WorldWideScience

Sample records for caudal spinal stump

  1. Pediatric regional anesthesia- A comparison between pediatric spinal and caudal anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Pandya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional anesthesia in children was first studied by August Bier in 1899. Since then, spinal anesthesia was known to be practiced for several years with a series of cases published as early as in 1909-1910. (1 In 1900, Bainbridge reported a case of strangulated hernia repair under spinal anesthesia in an infant of three months(2. Thereafter, Tyrell Gray, a British surgeon published a series of 200 cases of lower abdominal surgeries in infants and children under spinal anesthesia in 1909-1910. The appearance of neuromuscular blocking agents and the development of volatile anesthetics in the forties shifted the techniques toward general anesthesia. However, spinal pediatric anesthesia did not disappear. In 1901, Sicard and Cathelin introduced independently the caudal approach in the anesthetic practice. The first publication that mentions this technique in children was written by Campbell in 1933 and the second one by Leigh and Belton in 1951. Subsequently, Fortuna (1963 in Brazil, Melman(10 (1973 in Mexico, Takasaki (1977 in Japan, Ecoffey(7 (1985 in France, and Rash (1995 in USA, introduced these techniques in their countries. The caudal technique is extensively described by Key in 1994. When regional anesthesia is given to older children, some variables such as the intervention site, age, and presence of chronic disease, cooperativeness and parental preferences should be considered. In present study we compared caudal block with spinal block in pediatric patients.

  2. Distracted cervical spinal fusion for management of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy in large-breed dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an autogenous bone graft (obtained from the iliac crest), 4-mm cancellous bone screws, and polymethylmethacrylate, a distracted cervical spinal fusion technique was performed on 10 dogs with myelographic evidence of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy. All dogs had evidence of dynamic soft tissue spinal cord compression, as indicated by flexion, extension, and traction myelographic views. Of the 10 dogs, 4 previously had undergone surgery by use of ventral slot or cervical disk fenestration techniques, and their neurologic status had deteriorated after the original surgery. Preoperative neurologic status of the 10 dogs included nonambulatory tetraparesis (n = 5), severe ataxia with conscious proprioceptive deficits (n = 2), and mild ambulatory ataxia with conscious proprioceptive deficits (n = 3). Five dogs had signs of various degrees of cervical pain. Clinical improvement was observed in 8 of 10 dogs--either improved neurologic status or elimination of cervical pain. Implant loosening developed in 3 dogs; 2 of them were euthanatized because of lack of neurologic improvement. Radiographic evidence of bony cervical fusion was observed during a 9- to 24-week period in 6 of the 8 surviving dogs. The distracted cervical fusion technique appears to be a valid surgical procedure to manage cervical spondylomyelopathy in those dogs in which the lesions are limited to one cervical intervertebral disk space

  3. Success rates and complications of awake caudal versus spinal block in preterm infants undergoing inguinal hernia repair: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Seyedhejazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inguinal hernia is a common disease in preterm infants necessitating surgical repair. Despite the increased risk of postoperative apnea in preterm infants, the procedure was conventionally performed under general anesthesia. Recently, regional anesthesia approaches, including spinal and caudal blocks have been proposed as safe and efficient alternative anesthesia methods in this group of patients. The current study evaluates awake caudal and spinal blocks in preterm infants undergoing inguinal hernia repair. Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 66 neonates and infants (weight <5 kg undergoing inguinal hernia repair were recruited in Tabriz Teaching Children Hospital during a 12-month period. They were randomly divided into two equal groups; receiving either caudal block by 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine plus 20 μg adrenaline (group C or spinal block by 1 mg/kg of 0.5% bupivacaine plus 20 μg adrenaline (group S. Vital signs and pain scores were documented during operation and thereafter up to 24 h after operation. Results: Decrease in heart rate and systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in group C throughout the study period (P < 0.05. The mean recovery time was significantly higher in group S (27.3 ± 5.5 min vs. 21.8 ± 9.3 min; P = 0.03. Postoperative need for analgesia was significantly more frequent in group S (75.8% vs. 36.4%; P = 0.001. Failure in anesthesia was significantly higher in group S (24.4% vs. 6.1%; P = 0.04. Conclusion: More appropriate success rate, duration of recovery and postoperative need of analgesics could contribute to caudal block being a superior anesthesia technique compared to spinal anesthesia in awaked preterm infants undergoing inguinal hernia repair.

  4. Orofacial inflammatory pain affects the expression of MT1 and NADPH-d in rat caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus and trigeminal ganglion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Huang; Hongwen He; Wenguo Fan; Yongliang Liu; Hongyu Zhou; Bin Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the role of melatonin in the trigeminal system, including the function of melatonin receptor 1. In the present study, adult rats were injected with formaldehyde into the right vibrissae pad to establish a model of orofacial inflammatory pain. The distribution of melatonin re-ceptor 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase in the caudal spinal minal nucleus and trigeminal ganglion was determined with immunohistochemistry and mistry. The results show that there are significant differences in melatonin receptor 1 expression and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase expression in the trigeminal ganglia and caudal spinal nucleus during the early stage of orofacial inflammatory pain. Our findings sug-gest that when melatonin receptor 1 expression in the caudal spinal nucleus is significantly reduced, melatonin’s regulatory effect on pain is attenuated.

  5. Fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection for management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: short-term and long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Woo; Myung, Jae Sung; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Park, Kun Woo; Yeom, Jin S. [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Kim, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Hyun-Jib [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea)

    2010-07-15

    To evaluate the short-term and long-term effects of fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection (ESI) for the management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) and to analyze outcome predictors. All patients who underwent caudal ESI in 2006 for DLSS were included in the study. Response was based on chart documentation (aggravated, no change, slightly improved, much improved, no pain). In June 2009 telephone interviews were conducted, using formatted questions including the North American Spine Society (NASS) patient satisfaction scale. For short-term and long-term effects, age difference was evaluated by the Mann-Whitney U test, and gender, duration of symptoms, level of DLSS, spondylolisthesis, and previous operations were evaluated by Fisher's exact test. Two hundred and sixteen patients (male: female = 75:141; mean age 69.2 years; range 48{proportional_to}91 years) were included in the study. Improvements (slightly improved, much improved, no pain) were seen in 185 patients (85.6%) after an initial caudal ESI and in 189 patients (87.5%) after a series of caudal ESIs. Half of the patients (89/179, 49.8%) replied positively to the NASS patient satisfaction scale (1 or 2). There were no significant outcome predictors for either the short-term or the long-term responses. Fluoroscopically guided caudal ESI was effective for the management of DLSS (especially central canal stenosis) with excellent short-term and good long-term results, without significant outcome predictors. (orig.)

  6. Fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection for management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: short-term and long-term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the short-term and long-term effects of fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection (ESI) for the management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) and to analyze outcome predictors. All patients who underwent caudal ESI in 2006 for DLSS were included in the study. Response was based on chart documentation (aggravated, no change, slightly improved, much improved, no pain). In June 2009 telephone interviews were conducted, using formatted questions including the North American Spine Society (NASS) patient satisfaction scale. For short-term and long-term effects, age difference was evaluated by the Mann-Whitney U test, and gender, duration of symptoms, level of DLSS, spondylolisthesis, and previous operations were evaluated by Fisher's exact test. Two hundred and sixteen patients (male: female = 75:141; mean age 69.2 years; range 48∝91 years) were included in the study. Improvements (slightly improved, much improved, no pain) were seen in 185 patients (85.6%) after an initial caudal ESI and in 189 patients (87.5%) after a series of caudal ESIs. Half of the patients (89/179, 49.8%) replied positively to the NASS patient satisfaction scale (1 or 2). There were no significant outcome predictors for either the short-term or the long-term responses. Fluoroscopically guided caudal ESI was effective for the management of DLSS (especially central canal stenosis) with excellent short-term and good long-term results, without significant outcome predictors. (orig.)

  7. A clinical syndrome of rostral and caudal spinal injury: neurological, neurophysiological and urodynamic evidence for occult sacral lesion.

    OpenAIRE

    Berić, A; Dimitrijević, M R; Light, J K

    1987-01-01

    Patients with spinal cord injury show upper motor neuron dysfunction below the level of the lesion. Some patients with cervical and high thoracic injuries show unexpected lower leg atrophy and ankle jerk abnormalities together with persistence of urinary retention. Clinical, neurophysiological and urodynamic findings in 130 patients with cervical and thoracic injuries showed that 18 patients had additional lumbosacral dysfunction. Three patients had radiological findings demonstrating a secon...

  8. Chondroitinase ABC promotes recovery of adaptive limb movements and enhances axonal growth caudal to a spinal hemisection

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson, Stephanie C.; Tester, Nicole J.; Howland, Dena R.

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that Chondroitinase ABC (Ch’ase ABC) digestion of inhibitory chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans significantly enhances axonal growth and recovery in rodents following spinal cord injury (SCI). Further, our group has shown improved recovery following SCI in the larger cat model. The purpose of the current study was to determine if intraspinal delivery of Ch’ase ABC, following T10 hemisections in adult cats, enhances adaptive movement features during a skilled...

