. Affected hippocampal areas have roles associated with memory, mood, and indirectly, autonomic regulation; impairments in these behavioral and physiological functions appear in CCHS.

  14. Biodrying for municipal solid waste: volume and weight reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Melayib; Tulun, Şevket

    2015-01-01

    Biodrying is a variation of aerobic decomposition used for the mechanical-biological treatment organic substances to dry and partially stabilize residual municipal waste. This study focuses on the volume and weight reduction biodegradation of the biodrying process using municipal solid waste and the appearance of a stable, final product. The materials were placed in a reactor with invariant airflow rates of 50 L/h and initial moisture contents of 48.49-50.00%. The laboratory-scale experiments were implemented using a 36-L biodrying reactor equipped with an air supply system, a biomass temperature sensor and air sensors. To determine the effect of temperature on biodrying, the process was repeated at various temperatures between 30 °C and 50 °C. The results obtained indicated that after 13 days, biodrying reduced the volume content of waste by 32% and the final product had a high calorific value (4680 kcal/kg).

  15. Volume reduction by crystallization of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, D.C.; Murray, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes containing boric acid, borax, or sodium sulfate, with radioactive contaminants, are generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. These wastes require disposal, and as such, it is economically and environmentally desirable to reduce their volume. Crystallization was examined in the laboratory as a means of accomplishing this. The crystallizer was operated in both of two modes: evaporative cooling and total evaporation. A 12 wt% boric acid waste feed was concentrated to a 40 to 45 wt% slurry in both modes of operation. Using pure boric acid, a slurry containing over 60 wt% was obtained. An 18.5 wt% borax waste feed was concentrated to 50 wt% in the total evaporative mode and 70 wt% in the evaporatively cooled mode. A 22 wt% sodium sulfate feed was concentrated to a 78 wt% slurry in the total evaporative mode. For all of the feeds, this represents a 4- to 5-fold volume reduction by the crystallizer

  16. A CASE STUDY OF BRAIN VOLUME REDUCTION IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan N. Dimitrov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of sophisticated magnetic resonance imaging techniques and software for medical imaging processing and analysis has led to a significant progress in multiple sclerosis research and clinical care. The measurement of brain volumes provides a quantitative representation of damage, thus facilitating the objective follow-up process. The parameters obtained, though not being used routinely in clinical practice, are more and more often applied in clinical studies. The amount of whole brain and regional atrophy, estimated from serial scans, is considered important not only for disease progression, but also for cognitive dysfunction which is common in multiple sclerosis. In this paper we describe a volumetric study of two magnetic resonance scans of a patient with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, performed 16 months one after the other, and analyzed using FSL SIENA software. Analysis demonstrated brain volume reduction of 1.7% between the two scans. We discuss the advantages of the method and its possible clinical applications.

  17. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Burnable Waste with Oxygen Enrich Incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y.; Yang, D. S.; Lee, K. W.; Choi, J. W. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. This paper covers the general facility operation of an oxygen-enriched incinerator for the treatment of decommissioning wastes generated from a decommissioning project. The combustible wastes have been treated by the utilization of incinerator the capacity of the average 20 kg/hr. The decommissioning combustible waste of about 31 tons has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incinerator by at the end of 2016. The off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measured gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits.

  18. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Burnable Waste with Oxygen Enrich Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. Y.; Yang, D. S.; Lee, K. W.; Choi, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. This paper covers the general facility operation of an oxygen-enriched incinerator for the treatment of decommissioning wastes generated from a decommissioning project. The combustible wastes have been treated by the utilization of incinerator the capacity of the average 20 kg/hr. The decommissioning combustible waste of about 31 tons has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incinerator by at the end of 2016. The off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measured gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits.

  19. Psychotic Symptoms Associated with Left Caudate Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chih Cheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychotic symptoms following acquired brain lesion are relatively rare, and thus, the specific association linking such symptoms to the distinct brain structure remains unclear. The frontal–subcortical circuits are thought to modulate motor activity and human behavior, and have been reported to be associated with many neuropsychiatric symptoms. We herein report the case of a 77-year-old man without previous psychiatric disorder who developed a new onset of psychotic symptoms following left caudate infarction. The presented case supports the fact that psychosis might arise from alteration of the distinct brain structure. The functional impairment of the frontal–subcortical circuits may be a critical factor linking the pathogenesis of psychosis associated with acquired brain lesion.

  20. [Lung volume reduction surgery for emphysema and bullous pulmonary emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pimpec-Barthes, F; Das Neves-Pereira, J-C; Cazes, A; Arame, A; Grima, R; Hubsch, J-P; Zukerman, C; Hernigou, A; Badia, A; Bagan, P; Delclaux, C; Dusser, D; Riquet, M

    2012-04-01

    The improvement of respiratory symptoms for emphysematous patients by surgery is a concept that has evolved over time. Initially used for giant bullae, this surgery was then applied to patients with diffuse microbullous emphysema. The physiological and pathological concepts underlying these surgical procedures are the same in both cases: improve respiratory performance by reducing the high intrapleural pressure. The functional benefit of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) in the severe diffuse emphysema has been validated by the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) and the later studies which allowed to identify prognostic factors. The quality of the clinical, morphological and functional data made it possible to develop recommendations now widely used in current practice. Surgery for giant bullae occurring on little or moderately emphysematous lung is often a simpler approach but also requires specialised support to optimize its results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.P.S.; Rucker, G.G.; Looper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative 'incineration' was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material

  2. Atypically diffuse functional connectivity between caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Katherine C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting sociocommunicative behavior, but also sensorimotor skill learning, oculomotor control, and executive functioning. Some of these impairments may be related to abnormalities of the caudate nuclei, which have been reported for autism. Methods Our sample was comprised of 8 high-functioning males with autism and 8 handedness, sex, and age-matched controls. Subjects underwent functional MRI scanning during performance on simple visuomotor coordination tasks. Functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI effects were identified as interregional blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signal cross-correlation, using the caudate nuclei as seed volumes. Results In the control group, fcMRI effects were found in circuits with known participation of the caudate nuclei (associative, orbitofrontal, oculomotor, motor circuits. Although in the autism group fcMRI effects within these circuits were less pronounced or absent, autistic subjects showed diffusely increased connectivity mostly in pericentral regions, but also in brain areas outside expected anatomical circuits (such as visual cortex. Conclusion These atypical connectivity patterns may be linked to developmental brain growth disturbances recently reported in autism and suggest inefficiently organized functional connectivity between caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex, potentially accounting for stereotypic behaviors and executive impairments.

  3. Widespread reductions in gray matter volume in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Stuart M; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Koslow, Stephen H; Gordon, Evian; Williams, Leanne M

    2013-01-01

    Abnormalities in functional limbic-anterior cingulate-prefrontal circuits associated with emotional reactivity, evaluation and regulation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, existing knowledge about structural alterations in depression is equivocal and based on cohorts of limited sample size. This study used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surface-based cortical thickness to investigate the structure of these circuits in a large and well-characterized patient cohort with MDD. Non-geriatric MDD outpatients (n = 102) and age- and gender-matched healthy control participants (n = 34) provided T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data during their baseline visit as part of the International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment for Depression. Whole-brain VBM volumetric and surface-based cortical thickness assessments were performed voxel-wise and compared (at p gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate cortex, regions of the prefrontal circuits, including dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices, and lateral and medial orbitofrontal cortices, but not in limbic regions. Additional reductions were observed cortically in the posterior temporal and parieto-occipital cortices and, subcortically in the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Focal cortical thinning in the medial orbitofrontal cortex was also observed for the MDD group. These alterations in volume and cortical thickness were not associated with severity of depressive symptoms. The findings demonstrate that widespread gray matter structural abnormalities are present in a well-powered study of patients with depression. The patterns of gray matter loss correspond to the same brain functional network regions that were previously established to be abnormal in MDD, which may support an underlying structural abnormality for these circuits.

  4. Lung volume reduction surgery: an overview Cirurgia redutora de volume pulmonar: uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Afonso da Silva Sardenberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to review the literature on the efficacy, safety and feasibility of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS in patients with advanced emphysema. Studies on LVRS from January 1995 to December 2009 were included by using Pubmed (MEDLINE and Cochrane Library literature in English. Search words such as lung volume reduction surgery or lung reduction surgery, pneumoplasty or reduction pneumoplasty, COPD or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and surgery, were used. We also compared medical therapy and surgical technique. Studies consisting of randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials (randomized and nonrandomized, reviews and case series were analyzed. Questions regarding validity of the early clinical reports, incomplete follow-up bias, selection criteria and survival, confounded the interpretation of clinical data on LVRS. Patients with upper, lower and diffuse distribution of emphysema were included; we also analyzed as key points perioperative morbidity and mortality and lung function measurement as FEV1. Bullous emphysema was excluded from this review. Surgical approach included median sternotomy, unilateral or bilateral thoracotomy, and videothoracoscopy with stapled or laser ablation. Results of prospective randomized trials between medical management and LVRS are essential before final assessment can be established.O objetivo deste estudo é revisar a literatura acerca da eficácia, segurança e viabilidade da cirurgia redutora de volume pulmonar (CRVP em pacientes com enfisema pulmonar avançado. Estudos de CRVP de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 2009 foram incluídos através de pesquisa na Pubmed (MEDLINE e Cochrane Library, na literatura inglesa. Palavras de busca tais como lung volume reduction surgery ou lung reduction surgery, pneumoplasty ou reduction pneumoplasty, COPD ou chronic obstructive pulmonary disease e surgery foram utilizadas. Também realizamos comparação entre terapia médica e cir

  5. Emphysema lung lobe volume reduction: effects on the ipsilateral and contralateral lobes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Matthew S.; Kim, Hyun J.; Abtin, Fereidoun G.; Galperin-Aizenberg, Maya; Pais, Richard; Da Costa, Irene G.; Ordookhani, Arash; Chong, Daniel; Ni, Chiayi; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Goldin, Jonathan G. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Center for Computer Vision and Imaging Biomarkers, Department of Radiological Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Strange, Charlie [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States); Tashkin, Donald P. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    To investigate volumetric and density changes in the ipsilateral and contralateral lobes following volume reduction of an emphysematous target lobe. The study included 289 subjects with heterogeneous emphysema, who underwent bronchoscopic volume reduction of the most diseased lobe with endobronchial valves and 132 untreated controls. Lobar volume and low-attenuation relative area (RA) changes post-procedure were measured from computed tomography images. Regression analysis (Spearman's rho) was performed to test the association between change in the target lobe volume and changes in volume and density variables in the other lobes. The target lobe volume at full inspiration in the treatment group had a mean reduction of -0.45 L (SE = 0.034, P < 0.0001), and was associated with volume increases in the ipsilateral lobe (rho = -0.68, P < 0.0001) and contralateral lung (rho = -0.16, P = 0.006), and overall reductions in expiratory RA (rho = 0.31, P < 0.0001) and residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC) (rho = 0.13, P = 0.03). When the volume of an emphysematous target lobe is reduced, the volume is redistributed primarily to the ipsilateral lobe, with an overall reduction. Image-based changes in lobar volumes and densities indicate that target lobe volume reduction is associated with statistically significant overall reductions in air trapping, consistent with expansion of the healthier lung. (orig.)

  6. Emphysema lung lobe volume reduction: effects on the ipsilateral and contralateral lobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Matthew S.; Kim, Hyun J.; Abtin, Fereidoun G.; Galperin-Aizenberg, Maya; Pais, Richard; Da Costa, Irene G.; Ordookhani, Arash; Chong, Daniel; Ni, Chiayi; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Goldin, Jonathan G.; Strange, Charlie; Tashkin, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate volumetric and density changes in the ipsilateral and contralateral lobes following volume reduction of an emphysematous target lobe. The study included 289 subjects with heterogeneous emphysema, who underwent bronchoscopic volume reduction of the most diseased lobe with endobronchial valves and 132 untreated controls. Lobar volume and low-attenuation relative area (RA) changes post-procedure were measured from computed tomography images. Regression analysis (Spearman's rho) was performed to test the association between change in the target lobe volume and changes in volume and density variables in the other lobes. The target lobe volume at full inspiration in the treatment group had a mean reduction of -0.45 L (SE = 0.034, P < 0.0001), and was associated with volume increases in the ipsilateral lobe (rho = -0.68, P < 0.0001) and contralateral lung (rho = -0.16, P = 0.006), and overall reductions in expiratory RA (rho = 0.31, P < 0.0001) and residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC) (rho = 0.13, P = 0.03). When the volume of an emphysematous target lobe is reduced, the volume is redistributed primarily to the ipsilateral lobe, with an overall reduction. Image-based changes in lobar volumes and densities indicate that target lobe volume reduction is associated with statistically significant overall reductions in air trapping, consistent with expansion of the healthier lung. (orig.)

  7. Radiofrequency volume reduction of gastrocnemius muscle hypertrophy for cosmetic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Jin; Jo, Yong Woo; Bang, Sa Ik; Kim, Hyung Joon; Lim, So Young; Mun, Goo Hyun; Hyon, Won Sok; Oh, Kap Sung

    2007-01-01

    Muscularly prominent calves, caused mainly by hypertrophy of the gastrocnemius muscle (GCM), are prevalent among Asian women, and this condition can be a significant factor leading to psychological stress. The authors have devised a method for contouring the calf using radiofrequency (RF) applications to the GCMs to correct thick, muscular legs. This study was performed to investigate the effects of RF energy in reducing enlarged GCMs for 250 patients (249 women and 1 man) who sought aesthetic consultation for problems such as thick, muscular, asymmetric, or bowed calves. The operations were performed from June 2004 to April 2006. The patients first received a local anesthetic and sedation. After application of RF current, the prominent muscular contours improved, and the GCMs were contoured to an appropriate proportional volume. The range of the reductions in the calf circumferences at their thickest levels was 1 to 6 cm (mean, 2.5 cm) during the follow-up visits 6 months after the procedures. Most of the patients could return to their activities of daily living, except for exercise, after 1 to 7 days, and they were satisfied with the improved aesthetic contour lines of their lower legs. Clinical photography and ultrasonic examination were performed, and the leg circumferences were measured. Radiofrequency-induced coagulation tissue necrosis of the muscles caused no functional disabilities, and the clinical improvement was well maintained after the treatments for up to 17 months of follow-up evaluation.

  8. Volume reduction of reactor wastes by spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Three simulated low-level reactor wastes were dried using a spray dryer-baghouse system. The three aqueous feedstocks were sodium sulfate waste characteristic of a BWR, boric acid waste characteristic of a PWR, and a waste mixture of ion exchange resins and filter aid. These slurries were spiked with nonradioactive iron, cobalt, and manganese (representing corrosion products) and nonradioactive cesium and iodine (representing fission products). The throughput for the 2.1-m-diameter spray dryer and baghouse system was 160-180 kg/h, which is comparable to the requirements for a full-scale commercial installation. A free-flowing, dry product was produced in all of the tests. The volume reduction factor ranged from 2.5 to 5.8; the baghouse decontamination factor was typically in the range of 10 3 to 10 4 . Using an overall system decontamination factor of 10 6 , the activity of the off-gas was calculated to be one to two orders of magnitude less than the nuclide release limit of the major active species, Cs-137

  9. Lung volume reduction of pulmonary emphysema: the radiologist task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanese, Gianluca; Silva, Mario; Sverzellati, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Several lung volume reduction (LVR) techniques have been increasingly evaluated in patients with advanced pulmonary emphysema, especially in the last decade. Radiologist plays a pivotal role in the characterization of parenchymal damage and, thus, assessment of eligibility criteria. This review aims to discuss the most common LVR techniques, namely LVR surgery, endobronchial valves, and coils LVR, with emphasis on the role of computed tomography (CT). Several trials have recently highlighted the importance of regional quantification of emphysema by computerized CT-based segmentation of hyperlucent parenchyma, which is strongly recommended for candidates to any LVR treatment. In particular, emphysema distribution pattern and fissures integrity are evaluated to tailor the choice of the most appropriate LVR technique. Furthermore, a number of CT measures have been tested for the personalization of treatment, according to imaging detected heterogeneity of parenchymal disease. CT characterization of heterogeneous parenchymal abnormalities provides criteria for selection of the preferable treatment in each patient and improves outcome of LVR as reflected by better quality of life, higher exercise tolerance, and lower mortality.

  10. Efficacy of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar IH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Imran H Iftikhar,1 Franklin R McGuire,1 Ali I Musani21Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USABackground: Over the last several years, the morbidity, mortality, and high costs associated with lung volume reduction (LVR surgery has fuelled the development of different methods for bronchoscopic LVR (BLVR in patients with emphysema. In this meta-analysis, we sought to study and compare the efficacy of most of these methods.Methods: Eligible studies were retrieved from PubMed and Embase for the following BLVR methods: one-way valves, sealants (BioLVR, LVR coils, airway bypass stents, and bronchial thermal vapor ablation. Primary study outcomes included the mean change post-intervention in the lung function tests, the 6-minute walk distance, and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included treatment-related complications.Results: Except for the airway bypass stents, all other methods of BLVR showed efficacy in primary outcomes. However, in comparison, the BioLVR method showed the most significant findings and was the least associated with major treatment-related complications. For the BioLVR method, the mean change in forced expiratory volume (in first second was 0.18 L (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.09 to 0.26; P<0.001; in 6-minute walk distance was 23.98 m (95% CI: 12.08 to 35.88; P<0.01; and in St George's Respiratory Questionnaire was −8.88 points (95% CI: −12.12 to −5.64; P<0.001.Conclusion: The preliminary findings of our meta-analysis signify the importance of most methods of BLVR. The magnitude of the effect on selected primary outcomes shows noninferiority, if not equivalence, when compared to what is known for surgical LVR.Keyword: emphysema, endobronchial valves, sealants, stents, coils

  11. Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction Coil Treatment of Patients With Severe Heterogeneous Emphysema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Klooster, Karin; Ernst, Armin; Herth, Felix J. F.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.

    Background: The lung volume reduction coil (LVR-coil), a new experimental device to achieve lung volume reduction by bronchoscopy in patients with severe emphysema, works in a manner unaffected by collateral airflow. We investigated the safety and efficacy of LVR-coil treatment in patients with

  12. Measurement of breast volume is a useful supplement to select candidates for surgical breast reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikander, Peder; Drejøe, Jennifer Berg; Lumholt, Pavia

    2014-01-01

    -off values for breast volume were calculated based on whether or not the patients were offered reduction surgery. Most patients (93%) with a breast volume below 800 cc were not offered surgery, while most with a volume exceeding 900 cc were offered surgery (94%). In the grey zone between 800 and 900 cc...

  13. Lung Volume Reduction After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors: Potential Application to Emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkley, Michael S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Shrager, Joseph B. [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Leung, Ann N. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Popat, Rita [Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Trakul, Nicholas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Atwood, Todd F.; Chaudhuri, Aadel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Maxim, Peter G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian, E-mail: Diehn@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) improves dyspnea and other outcomes in selected patients with severe emphysema, but many have excessive surgical risk for LVRS. We analyzed the dose-volume relationship for lobar volume reduction after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) of lung tumors, hypothesizing that SABR could achieve therapeutic volume reduction if applied in emphysema. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients treated from 2007 to 2011 who had SABR for 1 lung tumor, pre-SABR pulmonary function testing, and ≥6 months computed tomographic (CT) imaging follow-up. We contoured the treated lobe and untreated adjacent lobe(s) on CT before and after SABR and calculated their volume changes relative to the contoured total (bilateral) lung volume (TLV). We correlated lobar volume reduction with the volume receiving high biologically effective doses (BED, α/β = 3). Results: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria, with a median CT follow-up time of 14 months. There was no grade ≥3 toxicity. The median volume reduction of the treated lobe was 4.4% of TLV (range, −0.4%-10.8%); the median expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe was 2.6% of TLV (range, −3.9%-11.6%). The volume reduction of the treated lobe was positively correlated with the volume receiving BED ≥60 Gy (r{sup 2}=0.45, P=.0001). This persisted in subgroups determined by high versus low pre-SABR forced expiratory volume in 1 second, treated lobe CT emphysema score, number of fractions, follow-up CT time, central versus peripheral location, and upper versus lower lobe location, with no significant differences in effect size between subgroups. Volume expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe(s) was positively correlated with volume reduction of the treated lobe (r{sup 2}=0.47, P<.0001). Conclusions: We identified a dose-volume response for treated lobe volume reduction and adjacent lobe compensatory expansion after lung tumor SABR, consistent across

  14. Brain volume reduction after whole-brain radiotherapy: quantification and prognostic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Distel, Luitpold; Knippen, Stefan; Gryc, Thomas; Schmidt, Manuel Alexander; Fietkau, Rainer; Putz, Florian

    2018-01-22

    Recent studies have questioned the value of adding whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) to stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastasis treatment. Neurotoxicity, including radiation-induced brain volume reduction, could be one reason why not all patients benefit from the addition of WBRT. In this study, we quantified brain volume reduction after WBRT and assessed its prognostic significance. Brain volumes of 91 patients with cerebral metastases were measured during a 150-day period after commencing WBRT and were compared with their pretreatment volumes. The average daily relative change in brain volume of each patient, referred to as the "brain volume reduction rate," was calculated. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to assess the prognostic significance of the brain volume reduction rate, as well as of 3 treatment-related and 9 pretreatment factors. A one-way analysis of variance was used to compare the brain volume reduction rate across recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classes. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the brain volume reduction rate was a significant predictor of overall survival after WBRT (P < 0.001), as well as the number of brain metastases (P = 0.002) and age (P = 0.008). Patients with a relatively favorable prognosis (RPA classes 1 and 2) experienced significantly less brain volume decrease after WBRT than patients with a poor prognosis (RPA class 3) (P = 0.001). There was no significant correlation between delivered radiation dose and brain volume reduction rate (P = 0.147). In this retrospective study, a smaller decrease in brain volume after WBRT was an independent predictor of longer overall survival. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Increased glia density in the caudate nucleus in williams syndrome: Implications for frontostriatal dysfunction in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kari L; Lew, Caroline H; Hrvoj-Mihic, Branka; Groeniger, Kimberly M; Halgren, Eric; Bellugi, Ursula; Semendeferi, Katerina

    2017-11-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder with a well-described, known genetic etiology. In contrast to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), WS has a unique phenotype characterized by global reductions in IQ and visuospatial ability, with relatively preserved language function, enhanced reactivity to social stimuli and music, and an unusual eagerness to interact socially with strangers. A duplication of the deleted region in WS has been implicated in a subset of ASD cases, defining a spectrum of genetic and behavioral variation at this locus defined by these opposite extremes in social behavior. The hypersociability characteristic of WS may be linked to abnormalities of frontostriatal circuitry that manifest as deficits in inhibitory control of behavior. Here, we examined the density of neurons and glia in associative and limbic territories of the striatum including the caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens regions in Nissl stained sections in five pairs of age, sex, and hemisphere-matched WS and typically-developing control (TD) subjects. In contrast to what is reported in ASD, no significant increase in overall neuron density was observed in this study. However, we found a significant increase in the density of glia in the dorsal caudate nucleus, and in the ratio of glia to neurons in the dorsal and medial caudate nucleus in WS, accompanied by a significant increase in density of oligodendrocytes in the medial caudate nucleus. These cellular abnormalities may underlie reduced frontostriatal activity observed in WS, with implications for understanding altered connectivity and function in ASD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report

  17. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report.

  18. Reduction in mean platelet volume in children with acute bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergül, Ayşe Betül; Torun, Yasemin Altuner; Uytun, Salih; Aslaner, Hümeyra; Kısaaslan, Ayşenur Paç; Şerbetçi, Mahmut Can

    2016-03-01

    Platelets which are known to play a role in inflamation change their shapes when they are activated and this change is reflected in mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width values. Therefore, the mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width values are considered to be beneficial parameters for the diagnosis and treatment of many inflammatory diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate platelet volume indices in children with acute bronchiolitis. A total of 514 infants who were below the age of 2 years old were evaluated in this study. Three hundred thirteen of these infants were diagnosed with acute bronchiolitis patients and 201 were healthy children. The patients were separated into four groups as mild, moderate, severe bronchiolitis and the control patient group. The groups were evaluated in terms of significant differences in the values of mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant for all results. The mean platelet volume was found to be 6.8±0.6 fL in the patients with mild bronchiolitis attack, 6.7±0.6 fL in the patients with moderate bronchiolitis attack, 6.5±0.5 fL in the patients with severe bronchiolitis attack and 7.3±1.1 fL in the control group. The mean platalet volume was statistically significantly lower in the mild, moderate and severe bronchiolitis attack groups compared to the control group (p=0.000). The platelet distribution width was found to be 17.2%±0.83 in the mild bronchiolitis attack group, 17.1%±0.96 in the moderate bronchiolitis attack group, 17.3%±0.87 in the severe bronchiolitis attack group and 16.9±1.6% in the control patient group. This difference was not statistically significant (p=0.159). The platelet count was statistically significantly higher in the mild, moderate and severe bronchiolitis attack groups compared to the control group (p=0.000). The mean platalet volume is decreased in patients with acute bronchiolitis. It is not

  19. Data volume reduction strategies in the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Paganini, P

    2002-01-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter of CMS consists of a barrel and two endcap calorimeters containing a sum of over 80000 lead tungstate crystals. If all the crystals were to be read-out in a triggered event, the total amount of ECAL data would excess by a factor 20 the CMS data acquisition system limits allowed for ECAL. This paper presents the strategies developed by CMS in order to reduce the ECAL data volume to the required level. (5 refs).

  20. Biotreatment of produced waters for volume reduction and contaminant removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, M.C.; Hinchman, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mollock, J. [Devon Energy Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Produced water is wastewater that is brought to the surface from natural gas wells during natural gas production. Its constituents, mostly salt, with traces of hydrocarbons and heavy metals, are a significant disposal problem. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in partnership with the Gas Research Institute (GRI), has developed a low-cost, low-tech method, in which green plants are used to reduce the volume of produced water. The authors have designed an engineered bioreactor system, which is modeled after natural saline wetland ecosystems. The plant bioreactor system maximizes plant evapotranspiration to reduce wastewater volume and, concurrently, may function as a biological filter to enhance contaminant degradation and immobilization in the root/rhizosphere zone. Halophyte plant species having high salt tolerance and high transpiration rates were selected after they tested them in greenhouse experiments. Models obtained by using their greenhouse findings reduced the volume of the wastewater (up to 6% salt) by 75% in about 8 days. A field demonstration of the bioreactor, designed on the basis of the results from the greenhouse study, is successfully under way at a natural gas well site in Oklahoma. The process could offer the petroleum industry a low-cost biological alternative to existing expensive options.

  1. Volume reduction and solidification of liquid and solid low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents a brief background of the development of a method of radioactive waste volume reduction using a unique fluidized bed calciner/incinerator. The volume reduction system is capable of processing a variety of liquid chemical wastes, spent ion exchange resin beads, filter treatment sludges, contaminated lubricating oils, and miscellaneous combustible solids such as paper, rags, protective clothing, wood, etc. All of these wastes are processed in one chemical reaction vessel. Detailed process data is presented that shows the system is capable of reducing the total volume of disposable radioactive waste generated by light water reactors by a factor of 10. Equally important to reducing the volume of power reactor radwaste is the final form of the stored or disposable radwaste. This paper also presents process data related to a new radwaste solidification system, presently being developed, that is particularly suited for immobilizing the granular solids and ashes resulting from volume reduction by calcination and/or incineration

  2. Gamma, x-ray reduction system. Volume I: gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    The starting premises for this data reduction system were (a) the individual researcher needs all the accuracy that can be achieved but he has neither the time nor the inclination to learn how to achieve it, and (b) if the data reduction system is to be centralized the people operating it will want to minimize conversation with the computer. This is a working system. All spectral data are stored on Data General 4234 discs after background normalization and strip. Storage is initiated from magnetic tapes loaded by detached pulse height analyzers or directly from Scorpio pulse height analyzers. The only restrictions placed on the individual researchers are that the pulse height analyzer energy scale be set up consistently, that a recovery standard be run at least once every day of use, and the total acquisition system be calibrated to its range of use. In many instances, and if desirable, the latter is provided as a service. At the time of writing this gamma data reduction system is actively being used to calculate net peak areas, activities with or without time correction, activations analysis results, counting precisions, and dynamic limits of detection for the spectral data output of 17 detached pulse height analyzers. To all modes of data reduction are applied background subtraction, random summing correction, detector recovery factor correction, peak interfernce correction (second-order product interference for activation analysis), geometry function correction, acquisition time decay corrections, external and internal sorber correction. All of this is accomplished and a customer report typed in a readable format after a halfline of noninteractive instruction

  3. Volume reduction through incineration of low-activity radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymeri, J.; Gauthey, J.C.; Chaise, D.; Lafite, G.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the waste treatment plant, designed by Technicatome (CEA) for an Indonesian Nuclear Research Center, is to reduce through incineration the volume of low-activity radioactive wastes such as technological solids (cotton, PVC, paper board), biological solids (animal bones) and liquids (cutting fluids...). The complete combustion is realized with a total air multi-fuel burner (liquid wastes) and flash pyrolysis-complete combustion (solid wastes). A two stage flue gas filtration system, a flue gas washing system, and an ash recovery system are used. A test platform has been built. 3 figs

  4. Portal venous branches to the caudate lobe: number and origin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty six livers from adult black Kenyans were obtained during autopsy at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi – Kenya. The porta hepatis was carefully dissected and the number and origin of the portal venous branches to the caudate lobe observed and recorded. The collected data was analyzed using ...

  5. Trial operation of the advanced volume reduction facilities for LLW at JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashio, Nobuyuki; Higuchi, Hidekazu; Momma, Toshiyuki; Kozawa, Kazushige; Touhei, Toshio; Sudou, Tomoyuki; Mitsuda, Motoyuki; Kurosawa, Shigenobu; Hemmi, Kou; Ishikawa, Joji; Kato, Mitsugu; Sato, Motoaki

    2007-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) constructed the Advanced Volume Reduction Facilities (AVRF), in which volume reduction techniques are applied and achieved high volume reduction ratio, homogenization and stabilization by means of melting or super compaction processes for low level radioactive solid wastes. It will be able to produce waste packages for final disposal and to reduce the volume of stored wastes by operating the AVRF. The AVRF consist of the Waste Size Reduction and Storage Facilities (WSRSF) and the Waste Volume Reduction Facilities (WVRF); the former has cutting installations for large size wastes and the latter has melting units and a super compactor. Cutting installations in the WSRSF have been operating since July 1999. Radioactive wastes treated so far amount to 750 m 3 and the volume reduction ratio is from 1.7 to 3.7. The WVRF has been operating with non-radioactive wastes since February 2003 for the training and the homogeneity investigation in the melting processes. The operation of the pretreatment system in the WVRF with radioactive wastes has partly started in FY2005. (author)

  6. 77 FR 25760 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Volume Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0183] Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Volume... Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Volume Reduction (Policy Statement). This statement encouraged licensees to take..., cannot be required to implement the elements of a policy statement because such statements, unlike NRC...

  7. The lung volume reduction coil for the treatment of emphysema : a new therapy in development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Karin; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    Lung volume reduction (LVR) coil treatment is a novel therapy for patients with severe emphysema. In this bilateral bronchoscopic treatment, approximately 10 LVR coils per lobe are delivered under fluoroscopic guidance in two sequential procedures. The LVR coil reduces lung volume by compressing the

  8. Reduced astrocyte density underlying brain volume reduction in activity-based anorexia rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frintrop, Linda; Liesbrock, Johanna; Paulukat, Lisa; Johann, Sonja; Kas, Martien J; Tolba, Rene; Heussen, Nicole; Neulen, Joseph; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Beyer, Cordian; Seitz, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Severe grey and white matter volume reductions were found in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) that were linked to neuropsychological deficits while their underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. For the first time, we analysed the cellular basis of brain volume changes in an animal

  9. Spacelab cost reduction alternatives study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Alternative approaches to payload operations planning and control and flight crew training are defined for spacelab payloads with the goal of: lowering FY77 and FY 78 costs for new starts; lowering costs to achieve Spacelab operational capability; and minimizing the cost per Spacelab flight. These alternatives attempt to minimize duplication of hardware, software, and personnel, and the investment in supporting facility and equipment. Of particular importance is the possible reduction of equipment, software, and manpower resources such as comtational systems, trainers, and simulators.

  10. Radwaste cost savings ampersand mixed waste volume reduction achieved with CO2 decontamination - actual utility history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillis, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Non-Destructive Cleaning Mobile CO 2 Decontamination Facilities have more than 100 months of operational time conducting decontamination at Nuclear Power Stations. During this time we have compiled an extensive database on what has been decontaminated and the cost savings realized. This paper will discuss the following: (1) how the CO 2 decontamination process works; (2) what kinds of items have been decontaminated, ranging from tools to underwater TV cameras, and from electric motors to lead shielding; (3) liquid radwaste volume reduction; (4) mixed waste volume reduction; and (5) ALARA dose reduction achievements. In all of these areas, the paper will discuss the actual volumes of materials decontaminated, the DF's achieved, the amounts and types of things free released, and the actual cost savings in all of these areas. All of the data presented will be actual utility data and not the vendor's data. All the experiences presented will be actual power plant experiences. This paper will bring the audience current with the developments and achievements realized with this state-of-the-art decontamination technique. Furthermore, it will give the audience real utility data on cost savings, worker dose reduction, radwaste volume reduction, and mixed waste volume reduction

  11. System of the advanced volume reduction facilities for LLW at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Hidekazu; Monma, Toshiyuki; Nakashio, Nobuyuki; Kozawa, Kazushige; Touhei, Toshio; Sudou, Tomoyuki; Mitsuda, Motoyuki; Kurosawa, Shigenobu; Henmi, Kou; Ishikawa, Joji; Kato, Mitsugu; Sato, Motoaki

    2005-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) constructed the Advanced Volume Reduction Facilities (AVRF), in which volume reduction techniques are applied and achieved high volume reduction ratio, homogenization and stabilization by means of melting or super compaction processes for low level solid wastes. It will be able to produce waste packages for final disposal and to reduce the amount of the wastes by operating the AVRF. The AVRF consist of the Waste Size Reduction and Storage Facilities (WSRSF) and the Waste Volume Reduction Facilities (WVRF); the former have cutting installations for large size wastes and the latter have melting units and a super compactor. Cutting installations in the WSRSF have been operating since June 1999. Radioactive wastes treated so far amount to 600 m 3 and the volume reduction ratio is from 1/2 to 1/3. The WVRF have been operating with non-radioactive wastes since February 2003 for the training and the homogeneity investigation in the melting processes. The operation with radioactive wastes will start in FY2005. (author)

  12. Reduction of radioactive waste volumes by using supercompaction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, John Wagner A.; Lima, Sandro Leonardo N. de

    2007-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Program from ELETRONUCLEAR comprises the use of techniques and technologies to reduce the volumes of processed radwaste, which aims to improve the storage capacity and also assure the protection for the environment, as part of ELETRONUCLEAR's business strategy. The Angra site stores radwaste in temporary storage facilities, named Store number 1 and Store number 2, which are routinely managed and surveyed periodically by the ELETRONUCLEAR's Radiological Protection Division and submitted to frequent CNEN inspections. Medium level and low level radwastes are stored on those storage facilities. In January 2005, ELETRONUCLEAR decided to realize the Supercompaction of drums with compacted radwaste, mostly from Angra 1 and a little from Angra 2. By that time, the Store 1 was near to achieve its nominal capacity; this situation demanded a prompt response, and the chosen option was to proceed the supercompaction by using a mobile supercompactor unit. In April, 2006, two thousand and twenty seven drums of 200 liters were supercompacted at the plant site, and as a result, the initial storage area became sufficient to store drums for about five more years of operation. The supercompaction process is achieved by using a hydraulic press with extra high force. The pellets (crashed drums) were placed inside a special metallic box with 2500 liters of capacity (the overpack). This operation produced 128 full boxes, varying from 12 to 19 pellets inside each box, and the boxes were stored inside the Store 1. (author)

  13. Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nixon, Archie E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dodge, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fife, Keith W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Arnold M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Vincent E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actin ide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter-long glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glove box as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste generation by almost 2% times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos

  14. Cognitive and behavioral correlates of caudate subregion shape variation in fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Daniel X; Kelley, Ryan G; Quintin, Eve-Marie; Raman, Mira; Thompson, Paul M; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-06-01

    Individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) exhibit frontal lobe-associated cognitive and behavioral deficits, including impaired general cognitive abilities, perseverative behaviors, and social difficulties. Neural signals related to these functions are communicated through frontostriatal circuits, which connect with distinct regions of the caudate nucleus (CN). Enlargement of the CN is the most robust and reproduced neuroanatomical abnormality in FXS, but very little is known on how this affects behavioral/cognitive outcomes in this condition. Here, we investigated topography within focal regions of the CN associated with prefrontal circuitry and its link with aberrant behavior and intellect in FXS. Imaging data were acquired from 48 individuals with FXS, 28 IQ-matched controls without FXS (IQ-CTL), and 36 typically developing controls (TD-CTL). Of the total participant count, cognitive and behavioral assessment data were obtained from 44 individuals with FXS and 27 participants in the IQ-CTL group. CN volume and topography were compared between groups. Correlations were performed between CN topography and cognitive as well as behavioral measures within FXS and IQ-CTL groups. As expected, the FXS group had larger CN compared with both IQ-CTL and TD-CTL groups. Correlations between focal CN topography and frontal lobe-associated cognitive and behavioral deficits in the FXS group supported the hypothesis that CN enlargement is related to abnormal orbitofrontal-caudate and dorsolateral-caudate circuitry in FXS. These findings deepen our understanding of neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying cognitive-behavioral problems in FXS and hold promise for informing future behavioral and psychopharmacological interventions targeting specific neural pathways. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Measurement of breast volume is a useful supplement to select candidates for surgical breast reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikander, Peder; Drejøe, Jennifer Berg; Lumholt, Pavia

    2014-01-01

    , the indication seemed to be less clear-cut, and additional parameters need to be included. CONCLUSION: Breast volume can be used as an objective criterion in addition to the presently used criteria. Breast volume can easily be measured and has become appreciated by plastic surgeons dealing with patients...... in the period from January 2007 to March 2011 were included prospectively in the study. The patients' subjective complaints, height, weight and standard breast measurements were registered as well as the decision for or against surgery. Breast volume was measured using transparent plastic cups. RESULTS: Cut......-off values for breast volume were calculated based on whether or not the patients were offered reduction surgery. Most patients (93%) with a breast volume below 800 cc were not offered surgery, while most with a volume exceeding 900 cc were offered surgery (94%). In the grey zone between 800 and 900 cc...

  16. Scintigraphic method for evaluating reductions in local blood volumes in human extremities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blønd, L; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2000-01-01

    in the experiment. Evaluation of one versus two scintigraphic projections, trials for assessment of the reproducibility, a comparison of the scintigraphic method with a water-plethysmographic method and registration of the fractional reduction in blood volume caused by exsanguination as a result of simple elevation......% in the lower limb experiment and 6% in the upper limb experiment. We found a significant relation (r = 0.42, p = 0.018) between the results obtained by the scintigraphic method and the plethysmographic method. In fractions, a mean reduction in blood volume of 0.49+0.14 (2 SD) was found after 1 min of elevation......We introduce a new method for evaluating reductions in local blood volumes in extremities, based on the combined use of autologue injection of 99mTc-radiolabelled erythrocytes and clamping of the limb blood flow by the use of a tourniquet. Twenty-two healthy male volunteers participated...

  17. Volume reduction options for the management of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Lerch, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Volume reduction options that are now or soon will be available for low-level wastes are examined. These wastes generally are in the form of combustible solids, noncombustible solids, and wet wastes (solid/liquid). Initially, the wastes are collected and stored onsite. Preconditioning may be required, e.g., sorting, shredding, and classifying the solids into combustible and noncombustible fractions. The volume of combustible solids can be reduced by compaction, incineration/pyrolysis, acid digestion, or molten salt combustion. Options for reducing the volume of noncombustible solids include compaction, size reduction and decontamination, meltdown-casting, dissolution and electropolishing. Burnable wet wastes (e.g., organic wastes) can be evaporated or combusted; nonburnable wet wastes can be treated by various evaporative or nonevaporative processes. All radioactive waste processing operations result in some equipment contamination and the production of additional radioactively contaminated wastes (secondary wastes). The additional waste quantities must be considered in evaluating performance and overall volume reduction factors for the various systems. In the selection of an optimum waste management plan for a given facility, other important factors (e.g., relative stability of the waste product form) should be considered along with the savings accrued due to volume reduction

  18. Acute volume expansion attenuates hyperthermia-induced reductions in cerebral perfusion during simulated hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlader, Zachary J; Seifert, Thomas; Wilson, Thad E

    2013-01-01

    Hyperthermia reduces the capacity to withstand a simulated hemorrhagic challenge, but volume loading preserves this capacity. This study tested the hypotheses that acute volume expansion during hyperthermia increases cerebral perfusion and attenuates reductions in cerebral perfusion during...... a simulated hemorrhagic challenge induced by lower-body negative pressure (LBNP). Eight healthy young male subjects underwent a supine baseline period (pre-LBNP), followed by 15- and 30-mmHg LBNP while normothermic, hyperthermic (increased pulmonary artery blood temperature ~1.1°C), and following acute volume...

  19. Volume reduction technology of radioactive waste and clearance practice of contaminated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chao

    2016-01-01

    • One of principles of RW management is minimization and reduction: - Advance process and facilities should be reasonably applied to reduce the waste generation (''Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution'', 2003); - Operator of RW storage facilities should dispose or clear up solid waste timely (''Regulations on the safety of RW management'', 2011); • Reduction principle: - Control of generation; - Use of volume reduction technique; - Clearance of slightly contaminated material

  20. Technical evaluation of Aerojet Energy Conversion Company's topical report on a mobile volume reduction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henscheid, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes EG and G Idaho's review of Aerojet Energy Conversion Company's (AECC's) topical report on a Mobile Volume Reduction System. The review evaluated compliance with pertinent codes, standards and regulations. The initial review was discussed with AECC by EG and G Idaho and the NRC, and all outstanding issues resolved before this final evaluation was made

  1. Lung volume reduction coil treatment for patients with severe emphysema : a European multicentre trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deslee, Gaetan; Klooster, Karin; Hetzel, Martin; Stanzel, Franz; Kessler, Romain; Marquette, Charles-Hugo; Witt, Christian; Blaas, Stefan; Gesierich, Wolfgang; Herth, Felix J. F.; Hetzel, Juergen; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background The lung volume reduction (LVR) coil is a minimally invasive bronchoscopic nitinol device designed to reduce hyperinflation and improve elastic recoil in severe emphysema. We investigated the feasibility, safety and efficacy of LVR coil treatment in a prospective multicentre cohort trial

  2. Treatment of emphysema using bronchoscopic lung volume reduction coil technology : an update on efficacy and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Jorine E.; Klooster, Karin; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade several promising bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) treatments were developed and investigated. One of these treatments is BLVR treatment with coils. The advantage of this specific treatment is that it works independently of collateral flow, and also shows promise for

  3. Patient experience of lung volume reduction procedures for emphysema: a qualitative service improvement project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Buttery

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this service improvement project was to gain understanding of the patient experience of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS and endobronchial valve (EBV placement, from referral through to post-discharge care. Focus group interviews were carried out in two tertiary centres in London and Leicester, UK. Sixteen patients who had undergone lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS, endobronchial valve (EBV placement, or both, were recruited. Prior to participation in each focus group, participants completed a questionnaire to guide and focus discussion. Thematic analysis identified common themes to the participant experience of receiving lung volume reduction interventions. Themes included patient focus on declining health and the need to “fight” for a referral; consequences of having procedures and potential unexpected complications; and vulnerability post discharge and limited continuity of care. Participants were clear that the benefits of having had either LVRS or EBV procedures outweighed any difficulties experienced. Participants were keen to have further similar interventions if appropriate. These data confirm the need to develop more systematic lung volume reduction pathways, provide appropriate information, and ensure that post-discharge care is optimal.

  4. Predicting Lung Volume Reduction after Endobronchial Valve Therapy Is Maximized Using a Combination of Diagnostic Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, T David; van Rikxoort, Eva M; Huebner, Ralf-Harto; Doellinger, Felix; Klooster, Karin; Charbonnier, Jean-Paul; Radhakrishnan, Sri; Herth, Felix J F; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using one-way endobronchial valves (EBVs) has been proven to be effective in patients with severe emphysema. However, the selection of patients without collateral ventilation prior to treatment is critical for procedural success. Collateral ventilation

  5. Volume reduction options for the management of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Lerch, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines volume reduction options that are now or soon will be available for low-level wastes. These wastes generally are in the form of combustible solids, noncombustible solids, and wet wastes (solid/liquid). Initially, the wastes are collected and stored onsite. Preconditioning may be required, e.g., sorting, shredding, and classifying the solids into combustible and noncombustible fractions. The volume of combustible solids can be reduced by compaction, incineration/pyrolysis, acid digestion, or molten salt combustion. Options for reducing the volume of noncombustible solids include compaction, size reduction and decontamination, meltdown-casting, dissolution and electropolishing. Burnable wet wastes (e.g., organic wastes) can be evaporated or combusted; nonburnable wet wastes can be treated by various evaporative or nonevaporative processes. All radioactive waste processing operations result in some equipment contamination and the production of additional radioactively contaminated wastes (secondary wastes). 23 figures

  6. Volume reduction and solidification of radioactive waste incineration ash with waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Hidemi; Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste generated from research institutions and hospitals etc. is packed into a container and is kept. The volume reduced state or the unprocessed state by incineration or compression processing are used because neither landfill sites nor disposal methods have been fixed. Especially, because the bulk density is low, and it is easy to disperse, the low-level radioactive waste incineration ash incinerated for the volume reduction is a big issue in security, safety, stability in the inventory location. A safe and appropriate disposal processing method is desired. When the low temperature sintering method in the use of the glass bottle cullet was examined, volume reduction and stabilization of low-level radioactive waste incineration ash were verified. The proposed method is useful for the easy treatment of the low-level radioactive waste incineration ash. (author)

  7. Development of volume reduction method of cesium contaminated soil with magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukumatsu, Kazuki; Nomura, Naoki; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new volume reduction technique for cesium contaminated soil by magnetic separation. Cs in soil is mainly adsorbed on clay which is the smallest particle constituent in the soil, especially on paramagnetic 2:1 type clay minerals which strongly adsorb and fix Cs. Thus selective separation of 2:1 type clay with a superconducting magnet could enable to reduce the volume of Cs contaminated soil. The 2:1 type clay particles exist in various particle sizes in the soil, which leads that magnetic force and Cs adsorption quantity depend on their particle size. Accordingly, we examined magnetic separation conditions for efficient separation of 2:1 type clay considering their particle size distribution. First, the separation rate of 2:1 type clay for each particle size was calculated by particle trajectory simulation, because magnetic separation rate largely depends on the objective size. According to the calculation, 73 and 89 % of 2:1 type clay could be separated at 2 and 7 T, respectively. Moreover we calculated dose reduction rate on the basis of the result of particle trajectory simulation. It was indicated that 17 and 51 % of dose reduction would be possible at 2 and 7 T, respectively. The difference of dose reduction rate at 2 T and 7 T was found to be separated a fine particle. It was shown that magnetic separation considering particle size distribution would contribute to the volume reduction of contaminated soil

  8. A logical approach to determine a waste segregation/volume reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, G.D.; Carmel, P.G.; Shimmura, H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses advantages and disadvantages of hand sorting versus use of automated radioactive waste segregation monitors and makes an analysis of costs/versus benefits based on volume with time. Many programs to be employed to prevent unnecessary waste generation with little or no additional cost to the power plant. Parameters needed to perform a cost analysis and methods used to obtain them are discussed. Recommendations on use of vendor-supplied services for segregation, volume reduction, and decontamination are given. The data provided will enable the selection of a program(s) to benefit the individual user's requirements

  9. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Wilson, T E; Seifert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading...... of heat-stressed individuals would shift the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve thereby attenuating the reduction in SV during subsequent decreases in central blood volume. To investigate this hypothesis, right heart catheterization was performed in eight males.......06). However, subsequent volume loading increased SV to 143 +/- 29 ml (P = 0.003). LBNP provoked a larger decrease in SV relative to the decrease in PCWP during heating (8.6 +/- 1.9 ml mmHg(1)) compared to normothermia (4.5 +/- 3.0 ml mmHg(1), P = 0.02). After volume loading while heat stressed, the reduction...

  10. 76 FR 50500 - Request for Comments on the Draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... General Accounting Office (now U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO)) report that recommended that... publication of the 1981 Volume Reduction Policy Statement. Nuclear industry groups have also played a central... focus on volume reduction will extend the operational lifetime of the existing commercial low-level...

  11. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF TRU AND MIXED WASTES: ACTINIDE SPECIATION AND WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANCIS, A.J.; DODGE, C.J.

    2006-11-16

    The overall goals of this research project are to determine the mechanism of microbial dissolution and stabilization of actinides in Department of Energy's (DOE) TRU wastes, contaminated sludges, soils, and sediments. This includes (1) investigations on the fundamental aspects of microbially catalyzed radionuclide and metal transformations (oxidation/reduction reactions, dissolution, precipitation, chelation); (2) understanding of the microbiological processes that control speciation and alter the chemical forms of complex inorganic/organic contaminant mixtures; and (3) development of new and improved microbially catalyzed processes resulting in immobilization of metals and radionuclides in the waste with concomitant waste volume reduction.

  12. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF TRU AND MIXED WASTES: ACTINIDE SPECIATION AND WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

    2006-06-01

    The overall goals of this research project are to determine the mechanism of microbial dissolution and stabilization of actinides in Department of Energy's (DOE) TRU wastes, contaminated sludges, soils, and sediments. This includes (1) investigations on the fundamental aspects of microbially catalyzed radionuclide and metal transformations (oxidation/reduction reactions, dissolution, precipitation, chelation); (2) understanding of the microbiological processes that control speciation and alter the chemical forms of complex inorganic/organic contaminant mixtures; and (3) development of new and improved microbially catalyzed processes resulting in immobilization of metals and radionuclides in the waste with concomitant waste volume reduction.

  13. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF TRU AND MIXED WASTES: ACTINIDE SPECIATION AND WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

    2006-06-01

    The overall goals of this research project are to determine the mechanism of microbial dissolution and stabilization of actinides in Department of Energy’s (DOE) TRU wastes, contaminated sludges, soils, and sediments. This includes (i) investigations on the fundamental aspects of microbially catalyzed radionuclide and metal transformations (oxidation/reduction reactions, dissolution, precipitation, chelation); (ii) understanding of the microbiological processes that control speciation and alter the chemical forms of complex inorganic/organic contaminant mixtures; and (iii) development of new and improved microbially catalyzed processes resulting in immobilization of metals and radionuclides in the waste with concomitant waste volume reduction.

  14. Lateral frontal cortex volume reduction in Tourette syndrome revealed by VBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittfoth Matthias

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural changes have been found predominantly in the frontal cortex and in the striatum in children and adolescents with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS. The influence of comorbid symptomatology is unclear. Here we sought to address the question of gray matter abnormalities in GTS patients with co-morbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM in twenty-nine adult actually unmedicated GTS patients and twenty-five healthy control subjects. Results In GTS we detected a cluster of decreased gray matter volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, but no regions demonstrating volume increases. By comparing subgroups of GTS with comorbid ADHD to the subgroup with comorbid OCD, we found a left-sided amygdalar volume increase. Conclusions From our results it is suggested that the left IFG may constitute a common underlying structural correlate of GTS with co-morbid OCD/ADHD. A volume reduction in this brain region that has been previously identified as a key region in OCD and was associated with the active inhibition of attentional processes may reflect the failure to control behavior. Amygdala volume increase is discussed on the background of a linkage of this structure with ADHD symptomatology. Correlations with clinical data revealed gray matter volume changes in specific brain areas that have been described in these conditions each.

  15. Caudate lobe resections: a single-center experience and evaluation of factors predictive of outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Philips, Prejesh; Farmer, Russell W; Scoggins, Charles R; McMasters, Kelly M; Martin, Robert CG

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing frequency of liver resection for multiple types of disease, caudate lobe resection remains a rare surgical event. The goal of this study is to review our experience and evaluate possible predictors of adverse outcomes in patients undergoing caudate lobectomy. Methods We reviewed a 1,900-patient prospective hepato-pancreatico-biliary database from January 2000 to December 2011, identifying 36 hepatectomy patients undergoing caudate lobe resection. Clinicopatho...

  16. [Prediction of the efficiency of endoscopic lung volume reduction by valves in severe emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquillon, V; Briault, A; Reymond, E; Arbib, F; Jankowski, A; Ferretti, G; Pison, C

    2016-11-01

    In severe emphysema, endoscopic lung volume reduction with valves is an alternative to surgery with less morbidity and mortality. In 2015, selection of patients who will respond to this technique is based on emphysema heterogeneity, a complete fissure visible on the CT-scan and absence of collateral ventilation between lobes. Our case report highlights that individualized prediction is possible. A 58-year-old woman had severe, disabling pulmonary emphysema. A high resolution thoracic computed tomography scan showed that the emphysema was heterogeneous, predominantly in the upper lobes, integrity of the left greater fissure and no collateral ventilation with the left lower lobe. A valve was inserted in the left upper lobe bronchus. At one year, clinical and functional benefits were significant with complete atelectasis of the treated lobe. The success of endoscopic lung volume reduction with a valve can be predicted, an example of personalized medicine. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Incidental lung volume reduction following fulminant pulmonary hemorrhage in a patient with severe emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Juergen; Spengler, Werner; Horger, Marius; Boeckeler, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Endoscopic lung volume reduction is an emerging technique meant to improve lung function parameters, quality of life, and exercise tolerance in patients with severe lung emphysema. This is the first report of lung volume reduction by autologous blood in a patient with non-bullous lung emphysema. A 74-year-old woman with heterogeneous lung emphysema developed accidentally diffuse lobar bleeding immediately after valve placement. Due to persistent hemorrhage, the valves had to be removed shortly thereafter. Despite extraction of the valves, respiratory function of the patient improved rapidly indicated also by a drop in the COPD assessment test questionnaire, 3 months later. This was consistent with both improvement of lung function tests and six-minute walking test.

  18. Incineration as a radioactive waste volume reduction process for CEA nuclear centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atabek, R.; Chaudon, L.

    1994-01-01

    Incineration processes represent a promising solution for waste volume reduction, and will be increasingly used in the future. The features and performance specifications of low-level waste incinerators with capacities ranging from 10 to 20 kg - h -1 at the Fontenay-aux-Roses, Grenoble and Cadarache nuclear centers in France are briefly reviewed. More extensive knowledge of low-level wastes produced in facilities operated by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has allowed us to assess the volume reduction obtained by processing combustible waste in existing incinerators. Research and development work is in progress to improve management procedures for higher-level waste and to build facilities capable of incinerating α - contaminated waste. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. Volume reduction of radioactive concrete waste generated from KRR-2 and UCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. Y.; Choi, W. K.; Park, J. W.; Lee, K. W.

