WorldWideScience

Sample records for caudal spinal stump

  1. Somatostatin in the caudal spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of somatostatin in the rat spinal cord was studied immunohistochemically with particular reference to the localization in the caudal centers that innervate the pelvic organs. For detailed studies of the laminar distribution of somatostatin the combination of immunohistochemistry...... and acetylcholinesterase enzyme histochemistry was employed. Deafferentation experiments were carried out to shed light on the origin of the somatostatin-containing axons. These experiments showed that the bulk of the spinal somatostatin has a spinal origin. The structures showing somatostatin immunoreactivity formed...... in the sacral parasympathetic intermediolateral nucleus. In contrast, very few appeared in the sympathetic nuclei. Immunoreactive somata were present in the surroundings of the central canal at all levels. Moreover, positive neurons were found in the intermediolateral nucleus of the sacral cord. By combined...

  2. Sacral agenesis and caudal spinal cord malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, D

    1993-05-01

    Thirty-three children and one adult with sacral agenesis (SA) were studied by computed tomographic myelography and/or magnetic resonance imaging and were monitored for a mean period of 4.7 years. Four children had the OEIS (concurrent omphalocele, cloacal exstrophy, imperforate anus, and spinal deformities) complex, and three others had VATER (vertebral abnormality, anal imperforation, tracheoesophageal fistula, and renal-radial anomalies) syndrome. All patients shared some of the characteristic features of SA, namely, a short, intergluteal cleft, flattened buttocks, narrow hips, distal leg atrophy, and talipes deformities. Neurologically, lumbosacral sensation was much better preserved than the motor functions, and urinary and bowel symptoms were universal. The level of the vertebral aplasia was correlated with the motor but not with the sensory level. The important neuroimaging findings of SA were as follows: 1) 12 patients (35%) had nonstenotic, tapered narrowing of the caudal bony canal, and 2 patients had hyperostosis indenting the caudal thecal sac; 2) 16 patients (47%) had nonstenotic, tapered narrowing and shortening of the dural sac, but 3 patients (9%) had true, symptomatic dural stenosis, in which the cauda equina was severely constricted by a pencil-sized caudal dural sac; 3) the coni could be divided into those ending above the L1 vertebral body (Group 1, 14 patients) and those ending below L1 (Group 2, 20 patients). Thirteen of 14 Group 1 coni were club or wedge-shaped, terminating abruptly at T11 or T12, as if the normal tip was missing. All 20 Group 2 coni were tethered: 13 were tethered by a thick filum; 2 were extremely elongated and had a terminal hydromyelia; 3 were terminal myelocystoceles; and 2 were tethered by a transitional lipoma. High blunt coni were highly correlated with high (severe) sacral malformations (sacrum ending at S1), but low-lying tethered coni were highly correlated with low sacral malformations (S2 or lower pieces present

  3. Segmental spinal dysgenesis with caudal agenesis in a Holstein calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokudome, Kaori; Ito, Shuichi; Kato, Tomoko; Yanase, Tohru; Kawarasaki, Tatsuo; Moritomo, Yasuo

    2017-02-14

    A rare complex dysraphic malformation, comprising segmental spinal dysgenesis with caudal agenesis, was found in a Holstein calf that was unable to stand and was slightly short at the lumbosacral spine with taillessness. The thoracolumbar and sacrococcygeal regions of the midline axial segments showed severe deformities. In the spinal cord, the thoracolumbar region showed severe constriction with myelodysplastic changes, and the sacrococcygeal region showed dorsoventral separation with connection to a neural mass. In the spine, vertebral anomalies according to the degree of the segmentation error were confirmed. The cervical and thoracic segments also showed milder dysraphic changes. These changes suggest a multisegmental causal insult impairing the early embryonic notochord. This represents the first bovine case definitively confirmed morphologically.

  4. Persistent cauda equina syndrome after caudal epidural injection under severe spinal stenosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo YT

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Young Tak Seo,1 Hyun Ho Kong,1 Goo Joo Lee,1 Heui Je Bang1,2 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Chungbuk National University Hospital, 2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea Abstract: Caudal epidural injection (CEI is one of the most common treatments for low-back pain with sciatica. CEI rarely leads to neurologic complications. We report a case of persistent cauda equina syndrome after CEI. A 44-year-old male patient with severe L4 and L5 spinal stenosis underwent CEI for low-back pain and sciatica. The CEI solution consisted of bupivacaine, hyaluronidase, triamcinolone acetonide, and normal saline. He experienced motor weakness and sensory loss in both lower extremities and neurogenic bladder for more than 1 year after the procedure. His ankle dorsiflexors, big-toe extensors, and ankle plantar flexors on both sides were checked and categorized as motor-power Medical Research Council grade 0. His bilateral ankle-jerk reflection was absent. An electrophysiological study showed lumbosacral polyradiculopathy affecting both sides of the L5 and S1 nerve roots. A urodynamic study revealed hypoactive neurogenic bladder affecting both sacral roots. Keywords: epidural injection, cauda equina syndrome, complications

  5. Success rates and complications of awake caudal versus spinal block in preterm infants undergoing inguinal hernia repair: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Seyedhejazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inguinal hernia is a common disease in preterm infants necessitating surgical repair. Despite the increased risk of postoperative apnea in preterm infants, the procedure was conventionally performed under general anesthesia. Recently, regional anesthesia approaches, including spinal and caudal blocks have been proposed as safe and efficient alternative anesthesia methods in this group of patients. The current study evaluates awake caudal and spinal blocks in preterm infants undergoing inguinal hernia repair. Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 66 neonates and infants (weight <5 kg undergoing inguinal hernia repair were recruited in Tabriz Teaching Children Hospital during a 12-month period. They were randomly divided into two equal groups; receiving either caudal block by 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine plus 20 μg adrenaline (group C or spinal block by 1 mg/kg of 0.5% bupivacaine plus 20 μg adrenaline (group S. Vital signs and pain scores were documented during operation and thereafter up to 24 h after operation. Results: Decrease in heart rate and systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in group C throughout the study period (P < 0.05. The mean recovery time was significantly higher in group S (27.3 ± 5.5 min vs. 21.8 ± 9.3 min; P = 0.03. Postoperative need for analgesia was significantly more frequent in group S (75.8% vs. 36.4%; P = 0.001. Failure in anesthesia was significantly higher in group S (24.4% vs. 6.1%; P = 0.04. Conclusion: More appropriate success rate, duration of recovery and postoperative need of analgesics could contribute to caudal block being a superior anesthesia technique compared to spinal anesthesia in awaked preterm infants undergoing inguinal hernia repair.

  6. Spinal cord injury below-level neuropathic pain relief with dorsal root entry zone microcoagulation performed caudal to level of complete spinal cord transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falci, Scott; Indeck, Charlotte; Barnkow, Dave

    2018-03-02

    OBJECTIVE Surgically created lesions of the spinal cord dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) to relieve central pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) have historically been performed at and cephalad to, but not below, the level of SCI. This study was initiated to investigate the validity of 3 proposed concepts regarding the DREZ in SCI central pain: 1) The spinal cord DREZ caudal to the level of SCI can be a primary generator of SCI below-level central pain. 2) Neuronal transmission from a DREZ that generates SCI below-level central pain to brain pain centers can be primarily through sympathetic nervous system (SNS) pathways. 3) Perceived SCI below-level central pain follows a unique somatotopic map of DREZ pain-generators. METHODS Three unique patients with both intractable SCI below-level central pain and complete spinal cord transection at the level of SCI were identified. All 3 patients had previously undergone surgical intervention to their spinal cords-only cephalad to the level of spinal cord transection-with either DREZ microcoagulation or cyst shunting, in failed attempts to relieve their SCI below-level central pain. Subsequent to these surgeries, DREZ lesioning of the spinal cord solely caudal to the level of complete spinal cord transection was performed using electrical intramedullary guidance. The follow-up period ranged from 1 1/2 to 11 years. RESULTS All 3 patients in this study had complete or near-complete relief of all below-level neuropathic pain. The analyzed electrical data confirmed and enhanced a previously proposed somatotopic map of SCI below-level DREZ pain generators. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study support the following hypotheses. 1) The spinal cord DREZ caudal to the level of SCI can be a primary generator of SCI below-level central pain. 2) Neuronal transmission from a DREZ that generates SCI below-level central pain to brain pain centers can be primarily through SNS pathways. 3) Perceived SCI below-level central pain follows a unique

  7. Weight-bearing locomotion in the developing opossum, Monodelphis domestica following spinal transection: remodeling of neuronal circuits caudal to lesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Wheaton

    Full Text Available Complete spinal transection in the mature nervous system is typically followed by minimal axonal repair, extensive motor paralysis and loss of sensory functions caudal to the injury. In contrast, the immature nervous system has greater capacity for repair, a phenomenon sometimes called the infant lesion effect. This study investigates spinal injuries early in development using the marsupial opossum Monodelphis domestica whose young are born very immature, allowing access to developmental stages only accessible in utero in eutherian mammals. Spinal cords of Monodelphis pups were completely transected in the lower thoracic region, T10, on postnatal-day (P7 or P28 and the animals grew to adulthood. In P7-injured animals regrown supraspinal and propriospinal axons through the injury site were demonstrated using retrograde axonal labelling. These animals recovered near-normal coordinated overground locomotion, but with altered gait characteristics including foot placement phase lags. In P28-injured animals no axonal regrowth through the injury site could be demonstrated yet they were able to perform weight-supporting hindlimb stepping overground and on the treadmill. When placed in an environment of reduced sensory feedback (swimming P7-injured animals swam using their hindlimbs, suggesting that the axons that grew across the lesion made functional connections; P28-injured animals swam using their forelimbs only, suggesting that their overground hindlimb movements were reflex-dependent and thus likely to be generated locally in the lumbar spinal cord. Modifications to propriospinal circuitry in P7- and P28-injured opossums were demonstrated by changes in the number of fluorescently labelled neurons detected in the lumbar cord following tracer studies and changes in the balance of excitatory, inhibitory and neuromodulatory neurotransmitter receptors' gene expression shown by qRT-PCR. These results are discussed in the context of studies indicating

  8. Fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection for management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: short-term and long-term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Woo; Myung, Jae Sung; Kang, Heung Sik; Park, Kun Woo; Yeom, Jin S.; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Hyun-Jib

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the short-term and long-term effects of fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection (ESI) for the management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) and to analyze outcome predictors. All patients who underwent caudal ESI in 2006 for DLSS were included in the study. Response was based on chart documentation (aggravated, no change, slightly improved, much improved, no pain). In June 2009 telephone interviews were conducted, using formatted questions including the North American Spine Society (NASS) patient satisfaction scale. For short-term and long-term effects, age difference was evaluated by the Mann-Whitney U test, and gender, duration of symptoms, level of DLSS, spondylolisthesis, and previous operations were evaluated by Fisher's exact test. Two hundred and sixteen patients (male: female = 75:141; mean age 69.2 years; range 48∝91 years) were included in the study. Improvements (slightly improved, much improved, no pain) were seen in 185 patients (85.6%) after an initial caudal ESI and in 189 patients (87.5%) after a series of caudal ESIs. Half of the patients (89/179, 49.8%) replied positively to the NASS patient satisfaction scale (1 or 2). There were no significant outcome predictors for either the short-term or the long-term responses. Fluoroscopically guided caudal ESI was effective for the management of DLSS (especially central canal stenosis) with excellent short-term and good long-term results, without significant outcome predictors. (orig.)

  9. Fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection for management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: short-term and long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Woo; Myung, Jae Sung; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Park, Kun Woo; Yeom, Jin S. [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Kim, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Hyun-Jib [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea)

    2010-07-15

    To evaluate the short-term and long-term effects of fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection (ESI) for the management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) and to analyze outcome predictors. All patients who underwent caudal ESI in 2006 for DLSS were included in the study. Response was based on chart documentation (aggravated, no change, slightly improved, much improved, no pain). In June 2009 telephone interviews were conducted, using formatted questions including the North American Spine Society (NASS) patient satisfaction scale. For short-term and long-term effects, age difference was evaluated by the Mann-Whitney U test, and gender, duration of symptoms, level of DLSS, spondylolisthesis, and previous operations were evaluated by Fisher's exact test. Two hundred and sixteen patients (male: female = 75:141; mean age 69.2 years; range 48{proportional_to}91 years) were included in the study. Improvements (slightly improved, much improved, no pain) were seen in 185 patients (85.6%) after an initial caudal ESI and in 189 patients (87.5%) after a series of caudal ESIs. Half of the patients (89/179, 49.8%) replied positively to the NASS patient satisfaction scale (1 or 2). There were no significant outcome predictors for either the short-term or the long-term responses. Fluoroscopically guided caudal ESI was effective for the management of DLSS (especially central canal stenosis) with excellent short-term and good long-term results, without significant outcome predictors. (orig.)

  10. Caudalized human iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells produce neurons and glia but fail to restore function in an early chronic spinal cord injury model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Samuel E.; Chang, Eun-Ah; Suhr, Steven T.; Schlosser, Laura O.; Mondello, Sarah E.; Moritz, Chet T.; Cibelli, Jose B.; Horner, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) have shown modest potential and some side effects (e.g. allodynia) for treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). In only a few cases, however, have NPCs shown promise at the chronic stage. Given the 1.275 million people living with chronic paralysis, there is a significant need to rigorously evaluate the cell types and methods for safe and efficacious treatment of this devastating condition. For the first time, we examined the pre-clinical potential of NPCs derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to repair chronic SCI. hiPSCs were differentiated into region-specific (i.e. caudal) NPCs, then transplanted into a new, clinically relevant model of early chronic cervical SCI. We established the conditions for successful transplantation of caudalized hiPSC-NPCs and demonstrate their remarkable ability to integrate and produce multiple neural lineages in the early chronic injury environment. In contrast to prior reports in acute and sub-acute injury models, survival and integration of hiPSC-derived neural cells in the early chronic cervical model did not lead to significant improvement in forelimb function or induce allodynia. These data indicate that while hiPSCs show promise, future work needs to focus on the specific hiPSC-derivatives or co-therapies that will restore function in the early chronic injury setting. PMID:23891888

  11. Vertebral Artery Stump Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masato; Dembo, Tomohisa; Hara, Wataru; Tajima, Takashi; Yamashita, Minako; Oji, Satoru; Nomura, Kyoichi

    2018-03-01

    Carotid stump syndrome is a well-documented embolic source for ischemic stroke. However, few cases have been reported of a similar condition - termed vertebral artery stump syndrome - which affects the posterior circulation after vertebral artery origin occlusion. We herein report a case of infarction of the right superior cerebellar artery and left posterior inferior cerebellar artery territories due to vertebral artery stump syndrome. In this interesting case, a turbulent flow at the distal side of the vertebral artery occlusion was captured on ultrasonography, and was identified as the probable mechanism of vertebral artery stump syndrome.

  12. Estimating stump volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard K. Raile

    1982-01-01

    Equations are presented that predict diameter inside and outside bark for tree boles below 4.5 feet given d.b.h. These equations are modified and integrated to estimate stump volume. Parameters are presented for 22 Lake States species groups.

  13. Carotid Stump Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Toufic Dakhoul MD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives . To highlight the case of a patient with multiple transient ischemic attacks and visual disturbances diagnosed with carotid stump syndrome and managed with endovascular approach. Case Presentation . We present the case of a carotid stump syndrome in an elderly patient found to have moderate left internal carotid artery stenosis in response to an advertisement for carotid screening. After a medical therapeutic approach and a close follow-up, transient ischemic attacks recurred. Computed tomographic angiography showed an occlusion of the left internal carotid artery and the presence of moderate stenosis in the right internal carotid artery, which was treated by endovascular stenting and balloon insertion. One month later, the patient presented with visual disturbances due to the left carotid stump and severe stenosis of the left external carotid artery that was reapproached by endovascular stenting. Conclusion . Considerations should be given to the carotid stump syndrome as a source of emboli for ischemic strokes, and vascular assessment could be used to detect and treat this syndrome.

  14. Des Ogle's old stump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.; Sutton, D.; Wallace, R.

    1998-01-01

    On 17 October 1997 Sylvia Bryan of RD4 Kaitaia wrote to 'Dear Somebody-Everybody' at the Anthropology Department, University of Auckland, urging further examination of an adzed stump found by Des Ogle during planting out of the Te Aupouri forest. The authors have since sought out relevant information and present it here for the interests of our readers. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig

  15. [Gastric stump cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinescu, C; Dragomir, C; Pleşa, C; Kreisler, S; Răileanu, R; Stoian, M; Frunzăreanu, N; Diaconu, C; Vasile, V

    1982-01-01

    The cases of gastric stump cancer recorded at the III-rd Surgical Clinic of Iaoi during the last 5 years are analysed. Based upon the personal experience and data in the literature 7 cases are discussed. Out of the 7 cases, in 3 an initial resection for gastric ulcer and in 4 for duodenal ulcer was performed 17-40 years previously (with an average of 26 years). All the patients presented Bilroth II anastomoses. The diagnosis was determined by radiological, endoscopic and endobioptic examinations after a mean interval of 10 month since the occurence of the clinical symptoms. The site of the lesion was the following: in 3 cases on the anastomosis line and in 4 on the reminder of the stump. Out of the 7 cases, 5 were operable and in 4 the resection was completed. Two days post-operatively a death was recorded. The conclusions of this paper insist upon the fact that the occurance of the tumor on the gastric resection stump mainly depends on the initial lesion (gastric lesion) and less on the type of anastomosis. The long-term surveillance of the gastric resection patients is thus essential.

  16. Protocol for evaluation of the comparative effectiveness of percutaneous adhesiolysis and caudal epidural steroid injections in low back and/or lower extremity pain without post surgery syndrome or spinal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Cash, Kimberly A

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of chronic low back pain with or without lower extremity pain continues to be a challenge. Epidural steroids are commonly utilized in patients after the failure of conservative treatment. The results of epidural steroid injections have been variable based on the pathophysiology, the route of administration, injected drugs, and utilization of fluoroscopy. In patients resistant to fluoroscopically directed epidural injections, percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis and percutaneous targeted delivery of injections with or without adhesiolysis has been recommended. Percutaneous adhesiolysis has been studied in chronic pain syndromes related to post laminectomy syndrome and spinal stenosis with encouraging results. There is a paucity of literature regarding the effectiveness of the targeted delivery of medications with or without epidural adhesiolysis in patients recalcitrant to epidural steroid injections without a history of surgery and spinal stenosis. A randomized, equivalence trial of percutaneous lumbar adhesiolysis and caudal epidural steroid injections in patients with low back and/or lower extremity pain without post surgery syndrome or spinal stenosis. An interventional pain management practice setting in the United States. The study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis in managing chronic low back and/or lower extremity pain in patients without post lumbar surgery syndrome or spinal stenosis and compare it with fluoroscopically directed caudal epidural steroid injections The study design includes 120 patients randomly assigned into 2 groups. Group I (60 patients), the control group, will receive caudal epidural injections with catheterization up to S3 with local anesthetic, steroids, and 0.9% sodium chloride solution; Group II (60 patients), the intervention group, will receive percutaneous adhesiolysis with target delivery of lidocaine, 10% hypertonic sodium chloride solution, and non-participate betamethasone

  17. The preliminary results of a comparative effectiveness evaluation of adhesiolysis and caudal epidural injections in managing chronic low back pain secondary to spinal stenosis: a randomized, equivalence controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; McManus, Carla D; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Singh, Vijay; Benyamin, Ramsin

    2009-01-01

    Lumbar surgery and epidural injections for spinal stenosis are the most commonly performed interventions in the United States. However, there is only moderate evidence to the effectiveness of surgery and caudal epidural injections. The next sequential step is adhesiolysis and hypertonic neurolysis with targeted delivery. There have not been any randomized trials evaluating the effectiveness of percutaneous adhesiolysis and targeted delivery of local anesthetic, steroid and hypertonic sodium chloride solution in lumbar spinal stenosis. A randomized, equivalence, controlled trial. An interventional pain management practice, a specialty referral center, a private practice setting in the United States. To evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis in patients with chronic low back and lower extremity pain with lumbar central spinal stenosis and compare with fluoroscopically directed caudal epidural injections. Patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups with 25 patients in each group. Group I patients received caudal epidural injections with catheterization up to S3 with local anesthetic, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, non-particulate betamethasone and served as the control group. Group II patients received percutaneous adhesiolysis with targeted delivery and injection of lidocaine, 10% hypertonic sodium chloride solution, and non-particulate Betamethasone and formed the intervention group. Randomization was performed by computer-generated random allocation sequence by simple randomization. Multiple outcome measures were utilized including the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the Oswestry Disability Index 2.0 (ODI), employment status, and opioid intake with assessment at 3, 6, and 12 months post treatment. Significant pain relief was described as 50% or more, whereas significant improvement in the disability score was defined as a reduction of 40% or more. This evaluation showed significant pain relief (>or= 50%) in 76% of the patients at one

  18. Early spread of hyperexcitability to caudal dorsal horn networks after a chemically-induced lesion of the rat spinal cord in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deumens, R; Mazzone, G L; Taccola, G

    2013-01-15

    Hyperexcitability of dorsal horn neurons has been shown to play a key role in neuropathic pain following chronic experimental spinal cord injury. With a neonatal in vitro spinal cord injury model, we show that a chemically-induced lesion leads to rapid gain-of-function of sublesional dorsal horn networks biased to hyperexcitation. The expression of the GABA synthetic enzyme GAD65 was significantly reduced at the same level of the spinal cord, suggesting a compromised inhibitory system. We propose that our model could be useful to test early approaches to contrast spinal cord injury-induced central sensitization of dorsal horn circuits. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pulsed radiofrequency of brachial plexus under ultrasound guidance for refractory stump pain: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng B

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bixin Zheng, Li Song, Hui Liu Department of Pain Management, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China Abstract: The post-amputation (pain syndrome, including stump pain, phantom limb sensation, and phantom limb pain is common but difficult to treat. Refractory stump pain in the syndrome is an extremely challenging and troublesome clinical condition. Patients respond poorly to drugs, nerve blocks, and other effective treatments like spinal cord stimulation and surgery. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF technique has been shown to be effective in reducing neuropathic pain. This report describes a patient with persistent and refractory upper limb stump pain being successfully relieved with PRF of brachial plexus under ultrasound guidance after a 6-month follow-up period, suggesting that PRF may be considered as an alternative treatment for refractory stump-neuroma pain. Keywords: ultrasound guidance, pulsed radiofrequency, brachial plexus, refractory stump pain 

  20. Impact of Position on Efficacy of Caudal Epidural Injection for Low Back Pain and Radicular Leg Pain Due to Central Spinal Stenosis and Lumbar Disc Hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Idiris; Yuksel, Kasım Zafer

    2017-03-01

    This study was performed to evaluate and compare the efficacies of caudal epidural injections performed at prone and lateral decubitus positions. A total of 120 patients suffering from low back pain and radicular leg pain were included and patients were randomly distributed into 2 groups according to the position during injection. In Group 1 (n=60; 32 women, 28 men), caudal epidural injection was performed at prone position, whereas it was implemented at lateral decubitus position in Group 2 (n=60; 33 women, 27 men). Visual analogue scale, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), walking tolerance (WT) and standing tolerance (ST) were compared in 2 groups before and after injection. In Group 1, ODI values were higher at 30th minute ( p =0.007), 3rd week ( p =0.043) and 6th month ( p =0.013). In Group 1, ODI, VAS and ST values were improved significantly at all follow-up periods compared to initial values. In Group 1, WT scores were better than initial values at 30th minute, 3rd week and 3rd month. In Group 2, ODI scores at 30th minute, 3rd week, 3rd month and 6th month were improved while VAS and ST scores were improved at all periods after injection. WT scores were better at 30th minute, 3rd week and 3rd month compared to initial WT scores. Our results indicated that application of injection procedure at lateral decubitus position allowing a more concentrated local distribution may provide better relief of pain.

  1. Stump torrefaction for bioenergy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Khanh-Quang; Luo, Xun; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim; Jirjis, Raida

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► First study on torrefaction of stump for bioenergy application. ► Stump can achieve higher energy densification factors. ► Torrefied stump requires longer grinding time than torrefied wood. - Abstract: A fixed bed reactor has been developed for study of biomass torrefaction, followed by thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Norway spruce stump was used as feedstock. Two other types of biomass, poplar and fuel chips were also included in the study for comparison. Effects of feedstock types and process parameters such as torrefaction temperature and reaction time on fuel properties of torrefied solid product were investigated. The study has demonstrated that fuel properties, including heating values and grindability of the investigated biomasses were improved by torrefaction. Both torrefaction temperature and reaction time had strong effects on the torrefaction process, but temperature effects are stronger than effects of reaction time. At the same torrefaction temperature, the longer reaction time, the better fuel qualities for the solid product were obtained. However, too long reaction times and/or too higher torrefaction temperatures would decrease the solid product yield. The torrefaction conditions of 300 °C for 35 min resulted in the energy densification factor of 1.219 for the stump, which is higher than that of 1.162 for the poplar wood samples and 1.145 for the fuel chips. It appears that torrefied stump requires much longer time for grinding, while its particle size distribution is only slightly better than the others. In addition, the TG analyses have shown that untreated biomass was more reactive than its torrefaction products. The stump has less hemicelluloses than the two other biomass types. SEM analyses indicated that the wood surface structure was broken and destroyed by torrefaction process

  2. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months.......Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  3. Dermatological changes of amputation stump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological changes of stumps of 174 amputees are presented. The commonest dermatological change recorded at the site of amputation stump was hyperpigmentation in 46 (26.4% followed by callosities in 32 (18.3%, scaling in 29 (16.7%, cutaneous atrophy in 20 (11.5%, lichenification in 19(10.9%, traumatic ulcer and bacterial infections in 18 (10.3% each, hypertrophic scar in 14 (8.1%, hypopigmentation and corns in 13 (7.4% each, verrucous hypertrophy of stump in 12 (6.9%, dermatophytic infection in 5(2.9%, stump oedema and phantom limb in 4 (2.3% each, intertriginous dermatitis in 3( 1.7%, allergic contact dermatitis (resin and frictional eczema in 2(1.1% each. Epidermoid cyst, keloid formation, anaesthesia, gangrene and cutaneous horn were recorded in 1 (0.6% each. Atrophy (epidermal and derma, anaesthesia, alopecia and elephantiasis of the stump have not been documented in the literature earlier.

  4. Disrafias vertebro-medulares caudais: formas intra-sacras Caudal spinal cord disraphism: intra-sacral forms. Report of 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Sampaio

    1975-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores abordam a gênese das disrafias vértebro-medulares caudais, e se atêm aos divertículos meníngeos intra-sacros. Encontraram na literatura pertinente, descrição de 24 casos e acrescentaram 4 de sua experiência. A incontinencia urinaria foi sintoma proeminente e o resultado cirúrgico compensador. O diagnóstico foi firmado por mielografia.The mean theories of the sacral spinal dysraphisms are reviwed and 4 cases of "meningeal intrasacral diverticulum" are reported. The authors prefer this term to the more common "intrasacral occult meningocele". The proeminent symptom in their cases was late vesical incontinence, which disappeared after surgery. In the pertinent litterature 24 similar cases were described till now.

  5. Erie Canal Technology: Stump Pullers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Many years ago I saw a picture of a huge set of wheels that was used to remove tree stumps during the construction of the Erie Canal (1817-1825) and was intrigued by its use of leverage, mechanical advantage, and torque. Figure 1 is a scale model of the device based on my memory of the (lost) picture and published accounts.

  6. [Cancer of the gastric stump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Bravo, F; Montero, L

    1992-01-01

    627 cases of gastric cancer treated surgically during the last 5 years, at the Hospital Nacional "Edgardo Rebagliati Martins" from Instituto Peruano de Seguridad Social (Lima-Perú) were revised. 4 of the patients had been operated before of hemigastrectomy or antrectomy with pyloroplasty for peptic ulcer. The time between the first operation and diagnosis of cancer of the gastric stump was more than 20 years. 3 of these cases were able to be resected. The international incidence of cancer in the gastric stump is 1.1% to 9.2% according to different authors. The risk is higher after 15 years. In the pathogenesis are advocated the lower gastric acidity, biliary reflux, the presence of bacteria, the formation of nitrosamines, intestinal metaplasia, etc. Is necessary to perform periodic endoscopic survey in patients who were treated surgically of peptic ulcer with antrectomy or hemigastrectomy with more than 15 years of evolution.

  7. Caudal septal deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Jason; Papel, Ira D

    2009-06-01

    The nasal septum is a structure poorly understood and appreciated by the lay public and the nonotolaryngologist--head and neck surgeon alike. Deviation of the caudal portion of the nasal septum may result in nasal obstruction, a crooked nose, and columellar irregularities. The correction of a severely deviated caudal septum is one of the most difficult challenges of the otolaryngologist and facial plastic surgeon. A variety of options are available for correction of mild, to the most severe, deflections. This condition, as with all challenges in medicine, should not be a one size fits all or one surgery fits all situation. The skilled surgeon should understand the multiple options available for surgical correction and tailor fit the procedure to the deformity.

  8. Neonatal caudal block revisited: can safety be improved?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Anaesthesia was induced using halothane or sevoflurane. Intravenous access was obtained and the infant was turned onto the right side. Prior to performing a caudal block a. SonoSite 180+ portable ultrasound unit (SonoSiteô, Bothell,. WA, USA) and a 5-10 MHz linear hockey stick probe were used to determine the spinal ...

  9. The club-shaped cord terminus in siblings with caudal agenesis: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenal, Oe.; Sakarya, M.E.; Arslan, H.

    1999-01-01

    We report a rare instance of caudal agenesis occurring in siblings, with MRI. Both our patients had a club-shaped spinal cord, ending at T11. Radiological and urological findings are presented. (orig.)

  10. The caudal septum replacement graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2008-01-01

    To describe a technique for reconstructing the lost tip support in cases involving caudal septal and premaxillary deficiencies. The study included 120 patients with aesthetic and functional nasal problems resulting from the loss of caudal septal and premaxillary support. An external rhinoplasty approach was performed to reconstruct the lost support using a cartilaginous caudal septum replacement graft and premaxillary augmentation with Mersilene mesh. The majority of cases (75%) involved revisions in patients who had previously undergone 1 or more nasal surgical procedures. A caudal septum replacement graft was combined with premaxillary augmentation in 93 patients (77.5%). The mean follow-up period was 3 years (range, 1-12 years). The technique succeeded in correcting the external nasal deformities in all patients and resulted in a significant improvement in breathing in 74 patients (86%) with preoperative nasal obstruction. There were no cases of infection, displacement, or extrusion. The caudal septum replacement graft proved to be very effective in restoring the lost tip support in patients with caudal septal deficiency. Combining the graft with premaxillary augmentation using Mersilene mesh helped increase support and stability over long-term follow-up.

  11. Duodenal stump leak following a duodenal switch: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Duodenal stump leaks must be diagnosed as early as possible, and treated appropriately with operative intervention. Regardless of the operative technique the key to appropriate treatment is stabilize the patient, repair the duodenal stump, and adequate drainage.

  12. Neuronal responses to tactile stimuli and tactile sensations evoked by microstimulation in the human thalamic principal somatic sensory nucleus (ventral caudal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Anne-Christine; Chien, Jui-Hong; Greenspan, Joel D; Garonzik, Ira; Weiss, Nirit; Ohara, Shinji; Lenz, Frederick Arthur

    2016-06-01

    The normal organization and plasticity of the cutaneous core of the thalamic principal somatosensory nucleus (ventral caudal, Vc) have been studied by single-neuron recordings and microstimulation in patients undergoing awake stereotactic operations for essential tremor (ET) without apparent somatic sensory abnormality and in patients with dystonia or chronic pain secondary to major nervous system injury. In patients with ET, most Vc neurons responded to one of the four stimuli, each of which optimally activates one mechanoreceptor type. Sensations evoked by microstimulation were similar to those evoked by the optimal stimulus only among rapidly adapting neurons. In patients with ET, Vc was highly segmented somatotopically, and vibration, movement, pressure, and sharp sensations were usually evoked by microstimulation at separate sites in Vc. In patients with conditions including spinal cord transection, amputation, or dystonia, RFs were mismatched with projected fields more commonly than in patients with ET. The representation of the border of the anesthetic area (e.g., stump) or of the dystonic limb was much larger than that of the same part of the body in patients with ET. This review describes the organization and reorganization of human Vc neuronal activity in nervous system injury and dystonia and then proposes basic mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Stump sensibility in children with upper limb reduction deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinkingh, Marianne; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Maathuis, Karel G. B.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    Objectives: To compare stump sensibility in children with upper limb reduction deficiency with sensibility of the unaffected arm and hand. In addition, to evaluate the associations between stump sensibility, stump length and activity level. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: Children and young

  14. Profitability of precommercially thinning oak stump sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Dwyer; Daniel C. Dey; William B. Kurtz

    1993-01-01

    Thinning oak stump sprouts to a single stem at an early age will increase diameter growth of the released stem. However, precommercial thinning represents a substantial investment which must be carried for many years before any returns are realized. We estimated the incremental gains in yield and the present net worth for five crop-tree release treatments of 5-year-old...

  15. Gastric stump cancer: etiopathological and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointner, R; Schwab, G; Königsrainer, A; Bodner, E; Schmid, K W

    1989-05-01

    Between 1959 and 1987, at the Innsbruck University Hospital, 359 cases of carcinoma were diagnosed in the gastric remnant. While until 1975 in 203 patients suffering from stump carcinoma the tumor stages T3 and T4 were significantly prevalent, a strong tendency towards the less advanced tumor stages T1 and T2 was observed in the last decade. Among 94 patients operated on since 1981 the tumor was located at the anastomosis in all but 5 cases, suggesting a strong connection between previous resection and stump carcinoma. In accordance with Lauren's classification no difference was found in the incidence of intestinal and diffuse lesions in 94 cases with stump carcinoma--in contrast to 69 cases of patients with a non-resected stomach. An analysis of the occurrence of acidity, atrophic gastritis and bacterial invasion in 70 patients with previous Billroth II resection and 30 patients with Billroth I resection, revealed no difference between the two types of resection. Gastric remnant carcinoma does not occur exclusively in the Bilroth II remnant, but, increasingly, following Billroth I operations. The finding of a statistically highly significant increase at the 5% level using standard chi 2-technique for a 2 x 5 table in stump carcinomas following Billroth I resections supports the thesis that there is no difference in the etiopathology of carcinogenesis in the Billroth I as compared with the Billroth II remnant.

  16. Deciphering caudal embryonic defects: embryological analysis and reviewing literature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvind Athavale, Sunita

    2012-01-01

    A number of syndromes÷associations involving the caudal region have been described in the literature. Each of them is characterized by a set of morphological features. Reports on difficulties in delineation and an ever-increasing constellation of defects in recent past call for a comprehensive study into the morphologic presentations and pathogenesis of caudal embryonic defects. The present article describes a case of the OEIS complex--a combination of omphalocele, exstrophy of bladder, imperforate anus and spinal defects. Literature search was performed and morphologic presentations, as described in literature, of all syndromes and associations affecting the caudal region of the embryo have been compared. Morphologic presentations were analyzed embryologically. A remarkable overlap of symptom complex was observed. Embryological analysis of the phenotypic presentations of all these syndromes points towards a common pathogenesis, early in the embryonic life. The embryologic analysis suggests that these defects are a result of defects in proliferation, migration or subsequent differentiation of any of the three subdivisions of intra-embryonic mesoderm. Based on the analysis a new hypothesis for the causation of caudal defects is proposed. This hypothesis suggests that a local internal environmental imbalance, at the site of implantation, can cause nutritional insult to the embryo during gastrulation, during the third and the early fourth week of embryonic life.

  17. Stump ulcers and continued prosthetic limb use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salawu, A; Middleton, C; Gilbertson, A; Kodavali, K; Neumann, V

    2006-12-01

    Stump ulcers are common problems in amputees. Temporary discontinuation of prosthetic limb use is frequently employed to facilitate healing. Inevitably, this limits activity and may, for instance, prevent an amputee from going to work. A survey of clinical practice was carried out based on the premise that controlled continued prosthetic limb use in patients with stump ulcers will not adversely affect the ulcer nor prevent healing. The survey would also form a basis for developing future guidelines in the management of stump ulcers. All consecutive patients attending the Chapel Allerton Hospital prosthetic clinic between January 2003 and May 2004 with stump ulcers were recruited into the study. Primary outcome measures were changes in the surface area of the ulcers and in clinical photographs taken on 2 occasions 6 weeks apart. Some 102 patients with a mean age 60 years (range 18 - 88 years) were recruited. Eight patients who were established prosthetic limb users did not complete the study and were excluded from the analysis. Of the patients 52 were newly referred patients with delayed surgical wound healing while 42 were established prosthetic limb users for at least 1 year. Continued prosthetic limb was associated with a significant reduction in ulcer size (p prosthetic limb wearing despite the presence of stump ulceration. This observational study found that, despite prosthetic use, 60 (64%) cases healed completely within the six-week study period and 23 (25%) ulcers reduced in size. The ulcers were unchanged in 2% of the cases. Deterioration was observed in nine (9%) cases. This survey suggests that the current practice of allowing patients to use their prostheses is safe. A clinical trial is now needed to establish whether this practice alters healing rate or has any other disadvantages for new or established amputees.

  18. Clonidine in pediatric caudal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, S; Monin, S; Begon, C; Dubousset, A M; Ecoffey, C

    1994-04-01

    Extradural clonidine produces analgesia in adults. To assess its efficacy in children, we randomized 45 pediatric patients aged 1-7 yr presenting for a subumbilical surgery into three groups of 15 each. After halothane and N2O/O2 induction, and with a double-blind protocol, caudal anesthesia was performed with 1 mL/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine. Epinephrine 1/200,000 was added in one group (EG), 1 microgram/kg of clonidine in another group (CG), and no additional medication in the last group (BG). Postoperative analgesia was evaluated using the Broadman "objective pain/discomfort scale" (OPS) at 1-h intervals until the first analgesic administration. There were no differences among the groups in age, weight, duration of surgery, baseline systolic arterial pressure, and heart rate. The mean (+/- SD) duration of analgesia was longer in the CG (987 +/- 573 min) than in the EG (377 +/- 341 min) and BG (460 +/- 439 min); P < 0.01. The maximal OPS scores were lower in the CG than in the EG and BG (2.3 +/- 1.6 vs 3.4 +/- 1.4 and 3.4 +/- 1.8, respectively; P < 0.05). More patients in the CG (n = 7) than in the EG (n = 1) and BG (n = 2) required no postoperative analgesia; P < 0.05. No differences were found among the groups for the minimal respiratory rate and minimal Spo2 values in the postoperative phase, and there were no differences among the groups for heart rate and systolic arterial pressure during the 3 h after caudal anesthesia. We conclude that the duration of postoperative analgesia with caudal bupivacaine was significantly increased by the addition of 1 microgram/kg of clonidine.

  19. Spinal Cord Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain that is refractory to other treatment. Originally described by Shealy et al. in 1967(1), it is used to treat a range of conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I)(2), angina pectoris(3), radicular...... pain after failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS)(4), pain due to peripheral nerve injury, stump pain(5), peripheral vascular disease(6) and diabetic neuropathy(7,8); whereas phantom pain(9), postherpetic neuralgia(10), chronic visceral pain(11), and pain after partial spinal cord injury(12) remain more...

  20. Stump sensibility in children with upper limb reduction deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinkingh, Marianne; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Maathuis, Karel G B; van der Sluis, Corry K

    2014-01-01

    To compare stump sensibility in children with upper limb reduction deficiency with sensibility of the unaffected arm and hand. In addition, to evaluate the associations between stump sensibility, stump length and activity level. Cross-sectional study. Children and young adults aged 6-25 years with upper limb reduction deficiency. Threshold of touch was measured with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, stereognosis was measured with the Shape-Texture Identification test and kinaesthesia and activity level was measured with the Child Amputee Prosthetics Project - Functional Status Inventory and the Prosthetic Upper Extremity Functional Index. A total of 31 children with upper limb reduction deficiency (mean age 15 years, 3 prosthesis wearers) were investigated. The threshold of touch of the stump circumference was lower (indicating higher sensibility) than of the unaffected arm (p = 0.006), hand (p = 0.004) and stump end-point (p = sensibility) than short stumps (p = 0.046). Twenty-nine children recognized 1 or more shapes or textures with the stump. Kinaesthesia in the affected and unaffected sides was comparable. Sensibility was not correlated with activity level. Threshold of touch, stereognosis and kinaesthesia of the affected sides were excellent. Threshold of touch of the stump circumference was lower (indicating higher sensibility) than of the unaffected arm and hand. High stump sensibility may clarify good functioning in the children without prostheses and contribute to prosthesis rejection.

  1. Aguas de un mismo caudal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Borges, creía que “el periodismo distorsiona la mentalidad del escritor”, el autor de este artículo, plantea en cambio que son “aguas de un mismo caudal, que muy a menudo viajan juntas”, varias han sido, y son, las concepciones que han expuesto célebres protagonistas de estos dos hechos escriturales a favor y en contra del ejercicio del periodismo para mejorar o perjudicar al escritor. El aparente divorcio entre literatura y periodismo radica cabalmente en el intento equivocado de separarlos. En verdad son lo mismo y bien podríamos clasificar al periodismo como un género dentro de la literatura.

  2. Caudal bupivacaine supplemented with caudal or intravenous clonidine in children undergoing hypospadias repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Henneberg, Steen Winther; Walther-Larsen, Søren

    2004-01-01

    Clonidine is used increasingly in paediatric anaesthetic practice to prolong the duration of action of caudal block with a local anaesthetic agent. Which route of administration of clonidine is the most beneficial remains unknown. We compared the effects of caudal and i.v. clonidine on postoperat...... on postoperative analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine after hypospadias repair....

  3. Killing Eucalyptus grandis cut stumps after multiple coppice rotations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isopropylamine salt, 192 g l-1) were applied to a basal frill, the cut surface, or the foliage of coppice regrowth of E. grandis stumps. ... The application of herbicides to a basal frill killed 90 % of the stumps and required the least follow-up control.

  4. Ultrasound scanning in planning radiotherapy in cervix uteri cancer stump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarova, I.S.; Demidova, L.V.

    1989-01-01

    Application of ultrasound scanning for topometric preparation of 63 patients with cervix uteri cancer stump enabled to visualize clearly cervix uteri stump in a small pelvis and determine exactly its sizes and cupola thickness in particular. This enabled to improve the technique of combined radiotherapy and achieve five-year survival rate equal to 76.9%

  5. Langtidsbehandling med spinal cord-stimulation hos en patient med kronisk regionalt smertesyndrom type 1 og fantomsmerter efter amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Thomas Peter; Scherer, Christian; Nikolajsen, Lone

    2008-01-01

    The development of stump and phantom pain after limb amputation in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is very frequent. Stump pain is typically recurred CRPS and the possibilities for effective pharmacological pain relief are often limited. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has a well...

  6. Occurrence patterns of lichens on stumps in young managed forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Måns; Dahlberg, Anders; Ranius, Thomas; Thor, Göran

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demand for forest-derived bio-fuel may decrease the amount of dead wood and hence also the amount of available substrate for saproxylic ( = dead-wood dependent) organisms. Cut stumps constitute a large portion of dead wood in managed boreal forests. The lichen flora of such stumps has received little interest. Therefore, we investigated which lichens that occur on stumps in young (4-19 years), managed forests and analyzed how species richness and occurrence of individual species were related to stump and stand characteristics. We performed lichen inventories of 576 Norway spruce stumps in 48 forest stands in two study areas in Central Sweden, recording in total 77 lichen species. Of these, 14 were obligately lignicolous, while the remaining were generalists that also grow on bark, soil or rocks. We tested the effect of characteristics reflecting successional stage, microclimate, substrate patch size, and the species pool in the surrounding area on (1) total lichen species richness, (2) species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens and (3) the occurrence of four obligately lignicolous lichen species. The most important variables were stump age, with more species on old stumps, and study area, with similar total species richness but differences in occupancy for individual species. Responses for total lichen species richness and species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens were overall similar, indicating similar ecological requirements of these two groups. Our results indicate that species richness measurements serve as poor proxies for the responses of individual, obligately lignicolous lichen species.

  7. Occurrence patterns of lichens on stumps in young managed forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Måns Svensson

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for forest-derived bio-fuel may decrease the amount of dead wood and hence also the amount of available substrate for saproxylic ( = dead-wood dependent organisms. Cut stumps constitute a large portion of dead wood in managed boreal forests. The lichen flora of such stumps has received little interest. Therefore, we investigated which lichens that occur on stumps in young (4-19 years, managed forests and analyzed how species richness and occurrence of individual species were related to stump and stand characteristics. We performed lichen inventories of 576 Norway spruce stumps in 48 forest stands in two study areas in Central Sweden, recording in total 77 lichen species. Of these, 14 were obligately lignicolous, while the remaining were generalists that also grow on bark, soil or rocks. We tested the effect of characteristics reflecting successional stage, microclimate, substrate patch size, and the species pool in the surrounding area on (1 total lichen species richness, (2 species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens and (3 the occurrence of four obligately lignicolous lichen species. The most important variables were stump age, with more species on old stumps, and study area, with similar total species richness but differences in occupancy for individual species. Responses for total lichen species richness and species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens were overall similar, indicating similar ecological requirements of these two groups. Our results indicate that species richness measurements serve as poor proxies for the responses of individual, obligately lignicolous lichen species.

  8. Caudal articular process dysplasia of thoracic vertebrae in neurologically normal French bulldogs, English bulldogs, and Pugs: Prevalence and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Simon; Ter Haar, Gert; De Decker, Steven

    2018-02-20

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical characteristics of thoracic caudal articular process dysplasia in French bulldogs, English bulldogs and Pugs presenting for problems unrelated to spinal disease. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, computed tomography scans of the thoracic vertebral column of these three breeds were reviewed for the presence and location of caudal articular process hypoplasia and aplasia, and compared between breeds. A total of 271 dogs met the inclusion criteria: 108 French bulldogs, 63 English bulldogs, and 100 Pugs. A total of 70.4% of French bulldogs, 84.1% of English bulldogs, and 97.0% of Pugs showed evidence of caudal articular process dysplasia. Compared to French and English bulldogs, Pugs showed a significantly higher prevalence of caudal articular process aplasia, but also a lower prevalence of caudal articular process hypoplasia, a higher number of affected vertebrae per dog and demonstrated a generalized and bilateral spatial pattern more frequently. Furthermore, Pugs showed a significantly different anatomical distribution of caudal articular process dysplasia along the vertebral column, with a high prevalence of caudal articular process aplasia between T10 and T13. This area was almost completely spared in French and English bulldogs. As previously suggested, caudal articular process dysplasia is a common finding in neurologically normal Pugs but this also seems to apply to French and English bulldogs. The predisposition of clinically relevant caudal articular process dysplasia in Pugs is possibly not only caused by the higher prevalence of caudal articular process dysplasia, but also by breed specific anatomical characteristics. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  9. Systematic review of caudal epidural injections in the management of chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Ann; Buenaventura, Ricardo M; Datta, Sukdeb; Abdi, Salahadin; Diwan, Sudhir

    2009-01-01

    Caudal epidural injection of local anesthetics with or without steroids is one of the most commonly used interventions in managing chronic low back and lower extremity pain. However, there has been a lack of well-designed randomized, controlled studies to determine the effectiveness of caudal epidural injections in various conditions - disc herniation and radiculitis, post-lumbar laminectomy syndrome, spinal stenosis, and chronic low back pain of disc origin without disc herniation or radiculitis. A systematic review of caudal epidural injections with or without steroids in managing chronic pain secondary to lumbar disc herniation or radiculitis, post lumbar laminectomy syndrome, spinal stenosis, and discogenic pain without disc herniation or radiculitis. To evaluate the effect of caudal epidural injections with or without steroids in managing various types of chronic low back and lower extremity pain emanating as a result of disc herniation or radiculitis, post-lumbar laminectomy syndrome, spinal stenosis, and chronic discogenic pain. A review of the literature was performed according to the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Review Group Criteria as utilized for interventional techniques for randomized trials and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) criteria for observational studies. The level of evidence was classified as Level I, II, or III based on the quality of evidence developed by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Data sources included relevant literature of the English language identified through searches of PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to November 2008, and manual searches of bibliographies of known primary and review articles. The primary outcome measure was pain relief (short-term relief = up to 6 months and long-term > or = 6 months). Secondary outcome measures of improvement in functional status, psychological status, return to work, and reduction in opioid intake were utilized. The evidence showed Level I for short- and long

  10. Catecholamine innervation of the caudal spinal cord in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Skagerberg, G

    1985-01-01

    , suggesting the existence of axosomatic contacts, and by utilizing the fluorescent retrograde tracer True Blue in combination with the ALFA method tentative axosomatic noradrenergic synapses on identified neurons innervating small striated pelvic muscles could be visualized in the light microscope...

  11. C8 cross transfer for the treatment of caudal brachial plexus avulsion in three dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moissonnier, Pierre; Carozzo, Claude; Thibaut, Jean-Laurent; Escriou, Catherine; Hidalgo, Antoine; Blot, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the cervical nerve 8 cross-transfer technique (C8CT) as a part of surgical treatment of caudal brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) in the dog. Case series. Client-owned dogs suspected to have caudal BPA based on neurological examination and electrophysiological testing (n = 3). The distal stump of the surgically transected contralateral C8 ventral branch (donor) was bridged to the proximal stump of the avulsed C8 ventral branch (recipient) and secured with 9-0 polypropylene suture under an operating microscope. A carpal panarthrodesis was performed on the injured limb after C8CT. Surgical exploration confirmed avulsion of nerve roots C7, C8, and T1 in all cases. There was no evidence of an iatrogenic effect on the donor forelimb. Gradual improvement in function of the affected forelimb occurred in all dogs, with eventual recovery of voluntary elbow extension. Reinnervation was evident in EMG recordings 6 months postoperatively in all three dogs. Stimulation of the donor C8 ventral branch led to motor evoked potentials in the avulsed side triceps brachialis and radial carpus extensor muscles. Variable functional outcome was observed in the 3 dogs during clinical evaluation 3-4 years after surgery. Digital abrasion wounds, distal interphalangeal infectious arthritis, and self-mutilation necessitated distal phalanx amputation of digits 3 and 4 in 2 dogs. C8CT provided partial reconnection of the donor C8 ventral branch to the avulsed brachial plexus in the 3 dogs of this series. Reinnervation resulted in active elbow extension and promoted functional recovery in the affected limb. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  12. Sindrome de regresión caudal

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado, A.; Pastor, A.; Sorni, A.; Pastor Durán, Xavier; Palomeque,A.

    1995-01-01

    El síndrome de regresión caudal o de agenesia sacra se caracteriza por un déficit funcional de los esfínteres y de la muscultatura de los miembros inferiores. Se suele asociar con otras malformaciones, como son las esqueléticas, genitourinarias y del tracto intestinal. La diabetes mellitus materna es uno de los factores predisponentes más destacados. Aquí se presenta un caso de síndrome de regresión caudal con insufiencia renal secundaria a la uropatía malformativa asociada. Se comentan los d...

  13. [Stump pain relieved by continuous intravenous ketamine infusion therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, J; Sugimoto, S; Ohmori, T; Itadera, E; Ichikawa, N; Machida, K

    2001-07-01

    We experienced a case of stump pain relieved by continuous intravenous ketamine infusion therapy. A 59-year-old male had his left first through fourth toes amputated because a giant iron plate at work fell on his left foot fifteen years ago. Thereafter he had refractory spontaneous burning pain and night pain on his stump. On examination, we found his left foot skin hard, lustrous, and with sweating disturbance, allodynia and hyperpathia. As intravenous administrations of ketamine 10 mg and thiamylal 50 mg were positive as a drug challenge test, we performed intravenous ketamine infusion at 1 mg.kg-1.hr-1 for 1 hour and a half. After this treatment, his visual analogue scale (VAS) improved dramatically to 0 mm, and night pain, allodynia and hyperpathia disappeared for three days. Thereafter stump pain was relieved to the level of VAS 20 mm. Therefore we diagnosed his stump pain as central pain of neuropathic origin. We suspect that continuous intravenous infusion of ketamine, a noncompetitive blocker of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor, might be an effective and useful alternative treatment in a patient with refractory stump pain.

  14. Prospective Randomized Controlled Comparison of Caudal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bupivacaine and ropivacaine are commonly used agents for caudal anesthesia in pediatric patients. Several ... only significant difference was the motor‑block score at 2, 3 and 4 h after surgery, although the score was same 1 h ... 2 = little movement of feet only, 3 = no movement of knees or feet. However ...

  15. Contribution of stumps to carbon and nitrogen pools in southern Appalachian hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric B. Sucre; Thomas R. Fox

    2008-01-01

    Decomposing stumps are prevalent in managed forest ecosystems although the impact of these microsites on nutrient retention and cycling is relatively unknown. In this study, stumps were defined as the aboveground and belowground (i.e., root system) left over from previous harvests. The objective of this study was to quantify the total soil volume occupied by stumps and...

  16. Risk Factors for Rectal Stump Cancer in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgens, M.W.M.D.; van Oijen, M.G.H.; Vleggaar, F.P.; Siersema, P.D.; Broekman, M.M.T.J.; Oldenburg, B.; van Bodegraven, A.A.; Dijkstra, G.; Hommes, D.; de Jong, D.J.; Stokkers, P.C.F.; van der Woude, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with long-standing colitis carry an increased risk of colorectal cancer and are therefore enrolled in colonoscopic surveillance programs. It is presently not known if endoscopic surveillance of patients with colitis with a closed rectal stump after a subtotal colectomy is

  17. Risk factors for rectal stump cancer in inflammatory bowel disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgens, M.W.; Oijen, M.G.H. van; Vleggaar, F.P.; Siersema, P.D.; Broekman, M.M.T.J.; Oldenburg, B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with long-standing colitis carry an increased risk of colorectal cancer and are therefore enrolled in colonoscopic surveillance programs. It is presently not known if endoscopic surveillance of patients with colitis with a closed rectal stump after a subtotal colectomy is

  18. Evaluation of home care management of umbilical cord stumps by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Umbilical cord care is an integral part of neonatal care in all communities and cultures and appropriate cord care reduces the risk of infection in the newborn infant. Objective: The present study assessed the home care management of the umbilical stump by the mothers at Ilesa, Southwestern Nigeria. Subjects ...

  19. Preliminary test of two stump surface protectants against Fomes annosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.E. Nelson; C.Y. Li

    1980-01-01

    Two materials, monolaurin (at two concentrations) and an unidentified species of the genus Streptomyces, were tested along with borax for ability to protect freshly cut stump surfaces of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) from colonization by Fomes annosus. Protectants were significantly (P...

  20. A new treatment concept for bronchial stump insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, G; Muehling, B; Orend, K; Bischoff, M; Sunder-Plassmann, L

    2010-04-01

    Bronchial stump insufficiency (BSI) remains one of the most feared complications with an incidence of 0-12% in the literature. The present retrospective study reviewed the medical records of 11 patients with BSI. Patients were divided into two groups, depending on treatment. In group A, 5 patients were treated initially unsuccessfully using other therapeutic procedures such pectoralis flap transposition, omentum majus transposition and fibrin glue applications and subsequently treated successfully with vacuum therapy (VT). In 6 patients (group B), only VT (a combination of bronchial suture, thoracoplasty, latissimus muscle transposition and VT) was performed. VT represents a closed dressing system allowing moist wound treatment in full contact with the wound surface as well as protection against contamination with nosocomial pathogens by means of continuous drainage of wound secretions. Of the 11 patients reviewed in this study, closure of the bronchial stump with VT was achieved in 8 patients. Of the 8 patients with successful closure of the bronchial stump, 4 patients were in group A and 4 in group B. Based on this preliminary experience, the combination of bronchial suture, thoracoplasty, latissimus muscle transposition and VT appears to be a promising concept for the management of bronchial stump insufficiency. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  1. Prediction and error of baldcypress stem volume from stump diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    1998-01-01

    The need to estimate the volume of removals occurs for many reasons, such as in trespass cases, severance tax reports, and post-harvest assessments. A logarithmic model is presented for prediction of baldcypress total stem cubic foot volume using stump diameter as the independent variable. Because the error of prediction is as important as the volume estimate, the...