  9. Des Ogle's old stump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 17 October 1997 Sylvia Bryan of RD4 Kaitaia wrote to 'Dear Somebody-Everybody' at the Anthropology Department, University of Auckland, urging further examination of an adzed stump found by Des Ogle during planting out of the Te Aupouri forest. The authors have since sought out relevant information and present it here for the interests of our readers. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig

  10. MRI determination of the vertebral termination of the dural sac tip in a South African population: clinical significance during spinal irradiation and caudal anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Cilliers

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Knowing where the dural sac (DS ends is important, especially when placing the portal fields during craniospinal irradiation (CSI and performing caudal anesthesia. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the level of termination of the DS in relation to the spine in a group of South African patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We retrospectively reviewed the lumbosacral MR Imaging of 309 patients in each case identifying the tip of the DS. This level was recorded in relation to the adjacent vertebral body i.e. upper-, middle- and lower third and adjacent intervertebral disc. The overall mean of the DS position was at the middle third of S2. A notable percentage (13.9% of patients had a DS level lower than the lower third of S2 and (15.2% patients had a DS level higher than the S1-S2 intervertebral disc. This study failed to demonstrate a difference in the DS termination level, compared to the levels reported in various international studies; nor is there a statistical difference between gender, race and age. Our study shows that routine placement of the portal field at the lower border of S2 adequately treats the majority of CSI patients. However some patients (13.9% will be undertreated and some patients (15.2% will be overradiated. Using spinal MRI to establish the lower border of the CSI portal field will however benefit patients by ensuring adequate coverage of the entire neuroaxis as well as minimizing late gonadal toxicity due to overradiation.

  11. 腰麻与骶管麻醉应用于肛门手术74例%Spinal anesthesia or caudal anesthesia for anorectal surgery: An analysis of 74 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱怀宇; 胡四育; 王增文

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To observe the clinical effect of spinal anesthesia and caudal anesthesia in anorectal surgery. METHODS: Seventy-four patients who underwent anorectal surgery between September 2009 and May 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into spinal anesthesia group (n = 36) and caudal anesthesia group (n = 38). There were no significant differences in age, sex, illness, and operation time between the two groups. Anesthesia effect, onset time, cardiovascular complication, urinary retention, and time to sensory recovery were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The rate of satisfaction with anesthesia effect was 95% in the spinal anesthesia group and 79% in the caudal anesthesia group (P 0.05). Mean time to sensory recovery was 324 min in the spinal anesthesia group and 288 min in the caudal anesthesia group (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Spinal anesthesia has better clinical effect than caudal anesthesia when used in anorectal surgery, but the blood pressure and heart rate must be closely monitored and cardiovascular changes must be handled on time.%目的:比较腰麻与骶管麻醉在肛门手术中的效果.方法:回顾性分析2008-09/2012-05应用腰麻及骶管麻醉行肛门手术病例共74例,36例采用腰麻(腰麻组),38例采用骶管麻醉(骶麻组).两组性别、年龄、病种分类及手术时间等资料相比,P>0.05.比较两组麻醉效果、起效时间、术中心血管系统不良反应情况、术后尿潴留的发生、术后感觉恢复时间.结果:腰麻组与骶麻组麻醉效果满意率分别为95%和79%(P<0.05),腰麻组与骶麻组术中心血管系统不良反应的发生率分别为30.6%和5.3%(P<0.01),腰麻组与骶麻组的平均麻醉起效时间分别为1.98 min和8.99 min(P<0.01),腰麻组与骶麻组分别发生尿潴留4例、3例(P>0.05),腰麻组与骶麻组术后平均感觉恢复时间分别为324 min和288 min(P>0.05).结论:肛门手术中应用腰麻效果优于骶管麻醉,

  12. Caudal Regression Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Hardani*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A 10-month-old baby presented with developmental delay. He had flaccid paralysis on physical examination.An MRI of the spine revealed malformation of the ninth and tenth thoracic vertebral bodies with complete agenesis of the rest of the spine down that level. The thoracic spinal cord ends at the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra with agenesis of the posterior arches of the eighth, ninth and tenth thoracic vertebral bodies. The roots of the cauda equina appear tightened down and backward and ended into a subdermal fibrous fatty tissue at the level of the ninth and tenth thoracic vertebral bodies (closed meningocele. These findings are consistent with caudal regression syndrome.

  13. Stump torrefaction for bioenergy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► First study on torrefaction of stump for bioenergy application. ► Stump can achieve higher energy densification factors. ► Torrefied stump requires longer grinding time than torrefied wood. - Abstract: A fixed bed reactor has been developed for study of biomass torrefaction, followed by thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Norway spruce stump was used as feedstock. Two other types of biomass, poplar and fuel chips were also included in the study for comparison. Effects of feedstock types and process parameters such as torrefaction temperature and reaction time on fuel properties of torrefied solid product were investigated. The study has demonstrated that fuel properties, including heating values and grindability of the investigated biomasses were improved by torrefaction. Both torrefaction temperature and reaction time had strong effects on the torrefaction process, but temperature effects are stronger than effects of reaction time. At the same torrefaction temperature, the longer reaction time, the better fuel qualities for the solid product were obtained. However, too long reaction times and/or too higher torrefaction temperatures would decrease the solid product yield. The torrefaction conditions of 300 °C for 35 min resulted in the energy densification factor of 1.219 for the stump, which is higher than that of 1.162 for the poplar wood samples and 1.145 for the fuel chips. It appears that torrefied stump requires much longer time for grinding, while its particle size distribution is only slightly better than the others. In addition, the TG analyses have shown that untreated biomass was more reactive than its torrefaction products. The stump has less hemicelluloses than the two other biomass types. SEM analyses indicated that the wood surface structure was broken and destroyed by torrefaction process

  14. Dermatological changes of amputation stump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological changes of stumps of 174 amputees are presented. The commonest dermatological change recorded at the site of amputation stump was hyperpigmentation in 46 (26.4% followed by callosities in 32 (18.3%, scaling in 29 (16.7%, cutaneous atrophy in 20 (11.5%, lichenification in 19(10.9%, traumatic ulcer and bacterial infections in 18 (10.3% each, hypertrophic scar in 14 (8.1%, hypopigmentation and corns in 13 (7.4% each, verrucous hypertrophy of stump in 12 (6.9%, dermatophytic infection in 5(2.9%, stump oedema and phantom limb in 4 (2.3% each, intertriginous dermatitis in 3( 1.7%, allergic contact dermatitis (resin and frictional eczema in 2(1.1% each. Epidermoid cyst, keloid formation, anaesthesia, gangrene and cutaneous horn were recorded in 1 (0.6% each. Atrophy (epidermal and derma, anaesthesia, alopecia and elephantiasis of the stump have not been documented in the literature earlier.

  15. The stump and the prosthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Day, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    In performing amputations the surgeon must bear in mind the biomechanical and other constraints of the prosthesis likely to be fitted and, so far as possible, should fashion the stump accordingly. The various types of prosthesis and their features are discussed in relation to amputations of the lower and upper limbs at all levels.

  16. Stump appendicitis: A rare clinical entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stump appendicitis is one of the rare delayed complications after appendectomy with reported incidence of 1 in 50,000 cases. Stump appendicitis can present as a diagnostic dilemma if the treating clinician is unfamiliar with this rare clinical entity. We report an 18-year-old patient with Stump appendicitis, who underwent completion appendectomy laparoscopically.

  17. Transient Allodynia Following Caudal Lipoma Excision: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kalemci, Orhan; Ozer, Ercan; YUCESOY, Kemal; Arda, Mehmet Nuri; Erkin, Yüksel

    2011-01-01

    Allodynia is the sensation of pain due to non-painful stimuli. It usually occurs due to destructive lesions of the spinal cord or peripheral nerves. Allodynia following intradural lipoma surgery has been reported previously. We herein report a case of allodynia developed after microsurgical caudal lipoma excision without associated spinal cord injury.

  18. Disrafias vertebro-medulares caudais: formas intra-sacras Caudal spinal cord disraphism: intra-sacral forms. Report of 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Sampaio

    1975-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores abordam a gênese das disrafias vértebro-medulares caudais, e se atêm aos divertículos meníngeos intra-sacros. Encontraram na literatura pertinente, descrição de 24 casos e acrescentaram 4 de sua experiência. A incontinencia urinaria foi sintoma proeminente e o resultado cirúrgico compensador. O diagnóstico foi firmado por mielografia.The mean theories of the sacral spinal dysraphisms are reviwed and 4 cases of "meningeal intrasacral diverticulum" are reported. The authors prefer this term to the more common "intrasacral occult meningocele". The proeminent symptom in their cases was late vesical incontinence, which disappeared after surgery. In the pertinent litterature 24 similar cases were described till now.

  19. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C;

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months.......Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  20. Forces required to vertically uproot tree stumps

    OpenAIRE

    Lindroos, Ola; Henningsson, Marina; Athanassiadis, Dimitris; Nordfjell, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Stumpwood attracts renewed interest due to increased use of forest biomass for bioenergy. In Nordic countries stumps are generally uprooted with crawler excavators, which have strong cranes (ca. 400 kNm gross lift torque), but are not designed for moving in forest terrain. Their use is based on practical experience with available and tested machine types rather than thorough examinations of requirements, partly due to limited knowledge of force requirements for uprooting of stumps. Therefore,...