    2009-01-01

    As a part of a technical development for the volume reduction and stabilization of contaminated concrete wastes generated by dismantling a research reactor and uranium conversion plant, we have developed the volume reduction technology and immobilization of fine powder applicable to an activated heavy weight concrete generated by dismantling KRR-2 and a uranium contaminated light weight concrete produced from a UCP decommissioning. During a decommissioning of nuclear plants and facilities, large quantities of contaminated concrete wastes are generated. The decommissioning of the retired TRIGA MARK II and III research reactors and a uranium conversion plant has been under way. In Korea, two decommissioning projects such as the decommissioning of the retired research reactors (KRR-1 and 2) and a uranium conversion plant (UCP) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been carried out. By dismantling KRR-2, more than 260 tons of radioactive concrete wastes are generated among the total 2,000 tons of concrete wastes and more than 60 tons of concrete wastes contaminated with uranium compounds are generated in UCP decommissioning up to now. The volume reduction and recycling of the wastes is essential to reduce the waste management cost with expecting that an approximate disposal cost for low level radioactive waste will be more than 5,000 US dollars per 200 liter waste drum in Korea. It is well known that most of the radioactivity exist in cement mortar and paste composed of concrete. In this context, the volume reduction of concrete waste is based on the separation of radioactive concrete into a clean recyclable aggregates and a radioactive fine cement powder, which can be readily performed by heating to weaken the adherence force between the cement matrix and the aggregates followed by mechanical crushing and milling processes. In this study, we have investigated the characteristics of separation of aggregates and the distribution of radioactivity into

  20. A structural MRI study of motor conversion disorder: evidence of reduction in thalamic volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, T R; Aybek, S; Kempton, M J; Daly, E M; Murphy, D G; David, A S; Kanaan, R A

    2014-02-01

    To investigate potential abnormalities in subcortical brain structures in conversion disorder (CD) compared with controls using a region of interest (ROI) approach. Fourteen patients with motor CD were compared with 31 healthy controls using high-resolution MRI scans with an ROI approach focusing on the basal ganglia, thalamus and amygdala. Brain volumes were measured using Freesurfer, a validated segmentation algorithm. Significantly smaller left thalamic volumes were found in patients compared with controls when corrected for intracranial volume. These reductions did not vary with handedness, laterality, duration or severity of symptoms. These differences may reflect a primary disease process in this area or be secondary effects of the disorder, for example, resulting from limb disuse. Larger, longitudinal structural imaging studies will be required to confirm the findings and explore whether they are primary or secondary to CD.

  1. Shredder and incinerator technology for volume reduction of commercial transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.

    1986-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating alternatives and developing technology for treatment of radioactive wastes generated during commercial nuclear activities. Transuranic wastes that require volume reduction include spent HEPA filters, sample and analytical cell waste, and general process trash. A review of current technologies for volume reduction of these wastes led to the selection and testing of several low-speed shredder systems and three candidate incineration processes. The incinerators tested were the electrically heated control-led-air, gas-heated controlled-air, and rotary kiln. Equipment tests were conducted using simulated commercial transuranic wastes to provide a data base for the comparison of the various technologies. The electrically driven, low-speed shredder process was selected as the preferred method for size reduction of the wastes prior to incineration. All three incinerators effectively reduced the waste volume. Based on a technical and economic evaluation on the incineration processes, the recommended system for the commercial waste application is the gas-heated controlled-air incinerator with a single stage of shredding for feed pretreatment

  2. Economic analysis of a volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to determine the economic feasibility of a fluidized bed volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes. These results are compared with the ''null'' alternative of no volume reduction and solidification of aqueous waste streams in hydraulic cement. The economic analysis employed a levelized revenue requirement (LRR) technique conducted over a ten year period. An interactive computer program was written to conduct the LRR calculations. Both of the treatment/solidification options were considered for a number of scenarios including type of plant (BWR or PWR) and transportation distance to the disposal site. If current trends in the escalation rates of cost components continue, the volume reduction/polyethylene solidification option will be cost effective for both BWRs and PWRs. Data indicate that a minimum net annual savings of $0.8 million per year (for a PWR shipping its waste 750 miles) and a maximum net annual savings of $9 million per year (for a BWR shipping its waste 2500 miles) can be achieved. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the burial cost escalation rate, which indicated that variation of this factor will impact the total levelized revenue requirement. The burial cost escalation rate which yields a break-even condition was determined for each scenario considered. 11 refs., 8 figs., 39 tabs

  3. Consequences of tumor planning target volume reduction in treatment of T2-T4 laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugts, Cornelia A J M; Terhaard, Chris H J; Philippens, Marielle E P; Pameijer, Frank A; Kasperts, Nicolien; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P J

    2014-09-04

    Since lymph nodes volumes are generally four times the volume of the primary PTV, the advantage of using tight margins around the primary PTV is not clear. Therefore treatment margins of T2-T4 laryngeal carcinoma for IMRT are generally chosen in such a way that the PTV is comparable to that in conventional radiotherapy. The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of volume reduction of the primary PTV of T2-T4 laryngeal carcinoma with regard to late toxicity despite elective irradiation of lymph node levels II to IV. Two treatment plans based on conservative (GTV-PTV = 15 mm and 20 mm cranial), and on evidence-based tight margins (GTV-PTV = 8 mm) were calculated for 16 patients. Toxicity effects were estimated based on the dose distributions. Compared to conservative margins, using tight margins resulted in: 1) significant reduction of the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for swallowing muscles and submandibular glands, 2) significant reduction of the mean dose in all organs at risk (OAR), 3) a mean dose smaller than 60 Gy for all OARs except for the laryngeal cartilages. When the lymph node levels II to IV were prescribed with an elective dose, an NTCP reduction of 53% for the swallowing muscles and of 23% for the submandibular glands was found by using tight instead of conservative margins. When positive nodes were present, NTCP reduction amounted to 29% and 15%, respectively. There is a potential benefit in realizing evidence-based tight margins for laryngeal cancer patients despite elective irradiation of lymph node levels II to IV.

  4. Severe Emphysema Treated by Endoscopic Bronchial Volume Reduction with Lung Sealant (AeriSeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Falkenstern-Ge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic lung volume reduction using lung sealant is a very new and innovative treatment option for patients with severe progressive and irreversible lung emphysema. A 55-year-old ex-smoker (60 pack years referred to our center because of severe lung emphysema with progressive worsening of the obstructive ventilator pattern and clinical condition. We detected collateral channels of this patient by using the Chartis system. Therefore, we decided to treat the advanced emphysema of our patient with endoscopic volume reduction using lung sealant (AeriSeal. The foam of lung sealant AeriSeal is instilled into the peripheral airways and alveoli where it polymerizes and functions as tissue glue on the lung surface in order to seal the target region to cause durable irreversible absorption atelectasis. The follow-up evaluation 12 weeks later showed improved lung function (increased FEV 1/partial oxygen pressure/peripheral oxygen saturation and a reduction of TLC and RV with improved quality of life. Correlation between changes in primary and secondary outcome measures in the lung function parameters and 6-minute-walking test before and 12 weeks after the application of lung sealant revealed significant reduction of hyperinflation and improvement both in the flow rates and in the physical capability of this patient.

  5. Morphometric and volumetric study of caudate and putamen nuclei in normal individuals by MRI: Effect of normal aging, gender and hemispheric differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedelahi, Ali; Hasanzadeh, Hadi; Hadizadeh, Homaioon; Joghataie, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine age, gender, and hemispheric differences in the volume of the human neostriatum (striatum) nucleus in healthy humans. This study was performed on 120 normal human subjects (60 males, 60 females, right-handed) 15–65 years old, divided into two groups: young (<40 yrs) and old (=≥40 yrs). Sectional brain images were obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), analyzed and processed using the Image-J software, and the striatum volume was calculated using the Cavalieri’s principle, retrospectively. The analyses revealed bilateral age-related shrinkage of the putamen in both genders and the putamen and caudate nucleus were significantly smaller in older than in younger subjects (P-value <0.001). The age-related shrinkage of the caudate and putamen nucleus in men and women was about 5%, 5% and 4%, 4%, respectively, and there were statistically significant volume differences between males and females (P-value <0.05). In both genders, a significant rightward asymmetry was observed in the caudate and putamen nucleus (3.89%, 4.21% in men and 4.51%, 3.32% in women). Bilateral age-related shrinkage and rightward asymmetry of the striate nucleus was found in healthy adults and there were significant volume differences between men and women. Obtained results provide useful baseline data on age and gender-related changes of the volume of the striatum

  6. Morphological alterations in the caudate, putamen, pallidum and thalamus in Parkinson’s disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanmeet eGarg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Like many neurodegenerative diseases, the clinical symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD do not manifest until significant progression of the disease has already taken place, motivating the need for sensitive biomarkers of the disease. While structural imaging is a potentially attractive method due to its widespread availability and non-invasive nature, global morphometric measures (e.g. volume have proven insensitive to subtle disease change. Here we use individual surface displacements from deformations of an average surface model to capture disease related changes in shape of the subcortical structures in Parkinson’s disease. Data were obtained from both the University of British Columbia (UBC (n=54 healthy controls (HC & n=55 Parkinson’s disease (PD patients and the publicly available Parkinson’s Progression Marker’s Initiative (PPMI(n=137(HC & n=189 (PD database. A high dimensional non-rigid registration algorithm was used to register target segmentation labels (caudate, putamen, pallidum and thalamus to a set of segmentation labels defined on the average-template. The vertex-wise surface displacements were significantly different between PD and HC in thalamic and caudate structures. However overall displacements did not correlate with disease severity, as assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS. The results from this study suggest disease-relevant shape abnormalities can be robustly detected in subcortical structures in Parkinson’s disease. Future studies will be required to determine if shape changes in subcortical structures are seen in the prodromal phases of the disease.

  7. Hyperechoic caudate nuclei: a potential mimic of germinal matrix hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, A.E.; Shackelford, G.D.; Adcock, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Background. We have encountered bilateral hyperechoic foci in the region of the germinal matrix on cranial sonograms in neonates that have an appearance similar to germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH), but are unusual either due to the age of the patient at presentation or to the evolution of the foci on follow-up. We believe that these findings represent hyperechoic caudate nuclei (HCN) rather than GMH. Objective. To demonstrate that bilateral HCN can be seen on cranial sonography in neonates and can mimic bilateral GMH. Materials and methods. The cranial sonograms were reviewed in nine neonates (three term and six premature) who had HCN identified on at least one sonographic examination. CT (two patients) and MR (one patient) studies were also reviewed, as well as the neuropathological examination in one patient who died and had an autopsy. The patients' medical records were reviewed to identify any clinical markers for significant risk of perinatal ischemia. Results. There was clinical evidence for risk of ischemia in five of the nine neonates. All nine patients had bilateral HCN on the initial or follow-up studies. Small cysts were seen sonographically in two patients. CT was normal in one patient and revealed a small unilateral focus of increased attenuation in one infant (very small compared to the bilateral HCN). MR was normal in one patient. Histopathological examination of the brain was normal in the one patient who died and had an autopsy. Conclusion. Hyperechoic caudate nuclei can occur in neonates either as a normal finding, or possibly related to ischemia, and should not always be attributed to GMH. (orig.)

  8. Reduction of irradiated small bowel volume with trendelenburg position in gynecologic pelvic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirier, A.; Adli, M.; Andic, F.; Cifci, S.; Ors, Y.; Kuzhan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Trendelenburg position in comparison to prone position on small bowel volume and treatment dose in gynecologic pelvic external beam radiotherapy using three-dimensional con-formal treatment plans. Eight patients with gynecologic cancers, treated with definitive or postoperative pelvic radiotherapy were investigated. Pelvic computerized tomography (CT) scans for treatment planning were performed in prone and 25 degree Trendelenburg positions for each patient. The dose-volume histograms of small bowel within the treatment fields were obtained and compared for both positions. The clinical target volume (CTV) and the planning target volume (PTV) were also defined and evaluated in the subjects. Treatment dose was 5040 cGy to PTV with 180 cGy daily fraction doses in both techniques for all patients. The average irradiated small bowel volume was 726 cc for prone position and 458 cc for the Trendelenburg position. The average irradiated small bowel volume reduction in the Trendelenburg position was 38.0% (95% CI 19.5 ± 38%) compared with the prone position. The average small bowel percent dose was 25.4% (1280 cGy) for Trendelenburg position and 39.9% (2010 cGy) for prone position. PTV doses were similar in both techniques. The results of this dosimetric study suggest that gynecologic pelvic radiotherapy in the Trendelenburg position decreases the volume of irradiated small bowel compared to prone position and may decrease treatment related small bowel morbidity. Clinical benefit of this position should be evaluated in further clinical studies.

  9. Reduction of irradiated small bowel volume with Trendelenburg position in gynecologic pelvic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirier, A; Adli, M; Andic, F; Cifci, S; Ors, Y; Kuzhan, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Trendelenburg position in comparison to prone position on small bowel volume and treatment dose in gynecologic pelvic external beam radiotherapy using three-dimensional conformal treatment plans. Eight patients with gynecologic cancers, treated with definitive or postoperative pelvic radiotherapy were investigated. Pelvic computerized tomography (CT) scans for treatment planning were performed in prone and 25 degree Trendelenburg positions for each patient. The dose-volume histograms of small bowel within the treatment fields were obtained and compared for both positions. The clinical target volume (CTV) and the planning target volume (PTV) were also defined and evaluated in the subjects. Treatment dose was 5040 cGy to PTV with 180 cGy daily fraction doses in both techniques for all patients. The average irradiated small bowel volume was 726 cc for prone position and 458 cc for the Trendelenburg position. The average irradiated small bowel volume reduction in the Trendelenburg position was 38.0% (95% CI 19.5 ± 38%) compared with the prone position. The average small bowel percent dose was 25.4% (1280 cGy) for Trendelenburg position and 39.9% (2010 cGy) for prone position. PTV doses were similar in both techniques. The results of this dosimetric study suggest that gynecologic pelvic radiotherapy in the Trendelenburg position decreases the volume of irradiated small bowel compared to prone position and may decrease treatment related small bowel morbidity. Clinical benefit of this position should be evaluated in further clinical studies.

  10. Reduction of neuromelanin-positive nigral volume in patients with MSA, PSP and CBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashihara, Kenichi; Shinya, Takayoshi; Higaki, Fumiyo

    2011-01-01

    Diseases presenting extrapyramidal symptoms are accompanied by nigral cell loss. In the previous study, we demonstrated the reduction of the neuromelanin-positive volume of substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta (SNc) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) using 3-Tesla MRI. In the present study we investigated the neuromelanin-positive SNc volume in patients with the other parkinsonian disorders including multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and compared the results with those with PD, spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) and controls. Axial T1-weighted (T1W) images were obtained with a 3-Tesla MRI scanner. The border of the neuromelanin-positive region of the SNc was traced manually on these images with a pentablet pointing device and the SNc volume was calculated. The SNc volumes of 28 patients with MSA, 11 patients with PSP and 10 patients with CBD were compared with those of 80 patients with PD, 9 patients with SCA and 54 patients who had suffered mild acute ischemic stroke as controls. The mean volumes for the left and right SN were used for statistical analyses. The volumes of the neuromelanin-positive SNc region in patients with MSA, PSP and CBD, but not SCA were reduced to the same extent as PD patients compared with controls. Reduced volume of the neuromelanin-positive SNc region of patients with MSA, PSP and CBD was detected by neuromelanin MR imaging. Volumetric evaluation of neuromelanin MR imaging may provide a biomarker of nigral degeneration in patients with MSA, PSP and CBD as in patients with PD.

  11. A carbon emissions reduction index: Integrating the volume and allocation of regional emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiandong; Cheng, Shulei; Song, Malin; Wu, Yinyin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We build a carbon emissions reduction index (CERI). • The aim is to quantify the pressure on policymakers to reduce emissions. • Scale-related effects and carbon emissions allocations are included in the CERI. • Different standards of carbon emissions allocations are also considered. • We decompose the Gini coefficient to evaluate the effects of three factors. - Abstract: Given the acceleration of global warming and rising greenhouse gas emissions, all countries are facing the harsh reality of the need to reduce carbon emissions. In this study, we propose an index to quantify the pressure faced by policymakers to reduce such emissions, termed the carbon emissions reduction index. This index allows us to observe the effect of carbon emissions volume on the pressure faced by policymakers and study the impact of optimizing interregional carbon emissions on reducing this pressure. In addition, we account for several carbon emissions standards in constructing the index. We conclude that the variation in the index is likely to be attributable to carbon emissions volume, regional ranking, and population (population can also be replaced by GDP, resource endowment, or other factors). In addition, based on empirical data on the world’s largest emitter of carbon dioxide (China), this study analyzes the evolution of pressure to reduce emissions on a country’s policymakers. The results show that the growing volume and unsuitable allocation of carbon emissions from 1997 to 2012 imposed increasing pressure on the Chinese government in this regard. In addition, reductions in carbon emissions volume and regional ranking are primary factors that impact pressure on policymakers.

  12. Effect of volume reduction on diastolic echocardiographic parameters in hemodialyzed patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekmat R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular problems including arterial hypertension, coronary artery diseases, congestive heart failure are prevalent among chronic hemodialyzed patients. Ultrafiltration of hemodialyzed patient's serum, which culminating in intravascular volume reduction, is frequently used during hemodialysis. One of the restrictions of the echocardiographic evaluation of the diastolic heart function is the intravascular volume dependency of some echocardiographic parameters. In this study we have evaluated the volume dependency of certain echocardiography parameters in chronically hemodialyzed patients. Methods: Thirteen patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis in Ghaem Hospital Hemodialysis Center in Mashhad, Iran, were evaluated one hour before and immediately after hemodialysis for the following: all diastolic echocardiographic parameters, left ventricular function, left ventricular systolic function, inferior vena cava (IVC diameter and IVC collapsibility with inspiration, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The echocardiographic parameters were analyzed using the paired Student's t-test. Results: With hemodialysis, there was no significant change in left ventricular function, A wave amplitude and E/F slope, however, there was a significant reduction of the E wave amplitude, increment in E wave deceleration time (p= 0.001, t=-4.14 and a decrease in the E/A ratio (p=0.03, t=2.46. Tissue Doppler echocardiography showed no significant change in mitral annular diastolic motion, E'/A' waves, with hemodialysis (p=0.728, t= - 0.356, although there was a reduction of the E/E' ratio. Conclusion: Tissue Doppler imaging and color M-mode echocardiographic parameters are independent of the intravascular value status. With no change associated with hemodialysis, these parameters can be used as reliable criteria for evaluating ventricular diastolic function even when the volume status varies.     Hekmat R. *1"nTalebi S

  13. Volume reduction of filter media at Susquehanna steam and electric station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris, G.F.; Hettinger, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the joint efforts between Pennsylvania Power ampersand Light (PPQL) and Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG) to reduce the volume of waste shipped to the burial site by the Susquehanna Steam and Electric Station (SSES) and the resulting savings realized as a result. The filter media used at SSES for its radwaste filters is composed of a mix of anion and cation powered resins, powered carbon, diatomaceous earth and a fibrous overlay. Due to the nature of this waste stream, dewatering was difficult using systems previously available in the industry. Thus, processing was accomplished by decanting (to concentrate the waste) and solidification. In the continuing effort to dewater wastes of this nature, SEG developed a new fabric filter dewatering system (RDU). To investigate its potential use in large containers, this dewatering system was installed in drum-size high integrity containers and used to test its dewatering capabilities on actual SSES waste. Promising results from these tests warranted a full-scale test. This proved successful and implementation of this processing scheme was immediate. Cost savings were substantial in transportation, burial and processing costs as well as personnel exposure. Also, additional waste volume reduction was found due to the volume reduction capability of the dewatering system (equivalent volume of new filter media approximately 1.2 times that of dewatered product volume). Additional savings resulted from SSES's continuing effort to minimize radwaste generation. Combined, these have reduced the number of shipments of filter media in 1989 to sixty percent of the number made in 1988 and have reduced costs by approximately fifty percent. 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Treatment of chronic respiratory failure: lung volume reduction surgery versus rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decramer, M

    2003-11-01

    Several treatment options are available for end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Respiratory rehabilitation and lung volume reduction surgery are reviewed here. Respiratory rehabilitation can now be considered a prime treatment for COPD. Indeed, it has been clearly shown to improve exercise capacity and health status in these patients. Improvements in the former fell just below the minimal clinically important difference, whereas those in the latter exceeded it. In addition, after a respiratory rehabilitation programme, a reduction in the number of hospital admissions and duration of each admission was demonstrated. It remains, however, difficult to predict accurately which patients will improve after rehabilitation and which will not. Factors that may contribute to this prediction are: baseline peak exercise ventilation/maximal voluntary ventilation, maximal inspiratory pressure, peripheral muscle force, and 6-min walking distance. Several studies have clearly shown that training effects are as pronounced in patients with severe as in those with moderate airflow obstruction. This is the most significant insight in this area of the 1990s. Lung volume reduction surgery may also be of benefit in patients with end-stage COPD. It is clear that lung function, exercise capacity and health status improve after this procedure, although the results of only six randomised studies are currently available. It remains difficult to accurately predict which patients will benefit from the procedure. From a model analysis, the most important action mechanism appears to be resizing of the lungs. Only in patients with an increased residual volume/total lung capacity ratio are beneficial effects expected. The model analysis, however, did not fit the experimental data very well in a recent publication. Emphysema heterogeneity is also likely to be related to the response. The question remains as to whether or not lung volume reduction surgery accelerates the decline

  15. Superior temporal gyrus volume reduction and P300 in schizophrenia prior to treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayasu, Akira; Hokama, Hiroto; Ogura, Chikara; Ohta, Hirokazu; Arakaki, Hajime; Asato, Naohiko; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro

    1998-01-01

    Authors measured the superior temporal gyrus volume by 3D MRI imaging for the schizophrenics and simultaneously recorded the P300 component during the auditory odd-ball exercise. Subjects were 8 cases of schizophrenics and the sex- and age-matched healthy control adults. In schizophrenics, the superior temporal gyrus volume reduction was found. When the superior temporal gyrus was divided into two parts, the anterior part containing the primary auditory area, and the posterior part containing the planum temporale and the Wernicle speech area, the volume reduction of left side in the posterior part was remarkable. There was no difference in the latent time and the P300 amplitude between schizophrenics and healthy controls, suggesting that the superior temporal gyrus abnormalities will appear prior to P300 abnormalities. We could not find any correlation between findings of MRI and P300 and psychic symptoms. We discuss the possible contribution on the elucidation of the pathogenesis of the schizophrenia by simultaneous recordings of 3D MRI imaging and the event-related potentials. (K.H.)

  16. Water volume reduction increases eutrophication risk in tropical semi-arid reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Nascimento da Rocha Junior

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Global patterns of temperature and precipitation have significantly changed over the last century and nearly all predictions point to even greater changes by the end of 2100. Long periods of drought in semi-arid regions generally reduce reservoirs and lakes water level, increasing the nutrients concentrations in the water. Our principal hypothesis is that water volume reduction, driven by prolonged droughts, will increase reservoirs susceptibility to eutrophication and accordingly an increase in trophic state. To test this hypothesis, we used a comparative analysis of ecosystems in a space-for-time substitution approach, in a Brazilian semi-arid region, to predict the consequences of reservoirs water volume reduction on key limnological variables. Methods We sampled 16 reservoirs located in two sub-basins with contrasting rainfall regimes, inserted on Piranhas-Açu watershed. The Seridó River basin (SB is dry and the Piancó River basin (SB is humid, with annual mean precipitation of 500 and 700 mm, respectively. Linear regressions analyzes were performed to assess whether the percentage of maximum volume stored (%MVS is a good predictor for total phosphorus (TP, total nitrogen (TN and chlorophyll-a (CHLA. In addition, a two factorial analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA was performed to test for period (dry, very dry and extremely dry, basin (SB and PB and their interactions effects on TP, TN, CHLA, conductivity, turbidity, and Secchi depth. Results The results showed a reduction in the reservoirs %MVS both for PB and SB regions. At the extremely dry period, all reservoirs were classified as eutrophic, but TP concentrations reached much higher values in SB than in PB. The linear regressions analyses showed that the TP and TN were negatively related to %MVS during all periods sampled. The two-way ANOVA showed that there were significant basin and period effects on TP, TN, Secchi depth and turbidity, whereas for CHLA and conductivity

  17. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute

    1997-08-01

    This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic fields sectio~ and field reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic field reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic field shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic field plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.

  18. Quality of Life and Volume Reduction in Women with Secondary Lymphoedema Related to Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Lanza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the quality of life (QOL as a predictor of volume reduction in women undergoing complex physical therapy (CPT for lymphoedema following breast cancer. Methods. Clinical trial in 57 women undergoing CPT. Results. At baseline, in measuring quality of life for the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire subscale of functionality, the worst scores for emotional function (55 points and better social function (89 points were observed. The symptom scales showed the worst pain averaged (66 points. The overall quality of life showed a low score (40 points. In the BR 23 module, low scores were observed in the field of future perspective (47 points. After treatment of lymphoedema, absolute reduction of excess volume between the upper limbs of 282 mL was observed, representing a reduction of 15%. No association was observed between the domains of quality of life and response to treatment of lymphoedema. Conclusion. This study included 57 women with advanced and chronic lymphoedema in early treatment with CPT and low scores for quality of life. The lymphoedema therapeutic response was not influenced by the QOL at the beginning of treatment.

  19. Excessive gastrocnemius fibrosis developed after radiofrequency-induced cosmetic volume reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chang Ho

    2011-12-01

    Cosmetic shaping of the lower leg is becoming increasingly popular. The use of radiofrequency therapy in cosmetic medicine also is growing. To date, no serious complications have been reported after the use of cosmetic radiofrequency therapy. This report describes a patient who presented at the author's clinic with a disabling ankle plantarflexion contracture in both calves that developed during a period of 18 months after cosmetic radiofrequency volume reduction. This reduction, performed at another clinic, involved applying a bipolar electrode with a mean power of 35 W at each of approximately 100 spots for 2 to 4 s. On each calf, 15 kJ was applied in a crisscross fashion. Magnetic resonance imaging and muscle biopsy indicated excessive gastrocnemius fibrosis. The patient was treated using botulinum toxin injections followed by serial castings and intensive physiotherapy. After treatment, the patient was able to walk with less difficulty and showed no tiptoeing. This appears to be the first report of serious muscle contracture after cosmetic radiofrequency volume reduction requiring extensive rehabilitation management.

  20. Evidence for a caudate role in aphasia from FDG positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metter, E.J.; Riege, W.H.; Hanson, W.R.; Phelps, M.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    In a recent study correlations between language function and regional glucose metabolism from FDG positron computed tomography were examined. Caudate metabolism correlated with PICA speaking and comprehension factors, as well as BDAE mean writing and reading scores. To identify the language function implicated with caudate metabolism in these eleven patients, twenty subtests making up these two PICA factors and mean BDAE scores were correlated to caudate metabolism. Also a principle components analysis on the twenty subtests identified three factors, only one of which correlated with caudate metabolism. Evidence was found that the caudate has a functional relationship to recognition or motor planning of simple and overlearned materials. This involved simple syntax, low levels of abstraction, identification or sequencing of phonetic and semantic material. This role appeared related to but independent of Broca and frontal lobe function, and may involve the focusing of cortical functions, by allowing two or more regions to interact together

  1. Prefrontal cortex volume reductions and tic inhibition are unrelated in uncomplicated GTS adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganos, Christos; Kühn, Simone; Kahl, Ursula; Schunke, Odette; Brandt, Valerie; Bäumer, Tobias; Thomalla, Götz; Haggard, Patrick; Münchau, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) are repetitive patterned movements, resembling spontaneous motor behaviour, but escaping voluntary control. Previous studies hypothesised relations between structural alterations in prefrontal cortex of GTS adults and tic severity using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), but could not demonstrate a significant association. The relation between prefrontal cortex structure and tic inhibition has not been investigated. Here, we used VBM to examine 14 GTS adults without associated comorbidities, and 15 healthy controls. We related structural alterations in GTS to clinical measures of tic severity and tic control. Grey matter volumes in the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left frontal pole were reduced in patients relative to healthy controls. These changes were not related to tic severity and tic inhibition. Prefrontal grey matter volume reductions in GTS adults are not related to state measures of tic phenomenology. © 2013.

  2. Volume Fraction Optimization of Functionally Graded Composite Plates for Stress Reduction and Thermo-Mechanical Buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kyung-Su; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2008-02-01

    The volume fraction optimization of Functionally Graded Material (FGM) composite plate is investigated for stress reduction and thermo-mechanical buckling. Material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent and varied continuously in the thickness direction. The 3-D finite element is adopted using an 18-node solid element to analyze the plate model more accurately for the variation of material properties and temperature field in the thickness direction. Tensile and compressive stress ratios of the structure under mechanical load are evaluated for stress analysis. Temperature at each node is obtained by solving the steady-state heat transfer problem in the thermo-mechanical buckling analysis, and Newton-Raphson method is used for nonlinear analysis. Tensile stress ratios, compressive stress ratios and critical temperatures are analyzed for various thickness ratios and volume fraction distributions in the numerical study. Finally, the optimal design of FGM composite plate is investigated by considering the stress and the critical temperature.

  3. New volume reduction conditioning options for solid alpha-bearing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Jacquet-Francillon, N.; Kertesz, C.; Frotscher, H.; Ganser, B.; Klein, M.

    1990-01-01

    The current and future development of nuclear energy requires increasing allowance for nuclear waste treatment: α-bearing wastes destined for geological storage are already conditioned, generally in a cement matrix. Other containment processes producing higher quality matrices and allowing volume reduction have been investigated over the last five years by the General Directorate for Science Research and Development of the Commission of the European Communities. This paper discusses the work on conditioning α-bearing ashes produced by incineration of contaminated combustible materials, and on fuel cladding hulls resulting from spent fuel reprocessing

  4. Data base on dose reduction research projects for nuclear power plants: Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1989-05-01

    This is the third volume in a series of reports that provide information on dose-reduction research and health physics technology for nuclear power plants. The information is taken from data base maintained by Brookhaven National Laboratory's ALARA Center for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report presents information on 80 new projects, covering a wide area of activities. Projects on steam generator degradation, decontamination, robotics, improvement in reactor materials, and inspection techniques, among others, are described in the research section. The section on health physics technology includes some simple and very cost-effective projects to reduce radiation exposures. Collective dose data from the United States and other countries are also presented. In the conclusion, we suggest that although new advanced reactor design technology will eventually reduce radiation exposures at nuclear power plants to levels below serious concern, in the interim an aggressive approach to dose reduction remains necessary. 20 refs.

  5. Post-processing sets of tilted CT volumes as a method for metal artifact reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballhausen, Hendrik; Reiner, Michael; Ganswindt, Ute; Belka, Claus; Söhn, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Metal implants, surgical clips and other foreign bodies may cause ‘streaking’ or ‘star’ artifacts in computed tomography (CT) reconstructions, for example in the vicinity of dental restorations or hip implants. The deteriorated image quality complicates contouring and has an adverse effect on quantitative planning in external beam therapy. The potential to reduce artifacts by acquisition of tilted CT reconstructions from different angles of the same object was investigated. While each of those reconstructions still contained artifacts, they were not necessarily in the same place in each CT. By combining such CTs with complementary information, a reconstructed volume with less or even without artifacts was obtained. The most straightforward way to combine the co-registered volumes was to calculate the mean or median per voxel. The method was tested with a calibration phantom featuring a titanium insert, and with a human skull featuring multiple dental restorations made from gold and steel. The performance of the method was compared to established metal artifact reduction (MAR) algorithms. Dose reduction was tested. In a visual comparison, streaking artifacts were strongly reduced and details in the vicinity of metal foreign bodies became much more visible. In case of the calibration phantom, average bias in Hounsfield units was reduced by 94% and per-voxel-errors and noise were reduced by 83%. In case of the human skull, bias was reduced by 95% and noise was reduced by 94%. The performance of the method was visually superior and quantitatively compareable to established MAR algorithms. Dose reduction was viable. A simple post-processing method for MAR was described which required one or more complementary scans but did not rely on any a priori information. The method was computationally inexpensive. Performance of the method was quantitatively comparable to established algorithms and visually superior in a direct comparison. Dose reduction was demonstrated

  6. Lung Volume Reduction Coil Treatment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients with Homogeneous Emphysema : A Prospective Feasibility Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Karin; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Franz, Ina; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background: In patients with heterogeneous emphysema, surgical and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (LVR) treatments are available. However, for patients with homogeneous emphysema these treatments are hardly investigated and seem less effective. Bronchoscopic LVR coil treatment has been shown to

  7. Development of computer program for the economic evaluation of the volume reduction system for the low-level radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin Yeong

    1994-02-01

    This study provides the basis for investigating the benefits of purchasing volume reduction equipment and includes the establishment of a volume reduction data base, the creation of the volume reduction cost analysis computer program PEEVR (Program of Economic Evaluation for the Volume Reduction), and a generic analysis designed to identify the major costs influencing the economics of the various equipment options. In treating the plant types and the wastes, this study considers that condensate polishing system is included or not in PWR and precoat condensate polishing system, deep bed condensate polishing system in BWR and the 5 waste streams, i.e., compatible trash (COTRASH), ion exchange resin (IXRESIN), concentrate liquid (CONCLIQ), filter sludge (FSLUDGE), non compatible trash (COTRASH). This study uses the PVRR and LRR methods to create cost analysis and performs sensitivity analysis for the each cost variable and shows that future burial costs increases are the major factors in the economic evaluation

  8. Development of computer program for the economic evaluation of the volume reduction system for the low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin Yeong; Lee, Kun Jai

    1994-01-01

    This study provides the basis for investigating the benefits of purchasing volume reduction equipment and includes the establishment of a volume reduction data base, the creation of the volume reduction cost analysis computer program PEEVR (Program of Economic Evaluation for the Volume Reduction), and a generic analysis designed to identify the major costs influencing the economics of the various equipment options. In treating the plant types and the wastes, this study considers that condensate polishing system is included or not in PWR and precoatcondensate polishing system, deep bed condensate polishing system in BWR and the 5 waste streams, i. e., compactibIe trash (COTRASH), ion exchange resin (IXRESIN), concentrate liquid (CONCLIQ), filter sludge (FSLUDGE), non compactible trash (COTRASH). This study uses the PVRR and LRR methods to create cost analysis and performs sensitivity analysis for the each cost variables and shows that future burial costs increases are the major factors in the economic evaluation

  9. Volume reduction technology development for solid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, Kune Woo; Song, Kee Chan; Choi, Wang Kyu; Kim, Young Min

    1998-07-01

    A great deal of solid wastes, which have various physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, are generated from the nuclear fuel cycle facility as well as radioactive gaseous and liquid wastes. The treatment of the large quantity of solid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle have great technical, economical and social effects on the domestic policy decision on the nuclear fuel cycle, such as operation and maintenance of the facility, waste disposal, etc. Cement immobilization, super compaction, and electrochemical dissolution were selected as the volume reduction technologies for solid wastes, which will generated from the domestic nuclear fuel cycle facility in the future. And the assessment of annual arisings and the preliminary conceptual design of volume reduction processes were followed. Electrochemical decontamination of α-radionuclides from the spent fuel hulls were experimentally investigated, and showed the successful results. However, β/γ radioactivity did not reduce to the level below which hulls can be classified as the low-level radioactive waste and sent to the disposal site for the shallow land burial. The effects of the various process variables in the electrochemical decontamination were experimentally analysed on the process. (author). 32 refs., 32 tabs., 52 figs

  10. Measurement of breast volume is a useful supplement to select candidates for surgical breast reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikander, Peder; Drejøe, Jennifer Berg; Lumholt, Pavia

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The indication for breast reduction in a public welfare or an insurance paid setting depends on the severity of the subjective symptoms and the clinical evaluation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of breast volume as an objective criterion to establish the indicati...... with breast hypertrophy as a tool which facilitates their decision-making and patients' acceptance of the decisions made. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....... for breast reduction surgery, thus establishing a standard decision basis that can be shared by surgeons and departments to secure patients fair and equal treatment opportunities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 427 patients who were referred to three Danish public hospitals with breast hypertrophy...... in the period from January 2007 to March 2011 were included prospectively in the study. The patients' subjective complaints, height, weight and standard breast measurements were registered as well as the decision for or against surgery. Breast volume was measured using transparent plastic cups. RESULTS: Cut...

  11. Volume reduction of liquid Uranium wastes in the organic phase using rotavapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endro-Kismolo; Isman MT; Djoko-Sardjono, Ign

    1996-01-01

    The determination of process conditions of volume reduction of liquid uranium wastes in mixed organic phase using rotavapor has been done. The investigation was experimentally conducted by heating the liquid uranium wastes at the activity of 2.7759 x 10 -4 μCi/ml at the pH conditions of 5.0; 5.5; 6.0 and 7.0. The liquid was heated at varied temperatures with regulated pressure of process of -300; -250; -200; -150 mBar and at the rotation rate of evaporating flask of 7; 14; 21 and 35 rpm during two times 60 minutes. The pH and the density of concentrate and distillate products rotavapor were determined and their activity was analyzed by using the counter system of Schlumberger. From the experimental data it can be concluded that the best result was obtained at the process condition where the pH of feed liquid uranium wastes = 6.0, the pressure operation = -200 mBar and the rotation of evaporating flask = 7.0 rpm. At this condition the volume reduction obtained was FRv = 30.42 %

  12. [VENT: International study of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction as a palliative treatment for emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, S; Marquette, C H

    2004-12-01

    Therapeutic options for patients with severe emphysema remain limited. In selected patients, lung volume reduction surgery has been shown to improve pulmonary function, exercise capacity, quality of life and also survival. The technique of inserting one-way valves endoscopically into the airways supplying the most affected areas of lung provides the possibility of achieving similar results to surgery (i.e. volume reduction) in a less invasive way, which is also reversible, since the valves can be removed at any time. This technique has been shown to be safe. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of this technique compared to optimal medical therapy in patients with heterogeneous emphysema defined according to radiological criteria. A prospective, international, multicentre (20 centres) randomised trial is underway to establish the efficacy and safety of endobronchial valve placement in this patient group. This study will enrol 270 patients and be analysed on an intention to treat basis. Patients are randomised either to valve insertion or optimal medical treatment alone in a ratio of 2 to 1. Follow up will be ensured for at least one year. The two principal outcome measures will be improvement at six months in FEV1 and in six minute walk distance. The safety of the technique will be evaluated over the same period. Details of the study are available online for patients and their physicians at www.euroemphysema.com.

  13. Methods for volume reduction and recycling of LLW arising from decommissioning of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, G.; Bergstroem, L.

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive contaminated waste is a great cost factor for nuclear power plants and other nuclear industry. On the deregulated electricity market the price of produced kWh is an important competition tool. Therefore many power producers in the process to achieve savings and hence low production costs have given waste minimization and volume reduction highest priority. Studsvik RadWaste AB in Nykoeping, Sweden, is successfully providing incineration and scrap metal treatment services for customers from Europe, Japan and the USA. Since 1987 thousands of tonnes of metal have been released for unrestricted re-use and recycling in commercial steel industry. The incineration service, provided since 1976, results in 97% volume reduction and generates biologically inert ash suitable for disposal in a final radioactive waste repository. Both processes, which are quality and environmentally certified, reduce the cost of interim storage and disposal. In addition, the companies within the Studsvik Group offer a wide range of services such as transportation, measurement and safeguard, site assistance, industrial cleaning and decontamination in connection with demolition on site. (authors)

  14. Reduction of cardiac volume in left-breast treatment fields by respiratory maneuvers: a CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, H.-M.; Cash, Ethan; Chen, M.-H.; Chin Lee; Manning, Warren J.; Harris, Jay; Bornstein, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: A previous study of healthy female volunteers suggested that deep inspiratory breath holding can reduce the cardiac volume in the treatment portals for left-breast cancer treatment. The reduction of irradiated cardiac volume may be important considering the reported late cardiac morbidity and mortality and the frequent coexistent use of potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. In the present study, we evaluated the heart volume in the fields and, thus, the true benefit of this respiratory maneuver in breast cancer patients undergoing CT simulation. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients (median age, 53) were studied. For each patient, CT scans were performed both when the patient breathed normally (quiet respiration) and when the patient held her breath after a deep inspiration. Tangential fields were planned using the same medial, lateral, superior, and inferior borders on skin for the normal breathing and the breath-holding configurations. The cardiac and left-lung volumes within the tangential fields were calculated for both breathing configurations. Multiple scan series were performed for the breath-holding configuration to provide a more accurate delineation of the cardiac tissue and to study the reproducibility of the patient's position between different cycles of deep inspiration. Results: None of the patients had difficulty holding her breath for 20 s. The cardiac volume in the field was reduced (-86 ± 24%; p 3 vs 97 cm 3 , p < 0.001). However, the fractional volume of the left lung in the field was essentially unchanged. For all but 1 patient, the maximum difference between the external body contours from different breath holding cycles was 5 mm and occurred at the lateral aspect of the breast. At the medial aspect, as indicated by the position of the midline marker, the variations were well within the currently accepted tolerance for patient positioning during tangential treatment. Conclusions: Deep-inspiration breath

  15. EPRI tailored collaboration 3 Calvert Cliffs cost and volume reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigsby, M.D.; Watson, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Baltimore Gas ampersand Electric's (BGE) Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) is a two unit PWR located approximately 60 miles south of Baltimore, Maryland on the Chesapeake Bay. Both units are of Combustion Engineering design, Unit 1 began commercial operation is 1975 and Unit 2 in 1978. BGE contracted with EPRI to participate in the industry initiative to reduce low-level waste volumes with the expectation to: (1) Reduce O ampersand M costs through LLRW reduction by lowering the volume requiring processing, transportation, and storage/disposal. (2) Manage responsibility available resources; i.e., material, equipment, personnel, etc., through segregation. decontamination, recycling and worker awareness. (3) Improve Calvert Cliff's positive image in the community by minimizing the impact on the environment through generating less LLRW. Baltimore Gas ampersand Electric is committed to effective management of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant. Established Nuclear Program Policies and Procedures support CCNPP's commitment to minimizing generation of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Since the mid 1980's, CCNPP has made progress in reducing the volume of LLRW generated and disposed. EPRI's onsite assessment and subsequent assistance pointed out several areas for improvement

  16. The impact of a forced reduction in traffic volumes on urban air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuval; Broday, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Middle East military conflict of summer 2006 resulted in a few weeks in which the city of Haifa, Israel, and its environs experienced very profound variations in the commercial and personal activities. Large industrial plants continued almost normal operations but activities of small scale industry, shopping, and personal commuting were drastically reduced, leading to a dramatic decrease in the commercial and personal traffic volumes. This period of reduced activity serves as a real life experiment for assessment and demonstration of the impact that human activity, and mainly road traffic, may have on the air pollution levels in a bustling middle-sized city. The analysis is made especially sharp and reliable due to the abruptness of the beginning and the end of the reduced activity period, its length, and the stable summer meteorological conditions in the eastern Mediterranean region. The reduced traffic volumes resulted in lowered levels of NO 2 , hydrocarbons and particulate matter. The decrease in these pollutants' mean concentration was significantly larger than the reduction in the mean traffic volume. Slightly higher mean O 3 concentrations were observed during the reduced traffic period. (author)

  17. Efficacy predictors of lung volume reduction with Zephyr valves in a European cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herth, Felix J F; Noppen, Marc; Valipour, Arschang; Leroy, Sylvie; Vergnon, Jean-Michel; Ficker, Joachim H; Egan, Jim J; Gasparini, Stefano; Agusti, Carlos; Holmes-Higgin, Debby; Ernst, Armin

    2012-06-01

    The Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema Palliation Trial (VENT) was a multi-centre, prospective, randomised, controlled trial conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of unilateral endobronchial valve (EBV) treatment. The purpose of this analysis was to assess outcomes in the previously unreported European VENT study cohort. Patients with advanced emphysema were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive Zephyr® (Pulmonx Inc., Redwood City, CA, USA) EBV treatment (n = 111) or medical management (n = 60). At 6 months, EBV patients demonstrated a significant improvement compared with the controls for mean ± SD change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (7 ± 20% versus 0.5 ± 19%; p = 0.067), cycle ergometry (2 ± 14 W versus -3 ± 10 W; p = 0.04) and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (-5 ± 14 points versus 0.3 ± 13 points; p = 0.047). At 12 months, the magnitude of the difference between groups for change from baseline was of similar magnitude to the differences seen at 6 months. Rates for complications did not differ significantly. EBV patients with computed tomography (CT) scans suggestive of complete fissure and lobar occlusion had a mean ± SD lobar volume reduction of -80 ± 30% and >50% met minimal clinical difference thresholds. The degree of emphysema heterogeneity did not preclude excellent outcomes. Unilateral lobar volume reduction using EBV treatment is safe and superior clinical results correlated with CT suggestive of complete fissures and successful lobar occlusion. Emphysema heterogeneity was not critical for determining positive outcomes.

  18. [Hepatocellular carcinoma originated in the caudate lobe. Surgical strategy for resection. A propos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Mier, Gustavo; Esquivel-Torres, Sergio; Calzada-Grijalva, José Francisco; Grube-Pagola, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma originating from the caudate lobe has a worse prognosis than other hepatocellular carcinoma in another segment of the liver. An isolated caudate lobe resection of the liver represents a significant technical challenge. Caudate lobe resection can be performed along with a lobectomy or as an isolated liver resection. There are very few reports about isolated caudate lobe liver resection. We report a case of successful isolated resection of hepatocellular carcinoma in the caudate lobe with excellent long-term survival. A 74 years old female with 8cm mass lesion in the caudate lobe without clinical or biochemical evidence of liver cirrhosis, serum alpha-fetoprotein 3.7 U/l, and negative hepatitis serology was evaluated for surgery. Complete resection of the lesion in 270minutes with Pringle maneuver for 13minutes was satisfactorily performed. Patient was discharged ten days after surgery without complications. Patient is currently asymptomatic, without deterioration of liver function and 48 month tumor free survival after the procedure. Isolated caudate lobe resection is an uncommon but technically possible procedure. In order to achieve a successful resection, one must have a detailed knowledge of complete liver anatomy. Tumor free margins must be obtained to provide long survival for these patients who have a malignancy in this anatomic location. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  19. Radiation dose reduction: comparative assessment of publication volume between interventional and diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, Jan; Henzler, Thomas; Gaba, Ron C; Morelli, John N

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to quantify and compare awareness regarding radiation dose reduction within the interventional radiology and diagnostic radiology communities. Abstracts accepted to the annual meetings of the Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR), the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE), the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), and the European Congress of Radiology (ECR) between 2005 and 2015 were analyzed using the search terms "interventional/computed tomography" and "radiation dose/radiation dose reduction." A PubMed query using the above-mentioned search terms for the years of 2005-2015 was performed. Between 2005 and 2015, a total of 14 520 abstracts (mean, 660±297 abstracts) and 80 614 abstracts (mean, 3664±1025 abstracts) were presented at interventional and diagnostic radiology meetings, respectively. Significantly fewer abstracts related to radiation dose were presented at the interventional radiology meetings compared with the diagnostic radiology meetings (162 abstracts [1% of total] vs. 2706 [3% of total]; P radiology abstracts (range, 6-27) and 246±105 diagnostic radiology abstracts (range, 112-389) pertaining to radiation dose were presented at each meeting. The PubMed query revealed an average of 124±39 publications (range, 79-187) and 1205±307 publications (range, 829-1672) related to interventional and diagnostic radiology dose reduction per year, respectively (P radiology community over the past 10 years has not mirrored the increased volume seen within diagnostic radiology, suggesting that increased education and discussion about this topic may be warranted.

  20. Data base on dose reduction research projects for nuclear power plants. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A.; Yu, C.K.; Roecklein, A.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This is the fifth volume in a series of reports that provide information on dose reduction research and health physics technology or nuclear power plants. The information is taken from two of several databases maintained by Brookhaven National Laboratory`s ALARA Center for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The research section of the report covers dose reduction projects that are in the experimental or developmental phase. It includes topics such as steam generator degradation, decontamination, robotics, improvements in reactor materials, and inspection techniques. The section on health physics technology discusses dose reduction efforts that are in place or in the process of being implemented at nuclear power plants. A total of 105 new or updated projects are described. All project abstracts from this report are available to nuclear industry professionals with access to a fax machine through the ACEFAX system or a computer with a modem and the proper communications software through the ACE system. Detailed descriptions of how to access all the databases electronically are in the appendices of the report.

  1. Dimensionality Reduction on Multi-Dimensional Transfer Functions for Multi-Channel Volume Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Suk; Schulze, Jürgen P.; Cone, Angela C.; Sosinsky, Gina E.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2011-01-01

    The design of transfer functions for volume rendering is a non-trivial task. This is particularly true for multi-channel data sets, where multiple data values exist for each voxel, which requires multi-dimensional transfer functions. In this paper, we propose a new method for multi-dimensional transfer function design. Our new method provides a framework to combine multiple computational approaches and pushes the boundary of gradient-based multi-dimensional transfer functions to multiple channels, while keeping the dimensionality of transfer functions at a manageable level, i.e., a maximum of three dimensions, which can be displayed visually in a straightforward way. Our approach utilizes channel intensity, gradient, curvature and texture properties of each voxel. Applying recently developed nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithms reduces the high-dimensional data of the domain. In this paper, we use Isomap and Locally Linear Embedding as well as a traditional algorithm, Principle Component Analysis. Our results show that these dimensionality reduction algorithms significantly improve the transfer function design process without compromising visualization accuracy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our new dimensionality reduction algorithms with two volumetric confocal microscopy data sets. PMID:21841914

  2. Dimensionality Reduction on Multi-Dimensional Transfer Functions for Multi-Channel Volume Data Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Suk; Schulze, Jürgen P; Cone, Angela C; Sosinsky, Gina E; Martone, Maryann E

    2010-09-21

    The design of transfer functions for volume rendering is a non-trivial task. This is particularly true for multi-channel data sets, where multiple data values exist for each voxel, which requires multi-dimensional transfer functions. In this paper, we propose a new method for multi-dimensional transfer function design. Our new method provides a framework to combine multiple computational approaches and pushes the boundary of gradient-based multi-dimensional transfer functions to multiple channels, while keeping the dimensionality of transfer functions at a manageable level, i.e., a maximum of three dimensions, which can be displayed visually in a straightforward way. Our approach utilizes channel intensity, gradient, curvature and texture properties of each voxel. Applying recently developed nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithms reduces the high-dimensional data of the domain. In this paper, we use Isomap and Locally Linear Embedding as well as a traditional algorithm, Principle Component Analysis. Our results show that these dimensionality reduction algorithms significantly improve the transfer function design process without compromising visualization accuracy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our new dimensionality reduction algorithms with two volumetric confocal microscopy data sets.

  3. Administration of goserelin acetate after uterine artery embolization does not change the reduction rate and volume of uterine myomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilos, George A; Vilos, Angelos G; Abu-Rafea, Basim; Pron, Gaylene; Kozak, Roman; Garvin, Greg

    2006-05-01

    To determine if goserelin immediately after uterine artery embolization (UAE) affected myoma reduction. Randomized pilot study (level 1). Teaching hospital. Twenty-six women. All patients underwent UAE, and then 12 patients received 10.8 mg of goserelin 24 hours later. The treatment group was 5 years older: 43 versus 37.7 years. Uterine and myoma volumes were measured by ultrasound 2 weeks before UAE and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Uterine and fibroid volumes. Pretreatment uterine volume was 477 versus 556 cm3, and dominant fibroid volume was 257 versus 225 cm3 in the control versus goserelin groups. Analysis of variance measurements indicated that the change over time did not significantly differ between the two groups. By 12 months, the control group had a mean uterine volume reduction of 58%, while the goserelin group had a reduction of 45%. Dominant fibroid changes over time did not differ between the two groups. At 12 months, the mean fibroid volume had decreased by 86% and 58% in the control and goserelin groups, respectively. The addition of goserelin therapy to UAE did not alter the reduction rate or volume of uterine myomas.

  4. Convection in tropical cyclones associated with vapor volume reduction - a new concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardhekar, D.