  2. Percutaneous Management of Postoperative Duodenal Stump Leakage with Foley Catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jung Suk; Lee, Hae Giu; Chun, Ho Jong; Choi, Byung Gil; Lee, Sang Hoon; Hahn, Seong Tai; Ohm, Joon Young

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate retrospectively the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous management of duodenal stump leakage with a Foley catheter after subtotal gastrectomy. Methods: Ten consecutive patients (M:F = 9:1, median age: 64 years) were included in this retrospective study. The duodenal stump leakages were diagnosed in all the patients within a median of 10 days (range, 6–20). At first, the patients underwent percutaneous drainage on the day of or the day after confirmation of the presence of duodenal stump leakage, and then the Foley catheters were replaced at a median of 9 days (range, 6–38) after the percutaneous drainage. Results: Foley catheters were placed successfully in the duodenal lumen of all the patients under a fluoroscopic guide. No complication was observed during and after the procedures in all the patients. All of the patients started a regular diet 1 day after the Foley catheter placement. The patients were discharged at a median of 7 days (range, 5–14) after the Foley catheter placement. The catheters were removed in an outpatient clinic 10–58 days (median, 28) after the Foley catheter placement. Conclusions: Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous Foley catheter placement may be a safe and effective treatment option for postoperative duodenal stump leakage and may allow for shorter hospital stays, earlier oral intake, and more effective control of leakage sites

  3. Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Sakti Prasad; Ojha, Niranjan; Ganesh, G Shankar; Mohanty, Ram Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting re...

  4. In utero diagnosis of caudal regression syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Negrete, BS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of caudal regression syndrome (CRS, a relatively uncommon defect of the lower spine accompanied by a wide range of developmental abnormalities. CRS is closely associated with pregestational diabetes and is nearly 200 times more prevalent in infants of diabetic mothers (1, 2. We report a case of prenatally suspected CRS in a fetus of a nondiabetic mother and discuss how the initial neurological abnormalities found on imaging correlate with the postnatal clinical deficits.

  5. Caudal bupivacaine supplemented with caudal or intravenous clonidine in children undergoing hypospadias repair: a double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T G; Henneberg, S W; Walther-Larsen, S

    2004-01-01

    Clonidine is used increasingly in paediatric anaesthetic practice to prolong the duration of action of caudal block with a local anaesthetic agent. Which route of administration of clonidine is the most beneficial remains unknown. We compared the effects of caudal and i.v. clonidine on postoperat...... on postoperative analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine after hypospadias repair....

  6. Relation of Stump Length with Various Gait Parameters in Trans-tibial Amputee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyel Majumdar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is evaluating the impact of stump length of unilateral below knee amputees (BKA on different gait parameters. Nine unilateral BKA were chosen and divided into three groups comprising patients with short, medium, and long stump length. Each of them underwent gait analysis test by Computer Dynography (CDG system to measure the gait parameters. It was found that the ground reaction force is higher in the patients with medium stump length whereas the velocity, step length both for the prosthetic and sound limb and cadence were high in longer stump length. Statistical analysis shows a significant difference (p<0.05 between the gait parameters of BKA with medium and longer stump length. The patients with longer stump length were more efficient than medium and short stump patients as they consumed comparatively lesser energy while walking with self-selected velocity and conventional (Solid ankle cushioned heel SACH foot.

  7. Systematization, distribution and territory of the caudal cerebral artery on the brain's surface of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarílis Díaz de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Meleagris gallopavo heads with their neck segments were used. Animals were contained and euthanized with the association of mebezonium iodide, embutramide and tetracaine hydrochloride (T 61, Intervet by intravenous injection. The arterial system was rinsed with cold saline solution (15°C, with 5000IU heparin and filled with red-colored latex. The samples were fixed in 20% formaldehyde for seven days. The brains were removed with a segment of cervical spinal cord and after, the dura-mater was removed and the arteries dissected. The cerebral carotid arteries, after the intercarotid anastomosis, were projected around the hypophysis, until they reached the tuber cinereum and divided into their terminal branches, the caudal branch and the rostral branch. The rostral branch was projected rostrolateralwards and gave off, in sequence, two collateral branches, the caudal cerebral and the middle cerebral arteries and the terminal branch was as cerebroethmoidal artery. The caudal cerebral artery of one antimere formed the interhemispheric artery, which gave off dorsal hemispheric branches to the convex surface of both antimeres. Its dorsal tectal mesencephalic branch, of only one antimere, originated the dorsal cerebellar artery. In the interior of the cerebral transverse fissure, after the origin of the dorsal tectal mesencephalic artery, the caudal cerebral artery emitted occipital hemispheric branches, pineal branches and medial hemispheric branches, on both antimeres. The caudal cerebral artery's territory comprehended the entire surface of the dorsal hemioptic lobe, the rostral surface of the cerebellum, the diencephalic structures, the caudal pole and the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere and in the convex surface, the sagittal eminence except for its most rostral third. Due to the asymmetry found in the caudal cerebral arteries' ramifications, the models were classified into three types and their respective subtypes.

  8. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with recurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma at the abdominal lymph nodes or postoperative stump including pancreatic stump and other stump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng XL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Xian-Liang Zeng,* Huan-Huan Wang,* Mao-Bin Meng, Zhi-Qiang Wu, Yong-Chun Song, Hong-Qing Zhuang, Dong Qian, Feng-Tong Li, Lu-Jun Zhao, Zhi-Yong Yuan, Ping Wang Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin’s Clinical Research Center for Cancer and Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT using CyberKnife in the treatment of patients with recurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma at the abdominal lymph node or stump after surgery. Patients and methods: Between October 1, 2006 and May 1, 2015, patients with recurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma at the abdominal lymph node or stump after surgery were enrolled and treated with SBRT at our hospital. The primary end point was local control rate after SBRT. Secondary end points were overall survival, time to symptom alleviation, and toxicity, assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Results: Twenty-four patients with 24 lesions (17 abdominal lymph nodes and seven stumps were treated with SBRT, of which five patients presented with abdominal lymph nodes and synchronous metastases in the liver and lung. The 6-, 12-, and 24-month actuarial local control rates were 95.2%, 83.8%, and 62.1%, respectively. For the entire cohort, the median overall survival from diagnosis and SBRT was 28.9 and 12.2 months, respectively. Symptom alleviation was observed in eleven of 14 patients (78.6% within a median of 8 days (range, 1–14 days after SBRT. Nine patients (37.5% experienced Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 grade 1–2 acute toxicities; one patient experienced grade 3 acute toxicity due to thrombocytopenia. Conclusion: SBRT is a safe and

  9. Surface-based GPR underestimates below-stump root biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; Lisa J. Samuelson; Thomas A. Stokes; Kurt H. Johnsen; Peter H. Anderson; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke

    2016-01-01

    Aims While lateral root mass is readily detectable with ground penetrating radar (GPR), the roots beneath a tree (below-stump) and overlapping lateral roots near large trees are problematic for surface-based antennas operated in reflection mode. We sought to determine if tree size (DBH) effects GPR root detection proximal to longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill) and if...

  10. Leiomyoma recurrent at the cervical stump: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Christine M; Acholonu, Uchenna C; Chang-Jackson, Shao-Chun R; Nezhat, Farr R

    2012-01-01

    Although supracervical hysterectomy is an increasingly popular modality for surgical management of benign uterine conditions data exploring all of its consequences are still forth coming. This case report will discuss the scenario of leiomyoma recurrence at the cervical stump after supracervical hysterectomy. After supracervical hysterectomy, the remnant cervix has the potential for leiomyoma formation. Surgeons performing supracervical hysterectomy should be aware of this possible outcome. Copyright © 2012 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Delayed post-lobectomy pulmonary artery stump thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leith Sawalha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 67 year old male patient who underwent VATS right upper lobectomy with en bloc chest wall resection and right lower lobe superior segmentectomy for atypical Ewing Sarcoma. Serial chest CT scan done more than two years after the initial resection showed a new filling defect in the right upper pulmonary artery stump. A repeat chest CT scan after three months of oral anticoagulation showed complete resolution of the filling defect.

  12. The anatomy and histology of caudal autotomy and regeneration in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Emily A B; Payne, Samantha L; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Caudal autotomy-the ability to self-detach the tail-is a dramatic adaptation common to many structural-grade lizards. For most species, tail loss is followed by the equally dramatic phenomenon of tail regeneration. Here we review the anatomy and histology of caudal autotomy and regeneration in lizards, drawing heavily from research published over the past 2 decades. The autotomous tail is characterized by various structural adaptations, which act to minimize blood loss and trauma to adjacent tissues. The early phase of wound healing involves a leukocytic response but limited inflammation. Reepithelialization via a specialized wound epithelium is not only critical for scar-free healing but also necessary for subsequent tissue patterning and regenerative outgrowth. Regeneration begins with the formation of the blastema, a mass of proliferating mesenchymal-like cells. As the blastema expands, it is invaded by blood vessels and the spinal cord. Whereas the replacement tail outwardly resembles the original appendage, it differs in several notable respects, including the tissue composition and organization of the skeleton, muscular system, and spinal cord. Increasingly, the lizard tail is being recognized among biomedical scientists as an important model for the study of wound healing and multitissue restoration.

  13. Tethered cord due to caudal lipomeningocele associated with a lumbar dural arteriovenous fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavani, Sandip B; Nadkarni, Trimurti D

    2014-09-01

    A 29-year-old man presented with progressive paraparesis associated with sensory impairment in both lower limbs for the past 2 years. He was experiencing the sensation of incomplete urinary evacuation. The patient had undergone an earlier operation for a lumbar lipomeningocele at birth. Magnetic resonance images of the lumbosacral spine showed a low-lying conus medullaris adherent to a caudal lipoma. There was a leash of abnormal vascular channels in the adjacent subarachnoid space. The patient underwent spinal angiography that revealed a dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) principally fed by the left fourth lumbar (L-4) radicular branch. At surgery the cord was detethered by disconnection of the sacral lipoma. The dural fistula was obliterated by occlusion of the L-4 radicular feeder close to the nidus of the fistula. Postoperatively, the patient experienced an immediate relief of sensation of tightness in both lower limbs. There was a gradual improvement of power and sensation at the 6-month follow-up examination. According to the authors' literature search, the present case is a unique report of a rare association of spinal cord tethering due to a caudal lipoma associated with a lumbar dural AVF. The present report discusses the etiopathology, presentation, and management of this case.

  14. Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Prasad Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting revealed pigeon chest and elevated right shoulder. Posterior examination of the trunk showed thoracic scoliosis with convexity to right. The patient was operated and at 1 year followup the boy had two separate legs with a good aesthetic and functional results.

  15. A Rare Case: Appendectomy After Connected Stump Appendicitis Perforation of the Cecum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berke Manoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stump appendicitis is a rare complication after appendectomy . Stump appendicitis made of incomplete appendectomy after a rest appendix tissue develops as a result of the inflammation. Admitted to the emergency department with acute abdomen and a history of appendectomy in patients with a history of current pain in the right lower quadrant , especially that of the patient must be evaluated in terms of stump appendicitis. The fact that the earlier story appendectomy patients , causing a delay in diagnosis and increasing the morbidity Cecal perforation was offered an advanced case of delayed depending on the stump appendicitis in this article.

  16. Caudal analgesia for herniotomy: Comparative evaluation of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: There is currently a wide range of volume schemes for bupivacaine caudal anesthesia. This study evaluated the quality of caudal analgesia achieved with a dosing scheme of 0.75 ml/kg compared with 0.5 ml/kg of 0.25% plain bupivacaine for herniotomy. Methods: After the institutional approval, American Society ...

  17. Experience with caudal block regional anesthesia for transurethral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is concluded that caudal anesthesia with 2% xylocaine with 1 in 80,000 adrenaline gives adequate anesthesia for transurethral resection of the prostate gland. Keywords: Caudal regional anesthesia, Turp. Résumé Quatre vingt quinze patients consécutifs avec lobliteration hypertrophie prostatique exigent d' être opéré ont ...

  18. Case of spontaneous tubal stump pregnancy after adnexectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Futyma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic pregnancy is a significant problem in women of childbearing potential and affects up to 2% of them. The most common ectopic pregnancy localization is the ampullary area of the Fallopian tube. Patient with spontaneous ectopic pregnancy located in the tubal stump after an ipsilateral adnexectomy performed with a laparotomy due to mucinous cystadenoma was operated by laparoscopy. Remnant of Fallopian tube with ectopic pregnancy was removed. The most important lecture from this case is when adnexectomy or salpingectomy is performed, it should be done in the isthmic part, without leaving any remnant.

  19. Carcinoma of the cervical stump: retrospective analysis of 77 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannoun-Levi, Jean-Michel; Peiffert, Didier; Hoffstetter, Sylvette; Luporsi, Elisabethe; Bey, Pierre; Pernot, Monique

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although supracervical hysterectomy is becoming a rare procedure, there are still many women with retained cervical stump. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the results of treatment in patients with carcinoma of the cervical stump. Materials and methods: From 1974 to 1990, 77 patients were treated for an infiltrating carcinoma of the cervical stump. This group accounted for 6.6% of the cervical carcinoma diagnosed during the same period. The pathological examination showed, 91% of squamous cell carcinomas and 9% of adenocarcinomas. FIGO stage distribution was: I (35%), II (45%), III (18%), IV (2%). According to the stages, the treatment used a combination of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with plesiobrachytherapy (PBT), and in a few cases, patients underwent surgery or interstitial brachytherapy (IBT). In patients with bulky tumour or advanced stage and/or lymphatic node involvement, EBRT was first delivered. Most of Stage I and Stage II patients, began their treatment with PBT. All stages included, 95% of the patients were treated by exclusive radiation therapy. Complications were classified according to the recommendations of late effects normal tissues (LENT) scoring system described by the EORTC/RTOG. Results: Three-year pelvic control was achieved in 59 of 77 patients (76.6%) in the whole series. Three-year pelvic control probabilities were 77% (95% CI: 66-85%), and 89% (95% CI: 72-96%), 73.7% (95% CI: 65-88%) and 56% (95% CI: 28-80%) in the whole series and in Stage I-III tumour patients, respectively. The 5-year and 10-year overall survival probabilities in the whole series, were 66.4% (95% CI: 55-76%) and 61.2% (95% CI: 50-72%), respectively. Ten patients (12.8%) developed 17 late complications distributed as follows: G1, nine patients (11.7%); G2, five patients (6.5%); G3, one patient (1.3%); and G4, two patients (2.6%). Conclusions: Treatment results are similar both in patients with carcinoma of the

  20. Imaging in spine and spinal cord malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Andrea E-mail: a.rossi@panet.itandrearossi@ospedale-gaslini.ge.it; Biancheri, Roberta; Cama, Armando; Piatelli, Gianluca; Ravegnani, Marcello; Tortori-Donati, Paolo

    2004-05-01

    Spinal and spinal cord malformations are collectively named spinal dysraphisms. They arise from defects occurring in the early embryological stages of gastrulation (weeks 2-3), primary neurulation (weeks 3-4), and secondary neurulation (weeks 5-6). Spinal dysraphisms are categorized into open spinal dysraphisms (OSDs), in which there is exposure of abnormal nervous tissues through a skin defect, and closed spinal dysraphisms (CSD), in which there is a continuous skin coverage to the underlying malformation. Open spinal dysraphisms basically include myelomeningocele and other rare abnormalities such as myelocele and hemimyelo(meningo)cele. Closed spinal dysraphisms are further categorized based on the association with low-back subcutaneous masses. Closed spinal dysraphisms with mass are represented by lipomyelocele, lipomyelomeningocele, meningocele, and myelocystocele. Closed spinal dysraphisms without mass comprise simple dysraphic states (tight filum terminale, filar and intradural lipomas, persistent terminal ventricle, and dermal sinuses) and complex dysraphic states. The latter category further comprises defects of midline notochordal integration (basically represented by diastematomyelia) and defects of segmental notochordal formation (represented by caudal agenesis and spinal segmental dysgenesis). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the preferred modality for imaging these complex abnormalities. The use of the aforementioned classification scheme is greatly helpful to make the diagnosis.

  1. Incidence of decay fungi in stumps of two thinned western larch stands in northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory M. Filip; Catherine A. Parks; Kenneth W. Seidel; Frances F. Lombard

    1987-01-01

    Incidence of decay fungi was measured in stumps from two thinned western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) stands (9 and 15 years after thinning), one precommercially thinned and one commercially thinned, in northeastern Oregon. Ten species of decay fungi were positively identified from 180 stumps. Two root pathogenic species, ...

  2. First rotation Eucalyptus macarthurii cut stump control in KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many cold tolerant eucalypts, E. macarthurii in particular, coppice vigorously following harvesting, and in contrast to E. grandis are proving difficult to kill by existing cut stump control methods. Based on past research, selected cut stump treatments were tested on single stem E. macarthurii trees, that had not been coppiced, ...

  3. Sensibility of the Stump in Adults With an Acquired Major Upper Extremity Amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, Willemijn; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Smit-Klaij, Frida; Bongers, Raoul M.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the sensibility of the stump in adults with an acquired major upper extremity amputation with the sensibility of the unaffected side and with the corresponding body parts of healthy controls, as well as to relate the sensibility of the stump to daily functioning. Design: A

  4. Evaluation of oak stump sprouting in the Missouri Ozarks ten years after harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy G. Jensen; Daniel C. Dey

    2008-01-01

    Managers in Missouri often want to manage forests to retain oak in the future. Oaks are valuable for timber and many wildlife species depend on acorns. Large advance reproduction and stump sprouts are the most competitive sources of regeneration. It is well known that oak stump sprouts contribute to future stands in even-age clearcuts in the Missouri Ozarks, but there...

  5. Heavy metals in the spinal cord of normal rats and of animals treated with chelating agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Fjerdingstad, E; Danscher, G

    1978-01-01

    of various levels along the cranio-caudal axis of the rat spinal cord revealed differences in the heavy metal content. The Timm sulfide silver staining method has demonstrated that metals in the spinal cord have a distinct regional distribution. To obtain a differentiation between the stainable metals...

  6. Numerical Study on Hydrodynamic Performance of Bionic Caudal Fin

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Zhou; Junkao Liu; Weishan Chen

    2016-01-01

    In this work, numerical simulations are conducted to reveal the hydrodynamic mechanism of caudal fin propulsion. In the modeling of a bionic caudal fin, a universal kinematics model with three degrees of freedom is adopted and the flexible deformation in the spanwise direction is considered. Navier-Stokes equations are used to solve the unsteady fluid flow and dynamic mesh method is applied to track the locomotion. The force coefficients, torque coefficient, and flow field characteristics are...

  7. Caudal epidural anesthesia during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoyama-Shirakawa, Yuko; Abe, Madoka; Nakamura, Katsumasa

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that pain control during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer is insufficient in most hospitals in Japan. Our hospital began using caudal epidural anesthesia during high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy in 2011. The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the effects of caudal epidural anesthesia during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer patients. Caudal epidural anesthesia for 34 cervical cancer patients was performed during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy between October 2011 and August 2013. We used the patients' self-reported Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score at the first session of HDR intracavitary brachytherapy as a subjective evaluation of pain. We compared NRS scores of the patients with anesthesia with those of 30 patients who underwent HDR intracavitary brachytherapy without sacral epidural anesthesia at our hospital between May 2010 and August 2011. Caudal epidural anesthesia succeeded in 33 patients (97%), and the NRS score was recorded in 30 patients. The mean NRS score of the anesthesia group was 5.17 ± 2.97, significantly lower than that of the control group's 6.80 ± 2.59 (P = 0.035). The caudal epidural block resulted in no side-effects. Caudal epidural anesthesia is an effective and safe anesthesia option during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer. (author)

  8. Characterizing the location of spinal and vertebral levels in the human cervical spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadotte, D W; Cadotte, A; Cohen-Adad, J; Fleet, D; Livne, M; Wilson, J R; Mikulis, D; Nugaeva, N; Fehlings, M G

    2015-04-01

    Advanced MR imaging techniques are critical to understanding the pathophysiology of conditions involving the spinal cord. We provide a novel, quantitative solution to map vertebral and spinal cord levels accounting for anatomic variability within the human spinal cord. For the first time, we report a population distribution of the segmental anatomy of the cervical spinal cord that has direct implications for the interpretation of advanced imaging studies most often conducted across groups of subjects. Twenty healthy volunteers underwent a T2-weighted, 3T MRI of the cervical spinal cord. Two experts marked the C3-C8 cervical nerve rootlets, C3-C7 vertebral bodies, and pontomedullary junction. A semiautomated algorithm was used to locate the centerline of the spinal cord and measure rostral-caudal distances from a fixed point in the brain stem, the pontomedullary junction, to each of the spinal rootlets and vertebral bodies. Distances to each location were compared across subjects. Six volunteers had 2 additional scans in neck flexion and extension to measure the effects of patient positioning in the scanner. We demonstrated that substantial variation exists in the rostral-caudal position of spinal cord segments among individuals and that prior methods of predicting spinal segments are imprecise. We also show that neck flexion or extension has little effect on the relative location of vertebral-versus-spinal levels. Accounting for spinal level variation is lacking in existing imaging studies. Future studies should account for this variation for accurate interpretation of the neuroanatomic origin of acquired MR signals. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  9. Decreased Fos protein expression in rat caudal vestibular nucleus is associated with motion sickness habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi-Ling; Wang, Jun-Qin; Chen, Xin-Min; Li, Hong-Xia; Li, Min; Guo, Jun-Sheng

    2010-08-09

    We investigated the temporal change of Fos protein expression in the caudal vestibular nucleus of rats exposed to daily 2-h Ferris-wheel like (FWL) rotation. Repeated rotation (2h daily for 14 consecutive days) caused an initial increase in defecation, followed by a gradual decline back to the baseline level after 8 rotation sessions. Unlike defecation, the Kaolin consumption of rats showed a bitonic function during the daily rotation sessions (2h daily for 33 consecutive days) and finally recovered to the baseline after about 31 sessions. Immunohistochemistry study revealed increased Fos immunolabeled (Fos-LI) neurons in the medial vestibular nucleus and spinal vestibular nucleus during the initial 7 rotation sessions, and it decreased to the baseline level after 10 rotation sessions. There was a strong linear relationship between the amount of Fos-LI neurons and rat defecation level throughout the whole rotation sessions. These results suggest that the change of neuronal plasticity in the caudal vestibular nucleus might contribute to attenuation of gastrointestinal symptoms during motion sickness habituation process. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fungi inhabiting stumps of Pinus nigra depending on the period of their exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jankowiak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the species composition of communities of fungi inhabiting stumps of Pinus nigra depending on the period of their exposure. After 6 and 18 months of stump exposure two species of Basidiomycota distinctly dominaled: Stereum sanguinolentum and Phanerochaete gigantea. After 30 months of exposure the communities of fungi were the most diversified. A longer period of stump exposure resulted in the decrease of numbers of isolates of Ph. gigantea and S. sanguinolentum. However, other species belonging to Basidiomycota increased their numbers. As the wood decompositionn progressed, however, the fungi belonging to Deuteromycota were isolated more often.

  11. Infantile lumbosacral spinal subdural abscess with sacral dermal sinus tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seoung Woo; Yoon, Soo Han; Cho, Ki Hong; Shin, Yong Sam; Ahn, Young Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Clinical case report of a spinal subdural abscess in an infant presenting with sacral dermal sinus tract (DST). To suggest that sacral DST with caudal direction may require surgical resection as early as possible. DST may induce the formation of a spinal abscess. However, it is sometimes difficult to decide on early surgical resection for DST, especially in cases that are located at a lower level than the lumbar spine and directed caudally that is not accompanied by cerebrospinal fluid leakage. A 9-month-old girl was transferred due to intermittent fever and vomiting, with the midline sinus of the lower back at the second sacral spinal level. She showed mild tenderness of the lower back and slight weakness of both lower extremities with increased residual urine volume of the bladder. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that the low-lying sacral DST traced into the subdural space with caudal orientation, and the presence of extensive subdural spinal abscess from the first lumbar spine to the fourth sacrum. Emergency resection of the sacral DST was performed after laminotomy from the first lumbar spine to the second sacrum, and the subdural spinal abscess was also surgically removed. After 8 weeks of intravenous antibiotic treatment, she showed no neurologic deficit and no evidence of residual abscess on MRI. We suggest that even low-lying sacral DST may require surgical resection as early as possible because it may result in indolent and extensive spinal abscesses.

  12. Antagonistic effect of fungi from Scots pine stump roots against Heterobasidion annosum and Armillaria ostoyae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kwaśny

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study presents quantitative and qualitative aspects of fungal colonization of the 2-year-old stump roots of the 30- and 49-year-old Scots pines, and biotic relations between fungi inhabiting the stump roots and major agent s of butt and root rot in Poland, i.e.: H. annosum and A. ostoyae. Compared to the live roots, the increase in density of fungi communities as well as the frequency of the fungi antagonistic towards H. annosum and A. ostoyae, particularly of Trichoderma species. in pine stump roots resulted in the increase of the suppressive effect of these communities towards both pathogens, studied in vitro. This finding may suggest a stronger resistance of pine stump roots to H. annosum and A. ostoyae what under forest conditions may be the example of natural control of both pathogens.

  13. SOUND VELOCITY and Other Data from USS STUMP DD-978) (NCEI Accession 9400069)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The sound velocity data in this accession were collected from USS STUMP DD-978 by US Navy. The sound velocity in water is analog profiles data that was recorded in...

  14. Spinal cerebrospinal fluid seeding of a clival chordoma; A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung Hwan; Yu, In Kyu; Kim, Seong Min; Park, Ki Seok; Son, Hyun Jin [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Chordomas originate from remnants of the embryonic notochord and account for < 2% of all malignant bone tumors. Chordomas have a high rate of local recurrence. However, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) seeding of a chordoma is extremely rare. Here, we present a very rare case of clival chordoma with spinal seeding. Radiologists should consider spinal CSF seeding of a clival chordoma, particularly when accompanied by signs of dural perforation or caudal extension.

  15. Stump treatment against Heterobasidion annosum - Techniques and biological effect in practical forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thor, M. [SkogForsk, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    This thesis summarises and discusses results from two studies on mechanized stump treatment to control the root rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. In Sweden, stump treatment is at present carried out with two chemical compounds, urea and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT), and a biological control agent, Phlebiopsis gigantea (Fr.) Juel. The first study investigated the H. annosum colonization of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stumps following mechanized thinning and stump treatment with the three control agents mentioned. The stumps were treated in the summer and were compared with untreated stumps, cut in the summer and winter, respectively. Experimental plots were established in 12 first thinning stands of Norway spruce. Six to seven weeks after thinning and treatment, sample discs were collected (N=1246) and examined for presence of H. annosum. Stump treatment with any of the control agents reduced the colonized stump area 6-7 weeks after thinning by 88-98% as compared with untreated stumps cut in the summer. The effects of the different treatments differed neither from each other nor from the effect of winter thinning. The variation between the stands was considerable, but mechanized stump treatment provided as good protection as manual treatment against H. annosum infections. Study II examined the survival of P. gigantea oidiospores in aqueous suspension when exposed to high temperature or pressure, which are potential problems in mechanized application. In the laboratory, temperatures of 20, 30 or 35 deg C did not affect the survival. The spores could withstand 40 deg C for a short period, but died at 60 deg C. Pressure of up to 2 200 kPa for 24 h did not affect P. gigantea spore germination. In the field, temperatures of the working suspension (10{sup 7} spores I{sup -1}) was assessed during practical operations. Spore viability was maintained through the applicator system. As long as the prescriptions are followed up to the time of

  16. Relaxed versus activated stump muscles during casting for trans-tibial prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja, M; Johansson, S; Oberg, T

    1999-04-01

    In prosthetic practice, the question often arises as to whether the hand cast should be made from a contracted or from a non-contracted amputation stump. To elucidate this question, the authors have performed a study to quantify the volume difference between these 2 conditions, and to relate the differences to prosthetic fitting. Sixteen (16) trans-tibial amputees participated in the study. All of them were fitted with an ICEROSS silicone socket. Electromyographic studies, with electrodes attached to the anterior tibial and medial gastrocnemius muscles, were carried out to determine muscle contraction levels. Volume determinations were made with the CAPOD laser scanning system. Measurements were performed with and without the silicone liner on the stump. Without a silicone liner, the volume of the stump increased by 5.8% (SD=5.3) as the muscles contracted. This increase was statistically significant. With the liner donned the volume increased 3.5% (SD=3.3). This increase was also statistically significant. The volume of the prosthetic socket was also compared with the stump volume with a silicone liner on. For the relaxed stump, the difference was 1.8% (SD=10.1), and for the contracted stump -1.7% (SD=11.3). Neither difference was statistically significant. The importance of these volume changes and how they influence stiffness of the coupling between the stump and the socket are discussed. It is concluded, that the observed difference in volume between a contracted and a non-contracted stump are large enough to be considered by the prosthetist in his decision on how to make a hand cast.

  17. Stumps of Eucalyptus globulus as a source of antioxidant and antimicrobial polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, Ângelo; Neiva, Duarte; Pereira, Helena; Gominho, Jorge; Domingues, Fernanda; Duarte, Ana Paula

    2014-10-13

    These past years have seen an enormous development of the area of natural antioxidants and antimicrobials. Eucalyptus globulus is widely cultivated in subtropical and Mediterranean regions in intensive short rotation coppice plantations. In the Portuguese context, E. globulus is the third species in terms of forest area. The stump is the basal part of the tree, including the near-the-ground stem portion and the woody roots that remain after stem felling. The purpose of this work was to study the phytochemical profile and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of several crude stump wood and stump bark extracts of E. globulus, comparing it with similar extracts of E. globulus wood (industrial chips). The results showed the presence of high concentrations of total phenolic compounds (>200 mg GAE/g extract) and flavonoids (>10 mg QE/g extract) in E. globulus stump extracts. Generally the stump wood extracts stands out from the other ones, presenting the highest percentages of inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. It was also possible to conclude that the extracts were more active against Gram-positive bacteria, presenting low MIC values. This study thus provides information supporting the economic valorization of E. globulus stump wood.

  18. Morphohistological Features of Pancreatic Stump Are the Main Determinant of Pancreatic Fistula after Pancreatoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ridolfi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pancreatic surgery is challenging and associated with high morbidity, mainly represented by postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF and its further consequences. Identification of risk factors for POPF is essential for proper postoperative management. Aim of the Study. Evaluation of the role of morphological and histological features of pancreatic stump, other than main pancreatic duct diameter and glandular texture, in POPF occurrence after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Patients and Methods. Between March 2011 and April 2013, we performed 145 consecutive pancreaticoduodenectomies. We intraoperatively recorded morphological features of pancreatic stump and collected data about postoperative morbidity. Our dedicated pathologist designed a score to quantify fibrosis and inflammation of pancreatic tissue. Results. Overall morbidity was 59,3%. Mortality was 4,1%. POPF rate was 28,3%, while clinically significant POPF were 15,8%. Male sex (P=0.009, BMI≥25 (P=0.002, prolonged surgery (P=0.001, soft pancreatic texture (P<0.001, small pancreatic duct (P<0.001, pancreatic duct decentralization on stump anteroposterior axis, especially if close to the posterior margin (P=0.031, large stump area (P=0.001, and extended stump mobilization (P=0.001 were related to higher POPF rate. Our fibrosis-and-inflammation score is strongly associated with POPF (P=0.001. Discussion and Conclusions. Pancreatic stump features evaluation, including histology, can help the surgeon in fitting postoperative management to patient individual risk after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  19. Morphohistological features of pancreatic stump are the main determinant of pancreatic fistula after pancreatoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Cristina; Angiolini, Maria Rachele; Gavazzi, Francesca; Spaggiari, Paola; Tinti, Maria Carla; Uccelli, Fara; Madonini, Marco; Montorsi, Marco; Zerbi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic surgery is challenging and associated with high morbidity, mainly represented by postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) and its further consequences. Identification of risk factors for POPF is essential for proper postoperative management. Evaluation of the role of morphological and histological features of pancreatic stump, other than main pancreatic duct diameter and glandular texture, in POPF occurrence after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Between March 2011 and April 2013, we performed 145 consecutive pancreaticoduodenectomies. We intraoperatively recorded morphological features of pancreatic stump and collected data about postoperative morbidity. Our dedicated pathologist designed a score to quantify fibrosis and inflammation of pancreatic tissue. Overall morbidity was 59,3%. Mortality was 4,1%. POPF rate was 28,3%, while clinically significant POPF were 15,8%. Male sex (P = 0.009), BMI ≥ 25 (P = 0.002), prolonged surgery (P = 0.001), soft pancreatic texture (P < 0.001), small pancreatic duct (P < 0.001), pancreatic duct decentralization on stump anteroposterior axis, especially if close to the posterior margin (P = 0.031), large stump area (P = 0.001), and extended stump mobilization (P = 0.001) were related to higher POPF rate. Our fibrosis-and-inflammation score is strongly associated with POPF (P = 0.001). Pancreatic stump features evaluation, including histology, can help the surgeon in fitting postoperative management to patient individual risk after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  20. Walking in a vacuum-assisted socket shifts the stump fluid balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, J; Lynn, R; Street, G; Harlander, M

    2003-08-01

    Gains in stump volume have been documented in trans-tibial amputees while walking in custom made under-sized, total surface-bearing, vacuum-assisted sockets (Board et al., 2001). These gains raised doubts as to whether the sockets were truly under-sized and concerns that using an over-sized socket with vacuum-assist could lead to swelling, resulting, in discomfort or pain. The purposes of the present study were to determine if: (a) walking in a vacuum-assisted socket causes the stump to retain or gain volume in excess of the available socket volume and (b) the resulting increase in stump volume with an over-sized socket causes discomfort, pain, and/or the skin to redden. The results of this study showed the stump retained or gained volume in excess of the available socket volume while walking in vacuum-assisted sockets of various sizes. The stump lost less volume than predicted, or gained volume, in under-sized sockets. It also gained more volume than predicted in over-sized sockets. No discomfort, pain, or skin reddening, resulting from the volume gain was reported by any of the subjects after walking in an over-sized socket. This change in fluid balance towards a net gain supports the findings by Board et al. (2001) that vacuum-assist ensures a good fit during the day in ambulatory trans-tibial traumatic amputees with mature stumps.

  1. Healing Potential of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Remnant Stump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocan, Ilie; Ceausu, Raluca A; Jitariu, Andreea A; Haragus, Horia; Damian, Gratian; Raica, Marius

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the microstructural architecture and cellular differentiation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) stumps in different stages after injury, as this could augment graft biointegration. The histological appearance and immunoreaction for cluster of differentiation 34 antigen (CD34) of 54 biopsies from 27 remnants were compared to 10 biopsies from 5 normal cruciate ligaments. CD34 reaction in endothelial cells, fibroblasts and fibrocytes was consistently positive in small synovial vessels. Remnants also exhibited CD34(+) cells among collagen fibers. Blood vessel density varied between specimens. The mean vascular microdensity was 43 per ×200 field in remnants compared to 15.2 in controls. A total of 94.44% of remnant ACL samples had significant hyperplasia of stellate and fusiform stromal cells, CD34(+); 22.4% had developed capillary vessels inside the ligament; 33% exhibited ongoing angiogenesis. Significant differences exist between torn and intact ACL regarding microvascularization. The remnants contain stellate stromal cells and CD34(+) fibrocytes, and display angiogenesis both at synovia as well as in the ligament itself. These findings underline the potential contribution to neoligament healing when remnants are preserved. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Gastric stump mucosa: is there a risk for carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAFATLE-RIBEIRO Adriana Vaz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background - Patients who underwent partial gastric resections are at an increased risk for the development of cancer in the gastric remnant. Aim - To assess the long-term patients who underwent surgical treatment for peptic ulcer disease through endoscopic and pathologic evaluation of the gastric stump mucosal alterations. Patients and Methods - Between 1987 and 1990, 154 patients (mean = 20.4 years after gastrectomy were evaluated by upper digestive endoscopy with multiple biopsies and pathological examination. Results - Endoscopic alterations were present in 111 patients (72.1%. The commonest pathologic alterations were foveolar hyperplasia, intestinal metaplasia and cystic dilation. Severe dysplasia was noted in two (1.25% and carcinoma in 13 (8.4% of the cases. In four patients (3.8% the endoscopic findings did not show any evidence of tumors, however they were detected due to multiple biopsies and histologic studies. Conclusions - Surveillance of these patients with endoscopy and multiple biopsies may provide the means to diagnose tumors at an early stage, but the cost benefit ratio of surveillance requires further study.

  3. Nonsurgical resolution of caudal mediastinal paraesophageal abscess in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joohyun; Choi, Mincheol

    2015-04-01

    A one-year-old, castrated male domestic short hair cat was admitted with a history of anorexia, regurgitation and pyrexia for two days. Fever and leukocytosis were identified. There were a large soft tissue density oval mass in the caudal mediastinum on thoracic radiographs, a fluid-filled oval mass in the caudal mediastinum on ultrasonography, and left-sided and ventrally displaced and compressed esophagus on esophagram. On esophageal endoscopy, there were no esophageal abnormalities. CT findings with a fluid filled mass with rim enhancement indicated a caudal mediastinal paraesophageal abscess. The patient was treated with oral antibiotics, because the owner declined percutaneous drainage and surgery. The patient was admitted on emergency with severe respiratory distress; and ruptured abscess and deteriorated pleuropneumonia were suspected. With intensive hospitalization care and additional antibiotic therapy, the patient had full recovery.

  4. Spinal fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Herniated disk - fusion; Spinal stenosis - fusion; Laminectomy - fusion Patient Instructions Bathroom safety - adults Preventing falls Preventing falls - what to ask your doctor Spine surgery - discharge Surgical wound care - open Images Scoliosis Spinal ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ...

  6. Comparison of caudal and intravenous dexamethasone as adjuvants for caudal epidural block: A double blinded randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Dexamethasone has a powerful anti-inflammatory action with significant analgesic benefits. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of dexamethasone administered through intravenous (IV and caudal route on post-operative analgesia in paediatric inguinal herniotomy patients. Methods: One hundred and five paediatric patients undergoing inguinal herniotomy were included and divided into three groups. Each patient received a single caudal dose of ropivacaine 0.15%, 1.5 mL/kg combined with either corresponding volume of normal saline (Group 1 or caudal dexamethasone 0.1 mg/kg (Group 2 or IV dexamethasone 0.5 mg/kg (Group 3. Baseline, intra- and post-operative haemodynamic parameters, pain scores, time to rescue analgesia, total analgesic consumption and adverse effects were evaluated for 24 h after surgery. Unpaired Student′s t-test and analysis of variance were applied for quantitative data and Chi-square test for qualitative data. Time to first analgesic administration was analysed by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank test. Results: Duration of analgesia was significantly longer (P < 0.001, and total consumption of analgesics was significantly lower (P < 0.001 in Group II and III compared to Group I. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was higher in Group I (31.4% compared to Group II and III (8.6%. Conclusions: Addition of dexamethasone both caudally or intravenously as an adjuvant to caudal 0.15% ropivacaine significantly reduced the intensity of post-operative pain and prolonged the duration of post-operative analgesia with the significant advantage of caudal over IV route.

  7. Crown-Stump Diameter Model for Parkia biglobosa Benth. Species in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chukwu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The crown of tree is the centre of physiological activity which gives an indication of the potential photosynthetic capacity on a tree. Though, its measurement remains a challenge in forest inventory task. The ability to predict crown diameter from stump diameter provides an effective technique of obtaining its estimate. This helps in detecting the excessive tree felling than actual requirements and wildlife suitability.The main objective of this study was to develop and test crown diameter prediction models for silvicultural management of naturally grown Parkia biglobosa within the University of Agriculture, Makurdi. Nine 100 m x 100 m temporary sample plots were established using simple random sampling method. Crown diameter and stump diameter were measured in all living P. biglobosa trees with stump diameter ≥10.0 cm. Least square method was used to convert the counted stumps into harvested crown dimension. Three linear and three non-linear models using stump diameter as the exploratory variable were developed and evaluated using the adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj.R2, standard error of estimate (SEE, prediction error sum of squares (PRESS and Akaike information criterion (AIC. The crown-stump diameter relationship was best described by the double logarithmic function with .The result showed that Crown diameter estimation was feasible even when the only information available is stump diameter.The resulting equation was tested for validation with independent data obtained from additional plots and was found to be desirable for estimating the crown diameter for Parkia biglobosa in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

  8. The management of postoperative pain in children with caudal blocks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl and maintained with sevoflurane and nitrous oxide. Postoperative pain was rated on an objective paediatric pain scale. Results: The analgesic requirement was greater in the second group. Conclusion: Pre-emptive analgesia with caudal blocks may prevent the intensity ...

  9. Comparing caudal and penile nerve blockade using bupivacaine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Caudal anaesthesia is recommended for most surgical procedures of the lower part of the body, mainly below the umbilicus. It has been well established that a dorsal penile nerve block immediately after surgery decreases postoperative pain in children undergoing hypospadias repair. This study aimed to ...

  10. Comparison of Caudal Analgesia and Intravenous Diclofenac for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Effective postoperative pain management is a vital determinant to when a child can be safely discharged from the hospital after day case surgery. This study compared the effect of caudal bupivacaine block with intravenous diclofenac for postoperative pain relief in children aged 1-7years undergoing ...

  11. Caudal regression with sirenomelia and dysplasia renofacialis (Potter's syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noeldge, G.; Billmann, P.; Boehm, N.; Freiburg Univ.

    1982-01-01

    A case of caudal regression in combination with sirenomelia and dysplasia renofacialis (Potter's syndrome) is reported. The formal pathogenesis of these malformations and clinical facts are shown and discussed. Findings of plain films, postmortal angiography and pathologic-anatomical changes are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  12. Treatment of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris Stumps with Urea and Phlebiopsis gigantea for Control of Heterobasidion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Kärhä

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterobasidion spp. root rot causes severe damage to forests throughout the northern temperate zone. In order to prevent Heterobasidion infection in summertime cuttings, stumps can be treated with urea or Phlebiopsis gigantea. In this study, the consumption of stump treatment materials and the quality of stump treatment work were investigated. A total of 46 harvesters were examined in May–November 2016 in Finland. The average stem size of softwood removal and softwood removal per hectare explained the consumption of stump treatment material. The quality of stump treatment work was good in the study. The best coverage was achieved with the stumps of 20–39 cm diameter at stump height (d0. It can be recommended that the harvester operator self-monitors and actively controls his/her treatment result in cutting work and sets the stump treatment equipment in a harvester if needed. The results also suggested that when cutting mostly small- and medium-diameter (d0 ≤ 39 cm conifers, the stump treatment guide bars with relatively few (<18 open holes are used, and at the harvesting sites of large-diameter trees, the guide bars with a relatively great (>27 number of open holes are applied.

  13. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for phantom pain and stump pain following amputation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark I; Mulvey, Matthew R; Bagnall, Anne-Marie

    2015-08-18

    This is the first update of a Cochrane review published in Issue 5, 2010 on transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for phantom pain and stump pain following amputation in adults. Pain may present in a body part that has been amputated (phantom pain) or at the site of amputation (stump pain), or both. Phantom pain and stump pain are complex and multidimensional and the underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. The condition remains a severe burden for those who are affected by it. The mainstay treatments are predominately pharmacological, with increasing acknowledgement of the need for non-drug interventions. TENS has been recommended as a treatment option but there has been no systematic review of available evidence. Hence, the effectiveness of TENS for phantom pain and stump pain is currently unknown. To assess the analgesic effectiveness of TENS for the treatment of phantom pain and stump pain following amputation in adults. For the original version of the review we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, AMED, CINAHL, PEDRO and SPORTDiscus (February 2010). For this update, we searched the same databases for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from 2010 to 25 March 2015. We only included RCTs investigating the use of TENS for the management of phantom pain and stump pain following an amputation in adults. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We planned that where available and appropriate, data from outcome measures were to be pooled and presented as an overall estimate of the effectiveness of TENS. In the original review there were no RCTs that examined the effectiveness of TENS for the treatment of phantom pain and stump pain in adults. For this update, we did not identify any additional RCTs for inclusion. There were no RCTs to judge the effectiveness of TENS for the management of phantom pain and stump pain. The published literature on TENS

  14. Selection of fungi for accelerated decay in stumps of Eucalyptus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Frederico Aguirre de; Calonego, Fred Willians; Severo, Elias Taylor Durgante; Furtado, Edson Luiz

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to select decay fungi for biological degradation of stumps and roots from Eucalyptus spp. in forest stands. Five fungal isolates were cultured. Subsequently, inoculated in accelerated-decay tests and field tests with tree stumps of Eucalyptus spp. present in a stand belonging to Votorantim Company were conducted. The results showed that: (1) the decay of stumps by Pycnoporus sanguineus and Ganoderma applanatum increased by up to 49.2% and 48.9%, respectively; (2) the enclosing stumps in a polyninyl chloride resulted in a reduced on the resistance due to enhanced decay as measured by an inpact penetrometer in the forest stands at Luiz Antônio, Capão Bonito, and Jacareí, SP, Brazil; and (3) the selected fungi did not show any pathogenic potential toward seedlings and adult trees. This study presents the foundation for the development of a biological system for stump removal in forest stands comprising Eucalyptus spp. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pancreatogenic choledocholithiasis in common bile duct stump after Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan-Hui; Zhang, An-Hong; Zhou, Shao-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Choledocholithiasis in common bile duct (CBD) stump after Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (RYHJ) is incredibly rare and its pathophysiology is poorly understood. Patient concerns: A 79-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with upper abdominal pain radiating through to the back in November 2016. Diagnoses: Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) revealed filling defects in CBD stump, chronic pancreatitis, and dilatation of CBD stump and main pancreatic duct (MPD). Interventions: During the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), cannulation proceeded easily from MPD to CBD through a variant pancreatic duct, and then white crushed stones extracted from the CBD stump. Elemental analysis and infrared spectrophotometry demonstrated that the main constituent of the calculi was calcium carbonate. Outcomes: After a therapeutic ERCP, the patient's symptoms disappeared, and a 9-month follow-up indicated no remaining stones or lithiasis relapse. Lessons: This type of choledocholithiasis in CBD stump after RYHJ has never been reported before. We nominated it as “pancreatogenic choledocholithiasis,” and pancreatobiliary reflux caused by a variant pancreatic duct may be the main cause. PMID:29145338

  16. Pancreatogenic choledocholithiasis in common bile duct stump after Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan-Hui; Zhang, An-Hong; Zhou, Shao-Jun

    2017-11-01

    Choledocholithiasis in common bile duct (CBD) stump after Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (RYHJ) is incredibly rare and its pathophysiology is poorly understood. A 79-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with upper abdominal pain radiating through to the back in November 2016. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) revealed filling defects in CBD stump, chronic pancreatitis, and dilatation of CBD stump and main pancreatic duct (MPD). During the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), cannulation proceeded easily from MPD to CBD through a variant pancreatic duct, and then white crushed stones extracted from the CBD stump. Elemental analysis and infrared spectrophotometry demonstrated that the main constituent of the calculi was calcium carbonate. After a therapeutic ERCP, the patient's symptoms disappeared, and a 9-month follow-up indicated no remaining stones or lithiasis relapse. This type of choledocholithiasis in CBD stump after RYHJ has never been reported before. We nominated it as "pancreatogenic choledocholithiasis," and pancreatobiliary reflux caused by a variant pancreatic duct may be the main cause.

  17. Caudal epidural injections in the management of chronic low back pain: a systematic appraisal of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Allan T; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hameed, Haroon; Conn, Ann; Manchikanti, Kavita N; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Diwan, Sudhir; Singh, Vijay; Abdi, Salahadin

    2012-01-01

    Epidural injections with local anesthetics and steroids are one of the most commonly used interventions in managing chronic low back pain and lower extremity pain of various causes. However, despite their extensive use, debate continues on their effectiveness due to the lack of well-designed, randomized, controlled studies to determine the effectiveness of epidural injections in general, and caudal epidural injections in particular. A systematic review of caudal epidural injections with or without steroids in managing chronic pain secondary to lumbar disc herniation or radiculitis, post lumbar laminectomy syndrome, spinal stenosis, and discogenic pain without disc herniation or radiculitis. To evaluate the effect of caudal epidural injections with or without steroids in managing various types of chronic low back pain with or without lower extremity pain emanating as a result of disc herniation or radiculitis, post lumbar laminectomy syndrome, spinal stenosis, and chronic discogenic pain. The available literature on caudal epidural injections with or without steroids in managing various types of chronic low back pain with or without lower extremity pain was reviewed. The quality assessment and clinical relevance criteria utilized were the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Review Group criteria as utilized for interventional techniques for randomized trials and the criteria developed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale criteria for fluoroscopic observational studies. The level of evidence was classified as good, fair, or poor based on the quality of evidence developed by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Data sources included relevant literature identified through searches of PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to December 2011, and manual searches of the bibliographies of known primary and review articles. The primary outcome measure was pain relief (short-term relief = up to 6 months and long-term > 6 months). Secondary outcome measures of improvement in functional status

  18. Spinal sonography in newborns and infants - part II: spinal dysraphism and tethered cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeg, K-H; Lode, H-M; Gassner, I

    2008-02-01

    Patients with cutaneous markers in the lumbo-sacral region as well as infants with bladder and bowel dysfunction, orthopedic anomalies and progressive neurological dysfunction are at risk for spinal dysraphism and tethered cord. Three types of spinal dysraphism can be distinguished: Type I - open spinal dysraphisms with a non-skin covered back mass; type II - closed spinal dysraphisms with a skin covered back mass; type III - occult spinal dysraphisms without a back mass. All spinal dysraphisms can be associated with a tethered cord, characterized by a low position of the conus medullaris below L3. Type I dysraphisms are meningomyeloceles and myeloceles, which are associated with CHIARI-II malformations characterized by the low position of the cerebellar vermis within the foramen magnum. Type II dysraphisms are lipomyeloceles, lipomyelomeningoceles, posterior meningoceles and myelocystoceles. Lipomeningoceles and lipomyelomeningoceles are characterized by a subcutaneous echogenic mass which communicates with the spinal canal and may cause tethered cord. Posterior meningoceles are, dorsal cystic space occupying lesions without internal neural tissue. Myelocystoceles are characterized by a cystic dorsal mass which communicates with a dilated central canal characteristic of syringo-hydromyelia. Type III dysraphisms without a back mass are frequently associated with cutaneous markers in the lumbo-sacral region. Sonographically dermal sinus tracts, diastematomyelia, tight filum and lipoma of the filum terminale and the caudal regression syndrome have to be distinguished. Dermal sinuses are characterized by an echogenic tract from the skin to the spinal canal, often associated with a spinal dermoid. Diastematomyelia is characterized by a complete or partial duplication of the spinal cord which can only be shown on axial images. Tight filum terminale or lipoma of the filum terminale is characterized by a thick echogenic filum with a diameter of more than 2 mm, and a conus

  19. Glenohumeral interposition of rotator cuff stumps: a rare complication of traumatic rotator cuff tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Moraes Agnollitto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present report describes a case where typical findings of traumatic glenohumeral interposition of rotator cuff stumps were surgically confirmed. This condition is a rare complication of shoulder trauma. Generally, it occurs in high-energy trauma, frequently in association with glenohumeral joint dislocation. Radiography demonstrated increased joint space, internal rotation of the humerus and coracoid process fracture. In addition to the mentioned findings, magnetic resonance imaging showed massive rotator cuff tear with interposition of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and subscapularis stumps within the glenohumeral joint. Surgical treatment was performed confirming the injury and the rotator cuff stumps interposition. It is important that radiologists and orthopedic surgeons become familiar with this entity which, because of its rarity, might be neglected in cases of shoulder trauma.

  20. Azygos continuation of the caudal vena cava in a dog: radiographic and ultrasonographic diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthez, P.Y.; Siemens, L.M.; Koblik, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Azygos continuation of the caudal vena cava was identified via ultrasonography and angiography in a 7 month old female boxer. Azygos continuation of the caudal vena cava is a rare vascular anomaly that results from failure of anastomosis between the caudal cardinal system and the right vitelline vein during embryogenesis. This anomaly has also been described in association with portoazygos shunt

  1. Caudal Regression Syndrome/neurogenic bladder presented as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burhan M. Edrees

    health status of the patients.1 This syndrome usually occurs in combination with morphologic dysfunction of the feet and spinal cord malformations. It can be said that CRS is a rare and serious medical condition ... mities within the spinal cord, brain, or nervous supply. A number .... Negative HIV Elisa and nor- mal level of ...

  2. Stump entrapment of the anterior cruciate ligament in late childhood and adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Arthur B.; Laor, Tal; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Displacement of a portion of the torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) into the intercondylar notch can cause a focal fibrotic reaction similar to that seen following ACL reconstruction. This displacement, which can result in locking or limitation of knee extension, is termed stump entrapment and is described in adult MR imaging literature. We present a pictorial essay of the etiology and appearance of stump entrapment on MR imaging of the knee in an older child and adolescents and review the significance of this finding. (orig.)

  3. Caudal Regression and Encephalocele: Rare Manifestations of Expanded Goldenhar Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella D’Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum, or Goldenhar Syndrome, is a condition characterized by variable degrees of uni- or bilateral involvement of craniofacial structures, ocular anomalies, and vertebral defects. Its expressivity is variable; therefore, the term “expanded Goldenhar complex” has been coined. The Goldenhar Syndrome usually involves anomalies in craniofacial structures, but it is known that nervous system anomalies, including encephalocele or caudal regression, may, rarely, occur in this condition. We report two rare cases of infants affected by Goldenhar Syndrome, associated with neural tube defects, specifically caudal regression syndrome and nasal encephaloceles, to underline the extremely complex and heterogeneous clinical features of this oculoauriculovertebral spectrum. These additional particular cases could increase the number of new variable spectrums to be included in the “expanded Goldenhar complex.”

  4. Numerical Study on Hydrodynamic Performance of Bionic Caudal Fin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, numerical simulations are conducted to reveal the hydrodynamic mechanism of caudal fin propulsion. In the modeling of a bionic caudal fin, a universal kinematics model with three degrees of freedom is adopted and the flexible deformation in the spanwise direction is considered. Navier-Stokes equations are used to solve the unsteady fluid flow and dynamic mesh method is applied to track the locomotion. The force coefficients, torque coefficient, and flow field characteristics are extracted and analyzed. Then the thrust efficiency is calculated. In order to verify validity and feasibility of the algorithm, hydrodynamic performance of flapping foil is analyzed. The present results of flapping foil compare well with those in experimental researches. After that, the influences of amplitude of angle of attack, amplitude of heave motion, Strouhal number, and spanwise flexibility are analyzed. The results show that, the performance can be improved by adjusting the motion and flexibility parameters. The spanwise flexibility of caudal fin can increase thrust force with high propulsive efficiency.