  1. Caudal duplication syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzan, Muhammad; Ahmed, Shoaib; Ali, Salman

    2014-01-01

    Complete duplication of genitourinary system, colon and vertebral column is a very rare and complex congenital condition termed as "caudal duplication syndrome" with variable presentations. This term is often quoted as a type of incomplete separation of mono-ovular twins or conjoined twinning. It is associated with other congenital malformations of the genitourinary, gastrointestinal and other organ systems. The hereby reported case, a 3-month-old male infant had presented with the classical form of the disease i.e., duplication of the gastrointestinal, genitourinary system and vertebral column with anterior abdominal wall hernia and a large lipomeningocele. PMID:24411548

  2. Caudal Duplication Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete duplication of genitourinary system, colon and vertebral column is a very rare and complex congenital condition termed as caudal duplication syndrome with variable presentations. This term is often quoted as a type of incomplete separation of mono-ovular twins or conjoined twinning. It is associated with other congenital malformations of the genitourinary, gastrointestinal and other organ systems. The hereby reported case, a 3-month-old male infant had presented with the classical form of the disease i.e., duplication of the gastrointestinal, genitourinary system and vertebral column with anterior abdominal wall hernia and a large lipomeningocele. (author)

  3. Spinal Cord Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain that is refractory to other treatment. Originally described by Shealy et al. in 1967(1), it is used to treat a range of conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I)(2), angina pectoris(3), radicular...... pain after failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS)(4), pain due to peripheral nerve injury, stump pain(5), peripheral vascular disease(6) and diabetic neuropathy(7,8); whereas phantom pain(9), postherpetic neuralgia(10), chronic visceral pain(11), and pain after partial spinal cord injury(12) remain more...... controversial. SCS is not effective in relieving central neuropathic pain states....

  4. Computed tomography in the evaluation of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy of the Doberman Pinscher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy is a common neurologic disorder of Doberman pinschers which has a number of striking similarities to cervical spondylotic myelopathy in humans. Diagnosis of this human disease is facilitated considerably by the use of computed tomographic (CT) myelography. Sixteen Doberman pinscher dogs with caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy were studied by conventional myelography followed by CT myelography. A close correlation was noted between the CT myelographic appearance of the cervical spinal cord in these dogs, and that reported for human cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Five dogs had atrophy of the spinal cord, and in another there was an accumulation of contrast medium within the spinal cord. These features are often associated with a poor response to surgical decompression in humans with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The CT examination provided information that could not be obtained by conventional myelography alone and should be considered as an additional diagnostic procedure in dogs with caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy

  5. Occurrence patterns of lichens on stumps in young managed forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Måns Svensson

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for forest-derived bio-fuel may decrease the amount of dead wood and hence also the amount of available substrate for saproxylic ( = dead-wood dependent organisms. Cut stumps constitute a large portion of dead wood in managed boreal forests. The lichen flora of such stumps has received little interest. Therefore, we investigated which lichens that occur on stumps in young (4-19 years, managed forests and analyzed how species richness and occurrence of individual species were related to stump and stand characteristics. We performed lichen inventories of 576 Norway spruce stumps in 48 forest stands in two study areas in Central Sweden, recording in total 77 lichen species. Of these, 14 were obligately lignicolous, while the remaining were generalists that also grow on bark, soil or rocks. We tested the effect of characteristics reflecting successional stage, microclimate, substrate patch size, and the species pool in the surrounding area on (1 total lichen species richness, (2 species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens and (3 the occurrence of four obligately lignicolous lichen species. The most important variables were stump age, with more species on old stumps, and study area, with similar total species richness but differences in occupancy for individual species. Responses for total lichen species richness and species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens were overall similar, indicating similar ecological requirements of these two groups. Our results indicate that species richness measurements serve as poor proxies for the responses of individual, obligately lignicolous lichen species.

  6. Langtidsbehandling med spinal cord-stimulation hos en patient med kronisk regionalt smertesyndrom type 1 og fantomsmerter efter amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Thomas P.; Scherer, Christian; Nikolajsen, Lone;

    2008-01-01

    The development of stump and phantom pain after limb amputation in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is very frequent. Stump pain is typically recurred CRPS and the possibilities for effective pharmacological pain relief are often limited. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has a wel...

  7. Overlapping Features of Caudal Regression Syndrome and VACTERL Complex in a Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Ijaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Caudal regression syndrome (CRS is characterized by a group of heterogeneous anomalies involving the distal spinal cord and vertebral column, genitourinary system, hind gut and limbs. The malformation may range from minor anomalies of spine and spinal cord to the extreme, the sirenomelia. Various authors pointed out an overlap of spectrum of anomalies in CRS and VACTERL (vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheo-esophageal, renal and limb anomalies complex.

  8. Overlapping Features of Caudal Regression Syndrome and VACTERL Complex in a Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Lubna Ijaz; Afzal Sheikh

    2010-01-01

    Caudal regression syndrome (CRS) is characterized by a group of heterogeneous anomalies involving the distal spinal cord and vertebral column, genitourinary system, hind gut and limbs. The malformation may range from minor anomalies of spine and spinal cord to the extreme, the sirenomelia. Various authors pointed out an overlap of spectrum of anomalies in CRS and VACTERL (vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheo-esophageal, renal and limb anomalies) complex.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: caudal regression syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... umbilical artery: Further support for a caudal regression-sirenomelia spectrum. Am J Med Genet A. 2007 Dec ... AK, Dickinson JE, Bower C. Caudal dysgenesis and sirenomelia-single centre experience suggests common pathogenic basis. Am ...

  10. Carotid Stump Syndrome: Pathophysiology and Endovascular Treatment Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carotid stump syndrome is one of the recognised causes of recurrent ipsilateral cerebrovascular events after occlusion of the internal carotid artery. It is believed that microemboli arising from the stump of the occluded internal carotid artery or the ipsilateral external carotid artery can pass into the middle cerebral artery circulation as a result of patent external carotid–internal carotid anastomotic channels. Different pathophysiologic causes of this syndrome and endovascular options for treatment are discussed.

  11. Human neural stem cells promote corticospinal axons regeneration and synapse reformation in injured spinal cord of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Peng; JIN Lian-hong; LIANG Tao; LIU En-zhong; ZHAO Shi-guang

    2006-01-01

    Background Axonal regeneration in lesioned mammalian central nervous system is abortive, and this causes permanent disabilities in individuals with spinal cord injuries. This paper studied the action of neural stem cell (NSC) in promoting corticospinal axons regeneration and synapse reformation in rats with injured spinal cord.Methods NSCs were isolated from the cortical tissue of spontaneous aborted human fetuses in accordance with the ethical request. The cells were discarded from the NSC culture to acquire NSC-conditioned medium. Sixty adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=15 in each): NSC graft, NSC medium, graft control and medium control groups. Microsurgical transection of the spinal cord was performed in all the rats at the T11. The NSC graft group received stereotaxic injections of NSCs suspension into both the spinal cord stumps immediately after transection; graft control group received DMEM injection. In NSC medium group,NSC-conditioned medium was administered into the spinal cord every week; NSC culture medium was administered to the medium control group. Hindlimb motor function was assessed using the BBB Locomotor Rating Scale. Regeneration of biotin dextran amine (BDA) labeled corticospinal tract was assessed. Differentiation of NSCs and the expression of synaptophysin at the distal end of the injured spinal cord were observed under a confocal microscope. Group comparisons of behavioral data were analyzed with ANOVA.Results NSCs transplantation resulted in extensive growth of corticospinal axons and locomotor recovery in adult rats after complete spinal cord transection, the mean BBB scores reached 12.5 in NSC graft group and 2.5 in graft control group (P< 0.05). There was also significant difference in BBB score between the NSC medium (11.7) and medium control groups (3.7, P< 0.05). BDA traces regenerated fibers sprouted across the lesion site and entered the caudal part of the spinal cord. Synaptophysin expression

  12. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors.

  13. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Xin; Zhuang, Kaiwen; Ran, Yuping

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors. PMID:26288747

  14. Caudal regression syndrome : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Joo; Kim, Hi Hye; Kim, Hyung Sik; Park, So Young; Han, Hye Young; Lee, Kwang Hun [Chungang Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    Caudal regression syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly, which results from a developmental failure of the caudal mesoderm during the fetal period. We present a case of caudal regression syndrome composed of a spectrum of anomalies including sirenomelia, dysplasia of the lower lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx and pelvic bones,genitourinary and anorectal anomalies, and dysplasia of the lung, as seen during infantography and MR imaging.