    2010-09-01

    Low pressure zone formation due to convection in a tropical cyclone is associated by a newly discovered phenomenon. The explanation is based on Avogadro's law. According to the law 18 grams (molecular weight expressed in grams) of water when evaporated occupies 22.414 litres of vapor at standard temperature and pressure (STP). Therefore, 1.0 gram of water in the vapor form will occupy 1.245 litres. That is, 1245 ml volume of vapor at STP when condensed will form 1.0 ml volume of water. Due to the phase change that is from water vapor to liquid water, huge reduction in volume occurs. The process of condensation of vapor into liquid water from the vapor component of the vapor-rich air is continuously taking place in a tropical cyclone particularly in the eye wall on a very large scale. The condensed water precipitates as rain or forms clouds. Each ml of the rain leaves behind a vacant space equal to 1245 ml forming a low-pressure zone and consequently a pressure gradient force is formed. Therefore, when there are continuous heavy rains in the eye wall, the magnitude of the low pressure zone and the pressure gradient force forming continuously in the condensation regions of the eye wall is gigantic. At the same time the latent heat released in the condensation process is absorbed by the remaining air component, it becomes warmer and buoyant, therefore ascends and ultimately escapes from the top of the cyclone as the outflow, again forming a low pressure zone. Thus, continuous condensation and continuous ascent and escape of warm air from the top together form a continuous pressure gradient and the vapour-rich air is continuously sucked up from below, that is from above the sea surface in the region of the eye wall due to the continuously forming pressure gradient force maintaining the near sea surface convergence of the vapour rich air. The value 1245 changes with change in temperature and pressure, but it does not affect the presented concept. The formation of the

  5. Vitrification process for the volume reduction and stabilization of organic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1982-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed a series of experimental tests sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the feasibility of incinerating and vitrifying organic ion-exchange resins in a single-step process. The resins used in this study were identical to those used for decontaminating auxiliary building water at the Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor. The primarily organic resins were loaded with nonradioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium for processing in a pilot-scale, joule-heated glass melter modified to support resin combustion. The feasibility tests demonstrated an average process rate of 3.0 kg/h. Based on this rate, if 50 organic resin liners were vitrified in a six-month campaign, a melter 2.5 times the size of the pilot scale unit would be adequate. A maximum achievable volume reduction of 91% was demonstrated in these tests

  6. Mobile encapsulation and volume reduction system for wet low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the results of the program entitled ''A Preconceptual Study for a Transportable Vitrification Process''. The objective of the study is to determine the feasibility of a Mobile Encapsulation and Volume Reduction System (MEVS). The report contains design criteria, a preconceptual design of the system, a comparison of disposal costs with other solidification technologies, and an assessment of utility interests in the transportable volume reduction service MEVS can provide. The MEVS design employs the use of a joule-heated glass melter to convert the wet low-level wastes into glass. The process is self-sufficient, requiring no direct facility services or reactor personnel. It is capable of servicing one waste type from a minimum of three reactors. The design was used to prepare capital and operating cost estimates. The capital cost for the MEVS is $4,680,000, which includes all labor necessary for design, engineering, inspection, and licensing. The operating cost of the system for servicing a minimum of three reactors is $1,530,000/y for resins or $2,280,000/y for concentrated liquids. The cost estimates compared favorably to the more common solidification process of cementation. Total MEVS operating costs which include processing, transportation and burial, are $191 to $218/ft 3 waste, whereas quoted costs for cementation and disposal from reactor operators range from $155 to $350/ft 3 . The report concludes with the requirements for additional development, which can be accomplished for less than one sixth of the capital costs. The report also presents the results of an assessment conducted with utility representatives to obtain their expressions of interest in a service of this type

  7. A Pilot Study on the Feasibility of Interventional Lung Volume Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wansheng; Dong Yonghua; Liu Bin; Zhu Chi; Yu Yongqiang

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of lung volume reduction by transbronchial alcohol and lipiodol suspension infusion with the aid of balloon-tipped catheter occlusion. Twenty-six healthy adult rabbits were divided into four treatment groups: alcohol and lipiodol suspension infusion (n = 8), lipiodol infusion (n = 8), alcohol infusion (n = 5), or bronchial lumen occlusion (n = 5). After selective lobar or segmental bronchial catheterization using a balloon-tipped occlusion catheter, the corresponding drug infusion was performed. Bone cement was used to occlude the bronchial lumen in the occlusion group. The animals were followed up for 10 weeks by chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT), and then the whole lungs were harvested for histological examination. Alcohol and lipiodol suspension or lipiodol could be stably retained in alveoli in the first two groups based on chest X-ray and CT, but obvious collapse only occurred in the group receiving alcohol and lipiodol suspension or the bronchial lumen occlusion group. Histological examination revealed damage and disruption of the alveolar epithelium and fibrosis in related lung tissue in the group receiving alcohol and lipiodol suspension. Similar changes were seen in the bronchial lumen occlusion group, apart from obvious marginal emphysema of the target areas in two animals. Interstitial pneumonia and dilated alveoli existed in some tissue in target areas in the lipiodol group, in which pulmonary fibrosis obliterating alveoli also occurred. Chronic alveolitis and pleural adhesion in target areas occurred in the group infused with alcohol alone, whereas visceral pleura of the other three groups was regular and no pleural effusion or adhesion was found. Alcohol and lipiodol suspension that is stably retained in alveoli can result in significant lung volume reduction. Through alcohol and lipiodol suspension infusion, obstructive emphysema or pneumonia arising from bronchial lumen

  8. The reduction of weaning time from mechanical ventilation using tidal volume and relaxation biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, J E; Hyers, T M

    1990-05-01

    We sought to determine if biofeedback could reduce weaning time for the hard-to-wean patient by improving important weaning factors that are not effectively dealt with by present weaning methods. These include respiratory muscle electromyograph (EMG) efficiency, respiratory drive, and the anxiety of the ventilator-dependent patient. After the patient had received mechanical ventilation for 7 days and the day weaning began (start), the patient was randomly assigned to biofeedback or to the control group. There were 20 patients assigned to each group, with mean ages of 60.2 (biofeedback) and 59.3 (control) yr. The patients assigned to the biofeedback group received daily, until extubation or being placed on no resuscitation status (termination), frontalis electromyographic (EMG) relaxation feedback for anxiety reduction and improved respiratory muscle EMG efficiency, tidal volume/diaphragm EMG (VT/DAP), and VT feedback for increasing VT and respiratory drive defined as tidal volume/inspiratory time (VT/TI). The control group was visited daily to control for attention and reassurance. The results showed a significant (p less than 0.01) reduction in mean ventilator days for the biofeedback group of 20.6 +/- 8.9 SD compared with 32.6 +/- 17.6 SD mean days for the control group. From start to termination, there was a significant (p less than 0.01) increase in baseline VT, from 295 +/- 41 to 415 +/- 45 ml, and a significant (p less than 0.02) increase in VT/DAP, from 0.33 +/- 0.09 to 0.94 +/- 0.22 L/mV for the biofeedback group but no significant change in these parameters for the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Dissociation between vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and blood vessel density in the caudate nucleus after chronic hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Abhishek; Dombrowski, Stephen M; Leichliter, Anna; Krajcir, Natalie; Zingales, Nicholas; Inoue, Masahiro; Schenk, Soren; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Luciano, Mark G

    2009-11-01

    Chronic hydrocephalus (CH) is characterized by the presence of ventricular enlargement, decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF), and brain tissue oxygen delivery. Although the underlying pathophysiological role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is not clear, ischemic-hypoxic events in CH are known to trigger its release. Previously, we have shown increased VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and blood vessel density (BVd) in the hippocampus after CH. We investigated changes in neuronal and glial VEGFR-2 density and BVd in the caudate nucleus in an experimental model of CH. Animals with CH were divided into short term (ST, 2 to 4 weeks) and long term (LT, 12 to 16 weeks) and were compared with surgical controls (SCs, 12 to 16 weeks). The cellular and BVds were estimated using immunohistochemical and stereological counting methods. Overall, percentage (%)VEGFR-2 neurons were approximately two times greater in CH (ST, LT) than in SC. By comparison, glial cell %VEGFR-2 was greater by 10% to 17% in ST and 4% to 11% lower in LT compared with that in SC. Blood vessel density was significantly lower in CH than in SC in the superficial caudate. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid ventricular volume and pressure, as well as in CBF did not correlate with either VEGFR-2 or BVd. These observed findings suggest that destructive forces may outweigh angiogenic forces and possibly show a disassociation between VEGFR-2 and BV expressions.

  10. Interventional pulmonology for asthma and emphysema: bronchial thermoplasty and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Russell J; Murgu, Septimiu D

    2014-12-01

    Emphysema and asthma are responsible for economic and social burden. Altering the natural course of these diseases is a field of intense research. The National Emphysema Treatment Trial showed that lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) could significantly reduce both morbidity and mortality in properly selected patients. LVRS is seldom performed, however, due to the high morbidity associated with the surgery. Numerous bronchoscopic interventions have been introduced with the goal of providing the clinical benefits of LVRS without the surgical complications. Thus far, these modalities have not produced the results once hoped. However, through active modification of both technique and patient selection, the role of minimally invasive modalities in the treatment of emphysema continues to evolve. Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a method of delivering controlled heat to airway mucosa with the goal of reducing airway smooth muscle mass and hence bronchoconstriction. In patients suffering from asthma who cannot achieve control with standard medical care, BT has been shown to be safe and improves symptoms, with long lasting benefit. BT does not seem to affect traditional markers of asthma severity such as forced expiratory volume in 1 second and questions remain regarding proper patient selection for this therapy and its true physiologic effects. This article is a review of bronchoscopic modalities for emphysema and asthma. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Data base on dose reduction research projects for nuclear power plants. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A.; Vulin, D.S.; Liang, H.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-08-01

    This is the fourth volume in a series of reports that provide information on dose reduction research and health physics technology for nuclear power plants. The information is taken from a data base maintained by Brookhaven National Laboratory`s ALARA Center for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report presents information on 118 new or updated projects, covering a wide range of activities. Projects including steam generator degradation, decontamination, robotics, improvement in reactor materials, and inspection techniques, among others, are described in the research section of the report. The section on health physics technology includes some simple and very cost-effective projects to reduce radiation exposures. Included in this volume is a detailed description of how to access the BNL data bases which store this information. All project abstracts from this report, as well as many other useful documents, can be accessed, with permission, through our on-line system, ACE. A computer equipped with a modem, or a fax machine is all that is required to connect to ACE. Many features of ACE, including software, hardware, and communications specifics, are explained in this report.

  12. 'EPRI tailored collaboration 2, Crystal River cost and volume reduction program'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genoa, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    During the fall of 1993. Florida Power Corporation joined the EPRI tailored collaboration on the low-level radioactive waste cost and volume reduction. In conjunction with an existing Radwaste Task Force, the EPRI team reviewed past and current waste management practices and developed a prioritized list of opportunities for improvement. In the first quarter of 1994, these opportunities were converted into Action Plans with responsibilities and due dates assigned to support a 60-day refueling outage beginning on April 7, 1994. The Action Plans focussed on: (1) Visible management support in the form of specific plant, department, and worker level radwaste reduction goals. (2) Heightened worker awareness in the form of training (formal and informal), signs, bulletins, and a radwaste awareness video. (3) Material changes from disposable to recyclables, non-incinerables to incinerables, liquid waste processing media replacements and filter use criteria. (4) Work practice changes to reduce valve leaks, reduce contaminated areas, reduce entries to contaminated areas, further segregation of waste streams including 'green is clean' wastes

  13. EPA RREL's mobile volume reduction unit advances soil washing at four Superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaire, R.; Borst, M.

    1994-01-01

    Research testing of the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's (RREL) Volume Reduction Unit (VRU), produced data helping advance soil washing as a remedial technology for contaminated soils. Based on research at four Superfund sites, each with a different matrix of organic contaminants, EPA evaluated the soil technology and provided information to forecast realistic, full-scale remediation costs. Primarily a research tool, the VRU is RREL's mobile test unit for investigating the breadth of this technology. During a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Demonstration at Escambia Wood Treating Company Site, Pensacola, FL, the VRU treated soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-laden creosote (PAH). At Montana Pole and Treatment Plant Site, Butte, MT, the VRU treated soil containing PCP mixed with diesel oil (measured as total petroleum hydrocarbons) and a trace of dioxin. At Dover Air Force Base Site, Dover, DE, the VRU treated soil containing JP-4 jet fuel, measured as TPHC. At Sand Creek Site, Commerce City, CO, the feed soil at this site was contaminated with two pesticides: heptachlor and dieldrin. Less than 10 percent of these pesticides remained in the treated coarse soil fractions

  14. Effects of heavy in utero cocaine exposure on adolescent caudate morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avants, Brian B; Hurt, Hallam; Giannetta, Joan M; Epstein, Charles L; Shera, David M; Rao, Hengyi; Wang, Jiongjiong; Gee, James C

    2007-10-01

    We assess the effects of in utero cocaine and polysubstance exposure on the adolescent caudate nucleus through high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Cocaine exposure may compromise the developing brain through disruption of neural ontogeny in dopaminergic systems, effects secondary to fetal hypoxemia, or altered cerebrovascular reactivity. Cocaine exposure may also lead to neonatal lesions in the caudate. However, long-term or latent effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure are rarely found. We use T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to quantify caudate nucleus morphology in matched control and exposed groups. The literature suggests that in utero cocaine exposure consequences in adolescents may be subtle, or masked by other variables. Our comparison focuses on contrasting the control group with high-exposure subjects (mothers who reported 2 median of 117 days of cocaine use during pregnancy; 82% tested positive for cocaine use at term). We use advanced image registration and segmentation tools to quantify left and right caudate morphology. Our results indicate that the caudate is significantly larger in controls versus subjects (P < 0.0025), implying cocaine exposure-related detriments to the dopaminergic system. The right (P < 0.025) and left (P < 0.035) caudate, studied independently, show the same significant trend. Permutation testing and the false discovery rate were used to assess significance.

  15. Volume reduction of dry active waste by use of a waste sorting table at the Brunswick nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, P.B.

    1988-01-01

    Carolina Power and Light Company's Brunswick nuclear power plant has been using a National Nuclear Corporation Model WST-18 Waste Sorting Table to monitor and sort dry active waste for segregating uncontaminated material as a means of low-level waste volume reduction. The WST-18 features 18 large-area, solid scintillation detectors arranged in a 3 x 6 array underneath a sorting/monitoring surface that is shielded from background radiation. An 11-week study at Brunswick showed that the use of the waste sorting table resulted in dramatic improvements in both productivity (man-hours expended per cubic foot of waste processed) and monitoring quality over the previous hand-probe frisking method. Use of the sorting table since the study has confirmed its effectiveness in volume reduction. The waste sorting table paid for its operation in volume reduction savings alone, without accounting for the additional savings from recovering reusable items

  16. Habitual action video game playing is associated with caudate nucleus-dependent navigational strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Greg L; Drisdelle, Brandi Lee; Konishi, Kyoko; Jackson, Jonathan; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Bohbot, Veronique D

    2015-06-07

    The habitual playing of video games is associated with increased grey matter and activity in the striatum. Studies in humans and rodents have shown an inverse relationship between grey matter in the striatum and hippocampus. We investigated whether action video game playing is also associated with increased use of response learning strategies during navigation, known to be dependent on the caudate nucleus of the striatum, when presented in a dual solution task. We tested 26 action video game players (actionVGPs) and 33 non-action video game players (nonVGPs) on the 4-on-8 virtual maze and a visual attention event-related potential (ERP) task, which elicits a robust N-2-posterior-controlateral (N2pc) component. We found that actionVGPs had a significantly higher likelihood of using a response learning strategy (80.76%) compared to nonVGPs (42.42%). Consistent with previous evidence, actionVGPs and nonVGPs differed in the way they deployed visual attention to central and peripheral targets as observed in the elicited N2pc component during an ERP visual attention task. Increased use of the response strategy in actionVGPs is consistent with previously observed increases in striatal volume in video game players (VGPs). Using response strategies is associated with decreased grey matter in the hippocampus. Previous studies have shown that decreased volume in the hippocampus precedes the onset of many neurological and psychiatric disorders. If actionVGPs have lower grey matter in the hippocampus, as response learners normally do, then these individuals could be at increased risk of developing neurological and psychiatric disorders during their lifetime. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimalization studies concerning volume reduction and conditioning of radioactive waste in view of storage and disposal (geological disposal into clay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.; Van De Voorde, N.; Bonne, A.

    1984-01-01

    Volume reduction of low-level and medium-level wastes, and simultaneous optimization of the quality of the conditioned end-product is a major challenge in the management of radioactive wastes. Comments will be given on recent achievements in treatment of non-high-level liquid and solid wastes from power reactors and low-level plutonium contaminated wastes. The latter results can contribute to an overall optimization of a radioactive waste management scheme, including the final disposal of the conditioned materials. Some detailed results will be given concerning volume reduction, decontamination factors, degree of immobilization of the contained radioelements, and cost considerations

  18. Conceptual design of a fluidized bed combustor for volume reduction of waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.K.; Morris, G.J.; Atkinson, C.M.; Clark, N.N.; Gautam, M.; Loth, J.L.; Zhang, G.Q.; Zhang, L.M.; Kono, H.O.

    1992-06-01

    A group of research engineers was assembled to investigate novel fluidized bed combustion systems for incinerating low-level radioactive wastes. The goal of this project was to significantly reduce the volume of these wastes in an efficient and environmentally safe manner. The process is to be limited by a maximum temperature of 600 {degrees}C and the waste product was to contain a minimum of waste material produced by the process itself (refractory, absorbents, catalysts, etc.). The approach presented in this study is to evaluate: (1) a modification of the existing system, (2) a hybrid reactor concept, and (3) a fast circulating reactor concept. Carbon dioxide and oxygen were to be the only gases introduced into the reactors. The results of this study indicate that the existing system may be more efficient with gas and solids recirculation; however, two beds are required. The hybrid reactor concept involves a bubbling bed and a fast bed in one reactor. Although a simple operation is envisioned for this system, there are several technical questions which must be addressed in order to optimize the system for a final analysis. The fast circulating reactor concept also appears to represent a simple system to operate; however, it also presents several technical questions which must be addressed before a thorough evaluation of this concept may be completed. In conclusion, this report represents a first evaluation of new concepts for significant volume reduction of low-level radioactive wastes. The technical issues required for a complete evaluation of these concepts are presented. A future research effort is outlined the result of which should significantly increase our knowledge of these issues.

  19. Microbiological airway colonization in COPD patients with severe emphysema undergoing endoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudzinski FC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Franziska C Trudzinski,1 Frederik Seiler,1 Heinrike Wilkens,1 Carlos Metz,1 Annegret Kamp,1 Robert Bals,1 Barbara Gärtner,2 Philipp M Lepper,1 Sören L Becker2–4 1Department of Internal Medicine V – Pneumology, Allergology and Critical Care Medicine, ECLS Center Saar, University Medical Center Saarland and Saarland University, 2Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar, Germany; 3Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, 4University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Endoscopic lung volume reduction (eLVR is a therapeutic option for selected patients with COPD and severe emphysema. Infectious exacerbations are serious events in these vulnerable patients; hence, prophylactic antibiotics are often prescribed postinterventionally. However, data on the microbiological airway colonization at the time of eLVR are scarce, and there are no evidence-based recommendations regarding a rational antibiotic regimen.Objective: The aim of this study was to perform a clinical and microbiological analysis of COPD patients with advanced emphysema undergoing eLVR with endobronchial valves at a single German University hospital, 2012–2017.Patients and methods: Bronchial aspirates were obtained prior to eLVR and sent for microbiological analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates was performed, and pathogen colonization was retrospectively compared with clinical parameters.Results: At least one potential pathogen was found in 47% (30/64 of patients. Overall, Gram-negative bacteria constituted the most frequently detected pathogens. The single most prevalent species were Haemophilus influenzae (9%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (6%, and Staphylococcus aureus (6%. No multidrug resistance was observed, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurred in <5% of samples. Patients without microbiological airway colonization showed more severe airflow limitation, hyperinflation, and chronic hypercapnia compared

  20. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction by endobronchial valve in advanced emphysema: the first Asian report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park TS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tai Sun Park,1 Yoonki Hong,2 Jae Seung Lee,1 Sang Young Oh,3 Sang Min Lee,3 Namkug Kim,3 Joon Beom Seo,3 Yeon-Mok Oh,1 Sang-Do Lee,1 Sei Won Lee1 1Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 2Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea; 3Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Purpose: Endobronchial valve (EBV therapy is increasingly being seen as a therapeutic option for advanced emphysema, but its clinical utility in Asian populations, who may have different phenotypes to other ethnic populations, has not been assessed.Patients and methods: This prospective open-label single-arm clinical trial examined the clinical efficacy and the safety of EBV in 43 consecutive patients (mean age 68.4±7.5, forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] 24.5%±10.7% predicted, residual volume 208.7%±47.9% predicted with severe emphysema with complete fissure and no collateral ventilation in a tertiary referral hospital in Korea.Results: Compared to baseline, the patients exhibited significant improvements 6 months after EBV therapy in terms of FEV1 (from 0.68±0.26 L to 0.92±0.40 L; P<0.001, 6-minute walk distance (from 233.5±114.8 m to 299.6±87.5 m; P=0.012, modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (from 3.7±0.6 to 2.4±1.2; P<0.001, and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (from 65.59±13.07 to 53.76±11.40; P=0.028. Nine patients (20.9% had a tuberculosis scar, but these scars did not affect target lobe volume reduction or pneumothorax frequency. Thirteen patients had adverse events, ten (23.3% developed pneumothorax, which included one death due to tension pneumothorax.Conclusion: EBV therapy was as effective and safe in Korean

  1. Effects of radiation dose reduction in Volume Perfusion CT imaging of acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmed E; Brockmann, Carolin; Yang, Zepa; Kim, Changwon; Afat, Saif; Pjontek, Rastislav; Nikobashman, Omid; Brockmann, Marc A; Kim, Jong Hyo; Wiesmann, Martin

    2015-12-01

    To examine the influence of radiation dose reduction on image quality and sensitivity of Volume Perfusion CT (VPCT) maps regarding the detection of ischemic brain lesions. VPCT data of 20 patients with suspected ischemic stroke acquired at 80 kV and 180 mAs were included. Using realistic reduced-dose simulation, low-dose VPCT datasets with 144 mAs, 108 mAs, 72 mAs and 36 mAs (80 %, 60 %, 40 % and 20 % of the original levels) were generated, resulting in a total of 100 datasets. Perfusion maps were created and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) measurements were performed. Qualitative analyses were conducted by two blinded readers, who also assessed the presence/absence of ischemic lesions and scored CBV and CBF maps using a modified ASPECTS-score. SNR of all low-dose datasets were significantly lower than those of the original datasets (p < .05). All datasets down to 72 mAs (40 %) yielded sufficient image quality and high sensitivity with excellent inter-observer-agreements, whereas 36 mAs datasets (20 %) yielded poor image quality in 15 % of the cases with lower sensitivity and inter-observer-agreements. Low-dose VPCT using decreased tube currents down to 72 mAs (40 % of original radiation dose) produces sufficient perfusion maps for the detection of ischemic brain lesions. • Perfusion CT is highly accurate for the detection of ischemic brain lesions • Perfusion CT results in high radiation exposure, therefore low-dose protocols are required • Reduction of tube current down to 72 mAs produces sufficient perfusion maps.

  2. The safety of dipyridamole in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion scintigraphy prior to lung volume reduction surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, M.R.; Angelides, S.; Parker, M.K.; Silva, I. da; Freeman, A.P.

    2001-01-01

    Patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) undergoing lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) are at high risk of peri-operative cardiac complications, and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is commonly used for risk stratification. This study prospectively assessed the safety of dipyridamole in these patients and compared the incidence of side-effects (particularly dyspnoea) with that in patients undergoing dipyridamole MPS prior to elective non-cardiothoracic surgery. Fifty patients were enrolled: 25 in the LVRS cohort (13 males, 12 females), with a mean age of 65 years and a mean FEV 1 of 0.79 l, and 25 (with no history of asthma or COPD) in the control cohort (14 males, 11 females), with a mean age of 66 years. Fourteen patients (56%) in each group developed side-effects. Dyspnoea was reported by five patients (20%) in the LVRS and two patients (8%) in the control cohort (P=NS). One patient in each cohort developed severe hypotension and bradycardia. Eight (32%) other patients developed minor side-effects in the LVRS cohort compared with 11 (44%) in the control group. All side-effects responded promptly to intravenous aminophylline. In summary, there was a statistically non-significant increase in the incidence of dyspnoea in patients with end-stage COPD and all side-effects responded to aminophylline. Thus, dipyridamole can be used safely in these patients. (orig.)

  3. Volume reduction of cesium contaminated soil by magnetic separation - Pretreatment of organic matters -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Hiroki; Yukumatsu, Kazuki; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro; Sekiyama, Tomio; Mitsui, Seiichiro; Kato, Mitsugu

    2017-07-01

    By the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, a large amount of soil was contaminated by radioactive cesium. We developed a new volume reduction method of contaminated soil combining classification and magnetic separation. In magnetic separation, 2:1 type clay minerals, which adsorb cesium strongly and show paramagnetism, are removed from soil suspension of silt and clay, and then the contaminated soil can be separated into two groups that is high and low dose soil. However, there is an issue that the clay aggregates induced by organic matters prevent 2:1 type clay minerals from selective separation magnetically. The purpose of this study is to disperse aggregates by means of the alkaline K2CO3 solution treatment for selective separation of 2:1 type clay minerals. Firstly, particle size distribution was measured and the dispersion by K2CO3 treatment was investigated. Moreover, the radioactivity of passed soils after magnetic separation was measured to investigate the effect of dispersion treatment before magnetic separation. The result showed the possibility of more selective separation for 2:1 type clay minerals by treatment of organic matters.

  4. Volume reduction and plutonium recovery in alpha wastes by cryogenic crushing and lixiviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnal, T.; Pajot, J.

    1986-06-01

    The industry of plutonium generates solid alpha wastes of medium activity called ''technological wastes''. They are mainly produced during the fabrication and reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuels and they are of a wide variety i.e: vinyl bags, gloves, glass, steel materials used in glove box operation, etc... These wastes contain relevant residual quantities of uranium and plutonium in the form of oxides or nitrates, reaching up to several dozen grams per cubic meter. Up to the beginning of the eighties, they were conditionned without any treatment and stored as such on the production site. However, for an economic and safe storage, recovering of the plutonium contained in these waste streams and reduction of their volume is of obvious importance. At the plutonium ''Complexe de Fabrication des Combustibles de Cadarache'' was developed a new technical solution of this problem that combines cryogenic crushing of the solid waste and plutonium recovery from the crushed material by chemical lixiviation. The first results obtained in applying this system on the industrial scale are reported briefly

  5. Emphysema. Imaging for endoscopic lung volume reduction; Lungenemphysem. Bildgebung bei endoskopischer Lungenvolumenreduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storbeck, B. [LungenClinic Grosshansdorf (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schroeder, T.H. [Amalie Sieveking-Hospital, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Oldigs, M.; Rabe, K.F. [LungenClinic Grosshansdorf (Germany). Dept. of Pulmonology; Weber, C. [Amalie Sieveking-Hospital, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-07-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by two entities, the more airway-predominant type (''bronchitis'') on the one hand, and emphysema-predominant type on the other. Imaging via high-resolution computed tomography plays an important role in phenotyping COPD. For patients with advanced lung emphysema, new endoscopic lung volume reduction therapies (ELVR) have been developed. Proper selection of suitable patients requires thin-section reconstruction of volumetric CT image data sets also in coronal and sagittal orientation are required. In the current manuscript we will describe emphysema subtypes (centrilobular, paraseptal, panlobular), options for quantifying emphysema and this importance of regional distribution (homogeneous or heterogeneous, target area) as this is crucial for patient selection. Analysis of the interlobular fissures is obligatory despite the lack of standardization, as incomplete fissures indicate collateral ventilation (CV) via parenchymal bridges, which is an important criterion in choosing endoscopic methods of LVR. Every radiologist should be familiar with modern LVR therapies such as valves and coils, and furthermore should know what a lung doctor expects from radiologic evaluation (before and after ELVR). Finally we present a checklist as a quick reference for all steps concerning imaging for ELVR.

  6. Effects of radiation dose reduction in Volume Perfusion CT imaging of acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Ahmed E.; Brockmann, Carolin; Afat, Saif; Pjontek, Rastislav; Nikobashman, Omid; Brockmann, Marc A.; Wiesmann, Martin; Yang, Zepa; Kim, Changwon; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2015-01-01

    To examine the influence of radiation dose reduction on image quality and sensitivity of Volume Perfusion CT (VPCT) maps regarding the detection of ischemic brain lesions. VPCT data of 20 patients with suspected ischemic stroke acquired at 80 kV and 180 mAs were included. Using realistic reduced-dose simulation, low-dose VPCT datasets with 144 mAs, 108 mAs, 72 mAs and 36 mAs (80 %, 60 %, 40 % and 20 % of the original levels) were generated, resulting in a total of 100 datasets. Perfusion maps were created and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) measurements were performed. Qualitative analyses were conducted by two blinded readers, who also assessed the presence/absence of ischemic lesions and scored CBV and CBF maps using a modified ASPECTS-score. SNR of all low-dose datasets were significantly lower than those of the original datasets (p <.05). All datasets down to 72 mAs (40 %) yielded sufficient image quality and high sensitivity with excellent inter-observer-agreements, whereas 36 mAs datasets (20 %) yielded poor image quality in 15 % of the cases with lower sensitivity and inter-observer-agreements. Low-dose VPCT using decreased tube currents down to 72 mAs (40 % of original radiation dose) produces sufficient perfusion maps for the detection of ischemic brain lesions. (orig.)

  7. Effects of radiation dose reduction in Volume Perfusion CT imaging of acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Ahmed E. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Brockmann, Carolin; Afat, Saif; Pjontek, Rastislav; Nikobashman, Omid; Brockmann, Marc A.; Wiesmann, Martin [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Yang, Zepa; Kim, Changwon [Seoul National University, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyo [Seoul National University, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Center for Medical-IT Convergence Technology Research, Advanced Institute of Convergence Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To examine the influence of radiation dose reduction on image quality and sensitivity of Volume Perfusion CT (VPCT) maps regarding the detection of ischemic brain lesions. VPCT data of 20 patients with suspected ischemic stroke acquired at 80 kV and 180 mAs were included. Using realistic reduced-dose simulation, low-dose VPCT datasets with 144 mAs, 108 mAs, 72 mAs and 36 mAs (80 %, 60 %, 40 % and 20 % of the original levels) were generated, resulting in a total of 100 datasets. Perfusion maps were created and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) measurements were performed. Qualitative analyses were conducted by two blinded readers, who also assessed the presence/absence of ischemic lesions and scored CBV and CBF maps using a modified ASPECTS-score. SNR of all low-dose datasets were significantly lower than those of the original datasets (p <.05). All datasets down to 72 mAs (40 %) yielded sufficient image quality and high sensitivity with excellent inter-observer-agreements, whereas 36 mAs datasets (20 %) yielded poor image quality in 15 % of the cases with lower sensitivity and inter-observer-agreements. Low-dose VPCT using decreased tube currents down to 72 mAs (40 % of original radiation dose) produces sufficient perfusion maps for the detection of ischemic brain lesions. (orig.)

  8. Volume reduction of low-level contaminated metal waste by melting: selection of method and conceptual plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, G.L.; Heestand, R.L.; Mateer, R.S.

    1978-06-01

    A review of the literature and prior experience led to selection of induction melting as the most promising method for volume reduction of low-level transuranic contaminated metal waste. The literature indicates that melting with the appropriate slags significantly lowers the total contamination level of the metals by preferentially concentrating contaminants in the smaller volume of slag. Surface contamination not removed to the slag is diluted in the ingot and is contained uniformly in the metal. This dilution and decontamination offers the potential of lower cost disposal such as shallow burial rather than placement in a national repository. A processing plan is proposed as a model for economic analysis of the collection and volume reduction of contaminated metals. Further development is required to demonstrate feasibility of the plan

  9. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  10. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W.

    1995-05-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes

  11. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  12. The Caudate Lobe: The Blind Spot in Radioembolization or an Overlooked Opportunity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braat, Manon N. G. J. A., E-mail: M.N.G.Braat-3@umcutrecht.nl; Hoven, Andor F. van den, E-mail: a.f.vandenhoven@umcutrecht.nl; Doormaal, Pieter J. van, E-mail: P.J.vanDoormaal-4@umcutrecht.nl; Bruijnen, Rutger C., E-mail: R.Bruijnen@umcutrecht.nl; Lam, Marnix G. E. H., E-mail: M.Lam@umcutrecht.nl; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den, E-mail: mbosch@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    PurposeThe caudate lobe (CL) is impartial to the functional left and right hemi-liver and has outspoken inter-individual differences in arterial vascularization. Unfortunately, this complexity is not specifically taken into account during radioembolization treatment (RE), potentially resulting in under- or overtreatment of the CL. The objective of this study was to evaluate the CL coverage in RE and determine the detection rate of the CL arteries on CT angiography during work-up.MethodsIn all consecutive patients who underwent RE treatment between May 2012–January 2015, {sup 99m}Tc-MAA SPECT/CT and posttreatment scans ({sup 90}Y-bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT, {sup 90}Y-PET/CT, or {sup 166}Ho-SPECT/CT) were reviewed for activity in the CL. Pretreatment CT angiographies were reviewed for the visibility of the CL arteries.ResultsEighty-two patients were treated. In 32/82 (39 %) the CL was involved. In 6/32 (19 %) patients, no activity was seen on the posttreatment scan in the CL, whereas in 40/50 (80 %) patients without CL tumor involvement, the CL was treated. {sup 99m}Tc-MAA SPECT/CT and final posttreatment scans were discordant in 16/78 (21 %). {sup 99m}Tc-MAA SPECT/CT had a positive and negative predictive value of 94 % and 46 %, respectively, for activity in the CL after RE. In untreated CLs, significant hypertrophy was observed with a median volume increase of 33 % (p = 0.02). CL arteries were seldom visible on the pretreatment CT; the identification rate was 12–17 %.ConclusionCurrently in RE treatments, targeting or sparing of the CL is highly erratic and independent of tumor involvement. Intentional treatment or bypassing of the CL seems worthwhile to either improve tumor coverage or enhance the functional liver remnant.

  13. Measurement of caudate nucleus area - a more accurate measurement for Huntington's disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardlaw, J.M.; Abernethy, L.J.; Sellar, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Caudate nucleus atrophy occurs in Huntington's disease and methods of measuring this have been described using axial CT, but these are indirect and lack sensitivity. We measured caudate nucleus area (blind to the subjects' clinical state) in 30 subjects with or at risk of Huntington's disease, and in 100 normal age matched controls. Fifteen subjects with established symptomatic Huntington's disease, 3 with early symptoms, and 3 presymptomatic subjects (2 showing a high probability for the Huntington's disease gene on genetic testing, and one who has since developed symptoms) were correctly identified. Three normal (gene negative) family members were also correctly identified. Outcome is awaited in 6. CT caudate area measurement is simple and reproducible and we have found it to be a useful confirmatory test for Huntington's disease. (orig.)

  14. Cost and waste volume reduction in HEPA filter trains by effective pre-filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, Chris; Kaufman, Seth

    2006-01-01

    Data published elsewhere (Moore, et el 1992; Bergman et al 1997) suggests that the then costs of disposable type Glass Fibre HEPA filtration trains to the DOE was USD 55 million per year (based on an average usage of HEPA panels of 11,748 pieces per year between 1987 and 1990), USD 50 million of which was attributable to installation, testing, removal and disposal - although the life cycle costs are themselves based on estimates dating from 1987-1990. The same authors suggest that by 1995 the number of HEPA panels being used had dropped to an estimated 4000 pieces per year due to the ending of the Cold War. The yearly cost to the DOE of 4000 units per year was estimated to be USD 29.5 million using the same parameters that suggested the previously stated USD 55 million for the larger quantity. Within that cost estimate, USD 300 was the value given to the filter and USD 4,450 was given to peripheral activity per filter. Clearly, if the USD 4,450 component could be reduced, tremendous saving could result, in addition to a significant reduction in the legacy burden of waste volumes. This same cost is applied to both the 11,748 and 4000 usage figures. The work up to now has focussed on the development of a low cost, long life (cleanable) direct replacement of the traditional filter train, but this paper will review an alternative strategy, that of preventing the contaminating dust from reaching and blinding the HEPA filters, and thereby removing the need to replace them. What has become clear is that 'low cost' and 'stainless HEPA' are not compatible terms. The original Bergman et al work suggested that 1000 ft 3 /min stainless HEPAs could be commercially available for USD 5000 each after development (although the USD 70,000 development unit may be somewhat exaggerated - the authors have estimated that development units able to be retro-fitted into strengthened standard housings would be available for perhaps USD 30,000). The likely true cost of such an item produced

  15. Cost and waste volume reduction in HEPA filter trains by effective pre-filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Data published elsewhere (Moore, et al., 1992; Bergman et al., 1997) suggests that the then costs of disposable type Glass Fibre HEPA filtration trains to the DOE was $55 million per year (based on an average usage of HEPA panels of 11,748 pieces per year between 1987 and 1990), $50 million of which was attributable to installation, testing, removal and disposal. The same authors suggest that by 1995 the number of HEPA panels being used had dropped to an estimated 4000 pieces per year due to the ending of the Cold War. The yearly cost to the DOE of 4000 units per year was estimated to be $29.5 million using the same parameters that previously suggested the $55 million figure. Within that cost estimate, $300 each was the value given to the filter and $4,450 was given to peripheral activity per filter. Clearly, if the $4,450 component could be reduced, tremendous saving could result, in addition to a significant reduction in the legacy burden of waste volumes. This same cost is applied to both the 11,748 and 4000 usage figures. The work up to now has focussed on the development of a low cost, long life (cleanable), direct replacement of the traditional filter train. This paper will review an alternative strategy, that of preventing the contaminating dust from reaching and blinding the HEPA filters, and thereby removing the need to replace them. What has become clear is that 'low cost' and 'Metallic HEPA' are not compatible terms. The original Bergman et al., 1997 work suggested that 1000 cfm (cubic feet per minute) (1690 m 3 /hr) stainless HEPAs could be commercially available for $5000 each after development (although the $70,000 development unit may be somewhat exaggerated - the authors own company have estimated development units able to be retrofitted into strengthened standard housings would be available for perhaps $30,000). The likely true cost of such an item produced industrially in significant numbers may be closer to $15,000 each. That being the case, the

  16. Separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate caudate head and tail encoding flexible and stable value memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung F Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine neurons are thought to be critical for reward value-based learning by modifying synaptic transmissions in the striatum. Yet, different regions of the striatum seem to guide different kinds of learning. Do dopamine neurons contribute to the regional differences of the striatum in learning? As a first step to answer this question, we examined whether the head and tail of the caudate nucleus of the monkey (Macaca mulatta receive inputs from the same or different dopamine neurons. We chose these caudate regions because we previously showed that caudate head neurons learn values of visual objects quickly and flexibly, whereas caudate tail neurons learn object values slowly but retain them stably. Here we confirmed the functional difference by recording single neuronal activity while the monkey performed the flexible and stable value tasks, and then injected retrograde tracers in the functional domains of caudate head and tail. The projecting dopaminergic neurons were identified using tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. We found that two groups of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta project largely separately to the caudate head and tail. These groups of dopamine neurons were mostly separated topographically: head-projecting neurons were located in the rostral-ventral-medial region, while tail-projecting neurons were located in the caudal-dorsal-lateral regions of the substantia nigra. Furthermore, they showed different morphological features: tail-projecting neurons were larger and less circular than head-projecting neurons. Our data raise the possibility that different groups of dopamine neurons selectively guide learning of flexible (short-term and stable (long-term memories of object values.

  17. Normal tissue complication probabilities: dependence on choice of biological model and dose-volume histogram reduction scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseenko, Vitali; Battista, Jerry; Van Dyk, Jake

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of dose-volume histogram (DVH) reduction schemes and models of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) on ranking of radiation treatment plans. Methods and Materials: Data for liver complications in humans and for spinal cord in rats were used to derive input parameters of four different NTCP models. DVH reduction was performed using two schemes: 'effective volume' and 'preferred Lyman'. DVHs for competing treatment plans were derived from a sample DVH by varying dose uniformity in a high dose region so that the obtained cumulative DVHs intersected. Treatment plans were ranked according to the calculated NTCP values. Results: Whenever the preferred Lyman scheme was used to reduce the DVH, competing plans were indistinguishable as long as the mean dose was constant. The effective volume DVH reduction scheme did allow us to distinguish between these competing treatment plans. However, plan ranking depended on the radiobiological model used and its input parameters. Conclusions: Dose escalation will be a significant part of radiation treatment planning using new technologies, such as 3-D conformal radiotherapy and tomotherapy. Such dose escalation will depend on how the dose distributions in organs at risk are interpreted in terms of expected complication probabilities. The present study indicates considerable variability in predicted NTCP values because of the methods used for DVH reduction and radiobiological models and their input parameters. Animal studies and collection of standardized clinical data are needed to ascertain the effects of non-uniform dose distributions and to test the validity of the models currently in use

  18. Radioactive waste source volume reduction by improving water chemistry control of the condensate purification system in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, C.; Yoshikawa, S.; Ohsumi, K.; Mizuniwa, F.; Suzuki, H.; Suzuki, K.; Usui, N.; Aizawa, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of reducing the volume of radioactive waste which was applied to the BWRs in nuclear power stations. The goals for reducing waste are iron crud reduction at the inlet of the condensate prefilters and to attain the same years use of condensate resin as a preceding plant without chemical regeneration, based on improved water chemistry. The volume of radioactive waste from the condensate purification system decreased by about one half for the condensate prefilters and about one tenth for the condensate demineralizers

  19. Resonant Mode Reduction in Radiofrequency Volume Coils for Ultrahigh Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Zhang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In a multimodal volume coil, only one mode can generate homogeneous Radiofrequency (RF field for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The existence of other modes may increase the volume coil design difficulties and potentially decreases coil performance. In this study, we introduce common-mode resonator technique to high and ultrahigh field volume coil designs to reduce the resonant mode while maintain the homogeneity of the RF field. To investigate the design method, the common-mode resonator was realized by using a microstrip line which was split along the central to become a pair of parallel transmission lines within which common-mode currents exist. Eight common-mode resonators were placed equidistantly along the circumference of a low loss dielectric cylinder to form a volume coil. Theoretical analysis and comparison between the 16-strut common-mode volume coil and a conventional 16-strut volume coil in terms of RF field homogeneity and efficiency was performed using Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD method at 298.2 MHz. MR imaging experiments were performed by using a prototype of the common-mode volume coil on a whole body 7 Tesla scanner. FDTD simulation results showed the reduced number of resonant modes of the common-mode volume coil over the conventional volume coil, while the RF field homogeneity of the two type volume coils was kept at the same level. MR imaging of a water phantom and a kiwi fruit showing the feasibility of the proposed method for simplifying the volume coil design is also presented.

  20. A new anisotropic diffusion method, application to partial volume effect reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvado, Olivier; Wilson, David L.

    2006-03-01

    The partial volume effect is a significant limitation in medical imaging that results in blurring when the boundary between two structures of interest falls in the middle of a voxel. A new anisotropic diffusion method allows one to create interpolated 3D images corrected for partial volume, without enhancement of noise. After a zero-order interpolation, we apply a modified version of the anisotropic diffusion approach, wherein the diffusion coefficient becomes negative for high gradient values. As a result, the new scheme restores edges between regions that have been blurred by partial voluming, but it acts as normal anisotropic diffusion in flat regions, where it reduces noise. We add constraints to stabilize the method and model partial volume; i.e., the sum of neighboring voxels must equal the signal in the original low resolution voxel and the signal in a voxel is kept within its neighbor's limits. The method performed well on a variety of synthetic images and MRI scans. No noticeable artifact was induced by interpolation with partial volume correction, and noise was much reduced in homogeneous regions. We validated the method using the BrainWeb project database. Partial volume effect was simulated and restored brain volumes compared to the original ones. Errors due to partial volume effect were reduced by 28% and 35% for the 5% and 0% noise cases, respectively. The method was applied to in vivo "thick" MRI carotid artery images for atherosclerosis detection. There was a remarkable increase in the delineation of the lumen of the carotid artery.

  1. Changes in superior mesenteric artery Doppler waveform during reduction of cardiac stroke volume and hypotension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko, M J; Perko, Grazyna; Just, S

    1996-01-01

    the hypovolemia. Alterations in pV and pulsatility indices were closely related to changes in stroke volume, and a negative correlation was found between diastolic velocities and stroke volume. regression analysis showed no significant relation between variations in velocity parameters and blood pressure. Results...

  2. VALVE BRONCHIAL BLOCK IN THE INTEGRATED TREATMENT OF BRONCHIAL PLEURAL FISTULAS AFTER SURGICAL REDUCTION OF PULMONARY VOLUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Tseymakh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of bronchopleural fistulas after surgical reduction of pulmonary volume is one of the most frequent complications of surgical treatment of pulmonary emphysema. In order to control bronchopleural fistulas in the patients after surgical reduction of pulmonary volume the technique of valve bronchial block has been o}ered. This technique has been applied in 7 patients, and the favorable outcomes have been achieved in 6 (85.7% patients. The use of endobronchial valve for occlusion of fistulous bronchi allowed stopping air leaking through drainages, reducing time for pleural cavity drain and decreasing duration of patients' hospital stay.

  3. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Haverlock, Tamara J.

    2004-01-01

    This research was intended to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of high-activity tank waste can be evaluated. Primary focus has been on sodium hydroxide separation, with potential Hanford application. Value in sodium hydroxide separation can potentially be found in alternative flowsheets for treatment and disposal of low-activity salt waste. Additional value can be expected in recycle of sodium hydroxide for use in waste retrieval and sludge washing, whereupon additions of fresh sodium hydroxide to the waste can be avoided. Potential savings are large both because of the huge cost of vitrification of the low-activity waste stream and because volume reduction of high-activity wastes could obviate construction of costly new tanks. Toward these ends, the conceptual development begun in the original proposal was extended with the formulation of eight fundamental approaches that could be undertaken for extraction of sodium hydroxide

  4. Somatostatin regulates dopamine release in rat striatal slices and cat caudate nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesselet, M.F.; Reisine, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of somatostatin on the release of tritiated dopamine (DA) formed continuously from tritiated tyrosine were studied in vitro in superfused striatal slices and in vivo in both caudate nuclei and both substantiae nigrae of halothane-anesthetized cats using a push-pull cannula technique. Somatostatin (3 X 10(-10) to 3 X 10(-7) M) increased the spontaneous tritiated dopamine release from rat striatal slices. This effect was dose dependent and was completely prevented by tetrodotoxin (5 X 10(-7) M). When applied for 30 min in one cat caudate nucleus, somatostatin (10(-7) M) immediately increased the local release of tritiated DA, while a gradual inhibition of the tritiated amine's efflux was observed in the contralateral caudate nucleus. No changes in tritiated dopamine were seen in either substantia nigra during or after the peptide's application in the caudate nucleus. These results suggest that somatostatin in the striatum may play a role in the local and the distal control of dopamine release from the terminals of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons

  5. Morphology and morphometry of the caudate lobe of the liver in two populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoo, Mandeep Gill; Aland, R Claire; Gosden, Edward

    2018-01-01

    The caudate lobe of the liver has portal blood supply and hepatic vein drainage independent of the remainder of the liver and may be differentially affected in liver pathologies. Ultrasonographic measurement of the caudate lobe can be used to generate hepatic indices that may indicate cirrhosis. This study investigated the relationship of metrics of the caudate lobe and other morphological features of human livers from a northwest Indian Punjabi population (n = 50) and a UK Caucasian population (n = 25), which may affect the calculation of hepatic indices. The width of the right lobe of the liver was significantly smaller, while the anteroposterior diameter of the caudate lobe and both Harbin's Index and the Hess Index scores were significantly larger in NWI livers than in UKC livers. The Hess Index score, in particular, is much larger in the NWI population (265 %, p morphological features of the liver. These differences may affect the calculation of hepatic indices, resulting in a greater percentage of false positives of cirrhosis in the NWI population. Population-specific data are required to correctly determine normal ranges.

  6. Design of the Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema Palliation Trial (VENT): a non-surgical method of lung volume reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Strange, Charlie; Herth, Felix JF; Kovitz, Kevin L; McLennan, Geoffrey; Ernst, Armin; Goldin, Jonathan; Noppen, Marc; Criner, Gerard J; Sciurba, Frank C

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Lung volume reduction surgery is effective at improving lung function, quality of life, and mortality in carefully selected individuals with advanced emphysema. Recently, less invasive bronchoscopic approaches have been designed to utilize these principles while avoiding the associated perioperative risks. The Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema PalliatioN Trial (VENT) posits that occlusion of a single pulmonary lobe through bronchoscopically placed Zephyr® endobronchial val...

  7. Computer simulation of preflight blood volume reduction as a countermeasure to fluid shifts in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanonok, K. E.; Srinivasan, R.; Charles, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Fluid shifts in weightlessness may cause a central volume expansion, activating reflexes to reduce the blood volume. Computer simulation was used to test the hypothesis that preadaptation of the blood volume prior to exposure to weightlessness could counteract the central volume expansion due to fluid shifts and thereby attenuate the circulatory and renal responses resulting in large losses of fluid from body water compartments. The Guyton Model of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Circulatory Regulation was modified to simulate the six degree head down tilt that is frequently use as an experimental analog of weightlessness in bedrest studies. Simulation results show that preadaptation of the blood volume by a procedure resembling a blood donation immediately before head down bedrest is beneficial in damping the physiologic responses to fluid shifts and reducing body fluid losses. After ten hours of head down tilt, blood volume after preadaptation is higher than control for 20 to 30 days of bedrest. Preadaptation also produces potentially beneficial higher extracellular volume and total body water for 20 to 30 days of bedrest.

  8. [Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) in advanced pulmonary emphysema: dreams of the future or much ado about nothing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzel, F

    2012-01-01

    Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) is a rapidly developing area and at present it is being intensively evaluated and discussed. There is a great interest in developing new treatment modalities that can reduce lung volume and air trapping without the risk of a surgical intervention. The different techniques of BLVR are characterised by lower morbidity and mortality, but by a more limited effect too. The placement of valves leads to blockade of the airway and sometimes to absorption atelectasis. The valves have been most intensively evaluated and are frequently applied. Beside the blocking devices there are partially blocking or deforming devices available as coils that are introduced in heterogeneous emphysema. Irreversible procedures such as polymeric lung volume reduction or thermal vapour ablation are used too. The creation of airway bypasses to allow trapped air to escape is mainly employed in homogenous emphysema. Following such by-pass creation there is an increase of lung function tests and a reduction of dyspnea, but only for a limited time. The bypass procedure has disappeared from bronchoscopy units completely. We give a review of the recent developments regarding BLVR and the state of the art. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Is the Volume of the Caudate Nuclei Associated With Area of Secondary Hyperalgesia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Sejer; Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experience and development of pain may be influenced by a number of physiological, psychological, and psychosocial factors. In a previous study we found differences in neuronal activation to noxious stimulation, and microstructural neuroanatomical differences, when comparing healthy v...... Committee (identifier: H-15010473). Danish Data Protection Agency (identifier: RH-2015-149). Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02567318; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02567318 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6i4OtP0Oi)....

  10. Early Life Stress-Related Elevations in Reaction Time Variability Are Associated with Brain Volume Reductions in HIV+ Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Uraina S; Arce Rentería, Miguel; Hegde, Rachal R; Morgello, Susan

    2018-01-01

    There is burgeoning evidence that, among HIV+ adults, exposure to high levels of early life stress (ELS) is associated with increased cognitive impairment as well as brain volume abnormalities and elevated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Currently, we have a limited understanding of the degree to which cognitive difficulties observed in HIV+ High-ELS samples reflect underlying neural abnormalities rather than increases in neuropsychiatric symptoms. Here, we utilized a behavioral marker of cognitive function, reaction time intra-individual variability (RT-IIV), which is sensitive to both brain volume reductions and neuropsychiatric symptoms, to elucidate the unique contributions of brain volume abnormalities and neuropsychiatric symptoms to cognitive difficulties in HIV+ High-ELS adults. We assessed the relation of RT-IIV to neuropsychiatric symptom levels and total gray and white matter volumes in 44 HIV+ adults (26 with high ELS). RT-IIV was examined during a working memory task. Self-report measures assessed current neuropsychiatric symptoms (depression, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder). Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify total gray and white matter volumes. Compared to Low-ELS participants, High-ELS participants exhibited elevated RT-IIV, elevated neuropsychiatric symptoms, and reduced gray and white matter volumes. Across the entire sample, RT-IIV was significantly associated with gray and white matter volumes, whereas significant associations with neuropsychiatric symptoms were not observed. In the High-ELS group, despite the presence of elevated neuropsychiatric symptom levels, brain volume reductions explained more than 13% of the variance in RT-IIV, whereas neuropsychiatric symptoms explained less than 1%. Collectively, these data provide evidence that, in HIV+ High-ELS adults, ELS-related cognitive difficulties (as indexed by RT-IIV) exhibit strong associations with global brain volumes, whereas ELS-related elevations in neuropsychiatric

  11. Early Life Stress-Related Elevations in Reaction Time Variability Are Associated with Brain Volume Reductions in HIV+ Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uraina S. Clark

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is burgeoning evidence that, among HIV+ adults, exposure to high levels of early life stress (ELS is associated with increased cognitive impairment as well as brain volume abnormalities and elevated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Currently, we have a limited understanding of the degree to which cognitive difficulties observed in HIV+ High-ELS samples reflect underlying neural abnormalities rather than increases in neuropsychiatric symptoms. Here, we utilized a behavioral marker of cognitive function, reaction time intra-individual variability (RT-IIV, which is sensitive to both brain volume reductions and neuropsychiatric symptoms, to elucidate the unique contributions of brain volume abnormalities and neuropsychiatric symptoms to cognitive difficulties in HIV+ High-ELS adults. We assessed the relation of RT-IIV to neuropsychiatric symptom levels and total gray and white matter volumes in 44 HIV+ adults (26 with high ELS. RT-IIV was examined during a working memory task. Self-report measures assessed current neuropsychiatric symptoms (depression, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify total gray and white matter volumes. Compared to Low-ELS participants, High-ELS participants exhibited elevated RT-IIV, elevated neuropsychiatric symptoms, and reduced gray and white matter volumes. Across the entire sample, RT-IIV was significantly associated with gray and white matter volumes, whereas significant associations with neuropsychiatric symptoms were not observed. In the High-ELS group, despite the presence of elevated neuropsychiatric symptom levels, brain volume reductions explained more than 13% of the variance in RT-IIV, whereas neuropsychiatric symptoms explained less than 1%. Collectively, these data provide evidence that, in HIV+ High-ELS adults, ELS-related cognitive difficulties (as indexed by RT-IIV exhibit strong associations with global brain volumes, whereas ELS-related elevations in

  12. Reduction of contrast medium volume in abdominal aorta CTA: Multiphasic injection technique versus a test bolus volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijhof, Wouter H., E-mail: w.h.nijhof@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Vos, Charlotte S. van der, E-mail: c.s.vandervos@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Anninga, Bauke, E-mail: b.anninga@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Jager, Gerrit J., E-mail: g.jager@JBZ.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M., E-mail: mj.rutten@online.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to reduce the administered contrast medium volume in abdominal CTA by using a test bolus injection, with the preservation of adequate quantitative and qualitative vessel enhancement. Study design: For this technical efficacy study 30 patients, who were referred for a CTA examination of the abdominal aorta, were included. Randomly 15 patients were assigned to undergo a multiphasic injection protocol and received 89 mL of contrast medium (Optiray 350) (protocol I). Fifteen patients were assigned to the test bolus injection protocol (protocol II), which implies injection of a 10 mL test bolus of Optiray 350 prior to performing CTA with a 40 mL of contrast medium. Quantitative assessment of vascular enhancement was performed by measuring the amount of Hounsfield Units in the aorta at 30 positions from the celiac trunk to the iliac arteries in both groups. Qualitative assessment was performed by three radiologists who scored the images at a 5-point scale. Results: Quantitative assessment showed that there was no significant difference in vascular enhancement for patients between the two protocols, with mean attenuation values of 280.9 ± 50.84 HU and 258.60 ± 39.28 HU, respectively. The image quality of protocol I was rated 4.31 (range: 3.67/5.00) and of protocol II 4.11 (range: 2.67/5.00). These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study showed that by using a test bolus injection and the administration of 50 mL of contrast medium overall, CTA of the abdominal aorta can reliably be performed, with regard to quantitative and qualitative adequate vessel enhancement.

  13. Reduction of sludge volume in waste waters at the end of the drinking water treatment process

    OpenAIRE

    Fakin, Rebeka

    2018-01-01

    Water treatment at Seierstad drinking water treatment plant is done by chemical coagulation using aluminum-based coagulant. The quality of the drinking water source – Lake Farris, has decreased throughout the years, that is why more and more particles, organic matter and dissolved minerals must be removed. That contributes to the volume of sludge being produced at the end of the process. The main objective of the assignment is to reduce sludge volume by coagulation and flocculation in the sed...

  14. Hippocampal volume reduction in elderly patients at risk for postoperative cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-hua; Liao, Yan; Rong, Peng-fei; Hu, Rong; Lin, Guo-xin; Ouyang, Wen

    2013-08-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a formidable public health issue, which would not only affect the quality of life among elderly patients but also lead to pulmonary infection and increased mortality. While, there is a lack of an effective indicator in predicting POCD. As one pivotal part of the limbic system in brain, hippocampus is associated with cognitive function. Hippocampal atrophy could indicate the degree of changes in cognitive function. Forty-one ASA II or III patients (23 male, 18 female) aged ≥65 years undergoing open gastrointestinal tract surgery were enrolled in this study. MRI was performed to measure the volume of hippocampal formation before surgery and the results were standardized according to individual intracranial volume. All patients underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests including sensitive tests on the Wechsler adult memory scale and Wechsler adult intelligence scale, trail making test and the grooved pegboard test. We used the Z score to identify POCD as recommended by ISPOCD. All patients were then divided into POCD group and non-POCD group according to the results of the neuropsychological tests. The results of the tests were correlated with the volume of hippocampal formation measured by MRI. The value of MRI measurement of hippocampal volume in predicting POCD was analyzed. Multivariate linear correlation analyses of compositive Z score using potential contributing factors such as age, duration of anesthesia, education and hippocampal volume was carried out. Thirty-six patients completed the whole battery of neuropsychological tests after surgery. Thirteen of the 36 patients were found to have POCD (36 %) on the postoperative 4th day. The hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in POCD group (4.75 ± 0.23) than in non-POCD group (5.06 ± 0.31). Hippocampal volume had great influence on Z score, and had negative correlation with Z score. The MRI measurement of hippocampal volume is suggested to be valuable

  15. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE`s Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts.