  5. The role of ultrasound guidance in pediatric caudal block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Erbüyün

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the time interval of the procedure, possible complications, post-operative pain levels, additional analgesics, and nurse satisfaction in ultrasonography-guided and standard caudal block applications. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in Celal Bayar University Hospital, Manisa, Turkey, between January and December 2014, included 78 pediatric patients. Caudal block was applied to 2 different groups; one with ultrasound guide, and the other using the standard method. Results: The time interval of the procedure was significantly shorter in the standard application group compared with ultrasound-guided group (p=0.020. Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale values obtained at the 90th minute was statistically lower in the standard application group compared with ultrasound-guided group (p=0.035. No statistically significant difference was found on the other parameters between the 2 groups. The shorter time interval of the procedure at standard application group should not be considered as a distinctive mark by the pediatric anesthesiologists, because this time difference was as short as seconds. Conclusion: Ultrasound guidance for caudal block applications would neither increase nor decrease the success of the treatment. However, ultrasound guidance should be needed in cases where the detection of sacral anatomy is difficult, especially by palpations.

  6. Acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, K.; Foster, R.A.; Casillas, E.R.

    1986-05-01

    Recently, the authors identified mM concentrations of acetylcarnitine in epidiymal fluids and have investigated the metabolism of acetylcarnitine by bovine and hamster caudal epididymal spermatozoa. (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl-L-carnitine is oxidized to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by washed, intact hamster and bovine sperm at maximal rates of 8.4 and 15.2 nmol/hr/10/sup 7/ cells respectively. Conversely, the carnitine moiety of acetyl-L-(/sup 3/H-methyl)carnitine is not accumulated by sperm under similar conditions. Hydrolysis of (/sup 3/H)acetyl-L-carnitine and competition of uptake of (/sup 3/H)acetate by unlabeled acetate was demonstrated in incubations of intact cells of both species. The amount of (/sup 3/H)acetate accumulated in the incubation medium is time-dependent and also depends on the concentration of unlabeled acetate. A partial solubilization of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity from washed, intact bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa in buffer or 0.01% Triton X-100 is observed. There is an enrichment of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in purified plasma membranes from bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa when compared to the activity present in broken cell preparations or other cellular fractions. The results suggest that acetylcarnitine is a substrate for spermatozoa as they traverse the epididymis.

  7. Histological Changes in the Proximal and Distal Tendon Stumps Following Transection of Achilles Tendon in the Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Mawlana, Ola Helmi; Mohammed Ahmed, Raeesa Abdel-Twab; Hawary, Khalid

    2016-05-01

    To determine tendon stump changes following unrepaired Achilles tendon lacerations in an animal model. An experimental study. King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2013 to January 2014. Arabbit model was developed and studied tendon retraction and histological changes in the proximal and distal stumps following transection of the Achilles tendon. Over a period of 12 weeks, retraction of the distal tendon stump was minimal (2 - 3 mm). In contrast, retraction of the proximal tendon stump peaked to reach 6 mm at 4 weeks post-injury and plateaued to reach 7 - 8 mm at the 12-week interval. Following complete transection of the Achilles tendon, tendon retraction correlated with the density of myofibroblast expression within the tendon stump. Further research is needed to investigate the pathophysiology of these findings.

  8. Histological Changes in the Proximal and Distal Tendon Stumps Following Transection of Achilles Tendon in the Rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qattan, M. M.; Hawary, K.; Mawlana, O. H.; Ahmed, R. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine tendon stump changes following unrepaired Achilles tendon lacerations in an animal model. Study Design: An experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2013 to January 2014. Methodology: Arabbit model was developed and studied tendon retraction and histological changes in the proximal and distal stumps following transection of the Achilles tendon. Result: Over a period of 12 weeks, retraction of the distal tendon stump was minimal (2 - 3 mm). In contrast, retraction of the proximal tendon stump peaked to reach 6 mm at 4 weeks post-injury and plateaued to reach 7 - 8 mm at the 12-week interval. Conclusion: Following complete transection of the Achilles tendon, tendon retraction correlated with the density of myofibroblast expression within the tendon stump. Further research is needed to investigate the pathophysiology of these findings. (author)

  9. Mycobionta of birch and birch stump roots and its possible effect on the infection by Armillaria spp. I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kwaśna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Zygorhynchus moelleri was the dominating species on/in roots of 2 year-old stumps of the 49 year-old birches. Trichoderma viride was more frequently found in the fine roots of living birches than in the fine roots of stumps though its population increased in thick roots of stumps. Occasionally the fungus also occurred on the surface of fine roots of stumps. Z. moelleri is known to produce indole 3-ethanol and indole-3 acetic acid which stimulate the growth of A. ostoyae rhizomorphs and phenoloxidizing enzymes which play an important role in the degradation of the wood. It seems that the accumulation of Z. moelleri and absence of bigger populations of T. viride on/in roots of 2-year-old stumps of the 49 year-old birches may result in an increase of their susceptibility to Armillaria infection.

  10. Growth Hormone (GH) and Rehabilitation Promoted Distal Innervation in a Child Affected by Caudal Regression Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devesa, Jesús; Alonso, Alba; López, Natalia; García, José; Puell, Carlos I; Pablos, Tamara; Devesa, Pablo

    2017-01-23

    Caudal regression syndrome (CRS) is a malformation occurring during the fetal period and mainly characterized by an incomplete development of the spinal cord (SC), which is often accompanied by other developmental anomalies. We studied a 9-month old child with CRS who presented interruption of the SC at the L2-L3 level, sacral agenesis, a lack of innervation of the inferior limbs (flaccid paraplegia), and neurogenic bladder and bowel. Given the known positive effects of growth hormone (GH) on neural stem cells (NSCs), we treated him with GH and rehabilitation, trying to induce recovery from the aforementioned sequelae. The Gross Motor Function Test (GMFM)-88 test score was 12.31%. After a blood analysis, GH treatment (0.3 mg/day, 5 days/week, during 3 months and then 15 days without GH) and rehabilitation commenced. This protocol was followed for 5 years, the last GH dose being 1 mg/day. Blood analysis and physical exams were performed every 3 months initially and then every 6 months. Six months after commencing the treatment the GMFM-88 score increased to 39.48%. Responses to sensitive stimuli appeared in most of the territories explored; 18 months later sensitive innervation was complete and the patient moved all muscles over the knees and controlled his sphincters. Three years later he began to walk with crutches, there was plantar flexion, and the GMFM-88 score was 78.48%. In summary, GH plus rehabilitation may be useful for innervating distal areas below the level of the incomplete spinal cord in CRS. It is likely that GH acted on the ependymal SC NSCs, as the hormone does in the neurogenic niches of the brain, and rehabilitation helped to achieve practically full functionality.

  11. Stump appendicitis 10 years after appendectomy, a rare, but serious complication of appendectomy, a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Paesschen, Carl; Haenen, Filip; Bestman, Raymond; Van Cleemput, Marc

    2017-02-01

    We describe a case of stump appendicitis with the formation of abdominal abscesses in a 41-year-old patient 10 years prior appendectomy. The patient consulted with fever (38.1 °C) and abdominal pain, located at the right iliac fossa. Imaging studies showed signs of abscesses, located at the right iliac fossa, without clear origin of these abscesses. The abscesses were drained through diagnostic laparoscopy, no bowel perforation or clear origin of the abscedation was found during laparoscopy. During postoperative stay, the inflammatory parameters rose and the abscesses reoccurred. Re-laparoscopy was performed, the abscesses were drained and on careful inspection and adhesiolysis, a perforated stump appendicitis was revealed, covered underneath layers of fibrous tissue. Stump appendicitis is a rare complication seen after appendectomy and is generally not considered a possible etiology in patients presenting with fever and right iliac fossa abdominal pain with a history of appendectomy. This often delays the correct diagnosis and results in an associated increased incidence of complications. We describe a case of stump appendicitis occurring 10 years after initial appendectomy.

  12. Evaluation of endoscopy for early detection of gastric-stump cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerhaus, G. J.; Tersmette, A. C.; Giardiello, F. M.; Huibregtse, K.; Vandenbroucke, J. P.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1992-01-01

    The value of endoscopic surveillance of postgastrectomy patients for the early detection of gastric-stump cancer is controversial. Using data from an Amsterdam postgastrectomy cohort of 2633 patients, we have done a retrospective analysis of the effect on mortality from gastric cancer of endoscopic

  13. Oak stump-sprout vigor and Armillaria infection after clearcutting in southeastern Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Lee; Daniel C. Dey; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2016-01-01

    Armillaria spp. occur widely in Missouri mixed-oak ecosystems. In order to better understand the ecology and management of this pathogen and its effects on oak coppice, we observed a transect of 150 stumps after clearcutting in southeastern Missouri, noting Armillaria infection and oak sprout demography one year and seven years...

  14. Stump sprouting of northern pin oak on nutrient-poor sandy soils in central Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Schwartz; Michael C. Demchik

    2013-01-01

    Coppice with two to three reserve trees per acre is the generally accepted practice (GAP) for rotating oak stands on nutrient-poor, sandy sites (colloquially called "scrub oak sites") in Wisconsin. The future stocking of the stand is therefore dependent predominantly on stump sprouts with varying levels of contribution from advance regeneration. Two groups of...

  15. Old resinous turpentine stumps as an indicator of the range of longleaf pine in Southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Jolie M. Mahfouz; Chi-Leung So

    2006-01-01

    Wood anatomy cannot be used to differentiate between the southern yellow pine species. Wood samples collected from old resinous turpentine stumps in coastal Virginia were subjected to chemical and spectroscopic analyses in an effort to determine if they could be identified as longleaf pine. The age and resinous nature of the samples were manifested in high specific...

  16. The quest for methods to identify longleaf pine stump relicts in Southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Chi-Leung So; Arvind A.R. Bhuta; Karen G. Reed

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of lightwood and turpentine stumps in southeastern Virginia raised questions about the true historical range for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). Several investigative studies were therefore carried out to develop a method to determine the taxa of these relicts. Chemical approaches included the use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with...

  17. Influence of tree provenance on biogenic VOC emissions of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäenpää, Minna; Magsarjav, Narantsetseg; Ghimire, Rajendra; Markkanen, Juha-Matti; Heijari, Juha; Vuorinen, Martti; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2012-12-01

    Resin-storing plant species such as conifer trees can release substantial amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere under stress circumstances that cause resin flow. Wounding can be induced by animals, pathogens, wind or direct mechanical damage e.g. during harvesting. In atmospheric modelling of biogenic VOCs, actively growing vegetation has been mostly considered as the source of emissions. Root systems and stumps of resin-storing conifer trees could constitute a significant store of resin after tree cutting. Therefore, we assessed the VOC emission rates from the cut surface of Scots pine stumps and estimated the average emission rates for an area with a density of 2000 stumps per ha. The experiment was conducted with trees of one Estonian and three Finnish Scots pine provenances covering a 1200 km gradient at a common garden established in central Finland in 1991. VOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes and less than 0.1% of the total emission was sesquiterpenes. α-Pinene (7-92% of the total emissions) and 3-carene (0-76% of the total emissions) were the dominant monoterpenes. Proportions of α-pinene and camphene were significantly lower and proportions of 3-carene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and terpinolene higher in the southernmost Saaremaa provenance compared to the other provenances. Total terpene emission rates (standardised to +20 °C) from stumps varied from 27 to 1582 mg h-1 m-2 when measured within 2-3 h after tree cutting. Emission rates decreased rapidly to between 2 and 79 mg h-1 m-2 at 50 days after cutting. The estimated daily terpene emission rates on a hectare basis from freshly cut stumps at a cut tree density of 2000 per ha varied depending on provenance. Estimated emission ranges were 100-710 g ha-1 d-1 and 137-970 g ha-1 d-1 in 40 and in 60 year-old forest stands, respectively. Our result suggests that emission directly from stump surfaces could be a significant source of monoterpene emissions for a few weeks after

  18. Sensibility of the stump in adults with an acquired major upper extremity amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gils, Willemijn; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; Smit-Klaij, Frida; Bongers, Raoul M; Dijkstra, Pieter U; van der Sluis, Corry K

    2013-11-01

    To compare the sensibility of the stump in adults with an acquired major upper extremity amputation with the sensibility of the unaffected side and with the corresponding body parts of healthy controls, as well as to relate the sensibility of the stump to daily functioning. A survey with matched controls. A tertiary referral center. A referred sample of patients (n=30) with an acquired upper extremity amputation, at least 1 year after amputation, and control subjects (n=30) matched for age, sex, and hand dominance were evaluated. Not applicable. Three different modalities of sensibility were measured: (1) touch-pressure sensibility, tested using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments; (2) stereognosis, detected using the Shape and Texture Identification test; and (3) kinesthesia. Daily functioning was assessed using the Upper Extremity Functional Status Module of the Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey. The mean time ± SD since amputation was 20±17.8 years. Twenty patients used a prosthesis. The stump sensibility was similar to that of unaffected hands and tended to be less than that of unaffected arms (P=.08). The patients using a prosthesis had significantly poorer touch-pressure sensibility in the stump compared with the nonusers (P=.04). However, touch-pressure sensibility and stereognosis were worse in the patients than in controls (Psensibility. The touch-pressure sensibility in the stumps of patients using prostheses was poorer than the sensibility in nonusers, and remarkably, the unaffected extremities of the amputees were less sensitive than the extremities of the controls. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison between the intravenous and caudal routes of sufentanil in children undergoing orchidopexy and further evaluation of the association of caudal adrenaline and neostigmine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rocha Lauretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the intravenous (IV and caudal routes of administration of sufentanil for children undergoing orchidopexy and also to evaluate the effects on addition of caudal adrenaline and neostigmine. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients scheduled for orchidopexy were divided into the following groups: 1 Group IVSu received IV 0.5 μg/kg sufentanil and caudal saline; 2 Group CSu received caudal 0.5 μg/kg sufentanil and IV saline; 3 Group CSuAdr received caudal sufentanil plus adrenaline 5 μg/ml (1:200,000 and IV saline; 4 Group CSuNeo received caudal sufentanil plus neostigmine, and IV saline; and 5 Group CSuNeoAdr received caudal sufentanil plus neostigmine plus adrenaline, and IV saline. Heart rate and mean blood pressure >15% was treated with increasing isoflurane concentration. Consumption of isoflurane, side effects, quality of sleep, time to first administration of analgesic, and number of doses of 24-h rescue analgesic were recorded. Results: Groups were demographically similar. Isoflurane consumption showed the following association: Group IVSu = Group CSuNeo = Group CSuNeoAdr Group CSuNeo = Group CSuNeoAdr (P < 0.005. Incidence of adverse effects was similar among groups. Conclusion: Caudal sufentanil alone was no better than when administered in the IV route, and would just be justified by the association of neostigmine, but not adrenaline. Neostigmine association resulted in better perioperative analgesia.

  20. Predictors of failure of awake regional anesthesia for neonatal hernia repair: data from the General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study: comparing apnoea and neurodevelopmental outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Geoff; Bell, Graham; Disma, Nicola; Withington, Davinia E.; de Graaff, Jurgen C.; Morton, Neil S.; McCann, Mary Ellen; Arnup, Sarah J.; Bagshaw, Oliver; Wolfler, Andrea; Bellinger, David; Davidson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Awake regional anesthesia (RA) is a viable alternative to general anesthesia (GA) for infants undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Benefits include lower incidence of postoperative apnea and avoidance of anesthetic agents that may increase neuroapoptosis and worsen neurocognitive outcomes. The General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study compares neurodevelopmental outcomes following awake RA or GA in otherwise healthy infants. Our aim was to describe success and failure rates of RA in this study and report factors associated with failure. Methods This was a nested cohort study within a prospective randomized, controlled, observer blind, equivalence trial. Seven hundred twenty two infants ≤ 60 weeks postmenstrual age, scheduled for herniorrhaphy under anesthesia were randomly assigned to receive RA (spinal, caudal epidural or combined spinal caudal anesthetic) or GA with sevoflurane. The data of 339 infants, where spinal or combined spinal caudal anesthetic was attempted, was analyzed. Possible predictors of failure were assessed including: patient factors, technique, experience of site and anesthetist and type of local anesthetic. Results RA was sufficient for the completion of surgery in 83.2% of patients. Spinal anesthesia was successful in 86.9% of cases and combined spinal caudal anesthetic in 76.1%. Thirty four patients required conversion to GA and an additional 23 (6.8%) required brief sedation. Bloody tap on the first attempt at lumbar puncture was the only risk factor significantly associated with block failure (OR = 2.46). Conclusions The failure rate of spinal anesthesia was low. Variability in application of combined spinal caudal anesthetic limited attempts to compare the success of this technique to spinal alone. PMID:26001028

  1. ENFERMEDADES DEL TRACTO URINARIO CAUDAL DE LOS PERROS

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza López, Claudia Iveth

    2015-01-01

    Lasenfermedades)del)tracto)urinario)caudal)ETUC(en)perros)son)un)conjunto)de) enfermedades)que)afectan)a)la)vejiga,)uretra)y)próstata)siendo)los)signos)clínicos)más) comunes) la)estranguria,)polaquiuria,)disuria)y)hematuria.)Las)ETUC)más)comunes)en) los) perros) son) la) urolitiasis,) la) infección) del) tracto) urinario,) las) alteraciones) de) la) micción,) las)enfermedades)de) la)próstata,) las)neoplasias,) las)alteraciones)anatómicas) congénitas)y)los)traumatismos.)En)Méxic...

  2. Spinal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016. Kaji AH, Newton EJ, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  3. Spinal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis ... by bacteria or fungal organisms. Spinal infections may occur following surgery or spontaneously in patients with certain risk factors. ...

  4. Spinal Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... images of the back and spinal canal A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the spine to ... trigger or worsen pain and disability such as lifting heavy objects or walking long distances. Talk to ...

  5. Vitrification of caudal fin explants from zebrafish adult specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Costa, J; Roig, J; Perez-Camps, M; García-Ximénez, F

    2006-01-01

    No data on vitrification of tissue samples are available in fishes. Three vitrification solutions were compared: V1: 20% ethylene glycol and 20% dimethyl sulphoxide; V2: 25% propylene glycol and 20% dimethyl sulphoxide, and; V3: 20% propylene glycol and 13% methanol, all three prepared in Hanks' buffered salt solution plus 20 percent FBS, following the same one step vitrification procedure developed in mammals. Caudal fin tissue pieces were vitrified into 0.25 ml plastic straws in 30s and stored in liquid nitrogen for 3 days minimum, warmed (10s in nitrogen vapour and 5s in a 25 degree C water bath) and cultured (L-15 plus 20% FBS at 28.5 degree C). At the third day of culture, both attachment and outgrowing rates were recorded. V3 led to the worst results (8% of attachment rate). V1 and V2 allow higher attachment rates (V1: 63% vs V2: 50%. P < 0.05) but not significantly different outgrowing rates (83% to 94%). Vitrification of caudal fin pieces is advantageous in fish biodiversity conservation, particularly in the wild, due to the simplicity of procedure and equipment.

  6. Histomorphometry of Trabecular Bone of Caudal Vertebrae During Rat Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Shahtaheri

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy make demands upon maternal calcium hemeostasis and the extent to which the maternal bone mass is effected remains uncertain. Recently changes in the bone mass during human pregnancy have been associated also with the transformation of the cancellous architecture and the bone surface available for exchange. These jistomorphometrical structural changes were examined further in an animal model. Using uniparous laboratory rats fed at libitum, the histomorphometry of cancellous bone was compared in undecalcified of caudal vertebrae. Between 3 and 6 sections (8 m were analysed by an automated trabecular analysis system (TAS which measures a comprehensive range of structural variables including the trabecular separation, number, connectivity and width. There was an early stimulation of bone formation that was indicated by generation of thicker and interconnected trabeculae. However in caudal vertebrae, there were architectural changes in cancellous bone commencing with a significant increase in the trabecular separation. ‌‌ It was concluded that strengthens the cancellous component of the maternal skeleton possibly to counter increased load and to facilitate mineral mobilisation in maternal/neonate exchange during the subsequent lactation period.

  7. Spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tali, E. Turgut; Gueltekin, Serap

    2005-01-01

    Spinal infections have an increasing prevalence among the general population. Definitive diagnosis based solely on clinical grounds is usually not possible and radiological imaging is used in almost all patients. The primary aim of the authors is to present an overview of spinal infections located in epidural, intradural and intramedullary compartments and to provide diagnostic clues regarding different imaging modalities, particularly MRI, to the practicing physicians and radiologists. (orig.)

  8. Spinal cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedert, A.V.; Silva, S.H.F.

    1990-01-01

    Spinal cysticercosis is an extremely uncommon condition. We have examined four patients with complaints that resembled nervous root compression by disk herniation. Myelography was shown to be an efficient method to evaluate spinal involvement, that was characterized by findings of multiple filling defect images (cysts) plus signs of adhesive arachnoiditis. One cyst was found to be mobile. Because of the recent development of medical treatment, a quick and precise diagnosis is of high importance to determine the prognosis of this condition. (author)

  9. Spinal vascular malformations; Spinale Gefaessmalformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, U. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Spinal vascular malformations are a group of rare diseases with different clinical presentations ranging from incidental asymptomatic findings to progressive tetraplegia. This article provides an overview about imaging features as well as clinical and therapeutic aspects of spinal arteriovenous malformations, cavernomas and capillary telangiectasia. (orig.) [German] Spinale Gefaessmalformationen sind eine Gruppe seltener Erkrankungen mit unterschiedlichen klinischen Praesentationen, die vom asymptomatischen Zufallsbefund bis zur progredienten Tetraparese reichen. Dieser Artikel gibt einen Ueberblick ueber radiologische Befunde sowie klinische und therapeutische Aspekte von spinalen arteriovenoesen Malformationen, Kavernomen und kapillaeren Teleangiektasien. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of caudal epidural anesthesia efficacy by measurement of feet skin temperature in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Kurochkin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Caudal epidural anesthesia in children is not performed in pure form, but only in combination with superficial general anesthesia. Therefore, a search for reliable evaluation criteria of the caudal epidural block onset in children remains actual. Aim. To evaluate effectiveness of caudal epidural anesthesia efficacy by measurement of feet skin temperature in children. Methods and results. We investigated feet skin temperature before the caudal blockade by bupivacaine and after 15–20 minutes in 30 children. The control group included 20 children who underwent total intravenous anesthesia. The study showed that feet skin temperature after caudal blockade significantly increased from 30,1±0,15°C to 33,0±0,1°C (10% and in the control group it did not change significantly. Conclusion. Thus, feet skin thermometry may be considered to be a reliable non-invasive method for assessing the onset of the caudal block.

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available menu Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ...

  14. Great saphenous vein stump thrombosis after harvesting for coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labropoulos, N; Bishawi, M; Gasparis, A; Tassiopoulos, A; Gupta, S

    2014-05-01

    To determine the rate of superficial venous thrombosis in patients undergoing great saphenous vein (GSV) harvesting for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Post-CABG patients with suspected lower-extremity thrombosis underwent duplex scanning. Thrombus in the saphenofemoral junction stump was noted, and thrombus extension and associated complications collected. Out of 2335 patients who underwent CABG in five years, 98 patients presented with signs and symptoms of lower-extremity thrombosis. Thrombosis was present in 19 (19.4%) of these patients, 15 of which had a thrombus in the GSV. Five patients had significant signs and symptoms of pulmonary embolism (PE). On objective diagnostic imaging, three of them had a PE. Patients undergoing great saphenous vein harvesting for CABG are at an increased risk of developing superficial vein thrombosis especially at the saphenous stump. Given the increased risk of deep vein thrombosis and PE, further studies investigating this topic are warranted.

  15. Management of the difficult duodenal stump in penetrating duodenal ulcer disease: a comparative analysis of duodenojejunostomy with "classical" stump closure (Nissen-Bsteh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashist, Yogesh K; Yekebas, Emre F; Gebauer, Florian; Tachezy, Michael; Bachmann, Kai; König, Alexandra; Kutup, Asad; Izbicki, Jakob R

    2012-12-01

    Duodenal stump insufficiency after surgery for penetrating gastroduodenal ulcer is associated with substantial mortality. "Classical" technique of closing a difficult duodenal stump (Nissen-Bsteh) has, up to now, not been compared with duodenojejunostomy (DJ) in larger patient sets. This also refers to the potential benefit of a gastric and biliary diversion under such conditions. The aim of the present study was to compare classical duodenal closure (CC) with DJ and to evaluate the impact of gastric and biliary diversion on postoperative outcome after surgery for penetrating, high-risk duodenal ulcer in a matched control study. Out of 321 patients, treated for penetrating duodenal ulcer disease, the perioperative outcome of 62 DJ patients was compared with 62 patients undergoing CC matched for age, gender, biliary diversion, and the operating surgeon collective. A total of 70 patients, equally distributed between DJ and CC subsets, received temporary biliary diversion. Overall perioperative mortality was 10.5%. However, DJ significantly reduced the mortality rate (4.8%) associated with penetrating duodenal ulcer compared to CC (16.1%, P management of penetrating duodenal ulcer.

  16. Effectiveness of caudal septal extension graft application in endonasal septoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Karadavut

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Septal deviation is a common disease seen in daily otorhinolaryngology practice and septoplasty is a commonly performed surgical procedure. Caudal septum deviation is also a challenging pathology for ear, nose, and throat specialists. Many techniques are defined for caudal septal deviation. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of caudal septal extension graft (CSEG application in patients who underwent endonasal septoplasty for a short and deviated nasal septum. Methods Forty patients with nasal septal deviation, short nasal septum, and weak nasal tip support who underwent endonasal septoplasty with or without CSEG placement between August 2012 and June 2013 were enrolled in this study. Twenty patients underwent endonasal septoplasty with CSEG placement. The rest of the group, who rejected auricular or costal cartilage harvest for CSEG placement, underwent only endonasal septoplasty without any additional intervention. Using the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE and Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation (ROE questionnaires, pre- and post-operative acoustic rhinometer measurements were evaluated to assess the effect of CESG placement on nasal obstruction. Results In the control group, preoperative and postoperative minimal cross-sectional areas (MCA1 were 0.44 ± 0.10 cm2 and 0.60 ± 0.11 cm2, respectively (p < 0.001. In the study group, pre- and postoperative MCA1 values were 0.45 ± 0.16 cm2 and 0.67 ± 0.16 cm2, respectively (p < 0.01. In the control group, the nasal cavity volume (VOL1 value was 1.71 ± 0.21 mL preoperatively and 1.94 ± 0.17 mL postoperatively (p < 0.001. In the study group, pre- and postoperative VOL1s were 1.72 ± 0.15 mL and 1.97 ± 0.12 mL, respectively (p < 0.001. Statistical analysis of postoperative MCA1 and VOL1 values in the study and the control groups could not detect any significant intergroup difference (p = 0.093 and 0.432, respectively. In the study group, mean nasolabial angles were

  17. Pressure characteristics at the stump/socket interface in transtibial amputees using an adaptive prosthetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sebastian I; Alimusaj, Merkur; Fradet, Laetitia; Siegel, Johannes; Braatz, Frank

    2009-12-01

    The technological advances that have been made in developing highly functional prostheses are promising for very active patients but we do not yet know whether they cause an increase in biomechanical load along with possibly negative consequences for pressure conditions in the socket. Therefore, this study monitored the socket pressure at specific locations of the stump when using a microprocessor-controlled adaptive prosthetic ankle under different walking conditions. Twelve unilateral transtibial amputees between 43 and 59 years of age were provided with the Proprio-Foot (Ossur) and underwent an instrumented 3D gait analysis in level, stair, and incline walking, including synchronous data capturing of socket pressure. Peak pressures and pressure time integrals (PTI) at three different locations were compared for five walking conditions with and without using the device's ankle adaptation mode. Highest peak pressures of 2.4 k Pa/kg were found for incline ascent at the calf muscle as compared to 2.1 k Pa/kg in level walking with large inter-individual variance. In stair ascent a strong correlation was found between maximum knee moment and socket pressure. The most significant pressure changes relative to level walking were seen in ramp descent anteriorly towards the stump end, with PTI values being almost twice as high as those in level walking. Adapting the angle of the prosthesis on stairs and ramps modified the pressure data such that they were closer to those in level walking. Pressure at the stump depends on the knee moments involved in each walking condition. Adapting the prosthetic ankle angle is a valuable means of modifying joint kinetics and thereby the pressure distribution at the stump. However, large inter-individual differences in local pressures underline the importance of individual socket fitting.

  18. [Peritonization of the vermiform process stump in inflammatory infiltration of the cecal cupola].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatti, Ia Ia; Vaniukova, O V

    2001-01-01

    The article describes the previously proposed technical methods of operation for the inflammatory infiltration of the blind gut cupola resulting from destructive appendicitis. Their disadvantages are shown. The authors propose to cover the blind gut cupola with parietal peritoneum and fix it to the gut with sutures, if the infiltration of the blind gut cupola is considerable and it is impossible to dip the process stump by a purse-string and Z-shaped suture.

  19. Applications of a stump-to-mill computer model to cable logging planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1986-01-01

    Logging cost simulators and data from logging cost studies have been assembled and converted into a series of simple equations that can be used to estimate the stump-to-mill cost of cable logging in mountainous terrain of the Eastern United States. These equations are based on the use of two small and four medium-sized cable yarders and are applicable for harvests of...

  20. Mycobionta of birch and birch stump roots and its possible effect on the infection by Armillaria spp. II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kwaśna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the differences in size and structure of mycobionta communities occurring in soil and on/i n roots of a 30 year-old birch and its stumps 2 years after cutting of the trees. Special attention was paid to the occurrence of Zygorhynchus moelleri and Trichoderma viride. The first species due to the metabolites produced may presumably stimulate the infection by Armlllaria. The second species is a well-known antagonist of Armillaria, Z. moelleri accounted only for 2.6, l.3 and 9.l % of the total number of isolates in rhizoplane as well as in the fine and thick roots of stumps, respectively. Trlchodcrma viride and T. virens were present in roots of Hve birch and its stumps only occasionally. The relatively big population of Mycelium radicis atrovirens- particularly in the fine roots of stumps is attributed to their high vitality and relatively lower level of root decomposition. It seems that the rate of stump root decomposilion does not favour their colonization by Z. moelleri and its supposed contribution in enhancing the infection by Armillaria might not be so distinct as on stumps of 49-year-old birches.

  1. Stump infections after major lower-limb amputation: a 10-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutronc, H; Gobet, A; Dauchy, F-A; Klotz, R; Cazanave, C; Garcia, G; Lafarie-Castet, S; Fabre, T; Dupon, M

    2013-12-01

    There is little published data on the diagnostic and therapeutic management of lower-limb stump infections (excluding toe and forefoot amputations). We made a retrospective observational study of 72 patients having undergone a major lower-limb amputation for a vascular or traumatic reason, complicated by post-surgical stump infection, between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2009. Stump infection was diagnosed more than 6weeks after amputation in half of the patients. Staphylococcus was the most frequently isolated bacterium. Ultrasonography and CT scan combined with fistulography were useful to confirm the diagnosis and to determine the extension of infection. Thirty-two patients (44%) needed surgical revision in addition to antibiotic treatment. Patients diagnosed with bone infection more frequently required complementary surgery than those with soft tissue infection (P<0.001). The optimal management of this type of infection requires obtaining reliable bacteriological documentation (abscess aspiration in case of soft tissue infection or bone biopsy in case of osteomyelitis) to adapt to the antibiotic treatment. The management should be multidisciplinary (orthopedic or vascular surgeons, rehabilitation specialists, and infectious diseases physicians). Most patients may use prosthesis once the infection is treated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Spinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van; Hauwe, L. van den; Oezsarlak, Oe.; Schepper, A.M.A. de; Parizel, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Spinal tumors are uncommon lesions but may cause significant morbidity in terms of limb dysfunction. In establishing the differential diagnosis for a spinal lesion, location is the most important feature, but the clinical presentation and the patient's age and gender are also important. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a central role in the imaging of spinal tumors, easily allowing tumors to be classified as extradural, intradural-extramedullary or intramedullary, which is very useful in tumor characterization. In the evaluation of lesions of the osseous spine both computed tomography (CT) and MR are important. We describe the most common spinal tumors in detail. In general, extradural lesions are the most common with metastasis being the most frequent. Intradural tumors are rare, and the majority is extramedullary, with meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors being the most frequent. Intramedullary tumors are uncommon spinal tumors. Astrocytomas and ependymomas comprise the majority of the intramedullary tumors. The most important tumors are documented with appropriate high quality CT or MR images and the characteristics of these tumors are also summarized in a comprehensive table. Finally we illustrate the use of the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of neoplasms affecting the central nervous system

  3. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.

  4. [Pediatric caudal anesthesia: importance and aspects of safety concerns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, J; Weiss, M

    2012-08-01

    Caudal block is a safe procedure commonly used for pediatric perioperative analgesia. Complications are extremely rare but nevertheless local and systemic contraindications must be excluded. Optimal safety and quality result when strict attention is paid to technical details. A local anesthetic (LA) containing epinephrine allows early detection of inadvertent intravascular LA administration; therefore an epinephrine/LA mixture is recommended at least for the test dose. In terms of safety the choice of LA itself is probably of secondary importance. Clonidine as an adjuvant has an excellent risk/benefit profile with minimal side effects. Inadvertent systemic LA intoxication is a rare but potentially fatal complication of regional anesthesia and measures for prevention and early detection are essential. Should circulatory arrest occur, immediate resuscitation following standard guidelines is to be initiated including the use of epinephrine as the first line drug. Intravenous administration of lipid solutions may be beneficial as a secondary adjunct to stabilize hemodynamics but is not an alternative to epinephrine.

  5. Comparison of arthroscopic approaches and accessible anatomic structures during arthroscopy of the caudal pouches of equine femorotibial joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ashlee E; Nixon, Alan J

    2006-04-01

    To (1) describe a caudal approach to equine medial and lateral femorotibial (FT) joints and (2) illustrate the complex anatomic detail of the caudal compartments of the lateral FT joint. Prospective experimental study. Cadaveric equine hindlimbs (n = 36; 26 horses) and 6 horses (11 hind limbs). Stifles (n = 8) were dissected and 10 FT joints were injected with silicone. Arthroscopic exploration (n = 29) was performed, followed by dissection to determine sites and structures penetrated during entry. A more caudal approach to the caudal pouch of the medial FT improved anatomic observation. A more caudal approach to the caudal pouch of the lateral FT joint occasionally caused damage to the common peroneal nerve; however, after reverting to the previously described approach, damage was avoided. Arthroscopy of the caudal pouch of the medial FT joint was facilitated using a more caudomedial approach, which improved observation of intrasynovial structures, most importantly, the caudal cruciate ligament and caudal horn of the medial meniscus. A more caudal approach to the caudal pouch of the lateral FT joint cannot be safely performed without risk to the common peroneal nerve and therefore the standard caudal approach is described in detail. A caudomedial arthroscopic approach allows improved surgical assessment of meniscal or caudal cruciate ligament injury. Care should be exercised when exploring the caudal pouch of the lateral FT joint because the common peroneal nerve is variably located and could easily be damaged during arthroscope or instrument insertion, especially if the limb is minimally flexed.

  6. CT myelography characteristics of spinal dysraphism in a young mixed breed dog Características de mielografía con TC de una disrafia espinal en un perro mestizo joven

    OpenAIRE

    M Gómez; M Mieres; JC Gutiérrez; JC Jones

    2012-01-01

    Spinal dysraphism is a congenital defect of the vertebral column and spinal cord secondary to imperfect closure of the caudal neuropore of the developing neural tube. This report describes computed tomographic myelography (Myelo-CT) characteristics of spina bifida occulta, spinal cord aplasia/hypoplasia and split cord malformation type II (diplomyelia) in the caudal lumbar area of a 2 month old mixed breed dog.La disrafia espinal es un defecto congénito de la columna vertebral y la médula esp...

  7. Accelerated L5-S1 Segment Degeneration after Spinal Fusion on and above L4-5 : Minimum 4-Year Follow-Up Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Yoon; Chin, Dong Kyu; Cho, Yong Eun

    2009-02-01

    Many biomechanical and clinical studies on adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) have addressed cranial segment. No study has been conducted on caudal segment degeneration after upper segment multiple lumbar fusions. This is a retrospective investigation of the L5-S1 segment after spinal fusion at and above L4-5, which was undertaken to analyze the rate of caudal ASD at L5-S1 after spinal fusion on and above L4-5 and to determine that factors that might have influenced it. The authors included 67 patients with L4-5, L3-5, or L2-5 posterior fusions. Among these patients, 28 underwent L4-5 fusion, 23 L3-5, and 16 L2-5 fusions. Pre- and postoperative radiographs were analyzed to assess degenerative changes at L5-S1. Also, clinical results after fusion surgery were analyzed. Among the 67 patients, 3 had pseudoarthrosis, and 35 had no evidence of ASD, cranially and caudally. Thirteen patients (19.4%) showed caudal ASD, 23 (34.3%) cranial ASD, and 4 (6.0%) both cranial and caudal ASD. Correlation analysis for caudal ASD at L5-S1 showed that pre-existing L5-S1 degeneration was most strongly correlated. In addition, numbers of fusion segments and age were also found to be correlated. Clinical outcome was not correlated with caudal ASD at L5-S1. If caudal and cranial ASD are considered, the overall occurrence rate of ASD increases to 50%. The incidence rate of caudal ASD at L5-S1 was significantly lower than that of cranial ASD. Furthermore, the occurrence of caudal ASD was found to be significantly correlated with pre-existing disc degeneration.

  8. Spinal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, R N; Ben Husien, M

    2018-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains endemic in many parts of the developing world and is increasingly seen in the developed world due to migration. A total of 1.3 million people die annually from the disease. Spinal TB is the most common musculoskeletal manifestation, affecting about 1 to 2% of all cases of TB. The coexistence of HIV, which is endemic in some regions, adds to the burden and the complexity of management. This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, impact of HIV and both the medical and surgical options in the management of spinal TB. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:425-31.

  9. Fish caudal neurosecretory system: a model for the study of neuroendocrine secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrohan, Catherine R; Lu, Weiqun; Brierley, Matthew J; Dow, Louise; Balment, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    The caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) is unique to fish and has suggested homeostatic roles in osmoregulation and reproduction. Magnocellular neuroendocrine Dahlgren cells, located in the terminal segments of the spinal cord, project to a neurohaemal organ, the urophysis, from which neuropeptides are released. In the euryhaline flounder Platichthys flesus Dahlgren cells synthesise at least four peptides, including urotensins I and II and CRF. These peptides are differentially expressed with co-localisation of up to three in a single cell. Dahlgren cells display a range of electrical firing patterns, including characteristic bursting activity, which is dependent on L-type Ca(2+) and Ca-activated K(+)channels. Activity is modulated by a range of extrinsic and intrinsic neuromodulators. This includes autoregulation by the secreted peptides themselves, leading to enhanced bursting. Electrophysiological and mRNA expression studies have examined changes in response to altered physiological demands. Bursting activity is more robust and more Dahlgren cells are recruited in seawater compared to freshwater adapted fish and this is mirrored by a reduction in mRNA expression for L-type Ca(2+) and Ca-activated K(+) channels. Acute seawater/freshwater transfer experiments support a role for UII in adaptation to hyperosmotic conditions. Responses to stress suggest a shared role for CRF and UI, released from the CNSS. We hypothesise that the Dahlgren cell population is reprogrammed, both in anticipation of and in response to changed physiological demands, and this is seen as changes in gene expression profile and electrical activity. The CNSS shows striking parallels with the hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system, providing a highly accessible system for studies of neuroendocrine mechanisms. Furthermore, the presence of homologues of urotensins throughout the vertebrates has sparked new interest in these peptides and their functional evolution.

  10. Identification of QTL for dorso-caudal chronic pleuritis in 12 crossbred porcine families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, V R; Sørensen, K K; Christensen, O F

    2010-01-01

    loci (QTL) or markers associated with the prevalence of CP should be identified. In this study, 7470 pigs from crosses between 12 Danish Duroc boars and 604 sows (Danish Landrace × Danish Large White) were evaluated for CP located on the dorso-caudal part of the lungs. Quantitative trait loci were......-caudal part of the lungs....

  11. Effect of swim-training on caudal fin development in zebrafish larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiaz, Ansa

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide microarray analysis of the effects of swim-training on caudal fin development in zebrafish larvae. Zebrafish were subjected to swim-training from 5 days post fertilization (dpf) until 10 dpf. Subsequently, we performed a genome-wide microarray analysis on the caudal fins of control and

  12. The spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus and their distribution in the chinchilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Martinez-Pereira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus (plexus lumbosacrales (LSP and its distribution in Chinchilla lanigera were investigated. Ten chinchillas (6 males and 4 females were used in this research. The spinal nerves that constitute the LSP were dissected and the distribution of pelvic limb nerves originating from the plexus was examined. The iliohypogastric nerve arose from L1 and L2,, giving rise to the cranial and caudal nerves, and the ilioinguinal nerve arose from L3. The other branch of L3 gave rise to the genitofemoral nerve and 1 branch from L4 gave rise to the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve. The trunk formed by the union of L4–5 divided into medial (femoral nerve and lateral branches (obturator nerve. It was found that the LSP was formed by all the ventral branches of L4 at L6 and S1 at S3. At the caudal part of the plexus, a thick branch, the ischiadic plexus, was formed by contributions from L5–6 and S1. This root gave rise to the nerve branches which were disseminated to the posterior limb (cranial and caudal gluteal nerves, caudal cutaneous femoral nerve and ischiadic nerve. The ischiadic nerve divided into the caudal cutaneous surae, lateral cutaneous surae, common fibular and tibial nerve. The pudendal nerve arose from S1–2 and the other branch of S2 and S3 formed the rectal caudal nerve. The results showed that the origins and distribution of spinal nerves that constitute the LSP of chinchillas were similar to those of a few rodents and other mammals.

  13. Caudal epidural injections for lumbar prolapsed inter vertebral disc: assessment with urdu version of oswestry disability index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, I.F.; Qureshi, M.A.; Farooq, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims: Oswestry Disability index is an established tool for assessment of Spinal Disability. It has been translated into many languages and but not to Urdu. The aim of this prospective observational study was translation, application and validation of Urdu version of the Oswestry Disability Index (Urdu ODI) for our specific cultural background. Methods: Urdu version of ODI was developed and applied for outcome assessment in 50 patients, suffering from lumbar prolapsed inter vertebral discs and treated with caudal epidural steroid injection. All patients having mechanical low backache with radiculopathy and single level disc prolapse at L-4-5 or L5- S 1 on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) were included in the study. Single Steroid Injection with local anesthetic was injected into sacral caudal epidural space through sacral hiatus. A Performa was made for each patient and records were kept in a custom built Microsoft access database. Outcome was assessed using Urdu ODI and validation by comparing with Numeric rating Scale 0-10 at each visit. Results: Fifty patients received caudal epidural injections, 23 (46%) were male and 27 (54%) were female. The mean age was 34 years, with the range being 21-55. Low mechanical backache with right sided radiculopathy was in 29 (58%) and left sided in 21 (42%) patients. The commonest involved disc was L4-S in 28 (56%) and L5-S1 in 22 (44%) patients Pain was assessed with Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) of ten points. This was mean 7.35, range 9-6 at presentation and mean improvement was 4.15 with range 5-3 at fist week, 3.80 with range 5-2 at first month and 3.05 with range 4-1 after six months. Functional disability assessment was done using Urdu ODI. The mean Urdu ODI at the time of presentation was 66.23% with range 81%-48%. The mean functional status was found to be 38.64% with range 26%-45% at the end of the first week, 43.65% with range 31%-48% after one month and 44.85% with range 28%-48% after six months. So there was

  14. Effects of season and urea treatment on infection of stumps of Picea abies by Heterobasidion annosum in stands on former arable land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandtberg, P.O. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research; Johansson, Martin [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology; Seeger, P. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Statistics

    1996-09-01

    Between 1986 and 1990, a series of thinnings were made in previously unthinned first rotation stands on former arable land located in the southern half of Sweden. The aim was to evaluate the effects of season and urea treatment on the frequency of infection of stumps of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) by the root-rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. Untreated stumps, resulting from 60 thinnings (22-100 stumps each, altogether ca 3000 stumps) made at different times of year, were investigated 3-24 months after cutting to determine whether they were infected with H. annosum. On average only 2% of the stumps from thinnings made in November-February were infected, whereas the incidence of infection among stumps thinned in June-July was 34%. Two methods of treating stumps with urea to prevent stump infection by H. annosum after thinning were evaluated in terms of effectiveness. The freshly cut stumps were treated with a 20% urea solution, transformed to a gel by adding 0.2% carboxymethyl cellulose, or with a 30% urea solution. On average, the reduction in infection rate obtained was 62% with the first method and 85% with the latter. In a separate study involving a concentration series of urea, there was a considerable drop in protection efficiency, from 89% to 58%, when the concentration was decreased from 30% to 15%. 38 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  15. Distribution of networks generating and coordinating locomotor activity in the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro: a lesion study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerulff, O; Kiehn, O

    1996-01-01

    , these pathways were distributed along the lumbar enlargement. Both lateral and ventral funiculi were sufficient to coordinate activity in the rostral and caudal regions. We conclude that the networks organizing locomotor-related activity in the spinal cord of the newborn rat are distributed....

  16. An analysis of risk factors associated with traumatic extremity amputation stump wound infection in a Nigerian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoke, Njoku Isaac; Nwigwe, Chinedu Gregory

    2012-11-01

    We aimed to determine the risk factors associated with traumatic extremity amputation stump wound infection in our environment. This was a retrospective analysis of databases that included the entire patient population with traumatic extremity amputation seen in Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital and Federal Medical Centre Abakaliki from January 2001 to December 2011. There were 63 patients studied and stump wound infection was a complication in 38 (60 %) of them. Stump wound infection rate significantly correlated with the form of amputation, i.e., a higher rate in crushing than guillotine (sharp clear-cut) amputation (80.5 vs. 22.7 % p amputation (80.6 vs. 33.3 % p amputation (71.1 vs. 60.7 % p amputation interval (p amputation as an independent risk factor (p traumatic amputation stump wound infection. The only independent predictor of traumatic extremity amputation stump wound infection is a crushing form of amputation; it should be accorded a high priority in interventions aimed at reducing infection rate.

  17. Radiographic evaluation of caudal vena cava size in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmkuhl, L.B.; Bonagura, J.D.; Biller, D.S.; Hartman, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    Dilation of the caudal vena cava (CVC) on lateral thoracic radiographs is often interpreted as suggestive of right-sided congestive heart failure, To quantitate the clinical utility of evaluating CVC size as an indicator of right-sided heart disease, we compared the ratio of the diameter of the CVC as measured on a left lateral thoracic radiograph to the descending aorta (Ao), length of the thoracic vertebra above the tracheal bifurcation (VL), and width of the right fourth rib (R4) in 35 dogs with right heart disease and 35 control dogs, Each CVC ratio(CVC/Ao, CVC/VL, CVC/R4) was statistically larger in dogs with right heart disease, Response operating characteristic curves and likelihood ratios were used to determine ratios helpful in identifying dogs with right heart disease. A CVC/Ao > 1.50, CVC/VL > 1.30, or CVC/R4 > 3.50 are strongly suggestive of a right-sided heart abnormality in a patient

  18. Transcriptional Profiling of Caudal Fin Regeneration in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schebesta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of severed limbs in adult animals is restricted to urodele amphibians. Mammals, including humans, have very limited regenerative capabilities and even with proper treatment, only the tips of our digits can grow back. Teleost fish can regenerate amputated fins, the evolutionary ancestors of limbs. To elucidate the principles of limb-fin regeneration, we performed an Affymetrix microarray screen on regenerating caudal fins 12, 24, 48, and 72 h post amputation. Approximately 15,000 zebrafish transcripts were analyzed, identifying 829 transcripts as differentially expressed during regeneration. Of those, 563 were up-regulated and 266 were down-regulated. We constructed a comprehensive database containing expression data, functional assignment, and background information from the literature for each differentially expressed transcript. In order to validate our findings, we employed three approaches: (1 microarray expression analysis of genes previously implicated in fin regeneration, (2 RT-PCR analysis of genes newly identified as differentially expressed during regeneration, and (3 in situ hybridization of the up-regulated genes bambi, dlx5A, and her6. Moreover, we show that Smad 1/5/8 proteins, effector molecules of Bmp signaling, are phosphorylated during fin regeneration. Taken together, we provide a comprehensive database of fin regeneration that will serve as an important tool for understanding the molecular mechanisms of regeneration.

  19. Response Function of the Crayfish Caudal Photoreceptor to Hydrodynamic Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breite, Sally; Bahar, Sonya; Neiman, Alexander; Moss, Frank

    2002-03-01

    In its abdominal 6th ganglion the crayfish houses 2 light-sensitive neurons (caudal photoreceptors, or CPRs). It is known that these neurons work in tandem with a mechanosensory system of tiny hairs spread across the tailfan, which make synaptic contact with the photoreceptors. A stochastic resonance effect has been shown in this system in which light enhances the transduction of a weak, periodic mechanosensory (hydrodynamic) stimulus. It is not known, however, whether an optimal response from the CPR is induced by a single sine wave cycle or some other waveform. We have experimentally investigated this favorable waveform by driving a tailfan preparation with mechanical 10 Hz correlated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise and calculating the response function from the spike-triggered average of the applied noise waveform. We will discuss differences in the shape of the optimal waveform under dark and light conditions, as well as what seems to be a noticeable difference in the magnitude of the animals' response to a noisy stimulus in comparison with a periodic stimulus.

  20. Combined analysis of cortical (EEG) and nerve stump signals improves robotic hand control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombini, Mario; Rigosa, Jacopo; Zappasodi, Filippo; Porcaro, Camillo; Citi, Luca; Carpaneto, Jacopo; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Micera, Silvestro

    2012-01-01

    Interfacing an amputee's upper-extremity stump nerves to control a robotic hand requires training of the individual and algorithms to process interactions between cortical and peripheral signals. To evaluate for the first time whether EEG-driven analysis of peripheral neural signals as an amputee practices could improve the classification of motor commands. Four thin-film longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes (tf-LIFEs-4) were implanted in the median and ulnar nerves of the stump in the distal upper arm for 4 weeks. Artificial intelligence classifiers were implemented to analyze LIFE signals recorded while the participant tried to perform 3 different hand and finger movements as pictures representing these tasks were randomly presented on a screen. In the final week, the participant was trained to perform the same movements with a robotic hand prosthesis through modulation of tf-LIFE-4 signals. To improve the classification performance, an event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) procedure was applied to EEG data to identify the exact timing of each motor command. Real-time control of neural (motor) output was achieved by the participant. By focusing electroneurographic (ENG) signal analysis in an EEG-driven time window, movement classification performance improved. After training, the participant regained normal modulation of background rhythms for movement preparation (α/β band desynchronization) in the sensorimotor area contralateral to the missing limb. Moreover, coherence analysis found a restored α band synchronization of Rolandic area with frontal and parietal ipsilateral regions, similar to that observed in the opposite hemisphere for movement of the intact hand. Of note, phantom limb pain (PLP) resolved for several months. Combining information from both cortical (EEG) and stump nerve (ENG) signals improved the classification performance compared with tf-LIFE signals processing alone; training led to cortical reorganization and

  1. Digital artery perforator (DAP) flaps: modifications for fingertip and finger stump reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsunaga, Narushima; Mihara, Makoto; Koshima, Isao; Gonda, Koichi; Takuya, Iida; Kato, Harunosuke; Araki, Jun; Yamamoto, Yushuke; Yuhei, Otaki; Todokoro, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Shoichi; Eri, Uehara; Mundinger, Gerhard S

    2010-08-01

    Various fingertip reconstructions have been reported for situations where microsurgical finger replantation is impossible. One method is the digital artery perforator (DAP) flap. Herein we report 13 DAP flaps for fingertip and finger stump reconstruction following traumatic finger amputations, highlighting modifications to the originally described DAP flap. From October 1998 to December 2007, a total of 13 fingers (11 patients) underwent fingertip and finger stump reconstruction with modified DAP flaps following traumatic finger amputations. We performed six adipocutaneous flaps, three adipose-only flaps, two supercharged flaps and two extended flaps. Flap size ranged from 1.44 to 8 cm(2) (average 3.25 cm(2)). All flaps survived completely with the exception of partial skin necrosis in two cases. One of these cases required debridement and skin grafting. Our initial three cases used donor-site skin grafting. The donor site was closed primarily in the 10 subsequent cases. No patients showed postoperative hypersensitivity of repaired fingertips. Semmes-Weinstein (SW) test result for flaps including a digital nerve branch did not differ from those without (average 4.07 vs. 3.92). Modified DAP flaps allow for preservation of digital length, volume and finger function. They can be raised as adiposal-only flaps or extended flaps and supercharged through perforator-to-perforator anastomoses. The donor defect on the lateral pulp can be closed primarily or by skin grafting. For traumatic fingertip and finger stump reconstructions, DAP flaps deliver consistent aesthetic and functional results. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Is cut-stump and girdling an efficient method of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. eradication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otręba Anna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to prevent the invasion of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. have a long history in Western Europe. However, effective methods of eliminating it that do not bear negative side effects for ecosystems have not yet been developed. Mechanical methods are the first choice in environmentally sensitive areas. In this study, we aimed to find answers to the questions: does the application of cutting at a height of 1 m from the ground limit the sprouting capacities of black cherry? And, is stem girdling an effective method of eliminating black cherry? The study was carried out in the Kampinos National Park, on two mixed pine forest plots with undergrowth of black cherry. Three mechanical methods of elimination were applied: cut-stump at the base, cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground and girdling of the stem at a height of ca 1 m above the ground. In both locations, 225 trees were treated, at three different dates corresponding with three different phenological phases of black cherry development. The evaluation of effectiveness of treatments was based on the sprouting capacity of the tree afterwards, which included: the number of generated sprouts, the length of three longest sprouts, dry mass of sprouts, and the assessment of tree survival rate. It was discovered that girdling is a significantly more effective method of control than ground-level cut-stump or cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground in the conditions of central Poland. However, in the season of treatment, even though recurring sprouts were removed, only a part of the girdled trees died (24% to 54%. There is a slight difference between the sprouting response of cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground (4% to 24% of dead trees and the basal cut-stump method (0% of dead trees.

  3. Numerical simulation and experimental research of a flexible caudal fin by piezoelectric fiber composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Lin Guan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A flexible caudal fin made of the macro fiber composites and the carbon fiber orthotropic composite was investigated by the numerical simulations and the experiments. First, a three-dimensional numerical simulation procedure was adopted to research the torsion propulsion mode of the caudal fin and the impact of the water for the structural torsion frequency of the caudal fin. Then, a two-dimensional unsteady fluid computational method was used to analyze the hydrodynamic performance with the periodic swing of the caudal fin on the torsion mode. Based on the simulation results, the flow field was demonstrated and discussed. The interaction between the caudal fin and the water was explained. Finally, the laser vibrometer system was built to verify the torsion propulsion mode. Meanwhile, the application of the caudal fin was realized on the torsion propulsion, and the measured system was established to demonstrate the performance of the caudal fin. The established simulation procedures and experimental methods in this study may provide guidance to the fins made of the composite materials during the structural design and the investigation of the flow field characteristics with the movement of the fins.

  4. [The evacuatory motor function of the gastric stump in patients with different gastroenteric anastomoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtsev, V T; Egorov, I V; Kuznetsova, E E; Gorbenko, L V

    1994-01-01

    Motoric and evacuatory function of gastric stump were studied with bengal rose 131I in 47 patients who had undergone stomach resection for peptic ulcer in remote post-operative period with the view to study functional peculiarities of different gastroenteroanastomosis. The results evidenced in favour of Bilroth I stomach resection with retained passage of duodenal content. Bilroth II stomach resection followed by anastomosis put with cross dissection of intestinal wall was noted to preserve physiological evacuation of gastric content into intestine, which indicates its superiority to conventional Hofmeister-Finsterer's method.