  15. Caudal regression syndrome : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudal regression syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly, which results from a developmental failure of the caudal mesoderm during the fetal period. We present a case of caudal regression syndrome composed of a spectrum of anomalies including sirenomelia, dysplasia of the lower lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx and pelvic bones,genitourinary and anorectal anomalies, and dysplasia of the lung, as seen during infantography and MR imaging

  16. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with recurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma at the abdominal lymph nodes or postoperative stump including pancreatic stump and other stump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xian-Liang; Wang, Huan-Huan; Meng, Mao-Bin; Wu, Zhi-Qiang; Song, Yong-Chun; Zhuang, Hong-Qing; Qian, Dong; Li, Feng-Tong; Zhao, Lu-Jun; Yuan, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using CyberKnife in the treatment of patients with recurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma at the abdominal lymph node or stump after surgery. Patients and methods Between October 1, 2006 and May 1, 2015, patients with recurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma at the abdominal lymph node or stump after surgery were enrolled and treated with SBRT at our hospital. The primary end point was local control rate after SBRT. Secondary end points were overall survival, time to symptom alleviation, and toxicity, assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Results Twenty-four patients with 24 lesions (17 abdominal lymph nodes and seven stumps) were treated with SBRT, of which five patients presented with abdominal lymph nodes and synchronous metastases in the liver and lung. The 6-, 12-, and 24-month actuarial local control rates were 95.2%, 83.8%, and 62.1%, respectively. For the entire cohort, the median overall survival from diagnosis and SBRT was 28.9 and 12.2 months, respectively. Symptom alleviation was observed in eleven of 14 patients (78.6%) within a median of 8 days (range, 1–14 days) after SBRT. Nine patients (37.5%) experienced Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 grade 1–2 acute toxicities; one patient experienced grade 3 acute toxicity due to thrombocytopenia. Conclusion SBRT is a safe and effective treatment for patients with recurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma at the abdominal lymph node or stump after surgery. Further studies are needed before SBRT can be recommended routinely. PMID:27418841

  17. Caudal bupivacaine supplemented with caudal or intravenous clonidine in children undergoing hypospadias repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Henneberg, Steen Winther; Walther-Larsen, Søren;

    2004-01-01

    Clonidine is used increasingly in paediatric anaesthetic practice to prolong the duration of action of caudal block with a local anaesthetic agent. Which route of administration of clonidine is the most beneficial remains unknown. We compared the effects of caudal and i.v. clonidine...... on postoperative analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine after hypospadias repair....

  18. Carotid Stump Syndrome: Case Report and Endovascular Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakhoul, Lara Toufic; Tawk, Rabih

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To highlight the case of a patient with multiple transient ischemic attacks and visual disturbances diagnosed with carotid stump syndrome and managed with endovascular approach. Case Presentation. We present the case of a carotid stump syndrome in an elderly patient found to have moderate left internal carotid artery stenosis in response to an advertisement for carotid screening. After a medical therapeutic approach and a close follow-up, transient ischemic attacks recurred. Computed tomographic angiography showed an occlusion of the left internal carotid artery and the presence of moderate stenosis in the right internal carotid artery, which was treated by endovascular stenting and balloon insertion. One month later, the patient presented with visual disturbances due to the left carotid stump and severe stenosis of the left external carotid artery that was reapproached by endovascular stenting. Conclusion. Considerations should be given to the carotid stump syndrome as a source of emboli for ischemic strokes, and vascular assessment could be used to detect and treat this syndrome. PMID:26425620

  19. Relation of Stump Length with Various Gait Parameters in Trans-tibial Amputee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyel Majumdar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is evaluating the impact of stump length of unilateral below knee amputees (BKA on different gait parameters. Nine unilateral BKA were chosen and divided into three groups comprising patients with short, medium, and long stump length. Each of them underwent gait analysis test by Computer Dynography (CDG system to measure the gait parameters. It was found that the ground reaction force is higher in the patients with medium stump length whereas the velocity, step length both for the prosthetic and sound limb and cadence were high in longer stump length. Statistical analysis shows a significant difference (p<0.05 between the gait parameters of BKA with medium and longer stump length. The patients with longer stump length were more efficient than medium and short stump patients as they consumed comparatively lesser energy while walking with self-selected velocity and conventional (Solid ankle cushioned heel SACH foot.

  20. Modeling spinal cord biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Carlos; Shah, Sameer; Cohen, Avis; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2012-02-01

    Regeneration after spinal cord injury is a serious health issue and there is no treatment for ailing patients. To understand regeneration of the spinal cord we used a system where regeneration occurs naturally, such as the lamprey. In this work, we analyzed the stress response of the spinal cord to tensile loading and obtained the mechanical properties of the cord both in vitro and in vivo. Physiological measurements showed that the spinal cord is pre-stressed to a strain of 10%, and during sinusoidal swimming, there is a local strain of 5% concentrated evenly at the mid-body and caudal sections. We found that the mechanical properties are homogeneous along the body and independent of the meninges. The mechanical behavior of the spinal cord can be characterized by a non-linear viscoelastic model, described by a modulus of 20 KPa for strains up to 15% and a modulus of 0.5 MPa for strains above 15%, in agreement with experimental data. However, this model does not offer a full understanding of the behavior of the spinal cord fibers. Using polymer physics we developed a model that relates the stress response as a function of the number of fibers.

  1. Caudal anesthesia in a patient with peritonitis: Is it safe??

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kako, H; Hakim, M; Kundu, A; Tobias, T D

    2016-01-01

    Neuraxial anesthesia combined with general anesthesia has become a widely accepted method of providing effective postoperative analgesia and decreasing intraoperative anesthetic needs in the pediatric population. In clinical practice, there still appears to be hesitancy for the use of a neuraxial technique (spinal or epidural) in patients at risk for bacteremia or with an on-going systemic infection. However, evidence-based medicine lacks any data to support an increase in the risk of infectious complications following neuraxial anesthesia. We present two pediatric patients with intra-abdominal infectious processes who received caudal epidural blockade for postoperative operative analgesia. The use of neuraxial techniques in patients at risk for bacteremia is reviewed, evidence-based medicine regarding the risks of infection discussed, and the potential favorable effects of neuraxial blockade on the neurohumoral response to sepsis and the systemic inflammatory responses presented. PMID:27051378

  2. Polypoid colonic metastases from gastric stump carcinoma: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    GAO, BINGXIA; XUE, XINYING; Tai, Weiping; Zhang, Jinghui; Chang, Hong; Ma, Xiaorong; Qi, Ying; CUI, LIFANG; YAN, FENGCAI; Pan, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate polypoid colonic metastases from gastric stump carcinoma by performing a retrospective analysis of the clinical data of a patient with such a diagnosis, and by discussing other previous case studies from the literature. The patient of the present study was an 80-year-old male who had undergone a gastrectomy 48 years previously for a benign perforated gastric ulcer. A colonoscopy revealed >10 multiple polypoid lesions of 6–10 mm in diameter distributed th...

  3. A stump appendicitis in a child: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Jemaï Radhia; Sahli Sondes; Fitouri Fatma; Gasmi Manef; Hamzaoui Mourad

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Stump appendicitis is a delayed complication of appendectomy. It is rare and few cases reported in the paediatric literature. The authors report on another case in a child and focus on the diagnostic peculiarities of this entity. Case A 9-year-old boy with previous history of open appendectomy was admitted for a right lower quadrant pain with bilious vomiting and fever. Physical examination demonstrated tenderness in the right lower quadrant and guarding over the appendect...

  4. Analysis of environmentally friendly harvesting systems for integrated stump fuel and roundwood production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Simon [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Forest Resource Management, Umeaa (Sweden)], e-mail: Simon.Berg@slu.se

    2012-11-01

    Tree stumps could potentially make a significant contribution to the transition from reliance on foreign fossil to renewable domestic energy sources in Sweden, but harvesting them can have unintended negative environmental consequences, largely due to ground disturbance. One way to reduce the ground disturbance is to only harvest the central part of the stump, but this is not profitable using current systems. A possible solution is to integrate stump-centre and roundwood harvests. In the presented study the work, productivity and costs of a conventional, separate stem and stump harvesting system were compared in simulations to an integrated system for simultaneously harvesting stem and stump centre. The conventional system involves use of a harvester, a forwarder, a stump harvester and a stump forwarder, while the integrated system consists of a feller-puller that fells trees with the stump centre attached, a processor and a forwarder. The results indicate that integrated harvests could produce stump wood more cheaply than the current stump harvesting system at sites dominated by trees with breast height diameters exceeding 200 mm, which includes about 80% of the clear-cutting sites in Sweden. The study is not yet complete, the results are thus preliminary and require further validation, but such integrated supply systems are promising and warrant further research.

  5. Spinal stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicine directly into the space around your spinal nerves or spinal cord. Spinal stenosis symptoms often become worse over ... Surgery is done to relieve pressure on the nerves or spinal cord. You and your doctor can decide when ...

  6. Impact of Heterobasidion spp. root rot in conifer trees and assessment of stump treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liying

    2012-01-01

    In the thesis four studies were conducted to understand the impact of Heterobasidion spp. on Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, and Larix × eurolepis in southern Sweden, and the efficacy of stump treatment against infection in order to economically assess control measures. The ability of secondary spread of H. parviporum inoculated on Norway spruce stumps created at precommercial thinning (PCT) was investigated. Stumps with a minimum diameter of 2.5 cm were able to transfer infection to adjace...

  7. Insect assemblages in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] stumps in the Eastern Sudetes

    OpenAIRE

    Skrzecz, Iwona; Bulka, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of insect assemblages colonising stumps of Picea abies (L.) Karst. in mountain conditions. Investigations were carried out in the Eastern Sudetes (south –western Poland) in forest stands situated at 600– 700 m above sea level. The observations were conducted on stumps left behind after felling 70– 90 years old Norway spruces. The analysed stumps were colonised by insects from 21 families of 3 orders: Coleopt...