  16. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts

  17. Meta-Analysis of Ultrafiltration versus Diuretics Treatment Option for Overload Volume Reduction in Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoudah, Ebrahim; Kodali, Sindhura; Okoroh, Juliet; Sethi, Rosh; Hulten, Edward; Suemoto, Claudia; Bittencourt, Marcio Sommer

    2015-05-01

    Although diuretics are mainly used for the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), inadequate responses and complications have led to the use of extracorporeal ultrafiltration (UF) as an alternative strategy for reducing volume overloads in patients with ADHF. The aim of our study is to perform meta-analysis of the results obtained from studies on extracorporeal venous ultrafiltration and compare them with those of standard diuretic treatment for overload volume reduction in acute decompensated heart failure. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were systematically searched using a pre‑specified criterion. Pooled estimates of outcomes after 48 h (weight change, serum creatinine level, and all-cause mortality) were computed using random effect models. Pooled weighted mean differences were calculated for weight loss and change in creatinine level, whereas a pooled risk ratio was used for the analysis of binary all-cause mortality outcome. A total of nine studies, involving 613 patients, met the eligibility criteria. The mean weight loss in patients who underwent UF therapy was 1.78 kg [95% Confidence Interval (CI): -2.65 to -0.91 kg; p diuretic therapy. The post-intervention creatinine level, however, was not significantly different (mean change = -0.25 mg/dL; 95% CI: -0.56 to 0.06 mg/dL; p = 0.112). The risk of all-cause mortality persisted in patients treated with UF compared with patients treated with standard diuretics (Pooled RR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.64-1.56; p = 0.993). Compared with standard diuretic therapy, UF treatment for overload volume reduction in individuals suffering from ADHF, resulted in significant reduction of body weight within 48 h. However, no significant decrease of serum creatinine level or reduction of all-cause mortality was observed.

  18. Processing of equine bone marrow using the automated MarrowXpress System: RBC depletion, volume reduction, and mononuclear cell recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Sean D; Burges, Julie; Johns, Jennifer L; Carrade, Danielle D; Galuppo, Larry D; Librach, Fred; Borjesson, Dori L

    2011-12-01

    The therapeutic use of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) and mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of soft tissue and orthopedic injuries in equine patients is expanding. After collection, bone marrow must be reduced in volume and depleted of RBCs for immediate therapeutic use or to prepare cells for culture or cryopreservation and storage. The MarrowXpress (MXP) System is an automated, closed, sterile system designed to process human bone marrow samples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of the MXP System to process equine bone marrow to reduce volume, deplete RBCs, and enhance recovery of MNCs. Bone marrow was collected from 47 horses into 2 60-mL syringes containing heparin and processed using the MXP System. HCT, total nucleated cell (TNC) count, and MNC count were obtained for each sample before and after processing using an Advia 120 hematology analyzer. Volume reduction, RBC depletion, and recovery of TNCs and MNCs were calculated. For equine bone marrow samples, mean values were 73.2% for RBC depletion and 78.0% for volume reduction. TNC count before processing was 2.5 ± 1.2 × 10(7) and after processing was significantly higher at 7.8 ± 3.3 × 10(7) (P recovery of 68.5 ± 24.5% (mean ± SD). MNC count before processing was 1.1 ± 0.9 × 10(7) and after processing was significantly higher at 3.8 ± 1.9 × 10(7) (P recovery 73.0 ± 31.5%. The MXP System can reliably reduce volume and deplete RBCs from aspirates of equine bone marrow aspirates. MNCs can be recovered in a reproducible and sterile manner. Further studies evaluating the effects of the MXP System on cell viability, identification of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and the efficacy of MSC expansion are warranted. © 2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  19. Research and development of treatment techniques for LLW from decommissioning: Decontamination and volume reduction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, T.; Kameo, Y.; Nakashio, N.

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of reducing the amount and/or volume of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) arising from decommissioning of nuclear reactor, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been developing four decontamination techniques. They are: (a) Gas-carrying abrasive method, (b) In-situ remote electropolishing method for pipe system before dismantling, (c) Bead reaction - thermal shock method, and (d) Laser induced chemical method for components after dismantling. JAERI in developing techniques are also carrying out melting tests of metal and non-metal. Melting was confirmed to be effective in reducing the volume, homogenizing, and furthermore stabilizing non-metallic wastes. (author)

  20. Automatic computation of left ventricular volume changes over a cardiac cycle from echocardiography images by nonlinear dimensionality reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Sani, Zahra; Shalbaf, Ahmad; Behnam, Hamid; Shalbaf, Reza

    2015-02-01

    Curve of left ventricular (LV) volume changes throughout the cardiac cycle is a fundamental parameter for clinical evaluation of various cardiovascular diseases. Currently, this evaluation is often performed manually which is tedious and time consuming and suffers from significant interobserver and intraobserver variability. This paper introduces a new automatic method, based on nonlinear dimensionality reduction (NLDR) for extracting the curve of the LV volume changes over a cardiac cycle from two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiography images. Isometric feature mapping (Isomap) is one of the most popular NLDR algorithms. In this study, a modified version of Isomap algorithm, where image to image distance metric is computed using nonrigid registration, is applied on 2-D echocardiography images of one cycle of heart. Using this approach, the nonlinear information of these images is embedded in a 2-D manifold and each image is characterized by a symbol on the constructed manifold. This new representation visualizes the relationship between these images based on LV volume changes and allows extracting the curve of the LV volume changes automatically. Our method in comparison to the traditional segmentation algorithms does not need any LV myocardial segmentation and tracking, particularly difficult in the echocardiography images. Moreover, a large data set under various diseases for training is not required. The results obtained by our method are quantitatively evaluated to those obtained manually by the highly experienced echocardiographer on ten healthy volunteers and six patients which depict the usefulness of the presented method.

  1. Gastric volume reduction is essential for the remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus after bariatric surgery in nonobese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiong; Yu, Bo; Yang, Dan; Qiao, Zhengdong; Cao, Ting; Zhang, Peng

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has shown positive outcomes in the remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and weight loss in obese patients by inhibiting food intake and nutrient absorption as well as inducing favorable hormonal changes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether gastric volume reduction is still required in addition to intestinal bypass for the purpose of T2D remission in nonobese patients. University Medical Center. Nonobese T2D Goto-Kakizaki rats were employed in the study. All rats were randomized into 3 groups according to the surgical procedure performed, including (1) RYGB, (2) duodeno-jejunal bypass (DJB) without gastric volume reduction, and (3) sham surgery (control). In addition, age-matched Wistar rats were adopted as normal nondiabetic controls. Weight, food intake, fasting plasma glucose, and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test were measured in vivo before and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the treatment. Whole body metabolic parameters including respiratory exchange ratio, energy expenditure, and activities were also recorded in all animals at the third week postoperatively. Compared with DJB and sham animals, the RYGB group had lower weight, less food intake, lower fasting plasma glucose, and improved glucose tolerance at all measuring time points postoperatively. By measuring whole body metabolic parameters, we found that RYGB, but not DJB, increased metabolic rate manifested by increased energy expenditure but less activity at night. In the meantime, respiratory exchange ratio was lower in RYGB group than in the other 3 groups at daytime, meaning adipose tissue became the main source of internal energy production during the resting phase in the group. For nonobese T2D patients, adding gastric volume reduction to intestine bypass gave better efficacy in remission of T2D by increasing metabolic rate and adipolysis, especially during the resting period. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by

  2. Increased binding of [3H]apomorphine in caudate membranes after dopamine pretreatment in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McManus, C.; Hartley, E.J.; Seeman, P.

    1978-01-01

    Most patients with Parkinson's disease treated with L-dopa show a progressively deteriorating response which may possibly be attributed to an L-dopa-induced process of unknown origin. Long-term administration of dopamine-mimetic drugs to animals sometimes produces behavioural facilitation. To investigate one possible molecular mechanism of this facilitation or sensitization the effects of prolonged exposure, in vitro, of dopamine on the dopamine/neuroleptic receptors in the caudate nucleus of the calf were tested. Calf caudate homogenates pretreated with dopamine or other drugs were tested for the binding of [ 3 H]apomorphine, [ 3 H]haloperidol, 3H-WB-4101, or [ 3 H]naloxine. Pre-exposure with dopamine or noradrenaline lead to an increased binding of [ 3 H]apomorphine. The significance of the results is discussed. (author)

  3. The visual corticostriatal loop through the tail of the caudate: Circuitry and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A Seger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although high level visual cortex projects to a specific region of the striatum, the tail of the caudate, and participates in corticostriatal loops, the function of this visual corticostriatal system is not well understood. This article first reviews what is known about the anatomy of the visual corticostriatal loop across mammals, including rodents, cats, monkeys, and humans. Like other corticostriatal systems, the visual corticostriatal system includes both closed loop components (recurrent projections that return to the originating cortical location and open loop components (projections that terminate in other neural regions. The article then reviews what previous empircal research has shown about the function of the tail of the caudate. The article finally addresses the possible functions of the closed and open loop connections of the visual loop in the context of theories and computational models of corticostriatal function.

  4. A clip-based protocol for breast boost radiotherapy provides clear target visualisation and demonstrates significant volume reduction over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Lorraine; Cox, Jennifer; Morgia, Marita; Atyeo, John; Lamoury, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The clinical target volume (CTV) for early stage breast cancer is difficult to clearly identify on planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Surgical clips inserted around the tumour bed should help to identify the CTV, particularly if the seroma has been reabsorbed, and enable tracking of CTV changes over time. A surgical clip-based CTV delineation protocol was introduced. CTV visibility and its post-operative shrinkage pattern were assessed. The subjects were 27 early stage breast cancer patients receiving post-operative radiotherapy alone and 15 receiving post-operative chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The radiotherapy alone (RT/alone) group received a CT scan at median 25 days post-operatively (CT1rt) and another at 40 Gy, median 68 days (CT2rt). The chemotherapy/RT group (chemo/RT) received a CT scan at median 18 days post-operatively (CT1ch), a planning CT scan at median 126 days (CT2ch), and another at 40 Gy (CT3ch). There was no significant difference (P = 0.08) between the initial mean CTV for each cohort. The RT/alone cohort showed significant CTV volume reduction of 38.4% (P = 0.01) at 40 Gy. The Chemo/RT cohort had significantly reduced volumes between CT1ch: median 54 cm 3 (4–118) and CT2ch: median 16 cm 3 , (2–99), (P = 0.01), but no significant volume reduction thereafter. Surgical clips enable localisation of the post-surgical seroma for radiotherapy targeting. Most seroma shrinkage occurs early, enabling CT treatment planning to take place at 7 weeks, which is within the 9 weeks recommended to limit disease recurrence

  5. A clip-based protocol for breast boost radiotherapy provides clear target visualisation and demonstrates significant volume reduction over time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Lorraine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Cox, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Morgia, Marita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Atyeo, John [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Lamoury, Gillian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    The clinical target volume (CTV) for early stage breast cancer is difficult to clearly identify on planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Surgical clips inserted around the tumour bed should help to identify the CTV, particularly if the seroma has been reabsorbed, and enable tracking of CTV changes over time. A surgical clip-based CTV delineation protocol was introduced. CTV visibility and its post-operative shrinkage pattern were assessed. The subjects were 27 early stage breast cancer patients receiving post-operative radiotherapy alone and 15 receiving post-operative chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The radiotherapy alone (RT/alone) group received a CT scan at median 25 days post-operatively (CT1rt) and another at 40 Gy, median 68 days (CT2rt). The chemotherapy/RT group (chemo/RT) received a CT scan at median 18 days post-operatively (CT1ch), a planning CT scan at median 126 days (CT2ch), and another at 40 Gy (CT3ch). There was no significant difference (P = 0.08) between the initial mean CTV for each cohort. The RT/alone cohort showed significant CTV volume reduction of 38.4% (P = 0.01) at 40 Gy. The Chemo/RT cohort had significantly reduced volumes between CT1ch: median 54 cm{sup 3} (4–118) and CT2ch: median 16 cm{sup 3}, (2–99), (P = 0.01), but no significant volume reduction thereafter. Surgical clips enable localisation of the post-surgical seroma for radiotherapy targeting. Most seroma shrinkage occurs early, enabling CT treatment planning to take place at 7 weeks, which is within the 9 weeks recommended to limit disease recurrence.

  6. Containment at the Source during Waste Volume Reduction of Large Radioactive Components Using Oxylance High-Temperature Cutting Equipment - 13595

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, G. Neil

    2013-01-01

    As a waste-volume reduction and management technique, highly contaminated Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) housings were severed from the Reactor Pressure Vessel Head (RPVH) inside the San Onofre Unit 2 primary containment utilizing Oxylance high-temperature cutting equipment and techniques. Presented are relevant data concerning: - Radiological profiles of the RPVH and individual CEDMs; - Design overviews of the engineering controls and the specialized confinement housings; - Utilization of specialized shielding; - Observations of apparent metallurgical-contamination coalescence phenomena at high temperatures resulting in positive control over loose-surface contamination conditions; - General results of radiological and industrial hygiene air sampling and monitoring; - Collective dose and personnel contamination event statistics; - Lessons learned. (author)

  7. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid attenuates kanamycin-induced volume reduction in mouse utricular type I hair cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig Åvall; Kirkegaard, Mette; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2006-01-01

    interest. This study estimates cellular quantitative changes in the utricular macula of mice following systemic treatment with kanamycin alone or in combination with DHB. The animals were injected with either saline, kanamycin or kanamycin+DHB for 15 days and perfusion fixed three weeks after last...... macula, hair cell type I and supporting cells decreased significantly in animals injected with kanamycin but not in animals co-treated with DHB. Hair and supporting cell numbers remained unchanged in all three groups. In conclusion, the kanamycin-induced volume reduction of type I hair cells...

  8. Environmental assessment for the off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive waste from the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1061) for the proposed off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  9. Radar Derived Spatial Statistics of Summer Rain. Volume 2; Data Reduction and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, T. G.; Kropfli, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Data reduction and analysis procedures are discussed along with the physical and statistical descriptors used. The statistical modeling techniques are outlined and examples of the derived statistical characterization of rain cells in terms of the several physical descriptors are presented. Recommendations concerning analyses which can be pursued using the data base collected during the experiment are included.

  10. RADON REDUCTION AND RADON-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK - VOLUME 2: APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growing concern about health risks associated with exposure to indoor radon, a radioactive gas found in varying amounts in nearly all houses, has underscored the need for dependable radon reduction methods in existing and newly constructed houses. Responding to this need, the U....

  11. Treating and Downstaging Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Caudate Lobe with Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Saad M. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States); Kulik, Laura [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Hepatology (United States); Baker, Talia [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Transplant Surgery (United States); Ryu, Robert K. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States); Mulcahy, Mary F. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center (United States); Abecassis, Michael [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Transplant Surgery (United States); Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert J., E-mail: r-lewandowski@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to determine the technical feasibility, safety, efficacy, and potential to downstage patients to within transplantation criteria when treating patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of the caudate lobe using Y90 radioembolization. Methods: During a 4-year period, 8 of 291 patients treated with radioembolization for unresectable HCC had disease involving the caudate lobe. All patients were followed for treatment-related clinical/biochemical toxicities, serum tumor marker response, and treatment response. Imaging response was assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) classification schemes. Pathologic response was reported as percent necrosis at explantation. Results: Caudate lobe radioembolization was successfully performed in all eight patients. All patients presented with both cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Half were United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) stage T3 (n = 4, 50%). Fatigue was reported in half of the patients (n = 4, 50%). One (13%) grade 3/4 bilirubin toxicity was reported. One patient (13%) showed complete tumor response by WHO criteria, and three patients (38%) showed complete response using EASL guidelines. Serum AFP decreased by more than 50% in most patients (n = 6, 75%). Four patients (50%) were UNOS downstaged from T3 to T2, three of who underwent transplantation. One specimen showed histopathologic evidence of 100% complete necrosis, and two specimens demonstrated greater than 50% necrosis. Conclusions: Radioembolization with yttrium-90 appears to be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment option for patients with unresectable caudate lobe HCC. It has the potential to downstage patients to transplantation.

  12. Structural Transformation in Inverse-Perovskite REPt3B (RE = Sm and Gd-Tm) Associated with Large Volume Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sudipta; Mazumdar, Chandan; Ranganathan, Rajarao; Avdeev, Maxim

    2017-07-17

    In this work, we report the structural phase transformation of tetragonal inverse-perovskite REPt 3 B (RE = Sm, and Gd-Tm) compounds to cubic perovskite structure, with a large volume reduction of about 9% (reduction of the c axis, ∼17%; increase in the a axis, ∼5%). The structural stability of the cubic phase, however, could only be maintained by lowering the lattice parameter of the off-stoichiometric REPt 3 B x (x magnetic transition temperatures in the tetragonal and cubic phases. The different physical properties of these two phases demonstrate the interrelationship between the crystal chemistry and the physics of the system. The synthetic route to cubic REPt 3 B x identified in this work may be utilized to prepare new ternary rare-earth intermetallics in a cubic perovksite form, which was previously found to facilitate unconventional superconductivity.

  13. Poor man medical pneumoplasty: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction with hot saline versus dissolved doxycycline as a neoteric remedy of pulmonary emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Abumossalam

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction by hot saline and dissolved doxycycline comes into sight to be a safe and feasible profile with an acceptable outcome that presents an attractive substitute to COPD patients who are physiologically friable.

  14. Mass anomalous dimension of adjoint QCD at large N from twisted volume reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, Margarita García [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,E-28049-Madrid (Spain); González-Arroyo, Antonio [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Teórica, C-XI, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Keegan, Liam [PH-TH, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Okawa, Masanori [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University,Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Core of Research for the Energetic Universe, Hiroshima University,Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    In this work we consider the SU(N) gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation, in the limit of large N. In this limit the infinite-volume physics of this model can be studied by means of the corresponding twisted reduced model defined on a single site lattice. Making use of this strategy we study the reduced model for various values of N up to 289. By analyzing the eigenvalue distribution of the adjoint Dirac operator we test the conformality of the theory and extract the corresponding mass anomalous dimension.

  15. Method for volume reduction and encapsulation of water-bearing, low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The invention relates to the processing of water-bearing wastes, especially those containing radioactive materials from nuclear power plants like light-water moderated and cooled reactors. The invention provides a method to reduce the volume of wastes like contaminated coolants and to dispose them safely. According to the invention, azeotropic drying is applied to remove the water. Distilation temperatures are chosen to be lower than the lowest boiling point of the mixture components. In the preferred version, a polymerizing monomer is used to obtain the azeotropic mixture. In doing so, encapsulation is possible by combination with a co-reactive polymer that envelopes the waste material. (G.J.P.)

  16. Mass anomalous dimension of Adjoint QCD at large N from twisted volume reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    In this work we consider the $SU(N)$ gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation, in the limit of large $N$. In this limit the infinite-volume physics of this model can be studied by means of the corresponding twisted reduced model defined on a single site lattice. Making use of this strategy we study the reduced model for various values of $N$ up to 289. By analyzing the eigenvalue distribution of the adjoint Dirac operator we test the conformality of the theory and extract the corresponding mass anomalous dimension.

  17. Excessive daytime sleepiness may be associated with caudate denervation in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Tayyabah; Pagano, Gennaro; Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios

    2018-04-15

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is one of the earliest and most common non-motor symptoms of PD, substantially impacting on patient's quality of life. Using the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative database, we performed a case-control study to investigate whether dopaminergic deficit is associated with the development of EDS using dopaminergic specific single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) molecular imaging of dopamine transporters (DAT). We enrolled 84 early de novo PD patients with EDS and 84 without EDS, who were matched for age, gender, age of diagnosis, years of education and disease duration. We assessed and compared semi-quantified [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT, and motor and non-motor features among these two groups, alongside exploring the clinical and imaging correlates of EDS and the predictive significance of these markers in the development of EDS. PD patients with EDS had worse non-motor (MDS-UPDRS Part-I, P < 0.001) and motor (MDS-UPRDS Part-II, P = 0.005) experiences of daily living, as well as worse autonomic (SCOPA-AUT, P < 0.0001) and cognitive (MoCA P = 0.05) function, depression (GDS, P = 0.002), and reduced caudate DAT ([ 123 I]FP-CIT, P = 0.024) compared to PD patients without EDS. Lower caudate [ 123 I]FP-CIT values correlated with higher EDS scores (r = -0.192, P = 0.013). Among patients without EDS, 47 PD patients (56%) developed EDS over a median follow-up of 36 months. Cox multivariate analysis, including all clinical and imaging data available, revealed that abnormal caudate [ 123 I]FP-CIT uptake (P = 0.030) and disease duration (P = 0.018) were predictors for the development of EDS. Although our findings indicate that dopaminergic deficits in the caudate may be associated to EDS in patients with PD, the pathophysiological causality is debateable, given that dopamine caudate denervation may covary with dopaminergic involvement at other targets and with non-dopaminergic involvement

  18. WasteChem Corporation's Volume Reduction and Solidification (VRS) system for low-level radwaste treatment: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Since 1965, low and medium level radwastes from nuclear power stations, reprocessing plants and nuclear research centers have been stabilized using the Volume Reduction and Solidification (VRS) system. The VRS system uses an extruder/evaporator to evaporate the liquids from waste influents, while simultaneously incorporating the remaining radioactive solids in an asphalt binder. In the period 1965 to 1986 a minimum of 700,000 cubic feet of wastes have been processed with the VRS system. This report provides current operating data from various systems including the volume reduction factors achieved, and the progress of start-ups in the US. The report also provides previously unpublished experience with mixed wastes including uranium raffinate and nitrate-bearing sludges from surface impoundments. VRS systems in the US are currently operating at the Palisades and Hope Creek nuclear stations. These systems produce a variety of waste types including boric acid, bead resin, sodium sulfate and powdered resins. There are three start-ups of VRS systems scheduled in the US in 1987. These systems are at Fermi 2, Seabrook, and Nine Mile Point 2. Overseas, the startup of new systems continues with three VRS process lines coming on-line at the LaHague Reprocessing Center in France in 1986 and a start-up scheduled for 1987 at the Laguna Verde plant in Mexico. The US systems are operating continuously and with little required maintenance. Data on maintenance and the operator exposure are provided in this report. 6 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs

  19. A Heuristic Image Search Algorithm for Active Shape Model Segmentation of the Caudate Nucleus and Hippocampus in Brain MR Images of Children with FASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Eicher

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging provides a non-invasive means to study the neural correlates of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD - the most common form of preventable mental retardation worldwide. One approach aims to detect brain abnormalities through an assessment of volume and shape of two sub-cortical structures, the caudate nucleus and hippocampus. We present a method for automatically segmenting these structures from high-resolution MR images captured as part of an ongoing study into the neural correlates of FASD. Our method incorporates an Active Shape Model, which is used to learn shape variation from manually segmented training data. A modified discrete Geometrically Deformable Model is used to generate point correspondence between training models. An ASM is then created from the landmark points. Experiments were conducted on the image search phase of ASM segmentation, in order to find the technique best suited to segmentation of the hippocampus and caudate nucleus. Various popular image search techniques were tested, including an edge detection method and a method based on grey profile Mahalanobis distance measurement. A novel heuristic image search method was also developed and tested. This heuristic method improves image segmentation by taking advantage of characteristics specific to the target data, such as a relatively homogeneous tissue colour in target structures. Results show that ASMs that use the heuristic image search technique produce the most accurate segmentations. An ASM constructed using this technique will enable researchers to quickly, reliably, and automatically segment test data for use in the FASD study.

  20. T196. CALRETININ INTERNEURON DENSITY IN THE CAUDATE NUCLEUS IS LOWER IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorjan, Istvan; Sun, Bin; Feher, Virginia; Tyler, Teadora; Damo-Csorba, Bori; Pour, Benedek; Veres, Daniel; Ansorge, Olaf; Chance, Steven Andrew; Szele, Francis

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background The excitatory/inhibitory imbalance theory is widely accepted in the pathology of autism spectrum disorder. Recent results suggest its relevance in the aetiology of schizophrenia as well (Jardri 2016, Yang 2017, Gao and Penzes 2015). In order to discover the possibly altered neuronal composition in schizophrenia numerous studies have been focussing mainly on different cortical regions such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In particular, various interneuronal populations have been found altered.2 However, relatively little is known about the neuroanatomical changes of subcortical structures, such as the caudate nucleus, in the pathology of schizophrenia. Methods Therefore, we examined the immunohistochemical distribution of calretinin (CR) and NPY-immunopositive neurons in the caudate nucleus and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The state of microglial activation was controlled by the detection of Iba1 and TMEM119. In order to corroborate our results obtained by immunohistochemistry (IHC) qPCR analyses were also conducted. Results The present study provides evidence for the altered interneuronal composition of caudate nucleus in schizophrenia without signs of microglial activation. There were small, medium and large CR-immunopositive (CR-ip) interneurons detected in the caudate nucleus. There was a 32% decrease in the density of all CR-ip interneurons (p=0.020, statistical power=0.747) that was driven by the loss of the small CR-ip interneurons (p=0.017, statistical power=0.777) while the densities of the medium and large CR-ip and NPY-ip interneurons were not significantly altered (p=0.078, p=0.436, p=0.125, respectively). Our experiments were also extended to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (medial frontal gyrus and superior frontal gyrus) where no significant changes were seen by IHC. However, qPCR analyses revealed a trend of decreased CR mRNA levels in schizophrenia (p=0.061, statistical power=0

  1. Lung Volume Reduction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD AND#8211; An Updated Review of Surgical and Endoscopic Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Dixit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The conventional medical management of emphysema using bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory agents has a limited benefit in patients having advanced hyperinflation of lungs due to destruction of elastic tissue. The natural course of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD has been shown to be altered by only smoking cessation and oxygen therapy so far. The lung volume reduction surgery is viewed as another modality to change the natural history of emphysema in recent years. For patients with more generalized emphysema, resection of lung parenchyma improves elastic recoil and chest wall mechanics. An extensive literature search has demonstrated that carefully selected patients of emphysema (i.e. upper lobe predominant disease, low exercise capacity and Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second (FEV1 and DLco and #8804; 20% of predicted receive benefits in terms of symptomatic improvement and physiologic response following Lung Volume Reduction Surgery (LVRS. The resurgent interest in LVRS and National Emphysema Treatment Trial findings for emphysema have stimulated a range of innovative methods, to improve the outcome and reduce complications associated with current LVRS techniques. These novel approaches include surgical resection with compression/banding devices, endobronchial blockers, sealants, obstructing devices and valves and endobronchial bronchial bypass approaches. Experimental data and preliminary results are becoming available for some of these approaches. Most of the published studies so far have been uncontrolled and unblinded. Overall, extensive research in the near future will help to determine the potential clinical applicability of these new approaches to the treatment of emphysema symptoms. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(4.000: 249-257

  2. Reduction of the radioactive waste volume from Belgian NPP: Reality, costs and goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havard, P.; Lemmens, A.; Mannaerts, K.

    2001-01-01

    The growing awareness of the existence of waste generated by human activities and its environmental impact is one of the critical events of the late twentieth century. All industrial activities produce waste and nuclear industry is no exception. But nuclear power plants produce smaller amount of waste that makes it possible to treat it with particular care. This paper describes the reduction in the amount of waste, the consequences this has had on the associated costs and the action taken to control the development of both objectives. (author)

  3. Development in Waste Volume Reduction Technologies for Highly Contaminated Organic Radioactive Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AKAI, Yoshie; OHMURA, Hisao; FUJIE, Makoto; MONIWA, Shinobu; SEKI, Shuji; YOTSUYANAGI, Tadasu; EBATA, Masaaki; TAKAGI, Junichi

    2006-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, there is highly contaminated organic radioactive waste such as ion exchange resins for water purification in nuclear power plants. In the future, it is desired that this waste be decomposed to reduce the volume and to become stable. Toshiba has developed a waste treatment system using supercritical water. Furthermore, the new demineralization system without using ion exchange resin has been examined. By this new system, it is possible to reduce the volume of ion exchange resin waste. First, supercritical water was applied to the decomposition of ion exchange resin. The supercritical water whose temperature and pressure exceed 647 K and 22 MPa is an excellent solvent for organic compound decomposition, since oxygen and organic compounds can exist in a single homogeneous fluid phase. Organic compounds can be rapidly and completely decomposed using supercritical water. Almost all the reactants can be kept in the water during organic compound decomposition. Therefore, applying supercritical water to treat organic radioactive waste is an attractive proposition. Actual plant-size apparatus was constructed with a treatment capacity of 1 kg of ion exchange resin per hour. The test revealed that more than 99.9% of the ion exchange resin was decomposed at 723 K and 30 MPa. By this system, ion exchange resin decomposes rapidly and completely, and the volume of ion exchange resin waste can be largely reduced. Secondly, the new demineralization system without using ion exchange resin is described. The new demineralization system consists of a filter and a demineralization cell. A metal mesh filter is adopted to remove crud, and the demineralization cell removes ionic impurities. In this system, it is important whether demineralization can take place at high temperature. Thus, this report describes the test results of the new demineralization process. This demineralization cell consists of an anode, a cathode, and a membrane made of inorganic material. The

  4. Flexible and Stable Value Coding Areas in Caudate Head and Tail Receive Anatomically Distinct Cortical and Subcortical Inputs

    OpenAIRE

    Griggs, Whitney S.; Kim, Hyoung F.; Ghazizadeh, Ali; Gabriela Costello, M.; Wall, Kathryn M.; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2017-01-01

    Anatomically distinct areas within the basal ganglia encode flexible- and stable-value memories for visual objects (Hikosaka et al., 2014), but an important question remains: do they receive inputs from the same or different brain areas or neurons? To answer this question, we first located flexible and stable value-coding areas in the caudate head (CDh) and caudate tail (CDt) of two rhesus macaque monkeys, and then injected different retrograde tracers into these areas of each monkey. We foun...

  5. High-Throughput Spheroid Screens Using Volume, Resazurin Reduction, and Acid Phosphatase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Delyan P; Grabowska, Anna M; Garnett, Martin C

    2017-01-01

    Mainstream adoption of physiologically relevant three-dimensional models has been slow in the last 50 years due to long, manual protocols with poor reproducibility, high price, and closed commercial platforms. This chapter describes high-throughput, low-cost, open methods for spheroid viability assessment which use readily available reagents and open-source software to analyze spheroid volume, metabolism, and enzymatic activity. We provide two ImageJ macros for automated spheroid size determination-for both single images and images in stacks. We also share an Excel template spreadsheet allowing users to rapidly process spheroid size data, analyze plate uniformity (such as edge effects and systematic seeding errors), detect outliers, and calculate dose-response. The methods would be useful to researchers in preclinical and translational research planning to move away from simplistic monolayer studies and explore 3D spheroid screens for drug safety and efficacy without substantial investment in money or time.

  6. Volume reduction of the jugular foramina in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with syringomyelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Martin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the pathogenesis of the chiari-like malformation in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS is incomplete, and current hypotheses do not fully explain the development of syringomyelia (SM in the spinal cords of affected dogs. This study investigates an unconventional pathogenetic theory for the development of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure waves in the subarachnoid space in CKCS with SM, by analogy with human diseases. In children with achondroplasia the shortening of the skull base can lead to a narrowing of the jugular foramina (JF between the cranial base synchondroses. This in turn has been reported to cause a congestion of the major venous outflow tracts of the skull and consequently to an increase in the intracranial pressure (ICP. Amongst brachycephalic dog breeds the CKCS has been identified as having an extremely short and wide braincase. A stenosis of the JF and a consequential vascular compromise in this opening could contribute to venous hypertension, raising ICP and causing CSF jets in the spinal subarachnoid space of the CKCS. In this study, JF volumes in CKCSs with and without SM were compared to assess a possible role of this pathologic mechanism in the development of SM in this breed. Results Computed tomography (CT scans of 40 CKCSs > 4 years of age were used to create three-dimensional (3D models of the skull and the JF. Weight matched groups (7–10 kg of 20 CKCSs with SM and 20 CKCSs without SM were compared. CKCSs without SM presented significantly larger JF -volumes (median left JF: 0.0633 cm3; median right JF: 0.0703 cm3; p 3; median right JF: 0.0434 cm3; p Conclusion A stenosis of the JF and consecutive venous congestion may explain the aetiology of CSF pressure waves in the subarachnoid space, independent of cerebellar herniation, as an additional pathogenetic factor for the development of SM in this breed.

  7. Early Significant Tumor Volume Reduction After Radiosurgery in Brain Metastases From Renal Cell Carcinoma Results in Long-Term Survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wook Ha; Kim, Dong Gyu; Han, Jung Ho; Paek, Sun Ha; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Park, Chul-Kee; Kim, Chae-Yong; Kim, Yong Hwy; Kim, Jin Wook; Jung, Hee-Won

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate survival of patients with brain metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after radiosurgery. Patients and Methods: Between 1998 and 2010, 46 patients were treated with radiosurgery, and the total number of lesions was 99. The mean age was 58.9 years (range, 33–78 years). Twenty-six patients (56.5%) had a single brain metastasis. The mean tumor volume was 3.0 cm 3 (range, 0.01–35.1 cm 3 ), and the mean marginal dose prescribed was 20.8 Gy (range, 12–25 Gy) at the 50% isodose line. A patient was classified into the good-response group when the sum of the volume of the brain metastases decreased to less than 75% of the original volume at a 1-month follow-up evaluation using MRI. Results: As of December 28, 2010, 39 patients (84.8%) had died, and 7 (15.2%) survived. The overall median survival time was 10.0 ± 0.4 months (95% confidence interval, 9.1–10.8). After treatment, local tumor control was achieved in 72 (84.7%) of the 85 tumors assessed using MRI after radiosurgery. The good-response group survived significantly longer than the poor-response group (median survival times of 18.0 and 9.0 months, respectively; p = 0.025). In a multivariate analysis, classification in the good-response group was the only independent prognostic factor for longer survival (p = 0.037; hazard ratio = 0.447; 95% confidence interval, 0.209–0.953). Conclusions: Radiosurgery seems to be an effective treatment modality for patients with brain metastases from RCC. The early significant tumor volume reduction observed after radiosurgery seems to result in long-term survival in RCC patients with brain metastases.

  8. Volume and activity reduction by biological treatment and ultrafiltration of laundry effluent waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefan Rosenberger; Bernhard Christ

    2006-01-01

    An innovative patented treatment process (BIBRA) combining biological treatment and a separator centrifuge was developed in the Gundremmingen NPP starting in 1995. To date this process has been successfully implemented in the German NPP of Gundremmingen, Kahl, Brunsbuettel, Stade, Isar 1 and Neckarwestheim. This new process has not only significantly reduced the TOC content in the effluent and waste volumes (6,600 m 3 result in only 160 kg final waste) of BWR and PWR but at the same time has increased the decontamination factor to 20 and more. The cost savings experienced within the plant are more than 125000 euros/a. These savings do not account the additional substantial savings on handling, disposal containers, transportation, interim storage and final disposal. In order to advance the biological treatment of radioactive wastes it is therefore required to find an alternative separation mechanism without loosing the advantages of discharging the inactive salts. An engineering review of possible separation processes that could help to remove these residual activity was conducted. It determined that crossflow filtration and in particular micro-filtration or ultrafiltration were the most promising technologies to further improve the separation efficiency. Ultrafiltration is able to remove bacteria, proteins and similar while allowing dissolved materials such ad salts to pass. Drawback for crossflow filtration systems is that they can experience significant problems with fouling (blocking) of the membranes from suspended solids (TSS) which typically requires the introduction of aggressive chemicals and that all these systems generate an effluent concentrate of typically 2% to 10 % of their throughput. In case of e.g. 6600 m 3 /a waste generation a volume between 120 and 600 m 3 /a concentrate would require additional treatment and conditioning. Almost at the same time as the biological treatment process was developed in Germany, RWE NUKEM matured crossflow filtration

  9. Volume reduction outweighs biogeochemical processes in controlling phosphorus treatment in aged detention systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Asmita; Shukla, Sanjay; Annable, Michael D.; Hodges, Alan W.

    2017-08-01

    Stormwater detention areas (SDAs) play an important role in treating end-of-the-farm runoff in phosphorous (P) limited agroecosystems. Phosphorus transport from the SDAs, including those through subsurface pathways, are not well understood. The prevailing understanding of these systems assumes that biogeochemical processes play the primary treatment role and that subsurface losses can be neglected. Water and P fluxes from a SDA located in a row-crop farm were measured for two years (2009-2011) to assess the SDA's role in reducing downstream P loads. The SDA treated 55% (497 kg) and 95% (205 kg) of the incoming load during Year 1 (Y1, 09-10) and Year 2 (Y2, 10-11), respectively. These treatment efficiencies were similar to surface water volumetric retention (49% in Y1 and 84% in Y2) and varied primarily with rainfall. Similar water volume and P retentions indicate that volume retention is the main process controlling P loads. A limited role of biogeochemical processes was supported by low to no remaining soil P adsorption capacity due to long-term drainage P input. The fact that outflow P concentrations (Y1 = 368.3 μg L- 1, Y2 = 230.4 μg L- 1) could be approximated by using a simple mixing of rainfall and drainage P input further confirmed the near inert biogeochemical processes. Subsurface P losses through groundwater were 304 kg (27% of inflow P) indicating that they are an important source for downstream P. Including subsurface P losses reduces the treatment efficiency to 35% (from 61%). The aboveground biomass in the SDA contained 42% (240 kg) of the average incoming P load suggesting that biomass harvesting could be a cost-effective alternative for reviving the role of biogeochemical processes to enhance P treatment in aged, P-saturated SDAs. The 20-year present economic value of P removal through harvesting was estimated to be 341,000, which if covered through a cost share or a payment for P treatment services program could be a positive outcome for both

  10. Expectation and task for constructing the volume reduction system of removed soils. In search of the technical integrity from the intermediate storage to final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hisaki

    2016-01-01

    The intermediate storage volume of the removed soils and incineration ash in Fukushima is supposed about 22 million cubic meters. Within 30 years after starting the intermediate storage, the final disposal outside Fukushima prefecture to these removed soils and incineration ash is determined by the law. Because these removed soils are the very-very low radio activity, the volume reduction method is most effective to reduce the burden of the final disposal. As the volume reduction technology is the stage of research and development, the possibility of the introduction of the volume reduction technology that has the consistency of the final disposal technology is evaluated from the point of view of cost. Since this business is accompanied by economic and technical risk to implement private companies, this project is considered appropriate to be implemented as a national project. (author)

  11. Electrokinetic applications for environmental restoration, waste volume reduction, and contaminant containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomasney, H.L.; Lomasney, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the US and all over the world, following over 50 years of nuclear arms production operations, the magnitude of resultant environmental damage is only beginning to surface. The US Department of Energy estimates that by the year 2070, the total volume of high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and low-level mixed waste, generated as a result of past and current nuclear activities, will exceed 20 million cubic meters. In Russia, it is reported that more than 30% of all groundwater is contaminated with agricultural and industrial chemical waste. Government agencies today are faced with the responsibility of developing technologies that are suitable for dealing with severe environmental contamination and accumulating waste inventories. In response to this demand, applications of electrokinetics have emerged in the field of environmental waste management as alternatives for environmental decontamination and ecological protection. Electrokinetics involves the movement of charged species under the influence of an applied electric field and is applicable in several areas of environmental waste management, including cleanup of soil and groundwater, barrier detection, and emergency or protective fencing. The worldwide interest in this technology has steadily escalated over the past decade. Today, state-of-the-art applications of electrokinetics have been demonstrated in the US, The Netherlands, Russia, The Ukraine, and India. This paper addresses the latest advances in the various applications of this technology as well as the most significant breakthroughs in the history of electrokinetics

  12. Conceptual design of volume reduction system for ITER low level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chon, Je Keun, E-mail: jekeun.chon@iter.org; Beaudoin, Virginie; Pitcher, Charles S.

    2016-11-01

    For ITER Type A (low-level radwaste) radioactive waste process system, the super-compaction of solid wastes is introduced to reduce the waste volume in order to increase the quantity of waste to be enclosed in a final package. A study has been conducted to develop the conceptual design of super-compaction system by exploring the optimum design features of available equipment. The principal finding of the study is that a compactor with a vertical extrusion die that can apply a compressive force of up to 7000 kN will be fit for purpose of ITER Type A waste treatment. The confinement box has been proposed to limit the spread of aerial effluents that might escape from the compacted pellets. In order to increase the packing efficiency of the disposal containers, the height of each pellet will be recorded, enabling the disposal containers to be filled as close as possible to their limit if pellets of an appropriate size are available. The proposed conceptual design of super-compaction system is capable of meeting the objectives and constraints of target waste streams from ITER operation.

  13. Cirurgia de redução do volume pulmonar em modelo experimental de enfisema em ratos Lung volume reduction surgery in an experimental rat model of emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Brasiliense Fusco

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A cirurgia redutora do volume pulmonar pode ser uma opção para portadores de enfisema com grave limitação ventilatória. OBJETIVO: Avaliar funcional e morfologicamente pulmões enfisematosos antes e depois da cirurgia de redução de volume pulmonar, através de modelo experimental em ratos. MÉTODO: Dois grupos experimentais de ratos Wistar foram estabelecidos (papaína sem cirurgia e papaína com cirurgia, e três grupos controle (solução fisiológica sem cirurgia, solução fisiológica com cirurgia e papaína sem ventilação mecânica. Após cerca de 40 dias da instilação intratraqueal da solução de papaína ou fisiológica, os animais dos grupos papaína com cirurgia e solução fisiológica com cirurgia foram submetidos a bilobectomia média e retrocava através de toracotomia direita. Após uma semana, foram submetidos a mecânica ventilatória, com medidas de elastância e resistência das vias aéreas. O tecido pulmonar de todos os animais foi analisado quanto ao diâmetro alveolar médio e quantidade de fibras elásticas. RESULTADOS: A análise morfométrica revelou médias superiores de diâmetro alveolar médio nos pulmões dos grupos submetidos à papaína em comparação com a solução fisiológica. A quantificação de fibras elásticas de septos alveolares dos animais tratados com papaína foi menor que daqueles com solução fisiológica. A elastância dos animais submetidos à bilobectomia e papaína foi maior que a dos submetidos à papaína sem cirurgia e estatisticamente igual aos submetidos à solução fisiológica com e sem cirurgia. CONCLUSÃO: A capacidade de recolhimento elástico do sistema respiratório dos animais com enfisema pulmonar submetidos à redução de volume pulmonar através da bilobectomia retornou a valores equivalentes aos dos grupos controle.BACKGROUND: Lung volume reduction surgery may be a viable treatment alternative for emphysema patients suffering from severe

  14. [Effect of injection of enkephalin and bestatin in caudate-putamen on operant conditioning in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S Y; Zhang, Y P; Zhang, M L; Qi, H X; Wang, B

    1992-10-01

    Female Wistar rats were trained in a Skinner-box, 30 trials per day in a dark room to establish operant defence conditioning. Training started with a light (15 s), then combined with footshock for further 8 s. When the rats learned to press the key to avoid footshock within 15 s, conditioned response was considered established. After the rats reached a conditioning rate (CR) above 80% for 5 days, cannulae were implanted into caudate-putamen. Two to three days later, Met-enkephalin (MEK) or bestatin (an aminopeptidase inhibitor) was injected bilaterally into caudate-putamen. 30 min, 2 h, 24 h and 48 h after injection, conditioning tests were conducted, with each session consisting of 30 trials. Control experiments were done when 0.9% NaCl (NS) was injected. After injection of NS, CR maintained above 80% in all 4 test sessions. MEK (60 ng/rat) or bestatin (10 micrograms/rat) significantly lowered the CR during the 30 min and 2 h test session. In the latter case, the latency (L) was also prolonged. However both CR and L returned to the control level in the 24 h and 48 h test sessions. Naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.) blocked the conditioning-depression effect of bestatin. No significant alteration was seen in locomotor activity after MEK or bestatin injection. The results suggest that enkephalin in caudate-putamen may be involved in the regulation of retrieval of conditioning. Bestatin mimics the effect of MEK on conditioning reflex probably by increasing production of endogenous enkephalin.

  15. Higher landing accuracy in expert pilots is associated with lower activity in the caudate nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheen M Adamson

    Full Text Available The most common lethal accidents in General Aviation are caused by improperly executed landing approaches in which a pilot descends below the minimum safe altitude without proper visual references. To understand how expertise might reduce such erroneous decision-making, we examined relevant neural processes in pilots performing a simulated landing approach inside a functional MRI scanner. Pilots (aged 20-66 were asked to "fly" a series of simulated "cockpit view" instrument landing scenarios in an MRI scanner. The scenarios were either high risk (heavy fog-legally unsafe to land or low risk (medium fog-legally safe to land. Pilots with one of two levels of expertise participated: Moderate Expertise (Instrument Flight Rules pilots, n = 8 or High Expertise (Certified Instrument Flight Instructors or Air-Transport Pilots, n = 12. High Expertise pilots were more accurate than Moderate Expertise pilots in making a "land" versus "do not land" decision (CFII: d' = 3.62 ± 2.52; IFR: d' = 0.98 ± 1.04; p<.01. Brain activity in bilateral caudate nucleus was examined for main effects of expertise during a "land" versus "do not land" decision with the no-decision control condition modeled as baseline. In making landing decisions, High Expertise pilots showed lower activation in the bilateral caudate nucleus (0.97 ± 0.80 compared to Moderate Expertise pilots (1.91 ± 1.16 (p<.05. These findings provide evidence for increased "neural efficiency" in High Expertise pilots relative to Moderate Expertise pilots. During an instrument approach the pilot is engaged in detailed examination of flight instruments while monitoring certain visual references for making landing decisions. The caudate nucleus regulates saccade eye control of gaze, the brain area where the "expertise" effect was observed. These data provide evidence that performing "real world" aviation tasks in an fMRI provide objective data regarding the relative expertise of pilots and brain regions

  16. Surprised at all the entropy: hippocampal, caudate and midbrain contributions to learning from prediction errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Anne-Marike; Ahlheim, Christiane; Wurm, Moritz F; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2012-01-01

    Influential concepts in neuroscientific research cast the brain a predictive machine that revises its predictions when they are violated by sensory input. This relates to the predictive coding account of perception, but also to learning. Learning from prediction errors has been suggested for take place in the hippocampal memory system as well as in the basal ganglia. The present fMRI study used an action-observation paradigm to investigate the contributions of the hippocampus, caudate nucleus and midbrain dopaminergic system to different types of learning: learning in the absence of prediction errors, learning from prediction errors, and responding to the accumulation of prediction errors in unpredictable stimulus configurations. We conducted analyses of the regions of interests' BOLD response towards these different types of learning, implementing a bootstrapping procedure to correct for false positives. We found both, caudate nucleus and the hippocampus to be activated by perceptual prediction errors. The hippocampal responses seemed to relate to the associative mismatch between a stored representation and current sensory input. Moreover, its response was significantly influenced by the average information, or Shannon entropy of the stimulus material. In accordance with earlier results, the habenula was activated by perceptual prediction errors. Lastly, we found that the substantia nigra was activated by the novelty of sensory input. In sum, we established that the midbrain dopaminergic system, the hippocampus, and the caudate nucleus were to different degrees significantly involved in the three different types of learning: acquisition of new information, learning from prediction errors and responding to unpredictable stimulus developments. We relate learning from perceptual prediction errors to the concept of predictive coding and related information theoretic accounts.

  17. Disruption of caudate working memory activation in chronic blast-related traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary R. Newsome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI due to blast exposure is frequently diagnosed in veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, it is unclear whether neural damage resulting from blast TBI differs from that found in TBI due to blunt-force trauma (e.g., falls and motor vehicle crashes. Little is also known about the effects of blast TBI on neural networks, particularly over the long term. Because impairment in working memory has been linked to blunt-force TBI, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study sought to investigate whether brain activation in response to a working memory task would discriminate blunt-force from blast TBI. Twenty-five veterans (mean age = 29.8 years, standard deviation = 6.01 years, 1 female who incurred TBI due to blast an average of 4.2 years prior to enrollment and 25 civilians (mean age = 27.4 years, standard deviation = 6.68 years, 4 females with TBI due to blunt-force trauma performed the Sternberg Item Recognition Task while undergoing fMRI. The task involved encoding 1, 3, or 5 items in working memory. A group of 25 veterans (mean age = 29.9 years, standard deviation = 5.53 years, 0 females and a group of 25 civilians (mean age = 27.3 years, standard deviation = 5.81 years, 0 females without history of TBI underwent identical imaging procedures and served as controls. Results indicated that the civilian TBI group and both control groups demonstrated a monotonic relationship between working memory set size and activation in the right caudate during encoding, whereas the blast TBI group did not (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons using False Discovery Rate. Blast TBI was also associated with worse performance on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task relative to the other groups, although no other group differences were found on neuropsychological measures of episodic memory, inhibition, and general processing speed. These results

  18. Co-registered perfusion SPECT/CT: Utility for prediction of improved postoperative outcome in lung volume reduction surgery candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Daisuke; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Nogami, Munenobu; Onishi, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Keiko; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To directly compare the capabilities of perfusion scan, SPECT, co-registered SPECT/CT, and quantitatively and qualitatively assessed MDCT (i.e. quantitative CT and qualitative CT) for predicting postoperative clinical outcome for lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) candidates. Materials and methods: Twenty-five consecutive candidates (19 men and six women, age range: 42-72 years) for LVRS underwent preoperative CT and perfusion scan with SPECT. Clinical outcome of LVRS for all subjects was also assessed by determining the difference between pre- and postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and 6-min walking distance (6MWD). All SPECT examinations were performed on a SPECT scanner, and co-registered to thin-section CT by using commercially available software. On planar imaging, SPECT and SPECT/CT, upper versus lower zone or lobe ratios (U/Ls) were calculated from regional uptakes between upper and lower lung fields in the operated lung. On quantitatively assessed CT, U/L for all subjects was assessed from regional functional lung volumes. On qualitatively assessed CT, planar imaging, SPECT and co-registered SPECT/CT, U/Ls were assessed with a 4-point visual scoring system. To compare capabilities of predicting clinical outcome, each U/L was statistically correlated with the corresponding clinical outcome. Results: Significantly fair or moderate correlations were observed between quantitatively and qualitatively assessed U/Ls obtained with all four methods and clinical outcomes (-0.60 ≤ r ≤ -0.42, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Co-registered perfusion SPECT/CT has better correlation with clinical outcome in LVRS candidates than do planar imaging, SPECT or qualitatively assessed CT, and is at least as valid as quantitatively assessed CT.

  19. Design of the Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema Palliation Trial (VENT): a non-surgical method of lung volume reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Charlie; Herth, Felix J F; Kovitz, Kevin L; McLennan, Geoffrey; Ernst, Armin; Goldin, Jonathan; Noppen, Marc; Criner, Gerard J; Sciurba, Frank C

    2007-07-03

    Lung volume reduction surgery is effective at improving lung function, quality of life, and mortality in carefully selected individuals with advanced emphysema. Recently, less invasive bronchoscopic approaches have been designed to utilize these principles while avoiding the associated perioperative risks. The Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema PalliatioN Trial (VENT) posits that occlusion of a single pulmonary lobe through bronchoscopically placed Zephyr endobronchial valves will effect significant improvements in lung function and exercise tolerance with an acceptable risk profile in advanced emphysema. The trial design posted on Clinical trials.gov, on August 10, 2005 proposed an enrollment of 270 subjects. Inclusion criteria included: diagnosis of emphysema with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 100%; residual volume > 150% predicted), and heterogeneous emphysema defined using a quantitative chest computed tomography algorithm. Following standardized pulmonary rehabilitation, patients were randomized 2:1 to receive unilateral lobar placement of endobronchial valves plus optimal medical management or optimal medical management alone. The co-primary endpoint was the mean percent change in FEV1 and six minute walk distance at 180 days. Secondary end-points included mean percent change in St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score and the mean absolute changes in the maximal work load measured by cycle ergometry, dyspnea (mMRC) score, and total oxygen use per day. Per patient response rates in clinically significant improvement/maintenance of FEV1 and six minute walk distance and technical success rates of valve placement were recorded. Apriori response predictors based on quantitative CT and lung physiology were defined. If endobronchial valves improve FEV1 and health status with an acceptable safety profile in advanced emphysema, they would offer a novel intervention for this progressive and debilitating disease. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00129584.

  20. Design of the Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema Palliation Trial (VENT: a non-surgical method of lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppen Marc

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung volume reduction surgery is effective at improving lung function, quality of life, and mortality in carefully selected individuals with advanced emphysema. Recently, less invasive bronchoscopic approaches have been designed to utilize these principles while avoiding the associated perioperative risks. The Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema PalliatioN Trial (VENT posits that occlusion of a single pulmonary lobe through bronchoscopically placed Zephyr® endobronchial valves will effect significant improvements in lung function and exercise tolerance with an acceptable risk profile in advanced emphysema. Methods The trial design posted on Clinical trials.gov, on August 10, 2005 proposed an enrollment of 270 subjects. Inclusion criteria included: diagnosis of emphysema with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 100%; residual volume > 150% predicted, and heterogeneous emphysema defined using a quantitative chest computed tomography algorithm. Following standardized pulmonary rehabilitation, patients were randomized 2:1 to receive unilateral lobar placement of endobronchial valves plus optimal medical management or optimal medical management alone. The co-primary endpoint was the mean percent change in FEV1 and six minute walk distance at 180 days. Secondary end-points included mean percent change in St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score and the mean absolute changes in the maximal work load measured by cycle ergometry, dyspnea (mMRC score, and total oxygen use per day. Per patient response rates in clinically significant improvement/maintenance of FEV1 and six minute walk distance and technical success rates of valve placement were recorded. Apriori response predictors based on quantitative CT and lung physiology were defined. Conclusion If endobronchial valves improve FEV1 and health status with an acceptable safety profile in advanced emphysema, they would offer a novel intervention for this progressive and

  1. Comparison of distinctive models for calculating an interlobar emphysema heterogeneity index in patients prior to endoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theilig D

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dorothea Theilig,1 Felix Doellinger,1 Alexander Poellinger,1 Vera Schreiter,1 Konrad Neumann,2 Ralf-Harto Hubner31Department of Radiology, Charité Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 2Institute of Biometrics and Clinical Epidemiology, Charité Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 3Department of Pneumology, Charité Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, GermanyBackground: The degree of interlobar emphysema heterogeneity is thought to play an important role in the outcome of endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR therapy of patients with advanced COPD. There are multiple ways one could possibly define interlobar emphysema heterogeneity, and there is no standardized definition.Purpose: The aim of this study was to derive a formula for calculating an interlobar emphysema heterogeneity index (HI when evaluating a patient for ELVR. Furthermore, an attempt was made to identify a threshold for relevant interlobar emphysema heterogeneity with regard to ELVR.Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 50 patients who had undergone technically successful ELVR with placement of one-way valves at our institution and had received lung function tests and computed tomography scans before and after treatment. Predictive accuracy of the different methods for HI calculation was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, assuming a minimum difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 100 mL to indicate a clinically important change.Results: The HI defined as emphysema score of the targeted lobe (TL minus emphysema score of the ipsilateral nontargeted lobe disregarding the middle lobe yielded the best predicative accuracy (AUC =0.73, P=0.008. The HI defined as emphysema score of the TL minus emphysema score of the lung without the TL showed a similarly good predictive accuracy (AUC =0.72, P=0.009. Subgroup

  2. The Reduction of Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex Gray Matter Volume Correlates with Loss of Economic Rationality in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hui-Kuan; Tymula, Agnieszka; Glimcher, Paul

    2017-12-06

    The population of people above 65 years old continues to grow, and there is mounting evidence that as humans age they are more likely to make errors. However, the specific effect of neuroanatomical aging on the efficiency of economic decision-making is poorly understood. We used whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analysis to determine where reduction of gray matter volume in healthy female and male adults over the age of 65 years correlates with a classic measure of economic irrationality: violations of the Generalized Axiom of Revealed Preference. All participants were functionally normal with Mini-Mental State Examination scores ranging between 26 and 30. While our elders showed the previously reported decline in rationality compared with younger subjects, chronological age per se did not correlate with rationality measures within our population of elders. Instead, reduction of gray matter density in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex correlates tightly with irrational behavior. Interestingly, using a large fMRI sample and meta-analytic tool with Neurosynth, we found that this brain area shows strong coactivation patterns with nearly all of the value-associated regions identified in previous studies. These findings point toward a neuroanatomic locus for economic rationality in the aging brain and highlight the importance of understanding both anatomy and function in the study of aging, cognition, and decision-making. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Age is a crucial factor in decision-making, with older individuals making more errors in choices. Using whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analysis, we found that reduction of gray matter density in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex correlates with economic irrationality: reduced gray matter volume in this area correlates with the frequency and severity of violations of the Generalized Axiom of Revealed Preference. Furthermore, this brain area strongly coactivates with other reward-associated regions identified with Neurosynth

  3. Dissociable contributions of the prefrontal cortex to hippocampus- and caudate nucleus-dependent virtual navigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmani, Louisa; Bohbot, Véronique D

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus and the caudate nucleus are critical to spatial- and stimulus-response-based navigation strategies, respectively. The hippocampus and caudate nucleus are also known to be anatomically connected to various areas of the prefrontal cortex. However, little is known about the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in these processes. In the current study, we sought to identify the prefrontal areas involved in spatial and response learning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry to compare the neural activity and grey matter density of spatial and response strategy users. Twenty-three healthy young adults were scanned in a 1.5 T MRI scanner while they engaged in the Concurrent Spatial Discrimination Learning Task, a virtual navigation task in which either a spatial or response strategy can be used. In addition to increased BOLD activity in the hippocampus, spatial strategy users showed increased BOLD activity and grey matter density in the ventral area of the medial prefrontal cortex, especially in the orbitofrontal cortex. On the other hand, response strategy users exhibited increased BOLD activity and grey matter density in the dorsal area of the medial prefrontal cortex. Given the prefrontal cortex's role in reward-guided decision-making, we discuss the possibility that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, including the orbitofrontal cortex, supports spatial learning by encoding stimulus-reward associations, while the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex supports response learning by encoding action-reward associations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Beyond cytoarchitectonics: the internal and external connectivity structure of the caudate nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja A Kotz

    Full Text Available While there is ample evidence on the functional and connectional differentiation of the caudate nucleus (CN, less is known about its potential microstructural subdivisions. However, this latter aspect is critical to the local information processing capabilities of the tissue. We applied diffusion MRI, a non-invasive in vivo method that has great potential for the exploration of the brain structure-behavior relationship, in order to characterize the local fiber structure in gray matter of the CN. We report novel evidence of a functionally meaningful structural tri-partition along the anterior-posterior axis of this region. The connectivity of the CN subregions is in line with connectivity evidence from earlier invasive studies in animal models. In addition, histological validation using polarized light imaging (PLI confirms these results, corroborating the notion that cortico-subcortico-cortical loops involve microstructurally differentiated regions in the caudate nucleus. Methodologically speaking, the comparison with advanced analysis of diffusion MRI shows that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI yields a simplified view of the CN fiber architecture which is refined by advanced high angular resolution imaging methods.