  5. Caudal Fossa Ratio in Normal Dogs and Eurasier Dogs with VLDLR-Associated Genetic Cerebellar Hypoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauda, Alexander; Bruehschwein, Andreas; Ficek, Joanna; Schmidt, Martin J.; Klima, André; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea; Fischer, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Cerebellar and hindbrain malformations, such as cerebellar hypoplasia (CH), vermis hypoplasia, and Dandy–Walker malformation, occur in dogs as well as in humans. Neuroimaging is essential for a precise description of these malformations and defining translational animal models. Neuroimaging is increasingly performed in puppies, but there is a lack of data on developmental changes in the caudal fossa, which can impair assessment of caudal fossa size in this age group. The purpose of this study was to validate caudal fossa ratio (CFR) in dogs and to explore CFR in Eurasier dogs with genetic CH. CFR was calculated from midsagittal brain images of 130 dogs as caudal fossa area/total cranial cavity area. In addition, the volume of the caudal fossa was measured in 64 randomly selected dogs from this group. Repeated measurements were used to investigate inter- and intra-rater variability and influence of imaging modality. Furthermore, the influence of age, weight, and breed was explored. The CFR was a reliable parameter with negligible influence from the examiners, imaging modality, and weight of the dog. The midsagittal area of the caudal fossa and the volume of the caudal fossa correlated closely with each other. In this study, we observed a smaller CFR in puppies. The CFR in adult dogs lies within 0.255 and 0.330, while CFR is smaller in puppies up to 4 months of age. Besides age, there was also an effect of breed, which should be explored in larger data sets. Measurements of CFR in Eurasier dogs with genetic CH caused by a mutation in the very-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor gene revealed the presence of two variants, one with an enlarged caudal fossa and one with a normal to small caudal fossa. This observation indicates that there is phenotypic heterogeneity and interaction between the developing cerebellum and the surrounding mesenchyme in this animal model. PMID:29404343

  6. Caudal Fossa Ratio in Normal Dogs and Eurasier Dogs with VLDLR-Associated Genetic Cerebellar Hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lauda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar and hindbrain malformations, such as cerebellar hypoplasia (CH, vermis hypoplasia, and Dandy–Walker malformation, occur in dogs as well as in humans. Neuroimaging is essential for a precise description of these malformations and defining translational animal models. Neuroimaging is increasingly performed in puppies, but there is a lack of data on developmental changes in the caudal fossa, which can impair assessment of caudal fossa size in this age group. The purpose of this study was to validate caudal fossa ratio (CFR in dogs and to explore CFR in Eurasier dogs with genetic CH. CFR was calculated from midsagittal brain images of 130 dogs as caudal fossa area/total cranial cavity area. In addition, the volume of the caudal fossa was measured in 64 randomly selected dogs from this group. Repeated measurements were used to investigate inter- and intra-rater variability and influence of imaging modality. Furthermore, the influence of age, weight, and breed was explored. The CFR was a reliable parameter with negligible influence from the examiners, imaging modality, and weight of the dog. The midsagittal area of the caudal fossa and the volume of the caudal fossa correlated closely with each other. In this study, we observed a smaller CFR in puppies. The CFR in adult dogs lies within 0.255 and 0.330, while CFR is smaller in puppies up to 4 months of age. Besides age, there was also an effect of breed, which should be explored in larger data sets. Measurements of CFR in Eurasier dogs with genetic CH caused by a mutation in the very-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor gene revealed the presence of two variants, one with an enlarged caudal fossa and one with a normal to small caudal fossa. This observation indicates that there is phenotypic heterogeneity and interaction between the developing cerebellum and the surrounding mesenchyme in this animal model.

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising ...

  8. Spinal Muscular Atrophy FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SMA: Frequently Asked Questions What is Spinal Muscular Atrophy? Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a genetic neuromuscular ... future trials in SMA. What is Spinal Muscular Atrophy with Respiratory Distress (SMARD)? SMARD and SMA are ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult ... LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury ... Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical Director, Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program, Rehabilitation Institute ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  13. Spinal Cord Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of your back. It carries signals back ... of the spine, this can also injure the spinal cord. Other spinal cord problems include Tumors Infections such ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injury? play_arrow What kind of surgery is common after a spinal cord injury? play_ ... How soon after a spinal cord injury should surgery be performed? play_arrow Is it common to ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy ... Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW ...

  19. Spinal cord contusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Gong; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yazhou; Zhao, Xianghui

    2014-04-15

    Spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability with devastating neurological outcomes and limited therapeutic opportunities, even though there are thousands of publications on spinal cord injury annually. There are two major types of spinal cord injury, transaction of the spinal cord and spinal cord contusion. Both can theoretically be treated, but there is no well documented treatment in human being. As for spinal cord contusion, we have developed an operation with fabulous result.

  20. The Mass Loss and Humification of Stumps and Roots in Masson Pine Plantations Based on Log File Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiao; Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Tan, Bo; Xu, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Jian; Duan, Fei; Liu, Hui; Justine, Meta Francis

    2016-01-01

    Stumps account for a large proportion of coarse woody debris in managed forests, but their decay dynamics are poorly understood. The loss of mass and the degree of humification of the above-ground woody debris, below-ground woody debris, bark and root system (R1, 10 mm ≥ diameter > 0 mm; R2, 25 mm ≥ diameter >10 mm; 100 mm ≥ R3 > 25 mm; R4 > 100 mm) of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) stump systems were evaluated in southwestern China in a chronosequence of plantations cut 1-15 years prior to the study. The results indicated that above-ground woody debris decomposed more quickly than below-ground woody debris and bark, whereas the degree of humification followed the opposite trend. Compared with one-year stumps, the mass losses of 15-year stump systems were 60.4% for above-ground woody debris, 42.1% for below-ground woody debris, 47.3% for bark, 69.9% for R1, 47.3% for R2, 51.0% for R3, and 83.2% for R4. In contrast, below-ground woody debris showed a greater degree of humification compared with other components in the stump system. Among the root system, fine roots (R1, diameter ≤ 10 mm) had the largest k value (0.09), whereas the decay rate of coarser roots (R2, R3, R4; diameter > 10 mm) increased with increasing root diameter. However, coarse roots showed a larger degree of humification (0.2-0.6) than fine roots (0.3-0.4). These results suggest that below-ground woody debris and coarse roots may display a higher degree of humification, showing greater short-term contributions to overall humification when compared with the other components in the stump system.

  1. Caudal mesenteric ganglion in the sheep - macroanatomical and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, W; Chrószcz, A; Dudek, A; Janeczek, M; Kaleczyc, J

    2015-01-01

    The caudal mesenteric ganglion (CaMG) is a prevetrebral ganglion which provides innervation to a number of organs in the abdominal and pelvic cavity. The morphology of CaMG and the chemical coding of neurones in this ganglion have been described in humans and many animal species, but data on this topic in the sheep are entirely lacking. This prompted us to undertake a study to determine the localization and morphology of sheep CaMG as well as immunohistochemical properties of its neurons. The study was carried out on 8 adult sheep, weighing from 40 to 60 kg each. The sheep were deeply anaesthetised and transcardially perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde. CaMG-s were exposed and their location was determined. Macroanatomical observations have revealed that the ovine CaMG is located at the level of last two lumbar (L5 or L6) and the first sacral (S1) vertebrae. The ganglion represents an unpaired structure composed of several, sequentially arranged aggregates of neurons. Immunohistochemical investigations revealed that nearly all (99.5%) the neurons were DβH-IR and were richly supplied by VACHT-IR nerve terminals forming "basket-like" structures around the perikarya. VACHT-IR neurones were not determined. Many neurons (55%) contained immunoreactivity to NPY, some of them (10%) stained for Met-ENK and solitary nerve cells were GAL-positive. CGRP-IR nerve fibres were numerous and a large number of them simultaneously expressed immunoreactivity to SP. Single, weakly stained neurones were SP-IR and only very few nerve cells weakly stained for VIP.

  2. Regulated viral BDNF delivery in combination with Schwann cells promotes axonal regeneration through capillary alginate hydrogels after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengwen; Sandner, Beatrice; Schackel, Thomas; Nicholson, LaShae; Chtarto, Abdelwahed; Tenenbaum, Liliane; Puttagunta, Radhika; Müller, Rainer; Weidner, Norbert; Blesch, Armin

    2017-09-15

    Grafting of cell-seeded alginate capillary hydrogels into a spinal cord lesion site provides an axonal bridge while physically directing regenerating axonal growth in a linear pattern. However, without an additional growth stimulus, bridging axons fail to extend into the distal host spinal cord. Here we examined whether a combinatory strategy would support regeneration of descending axons across a cervical (C5) lateral hemisection lesion in the rat spinal cord. Following spinal cord transections, Schwann cell (SC)-seeded alginate hydrogels were grafted to the lesion site and AAV5 expressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) under control of a tetracycline-regulated promoter was injected caudally. In addition, we examined whether SC injection into the caudal spinal parenchyma would further enhance regeneration of descending axons to re-enter the host spinal cord. Our data show that both serotonergic and descending axons traced by biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) extend throughout the scaffolds. The number of regenerating axons is significantly increased when caudal BDNF expression is activated and transient BDNF delivery is able to sustain axons after gene expression is switched off. Descending axons are confined to the caudal graft/host interface even with continuous BDNF expression for 8weeks. Only with a caudal injection of SCs, a pathway facilitating axonal regeneration through the host/graft interface is generated allowing axons to successfully re-enter the caudal spinal cord. Recovery from spinal cord injury is poor due to the limited regeneration observed in the adult mammalian central nervous system. Biomaterials, cell transplantation and growth factors that can guide axons across a lesion site, provide a cellular substrate, stimulate axon growth and have shown some promise in increasing the growth distance of regenerating axons. In the present study, we combined an alginate biomaterial with linear channels with transplantation of Schwann cells within

  3. Umbilical Cord Management and Stump Care in Normal Childbirth in Slovenian and Croatian Maternity Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivšek, Ana Polona; Petročnik, Petra; Skubic, Metka; Škodič Zakšek, Teja; Jug Došler, Anita

    2017-12-01

    The aim was to investigate first-care procedures for the newborn's umbilical cord at maternity hospitals in Slovenia and Croatia. The study was based on an empirical survey research approach and quantitative research paradigms and included all Slovenian (n=14) and all Croatian (n=35) maternity hospitals. Leaders of midwifery team of 14 Slovenian and 35 Croatian labor wards were invited to participate. The study was conducted in 2013, with 67% of Slovenian and 66% of Croatian maternity hospitals having responded. A causal and non-experimental method of empirical research was used. The research instrument was a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used on data analysis. The independence hypothesis was tested with the χ2-test or Kullback 2Î-test. A vast ma-jority of study wards employed delayed umbilical cord clamping, i.e. clamping the cord after pulsa-tion had ceased. Only 10% of Slovenian in comparison with 36.4% of Croatian maternity hospitals practiced dry cord care. Others applied disinfectant on the cord, in Slovenia most frequently 6% po-tassium permanganate, and in Croatia a combination of octenidine and phenoxyethanol. Most Croa-tian -maternity wards (95.7%) still covered the stump, while it was not regular practice in Slovenia. The authors estimate that the prevailing Slovenian and Croatian practices in regard to cord clamping are in accordance with the evidence, while improvements could be made regarding stump care, since dry cord care is the recommended method.

  4. Stump Invagination Versus Simple Ligation in Open Appendicectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Daohai; He, Zhigang; Hua, Jie; Song, Zhenshun

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the superiority of stump closure between stump invagination (SI) and simple ligation (SL) during open appendicectomy (OA). The literature searching was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and http://scholar.google.com . Available data was extracted by 3 independent reviewers. The clinical outcomes were analyzed by meta-analytic software to compare the difference between 2 methods during OA. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were obtained by using fixed effect model. Eleven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were finally included in this study involving 2634 patients. Postoperative pyrexia and infections were similar between SL and SI groups, respectively, but the former group had a shorter operative time (WMD: 8.72; 95% CI: 6.87-10.56; P < 0.00001); less incidence of postoperative ileus (WMD: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.36-3.01; P = 0.0005); and quicker postoperative recovery (WMD: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.11-0.48; P = 0.002). The above results were based on 5, 11, 4, 11, and 9 articles, respectively. The clinical results revealed that SL was significantly superior to SI. SL should be suggested during OA.

  5. Spinal cord infarction; Spinaler Infarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumann, N.; Shariat, K.; Ulmer, S.; Stippich, C.; Ahlhelm, F.J. [Universitaetsspital Basel, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-05-15

    Infarction of the spinal cord can cause a variety of symptoms and neurological deficits because of the complex vascular supply of the myelon. The most common leading symptom is distal paresis ranging from paraparesis to tetraplegia caused by arterial ischemia or infarction of the myelon. Venous infarction, however, cannot always be distinguished from arterial infarction based on the symptoms alone. Modern imaging techniques, such as computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) assist in preoperative planning of aortic operations to reliably identify not only the most important vascular structure supplying the spinal cord, the artery of Adamkiewicz, but also other pathologies such as tumors or infectious disorders. In contrast to CT, MRI can reliably depict infarction of the spinal cord. (orig.) [German] Die durch einen Rueckenmarkinfarkt verursachte Symptomatik kann aufgrund der komplexen Blutversorgung des Myelons zu unterschiedlichen neurologischen Ausfaellen fuehren. Dabei steht haeufig die durch eine arterielle Minderperfusion des Myelons bedingte Querschnittssymptomatik im Vordergrund. Venoes induzierte Mikrozirkulationsstoerungen sind anhand des neurologischen Befundes klinisch nicht immer von arteriellen Infarkten zu unterscheiden. Die moderne Bildgebung unter Einsatz der CT- (CTA) und MR-Angiographie (MRA) dient dem Ausschluss nichtvaskulaerer Ursachen fuer die Symptomatik wie Entzuendungen und Tumoren sowie der praeoperativen Planung vor der Aortenchirurgie zum Nachweis der fuer die Myelondurchblutung entscheidenden A. Adamkiewicz. Im Gegensatz zur CT kann mittels MRT ein Infarkt im Myelon mit hoher Verlaesslichkeit nachgewiesen werden. (orig.)

  6. Anatomofunctional changes of the stomach and duodenal stump in the X-ray visualization after pylorosparing resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'kov, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    Anatomofunctional changes of the stomach and duodenal stump Were defined in 114 patients after pylosparing stomach resection using X-ray studies. The X-ray picture reflected the dependence of these changes on the time after operation. Anastomositis, a posttraumatic inflammation, was noted in the area of gastrogastroanastomosis at the early postoperative period. The stomach and duodenal stump were in a state of hypotension and hypokinesia. At the late and long-term periods tension and peristalsis returned to normal. The time and nature of evacuation were close to those in healthy persons. It was a reliable prevention of the dumping syndrome

  7. Anatomofunctional changes of the stomach and duodenal stump in the X-ray visualization after pylorosparing resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' kov, Yu.V.

    Anatomofunctional changes of the stomach and duodenal stump were defined in 114 patients after pylorosparing stomach resection using X-ray studies. The X-ray picture reflected the dependence of these changes on the time after operation. Anastomositis, a posttraumatic inflammation, was noted in the area of gastroanastomosis at the early postoperative period. The stomach and duodenal stump were in a state of hypotension and hypokinesia. At the late and long-term periods tension and peristalsis returned to normal. The time and nature of evacuation were close to those in healthy persons. It was a reliable prevention of the dumping syndrome.

  8. Epidural steroids in the management of chronic spinal pain and radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Mark V; Hansen, Hans C; Trescot, Andrea M; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2003-07-01

    Epidural injections with or without steroids are used extensively in the management of chronic spinal pain. However, evidence is contradictory with continuing debate about the value of epidural steroid injections in chronic spinal syndromes. The objective of this systematic review is to determine the effectiveness of epidural injections in the treatment of chronic spinal pain. Data sources include relevant literature identified through searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE (Jan 1966- Mar 2003), manual searches of bibliographies of known primary and review articles, and abstracts from scientific meetings. Both randomized and non-randomized studies were included in the review based on the criteria established by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Studies were excluded from the analysis if they were simply review or descriptive and failed to meet minimum criteria. The results showed that there was strong evidence to indicate effectiveness of transforaminal epidural injections in managing lumbar nerve root pain. Further, evidence was moderate for caudal epidural injections in managing lumbar radicular pain. The evidence in management of chronic neck pain, chronic low back pain, cervical radiculopathy, spinal stenosis, and post laminectomy syndrome was limited or inconclusive. In conclusion, the evidence of effectiveness of transforaminal epidural injections in managing lumbar nerve root pain was strong, whereas, effectiveness of caudal epidural injections in managing lumbar radiculopathy was moderate, while there was limited or inconclusive evidence of effectiveness of epidural injections in managing chronic spinal pain without radiculopathy, spinal stenosis, post lumbar laminectomy syndrome, and cervical radiculopathy.

  9. Plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine with and without adrenaline following caudal anaesthesia in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Morton, N S; Cullen, P M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of adrenaline 1/400000 added to 0.25% bupivacaine significantly delays the systemic absorption of the drug from the caudal epidural space in young infants.......The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of adrenaline 1/400000 added to 0.25% bupivacaine significantly delays the systemic absorption of the drug from the caudal epidural space in young infants....

  10. Caudal mediastinal abscess due to a grass awn (Hordeum spp) in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, C K; Papazoglou, L G; Saridomichelakis, M N; Koutinas, A F; Patsikas, M N

    2003-02-01

    A two-and-a-half year-old male, domestic shorthaired cat was presented with a history of chronic expiratory dyspnoea, dysphagia and progressive weight loss. Thoracic radiography revealed a caudal mediastinal mass. Surgical exploration confirmed the presence of an abscess in the caudal mediastinum. Despite the good prognosis, euthanasia was performed at the owner's request and post-mortem examination revealed an abscess that had been caused by a grass awn located within.

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of caudal regression syndrome and omphalocele in a fetus of a diabetic mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchahda, Haifa; El Mhabrech, Houda; Hamouda, Hechmi Ben; Ghanmi, Sobhi; Bouchahda, Rim; Soua, Habib

    2017-01-01

    The caudal regression syndrome is defined as total or partial agenesis of the sacrum and lumbar spine, frequently associated with other developmental malformations (orthopedic, neurological, genito-urinary, gastrointestinal…). Prenatal diagnosis is possible through fetal ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A case of fetal caudal regression syndrome with omphalocele from a diabetic mother is presented, demonstrating the sonographic, MRI, CT and X-Ray features diagnostic. We will also discuss neonatal findings, risk factors and prognosis of this condition.

  12. Analgesic efficacy of caudal block versus diclofenac suppository and local anesthetic infiltration following pediatric laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkar, Jyoti; Dave, Nandini

    2005-08-01

    To compare the analgesic efficacy of caudal block with diclofenac suppository and local anesthetic infiltration in children undergoing laparoscopy. We studied 50 children undergoing laparoscopy for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Their ages ranged from 3 to 13 years, and all belonged to American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I or II. Anesthesia was carried out using the standard procedure. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Group 1 received caudal block with bupivacaine 1 mL/kg after anesthetic induction. Group 2 received diclofenac suppository 3 mg/kg postinduction and local anesthetic infiltration at the port sites at the end of the procedure. Pain was assessed using the Hannallah objective pain scale at 15, 30, 60, 120, and 360 minutes postextubation. The pain scores were comparable in both groups at all times. Twelve percent of caudal block patients and 20% of diclofenac patients needed rescue analgesic, a statistically insignificant difference. In 2 patients, caudal block was technically difficult and they were excluded from the study. The incidence of side effects was low in our study. We find the analgesic efficacy of diclofenac suppository combined with local anesthetic infiltration at port sites comparable to caudal block. Given the necessarily invasive nature of caudal block, we suggest the combined use of diclofenac suppository with local anesthetic infiltration at port sites as a useful and more economical alternative for analgesia following pediatric laparoscopy.

  13. The untold story of the caudal skeleton in the electric eel (ostariophysi: gymnotiformes: electrophorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos David de Santana

    Full Text Available Alternative hypotheses had been advanced as to the components forming the elongate fin coursing along the ventral margin of much of the body and tail from behind the abdominal region to the posterior margin of the tail in the Electric Eel, Electrophorus electricus. Although the original species description indicated that this fin was a composite of the caudal fin plus the elongate anal fin characteristic of other genera of the Gymnotiformes, subsequent researchers proposed that the posterior region of the fin was formed by the extension of the anal fin posteriorly to the tip of the tail, thereby forming a "false caudal fin." Examination of ontogenetic series of the genus reveal that Electrophorus possesses a true caudal fin formed of a terminal centrum, hypural plate and a low number of caudal-fin rays. The confluence of the two fins is proposed as an additional autapomorphy for the genus. Under all alternative proposed hypotheses of relationships within the order Gymnotiformes, the presence of a caudal fin in Electrophorus optimized as being independent of the occurence of the morphologically equivalent structure in the Apteronotidae. Possible functional advantages to the presence of a caudal fin in the genus are discussed.

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord ... by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About ... By Topic Media Resources Donate to support families facing spinal cord ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OTR/L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, ... the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? ...

  16. A study on the development and the deodorizing capability of metal-phthalocyanine processed stump socks for amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, H

    2000-04-01

    The socks which were treated with Metal-Phthalocyanine, a derivative of an artificial enzyme, were developed by the author and called Kobe Stump Socks(KSS). KSS was made of a cotton cloth that had undergone an ammonium salt cationization process and also a Metal-Phthalocyanine process. The study from a bacteriological view and the moisture absorption effect of KSS revealed that the mechanism of the deodorizing ability was bared on the decomposition function of Metal-Phthalocyanine, while the antibacterial function came from the cationization and also that the high water absorption speed and capacity further enhanced these two functions. In this report, the author studied the deodorizing capability of KSS. To measure the adherence of an odor substance, ammonia, a testing device that measured this adherence was used. As a result, the adherence of ammonia to KSS was more than three times that of an unprocessed cloth. KSS had been used as stump socks on the stumps of amputees who were using prosthetic limbs, and a snuff test on the difference of the odor strength inside the socket was done. Of 33 subjects, 32 recognized a deodorizing effect. From these facts, KSS was proven to dry and deodorize the limb surface with the moisture absorption effect and deodorizing capabilities due to the Metal-Phthalocyanine process. These characteristics were never recognized in other stump socks. These date mentioned above suggested that KSS was the best material to deodorize prosthetic limb sockets.

  17. Evaluation of anatomical and functional changes esophageal stump of patients with advanced megaesophagus submitted to subtotal laparoscopic esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra Júnior, Júverson Alves; Terra, Guilherme Azevedo; Silva, Alex Augusto da; Crema, Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    Evaluate anatomical and functional changes of the esophageal stump and gastric fundus of patients with advanced megaesophagus, submitted to laparoscopic subtotal esophagectomy. Twenty patients with advanced megaesophagus, previously submitted to a videolaparoscopic subtotal esophagectomy, were evaluated. Were conducted: radiological evaluation of the stump esophagus with transposed stomach, electromanometric, endoscopic examination and histopathology of the esophageal stump and gastric fundus, without making gastric tube or pyloroplasty. It was observed that the average height and pressure of the anastomosis, in the electromanometric evaluation, were 23.45cm (±1.84cm) and 7.55mmHg (±5.65mmHg). In patients with megaesophagus III, the pressure of the anastomosis was 10.91mmHg (±6.33mmHg), and pressure from the UES, 31.89mmHg (±14.64mm Hg), were significantly higher than those in grade IV. The pathological evaluation detected mild esophagitis in 35% of patients, moderate in 20% and acanthosis glicogenica in 45%. The examination of the gastric fundus showed that 50% of patients were infected with Helicobacter pylori. Chronic gastritis occurred in 95% of the patients. The laparoscopic esophagectomy shown to be effective in the treatment of advanced achalasia. The cervical level anastomosis protects the esophageal stump from the aggression resulted from gastric reflux after the esophagectomy.

  18. Borax Stump Treatment for Control of Annosus Root Disease in the Eastside Pine Type Forests of Northeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    John T. Kliejunas

    1989-01-01

    A historical perspective and description of recent studies on the use of borax to treat pine stumps against infection by Heterobasidion annosum in eastside pine stands of northeastern California are presented. The studies indicate that boraxing of pines in eastside pine stands is an effective means of preventing annosus infection. Data and...

  19. Variation in Results of Volume Measurements of Stumps of Lower-Limb Amputees : A Comparison of 4 Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer-Wilzing, Vera G.; Bolt, Arjen; Geertzen, Jan H.; Emmelot, Cornelis H.; Baars, Erwin C.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    de Boer-Wilzing VG, Bolt A, Geertzen JH, Emmelot CH, Baars EC, Dijkstra PU. Variation in results of volume measurements of stumps of lower-limb amputees: a comparison of 4 methods. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92:941-6. Objective: To analyze the reliability of 4 methods (water immersion,

  20. Single-tree harvesting reduces survival and growth of oak stump sprouts in the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Randy G. Jensen; Michael J. Wallendorf

    2008-01-01

    Regeneration and recruitment into the overstory is critical to the success of using uneven-aged systems to sustain oak forests. We evaluated survival and growth of white oak (Quercus alba L.), black oak (Q. velutina Lam.), and scarlet oak (Q. coccinea Muenchh.) stump sprouts 10 years after harvesting Ozark...

  1. Projection patterns of commissural interneurons in the lumbar spinal cord of the neonatal rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokke, Mathis Frøshaug; Nissen, Ulla Vig; Glover, Joel C.

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the axonal projection patterns of commissural interneurons (CINs) in the neonatal rat spinal cord. Some CINs are integral components of the neuronal networks in the vertebrate spinal cord that generate locomotor activity. By using differential retrograde labeling protocols...... with fluorescent dextran amines, we show that CINs with ascending axons (ascending CINs, or aCINs) and CINs with descending axons (descending CINs, or dCINs) constitute largely different populations. We show that aCINs and dCINs occupy partially overlapping domains in the transverse plane. The aCINs are located...... and a half segment rostrally or caudally and are present in roughly equal numbers. We also demonstrate the presence of a third, smaller population of CINs whose axons bifurcate to project for at least one and a half segment both rostrally and caudally (adCINs). The adCINs are located predominantly among...

  2. Capsaicin 8% patch treatment for amputation stump and phantom limb pain: a clinical and functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Privitera R

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rosario Privitera,1 Rolfe Birch,1 Marco Sinisi,2 Iordan R Mihaylov,3 Robert Leech,4 Praveen Anand1 1Peripheral Neuropathy Unit, Centre for Clinical Translation, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, London, UK; 2Peripheral Nerve Injury Unit, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex, UK; 3Department of Pain Medicine, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, UK; 4Computational, Cognitive and Clinical Neuroimaging Laboratory, Division of Brain Sciences, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, London, UK Purpose: The aim of this study was to measure the efficacy of a single 60 min application of capsaicin 8% patch in reducing chronic amputation stump and phantom limb pain, associated hypersensitivity with quantitative sensory testing, and changes in brain cortical maps using functional MRI (fMRI scans. Methods: A capsaicin 8% patch (Qutenza treatment study was conducted on 14 patients with single limb amputation, who reported pain intensity on the Numerical Pain Rating Scale ≥4/10 for chronic stump or phantom limb pain. Pain assessments, quantitative sensory testing, and fMRI (for the lip pursing task were performed at baseline and 4 weeks after application of capsaicin 8% patch to the amputation stump. The shift into the hand representation area of the cerebral cortex with the lip pursing task has been correlated with phantom limb pain intensity in previous studies, and was the fMRI clinical model for cortical plasticity used in this study. Results: The mean reduction in spontaneous amputation stump pain, phantom limb pain, and evoked stump pain were −1.007 (p=0.028, −1.414 (p=0.018, and −2.029 (p=0.007, respectively. The areas of brush allodynia and pinprick hypersensitivity in the amputation stump showed marked decreases: −165 cm2, −80% (p=0.001 and −132 cm2, −72% (p=0.001, respectively. fMRI analyses provided objective evidence of the restoration of the brain map, that is

  3. Spinal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, R.; Popolizio, T.; D’Aprile, P.; Muto, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Purpose of this review is to address the current concepts on the pathophysiology of discogenic, radicular, facet and dysfunctional spinal pain, focusing on the role of the imaging in the diagnostic setting, to potentially address a correct approach also to minimally invasive interventional techniques. • Special attention will be given to the discogenic pain, actually considered as the most frequent cause of chronic low back pain. • The correct distinction between referred pain and radicular pain contributes to give a more correct approach to spinal pain. • The pathogenesis of chronic pain renders this pain a true pathology requiring a specific management. - Abstract: The spinal pain, and expecially the low back pain (LBP), represents the second cause for a medical consultation in primary care setting and a leading cause of disability worldwide [1]. LBP is more often idiopathic. It has as most frequent cause the internal disc disruption (IDD) and is referred to as discogenic pain. IDD refers to annular fissures, disc collapse and mechanical failure, with no significant modification of external disc shape, with or without endplates changes. IDD is described as a separate clinical entity in respect to disc herniation, segmental instability and degenerative disc desease (DDD). The radicular pain has as most frequent causes a disc herniation and a canal stenosis. Both discogenic and radicular pain also have either a mechanical and an inflammatory genesis. For to be richly innervated, facet joints can be a direct source of pain, while for their degenerative changes cause compression of nerve roots in lateral recesses and in the neural foramina. Degenerative instability is a common and often misdiagnosed cause of axial and radicular pain, being also a frequent indication for surgery. Acute pain tends to extinguish along with its cause, but the setting of complex processes of peripheral and central sensitization may influence its evolution in chronic

  4. Spinal pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, R., E-mail: roberto1766@interfree.it [Neuroradiology Department, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Naples (Italy); Popolizio, T., E-mail: t.popolizio1@gmail.com [Radiology Department, Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo (Fg) (Italy); D’Aprile, P., E-mail: paoladaprile@yahoo.it [Neuroradiology Department, San Paolo Hospital, Bari (Italy); Muto, M., E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Neuroradiology Department, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Napoli (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Purpose of this review is to address the current concepts on the pathophysiology of discogenic, radicular, facet and dysfunctional spinal pain, focusing on the role of the imaging in the diagnostic setting, to potentially address a correct approach also to minimally invasive interventional techniques. • Special attention will be given to the discogenic pain, actually considered as the most frequent cause of chronic low back pain. • The correct distinction between referred pain and radicular pain contributes to give a more correct approach to spinal pain. • The pathogenesis of chronic pain renders this pain a true pathology requiring a specific management. - Abstract: The spinal pain, and expecially the low back pain (LBP), represents the second cause for a medical consultation in primary care setting and a leading cause of disability worldwide [1]. LBP is more often idiopathic. It has as most frequent cause the internal disc disruption (IDD) and is referred to as discogenic pain. IDD refers to annular fissures, disc collapse and mechanical failure, with no significant modification of external disc shape, with or without endplates changes. IDD is described as a separate clinical entity in respect to disc herniation, segmental instability and degenerative disc desease (DDD). The radicular pain has as most frequent causes a disc herniation and a canal stenosis. Both discogenic and radicular pain also have either a mechanical and an inflammatory genesis. For to be richly innervated, facet joints can be a direct source of pain, while for their degenerative changes cause compression of nerve roots in lateral recesses and in the neural foramina. Degenerative instability is a common and often misdiagnosed cause of axial and radicular pain, being also a frequent indication for surgery. Acute pain tends to extinguish along with its cause, but the setting of complex processes of peripheral and central sensitization may influence its evolution in chronic

  5. Pyovagina and stump pyometra in a neutered XX sex-reversed Beagle: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Partington, B.P.; Smith, B.; Hedlund, C.S.; Law, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    An 18-month-old, neutered male beagle presented with acute abdominal signs and a suppurative infection of the urogenital tract. Chromosomal sex was female (78, XX), gonadal sex was male (testicles), and phenotypic sex was ambiguous, with evidence of both male and female duct systems. The internal and external genitalia consisted of epididymides, an underdeveloped uterus with an immature spermatic cord, communication between the uterus or cranial vagina and the membranous urethra, a urethrographically male urethra, a hypoplastic os penis, and a hypoplastic penis with hypospadia. Based on these findings and the familial history of a similarly affected litter mate, the dog was diagnosed as having the XX male syndrome with pyovagina and uterine stump pyometra. Radiographic and ultrasonographic investigations are described, and abnormalities of chromosomal sex, gonadal sex, and phenotypic sex are discussed

  6. Spontaneous interstitial pregnancy on a tubal stump after unilateral adenectomy followed by transvaginal colour Doppler ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, L; Valenzano, M; Foglia, G

    1998-06-01

    Transvaginal colour and angio Doppler blood flow analysis combined with serial measurement of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) concentration is reported here for the first time to study the local vascularity of a cornual pregnancy and to monitor the effectiveness of medical therapy. Interestingly, a strong relationship between morphological changes of trophoblastic tissue and the intensity of neovascularization was noted. Systemic single-dose methotrexate (MTX) therapy allowed successful treatment of an interstitial ectopic pregnancy involving part of the proximal portion of a tubal stump. We suggest that, by adding colour Doppler to conventional transvaginal ultrasonography, the outpatient surveillance of ectopic pregnancy evolution following MTX therapy is greatly enhanced. This is of particular value in cornual pregnancies which are highly likely to develop harmful complications during surgical intervention or even during puncture for local MTX injection.

  7. Comparing caudal and penile nerve blockade using bupivacaine in hypospadias repair surgeries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Seyedhejazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caudal anaesthesia is recommended for most surgical procedures of the lower part of the body, mainly below the umbilicus. It has been well established that a dorsal penile nerve block immediately after surgery decreases postoperative pain in children undergoing hypospadias repair. This study aimed to compare caudal or penile nerve block using bupivacaine in postoperative pain control in hypospadias repair in children. Patients and Methods: After local ethical committee approval and obtaining informed parental consent, 85 American society of Anesthesiologists status I and II patients, aged 6 months to 6 years old, undergoing hypospadias repair, were prospectively enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly divided into the following two groups: Caudal block was performed in 44 and penile block was performed in 41 patients. Cardiorespiratory systems data, analgesic requirement and complications were compared between the groups. Results: There were statistically significant haemodynamic (blood pressureand heart rate alteration during operation in each group (P<0.01. The haemodynamic parameters were stable during operation in successful blocks in both groups. Caudal block success rate is 97.7%, whereas in penile block is 92.6%. Nineteen of 43 patients (44% in caudal group and 29 of 41 patients (70% in penile group received analgesia in the postoperative period and this difference was significant between the two groups (P = 0.025. Conclusions: Without ultrasonography and with blind block, with anatomic landmarks only, the caudal block success rate is high and if there is no contraindication for caudal block, it is the best choice in children under 6 years old (or 25 kg for hypospadias repai.

  8. Rat disc torsional mechanics: effect of lumbar and caudal levels and axial compression load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Orías, Alejandro A; Malhotra, Neil R; Elliott, Dawn M

    2009-03-01

    Rat models with altered loading are used to study disc degeneration and mechano-transduction. Given the prominent role of mechanics in disc function and degeneration, it is critical to measure mechanical behavior to evaluate changes after model interventions. Axial compression mechanics of the rat disc are representative of the human disc when normalized by geometry, and differences between the lumbar and caudal disc have been quantified in axial compression. No study has quantified rat disc torsional mechanics. Compare the torsional mechanical behavior of rat lumbar and caudal discs, determine the contribution of combined axial load on torsional mechanics, and compare the torsional properties of rat discs to human lumbar discs. Cadaveric biomechanical study. Cyclic torsion without compressive load followed by cyclic torsion with a fixed compressive load was applied to rat lumbar and caudal disc levels. The apparent torsional modulus was higher in the lumbar region than in the caudal region: 0.081+/-0.026 (MPa/degrees, mean+/-SD) for lumbar axially loaded; 0.066+/-0.028 for caudal axially loaded; 0.091+/-0.033 for lumbar in pure torsion; and 0.056+/-0.035 for caudal in pure torsion. These values were similar to human disc properties reported in the literature ranging from 0.024 to 0.21 MPa/degrees. Use of the caudal disc as a model may be appropriate if the mechanical focus is within the linear region of the loading regime. These results provide support for use of this animal model in basic science studies with respect to torsional mechanics.

  9. Recruitment of dorsal columm fibers in spinal cord stimulation: influence of collateral branching

    OpenAIRE

    Struijk, J.J.; Struijk, Johannes J.; Holsheimer, J.; van der Heide, Gerlof G.; van der Heide, G.G.; Boom, H.B.K.

    1992-01-01

    An electrical network model of myelinated dorsal column nerve fibers is presented. The effect of electrical simulation was investigated using both a homogeneous volume conductor and a more realistic model of the spinal cord. An important feature of dorsal column nerve fibers is the presence of myelinated collaterals perpendicular to the rostro-caudal fibers. It was found that transmembrane potentials, due to external monopolar stimulation, at the node at which a collateral is attached, is sig...

  10. Spinal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, S.; Pathria, M.N.; Ross, J.S.; Masaryk, T.J.; Modic, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    The authors studied 50 patients who had spinal stenosis by means of MR imaging. All patients had undergone myelography and CT. Thirty patients underwent surgery. MR imaging included T1-weighted spin echo sequences with repetition time = 600 msec, echo time = 20 (600/20) sagittal and axial sections 4 mm thick with 2 mm gap. T2-weighted 2,000/60 axial images were obtained on 14 patients. Examinations were retrospectively evaluated for central stenosis, lateral recess narrowing, and foraminal encroachment. Measurements of sagittal, interpedicular, interfacet, and recess dimensions were made at L3-5. On MR images, 20 patients had single-level and 30 had multiple-level stenosis. There was excellent agreement between modalities with central canal stenosis, but a discrepancy in six patients with bony foraminal stenosis. MR imaging was an accurate method for assessment of lumbar stenosis, but CT appears marginally better for detection of bony foraminal stenosis in certain cases

  11. Spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tali, E. Turgut E-mail: turguttali@gazi.edu.tr

    2004-05-01

    Spinal infections can be thought of as a spectrum of disease comprising spondylitis, discitis, spondylodiscitis, pyogenic facet arthropathy, epidural infections, meningitis, polyradiculopathy and myelitis. Radiological evaluations have gained importance in the diagnosis, treatment planning, treatment and treatment monitoring of the spinal infections. Conventional radiographs are usually the initial imaging study. The sensitivity and specificity of the plain radiographs are very low. The sensitivity of CT is higher while it lacks of specificity. Conventional CT has played minor role for the diagnosis of early spondylitis and disc space infection and for follow-up, researches are going on the value of MDCT. MRI is as sensitive, specific and accurate as combined nuclear medicine studies and the method of choice for the spondylitis. Low signal areas of the vertebral body, loss of definition of the end plates and interruption of the cortical continuity, destruction of the cortical margins are typical on T1WI whereas high signal of affected areas of the vertebral body and disc is typical on T2WI. Contrast is mandatory and increases conspicuity, specificity, and observer confidence in the diagnosis and facilitates the treatment planning. Contrast enhancement is the earliest sign and pathognomonic in the acute inflammatory episode and even in the subtle infection then persists to a varying degree for several weeks or months. The outcome of the treatment is influenced by the type of infection and by the degree of neurologic compromise before treatment. There is an increasing move away from surgical intervention towards conservative therapy, percutaneous drainage of abscess or both. It is therefore critical to monitor treatment response, particularly in the immuno-deficient population.

  12. Robust, accurate and fast automatic segmentation of the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leener, Benjamin; Kadoury, Samuel; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2014-09-01

    Spinal cord segmentation provides measures of atrophy and facilitates group analysis via inter-subject correspondence. Automatizing this procedure enables studies with large throughput and minimizes user bias. Although several automatic segmentation methods exist, they are often restricted in terms of image contrast and field-of-view. This paper presents a new automatic segmentation method (PropSeg) optimized for robustness, accuracy and speed. The algorithm is based on the propagation of a deformable model and is divided into three parts: firstly, an initialization step detects the spinal cord position and orientation using a circular Hough transform on multiple axial slices rostral and caudal to the starting plane and builds an initial elliptical tubular mesh. Secondly, a low-resolution deformable model is propagated along the spinal cord. To deal with highly variable contrast levels between the spinal cord and the cerebrospinal fluid, the deformation is coupled with a local contrast-to-noise adaptation at each iteration. Thirdly, a refinement process and a global deformation are applied on the propagated mesh to provide an accurate segmentation of the spinal cord. Validation was performed in 15 healthy subjects and two patients with spinal cord injury, using T1- and T2-weighted images of the entire spinal cord and on multiecho T2*-weighted images. Our method was compared against manual segmentation and against an active surface method. Results show high precision for all the MR sequences. Dice coefficients were 0.9 for the T1- and T2-weighted cohorts and 0.86 for the T2*-weighted images. The proposed method runs in less than 1min on a normal computer and can be used to quantify morphological features such as cross-sectional area along the whole spinal cord. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Anterior sacral pyocele with meningitis: a rare presentation of occult spinal dysraphism with congenital dermal sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sonal; Tullu, Milind S; Date, Nitin B; Muzumdar, Dattatraya; Muranjan, Mamta N; Lahiri, Keya R

    2010-11-01

    The authors describe an interesting case of a hitherto asymptomatic occult spinal defect with a congenital sacral dermal sinus which proved to be the entry point for bacterial meningitis in an otherwise healthy 9-year-old female child. The patient presented with fever and neck stiffness, and a dermal sinus in the lumbosacral region was identified on examination. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis confirmed bacterial meningitis and a spinal magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a dermal sinus tract with an anterior spinal meningocele, caudal regression syndrome, and a tethered spinal cord. In addition to administration of intravenous antimicrobial agents, surgical exploration of the sacral dermal sinus tract was performed and an anterior sacral pyocele was drained. The pyocele cavity was disconnected from the thecal sac, and the thickened and fatty filum terminale was sectioned. Although congenital sacral dermal sinus manifesting as bacterial meningitis is known, the occurrence of an anterior sacral pyocele has not yet been described in children.

  14. Serotonin Promotes Development and Regeneration of Spinal Motor Neurons in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Mysiak, Karolina S; Scott, Angela L; Reimer, Michell M; Yang, Yujie; Becker, Catherina G; Becker, Thomas

    2015-11-03

    In contrast to mammals, zebrafish regenerate spinal motor neurons. During regeneration, developmental signals are re-deployed. Here, we show that, during development, diffuse serotonin promotes spinal motor neuron generation from pMN progenitor cells, leaving interneuron numbers unchanged. Pharmacological manipulations and receptor knockdown indicate that serotonin acts at least in part via 5-HT1A receptors. In adults, serotonin is supplied to the spinal cord mainly (90%) by descending axons from the brain. After a spinal lesion, serotonergic axons degenerate caudal to the lesion but sprout rostral to it. Toxin-mediated ablation of serotonergic axons also rostral to the lesion impaired regeneration of motor neurons only there. Conversely, intraperitoneal serotonin injections doubled numbers of new motor neurons and proliferating pMN-like progenitors caudal to the lesion. Regeneration of spinal-intrinsic serotonergic interneurons was unaltered by these manipulations. Hence, serotonin selectively promotes the development and adult regeneration of motor neurons in zebrafish. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of caudal bupivacaine and bupivacaine-tramadol for postoperative analgesia in children with hypospadias repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Memon, M.I.

    2008-01-01

    To compare the effects after caudal bupivacaine alone and bupivacaine-tramadol in young children with hypospadias repair. Randomized controlled trial. Sixty children aged between 13-53 months coming for hypospadias repair were divided randomly into two groups A and B. A caudal block was performed immediately after induction of general anaesthesia. The patients in group A received 0.125% bupivacaine 1 ml/kg with tramadol 1 mg/kg body weight caudally. Group B patients received 0.25% bupivacaine 1 ml/kg body weight caudally. Anaesthesia was discontinued after completion of surgery. In the recovery area, ventilatory frequency and pain scores were recorded at 1 hourly interval for first 6 hours and then every 2 hours for next 6 hours postoperatively. A modified TPPPS (Toddler-Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale) was used to assess the pain. Episodes of vomiting, facial flush and pruritus were noted, if present. The duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in group A patients (p-value=0.001). A low frequency of postoperative vomiting was observed in both groups i.e. 10% in group A and 6.66% in group B (p-value=0.64). No respiratory depression, flushing and pruritus were observed. Low dose combination of bupivacaine and tramadol, when administered caudally, had an additive effect and provided prolonged and effective postoperative analgesia with minimal side effects. The risk of toxicity from bupivacaine decreased when combined with tramadol in low doses. (author)

  16. Rostro-Caudal Organization of Connectivity between Cingulate Motor Areas and Lateral Frontal Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kep Kee Loh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to contemporary views, the lateral frontal cortex is organized along a rostro-caudal functional axis with increasingly complex cognitive/behavioral control implemented rostrally, and increasingly detailed motor control implemented caudally. Whether the medial frontal cortex follows the same organization remains to be elucidated. To address this issue, the functional connectivity of the 3 cingulate motor areas (CMAs in the human brain with the lateral frontal cortex was investigated. First, the CMAs and their representations of hand, tongue, and eye movements were mapped via task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Second, using resting-state fMRI, their functional connectivity with lateral prefrontal and lateral motor cortical regions of interest (ROIs were examined. Importantly, the above analyses were conducted at the single-subject level to account for variability in individual cingulate morphology. The results demonstrated a rostro-caudal functional organization of the CMAs in the human brain that parallels that in the lateral frontal cortex: the rostral CMA has stronger functional connectivity with prefrontal regions and weaker connectivity with motor regions; conversely, the more caudal CMAs have weaker prefrontal and stronger motor connectivity. Connectivity patterns of the hand, tongue and eye representations within the CMAs are consistent with that of their parent CMAs. The parallel rostral-to-caudal functional organization observed in the medial and lateral frontal cortex could likely contribute to different hierarchies of cognitive-motor control.

  17. Impaired caudal fin-fold regeneration in zebrafish deficient for the tumor suppressor Pten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Alexander James; Kiai, Ali; Sikkens, Jelte; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2017-08-01

    Zebrafish are able to completely regrow their caudal fin-folds after amputation. Following injury, wound healing occurs, followed by the formation of a blastema, which produces cells to replace the lost tissue in the final phase of regenerative outgrowth. Here we show that, surprisingly, the phosphatase and tumor suppressor Pten, an antagonist of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, is required for zebrafish caudal fin-fold regeneration. We found that homozygous knock-out mutant ( ptena -/- ptenb -/- ) zebrafish embryos, lacking functional Pten, did not regenerate their caudal fin-folds. AKT phosphorylation was enhanced, which is consistent with the function of Pten. Reexpression of Pten, but not catalytically inactive mutant Pten-C124S, rescued regeneration, as did pharmacological inhibition of PI3K. Blastema formation, determined by in situ hybridization for the blastema marker junbb , appeared normal upon caudal fin-fold amputation of ptena -/- ptenb -/- zebrafish embryos. Whole-mount immunohistochemistry using specific markers indicated that proliferation was arrested in embryos lacking functional Pten, and that apoptosis was enhanced. Together, these results suggest a critical role for Pten by limiting PI3K signaling during the regenerative outgrowth phase of zebrafish caudal fin-fold regeneration.

  18. Hydrodynamic Performance of an Undulatory Robot: Functional Roles of the Body and Caudal Fin Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Both body undulation and caudal fin flapping play essential locomotive roles while a fish is swimming, but how these two affect the swimming performance and hydrodynamics of fish individually is yet to be known. We implemented a biomimetic robotic fish that travel along a servo towing system, which can be regarded as “treadmill” of the model. Hydrodynamics was studied as a function of the principal kinetic parameters of the undulatory body and caudal fin of the model in a self-propelled condition, under which the time-averaged measured axial net force becomes zero. Thrust efficiency was estimated from two-dimensional digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV measurements in the horizontal and mid-caudal fin plane. The Single-Row Reverse Karman wake (2S is commonly observed in many previous studies of live fish swimming. However, we show that a Double-Row Two-Paired vortices (2P wake was generated by the robotic model for most kinetic parameter combinations. Interestingly, the 2S wake emerged within the results of a narrow range of robotic caudal fin pitch angles (0<0<10°, occurring concurrently with enhanced thrust efficiency. We also show that, compared with the effect of body wavelength (?, the wake structure behind the robotic swimmer is more sensitive to the Strouhal number (St and caudal fin pitch angle (θ.

  19. Chronic spinal cord changes in a high-fat diet-fed male rat model of thoracic spinal contusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Redin A; Lawson, William J; Grill, Raymond J; Garrett, Michael R; Grayson, Bernadette E

    2017-09-01

    Individuals that suffer injury to the spinal cord can result in long-term, debilitating sequelae. Spinal cord-injured patients have increased risk for the development of metabolic disease, which can further hinder the effectiveness of treatments to rehabilitate the cord and improve quality of life. In the present study, we sought to understand the impact of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity on spinal cord injury (SCI) by examining transcriptome changes in the area of the injury and rostral and caudal to site of damage 12 wk after injury. Adult, male Long-Evans rats received either thoracic level contusion of the spinal cord or sham laminectomy and then were allowed to recover on normal rat chow for 4 wk and further on HFD for an additional 8 wk. Spinal cord tissues harvested from the rats were processed for Affymetrix microarray and further transcriptomic analysis. Diverse changes in gene expression were identified in the injured cord in genes such as MMP12, APOC4, GPNMB, and IGF1 and 2. The greatest signaling changes occurred in pathways involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and immune cell trafficking. Together, the cord changes in the chronically obese rat following thoracic SCI reveal further potential targets for therapy. These could be further explored as they overlap with genes involved in metabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Unusual caudal vena cava thrombosis in a cow, secondary to Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Garcia Motta

    Full Text Available Abstract: The caudal vena cava thrombosis, or pulmonary thromboembolism, in cattle is correlated with lactic acidosis, caused by diets rich in grains and highly fermentable, associated or not to septic situations, used in feedlots of beef or high-producing dairy cattle. This paper reports an unusual caudal vena cava thrombosis in a cow, secondary to Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes infection, resulting in reduced milk production, anorexia, pale mucous membranes, ruminal atony, sternal decubitus and autoauscultation position. The heart was enlarged at necropsy, presence of clots distributed along the thoracic cavity, adherence between lung and pleura, abscesses, emphysema, petechiae, suffusions and ecchymosis in lungs, thickening of the caudal vena cava wall, hepatomegaly with chronic passive congestion ("nutmeg" aspect, and rumenitis. In lab, the actinomycete Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from liver and lung samples, probably resulting through dissemination of the bacteria of the rumen content, what reaffirms the opportunistic behavior of this actinomycete.

  1. Flow-structure Interaction Modeling of a Fish Caudal Fin during Steady Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Geng, Biao; Zheng, Xudong; Xue, Qian; Dong, Haibo

    2017-11-01

    It's widely thought that the flexibilities of fish fins play critical roles in propulsive performance enhancement (such as thrust augment and efficiency improvement) in nature. In order to explore the formation mechanisms of the fish fin's flexible morphing and its hydrodynamic benefits as well, a high-fidelity flow-structure/membrane interaction modeling of the fish caudal fin is conducted in this work. Following the realistic configuration of the fish caudal fin, a thin membrane supported by a series of beams is constructed. The material properties of the membrane and the beams are reversely determined by the realistic fin morphing obtained from the high-speed videos and the high fidelity flow-structure interaction simulations. With the accurate material property, we investigate the interplay between structure, kinematics and fluid flow in caudal fin propulsion. Detailed analyses on the relationship between the flexural stiffness, fin morphing patterns, hydrodynamic forces and vortex dynamics are then conducted.

  2. Personality predicts working-memory-related activation in the caudal anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jeremy R; Braver, Todd S

    2002-03-01

    Behavioral studies suggest that two affective dimensions of personality are associated with working memory (WM) function. WM load is known to modulate neural activity in the caudal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a brain region critical for the cognitive control of behavior. On this basis, we hypothesized that neural activity in the caudal ACC during a WM task should be associated with personality: correlated negatively with behavioral approach sensitivity (BAS) and positively with behavioral inhibition sensitivity (BIS). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured brain activity in 14 participants performing a three-back WM task. Higher self-reported BAS predicted better WM performance (r = .27) and lower WM-related activation in the caudal ACC (r = -.84), suggesting personality differences in cognitive control. The data bolster approach-withdrawal (action control) theories of personality and suggest refinements to the dominant views of ACC and personality.

  3. Variabilidad temporal de caudales: aplicación a la gestión de ríos regulados

    OpenAIRE

    Baeza Sanz, D.; Martinez-Capel, Francisco; García de Jalón Lastra, D.

    2003-01-01

    Los efectos de la regulación de caudales en los ríos modifican severamente la variabilidad del régimen de caudales, así como su estacionalidad. Esto supone una alteración muy grave, puesto que el régimen de caudales es determinante para mantener la estructura de las comunidades (Poff, et al., 1997) y el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas fluviales. El estudio de un régimen de caudales debe contemplar un grupo de parámetros completo, y con significado biológico, que contemple la ...

  4. Photochemically induced spinal ischaemia: a model of spinal cord trauma in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olby, Natasha J.; Blakemore, W. F.

    1995-05-01

    Focal thrombosis was induced in the dorsal funiculus of the rat spinal cord by exposing the cord to light following intravenous injection of the photoactive dye, rose bengal. The light source was a 599 standing wave dye laser, pumped by an Innova 70 - 4 argon ion laser (Coherent Ltd, Cambridge, UK) and the light was delivered to the operative site via an optical fiber. The histological characteristics of the development and resolution of the lesion have been studied. Forty rats were examined with light and electron microscopy at various time points between 30 minutes and one month after irradiation and the lesion length was measured. Platelet aggregation, increased extracellular space in the white matter and vacuolation of the neurones and glia of the grey matter were present 30 minutes after injury. Progressive necrosis of the white and grey matter developed over the subsequent 24 hours to produce a fusiform lesion that occupied the dorsal funiculus and dorsal horns of the spinal cord at its center and tapered cranially and caudally along the dorsal columns for a total distance of seven millimeters. By one month after injury the area of necrosis had become a cyst lined by astrocytes ventrolaterally and meningeal cells dorsally. Measurements of lesion length showed a variability of 26%. This model of spinal cord trauma produces a lesion that is sufficiently reproducible to be suitable for performing studies aimed at tissue preservation and repair.

  5. Cardiocirculatory intraoperative assessment during single-shot caudal anaesthesia in children: comparison between levobupivacaine and ropivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gentili

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caudal block with levobupivacaine or ropivacaine is the most commonly used regional anaesthesia in children. Methods: The aim of study was to compare the cardiocirculatory profile induced in two matched groups of young patients, submitted to caudal anaesthesia with levobupivacaine or ropivacaine for an elective subumbilical surgery. Sixty children were enrolled: thirty received levopubivacaine 0.25% and thirty ropivacaine 0.2%. Intraoperative heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP were monitored at following times: Ta0 (after anaesthesia induction, Ta1 (after caudal anaesthesia, Ta2 (five minutes later, Ta3 (ten minutes later, Ts1 (at surgical incision, Ts2, Ts3, Ts4, Ts5 (every 10 minutes during surgery, Taw (at the awakening. Results: In both groups the cardiocirculatory trend remained within normal ranges at all times considered, demonstrating the safety of the method with both drugs. Both groups showed a similar trend at the different monitoring times: low decrease in HR, SBP and DBP after caudal block, slight increase in parameters after skin incision, slight decrease during surgery, increase at awakening. Regarding SBP and DBP, the levobupivacaine group children generally showed higher levels compared to the ropivacaine group, especially for DBP. Conclusions: Paediatric caudal anaesthesia is an effective method with an very infrequent complication rate. Possible hypotheses for differing haemodynamic behaviour could include a stronger vasoconstriction reflex of innervated areas during caudal anaesthesia with levobupivacaine and a lower levobupivacaine induced block of the sympathetic fibers, related to different pharmacokinetic profile of low concentrations of the local anaesthetics used in paediatric epidural space.