  8. Delayed Bronchial Stump Dehiscence Following Tri modality Treatment for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Post pneumonectomy bronchopleural fistula represents the most serious complication in thoracic surgery. Delayed fistula following tri modality treatment for mesothelioma is a serious problem regarding diagnosis and treatment. Surgical repair of the bronchial stump through a lateral thoracotomy is a dangerous attempt due to mediastinal fibrothorax and the risk of pulmonary artery stump damage. Patients and Methods: Between 2002 and 2007, 85 extra pleural pneumonectomies for mesothelioma were performed. Only 58 patients completed the assigned tri modality treatment, five of them developed delayed bronchial stump dehiscence. The interval between primary surgery and stump dehiscence ranged from 6 months to 2 years. Results: There were 4 right and one left sided fistulae. We had 4 males and one female, the mean age was 41 years. Bronchial stump was stapled in 3 patients and hand sewn closure was used in the remaining 2. By bronchoscopy, no stump recurrence was observed, but all patients with stapled bronchus had longer remaining stump. Empyema was present in all patients. All complicated patients received 2 field post operative radiotherapy with mediastinal dose of 40-45 Grays. The initial treatment consisted of tube thoracostomy followed by exploration through the previous thoracotomy incision with thorough curettage and wash of the infected space and removal of any exposed infected mesh. Bronchial stump was identified and re sutured. Re enforcement of the bronchial stump was done. Three patients required mechanical ventilation and 2 of them died. Surgery was successful in the remaining 3 patients. Conclusion: Delayed bronchial stump dehiscence is liable to develop especially for right sided lesions. Prophylactic augmentation of right sided stumps with vascu- larised muscle flap, shielding of pathology proven negative stumps during radiotherapy and improvement of radiation techniques may improve the dose distribution.

  9. A Rare Case: Appendectomy After Connected Stump Appendicitis Perforation of the Cecum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berke Manoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stump appendicitis is a rare complication after appendectomy . Stump appendicitis made of incomplete appendectomy after a rest appendix tissue develops as a result of the inflammation. Admitted to the emergency department with acute abdomen and a history of appendectomy in patients with a history of current pain in the right lower quadrant , especially that of the patient must be evaluated in terms of stump appendicitis. The fact that the earlier story appendectomy patients , causing a delay in diagnosis and increasing the morbidity Cecal perforation was offered an advanced case of delayed depending on the stump appendicitis in this article.

  10. Stump appendicitis is a rare delayed complication of appendectomy: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Uludag; Adnan Isgor; Muzaffer Basak

    2006-01-01

    Stump appendicitis is an acute inflammation of the residual appendix and one of the rare complications after appendectomy. Paying attention to the possibility of stump appendicitis in patients with right lower abdominal pain after appendectomy can prevent the delay of diagnosis and treatment. In patients with stump appendicitis,CT scan not only assists in making an accurate preoperative diagnosis but also excludes other etiologies. We report a 47-year old man with preoperatively diagnosed stump appendicitis by CT, who underwent an open appendectomy 20 years ago.

  11. Chemical composition of decomposing stumps in successive rotation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhiqun; XU Zhihong; BOYD Sue; WILLIAMS David

    2005-01-01

    Decomposition of stumps in successive rotation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) plantations was studied using a chronosequence approach. The results showed that decomposition rate constant of Chinese fir stump was 0.02695 as calculated from Olson's model. The N content of stump increased during the first two-year decomposition. When the dead stump C/N ratio was 463.2 ± 27.3, the stumps started to release N. The pattern of P release was similar to that for N. However, K content of stumps showed a consistent declining trend over time during the whole decomposition. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with cross polarization and magic-angle spinning (13C CPMAS-NMR) was used to analyse organic carbon (C) components in decomposing stumps. The 13C CPMAS-NMR spectra of stumps displayed that stump was dominated by cellulose and hemicellulose. The spectra also showed the accumulation of intensity in alkyl C, aromatic C, and carboxyl C spectral regions, which was expected as the labile cellulose and hemicellulose components in O-alkyl C spectral region were selectively decomposed first.

  12. [Caudal regression sequence: clinical-radiological case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda T, Juan; García M, Mirna; Morales S, Jorge; Pantoja H, Miguel A; Espinoza G, Aníbal

    2015-01-01

    Caudal regression syndrome is an uncommon congenital malformation that includes a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Characterised by caudal musculoskeletal compromise, it can be associated to neurological, gastrointestinal, renal and genitourinary defects. Although the specific aetiology has not been clarified, it has been associated with the presence of maternal diabetes and mutations in homeobox gene HBLX9. Its diagnosis is based on a good prenatal ultrasound detection, detailed physical examination, and post-natal imaging study using radiography and magnetic resonance. Caudal regression syndrome requires multidisciplinary management, and it seems that good metabolic control of gestational diabetes constitutes the best preventive measure available. We present the clinical case and images of a male term newborn, born to a pregestational diabetic mother with poor metabolic control and a prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of lumbar spine, iliac bones and lower limbs malformation. Born in good conditions, the diagnosis was confirmed using X-rays and magnetic resonance. PMID:26455704

  13. Short-term responses of decomposers and vegetation to stump removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataja-aho, S.

    2011-07-01

    Stump removal has become a common practice to produce raw material for bioenergy production. It was hypothesized that stump removal is an extensive and more intense disturbance for forest ecosystems (soil decomposer organisms and vegetation) compared to traditional site preparation after clear cutting. Therefore, the effects of stump harvesting on forest soil decomposers, vegetation and nutrient dynamics in undisturbed patches of the forest soil and in exposed mineral soil were compared to the effects of the traditional site preparation method, mounding. Nematodes and enchytraeids were the only decomposer groups that were directly affected (negatively) by the stump removal. Regardless of the treatment, the abundances of most of the decomposer groups were consistently lower in the exposed mineral soil than in the intact forest soil. There was 2-3 times more exposed mineral soil in stump removal sites compared to mounding sites. When this was taken into account, the decomposer community was negatively affected by the stump removal at the forest stand level. However, the greater soil disturbance at the stump harvesting sites enhanced CO{sub 2} production, net nitrogen mineralisation and nitrification. The increased N availability and the changes in microclimate due to the disturbance probably explained the vegetation increase at the stump harvested sites. Planted Norway spruce seedlings grew faster during the first two growing periods at the stump removal sites than at the mounding sites. The seedlings had high and similar ectomycorrhizal colonization rate in both treatments. In the short-term, it is probably not the resources removed in the stumps themselves, but the degree and amount of soil disturbance during the stump harvesting procedure that affects the decomposer community and its function in the clear-felled stands. (orig.)

  14. Bamboo stumps as mosquito larval habitats in Darjeeling Himalayas,India:A spatial scale analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gautam Aditya; Rakesh Tamang; Dipendra Sharma; Francis Subba; Goutam K.Saha

    2008-01-01

    Bamboo stumps can be a congenial breeding habitat of the mosquitoes.In view of this,a preliminary assessment of the dipteran immatures inhabiting the stumps of bamboo groves in the Darjeeling Himalayas was carried out at a spatial scale.Of the 104 stumps of Dendrocalamus hamiltoni surveyed,70 were found to host immatures of three dipteran species,the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the midges Chironomus sp.in varying densities.Though the stumps varied in diameter,in each stump on average 12.1 immatures were found.The abundance of the immatures was positively correlated with the diameter of the stumps (r = +0.382;P < 0.001) but negatively with the pH of the water present in the stumps (r = -0.336;P < 0.01).The coefficient of association was found to be +8.4 for the Ae.aegypti and Chironomus immatures,while in the rest of the species pair the association seemed to be independent.Thus it can be concluded that the stumps in the bamboo groves of Darjeeling Himalayas provides a favourable habitat for the mosquito and chironomid immatures.

  15. Multiple Neuromas Cause Painful "Jumping Stump" in a Transfemoral Amputee: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntragulpoontawee, Montana; Pattamapaspong, Nuttaya; Tongprasert, Siam

    2016-09-01

    Painful "jumping stump" is an uncommon but very disturbing complication postamputation. This condition is one of the movement disorder entities resulting from peripheral nerve pathology, often known as "peripherally induced movement disorders." Previously case reports have been written about painful and nonpainful incidence of "jumping stump"; however, only the earliest "jumping stump" article in 1852 suspected that neuromas might influence the involuntary movement. In this study, we describe a 38-year-old man with bilateral transfemoral amputee who suffered from painful "jumping stump" with multiple neuromas confirmed by imaging. He was treated successfully by ultrasound-guided phenol injection into the sciatic neuroma stalks. The pathophysiology of jumping stump and its possible association with neuroma are briefly discussed. PMID:27440797

  16. Operaciones de Flujo de Fluidos. Tema 5: Medida de caudales

    OpenAIRE

    Salcedo Díaz, Raquel

    2011-01-01

    Apuntes del tema 5. Medida de caudales. En este tema se resumen las principales características de los medidores de caudal, analizando de manera especial los que basan su medida en diferencias de presión.