  5. Modulation of neurotransmitter release in the region of the caudate nucleus by diet and neurotoxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurstjens, N.P.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis the effects of dietary manipulation, ethanol and neurotoxins on the basal and electrically evoked release of dopamine and acetylcholine from the caudate nucleus of mature animals are presented together with an evaluation of the presynaptic acetylcholine and dopamine receptors controlling acetylcholine and dopamine release. A standardised superfusion technique was used to monitor the effect of apomorphine, in the presence of (R-S)- sulpiride or haloperidol, on the electrically induced release of ( 3 H)-acetylcholine in slices of rat corpus striatum. The effect of ethanol and dietary manipulation on the basal and electrically evoke release of ( 3 H)-acetylfholine from rat striatal slices, in the presence of specific agonists and antagonists was evaluated. From this study it is possible to deduce that diet and neurotoxins exerted a measurable effect on the mechanisms controlling release of neurotransmitters in the region of the caudate nucleus. These changes were determined in mature animals previously considered to have cerebral activity, which was not subject to dietary fluctuaations. No changes in the activity of the presynaptic dopamine receptor of the acetylcholine nerve terminals of the striatal slice could be measured

  6. Robotic resection of the liver caudate lobe: technical description and initial consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Marco Vito; Glagolieva, Anastasiia; Guarrasi, Domenico

    2018-03-01

    Firstly described in 2002, the robotic liver surgery has not spread widely due to its high cost and the lack of a standardized training program. Still being considered as a 'development in progress' technique, it has however a potential to overcome the traditional limitations of the laparoscopic approach in liver interventions. We analyzed the postoperative outcomes of 10 patients who had undergone robotic partial resection of the caudate lobe (Spiegel lobe) from March 2014 to May 2016 in order to evaluate the advantages of robotic technique in hands of a young surgeon. The mean operative time was 258min (150-522) and the estimated blood loss 137ml (50-359), in none of the cases a blood transfusion was required. No patient underwent a conversion to open surgery; the overall morbidity was 2/10 (20%) and all the complications occurred (biliary fistula and pleural effusion) did not require a surgical revision. At histological examination, the mean tumour size was 2.63cm and we achieved R0-resection rate of 100%. The 90-day mortality rate was null. The 1-year overall and disease free-survival rates were 100% and 80%, respectively. Despite several concerns regarding the cost-effectiveness, a fully robotic partial resection of caudate lobe is an advantageous, implementable technique providing promising short-term postoperative outcomes with acceptable benefit-risk profile. Copyright © 2018 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Alzheimer's disease detection via automatic 3D caudate nucleus segmentation using coupled dictionary learning with level set formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaikhli, Saif Dawood Salman; Yang, Michael Ying; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a novel method for Alzheimer's disease classification via an automatic 3D caudate nucleus segmentation. The proposed method consists of segmentation and classification steps. In the segmentation step, we propose a novel level set cost function. The proposed cost function is constrained by a sparse representation of local image features using a dictionary learning method. We present coupled dictionaries: a feature dictionary of a grayscale brain image and a label dictionary of a caudate nucleus label image. Using online dictionary learning, the coupled dictionaries are learned from the training data. The learned coupled dictionaries are embedded into a level set function. In the classification step, a region-based feature dictionary is built. The region-based feature dictionary is learned from shape features of the caudate nucleus in the training data. The classification is based on the measure of the similarity between the sparse representation of region-based shape features of the segmented caudate in the test image and the region-based feature dictionary. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of our method over the state-of-the-art methods by achieving a high segmentation (91.5%) and classification (92.5%) accuracy. In this paper, we find that the study of the caudate nucleus atrophy gives an advantage over the study of whole brain structure atrophy to detect Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Methods for Reducing Normal Tissue Complication Probabilities in Oropharyngeal Cancer: Dose Reduction or Planning Target Volume Elimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuels, Stuart E.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Vineberg, Karen; Lee, Jae; Lee, Choonik; Matuszak, Martha M.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Brock, Kristy K., E-mail: kbrock@med.umich.edu

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Strategies to reduce the toxicities of head and neck radiation (ie, dysphagia [difficulty swallowing] and xerostomia [dry mouth]) are currently underway. However, the predicted benefit of dose and planning target volume (PTV) reduction strategies is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to compare the normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) for swallowing and salivary structures in standard plans (70 Gy [P70]), dose-reduced plans (60 Gy [P60]), and plans eliminating the PTV margin. Methods and Materials: A total of 38 oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) plans were analyzed. Standard organ-sparing volumetric modulated arc therapy plans (P70) were created and then modified by eliminating the PTVs and treating the clinical tumor volumes (CTVs) only (C70) or maintaining the PTV but reducing the dose to 60 Gy (P60). NTCP dose models for the pharyngeal constrictors, glottis/supraglottic larynx, parotid glands (PGs), and submandibular glands (SMGs) were analyzed. The minimal clinically important benefit was defined as a mean change in NTCP of >5%. The P70 NTCP thresholds and overlap percentages of the organs at risk with the PTVs (56-59 Gy, vPTV{sub 56}) were evaluated to identify the predictors for NTCP improvement. Results: With the P60 plans, only the ipsilateral PG (iPG) benefited (23.9% vs 16.2%; P<.01). With the C70 plans, only the iPG (23.9% vs 17.5%; P<.01) and contralateral SMG (cSMG) (NTCP 32.1% vs 22.9%; P<.01) benefited. An iPG NTCP threshold of 20% and 30% predicted NTCP benefits for the P60 and C70 plans, respectively (P<.001). A cSMG NTCP threshold of 30% predicted for an NTCP benefit with the C70 plans (P<.001). Furthermore, for the iPG, a vPTV{sub 56} >13% predicted benefit with P60 (P<.001) and C70 (P=.002). For the cSMG, a vPTV{sub 56} >22% predicted benefit with C70 (P<.01). Conclusions: PTV elimination and dose-reduction lowered the NTCP of the iPG, and PTV elimination lowered the NTCP of the cSMG. NTCP thresholds and the

  9. Visual classification of emphysema heterogeneity compared with objective measurements: HRCT vs spiral CT in candidates for lung volume reduction surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederlund, K.; Hoegberg, S.; Rasmussen, E.; Svane, B.; Bergstrand, L.; Tylen, U.; Aspelin, P.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether spiral CT is superior to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in evaluating the radiological morphology of emphysema, and whether the combination of both CT techniques improves the evaluation in patients undergoing lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). The material consisted of HRCT (with 2-mm slice thickness) and spiral CT (with 10-mm slice thickness) of 94 candidates for LVRS. Selected image pairs from these examinations were evaluated. Each image pair consisted of one image from the cranial part of the lung and one image from the caudal part. The degree of emphysema in the two images was calculated by computer. The difference between the images determined the degree of heterogeneity. Five classes of heterogeneity were defined. The study was performed by visual classification of 95 image pairs (spiral CT) and 95 image pairs (HRCT) into one of five different classes of emphysema heterogeneity. This visual classification was compared with the computer-based classification. Spiral CT was superior to HRCT with 47% correct classifications of emphysema heterogeneity compared with 40% for HRCT-based classification (p<0.05). The combination of the techniques did not improve the evaluation (42%). Spiral CT is superior to HRCT in determining heterogeneity of emphysema visually, and should be included in the pre-operative CT evaluation of LVRS candidates. (orig.)

  10. Visual classification of emphysema heterogeneity compared with objective measurements: HRCT vs spiral CT in candidates for lung volume reduction surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, K.; Hoegberg, S.; Rasmussen, E.; Svane, B. [Department of Thoracic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Bergstrand, L. [Department of Radiology, Danderyds Hospital, Danderyd (Sweden); Tylen, U. [Deparment of Radiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenberg (Sweden); Aspelin, P. [Department of Radiology, Huddinge University Hospital, Huddinge (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether spiral CT is superior to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in evaluating the radiological morphology of emphysema, and whether the combination of both CT techniques improves the evaluation in patients undergoing lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). The material consisted of HRCT (with 2-mm slice thickness) and spiral CT (with 10-mm slice thickness) of 94 candidates for LVRS. Selected image pairs from these examinations were evaluated. Each image pair consisted of one image from the cranial part of the lung and one image from the caudal part. The degree of emphysema in the two images was calculated by computer. The difference between the images determined the degree of heterogeneity. Five classes of heterogeneity were defined. The study was performed by visual classification of 95 image pairs (spiral CT) and 95 image pairs (HRCT) into one of five different classes of emphysema heterogeneity. This visual classification was compared with the computer-based classification. Spiral CT was superior to HRCT with 47% correct classifications of emphysema heterogeneity compared with 40% for HRCT-based classification (p<0.05). The combination of the techniques did not improve the evaluation (42%). Spiral CT is superior to HRCT in determining heterogeneity of emphysema visually, and should be included in the pre-operative CT evaluation of LVRS candidates. (orig.)

  11. Existing LLW treatment and disposal technology offers 17-to-1 volume reduction and advanced disposal at low cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnell, G.R.; Larsen, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports how existing technology was used to develop a conceptual design for a waste treatment and disposal complex (WTDC). The designed facility would treat nearly 100% of all solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW), regardless of waste classification. Approximately 95 vol% of all LLW would be delivered in reusable shipment containers to the WTDC, where treatment would produce a liquid-free, install-compacted, 98 vol% inorganic waste. The treated waste would be packed with contaminated grout in uniform, smooth-sided, thin-walled, steel boxes. The boxes are stacked tightly in abovegrade, earth-mounded, concrete, disposal vaults, where they will be protected from water after vault closure. The 210-pound-per-cubic-foot waste prevents subsidence. Engineered earthen covers are covered over the vaults at the final closure and should keep water out of the waste long after vault degradation. A volume reduction factor of 17-to-1 is achieved through sorting, incineration, metal sizing operations, intense compaction, and grouting

  12. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Wilson, T E; Seifert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    -body heating after intravascular volume expansion. Volume expansion was accomplished by administration of a combination of a synthetic colloid (HES 130/0.4, Voluven) and saline. Before LBNP, SV was not affected by heating (122 +/- 30 ml; mean +/- s.d.) compared to normothermia (110 +/- 20 ml; P = 0...

  13. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. The impact of preload reduction with head-up tilt testing on longitudinal and transverse left ventricular mechanics: a study utilizing deformation volume analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Caroline; Forsythe, Lynsey; Somauroo, John; George, Keith; Oxborough, David

    2018-03-01

    Left ventricular (LV) function is dependent on load, intrinsic contractility and relaxation with a variable impact on specific mechanics. Strain (ε) imaging allows the assessment of cardiac function; however, the direct relationship between volume and strain is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to establish the impact of preload reduction through head-up tilt (HUT) testing on simultaneous left ventricular (LV) longitudinal and transverse function and their respective contribution to volume change. A focused transthoracic echocardiogram was performed on 10 healthy male participants (23 ± 3 years) in the supine position and following 1 min and 5 min of HUT testing. Raw temporal longitudinal ε (Ls) and transverse ε (Ts) values were exported and divided into 5% increments across the cardiac cycle and corresponding LV volumes were traced at each 5% increment. This provided simultaneous LV longitudinal and transverse ε and volume loops (deformation volume analysis - DVA). There was a leftward shift of the ε-volume loop from supine to 1 min and 5 min of HUT ( P  maintenance of LV filling in the setting of reduced preload. DVA provides information on the relative contribution of mechanics to a change in LV volume and may have a role in the assessment of clinical populations. © 2018 The authors.

  15. Verification of hydrogen isotope separation by pressure swing adsorption process: Successive volume reduction of isotopic gas mixture using SZ-5A column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotoh, K., E-mail: kotoh@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Dept. of Applied Quantum Phys. and Nucl. Eng., Faculty of Eng., Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tanaka, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Takashima, S.; Tsuge, T. [Dept. of Applied Quantum Phys. and Nucl. Eng., Faculty of Eng., Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Asakura, Y.; Uda, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Sugiyama, T. [Faculty of Eng., Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chigusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    For the purpose of verifying the applicability of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process to such as volume reduction of tritiated waste storage, an experimental series was carried out by a PSA apparatus having a zeolite packed column operated at the liquefied nitrogen temperature, where synthetic zeolite 5A was used as a candidate of adsorbents. Experimental results are shown here which were obtained from cyclic operation of isolating a volume of hydrogen decontaminated with its heaver isotope from a mixture of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} while reducing a volume of this mixture storage. Successive reduction during six cycles is observed in the inventory of this hydrogen mixture in a gas holder. Experimental data are analyzed in order to evaluate the performance of this PSA process operating the hydrogen isotope separation, where several factors are introduced defining efficiencies of decontamination, volumetric reduction, and so on. These factors suggest that the PSA process is available for successive reduction of a tritiated hydrogen storage inventory. A tritium waste management system of PSA process combined with electrolysis is considerable which is aiming at reducing the inventory of tritiated water in storage.

  16. Protective Effect of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA Allele DRB1*13:02 on Age-Related Brain Gray Matter Volume Reduction in Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. James

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reduction of brain volume (brain atrophy during healthy brain aging is well documented and dependent on genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors. Here we investigated the possible dependence of brain gray matter volume reduction in the absence of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA allele DRB1*13:02 which prevents brain atrophy in Gulf War Illness (James et al., 2017. Methods: Seventy-one cognitively healthy women (32–69 years old underwent a structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI scan to measure the volumes of total gray matter, cerebrocortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter. Participants were assigned to two groups, depending on whether they lacked the DRB1*13:02 allele (No DRB1*13:02 group, N = 60 or carried the DRB1*13:02 allele (N = 11. We assessed the change of brain gray matter volume with age in each group by performing a linear regression where the brain volume (adjusted for total intracranial volume was the dependent variable and age was the independent variable. Findings: In the No DRB1*13:02 group, the volumes of total gray matter, cerebrocortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter were reduced highly significantly. In contrast, none of these volumes showed a statistically significant reduction with age in the DRB1*13:02 group. Interpretation: These findings document the protective effect of DRB1*13:02 on age-dependent reduction of brain gray matter in healthy individuals. Since the role of this allele is to connect to matching epitopes of external antigens for the subsequent production of antibodies and elimination of the offending antigen, we hypothesize that its protective effect may be due to the successful elimination of such antigens to which we are exposed during the lifespan, antigens that otherwise would persist causing gradual brain atrophy. In addition, we consider a possible beneficial role of DRB1*13:02 attributed to its binding to cathepsin S, a known harmful substance in brain

  17. Volume reduction and conditioning campaigns, upon low level solid waste drums, realised in ENEA centres of Trisaia (ITREC plant) and Saluggia (EUTREX plant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1995-09-01

    The volume reduction and conditioning campaigns, upon low level solid waste drums, realized between 1989 and 1993 in the ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) centres of Trisaia (ITREC plant) and Saluggia (EUREX plant), by the mean of supercompactation, and cement immobilization inside over packs, are hereby described. The operational techniques and the equipments used, the whole volume reduction factors obtained and some final considerations over this solid rad wastes treatment procedure are shown. This method, where correctly operated and coupled to an accurate radiological characterization, permits to save space for the waste storage in the short period and to obtain final manufacts, certified suitable for shallow burial disposal, according to italian technical guide n. 26

  18. Feedback on Trait or Action Impacts on Caudate and Paracingulum Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelgren, Alva; Bengtsson, Sara L

    2015-01-01

    There is a general conception that positive associations to one’s trait, e.g. ‘I’m clever’, are beneficial for cognitive performance. Scientific evidence shows that this is a simplification. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we used written trial-based trait feedback ‘you are clever’, or task feedback ‘your choice was correct’, on each correct response of a rule-switching task, to investigate how the character of positive self-associations influences performance outcome. Twenty participants took part in this crossover design study. We found that trait feedback was less beneficial for motivation and performance improvement, and resulting in enhanced neural activation on more difficult bivalent rule trials. This indicates that the task was treated as more complex in this condition. For example, ‘you are clever’ feedback led to enhanced activation in anterior caudate nucleus, an area known to process uncertainty. We further observed that activation in anterior paracingulate cortex was sensitive to whether self-reflection was imposed by external feedback or generated from internal processes, where the latter activation correlated positively with performance when following after task feedback. Our results illustrate how feedback can evoke self-reflections that either help or hinder motivation and performance, most likely by impacting on processes of uncertainty. The results support social psychological models stipulating that trait focus take resources away from task focus. PMID:26102501

  19. Radioactive waste volume reduction and solidification systems: Byron fluidized-bed/Dow-polymer system and Fermi-2 asphalt extruder-evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elguindy, H.S.; Krohn, F.M.; Nelson, R.A.; Wright, E.L.

    1988-08-01

    Two advanced volume reduction and solidification systems (VRSS) have recently been preoperationally tested at US nuclear power plants. One is an integrated Aerojet Energy Conversion Company/Stock Equipment Company system at Commonwealth Edison Company's Byron Station. The other is a WasteChem Corporation system at Detroit Edison Company's Fermi-2 plant. The VRSS at Byron is the first fluidized-bed/Dow polymer system to be installed in a commercial nuclear power plant. It is expected to begin processing radioactive waste in 1987. Sections 2 to 6 of this document present a report on the background, installation, and testing of this volume reduction system. The results of the acceptance/startup tests performed from 1984 to 1986, along with the operating and processing parameters that were selected for these tests, are presented. Descriptions of the process and the system are also included. The VRSS at Fermi-2 is the first asphalt extruder-evaporator selected specifically to process powdered ion-exchange resin. The processing of radioactive waste is expected to begin in 1987. Appendix D of this document is a progress report on the installation of and testing experiences with this volume reduction system. This appendix briefly describes the removal of the original cement solidification system and the installation of the new asphalt system, followed by a review of the startup problems to date and their solutions. 10 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs

  20. Reduction in adipose tissue volume using a new high-power radiofrequency technology combined with infrared light and mechanical manipulation for body contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adatto, Maurice A; Adatto-Neilson, Robyn M; Morren, Grietje

    2014-09-01

    A growing patient demand for a youthful skin appearance with a favorable body shape has led to the recent development of new noninvasive body contouring techniques. We have previously demonstrated that the combination of bipolar radiofrequency (RF) and optical energies with tissue manipulation is an efficient reshaping modality. Here, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a new high-power version of this combined technology, in terms of adipose tissue reduction and skin tightening. Thirty-five patients received one treatment per week over 6 weeks to their abdomen/flank, buttock, or thigh areas and were followed up to 3 months post completion of the treatment protocol. This new device has an increased power in the bipolar RF, as this parameter appears to be the most important energy modality for volume reduction. Patient circumferences were measured and comparisons of baseline and post treatment outcomes were made. Diagnostic ultrasound (US) measurements were performed in 12 patients to evaluate the reduction in adipose tissue volume, and a cutometer device was used to assess improvements in skin tightening. We observed a gradual decline in patient circumferences from baseline to post six treatments. The overall body shaping effect was accompanied with improvement in skin tightening and was clearly noticeable in the comparison of the before and after treatment clinical photographs. These findings correlated with measurements of adipose tissue volume and skin firmness/elasticity using diagnostic US and cutometer, respectively. The thickness of the fat layer showed on average a 29% reduction between baseline and the 1-month follow up. The average reduction in the circumference of the abdomen/flanks, buttocks, and thighs from baseline to the 3-month follow-up was 1.4, 0.5, and 1.2 cm, respectively, and 93% of study participants demonstrated a 1-60% change in fat layer thickness. Patients subjectively described comfort and satisfaction from treatment, and 97% of

  1. A fully-automatic caudate nucleus segmentation of brain MRI: Application in volumetric analysis of pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igual Laura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate automatic segmentation of the caudate nucleus in magnetic resonance images (MRI of the brain is of great interest in the analysis of developmental disorders. Segmentation methods based on a single atlas or on multiple atlases have been shown to suitably localize caudate structure. However, the atlas prior information may not represent the structure of interest correctly. It may therefore be useful to introduce a more flexible technique for accurate segmentations. Method We present Cau-dateCut: a new fully-automatic method of segmenting the caudate nucleus in MRI. CaudateCut combines an atlas-based segmentation strategy with the Graph Cut energy-minimization framework. We adapt the Graph Cut model to make it suitable for segmenting small, low-contrast structures, such as the caudate nucleus, by defining new energy function data and boundary potentials. In particular, we exploit information concerning the intensity and geometry, and we add supervised energies based on contextual brain structures. Furthermore, we reinforce boundary detection using a new multi-scale edgeness measure. Results We apply the novel CaudateCut method to the segmentation of the caudate nucleus to a new set of 39 pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD patients and 40 control children, as well as to a public database of 18 subjects. We evaluate the quality of the segmentation using several volumetric and voxel by voxel measures. Our results show improved performance in terms of segmentation compared to state-of-the-art approaches, obtaining a mean overlap of 80.75%. Moreover, we present a quantitative volumetric analysis of caudate abnormalities in pediatric ADHD, the results of which show strong correlation with expert manual analysis. Conclusion CaudateCut generates segmentation results that are comparable to gold-standard segmentations and which are reliable in the analysis of differentiating neuroanatomical abnormalities

  2. Regional Brain Volumes Moderate, but Do Not Mediate, the Effects of Group-Based Exercise Training on Reductions in Loneliness in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane K. Ehlers

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the prevalence of and negative health consequences associated with perceived loneliness in older adults, few studies have examined interactions among behavioral, psychosocial, and neural mechanisms. Research suggests that physical activity and improvements in perceived social support and stress are related to reductions in loneliness. Yet, the influence of brain structure on these changes is unknown. The present study examined whether change in regional brain volume mediated the effects of changes in social support and stress on change in perceived loneliness after an exercise intervention. We also examined the extent to which baseline brain volumes moderated the relationship between changes in social support, stress, and loneliness.Methods: Participants were 247 older adults (65.4 ± 4.6 years-old enrolled in a 6-month randomized controlled trial comprised of four exercise conditions: Dance (n = 69, Strength/Stretching/Stability (n = 70, Walk (n = 54, and Walk Plus (n = 54. All groups met for 1 h, three times weekly. Participants completed questionnaires assessing perceived social support, stress, and loneliness at baseline and post-intervention. Regional brain volumes (amygdala, prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampus before and after intervention were measured with automatic segmentation of each participant's T1-weighted structural MRI. Data were analyzed in a latent modeling framework.Results: Perceived social support increased (p = 0.003, while stress (p < 0.001, and loneliness (p = 0.001 decreased over the intervention. Increased social support directly (−0.63, p < 0.01 and indirectly, through decreased stress (−0.10, p = 0.02, predicted decreased loneliness. Changes in amygdala, PFC, and hippocampus volumes were unrelated to change in psychosocial variables (all p ≥ 0.44. However, individuals with larger baseline amygdalae experienced greater decreases in loneliness due to greater reductions in stress (0.35, p = 0

  3. Regional Brain Volumes Moderate, but Do Not Mediate, the Effects of Group-Based Exercise Training on Reductions in Loneliness in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Diane K; Daugherty, Ana M; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth A; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Kramer, Arthur F; McAuley, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the prevalence of and negative health consequences associated with perceived loneliness in older adults, few studies have examined interactions among behavioral, psychosocial, and neural mechanisms. Research suggests that physical activity and improvements in perceived social support and stress are related to reductions in loneliness. Yet, the influence of brain structure on these changes is unknown. The present study examined whether change in regional brain volume mediated the effects of changes in social support and stress on change in perceived loneliness after an exercise intervention. We also examined the extent to which baseline brain volumes moderated the relationship between changes in social support, stress, and loneliness. Methods: Participants were 247 older adults (65.4 ± 4.6 years-old) enrolled in a 6-month randomized controlled trial comprised of four exercise conditions: Dance ( n = 69), Strength/Stretching/Stability ( n = 70), Walk ( n = 54), and Walk Plus ( n = 54). All groups met for 1 h, three times weekly. Participants completed questionnaires assessing perceived social support, stress, and loneliness at baseline and post-intervention. Regional brain volumes (amygdala, prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampus) before and after intervention were measured with automatic segmentation of each participant's T1-weighted structural MRI. Data were analyzed in a latent modeling framework. Results: Perceived social support increased ( p = 0.003), while stress ( p loneliness ( p = 0.001) decreased over the intervention. Increased social support directly (-0.63, p loneliness. Changes in amygdala, PFC, and hippocampus volumes were unrelated to change in psychosocial variables (all p ≥ 0.44). However, individuals with larger baseline amygdalae experienced greater decreases in loneliness due to greater reductions in stress (0.35, p = 0.02). Further, individuals with larger baseline PFC volumes experienced greater reductions in stress due

  4. One pair of hands is not like another: caudate BOLD response in dogs depends on signal source and canine temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Peter F; Spivak, Mark; Berns, Gregory S

    2014-01-01

    Having previously used functional MRI to map the response to a reward signal in the ventral caudate in awake unrestrained dogs, here we examined the importance of signal source to canine caudate activation. Hand signals representing either incipient reward or no reward were presented by a familiar human (each dog's respective handler), an unfamiliar human, and via illustrated images of hands on a computer screen to 13 dogs undergoing voluntary fMRI. All dogs had received extensive training with the reward and no-reward signals from their handlers and with the computer images and had minimal exposure to the signals from strangers. All dogs showed differentially higher BOLD response in the ventral caudate to the reward versus no reward signals, and there was a robust effect at the group level. Further, differential response to the signal source had a highly significant interaction with a dog's general aggressivity as measured by the C-BARQ canine personality assessment. Dogs with greater aggressivity showed a higher differential response to the reward signal versus no-reward signal presented by the unfamiliar human and computer, while dogs with lower aggressivity showed a higher differential response to the reward signal versus no-reward signal from their handler. This suggests that specific facets of canine temperament bear more strongly on the perceived reward value of relevant communication signals than does reinforcement history, as each of the dogs were reinforced similarly for each signal, regardless of the source (familiar human, unfamiliar human, or computer). A group-level psychophysiological interaction (PPI) connectivity analysis showed increased functional coupling between the caudate and a region of cortex associated with visual discrimination and learning on reward versus no-reward trials. Our findings emphasize the sensitivity of the domestic dog to human social interaction, and may have other implications and applications pertinent to the training and

  5. Activity levels in the left hemisphere caudate-fusiform circuit predict how well a second language will be learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li Hai; Chen, Lin; Yip, Virginia; Chan, Alice H D; Yang, Jing; Gao, Jia-Hong; Siok, Wai Ting

    2011-02-08

    How second language (L2) learning is achieved in the human brain remains one of the fundamental questions of neuroscience and linguistics. Previous neuroimaging studies with bilinguals have consistently shown overlapping cortical organization of the native language (L1) and L2, leading to a prediction that a common neurobiological marker may be responsible for the development of the two languages. Here, by using functional MRI, we show that later skills to read in L2 are predicted by the activity level of the fusiform-caudate circuit in the left hemisphere, which nonetheless is not predictive of the ability to read in the native language. We scanned 10-y-old children while they performed a lexical decision task on L2 (and L1) stimuli. The subjects' written language (reading) skills were behaviorally assessed twice, the first time just before we performed the fMRI scan (time 1 reading) and the second time 1 y later (time 2 reading). A whole-brain based analysis revealed that activity levels in left caudate and left fusiform gyrus correlated with L2 literacy skills at time 1. After controlling for the effects of time 1 reading and nonverbal IQ, or the effect of in-scanner lexical performance, the development in L2 literacy skills (time 2 reading) was also predicted by activity in left caudate and fusiform regions that are thought to mediate language control functions and resolve competition arising from L1 during L2 learning. Our findings suggest that the activity level of left caudate and fusiform regions serves as an important neurobiological marker for predicting accomplishment in reading skills in a new language.

  6. DTI-based connectome analysis of adolescents with major depressive disorder reveals hypoconnectivity of the right caudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymofiyeva, Olga; Connolly, Colm G; Ho, Tiffany C; Sacchet, Matthew D; Henje Blom, Eva; LeWinn, Kaja Z; Xu, Duan; Yang, Tony T

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD). While some studies have shown white matter alterations in adolescent MDD, there is still a gap in understanding how the brain is affected at a network level. We compared diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based brain networks in a cohort of 57 adolescents with MDD and 41 well-matched healthy controls who completed self-reports of depression symptoms and stressful life events. Using atlas-based brain regions as network nodes and tractography streamline count or mean fractional anisotropy (FA) as edge weights, we examined weighted local and global network properties and performed Network-Based Statistic (NBS) analysis. While there were no significant group differences in the global network properties, the FA-weighted node strength of the right caudate was significantly lower in depressed adolescents and correlated positively with age across both groups. The NBS analysis revealed a cluster of lower FA-based connectivity in depressed subjects centered on the right caudate, including connections to frontal gyri, insula, and anterior cingulate. Within this cluster, the most robust difference between groups was the connection between the right caudate and middle frontal gyrus. This connection showed a significant diagnosis by stress interaction and a negative correlation with total stress in depressed adolescents. Use of DTI-based tractography, one atlas-based parcellation, and FA values to characterize brain networks represent this study's limitations. Our results allowed us to suggest caudate-centric models of dysfunctional processes underlying adolescent depression, which might guide future studies and help better understand and treat this disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Repeated methamphetamine administration differentially alters fos expression in caudate-putamen patch and matrix compartments and nucleus accumbens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub P Jedynak

    Full Text Available The repeated administration of psychostimulant drugs produces a persistent and long-lasting increase ("sensitization" in their psychomotor effects, which is thought to be due to changes in the neural circuitry that mediate these behaviors. One index of neuronal activation used to identify brain regions altered by repeated exposure to drugs involves their ability to induce immediate early genes, such as c-fos. Numerous reports have demonstrated that past drug experience alters the ability of drugs to induce c-fos in the striatum, but very few have examined Fos protein expression in the two major compartments in the striatum--the so-called patch/striosome and matrix.In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the effects of pretreatment with methamphetamine on the ability of a subsequent methamphetamine challenge to induce Fos protein expression in the patch and matrix compartments of the dorsolateral and dorsomedial caudate-putamen and in the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens. Animals pretreated with methamphetamine developed robust psychomotor sensitization. A methamphetamine challenge increased the number of Fos-positive cells in all areas of the dorsal and ventral striatum. However, methamphetamine challenge induced Fos expression in more cells in the patch than in the matrix compartment in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial caudate-putamen. Furthermore, past experience with methamphetamine increased the number of methamphetamine-induced Fos positive cells in the patch compartment of the dorsal caudate putamen, but not in the matrix or in the core or shell of the nucleus accumbens.These data suggest that drug-induced alterations in the patch compartment of the dorsal caudate-putamen may preferentially contribute to some of the enduring changes in brain activity and behavior produced by repeated treatment with methamphetamine.

  8. One pair of hands is not like another: caudate BOLD response in dogs depends on signal source and canine temperament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Cook

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Having previously used functional MRI to map the response to a reward signal in the ventral caudate in awake unrestrained dogs, here we examined the importance of signal source to canine caudate activation. Hand signals representing either incipient reward or no reward were presented by a familiar human (each dog’s respective handler, an unfamiliar human, and via illustrated images of hands on a computer screen to 13 dogs undergoing voluntary fMRI. All dogs had received extensive training with the reward and no-reward signals from their handlers and with the computer images and had minimal exposure to the signals from strangers. All dogs showed differentially higher BOLD response in the ventral caudate to the reward versus no reward signals, and there was a robust effect at the group level. Further, differential response to the signal source had a highly significant interaction with a dog’s general aggressivity as measured by the C-BARQ canine personality assessment. Dogs with greater aggressivity showed a higher differential response to the reward signal versus no-reward signal presented by the unfamiliar human and computer, while dogs with lower aggressivity showed a higher differential response to the reward signal versus no-reward signal from their handler. This suggests that specific facets of canine temperament bear more strongly on the perceived reward value of relevant communication signals than does reinforcement history, as each of the dogs were reinforced similarly for each signal, regardless of the source (familiar human, unfamiliar human, or computer. A group-level psychophysiological interaction (PPI connectivity analysis showed increased functional coupling between the caudate and a region of cortex associated with visual discrimination and learning on reward versus no-reward trials. Our findings emphasize the sensitivity of the domestic dog to human social interaction, and may have other implications and applications

  9. Changing the mind? Not really-activity and connectivity in the caudate correlates with changes of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takehito; Wu, Daw-An; Marutani, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Manami; Suzuki, Hidenori; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2014-10-01

    Changes in preference are inherently subjective and internal psychological events. We have identified brain events that presage ultimate (rather than intervening) choices, and signal the finality of a choice. At the first exposure to a pair of faces, caudate activity reflected the face of final choice, even if an initial choice was different. Furthermore, the orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus exhibited correlations only when the subject had made a choice that would not change. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Direct evidence of the left caudate's role in bilingual control: an intra-operative electrical stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Yin-Yan; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Yong-Zhi; Wu, Chen-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals need control mechanisms in order to switch between languages in different communication contexts (Green, 1998, Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1; Price, Green, & von Studnitz, 1999, Brain, 122). There has been neural evidence showing competition to control output in L2 vs. L1 in both cortical and sub-cortical areas, when language selection is carried out (Abutalebi & Green, 2007, Journal of Neurolinguistics, 20). Here we use intra-operative direct electrical stimulation to demonstrate that the head of the left caudate is critical not only in language switching tasks but other control tasks. A bilingual Chinese-English patient was instructed to perform both language switching and switching in color-shape naming tasks during awake glioma surgery. When stimulation was applied on the left caudate, failures or difficulties in both language switching and color-shape naming were observed, with the effects greater on language switching. Stimulation to neighboring brain regions either did not affect performance or generated mild problems specific to language switching. The results provide direct evidence of the necessary role of the left caudate in language control.

  11. Significant lung volume reduction with endobronchial valves in a patient despite the presence of microcollaterals masked by low-flow Chartis phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Y

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Yan Yin,1 Gang Hou,1 Felix J Herth,2 Xiao-bo Wang,1 Qiu-yue Wang,1 Jian Kang1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Abstract: Satisfactory functional outcomes following bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR using endobronchial valves (EBVs depend on the absence of collateral ventilation (CV between the target and adjunct lobes. The Chartis system has proven to be useful for determining whether CV is present or absent, but this system can also erroneously indicate the absence of CV, which can lead to BLVR failure. Here, we describe low-flow Chartis phenotype in the target lobe resulted in difficult judgment of existence of CV. Consequently, BLVR with EBVs implanted into the right upper bronchus failed to reduce lung volume or induce atelectasis. Inserting another EBV into the right middle bronchus blocked the latent CV, which led to significant lung volume reduction in the right upper lobe (RUL and right middle lobe (RML and to improve the pulmonary function, 6-min walking distance, and St George respiratory questionnaire scores over a 2-week follow-up period. Low flow in the target lobe is a unique Chartis phenotype and represents the uncertainty of CV, which is a risk factor for the failure of BLVR using EBVs. Clinicians should be aware of this possibility and might be able to resolve the problem by blocking the RUL and RML between which the CV occurs. Keywords: COPD, bronchoscopic lung volume reduction, collateral ventilation, endobronchial valves, Chartis assessment

  12. Profiling and sequencing of gangliosides from human caudate nucleus by chip-nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serb, Alina F; Sisu, Eugen; Vukelić, Zeljka; Zamfir, Alina D

    2012-12-01

    Gangliosides (GGs), sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids are involved in many brain functions at the cell and molecular level. Compositional and structural elucidation of GGs in mixtures extracted from human brain is essential for correlating their profile with the specialized function of each brain area in health and disease. As a part of our ongoing study on GG expression and structure in different healthy and diseased brain regions, in this work, a preliminary investigation of GGs in a specimen of human caudate nucleus (CN) was carried out using an advanced mass spectrometry (MS) technique. By chip-nanoelectrospray MS performed on a NanoMate robot coupled to a high capacity ion trap instrument, 81 GG components were detected in human CN in only 1.5 min of signal acquisition. Although the native GG mixture from CN was found dominated by mono-, di- and trisialylated GGs with a slight dominance of disialylated forms (GD), four tetrasialylated structures (GQ) and two pentasialylated (GP) species were also identified. Additionally, species with unusually long fatty acid chains, exceeding 30 carbon atoms in their ceramide (Cer) composition, and several glycoforms modified by fucosyl (Fuc), O-acetyl (O-Ac) and/or lactonization were discovered. By tandem MS (MS(2) ) using collision-induced dissociation, two atypical mono and disialylated species with long-chain fatty acids in their Cer could be confirmed and structurally characterized. These results may be a starting point for new GG-based approaches in the study of CN functions and ethiopathogenesis of CN-related neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Distinct presynaptic control of dopamine release in striosomal and matrix areas of the cat caudate nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemel, M.L.; Desban, M.; Glowinski, J.; Gauchy, C.

    1989-01-01

    By use of a sensitive in vitro microsuperfusion method, the cholinergic presynaptic control of dopamine release was investigated in a prominent striosome (areas poor in acetylcholinesterase activity) located within the core of cat caudate nucleus and also in adjacent matrix area. The spontaneous release of [ 3 H]dopamine continuously synthesized from [ 3 H]tyrosine in the matrix area was found to be twice that in the striosomal area; the spontaneous and potassium-evoked releases of [ 3 H]dopamine were calcium-dependent in both compartments. With 10 -6 M tetrodotoxin, 5 x 10 -5 M acetylcholine stimulated [ 3 H]dopamine release in both striosomal and matrix areas, effects completely antagonized by atropine, thus showing the involvement of muscarinic receptors located on dopaminergic nerve terminals. Experiments without tetrodotoxin revealed a more complex regulation of dopamine release in the matrix: (i) in contrast to results seen in the striosome, acetylcholine induced only a transient stimulatory effect on matrix dopamine release. (ii) Although 10 -6 M atropine completely abolished the cholinergic stimulatory effect on [ 3 H]dopamine release in striosomal area, delayed and prolonged stimulation of [ 3 H] dopamine release was seen with atropine in the matrix. The latter effect was completely abolished by the nicotinic antagonist pempidine. Therefore, in the matrix, in addition to its direct (tetrodotoxin-insensitive) facilitatory action on [ 3 H]dopamine release, acetylcholine exerts two indirect (tetrodotoxin-sensitive) opposing effects: an inhibition and a stimulation of [ 3 H]dopamine release mediated by muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, respectively

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging signal reduction may precede volume loss in the pituitary gland of transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hekmatnia, Ali; Rahmani, Ali Asghar; Adibi, Atoosa; Radmard, Amir Reza; Khademi, Hooman

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pituitary iron overload in patients with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia may lead to delayed puberty. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to estimate tissue iron concentration by detecting its paramagnetic effect and hypophyseal damage by measuring its dimensions indirectly. Purpose: To investigate the association of pituitary MRI findings and pubertal status in thalassemic patients as well as to demonstrate any priority in appearance of them. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven beta-thalassemic patients, aged 15-25 years, were divided into 13 with (group A) and 14 without hypogonadism (group B), matched by age, gender, duration of transfusion, and chelation therapy. Thirty-eight age- and sex-adjusted healthy control individuals were also included (group C). All participants underwent pituitary MRI using a 1.5T unit. Pituitary-to-fat signal intensity ratios (SIR) were calculated from coronal T2-weighted images. Estimated pituitary volumes were measured using pituitary height, width, and length on T1-weighted images. Results: The mean values of pituitary-to-fat SIRs were significantly lower in group A as compared with group B (P <0.001), and likewise group B had statistically lower values than group C (P=0.03). The pituitary height and volume were significantly decreased in group A compared to group B (P = 0.006 and P = 0.002, respectively), while these differences did not demonstrate statistically significance between groups B and C. Conclusion: Pituitary MRI findings such as signal intensity reduction and decrease in volume can be useful markers in estimating pituitary dysfunction in beta-thalassemic patients. Compared to healthy controls, lower values of pituitary-to-fat SIRs in thalassemic patients experiencing normal puberty, without marked decrease in volume, indicate that signal reduction may precede volume loss and could be expected first on MRI

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging signal reduction may precede volume loss in the pituitary gland of transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekmatnia, Ali; Rahmani, Ali Asghar; Adibi, Atoosa (Image Processing and Signal Research Center, Dept. of Radiology, Isfahan Univ. of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran)); Radmard, Amir Reza (Dept. of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran)); Khademi, Hooman (Shariati Hospital, Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran)), e-mail: radmard@ams.ac.ir

    2010-01-15

    Background: Pituitary iron overload in patients with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia may lead to delayed puberty. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to estimate tissue iron concentration by detecting its paramagnetic effect and hypophyseal damage by measuring its dimensions indirectly. Purpose: To investigate the association of pituitary MRI findings and pubertal status in thalassemic patients as well as to demonstrate any priority in appearance of them. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven beta-thalassemic patients, aged 15-25 years, were divided into 13 with (group A) and 14 without hypogonadism (group B), matched by age, gender, duration of transfusion, and chelation therapy. Thirty-eight age- and sex-adjusted healthy control individuals were also included (group C). All participants underwent pituitary MRI using a 1.5T unit. Pituitary-to-fat signal intensity ratios (SIR) were calculated from coronal T2-weighted images. Estimated pituitary volumes were measured using pituitary height, width, and length on T1-weighted images. Results: The mean values of pituitary-to-fat SIRs were significantly lower in group A as compared with group B (P <0.001), and likewise group B had statistically lower values than group C (P=0.03). The pituitary height and volume were significantly decreased in group A compared to group B (P = 0.006 and P = 0.002, respectively), while these differences did not demonstrate statistically significance between groups B and C. Conclusion: Pituitary MRI findings such as signal intensity reduction and decrease in volume can be useful markers in estimating pituitary dysfunction in beta-thalassemic patients. Compared to healthy controls, lower values of pituitary-to-fat SIRs in thalassemic patients experiencing normal puberty, without marked decrease in volume, indicate that signal reduction may precede volume loss and could be expected first on MRI

  16. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km{sup 2} Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included.

  17. Leito de drenagem: sistema natural para redução de volume de lodo de estação de tratamento de água Draining beds: natural system for sludge volume reduction in the water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cali Laguna Achon

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As Estações de Tratamento de Água (ETAs tem funcionamento semelhante a uma indústria e podem em diversas etapas gerar resíduos que, na maioria das ETAs, são lançados nos corpos d’água sem tratamento. Neste trabalho avaliou-se o desempenho de Leitos de Drenagem, para o desaguamento de lodo, provenientes de ETAs de ciclo completo que empregam sulfato de alumínio e cloreto de polialumínio (PACl, como coagulantes. Analisou-se as características, a drenagem e secagem dos amostras de lodo e característica do drenado. Os Leitos de Drenagem mostraram-se eficientes para desaguamento e redução de volume de lodo de ETA, de forma natural, sem consumo de energia ou adição de produtos químicos. Obteve-se, aos sete dias, reduções da ordem de 87 % em volume para os lodos de PACl e 83 % para o lodo de Sulfato de Alumínio e teor de sólidos totais 28% e 31% respectivamente.In this work the performance of Draining Beds for sludge dewatering was assessed. The sludge was provided from full cycle Water Treatment Plants (WTPs that employ aluminum sulfate and polyaluminium chloride (PACl as coagulants. The characteristics, drainage and drying of samples of sludge and characteristic of drained were analysed. The Draining Beds were shown to be efficient for dewatering and sludge volume reduction in the WTP, in a natural way, without energy consumption or adding of chemical products. On the seventh day, it was possible to obtain reduction around 87% in volume for PACl sludge and 83% for the aluminum sulfate sludge and total solids content of 28 and 31% respectively.

  18. Anhedonia correlates with abnormal functional connectivity of the superior temporal gyrus and the caudate nucleus in patients with first-episode drug-naive major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Hua; Tian, Kai; Wang, Dong-Fang; Wang, Yi; Cheung, Eric F C; Xie, Guang-Rong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2017-08-15

    Recent empirical findings have suggested that imbalanced neural networks may underlie the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the contribution of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the caudate nucleus to its pathophysiology remains unclear. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) date were acquired from 40 patients with first-episode drug-naive MDD and 36 matched healthy controls during wakeful rest. We used whole-brain voxel-wise statistical maps to quantify within-group resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) and between-group differences of bilateral caudate and STG seeds. Compared with healthy controls, first-episode MDD patients were found to have reduced connectivity between the ventral caudate and several brain regions including the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and the middle temporal gyrus (MTG), as well as increased connectivity with the cuneus. We also found increased connectivity between the left STG and the precuneus, the angular gyrus and the cuneus. Moreover, we found that increased anhedonia severity was correlated with the magnitude of ventral caudate functional connectivity with the cuneus and the MTG in MDD patients. Due to our small sample size, we did not correct the statistical threshold in the correlation analyses between clinical variables and connectivity abnormalities. The present study suggests that anhedonia is mainly associated with altered ventral caudate-cortical connectivity and highlights the importance of the ventral caudate in the neurobiology of MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Caudate neuronal recording in freely behaving animals following acute and chronic dose response methylphenidate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Catherine M; Dafny, Nachum

    2015-09-01

    The misuse and abuse of the psychostimulant, methylphenidate (MPD) the drug of choice in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has seen a sharp uprising in recent years among both youth and adults for its cognitive enhancing effects and for recreational purposes. This uprise in illicit use has lead to many questions concerning the long-term consequences of MPD exposure. The objective of this study was to record animal behavior concomitantly with the caudate nucleus (CN) neuronal activity following acute and repetitive (chronic) dose response exposure to methylphenidate (MPD). A saline control and three MPD dose (0.6, 2.5, and 10.0mg/kg) groups were used. Behaviorally, the same MPD dose in some animals following chronic MPD exposure elicited behavioral sensitization and other animals elicited behavioral tolerance. Based on this finding, the CN neuronal population recorded from animals expressing behavioral sensitization was also evaluated separately from CN neurons recorded from animals expressing behavioral tolerance to chronic MPD exposure, respectively. Significant differences in CN neuronal population responses between the behaviorally sensitized and the behaviorally tolerant animals were observed for the 2.5 and 10.0mg/kg MPD exposed groups. For 2.5mg/kg MPD, behaviorally sensitized animals responded by decreasing their firing rates while behaviorally tolerant animals showed mainly an increase in their firing rates. The CN neuronal responses recorded from the behaviorally sensitized animals following 10.0mg/kg MPD responded by increasing their firing rates whereas the CN neuronal recordings from the behaviorally tolerant animals showed that approximately half decreased their firing rates in response to 10.0mg/kg MPD exposure. The comparison of percentage change in neuronal firing rates showed that the behaviorally tolerant animals trended to exhibit increases in their neuronal firing rates at ED1 following initial MPD exposure and

  20. The volume reduction of low level solid radioactive waste using a mobile supercompactor at Winfrith Technology Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, L.R.K.

    1993-06-01

    Studies have shown that the most cost effective method presently available to reduce the volume of low level radioactive waste (LLW) sent to Drigg is by high force mechanical compaction. High force compaction or supercompaction is a process by which whole containers of LLW (normally 200 litre drums) are reduced significantly in volume by mechanical compaction in a mould using a force of up to 2000 tonnes. The product is often referred to as a hockepuck . The supercompactor can be either a fixed installation or mounted on two or more trailers so that it can be moved to different sites. The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) and the Winfrith Technology Centre (WTC) agreed to carry out demonstration campaigns at Trawsfyndd and Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Stations and at the WTC during the period August to October 1989. The CEGB placed a contract with Hansa Projekt Anlagentechnik GmbH of Hamburg in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) for the use of a commercial high force supercompactor, together with the necessary key staff. The purpose of the demonstration trial was to show that a mobile system is operationally satisfactory whilst also conforming to all the relevant safety requirements, both at the nuclear sites and during transport. A subsidiary aim was to generate technical data in an experimental programme designed to investigate the force-volume relationship. (Author)

  1. Techno-economic evaluation of thermal treatment, ozonation and sonication for the reduction of wastewater biomass volume before aerobic or anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsabil, M R; Laurent, J; Casellas, M; Dagot, C

    2010-02-15

    Aerobic and anaerobic digestions were compared with different sludge reduction processes such as ultrasonic, ozone, and thermal treatments. Each treatment was tested under the following conditions to improve batch aerobic or anaerobic digestion: ultrasound (200,000kJkgTS(0)(-1)), thermal (40 degrees C, 60 degrees C, 90 degrees C for 90 min, 120 degrees C 15 min, 1 bar), and ozonation (0.1gO(3)gTS(0)(-1)). The different pretreatments induced organic matter solubilisation and intrinsic sludge reduction (total suspended solids): ultrasound (47%), thermal 90 degrees C (16%), ozone (15%), thermal 60 degrees C (9%), thermal 40 degrees C (5%), autoclave (120 degrees C) (4.2%). TSS (and also VSS) solubilisation were found to be highly correlated to the pretreatment ability to break the flocs rather than to specific energy input. The total values of TSS reduction ranged from 57% to 71% under aerobic conditions and from 66% to 86% under anaerobic conditions. TSS solubilisation after pretreatment can be considered as a predictive parameter of sludge volume reduction enhancement after aerobic or anaerobic digestion while specific energy input did not show anything or negligible impact. In our experimental conditions, ultrasound and ozone led to the best TSS removal improvement after both aerobic (30% and 20%) and anaerobic digestion (20%). Ultrasonic and ozone pretreatments prior to aerobic or anaerobic digestion led to the best reduction of the specific energy required for removing 1 kg of TSS compared to the control. Anaerobic digestion was globally more effective (compare to aerobic digestion) in enhancing sludge production reduction.

  2. Estradiol receptors mediate estradiol-induced inhibition of mitochondrial Ca^{2+} efflux in rat caudate nucleus and brain stem

    OpenAIRE

    PETROVIC, SNJEZANA; MILOSEVIC, MAJA; RISTIC-MEDIC, DANIJELA; VELICKOVIC, NATASA; DRAKULIC, DUNJA; GRKOVIC, IVANA; HORVAT, ANICA

    2015-01-01

    Our earlier studies found that in vitro estradiol modulates mitochondrial Ca2+ transport in discrete brain regions. The present study examined the role of estradiol receptors (ERs) in estradiol-induced inhibition of Ca^{2+} efflux from synaptosomal mitochondria isolated from rat caudate nuclei and brain stems. Radioactively labeled CaCl_2 (0.6?0.75 µCi ^45CaCl_{2}) was used for Ca^{2+} transport monitoring. The results revealed that in the presence of ER antagonist 7\\alpha,17ß-[9[(4,4,5,5,5-...

  3. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men is associated with reduction of relative gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate cortex compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordasini, Livio; Weisstanner, Christian; Rummel, Christian; Thalmann, George N; Verma, Rajeev K; Wiest, Roland; Kessler, Thomas M

    2012-12-01

    Although chronic pelvic pain syndrome impairs the life of millions of people worldwide, the exact pathomechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. As with other chronic pain syndromes, the central nervous system may have an important role in chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Thus, we assessed brain alterations associated with abnormal pain processing in patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Using brain morphology assessment applying structural magnetic resonance imaging, we prospectively investigated a consecutive series of 20 men with refractory chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and compared these patients to 20 gender and age matched healthy controls. Between group differences in relative gray matter volume and the association with bother of chronic pelvic pain syndrome were assessed using whole brain covariate analysis. Patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome had a mean (± SD) age of 40 (± 14) years, a mean NIH-CPSI (National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index) total score of 28 (± 6) and a mean pain subscale of 14 (± 3). In patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome compared to healthy controls there was a significant reduction in relative gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate cortex of the dominant hemisphere. This finding correlated with the NIH-CPSI total score (r = 0.57) and pain subscale (r = 0.51). Reduction in relative gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate cortex and correlation with bother of chronic pelvic pain syndrome suggest an essential role for the anterior cingulate cortex in chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Since this area is a core structure of emotional pain processing, central pathomechanisms of chronic pelvic pain syndrome may be considered a promising therapeutic target and may explain the often unsatisfactory results of treatments focusing on peripheral dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and gray matter volume in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, S; Aggio, V; Hoogenboezem, T A; Ambrée, O; de Wit, H; Wijkhuijs, A J M; Locatelli, C; Colombo, C; Arolt, V; Drexhage, H A; Benedetti, F

    2017-02-01

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric condition characterized by grey matter (GM) volumes reduction. Neurotrophic factors have been suggested to play a role in the neuroprogressive changes during the illness course. In particular peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed as a potential biomarker related to disease activity and neuroprogression in BD. The aim of our study was to investigate if serum levels of BDNF are associated with GM volumes in BD patients and healthy controls (HC). We studied 36 inpatients affected by a major depressive episode in course of BD type I and 17 HC. Analysis of variance was performed to investigate the effect of diagnosis on GM volumes in the whole brain. Threshold for significance was Pbrain areas, encompassing the caudate head, superior temporal gyrus, insula, fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex. The interaction analysis between BDNF levels and diagnosis showed a significant effect in the middle frontal gyrus. HC reported higher BDNF levels associated with higher GM volumes, whereas no association between BDNF and GM volumes was observed in BD. Our study seems to suggest that although the production of BDNF is increased in BD possibly to prevent and repair neural damage, its effects could be hampered by underlying neuroinflammatory processes interfering with the neurodevelopmental role of BDNF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. SORL1 rs1699102 polymorphism modulates age-related cognitive decline and gray matter volume reduction in non-demented individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Lv, Chenlong; Yang, Caishui; Wei, Dongfeng; Chen, Kewei; Li, Shaowu; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2017-01-01

    SORL1 rs1699102 is associated with the risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. However, the effects of this single nucleotide polymorphism on cognition and brain structure during normal aging are unclear. This study aimed to examine the effects of the rs1699102 polymorphism on age-related cognitive decline and cortical gray matter reduction in the Chinese Han population. A total of 780 non-demented adults completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. High-resolution T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging data from 89 of these subjects were also collected using a Siemens Trio 3.0 Tesla scanner. The T allele carriers displayed an accelerated age-related change in episodic memory and processing speed tests relative to the CC genotype. A similar pattern was observed in the age-related gray matter volume (GMV) reduction of the right middle temporal pole. The GMV in this region was significantly positively correlated with the episodic memory scores. The SORL1 gene rs1699102 polymorphism has been found to be associated with age-related cognitive decline and GMV reduction of the right middle temporal pole in older adults. These findings elucidate how the SORL1 variants shape the neural system to modulate age-related cognitive decline and support the hypothesis that SORL1 may represent a candidate gene for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. © 2016 EAN.