  6. Transplants and neurotrophic factors increase regeneration and recovery of function after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Barbara S; Coumans, Jean-Valery; Dai, Hai Ning; Kuhn, Penelope L; Lynskey, James; McAtee, Marietta; Sandhu, Faheem

    2002-01-01

    Earlier studies suggested that while after spinal cord lesions and transplants at birth, the transplants serve both as a bridge and as a relay to restore supraspinal input caudal to the injury (Bregman, 1994), after injury in the adult the spinal cord transplants serve as a relay, but not as a bridge. We show here, that after complete spinal cord transection in adult rats, delayed spinal cord transplants and exogenous neurotrophic factors, the transplants can also serve as a bridge to restore supraspinal input (Fig. 9). We demonstrate here that when the delivery of transplants and neurotrophins are delayed until 2 weeks after spinal cord transection, the amount of axonal growth and the amount of recovery of function are dramatically increased. Under these conditions, both supraspinal and propriospinal projections to the host spinal cord caudal to the transection are reestablished. The growth of supraspinal axons across the transplant and back into the host spinal cord caudal to the lesion was dependent upon the presence of exogenous neurotrophic support. Without the neurotrophins, only propriospinal axons were able to re-establish connections across the transplant. Studies using peripheral nerve or Schwann cell grafts have shown that some anatomical connectivity can be restored across the injury site, particularly under the influence of neurotrophins (Xu et al., 1995a,b; Cheng et al., 1996; Ye and Houle, 1997). Without neurotrophin treatment, brainstem axons do not enter [figure: see text] the graft (Xu et al., 1995a,b; Cheng et al., 1996; Ye and Houle, 1997). Similarly, cells genetically modified to secrete neurotrophins and transplanted into the spinal cord influence the axonal growth of specific populations of spinally projecting neurons (Tuszynski et al., 1996, 1997; Grill et al., 1997; Blesch and Tuszynski, 1997). Taken together, these studies support a role for neurotrophic factors in the repair of the mature CNS. The regrowth of supraspinal and propriospinal

  7. Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD) module supports the maintenance of local and national registries for the tracking of patients with spinal cord injury and disease...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord ... SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal ... with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical ...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, MS Occupational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Katie Powell, OT ... does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect stem-cell treatments to become available for spinal cord injuries? ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources ... Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By Topic Media Resources Donate to support families facing spinal cord ...

  16. Spinal cord stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007560.htm Spinal cord stimulation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What ... Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation ... Rogers, PT Recreational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... program? play_arrow What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? play_ ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, ... spinal cord injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, ...

  2. Distribution of networks generating and coordinating locomotor activity in the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro: a lesion study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerulff, O; Kiehn, O

    1996-01-01

    that the isolated ventral third of the spinal cord can generate normally coordinated rhythmic activity, whereas lateral fragments resulting from sagittal sections showed little or no rhythmogenic capability compared with intact control preparations. The ability to generate fast and regular rhythmic activity...... ventral root recordings to monitor neuronal activity and tested the ability of various isolated parts of the caudal thoraciclumbar cord to generate rhythmic bursting in a combination of 5-HT and NMDA. In addition, pathways mediating left/right and rostrocaudal burst alternation were localized. We found...... decreased in the caudal direction, but the rhythm-generating network was found to be distributed over the entire lumbar region and to extend into the caudal thoracic region. The pathways mediating left/ right alternation exist primarily in the ventral commissure. As with the rhythmogenic ability...

  3. Comparison of extra-corporeal knot-tying suture and metallic endo-clips in laparoscopic appendiceal stump closure in uncomplicated acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nadeem

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The use of metallic endoclip for appendix stump closure is safe and less time consuming but costs higher. Because of the simplicity of the technique it's a useful alternative to the extracorporeal knotting especially for learners.

  4. Preoperative carotid duplex findings predict carotid stump pressures during endarterectomy in symptomatic but not asymptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriano, Jason; Abou-Zamzam, Ahmed M; Nguyen, Kahn; Molkara, Afshin M; Zhang, Wayne W; Bianchi, Christian; Teruya, Theodore H

    2010-11-01

    Carotid stump pressure (CSP) is frequently measured to determine the need for shunt use during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). We hypothesized that the preoperative carotid duplex examination correlates with preoperative symptoms and intraoperative CSP. Patients undergoing CEA over a 7-year period were identified from our vascular registry. CEA was performed with selective shunting on the basis of intraoperative CSP ASx) patients (40.72 ± 16.27 vs. 45.8 ± 17.64 mm Hg, p = 0.0167). Fifty-seven patients (19%) had contralateral severe ICA stenosis or occlusion. Contralateral ICA stenosis or occlusion had significantly lower CSP than those with lesser degrees of stenosis (39.24 ± 15 vs. 44.82 ± 17.62 mm Hg, p = 0.0267). Contralateral ICA severe stenosis or occlusion correlated with lower CSP in Sx patients (32.05 ± 8.24 vs. 42.92 ± 16.95 mm Hg, p = 0.038) but not in ASx patients (43.2 ± 16 vs. 46.29 ± 17.5 mm Hg, p = 0.39). CSP was ASx patients (p = 0.012). Overall shunt usage was 84/2,842 (9.5%). Perioperative stroke and death rate was 2.7%. Perioperative stroke did not correlate with the presence of contralateral occlusion, or severity of contralateral stenosis. Symptomatic patients undergoing CEA have lower stump pressures than ASx patients overall and also in the presence of contralateral disease. The incidence of perioperative stroke was not predicted by severity of contralateral disease. A strategy of selective shunting seems appropriate even in Sx patients with contralateral severe stenosis or occlusion. Although a high-risk cohort for perioperative neurologic events exists and may include those with symptomatic disease and contralateral severe stenosis or occlusion, further study is warranted to define the patients who will clinically benefit from shunt placement. Copyright © 2010 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fungal communities in soil beneath Scots pine and their stumps. Effect of fungi on Heterobasidion annosum and Armillaria ostoyae growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kwaśna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The soil beneath 30-year-old Scots pines, was inhabited by fungi communities which were at least iwicc as big as communities from ihe 49-year-old stand. The fungi communities in soil beneath the stumps were much smaller compared to those beneath the live trees and more abundant in the 30- than in the 49--year-old stand. The fungal communities in soil beneath the 30-year-old pines have bigger antagonistic effect on Heterobasidion annosum and Armillaria ostoyae than those beneath the 49-year-old stand. The decrease in density of fungi and in the frequency of species antagonistic to H. annosum and A. ostoyae resulted in the decrease of the antagonistic effect on both pathogens in soil beneath pine stumps.

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of illnesses and disabilities Spinal cord injury Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a pediatric ... your health on a daily basis. Living with spinal cord injury — your questions answered top What are pediatric ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... down on the nerve parts that carry signals. Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. With a complete ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  10. A spinal cord fate map in the avian embryo: while regressing, Hensen's node lays down the notochord and floor plate thus joining the spinal cord lateral walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catala, M; Teillet, M A; De Robertis, E M; Le Douarin, M L

    1996-09-01

    The spinal cord of thoracic, lumbar and caudal levels is derived from a region designated as the sinus rhomboidalis in the 6-somite-stage embryo. Using quail/chick grafts performed in ovo, we show the following. (1) The floor plate and notochord derive from a common population of cells, located in Hensen's node, which is equivalent to the chordoneural hinge (CNH) as it was defined at the tail bud stage. (2) The lateral walls and the roof of the neural tube originate caudally and laterally to Hensen's node, during the regression of which the basal plate anlage is bisected by floor plate tissue. (3) Primary and secondary neurulations involve similar morphogenetic movements but, in contrast to primary neurulation, extensive bilateral cell mixing is observed on the dorsal side of the region of secondary neurulation. (4) The posterior midline of the sinus rhomboidalis gives rise to somitic mesoderm and not to spinal cord. Moreover, mesodermal progenitors are spatially arranged along the rest of the primitive streak, more caudal cells giving rise to more lateral embryonic structures. Together with the results reported in our study of tail bud development (Catala, M., Teillet, M.-A. and Le Douarin, N.M. (1995). Mech. Dev. 51, 51-65), these results show that the mechanisms that preside at axial elongation from the 6-somite stage onwards are fundamentally similar during the complete process of neurulation.

  11. BUDIDAYA TABAT BARITO (Ficus deltoidea JACK SECARA STUMP DENGAN VARIASI PERLAKUAN MEDIA TANAM DAN PUPUK ORGANIK NASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Firmanul Arifin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT.  Indonesia is rich of medicinal plants for some ecosystem types of forest, one of which is tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack. The utilization of tabat barito mainly used for women's health and other using. Until present day its use continues to increase, especially for traditional medicines, but efforts for cultivation have not been much done. To overcome the sustainability of raw material, the research of cultivation systems have to be done. The vegetative methods which are using stump is an alternative for reproduction.  The treatments of media and liquid fertilizer NASA were given of every treatment for improving survival rate and the increment of height and diameter.  Result of research showed the treatment for media of top soil was better than sand for height and number of leaf parameter.  The treatment of organic fertilizer was only improving number of leaves.  Keywords: vegetative,  stump,  organic fertilizer, growth ABSTRAK.  Indonesia sangat kaya akan tumbuhan berkhasiat obat yang tumbuh pada berbagai tipe ekosistem hutan.  Tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack adalah salah satu tumbuhan yang sudah dikenal oleh masyarakat berkhasiat obat untuk berbagai penyakit, khususnya untuk kesehatan wanita setelah melahirkan dan penggunanya pun untuk bahan baku industri obat tradisional sudah dilakukan hingga kini.  Untuk mengatasi kekhawatiran akan keberlanjutan bahan baku tersebut, maka penelitian budidaya tumbuhan ini dilakukan.  Metode yang digunakan adalah secara vegetatif dengan cabutan anakan alam (stump.  Perlakuan terhadap media tanam dan pemberian pupuk cair NASA diberikan pada setiap metode untuk meningkatkan daya hidup dan mempercepat pertumbuhan anakan.  Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa Perlakuan media top soil lebih baik dibandingkan dengan media pasir pada parameter tinggi dan jumlah daun.  Perlakuan pemberian pupuk organik cair NASA hanya dapat meningkatkan pertambahan jumlah daun. Kata kunci: vegetatif

  12. Eradicative brachytherapy with hyaluronate gel injection into pararectal space in treatment of bulky vaginal stump recurrence of uterine cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Kazushi; Mabuchi, Yasushi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Shirai, Shintaro; Noda, Yasutaka; Sato, Morio; Ino, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a procedure for eradicative brachytherapy that can deliver a curative boost dose to bulky (>4 cm) vaginal stump recurrence of uterine cancer without risk of damaging surrounding organs. We separated risk organs (the rectum and sigmoid) from the target during brachytherapy, with a hyaluronate gel injection into the pararectal space via the percutaneous paraperineal approach under local anesthesia. The rectum anchored to the sacrum by native ligament was expected to shift posteriorly. We encountered a patient with bulky stump recurrence of uterine cancer, approximately 8 cm in maximum diameter. She was complaining of abdominal pain and constipation due to bowel encasement. Following 50 Gy of external beam radiotherapy, we applied a single fraction of brachytherapy under gel separation and delivered 14.5 Gy (50.8 GyE: equivalent dose in 2-Gy fraction calculated with linear quadratic model at α/β=3) to the target. The gel injection procedure was completed in 30 min without complications. A total irradiation dose of 100.8 GyE was delivered to the target and the cumulative minimum dose to the most irradiated rectosigmoidal volume of 2 cc (cumulative D 2cc ) was calculated as 58.5 GyE with gel injection, and was estimated to be 96 GyE without. Over three years, the local stump tumor has completely disappeared, with no complications. Brachytherapy with a pararectal gel injection can be a safe and effective eradicative option for bulky vaginal stump recurrence. (author)

  13. Carcinoma of the cervical stump: comparison of radiation therapy factors, survival and patterns of failure with carcinoma of the intact uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igboeli, P.; Kapp, D.S.; Lawrence, R.; Schwartz, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    Eighty-nine patients with previously untreated invasive carcinoma of the cervical stump were seen at Yale-New Haven Hospital from 1953 through 1977. This represented 9.4% of the carcinomas of the cervix seen during this time period. Eighty-five of the 89 patients (95.5%) had ''true'' cancers of the cervical stump diagnosed 2 years or more after subtotal hysterectomy, while 4 of the 89 patients (4.5%) had ''coincident'' cancers diagnosed within 2 years of the subtotal hysterectomy. All cervical cancers were staged by the F.I.G.O. classification. Patient characteristics, methods of management, failure sites and survival of patients with carcinoma of the cervical stump were compared to those patients with carcinoma in the intact uterus. Patients with cervical stump cancers were treated in a similar manner to those with carcinomas of the intact uterus, using a combination of external beam irradiation and intracavitary radium. The stump cancer patients had a similar stage distribution to the patients with cancers of the intact uterus but, on the average, they were older and received less irradiation. The patterns of failure were similar on a stage for stage basis, but the survival and disease-free survival for stump cancer patients were superior to those of the patients with carcinoma of the intact uterus

  14. The Capability of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors to Measure Amputees’ Trans-Tibial Stump/Socket Interface Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Rafiq Mahamd Adikan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first investigation into the capability of fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors to measure interface pressure between the stump and the prosthetic sockets of a trans-tibial amputee. FBG element(s were recoated with and embedded in a thin layer of epoxy material to form a sensing pad, which was in turn embedded in a silicone polymer material to form a pressure sensor. The sensor was tested in real time by inserting a heavy-duty balloon into the socket and inflating it by using an air compressor. This test was conducted to examine the sensitivity and repeatability of the sensor when subjected to pressure from the stump of the trans-tibial amputee and to mimic the actual environment of the amputee’s Patellar Tendon (PT bar. The sensor exhibited a sensitivity of 127 pm/N and a maximum FSO hysteresis of around ~0.09 in real-time operation. Very good reliability was achieved when the sensor was utilized for in situ measurements. This study may lead to smart FBG-based amputee stump/socket structures for pressure monitoring in amputee socket systems, which will result in better-designed prosthetic sockets that ensure improved patient satisfaction.

  15. The capability of fiber Bragg grating sensors to measure amputees' trans-tibial stump/socket interface pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fakih, Ebrahim A; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu; Eshraghi, Arezoo; Adikan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd

    2013-08-12

    This study presents the first investigation into the capability of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors to measure interface pressure between the stump and the prosthetic sockets of a trans-tibial amputee. FBG element(s) were recoated with and embedded in a thin layer of epoxy material to form a sensing pad, which was in turn embedded in a silicone polymer material to form a pressure sensor. The sensor was tested in real time by inserting a heavy-duty balloon into the socket and inflating it by using an air compressor. This test was conducted to examine the sensitivity and repeatability of the sensor when subjected to pressure from the stump of the trans-tibial amputee and to mimic the actual environment of the amputee's Patellar Tendon (PT) bar. The sensor exhibited a sensitivity of 127 pm/N and a maximum FSO hysteresis of around ~0.09 in real-time operation. Very good reliability was achieved when the sensor was utilized for in situ measurements. This study may lead to smart FBG-based amputee stump/socket structures for pressure monitoring in amputee socket systems, which will result in better-designed prosthetic sockets that ensure improved patient satisfaction.

  16. Effect of stump flexion contracture with and without prosthetic alignment intervention towards postural stability among transtibial prosthesis users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, M. F.; Razak, N. A. Abd; Abu Osman, N. A.; Gholizadeh, H.

    2017-06-01

    Knee flexion contracture on a stump side is a phenomenon in which the stump cannot move in normal range of motion (ROM) or cannot be fully extended. This study has been carried out by using Biodex Stability System (BSS) in order to investigate the effect of stump flexion contracture towards the postural stability among the transtibial prosthesis users with the intervention of alignment accommodation. The BSS provides the reading of anterior-posterior stability index (APSI), medial-lateral stability index (MLSI), and overall stability index (OSI). Higher reading of the index indicates lesser stability. Each of the subjects had been tested in three different sessions that were Visit 1 (before contracture improvement), Visit 2 (after contracture improvement without alignment readjustment), and Visit 3 (after contracture improvement with alignment readjustment). The APSI reading was significantly higher during Visit 2 compared to Visit 1 and Visit 3. The OSI during Visit 2 was also found significantly higher compared to Visit 3. In Visit 2, the degree of contracture was significantly improved with 44.1% less than Visit 1. The stability index in anterior-posterior aspect (APSI) was proven to be lower as the prosthetic alignment was adjusted according to the ROM of knee. This finding explained that the alignment set up based on the adaptation with the stump’s ROM can contribute positively in maintaining postural stability.

  17. [Lower limb stump reconstruction with a functional calcaneo-plantar unit free flap. A series of 16 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikov, S; Dubert, T; Koupatadze, D; Nabokov, V; Polosov, R

    1999-04-01

    The main objective of surgery, once amputation is inevitable, is to preserve a functional stump. This report describes the immediate reconstruction of 16 leg stumps in children by transfer of a functional calcaneo-plantar unit. Of these, 3 were thigh and 13 were lower leg reconstructions. Amputation was performed for tumor in 4 cases, and was due to accidents in the remaining twelve. The main technical features of flap preparation are preservation of the calcaneum branch and attachment of the heel skin to the greater tuberosity of the calcaneum. One case resulted in failure due to vascular thrombosis. The other 15 cases resulted in bone consolidation after an average of 45 days, sensitive protection by 70 days, and very good trophic and protective results. The provision of good distal pressure area encourages overall development of the child. There was no morbidity at the donor site, and because there is no major muscle mass in the distal fragment, the overall risk is very low compared to that of total proximal leg replantation. The transfer of functional calcaneo-plantar tissue as a single unit is the best strategy for one-step restoration of good distal support area for the stump. All surgeons liable to perform leg amputations should be aware of this technical approach.

  18. Two cases of the caudal duplication anomaly including a discordant monozygotic twin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, HY; Takahashi, M; Zijlstra, RJ; Baert, JALL; Kooi, KA; Hofstra, RMW; van Essen, AJ

    2002-01-01

    We present two unrelated patients with various duplications in the caudal region. One patient presented with a duplication of the distal spine from L4, left double ureter, duplication of the vagina and cervix, and duplication of the distal colon. The second patient was diagnosed with a duplication

  19. Shp2-MAPK signalling drives proliferation during zebrafish embryo caudal fin-fold regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hale, Alexander James; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Regeneration of the zebrafish caudal fin following amputation occurs through wound healing, followed by formation of a blastema, which produces cells to replace the lost tissue in the final phase of regenerative outgrowth. We show that ptpn11a-/-ptpn11b-/- zebrafish embryos, lacking functional Shp2,

  20. Rostral and caudal prefrontal contribution to creativity: A meta-analysis of functional imaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil eGonen-Yaacovi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is of central importance for human civilization, yet its neurocognitive bases are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to integrate existing functional imaging data by using the meta-analysis approach. We reviewed 34 functional imaging studies that reported activation foci during tasks assumed to engage creative thinking in healthy adults. A coordinate-based meta-analysis using Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE first showed a set of predominantly left-hemispheric regions shared by the various creativity tasks examined. These regions included the caudal lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC, the medial and lateral rostral PFC, and the inferior parietal and posterior temporal cortices. Further analyses showed that tasks involving the combination of remote information (combination tasks activated more anterior areas of the lateral PFC than tasks involving the free generation of unusual responses (unusual generation tasks, although both types of tasks shared caudal prefrontal areas. In addition, verbal and non-verbal tasks involved the same regions in the left caudal prefrontal, temporal, and parietal areas, but also distinct domain-oriented areas. Taken together, these findings suggest that several frontal and parieto-temporal regions may support cognitive processes shared by diverse creativity tasks, and that some regions may be specialized for distinct types of processes. In particular, the lateral PFC appeared to be organized along a rostro-caudal axis, with rostral regions involved in combining ideas creatively and more posterior regions involved in freely generating novel ideas.

  1. Quantitative analysis of neurological effects induced by cranio-caudal gamma-irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, B.I.; Ushakov, I.B.; Karpov, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made of the frequency and duration of neurological disorders after cranio-caudal irradiation of rats with doses of 7.5-500 Gy delivered to the head. As the mean effective dose increased the neurological disorders occurred in the following order: tremor, rotatory movements hyperkinesia, opisthotonos, and convulsions. The europhysiological disorders observed were subjected to a pathophysiological analysis

  2. Comparison of caudal ketamine with or without bupivacaine in pediatric subumbilical surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafiu, Olubukola O; Kolawole, Israel K; Salam, Richard A; Elegbe, Eniola O

    2007-06-01

    In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, we evaluated the perioperative analgesic efficacy of caudal ketamine with or without bupivacaine in 62 American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II children undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Patients were randomized into three groups, and all blocks were placed under general anesthesia. Group 1 (n=20) had caudal injection of plain 0.125% bupivacaine 1 mlkg(-1). Group 2 (n=22) received caudal ketamine 0.5 mgkg(-1) diluted with 0.9% saline using the same weight-related volumes. Group 3 (n=20) received a similar dose of ketamine mixed with 0.125% bupivacaine 1 mlkg(-1). No supplementary intraoperative analgesic was required in any of the groups. Patients in group 3 had the longest duration of analgesia compared to the other two groups. There was no significant difference in the incidence of side effects among the three groups. We conclude that ketamine can safely be used as an adjuvant to prolong the duration of caudal analgesia in this group of West African children.

  3. Impaired caudal fin-fold regeneration in zebrafish deficient for the tumor suppressor Pten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hale, Alexander James; Kiai, Ali; Sikkens, Jelte; den Hertog, Jeroen

    Zebrafish are able to completely regrow their caudal fin-folds after amputation. Following injury, wound healing occurs, followed by the formation of a blastema, which produces cells to replace the lost tissue in the final phase of regenerative outgrowth. Here we show that, surprisingly, the

  4. Caudal regulates the spatiotemporal dynamics of pair-rule waves in Tribolium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat El-Sherif

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short-germ beetle Tribolium castaneum, waves of pair-rule gene expression propagate from the posterior end of the embryo towards the anterior and eventually freeze into stable stripes, partitioning the anterior-posterior axis into segments. Similar waves in vertebrates are assumed to arise due to the modulation of a molecular clock by a posterior-to-anterior frequency gradient. However, neither a molecular candidate nor a functional role has been identified to date for such a frequency gradient, either in vertebrates or elsewhere. Here we provide evidence that the posterior gradient of Tc-caudal expression regulates the oscillation frequency of pair-rule gene expression in Tribolium. We show this by analyzing the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in strong and mild knockdown of Tc-caudal, and by correlating the extension, level and slope of the Tc-caudal expression gradient to the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in wild type as well as in different RNAi knockdowns of Tc-caudal regulators. Further, we show that besides its absolute importance for stripe generation in the static phase of the Tribolium blastoderm, a frequency gradient might serve as a buffer against noise during axis elongation phase in Tribolium as well as vertebrates. Our results highlight the role of frequency gradients in pattern formation.

  5. Is caudal fin colour in tigerfish Hydrocynus vittatus a sex or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tigerfish caudal fin colours vary from yellow to red, with distinct dissimilarities previously noted. To understand these colour differences, tigerfish were collected during 2008 to 2010 from four southern African populations in the Upper Zambezi River (ZAM), Okavango Delta (OKA), Pongolapoort Dam (POD) and Phongolo ...

  6. The asparaginyl endopeptidase legumain is essential for functional recovery after spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Ma

    Full Text Available Unlike mammals, adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating severed axons and regaining locomotor function after spinal cord injury. A key factor for this regenerative capacity is the innate ability of neurons to re-express growth-associated genes and regrow their axons after injury in a permissive environment. By microarray analysis, we have previously shown that the expression of legumain (also known as asparaginyl endopeptidase is upregulated after complete transection of the spinal cord. In situ hybridization showed upregulation of legumain expression in neurons of regenerative nuclei during the phase of axon regrowth/sprouting after spinal cord injury. Upregulation of Legumain protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, upregulation of legumain expression was also observed in macrophages/microglia and neurons in the spinal cord caudal to the lesion site after injury. The role of legumain in locomotor function after spinal cord injury was tested by reducing Legumain expression by application of anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotides. Using two independent anti-sense morpholinos, locomotor recovery and axonal regrowth were impaired when compared with a standard control morpholino. We conclude that upregulation of legumain expression after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish is an essential component of the capacity of injured neurons to regrow their axons. Another feature contributing to functional recovery implicates upregulation of legumain expression in the spinal cord caudal to the injury site. In conclusion, we established for the first time a function for an unusual protease, the asparaginyl endopeptidase, in the nervous system. This study is also the first to demonstrate the importance of legumain for repair of an injured adult central nervous system of a spontaneously regenerating vertebrate and is expected to yield insights into its potential in nervous system regeneration in mammals.

  7. Trauma: Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Matthew J; Martin, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Injuries to the spinal column and spinal cord frequently occur after high-energy mechanisms of injury, or with lower-energy mechanisms, in select patient populations like the elderly. A focused yet complete neurologic examination during the initial evaluation will guide subsequent diagnostic procedures and early supportive measures to help prevent further injury. For patients with injury to bone and/or ligaments, the initial focus should be spinal immobilization and prevention of inducing injury to the spinal cord. Spinal cord injury is associated with numerous life-threatening complications during the acute and long-term phases of care that all acute care surgeons must recognize. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. [The endo-exo prosthesis for patients with a problematic amputation stump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölke, Jan Paul M; van de Meent, Henk

    2010-01-01

    Following lower limb amputation, quality of life is highly related to the ability to use a prosthetic limb. The conventional way to attach a prosthetic limb to the body is with a socket. Many patients experience serious discomfort wearing a conventional prosthesis because of pain, instability during walking, pressure sores, bad smell or skin irritation. In addition, sitting is uncomfortable and pelvic and lower back pain due to unstable gait is often seen in these patients. The main disadvantage of the current prosthesis is the attachment of a rigid prosthesis socket to a soft and variable body. The socket must fit tightly for stability during walking but should also be comfortable for sitting. The implantation of an osseointegrated, intramedullary, transcutaneously conducted prosthesis is a new procedure for attaching a limb prosthesis to the human body without the disadvantages of the conventional prosthesis. The intramedullary prosthesis is designed with a rough surface resembling cancellous bone to enable a secure solid integration with the long bone. We treated two patients with this new prosthesis, a 44-year-old man after a transfemoral amputation, and a 32-year-old woman after a lower leg amputation; both amputations were necessary because of trauma. Those two patients are now, more than one year after the operation, showing excellent functional results without infectious complications. We assume that endo-exo prosthesis may be a promising option for selected patients unable to use a conventional prosthesis because of a problematic amputation stump.

  9. Marginal artery stump pressure in left colic artery-preserving rectal cancer surgery: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuchen; Wang, Daguang; He, Liang; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Shishun; Zhang, Luyao; Sun, Xuan; Suo, Jian

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this clinical trial is to evaluate the influence of high and low ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery with apical lymph node dissection on the anastomotic blood supply, lymph node retrieval rate, operative time and anastomotic leakage rate in rectal cancer surgery. A total of 57 Chinese patients were randomly distributed into group A and group B and underwent radical resection of rectal cancer. Patients in group A underwent high ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery, and patients in group B underwent apical lymph node resection around the root of the inferior mesenteric artery with preservation of the left colic artery. The marginal artery stump pressure was measured after colon and artery reconstruction. Systemic pressure, distal colon length, operative time and lymph node retrieval rate were measured and recorded. The results were analysed and related to patient characteristics and post-operative complications. The anastomotic blood supply negatively and linearly correlated with age and distal colon length and showed a positive linear correlation with systemic pressure. Patients who received low ligation with apical lymph node dissection had a better anastomotic blood supply than those who received high ligation. No differences were found in lymph node retrieval rate, operative time and anastomotic leakage rate. Anastomotic leakage was associated with a worse anastomotic blood supply. Low ligation with apical lymph node dissection in rectal cancer treatment provides better anastomotic blood supply but is not associated with differences in node retrieval rate or operation time. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  10. Tip-Oriented Closed Rhinoplasty Built on Septocolumellar Suture and a New Caudal Septal Graft Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezel, Erdem; Ersoy, Burak

    2016-09-01

    A beautiful and appealing nose receives the greatest contribution from the nasal tip subunit, which should be regarded as the primary center of attention during a rhinoplasty procedure. In achieving the desired shape and position of the nasal tip during closed rhinoplasty, the septocolumellar suture functions as the major determinant together with the caudal portion of the septal cartilage, which has a significant influence on the versatility of the septocolumellar suture. The purpose of this study was to present the analysis of the indications, the technical steps, and the advantages of caudal septal graft and septocolumellar suture utilization in closed rhinoplasty. The septocolumellar suture with or without the caudal septal graft combination procedure has been performed in 2286 patients via a closed rhinoplasty approach. Intraoperatively, the septal cartilage at hand was thoroughly evaluated and one of the 5 types of caudal septal grafts was used when necessary. After the establishment of a strong and straight septal cartilage with sufficient height and length, 4 different septocolumellar sutures in a specific order were used to modify the relationship between the lower lateral cartilages and the nasal septum. Of the 2286 cases, 1837 (80.3%) were primary and 449 (19.7%) secondary rhinoplasties, which have been followed up for 9 to 48 months. The caudal septal graft was combined to the septocolumellar suture in 621 (27.1%) patients. Of the caudal septal grafts, 69.7% were used for primary rhinoplasty cases, and 30.3% for secondary rhinoplasties. At the 18th month postoperatively, tip projection was found to be satisfactory for 98% of the patients. The septocolumellar suture combined with caudal septal graft in closed rhinoplasty substantially facilitates the achievement of a cosmetically and functionally pleasing end result, bringing the solution for a wide array of problems such as short nose, supratip deformity, nasolabial angle change, or columellar bowing

  11. International Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvorak, M F; Itshayek, E; Fehlings, M G

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Survey of expert opinion, feedback and final consensus. OBJECTIVE: To describe the development and the variables included in the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Spinal Interventions and Surgical Procedures Basic Data set. SETTING: International working group. METHODS......: A committee of experts was established to select and define data elements. The data set was then disseminated to the appropriate committees and organizations for comments. All suggested revisions were considered and both the International Spinal Cord Society and the American Spinal Injury Association endorsed...... spinal intervention and procedure is coded (variables 1 through 7) and the spinal segment level is described (variables 8 and 9). Sample clinical cases were developed to illustrate how to complete it. CONCLUSION: The International SCI Spinal Interventions and Surgical Procedures Basic Data Set...

  12. Holoprosencephaly with caudal dysplasia. Pseudo-trisomy 13 or a distinct entity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, R.P.B.; Aylsworth, A.S. [Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Durham, NC (United States); Timmons, M.C. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We have studied three chromosomally normal patients with multiple anomalies that include holoprosencephaly and caudal dysplasia. Each has features found in patients with pseudo-trisomy 13, though each lacks malformations common in that syndrome. Patients 1 and 2 did not have polydactyly and patients 2 and 3 had no congenital heart malformation. Patient 1 is also unusual in that he does not have typical holoprosencephalic facies and is alive at age 25 months. We have also identified two other similar patients in the London Dysmorphology Database, each of which had holoprosencephaly, congenital heart malformation, and imperforate anus. Isolated caudal dysplasia and holoprosencephaly are both causally heterogeneous. They have been reported together rarely in patients with several different syndromes including chromosomal abnormalities, monogenic syndromes, teratogenic insults, and syndromes of unknown cause. Over thirty cases of {open_quotes}pseudo-trisomy 13{close_quotes} have now been reported and eight of these have had features of caudal dysplasia. There have been four with imperforate anus or anal stenosis, one with lumbosacral vertebral anomaly, and three others with bilateral renal agenesis or hypoplasia. Based on our patients and this review of other reported and unreported cases, we suggest that caudal dysplasia may be a significant clinical feature of pseudo-trisomy 13. Alternatively, holoprosencephaly and caudal dysplasia with a normal karyotype may represent a similar though distinct entity. Some may have submicroscopic chromosomal deletions. Molecular studies of regions known to be associated with holoprosencephaly are currently in progress on tissue from Patient 1. We hope these observations will stimulate reports of similarly affected patients to allow better definition of pseudo-trisomy 13 and other overlap syndromes.

  13. Synthesis, transport, and metabolism of serotonin formed from exogenously applied 5-HTP after spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaqing; Li, Lisa; Stephens, Marilee J; Zenner, Dwight; Murray, Katherine C; Winship, Ian R; Vavrek, Romana; Baker, Glen B; Fouad, Karim; Bennett, David J

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord transection leads to elimination of brain stem-derived monoamine fibers that normally synthesize most of the monoamines in the spinal cord, including serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) synthesized from tryptophan by enzymes tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH, synthesizing 5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-HTP) and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC, synthesizing 5-HT from 5-HTP). Here we examine whether spinal cord caudal to transection remains able to manufacture and metabolize 5-HT. Immunolabeling for AADC reveals that, while most AADC is confined to brain stem-derived monoamine fibers in spinal cords from normal rats, caudal to transection AADC is primarily found in blood vessel endothelial cells and pericytes as well as a novel group of neurons (NeuN positive and GFAP negative), all of which strongly upregulate AADC with injury. However, immunolabeling for 5-HT reveals that there is no detectable endogenous 5-HT synthesis in any structure in the spinal cord caudal to a chronic transection, including in AADC-containing vessels and neurons, consistent with a lack of TPH. In contrast, when we applied exogenous 5-HTP (in vitro or in vivo), AADC-containing vessels and neurons synthesized 5-HT, which contributed to increased motoneuron activity and muscle spasms (long-lasting reflexes, LLRs), by acting on 5-HT2 receptors (SB206553 sensitive) located on motoneurons (TTX resistant). Blocking monoamine oxidase (MAO) markedly increased the sensitivity of the motoneurons (LLR) to 5-HTP, more than it increased the sensitivity of motoneurons to 5-HT, suggesting that 5-HT synthesized from AADC is largely metabolized in AADC-containing neurons and vessels. In summary, after spinal cord injury AADC is upregulated in vessels, pericytes, and neurons but does not endogenously produce 5-HT, whereas when exogenous 5-HTP is provided AADC does produce functional amounts of 5-HT, some of which is able to escape metabolism by MAO, diffuse out of these AADC-containing cells, and

  14. Emergence of Serotonergic Neurons After Spinal Cord Injury in Turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Fabbiani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity of neural circuits takes many forms and plays a fundamental role in regulating behavior to changing demands while maintaining stability. For example, during spinal cord development neurotransmitter identity in neurons is dynamically adjusted in response to changes in the activity of spinal networks. It is reasonable to speculate that this type of plasticity might occur also in mature spinal circuits in response to injury. Because serotonergic signaling has a central role in spinal cord functions, we hypothesized that spinal cord injury (SCI in the fresh water turtle Trachemys scripta elegans may trigger homeostatic changes in serotonergic innervation. To test this possibility we performed immunohistochemistry for serotonin (5-HT and key molecules involved in the determination of the serotonergic phenotype before and after SCI. We found that as expected, in the acute phase after injury the dense serotonergic innervation was strongly reduced. However, 30 days after SCI the population of serotonergic cells (5-HT+ increased in segments caudal to the lesion site. These cells expressed the neuronal marker HuC/D and the transcription factor Nkx6.1. The new serotonergic neurons did not incorporate the thymidine analog 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU and did not express the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA indicating that novel serotonergic neurons were not newborn but post-mitotic cells that have changed their neurochemical identity. Switching towards a serotonergic neurotransmitter phenotype may be a spinal cord homeostatic mechanism to compensate for the loss of descending serotonergic neuromodulation, thereby helping the outstanding functional recovery displayed by turtles. The 5-HT1A receptor agonist (±-8-Hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT blocked the increase in 5-HT+ cells suggesting 5-HT1A receptors may trigger the respecification process.

  15. Racioethnic Differences in Human Posterior Scleral and Optic Nerve Stump Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Ehab A.; Pyne, Jeffrey D.; Muli, Dominic K.; Axman, Katelyn F.; Howerton, Stephen J.; Davis, Matthew R.; Girkin, Christopher A.; Vande Geest, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to quantify the biomechanical response of human posterior ocular tissues from donors of various racioethnic groups to better understand how differences in these properties may play a role in the racioethnic health disparities known to exist in glaucoma. Methods Sequential digital image correlation (S-DIC) was used to measure the pressure-induced surface deformations of 23 normal human posterior poles from three racioethnic groups: African descent (AD), European descent (ED), and Hispanic ethnicity (HIS). Regional in-plane principal strains were compared across three zones: the optic nerve stump (ONS), the peripapillary (PP) sclera, and non-PP sclera. Results The PP scleral tensile strains were found to be lower for ED eyes compared with AD and HIS eyes at 15 mm Hg (P = 0.024 and 0.039, respectively). The mean compressive strains were significantly higher for AD eyes compared with ED eyes at 15 mm Hg (P = 0.018). We also found that the relationship between tensile strain and pressure was significant for those of ED and HIS eyes (P P = 0.004, respectively), whereas it was not significant for those of AD (P = 0.392). Conclusions Our results suggest that, assuming glaucomatous nerve loss is caused by mechanical strains in the vicinity of the optic nerve head, the mechanism of increased glaucoma prevalence may be different in those of AD versus HIS. Our ONS strain analysis also suggested that it may be important to account for ONS geometry and material properties in future scleral biomechanical analysis. PMID:28846773

  16. Speech-like orofacial oscillations in stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides) facial and vocal signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Aru; Maruhashi, Tamaki; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Koda, Hiroki

    2017-10-01

    Speech is unique to humans and characterized by facial actions of ∼5 Hz oscillations of lip, mouth or jaw movements. Lip-smacking, a facial display of primates characterized by oscillatory actions involving the vertical opening and closing of the jaw and lips, exhibits stable 5-Hz oscillation patterns, matching that of speech, suggesting that lip-smacking is a precursor of speech. We tested if facial or vocal actions exhibiting the same rate of oscillation are found in wide forms of facial or vocal displays in various social contexts, exhibiting diversity among species. We observed facial and vocal actions of wild stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides), and selected video clips including facial displays (teeth chattering; TC), panting calls, and feeding. Ten open-to-open mouth durations during TC and feeding and five amplitude peak-to-peak durations in panting were analyzed. Facial display (TC) and vocalization (panting) oscillated within 5.74 ± 1.19 and 6.71 ± 2.91 Hz, respectively, similar to the reported lip-smacking of long-tailed macaques and the speech of humans. These results indicated a common mechanism for the central pattern generator underlying orofacial movements, which would evolve to speech. Similar oscillations in panting, which evolved from different muscular control than the orofacial action, suggested the sensory foundations for perceptual saliency particular to 5-Hz rhythms in macaques. This supports the pre-adaptation hypothesis of speech evolution, which states a central pattern generator for 5-Hz facial oscillation and perceptual background tuned to 5-Hz actions existed in common ancestors of macaques and humans, before the emergence of speech. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Overview of Spinal Cord Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is the Spinal Cord Damaged? The spine (spinal column) contains the spinal cord, which is divided into four sections: Cervical (neck) Thoracic (chest) Lumbar (lower back) Sacral (pelvis). Each section is referred ...

  18. MULTIPLE SPINAL CANAL MENINGIOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandigama Pratap Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Meningiomas of the spinal canal are common tumours with the incidence of 25 percent of all spinal cord tumours. But multiple spinal canal meningiomas are rare in compare to solitary lesions and account for 2 to 3.5% of all spinal meningiomas. Most of the reported cases are both intra cranial and spinal. Exclusive involvement of the spinal canal by multiple meningiomas are very rare. We could find only sixteen cases in the literature to the best of our knowledge. Exclusive multiple spinal canal meningiomas occurring in the first two decades of life are seldom reported in the literature. We are presenting a case of multiple spinal canal meningiomas in a young patient of 17 years, who was earlier operated for single lesion. We analysed the literature, with illustration of our case. MATERIALS AND METHODS In September 2016, we performed a literature search for multiple spinal canal meningiomas involving exclusively the spinal canal with no limitation for language and publication date. The search was conducted through http://pubmed.com, a wellknown worldwide internet medical address. To the best of our knowledge, we could find only sixteen cases of multiple meningiomas exclusively confined to the spinal canal. Exclusive multiple spinal canal meningiomas occurring in the first two decades of life are seldom reported in the literature. We are presenting a case of multiple spinal canal meningiomas in a young patient of 17 years, who was earlier operated for solitary intradural extra medullary spinal canal meningioma at D4-D6 level, again presented with spastic quadriparesis of two years duration and MRI whole spine demonstrated multiple intradural extra medullary lesions, which were excised completely and the histopathological diagnosis was transitional meningioma. RESULTS Patient recovered from his weakness and sensory symptoms gradually and bladder and bowel symptoms improved gradually over a period of two to three weeks. CONCLUSION Multiple

  19. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  20. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  1. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    interneurons and exert a direct (willful) muscle control with the aid of a context-dependent integration of somatosensory and visual information at cortical level. However, spinal networks also play an important role. Sensory feedback through spinal circuitries is integrated with central motor commands...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  2. The safe spinal anaesthetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    anticoagulation. Refusal. Severe hypovolaemia or shock. Localised sepsis .... Side-effects and complications of spinal anaesthesia. Side-effect/complication. Mechanism. Treatment. Hypotension. Sympathetic block causes vasodilatation.

  3. [Magnetic resonance imaging features of a caudal cruciate ligament rupture associated with a suspected bone bruise lesion in a dog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmohl, M; Konar, M; Tassani-Prell, M; Rupp, S

    2014-04-16

    In this case study we describe a surgically confirmed caudal cruciate ligament rupture in a 10-year-old Border Collie. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a complete rupture of the caudal cruciate ligament, a suspected bone bruise lesion on the proximolateral tibia and a muscle strain injury of the M. flexor digitorum lateralis. In human medicine, bone bruise lesions in MRI have been described as "footprint injuries" and can thereby explain the mechanism of trauma in ligament injuries. The combination of the MRI findings in this case can help to understand how the rarely diagnosed isolated rupture of the caudal cruciate ligament occurred in this dog.

  4. Pelvic osteotomy under general anaesthesia combined with caudal blockade in children

    OpenAIRE

    Novotny, Milan; Rejholec, Milan

    1987-01-01

    Combined anaesthesia (Local plus General) has been used at the 1 st Clinic of Orthopaedics since 1986. A trial is described involving 21 children and comparing them with a control group of 14 cases having only inhalation anaesthesia. Caudal blockade with Bupivacaine is the local anaesthesia used to decrease stress during pelvic osteotomies. The use of combined anaesthesia provides smoothness and stability with absence of side effects and the doses of anaesthetic and post- operative analgesic ...

  5. Unique caudal plumage of Jeholornis and complex tail evolution in early birds

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Jingmai; Wang, Xiaoli; Sullivan, Corwin; Zheng, Xiaoting; Tubaro, Pablo; Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Zhonghe

    2013-01-01

    The Early Cretaceous bird Jeholornis was previously only known to have a distally restricted ornamental frond of tail feathers. We describe a previously unrecognized fan-shaped tract of feathers situated dorsal to the proximal caudal vertebrae. The position and morphology of these feathers is reminiscent of the specialized upper tail coverts observed in males of some sexually dimorphic neornithines. As in the neornithine tail, the unique “two-tail” plumage in Jeholornis probably evolved as th...

  6. Indirect caudal lymphography using a new water-soluble contrast agent - animal experimental studies in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apitzsch, D.E.; Kroll, H.U.; Zuehlke, H.V.

    1981-01-01

    Animal experiments on caudal lymphography in pigs are presented, using a new water-soluble contrast medium which is renally excreted. Indirect cutaneous administration renders possible the radiological visualization of the entire lymphatic drainage system of the lower limb, the retro-peritoneal space and the thoracic duct. Visualization of the lymphatic system is rapid, homogeneous and can be repeated as often as desired. The quality of the lymphogram is as good as that obtained by the current methods in common use. (orig.)

  7. The caudal bursa in the Heligmonellidae (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina). Characterization and hypothesis on its evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, M.C.; Digiani, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    The different patterns of the caudal bursa of the Heligmonellidae (Nematoda) are redefined, taking into account the grouping of rays 2-6 and the sequence of origin of these rays from their common trunk. The type of symmetry of the caudal bursa is also redefined. The following patterns were observed and characterized: the basic patterns: types 2-3, 2-2-1, 1-3-1 and 1-4 and the intermediary patterns: type 2-3 tending to type 2-2-1, type 2-2-1 tending to type 1-3-1, type 1-3-1 tending to type 1-4 and type 2-2-1 tending to type 1-4. An evolutionary interpretation of the patterns is attempted and seems to follow the direction: 2-3 to 2-2-1 to 1-3-1 to 1-4. Seven atypical patterns are described. The caudal bursae were classified based on their symmetry: subsymmetrical, dissymmetrical and asymmetrical. Independently of the type of symmetry, the two latero-ventral lobes may have the same or different patterns. The type of symmetry, the ratio between the two latero-ventral lobes and a characteristic pattern were utilized to characterize the caudal bursae at the level of the genus and the subfamily. The combination of the right/left ratio and the type of symmetry gives heterogeneous results, with no real association between these characters. The most conspicuous asymmetries and dissymmetries were found among the Nippostrongylinae. The most frequent pattern in the Heligmonellidae is the basic type 2-2-1; types 1-3-1 and 1-4 are less frequent but are characteristic of several genera; type 1-4 is absent from the Heligmonellinae. Whatever the pattern, in the Heligmonellidae rays 4 and 5 are the last to diverge from the common trunk of rays 2-6. PMID:22314236

  8. Monocephalus dipygus parapagus: a suspected case of complete caudal duplication in a British Blue kitten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seavers, Aine M

    2009-04-01

    Complete caudal duplication is an extremely rare type of conjoined twinning. This communication reports the birth and gross features of a live conjoined British Blue kitten born naturally to a healthy queen. The monocephalic dipygus kitten exhibited a normal skull and upper body, two separate pelves, four hind limbs and two tails. A cleft palate and bifurcation of rostral mandible were also noted. The absence of maternal dystocia was unusual for conjoined twinnings.

  9. Caudal block and emergence delirium in pediatric patients: Is it analgesia or sedation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergence delirium (ED although a short-lived and self-limiting phenomenon, makes a child prone to injury in the immediate postoperative period and hence is a cause of concern not only to the pediatric anesthesiologist, surgeons, and post anesthesia care unit staff but also amongst parents. Additional medication to quieten the child offsets the potential benefits of rapid emergence and delays recovery in day care settings. There is conflicting evidence of influence of analgesia and sedation following anesthesia on emergence agitation. We hypothesized that an anesthetic technique which improves analgesia and prolongs emergence time will reduce the incidence of ED. We selected ketamine as adjuvant to caudal block for this purpose. Methods: This randomized, double blind prospective study was performed in 150 premedicated children ASA I, II, aged 2 to 8 years who were randomly assigned to either group B (caudal with bupivacaine, BK (bupivacaine and ketamine, or NC (no caudal, soon after LMA placement. Recovery characteristics and complications were recorded. Results: Emergence time, duration of pain relief, and Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED scores were significantly higher in the NC group (P<0.05. Duration of analgesia and emergence time were significantly more in group BK than groups B and NC. However, the discharge readiness was comparable between all groups. No patient in BK group required to be given any medication to treat ED. Conclusion: Emergence time as well as duration of analgesia have significant influence on incidence of emergence delirium. Ketamine, as caudal adjuvant is a promising agent to protect against ED in children, following sevoflurane anesthesia.

  10. [Vacuum sealing drainage combined with free skin graft in repairing cutaneous deficiency of traumatic shank amputation stump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-fei; Li, Chun-you; Jin, Guo-qiang; Ming, Xiao-feng; Wang, Guo-jie

    2014-12-01

    To observe clinical efficacy in treating cutaneous deficiency of traumatic shank amputation stump with full-thickness skin graft combined with vacuum sealing drainage. From September 2009 to December 2012, 15 patients with cutaneous deficiency of traumatic shank amputation stump were treated with full-thickness skin graft combined with vacuum sealing drainage. Among patients, there were 11 males and 4 females with an average age of 41.5 (ranged from 25 to 62) years old. Ten cases were caused by traffic accident and 5 cases were caused by heavy object, 9 cases on left and 6 cases on right. Six patients with smashed wound were treated with debridement and amputation, combined with vacuum aspiration in-emergency; 9 patients caused by infection and necrosis were treated with debridement and amputation, combined with vacuum aspiration, and full-thickness skin graft were performed at stage II. The skin defect area of residual limbs ranged from 40 cm x 20 cm to 25 cm x 15 cm. All patients were followed up from 3 months to 1 year. Full-thickness skin graft of residual limbs were survived,and obtained satisfactory walking function with prosthetic. Residual skin increased thicken, wearproof without rupture and pain. Full-thickness skin graft combined with vacuum sealing drainage in treating cutaneous deficiency of traumatic shank amputation stump could reserve the length of residual limbs, increase survival rate of skin graft with less scar of survival skin, get good wearability and it is conducive to prosthetic wear. It is a simple and easy treatment method.

  11. Fate of vena saphena magna stump after endovenous laser ablation with 980-nm diode laser: 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergenoglu, Mehmet U; Sayin, Murat; Kucukaksu, Suha

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the fate of VSM stump and its relation to the incidence of thrombosis during a-12 mo follow-up. Varicose veins are a common problem. There are several treatment alternatives available. Conventional surgical treatment is associated with high recurrence and complications. However, with the recent development of minimal invasive surgery, various techniques have been developed. Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) is one of these techniques, which has proven to be safe and effective. Since EVLA is safe and has minor adverse reactions, residual VSM stump and its association with thrombosis after EVLA has not been well studied in literature. Sixty-nine patients underwent EVLA with a 980-nm diode laser (Ceralas D, Biolitec AG, Jena, Germany), and retrospectively obtained data were analyzed over a 12-mo period. Twenty-six patients were excluded due to the lack of follow-up. All EVLA procedures were performed by the same surgeon, who has experience of EVLA. Laser power was set at 10-15 W depending on the size of targeted vein. The saphenous vein was percutaneously punctured with an 18-gauge needle under ultrasonography guidance. Patients were reassessed at 1 wk, and at 3, 6, and 12 mo after the procedure. Technical success was accomplished in all patients. One patient had flow signals with patent segment of the VSM visualized by venous duplex ultrasonography at 1 mo, which persisted until the 12-mo follow-up. None of the patients developed acute deep-venous thrombosis. The present study shows that residual VSM stump-length measurement differences at 7 d and 12 mo were statistically significant. In future, large-scale studies are needed, focusing on the proper position of the catheter tip to the saphenofemoral junction and timing the intervals of follow-up after EVLA.

  12. Postoperative analgesia in children when using clonidine in addition to fentanyl with bupivacaine given caudally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarraya, Anouar; Elleuch, Sahar; Zouari, Jawhar; Smaoui, Mohamed; Laabidi, Sofiene; Kolsi, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of clonidine in association with fentanyl as an additive to bupivacaine 0.25% given via single shot caudal epidural in pediatric patients for postoperative pain relief. In the present prospective randomized double blind study, 40 children of ASA-I-II aged 1-5 years scheduled for infraumblical surgical procedures were randomly allocated to two groups to receive either bupivacaine 0.25% (1 ml/kg) with fentanyl 1 μg/kg and clonidine 1μg/kg (group I) or bupivacaine 0.25% (1 ml/kg) with fentanyl 1 μg/kg (group II). Caudal block was performed after the induction of general anesthesia. Postoperatively patients were observed for analgesia, sedation, hemodynamic parameters, and side effects or complications. Both the groups were similar with respect to patient and various block characteristics. Heart rate and blood pressure were not different in 2 groups. Significantly prolonged duration of post-operative analgesia was observed in group I (Pfentanyl as additives to bupivacaine in single shot caudal epidural in children may provide better and longer analgesia after infraumblical surgical procedures.

  13. Modulatory effects of probenecid on the nitroglycerin-induced changes in the rat caudal trigeminal nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamos, Eniko; Pardutz, Arpad; Fejes, Annamaria; Tajti, Janos; Toldi, Jozsef; Vecsei, Laszlo

    2009-10-25

    Four hours after systemic administration of the nitric oxide donor nitroglycerin (10 mg/kg bodyweight, s.c.), the neurons of the rat caudal trigeminal nucleus are activated, the area covered by calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive fibres is decreased and the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)- and the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CamKIIalpha)-immunopositive neurons in the same area are increased. Probenecid is a non-selective inhibitor of multidrug-resistance associated proteins and organic anion transporters thus it can modulate the transport functions in the central nervous system influencing nociception. Accordingly, the aim of the present experiments was to examine the effects of probenecid administration on the nitroglycerin-induced expressions of nNOS, CamKIIalpha and CGRP in the rat caudal trigeminal nucleus. Probenecid (200 mg/kg bodyweight, i.p.) pretreatment proved to mitigate the nitroglycerin-induced changes in expression in the rat caudal trigeminal nucleus. The data suggest that the changes caused by nitroglycerin in the expressions of CGRP, nNOS and CamKIIalpha can be influenced by probenecid modulating the inflammatory functions in the nervous system. These data may be of relevance for the pathogenesis of migraine headache.

  14. Postoperative Analgesia in Children- Comparative Study between Caudal Bupivacaine and Bupivacaine plus Tramadol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Doda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty children, ASAI-II, aged between 2yrs-5yrs, undergoing sub umbilical operation (inguinal and penile surgery were selected for this double blind study. They were randomly divided in two groups, group Aand group B. Group A(n15 received 0.25%bupivacaine 0.5ml.kg -1 and Group B (n=15 received 0.25% bupivaeaine 0.5ml.kg -1 and tramadol 2mg.kg -1 as single shot caudal block. Postoperative pain was assessed by a modified TPPPS (Toddler-Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale and analgesic given only when the score was more than 3. In the first 24 hrs it was observed that the mean duration of time interval between the caudal block and first dose of analgesic was significantly long(9. lhrs in Group B as compared to Group A (6.3hrs which was much shorter(p< 0.01.There was no significant haemodynamie changes, motor weakness or respiratory depression in both groups. This study con-cluded that addition of tramadol 2mg.kg -1 to caudal 0.25% bupivacaine 0.5ml.kg -1 significantly prolong the duration of postoperative analgesia in children withoutprodueing much adverse effects.

  15. Diagnosis and management of cranial and caudal nuchal bursitis in four horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, José M; Jenei, Thomas; Chope, Kate; Bubeck, Kirstin A

    2010-10-01

    4 horses with a history of neck pain, abnormal head carriage, and related inability to perform were examined. Cranial nuchal bursitis was diagnosed in 2 horses, and caudal nuchal bursitis was diagnosed in the other 2. All 4 horses had prominent swelling in the region between the frontal bone and temporal fossa (ie, the poll) and abnormal head carriage. Ultrasonographic examination revealed fluid distention and synovial thickening of the cranial or caudal nuchal bursa in all 4 horses. Ultrasonography-guided aspiration of the affected region was performed successfully in 3 horses. Radiography revealed bony remodeling and mineralization over the dorsal aspect of the atlas in 1 horse and a radiolucency at the axis in another. Nuclear scintigraphy revealed an increase in radioisotope uptake at the level of C2 in 1 horse. Although a septic process was considered among the differential diagnoses in all horses, a septic process could only be confirmed in 1 horse. All horses were refractory to conservative management consisting of intrabursal injection of anti-inflammatory medications. Bursoscopic debridement and lavage of the affected bursae resulted in resolution of the clinical signs in all horses, and they all returned to their intended use. Cranial and caudal nuchal bursitis, of nonseptic or septic origin, should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with head and neck pain. Horses undergoing surgical intervention consisting of nuchal bursoscopy have the opportunity to return to their original degree of exercise.