  17. Surgical management of the pancreatic stump following pancreato-duodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testini, M; Piccinni, G; Lissidini, G; Gurrado, A; Tedeschi, M; Franco, I F; Di Meo, G; Pasculli, A; De Luca, G M; Ribezzi, M; Falconi, M

    2016-06-01

    Pancreato-duodenectomy (PD) is the treatment of choice for periampullary tumors, and currently, indications have been extended to benign disease, including symptomatic chronic pancreatitis, paraduodenal pancreatitis, and benign periampullary tumors that are not amenable to conservative surgery. In spite of a significant decrease in mortality in high volume centers over the last three decades (from>20% in the 1980s togastro-intestinal anastomoses. Moreover, pancreatico-enteric anastomotic breakdown remains a life-threatening complication. For these reasons, the management of the pancreatic stump following resection is still one of the most hotly debated issues in digestive surgery; more than 80 different methods of pancreatico-enteric reconstructions having been described, and no gold standard has yet been defined. In this review, we analyzed the current trends in the surgical management of the pancreatic remnant after PD. PMID:27130693

  18. Bronchial stump closure with amniotic membrane in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Mohajeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coverage of the bronchial stumps (BSs with adjacent tissues can improve healing and reduce bronchial complications in complex thoracic surgery. There is no evidence for the application of human amnion allograft for prevention of air leak from the BS. The comparison of the amniotic membrane (AM and pleural patch for BS healing after lobectomy in dogs was our aim in this study. Materials and Methods: A total of eight males and females 12-24-month-old dogs between 17 and 22 kg body-weight were used in this study in 2010, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Animals were separated into two groups: group A (n = 4; amniotic membrane and group P (n = 4; pleural patch according to the BS closure technique performed. After lobectomy of the right middle lobe, the BS was closed, while a small bronchopleural fistula (BPF was created by inserting a catheter via edges of closed stump. Then, it was covered with a piece of AM3 × 3 cm in group A and with a pedicle graft of pleura in group P. Rethoracotomy was performed after 15 days of observation, and the BS was removed for histological examination. Histological healing was classified as complete or incomplete healing. Neoangiogenesis was measured by Von Willebrand expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15 using Fisher′s exact test, Mann-Whitney test, and T tests. Results: BPF complications were not seen during observation period. There was no significant difference in histological healing between two groups. Similarly, no significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of neoangiogenesis based on IHC examination (P value = 0.69. Conclusion: Human amnion allograft could be as effective as pleural patch for BS wrapping following pulmonary resections.

  19. Ossification in the caudal attachments of the ligamentum flavum: an anatomic and computed tomographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of anatomic specimens and routine computed tomographic (CT) scans of the chest and abdomen demonstrated that ossification in the caudal attachments of the ligamentum flavum is a common anatomic finding, but a much less common CT finding. Its characteristic location should help prevent confusion with other entities. The present study was prompted by a case of thoracic spine trauma, reported here, in which areas of bone density in the spinal canal simulated fracture fragments. The true nature of these bony projections, namely ossification in the ligamentum flavum, was established by computer reconstruction of axial CT images

  20. Systematization, distribution and territory of the caudal cerebral artery on the brain's surface of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarílis Díaz de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Meleagris gallopavo heads with their neck segments were used. Animals were contained and euthanized with the association of mebezonium iodide, embutramide and tetracaine hydrochloride (T 61, Intervet by intravenous injection. The arterial system was rinsed with cold saline solution (15°C, with 5000IU heparin and filled with red-colored latex. The samples were fixed in 20% formaldehyde for seven days. The brains were removed with a segment of cervical spinal cord and after, the dura-mater was removed and the arteries dissected. The cerebral carotid arteries, after the intercarotid anastomosis, were projected around the hypophysis, until they reached the tuber cinereum and divided into their terminal branches, the caudal branch and the rostral branch. The rostral branch was projected rostrolateralwards and gave off, in sequence, two collateral branches, the caudal cerebral and the middle cerebral arteries and the terminal branch was as cerebroethmoidal artery. The caudal cerebral artery of one antimere formed the interhemispheric artery, which gave off dorsal hemispheric branches to the convex surface of both antimeres. Its dorsal tectal mesencephalic branch, of only one antimere, originated the dorsal cerebellar artery. In the interior of the cerebral transverse fissure, after the origin of the dorsal tectal mesencephalic artery, the caudal cerebral artery emitted occipital hemispheric branches, pineal branches and medial hemispheric branches, on both antimeres. The caudal cerebral artery's territory comprehended the entire surface of the dorsal hemioptic lobe, the rostral surface of the cerebellum, the diencephalic structures, the caudal pole and the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere and in the convex surface, the sagittal eminence except for its most rostral third. Due to the asymmetry found in the caudal cerebral arteries' ramifications, the models were classified into three types and their respective subtypes.

  1. Caudal bupivacaine supplemented with caudal or intravenous clonidine in children undergoing hypospadias repair: a double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T G; Henneberg, S W; Walther-Larsen, S;

    2004-01-01

    Clonidine is used increasingly in paediatric anaesthetic practice to prolong the duration of action of caudal block with a local anaesthetic agent. Which route of administration of clonidine is the most beneficial remains unknown. We compared the effects of caudal and i.v. clonidine...... on postoperative analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine after hypospadias repair....

  2. Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Sakti Prasad Das; Niranjan Ojha; G Shankar Ganesh; Ram Narayan Mohanty

    2013-01-01

    Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting re...

  3. Sirenomelia and severe caudal regression syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Seidahmed, Mohammed Z.; Abdelbasit, Omer B.; Alhussein, Khalid A.; Miqdad, Abeer M.; Khalil, Mohammed I.; Salih, Mustafa A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe cases of sirenomelia and severe caudal regression syndrome (CRS), to report the prevalence of sirenomelia, and compare our findings with the literature. Methods: Retrospective data was retrieved from the medical records of infants with the diagnosis of sirenomelia and CRS and their mothers from 1989 to 2010 (22 years) at the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A perinatologist, neonatologist, pediatric neurologist, and radiologist ascertained the diagnoses. ...

  4. In utero diagnosis of caudal regression syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Negrete, BS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of caudal regression syndrome (CRS, a relatively uncommon defect of the lower spine accompanied by a wide range of developmental abnormalities. CRS is closely associated with pregestational diabetes and is nearly 200 times more prevalent in infants of diabetic mothers (1, 2. We report a case of prenatally suspected CRS in a fetus of a nondiabetic mother and discuss how the initial neurological abnormalities found on imaging correlate with the postnatal clinical deficits.

  5. NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF INFLUENCE OF THE CAUDAL FIN SHAPE ON THE PROPULSION PERFORMANCE OF A FLAPPING CAUDAL FIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xi; SU Yu-min; WANG Zhao-li

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive study of the effects of the caudal fin shape on the propulsion performance of a eandal fin in harmonic heaving and pitching.A numerical simulation based on an unsteady panel method was carried out to analyze the hydrodynamic performance of flapping caudal fins of three shapes (the whale caudal fin with the largest projected area, the dolphin caudal fin with the median projected area, and the tuna caudal fin with the smallest projected area).Then, a series of hydrodynamic experiments for three caudal fin shapes were performed.Both computational and experimental results indicate that the tuna caudal fin produces the highest efficiency.However the mean thrust coefficient of the tuna caudal fin is the smallest.It is found that although the mean thrust coefficient for the tuna caudal fin is not large, the input power of the tuna caudal fin is also quite small.So the tuna caudal fin achieves a high efficiency.

  6. Secondary reconstruction of below knee amputation stump with free anterolateral thigh flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadam Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Below knee stump preservation reduces ambulatory energy expenditure and improves the quality of life. Reconstruction of soft tissue loss around the stump is a challenging task. Below knee stump reconstruction demands stable skin with sufficient soft tissue to allow weigh bearing. Microsurgical tissue transfer is increasingly being used as a salvage option. Anterolateral thigh flap with additional vastus lateralis muscle provides extra cushioning effect. We report two cases of amputation below knee successfully salvaged. The anterolteral flap with abundant tissue and stable skin offers a reliable option for cover. Two patients with below knee amputation were reconstructed secondarily. After 6 to 20 months of follow -up, stumps showed no signs of pressure effects. Patients are able to bear 50-70 hours of weight per week.