  6. A process for containment removal and waste volume reduction to remediate groundwater containing certain radionuclides, toxic metals and organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Killey, D.R.W.; Vijayan, S.; Wong, P.C.F.

    1992-09-01

    A project to remove groundwater contaminants by an improved treatment process was performed during 1990 October--1992 March by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the United States Department of Energy, managed by Argonne National Laboratory. The goal was to generate high-quality effluent while minimizing secondary waste volume. Two effluent target levels, within an order of magnitude, or less than the US Drinking Water Limit, were set to judge the process effectiveness. The program employed mixed waste feeds containing cadmium, uranium, lead, iron, calcium, strontium-85-90, cesium-137, benzene and trichlorethylene in simulated and actual groundwater and soil leachate solutions. A combination of process steps consisting of sequential chemical conditioning, cross-flow microfiltration and dewatering by low temperature-evaporation, or filter pressing were effective for the treatment of mixed waste having diverse physico-chemical properties. A simplified single-stage version of the process was implemented to treat ground and surface waters contaminated with strontium-90 at the Chalk River Laboratories site. Effluent targets and project goals were met successfully

  7. Feasibility study of a waste assay system and the possibility of volume reduction at the Puespoekszilagy RWTDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takats, F.

    2001-05-01

    A review of the types and activities of the waste emplaced at the Pupokszilagy Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility (RWTDF) was performed on the basis of the existing operational data. This provided a breakdown of all important parameters of the wastes as well as of the disposal conditions for each disposal unit. Prior to the detailed review, the behaviour of the compacted wastes, simulating those in the repository, was tested with a view to determine the efficiency of a further supercompaction. Based on the evaluation of market data, the cost of purchasing or renting a super-compactor unit and the resulting unit costs were calculated. A detailed review of the free release strategies and the available equipment was prepared. To provide an immediate remedy to the shortage of disposal volume, it is suggested to retrieve the old Institutional wastes and the sealed radioactive sources, and use the existing free space for further waste disposal. As an alternative, the use of residual free space in the vaults for further disposal, without waste recovery, is also reviewed. (author)

  8. Increased turnover of dopamine in caudate nucleus of detoxified alcoholic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumakura, Yoshitaka; Gjedde, Albert; Caprioli, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    (k(loss)), and we also calculated the total distribution volume of decarboxylated metabolites and unmetabolized FDOPA as a steady-state index of the dopamine storage capacity (V(d)) in brain. The craving scores in the 12 alcoholics correlated positively with the rate of loss (k(loss)) in the left...

  9. Design of a PWR gaseous effluent treatment system combining delay-storage vessels, volume-reduction and activated-charcoal beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuyt, G.; Glibert, R.; Lahaye, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The usual technique for the treatment of gaseous effluents is to store them in radioactive decay tanks and to carry out a range of operations such as recycling, volume-reduction and discharge. Although presenting undeniable advantages, this technique has a number of weaknesses which have become apparent with experience. This paper describes and analyses a system designed to alleviate these difficulties and to permit greater flexibility in gaseous effluent treatment, especially for power stations in the load-following mode of operation, by means of a combination of storage techniques and retention of short-lived isotopes in activated charcoal beds. The attractiveness of the proposed system is apparent from an analysis of operational, maintenance, safety and cost aspects. (author)

  10. A longitudinal analysis of regional brain volumes in macaques exposed to X-irradiation in early gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Aldridge

    Full Text Available Early gestation represents a period of vulnerability to environmental insult that has been associated with adult psychiatric disease. However, little is known about how prenatal perturbation translates into adult brain dysfunction. Here, we use a longitudinal study design to examine the effects of disruption of early gestational neurogenesis on brain volume in the non-human primate.Five Rhesus macaques were exposed to x-irradiation in early gestation (E30-E41, and four control monkeys were sham-irradiated at comparable ages. Whole brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 6 months, 12 months, and 3 and 5 years of age. Volumes of whole cerebrum, cortical gray matter, caudate, putamen, and thalamus were estimated using semi-automated segmentation methods and high dimensional brain mapping. Volume reductions spanning all ages were observed in irradiated monkeys in the putamen (15-24%, p = 0.01 and in cortical gray matter (6-15%, p = 0.01. Upon covarying for whole cerebral volume, group differences were reduced to trend levels (putamen: p = 0.07; cortical gray matter: p = 0.08. No group-by-age effects were significant.Due to the small number of observations, the conclusions drawn from this study must be viewed as tentative. Early gestational irradiation may result in non-uniform reduction of gray matter, mainly affecting the putamen and cerebral cortex. This may be relevant to understanding how early prenatal environmental insult could lead to brain morphological differences in neurodevelopmental diseases.

  11. Lung volume reduction in pulmonary emphysema from the radiologist's perspective; Lungenvolumenreduktion beim Lungenemphysem aus der Sicht des Radiologen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doellinger, F.; Poellinger, A. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Huebner, R.H. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Internal Medicine/Infectious and Respiratory Diseases; Kuhnigk, J.M. [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany). Inst. for Medical Image Computing

    2015-08-15

    Pulmonary emphysema causes decrease in lung function due to irreversible dilatation of intrapulmonary air spaces, which is linked to high morbidity and mortality. Lung volume reduction (LVR) is an invasive therapeutical option for pulmonary emphysema in order to improve ventilation mechanics. LVR can be carried out by lung resection surgery or different minimally invasive endoscopical procedures. All LVR-options require mandatory preinterventional evaluation to detect hyperinflated dysfunctional lung areas as target structures for treatment. Quantitative computed tomography can determine the volume percentage of emphysematous lung and its topographical distribution based on the lung's radiodensity. Modern techniques allow for lobebased quantification that facilitates treatment planning. Clinical tests still play the most important role in post-interventional therapy monitoring, but CT is crucial in the detection of postoperative complications and foreshadows the method's high potential in sophisticated experimental studies. Within the last ten years, LVR with endobronchial valves has become an extensively researched minimally-invasive treatment option. However, this therapy is considerably complicated by the frequent occurrence of functional interlobar shunts. The presence of ''collateral ventilation'' has to be ruled out prior to valve implantations, as the presence of these extraanatomical connections between different lobes may jeopardize the success of therapy. Recent experimental studies evaluated the automatic detection of incomplete lobar fissures from CT scans, because they are considered to be a predictor for the existence of shunts. To date, these methods are yet to show acceptable results.

  12. Coffee mannooligosaccharides, consumed as part of a free-living, weight-maintaining diet, increase the proportional reduction in body volume in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinardi, Taylor C; Rubin, Kristin Herron; Black, Richard M; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Clinical studies have shown that the consumption of coffee mannooligosaccharides (MOS) decreases body fat, suggesting that MOS consumption may be useful for weight management. This study was undertaken to determine whether consumption of coffee MOS improves body composition when consumed as part of a weight-maintaining diet. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 54 men and women, age 19-65 y and with BMI of 27-33 kg/m(2), consumed study beverages twice daily, for 12 wk. Beverages were identical except for the presence (MOS group) or absence (placebo group) of MOS (4 g/d). Body composition was assessed at baseline and endpoint using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Body weight, blood pressure, and assessments of feelings of appetite and satiety were taken weekly. Fifty men and women completed both baseline and endpoint MRI scans. There was a significant beverage x time interaction on total body volume (P = 0.026), total adipose tissue (TAT) (P = 0.046), and total subcutaneous adipose tissue (P = 0.032) in men but not women. Men consuming the MOS beverage had a greater percent change in total body volume (P = 0.043) and tended to have greater percent changes in subcutaneous (P = 0.069) and TAT (P = 0.098) compared with the placebo group. Consumption of a MOS-containing beverage, as part of a free-living weight-maintaining diet, leads to reductions in total body volume, relative to placebo, in men. More research is needed to further investigate the mechanism by which MOS may act to improve body composition and to elucidate the influence of gender.

  13. Early treatment volume reduction rate as a prognostic factor in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for limited stage small cell lung cancer

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    Lee, Joo Hwan; Lee, Jeong Shin; Lee, Chang Geol; Cho, Jae Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin Hyun; Kim, Jun Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To investigate the relationship between early treatment response to definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and survival outcome in patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). We retrospectively reviewed 47 patients with LS-SCLC who received definitive CRT between January 2009 and December 2012. Patients were treated with systemic chemotherapy regimen of etoposide/carboplatin (n = 15) or etoposide/cisplatin (n = 32) and concurrent thoracic radiotherapy at a median dose of 54 Gy (range, 46 to 64 Gy). Early treatment volume reduction rate (ETVRR) was defined as the percentage change in gross tumor volume between diagnostic computed tomography (CT) and simulation CT for adaptive RT planning and was used as a parameter for early treatment response. The median dose at adaptive RT planning was 36 Gy (range, 30 to 43 Gy), and adaptive CT was performed in 30 patients (63.8%). With a median follow-up of 27.7 months (range, 5.9 to 75.8 months), the 2-year locoregional progression-free survival (LRPFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 74.2% and 56.5%, respectively. The mean diagnostic and adaptive gross tumor volumes were 117.9 mL (range, 5.9 to 447 mL) and 36.8 mL (range, 0.3 to 230.6 mL), respectively. The median ETVRR was 71.4% (range, 30 to 97.6%) and the ETVRR >45% group showed significantly better OS (p < 0.0001) and LRPFS (p = 0.009) than the other group. ETVRR as a parameter for early treatment response may be a useful prognostic factor to predict treatment outcome in LS-SCLC patients treated with CRT.

  14. Metabolite measurements in the caudate nucleus, anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus among patients with mitochondrial disorders: a case–control study using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebush, Patricia I.; Noseworthy, Michael D.; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Weber, Alexander M.; Soreni, Noam; Mazurek, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial disorders are clinical syndromes associated with mutations in the mitochondrial or nuclear genome that result in impaired oxidative phosphorylation and deficient energy production. Metabolic abnormalities in brain areas associated with cognitive functions could give rise to neuropsychiatric symptomatology. The aim of this study was to use single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify metabolic abnormalities in regions implicated in neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with mitochondrial disorders. Methods N-acetyl-aspartate and creatine levels were measured in the caudate nucleus, anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus in 15 patients with mitochondrial disorders compared with 15 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Results N-acetyl-aspartate levels were significantly lower in the caudate nucleus among patients with mitochondrial disorders (mean 7.04 ± 1.19 standard deviation [SD] institutional units) compared with healthy controls (mean 8.19 ± 1.18 SD institutional units; p = 0.02). Creatine levels were lower in the caudate nucleus among patients compared with controls (patients: mean 6.84 ± 1.42 SD institutional units; controls: mean 7.52 ± 0.76 SD institutional units; p = 0.03), but the results were no longer significant after correction for multiple comparisons. There were no significant differences in metabolite measurements between patients and controls in the anterior cingulate cortex and the hippocampus. Interpretation Metabolic abnormalities were identified exclusively in the caudate nucleus, with significantly lower N-acetyl-aspartate levels among patients compared with controls. These results suggest that the corpus striatum may be highly susceptible to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation defects and resultant cell loss. Given the role of the caudate nucleus in cognitive and executive functions, our findings raise the possibility that metabolic abnormalities in the caudate nucleus may contribute

  15. Expression of Osteogenic Molecules in the Caudate Nucleus and Gray Matter and Their Potential Relevance for Basal Ganglia Calcification in Hypoparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millo, Tabin; Mishra, Shruti; Das, Madhuchhanda; Kapoor, Mansi; Tomar, Neeraj; Saha, Soma; Roy, Tara Shankar; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla

    2014-01-01

    Background: Basal ganglia calcification (BGC) is an interesting example of ectopic calcification in patients with hypoparathyroidism. Its pathogenesis and reasons for predilection of calcification at basal ganglia are not clear. Objective: To assess the expression of osteogenesis-related molecules in the caudate nucleus and surface gray matter (an area spared from calcification) and discuss potential relevance of the results in context of BGC in idiopathic hypoparathyroidism. Methods: Caudate nucleus and gray matter were obtained from 14 autopsies performed in accidental deaths. The mRNA expression of bone transcription factors (RUNX2/osterix), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 2 and 4, osteonectin, osteopontin, osteocalcin, vitamin D receptor, calcium sensing-receptor, Na phosphate transporters (PiTs) 1 and 2, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B (NMDAR2B), carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II), PTH1 receptor (PTH1R), PTH2R, and PTHrP were assessed by RT-PCR. Western blot, spot densitometry, and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess protein expression of molecules showing differences in mRNA expression between caudate and gray tissues. Results: The mean mRNA expression of PiT1 (11.0 ± 10.39 vs 32.9 ± 20.98, P = .003) and PTH2R (1.6 ± 1.47 vs 13.7 ± 6.11, P = .001) were significantly lower in the caudate nucleus than the gray matter. The expression of osteonectin, osteopontin, and CA-II were significantly higher in the caudate nucleus than the gray matter (P = .01, .001, and .04, respectively). The mRNA expression of other molecules was comparable in the 2 tissues. The protein expression of both CA-II and osteonectin was 24% higher and PiT1 17% lower in caudate than the gray matter. The differences in the PTH2R and osteopontin protein expression were not appreciable. Conclusions: The presence of several osteogenic molecules in caudate nucleus indicates that BGC would probably be the outcome of an active process. The differences in expression of these molecules in

  16. Flexible and Stable Value Coding Areas in Caudate Head and Tail Receive Anatomically Distinct Cortical and Subcortical Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney S. Griggs

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anatomically distinct areas within the basal ganglia encode flexible- and stable-value memories for visual objects (Hikosaka et al., 2014, but an important question remains: do they receive inputs from the same or different brain areas or neurons? To answer this question, we first located flexible and stable value-coding areas in the caudate head (CDh and caudate tail (CDt of two rhesus macaque monkeys, and then injected different retrograde tracers into these areas of each monkey. We found that CDh and CDt received different inputs from several cortical and subcortical areas including temporal cortex, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala, claustrum and thalamus. Superior temporal cortex and inferior temporal cortex projected to both CDh and CDt, with more CDt-projecting than CDh-projecting neurons. In superior temporal cortex and dorsal inferior temporal cortex, layers 3 and 5 projected to CDh while layers 3 and 6 projected to CDt. Prefrontal and cingulate cortex projected mostly to CDh bilaterally, less to CDt unilaterally. A cluster of neurons in the basolateral amygdala projected to CDt. Rostral-dorsal claustrum projected to CDh while caudal-ventral claustrum projected to CDt. Within the thalamus, different nuclei projected to either CDh or CDt. The medial centromedian nucleus and lateral parafascicular nucleus projected to CDt while the medial parafascicular nucleus projected to CDh. The inferior pulvinar and lateral dorsal nuclei projected to CDt. The ventral anterior and medial dorsal nuclei projected to CDh. We found little evidence of neurons projecting to both CDh and CDt across the brain. These data suggest that CDh and CDt can control separate functions using anatomically separate circuits. Understanding the roles of these striatal projections will be important for understanding how value memories are created and stored.

  17. Post-transcriptional regulation of dopamine D1 receptor expression in caudate-putamen of cocaine-sensitized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón, Krishna E; Catuzzi, Jennifer E; Cote, Samantha R; Sonaike, Adenike; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V

    2015-07-01

    The dopamine D1 receptor is centrally involved in mediating the effects of cocaine and is essential for cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Changes in D1 receptor expression have been reported in various models of cocaine addiction; however, the mechanisms that mediate these changes in D1 receptor expression are not well understood. Using preadolescent drd1a-EGFP mice and a binge cocaine treatment protocol we demonstrate that the D1 receptor is post-transcriptionally regulated in the caudate-putamen of cocaine-sensitized animal. While cocaine-sensitized mice express high levels of steady-state D1 receptor mRNA, the expression of D1 receptor protein is not elevated. We determined that the post-transcriptional regulation of D1 receptor mRNA is rapidly attenuated and D1 receptor protein levels increase within 30 min when the sensitized mice are challenged with cocaine. The rapid increase in D1 receptor protein levels requires de novo protein synthesis and correlates with the cocaine-induced hyperlocomotor activity in the cocaine-sensitized mice. The increase in D1 receptor protein levels in the caudate-putamen inversely correlated with the levels of microRNA 142-3p and 382, both of which regulate D1 receptor protein expression. The levels of these two microRNAs decreased significantly within 5 min of cocaine challenge in sensitized mice. The results provide novel insights into the previously unknown rapid kinetics of D1 receptor protein expression which occurs in a time scale that is comparable to the expression of immediate early genes. Furthermore, the results suggest a potential novel role for inherently labile microRNAs in regulating the rapid expression of D1 receptor protein in cocaine-sensitized animals. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Synchronized drumming enhances activity in the caudate and facilitates prosocial commitment--if the rhythm comes easily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idil Kokal

    Full Text Available Why does chanting, drumming or dancing together make people feel united? Here we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying interpersonal synchrony and its subsequent effects on prosocial behavior among synchronized individuals. We hypothesized that areas of the brain associated with the processing of reward would be active when individuals experience synchrony during drumming, and that these reward signals would increase prosocial behavior toward this synchronous drum partner. 18 female non-musicians were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they drummed a rhythm, in alternating blocks, with two different experimenters: one drumming in-synchrony and the other out-of-synchrony relative to the participant. In the last scanning part, which served as the experimental manipulation for the following prosocial behavioral test, one of the experimenters drummed with one half of the participants in-synchrony and with the other out-of-synchrony. After scanning, this experimenter "accidentally" dropped eight pencils, and the number of pencils collected by the participants was used as a measure of prosocial commitment. Results revealed that participants who mastered the novel rhythm easily before scanning showed increased activity in the caudate during synchronous drumming. The same area also responded to monetary reward in a localizer task with the same participants. The activity in the caudate during experiencing synchronous drumming also predicted the number of pencils the participants later collected to help the synchronous experimenter of the manipulation run. In addition, participants collected more pencils to help the experimenter when she had drummed in-synchrony than out-of-synchrony during the manipulation run. By showing an overlap in activated areas during synchronized drumming and monetary reward, our findings suggest that interpersonal synchrony is related to the brain's reward system.

  19. Reduction in Tumor Volume by Cone Beam Computed Tomography Predicts Overall Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbour, Salma K.; Kim, Sinae; Haider, Syed A.; Xu, Xiaoting; Wu, Alson; Surakanti, Sujani; Aisner, Joseph; Langenfeld, John; Yue, Ning J.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Zou, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to evaluate whether tumor response using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) performed as part of the routine care during chemoradiation therapy (CRT) could forecast the outcome of unresectable, locally advanced, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We manually delineated primary tumor volumes (TV) of patients with NSCLC who were treated with radical CRT on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, and 43 on CBCTs obtained as part of the standard radiation treatment course. Percentage reductions in TV were calculated and then correlated to survival and pattern of recurrence using Cox proportional hazard models. Clinical information including histologic subtype was also considered in the study of such associations. Results: We evaluated 38 patients with a median follow-up time of 23.4 months. The median TV reduction was 39.3% (range, 7.3%-69.3%) from day 1 (D1) to day 43 (D43) CBCTs. Overall survival was associated with TV reduction from D1 to D43 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.557, 95% CI 0.39-0.79, P=.0009). For every 10% decrease in TV from D1 to D43, the risk of death decreased by 44.3%. For patients whose TV decreased ≥39.3 or <39.3%, log-rank test demonstrated a separation in survival (P=.02), with median survivals of 31 months versus 10 months, respectively. Neither local recurrence (HR 0.791, 95% CI 0.51-1.23, P=.29), nor distant recurrence (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.57-1.08, P=.137) correlated with TV decrease from D1 to D43. Histologic subtype showed no impact on our findings. Conclusions: TV reduction as determined by CBCT during CRT as part of routine care predicts post-CRT survival. Such knowledge may justify intensification of RT or application of additional therapies. Assessment of genomic characteristics of these tumors may permit a better understanding of behavior or prediction of therapeutic outcomes

  20. The feasibility of white matter volume reduction analysis using SPM8 plus DARTEL for the diagnosis of patients with clinically diagnosed corticobasal syndrome and Richardson's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Keita; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Tokumaru, Aya M; Hasebe, Shin; Murayama, Shigeo; Morimoto, Satoru; Kanemaru, Kazutomi; Takao, Masaki; Shibamoto, Yuta; Matsukawa, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is often difficult due to the wide variety of symptoms and overlaps in the similar clinical courses and neurological findings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of white matter (WM) atrophy for the diagnosis of patients with clinically diagnosed CBD (corticobasal syndrome, CBS) and PSP (Richardson's syndrome, RS). We randomly divided the 3D T1-weighted MR images of 18 CBS patients, 33 RS patients, and 32 age-matched controls into two groups. We obtained segmented WM images in the first group using Voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer's disease (VSRAD) based on statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 8 plus diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra. A target volume of interest (VOI) for disease-specific atrophy was subsequently determined in this group using SPM8 group analyses of WM atrophy between patients groups and controls. We then evaluated the utility of these VOIs for diagnosing CBS and RS patients in the second group. Z score values in these VOIs were used as the determinant in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Specific target VOIs were determined in the bilateral frontal subcortical WM for CBS and in the midbrain tegmentum for RS. In ROC analyses, the target VOIs of CBS and RS compared to those of controls exhibited an area under curve (AUC) of 0.99 and 0.84, respectively, which indicated an adequate diagnostic power. The VOI of CBS revealed a higher AUC than that of RS for differentiating between CBS and RS (AUC, 0.75 vs 0.53). Bilateral frontal WM volume reduction demonstrated a higher power for differentiating CBS from RS. This VOI analysis is useful for clinically diagnosing CBS and RS.

  1. Statistics for stochastic modeling of volume reduction, hydrograph extension, and water-quality treatment by structural stormwater runoff best management practices (BMPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model (SELDM) in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to indicate the risk for stormwater concentrations, flows, and loads to be above user-selected water-quality goals and the potential effectiveness of mitigation measures to reduce such risks. SELDM models the potential effect of mitigation measures by using Monte Carlo methods with statistics that approximate the net effects of structural and nonstructural best management practices (BMPs). In this report, structural BMPs are defined as the components of the drainage pathway between the source of runoff and a stormwater discharge location that affect the volume, timing, or quality of runoff. SELDM uses a simple stochastic statistical model of BMP performance to develop planning-level estimates of runoff-event characteristics. This statistical approach can be used to represent a single BMP or an assemblage of BMPs. The SELDM BMP-treatment module has provisions for stochastic modeling of three stormwater treatments: volume reduction, hydrograph extension, and water-quality treatment. In SELDM, these three treatment variables are modeled by using the trapezoidal distribution and the rank correlation with the associated highway-runoff variables. This report describes methods for calculating the trapezoidal-distribution statistics and rank correlation coefficients for stochastic modeling of volume reduction, hydrograph extension, and water-quality treatment by structural stormwater BMPs and provides the calculated values for these variables. This report also provides robust methods for estimating the minimum irreducible concentration (MIC), which is the lowest expected effluent concentration from a particular BMP site or a class of BMPs. These statistics are different from the statistics commonly used to characterize or compare BMPs. They are designed to provide a stochastic transfer function to approximate

  2. Diminished caudate and superior temporal gyrus responses to effort-based decision making in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-hua; Huang, Jia; Lan, Yong; Zhu, Cui-ying; Liu, Xiao-qun; Wang, Ye-fei; Cheung, Eric F C; Xie, Guang-rong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-01-04

    Anhedonia, the loss of interest or pleasure in reward processing, is a hallmark feature of major depressive disorder (MDD), but its underlying neurobiological mechanism is largely unknown. The present study aimed to examine the underlying neural mechanism of reward-related decision-making in patients with MDD. We examined behavioral and neural responses to rewards in patients with first-episode MDD (N=25) and healthy controls (N=25) using the Effort-Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). The task involved choices about possible rewards of varying magnitude and probability. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with MDD would exhibit a reduced neural response in reward-related brain structures involved in cost-benefit decision-making. Compared with healthy controls, patients with MDD showed significantly weaker responses in the left caudate nucleus when contrasting the 'high reward'-'low reward' condition, and blunted responses in the left superior temporal gyrus and the right caudate nucleus when contrasting high and low probabilities. In addition, hard tasks chosen during high probability trials were negatively correlated with superior temporal gyrus activity in MDD patients, while the same choices were negatively correlated with caudate nucleus activity in healthy controls. These results indicate that reduced caudate nucleus and superior temporal gyrus activation may underpin abnormal cost-benefit decision-making in MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hippocampus, caudate nucleus and entorhinal cortex volumetric MRI measurements in discrimination between Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Elshafey

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Semi-automated MR volumetric measurements can be used to determine atrophy in hippocampus, caudate nucleus and entorhinal cortex which aided in discrimination of healthy elderly control subjects from subjects with AD and MCI and predict clinical decline of MCI leading to increase the efficiency of clinical treatments, delay institutionalization and improve cognition and behavioral symptoms.

  4. Lung volume reduction for emphysema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, Pallav L.; Herth, Felix J.; van Geffen, Wouter H.; Deslee, Gaetan; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    Advanced emphysema is a lung disease in which alveolar capillary units are destroyed and supporting tissue is lost. The combined effect of reduced gas exchange and changes in airway dynamics impairs expiratory airflow and leads to progressive air trapping. Pharmacological therapies have limited

  5. Effect of a new pelvic stabilizer (T-POD®) on reduction of pelvic volume and haemodynamic stability in unstable pelvic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Edward C T H; van Stigt, Sander F L; van Vugt, Arie B

    2010-12-01

    Pelvic fractures, often the result of high energy blunt trauma, are associated with severe morbidity and mortality. A new pelvic stabilizer (T-POD®) provides secure and effective simultaneous circumferential compression of the pelvis. In this study we describe 15 patients with a prehospital untreated unstable pelvic fracture with signs of hypovolaemic shock with the T-POD®. Before and 2 min after applying the T-POD®, heart rate and blood pressure were measured. An X-ray before and directly after applying the T-POD® was made to measure the effect on reduction in symphyseal diastasis. Application of the T-POD® reduced the symphyseal diastasis with 60% (p = 0.01). The mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased significant from 65.3 to 81.2 mm Hg (p = 0.03) and the heart rate declined from 107 beats per minute to 94 (p = 0.02). Out of ten patients in whom the circulatory response before and after the T-POD® was recorded, seven were good responders, one had a transient response and two responded poor. In the acute setting, the T-POD® device has a clear compressive effect on the pelvic volume in unstable pelvic fractures. The T-POD® is therefore an effective and easy to use device in (temporarily) stabilizing the pelvic ring in haemodynamically unstable patients.

  6. Thin-section CT vs spiral CT in candidates for lung volume reduction surgery: a comparison based on radiologists' subjective preferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederlund, K.; Hoegberg, S.; Rasmussen, E.; Svane, B.; Bergstrand, L.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether high-resolution (HRCT) or spiral CT was preferred in evaluating severe emphysema in patients undergoing lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS), whether there is any difference in this regard between the cranial and caudal part of the lung, and whether the degree of emphysema has an impact on the radiologists' preference. The study was performed by letting four radiologists compare images obtained with the two techniques (film pairs) and decide which technique they preferred or if the techniques were considered as equal in evaluating emphysema. In evaluation of 188 film pairs, the HRCT images were preferred in 56 %, spiral CT in 19 % and the techniques considered as equal in 25 %. Spiral CT images were preferred more often in the caudal part of the lung and in more advanced emphysema compared with the HRCT images. The study confirms our clinical assumption that use of both CT techniques are valuable in evaluating advanced emphysema and there may be technical as well as histopathological reasons for this. (orig.)

  7. Thin-section CT vs spiral CT in candidates for lung volume reduction surgery: a comparison based on radiologists' subjective preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, K.; Hoegberg, S.; Rasmussen, E.; Svane, B. [Dept. of Thoracic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Bergstrand, L. [Dept. of Radiology, Danderyds Hospital (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether high-resolution (HRCT) or spiral CT was preferred in evaluating severe emphysema in patients undergoing lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS), whether there is any difference in this regard between the cranial and caudal part of the lung, and whether the degree of emphysema has an impact on the radiologists' preference. The study was performed by letting four radiologists compare images obtained with the two techniques (film pairs) and decide which technique they preferred or if the techniques were considered as equal in evaluating emphysema. In evaluation of 188 film pairs, the HRCT images were preferred in 56 %, spiral CT in 19 % and the techniques considered as equal in 25 %. Spiral CT images were preferred more often in the caudal part of the lung and in more advanced emphysema compared with the HRCT images. The study confirms our clinical assumption that use of both CT techniques are valuable in evaluating advanced emphysema and there may be technical as well as histopathological reasons for this. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of Nickel Release from Endobronchial Valves as a Possible Cause of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis in a Patient Treated with Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Daniel P; Lang, Claudia; Agorastos, Nikos; Freitag, Lutz; Kohler, Malcolm; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Endobronchial valve (EBV) placement is an established lung volume reduction procedure aiming to improve lung function and exercise capacity in patients with severe emphysema. As EBVs consist of silicone and nitinol (a metal alloy of nickel and titanium), there are concerns that nickel ions might be released and could have a clinical impact in patients with a contact allergy to nickel. Based on a case with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) after treatment with EBVs, we aimed to evaluate the in vitro nickel release from EBVs using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Six EBVs were immersed in artificial saliva for a period of 7 days. At 24-h intervals, the nickel ion concentration was measured using ICP-MS. There was evidence of a significant nickel release from EBV during the first 48 h, which is possibly due to an incomplete silicone layer detected by SEM. The concentration of released nickel was below the toxic limit. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of HP after EBV treatment. Our finding of in vitro release of nickel ions from EBVs may contribute to the current understanding on hypersensitivity reactions after nitinol implants in patients with nickel contact allergy. However, it did not confirm a causative relationship. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. [Role of quantitative perfusion scintigraphy evaluation in determination of the efficiency of the procedure before lung volume reduction coil treatment for severe emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Fidan

    2017-06-01

    Lung volume reduction coil (LVRC) is a new treatment method which exercise capacities among the patients with severe emphysema. In order to determine the emphysema distribution before LVRC treatment, we examined the contribution of combination of the high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lung and the quantitative perfusion scintigraphy to the efficiency of the procedure. The study was conducted retrospectively. The densitometry analysis and scores of emphysema areas of the patients who were found suitable for LVRC treatment in HRCT were determined. Before the procedure, the quantitative lung perfusion scintigraphies were taken. Lobes which had high emphysema score and in which a decrease perfusion was observed in quantitative perfusion scintigraphy were determined as treatment areas. A total of 22 patients were treated. In HRCT it was observed that perfusion decreased in lobes in which the emphysema damage scoring was high. A significant statistical difference was found between pre-and post- procedure measurements in terms of FEV 1 , RV, and TLC (pdifference was found as 45.4 ± 23.9 m (p= 0.000). No significant difference was determined between perfusion ratios before the procedure and perfusion ratios after the procedure. The quantitative perfusion scintigraphy taken before LVRC treatment in severe emphysema patients guides to determine the target lobe for treatment and makes contribution to the efficiency of the procedure.

  10. Potential role of proton therapy in the treatment of pediatric medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors: reduction of the supratentorial target volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miralbell, Raymond; Lomax, Anthony; Bortfeld, Thomas; Rouzaud, Michel; Carrie, Christian

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: One of the components of radiotherapy (RT) in medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors is the prophylactic irradiation of the whole brain (WBI). With the aim of reducing late neuropsychologic morbidity a CT-scan-based dosimetric study was undertaken in which treatment was confined mainly or exclusively to supratentorial sites considered at high risk for disease recurrence. Methods and Materials: A comparative dosimetric study is presented in which a three field (two laterals and one posterior) proton plan (spot scanning method) is compared with a two-field conventional WBI 6 MV x-ray plan, to a 6-field 'hand-made' 6 MV x-ray plan, and to a computer-optimized 9-field 'inverse' 15 MV x-ray plan. For favorable patients, 30 Gy were delivered to the ventricles and main cisterns, the subfrontal and subtemporal regions, and the posterior fossa. For the unfavorable patients, 10 Gy WBI preceded a boost to 30 Gy to the same treatment volume chosen for favorable patients. The dose distribution was evaluated with dose-volume histograms to examine the coverage of the targets as well as the dose to the nontarget brain and optical structures. In addition, the risks of radiation-related late neuropsychologic effects after WBI were collected from the literature and used to predict normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) for an intelligence quotient deficit after treatment with photon or proton beams. Results: Proton beams succeeded better in reducing the dose to the brain hemispheres and eye than any of the photon plans. A 25.1% risk of an IQ score <90 was predicted after 30 Gy WBI. Almost a 10% drop in the predicted risk was observed when using proton beams in both favorable and unfavorable patients. However, predicted NTCPs for both optimized photon plans ('hand made' and 'inverse') were only slightly higher (0.3-2.5%) than those of proton beams. An age-modifying factor was introduced in the predictive NTCP model to assess for IQ differences in relation

  11. Recovery of akinetic mutism and injured prefronto-caudate tract following shunt operation for hydrocephalus and rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Chang, Chul Hoon; Jung, Young Jin; Lee, Han Do

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: A 76-year-old female patient was diagnosed with an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage following rupture of a right posterior communicating artery aneurysm. Patient concerns: She was treated surgically with clipping of the aneurysmal neck. Six months after onset, when starting rehabilitation at our hospital, she showed no spontaneous movement or speech. Diagnoses: aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage following rupture of a right posterior communicating artery aneurysm. Interventions: During 2 months’ rehabilitation, her AM did not improve significantly. As there was no apparent change, she underwent a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt operation for hydrocephalus 8 months after her stroke. After the surgery, she remained in the AM state, but participated in a comprehensive rehabilitative management program similar to that before shunt operation. During 1 month's intensive rehabilitation, her AM gradually improved. At 9 months after onset, she became able to perform some daily activities by herself including eating, washing, and dressing. In addition, she could speak with some fluency. Outcomes: On 6-month DTT, the neural connectivity of the caudate nucleus (CN) to the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC, Broadmann area [BA]: 10 and 12) and orbito-frontal cortex (BA 11 and 13) was low in both hemispheres. However, the neural connectivity of the CN to the medial PFC increased on both sides on 9-month DTT. The integrity of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) was preserved in both hemispheres on both 6- and 9-month DTTs. Lessons: Recovery of AM and injured PCTs was observed in a stroke patient. PMID:29390310

  12. Intense volume reduction of mixed and low-level waste, solidification in sulphur polymer concrete, and excellent disposal at minimum cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnell, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    Progressive changes in regulations governing the disposal of the nation's radioactive and hazardous wastes demand the development of more advanced treatment and disposal systems. The U.S. Department of Energy's Radioactive Waste Technology Support Program (formerly the Defense Low-Level Waste Management Program) was given the task of demonstrating the degree of excellence that could be achieved at reasonable cost using existing technology. The resulting concept is a Waste Treatment and Disposal Complex that will fully treat contact-handled mixed and low-level radioactive waste to a disposable product that is totally liquid-free and approximately 98% inorganic. An excellent volume reduction factor is achieved through sorting, sizing, incineration, vitrification, and final grouting. Inorganic waste items larger than 1/4 in. will be placed in inexpensive, uniform-sized, smooth-sided, thin-walled steel boxes. The smaller particles will be mixed with sulfur polymer concrete and pumped into the boxes, filling most voids. The appendage-free boxes measuring 1 by 1 by 1 m will be stacked tightly in an abovegrade, earth-mounded, concrete disposal vault where a temporary roof will protect them from rain and snow. A concrete roof poured directly on top of the dense, essentially voidless waste stack will be topped by an engineered, water-shedding earthen cover. Total cost for design, construction, testing, 30 years of treatment and disposal, administration, decontamination and decommissioning, site closure, and postclosure monitoring and maintenance will cost less per cubic foot than is currently expended for subsurface disposal. A radiological performance assessment shows this concept will exceed the nation's existing disposal systems and governmental performance objectives for the protection of the general public by a factor of 30,000

  13. Intense volume reduction of mixed and low-level waste, solidification in sulphur polymer concrete, and excellent disposal at minimum cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnell, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    Progressive changes in regulations governing the disposal of the nation's radioactive and hazardous waste demand the development of more advanced treatment and disposal systems. The US Department of Energy's Radioactive Waste Technology Support Program was given the task of demonstrating the degree of excellence that could be achieved at reasonable cost using existing technology. The resulting concept is a Waste Treatment and Disposal Complex that will fully treat contact-handled mixed and low-level radioactive waste to a disposal product that is totally liquid-free and approximately 98% inorganic. An excellent volume reduction factor is achieved through sorting, sizing, incineration, vitrification, and final grouting. Inorganic waste items larger than 1/4 in. will be placed in inexpensive, uniform-sized, smooth-sides, thin-walled steel boxes. The smaller particles will be mixed with sulfur polymer concrete and pumped into the boxes, filling most voids. The appendage-free boxes measuring 1 x 1 x 1 m will be stacked tightly in an abovegrade, earth-mounded, concrete disposal vault where a temporary roof will protect them from rain and snow. A concrete roof poured directly on top of the dense, essentially voidless waste stack will be topped by an engineered, water-shedding earth cover. Total cost for design, construction, testing, 30 years of treatment and disposal, administration, decontamination and decommissioning, site closure, and postclosure monitoring and maintenance will cost less per cubic foot than is currently expended for subsurface disposal. A radiological performance assessment shows this concept will exceed the nation's existing disposal systems and governmental performance objectives for the protection of the general public by a factor of 30,000

  14. Grey matter volume in adolescents with anorexia nervosa and associated eating disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Monzon, Beatriz; Henderson, Luke A; Madden, Sloane; Macefield, Vaughan G; Touyz, Stephen; Kohn, Michael R; Clarke, Simon; Foroughi, Nasim; Hay, Phillipa

    2017-10-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a mental health disorder of complex aetiology. Previous neuroimaging studies have found consistent global reductions in global grey matter volume of underweight girls with AN; however, differences in regional grey matter volumes are less consistent. The aims of this study were to investigate grey matter regional volumes of adolescent girls with AN before and after weight recovery and the relationship of any changes with clinical characteristics. We collected high-resolution T1-weighted images from 26 underweight girls with AN before weight gain and 20 healthy control volunteers. Clinical features were assessed using the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. AN subjects displayed reduced grey matter volumes in the insula, amygdala, prefrontal, hippocampal and cingulate cortices and the precuneus, relative to healthy controls. In a subset of 10 AN subjects who were followed after weight recovery, grey matter volumes increased to near-control levels in the orbito- and medial prefrontal, insular, left hippocampal and mid- and posterior cingulate cortices and precuneus. The recovery of the right anterior thalamus and the left orbitofrontal cortex was correlated with improvements in eating concerns and shape concerns, respectively. However, large parts of the anterior cingulate cortex, caudate nuclei and right hippocampus did not display any grey matter recovery following a short-term of treatment. These results show that in adolescents with AN, some brain regions display marked recovery in grey matter volume following weight recovery, whereas others do not, considering grey mater recovery possibly linked to symptom improvement. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. GABA-A and NMDA receptor expression is altered in the caudate but not the putamen of the postmortem brains of alcoholics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol K Bhandage

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic consumption of alcohol by humans has been shown to lead to impairment of executive and cognitive functions. Here we have studied the changes that take place in the dorsal striatum in post-mortem brains of alcoholics and normal controls. The results show a significant change in the expression of both the excitatory ionotropic glutamate receptor and the inhibitory GABA-A receptor subunit genes in the caudate but not the putamen of the striatum. The mRNA levels in the caudate encoding the glutamate receptor subunit GluN2A and the GABA-A receptor subunits δ, ε and ρ2 were significantly decreased whereas the GluD1, GluD2 and the GABA-A γ1 mRNA levels were significantly increased in the alcoholics as compared to controls. Interestingly in controls, 11 glutamate and 5 GABA-A receptor genes were more prominently (fold-increase varied from 1.24 to 2.91 expressed in the caudate than the putamen. We have previously shown in post-mortem samples from alcoholics that the expression level of glutamate and GABA-A receptor genes in the dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex is similar to that of normal controls (Jin et al., 2011a;Jin et al., 2014b. This is in contrast to the present study. As the caudate is vital for automatic thinking, the results indicate that the balance between voluntary and automatic control of behaviours is altered in alcoholics. Our results suggest that there may be diminished executive control on goal-directed alcohol-seeking behaviour and, rather, a shift to greater striatal control over behaviours that may be critical in the progress of becoming an alcoholic.

  16. CRFR1 in the ventromedial caudate putamen modulates acute stress-enhanced expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuli; Wang, Zhiyan; Li, Yijing; Sun, Xiaowei; Ge, Feifei; Yang, Mingda; Wang, Xinjuan; Wang, Na; Wang, Junkai; Cui, Cailian

    2017-07-15

    Repeated exposure to psychostimulants induces a long-lasting enhancement of locomotor activity called behavioral sensitization, which is often reinforced by stress after drug withdrawal. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain elusive. Here we explored the effects of acute stress 3 or 14 days after the cessation of chronic cocaine treatment on the expression of locomotor sensitization induced by a cocaine challenge in rats and the key brain region and molecular mechanism underlying the phenomenon. A single session of forced swimming, as an acute stress (administered 2 days after the cessation of cocaine), significantly enhanced the expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization 14 days after the final cocaine injection (challenge at 12 days after acute stress) but not 3 days after the cessation of cocaine (challenge at 1 day after acute stress). The result indicated that acute stress enhanced the expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization after incubation for 12 days rather than 1 day after the last cocaine injection. Moreover, the enhancement in locomotor sensitization was paralleled by a selective increase in the number of the c-Fos + cells, the level of CRFR1 mRNA in the ventromedial caudate putamen (vmCPu). Furthermore, the enhancement was significantly attenuated by CRFR1 antagonist NBI-27914 into the vmCPu, implying that the up-regulation of CRFR1 in the vmCPu seems to be critical in the acute stress-enhanced expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization. The findings demonstrate that the long-term effect of acute stress on the expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization is partially mediated by CRFR1 in the vmCPu. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Prospective study of treatment techniques to minimize the volume of pelvic small bowel with reduction of acute and late effects associated with pelvic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, M.J.; Brereton, H.D.; Rostock, R.A.; Zero, J.M.; Zekoski, D.A.; Poyss, L.F.; Richter, M.P.; Kligerman, M.M.

    1986-09-01

    The volume, distribution, and mobility of opacified pelvic small bowel (PSB) were determined by fluoroscopy and orthogonal radiographs in 150 consecutive patients undergoing pelvic irradiation. Various techniques including uteropexy, omental transposition, bladder distention, inclining the patient, and anterior abdominal wall compression in the supine and prone treatment position were studied for their effect on the volume and location of small bowel within the pelvis. Abdominal wall compression in the prone position combined with bladder distention was selected for further investigation because of its simplicity, reproducibility, patient comfort, and ability to displace the small bowel. Factors correlating with the volume of pelvic small bowel (PSB) included prior pelvic surgery, pelvic irradiation (XRT), and body mass index. After pelvic surgery, especially following abdominoperineal resection (APR), there was a greater volume of PSB which was also less mobile. The severity of acute gastrointestinal effects positively correlated with the volume of irradiated small bowel. Overall, 67% of patients experienced little or no diarrhea, 30% developed mild diarrhea, and no patient required treatment interruption. Late gastrointestinal effects correlated with the prior pelvic surgery and with the volume of small bowel receiving greater than 45 Gy. Small bowel obstruction was not observed in 75 patients who had no previous pelvic surgery. However, following pelvic surgery excluding APR, 2/50 patients and following APR, 3/25 patients developed small bowel obstruction.

  18. High-Frequency Jet Ventilation for Complete Target Immobilization and Reduction of Planning Target Volume in Stereotactic High Single-Dose Irradiation of Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Lung Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, Peter; Kraus, Hans-Joerg; Muehlnickel, Werner; Sassmann, Volker; Hering, Werner; Strauch, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of complete target immobilization by means of high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV); and to show that the saving of planning target volume (PTV) on the stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) under HFJV, compared with SBRT with respiratory motion, can be predicted with reliable accuracy by computed tomography (CT) scans at peak inspiration phase. Methods and Materials: A comparison regarding different methods for defining the PTV was carried out in 22 patients with tumors that clearly moved with respiration. A movement span of the gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined by fusing respiration-correlated CT scans. The PTV enclosed the GTV positions with a safety margin throughout the breathing cycle. To create a PTV from CT scans acquired under HFJV, the same margins were drawn around the immobilized target. In addition, peak inspiration phase CT images (PIP-CTs) were used to approximate a target immobilized by HFJV. Results: The resulting HFJV-PTVs were between 11.6% and 45.4% smaller than the baseline values calculated as respiration-correlated CT-PTVs (median volume reduction, 25.4%). Tentative planning by means of PIP-CT PTVs predicted that in 19 of 22 patients, use of HFJV would lead to a reduction in volume of ≥20%. Using this threshold yielded a positive predictive value of 0.89, as well as a sensitivity of 0.94 and a specificity of 0.5. Conclusions: In all patients, SBRT under HFJV provided a reliable immobilization of the GTVs and achieved a reduction in PTVs, regardless of patient compliance. Tentative planning facilitated the selection of patients who could better undergo radiation in respiratory standstill, both with greater accuracy and lung protection.

  19. Disrupted reinforcement signaling in the orbitofrontal cortex and caudate in youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder and a high level of psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Elizabeth C; Marsh, Abigail A; Blair, Karina S; Reid, Marguerite E; Sims, Courtney; Ng, Pamela; Pine, Daniel S; Blair, R James R

    2011-02-01

    Dysfunction in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex has been reported in youths and adults with psychopathic traits. The specific nature of the functional irregularities within these structures remains poorly understood. The authors used a passive avoidance task to examine the responsiveness of these systems to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure, when prediction errors are greatest and learning maximized, and to reward in youths with psychopathic traits and comparison youths. While performing the passive avoidance learning task, 15 youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus a high level of psychopathic traits and 15 healthy subjects completed a 3.0-T fMRI scan. Relative to the comparison youths, the youths with a disruptive behavior disorder plus psychopathic traits showed less orbitofrontal responsiveness both to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure and to rewards, as well as less caudate response to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure. There were no group differences in amygdala responsiveness to these two task measures, but amygdala responsiveness throughout the task was lower in the youths with psychopathic traits. Compromised sensitivity to early reinforcement information in the orbitofrontal cortex and caudate and to reward outcome information in the orbitofrontal cortex of youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits suggests that the integrated functioning of the amygdala, caudate, and orbitofrontal cortex may be disrupted. This provides a functional neural basis for why such youths are more likely to repeat disadvantageous decisions. New treatment possibilities are raised, as pharmacologic modulations of serotonin and dopamine can affect this form of learning.

  20. Disrupted Reinforcement Signaling in Orbital Frontal Cortex and Caudate in Youths with Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder and High Psychopathic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Elizabeth C.; Marsh, Abigail A.; Blair, Karina S.; Reid, Marguerite. E.; Sims, Courtney; Ng, Pamela; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, R. James. R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Dysfunction in amygdala and orbital frontal cortex functioning has been reported in youths and adults with psychopathic traits. However, the specific nature of the computational irregularities within these brain structures remains poorly understood. The current study used the passive avoidance task to examine responsiveness of these systems to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure, when prediction errors are greatest and learning maximized, and to reward in youths with psychopathic traits and comparison youths. METHOD 30 youths (N=15 with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus high psychopathic traits and N=15 comparison subjects) completed a 3.0 T fMRI scan while performing a passive avoidance learning task. RESULTS Relative to comparison youth, youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits showed reduced orbitofrontal cortex responsiveness both to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure and to rewards, as well as reduced caudate response to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure. Contrary to other predictions, however, there were no group differences in amygdala responsiveness specifically to these two task parameters. However, amygdala responsiveness throughout the task was reduced in the youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits are marked by a compromised sensitivity to early reinforcement information in both orbitofrontal cortex and caudate and to reward outcome information within orbitofrontal cortex. They further suggest that the integrated functioning of the amygdala, caudate and orbitofrontal cortex may be disrupted in individuals with this disorder. PMID:21078707

  1. Treatment of Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma (≤2 cm) in the Caudate Lobe with Sequential Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization and Radiofrequency Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Dongho; Cho, Sung Ki, E-mail: sungkismc.cho@samsung.com; Shin, Sung Wook; Rhim, Hyunchul [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    PurposeTo evaluate technical feasibility and treatment results of sequential transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and cone-beam computed tomography-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (CBCT-RFA) for small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the caudate lobe.Materials and MethodsInstitutional review board approved this retrospective study. Radiologic database was searched for the patients referred to perform TACE and CBCT-RFA for small caudate HCCs (≤2 cm) between February 2009 and February 2014. A total of 14 patients (12 men and 2 women, mean age; 61.3 years) were included. Percutaneous ultrasonography-guided RFA (pUS-RFA) and surgery were infeasible due to poor conspicuity, inconspicuity or no safe electrode pathway, and poor hepatic reserve. Procedural success (completion of both TACE and CBCT-RFA), technique efficacy (absence of tumor enhancement at 1 month after treatment), and complication were evaluated. Treatment results including local tumor progression (LTP), intrahepatic distant recurrence (IDR), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed.ResultsProcedural success and technique efficacy rates were 78.6 % (11/14) and 90.9 % (10/11), respectively. Average follow-up period was 45.3 months (range, 13.4–64.6 months). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year LTP probabilities were 0, 12.5, and 12.5 %, respectively. IDR occurred in seven patients (63.6 %, 7/11). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year PFS probabilities were 81.8, 51.9, and 26 %, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS probabilities were 100, 80.8, and 80.8 %, respectively.ConclusionCombination of TACE and CBCT-RFA seems feasible for small HCC in the caudate lobe not amenable to pUS-RFA and effective in local tumor control.

  2. Androgen deprivation therapy for volume reduction, lower urinary tract symptom relief and quality of life improvement in patients with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axcrona, Karol; Aaltomaa, Sirpa; da Silva, Carlos Martins

    2012-01-01

    in patients with PCa as neo-adjuvant hormone therapy to reduce prostate volume and down-stage the disease before radiotherapy with curative intent. The present study showed that ADT with the gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone (GhRH) antagonist degarelix is non-inferior to combined treatment with the LHRH...

  3. {sup 18}F-FDG PET uptake in the pre-Huntington disease caudate affects the time-to-onset independently of CAG expansion size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciarmiello, Andrea; Giovacchini, Giampiero; Bruselli, Laura [Nuclear Medicine Department, S. Andrea Hospital, La Spezia (Italy); Orobello, Sara; Elifani, Francesca; Squitieri, Ferdinando [Centre for Neurogenetics and Rare Diseases, IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, IS (Italy)

    2012-06-15

    To test in a longitudinal follow-up study whether basal glucose metabolism in subjects with a genetic risk of Huntington disease (HD) may influence the onset of manifest symptoms. The study group comprised 43 presymptomatic (preHD) subjects carrying the HD mutation. They underwent a {sup 18}F-FDG PET scan and were prospectively followed-up for at least 5 years using the unified HD rating scale to detect clinical changes. Multiple regression analysis included subject's age, CAG mutation size and glucose uptake as variables in a model to predict age at onset. Of the 43 preHD subjects who manifested motor symptoms, suggestive of HD, after 5 years from the PET scan, 26 showed a mean brain glucose uptake below the cut-off of 1.0493 in the caudate, significantly lower than the 17 preHD subjects who remained symptom-free (P < 0.0001). This difference was independent of mutation size. Measurement of brain glucose uptake improved the CAG repeat number and age-based model for predicting age at onset by 37 %. A reduced level of glucose metabolism in the brain caudate may represent a predisposing factor that contributes to the age at onset of HD in preHD subjects, in addition to the mutation size. (orig.)

  4. 18F-FDG PET uptake in the pre-Huntington disease caudate affects the time-to-onset independently of CAG expansion size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarmiello, Andrea; Giovacchini, Giampiero; Bruselli, Laura; Orobello, Sara; Elifani, Francesca; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2012-01-01

    To test in a longitudinal follow-up study whether basal glucose metabolism in subjects with a genetic risk of Huntington disease (HD) may influence the onset of manifest symptoms. The study group comprised 43 presymptomatic (preHD) subjects carrying the HD mutation. They underwent a 18 F-FDG PET scan and were prospectively followed-up for at least 5 years using the unified HD rating scale to detect clinical changes. Multiple regression analysis included subject's age, CAG mutation size and glucose uptake as variables in a model to predict age at onset. Of the 43 preHD subjects who manifested motor symptoms, suggestive of HD, after 5 years from the PET scan, 26 showed a mean brain glucose uptake below the cut-off of 1.0493 in the caudate, significantly lower than the 17 preHD subjects who remained symptom-free (P < 0.0001). This difference was independent of mutation size. Measurement of brain glucose uptake improved the CAG repeat number and age-based model for predicting age at onset by 37 %. A reduced level of glucose metabolism in the brain caudate may represent a predisposing factor that contributes to the age at onset of HD in preHD subjects, in addition to the mutation size. (orig.)

  5. Reduction in adipose tissue volume using a new high-power radiofrequency technology combined with infrared light and mechanical manipulation for body contouring

    OpenAIRE

    Adatto, Maurice A.; Adatto-Neilson, Robyn M.; Morren, Grietje

    2014-01-01

    A growing patient demand for a youthful skin appearance with a favorable body shape has led to the recent development of new noninvasive body contouring techniques. We have previously demonstrated that the combination of bipolar radiofrequency (RF) and optical energies with tissue manipulation is an efficient reshaping modality. Here, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a new high-power version of this combined technology, in terms of adipose tissue reduction and skin tightening. Thirt...