  16. MODELO AUTORREGRESIVO BILINEAL APLICADO A LA PREDICCIÓN MENSUAL DE CAUDALES EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Cadavid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se aplica un modelo estocástico bilineal, el cual inicialmente es propuesto para análisis de retornos financieros y otros sistemas complejos combinando la alta no linealidad y multiplicidad del ruido. Este modelo, por su carácter aleatorio, no tiene componente determinística que permita considerar la persistencia de los caudales en una aplicación a la Hidrología. Por lo tanto, se propone el acoplamiento entre la parte determinística de un modelo autorregresivo de orden 2 y el modelo estocástico bilineal como componente aleatorio, y se obtiene un modelo autorregresivo bilineal (MAB. El MAB se empleó para la predicción de caudales en ventanas de 3, 6 y 12 meses en 12 ríos de Colombia de diferentes regiones del país. El MAB tiene una estructura simple y muestra una mejora sustancial en la disminución de los errores para los caudales máximos y mínimos en el período de validación respecto de los modelos estocásticos tradicionales.

  17. Caudal pneumaticity and pneumatic hiatuses in the sauropod dinosaurs Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew J Wedel

    Full Text Available Skeletal pneumaticity is found in the presacral vertebrae of most sauropod dinosaurs, but pneumaticity is much less common in the vertebrae of the tail. We describe previously unrecognized pneumatic fossae in the mid-caudal vertebrae of specimens of Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus. In both taxa, the most distal pneumatic vertebrae are separated from other pneumatic vertebrae by sequences of three to seven apneumatic vertebrae. Caudal pneumaticity is not prominent in most individuals of either of these taxa, and its unpredictable development means that it may be more widespread than previously recognised within Sauropoda and elsewhere in Saurischia. The erratic patterns of caudal pneumatization in Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus, including the pneumatic hiatuses, show that pneumatic diverticula were more broadly distributed in the bodies of the living animals than are their traces in the skeleton. Together with recently published evidence of cryptic diverticula--those that leave few or no skeletal traces--in basal sauropodomorphs and in pterosaurs, this is further evidence that pneumatic diverticula were widespread in ornithodirans, both across phylogeny and throughout anatomy.

  18. Caudal Pneumaticity and Pneumatic Hiatuses in the Sauropod Dinosaurs Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedel, Mathew J.; Taylor, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal pneumaticity is found in the presacral vertebrae of most sauropod dinosaurs, but pneumaticity is much less common in the vertebrae of the tail. We describe previously unrecognized pneumatic fossae in the mid-caudal vertebrae of specimens of Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus. In both taxa, the most distal pneumatic vertebrae are separated from other pneumatic vertebrae by sequences of three to seven apneumatic vertebrae. Caudal pneumaticity is not prominent in most individuals of either of these taxa, and its unpredictable development means that it may be more widespread than previously recognised within Sauropoda and elsewhere in Saurischia. The erratic patterns of caudal pneumatization in Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus, including the pneumatic hiatuses, show that pneumatic diverticula were more broadly distributed in the bodies of the living animals than are their traces in the skeleton. Together with recently published evidence of cryptic diverticula—those that leave few or no skeletal traces—in basal sauropodomorphs and in pterosaurs, this is further evidence that pneumatic diverticula were widespread in ornithodirans, both across phylogeny and throughout anatomy. PMID:24205162

  19. Serotonergic neurons in the caudal raphe nuclei discharge in association with activity of masticatory muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro-do-Valle L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a dense serotonergic projection from nucleus raphe pallidus and nucleus raphe obscurus to the trigeminal motor nucleus and serotonin exerts a strong facilitatory action on the trigeminal motoneurons. Some serotonergic neurons in these caudal raphe nuclei increase their discharge during feeding. The objective of the present study was to investigate the possibility that the activity of these serotonergic neurons is related to activity of masticatory muscles. Cats were implanted with microelectrodes and gross electrodes. Caudal raphe single neuron activity, electrocorticographic activity, and splenius, digastric and masseter electromyographic activities were recorded during active behaviors (feeding and grooming, during quiet waking and during sleep. Seven presumed serotonergic neurons were identified. These neurons showed a long duration action potential (>2.0 ms, and discharged slowly (2-7 Hz and very regularly (interspike interval coefficient of variation <0.3 during quiet waking. The activity of these neurons decreased remarkably during fast wave sleep (78-100%. Six of these neurons showed tonic changes in their activity positively related to digastric and/or masseter muscle activity but not to splenius muscle activity during waking. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that serotonergic neurons in the caudal raphe nuclei play an important role in the control of jaw movements

  20. Orexin inputs to caudal raphé neurons involved in thermal, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Patterson, Laurel M; Sutton, Gregory M; Morrison, Christopher; Zheng, Huiyuan

    2005-02-01

    Orexin-expressing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus with their wide projections throughout the brain are important for the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, ingestive behavior, and the coordination of these behaviors in the environmental context. To further identify downstream effector targets of the orexin system, we examined in detail orexin-A innervation of the caudal raphe nuclei in the medulla, known to harbor sympathetic preganglionic motor neurons involved in thermal, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal regulation. All three components of the caudal raphe nuclei, raphe pallidus, raphe obscurus, and parapyramidal nucleus, are innervated by orexin-A-immunoreactive fibers. Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrate close anatomical appositions between varicose orexin-A immunoreactive axon profiles and sympathetic premotor neurons identified with either a transneuronal retrograde pseudorabies virus tracer injected into the interscapular brown fat pads, or with in situ hybridization of pro-TRH mRNA. Furthermore, orexin-A injected into the fourth ventricle induced c-Fos expression in the raphe pallidus and parapyramidal nucleus. These findings suggest that orexin neurons in the hypothalamus can modulate brown fat thermogenesis, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal functions by acting directly on neurons in the caudal raphe nuclei, and support the idea that orexin's simultaneous stimulation of food intake and sympathetic activity might have evolved as a mechanism to stay alert while foraging.

  1. Changes in galanin immunoreactivity in rat lumbosacral spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvarova, K; Murray, E; Vizzard, M A

    2004-08-02

    Alterations in the expression of the neuropeptide galanin were examined in micturition reflex pathways 6 weeks after complete spinal cord transection (T8). In control animals, galanin expression was present in specific regions of the gray matter in the rostral lumbar and caudal lumbosacral spinal cord, including: (1) the dorsal commissure; (2) the superficial dorsal horn; (3) the regions of the intermediolateral cell column (L1-L2) and the sacral parasympathetic nucleus (L6-S1); and (4) the lateral collateral pathway in lumbosacral spinal segments. Densitometry analysis demonstrated significant increases (P < or = 0.001) in galanin immunoreactivity (IR) in these regions of the S1 spinal cord after spinal cord injury (SCI). Changes in galanin-IR were not observed at the L4-L6 segments except for an increase in galanin-IR in the dorsal commissure in the L4 segment. In contrast, decreases in galanin-IR were observed in the L1 segment. The number of galanin-IR cells increased (P < or = 0.001) in the L1 and S1 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after SCI. In all DRG examined (L1, L2, L6, and S1), the percentage of bladder afferent cells expressing galanin-IR significantly increased (4-19-fold) after chronic SCI. In contrast, galanin expression in nerve fibers in the urinary bladder detrusor and urothelium was decreased or eliminated after SCI. Expression of the neurotrophic factors nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was altered in the spinal cord after SCI. A significant increase in BDNF expression was present in spinal cord segments after SCI. In contrast, NGF expression was only increased in the spinal segments adjacent and rostral to the transection site (T7-T8), whereas spinal segments (T13-L1; L6-S1), distal to the transection site exhibited decreased NGF expression. Changes in galanin expression in micturition pathways after SCI may be mediated by changing neurotrophic factor expression, particularly BDNF. These changes may contribute to

  2. Edaravone combined with Schwann cell transplantation may repair spinal cord injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-quan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Edaravone has been shown to delay neuronal apoptosis, thereby improving nerve function and the microenvironment after spinal cord injury. Edaravone can provide a favorable environment for the treatment of spinal cord injury using Schwann cell transplantation. This study used rat models of complete spinal cord transection at T 9. Six hours later, Schwann cells were transplanted in the head and tail ends of the injury site. Simultaneously, edaravone was injected through the caudal vein. Eight weeks later, the PKH-26-labeled Schwann cells had survived and migrated to the center of the spinal cord injury region in rats after combined treatment with edaravone and Schwann cells. Moreover, the number of PKH-26-labeled Schwann cells in the rat spinal cord was more than that in rats undergoing Schwann cell transplantation alone or rats without any treatment. Horseradish peroxidase retrograde tracing revealed that the number of horseradish peroxidase-positive nerve fibers was greater in rats treated with edaravone combined withSchwann cells than in rats with Schwann cell transplantation alone. The results demonstrated that lower extremity motor function and neurophysiological function were better in rats treated with edaravone and Schwann cells than in rats with Schwann cell transplantation only. These data confirmed that Schwann cell transplantation combined with edaravone injection promoted the regeneration of nerve fibers of rats with spinal cord injury and improved neurological function.

  3. Age-Related Uptake of Heavy Metals in Human Spinal Interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamphlett, Roger; Kum Jew, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals have been implicated in the loss of spinal motoneurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND). Motoneuron loss in the spinal anterior horn is severe in ALS/MND at the time of death, making this tissue unsuitable for examination. We therefore examined spinal cords of people without muscle weakness to look for any presence of heavy metals that could make these neurons susceptible to damage. Spinal cord samples from 50 individuals aged 1-95 y who had no clinical or histopathological evidence of spinal motoneuron loss were studied. Seven μm formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained for heavy metals with silver nitrate autometallography (AMGHM) which detects intracellular mercury, silver or bismuth. Neurons in the spinal cord were classified as interneurons or α-motoneurons based on their site and cell body diameter. Spinal interneurons containing heavy metals were present in 8 of 24 people (33%) aged 61-95 y, but not at younger ages. These AMGHM interneurons were most numerous in the lumbar spinal cord, with moderate numbers in the caudal cervical cord, few in the rostral cervical cord, and almost none in the thoracic cord. All people with AMGHM interneurons had occasional AMGHM staining in α-motoneurons as well. In one man AMGHM staining was present in addition in dorsomedial nucleus and sensory neurons. In conclusion, heavy metals are present in many spinal interneurons, and in a few α-motoneurons, in a large proportion of older people. Damage to inhibitory interneurons from toxic metals in later life could result in excitotoxic injury to motoneurons and may underlie motoneuron injury or loss in conditions such as ALS/MND, multiple sclerosis, sarcopenia and calf fasciculations.

  4. Age-Related Uptake of Heavy Metals in Human Spinal Interneurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Pamphlett

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals have been implicated in the loss of spinal motoneurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND. Motoneuron loss in the spinal anterior horn is severe in ALS/MND at the time of death, making this tissue unsuitable for examination. We therefore examined spinal cords of people without muscle weakness to look for any presence of heavy metals that could make these neurons susceptible to damage. Spinal cord samples from 50 individuals aged 1-95 y who had no clinical or histopathological evidence of spinal motoneuron loss were studied. Seven μm formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained for heavy metals with silver nitrate autometallography (AMGHM which detects intracellular mercury, silver or bismuth. Neurons in the spinal cord were classified as interneurons or α-motoneurons based on their site and cell body diameter. Spinal interneurons containing heavy metals were present in 8 of 24 people (33% aged 61-95 y, but not at younger ages. These AMGHM interneurons were most numerous in the lumbar spinal cord, with moderate numbers in the caudal cervical cord, few in the rostral cervical cord, and almost none in the thoracic cord. All people with AMGHM interneurons had occasional AMGHM staining in α-motoneurons as well. In one man AMGHM staining was present in addition in dorsomedial nucleus and sensory neurons. In conclusion, heavy metals are present in many spinal interneurons, and in a few α-motoneurons, in a large proportion of older people. Damage to inhibitory interneurons from toxic metals in later life could result in excitotoxic injury to motoneurons and may underlie motoneuron injury or loss in conditions such as ALS/MND, multiple sclerosis, sarcopenia and calf fasciculations.

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Read Bio Medical Director, Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago play_arrow What is ... What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising new ...

  6. Spinal pain in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The severity and course of spinal pain is poorly understood in adolescents. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and two-year incidence, as well as the course, frequency, and intensity of pain in the neck, mid back, and low back (spinal pain). METHODS: This study was a school...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Heather Taylor, PhD Michelle Meade, PhD Jonathon Rose, PhD The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, ... Cord Injury Katie Powell, OT Mary Jane Mulcahey, PhD, OTR/L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat T. George Hornby, PhD, PT Empowering the Patient After Spinal Cord Injury Guy W. Fried, MD Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a ...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions ... PhD Michelle Meade, PhD Jonathon Rose, PhD The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, MS ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from Hospital to Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ...

  12. Humero-spinal dysostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, H; Vidal, J; Vallcanera, A; Alberto, C; Muro, D; Dominguez, F

    1979-07-24

    A 2 year old boy with humero-spinal dysostosis is described. This is the third case of this disease reported in the literature. Humero-spinal dysostosis is characterised radiologically by distal humeral bifurcation, elbow subluxation and coronal cleft vertebrae. Congenital, progressive heart disease, possibly with fatal outcome, is probably part of the syndrome.

  13. Incertidumbres en Mediciones de Caudal con Perfiladores de Corriente Acústicos Doppler desde Plataformas Móviles

    OpenAIRE

    Tarrab, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    Tesis (DCI)--FCEFN-UNC, 2013 Determina la incertidumbre en las mediciones de caudal con Perfiladores de Corriente Acústicos Doppler (ADCP) desde plataformas móviles a los fines de optimizar las técnicas de medición y elaborar recomendaciones para minimizar los errores (sesgo e incertidumbre aleatoria) en el uso de las técnicas de medición de caudales.

  14. Regeneration of descending spinal axons after transection of the thoracic spinal cord during early development in the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G F; Terman, J R; Wang, X M

    2000-11-15

    Opossums are born in an immature, fetal-like state, making it possible to lesion their spinal cord early in development without intrauterine surgery. When the thoracic spinal cord of the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, is transected on postnatal day 5, and injections of Fast Blue (FB) are made caudal to the lesion site 30-40 days or 6 months later, neurons are labeled in all of the spinal and supraspinal areas that are labeled after comparable injections in age-matched, unlesioned controls. Double-labeling studies document that regeneration of cut axons contributes to growth of axons through the lesion site and behavioral studies show that animals lesioned on postnatal day 5 use their hindlimbs in normal appearing locomotion as adults. The critical period for developmental plasticity of descending spinal axons extends to postnatal day 26, although axons which grow through the lesion site become fewer in number and more restricted as to origin with increasing age. Animals lesioned between postnatal day 12 and 26 use the hindlimbs better than animals lesioned as adults, but hindlimb function is markedly abnormal and uncoordinated with that of the forelimbs. We conclude that restoration of anatomical continuity occurs after transection of the spinal cord in developing opossums, that descending axons grow through the lesion site, that regeneration of cut axons contributes to such growth, and that animals lesioned early enough in development have relatively normal motor function as adults.

  15. On the appearance of acetylcholine receptors in denervated rat diaphragm, and its dependence on nerve stump length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchitel, O.; Robbins, N.

    1978-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) sensitivity and extrajunctional receptor distribution of the rat diaphragm were closely monitored during the early period following denervation. Both contracture in response to 10 μg/ml of ACh and extrajunctional binding of [ 125 I]alpha-bungarotoxin ([ 125 I]α-BTX) were first detectable 30 h after cutting the phrenic nerve in the thorax. If the nerve were cut more proximally, leaving a 3.5 cm distal nerve stump, the same level of ACh contracture and [ 125 I]α-BTX binding did not appear until 40 h after operation. This 10-h delay was far longer than the 3-h delay in transmission failure reportedly dependent on stump length. The earliest detectable extrajunctional [ 125 I]α-BTX binding appeared throughout the entire muscle fiber, and was not localized to the endplate region as would be expected if degeneration in the nerve terminal induced new receptors. However, later significant increases in [ 125 I]α-BTX binding at the endplate region could have resulted from such degeneration. All these results are consistent with neurotrophic regulation of muscle ACh receptors, working via a mechanism involving axonal transport. (Auth.)

  16. Exploring the Use of Non-Image-Based Ultrasound to Detect the Position of the Residual Femur within a Stump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Yee Chong

    Full Text Available A satisfactorily fitted socket interacts dynamically with the stump in order to support body weight, transmit load effectively, enhance dynamic stability, and enable the control and stabilization of the residual limb. The internal dynamics occurring within a socket is important in determining optimal fit. Many measurement and imaging techniques, such as X-rays, have been utilized to investigate the movement of the residual femur within the stump during gait. However, due to associated health risks and costs, none of the current techniques have been extended to clinical prosthetics. The use of B-mode ultrasound has been suggested as a safe and cheap alternative, and has been utilized in previous studies to monitor the motion of the femur. However, the need to create a duplicate socket and time-consuming analysis of the images were obstacles to the system being applied clinically. This study aims to gauge the effectiveness of a non-image based ultrasound system. Here, we determined errors expected from the measurements. Accuracy errors of 2.9 mm to 8.4 mm and reproducibility measurements within a standard deviation of 3.9 mm are reported. We also estimated errors up to 14.4 mm in in-vivo measurements. We think there is potential in developing this technique, and we hope to reduce some technical difficulties such that it can, one day, be easily incorporated into prosthetic fitting.

  17. Agency over a phantom limb and electromyographic activity on the stump depend on visuomotor synchrony: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu eImaizumi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Most patients, post-amputation, report the experience of a phantom limb. Some even sense voluntary movements when viewing a mirror image of the intact limb superimposed onto the phantom limb. While delayed visual feedback of an action is known to reduce a sense of agency, the effect of delayed visual feedback on phantom motor sensation (i.e., sense of controlling a phantom limb has not been examined. Using a video-projection system, we examined the effect of delayed visual feedback on phantom motor sensation in an upper-limb amputee (male; left upper-limb amputation. He was instructed to view mirrored video images of his intact hand clasping and unclasping during a phantom limb movement. He then rated the intensity of the phantom motor sensation. Three types of hand movement images were presented as follows: synchronous, asynchronous with a 250-ms delay, and asynchronous with a 500-ms delay. Results showed that phantom motor sensation decreased when the image was delayed by 250 and 500 ms. However, when we instructed the patient to adjust the phase of phantom limb movement to that of the image with a 500-ms delay, phantom motor sensation increased. There was also a positive correlation between intensity of phantom motor sensation and electromyographic activity on deltoids at the patient’s stump. These results suggest that phantom motor sensation and electromyographic activity on the stump depend on visuomotor synchrony and top-down effects.

  18. A possible variant of Bouveret's syndrome presenting as a duodenal stump obstruction by a gallstone after Roux-en-Y gastrectomy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Shruti

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bouveret's syndrome is characterized by gastric outlet obstruction due to a gallstone in the duodenum, usually in association with a cholecystoduodenal fistula. Case presentation We report the case of a 69-year-old Caucasian man who developed duodenal stump obstruction due to an impacted gallstone after having previously undergone Roux-en-Y gastrectomy. Conclusions Duodenal stump obstruction after Roux-en-Y gastrectomy is rare, and may be difficult to manage. Patients who present with upper gastrointestinal or pancreatobiliary pathology after previous gastric surgery should be managed in centres with the availability of appropriate endoscopic and surgical experience.

  19. Preliminary clinical applications of DTI in human cervical spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Ting; Mai Weiwen; Liang Biling; Shen Jun; Huang Suiqiao; Hu Chunhong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To condcut preliminary study of the value of DTI(diffusion tensor imaging) in human cervical spinal cord. Methods: Twenty-one patients suffering from cervical spondylotic myelopathy and twenty volunteers without any clinical symptoms underwent routine MRI and DTI examination. DTI was performed in six non-collinear directions with single-shot fast spin echo echo, planar imaging sequence(b value = 400 s·mm -2 ). ADC(apparent diffusion coefficient) and FA(fractional anisotropy)values were measured by ROIs(regions of interest) in 4 different level segment spinal cord (C 2/3 , C 3/4 , C 4/5 , C 5/6 ) in normal volunteers, in lesions and normal segmental spinal cord in clinical cases respectively. DTI original images were automatically processed by using IDL (Version 5.6) soft- ware to produce color tensor images. SPSS11.0 software for windows was used for t-test and one-way ANOVA analysis. The difference was considered statistically significant if P 2/3 , C 3/4 , C 4/5 , C 5/6 , were analyzed and it was found that FA value between them had a significant difference by ANOVA, F=159.24, P 2/3 level. However, ADC value between 4 segments had no significant difference(F=2.191, P>0.05). (2)In patients of cervical spondylotic myelopathy, routine MRI T2WI showed abnormal signal in 9 cases, and showed no abnormal signal in 12 dases. In sixteen cases it was found that abnormal patchy green signal on colorized tensor maps appeared on the normal blue spinal cord. Also, in patients of cervical spondylotic myelopathy, there was significant difference in ADC and FA value between lesions and normal spinal cord (paired t test, for ADC, t=2.88, P 2/3 level segment spinal cord in normal volunteers (0.85 ± 0.03) is the highest among other segments. FA value decreases gradually along cervical spinal cord towards the caudal direction. However, the difference of ADC values amongst 4 segments is not significant. DTI colorized tensor maps can show more lesions than routine MRI

  20. Nuclear magnetic imaging for MTRA. Spinal canal and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsch, Dominik; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus

    2011-01-01

    The booklet covers the following topics: (1) Clinical indications for NMR imaging of spinal cord and spinal canal; (2) Methodic requirements: magnets and coils, image processing, contrast media: (3) Examination technology: examination conditions, sequences, examination protocols; (4) Disease pattern and indications: diseases of the myelin, the spinal nerves and the spinal canal (infections, tumors, injuries, ischemia and bleedings, malformations); diseases of the spinal cord and the intervertebral disks (degenerative changes, infections, injuries, tumors, malformations).

  1. Adult opossums (Didelphis virginiana) demonstrate near normal locomotion after spinal cord transection as neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X M; Basso, D M; Terman, J R; Bresnahan, J C; Martin, G F

    1998-05-01

    When the thoracic spinal cord of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is transected on postnatal day (PD) 5, the site of injury becomes bridged by histologically recognizable spinal cord and axons which form major long tracts grow through the lesion. In the present study we asked whether opossums lesioned on PD5 have normal use of the hindlimbs as adults and, if so, whether that use is dependent upon axons which grow through the lesion site. The thoracic spinal cord was transected on PD5 and 6 months later, hindlimb function was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale. All animals supported their weight with the hindlimbs and used their hindlimbs normally during overground locomotion. In some cases, the spinal cord was retransected at the original lesion site or just caudal to it 6 months after the original transection and paralysis of the hindlimbs ensued. Surprisingly, however, these animals gradually recovered some ability to support their weight and to step with the hindlimbs. Similar recovery was not seen in animals transected only as adults. In order to verify that descending axons which grew through the lesion during development were still present in the adult animal, opossums subjected to transection of the thoracic cord on PD5 were reoperated and Fast blue was injected several segments caudal to the lesion. In all cases, neurons were labeled rostral to the lesion in each of the spinal and supraspinal nuclei labeled by comparable injections in unlesioned, age-matched controls. The results of orthograde tracing studies indicated that axons which grew through the lesion innervated areas that were appropriate for them. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  2. The effect of systemic PTEN antagonist peptides on axon growth and functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, Yosuke; Park, Dongsun; Abdul-Muneer, P M; Li, Hui; Xu, Bin; Sharma, Kartavya; Smith, George M; Selzer, Michael E; Li, Shuxin

    2014-05-01

    Knockout studies suggest that PTEN limits the regenerative capacities of CNS axons as a dominant antagonist of PI3 kinase, but the transgenic approach is not feasible for treating patients. Although application of bisperoxovanadium may block PTEN function, it is a general inhibitor of phosphotyrosine phosphatases and may target enzymes other than PTEN, causing side effects and preventing firm conclusions about PTEN inhibition on regulating neuronal growth. A pharmacological method to selectively suppress PTEN post-injury could be a valuable strategy for promoting CNS axon regeneration. We identified PTEN antagonist peptides (PAPs) by targeting PTEN critical functional domains and evaluated their efficacy for promoting axon growth. Four PAPs (PAP 1-4) bound to PTEN protein expressed in COS7 cells and blocked PTEN signaling in vivo. Subcutaneous administration of PAPs initiated two days after dorsal over-hemisection injury significantly stimulated growth of descending serotonergic fibers in the caudal spinal cord of adult mice. Systemic PAPs induce significant sprouting of corticospinal fibers in the rostral spinal cord and limited growth of corticospinal axons in the caudal spinal cord. More importantly, PAP treatment enhanced recovery of locomotor function in adult rodents with spinal cord injury. This study may facilitate development of effective therapeutic agents for CNS injuries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Single dose caudal tramadol with bupivacaine and bupivacaine alone in pediatric inguinoscrotal surgeries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A.; Siddiqui, S.Z.; Aftab, S.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the postoperative analgesic effect of Tramadol when given with caudally administered Bupivacaine in children undergoing inguinoscrotal surgeries. A total of 60 children, undergoing inguinoscrotal surgeries, aged from 1 to 12 years, ASA 1 and 2, were included. The patients were divided into two equal groups. The group given Bupivacaine with Tramadol was called group BT and the group which was given only Bupivacaine was labeled as group B. Group BT was given 0.25%, 0.8 ml/kg Bupivacaine and Tramadol 2 mg/kg while the other group B was given 0.25%, 0.8 ml/kg Bupivacaine through caudal route after induction of general anesthesia. No other analgesic was given intraoperatively. The postoperative pain was evaluated by using visual analogue scale/Ocher face scale/CHEOPS and sedation was assessed by 5 points sedation score at immediate postoperative period 1,2,3,4,6,12 and 24 hours. Supplemental analgesia in the form of paracetamol suppositories and syrup ibuprofen was given accordingly. SaO 2, pulse, blood pressure, and motor block were monitored in all the patients. Addition of Tramadol with Bupivacaine resulted in meaningfully increased postoperative analgesic period (16.06 +- 4.04 hours). No other side effects like respiratory depression, pruritus, urinary retention were found in both the groups except for nausea and vomiting. The demand for supplemental analgesia was more in the patients belonging to B group than BT group. The sedation scores were similar in both the groups. The use of Tramadol as an additive with local anesthetics can prolong the postoperative analgesic period when administered caudally. Its use is safe in children. (author)

  4. Megaesophagus in Friesian horses associated with muscular hypertrophy of the caudal esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komine, M; Langohr, I M; Kiupel, M

    2014-09-01

    Friesian horses have a perceived high rate of congenital or hereditary diseases, including megaesophagus, that may lead to choke and death. A retrospective study was performed to determine the prevalence and pathologic characteristics of esophageal disease in 852 horses, including 17 Friesians, that had been necropsied over a 6-year period at the Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health. Forty-two horses had grossly described esophageal lesions (25 muscular hypertrophy, 7 hemorrhage, 6 megaesophagus, 4 erosion/ulceration, 3 obstruction, 2 tears, 2 secondary neoplasms, 2 lymphoid patches, 1 thin wall, 1 esophagitis). Some of these lesions occurred concurrently in the same horse. Ten of these horses died or were euthanatized because of severe esophageal disease (6 megaesophagus causing tears in 2 horses, 3 esophageal obstruction with food bolus, and 1 esophagitis). All 6 horses with megaesophagus were Friesians. No cause for megaesophagus was noted in the necropsy reports; however, 5 of these 6 Friesians had marked caudal esophageal muscular hypertrophy (wall thickness: 1.9 ± 0.3 cm). Microscopic review of the esophagus of these Friesians confirmed smooth muscle hypertrophy, with no obvious fibrosis, degeneration, or loss of myenteric plexi. Unlike the Friesians, the 4 non-Friesian horses with severe esophageal disease had esophageal obstruction with an intraluminal food bolus or severe esophagitis. None had caudal esophageal muscular hypertrophy. It is concluded that in comparison to other horse breeds, Friesians have a higher prevalence of severe esophageal disease, specifically megaesophagus, that is commonly associated with marked caudal muscular hypertrophy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Comparison of Lidocaine and Lidocaine-Meperidine Combination for Caudal Epidural Analgesia in Mares

    OpenAIRE

    BİRİCİK, Halil Selçuk

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare some haemodynamic and clinical parameters and the analgesic, sedative effects of lidocaine and a lidocaine-meperidine combination for caudal epidural analgesia in mares. This study was performed on 12 thoroughbred mares aged 13-24 years. Time to onset of analgesia in the combination group (6.67 ± 0.42 min) was significantly (P < 0.01) lower than in the lidocaine group (12.17 ± 1.05 min). However, duration of analgesia was significantly (P &a...

  6. Pure Laparoscopic Right Hepatectomy Using Modified Liver Hanging Maneuver: Technical Evolution from Caudal Approach Toward Ventral Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hoon

    2018-03-12

    The liver hanging maneuver during right hepatectomy is a useful technique for parenchymal transection. The laparoscopic caudal approach is totally different from the laparoscopic ventral approach because of the direction of parenchymal transection. There are differences in the application and effectiveness of liver hanging maneuver between two approaches. This study evaluated the surgical techniques and outcomes of the ventral approach comparison with the caudal approach in laparoscopic right hemihepatectomy using liver hanging maneuver. From February 2013 to February 2018, 16 patients underwent laparoscopic right hepatectomy using liver hanging maneuver. The caudal approach was used in 10 patients and the ventral approach in six. We adopted a different avascular plane located between the right adrenal gland and the vena cava for the hanging tape placement. In the caudal approach, the liver parenchyma were transected from the caudal to cranial side, pulling the hanging tape caudally. In the ventral approach, the parenchyma were transected from the ventral to the dorsal side, pulling the hanging tape superiorly. The clinical data and patient characteristics of both groups were similar. The median operation time was comparable between the two groups (275 vs. 278 min, p = 0.958). The median blood loss was significantly lower using the ventral approach group than the caudal approach group (375 vs. 190 ml, p = 0.016). The difference in median postoperative hospital stay was not statistically significant (9 vs. 8 days, p = 0.713). This ventral approach with liver hanging maneuver is a feasible and useful technique for laparoscopic right hemihepatectomy.

  7. Mini-open spinal column shortening for the treatment of adult tethered cord syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaee, Michael M; Winkler, Ethan A; Chou, Dean

    2017-10-01

    Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) is a challenging entity characterized by adhesions at the caudal spinal cord that prevent upward movement during growth and result in stretching of the cord with a concomitant constellation of neurologic symptoms. Although growth in height stops in adulthood, some patients still develop progressive symptoms; many underwent detethering as a child or adolescent, resulting in significant scar tissue and re-tethering. Recent strategies have focused on spinal column shortening to reduce tension on the spinal cord without exposing the previous de-tethering site. Mini-open and minimally invasive approaches avoid the large dissection and exposure associated with traditional approaches and are associated with reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stay, and similar outcomes when compared to conventional open approaches. We describe a technique for mini-open spinal column shortening. Using intraoperative navigation pedicle screws were placed at T10, T11, L1, and L2. A mini-open 3-column "egg shell" decancellation osteotomy of T12 was performed through a transpedicular approach with preservation of the superior and inferior endplates. This procedure was performed on a 28year old male with recurrent TCS and neurogenic bladder. Postoperative imaging showed a reduction in spinal column length of 1.5cm and evidence of decreased tension on the spinal cord. At last follow-up he was recovering well with improved urinary function. Spinal column shortening for adult TCS can be safely achieved through a mini-open approach. Future studies should compare the efficacy of this technique to both traditional de-tethering and open spinal column shortening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Maladaptive spinal plasticity opposes spinal learning and recovery in spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Adam R.; Huie, J. Russell; Crown, Eric D.; Baumbauer, Kyle M.; Hook, Michelle A.; Garraway, Sandra M.; Lee, Kuan H.; Hoy, Kevin C.; Grau, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. A mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustai...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow ... recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_ ... Counseling About Media Donate Contact Us Terms of Use Site Map Privacy Statement 312-284-2525 info@ ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By Topic Media Resources ...

  14. Spinal Injury: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EmergencyManual/WhatToDoInMedicalEmergency/Default.aspx?id=258&terms=spinal+injuries. Accessed Jan. 8, 2015. Marx JA, et al. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow ... arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_ ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, ... OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising ... advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD Understanding ... does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat T. George Hornby, PhD, PT Empowering ... Rogers, SW Marguerite David, MSW Kathy Hulse, MSW Physical Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Laura Wehrli, PT ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW Marguerite ... does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD ... Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the chances of regaining feeling and mobility after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow How ... advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. ...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

  11. Characterization of sulfur deposition over the period of industrialization in Japan using sulfur isotope ratio in Japanese cedar tree rings taken from stumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takuya; Tayasu, Ichiro; Takenaka, Chisato

    2015-07-01

    We characterized the sulfur deposition history over the period of industrialization in Japan based on the sulfur isotope ratio (δ(34)S) in tree rings of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) stumps. We analyzed and compared δ(34)S values in the rings from two types of disk samples from 170-year-old stumps that had been cut 5 years earlier (older forest stand) and from 40-year-old living trees (younger forest stand) in order to confirm the validity of using stump disks for δ(34)S analysis. No differences in δ(34)S values by age were found between the sample types, indicating that stump disks can be used for δ(34)S analysis. The δ(34)S profile in tree rings was significantly correlated with anthropogenic SO2 emissions in Japan (r = -0.76, p tree rings serve as a record of anthropogenic sulfur emissions. In addition, the values did not change largely from pre-industrialization to the 1940s (+4.2 to +6.1‰). The values before the 1940s are expected to reflect the background sulfur conditions in Japan and, thus, disks containing rings formed before the 1940s contain information about the natural environmental sulfur, which is useful for biogeochemical studies.

  12. Comparison and Efficacy of LigaSure and Rubber Band Ligature in Closing the Inflamed Cecal Stump in a Rat Model of Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety of either LigaSure or rubber band in closing inflamed appendiceal stump in acute appendicitis has been less investigated. In this study, cecal ligation followed by resecting inflamed cecum was performed to mimic appendectomy in a rat model of acute appendicitis. Rats were sacrificed immediately (Group A and 7 days (Group B after cecal resection, respectively. The cecal stumps were closed by silk ligature (S, 5 mm LigaSure (L, or rubber band (R. Seven days after cecal resection, the LigaSure (BL and silk subgroups (BS had significantly less intra-abdominal adhesion and better laparotomy wound healing than rubber band subgroup (BR. The initial bursting pressure at cecal stump was comparable among the three methods; along with tissue healing process, both BL and BS provided a higher bursting pressure than BR 7 days after appendectomy. BL subgroup had more abundant hydroxyproline deposition than BS and BR subgroup. Furthermore, serum TNF-α in BR group kept persistently increasing along with time after cecal resection. Thus, the finding that LigaSure but not rubber band is safe in sealing off the inflamed cecal stump in rat model of acute appendicitis suggests the possibility of applying LigaSure for appendectomy via single port procedure or natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES.

  13. P4 Stump Approach for Intraoperative Portal Vein Stenting in Pediatric Living Donor Liver Transplantation: An Innovative Technique for a Challenging Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Long; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Huang, Viola; Lin, Ting-Lung; Chan, Yi-Chia; Ou, Hsin-You; Yong, Chee-Chien; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Chih-Che

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of the P4 stump stenting approach for treating portal vein (PV) complications in pediatric living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). PV complications cause significant morbidity and mortality in pediatric LDLT. Biliary atresia in the backdrop of pathological PV hypoplasia and sclerosis heightens the complexity of PV reconstruction. The authors developed a novel approach for intraoperative PV stenting via the graft segment 4 PV stump (P4 stump) to address this challenge. From April 2009 to December 2016, 15 pediatric LDLT recipients (mean age 10.3 ± 5.0 months, mean graft-recipient weight ratio 3.70%) underwent intraoperative stenting for suboptimal PV flow (approach, the incidence of variceal bleeding as a late complication decreased from 7% to zero. The P4 stump stenting approach affords procedural convenience, ease of manipulation, and consistent results with the potential for excellent long-term patency in children despite continued growth. This technique obviates the need for more demanding post-transplant stenting, and may become a substitute for complicated revision surgery, portosystemic shunting, or retransplantation.

  14. Pondering the monoterpene composition of Pinus serotina Michx.: can limonene be used as a chemotaxonomic marker for the identification of old turpentine stumps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Jolie M. Mahfouz; Philip M. Sheridan

    2010-01-01

    Wood samples from old turpentine stumps in Virginia were analyzed by GC-MS to determine if the monoterpene compositions could be used for species identification. Given that limonene is reported to be the predominant monoterpene for pond pine (Pinus serotina Michx.), low relative proportions of limonene in these samples appeared to suggest that these...

  15. Pregnancy and birth after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with normal testicular spermatozoa in a patient with azoospermia and tail stump epididymal sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povlsen, Betina B; Aw, Lin Da; Laursen, Rita J; Esteves, Sandro C; Humaidan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    An intriguing yet perplexing case report of a successful pregnancy and live birth with intracytoplasmic sperm injection using normal testicular sperm, after the finding of azoospermia in the semen analysis and discovering only tail stump abnormal sperm in the epididymis. Case hypothesis: A tail stump sperm defect of genetic origin was suspected. However, after obtaining normal testicular sperm we concluded that obstructive azoospermia, either idiopathic or secondary to multiple minor genital trauma was the plausible scenario. This has rendered the search of previous reports on a similar condition, but none was found. However, it has raised scientific thoughts for future research. Promising future implications: The importance of reporting this case is to alert urologists performing sperm retrieval that healthy and morphologically normal sperm may be found in the testis of azoospermic men with 100% tail stump epididymal sperm. Retrieval of normal testicular sperm obviates the need of a more complex investigation, including sperm electron microscopy. It also offers the possibility of utilizing such gametes for sperm injections rather than abnormal tail stump sperm that may be associated with a poor reproductive outcome.

  16. Electrophysiological functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord hemisection injury following bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation under hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Jianjun

    2012-04-05

    Following successful establishment of a rat model of spinal cord hemisection injury by resecting right spinal cord tissues, bone marrow stem cells were transplanted into the spinal cord lesions via the caudal vein while maintaining rectal temperature at 34 ± 0.5°C for 6 hours (mild hypothermia). Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that astrocytes gathered around the injury site and formed scars at 4 weeks post-transplantation. Compared with rats transplanted with bone marrow stem cells under normal temperature, rats transplanted with bone marrow stem cells under hypothermia showed increased numbers of proliferating cells (bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells), better recovery of somatosensory-evoked and motor-evoked potentials, greater Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scores, and an increased degree of angle in the incline plate test. These findings suggested that hypothermia combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplantation effectively promoted electrical conduction and nerve functional repair in a rat model of spinal cord hemisection injury.

  17. Contribution of Caudal Müllerian Duct Mesenchyme to Prostate Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechka, Hannah; McAuley, Erin M; Lamperis, Sophia M; Paner, Gladell P; Vander Griend, Donald J

    2016-11-15

    A fundamental understanding of prostate development and tissue homeostasis has the high potential to reveal mechanisms for prostate disease initiation and identify novel therapeutic approaches for disease prevention and treatment. Our current understanding of prostate lineage specification stems from the use of developmental model systems that rely upon the embryonic preprostatic urogenital sinus mesenchyme to induce the formation of mature prostate epithelial cells. It is unclear, however, how the urogenital sinus epithelium can derive both adult urethral glands and prostate epithelia. Furthermore, the vast disparity in disease initiation between these two glands highlights key developmental factors that predispose prostate epithelia to hyperplasia and cancer. In this study we demonstrate that the caudal Müllerian duct mesenchyme (CMDM) drives prostate epithelial differentiation and is a key determinant in cell lineage specification between urethral glands and prostate epithelia. Utilizing both human embryonic stem cells and mouse embryonic tissues, we document that the CMDM is capable of inducing the specification of androgen receptor, prostate-specific antigen, NKX3.1, and Hoxb13-positive prostate epithelial cells. These results help to explain key developmental differences between prostate and urethral gland differentiation, and implicate factors secreted by the caudal Müllerian duct as novel targets for prostate disease prevention and treatment.

  18. Caudal duplication syndrome: imaging evaluation of a rare entity in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianshen Hu, BS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several theories have been put forth to explain the complex yet symmetrical malformations and the myriad of clinical presentations of caudal duplication syndrome. Hereby, reported case is a 28-year-old female, gravida 2 para 2, with congenital caudal malformation who has undergone partial reconstructive surgeries in infancy to connect her 2 colons. She presented with recurrent left lower abdominal pain associated with nausea, vomiting, and subsequent feculent anal discharge. Imaging reveals duplication of the urinary bladder, urethra, and colon with with cloacal malformations and fistulae from the left-sided cloaca, uterus didelphys with separate cervices and vaginal canals, right-sided aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta, and dysraphic midline sacrococcygeal defect. Hydronephrosis of the left kidney with left hydroureter and inflammation of one of the colons were suspected to be the cause of the patient’s acute complaints. She improved symptomatically over the course of her hospitalization stay with conservative treatments. The management for this syndrome is individualized and may include surgical intervention to fuse or excise the duplicated organs.

  19. Parametric study of the swimming performance of a fish robot propelled by a flexible caudal fin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, K H; Chong, C W

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to study the swimming performance of fish robots by using a statistical approach. A fish robot employing a carangiform swimming mode had been used as an experimental platform for the performance study. The experiments conducted aim to investigate the effect of various design parameters on the thrust capability of the fish robot with a flexible caudal fin. The controllable parameters associated with the fin include frequency, amplitude of oscillation, aspect ratio and the rigidity of the caudal fin. The significance of these parameters was determined in the first set of experiments by using a statistical approach. A more detailed parametric experimental study was then conducted with only those significant parameters. As a result, the parametric study could be completed with a reduced number of experiments and time spent. With the obtained experimental result, we were able to understand the relationship between various parameters and a possible adjustment of parameters to obtain a higher thrust. The proposed statistical method for experimentation provides an objective and thorough analysis of the effects of individual or combinations of parameters on the swimming performance. Such an efficient experimental design helps to optimize the process and determine factors that influence variability.

  20. Norepinephrine accumulation by the rat caudal artery in the presence of hypertensive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freas, W.; Thompson, D.A.; Hart, J.L.; Muldoon, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    We have partially isolated endogenous factors from canine plasma which inhibit 3 H-norepinephrine (NE) accumulation by the canine saphenous vein. The purpose of this study is to determine if these circulating factors may account for the observed differences in 3 H-NE uptake by hypertensive and normotensive blood vessels. Three models of hypertension were examined in this study. Blood vessels were compared from SHR and WKY rats, deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and control rats, and reduced renal mass (RRM) and control rats. There was no significant difference in 3 H-NE accumulation between blood vessels obtained from RRM and paired control rats. However, both the SHR and DOCA hypertensive caudal arteries and aorta accumulated significantly more 3 H-NE than their corresponding control tissues. There was not a significant change in 3 H-NE accumulation between hypertensive and control vena cava and mesenteric arteries. Normotensive and hypertensive plasma inhibited 3 H-NE accumulation by the rat caudal artery. However, there was not a correlation between blood pressure of plasma donor rats and accumulation of 3 H-NE. Therefore, although there are differences in 3 H-NE accumulation between hypertensive and normotensive blood vessels, plasma does not contain a factor responsible for this observed difference

  1. Sirenomelia phenotype in bmp7;shh compound mutants: a novel experimental model for studies of caudal body malformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Garrido-Allepuz

    Full Text Available Sirenomelia is a severe congenital malformation of the lower body characterized by the fusion of the legs into a single lower limb. This striking external phenotype consistently associates severe visceral abnormalities, most commonly of the kidneys, intestine, and genitalia that generally make the condition lethal. Although the causes of sirenomelia remain unknown, clinical studies have yielded two major hypotheses: i a primary defect in the generation of caudal mesoderm, ii a primary vascular defect that leaves the caudal part of the embryo hypoperfused. Interestingly, Sirenomelia has been shown to have a genetic basis in mice, and although it has been considered a sporadic condition in humans, recently some possible familial cases have been reported. Here, we report that the removal of one or both functional alleles of Shh from the Bmp7-null background leads to a sirenomelia phenotype that faithfully replicates the constellation of external and internal malformations, typical of the human condition. These mutants represent an invaluable model in which we have analyzed the pathogenesis of sirenomelia. We show that the signaling defect predominantly impacts the morphogenesis of the hindgut and the development of the caudal end of the dorsal aortas. The deficient formation of ventral midline structures, including the interlimb mesoderm caudal to the umbilicus, leads to the approximation and merging of the hindlimb fields. Our study provides new insights for the understanding of the mechanisms resulting in caudal body malformations, including sirenomelia.

  2. Efficacy of clonidine as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in children undergoing sub-umbilical surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Parameswari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Caudal epidural analgesia with bupivacaine is very popular in paediatric anaesthesia for providing intra- and postoperative analgesia. Several adjuvants have been used to prolong the action of bupivacaine. We evaluated the efficacy of clonidine added to bupivacaine in prolonging the analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine in children undergoing sub-umbilical surgery. One hundred children, age one to three years, undergoing sub-umbilical surgery, were prospectively randomized to one of two groups: caudal analgesia with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine in normal saline (Group A or caudal analgesia with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine with 1 μg/kg of clonidine in normal saline (Group B. Post-operative pain was assessed for 24 hours using the FLACC scale. The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer in Group B (593.4 ± 423.3 min than in Group A (288.7 ± 259.1 min; P < 0.05. The pain score assessed using FLACC scale was compared between the two groups, and children in Group B had lower pain scores, which was statistically significant. The requirement of rescue medicine was lesser in Group B. Clonidine in a dose of 1 μg/kg added to 0.25% bupivacaine for caudal analgesia, during sub-umbilical surgeries, prolongs the duration of analgesia of bupivacaine, without any side effects.

  3. Caudal regression in adrenocortical dysplasia (acd) mice is caused by telomere dysfunction with subsequent p53-dependent apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlangos, Christopher N; O'Connor, Bridget C; Morley, Madeleine J; Krause, Andrea S; Osawa, Gail A; Keegan, Catherine E

    2009-10-15

    Adrenocortical dysplasia (acd) is a spontaneous autosomal recessive mouse mutation that exhibits a pleiotropic phenotype with perinatal lethality. Mutant acd embryos have caudal truncation, vertebral segmentation defects, hydronephrosis, and limb hypoplasia, resembling humans with Caudal Regression syndrome. Acd encodes Tpp1, a component of the shelterin complex that maintains telomere integrity, and consequently acd mutant mice have telomere dysfunction and genomic instability. While the association between genomic instability and cancer is well documented, the association between genomic instability and birth defects is unexplored. To determine the relationship between telomere dysfunction and embryonic malformations, we investigated mechanisms leading to the caudal dysgenesis phenotype of acd mutant embryos. We report that the caudal truncation is caused primarily by apoptosis, not altered cell proliferation. We show that the apoptosis and consequent skeletal malformations in acd mutants are dependent upon the p53 pathway by genetic rescue of the limb hypoplasia and vertebral anomalies with p53 null mice. Furthermore, rescue of the acd phenotype by p53 deficiency is a dosage-sensitive process, as acd/acd, p53(-/-) double mutants exhibit preaxial polydactyly. These findings demonstrate that caudal dysgenesis in acd embryos is secondary to p53-dependent apoptosis. Importantly, this study reinforces a significant link between genomic instability and birth defects.

  4. Dinosaur speed demon: the caudal musculature of Carnotaurus sastrei and implications for the evolution of South American abelisaurids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Scott Persons

    Full Text Available In the South American abelisaurids Carnotaurus sastrei, Aucasaurus garridoi, and, to a lesser extent Skorpiovenator bustingorryi, the anterior caudal ribs project at a high dorsolateral inclination and have interlocking lateral tips. This unique morphology facilitated the expansion of the caudal hypaxial musculature at the expense of the epaxial musculature. Distinct ridges on the ventrolateral surfaces of the caudal ribs of Aucasaurus garridoi are interpreted as attachment scars from the intra caudofemoralis/ilio-ischiocaudalis septa, and confirm that the M. caudofemoralis of advanced South American abelisaurids originated from a portion of the caudal ribs. Digital muscle models indicate that, relative to its overall body size, Carnotaurus sastrei had a substantially larger M. caudofemoralis than any other theropod yet studied. In most non-avian theropods, as in many extant sauropsids, the M. caudofemoralis served as the primary femoral retractor muscle during the locomotive power stroke. This large investment in the M. caudofemoralis suggests that Carnotaurus sastrei had the potential for great cursorial abilities, particularly short-burst sprinting. However, the tightly interlocking morphology of the anterior caudal vertebrae implies a reduced ability to make tight turns. Examination of these vertebral traits in evolutionary context reveals a progressive sequence of increasing caudofemoral mass and tail rigidity among the Abelisauridae of South America.

  5. Alteration of Na-K pump activity in supersensitive rat caudal artery following 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.K.; Foley, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Contractile response and the Na-K pump activity, measured as ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb-uptake, were determined in caudal artery strips of rats pretreated with 6-OHDA. At 6-7 days after 6-OHDA treatment, the potencies of norepinephrine and serotonin in causing contraction of rat caudal artery were significantly increased by 2.3 - and 1.7 - fold respectively. There was, however, no change in maximum contractile response to either agent. Treatment with 6-OHDA also reduced endogenous catecholamine content of the caudal artery to 7% of the control. Analysis of ouabain-inhibitable 86 Rb-uptake of rat caudal artery by the double-reciprocal plots showed that both the rate of 86 Rb-uptake and the affinity for rubidium were depressed after 6-OHDA treatment. The results indicate that 6-OHDA induced supersensitivity in the rat caudal artery is associated with a decrease in the Na-K pump activity. These data provide additional support to the concept that inhibition of the Na-K pump may result in partial depolarization of the cell membrane which leads to supersensitivity of smooth muscle to excitatory drugs

  6. Evaluation of spinal ultrasound in spinal dysraphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J.A.; Bruyn, R. de; Patel, K.; Thompson, D

    2003-03-01

    AIMS: The aims of this study were to evaluate the role of spinal ultrasound in detecting occult spinal dysraphism (OSD) in neonates and infants, and to determine the degree of agreement between ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-five consecutive infants had spinal ultrasound over 31 months. Of these, 15 patients (age 1 day-7 months, mean 40 days; nine male) had follow-up MRI. Ultrasound and MRI findings were correlated retrospectively. RESULTS: Six out of 15 (40%) ultrasound examinations showed full agreement with MRI, seven of 15 (47%) had partial agreement, and two of 15 (13%) had no agreement. In the present series ultrasound failed to visualize: four of four dorsal dermal sinuses, three of four fatty filum terminales, one of one terminal lipoma, two of four partial sacral agenesis, three of four hydromyelia and one of 10 low-lying cords. CONCLUSION: Agreement between ultrasound and MRI was good, particularly for the detection of low-lying cord (90%). Therefore we recommend ultrasound as a first-line screening test for OSD. If ultrasound is abnormal, equivocal or technically limited, MRI is advised for full assessment.

  7. Congenital spinal malformations; Kongenitale spinale Malformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertl-Wagner, B.B.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2001-12-01

    Congenital spinal malformations form a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders whose pathogenesis is best explained embryologically. Radiologically, it is important to formulate a diagnosis when the disorder first becomes symptomatic. However, it is also crucial to detect complications of the disorder or of the respective therapeutic interventions in the further course of the disease such as hydromyelia or re-tethering after repair of a meningomyelocele. Moreover, once a congenital spinal malformation is diagnosed, associated malformations should be sought after. A possible syndromal classification such as in OEIS- or VACTERL-syndromes should also be considered. (orig.) [German] Kongenitale spinale Malformationen stellen eine komplexe Gruppe an Stoerungen dar, deren Genese sich am einfachsten aus der Embryologie heraus erklaeren laesst. Bei der klinisch-radiologischen Begutachtung ist zunaechst ihre korrekte Klassifikation im Rahmen der Erstdiagnose wichtig. Im weiteren Verlauf ist es jedoch zudem entscheidend, moegliche Komplikationen wie beispielsweise eine Hydromyelie oder ein Wiederanheften des Myelons nach Operation einer Spina bifida aperta zu erkennen. Zudem sollte bei der Diagnosestellung einer kongenitalen spinalen Malformation immer auch auf assoziierte Fehlbildungen, wie z.B. die Diastematomyelie oder das intraspinale Lipom bei der Spina bifida aperta, sowie auf eine moegliche syndromale Einordnung wie beispielsweise beim OEIS-oder VACTERL-Syndrom geachtet werden. (orig.)

  8. First Human Implantation of a Bioresorbable Polymer Scaffold for Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: A Clinical Pilot Study for Safety and Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Nicholas; Hlubek, Randall; Danielson, Jill; Neff, Kristin; Vaickus, Lou; Ulich, Thomas R; Ropper, Alexander E

    2016-08-01

    A porous bioresorbable polymer scaffold has previously been tested in preclinical animal models of spinal cord contusion injury to promote appositional healing, spare white matter, decrease posttraumatic cysts, and normalize intraparenchymal tissue pressure. This is the first report of its human implantation in a spinal cord injury patient during a pilot study testing the safety and feasibility of this technique (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02138110). A 25-year-old man had a T11-12 fracture dislocation sustained in a motocross accident that resulted in a T11 American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grade A traumatic spinal cord injury. He was treated with acute surgical decompression and spinal fixation with fusion, and enrolled in the spinal scaffold study. A 2 × 10 mm bioresorbable scaffold was placed in the spinal cord parenchyma at T12. The scaffold was implanted directly into the traumatic cavity within the spinal cord through a dorsal root entry zone myelotomy at the caudal extent of the contused area. By 3 months, his neurological examination improved to an L1 AIS grade C incomplete injury. At 6-month postoperative follow-up, there were no procedural complications or apparent safety issues related to the scaffold implantation. Although longer-term follow-up and investigation are required, this case demonstrates that a polymer scaffold can be safely implanted into an acutely contused spinal cord. This is the first human surgical implantation, and future outcomes of other patients in this clinical trial will better elucidate the safety and possible efficacy profile of the scaffold. AIS, American Spinal Injury Association Impairment ScaleSCI, spinal cord injurytSCI, traumatic spinal cord injury.

  9. Imaging in spinal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van [Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, University of Antwerp, Belgium, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Algemeen Ziekenhuis Maria Middelares, Department of Radiology, Sint-Niklaas (Belgium); Maes, Menno; Oezsarlak, Oezkan; Hauwe, Luc van den; Parizel, Paul M. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, University of Antwerp, Belgium, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium)

    2005-03-01

    Because it may cause paralysis, injury to the spine is one of the most feared traumas, and spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability. In the USA approximately 10,000 traumatic cervical spine fractures and 4000 traumatic thoracolumbar fractures are diagnosed each year. Although the number of individuals sustaining paralysis is far less than those with moderate or severe brain injury, the socioeconomic costs are significant. Since most of the spinal trauma patients survive their injuries, almost one out of 1000 inhabitants in the USA are currently being cared for partial or complete paralysis. Little controversy exists regarding the need for accurate and emergent imaging assessment of the traumatized spine in order to evaluate spinal stability and integrity of neural elements. Because clinicians fear missing occult spine injuries, they obtain radiographs for nearly all patients who present with blunt trauma. We are influenced on one side by fear of litigation and the possible devastating medical, psychologic and financial consequences of cervical spine injury, and on the other side by pressure to reduce health care costs. A set of clinical and/or anamnestic criteria, however, can be very useful in identifying patients who have an extremely low probability of injury and who consequently have no need for imaging studies. Multidetector (or multislice) computed tomography (MDCT) is the preferred primary imaging modality in blunt spinal trauma patients who do need imaging. Not only is CT more accurate in diagnosing spinal injury, it also reduces imaging time and patient manipulation. Evidence-based research has established that MDCT improves patient outcome and saves money in comparison to plain film. This review discusses the use, advantages and disadvantages of the different imaging techniques used in spinal trauma patients and the criteria used in selecting patients who do not need imaging. Finally an overview of different types of spinal injuries is given

  10. Imaging in spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van; Maes, Menno; Oezsarlak, Oezkan; Hauwe, Luc van den; Parizel, Paul M.