  7. Application of purse-string suture for management of duodenal stump in radical gastrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Qin-shu; WANG Yong-xiang; YE Zai-yuan; ZHAO Zhong-kuo; XU Ji

    2011-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide,and surgical resection is currently the only possible curative approach. Duodenal stump leakage is the most serious complication after radical gastrectomy,and optimal treatment is still lacking.Methods We retrospectively reviewed 2034 cases of total or subtotal gastrectomy for GC from January 1995 to December 2009,including 465 cases of duodenal stump closure using purse-string suture (group A),835 cases of duodenal stump treated with linear cutting stapler and seromuscular layer suture (group B),and 734 cases of duodenal stump closure using full-thickness and seromuscular layer suture (group C). We evaluated the surgical cost,operative time for duodenal stump closure,short-term postoperative complications,perioperative blood loss,and postoperative recovery.Results There was no perioperative mortality in any group. Ninety-four postoperative (within 1 month) complications occurred:18 abdominal bleeding,14 anastomotic leakage,15 abdominal infection,36 wound infection,and 11 duodenal stump leakage. There was no significant difference among the groups in intra-abdominal hemorrhage,anastomotic leakage,abdominal infection and wound infection. No postoperative duodenal stump leakage occurred in group A,which had a significant difference compared with groups B and C (6 cases in group B and 5 cases in group C suffered duodenal stump leakage. P <0.01). The surgical cost in groups A and C was significantly lower than in group B (P <0.01),with no significant difference between groups A and C. The processing time for duodenal stump closure in groups A and B was significantly shorter than in group C (P <0.01),with no significant difference between groups A and B. There was no significant difference in blood loss and postoperative recovery among the groups.Conclusions Duodenal stump closure using purse-string suture seems to be a promising approach with shorter operative time,and lower

  8. Study on the effect of stump height and number of coppice shoots per stump on some anatomical properties of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. wood growth in Nineveh plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasir, W.A.; Barno, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Fiber length, diameter, wall thickness, the ratio of fiber length to diameter, and vessel element length and diameter were recorded from wood samples collected in an irrigated stand. Stump height significantly affected all anatomical features recorded except fiber wall thickness. The number of coppice shoots had significant effects on all features except vessel diameter. Anatomical variation was greater in the radial direction than along the stem axis. The use of wood from low stumps with 4 shoots is recommended, although wood produced under all conditions studied can be useful for some products. 18 references.

  9. Gastric stump mucosa: is there a risk for carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAFATLE-RIBEIRO Adriana Vaz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background - Patients who underwent partial gastric resections are at an increased risk for the development of cancer in the gastric remnant. Aim - To assess the long-term patients who underwent surgical treatment for peptic ulcer disease through endoscopic and pathologic evaluation of the gastric stump mucosal alterations. Patients and Methods - Between 1987 and 1990, 154 patients (mean = 20.4 years after gastrectomy were evaluated by upper digestive endoscopy with multiple biopsies and pathological examination. Results - Endoscopic alterations were present in 111 patients (72.1%. The commonest pathologic alterations were foveolar hyperplasia, intestinal metaplasia and cystic dilation. Severe dysplasia was noted in two (1.25% and carcinoma in 13 (8.4% of the cases. In four patients (3.8% the endoscopic findings did not show any evidence of tumors, however they were detected due to multiple biopsies and histologic studies. Conclusions - Surveillance of these patients with endoscopy and multiple biopsies may provide the means to diagnose tumors at an early stage, but the cost benefit ratio of surveillance requires further study.

  10. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy mimicking a lumbar spinal stenosis syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsberg, L; Platts, A. D.; Thomas, P K

    1995-01-01

    A patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) established by biopsy developed cauda equina symptoms due to swelling of the nerve roots in the lumbar spinal canal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine showed profoundly thickened nerve roots from the level of the conus medullaris, filling the caudal thecal sac. Immunosuppressant treatment produced partial clinical and radiological resolution. This case shows that spinal compressive syndromes may occur in acqu...

  11. Analysis of the Caudal Vortices Evolvement around Flapping Foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-dong; Zhang Xiao-qing; Su Yu-min; Xu Yu-ru

    2005-01-01

    The viscous flow field around two-dimensional flapping (heaving and pitching) foils was numerically computed. The structural characteristics of caudal vortices were investigated and the contour curves at different phase angles were obtained.The relationships between the structural characteristics of the vortices and the force acting on the foil and between the widths of the caudal vortex street and of the caudal flow field were analyzed. A method to determine the shedding frequency of the vortices was proposed.

  12. Spinal cerebrospinal fluid seeding of a clival chordoma; A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung Hwan; Yu, In Kyu; Kim, Seong Min; Park, Ki Seok; Son, Hyun Jin [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Chordomas originate from remnants of the embryonic notochord and account for < 2% of all malignant bone tumors. Chordomas have a high rate of local recurrence. However, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) seeding of a chordoma is extremely rare. Here, we present a very rare case of clival chordoma with spinal seeding. Radiologists should consider spinal CSF seeding of a clival chordoma, particularly when accompanied by signs of dural perforation or caudal extension.

  13. Morphological study of Schwann cells remyelination in contused spinal cord of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yue; Zhang, Lu; ZHANG Jie-yuan; Liu, Zheng; Duan, Zhao-Xia; Li, Bing-Cang

    2013-01-01

    【Abstract】Objective: To study the role and effect of Schwann cells (SCs) remyelination in contused spinal cord. Methods: Green fluorescence protein expressing-SCs were transplanted into the epicenter, rostral and caudal tis-sues of the injury site at 1 week after the spinal cords were contused. At 6 weeks, the spinal cords were removed for cryosections, semithin sections and ultrathin sections, and then immunocytochemical staining of myelin basic protein (MBP), P...

  14. A case of caudal regression syndrome: walking or sitting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicakci, Irem; Turgut, Selin Turan; Turgut, Bekir; Icagasioglu, Afitap; Egilmez, Zeliha; Yumusakhuylu, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Caudal regression syndrome (CRS) is a congenital disorder which is seen vertebral anomalies in varying degrees from lower thoracic spineto the level of the coccyx. We present a case of CRS which is not intended operation for orthopedic deformities considering functionality. 2, 5 year-old girl referred to our clinic with complaints about walking disability, knee and foot deformities. Patient's mother with unregulated diabetes did not have a history of drug use, radiation exposure and serious illness during pregnancy. Diagnosis had been put during antenatal follow-ups. On physical examination, her lower extremities were hypoplastic and had no muscle activity. Her hips were flexed and abducted, but did not have contractures. Her knees had 75 degrees of flexion contractures with popliteal webs and feet had equinovarus deformity. Frog belly was present due to abdominal muscles weakness. Also hypoplasic labia majora has been identified. In lumbar MRI, spinal cord was terminated at 6th thoracic (T6) vertebrae and the last solid vertebrae level was at T10. Patient who has been following by urology with clean intermittent catheterization had also severe urological problems including horseshoe kidney, neurologic bladder, vesico-ureteral reflux and grade 2 hydronephrosis. Orthopedic consultation was made for her deformities. They decided that ambulation unexpected patient's knee flexion contractures were helping sitting balance. Because of this operation was not considered. Prognosis, treatment options, strength exercises for upper extremities, skin care were told to parents and patient was taken to follow. CRS is a rare congenital abnormality which is associated with orthopedic deformities, as well as urological, anorectal and cardiac malformations. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach. It should not be forgotten that purpose of rehabilitation is not to correct all deformities but increase the functionality of everyday life. PMID:25400859

  15. The effect of NGF depletion on the neurotropic influence exerted by the distal stump following nerve transection.

    OpenAIRE

    Doubleday, B; Robinson, P P

    1995-01-01

    Following nerve section, regenerating axons from the proximal stump grow preferentially towards the distal stump. It has been postulated that this may result from the release of a neurotropic factor. To investigate whether the protein nerve growth factor (NGF) plays such a role, we immunised adult rats against NGF and examined the effect on regeneration of sectioned nerves through Y-shaped silastic tubes towards either the distal stump or an empty arm. Regeneration through the tubes was asses...

  16. Overgrowth of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) stumps with regenerative tissue as an example of cell ordering and tissue reorganization

    OpenAIRE

    Zajączkowska, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Main conclusion Stump overgrowth may serve as a unique model for studying cellular reorganization and mechanisms responsible for cell polarity changes during the process of vascular tissue differentiation from initially unorganized parenchymatous cells. Cellular ordering and tissue reorganization during the overgrowth process of the transverse surfaces of Douglas fir stumps in forest stand was studied. At the beginning of stump overgrowth, the produced parenchymatous cells form an un...

  17. Cox-2 gene overexpression in ureteral stump urothelial carcinoma following nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Wei-Pin; Chien Tsu-Ming; Wang Yu-Shiuan; Chiu Siou-Jin; Lee Mei-Hui; Chang Wei-Chiao; Chou Yii-Her; Hou Ming-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction A primary ureteral stump tumor after a nephrectomy is rare; urothelial carcinoma of the ureteral stump after a nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma is even rarer. A thorough review of the literature indicated that only seven cases have previously been reported. In this study, we report the first Taiwanese case of urothelial carcinoma of the ureteral stump after a nephrectomy. It is also the first female case in the literature. The relationship between inflammatory genes,...

  18. Spinal cord stimulation: Background and clinical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    treatment include pregnancy, coagulopathy, severe addiction to psychoactive substances, and lack of ability to cooperate (e.g. due to active psychosis or cognitive impairment). Most common complications to the treatment include lead migration, lead breakage, infection, pain over the implant, and dural......Background Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain refractory to conventional treatment. SCS treatment consists of one or more leads implanted in the epidural space of the spinal canal, connected to an implantable pulse generator (IPG). Each lead carries a...... pain syndrome (CRPS I), angina pectoris, and radicular pain after failed back surgery syndrome, and the treatment is also used to treat stump pain after amputation, and pain due to peripheral nerve injury, peripheral vascular disease, and diabetic neuropathy. Recommended contraindications for the...

  19. Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Prasad Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting revealed pigeon chest and elevated right shoulder. Posterior examination of the trunk showed thoracic scoliosis with convexity to right. The patient was operated and at 1 year followup the boy had two separate legs with a good aesthetic and functional results.