  6. Reduction of diuretics and analysis of water and muscle volumes to prevent falls and fall-related fractures in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kosuke; Okada, Masahiro; Kamada, Nanao; Yamaguchi, Yumiko; Kakehashi, Masayuki; Sasaki, Hidemi; Katoh, Shigeko; Morita, Katsuya

    2017-02-01

    In an attempt to decrease the incidence of falls and fall-related fractures at a special geriatric nursing home, we endeavored to reduce diuretic doses, and examined the relationship between the effectiveness of this approach with the body compositions and activities of daily living of the study cohort. We enrolled 93 participants living in the community, 60 residents of an intermediate geriatric nursing home and 50 residents of the 100-bed Kandayama Yasuragien special geriatric nursing home. We recorded body composition using a multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Daily loop diuretic and other diuretic regimens of those in the special geriatric nursing home were reduced or replaced with "NY-mode" diuretic therapy, namely, spironolactone 12.5 mg orally once on alternate days. The incidence of falls fell from 53 in 2011 to 29 in 2012, and there were no fall-related proximal femoral fractures for 3 years after the introduction of NY-mode diuretic therapy. We also found statistically significant differences in muscle and intracellular water volumes in our elderly participants: those with higher care requirements or lower levels of independence had lower muscle or water volumes. We found that reducing or replacing daily diuretics with NY-mode therapy appeared to reduce the incidence of falls and fall-related proximal femoral fracture, likely by preserving intracellular and extracellular body water volumes. Low-dose spironolactone (12.5 mg on alternate days) appears to be an effective means of treating elderly individuals with chronic heart failure or other edematous states, while preventing falls and fall-related fractures. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 262-269. © 2016 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Contrast volume reduction using third generation dual source computed tomography for the evaluation of patients prior to transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittner, Daniel O. [University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), Erlangen (Germany); Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Arnold, Martin; Klinghammer, Lutz; Schuhbaeck, Annika; Hell, Michaela M.; Muschiol, Gerd; Gauss, Soeren; Achenbach, Stephan; Marwan, Mohamed [University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), Erlangen (Germany); Lell, Michael; Uder, Michael [University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Hoffmann, Udo [Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Chronic renal failure is common in patients referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). CT angiography is recommended and provides crucial information prior to TAVI. We evaluated the feasibility of a reduced contrast volume protocol for pre-procedural CT imaging. Forty consecutive patients were examined with prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition using a novel third-generation dual-source CT system; 38 ml contrast agent was used. Image quality was graded on a visual scale (1-4). Contrast attenuation was measured at the level of the aortic root and at the iliac bifurcation. Mean patient age was 82 ± 6 years (23 males; 58 %). Mean attenuation/average image quality was 285 ± 60 HU/1.5 at the aortic annulus compared to 289 ± 74 HU/1.8 at the iliac bifurcation (p = 0.77/p = 0.29). Mean estimated effective radiation dose was 2.9 ± 0.3 mSv. A repeat acquisition was necessary in one patient due to image quality. Out of the 35 patients who underwent TAVI, 31 (89 %) patients had no or mild aortic regurgitation. Thirty-two (91 %) patients were discharged successfully. Pre-procedural CTA with a total of 38 ml contrast volume is feasible and clinically useful, using third-generation dual-source CT, allowing comprehensive imaging for procedural success. (orig.)

  8. Low-Dose Volume-Perfusion CT of the Brain: Effects of Radiation Dose Reduction on Performance of Perfusion CT Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A E; Afat, S; Brockmann, C; Nikoubashman, O; Bier, G; Brockmann, M A; Nikolaou, K; Tai, J H; Yang, Z P; Kim, J H; Wiesmann, M

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to compare different computed tomography (CT) perfusion post-processing algorithms regarding image quality of perfusion maps from low-dose volume perfusion CT (VPCT) and their diagnostic performance regarding the detection of ischemic brain lesions. We included VPCT data of 21 patients with acute stroke (onset Perfusion maps (cerebral blood volume (CBV); cerebral blood flow (CBF) from original and low-dose datasets were generated using two different commercially available post-processing methods: deconvolution-based method (DC) and maximum slope algorithm (MS). The resulting DC and MS perfusion maps were compared regarding perfusion values, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as well as image quality and diagnostic accuracy as rated by two blinded neuroradiologists. Quantitative perfusion parameters highly correlated for both algorithms and both dose levels (r ≥ 0.613, p perfusion maps from simulated low-dose VPCT. However, MS produced CBF maps with significantly higher image quality and SNR than DC, indicating that MS might be more suitable for low-dose VPCT imaging.

  9. Development of batch electrolytic enrichment cells with 100-fold volume reduction, control electronic units and neutralization/distillation unit, to enable better sensitivity to be achieved in low-level tritium measurements when liquid scintillation counting follows the enrichment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.

    1980-06-01

    Full details of the batch-cell tritium enrichment system design are provided including electronic control circuits specially developed for these cells. The system incorporates a new type of concentric electrode cell (outer cathode of mild steel, anode of stainless steel, inner cathode of mild steel) with volume reduction capability 1 l to ca 9 ml. Electrolysis of 20 cells is performed in 2 steps. Down to sample volume ca 20 ml, the cells are series connected at constant currents up to 14.5 A, in the 2nd step, each cell is connected to its own individual current supply (2A) and control circuit. Automatic shut-off at the desired final volume is achieved by sensing the drop in current through the inner cathode as the electrolyte level falls below a PTFE insulator. The large electrode surface area and careful dimensioning at the foot of the cell allow operation with low starting electrolyte concentration 1.5 g Na 2 O 2 .l -1 . After electrolysis, quantitative recovery as distilled water of all hydrogen from the enriched residue is achieved by CO 2 -neutralisation and vacuum distillation at 100 0 C in a distillation unit which handles 20 cells simultaneously

  10. SU-E-T-13: A Comparative Dosimetric Study On Radio-Dynamic Therapy for Pelvic Cancer Treatment: Strategies for Bone Marrow Dose and Volume Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Wang, B; Dong, Z; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ge, W; Xu, L [Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Radio-dynamic therapy (RDT) is a potentially effective modality for local and systemic cancer treatment. Using RDT, the administration of a radio-sensitizer enhances the biological effect of high-energy photons. Although the sensitizer uptake ratio of tumor to normal tissue is normally high, one cannot simply neglect its effect on critical structures. In this study, we aim to explore planning strategies to improve bone marrow sparing without compromising the plan quality for RDT treatment of pelvic cancers. Methods: Ten cervical and ten prostate cancer patients who previously received radiotherapy at our institution were selected for this study. For each patient, nine plans were created using the Varian Eclipse treatmentplanning-system (TPS) with 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT delivery techniques containing various gantry angle combinations and optimization parameters (dose constraints to the bone marrow). To evaluate the plans for bone marrow sparing, the dose-volume parameters V5, V10, V15, V20, V30, and V40 for bone marrow were examined. Effective doseenhancement factors for the sensitizer were used to weigh the dose-volume histograms for various tissues from individual fractions. Results: The planning strategies had different impacts on bone marrow sparing for the cervical and prostate cases. For the cervical cases, provided the bone marrow constraints were properly set during optimization, the dose to bone marrow sparing was found to be comparable between different IMRT and VMAT plans regardless of the gantry angle selection. For the prostate cases, however, careful selection of gantry angles could dramatically improve the bone marrow sparing, although the dose distribution in bone marrow was clinically acceptable for all prostate plans that we created. Conclusion: For intensity-modulated RDT planning for cervical cancer, planners should set bone marrow constraints properly to avoid any adverse damage, while for prostate cancer one can carefully select gantry

  11. Fibromyalgia patients had normal distraction related pain inhibition but cognitive impairment reflected in caudate nucleus and hippocampus during the Stroop Color Word Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Sofia; Flodin, Pär; Berrebi, Jonathan; Löfgren, Monika; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Ingvar, Martin; Fransson, Peter; Kosek, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms causing cognitive problems in chronic pain patients are not well understood. We used the Stroop color word task (SCWT) to investigate distraction-induced analgesia, cognitive performance, and cerebral activation patterns in 29 fibromyalgia (FM) patients (mean age 49.8 years, range 25-64 years) and 31 healthy controls (HC) (mean age 46.3 years, range 20-63 years). In the first study, SCWT was used to investigate distraction-induced analgesia in FM patients. Two versions of the task were applied, one with only congruent color-word images and one with incongruent images. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed using a pressure algometer before, during, and following SCWT. In the second study, reaction times (RTs) were assessed and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate cerebral activation patterns in FM patients and HC during the SCWT. An event-related task mixing incongruent and congruent images was used. In study one, we found reduced pressure pain sensitivity during SCWT in both groups alike and no statistically significant differences were seen between the incongruent and congruent conditions. The study two revealed longer RTs during the incongruent compared to the congruent condition in both groups. FM patients had longer RTs than HC in both conditions. Furthermore, we found a significant interaction between group and congruency; that is, the group differences in RTs were more pronounced during the incongruent condition. This was reflected in a reduced activation of the caudate nucleus, lingual gyrus, temporal areas, and the hippocampus in FM patients compared to HC. In conclusion, we found normal pain inhibition during SWTC in FM patients. The cognitive difficulties seen in FM patients, reflected in longer RTs, were related to reduced activation of the caudate nucleus and hippocampus during incongruent SCWT, which most likely affected the mechanisms of cognitive learning in FM patients.

  12. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Intelligence in Healthy Young Adults: The Role of Basal Ganglia Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Cosima; Mühle, Christiane; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R). Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01), whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01). Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively). The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. Conclusions/Significance The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia

  13. Neuroanatomical correlates of intelligence in healthy young adults: the role of basal ganglia volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Cosima; Mühle, Christiane; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R). Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01), whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01). Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively). The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia nuclei in a sex-specific manner. Subcortical brain structures thus may contribute substantially to

  14. Redução de volume pulmonar broncoscópico no enfisema em estádio terminal: Resultados dos primeiros 98 doentes Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction for end-stage emphysema: Report on the first 98 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo revela os resultados preliminares da redução de volume pulmonar efectuada em doentes com enfisema pulmonar em estádio terminal, através da colocação broncoscópica de uma válvula endobrônquica (VEB. A VEB utilizada neste estudo é de silicone e unidireccional, com 3 dimensões diferentes (dependendo da anatomia brônquica, produzindo uma atelectasia seleccionada ao impedir a entrada de ar no segmento tratado, mas permitindo a saída de secreções e de ar desse mesmo segmento isolado. O estudo foi levado a cabo em 9 centros de endoscopia respiratória, em 7 países a nível mundial. Todos os doentes tinham TAC torácica e cintigrafia de ventilação/perfusão para confirmação, avaliação da gravidade e distribuição do enfisema, bem como para exclusão de comorbilidades. Foram incluídos 98 doentes com enfisema em estádio terminal, em que a pletismografia basal em repouso após broncodilatação, revelava volume expiratório máximo no primeiro segundo (VEMS de 0,9 ± 0,3 L (30,1 ± 10,7% do previsto e volume residual (VR de 5,1 ± 1,3 L (244,3 ± 0,3% do previsto. opção de colocar as VEB num segmento pulmonar ou lobo completo, tratar um ou ambos os pulmões, dependeu de cada centro. Contudo, ao surgirem alguns casos de pneumotóraces em doentes com exclusão lobar completa, optaram por colocar as VEB apenas unilateralmente. Os doentes foram avaliados durante um período de 90 dias após implante da VEB, sendo efectuadas espirometria, pletismografia, capacidade de difusão de monóxido de carbono (DLCO e teste de tolerância ao esforço, aos 30 e 90 dias depois da colocação da VEB. Dos resultados obtidos, verificou-se um decréscimo do VR para 4,9 ± 17,4 % (p=0,025 e um acréscimo do VEMS para 10,7 ± 26,2 % (p=0,007, da capacidade vital forçada (CVF para 9,0 ± 23,9 % (p=0,024, e a distância percorrida em 6 minutos de marcha também aumentou para 23,0 ± 55,3 % (p=0,001. Demonstrou-se um ligeiro aumento da DLCO

  15. Decreased Axon Caliber Underlies Loss of Fiber Tract Integrity, Disproportional Reductions in White Matter Volume, and Microcephaly in Angelman Syndrome Model Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Matthew C; Burette, Alain C; Thaxton, Courtney L; Pribisko, Alaine L; Shen, Mark D; Rumple, Ashley M; Del Cid, Wilmer A; Paniagua, Beatriz; Styner, Martin; Weinberg, Richard J; Philpot, Benjamin D

    2017-08-02

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss of function of the maternally inherited UBE3A allele. It is currently unclear how the consequences of this genetic insult unfold to impair neurodevelopment. We reasoned that by elucidating the basis of microcephaly in AS, a highly penetrant syndromic feature with early postnatal onset, we would gain new insights into the mechanisms by which maternal UBE3A loss derails neurotypical brain growth and function. Detailed anatomical analysis of both male and female maternal Ube3a -null mice reveals that microcephaly in the AS mouse model is primarily driven by deficits in the growth of white matter tracts, which by adulthood are characterized by densely packed axons of disproportionately small caliber. Our results implicate impaired axon growth in the pathogenesis of AS and identify noninvasive structural neuroimaging as a potentially valuable tool for gauging therapeutic efficacy in the disorder. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT People who maternally inherit a deletion or nonfunctional copy of the UBE3A gene develop Angelman syndrome (AS), a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. To better understand how loss of maternal UBE3A function derails brain development, we analyzed brain structure in a maternal Ube3a knock-out mouse model of AS. We report that the volume of white matter (WM) is disproportionately reduced in AS mice, indicating that deficits in WM development are a major factor underlying impaired brain growth and microcephaly in the disorder. Notably, we find that axons within the WM pathways of AS model mice are abnormally small in caliber. This defect is associated with slowed nerve conduction, which could contribute to behavioral deficits in AS, including motor dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/377347-15$15.00/0.

  16. A comparative study of segmentation techniques for the quantification of brain subcortical volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akudjedu, Theophilus N; Nabulsi, Leila; Makelyte, Migle; Scanlon, Cathy; Hehir, Sarah; Casey, Helen; Ambati, Srinath; Kenney, Joanne; O'Donoghue, Stefani; McDermott, Emma; Kilmartin, Liam; Dockery, Peter; McDonald, Colm; Hallahan, Brian; Cannon, Dara M

    2018-02-13

    Manual tracing of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents the gold standard for segmentation in clinical neuropsychiatric research studies, however automated approaches are increasingly used due to its time limitations. The accuracy of segmentation techniques for subcortical structures has not been systematically investigated in large samples. We compared the accuracy of fully automated [(i) model-based: FSL-FIRST; (ii) patch-based: volBrain], semi-automated (FreeSurfer) and stereological (Measure®) segmentation techniques with manual tracing (ITK-SNAP) for delineating volumes of the caudate (easy-to-segment) and the hippocampus (difficult-to-segment). High resolution 1.5 T T1-weighted MR images were obtained from 177 patients with major psychiatric disorders and 104 healthy participants. The relative consistency (partial correlation), absolute agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC) and potential technique bias (Bland-Altman plots) of each technique was compared with manual segmentation. Each technique yielded high correlations (0.77-0.87, p segmentation for the caudate. For the hippocampus, stereology yielded good consistency (0.52-0.55, p segmentation of the hippocampus and using FreeSurfer for segmentation of the caudate. In a typical neuropsychiatric MRI dataset, automated segmentation techniques provide good accuracy for an easy-to-segment structure such as the caudate, whereas for the hippocampus, a reasonable correlation with volume but poor absolute agreement was demonstrated. This indicates manual or stereological volume estimation should be considered for studies that require high levels of precision such as those with small sample size.

  17. Four weeks of speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during exercise and maintains muscle oxidative capacity despite a reduction in training volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaia, F Marcello; Hellsten, Ylva; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Fernström, Maria; Sahlin, Kent; Bangsbo, Jens

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of an alteration from regular endurance to speed endurance training on muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, as well as energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and its relationship to mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in humans. Seventeen endurance-trained runners were assigned to either a speed endurance training (SET; n = 9) or a control (Con; n = 8) group. For a 4-wk intervention (IT) period, SET replaced the ordinary training ( approximately 45 km/wk) with frequent high-intensity sessions each consisting of 8-12 30-s sprint runs separated by 3 min of rest (5.7 +/- 0.1 km/wk) with additional 9.9 +/- 0.3 km/wk at low running speed, whereas Con continued the endurance training. After the IT period, oxygen uptake was 6.6, 7.6, 5.7, and 6.4% lower (P speeds of 11, 13, 14.5, and 16 km/h, respectively, in SET, whereas remained the same in Con. No changes in blood lactate during submaximal running were observed. After the IT period, the protein expression of skeletal muscle UCP3 tended to be higher in SET (34 +/- 6 vs. 47 +/- 7 arbitrary units; P = 0.06). Activity of muscle citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, as well as maximal oxygen uptake and 10-km performance time, remained unaltered in both groups. In SET, the capillary-to-fiber ratio was the same before and after the IT period. The present study showed that speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during submaximal exercise, which is not mediated by lowered mitochondrial UCP3 expression. Furthermore, speed endurance training can maintain muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, and endurance performance in already trained individuals despite significant reduction in the amount of training.

  18. Test plan for composting studies involving weight and volume reduction of leaf and stalk biomass: DOE/OTD TTP{number_sign} SR17SS53 {ampersand} TTP{number_sign} SR18SS41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.; Kastner, J.; Murphy, C.; Santo Domingo, J.

    1997-05-28

    SRTC and a panel of experts from off-site previously determined that composting was the most attractive alternative for reducing the volume and weight of biomass that was slightly radioactive. The SRTC proposed scope of work for Subtask 2 of TTP{number_sign} SR17SS53 and TTP{number_sign} SR18SS41 involves bench scale studies to assess the rates and efficiencies of various composting schemes for volume and weight reduction of leaf and stalk biomass (SB). Ultimately, the data will be used to design a composting process for biomass proposed by MSE for phytoremediation studies at SRS. This could drastically reduce costs for transporting and disposing of contaminated biomass resulting from a future major phytoremediation effort for soil clean-up at the site. The composting studies at SRTC includes collaboration with personnel from the University of Georgia, who will conduct chemical analyses of the plant material after harvest, pre-treatment, and composting for specific time periods. Parameters to be measured will include: lignin, hemicellulose, cellulose, carbon and nitrogen. The overall objective of this project is to identify or develop: (1) an inexpensive source of inoculum (consisting of nutrients and/or microorganisms) capable of significantly enhancing biomass degradation, (2) an optimum range of operating parameters for the composting process, and (3) a process design for the solid state degradation of lignocellulosic biomass contaminated with radionuclides that is superior to existing alternatives for dealing with such waste.

  19. Effect of advanced aircraft noise reduction technology on the 1990 projected noise environment around Patrick Henry Airport. [development of noise exposure forecast contours for projected traffic volume and aircraft types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthorn, J. M.; Brown, C. G.

    1974-01-01

    A study has been conducted of the future noise environment of Patric Henry Airport and its neighboring communities projected for the year 1990. An assessment was made of the impact of advanced noise reduction technologies which are currently being considered. These advanced technologies include a two-segment landing approach procedure and aircraft hardware modifications or retrofits which would add sound absorbent material in the nacelles of the engines or which would replace the present two- and three-stage fans with a single-stage fan of larger diameter. Noise Exposure Forecast (NEF) contours were computed for the baseline (nonretrofitted) aircraft for the projected traffic volume and fleet mix for the year 1990. These NEF contours are presented along with contours for a variety of retrofit options. Comparisons of the baseline with the noise reduction options are given in terms of total land area exposed to 30 and 40 NEF levels. Results are also presented of the effects on noise exposure area of the total number of daily operations.

  20. Electroencephalography reveals lower regional blood perfusion and atrophy of the temporoparietal network associated with memory deficits and hippocampal volume reduction in mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti DV

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Davide Vito MorettiNational Institute for the research and cure of Alzheimer’s disease, S. John of God, Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy Background: An increased electroencephalographic (EEG upper/lower alpha power ratio has been associated with less regional blood perfusion, atrophy of the temporoparietal region of the brain, and reduction of hippocampal volume in subjects affected by mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease as compared with subjects who do not develop the disease. Moreover, EEG theta frequency activity is quite different in these groups. This study investigated the correlation between biomarkers and memory performance.Methods: EEG α3/α2 power ratio and cortical thickness were computed in 74 adult subjects with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. Twenty of these subjects also underwent assessment of blood perfusion by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. Pearson’s r was used to assess the correlation between cortical thinning, brain perfusion, and memory impairment.Results: In the higher α3/α2 frequency power ratio group, greater cortical atrophy and lower regional perfusion in the temporoparietal cortex was correlated with an increase in EEG theta frequency. Memory impairment was more pronounced in the magnetic resonance imaging group and SPECT groups.Conclusion: A high EEG upper/low alpha power ratio was associated with cortical thinning and less perfusion in the temporoparietal area. Moreover, atrophy and less regional perfusion were significantly correlated with memory impairment in subjects with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. The EEG upper/lower alpha frequency power ratio could be useful for identifying individuals at risk for progression to Alzheimer’s dementia and may be of value in the clinical context.Keywords: electroencephalography, perfusion, atrophy, temporoparietal network, memory deficits, hippocampal volume, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease

  1. Expression profiles of mitochondrial genes in the frontal cortex and the caudate nucleus of developing humans and mice selectively bred for high and low fear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang H Choi

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that mitochondrial function may be important in brain development and psychiatric disorders. However, detailed expression profiles of those genes in human brain development and fear-related behavior remain unclear. Using microarray data available from the public domain and the Gene Ontology analysis, we identified the genes and the functional categories associated with chronological age in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and the caudate nucleus (CN of psychiatrically normal humans ranging in age from birth to 50 years. Among those, we found that a substantial number of genes in the PFC (115 and the CN (117 are associated with the GO term: mitochondrion (FDR qv <0.05. A greater number of the genes in the PFC (91% than the genes in the CN (62% showed a linear increase in expression during postnatal development. Using quantitative PCR, we validated the developmental expression pattern of four genes including monoamine oxidase B (MAOB, NADH dehydrogenase flavoprotein (NDUFV1, mitochondrial uncoupling protein 5 (SLC25A14 and tubulin beta-3 chain (TUBB3. In mice, overall developmental expression pattern of MAOB, SLC25A14 and TUBB3 in the PFC were comparable to the pattern observed in humans (p<0.05. However, mice selectively bred for high fear did not exhibit normal developmental changes of MAOB and TUBB3. These findings suggest that the genes associated with mitochondrial function in the PFC play a significant role in brain development and fear-related behavior.

  2. Differential vulnerability of primate caudate-putamen and striosome-matrix dopamine systems to the neurotoxic effects of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moratalla, R; Quinn, B; DeLanney, L E; Irwin, I; Langston, J W; Graybiel, A M

    1992-01-01

    The meperidine analogue derivative 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces nigrostriatal fiber damage and severe parkinsonism in humans and animals. MPTP-induced parkinsonism has been proposed as a model of Parkinson disease, but doubts have been raised about whether the patterns of nigrostriatal fiber loss in the two conditions are similar. We report here observations on [3H]mazindol monoamine (principally dopamine) uptake-site binding in the striatum of monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) exposed to low doses of MPTP. We show that this treatment can produce a pattern of nigrostriatal degeneration characteristic of that seen in Parkinson disease, in which there is greater depletion of dopaminergic markers in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus, especially posteriorly. Moreover, within the regions of diminished uptake-site binding in the MPTP-treated monkeys, there is differential preservation of binding in striosomes relative to the surrounding matrix. We suggest that both regional and striosome/matrix patterns of nigrostriatal depletion are key features of MPTP-induced neurodegeneration and that both patterns may provide clues to the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in Parkinson disease as well. Images PMID:1570304

  3. Dyslexia and voxel-based morphometry: correlations between five behavioural measures of dyslexia and gray and white matter volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboer, Peter; Scholte, H Steven; Vorst, Harrie C M

    2015-10-01

    In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in a large sample of Dutch students (37 dyslexics and 57 non-dyslexics) with two analyses: group differences in local GM and total GM and WM volume and correlations between GM and WM volumes and five behavioural measures. We found no significant group differences after corrections for multiple comparisons although total WM volume was lower in the group of dyslexics when age was partialled out. We presented an overview of uncorrected clusters of voxels (p  200) with reduced or increased GM volume. We found four significant correlations between factors of dyslexia representing various behavioural measures and the clusters found in the first analysis. In the whole sample, a factor related to performances in spelling correlated negatively with GM volume in the left posterior cerebellum. Within the group of dyslexics, a factor related to performances in Dutch-English rhyme words correlated positively with GM volume in the left and right caudate nucleus and negatively with increased total WM volume. Most of our findings were in accordance with previous reports. A relatively new finding was the involvement of the caudate nucleus. We confirmed the multiple cognitive nature of dyslexia and suggested that experience greatly influences anatomical alterations depending on various subtypes of dyslexia, especially in a student sample.

  4. Volume reduction by the incineration of the combustible radioactive solid samples from radioisotope usage at the utilization facility. Estimation of the distribution of low energy β-emitter using the imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, Yasuhiro; Hanafusa, Tadashi; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Okada, Shigeru

    1999-01-01

    We want to establish a system of volume reduction by the incineration of the combustible radioactive solid wastes from radioisotope usage at the utilization facility. We have been performing experiments using an experimental incineration system to examine the distribution of radionuclides during incineration and to collect basic data. To reproduce the realistic conditions of incineration of low-level radioactive wastes in an experimental system, we adopted new incineration methods in this study. Low level radioactive samples (LLRS) were set up in a mesh container of stainless steel and incinerated at high temperature (over 800 degC) generated by two sets of high calorie gas burners. Low energy β-emitters 35 S, 45 Ca, 33 P, and a high energy β-emitter 32 P were used for the experiment. Their translocation percentages in exhaust air and dust were estimated using the Imaging Plate. Distribution of radionuclides during the incineration was similar to that estimated by conventional methods by our study or to that reported in incineration of liquid scintillation cocktail waste. We concluded that the use of the Imaging Plates is a simple and reliable method for estimation of the distribution of low energy β-emitters in incineration gas and ash. (author)

  5. Prostate cancer treated with image-guided helical TomoTherapy {sup registered} and image-guided LINAC-IMRT. Correlation between high-dose bladder volume, margin reduction, and genitourinary toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdz, Sonia; Wendt, Thomas G. [University Hospital Jena, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jena (Germany); Schwedas, Michael; Salz, Henning [University Hospital Jena, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Radiation Oncology, Section of Medical Physics, Jena (Germany); Foller, Susan [University Hospital Jena, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Urology, Jena (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    We compared different image-guidance (IG) strategies for prostate cancer with high-precision IG intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using TomoTherapy {sup registered} (Accuray Inc., Madison, WI, USA) and linear accelerator (LINAC)-IMRT and their impact on planning target volume (PTV) margin reduction. Follow-up data showed reduced bladder toxicity in TomoTherapy patients compared to LINAC-IMRT. The purpose of this study was to quantify whether the treatment delivery technique and decreased margins affect reductions in bladder toxicity. Setup corrections from 30 patients treated with helical TomoTherapy and 30 treated with a LINAC were analyzed. These data were used to simulate three IG protocols based on setup error correction and a limited number of imaging sessions. For all patients, gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity was documented and correlated with the treatment delivery technique. For fiducial marker (FM)-based RT, a margin reduction of up to 3.1, 3.0, and 4.8 mm in the left-right (LR), superior-inferior (SI), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions, respectively, could be achieved with calculation of a setup correction from the first three fractions and IG every second day. Although the bladder volume was treated with mean doses of 35 Gy in the TomoTherapy group vs. 22 Gy in the LINAC group, we observed less GU toxicity after TomoTherapy. Intraprostate FMs allow for small safety margins, help decrease imaging frequency after setup correction, and minimize the dose to bladder and rectum, resulting in lower GU toxicity. In addition, IMRT delivered with TomoTherapy helps to avoid hotspots in the bladder neck, a critical anatomic structure associated with post-RT urinary toxicity. (orig.) [German] Wir haben im Rahmen der Prostatakarzinombehandlung verschiedene bildgefuehrte (IG) Strategien der hochpraezisen intensitaetsmodulierten Radiotherapie (IMRT) unter Einsatz der Tomotherapie (TomoTherapy {sup registered}, Accuray Inc., Madison

  6. Individualized determination of lower margin in pelvic radiation field after low anterior resection for rectal cancer resulted in equivalent local control and radiation volume reduction compared with traditional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Suk Won; Ahn, Yong Chan; Huh, Seung Jae; Chun, Ho Kyung; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Dae Yong; Lim, Do Hoon; Noh, Young Ju; Lee, Jung Eun

    2000-01-01

    When determining the lower margin of post-operative pelvic radiation therapy field according to the traditional method (recommended by Gunderson), the organs located in the low pelvic cavity and the perineum are vulnerable to unnecessary radiation. This study evaluated the effect of individualized determination of the lower margin at 2 cm to 3 cm below the anastomotic site on the failure patterns. Authors included 88 patients with modified Astler-Coller (MAC) stages from B2 through C3, who received low anterior resection and post-operative pelvic radiation therapy from Sept. 1994 to May 1998 at Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University. The numbers of male and female patients were 44 and 44, and the median age was 57 years (range: 32-81 years). Three field technique (posterior-anterior and bilateral portals) by 6, 10, 15 MY X-rays was used to deliver 4,500 cGy to the whole pelvis followed by 600 cGy's small field boost to the tumor bed over 5.5 weeks. Sixteen patients received radiation therapy by traditional field margin determination, and the lower margin was set either at the low margin of the obturator foramen or at 2 cm to 3 cm below the anastomotic site, whichever is lower. In 72 patients, the lower margin was set at 2 cm to 3 cm below the anastomotic site, irrespectively of the obturator foramen, by which the reduction of radiation volume was possible in 55 patients (76%). Authors evaluated and compared survival, local control, and disease-free survival rates of these two groups. The median follow-up period was 27 months (range: 7-58 months). MAC stages were B2 in 32 (36%) , B3 in 2 (2%), C1 in 2 (2%), C2 in 50 (57%), and C3 in 2 (2%) patients, respectively. The entire patients' overall survival rates at 2 and 4 years were 94% and 68%, respectively, and disease-free survival rates at 2 and 4 years were 86% and 58%, respectively. The first failure sites were local only in 4, distant only in 14, and combined local and distant in 1 patient, respectively

  7. Double dissociation of the anterior and posterior dorsomedial caudate-putamen in the acquisition and expression of associative learning with the nicotine stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charntikov, Sergios; Pittenger, Steven T; Swalve, Natashia; Li, Ming; Bevins, Rick A

    2017-07-15

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. This habit is not only debilitating to individual users but also to those around them (second-hand smoking). Nicotine is the main addictive component of tobacco products and is a moderate stimulant and a mild reinforcer. Importantly, besides its unconditional effects, nicotine also has conditioned stimulus effects that may contribute to the tenacity of the smoking habit. Because the neurobiological substrates underlying these processes are virtually unexplored, the present study investigated the functional involvement of the dorsomedial caudate putamen (dmCPu) in learning processes with nicotine as an interoceptive stimulus. Rats were trained using the discriminated goal-tracking task where nicotine injections (0.4 mg/kg; SC), on some days, were paired with intermittent (36 per session) sucrose deliveries; sucrose was not available on interspersed saline days. Pre-training excitotoxic or post-training transient lesions of anterior or posterior dmCPu were used to elucidate the role of these areas in acquisition or expression of associative learning with nicotine stimulus. Pre-training lesion of p-dmCPu inhibited acquisition while post-training lesions of p-dmCPu attenuated the expression of associative learning with the nicotine stimulus. On the other hand, post-training lesions of a-dmCPu evoked nicotine-like responding following saline treatment indicating the role of this area in disinhibition of learned motor behaviors. These results, for the first time, show functionally distinct involvement of a- and p-dmCPu in various stages of associative learning using nicotine stimulus and provide an initial account of neural plasticity underlying these learning processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews poverty trends and measurements, poverty reduction in historical perspective, the poverty-inequality-growth debate, national poverty reduction strategies, criticisms of the agenda and the need for redistribution, international policies for poverty reduction, and ultimately understanding poverty at a global scale. It belongs to a series of backgrounders developed at Joseph Stiglitz's Initiative for Policy Dialogue.

  9. Emphysema quantification on low-dose CT using percentage of low-attenuation volume and size distribution of low-attenuation lung regions: Effects of adaptive iterative dose reduction using 3D processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Mizuho, E-mail: nmizuho@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Matsumoto, Sumiaki, E-mail: sumatsu@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Seki, Shinichiro, E-mail: sshin@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Koyama, Hisanobu, E-mail: hkoyama@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiharu, E-mail: yosirad@kobe-u.ac.jp [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Fujisawa, Yasuko, E-mail: yasuko1.fujisawa@toshiba.co.jp [Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, 1385 Shimoishigami, Otawara, Tochigi 324-8550 (Japan); Sugihara, Naoki, E-mail: naoki.sugihara@toshiba.co.jp [Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, 1385 Shimoishigami, Otawara, Tochigi 324-8550 (Japan); and others

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Emphysema quantification (LAV% and D) was affected by image noise on low-dose CT. • For LAV% and D, AIDR 3D improved agreement of quantification on low-dose CT. • AIDR 3D has the potential to quantify emphysema accurately on low-dose CT. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the effects of adaptive iterative dose reduction using 3D processing (AIDR 3D) for quantification of two measures of emphysema: percentage of low-attenuation volume (LAV%) and size distribution of low-attenuation lung regions. Method and materials: : Fifty-two patients who underwent standard-dose (SDCT) and low-dose CT (LDCT) were included. SDCT without AIDR 3D, LDCT without AIDR 3D, and LDCT with AIDR 3D were used for emphysema quantification. First, LAV% was computed at 10 thresholds from −990 to −900 HU. Next, at the same thresholds, linear regression on a log–log plot was used to compute the power law exponent (D) for the cumulative frequency-size distribution of low-attenuation lung regions. Bland–Altman analysis was used to assess whether AIDR 3D improved agreement between LDCT and SDCT for emphysema quantification of LAV% and D. Results: The mean relative differences in LAV% between LDCT without AIDR 3D and SDCT were 3.73%–88.18% and between LDCT with AIDR 3D and SDCT were −6.61% to 0.406%. The mean relative differences in D between LDCT without AIDR 3D and SDCT were 8.22%–19.11% and between LDCT with AIDR 3D and SDCT were 1.82%–4.79%. AIDR 3D improved agreement between LDCT and SDCT at thresholds from −930 to −990 HU for LAV% and at all thresholds for D. Conclusion: AIDR 3D improved the consistency between LDCT and SDCT for emphysema quantification of LAV% and D.

  10. Investigating the relation between striatal volume and IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Penny A; Ganjavi, Hooman; Collins, D Louis; Evans, Alan C; Karama, Sherif

    2014-03-01

    The volume of the input region of the basal ganglia, the striatum, is reduced with aging and in a number of conditions associated with cognitive impairment. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relation between the volume of striatum and general cognitive ability in a sample of 303 healthy children that were sampled to be representative of the population of the United States. Correlations between the WASI-IQ and the left striatum, composed of the caudate nucleus and putamen, were significant. When these data were analyzed separately for male and female children, positive correlations were significant for the left striatum in male children only. This brain structure-behavior relation further promotes the increasingly accepted view that the striatum is intimately involved in higher order cognitive functions. Our results also suggest that the importance of these brain regions in cognitive ability might differ for male and female children.

  11. Breast reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007405.htm Breast reduction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable ... discharge Images Mammoplasty References Fisher J, Higdon KK. Reduction mammaplasty. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013: ...

  12. Rich Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    evidence on articulatory prosodies and the involvement of reduction in conveying communication functions both suggest the next steps along the line of argument opened up by Lindblom. Specifically, we need to supplement Lindblom's explanatory framework and revise the speaker-listener conflict that lies...... corresponding to the time domain of the reduction variation....

  13. Simulation-based partial volume correction for dopaminergic PET imaging. Impact of segmentation accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Ye; Winz, Oliver H. [University Hospital Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Vernaleken, Ingo [University Hospital Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics; Goedicke, Andreas [University Hospital Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; High Tech Campus, Philips Research Lab., Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix M. [University Hospital Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Maastricht University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Rota Kops, Elena [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. of Neuroscience and Medicine-4

    2015-07-01

    Partial volume correction (PVC) is an essential step for quantitative positron emission tomography (PET). In the present study, PVELab, a freely available software, is evaluated for PVC in {sup 18}F-FDOPA brain-PET, with a special focus on the accuracy degradation introduced by various MR-based segmentation approaches. Methods Four PVC algorithms (M-PVC; MG-PVC; mMG-PVC; and R-PVC) were analyzed on simulated {sup 18}F-FDOPA brain-PET images. MR image segmentation was carried out using FSL (FMRIB Software Library) and SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) packages, including additional adaptation for subcortical regions (SPM{sub L}). Different PVC and segmentation combinations were compared with respect to deviations in regional activity values and time-activity curves (TACs) of the occipital cortex (OCC), caudate nucleus (CN), and putamen (PUT). Additionally, the PVC impact on the determination of the influx constant (K{sub i}) was assessed. Results Main differences between tissue-maps returned by three segmentation algorithms were found in the subcortical region, especially at PUT. Average misclassification errors in combination with volume reduction was found to be lowest for SPM{sub L} (PUT < 30%) and highest for FSL (PUT > 70%). Accurate recovery of activity data at OCC is achieved by M-PVC (apparent recovery coefficient varies between 0.99 and 1.10). The other three evaluated PVC algorithms have demonstrated to be more suitable for subcortical regions with MG-PVC and mMG-PVC being less prone to the largest tissue misclassification error simulated in this study. Except for M-PVC, quantification accuracy of K{sub i} for CN and PUT was clearly improved by PVC. Conclusions The regional activity value of PUT was appreciably overcorrected by most of the PVC approaches employing FSL or SPM segmentation, revealing the importance of accurate MR image segmentation for the presented PVC framework. The selection of a PVC approach should be adapted to the anatomical

  14. Harm reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Normand, Jacques; Li, Jih-Heng; Thomson, Nicholas; Jarlais, Don Des

    2013-01-01

    The “Harm Reduction” session was chaired by Dr. Jacques Normand, Director of the AIDS Research Program of the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse. The three presenters (and their presentation topics) were: Dr. Don Des Jarlais (High Coverage Needle/Syringe Programs for People Who Inject Drugs in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review), Dr. Nicholas Thomson (Harm Reduction History, Response, and Current Trends in Asia), and Dr. Jih-Heng Li (Harm Reduction Strategies in Taiwan).

  15. Cirurgia redutora de volume pulmonar: critérios de seleção de pacientes no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, RJ Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS: criteria for selecting patient in Antonio Pedro Hospital, Federal Fluminense University, Niterói city, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Fred Behrsin

    2003-09-01

    mais de um fator mórbido a contra-indicar o seu procedimento. A maioria dos pacientes com critérios para CRVP, a recusa, com receio do procedimento ou após programas de reabilitação pulmonar. O critério mais significativo que indicou CRVP em um paciente operado foi a presença de enfisema heterogênio bilateral nos lobos superiores.BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (CPOD is an important problem in Brazil and other countries. The clinical treatment of ambulatory patients is now reasonably standardized. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS is an alternative of surgical treatment of emphysema (aside from lung transplantation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyse patient selection criteria for LVRS. METHODS: This study was carried out using a sample of 31 patients referred to and given assistance to at the Smoking and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Outpatient Ward Antonio Pedro Hospital, who were evaluated to check whether or not they could be eligible for LVRS. Aiming at evaluating the major criteria for eligibility for LVRS, the patients underwent a protocol including standardized anamnesis and physical examination, spirometry with maximum inspiratory and expiratory flow volume curves associated with post-bronchodilatator test, room air arterial blood gases, a six-minute walking test, plain chest roentgenograms and left lateral chest roentgenograms, high-resolution chest computed tomographic scans and lung perfusion scans. Statistical analysis was conducted with description of data proportions. RESULTS: Contraindications to surgery included chronic bronchitis (29% or nine patients, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 more than 80 percent predicted (13% or four patients, negative consent for surgery (10% or three patients, fibrosis pattern, severe depression and bronchiectasis (two patients each one, solitary pulmonary nodule, severe obesity, severe bullous emphysema, pulmonary hipertension, pulmonary resection history

  16. Correlations between ventricular enlargement and gray and white matter volumes of cortex, thalamus, striatum, and internal capsule in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horga, Guillermo; Bernacer, Javier; Dusi, Nicola; Entis, Jonathan; Chu, Kingwai; Hazlett, Erin A; Haznedar, M Mehmet; Kemether, Eileen; Byne, William; Buchsbaum, Monte S

    2011-10-01

    Ventricular enlargement is one of the most consistent abnormal structural brain findings in schizophrenia and has been used to infer brain shrinkage. However, whether ventricular enlargement is related to local overlying cortex and/or adjacent subcortical structures or whether it is related to brain volume change globally has not been assessed. We systematically assessed interrelations of ventricular volumes with gray and white matter volumes of 40 Brodmann areas (BAs), the thalamus and its medial dorsal nucleus and pulvinar, the internal capsule, caudate and putamen. We acquired structural MRI ( patients with schizophrenia (n = 64) and healthy controls (n = 56)) and diffusion tensor fractional anisotropy (FA) (untreated schizophrenia n = 19, controls n = 32). Volumes were assessed by manual tracing of central structures and a semi-automated parcellation of BAs. Patients with schizophrenia had increased ventricular size associated with decreased cortical gray matter volumes widely across the brain; a similar but less pronounced pattern was seen in normal controls; local correlations (e.g. temporal horn with temporal lobe volume) were not appreciably higher than non-local correlations (e.g. temporal horn with prefrontal volume). White matter regions adjacent to the ventricles similarly did not reveal strong regional relationships. FA and center of mass of the anterior limb of the internal capsule also appeared differentially influenced by ventricular volume but findings were similarly not regional. Taken together, these findings indicate that ventricular enlargement is globally interrelated with gray matter volume diminution but not directly correlated with volume loss in the immediately adjacent caudate, putamen, or internal capsule.

  17. INEL waste reduction: summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoades, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southeastern Idaho. Located at the INEL are a Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) which processes low level radioactive waste (LLW) materials and a Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) which provides for disposal of radioactive waste materials. There are currently 9 active facilities (waste generators) at the INEL which produce an average total volume of about 5000 cubic meters of solid LLW annually. This boxed or bulk waste is ultimately disposed of at the RWMC Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The SDA is currently the only active LLW disposal site at the INEL, and the prospects for opening another shallow land burial disposal facility are uncertain. Therefore, it has become imperative that EG and G Idaho Waste Management Department make every reasonable effort to extend the disposal life of the SDA. Among Waste Management Department's principal efforts to extend the SDA disposal life are operation of the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) and administration of the INEL Waste Reduction Program. The INEL Waste Reduction Program is charged with providing assistance to all INEL facilities in reducing LLW generation rates to the lowest practical levels while at the same time encouraging optimum utilization of the volume reduction capabilities of WERF. Both waste volume and waste generation reductions are discussed

  18. Improvement of goiter volume reduction after 0.3 mg recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated radioiodine therapy in patients with a very large goiter: a double-blinded, randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnema, Steen; Nielsen, Viveque E; Boel-Jørgensen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The effect of (131)I therapy amplification by recombinant human (rh) TSH prestimulation in very large goiters has not been evaluated in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients (22 females; age range 37-87 yr) with a large multinodular goiter (median...... 160 ml, range 99-440 ml) were randomized to receive placebo (n = 15) or 0.3 mg rhTSH (n = 14) 24 h before (131)I administration. Goiter volume was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: On average, the goiter volume was unchanged 1 wk after therapy in both groups, but the largest deviations.......3 +/- 3.3%, respectively (between group: P relationship was absent in the rhTSH group. Adverse effects, mainly related to thyroid pain and cervical compression, were more...

  19. Limiting volume with modern ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Thomas J; Haan, Lutana; Ashworth, Lonny J; Anderson, Jeff

    2015-06-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) network low tidal-volume study comparing tidal volumes of 12 ml/kg versus 6 ml/kg was published in 2000. The study was stopped early as data revealed a 22% relative reduction in mortality rate when using 6 ml/kg tidal volume. The current generation of critical care ventilators allows the tidal volume to be set during volume-targeted, assist/control (volume A/C); however, some ventilators include options that may prevent the tidal volume from being controlled. The purpose of this bench study was to evaluate the delivered tidal volume, when these options are active, in a spontaneously breathing lung model using an electronic breathing simulator. Four ventilators were evaluated: CareFusion AVEA (AVEA), Dräger Evita® XL (Evita XL), Covidien Puritan Bennett® 840(TM) (PB 840), and Maquet SERVO-i (SERVO-i). Each ventilator was connected to the Hans Rudolph Electronic Breathing Simulator at an amplitude of 0 cm H2O and then 10 cm H2O. All four ventilators were set to deliver volume A/C, tidal volume 400 ml, respiratory rate 20 bpm, positive end-expiratory pressure 5 cm H2O, peak flowrate 60 L/min. The displayed tidal volume was recorded for each ventilator at the above settings with additional options OFF and then ON. The AVEA has two options in volume A/C: demand breaths and V-sync. When activated, these options allow the patient to exceed the set tidal volume. When using the Evita XL, the option AutoFlow can be turned ON or OFF, and when this option is ON, the tidal volume may vary. The PB 840 does not have any additional options that affect volume delivery, and it maintains the set tidal volume regardless of patient effort. The SERVO-i's demand valve allows additional flow if the patient's inspiratory flowrate exceeds the set flowrate, increasing the delivered tidal volume; this option can be turned OFF with the latest software upgrade. Modern ventilators have an increasing number of optional settings. These settings may

  20. Radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials

  1. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  2. Designing of High-Volume PET/CT Facility with Optimal Reduction of Radiation Exposure to the Staff: Implementation and Optimization in a Tertiary Health Care Facility in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhijith Mohan; Mithun, Sneha; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu C.; Shetye, Bhakti; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been in use for a few decades but with its fusion with computed tomography (CT) in 2001, the new PET/CT integrated system has become very popular and is now a key influential modality for patient management in oncology. However, along with its growing popularity, a growing concern of radiation safety among the radiation professionals has become evident. We have judiciously developed a PET/CT facility with optimal shielding, along with an efficient workflow to perform high volume procedures and minimize the radiation exposure to the staff and the general public by reducing unnecessary patient proximity to the staff and general public

  3. Altered Volume and Functional Connectivity of the Habenula in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of schizophrenia (SCH is associated with the dysfunction of monoamine neurotransmitters, the synthesis and release of which are mainly regulated by a key structure, the habenular (Hb nucleus. However, little is known regarding whether SCH is associated with structural or functional alterations in the Hb. In this study, we combined structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the changes in volume and functional connectivity of the Hb in 15 patients with SCH vs. 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs. Morphologically, the absolute volume of the bilateral Hb was significantly lower in the SCH patients than in the HCs. Functionally, the bilateral Hb showed significantly enhanced functional connectivity with the left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC in the SCH patients. Additionally, the SCH patients exhibited increased functional connectivity of the left Hb with the left lingual gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG. A further exploratory analysis revealed that the SCH patients showed increased functional connectivity between the right Hb and several subcortical regions related to dopaminergic pathways, including the left ventral striatum, caudate and putamen. Finally, the increased functional connectivity of the right Hb with the mPFC was positively correlated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS scores in the patients. Together, these results suggest that the altered volume and functional connectivity of the Hb may be involved in the pathogenesis of SCH and thus that the Hb may serve as a potential target in developing new therapeutic strategies in SCH.

  4. Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Ewert, Michael K.; Fink, Patrick W.

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration missions under study are limited by the launch mass capacity of existing and planned launch vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Although mass is typically the focus of exploration missions, due to its strong impact on launch vehicle and habitable volume for the crew, logistics volume also needs to be considered. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing six logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable after-use crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the use of autonomous logistics management technologies, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion gases. Reduction of mass has a corresponding and significant impact to logistical volume. The reduction of logistical volume can reduce the overall pressurized vehicle mass directly, or indirectly benefit the mission by allowing for an increase in habitable volume during the mission. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as mission durations increase. Early studies have shown that the use of advanced logistics technologies can save approximately 20 m(sup 3) of volume during transit alone for a six-person Mars conjunction class mission.

  5. Model reduction of parametrized systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlberger, Mario; Patera, Anthony; Rozza, Gianluigi; Urban, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The special volume offers a global guide to new concepts and approaches concerning the following topics: reduced basis methods, proper orthogonal decomposition, proper generalized decomposition, approximation theory related to model reduction, learning theory and compressed sensing, stochastic and high-dimensional problems, system-theoretic methods, nonlinear model reduction, reduction of coupled problems/multiphysics, optimization and optimal control, state estimation and control, reduced order models and domain decomposition methods, Krylov-subspace and interpolatory methods, and applications to real industrial and complex problems. The book represents the state of the art in the development of reduced order methods. It contains contributions from internationally respected experts, guaranteeing a wide range of expertise and topics. Further, it reflects an important effor t, carried out over the last 12 years, to build a growing research community in this field. Though not a textbook, some of the chapters ca...

  6. Decreased Left Putamen and Thalamus Volume Correlates with Delusions in First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDelusional thinking is one of the hallmark symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the underlying neural substrate for delusions in schizophrenia remains unknown. In an attempt to further our understanding of the neural basis of delusions, we explored gray matter deficits and their clinical associations in first-episode schizophrenia patients with and without delusions.MethodsTwenty-four first-episode schizophrenia patients with delusions and 18 without delusions as well as 26 healthy controls (HC underwent clinical assessment and whole-brain structural imaging which were acquired a 3.0 T scanner. Voxel-based morphometry was used to explore inter-group differences in gray matter volume using analysis of covariance, and Spearman correlation coefficients (rho between the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS-delusion scores and mean regional brain volumes was obtained.ResultsPatients with delusions showed decreased brain gray matter volumes in the left putamen, thalamus, and caudate regions compared with HC. Patients with delusions also showed decreased regional volume in the left putamen and thalamus compared with patients without delusions. SAPS-delusion scores were negatively correlated with the gray matter volumes of the left putamen and thalamus.DiscussionLeft putamen and thalamus volume loss may be biological correlates of delusions in schizophrenia.

  7. MRI-Based Measurement of Hippocampal Volume in Patients With Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Douglas; Randall, Penny; Scott, Tammy M.; Bronen, Richard A.; Seibyl, John P.; Southwick, Steven M.; Delaney, Richard C.; McCarthy, Gregory; Charney, Dennis S.; Innis, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Studies in nonhuman primates suggest that high levels of cortisol associated with stress have neurotoxic effects on the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in memory. The authors previously showed that patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) had deficits in short-term memory. The purpose of this study was to compare the hippocampal volume of patients with PTSD to that of subjects without psychiatric disorder. Method Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the volume of the hippocampus in 26 Vietnam combat veterans with PTSD and 22 comparison subjects selected to be similar to the patients in age, sex, race, years of education, socioeconomic status, body size, and years of alcohol abuse. Results The PTSD patients had a statistically significant 8% smaller right hippocampal volume relative to that of the comparison subjects, but there was no difference in the volume of other brain regions (caudate and temporal lobe). Deficits in short-term verbal memory as measured with the Wechsler Memory Scale were associated with smaller right hippocampal volume in the PTSD patients only. Conclusions These findings are consistent with a smaller right hippocampal volume in PTSD that is associated with functional deficits in verbal memory. PMID:7793467

  8. Scenarios for Deep Carbon Emission Reductions from Electricity by 2050 in Western North America using the Switch Electric Power Sector Planning Model: California's Carbon Challenge Phase II, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, James; Mileva, Ana; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel; Wei, Max; Greenblatt, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This study used a state-of-the-art planning model called SWITCH for the electric power system to investigate the evolution of the power systems of California and western North America from present-day to 2050 in the context of deep decarbonization of the economy. Researchers concluded that drastic power system carbon emission reductions were feasible by 2050 under a wide range of possible futures. The average cost of power in 2050 would range between $149 to $232 per megawatt hour across scenarios, a 21 to 88 percent increase relative to a business-as-usual scenario, and a 38 to 115 percent increase relative to the present-day cost of power. The power system would need to undergo sweeping change to rapidly decarbonize. Between present-day and 2030 the evolution of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council power system was dominated by implementing aggressive energy efficiency measures, installing renewable energy and gas-fired generation facilities and retiring coal-fired generation. Deploying wind, solar and geothermal power in the 2040 timeframe reduced power system emissions by displacing gas-fired generation. This trend continued for wind and solar in the 2050 timeframe but was accompanied by large amounts of new storage and long-distance high-voltage transmission capacity. Electricity storage was used primarily to move solar energy from the daytime into the night to charge electric vehicles and meet demand from electrified heating. Transmission capacity over the California border increased by 40 - 220 percent by 2050, implying that transmission siting, permitting, and regional cooperation will become increasingly important. California remained a net electricity importer in all scenarios investigated. Wind and solar power were key elements in power system decarbonization in 2050 if no new nuclear capacity was built. The amount of installed gas capacity remained relatively constant between present-day and 2050, although carbon capture and sequestration was

  9. BRAIN AND LESION VOLUMES CORRELATE WITH EDSS IN RELAPSING-REMITTING MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dimitrov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demyelination and neurodegeneration are hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS. Axonal damage is considered to be the leading factor for persisting disability in the course of the disease. In different studies, expanded disability status scale (EDSS scores have been found to correlate with brain atrophy, lesion load, or both. Objective: To assess the possible correlations between EDSS scores and volumes of brain, grey and white matter, and subcortical structures in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Subjects and Methods: 46 patients with RRMS were included in the study. Total brain volume, grey and white matter volumes were calculated using SIENAX, and subcortical structure volumes were obtained using FIRST, parts of FSL. EDSS was scored by a qualified rater. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: Moderate negative correlation of EDSS was demonstrated with total brain volume, grey and white matter volume, volumes of left and right pallidum, putamen, caudate nucleus, n. accumbens (p<0.01, and with the volumes of left and right thalamus (p<0.05. Moderate positive correlation was found between EDSS and T2 lesion volume (p<0.01. Correlation between EDSS and hippocampal volumes was weak. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, higher disability correlates with lower volumes of brain, grey and white matter, and some subcortical structures, but also with higher T2 lesion load. We support the hypothesis about a possible causal relationship between white matter damage and brain atrophy, as well as the role of both demyelination and neurodegeneration for disability in MS.

  10. Ultrasound measurements of testicular volume: Comparing the three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T.U. Mbaeri

    Thus, a reduction in the number of these cells is manifested in a reduction in testicular volume [3]. Reliable and accurate determination of the testicular volume is of .... sound formulas 1, 2 and 3 was found to be statistically significant. (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.05, respectively) (Table 1). Table 1 also shows the correlation ...

  11. Colloid volume loading does not mitigate decreases in central blood volume during simulated hemorrhage while heat stressed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crandall, Craig G; Wilson, Thad E; Marving, Jens

    2012-01-01

    ±5%, all P0.05 relative to heat stress alone). These data suggest that blood volume loading during passive heat stress (via 11 ml/kg of a colloid solution) normalizes regional blood volumes in the torso, but does not mitigate the reduction in central blood volume during a simulated hemorrhagic challenge...

  12. Los Alamos transuranic waste size reduction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briesmeister, A.; Harper, J.; Reich, B.; Warren, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    To facilitate disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste, Los Alamos National Laboratory designed and constructed the Size Reduction Facility (SRF) during the period 1977 to 1981. This report summarizes the engineering development, installation, and early test operations of the SRF. The facility incorporates a large stainless steel enclosure fitted with remote handling and cutting equipment to obtain an estimated 4:1 volume reduction of gloveboxes and other bulky metallic wastes

  13. DROP: Dimensionality Reduction Optimization for Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Suri, Sahaana; Bailis, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Dimensionality reduction is critical in analyzing increasingly high-volume, high-dimensional time series. In this paper, we revisit a now-classic study of time series dimensionality reduction operators and find that for a given quality constraint, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) uncovers representations that are over 2x smaller than those obtained via alternative techniques favored in the literature. However, as classically implemented via Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), PCA is incredi...