    2005-01-01

    Because it may cause paralysis, injury to the spine is one of the most feared traumas, and spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability. In the USA approximately 10,000 traumatic cervical spine fractures and 4000 traumatic thoracolumbar fractures are diagnosed each year. Although the number of individuals sustaining paralysis is far less than those with moderate or severe brain injury, the socioeconomic costs are significant. Since most of the spinal trauma patients survive their injuries, almost one out of 1000 inhabitants in the USA are currently being cared for partial or complete paralysis. Little controversy exists regarding the need for accurate and emergent imaging assessment of the traumatized spine in order to evaluate spinal stability and integrity of neural elements. Because clinicians fear missing occult spine injuries, they obtain radiographs for nearly all patients who present with blunt trauma. We are influenced on one side by fear of litigation and the possible devastating medical, psychologic and financial consequences of cervical spine injury, and on the other side by pressure to reduce health care costs. A set of clinical and/or anamnestic criteria, however, can be very useful in identifying patients who have an extremely low probability of injury and who consequently have no need for imaging studies. Multidetector (or multislice) computed tomography (MDCT) is the preferred primary imaging modality in blunt spinal trauma patients who do need imaging. Not only is CT more accurate in diagnosing spinal injury, it also reduces imaging time and patient manipulation. Evidence-based research has established that MDCT improves patient outcome and saves money in comparison to plain film. This review discusses the use, advantages and disadvantages of the different imaging techniques used in spinal trauma patients and the criteria used in selecting patients who do not need imaging. Finally an overview of different types of spinal injuries is given

  11. Continuous spinal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James M

    2009-01-01

    Continuous spinal anesthesia (CSA) is an underutilized technique in modern anesthesia practice. Compared with other techniques of neuraxial anesthesia, CSA allows incremental dosing of an intrathecal local anesthetic for an indefinite duration, whereas traditional single-shot spinal anesthesia usually involves larger doses, a finite, unpredictable duration, and greater potential for detrimental hemodynamic effects including hypotension, and epidural anesthesia via a catheter may produce lesser motor block and suboptimal anesthesia in sacral nerve root distributions. This review compares CSA with other anesthetic techniques and also describes the history of CSA, its clinical applications, concerns regarding neurotoxicity, and other pharmacologic implications of its use. CSA has seen a waxing and waning of its popularity in clinical practice since its initial description in 1907. After case reports of cauda equina syndrome were reported with the use of spinal microcatheters for CSA, these microcatheters were withdrawn from clinical practice in the United States but continued to be used in Europe with no further neurologic sequelae. Because only large-bore catheters may be used in the United States, CSA is usually reserved for elderly patients out of concern for the risk of postdural puncture headache in younger patients. However, even in younger patients, sometimes the unique clinical benefits and hemodynamic stability involved in CSA outweigh concerns regarding postdural puncture headache. Clinical scenarios in which CSA may be of particular benefit include patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing lower extremity surgery and obstetric patients with complex heart disease. CSA is an underutilized technique in modern anesthesia practice. Perhaps more accurately termed fractional spinal anesthesia, CSA involves intermittent dosing of local anesthetic solution via an intrathecal catheter. Where traditional spinal anesthesia involves a single injection with a

  12. Origin of excitation underlying locomotion in the spinal circuit of zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklöf-Ljunggren, Emma; Haupt, Sabine; Ausborn, Jessica; Dehnisch, Ivar; Uhlén, Per; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; El Manira, Abdeljabbar

    2012-01-01

    Neural circuits in the spinal cord transform instructive signals from the brain into well-coordinated locomotor movements by virtue of rhythm-generating components. Although evidence suggests that excitatory interneurons are the essence of locomotor rhythm generation, their molecular identity and the assessment of their necessity have remained unclear. Here we show, using larval zebrafish, that V2a interneurons represent an intrinsic source of excitation necessary for the normal expression of the locomotor rhythm. Acute and selective ablation of these interneurons increases the threshold of induction of swimming activity, decreases the burst frequency, and alters the coordination of the rostro–caudal propagation of activity. Thus, our results argue that V2a interneurons represent a source of excitation that endows the spinal circuit with the capacity to generate locomotion. PMID:22431619

  13. When two equals three: developmental osteology and homology of the caudal skeleton in carangid fishes (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Eric J; Johnson, G David

    2007-01-01

    Ontogeny often provides the most compelling evidence for primary homology in evolutionary developmental studies and is critical to interpreting complex structures in a phylogenetic context. As an example of this, we document the ontogenetic development of the caudal skeleton of Caranx crysos by examining a series of cleared and stained larval and postlarval specimens. By studying ontogeny, we are able to more accurately identify some elements of the adult caudal skeleton than is possible when studying the adult stage alone. The presence of two epurals has been used as a synapomorphy of Caranginae (homoplastically present in the scomberoidine genera Scomberoides and Oligoplites). Here we find that three epurals (ep) are present in larvae and small postlarval juveniles (i.e.,osteology of the caudal skeleton of carangoid fishes generally and emphasize the power and importance of ontogeny in the identification of primary homology.

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics at the lumbosacral level in patients with spinal stenosis: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Se-Woong; Lee, Hack-Jin; Nam, Koong-Ho; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Kim, Kwang Dong; Jeong, Eun-Jin; Chung, Sun G; Kim, Keewon; Kim, Dong-Joo

    2017-01-01

    Spinal stenosis is a common degenerative condition. However, how neurogenic claudication develops has not been clearly elucidated. Moreover, cerebrospinal fluid physiology at the lumbosacral level has not received adequate attention. This study was conducted to compare cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics at the lumbosacral spinal level between patients with spinal stenosis and healthy controls. Twelve subjects (four patients and eight healthy controls; 25-77 years old; seven males) underwent phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging to quantify cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. The cerebrospinal fluid flow velocities were measured at the L2 and S1 levels. All subjects were evaluated at rest and after walking (to provoke neurogenic claudication in the patients). The caudal peak flow velocity in the sacral spine (-0.25 ± 0.28 cm/s) was attenuated compared to that in the lumbar spine (-0.93 ± 0.46 cm/s) in both patients and controls. The lumbar caudal peak flow velocity was slower in patients (-0.65 ± 0.22 cm/s) than controls (-1.07 ± 0.49 cm/s) and this difference became more pronounced after walking (-0.66 ± 0.37 cm/s in patients, -1.35 ± 0.52 cm/s in controls; p = 0.028). The sacral cerebrospinal fluid flow after walking was barely detectable in patients (caudal peak flow velocity: -0.09 ± 0.03 cm/s). Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in the lumbosacral spine were more attenuated in patients with spinal stenosis than healthy controls. After walking, the patients experiencing claudication did not exhibit an increase in the cerebrospinal fluid flow rate as the controls did. Altered cerebrospinal fluid dynamics may partially explain the pathophysiology of spinal stenosis. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:104-112, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Evaluation of caudal dexamethasone with ropivacaine for post-operative analgesia in paediatric herniotomies: A randomised controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Choudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Caudal analgesia is one of the most popular regional blocks in paediatric patients undergoing infra-umbilical surgeries but with the drawback of short duration of action after single shot local anaesthetic injection. We evaluated whether caudal dexamethasone 0.1 mg/kg as an adjuvant to the ropivacaine improved analgesic efficacy after paediatric herniotomies. Methods: Totally 128 patients of 1–5 years age group, American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I and II undergoing elective inguinal herniotomy were randomly allocated to two groups in double-blind manner. Group A received 1 ml/kg of 0.2% ropivacaine caudally and Group B received 1 ml/kg of 0.2% ropivacaine, in which 0.1 mg/kg dexamethasone was added for caudal analgesia. Post operative pain by faces, legs, activity, cry and consolability tool score, rescue analgesic requirement and adverse effects were noted for 24 h. Results: Results were statistically analysed using Student's t-test. Pain scores measured at 1, 2, 4, and 6 h post-operative, were lower in Group B as compared to Group A. Mean duration of analgesia in Group A was 248.4 ± 54.1 min and in Group B was 478.046 ± 104.57 min with P = 0.001. Rescue analgesic requirement was more in Group A as compared to Group B. Adverse effects after surgery were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: Caudal dexamethasone added to ropivacaine is a good alternative to prolong post-operative analgesia with less pain score compared to caudal ropivacaine alone.

  16. Depression and Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Urinary Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Depression and Spinal Cord Injury [ Download this pamphlet: “Depression and Spinal Cord Injury” (PDF - 477KB)] Depression is a common illness that ...

  17. What Is Spinal Cord Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Condition Information Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Spinal Cord Injury (SCI): Condition Information What is SCI? SCI is ... 3 National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Spinal cord injury: Hope through research. Retrieved June 19 , 2013 , from ...

  18. Overview of Spinal Cord Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blockage of the Spinal Cord’s Blood Supply Cervical Spondylosis Compression of the Spinal Cord Hereditary Spastic Paraparesis ... compressed by bone (which may result from cervical spondylosis or a fracture), an accumulation of blood (hematoma), ...

  19. Spinal vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krings, Timo [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany); Mull, Michael; Thron, Armin [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Gilsbach, Joachim M. [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Spinal vascular malformations are rare diseases that consist of true inborn cavernomas and arteriovenous malformations (including perimedullary fistulae, glomerular and juvenile AVMs) and presumably acquired dural arteriovenous fistulae. This review article gives an overview of the imaging features both on MRI and angiography, the differential diagnoses, the clinical symptomatology and the potential therapeutic approaches to these diseases. It is concluded that MRI is the diagnostic modality of first choice in suspected spinal vascular malformation and should be complemented by selective spinal angiography. Treatment in symptomatic patients offers an improvement in the prognosis, but should be performed in specialized centers. Patients with spinal cord cavernomas and perimedullary fistulae type I are surgical candidates. Dural arteriovenous fistulae can either be operated upon or can be treated by an endovascular approach, the former being a simple, quick and secure approach to obliterate the fistula, while the latter is technically demanding. In spinal arteriovenous malformations, the endovascular approach is the method of first choice; in selected cases, a combined therapy might be sensible. (orig.)

  20. Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

  1. Secuencia de displasia caudal: Estudio clínico y radiológico de un paciente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Arévalo Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La secuencia de displasia caudal (SDC, denominada también síndrome de regresión caudal y síndrome de agenesia sacra, es una malformación congénita poco frecuente, que incluye principalmente agenesia con extensión variable de cuerpos vertebrales distales lumbosacrococcígeos y/o sacrococcígeos. En este trabajo se presentan criterios diagnósticos por imagen, clasificación y estudio de un caso clínico.

  2. Successful Endovascular Occlusion of a Ruptured Distal Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysm of the Caudal Trunk: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H.-S.; Roh, H.G.; Han, M.H.; Koh, Y.-C.

    2007-01-01

    Summary We report a rare case of a ruptured distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (possibly dissecting) aneurysm of the caudal trunk, successfully treated by endovascular occlusion. A 41-year-old man presented with sudden severe headache and drowsiness. On the day of ictus, conventional angiography was performed to make the above diagnosis, followed by endovascular occlusion of the sac and the parent artery. The patient recovered completely without any neurologic deficit after treatment. Endovascular occlusion could be a safe and effective treatment option in a case of a ruptured distal AICA aneurysm of the caudal trunk. PMID:20566118

  3. MRI characteristics of spinal ependymoma in WHO grade II: a review of 59 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Imagama, Shiro; Kato, Fumihiko; Kanemura, Tokumi; Sato, Koji; Kamiya, Mitsuhiro; Ando, Kei; Ito, Kenyu; Tsushima, Mikito; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Morozumi, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Machino, Masaaki; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-11-20

    Retrospective multicenter study. The goal of this study is to determine the characteristic imaging features of spinal ependymoma in a review of MRI data for a large series of surgically proven cases. Common spinal intramedullary neoplasms are mostly ependymomas and comprise 50-60% of spinal neuroepithelial tumors in adults. Preoperative prediction of the pathological diagnosis could enhance surgical planning and explanation of the procedure to patients. However, these types of tumors exhibit a variety of MRI findings. Records were examined for 59 patients who underwent surgery for spinal cord ependymoma and had a pathological diagnosis of cellular ependymoma of WHO classification grade II. The ependymomas included 28 in the cervical spine, 34 in the thoracic spine, and 3 conus lesions. All cases were isointense or hypointense on T1-weighted MRI, and 55 (93%) were hyperintense on T2-weighted MRI. Tumors were located centrally in all cases; 50 (85%) showed surrounding cord edema; and 52 (88%) had associated cysts, including 36 (61%) rostral or caudal cysts, 10 (17%) intratumoral cysts, and 6 (10%) with syringomyelia. Of the 59 tumors, 17 (29%) showed the "cap sign", a rim of extreme hypointensity seen around the tumor on T2-weighted images, due to hemosiderin. In gadolinium-enhanced MRI, all cases were enhanced, and 27 (46%), 16 (27%), 11 (19%), and 5 (8%) cases showed homogeneous, heterogeneous, rim and nodular enhancement, respectively. Hypointense changes on T2-weighted MRI and hemosiderin deposition reflect easy bleeding. Tumors are associated with various types of cysts, and gadolinium-enhancement patterns reflect a variety of intratumor cellular components. In cases in which the whole tumor shows gadolinium enhancement on MRI, rostral or caudal cyst and a cap sign with hemorrhage are characteristics of grade II classical ependymoma. 3.

  4. Speed dependency in α-motoneuron activity and locomotor modules in human locomotion: indirect evidence for phylogenetically conserved spinal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hikaru; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Shinya, Masahiro; Kawashima, Noritaka; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2017-03-29

    Coordinated locomotor muscle activity is generated by the spinal central pattern generators (CPGs). Vertebrate studies have demonstrated the following two characteristics of the speed control mechanisms of the spinal CPGs: (i) rostral segment activation is indispensable for achieving high-speed locomotion; and (ii) specific combinations between spinal interneuronal modules and motoneuron (MN) pools are sequentially activated with increasing speed. Here, to investigate whether similar control mechanisms exist in humans, we examined spinal neural activity during varied-speed locomotion by mapping the distribution of MN activity in the spinal cord and extracting locomotor modules, which generate basic MN activation patterns. The MN activation patterns and the locomotor modules were analysed from multi-muscle electromyographic recordings. The reconstructed MN activity patterns were divided into the following three patterns depending on the speed of locomotion: slow walking, fast walking and running. During these three activation patterns, the proportion of the activity in rostral segments to that in caudal segments increased as locomotion speed increased. Additionally, the different MN activation patterns were generated by distinct combinations of locomotor modules. These results are consistent with the speed control mechanisms observed in vertebrates, suggesting phylogenetically conserved spinal mechanisms of neural control of locomotion. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Radiography used to measure internal spinal cord deformation in an in vivo rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, E; Whyte, T; Liu, J; Tetzlaff, W; Cripton, P A

    2018-04-11

    Little is known about the internal mechanics of the in vivo spinal cord during injury. The objective of this study was to develop a method of tracking internal and surface deformation of in vivo rat spinal cord during compression using radiography. Since neural tissue is radio-translucent, radio-opaque markers were injected into the spinal cord. Two tantalum beads (260 µm) were injected into the cord (dorsal and ventral) at C5 of nine anesthetized rats. Four beads were glued to the lateral surface of the cord, caudal and cranial to the injection site. A compression plate was displaced 0.5 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm into the spinal cord and lateral X-ray images were taken before, during, and after each compression for measuring bead displacements. Potential bead migration was monitored for by comparing displacements of the internal and glued surface beads. Dorsal beads moved significantly more than ventral beads with a range in averages of 0.57-0.71 mm and 0.31-0.35 mm respectively. Bead displacements during 0.5 mm compressions were significantly lower than 2 mm and 3 mm compressions. There was no statistically significant migration of the internal beads. The results indicate the merit of this technique for measuring in vivo spinal cord deformation. The pattern of bead displacements illustrates the complex internal and surface deformations of the spinal cord during transverse compression. This information is needed for validating physical and finite element spinal cord surrogates and to define relationships between loading parameters, internal cord deformation, and biological and functional outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Agmatine Modulates the Phenotype of Macrophage Acute Phase after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jae Young; Mun, Chin Hee; Suh, Minah; Lee, Jong Eun

    2017-10-01

    Agmatine is a decarboxylated arginine by arginine decarboxylase. Agmatine is known to be a neuroprotective agent. It has been reported that agmatine works as a NMDA receptor blocker or a competitive nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in CNS injuries. In spinal cord injury, agmatine showed reduction of neuropathic pain, improvement of locomotor function, and neuroprotection. Macrophage is a key cellular component in neuroinflammation, a major cause of impairment after spinal cord injury. Macrophage has subtypes, M1 and M2 macrophages. M1 macrophage induces a pro-inflammatory response, but M2 inspires an anti-inflammatory response. In this study, it was clarified whether the neuroprotective effect of agmatine is related with the modulation of macrophage subdivision after spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury was induced in rats with contusion using MASCIS. Animals received agmatine (100 mg/kg, IP) daily for 6 days beginning the day after spinal cord injury. The proportion of M1 and M2 macrophages are confirmed with immunohistochemistry and FACS. CD206 + & ED1 + cells were counted as M2 macrophages. The systemic treatment of agmatine increased M2 macrophages caudal side to epicenter 1 week after spinal cord injury in immunohistochemistry. M2 macrophage related markers, Arginase-1 and CD206 mRNA, were increased in the agmatine treatment group and M2 macrophage expressing and stimulated cytokine, IL-10 mRNA, also was significantly overexpressed by agmatine injection. Among BMPs, BMP2/4/7, agmatine significantly increased only the expression of BMP2 known to reduce M1 macrophage under inflammatory status. These results suggest that agmatine reduces impairment after spinal cord injury through modulating the macrophage phenotype.

  7. Potentialities of spinal liquor scanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlakhov, N.; Vylkanov, P.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that spinal liquor scanography is a harmless and informative method for the examination of patients, permitting to detect injury foci for spinal cord tumours in 90% cases, for acute injuries of the vertebral column and spinal cord in 89.5% cases, for herniation of nucleus pulposus in 81% cases. The method of spinal liquor scanography can be used in neurology and neurosurgery to select the method of treatment and to evaluate its efficiency

  8. Diagnostic strategies in spinal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, Uwe [Institut fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Klinikum Aschaffenburg, Am Hasenkopf 1, 63739 Aschaffenburg (Germany); Freund, Michael [Institut fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Klinikum Aschaffenburg, Am Hasenkopf 1, 63739 Aschaffenburg (Germany)]. E-mail: michael.freund@klinikum-aschaffenburg.de

    2006-04-15

    Spinal injuries may result in severe neurological deficits, especially if nerve roots or even the spinal cord are affected. Besides presenting the important anatomical and technical basis underlying the imaging findings of spinal injuries, the trauma mechanisms and the resulting injuries are discussed. Based on the current literature and recommendations of scientific organizations, an approach is provided to the radiologic work up of spinal trauma. The different imaging modalities are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are discussed.

  9. Diagnostic strategies in spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, Uwe; Freund, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Spinal injuries may result in severe neurological deficits, especially if nerve roots or even the spinal cord are affected. Besides presenting the important anatomical and technical basis underlying the imaging findings of spinal injuries, the trauma mechanisms and the resulting injuries are discussed. Based on the current literature and recommendations of scientific organizations, an approach is provided to the radiologic work up of spinal trauma. The different imaging modalities are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are discussed

  10. Unique caudal plumage of Jeholornis and complex tail evolution in early birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jingmai; Wang, Xiaoli; Sullivan, Corwin; Zheng, Xiaoting; Tubaro, Pablo; Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Zhonghe

    2013-10-22

    The Early Cretaceous bird Jeholornis was previously only known to have a distally restricted ornamental frond of tail feathers. We describe a previously unrecognized fan-shaped tract of feathers situated dorsal to the proximal caudal vertebrae. The position and morphology of these feathers is reminiscent of the specialized upper tail coverts observed in males of some sexually dimorphic neornithines. As in the neornithine tail, the unique "two-tail" plumage in Jeholornis probably evolved as the result of complex interactions between natural and sexual selective pressures and served both aerodynamic and ornamental functions. We suggest that the proximal fan would have helped to streamline the body and reduce drag whereas the distal frond was primarily ornamental. Jeholornis reveals that tail evolution was complex and not a simple progression from frond to fan.

  11. Fluoroscopically guided tunneled trans-caudal epidural catheter technique for opioid-free neonatal epidural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Andrew D; Hughes, Elisabeth M

    2016-06-01

    Epidural analgesia confers significant perioperative advantages to neonates undergoing surgical procedures but may be very technically challenging to place using a standard interlaminar loss-of-resistance to saline technique given the shallow depth of the epidural space. Thoracic epidural catheters placed via the caudal route may reduce the risk of direct neural injury from needle placement, but often pose higher risks of infection and/or improper positioning if placed without radiographic guidance. We present a detailed method of placing a fluoroscopically guided, tunneled transcaudal epidural catheter, which may reduce both of these risks. The accuracy and precision of this technique often provides adequate analgesia to allow for opioid-free epidural infusions as well as significant reductions in systemic opioids through the perioperative period. Opioid-free analgesia using a regional anesthetic technique allows for earlier extubation and reduced perioperative sedation, which may have a less deleterious neurocognitive effect on the developing brain of the neonate.

  12. Acute traumatic brain-stem hemorrhage produced by sudden caudal displacement of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirvis, S.E.; Wolf, A.L.; Thompson, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines in an experimental canine study and a clinical review, whether acute caudal displacement of the brain following blunt trauma produces hemorrhage in the rostral anterior midline of the brain stem by tethering the basilar to the fixed carotid arteries. In four dogs, a balloon catheter was suddenly inflated over the frontal lobe; in two, the carotid-basilar vascular connections were severed prior to balloon inflation. ICP was monitored during and after balloon inflation. Hemorrhage was verified by MR imaging and direct inspection of the fixed brain specimens. Admission CT scans demonstrating acute traumatic brain stem hemorrhage (TBH) in human patients were reviewed to determine the site of TBH, predominant site of impact, and neurologic outcome

  13. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, K.; Gronseth, G.; Aldrich, M.; Williams, A.

    1982-11-01

    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was caused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunosuppressed cancer patient.

  14. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, K.; Gronseth, G.; Aldrich, M.; Williams, A.

    1982-01-01

    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was cauused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunsupporessed cancer patient. (orig.)

  15. Spinal segmental dysgenesis CASE SERIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinal segmental dysgenesis is a rare congenital spinal abnormality seen in neonates and infants, in which a segment of the spine and spinal cord fails to develop normally. The condition is segmental in nature, with vertebrae above and below the malformation. It is commonly associated with various abnormalities that ...

  16. Spinal CT scan, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    Plain CT described fairly accurately the anatomy and lesions of the lumbar and sacral spines on their transverse sections. Since hernia of the intervertebral disc could be directly diagnosed by CT, indications of myelography could be restricted. Spinal-canal stenosis of the lumbar spine occurs because of various factors, and CT not only demonstrated the accurate size and morphology of bony canals, but also elucidated thickening of the joints and yellow ligament. CT was also useful for the diagnosis of tumors in the lumbar and sacral spines, visualizing the images of bone changes and soft tissues on the trasverse sections. But the diagnosis of intradural tumors required myelography and metrizamide CT. CT has become important for the diagnosis of spinal and spinal-cord diseases and for selection of the route of surgical arrival. (Chiba, N.)

  17. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainwater, Thomas R.; Wu, Ted H.; Finger, Adam G.; Canas, Jaclyn E.; Yu Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D.; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G.; Cobb, George P.; Anderson, Todd A.; McMurry, Scott T.

    2007-01-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE ANALGESIC EFFICACY OF CAUDAL MIDAZOLAM AND CLONIDINE POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalinga Raju A.V.S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Caudal epidural analgesia is one of the most popular regional techniques used in paediatric patients undergoing lower limb, anoperineal and abdominal surgical procedures for postoperative pain relief. The aim of postoperative pain relief is to provide subjective comfort and inhibit trauma-induced nociceptive impulses to blunt autonomic and reflex responses to pain and subsequently to enhance the restoration of function. Caudal epidural analgesia though practiced widely is of short duration even when used with long-acting local anaesthetics. MATERIALS AND METHODS Children of either sex undergoing elective hernia or hydrocele surgery within in the age group of 2-8 years belonging to ASA I and II were included in the study. Informed consent was obtained from the parents before procedure. RESULTS The duration of analgesia in the study group was 10.14 ± 4.69 hrs. and 6.83 ± 0.79 hrs. in the clonidine group and midazolam group. Duration of analgesia in clonidine group was significantly longer when compared to with midazolam group with a p value of <0.05. Sedation Score- There was decrease in heart rate and mean arterial pressure from baseline, but these were under allowable limits of 20%. The patient had pain scores of less than 8 for first 6-8 hrs. The patients were well sedated and were easily arousable. CONCLUSION We conclude that in our study we found that clonidine 8 μg/kg provided good analgesia for a longer duration when compared with midazolam. Clonidine also provided good sedation with minimal haemodynamic variations. This is in agreement with studies conducted to know haemodynamic stability with higher doses of clonidine.

  19. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.rainwater@tiehh.ttu.edu; Wu, Ted H. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Yu Lu [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Reynolds, Kevin D. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Barr, Brady [National Geographic Channel, 1145 17th St. NW Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States); Cobb, George P. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  20. Overlapping representations for reach depth and direction in caudal superior parietal lobule of macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bo', Giulia; Breveglieri, Rossella; Galletti, Claudio; Fattori, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Reaching movements in the real world have typically a direction and a depth component. Despite numerous behavioral studies, there is no consensus on whether reach coordinates are processed in separate or common visuomotor channels. Furthermore, the neural substrates of reach depth in parietal cortex have been ignored in most neurophysiological studies. In the medial posterior parietal area V6A, we recently demonstrated the strong presence of depth signals and the extensive convergence of depth and direction information on single neurons during all phases of a fixate-to-reach task in 3-dimensional (3D) space. Using the same task, in the present work we examined the processing of direction and depth information in area PEc of the caudal superior parietal lobule (SPL) in three Macaca fascicularis monkeys. Across the task, depth and direction had a similar, high incidence of modulatory effect. The effect of direction was stronger than depth during the initial fixation period. As the task progressed toward arm movement execution, depth tuning became more prominent than directional tuning and the number of cells modulated by both depth and direction increased significantly. Neurons tuned by depth showed a small bias for far peripersonal space. Cells with directional modulations were more frequently tuned toward contralateral spatial locations, but ipsilateral space was also represented. These findings, combined with results from neighboring areas V6A and PE, support a rostral-to-caudal gradient of overlapping representations for reach depth and direction in SPL. These findings also support a progressive change from visuospatial (vergence angle) to somatomotor representations of 3D space in SPL. PMID:26269557

  1. Spinal Neurocysticercosis: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaya P, Melina; Roa, Jose L

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent parasitic illness of the central nervous system caused by the larval form of Taenia solium and its considered to be endemic in Latin America. Its diagnosis is based on imaging findings and epidemiological data; although its diagnosis can be made through the detection of specific IgG antibodies, these tests have limited availability in our environment. Central nervous system involvement is generally observed in the brain parenchyma, and less commonly in the ventricular system and subarachnoid space; only infrequently is reported to involve the structures within the spinal canal, in this article we review a case of a patient with spinal cysticercal involvement.

  2. [Congenital spinal malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl-Wagner, B B; Reiser, M F

    2001-12-01

    Congenital spinal malformations form a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders whose pathogenesis is best explained embryologically. Radiologically, it is important to formulate a diagnosis when the disorder first becomes symptomatic. However, it is also crucial to detect complications of the disorder or of the respective therapeutic interventions in the further course of the disease such as hydromyelia or re-tethering after repair of a meningomyelocele. Moreover, once a congenital spinal malformation is diagnosed, associated malformations should be sought after. A possible syndromal classification such as in OEIS- or VACTERL-syndromes should also be considered.

  3. Congenital spinal malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl-Wagner, B.B.; Reiser, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    Congenital spinal malformations form a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders whose pathogenesis is best explained embryologically. Radiologically, it is important to formulate a diagnosis when the disorder first becomes symptomatic. However, it is also crucial to detect complications of the disorder or of the respective therapeutic interventions in the further course of the disease such as hydromyelia or re-tethering after repair of a meningomyelocele. Moreover, once a congenital spinal malformation is diagnosed, associated malformations should be sought after. A possible syndromal classification such as in OEIS- or VACTERL-syndromes should also be considered. (orig.) [de

  4. Craniocaudal motion velocity in the cervical spinal cord in degenerative disease as shown by MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H.; Inaba, F.; Hirabuki, N.; Nakamura, H. [Osaka University Medical School (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Sakurai, K. [Osaka Teishin Hospital (Japan); Iwasaki, M. [Osaka University Medical School, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Harada, K. [Kaizuka Municipal Hospital (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate, by means of MR phase imaging, the effects of compression on the velocity of craniocaudal motion in the spinal cord. Material and Methods: Spin-echo sequences with velocity encoding gradients were used to examine 12 patients with cervical spondylosis and 6 normal volunteers. Oblique-axial phase images at 3 levels (cranial, middle and caudal), were obtained with prospective electrocardiogram gating. The middle level was set at the site where the spinal cord was most severely compressed, and the cranial and caudal sections were set where it was not compressed. Time-velocity curves were generated at these 3 levels and focal velocity change was correlated with motor function in the lower extremities. Results and Conclusion: The cord showed a higher motion velocity at the compression level than at noncompression levels. This paradoxical increase in velocity was observed in 7 out of 8 patients whose lower extremity motor function was impaired. Four patients with normal lower extremity motor function did not demonstrate this increase in velocity. An increase in motion velocity was therefore found to correlate with impaired lower extremity motor function. (orig.).

  5. Maladaptive spinal plasticity opposes spinal learning and recovery in spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R Ferguson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI. Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. The mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustain several forms of learning and memory, including limb-position training. However, not all spinal plasticity promotes recovery of function. Central sensitization of nociceptive (pain pathways in the spinal cord may emerge with certain patterns of activity, demonstrating that plasticity within the spinal cord may contribute to maladaptive pain states. In this review we discuss interactions between adaptive and maladaptive forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord. The literature demonstrates that activity-dependent plasticity within the spinal cord must be carefully tuned to promote adaptive spinal training. Stimulation that is delivered in a limb position-dependent manner or on a fixed interval can induce adaptive plasticity that promotes future spinal cord learning and reduces nociceptive hyper-reactivity. On the other hand, stimulation that is delivered in an unsynchronized fashion, such as randomized electrical stimulation or peripheral skin injuries, can generate maladaptive spinal plasticity that undermines future spinal cord learning, reduces recovery of locomotor function, and promotes nociceptive hyper-reactivity after spinal cord injury. We review these basic phenomena, discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and discuss implications of these findings for improved rehabilitative therapies after spinal cord injury.

  6. Rostral spinal cord segments are sufficient to generate a rhythm for both locomotion and scratching but affect their hip extensor phases differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhao-Zhe; Meier, Megan L; Berkowitz, Ari

    2014-07-01

    Rostral segments of the spinal cord hindlimb enlargement are more important than caudal segments for generating locomotion and scratching rhythms in limbed vertebrates, but the adequacy of rostral segments has not been directly compared between locomotion and scratching. We separated caudal segments from immobilized low-spinal turtles by sequential spinal cord transections. After separation of the caudal four segments of the five-segment hindlimb enlargement, the remaining enlargement segment and five preenlargement segments still produced rhythms for forward swimming and both rostral and pocket scratching. The swimming rhythm frequency was usually maintained. Some animals continued to generate swimming and scratching rhythms even with no enlargement segments remaining, using only preenlargement segments. The preenlargement segments and rostral-most enlargement segment were also sufficient to maintain hip flexor (HF) motoneuron quiescence between HF bursts [which normally occurs during each hip extensor (HE) phase] during swimming. In contrast, the HF-quiescent phase was increasingly absent (i.e., HE-phase deletions) during rostral and pocket scratching. Moreover, respiratory motoneurons that normally burst during HE bursts continued to burst during the HF quiescence of swimming even with the caudal segments separated. Thus the same segments are sufficient to generate the basic rhythms for both locomotion and scratching. These segments are also sufficient to produce a reliable HE phase during locomotion but not during rostral or pocket scratching. We hypothesize that the rostral HE-phase interneurons that rhythmically inhibit HF motoneurons and interneurons are sufficient to generate HF quiescence during HE-biased swimming but not during the more HF-biased rostral and pocket scratching. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Nonenhancing spinal subdural metastatic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirakov, S.; Penev, L.; Georgieva-Kozarova, G.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: We describe a case of a spinal subdural metastatic tumor that became rapidly symptomatic after a minor trauma, as a result of severe cord compression and cord haemorrhage. Spinal subdural hematomas are most commonly caused by anticoagulant therapy, lumbar puncture, blood dyscrasias, spinal trauma, or spinal vascular malformations. Subdural metastatic tumors are very uncommon, and their presentation as spinal subdural hematomas is exceedingly rare. We describe a case of 59 years old woman with quadriparesis and her preoperative findings on MRI and the follow up

  8. Anterior spinal cord syndrome of unknown etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Klakeel, Merrine; Thompson, Justin; Srinivasan, Rajashree; McDonald, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A spinal cord injury encompasses a physical insult to the spinal cord. In the case of anterior spinal cord syndrome, the insult is a vascular lesion at the anterior spinal artery. We present the cases of two 13-year-old boys with anterior spinal cord syndrome, along with a review of the anatomy and vasculature of the spinal cord and an explanation of how a lesion in the cord corresponds to anterior spinal cord syndrome.

  9. Comparison of polymer scaffolds in rat spinal cord: A step toward quantitative assessment of combinatorial approaches to spinal cord repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingkun K.; Knight, Andrew M.; Madigan, Nicolas N.; Gross, LouAnn; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Nesbitt, Jarred J; Rooney, Gemma E.; Currier, Bradford L.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Spinner, Robert J.; Windebank, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The transected rat thoracic (T9/10) spinal cord model is a platform for quantitatively compa0ring biodegradable polymer scaffolds. Schwann cell-loaded scaffolds constructed from poly (lactic co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), poly(ε-caprolactone fumarate) (PCLF), oligo(polyethylene glycol) fumarate (OPF) hydrogel or positively charged OPF (OPF+) hydrogel were implanted into the model. We demonstrated that the mechanical properties (3-point bending and stiffness) of OPF and OPF+ hydrogels closely resembled rat spinal cord. After one month, tissues were harvested and analyzed by morphometry of neurofilament-stained sections at rostral, midlevel, and caudal scaffold. All polymers supported axonal growth. Significantly higher numbers of axons were found in PCLF (P polymers showed more centrally distributed axonal regeneration within the channels while other polymers (PLGA, PCLF and OPF) tended to show more evenly dispersed axons within the channels. The centralized distribution was associated with significantly more axons regenerating (P scaffold was measured and compared. There were significantly smaller cyst volumes in PLGA compared to PCLF groups. The model provides a quantitative basis for assessing individual and combined tissue engineering strategies. PMID:21803415

  10. Activation of serotonergic neurons in the medullary caudal raphe shortens the laryngeal chemoreflex in anaesthetized neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, William T; Xia, Luxi; Bartlett, Donald; Leiter, J C

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does activation of serotonergic neurons in the caudal medullary raphe, some of which project to the nucleus of the solitary tract, shorten the laryngeal chemoreflex? What is the main finding and its importance? We found that serotonin originating from neurons in the caudal raphe acts through a 5-HT 3 receptor located in the nucleus of the solitary tract to terminate reflex apnoea. Failure or deficiency of this arousal-related process is likely to be relevant to the pathogenesis of sudden infant death syndrome. Failure to terminate apnoea and arouse is likely to contribute to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Serotonin is deficient in the brainstems of babies who have died of SIDS. We tested the hypothesis that activation of serotoninergic neurons in the caudal medullary raphe, some of which project to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), would shorten the laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR). We studied anaesthetized neonatal rat pups between postnatal days 9 and 17. We injected 5-40 μl of water into the larynx to elicit the LCR and measured the duration of respiratory disruption. Microinjection of 50 nl of 100 μm AMPA into the caudal medullary raphe shortened the apnoeas (P serotonergic termination of apnoea is likely to be relevant to the pathogenesis of SIDS. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  11. Use of a caudal auricular axial pattern flap in three cats and one dog following orbital exenteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Jean; Townsend, Wendy; Willis, Michelle; Moore, Phillip A; Smith, Eric

    2003-06-01

    Orbital exenteration accompanied by wide eyelid excision in the cat and dog may leave a defect that cannot be closed in a primary fashion. This report describes the use of a caudal auricular axial pattern flap to effect closure following orbital exenteration in three cats and one dog. The most common complication was distal flap necrosis, which necessitated a second surgery in two patients.

  12. Pitch Variability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; van Doorn, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) pitch characteristics of connected speech in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The authors evaluated 16 patients preoperatively and 12 months after DBS surgery. Eight…

  13. Use of skin stretching techniques before bilateral caudal superficial epigastric axial flaps in a dog with severe burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingel, Michelle M; Sakals, Sherisse A

    2017-08-01

    This report describes how 2 days of skin stretching facilitated a tension-free closure of single event bilateral caudal superficial epigastric flaps in a dog with severe hindquarter burns. Full healing at all surgical sites with only minor dehiscence and without further treatment or abnormalities of gait or coat regrowth was achieved.

  14. Developmental regulation of the serotonergic transmitter phenotype in rostral and caudal raphe neurons by transforming growth factor-betas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galter, D; Böttner, M; Unsicker, K

    1999-06-01

    Serotonergic (5-HT) neurons of the CNS develop as two separate clusters, a rostral and a caudal group, within the brain stem raphe. We show here that the transforming growth factors -beta2 and -beta3 (TGF-beta) and the TGF-beta type II receptor are expressed in the embryonic rat raphe, when 5-HT neurons develop and differentiate. To investigate putative roles of TGF-betas in the regulation of 5-HT neuron development we have generated serum-free cultures isolated either from the rostral or the caudal embryonic rat raphe, respectively. In cultures from the caudal E14 raphe saturating concentrations (5 ng/ml) of TGF-beta2 and -beta3 augmented numbers of tryptophan hydroxylase (TpOH) -immunoreactive neurons and cells specifically taking up 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) by about 1.7-fold over a period of 4 days. Treatment with TGF-betas also increased uptake of 3H-5HT uptake about 1.7-fold. Alterations in 5-HT neuron numbers were due to the induction of serotonergic markers rather than increased survival, as shown by the efficacy of delayed short-term treatments. Comparing rostral and caudal raphe cultures from different embryonic ages suggests that distinct effects of TGF-betas reflect the responsiveness of 5-HT neurons at different ages rather than of different origins.

  15. Preventative effect of ondansetron on postanesthesia shivering in children undergoing caudal anesthesia: a randomized double-blinded clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongfei; Wang, Jiangmei; Jin, Ziying; Hu, Yaoqin; Huang, Wenfang

    2016-01-01

    Ondansetron has been shown to decrease postanesthesia shivering in adults, but this effect has never been studied in children. This study aimed to determine whether ondansetron decreases postanesthesia shivering in children undergoing caudal anesthesia. Fifty-nine 8- to 13-y-old children undergoing both intravenous and caudal anesthesia were included. As soon as anesthetization and caudal block were complete, children were given intravenous injections of 4 mg ondansetron or an equal volume of normal saline. Heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation (SpO2), and body temperature were recorded just before application of general anesthesia to children and immediately upon entry into the recovery room after awakening from anesthesia. The shivering score was assessed, using a 4-point scale of severity, immediately upon entry into the recovery room after awakening from anesthesia, 15 min after entry into the recovery room, and 30 min after entry into the recovery room. Treatment with ondansetron was associated with decreased odds of postanesthesia shivering symptoms compared to the control group. There was also a significant decrease in shivering score with time after anesthesia. Ondansetron decreases postanesthesia shivering in children receiving caudal block after intravenous anesthesia.

  16. Capturing the Cranio-Caudal Signature of a Turn with Inertial Measurement Systems: Methods, Parameters Robustness and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Lebel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTurning is a challenging mobility task requiring coordination and postural stability. Optimal turning involves a cranio-caudal sequence (i.e., the head initiates the motion, followed by the trunk and the pelvis, which has been shown to be altered in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease as well as in fallers and frails. Previous studies have suggested that the cranio-caudal sequence exhibits a specific signature corresponding to the adopted turn strategy. Currently, the assessment of cranio-caudal sequence is limited to biomechanical labs which use camera-based systems; however, there is a growing trend to assess human kinematics with wearable sensors, such as attitude and heading reference systems (AHRS, which enable recording of raw inertial signals (acceleration and angular velocity from which the orientation of the platform is estimated. In order to enhance the comprehension of complex processes, such as turning, signal modeling can be performed.AimThe current study investigates the use of a kinematic-based model, the sigma-lognormal model, to characterize the turn cranio-caudal signature as assessed with AHRS.MethodsSixteen asymptomatic adults (mean age = 69.1 ± 7.5 years old performed repeated 10-m Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG with 180° turns, at varying speed. Head and trunk kinematics were assessed with AHRS positioned on each segments. Relative orientation of the head to the trunk was then computed for each trial and relative angular velocity profile was derived for the turn phase. Peak relative angle (variable and relative velocity profiles modeled using a sigma-lognormal approach (variables: Neuromuscular command amplitudes and timing parameters were used to extract and characterize the cranio-caudal signature of each individual during the turn phase.ResultsThe methodology has shown good ability to reconstruct the cranio-caudal signature (signal-to-noise median of 17.7. All variables

  17. Capturing the Cranio-Caudal Signature of a Turn with Inertial Measurement Systems: Methods, Parameters Robustness and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Karina; Nguyen, Hung; Duval, Christian; Plamondon, Réjean; Boissy, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Turning is a challenging mobility task requiring coordination and postural stability. Optimal turning involves a cranio-caudal sequence (i.e., the head initiates the motion, followed by the trunk and the pelvis), which has been shown to be altered in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease as well as in fallers and frails. Previous studies have suggested that the cranio-caudal sequence exhibits a specific signature corresponding to the adopted turn strategy. Currently, the assessment of cranio-caudal sequence is limited to biomechanical labs which use camera-based systems; however, there is a growing trend to assess human kinematics with wearable sensors, such as attitude and heading reference systems (AHRS), which enable recording of raw inertial signals (acceleration and angular velocity) from which the orientation of the platform is estimated. In order to enhance the comprehension of complex processes, such as turning, signal modeling can be performed. The current study investigates the use of a kinematic-based model, the sigma-lognormal model, to characterize the turn cranio-caudal signature as assessed with AHRS. Sixteen asymptomatic adults (mean age = 69.1 ± 7.5 years old) performed repeated 10-m Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG) with 180° turns, at varying speed. Head and trunk kinematics were assessed with AHRS positioned on each segments. Relative orientation of the head to the trunk was then computed for each trial and relative angular velocity profile was derived for the turn phase. Peak relative angle (variable) and relative velocity profiles modeled using a sigma-lognormal approach (variables: Neuromuscular command amplitudes and timing parameters) were used to extract and characterize the cranio-caudal signature of each individual during the turn phase. The methodology has shown good ability to reconstruct the cranio-caudal signature (signal-to-noise median of 17.7). All variables were robust to speed variations ( p

  18. Oviduct binding ability of porcine spermatozoa develops in the epididymis and can be advanced by incubation with caudal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Santiago; Summers, Phillip; Gummow, Bruce; Paris, Damien B B P

    2015-06-01

    The sperm reservoir is formed when spermatozoa bind to the epithelium of the uterotubal junction and caudal isthmus of the oviduct. It is an important mechanism that helps synchronize the meeting of gametes by regulating untimely capacitation and polyspermic fertilization. This study investigated the influence of epididymal maturation and caudal fluid on the ability of spermatozoa to bind to oviduct epithelium using a model porcine oviduct explant assay. Spermatozoa from the rete testis, middle caput (E2-E3), middle corpus (E6), and cauda (E8) of Large White or Large White × Landrace boars aged 10 to 14 months were diluted in modified Androhep solution and incubated with porcine oviduct explants. Results reported in this study support our hypothesis that testicular spermatozoa need to pass through the regions of the epididymis to acquire the ability to bind to the oviduct. There was a sequential increase in the number of spermatozoa that bound to oviduct explants from the rete testis to caudal epididymis. Binding of caudal spermatozoa to isthmic explants was the highest (15.0 ± 1.2 spermatozoa per 1.25 mm(2), mean ± standard error of the mean; P ≤ 0.05) and lowest by spermatozoa from the rete testis (2.0 ± 0.3 per 1.25 mm(2)), and higher to isthmus from sows compared to gilts (35.8 ± 6.7 per 1.25 mm(2) vs. 14.8 ± 3.0 per 1.25 mm(2); P ≤ 0.05). Binding of ejaculated spermatozoa to porcine isthmus was higher than that for caudal spermatozoa (26.3 ± 1.4 per 1.25 mm(2) vs. 15.0 ± 0.8 per 1.25 mm(2); P ≤ 0.05) and higher to porcine than to bovine isthmus (26.3 ± 2.3 per 1.25 mm(2) vs. 18.8 ± 1.9 per 1.25 mm(2); P ≤ 0.05). Incubation of spermatozoa from the caput and corpus in caudal fluid increased the ability of spermatozoa to bind to the oviduct epithelium (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the capacity of testicular spermatozoa to bind to the oviduct epithelium increases during their maturation in the epididymis and can be advanced by components of the

  19. Wide resection and stabilization of ulnar stump by extensor carpi ulnaris for giant cell tumor of distal ulna: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjeet; Sharma, Siddhartha; Peshin, Chetan; Wani, Iftikhar H; Tikoo, Agnivesh; Gupta, Sanjeev K; Singh, Dara

    2009-07-21

    The distal end of ulna is an extremely uncommon site for primary bone tumors in general and giant cell tumor in particular. Wide resection is usually indicated in such cases and at times it may be necessary to remove of a long segment of the distal ulna. Any ulnar resection proximal to the insertion of pronator quadratus can lead to instability in the form of radio-ulnar convergence and dorsal displacement (winging) of the ulnar stump. This can result in diminution of forearm rotation and weakness with grasp. Stabilization of the ulnar stump after resection for a giant cell tumor was described by Kayias & Drosos. We are adding two more cases to the literature. Both patients had excellent functional outcome and there were no instances of recurrence at three years of follow-up.

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When ...

  1. Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If you have lumbar spinal canal stenosis, your treatment will depend on how bad your symptoms are. If your pain is mild and you haven’t had it long, you can try an exercise program or a physical therapy program. This can strengthen your back muscles and ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work ... cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat T. George Hornby, PhD, PT Empowering the ... Rogers, SW Marguerite David, MSW Kathy Hulse, MSW Physical Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Laura Wehrli, PT Isa ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect ...

  6. Lumbar spinal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Spinal stenosis, which has attracted increasing attention in recent years, represents an important group of clinical and radiologic entities. Recognition and ultimate surgical management of the many abnormalities found in this group require precise preoperative delineation of the morbid anatomy. Conventional axial tomography provided the first accurate picture of the sagittal dimension, but it was limited by poor contrast resolution. Computerized tomography and ultrasound have finally provided the means for accurate measurement of midsagittal diameter and surface area. It is now possible to provide a preoperative assessment of bony and soft-tissue canal compression and to guide surgical decompression by objective anatomic measurements. True spinal stenosis of the lumbar vertebral canal is a form of compression produced by the walls of the vertebral canal. It involves the whole of the vertebral canal by exerting compression at two of its opposite surfaces. There are two types of stenosis: (1) transport stenosis, wherein the clinical manifestations are due to impeded flow of fluid, which is dependent on the available cross-sectional area of the canal surface of the stenotic structure, and (2) compressive stenosis, which includes abnormal compression of opposing surfaces only. According to these definitions, indentation on the spinal canal by disc protrusion or localized tumor is not considered true spinal stenoses. In this chapter the authors discuss only those conditions that produce true canal stenosis

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When ...

  8. Maladaptive spinal plasticity opposes spinal learning and recovery in spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Adam R.; Huie, J. Russell; Crown, Eric D.; Baumbauer, Kyle M.; Hook, Michelle A.; Garraway, Sandra M.; Lee, Kuan H.; Hoy, Kevin C.; Grau, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. A mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustain several forms of learning and memory, including limb-position training. However, not all spinal plasticity promotes recovery of function. Central sensitization of nociceptive (pain) pathways in the spinal cord may emerge in response to various noxious inputs, demonstrating that plasticity within the spinal cord may contribute to maladaptive pain states. In this review we discuss interactions between adaptive and maladaptive forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord below the level of SCI. The literature demonstrates that activity-dependent plasticity within the spinal cord must be carefully tuned to promote adaptive spinal training. Prior work from our group has shown that stimulation that is delivered in a limb position-dependent manner or on a fixed interval can induce adaptive plasticity that promotes future spinal cord learning and reduces nociceptive hyper-reactivity. On the other hand, stimulation that is delivered in an unsynchronized fashion, such as randomized electrical stimulation or peripheral skin injuries, can generate maladaptive spinal plasticity that undermines future spinal cord learning, reduces recovery of locomotor function, and promotes nociceptive hyper-reactivity after SCI. We review these basic phenomena, how these findings relate to the broader spinal plasticity literature, discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and finally discuss implications of these and other findings for improved rehabilitative therapies after SCI. PMID

  9. Maladaptive spinal plasticity opposes spinal learning and recovery in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Adam R; Huie, J Russell; Crown, Eric D; Baumbauer, Kyle M; Hook, Michelle A; Garraway, Sandra M; Lee, Kuan H; Hoy, Kevin C; Grau, James W

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. A mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustain several forms of learning and memory, including limb-position training. However, not all spinal plasticity promotes recovery of function. Central sensitization of nociceptive (pain) pathways in the spinal cord may emerge in response to various noxious inputs, demonstrating that plasticity within the spinal cord may contribute to maladaptive pain states. In this review we discuss interactions between adaptive and maladaptive forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord below the level of SCI. The literature demonstrates that activity-dependent plasticity within the spinal cord must be carefully tuned to promote adaptive spinal training. Prior work from our group has shown that stimulation that is delivered in a limb position-dependent manner or on a fixed interval can induce adaptive plasticity that promotes future spinal cord learning and reduces nociceptive hyper-reactivity. On the other hand, stimulation that is delivered in an unsynchronized fashion, such as randomized electrical stimulation or peripheral skin injuries, can generate maladaptive spinal plasticity that undermines future spinal cord learning, reduces recovery of locomotor function, and promotes nociceptive hyper-reactivity after SCI. We review these basic phenomena, how these findings relate to the broader spinal plasticity literature, discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and finally discuss implications of these and other findings for improved rehabilitative therapies after SCI.

  10. Ecology and caudal skeletal morphology in birds: the convergent evolution of pygostyle shape in underwater foraging taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Ryan N; O'Connor, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Birds exhibit a specialized tail that serves as an integral part of the flight apparatus, supplementing the role of the wings in facilitating high performance aerial locomotion. The evolution of this function for the tail contributed to the diversification of birds by allowing them to utilize a wider range of flight behaviors and thus exploit a greater range of ecological niches. The shape of the wings and the tail feathers influence the aerodynamic properties of a bird. Accordingly, taxa that habitually utilize different flight behaviors are characterized by different flight apparatus morphologies. This study explores whether differences in flight behavior are also associated with variation in caudal vertebra and pygostyle morphology. Details of the tail skeleton were characterized in 51 Aequornithes and Charadriiformes species. Free caudal vertebral morphology was measured using linear metrics. Variation in pygostyle morphology was characterized using Elliptical Fourier Analysis, a geometric morphometric method for the analysis of outline shapes. Each taxon was categorized based on flight style (flap, flap-glide, dynamic soar, etc.) and foraging style (aerial, terrestrial, plunge dive, etc.). Phylogenetic MANOVAs and Flexible Discriminant Analyses were used to test whether caudal skeletal morphology can be used to predict flight behavior. Foraging style groups differ significantly in pygostyle shape, and pygostyle shape predicts foraging style with less than 4% misclassification error. Four distinct lineages of underwater foraging birds exhibit an elongate, straight pygostyle, whereas aerial and terrestrial birds are characterized by a short, dorsally deflected pygostyle. Convergent evolution of a common pygostyle phenotype in diving birds suggests that this morphology is related to the mechanical demands of using the tail as a rudder during underwater foraging. Thus, distinct locomotor behaviors influence not only feather attributes but also the underlying

  11. Elimination of Left-Right Reciprocal Coupling in the Adult Lamprey Spinal Cord Abolishes the Generation of Locomotor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Messina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of left-right reciprocal coupling between spinal locomotor networks to the generation of locomotor activity was tested in adult lampreys. Muscle recordings were made from normal animals as well as from experimental animals with rostral midline (ML spinal lesions (~13%→35% body length, BL, before and after spinal transections (T at 35% BL. Importantly, in the present study actual locomotor movements and muscle burst activity, as well as other motor activity, were initiated in whole animals by descending brain-spinal pathways in response to sensory stimulation of the anterior head. For experimental animals with ML spinal lesions, sensory stimulation could elicit well-coordinated locomotor muscle burst activity, but with some significant differences in the parameters of locomotor activity compared to those for normal animals. Computer models representing normal animals or experimental animals with ML spinal lesions could mimic many of the differences in locomotor activity. For experimental animals with ML and T spinal lesions, right and left rostral hemi-spinal cords, disconnected from intact caudal cord, usually produced tonic or unpatterned muscle activity. Hemi-spinal cords sometimes generated spontaneous or sensory-evoked relatively high frequency “burstlet” activity that probably is analogous to the previously described in vitro “fast rhythm”, which is thought to represent lamprey locomotor activity. However, “burstlet” activity in the present study had parameters and features that were very different than those for lamprey locomotor activity: average frequencies were ~25 Hz, but individual frequencies could be >50 Hz; burst proportions (BPs often varied with cycled time; “burstlet” activity usually was not accompanied by a rostrocaudal phase lag; and following ML spinal lesions alone, “burstlet” activity could occur in the presence or absence of swimming burst activity, suggesting the two were generated

  12. Riluzole promotes motor and respiratory recovery associated with enhanced neuronal survival and function following high cervical spinal hemisection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satkunendrarajah, K; Nassiri, F; Karadimas, S K; Lip, A; Yao, G; Fehlings, M G

    2016-02-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) can result in devastating functional deficits that involve the respiratory and hand function. The mammalian spinal cord has limited ability to regenerate and restore meaningful functional recovery following SCI. Riluzole, 2-amino-6-trifluoromethoxybenzothiazole, an anti-glutamatergic drug has been shown to reduce excitotoxicity and confer neuroprotection at the site of injury following experimental SCI. Based on promising preclinical studies, riluzole is currently under Phase III clinical trial for the treatment of SCI (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01597518). Riluzole's anti-glutamatergic role has the potential to regulate neuronal function and provide neuroprotection and influence glutamatergic connections distal to the initial injury leading to enhanced functional recovery following SCI. In order to investigate this novel role of riluzole we used a high cervical hemisection model of SCI, which interrupts all descending input to motoneurons innervating the ipsilateral forelimb and diaphragm muscles. Following C2 spinal cord hemisection, animals were placed into one of two groups: one group received riluzole (8 mg/kg) 1 h after injury and every 12 h thereafter for 7 days at 6 mg/kg, while the second group of injured rats received vehicle solution for the same duration of time. A third group of sham injured rats underwent a C2 laminectomy without hemisection and served as uninjured control rats. Interestingly, this study reports a significant loss of motoneurons within the cervical spinal cord caudal to C2 hemisection injury. Disruption of descending input led to a decrease in glutamatergic synapses and motoneurons caudal to the injury while riluzole treatment significantly limited this decline. Functionally, Hoffmann reflex recordings revealed an increase in the excitability of the remaining ipsilateral cervical motoneurons and significant improvements in skilled and unskilled forelimb function and respiratory motor function in the

  13. Modified fenestration with restorative spinoplasty for lumbar spinal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Ko; Yamazaki, Takashi; Seichi, Atsushi; Hoshi, Kazuto; Hara, Nobuhiro; Ogiwara, Satoshi; Terayama, Sei; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Takeshita, Katsushi; Nakamura, Kozo

    2009-06-01

    The authors developed an original procedure, modified fenestration with restorative spinoplasty (MFRS) for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. The first step is to cut the spinous process in an L-shape, which is caudally reflected. This procedure allows easy access to the spinal canal, including lateral recesses, and makes it easy to perform a trumpet-style decompression of the nerve roots without violating the facet joints. After the decompression of neural tissues, the spinous process is anatomically restored (spinoplasty). The clinical outcomes at 2 years were evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scale and patients' satisfaction. Radiological follow-up included radiographs and CT. Between January 2000 and December 2002, 109 patients with neurogenic intermittent claudication with or without mild spondylolisthesis underwent MFRS. Of these, 101 were followed up for at least 2 years (follow-up rate 93%). The average score on the self-administered JOA scale in 89 patients without comorbidity causing gait disturbance improved from 13.3 preoperatively to 22.9 at 2 years' follow-up. Neurogenic intermittent claudication disappeared in all cases. The patients' assessment of treatment satisfaction was "satisfied" in 74 cases, "slightly satisfied" in 12, "slightly dissatisfied" in 2, and "dissatisfied" in 1 case. In 16 cases (18%), a minimum progression of slippage occurred, but no symptomatic instability or recurrent stenosis was observed. Computed tomography showed that the lateral part of the facet joints was well preserved, and the mean residual ratio was 80%. The MFRS technique produces an adequate and safe decompression of the spinal canal, even in patients with narrow and steep facet joints in whom conventional fenestration is technically demanding.

  14. Recovering missing data: estimating position and size of caudal vertebrae in Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando N. Grillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Missing data is a common problem in paleontology. It makes it difficult to reconstruct extinct taxa accurately and restrains the inclusion of some taxa on comparative and biomechanical studies. Particularly, estimating the position of vertebrae on incomplete series is often non-empirical and does not allow precise estimation of missing parts. In this work we present a method for calculating the position of preserved middle sequences of caudal vertebrae in the saurischian dinosaur Staurikosaurus pricei, based on the length and height of preserved anterior and posterior caudal vertebral centra. Regression equations were used to estimate these dimensions for middle vertebrae and, consequently, to assess the position of the preserved middle sequences. It also allowed estimating these dimensions for non-preserved vertebrae. Results indicate that the preserved caudal vertebrae of Staurikosaurus may correspond to positions 1-3, 5, 7, 14-19/15-20, 24-25/25-26, and 29-47, and that at least 25 vertebrae had transverse processes. Total length of the tail was estimated in 134 cm and total body length was 220-225 cm.Dados lacunares são um problema comum na paleontologia. Eles dificultam a reconstrução acurada de táxons extintos e limitam a inclusão de alguns táxons em estudos comparativose biomecânicos. Particularmente, estimar a posição de vértebras em séries incompletas tem sido feito com base em métodos não empíricos que não permitem estimar corretamente as partes ausentes. Neste trabalho apresentamos uma metodologia que permite estimar a posição de sequências médias preservadas de vértebras caudais no dinossauro saurísquio Staurikosaurus pricei, com base no comprimento e altura dos centros das vértebras anteriores e posteriores preservadas. Equações de regressão foram usadas para estimar essas dimensões para as vértebras médias e, consequentemente, para posicionar as sequências médias preservadas e para estimar o tamanho das

  15. Episodic swimming in the larval zebrafish is generated by a spatially distributed spinal network with modular functional organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggin, Timothy D.; Anderson, Tatiana M.; Eian, John; Peck, Jack H.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the diverse methods vertebrates use for locomotion, there is evidence that components of the locomotor central pattern generator (CPG) are conserved across species. When zebrafish begin swimming early in development, they perform short episodes of activity separated by periods of inactivity. Within these episodes, the trunk flexes with side-to-side alternation and the traveling body wave progresses rostrocaudally. To characterize the distribution of the swimming CPG along the rostrocaudal axis, we performed transections of the larval zebrafish spinal cord and induced fictive swimming using N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA). In both intact and spinalized larvae, bursting is found throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord, and the properties of fictive swimming observed were dependent on the concentration of NMDA. We isolated series of contiguous spinal segments by performing multiple spinal transections on the same larvae. Although series from all regions of the spinal cord have the capacity to produce bursts, the capacity to produce organized episodes of fictive swimming has a rostral bias: in the rostral spinal cord, only 12 contiguous body segments are necessary, whereas 23 contiguous body segments are necessary in the caudal spinal cord. Shorter series of segments were often active but produced either continuous rhythmic bursting or sporadic, nonrhythmic bursting. Both episodic and continuous bursting alternated between the left and right sides of the body and showed rostrocaudal progression, demonstrating the functional dissociation of the circuits responsible for episodic structure and fine burst timing. These findings parallel results in mammalian locomotion, and we propose a hierarchical model of the larval zebrafish swimming CPG. PMID:22572943

  16. Lumbar spinal canal MRI diameter is smaller in herniated disc cauda equina syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korse, Nina S; Kruit, Mark C; Peul, Wilco C; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L A

    2017-01-01

    Correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical features in cauda equina syndrome (CES) is unknown; nor is known whether there are differences in MRI spinal canal size between lumbar herniated disc patients with CES versus lumbar herniated discs patients without CES, operated for sciatica. The aims of this study are 1) evaluating the association of MRI features with clinical presentation and outcome of CES and 2) comparing lumbar spinal canal diameters of lumbar herniated disc patients with CES versus lumbar herniated disc patients without CES, operated because of sciatica. MRIs of CES patients were assessed for the following features: level of disc lesion, type (uni- or bilateral) and severity of caudal compression. Pre- and postoperative clinical features (micturition dysfunction, defecation dysfunction, altered sensation of the saddle area) were retrieved from the medical files. In addition, anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spinal canal diameters of CES patients were measured at MRI. AP diameters of lumbar herniated disc patients without CES, operated for sciatica, were measured for comparison. 48 CES patients were included. At MRI, bilateral compression was seen in 82%; complete caudal compression in 29%. MRI features were not associated with clinical presentation nor outcome. AP diameter was measured for 26 CES patients and for 31 lumbar herniated disc patients without CES, operated for sciatica. Comparison displayed a significant smaller AP diameter of the lumbar spinal canal in CES patients (largest p = 0.002). Compared to average diameters in literature, diameters of CES patients were significantly more often below average than that of the sciatica patients (largest p = 0.021). This is the first study demonstrating differences in lumbar spinal canal size between lumbar herniated disc patients with CES and lumbar herniated disc patients without CES, operated for sciatica. This finding might imply that lumbar herniated disc patients with a

  17. Differential diagnoses of spinal tumors; Differenzialdiagnose spinaler Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, U. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    A wide variety of degenerative, inflammatory and vascular diseases can resemble the clinical presentation and imaging findings of spinal tumors. This article provides an overview of the most frequent diseases which are important to recognize for diagnostic imaging of the spine. (orig.) [German] Eine Vielzahl degenerativer, entzuendlicher und vaskulaerer Erkrankungen kann das klinische Bild und radiologische Befunde spinaler Tumoren imitieren. Dieser Artikel dient der Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten dieser Erkrankungen, deren Kenntnis wichtig fuer die spinale Bildgebung ist. (orig.)

  18. [Omentum Transplantation in Thorax to Cover Bronchial Stump as Treatment of 
Bronchopleural Fistula After Pulmonary Resection: Report of 6 Cases' Experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozun; Yang, Xiaojun; Xie, Tianpeng; Hu, Bin; Li, Qiang

    2018-03-20

    Bronchial pleural fistula (BPF) is a common complication after thoracic surgery for lung resection. Clinical treatment is complex and the effect is poor. The treatment of BPF after lung resection has plagued thoracic surgeons. We reviewed retrospectively the clinical and follow-up data of 6 patients in our hospital who underwent the omentum transplantation in thorax to cover bronchial stump as treatment of BPF after pulmonary resection to analyze why BPF occurs and describe this treatment method. We intend to discuss and evaluate the feasibility, safety and small sample success rate ofthis treatment method. During August 2016 to February 2018, six patients in our hospital underwent remedial open thoracotomy and omentum transplantation in pleura space to cover bronchial stump as treatment of bronchopleural fistula after pulmonary resection. Four patients had undergone a prior pneumonectomy and two patients had undergone a prior lobectomy (the residual lungs were resected with the main bronchus cut by endoscopic stapler during the reoperation). The bronchial stumps were sutured by 4-0 string with needle and covered by omentums, which were transplanted in pleura space from the cardiophrenic angle. Postoperatively, the pleura space was irrigated and drained. Summarize the clinical effect and technique learning points. The patients were all males, aged 61 to 73 years (median age: 66). BPF occurred from postoperative day 10 to 45 (median postoperative day 25). The reoperation was finished in 80 mins-150 mins (median 110 mins). Total blood loss was 200 mL-1,000 mL (median 450 mL). These patients were discharged on postoperative day 12-17 (median 14 days), and there was no more complications associated with bronchopleural fistula. All six patients' bronchial stumps were well closed (100%) and have recovered well during the follow-up period, which lasted 1 month-18 months. Remedial operation should be performed as soon as possible when BPF after pulmonary resection

  19. Global gene expression analysis of rodent motor neurons following spinal cord injury associates molecular mechanisms with development of post-injury spasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienecke, Jacob; Westerdahl, Ann-Charlotte; Hultborn, Hans

    2010-01-01

    in this cell population. We adopted a rat tail-spasticity model with a caudal spinal transection that causes a progressive development of spasticity from its onset after two to three weeks until two months post injury. Gene expression changes of fluorescently identified tail motor neurons were studied 21...... of endogenous plateau potentials in motor neurons and the development of spasticity after spinalization. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the increased excitability of motor neurons and the return of plateau potentials below a spinal cord injury we investigated changes in gene expression...... and 60 days post injury. The motor neurons undergo substantial transcriptional regulation in response to injury. The patterns of differential expression show similarities at both time points, though there are 20 % more differentially expressed genes 60 days compared to 21 days post injury. The study...

  20. Anti-inflammatory Mechanism of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in Rat Model of Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongji; Wu, Chenglong; Xiong, Qiuju; Zhou, Ling; Tian, Yuke

    2015-04-01

    To explore the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation on the levels of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in spinal cord tissue of rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI). BMSCs from 4-week-old male SD rats were isolated, cultured, and characterized after three generations using specific surface markers CD34 and CD44. Fifty four SD male rats were divided into sham group, model group, and cell transplantation group (18 rats each group). SCI model was generated using an improved Allen's method. Rats in cell transplantation group were treated with BMSCs in caudal vein. Rats were sacrificed at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 d post-injury, and spinal cord tissues were taken out for detection of IL-1β and TNF-α tissue content by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA expression was evaluated by qPCR and TLR4 protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting. IL-1β and TNF-α protein levels, as well as IL-1β, TNF-α mRNA, and TLR4 expression were significantly increased in rats with established SCI, and reached its peak in spinal cord tissues at 72 h after the initial injury (p spinal cord inflammation by weakening TLR4-mediated signaling pathways and reducing tissue content of IL-1β and TNF-α.

  1. Local injection of Lenti-Olig2 at lesion site promotes functional recovery of spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bo-Tao; Jiang, Long; Liu, Li; Yin, Ying; Luo, Ze-Ru-Xin; Long, Zai-Yun; Li, Sen; Yu, Le-Hua; Wu, Ya-Min; Liu, Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Olig2 is one of the most critical factors during CNS development, which belongs to b-HLH transcription factor family. Previous reports have shown that Olig2 regulates the remyelination processes in CNS demyelination diseases models. However, the role of Olig2 in contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and the possible therapeutic effects remain obscure. This study aims to investigate the effects of overexpression Olig2 by lentivirus on adult spinal cord injury rats. Lenti-Olig2 expression and control Lenti-eGFP vectors were prepared, and virus in a total of 5 μL (10 8 TU/mL) was locally injected into the injured spinal cord 1.5 mm rostral and caudal near the epicenter. Immunostaining, Western blot, electron microscopy, and CatWalk analyzes were employed to investigate the effects of Olig2 on spinal cord tissue repair and functional recovery. Injection of Lenti-Olig2 significantly increased the number of oligodendrocytes lineage cells and enhanced myelination after SCI. More importantly, the introduction of Olig2 greatly improved hindlimb locomotor performances. Other oligodendrocyte-related transcription factors, which were downregulated or upregulated after injury, were reversed by Olig2 induction. Our findings provided the evidence that overexpression Olig2 promotes myelination and locomotor recovery of contusion SCI, which gives us more understanding of Olig2 on spinal cord injury treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Arnold–Chiari malformation type 1 complicated by sudden onset anterior spinal artery thrombosis, tetraparesis and respiratory arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Abdul Majid; Zayyani, Najah R; Al Miamini, Wail; Khoujah, Amer M; Alharbi, Zeyad; Diari, Mohd S

    2011-01-01

    Chiari in 1891 described a constellation of anomalies at the base of the brain inherited congenitally, the characteristic of which are (1) extension of a tongue of cerebellar tissue posterior to the medulla and cord that extends into the cervical spinal canal; (2) caudal displacement of the medulla and the inferior part of the fourth ventricle into the cervical canal; and (3) a frequent but not invariable association with syringomyelia or a spinal developmental abnormality. Chiari recognized four types of abnormalities. Presently, the term has come to be restricted to Chiari’s types I and II, that is, to cerebellomedullary descent without and with a meningomyelocele, respectively. The association of Arnold–Chairi malformation and high cervical cord infarction is unusual. The most common syndrome, anterior spinal artery syndrome (ASAS), is caused by interruption of blood flow to the anterior spinal artery, producing ischaemia in the anterior two-thirds of the cord, with resulting neurologic deficits. Causes of ASAS include aortic disease, postsurgical, sepsis, hypotension and thromboembolic disorders. The authors present an interesting case of cervical cord infarction due to anterior spinal artery thrombosis in a patient of type 1 Arnold–Chiari malformation without any of the above predisposing factors. PMID:22701030

  3. Arnold-Chiari malformation type 1 complicated by sudden onset anterior spinal artery thrombosis, tetraparesis and respiratory arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Abdul Majid; Zayyani, Najah R; Al Miamini, Wail; Khoujah, Amer M; Alharbi, Zeyad; Diari, Mohd S

    2011-04-15

    Chiari in 1891 described a constellation of anomalies at the base of the brain inherited congenitally, the characteristic of which are (1) extension of a tongue of cerebellar tissue posterior to the medulla and cord that extends into the cervical spinal canal; (2) caudal displacement of the medulla and the inferior part of the fourth ventricle into the cervical canal; and (3) a frequent but not invariable association with syringomyelia or a spinal developmental abnormality. Chiari recognized four types of abnormalities. Presently, the term has come to be restricted to Chiari's types I and II, that is, to cerebellomedullary descent without and with a meningomyelocele, respectively. The association of Arnold-Chairi malformation and high cervical cord infarction is unusual. The most common syndrome, anterior spinal artery syndrome (ASAS), is caused by interruption of blood flow to the anterior spinal artery, producing ischaemia in the anterior two-thirds of the cord, with resulting neurologic deficits. Causes of ASAS include aortic disease, postsurgical, sepsis, hypotension and thromboembolic disorders. The authors present an interesting case of cervical cord infarction due to anterior spinal artery thrombosis in a patient of type 1 Arnold-Chiari malformation without any of the above predisposing factors.

  4. Post-operative pain relief in children following caudal bupivacaine and buprenorphine--a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilkumar T

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-five paediatric patients (age range: 6 mths-12yrs undergoing lower abdominal surgery were studied for post-operative pain relief following either caudal bupivacaine (GpI: n = 43 or buprenorphine (GpII: n = 42. Bupivacaine was administered as 0.5ml/kg body weight of 0.25% solution and buprenorphine as 4 micrograms/ml and volume of 0.5 ml/Kg body weight in normal saline. Post-operatively pain was graded on a 4-point scale and behaviour on a 5-point scale. Any post-operative complications and need for additional analgesia were also noted. Bupivacaine provided good pain relief in the early post-operative hours but buprenorphine provided pain relief lasting for 24 hrs or more post-operatively. Post-operative behaviour of 10 patients receiving buprenorphine was graded as cheerful as compared to 2 from bupivacaine group. Till the end of observation period (i.e. 8 hr post-operatively, majority of patients receiving buprenorphine remained cheerful.

  5. Effects of axial compression and rotation angle on torsional mechanical properties of bovine caudal discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezci, Semih E; Klineberg, Eric O; O'Connell, Grace D

    2018-01-01

    The intervertebral disc is a complex joint that acts to support and transfer large multidirectional loads, including combinations of compression, tension, bending, and torsion. Direct comparison of disc torsion mechanics across studies has been difficult, due to differences in loading protocols. In particular, the lack of information on the combined effect of multiple parameters, including axial compressive preload and rotation angle, makes it difficult to discern whether disc torsion mechanics are sensitive to the variables used in the test protocol. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate compression-torsion mechanical behavior of healthy discs under a wide range of rotation angles. Bovine caudal discs were tested under a range of compressive preloads (150, 300, 600, and 900N) and rotation angles (± 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5°) applied at a rate of 0.5°/s. Torque-rotation data were used to characterize shape changes in the hysteresis loop and to calculate disc torsion mechanics. Torsional mechanical properties were described using multivariate regression models. The rate of change in torsional mechanical properties with compression depended on the maximum rotation angle applied, indicating a strong interaction between compressive stress and maximum rotation angle. The regression models reported here can be used to predict disc torsion mechanics under axial compression for a given disc geometry, compressive preload, and rotation angle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anatomic atlas for computed tomography in the mesaticephalic dog: caudal abdomen and pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, J.E.; George, T. II.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a comprehensive anatomic atlas of CT anatomy of the dog for use by veterinary radiologists, clinicians, and surgeons. Whole-body CT images of two mature beagle dogs were made with the dogs supported in sternal recumbency and using a slice thickness of 13 mm. At the end of the CT session, each dog was euthanized, and while carefully maintaining the same position, the body was frozen. The body was then sectioned at 13-mm intervals, with the cuts matched as closely as possible to the CT slices. The frozen sections were cleaned, photographed, and radiographed using xeroradiography. Each CT image was studied and compared with its corresponding xeroradiograph and anatomic section to assist in the accurate identification of specific structures. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled in the three corresponding photographs (CT image, xeroradiograph, and anatomic section). In previous papers, the head and neck, and the thorax and cranial abdomen of the mesaticephalic (beagle) dog were presented. In this paper, the caudal part of the abdomen and pelvis of the bitch and male dog are presented

  7. Imperforated cor triatriatum dexter in a dog with concurrent caudal vena cava wall mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobak, Tetyda Paulina; Starrak, Gregory; Linn, Kathleen; Snead, Elisabeth Christine Roberston

    2017-01-03

    Cor triatriatum dexter (CTD) is a rare congenital cardiac malformation with various manifestations and has been sporadically described in dogs. Clinically the dogs present with nonspecific signs of right heart failure or Budd-Chiari-like syndrome. Other associated concurrent cardiovascular anomalies are commonly reported. Diagnosis and full characterization of this complex malformation requires careful investigation and often a multimodal imaging approach. A 10-week-old, male intact, Golden Retriever was presented with clinical signs of stunted growth, anorexia, and progressive ascites. CTD imperforate with sole separation of the caudal vena cava (CdVC) and concurrent venous wall mineralization was conjointly diagnosed and fully characterized by echocardiography, non-selective angiography, computed tomography angiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This was successfully treated surgically and the dog returned to normal activity. To the author's knowledge, this is the first case of CTD imperforate separating the CdVC from the right atrium (RA) with presumed secondary CdCV wall and hepatic parenchyma mineralization reported in a dog. CTD is an important and potentially correctable cause for the development of ascites in a young puppy. Accurate diagnosis of this complex cardiac anomaly is important for selection of the most appropriate curative treatment option.

  8. Evolutionary multiobjective design of a flexible caudal fin for robotic fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Anthony J; Tan, Xiaobo; McKinley, Philip K

    2015-11-25

    Robotic fish accomplish swimming by deforming their bodies or other fin-like appendages. As an emerging class of embedded computing system, robotic fish are anticipated to play an important role in environmental monitoring, inspection of underwater structures, tracking of hazardous wastes and oil spills, and the study of live fish behaviors. While integration of flexible materials (into the fins and/or body) holds the promise of improved swimming performance (in terms of both speed and maneuverability) for these robots, such components also introduce significant design challenges due to the complex material mechanics and hydrodynamic interactions. The problem is further exacerbated by the need for the robots to meet multiple objectives (e.g., both speed and energy efficiency). In this paper, we propose an evolutionary multiobjective optimization approach to the design and control of a robotic fish with a flexible caudal fin. Specifically, we use the NSGA-II algorithm to investigate morphological and control parameter values that optimize swimming speed and power usage. Several evolved fin designs are validated experimentally with a small robotic fish, where fins of different stiffness values and sizes are printed with a multi-material 3D printer. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed design approach in balancing the two competing objectives.

  9. On the pathway of mineral deposition in larval zebrafish caudal fin bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiva, Anat; Malkinson, Guy; Masic, Admir; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Bennet, Mathieu; Fratzl, Peter; Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve; Yaniv, Karina

    2015-06-01

    A poorly understood aspect of bone biomineralization concerns the mechanisms whereby ions are sequestered from the environment, concentrated, and deposited in the extracellular matrix. In this study, we follow mineral deposition in the caudal fin of the zebrafish larva in vivo. Using fluorescence and cryo-SEM-microscopy, in combination with Raman and XRF spectroscopy, we detect the presence of intracellular mineral particles located between bones, and in close association with blood vessels. Calcium-rich particles are also located away from the mineralized bone, and these are also in close association with blood vessels. These observations challenge the view that mineral formation is restricted to osteoblast cells juxtaposed to bone, or to the extracellular matrix. Our results, derived from observations performed in living animals, contribute a new perspective to the comprehensive mechanism of bone formation in vertebrates, from the blood to the bone. More broadly, these findings may shed light on bone mineralization processes in other vertebrates, including humans. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Changes in spinal alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veintemillas Aráiz, M T; Beltrán Salazar, V P; Rivera Valladares, L; Marín Aznar, A; Melloni Ribas, P; Valls Pascual, R

    2016-04-01

    Spinal misalignments are a common reason for consultation at primary care centers and specialized departments. Misalignment has diverse causes and is influenced by multiple factors: in adolescence, the most frequent misalignment is scoliosis, which is idiopathic in 80% of cases and normally asymptomatic. In adults, the most common cause is degenerative. It is important to know the natural history and to detect factors that might predict progression. The correct diagnosis of spinal deformities requires specific imaging studies. The degree of deformity determines the type of treatment. The aim is to prevent progression of the deformity and to recover the flexibility and balance of the body. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Spinal trauma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, C.; Carty, H.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of the child with suspected spinal injury can be a difficult task for the radiologist. Added to the problems posed by lack of familiarity with the normal appearances of the paediatric spine is anxiety about missing a potentially significant injury resulting in neurological damage. Due to differences in anatomy and function, the pattern of injury in the paediatric spine is different from that in the adolescent or adult. Lack of appreciation of these differences may lead to over investigation and inappropriate treatment. This review attempts to clarify some of the problems frequently encountered. It is based on a review of the literature as well as personal experience. The normal appearances and variants of the spine in children, the mechanisms and patterns of injury are reviewed highlighting the differences between children and adults. Specific fractures, a practical scheme for the assessment of spinal radiographs in children, and the role of cross sectional imaging are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Acute spinal cord injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Izunaga, H.; Sato, R.; Shinzato, I.; Korogi, Y.; Yamashita, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on sequential MR images and neurologic findings that were correlated in 40 acute spinal cord injuries. Within 1 week after injury, frequent initial MR changes appeared isointense on both T1- and T2-weighted images and isointense on T1- and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. After 2 months, hypointensity appeared on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity persisted or appeared on T2-weighted images. Clinical improvements were observed in patients with isointensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images at the initial examination. A larger area of hyperintensity on subsequent T2-weighted images was correlated with no neurologic improvement. MR findings were good indicators of the spinal cord injury

  13. Occult spinal dysraphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, M; Kataria, R; Gupta, D K; Agarwala, S

    1997-01-01

    When spina bifida is associated with skin abnormalities such as dimples, sinus tracts hypertrichosis, or capillary hemangiomas, there is a high incidence of an occult intraspinal lesion such as epidermoid and dermoid tumours, lipomas, diastematomyelia, dural bands and tethered spinal cord. The present study consists of 50 patients with occult spinal dysraphism treated with the diagnosis of lipomeningomyelocoele (20), lumbosacral lipoma (15) and diastematomyelia (15). The clinical presentation varied from lipoma in the lumbosacral region, dermal sinus, cutaneous hemangioma and hypertrichosis. The age range varied from 2 months to 7 years with an average of 2 years. 40% patients had neurological deficit at the time of presentation which varied from lower limb weakness to bladder & bowel involvement. All patients underwent laminectomy of the lumbar and lumbo-sacral spine with excision of intraspinal lipoma, excision of bony or cartilaginous spur in diastematomyelia and detethering of the conus medullaris & cauda equina. No patient developed late neurological deficit.

  14. Imaging of Spinal Metastatic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubdha M. Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastases to the spine can involve the bone, epidural space, leptomeninges, and spinal cord. The spine is the third most common site for metastatic disease, following the lung and the liver. Approximately 60–70% of patients with systemic cancer will have spinal metastasis. Materials/Methods. This is a review of the imaging techniques and typical imaging appearances of spinal metastatic disease. Conclusions. Awareness of the different manifestations of spinal metastatic disease is essential as the spine is the most common site of osseous metastatic disease. Imaging modalities have complimentary roles in the evaluation of spinal metastatic disease. CT best delineates osseous integrity, while MRI is better at assessing soft tissue involvement. Physiologic properties, particularly in treated disease, can be evaluated with other imaging modalities such as FDG PET and advanced MRI sequences. Imaging plays a fundamental role in not only diagnosis but also treatment planning of spinal metastatic disease.

  15. Electrode alignment of transverse tripoles using a percutaneous triple-lead approach in spinal cord stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankarasubramanian, V.; Buitenweg, J. R.; Holsheimer, J.; Veltink, P.

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this modeling study is to determine the influence of electrode alignment of transverse tripoles on the paresthesia coverage of the pain area in spinal cord stimulation, using a percutaneous triple-lead approach. Transverse tripoles, comprising a central cathode and two lateral anodes, were modeled on the low-thoracic vertebral region (T10-T12) using percutaneous triple-lead configurations, with the center lead on the spinal cord midline. The triple leads were oriented both aligned and staggered. In the staggered configuration, the anodes were offset either caudally (caudally staggered) or rostrally (rostrally staggered) with respect to the midline cathode. The transverse tripolar field steering with the aligned and staggered configurations enabled the estimation of dorsal column fiber thresholds (IDC) and dorsal root fiber thresholds (IDR) at various anodal current ratios. IDC and IDR were considerably higher for the aligned transverse tripoles as compared to the staggered transverse tripoles. The aligned transverse tripoles facilitated deeper penetration into the medial dorsal columns (DCs). The staggered transverse tripoles always enabled broad and bilateral DC activation, at the expense of mediolateral steerability. The largest DC recruited area was obtained with the rostrally staggered transverse tripole. Transverse tripolar geometries, using percutaneous leads, allow for selective targeting of either medial or lateral DC fibers, if and only if the transverse tripole is aligned. Steering of anodal currents between the lateral leads of the staggered transverse tripoles cannot target medially confined populations of DC fibers in the spinal cord. An aligned transverse tripolar configuration is strongly recommended, because of its ability to provide more post-operative flexibility than other configurations.

  16. Two spinal arachnoid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puijlaert, J.B.C.M.; Vielvoye, G.J.; Dulken, H. van

    1985-05-01

    Two cases of spinal arachnoid cysts are reported. One is extradurally located, the other intradurally. The first is only documented with myelography, the second also by subsequent CT scanning. Some clinical and diagnostic aspects of the lesion are discussed. The aim of this report is to add two new cases to the literature and to emphasize the role of high-resolution CT scanning in the diagnosis of these lesions.

  17. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  18. Spinal brucellosis: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelli Bouaziz, Mouna; Ladeb, Mohamed Fethi; Chakroun, Mohamed; Chaabane, Skander [Institut M T Kassab d' orthopedie, Department of Radiology, Ksar Said (Tunisia)

    2008-09-15

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, relatively frequent in Mediterranean countries and in the Middle East. It is a systemic infection, caused by facultative intra-cellular bacteria of the genus Brucella, that can involve many organs and tissues. The spine is the most common site of musculoskeletal involvement, followed by the sacroiliac joints. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and imaging features of spinal brucellosis. (orig.)

  19. Spinal brucellosis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelli Bouaziz, Mouna; Ladeb, Mohamed Fethi; Chakroun, Mohamed; Chaabane, Skander

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, relatively frequent in Mediterranean countries and in the Middle East. It is a systemic infection, caused by facultative intra-cellular bacteria of the genus Brucella, that can involve many organs and tissues. The spine is the most common site of musculoskeletal involvement, followed by the sacroiliac joints. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and imaging features of spinal brucellosis. (orig.)

  20. Spinal arteriovenous shunts in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davagnanam, Indran; Toma, Ahmed K; Brew, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Pediatric spinal arteriovenous shunts are rare and, in contrast to those in adults, are often congenital or associated with underlying genetic disorders. These are thought to be a more severe and complete phenotypic spectrum of all spinal arteriovenous shunts seen in the overall spinal shunt population. The pediatric presentation thus accounts for its association with significant morbidity and, in general, a more challenging treatment process compared with the adult presentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Substituição dos ligamentos cruzados cranial e caudal em cães por duplo implante de polipropileno Replacement of the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments in dogs by double t polypropylene implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Curvello de Mendonça Müller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é salientar uma alternativa eficaz no tratamento da ruptura dos ligamentos cruzados cranial e caudal de cães, sem associação de imobilização externa. Foram atendidos seis animais portadores de ruptura de ambos os ligamentos cruzados. Optou-se pela correção cirúrgica intracapsular, utilizando-se dois implantes sintéticos de polipropileno, para a estabilização da articulação. Os pacientes retornaram ao apoio completo do membro em 11,8±3,5 dias e não mantiveram instabilidade articular, após 0, 30 e 90 dias de avaliação clínica pós-operatória. Aos 90 dias após a cirurgia, não se percebeu claudicação nos pacientes avaliados. Concluiu-se que a técnica utilizada promoveu total estabilidade articular na ausência dos ligamentos cruzados cranial e caudal.The objective of this study is to point out an effective alternative in the treatment of the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments rupture in dogs, with no association of external immobilization. Six dogs with rupture of both cruciate ligaments were included in the present study. Stifle joint was surgically stabilized by an intracapsular technique, using two polypropylene synthetic implants. The animals returned to full member support in 11.8±3.5 days and did not sustain any joint instability degree after 0, 30 and 90 days of clinical evaluation after surgery. At 90 days after surgery, it became apparent lameness in any of the six patients. It was concluded that the technique employed caused total joint stability in the absence of caudal and cranial cruciate ligaments.

  2. [Lumbar spinal angiolipoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, Alberto; Ortega Martinez, Rodrigo; Pérez López, Carlos; Gómez de la Riva, Alvaro; Mansilla, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are fairly infrequent benign tumours that are usually located in the epidural space of the thoracic column and represent 0.14% to 1.3% of all spinal tumours. Lumbar angiolipomas are extremely rare, representing only 9.6% of all spinal extradural angiolipomas. We report the case of a woman who complained of a lumbar pain of several months duration with no neurological focality and that had intensified in the last three days without her having had any injury or made a physical effort. The MR revealed an extradural mass L1-L2, on the posterior face of the medulla, decreasing the anteroposterior diameter of the canal. The patient symptoms improved after surgery. Total extirpation of the lesion is possible in most cases, and the prognosis is excellent even if the lesion is infiltrative. For this reason, excessively aggressive surgery is not necessary to obtain complete resection. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Embolization of spinal arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Mi Young; Kim, Sun Yong; Park, Bok Hwan

    1990-01-01

    Recently, therapeutic embolization has been advocated as the treatment of choice for spinal AVM(arteriovenous malformations). The authors review our experience with two cases of spinal AVM treated by embolization using coaxial Tracker-18 microcatheter with Latvian. The patients included a 10 year old male with glomus type and a 14 year old female with juvenile type spinal AVM revealed recanalization 5 month later. Embolization provides curative or temporary treatment for spinal AVM. After embolic occlusion, delayed reassessment with arteriography is indicated, particularly if symptoms persist or recur

  4. Spinal cord mechanisms of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Mello, R; Dickenson, A H

    2008-07-01

    The spinal cord is the first relay site in the transmission of nociceptive information from the periphery to the brain. Sensory signals are transmitted from the periphery by primary afferent fibres into the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, where these afferents synapse with intrinsic spinal dorsal horn neurones. Spinal projection neurones then convey this information to higher centres in the brain, where non-noxious and noxious signals can be perceived. During nociceptive transmission, the output of the spinal cord is dependent on various spinal mechanisms which can either increase or decrease the activity of dorsal horn neurones. Such mechanisms include local excitatory and inhibitory interneurones, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and descending influences from the brainstem, which can be both inhibitory and excitatory in nature. After nerve injury or conditions of inflammation, shifts can occur in these excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms which modulate spinal excitability, often resulting in the heightened response of dorsal neurones to incoming afferent signals, and increased output to the brain, a phenomenon known as central sensitization. In this review, we consider the ways in which spinal cord activity may be altered in chronic pain states. In addition, we discuss the spinal mechanisms which are targeted by current analgesics used in the management of chronic pain.

  5. Anatomical recovery of the GABAergic system after a complete spinal cord injury in lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaus-Sanjurjo, D; Valle-Maroto, S M; Barreiro-Iglesias, A; Fernández-López, B; Rodicio, M C

    2018-03-15

    Lampreys recover locomotion spontaneously several weeks after a complete spinal cord injury. Dysfunction of the GABAergic system following SCI has been reported in mammalian models. So, it is of great interest to understand how the GABAergic system of lampreys adapts to the post-injury situation and how this relates to spontaneous recovery. The spinal cord of lampreys contains 3 populations of GABAergic neurons and most of the GABAergic innervation of the spinal cord comes from these local cells. GABAB receptors are expressed in the spinal cord of lampreys and they play important roles in the control of locomotion. The aims of the present study were to quantify: 1) the changes in the number of GABAergic neurons and innervation of the spinal cord and 2) the changes in the expression of the gabab receptor subunits b1 and b2 in the spinal cord of the sea lamprey after SCI. We performed complete spinal cord transections at the level of the fifth gill of mature larval lampreys and GABA immunohistochemistry or gabab in situ hybridization experiments. Animals were analysed up to 10 weeks post-lesion (wpl), when behavioural analyses showed that they recovered normal appearing locomotion (stage 6 in the Ayer's scale of locomotor recovery). We observed a significant decrease in the number of GABA-ir cells and fibres 1 h after lesion both rostral and caudal to the lesion site. GABA-ir cell numbers and innervation were recovered to control levels 1 to 2 wpl. At 1, 4 and 10 wpl the expression of gabab1 and gabab2 transcripts was significantly decreased in the spinal cord compared to control un-lesioned animals. This is the first study reporting the quantitative long-term changes in the number of GABAergic cells and fibres and in the expression of gabab receptors in the spinal cord of any vertebrate following a traumatic SCI. Our results show that in lampreys there is a full recovery of the GABAergic neurons and a decrease in the expression of gabab receptors when functional

  6. Imaging procedures in spinal infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiek, S.O.

    2001-01-01

    A targeted successful treatment of spinal infectious diseases requires clinical and laboratory data that are completed by the contribution of imaging procedures. Neuroimaging only provides essential informations on the correct topography, localisation, acuity and differential diagnosis of spinal infectious lesions. MRI with its sensitivity concerning soft tissue lesions is a useful tool in detecting infectious alterations of spinal bone marrow, intervertebral disks, leptomeninges and the spinal cord itself. Crucial imaging patterns of typical spinal infections are displayed and illustrated by clinical case studies. We present pyogenic, granulomatous and postoperative variants of spondylodicitis, spinal epidural abscess, spinal meningitis and spinal cord infections. The importance of intravenous contrastmedia application is pointed out. (orig.) [de

  7. Temporal change in NMDA receptor signaling and GABAA receptor expression in rat caudal vestibular nucleus during motion sickness habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Qin; Li, Hong-Xia; Chen, Xin-Min; Mo, Feng-Feng; Qi, Rui-Rui; Guo, Jun-Sheng; Cai, Yi-Ling

    2012-06-21

    Repeated exposure to a provocative motion stimulus leads to motion sickness habituation indicative of the existence of central processes to counteract the disturbing properties of the imposed motion. In the present study, we attempt to investigate whether NMDA and GABA(A) receptors in rat caudal vestibular nucleus neurons are involved in motion sickness habituation induced by repeated Ferris-wheel like rotation in daily session (2h/d). We showed that defecation response increased and spontaneous locomotion decreased within 4 sessions (sickness phase). They recovered back to the control level after 7 sessions (habituation phase). Western blot analysis found that NMDA receptor signal molecules: calmodulin protein kinase II and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) were both activated during sickness phase, while a prolonged CREB activation was also observed during habituation phase. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed an increase in c-fos and a decrease in Arc mRNA level during sickness phase. We also found an increase in GABA(A) receptor α1 subunit (GABA(A) α1) protein level in this stage. These results suggested that altered NMDA receptor signaling and GABA(A) receptor expression level in caudal vestibular nucleus were associated with motion sickness habituation. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that the number of GABA(A) α1 immunolabeled neurons in caudal vestibular nucleus increased while the number of GABA(A) α1/Arc double labeled neurons and the average amount of Arc particle in soma of these neurons decreased during sickness phase. It suggested that GABA(A) receptor level might be negatively regulated by Arc protein in caudal vestibular nucleus neurons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of preemptive intravenous paracetamol and caudal block in terms of analgesic and hemodynamic parameters in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serbülent Gökhan Beyaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Paracetamol has a widespread use for feverand symptomatic relief of pain in children. The aim ofthis study was to compare analgesic effects of preemptiveintravenous (i.v. paracetamol, and caudal block withlevobupivacaine.Materials and methods: A total of 60 children with ASAI-II physical status, aged 5-15 years and undergoing inguinalhernia repair, were randomly allocated to threegroups so that each group contained 20 patients. Group Pchildren received i.v. 15mg/kg paracetamol. Group C receivedonly caudal block with levobupivacaine, and GroupPC received both i.v. paracetamol, and caudal block withlevobupivacaine. Pain level assessed by modified EasternOntario Children’s Hospital pain scale (mCHEOPs,sedation status by Ramsey sedation scale at postoperative5, 15, 30 min and 1,3, and 6th hours.Results: No significant differences were found in age,gender distribution, body weight, ASA status, type andduration of surgery between three groups (p>0.05. Althoughsignificant difference were found in mCHEOPsscores within groups by repeated measures, no differenceof pain scores was observed between three groups(p>0.05. There were no significant differences in the hemodynamicparameters (heart rate, blood pressure bothwithin groups and between groups (p>0.05.Conclusions: Preemptive intravenous paracetamol hadsimilar analgesic effects compared with caudal block withlevobupivacaine with regard to postoperative pain scoresin children undergoing inguinal hernia repair. No hemodynamicor other adverse effects were observed withintravenous paracetamol. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(2:202-208

  9. Computed tomography of the spinal canal for the cervical spine and spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Isao; Niimiya, Hikosuke; Nasu, Kichiro; Shioya, Akihide; Ohhama, Mitsuru

    1983-01-01

    The cervical spinal canal and cervical spinal cord were measured in normal cases and 34 cases of spinal or spinal cord injury. The anteroposterior diameter and area of the normal cervical spinal canal showed a high correlation. The area ratio of the normal cervical spinal canal to the cervical spinal cord showed that the proportion of the cervical spinal cord in the spinal canal was 1/3 - 1/5, Csub(4,5) showing a particularly large proportion. In acute and subacute spinal or spinal cord injury, CT visualized in more details of the spinal canal in cases that x-ray showed definite bone injuries. Computer assisted myelography visualized more clearly the condition of the spinal cord in cases without definite findings bone injuries on x-ray. Demonstrating the morphology of spinal injury in more details, CT is useful for selection of therapy for injured spines. (Chiba, N.)

  10. Role of epidural steroids in the management of chronic spinal pain: a systematic review of effectiveness and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Salahadin; Datta, Sukdeb; Lucas, Linda F

    2005-01-01

    Epidural steroid injections are commonly used for chronic spinal pain. However, there is no conclusive evidence regarding their effectiveness, and debate continues as to their value in managing chronic spinal pain. To evaluate various types of epidural injections (interlaminar, transforaminal, and caudal) for managing chronic spinal pain (axial and radicular). A systematic review utilizing the criteria established by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) for evaluation of randomized and non-randomized trials, and criteria of the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Review Group for randomized trials. Data sources included relevant English literature identified through searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE (January 1966 to November 2004), manual searches of bibliographies of known primary and review articles and abstracts from scientific meetings within the last 2 years. Three reviewers independently assessed the trials for the quality of their methods. Subgroup analyses were performed for trials with different control groups, with different modes of epidurals (interlaminar, transforaminal, and caudal), with different injection sites (cervical/thoracic, lumbar/sacral), and with timing of outcome measurement (short- and long-term). The primary outcome measure was pain relief. Other outcome measures were functional improvement, improvement of psychological status, and return to work. Short-term improvement was defined as less than 6 weeks, and long-term improvement was defined as 6 weeks or longer. For lumbar radicular pain with interlaminar lumbar epidural steroid injections, the level of evidence was strong for short-term relief and limited for long-term relief. For cervical radicular pain with cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections, the evidence was moderate. The evidence for lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections for lumbar nerve root pain was strong for short-term and moderate for long term improvement. The evidence for cervical transforaminal

  11. Management of Penetrating Spinal Cord Injuries in a Non Spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Penetrating injuries of the spinal cord are among the most dangerous of injuries. They are often associated with injuries to other vital organs of the body, which may demand priority attention. The objectives of this study were to determine the pattern of the penetrating spinal cord injuries and to evaluate outcome ...

  12. Treatment of urethral obstruction secondary to caudal bladder displacement, trigonal invagination, and urethral kinking in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakubo, Kayo; Palm, Carrie A; Korner, Amber L; Culp, William T N

    2017-10-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 15-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog was evaluated for a 7-week history of stranguria, pollakiuria, and intermittent urethral obstruction. CLINICAL FINDINGS On initial evaluation, the patient had persistent stranguria with lack of urine production; after multiple unsuccessful attempts to urinate, a large volume of urine was produced. Prior to voiding the large volume, the urinary bladder was not palpable during examination. Abdominal ultrasonography confirmed caudal displacement of the urinary bladder, and the urethra and trigone could not be located ultrasonographically. Positive-contrast cystourethrography and CT confirmed caudal displacement of the urinary bladder and also revealed trigonal invagination and urethral kinking; dysuria was attributed to these findings. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Surgical repositioning of the lower urinary tract was performed. The urinary bladder was moved cranially and was fixed in place along the left lateral aspect of the body wall by cystopexy. After surgery, positive-contrast cystourethrography revealed a more cranial positioning of the urinary bladder and straightening of the urethra with no urethral kinking or trigonal invagination. Immediately after surgery, stranguria had resolved and the patient was able to void normally. Two years after surgery, the dog was reported to be urinating normally. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Surgical correction of caudal urinary bladder displacement with cystopexy led to resolution of trigonal invagination, urethral kinking, and urethral obstruction in the dog of the present report. Trigonal invagination and urethral kinking, although uncommon findings, should be considered as possible causes of dysuria in dogs.

  13. Three-dimensional motion pattern of the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Monika I; Seiler, Gabriela S; Robinson, Leanne E; Ferguson, Stephen J; Bonél, Harald M; Busato, André R; Lang, Johann

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate the 3-dimensional motion pattern including main and coupled motions of the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column of dogs. Vertebral columns of 9 German Shepherd Dogs (GSDs) and 16 dogs of other breeds with similar body weights and body conditions. Main and coupled motions of the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column (L4 to S1) were determined by use of a testing apparatus that permitted precise application of known pure moments to the vertebral column. Motion was compared between GSDs and dogs of other breeds. All specimens had a similar motion pattern consisting of main motion and a certain amount of coupled motion including translation. Vertebral columns of GSDs had significantly less main motion in all directions than that of dogs of other breeds. Translation was similar in GSDs and dogs of other breeds and was smallest at the lumbosacral motion segment. Results indicated that motion in the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column of dogs is complex and provided a basis for further studies evaluating abnormal vertebral columns.

  14. The effectiveness of pudendal nerve block versus caudal block anesthesia for hypospadias in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naja, Zoher M; Ziade, Fouad M; Kamel, Raymond; El-Kayali, Sabah; Daoud, Nabil; El-Rajab, Mariam A

    2013-12-01

    Caudal block (CB) has some disadvantages, one of which is its short duration of action after a single injection. For hypospadias repair, pudendal nerve block (PNB) might be a suitable alternative since it has been successfully used for analgesia for circumcision. We evaluated PNB compared with CB as measured by total analgesic consumption 24 hours postoperatively. In this prospective, double-blinded study, patients were randomized into 2 groups, either receiving CB or nerve stimulator-guided PNB. In the PNB group, patients were injected with 0.3 mL/kg 0.25% bupivacaine and 1 µg/kg clonidine. In the CB group, patients were injected with 1 mL/kg 0.25% bupivacaine and 1 µg/kg clonidine. Analgesic consumption was assessed during the first 24 hours postoperatively. The "objective pain scale" developed by Hannalah and Broadman was used to assess postoperative pain. Eighty patients participated in the study, 40 in each group. The mean age in the PNB group was 3.1 (1.1) years and in the CB group was 3.2 (1.1) years. The mean weights in the PNB and CB groups were 15.3 (2.8) kg and 15.3 (2.2) kg, respectively. The percentage of patients who received analgesics during the first 24 hours were significantly higher in the CB (70%) compared with the PNB group (20%, P < 0.0001). The average amount of analgesics consumed per patient within 24 hours postoperatively was higher in the CB group (paracetamol P < 0.0001, Tramal P =0.003). Patients who received PNB had reduced analgesic consumption and pain within the first 24 hours postoperatively compared with CB.

  15. Post spinal meningitis and asepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videira, Rogerio L R; Ruiz-Neto, P P; Brandao Neto, M

    2002-07-01

    Post spinal meningitis (PSM) is a complication still currently being reported. After two PSM cases in our hospital an epidemiological study was initiated, which included a survey of techniques for asepsis that are applied in our department. Cases defined as PSM comprised meningitis within a week after spinal anesthesia. Anesthesia records, anesthesia complication files and the records of the Hospital Commission for Infection Control from 1997 to 2000 were reviewed. Asepsis techniques applied were surveyed by a questionnaire answered by all our department's anesthesiologists. The equipment and procedures for spinal anesthesia were listed. Current anesthesia textbooks were reviewed for recommendations regarding asepsis techniques in conjunction with spinal anesthesia. Three cases of PSM were identified following 38,128 spinal anesthesias whereas none was observed in 12,822 patients subjected to other types of regional or general anesthesia (P>0.05). Culture of cerebrospinal fluid yielded Streptococcus in two patients and was negative in the other patient. The asepsis technique applied by the anesthesiologists varied considerably. The literature review showed that aspects on asepsis for spinal anesthesia are poorly covered. The incidence of meningitis was similar in patients subjected to spinal anesthesia and in those subjected to other anesthetic techniques. Asepsis techniques were found to differ considerably among our staff members, reflecting the lack of well-defined published standards for this procedure. We recommend that asepsis for spinal anesthesia should not be less rigorous than for surgical asepsis.

  16. Spinal lipomatous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, A; Mahapatra, A K

    2000-05-01

    Spinal lipomatous malformations (SLM) include all the closed neural tube defects (NTD) with excessive lipomatous tissue in the spinal cord or filum terminale. We evaluated 65 cases of SLM seen & operated at our department in the last 7 years. Of these only 9 were asymptomatic and 8 were below 2 years of age. There were more males than females. In addition to subcutaneous lipoma many patients also had hypertrichiosis and dermal sinus as cutaneous makes. Twenty patients had foot deformity and 5 had unilateral limb shortening. Sixty-two patients had MRI and 3 had CT myelogram for evaluation. These revealed 7 patients with Chiari malformations, 10 with focal syrinx and 2 patients underwent VP shunt for hydrocephalus. Sacral agenesis was seen in 5 patients. Clinical features were similar to other cases of spinal dysraphism except that sensory loss and trophic ulcer were more frequent. Intradural lipoma and tethering was seen in 18 cases whereas intramedullary lipoma & conus lipoma was seen in 40 & 7 cases respectively. Additional tethering lesion was seen in 1/3 cases and was treated simultaneously. Preoperative deficits improved in 28 cases and stabilized in 33 cases. Three patients developed fresh deficits after surgery. We observed 8 CSF leaks and 4 wound infections in postoperative period. It is very clear from our data that a patient has about 95% chances that his neurological status may improve or stabilize following surgery and the risk of developing fresh deficits is about 5%. We, therefore, suggest that all patients of SLM should be treated with aggressive surgical management for best results.

  17. A Combination of Ex vivo Diffusion MRI and Multiphoton to Study Microglia/Monocytes Alterations after Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun N. Noristani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS injury has been observed to lead to microglia activation and monocytes infiltration at the lesion site. Ex vivo diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion MRI or DWI allows detailed examination of CNS tissues, and recent advances in clearing procedures allow detailed imaging of fluorescent-labeled cells at high resolution. No study has yet combined ex vivo diffusion MRI and clearing procedures to establish a possible link between microglia/monocytes response and diffusion coefficient in the context of spinal cord injury (SCI. We carried out ex vivo MRI of the spinal cord at different time-points after spinal cord transection followed by tetrahydrofuran based clearing and examined the density and morphology of microglia/monocytes using two-photon microscopy. Quantitative analysis revealed an early marked increase in microglial/monocytes density that is associated with an increase in the extension of the lesion measured using diffusion MRI. Morphological examination of microglia/monocytes somata at the lesion site revealed a significant increase in their surface area and volume as early as 72 hours post-injury. Time-course analysis showed differential microglial/monocytes response rostral and caudal to the lesion site. Microglia/monocytes showed a decrease in reactivity over time caudal to the lesion site, but an increase was observed rostrally. Direct comparison of microglia/monocytes morphology, obtained through multiphoton, and the longitudinal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC, measured with diffusion MRI, highlighted that axonal integrity does not correlate with the density of microglia/monocytes or their somata morphology. We emphasize that differential microglial/monocytes reactivity rostral and caudal to the lesion site may thus coincide, at least partially, with reported temporal differences in debris clearance. Our study demonstrates that the combination of ex vivo diffusion MRI and two

  18. [Closed spinal dysraphism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollini, G; Cottalorda, J; Jouve, J L; Labriet, C; Choux, M

    1993-04-01

    This retrospective review included 133 patients with one or several of the following defects: diastematomyelia, neurenteric cyst, dermal sinus or cyst, meningeal malformation, sacral agenesis, tethering of the spinal cord, and lumbosacral lipoma. Physical evaluation readily identified most lumbosacral lipomas, as well as most cases of diastematomyelia since hypertrichosis over the defect was common. Some patients developed life-threatening clinical manifestations, e.g., meningitis due to a dermal sinus. On the basis of this retrospective review and a review of the literature, the clinical and therapeutic aspects of each defect are discussed.

  19. Spatial and temporal activation of spinal glial cells: role of gliopathy in central neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Young S; Kang, Jonghoon; Unabia, Geda C; Hulsebosch, Claire E

    2012-04-01

    In the spinal cord, neuron and glial cells actively interact and contribute to neurofunction. Surprisingly, both cell types have similar receptors, transporters and ion channels and also produce similar neurotransmitters and cytokines. The neuroanatomical and neurochemical similarities work synergistically to maintain physiological homeostasis in the normal spinal cord. However, in trauma or disease states, spinal glia become activated, dorsal horn neurons become hyperexcitable contributing to sensitized neuronal-glial circuits. The maladaptive spinal circuits directly affect synaptic excitability, including activation of intracellular downstream cascades that result in enhanced evoked and spontaneous activity in dorsal horn neurons with the result that abnormal pain syndromes develop. Recent literature reported that spinal cord injury produces glial activation in the dorsal horn; however, the majority of glial activation studies after SCI have focused on transient and/or acute time points, from a few hours to 1 month, and peri-lesion sites, a few millimeters rostral and caudal to the lesion site. In addition, thoracic spinal cord injury produces activation of astrocytes and microglia that contributes to dorsal horn neuronal hyperexcitability and central neuropathic pain in above-level, at-level and below-level segments remote from the lesion in the spinal cord. The cellular and molecular events of glial activation are not simple events, rather they are the consequence of a combination of several neurochemical and neurophysiological changes following SCI. The ionic imbalances, neuroinflammation and alterations of cell cycle proteins after SCI are predominant components for neuroanatomical and neurochemical changes that result in glial activation. More importantly, SCI induced release of glutamate, proinflammatory cytokines, ATP, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neurotrophic factors trigger activation of postsynaptic neuron and glial cells via their own receptors

  20. Spatial and Temporal Activation of Spinal Glial Cells: Role of Gliopathy in Central Neuropathic Pain Following Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Young S.; Kang, Jonghoon; Unabia, Geda C.; Hulsebosch, Claire. E.

    2012-01-01

    In the spinal cord, neurons and glial cells actively interact and contribute to neurofunction. Surprisingly, both cell types have similar receptors, transporters and ion channels and also produce similar neurotransmitters and cytokines. The neuroanatomical and neurochemical similarities work synergistically to maintain physiological homeostasis in the normal spinal cord. However, in trauma or disease states, spinal glia become activated, dorsal horn neurons become hyperexcitable contributing to sensitized neuronal-glial circuits. The maladaptive spinal circuits directly affect synaptic excitability, including activation of intracellular downstream cascades that result in enhanced evoked and spontaneous activity in dorsal horn neurons with the result that abnormal pain syndromes develop. Recent literature reported that spinal cord injury produces glial activation in the dorsal horn; however, the majority of glial activation studies after SCI have focused on transient and/or acute time points, from a few hours to one month, and peri-lesion sites, a few millimeters rostral and caudal to the lesion site. In addition, thoracic spinal cord injury produces activation of astrocytes and microglia that contributes to dorsal horn neuronal hyperexcitability and central neuropathic pain in above-level, at-level and below-level segments remote from the lesion in the spinal cord. The cellular and molecular events of glial activation are not a simple event, rather it is the consequence of a combination of several neurochemical and neurophysiological changes following SCI. The ionic imbalances, neuroinflammation and alterations of cell cycle proteins after SCI are predominant components for neuroanatomical and neurochemical changes that result in glial activation. More importantly, SCI induced release of glutamate, proinfloammatory cytokines, ATP, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neurotrophic factors trigger activation of postsynaptic neurons and glial cells via their own