  14. Los Alamos transuranic waste size reduction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briesmeister, A.; Harper, J.; Reich, B.; Warren, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    A transuranic (TRU) Waste Size Reduction Facility (SRF) was designed and constructed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the period of 1977 to 1981. This paper summarizes the engineering development, installation, and early test operations of the SRF. The facility incorporates a large stainless steel enclosure fitted with remote handling and cutting equipment to obtain an estimated 4:1 volume reduction of gloveboxes and other bulky metallic wastes

  15. The role of hippocampal iron concentration and hippocampal volume in age-related differences in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, Karen M; Daugherty, Ana M; Haacke, E Mark; Raz, Naftali

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationships between 2 age-sensitive indices of brain integrity--volume and iron concentration--and the associated age differences in memory performance. In 113 healthy adults (age 19-83 years), we measured the volume and estimated iron concentration in the hippocampus (HC), caudate nucleus (Cd), and primary visual cortex (VC) in vivo with T2* relaxation times, and assessed memory performance with multiple tests. We applied structural equation modeling to evaluate the contribution of individual differences in 2 indices of integrity, volume and T2*, to age-related memory variance. The results show that in healthy adults, age differences in memory can be explained in part by individual differences in HC volume that in turn are associated with differences in HC iron concentration. Lower memory scores were linked to smaller HC and higher HC iron concentration. No such associations were noted for Cd and VC. We conclude that the association between age-related declines in memory and reduced hippocampal volume may reflect the impact of oxidative stress related to increase in free iron concentration. Longitudinal follow-up is needed to test whether altered iron homeostasis in the HC is an early marker for age-related cognitive decline.

  16. Morphology of the ligament of Treitz likely depends on its fetal topographical relationship with the left adrenal gland and liver caudate lobe as well as the developing lymphatic tissues: a histological study using human fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae Do; Ishikawa, Kazuo; Hwang, Hong Pil; Yu, Hee Chul; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the factors affecting the development of the ligament of Treitz, we examined sagittal and frontal histological sections of 35 human fetuses with a crown-rump length of 100-300 mm (approximately 16-38 weeks of gestation). The retropancreatic fascia consistently extended in a layer behind the pancreatic body and the splenic artery and vein, and also in front of the left renal vein and left adrenal. In 18 specimens, a connective tissue band was seen originating from the diaphragmatic crus around the esophageal opening and ending at the retropancreatic fascia to the left of the origin of the celiac artery. In 10 of these 18 specimens, these putative upper parts of the ligament contained striated muscles, or so-called Hilfsmuskel. Although most of other 17 specimens were larger fetuses, the left adrenal, the liver caudate lobe and the celiac ganglion made space for the ligament very limited. In 22 specimens including the above 18, the retropancreatic fascia extended inferiorly to approach the fourth portion of the duodenum (D4) or the duodenojejunal junction (DJJ). However, in 11 of the 22 examples of the putative lower part of the ligament, the connection between the duodenal muscle coat and the fascia was interrupted by developing lymphatic tissues. Consequently, the ligament of Treitz seemed to develop from both pleuroperitoneal membrane-derived cells and the retropancreatic fusion fascia, although the morphology was markedly modified by adjacent structures such as the adrenal gland. The ligament may "recover" after the adrenal becomes reduced in size after birth.

  17. Studies in the carbothermic reduction of phosphogypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Bharat B.; Pande, Anita R.; Gokarn, Ashok N.

    1992-10-01

    Phosphogypsum has been reduced in the solid state by active charcoal both in the presence and absence of catalysts. Kinetic data could be fitted to the modified volume reaction model. Mixed catalysts like potassium dichromate were found to enhance the reaction rate quite satisfactorily. This result could be fruitfully employed during reduction with industrial coke also.

  18. Volume reduction of solid waste by biological conversion of cellulosics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, G.W.

    1981-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that the types of cellulosic wastes generated at ORNL can be effectively degraded in an anaerboic bioreactor. The rate and extent of anaerobic microbial digestion of blotter paper, cloth, sanitary napkins, and pine sawdust in various types and sizes of bench-scale anaerobic bioreactors are described. Preliminary tests indicate that the resulting digests are amenable to incorporation into hydrofracture grouts

  19. Aerosol measurements on a metal waste volume reduction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Lloyd, F.A.; Hodgson, W.H.

    1975-09-01

    Particulates generated in an experiment in which stainless steel scrap was melted by the exothermic reaction between silicon and oxygen were sampled. The objective of the sampling was to characterize the particles in the off-gas stream and to determine the total weight of particles airborne. The objective was only partially achieved since the mass of airborne particles was so large that full-flow sampling was possible only for a short period. The particles were analyzed and found to contain Si, Al, Na, and Ba, with Si representing the greatest component. The aerosol was characterized by being typically condensed fume with primary particles of submicron sizes

  20. Simulation for volume reduction of site remediation at UCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sang Bum; Seo, Bum Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon

    2013-01-01

    A characterization survey, sufficient time, and a proper budget are required after decommissioning work to carry out a final survey in preparing for an unexpected contamination. In this study, the optimized amount of soil waste during site remediation of the Uranium Conversion Plant was evaluated by considering the hop spot concept which was suggested in MARSSIM and geo statistics methods. The objective of any remedial action is to reduce the risks to human health to acceptable levels by removing the source of contamination. The project period was extended twice for the initial planning because of the unexpected soil contamination under the UCP building. The importance of the characterization survey and optimization of site remediation cannot be overestimated in the decommissioning project. In order to provide a reliable cost and schedule for site remediation, it requires optimization methods as well as appropriate data processing techniques. The optimized amount of soil waste during site remediation of the Uranium Conversion Plant was evaluated by considering the spatial analysis with the hot spot concept in MARSSIM. The combined methods of the hot spot concept in MARSSIM and geo statistics method pave a way to optimization of the site remediation

  1. Aircraft Configuration Noise Reduction. Volume 3. Computer Program Source Listing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    PKCPALA]ICN IS ULt .m[NC (ti ,IXtA4t7-3 PHBNAC 451 IF( fG0R.NE.J)G;XP=YNO P~3N( 5 WITt(f6,475tlJ (iPT9I=1121),GHP PHBNAL 453 4755 F-LRMA( :x, 22HO ) Gf ClND...BANOS.ABU( . C BCF = THE ARRAY OF BAND CEN\\TER FRECUENCIES. AbSOKP I b C T =AMBIENT TEMPERATURE IN’ DEGREES FARENHEIT ABSUtRP 17 C AdSOt(P 18 C OUTPUT

  2. Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction : An Expert Panel Recommendation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herth, Felix J. F.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Rabe, Klaus F.; Shah, Pallav L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive condition comprising a constellation of disorders from chronic bronchitis, airflow obstruction through to emphysema. The global burden of COPD is estimated at more than 6% of the population. The standard of care is based on a combination

  3. Volume 10 No. 11 November 2010 4398 REDUCTION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-11-11

    Nov 11, 2010 ... AJFAND online 2007:7 (3). 16. Kordylas JM Processing and Preservation of Tropical and Subtropical Foods. Macmillan Publishers Ltd. London. 1990. 17. Cataldo DA, Haroon M, Schrader LE and VL Youngs Rapid Colorimetric. Determination of Nitrate in Plant Tissue by Nitration of Salicyclic Acid. Comm.

  4. Volume reduction of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryson, H.; Weeter, D.W.; Oakes, T.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Biology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), located at the Y-12 site of the Oak Ridge Reservation, produces modest amounts of radioactive mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes which present unique disposal problems under current Federal (Dept. of Energy (DOE)), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and State of Tennessee rules and regulations governing the disposal of these types of wastes. These wastes fall into five categories, as generated: (a) liquid (laboratory process) wastes, (b) dry (lab trash) wastes, (c) animal carcases. The liquid waste is considered to contain approx. = 90% of the total radioactivity of the wastes. The most feasible long-term method of dealing with these wastes, consists of four inter-related processes. These are (1) distillation of the liquid wastes to remove a volatile, slightly radioactive organic fraction (to be incinerated); (2) scintillation fluid (''cocktail'') recovery and component separation; (3) incineration (high temperature, high efficiency) of the relatively low activity dry waste, animal bedding, animal carcasses; and the slightly radioactive ( 3 H and 14 C) flammable components from the liquid and scintillation fluid wastes; and (4) cold chemical oxidation and solidification in cement of the aqueous waste fractions from distillation and scintillation fluid separation steps. This alternative provides for the elimination of all hazardous components with the minimum release of radioactivity into the environment. Only a small fraction of the original waste would be landfilled as either immobiled radioactive waste (low activity tritiated water in carbon-14 carbonate and other ''institutional'' radioisotopes or non-hazardous ash

  5. Lung volume reduction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    no collateral ventilation are more likely to benefit from unilateral ELVR with valves, aiming to achieve complete lobar collapse. LVRS should be reserved for patients with heterogeneous disease who have collateral ventilation and an acceptable operative risk profile. Both LVRS and ELVR are currently available in SA, but ...

  6. Infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems: Normalising Reduction Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketema, J.; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2010-01-01

    We study normalising reduction strategies for infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems (iCRSs). We prove that all fair, outermost-fair, and needed-fair strategies are normalising for orthogonal, fully-extended iCRSs. These facts properly generalise a number of results on normalising strategies in

  7. A new green approach for the reduction of graphene oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 3. A new green approach for the reduction of graphene oxide nanosheets using caffeine. Thu Ha Thi Vu Thanh Thuy Thi Tran Hong Ngan Thi Le Phuong Hoa Thi Nguyen Ngoc Quynh Bui Nadine Essayem. Volume 38 Issue 3 June 2015 pp 667-671 ...

  8. Drag Reduction Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Truong, V

    2001-01-01

    ...% drag reduction with only a few parts per million of polymer. Ionic and non-ionic surfactants can also offer similar drag reduction as polymer solutions but at a high concentration of few percent...

  9. Exercise Mode Moderates the Relationship Between Mobility and Basal Ganglia Volume in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Weinstein, Andrea M; Erickson, Kirk I; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth A; Kramer, Arthur F; McAuley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether 12 months of aerobic training (AT) moderated the relationship between change in mobility and change in basal ganglia volume than balance and toning (BAT) exercises in older adults. Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Champaign-Urbana, Illinois. Community-dwelling older adults (N=101; mean age 66.4). Twelve-month exercise trial with two groups: AT and BAT. Mobility was assessed using the Timed Up and Go test. Basal ganglia (putamen, caudate nucleus, pallidum) was segmented from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images using the Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain Software Library Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool. Measurements were obtained at baseline and trial completion. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to examine whether exercise mode moderates the relationship between change in mobility and change in basal ganglia volume over 12 months. Age, sex, and education were included as covariates. Exercise significantly moderated the relationship between change in mobility and change in left putamen volume. Specifically, for the AT group, volume of the left putamen did not change, regardless of change in mobility. Similarly, in the BAT group, those who improved their mobility most over 12 months had no change in left putamen volume, although left putamen volume of those who declined in mobility levels decreased significantly. The primary finding that older adults who engaged in 12 months of BAT training and improved mobility exhibited maintenance of brain volume in an important region responsible for motor control provides compelling evidence that such exercises can contribute to the promotion of functional independence and healthy aging. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Current trends in breast reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roje, Zdravko; Roje, Zeljka; Milosević, Milan; Varvodić, Josip; Mance, Marko

    2012-06-01

    postoperative patient complications revealed a significant positive relationship in regards to smoking. The majority of these complications were wound related, with no significant relationship between patient complications and variables such as age, BMI, ASA score, resection weight of breast parenchyma, nipple elevation, duration of surgery, and type of pedicle. The higher number of complication correlated with a lower volume of parenchyma resection (rho=-0.321). Overall satisfaction with the new breast size (79%), appearance of the postoperative scars (87%), overall cosmetic outcome score (91%), overall outcome (100%), psychosocial outcome (46%), sexual outcome (85%), physical outcome (88%), satisfaction with preoperative information data (92%), and finally satisfaction with overall care process (96%) was calculated. As expected, the physical symptoms disappeared or were minimized in 88% of patients. Each method of breast reduction has its advantages and disadvantages. The surgeon should evaluate each patient's desires on the basis of her physical presentation. Breast reduction surgery increases the overall personal and social health; not only for the patient, but for their family and friends as well. It is an imperative that every surgeon is aware of this, in order to provide the highest level of care and quality to their patients.

  11. Dimensionality reduction methods:

    OpenAIRE

    Amenta, Pietro; D'Ambra, Luigi; Gallo, Michele

    2005-01-01

    In case one or more sets of variables are available, the use of dimensional reduction methods could be necessary. In this contest, after a review on the link between the Shrinkage Regression Methods and Dimensional Reduction Methods, authors provide a different multivariate extension of the Garthwaite's PLS approach (1994) where a simple linear regression coefficients framework could be given for several dimensional reduction methods.

  12. Modern Reduction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Pher G

    2008-01-01

    With its comprehensive overview of modern reduction methods, this book features high quality contributions allowing readers to find reliable solutions quickly and easily. The monograph treats the reduction of carbonyles, alkenes, imines and alkynes, as well as reductive aminations and cross and heck couplings, before finishing off with sections on kinetic resolutions and hydrogenolysis. An indispensable lab companion for every chemist.

  13. MCNP variance reduction overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.S.; Booth, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The MCNP code is rich in variance reduction features. Standard variance reduction methods found in most Monte Carlo codes are available as well as a number of methods unique to MCNP. We discuss the variance reduction features presently in MCNP as well as new ones under study for possible inclusion in future versions of the code

  14. Volume independence in large Nc QCD-like gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovtun, Pavel; Uensal, Mithat; Yaffe, Laurence G.

    2007-01-01

    Volume independence in large N c gauge theories may be viewed as a generalized orbifold equivalence. The reduction to zero volume (or Eguchi-Kawai reduction) is a special case of this equivalence. So is temperature independence in confining phases. A natural generalization concerns volume independence in 'theory space' of quiver gauge theories. In pure Yang-Mills theory, the failure of volume independence for sufficiently small volumes (at weak coupling) due to spontaneous breaking of center symmetry, together with its validity above a critical size, nicely illustrate the symmetry realization conditions which are both necessary and sufficient for large N c orbifold equivalence. The existence of a minimal size below which volume independence fails also applies to Yang-Mills theory with antisymmetric representation fermions [QCD(AS)]. However, in Yang-Mills theory with adjoint representation fermions [QCD(Adj)], endowed with periodic boundary conditions, volume independence remains valid down to arbitrarily small size. In sufficiently large volumes, QCD(Adj) and QCD(AS) have a large N c ''orientifold'' equivalence, provided charge conjugation symmetry is unbroken in the latter theory. Therefore, via a combined orbifold-orientifold mapping, a well-defined large N c equivalence exists between QCD(AS) in large, or infinite, volume and QCD(Adj) in arbitrarily small volume. Since asymptotically free gauge theories, such as QCD(Adj), are much easier to study (analytically or numerically) in small volume, this equivalence should allow greater understanding of large N c QCD in infinite volume

  15. reduction mammoplasty using inferior pedicle in heavy breasts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-09

    Sep 9, 2011 ... reduction of the breast as well as enhancement of the aesthetic appearance of the breasts. In this study, the inferior ... of the procedure is reduction in weight, volume and improvement in aesthetic appearance ... resections are done in a beveling fashion leaving a carpet of breast tissue of the muscle fascia ...

  16. Altered Gray Matter Volume and Resting-State Connectivity in Individuals With Internet Gaming Disorder: A Voxel-Based Morphometry and Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Woo Seok

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD have been accumulating due to growing concerns regarding the psychological and social problems associated with Internet use. However, relatively little is known about the brain characteristics underlying IGD, such as the associated functional connectivity and structure. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in gray matter (GM volume and functional connectivity during resting state in individuals with IGD using voxel-based morphometry and a resting-state connectivity analysis. The participants included 20 individuals with IGD and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Resting-state functional and structural images were acquired for all participants using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging. We also measured the severity of IGD and impulsivity using psychological scales. The results show that IGD severity was positively correlated with GM volume in the left caudate (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons, and negatively associated with functional connectivity between the left caudate and the right middle frontal gyrus (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons. This study demonstrates that IGD is associated with neuroanatomical changes in the right middle frontal cortex and the left caudate. These are important brain regions for reward and cognitive control processes, and structural and functional abnormalities in these regions have been reported for other addictions, such as substance abuse and pathological gambling. The findings suggest that structural deficits and resting-state functional impairments in the frontostriatal network may be associated with IGD and provide new insights into the underlying neural mechanisms of IGD.

  17. Multivariate volume rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique for representing multivalued data sets defined on an integer lattice. It extends the state-of-the-art in volume rendering to include nonhomogeneous volume representations. That is, volume rendering of materials with very fine detail (e.g. translucent granite) within a voxel. Multivariate volume rendering is achieved by introducing controlled amounts of noise within the volume representation. Varying the local amount of noise within the volume is used to represent a separate scalar variable. The technique can also be used in image synthesis to create more realistic clouds and fog.

  18. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis...

  19. Multifunctional Low Pressure Turbine for Core Noise Reduction, Improved Efficiency, and NOx Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Chris; Shyam, Vikram; Rigby, David; Acosta, Waldo

    2013-01-01

    Determining the feasibility of the induced synthetic jet is key, and is still TBD. center dot Available LPT vane volume is sufficient for tens of resonators per span-wise hole spacing, so physically feasible. center dot Determination of acoustic attenuation requires accurate model of vane, resonator locations, flow field and incident waves. (TBD) center dot Determination of NOx reduction is also TBD.

  20. Blood volume studies in chronic renal failure using radioactive 51Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadda, V.S.; Mehta, S.R.; Mathur, D.

    1975-01-01

    Estimation of blood volume was carried out in 20 healthy subjects and in 25 patients suffering from chronic renal failure using radioactive 51 Cr. A detailed history, physical examination and investigations were also undertaken. On statistical evaluation, the red cell volume was diminished significantly in males and females but rise in blood volume was insignificant. Plasma volume was raised significantly in females but was insignificant in males. The reduction in red cell volume is due to reduced red cell mass because of chronic renal disease. Plasma volume may be elevated in order to compensate for decreased red cell volume. The variability in these two parameters results in variable blood volume. (author)

  1. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  2. Regulation of blood volume in lowlanders exposed to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, Christoph; Robach, Paul; Lundby, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    . Initially, hemoconcentration is exclusively related to a reduction in plasma volume (PV), whereas after several weeks a progressive expansion in total red blood cell volume (RCV) contributes, although often to a modest extent. Since the decrease in PV is more rapid and usually more pronounced than...

  3. High temperature dimensional reduction in Snyder space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nozari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we formulate the statistical mechanics in Snyder space that supports the existence of a minimal length scale. We obtain the corresponding invariant Liouville volume which properly determines the number of microstates in the semiclassical regime. The results show that the number of accessible microstates drastically reduces at the high energy regime such that there is only one degree of freedom for a particle. Using the Liouville volume, we obtain the deformed partition function and we then study the thermodynamical properties of the ideal gas in this setup. Invoking the equipartition theorem, we show that 2/3 of the degrees of freedom freeze at the high temperature regime when the thermal de Broglie wavelength becomes of the order of the Planck length. This reduction of the number of degrees of freedom suggests an effective dimensional reduction of the space from 3 to 1 at the Planck scale.

  4. High temperature dimensional reduction in Snyder space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozari, K.; Hosseinzadeh, V.; Gorji, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we formulate the statistical mechanics in Snyder space that supports the existence of a minimal length scale. We obtain the corresponding invariant Liouville volume which properly determines the number of microstates in the semiclassical regime. The results show that the number of accessible microstates drastically reduces at the high energy regime such that there is only one degree of freedom for a particle. Using the Liouville volume, we obtain the deformed partition function and we then study the thermodynamical properties of the ideal gas in this setup. Invoking the equipartition theorem, we show that 2/3 of the degrees of freedom freeze at the high temperature regime when the thermal de Broglie wavelength becomes of the order of the Planck length. This reduction of the number of degrees of freedom suggests an effective dimensional reduction of the space from 3 to 1 at the Planck scale.

  5. Dimensionality Reduction Ensembles

    OpenAIRE

    Farrelly, Colleen M.

    2017-01-01

    Ensemble learning has had many successes in supervised learning, but it has been rare in unsupervised learning and dimensionality reduction. This study explores dimensionality reduction ensembles, using principal component analysis and manifold learning techniques to capture linear, nonlinear, local, and global features in the original dataset. Dimensionality reduction ensembles are tested first on simulation data and then on two real medical datasets using random forest classifiers; results ...

  6. Reduction - competitive tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, L.; Bargerstock, S.

    1995-01-01

    Inventory reduction is one of the few initiatives that represent significant cost-reduction potential that does not result in personnel reduction. Centerior Energy's Perry nuclear power plant has embarked on an aggressive program to reduce inventory while maintaining plant material availability. Material availability to the plant was above 98%, but at an unacceptable 1994 inventory book value of $47 million with inventory carrying costs calculated at 30% annually

  7. Finding optimal exact reducts

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of attribute reduction is an important problem related to feature selection and knowledge discovery. The problem of finding reducts with minimum cardinality is NP-hard. This paper suggests a new algorithm for finding exact reducts with minimum cardinality. This algorithm transforms the initial table to a decision table of a special kind, apply a set of simplification steps to this table, and use a dynamic programming algorithm to finish the construction of an optimal reduct. I present results of computer experiments for a collection of decision tables from UCIML Repository. For many of the experimented tables, the simplification steps solved the problem.

  8. Blood volume monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Roland E; Pätow, Wolfgang; Ahrenholz, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In CKD stage 5 diabetic patients (DM), only approximately half of the interdialytic weight gain was accounted for by sodium intake. The other half was due to pure water gain, probably caused by hyperglycemia. Dialysis treatment faces two major troubles: the removal of the extra amount of water and the therapy of the compromised compensatory mechanisms. The described situation is the reason why new technologies in hemodialysis were developed. Blood volume monitoring (BVM) with regulation of ultrafiltration and sodium (Hemocontrol, Hospal, Belgium; Hameomaster, Nikkiso Co. Ltd, Japan) was evaluated to describe the advantages for efficacy and compatibility in hemodialysis therapy. 18 cardiovascular instable patients (DM) were included into the study (age 56.4 +/- 12.5, 7 female, 11 male). Begin of dialysis 39 +/- 9.3 months before the study, dialysis time/session 258.3 +/- 15.4 min, 3 sessions/week, blood flow 250 ml/min, dialysate flow 500 ml/min, prephase: standard bicarbonate dialysis (HD; HCO3 - 35 mmol/l) 2 weeks, BVM: 48 weeks. Clinical parameters evaluated before BVM and 48 weeks after BVM: number of muscle cramps (MC) and hypotensive episodes (HypoEp) during dialysis, optimal weight (OptW), single pool Kt/V (sp Kt/V), equilibrated Kt/V (db Kt/V), systolic blood pressure (BP), antihypertensive drugs (AntiDr), cardiac ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI). In comparison with HD after 48 weeks with BVM, we can demonstrate a reduction of MC by 83.7%, HypoEp by 88.9%, OptW by 1.7%. The improved refilling and reduction of OptW led to an increase of sp Kt/V by 34.8% and db Kt/V by 33.3%. AntiDr were reduced to 56.6% compared to HD, BP lowered by 4.4%. Due to BVM, EF increases to 123.8% and LVMI decreases by 25.2%. BVM can improve clinical parameters for adequacy of hemodialysis. It offers a unique possibility to treat diabetic patients according to their special needs.

  9. Concrete waste reduction of 50%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, R.M. de; Van der Wagt, K.M.; Van der Kruk, E.; Meeussen, H.W.

    2016-01-01

    During decommissioning quite a volume of concrete waste is produced. The degree of activation of the waste can range from clearly activated material to slightly activated or contaminated concrete. The degree of activation influences the applicable waste management processes that can be applied. The subsequent waste management processes can be identified for concrete waste are; disposal, segregation, re-use, conditional release and release. With each of these steps, the footprint of radioactive decommissioning waste is reduced. Future developments for concrete waste reduction can be achieved by applying smart materials in new build facilities (i.e. fast decaying materials). NRG (Nuclear Research and consultancy Group) has investigated distinctive waste management processes to reduce the foot-print of concrete waste streams resulting from decommissioning. We have investigated which processes can be applied in the Netherlands, both under current legislation and with small changes in legislation. We have also investigated the separation process in more detail. Pilot tests with a newly patented process have been started in 2015. We expect that our separation methods will reduce the footprint reduction of concrete waste by approximately 50% due to release or re-use in the nuclear sector or in the conventional industry. (authors)

  10. Waste Reduction plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development (R&D) facility owned and operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed under subcontract by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems), Inc. ORNL R&D activities generate numerous small waste streams. In the hazardous waste category alone, over 300 streams of a diverse nature exist. Generation avoidance, reduction or recycling of wastes is an important goal in maintaining efficiency of ORNL R&D activities and protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Waste minimization is defined as any action that minimizes or eliminates the volume or toxicity of waste by avoiding its generation or recycling. This is accomplished by material substitution and inventory management, process modification, or recycling wastes for reuse. Waste reduction is defined as waste minimization plus treatment which results in volume or toxicity reduction. The ORNL Waste Reduction Program will include both waste minimization and waste reduction activities.

  11. Waste Reduction plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development (R D) facility owned and operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed under subcontract by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems), Inc. ORNL R D activities generate numerous small waste streams. In the hazardous waste category alone, over 300 streams of a diverse nature exist. Generation avoidance, reduction or recycling of wastes is an important goal in maintaining efficiency of ORNL R D activities and protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Waste minimization is defined as any action that minimizes or eliminates the volume or toxicity of waste by avoiding its generation or recycling. This is accomplished by material substitution and inventory management, process modification, or recycling wastes for reuse. Waste reduction is defined as waste minimization plus treatment which results in volume or toxicity reduction. The ORNL Waste Reduction Program will include both waste minimization and waste reduction activities.

  12. Reduction in language testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimova, Slobodanka; Jensen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This study represents an initial exploration of raters' comments and actual realisations of form reductions in L2 test speech performances. Performances of three L2 speakers were selected as case studies and illustrations of how reductions are evaluated by the raters. The analysis is based on aud...

  13. Active3 noise reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzfuss, J.

    1996-01-01

    Noise reduction is a problem being encountered in a variety of applications, such as environmental noise cancellation, signal recovery and separation. Passive noise reduction is done with the help of absorbers. Active noise reduction includes the transmission of phase inverted signals for the cancellation. This paper is about a threefold active approach to noise reduction. It includes the separation of a combined source, which consists of both a noise and a signal part. With the help of interaction with the source by scanning it and recording its response, modeling as a nonlinear dynamical system is achieved. The analysis includes phase space analysis and global radial basis functions as tools for the prediction used in a subsequent cancellation procedure. Examples are given which include noise reduction of speech. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  14. Bayesian supervised dimensionality reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönen, Mehmet

    2013-12-01

    Dimensionality reduction is commonly used as a preprocessing step before training a supervised learner. However, coupled training of dimensionality reduction and supervised learning steps may improve the prediction performance. In this paper, we introduce a simple and novel Bayesian supervised dimensionality reduction method that combines linear dimensionality reduction and linear supervised learning in a principled way. We present both Gibbs sampling and variational approximation approaches to learn the proposed probabilistic model for multiclass classification. We also extend our formulation toward model selection using automatic relevance determination in order to find the intrinsic dimensionality. Classification experiments on three benchmark data sets show that the new model significantly outperforms seven baseline linear dimensionality reduction algorithms on very low dimensions in terms of generalization performance on test data. The proposed model also obtains the best results on an image recognition task in terms of classification and retrieval performances.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Measurement of Hippocampal Volume in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Related to Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse—A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Douglas; Randall, Penny; Vermetten, Eric; Staib, Lawrence; Bronen, Richard A.; Mazure, Carolyn; Capelli, Sandi; McCarthy, Gregory; Innis, Robert B.; Charney, Dennis S.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously reported smaller hippocampal volume and deficits in short-term memory in patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relative to comparison subjects. The purpose of this study was to compare hippocampal volume in adult survivors of childhood abuse to matched controls. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure volume of the hippocampus in adult survivors of childhood abuse (n = 17) and healthy subjects (n = 17) matched on a case-by-case basis for age, sex, race, handedness, years of education, body size, and years of alcohol abuse. All patients met criteria for PTSD secondary to childhood abuse. PTSD patients had a 12% smaller left hippocampal volume relative to the matched controls (p < .05), without smaller volumes of comparison regions (amygdala, caudate, and temporal lobe). The findings were significant after controlling for alcohol, age, and education, with multiple linear regression. These findings suggest that a decrease in left hippocampal volume is associated with abuse-related PTSD. PMID:8988792

  16. Cognitively Engaging Activity is Associated with Greater Cortical and Subcortical Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia R. Seider

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the population ages and dementia becomes a growing healthcare concern, it is increasingly important to identify targets for intervention to delay or attenuate cognitive decline. Research has shown that the most successful interventions aim at altering lifestyle factors. Thus, this study examined how involvement in physical, cognitive, and social activity is related to brain structure in older adults. Sixty-five adults (mean age = 71.4 years, standard deviation = 8.9 received the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS, a questionnaire that polls everyday activities in which older adults may be involved, and also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Stepwise regression with backwards selection was used to predict weekly time spent in either social, cognitive, light physical, or heavy physical activity from the volume of one of the cortical or subcortical regions of interest (corrected by intracranial volume as well as age, education, and gender as control variables. Regressions revealed that more time spent in cognitive activity was associated with greater volumes of all brain regions studied: total cortex (β = .289, p = .014, frontal (β = .276, p = .019, parietal (β = .305, p = .009, temporal (β = .275, p = .020, and occipital (β = .256, p = .030 lobes, and thalamus (β = .310, p = .010, caudate (β = .233, p = .049, hippocampus (β = .286, p = .017, and amygdala (β = .336, p = .004. These effects remained even after accounting for the positive association between cognitive activity and education. No other activity variable was associated with brain volumes. Results indicate that time spent in cognitively engaging activity is associated with greater cortical and subcortical brain volume. Findings suggest that interventions aimed at increasing levels of cognitive activity may delay cognitive consequences of aging and decrease the risk of developing dementia.

  17. Radiology residents' experience with intussusception reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateni, Cyrus; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L; Li, Chin-Shang

    2011-06-01

    Residents should be exposed to adequate procedural volume to act independently upon completion of training. Informal inquiry led us to question whether residents encounter enough intussusception reductions to become comfortable with the procedure. We sought to determine radiology residents' exposure to intussusception reductions, and whether their experiences vary by region or institution. U.S. radiology residency program directors were asked to encourage their residents to complete a 12-question online survey describing characteristics of their pediatric radiology department, experiences with intussusception reduction, and confidence in their own ability to perform the procedure. Six hundred sixty-four residents responded during the study period. Of those, 308 (46.4%) had not experienced an intussusception reduction, and 228 (34%) had experienced only one or two. Twenty-two percent of fourth-year residents had never experienced an intussusception reduction, and 21% had experienced only one. Among second- through fourth-year residents, only 99 (18.3%) felt confident that they could competently reduce an intussusception (P Radiology residents have limited opportunity to learn intussusception reduction and therefore lack confidence. Most think they would benefit from additional training with a computer-simulation model.

  18. Reduction of aerosols produced by ultrasonic scalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrel, S K; Barnes, J B; Rivera-Hidalgo, F

    1996-01-01

    There is concern with decreased air quality and potential aerosol contamination in the dental operatory. This problem has been addressed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which recommends that all sources of blood-contaminated splatter and aerosols be minimized. One of the major sources of potential aerosol contamination in the dental setting is the ultrasonic scaler. This study looks at the use of a high volume evacuator attachment for the ultrasonic scaler handpiece. Artificial teeth were mock-scaled for 1 minute with and without the evacuator attachment. The mock scaling was performed within a plastic enclosure that had a 1 cm grid laid out on 4 sides. Scaling was performed 10 times each by 2 operators. An erythrosin solution was used for the ultrasonic scaler coolant with a coolant volume of 17.5 ml/min. The number of squares containing a red erythrosin spot were counted and considered to represent aerosol contamination. The high volume evacuator attachment produced a 93% reduction in the number of contaminated squares (chi squared significant at P < 0.05). There was no increase in heat transfer to a tooth analogue when the high volume evacuator attachment was used with the ultrasonic scaler as compared to the scaler without the evacuator attachment. It is felt that the high volume evacuator attachment is capable of significantly reducing the amount of aerosol contamination produced within the test system without increased heat transfer to the tooth.

  19. Medical Errors Reduction Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mutter, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The Valley Hospital of Ridgewood, New Jersey, is proposing to extend a limited but highly successful specimen management and medication administration medical errors reduction initiative on a hospital-wide basis...

  20. Breast reduction (mammoplasty) - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100189.htm Breast reduction (mammoplasty) - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... Lickstein, MD, FACS, specializing in cosmetic and reconstructive plastic surgery, Palm Beach Gardens, FL. Review provided by ...

  1. Breast Reduction Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast reduction surgery might also help improve your self-image and your ability to participate in physical activities. ... under the breasts Nerve pain Restricted activity Poor self-image related to large breasts Difficulty fitting into bras ...

  2. Work Truck Idling Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid utility trucks, with auxiliary power sources for on-board equipment, significantly reduce unnecessary idling resulting in fuel costs savings, less engine wear, and reduction in noise and emissions.

  3. Classification Constrained Dimensionality Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Raich, Raviv; Costa, Jose A.; Damelin, Steven B.; Hero III, Alfred O.

    2008-01-01

    Dimensionality reduction is a topic of recent interest. In this paper, we present the classification constrained dimensionality reduction (CCDR) algorithm to account for label information. The algorithm can account for multiple classes as well as the semi-supervised setting. We present an out-of-sample expressions for both labeled and unlabeled data. For unlabeled data, we introduce a method of embedding a new point as preprocessing to a classifier. For labeled data, we introduce a method tha...

  4. Octreotide reduces hepatic, renal and breast cystic volume in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, Ramón; Cuesta-López, Emilio; Peces, Carlos; Pérez-Dueñas, Virginia; Vega-Cabrera, Cristina; Selgas, Rafael

    2011-06-01

    A 43-year-old woman with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) received octreotide for 12 months, and this was associated with a 6.3% reduction in liver volume, an 8% reduction in total kidney volume and stabilization of renal function. There was also a reduction of cyst size in fibrocystic disease of breast. These data suggest that the cyst fluid accumulation in different organs from patients with ADPKD is a dynamic process which can be reversed by octreotide. This is the first report of a case of simultaneous reduction in hepatic, renal and breast cystic volume with preservation of renal function in a patient with ADPKD receiving octreotide.

  5. BEGINNING INDONESIAN, VOLUME 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    VOLUME 3 OF A 4 VOLUME WORK ON BEGINNING INDONESIAN CONTAINS LESSONS 13-18 OF A TOTAL OF 24. THESE SIX LESSONS PROVIDE DRILLS IN BASIC INDONESIAN SENTENCE PATTERNS INVOLVING THE USE OF THE PASSIVE VOICE, PRONUNCIATION TECHNIQUES, ORTHOGRAPHY, FINAL VOWELS, AND FINAL SYLLABLES. LANGUAGE DRILLS ARE ALSO PROVIDED CONCERNING THE MONTHS OF THE YEAR AND…

  6. BEGINNING INDONESIAN. VOLUME 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    VOLUME 1 OF A 4-VOLUME WORK ON BEGINNING INDONESIAN CONTAINS THE FIRST 6 LESSONS OF A TOTAL OF 24. THESE SIX LESSONS PROVIDE DRILLS IN BASIC INDONESIAN SENTENCE PATTERNS INVOLVING THE USE OF TERMS OF ADDRESS, POLITE FORMULAS AND RESPONSES, AUXILIARIES, COMMANDS, AND ABSOLUTE EXPRESSIONS. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 010 456 THROUGH ED 010 459. (GD)…

  7. BEGINNING INDONESIAN. VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    VOLUME 2 OF A 4-VOLUME WORK ON BEGINNING INDONESIAN CONTAINS LESSONS 7-12 OF A TOTAL OF 24. THESE SIX LESSONS PROVIDE DRILLS IN BASIC INDONESIAN SENTENCE PATTERNS INVOLVING THE USE OF DIFFICULT VERBS, THE ACTIVE VOICE, INVERTED NARRATIVE CLAUSES, INTERROGATIVE WORDS, AND COUNTING METHODS. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 010 456 THROUGH ED 010 459. (GD)

  8. Postoperative volume balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, H; Mortensen, C.R.; Secher, Niels H.

    2017-01-01

    In healthy humans, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) do not increase with expansion of the central blood volume by head-down tilt or administration of fluid. Here, we exposed 85 patients to Trendelenburg's position about one hour after surgery while cardiovascular variables were determin...

  9. Variable volume combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  10. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    We review studies on regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and regulatory volume increase (RVI) of major ion and water transporting vertebrate epithelia. The rate of RVD and RVI is faster in cells of high osmotic permeability like amphibian gallbladder and mammalian proximal tubule as compared...... function of iso-osmotic fluid transport that depends on Na+ recirculation. The causative relationship is discussed for a fluid-absorbing and a fluid-secreting epithelium of which the Na+ recirculation mechanisms have been identified. A large number of transporters and ion channels involved in cell volume...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...

  11. Lake Nasser evaporation reduction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M.I. Ebaid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the reduction of evaporation of Lake Nasser’s water caused by disconnecting (fully or partially some of its secondary channels (khors. This evaluation integrates remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS techniques, aerodynamic principles, and Landsat7 ETM+ images. Three main procedures were carried out in this study; the first derived the surface temperature from Landsat thermal band; the second derived evaporation depth and approximate evaporation volume for the entire lake, and quantified evaporation loss to the secondary channels’ level over one month (March by applied aerodynamic principles on surface temperature of the raster data; the third procedure applied GIS suitability analysis to determine which of these secondary channels (khors should be disconnected. The results showed evaporation depth ranging from 2.73 mm/day at the middle of the lake to 9.58 mm/day at the edge. The evaporated water-loss value throughout the entire lake was about 0.86 billion m3/month (March. The analysis suggests that it is possible to save an approximate total evaporation volume loss of 19.7 million m3/month (March, and thus 2.4 billion m3/year, by disconnecting two khors with approximate construction heights of 8 m and 15 m. In conclusion, remote sensing and GIS are useful for applications in remote locations where field-based information is not readily available and thus recommended for decision makers remotely planning in water conservation and management.

  12. Reduction of HCCI combustion noise through piston crown design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr; Schramm, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Seven shapes of piston crowns have been evaluated for their ability to reduce HCCI knock and transmission of combustion noise to the engine. The performance of each piston crown was evaluated with measurements of cylinder pressure, engine vibration and acoustic sound pressure measured one meter....... The largest and most consistent reduction in noise level was however achieved with a diesel bowl type piston. The increased surface area as well as the larger crevice volumes of the experimental piston crowns generally resulted in lower IMEP than the flat piston. While the crevice volumes can be reduced...... reduction as well as heat losses....

  13. Cell volume regulation: physiology and pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, I H; Hoffmann, E K; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2008-01-01

    not only under physiological conditions, e.g. following accumulation of nutrients, during epithelial absorption/secretion processes, following hormonal/autocrine stimulation, and during induction of apoptosis, but also under pathophysiological conditions, e.g. hypoxia, ischaemia and hyponatremia....../hypernatremia. On the other hand, it has recently become clear that an increase or reduction in cell volume can also serve as a specific signal in the regulation of physiological processes such as transepithelial transport, cell migration, proliferation and death. Although the mechanisms by which cell volume perturbations...... are sensed are still far from clear, significant progress has been made with respect to the nature of the sensors, transducers and effectors that convert a change in cell volume into a physiological response. In the present review, we summarize recent major developments in the field, and emphasize...

  14. White matter volume changes in people who develop psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterfang, Mark; McGuire, Philip K; Yung, Alison R; Phillips, Lisa J; Velakoulis, Dennis; Wood, Stephen J; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T; Brewer, Warrick; Soulsby, Bridget; Desmond, Patricia; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos

    2008-09-01

    Grey matter changes have been described in individuals who are pre- and peri-psychotic, but it is unclear if these changes are accompanied by changes in white matter structures. To determine whether changes in white matter occur prior to and with the transition to psychosis in individuals who are pre-psychotic who had previously demonstrated grey matter reductions in frontotemporal regions. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine regional white matter volume in 75 people with prodromal symptoms. A subset of the original group (n=21) were rescanned at 12-18 months to determine white matter volume changes. Participants were retrospectively categorised according to whether they had or had not developed psychosis at follow-up. Comparison of the baseline MRI data from these two subgroups revealed that individuals who later developed psychosis had larger volumes of white matter in the frontal lobe, particularly in the left hemisphere. Longitudinal comparison of data in individuals who developed psychosis revealed a reduction in white matter volume in the region of the left fronto-occipital fasciculus. Participants who had not developed psychosis showed no reductions in white matter volume but increases in a region subjacent to the right inferior parietal lobule. The reduction in volume of white matter near the left fronto-occipital fasciculus may reflect a change in this tract in association with the onset of frank psychosis.

  15. Mission Benefits Analysis of Logistics Reduction Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Future space exploration missions will need to use less logistical supplies if humans are to live for longer periods away from our home planet. Anything that can be done to reduce initial mass and volume of supplies or reuse or recycle items that have been launched will be very valuable. Reuse and recycling also reduce the trash burden and associated nuisances, such as smell, but require good systems engineering and operations integration to reap the greatest benefits. A systems analysis was conducted to quantify the mass and volume savings of four different technologies currently under development by NASA s Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing project. Advanced clothing systems lead to savings by direct mass reduction and increased wear duration. Reuse of logistical items, such as packaging, for a second purpose allows fewer items to be launched. A device known as a heat melt compactor drastically reduces the volume of trash, recovers water and produces a stable tile that can be used instead of launching additional radiation protection. The fourth technology, called trash-to-gas, can benefit a mission by supplying fuel such as methane to the propulsion system. This systems engineering work will help improve logistics planning and overall mission architectures by determining the most effective use, and reuse, of all resources.

  16. Dimensionality Reduction via Regression in Hyperspectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laparra, Valero; Malo, Jesus; Camps-Valls, Gustau

    2015-09-01

    This paper introduces a new unsupervised method for dimensionality reduction via regression (DRR). The algorithm belongs to the family of invertible transforms that generalize Principal Component Analysis (PCA) by using curvilinear instead of linear features. DRR identifies the nonlinear features through multivariate regression to ensure the reduction in redundancy between he PCA coefficients, the reduction of the variance of the scores, and the reduction in the reconstruction error. More importantly, unlike other nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods, the invertibility, volume-preservation, and straightforward out-of-sample extension, makes DRR interpretable and easy to apply. The properties of DRR enable learning a more broader class of data manifolds than the recently proposed Non-linear Principal Components Analysis (NLPCA) and Principal Polynomial Analysis (PPA). We illustrate the performance of the representation in reducing the dimensionality of remote sensing data. In particular, we tackle two common problems: processing very high dimensional spectral information such as in hyperspectral image sounding data, and dealing with spatial-spectral image patches of multispectral images. Both settings pose collinearity and ill-determination problems. Evaluation of the expressive power of the features is assessed in terms of truncation error, estimating atmospheric variables, and surface land cover classification error. Results show that DRR outperforms linear PCA and recently proposed invertible extensions based on neural networks (NLPCA) and univariate regressions (PPA).

  17. Hippocampal volume and cognitive function in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, Frances; Murphy, Fay; Connor, Steve E J; Rich, Phil; Murphy, Tara; Bara-Carill, Nuria; Landau, Sabine; Krljes, Sanya; Ng, Virginia; Williams, Steve; Morris, Robin G; Campbell, Iain C; Treasure, Janet

    2006-03-31

    We hypothesised that hippocampal volume would be reduced in underweight anorexia nervosa (AN) and associated with impaired hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. Hippocampal and whole brain volumes were measured in 16 women with AN and 16 matched healthy women using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a manual tracing method. Participants also completed the Doors and People Test of hippocampus-dependent memory and an IQ test. After adjustment for total cerebral volume, there was significant bilateral reduction in hippocampal volume in the AN group (8.2% right; 7.5% left). There was no evidence of impaired hippocampus-dependent cognitive function and no evidence of a relationship between hippocampal volume and clinical features of AN. The reduced hippocampal volume in anorexia nervosa is not associated with changes in cognitive function. To understand the cause and consequence of hippocampal size and function, it will be important to integrate endocrine, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies.

  18. Radiofrequency volumetric reduction for masseteric hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin Park, Young; Woo Jo, Yong; Bang, Sa Ik; Kim, Hyung Joon; Lim, So Young; Mun, Goo Hyun; Hyon, Won Sok; Oh, Kap Sung

    2007-01-01

    Masseteric hypertrophy occurs frequently among Asians, including Koreans, because of racial characteristics and dietary habits. It is thought to be an unpleasant feature, especially because of its strong and masculine impression. Recently, the authors developed a method for the volumetric reduction of hypertrophied masseter muscles using radiofrequency energy to correct the squared facial appearance caused by the hypertrophy. This study was performed to investigate the effects of radiofrequency applied to reduce hypertrophied masseter muscles of patients who sought an aesthetic alternative for a slim, smooth, and feminine-looking lower facial contour. A total of 340 patients were treated. The patients usually recognized the volume change 3 to 6 weeks after treatment, and an objective volume reduction was observed within 3 months of the operation. The range of the reduction in the masseter thickness, as measured by ultrasonic examination at a 6-month postoperative follow-up visit, was 10% to 60% (mean, 27%). Most of the patients could eat a nearly normal diet after 4 weeks and were satisfied with the improved aesthetic contour lines of their lower face. Radiofrequency-induced coagulation tissue necrosis of the masseter did not cause any infections or limitations of mouth opening, and the clinical improvement was well maintained after the treatment.

  19. Oxygen Reduction on Platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesselberger, Markus

    This thesis investigates the electro reduction of oxygen on platinum nanoparticles, which serve as catalyst in low temperature fuel cells. Kinetic studies on model catalysts as well as commercially used systems are presented in order to investigate the particle size effect, the particle proximity...... effect and anion adsorption on the performance of Pt based electrocatalysts. The anion adsorption is additionally studied by in situ electrochemical infrared spectroscopy during the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). For this purpose an in situ FTIR setup in attenuated total refection (ATR) configuration....... The influence of the ion adsorption strength, which is observed in the “particle size studies” on the oxygen reduction rate on Pt/C catalysts, is further investigated under similar reaction conditions by infrared spectroscopy. The designed in situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR setup features a high level...

  20. Measuring mandibular ridge reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, W.H.A.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis investigates the mandibular reduction in height of complete denture wearers and overdenture wearers. To follow this reduction in the anterior region as well as in the lateral sections of the mandible, an accurate and reproducible measuring method is a prerequisite. A radiologic technique offers the best chance. A survey is given of the literature concerning the resorption process after the extraction of teeth. An oblique cephalometric radiographic technique is introduced as a promising method to measure mandibular ridge reduction. The reproducibility and the accuracy of the technique are determined. The reproducibility in the positioning of the mandible is improved by the introduction of a mandibular support which permits a precise repositioning of the edentulous jaw, even after long periods of investigation. (Auth.)

  1. Time, Chance, and Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Gerhard; Hüttemann, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    List of contributors; 1. Introduction Gerhard Ernst and Andreas Hütteman; Part I. The Arrows of Time: 2. Does a low-entropy constraint prevent us from influencing the past? Mathias Frisch; 3. The part hypothesis meets gravity Craig Callender; 4. Quantum gravity and the arrow of time Claus Kiefer; Part II. Probability and Chance: 5. The natural-range conception of probability Jacob Rosenthal; 6. Probability in Boltzmannian statistical mechanics Roman Frigg; 7. Humean mechanics versus a metaphysics of powers Michael Esfeld; Part III. Reduction: 8. The crystallisation of Clausius's phenomenological thermodynamics C. Ulises Moulines; 9. Reduction and renormalization Robert W. Batterman; 10. Irreversibility in stochastic dynamics Jos Uffink; Index.

  2. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-16

    This paper briefly summarizes the series in which we consider the possibilities for losing, or compromising, key capabilities of the U.S. nuclear force in the face of modernization and reductions. The first of the three papers takes an historical perspective, considering capabilities that were eliminated in past force reductions. The second paper is our attempt to define the needed capabilities looking forward in the context of the current framework for force modernization and the current picture of the evolving challenges of deterrence and assurance. The third paper then provides an example for each of our undesirable outcomes: the creation of roach motels, box canyons, and wrong turns.

  3. Grey matter volumes in treatment naïve vs. chronically treated children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a combined approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemonteix, Thomas; De Brito, Stéphane A; Kavec, Martin; Balériaux, Danielle; Metens, Thierry; Slama, Hichem; Baijot, Simon; Mary, Alison; Peigneux, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    Psychostimulants are the first-line treatment in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their effects on brain development remain poorly understood. In particular, previous structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) studies only investigated treatment effects on grey matter (GM) volumes in selected regions of interest (ROIs). In this study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to assess medication-related GM volume differences across the entire brain. Automated tracing measurements of selected ROIs were also obtained. Three groups (77 participants aged 7-to-13 year old) underwent MRI scans and were compared: never-medicated children with ADHD (n=33), medicated (methylphenidate) children with ADHD (n=20) and typically developing children (TD; n=24). Optimised VBM was used to investigate regional GM volumes, controlling for age and gender. Automated tracing procedures were also used to assess the average volume of the caudate nucleus, the amygdala and the nucleus accumbens. When compared to both medicated children with ADHD and TD children, never-medicated children with ADHD exhibited decreased GM volume in the insula and in the middle temporal gyrus. When compared to TD children, medicated children with ADHD had decreased GM volume in the middle frontal gyrus and in the precentral gyrus. Finally, ROI analyses revealed a significant association between duration of treatment and GM volume of the left nucleus accumbens in medicated children with ADHD. In conclusion, this study documents potential methylphenidate-related GM volume normalization and deviation in previously unexplored brain structures, and reports a positive association between treatment history and GM volume in the nucleus accumbens, a key region for reward-processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Dimensional reduction from entanglement in Minkowski space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustein, Ram; yarom, Amos

    2005-01-01

    Using a quantum field theoretic setting, we present evidence for dimensional reduction of any sub-volume of Minkowksi space. First, we show that correlation functions of a class of operators restricted to a sub-volume of D-dimensional Minkowski space scale as its surface area. A simple example of such area scaling is provided by the energy fluctuations of a free massless quantum field in its vacuum state. This is reminiscent of area scaling of entanglement entropy but applies to quantum expectation values in a pure state, rather than to statistical averages over a mixed state. We then show, in a specific case, that fluctuations in the bulk have a lower-dimensional representation in terms of a boundary theory at high temperature.

  5. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  6. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  7. Galactorrhea after reduction mammaplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A. H.; Assies, J.; van der Horst, C. M.; Bos, K. E.

    1993-01-01

    A case of extremely painful swelling of the breasts following a reduction mammaplasty is presented. There were no signs of an abscess or hematoma. A milky white fluid due to galactorrhea was evacuated at operation, and further galactorrhea was inhibited by medication. The pathogenesis of

  8. Dimensionality Reduction Mappings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, Kerstin; Biehl, Michael; Hammer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    A wealth of powerful dimensionality reduction methods has been established which can be used for data visualization and preprocessing. These are accompanied by formal evaluation schemes, which allow a quantitative evaluation along general principles and which even lead to further visualization

  9. Nonlinear dimensionality reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, John A

    2007-01-01

    Methods of dimensionality reduction provide a way to understand and visualize the structure of complex data sets. This book describes the methods to reduce the dimensionality of numerical databases. For each method, the description starts from intuitive ideas, develops the mathematical details, and ends by outlining the algorithmic implementation.

  10. Spontaneous dimensional reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlip, Steven

    2012-10-01

    Over the past few years, evidence has begun to accumulate suggesting that spacetime may undergo a "spontaneous dimensional reduction" to two dimensions near the Planck scale. I review some of this evidence, and discuss the (still very speculative) proposal that the underlying mechanism may be related to short-distance focusing of light rays by quantum fluctuations.

  11. Prejudice Reduction: What Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbutt, Richard

    Social Science Research of the past several decades provides valuable insight into the processes of prejudice acquisition and reduction. This paper lists and briefly describes the following 15 findings based on this research and their implications regarding prejudice and what works to reduce it: (1) attitudes about interpersonal differences begin…

  12. Streaming Reduction Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Kuper, Jan; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Molenkamp, Egbert

    2009-01-01

    Reduction circuits are used to reduce rows of floating point values to single values. Binary floating point operators often have deep pipelines, which may cause hazards when many consecutive rows have to be reduced. We present an algorithm by which any number of consecutive rows of arbitrary lengths

  13. Infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketema, J.; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    We define infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems (iCRSs), thus providing the first notion of infinitary higher-order rewriting. The systems defined are sufficiently general that ordinary infinitary term rewriting and infinitary $\\lambda$-calculus are special cases. Furthermore, we generalise a

  14. Critical evaluation of blood volume measurements during hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasselaar, Judith J; van der Sande, Frank M; Franssen, Casper F M

    2012-01-01

    Devices that continuously measure relative blood volume (RBV) changes during hemodialysis (HD) are increasingly used for the prevention of dialysis hypotension and fine-tuning of dry weight. However, RBV measurements are subject to various limitations. First, RBV devices provide information on relative blood volume changes but not on absolute blood volume. Since blood volume varies with the hydration status, identical reductions of RBV may result in very different absolute blood volumes at the end of HD. Second, RBV changes underestimate the change of total blood volume due to translocation of lower-hematocrit blood from the microcirculation to the central circulation. Third, changes in posture before and during HD, food intake, exercise, and administration of intravenous fluids may influence the validity of the RBV measurement. Fourth, results obtained by various RBV devices show large interdevice differences. Finally, although a fall in blood volume is an important factor in dialysis hypotension, frank dialysis hypotension only occurs when the cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms can no longer compensate for the reduction in blood volume. Therefore, the dialysis staff should not exclusively focus on RBV, but also search for opportunities in the dialysis prescription to facilitate cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms, e.g. by lowering dialysate temperature. In the opinion of the authors, routine RBV monitoring should be used with caution until the major conceptual and methodological problems that are inherent to the indirect RBV estimation are clarified. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  16. Late local and remote structural changes after capsulotomy for obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, J A; Curtis, G C; Gebarski, S S

    1994-01-01

    Stereotactic subcaudate capsulotomy (SC) is used to treat medically intractable obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD). Although clinical improvement has been observed, post-SC structural correlates are lacking in this biological disorder. Our study provides imaging evidence for local and distant alterations in structures which may have an important role in the manifestations of OCD. Five OCD patients treated with SC received MR imaging for pre-SC planning, early (1-7 days) post-SC assessment, and late (5-12 months) follow-up. The volumes of the anterior limb of the internal capsules, caudate heads, third ventricle, mamillary bodies, thalami, and hippocampal formations were digitally computed. Volumes from each of the serial imaging studies were compared. At 5-12 months post-SC, all patients showed reduction in volume of the anterior limbs of the internal capsules, caudate heads, thalami, and increased volume of the third ventricle (reflecting thalamic/caudate atrophy). 2-5 patients showed reduction in hippocampal formation volume. The post-SC reduction in volume of these structures, some far distant to the stereotactic lesion, suggests that the interrelationships of the anterior limb of the internal capsule, the caudate/thalamic nuclei, and possibly the pallidal and limbic systems are necessary for the manifestations of OCD and their variants.

  17. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is