  20. Effect of Stump Length on Postural Steadiness During Quiet Stance in Unilateral Trans-Tibial Amputee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lenka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although force platform based Center of pressure (COP measures of postural steadiness have been used to test the diagnostic significance of various cerebellar and labyrinthine lesions, but very few literature are available on amputees. The aim of this work is to measure the effect of stump length of Trance-Tibial amputee on postural steadiness during quiet stance. The COP variation, which is the major determinant of stability, has been evaluated. Twenty transtibial amputee patients (age: 34±9.57 years participated in this study. Among them, ten patients were having stump length of (19.33±2.04 cm and ten patients were having stump length of (9.2±0.91 cm. Postural stability is evaluated considering following factors like, AP range, ML range, RMS distance, mean distance, sway velocity, sway area and mean power frequency. The result shows that the mean value of all the measure parameters are having higher values in case of patients having shorter stump length than there counterpart. Therefore, it is concluded that transtibial amputee with longer stump length has better postural steadiness.

  1. Biofuels from stumps and small roundwood - Costs and CO{sub 2} benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lisa Naeslund; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    In this study, we analysed and compared costs, primary energy use and CO{sub 2} benefits of recovering stumps and small roundwood from thinnings, together with logging residues. Small roundwood, chipped at a terminal or end-user, has a cost comparable to the chip system and a primary energy use comparable to the bundle system used for recovery of logging residues. The small roundwood system with roadside chipping is more expensive. As productivity in the cutting process improves, the small roundwood alternatives become more cost-effective. The stump system has costs in the same range as or lower than the chip and bundle systems. Forestry operations for stump and small roundwood recovery require considerable primary energy, but net recovery per hectare is much greater than for the chip and bundle systems, which means that more fossil fuel can be displaced per hectare of clearcut than with a chip or a bundle system. Stumps and small roundwood from thinnings can become as cost-effective as logging residues in the near future. Furthermore, when stumps and small roundwood from thinnings are also used to replace fossil fuels, the potential CO{sub 2} reduction will be about four times as great as when only logging residues are used with a traditional chip system. (author)

  2. Challenges in the management of a rare case of caudal duplication syndrome in a poor resource setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bandré

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Caudal duplication syndrome is a series of malformations affecting the development of the caudal area of the embryo involving a combination of malformations of the digestive tract, the genitourinary tract, the spinal column, the limbs or the neural tube. The authors report a case characterized by a supernumerary lower limb comprised of a thigh, leg, two feet joined by their medial edge and two scrota each containing one testicle and two phalluses, one of which lacks a urethral. The second phallus had an apical urethral meatus allowing for normal urination, a hemi-thoracic vertebrae, a megaureter and a single kidney and supernumerary vertebrae. A surgical excision of the supernumerary limb and the abormal phallus was performed, followed by a fusion of the two scrota. The surgical outcomes were uneventful.

  3. Tethered spinal cord syndrome with symptomatic onset in adulthood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shi-sheng; ZHAO Ying-chuan; SHI Zhi-cai; LI Ming; HOU Tie-sheng; ZHANG Ye; WU Yun-gang

    2009-01-01

    @@ Tethered spinal cord syndrome(TCS)is a condition of overstretching or compression of the caudal part of the spinal cord caused by various spinal lesions,such as a tight filum terminale or an intraspinal lipoma.~(1-9) Though it is a well-recognized cause of neurological deterioration in childhood,its symptomatic onset in adulthood is uncommon.~(10-23) Eleven cases of TCS are presented here.In addition,their related clinical features,surgical procedures and outcomes are investigated.

  4. Serotonin Promotes Development and Regeneration of Spinal Motor Neurons in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antón Barreiro-Iglesias

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to mammals, zebrafish regenerate spinal motor neurons. During regeneration, developmental signals are re-deployed. Here, we show that, during development, diffuse serotonin promotes spinal motor neuron generation from pMN progenitor cells, leaving interneuron numbers unchanged. Pharmacological manipulations and receptor knockdown indicate that serotonin acts at least in part via 5-HT1A receptors. In adults, serotonin is supplied to the spinal cord mainly (90% by descending axons from the brain. After a spinal lesion, serotonergic axons degenerate caudal to the lesion but sprout rostral to it. Toxin-mediated ablation of serotonergic axons also rostral to the lesion impaired regeneration of motor neurons only there. Conversely, intraperitoneal serotonin injections doubled numbers of new motor neurons and proliferating pMN-like progenitors caudal to the lesion. Regeneration of spinal-intrinsic serotonergic interneurons was unaltered by these manipulations. Hence, serotonin selectively promotes the development and adult regeneration of motor neurons in zebrafish.

  5. Stump entrapment of the anterior cruciate ligament in late childhood and adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Arthur B.; Laor, Tal; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Displacement of a portion of the torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) into the intercondylar notch can cause a focal fibrotic reaction similar to that seen following ACL reconstruction. This displacement, which can result in locking or limitation of knee extension, is termed stump entrapment and is described in adult MR imaging literature. We present a pictorial essay of the etiology and appearance of stump entrapment on MR imaging of the knee in an older child and adolescents and review the significance of this finding. (orig.)

  6. Langtidsbehandling med spinal cord-stimulation hos en patient med kronisk regionalt smertesyndrom type 1 og fantomsmerter efter amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Thomas Peter; Scherer, Christian; Nikolajsen, Lone; Andersen, Claus

    2008-01-01

    The development of stump and phantom pain after limb amputation in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is very frequent. Stump pain is typically recurred CRPS and the possibilities for effective pharmacological pain relief are often limited. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has a well......-documented pain relieving effect in patients with CRPS. This case story summarises the long term effect of SCS in a patient with CRPS after two amputations of the right leg. Pharmacological pain therapies as well as Guanethidine blockade were found to be ineffective. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb-4...

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CAUDAL ROPIVACAINE WITH CAUDAL ROPIVACAINE AND DEXMEDETOMIDINE IN PEDIATRIC LOWER ABDOMINAL SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of caudal dexmedetomidine combined with Ropivacaine to provide postoperative analgesia in children and also to establish its safety in the pediatric patients. METHODS: In a randomized, prospective, parallel group, double-blinded study, 80 children of 1 year to 6years posted for lower abdominal surgeries were recruited and allocated into two groups: Group RD (n=40 received 0.25% Ropivacaine 1 ml/kg with dexmedetomidine2 μg/kg, making the volume to 0.5 ml and Group R (n=40 received 0.25% Ropivacaine1 ml/kg + 0.5 ml normal saline. Induction of anesthesia was achieved with Inj. Ketamine 2mg/kg + Inj. Succinylcholine 2mg/kg. Intubated with appropriate-sized Endotracheal tube and caudal block was performed in all patients. Maintained with 66% nitrous oxide in Oxygen and isoflurane 0.2-0.4%.Post-operative pain assessed with FLACC score. RESULTS: The duration of postoperative analgesia recorded a mean of 339 minutes (5.6hrs ± 2.4 hrs. in Group R compared with 884 minutes (14.7 hrs. ±5hrs in Group RD, with a p value of <0.001. Group RD patients achieved a statistically significant higher FLACC score compared with Group RD patients. The peri-operative hemodynamics were stable among both the groups. CONCLUSION: Caudal dexmedetomidine (2 μg/kg with 0.25%Ropivacaine (1 ml/kg for pediatric lower abdominal surgeries provides significant postoperative pain relief and better quality of sleep and a prolonged duration of arousable sedation.

  8. The neuroma-like structure of the long-time severed and isolated nerve stumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eros Abrantes Erhart

    1965-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-time severed and isolated intermediate and distal nerve segments, maintained undisturbed in their connective tissue bed, completely separated from each other and from the proximal stump, are repopulated by nerve-fibres which origin is still unknown. The extremities of such nerve segments present complex nervous nodules capped by fibrous tissue, neuroma-like structures.

  9. Microclimate buffering of winter temperatures by pine stumps in a temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyńska, Aleksandra; Kapusta, Paweł

    2016-06-01

    In the presented study we evaluated the role of wood in buffering its inhabitants against winter temperatures. We followed the microscale temperature patterns inside and outside decaying pine stumps during two winter periods. We analyzed the data by extracting the minimum, maximum and mean temperatures for the episodes of snow, frost or no frost. We compared the temperature variation by applying an absolute values calculation (=modulus) for the subsequent measurements. Finally, we tested the buffering effect of the horizontal depth inside the stumps by comparing the pattern for 5 and 15 cm depths. The results show that (1) the minimum temperature was significantly higher inside than outside the stumps, while temperature variation tended to be larger outside than inside, (2) the dynamics of temperature varied between weather episodes, i.e. the periods characterized by the presence/absence of snow and of frost, (3) the minimum temperature inside the stumps increased with the horizontal depth, while temperature variation decreased. The results presented are the first truly microclimatic data on wood buffering and they are important for the understanding of the possible effects of climate change on the thermal relationships at the microscale.

  10. Effects of covering highland banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of covering post-harvest banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) oviposition levels was investigated at three locations, Sendusu, Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Ntungamo district of southwestern Uganda. In the first experiment ovipositio

  11. Ureteral stump transitional cell carcinoma after radical nephrectomy: A case report with review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Satheesan B; Jayanand Sunil; Kathiresan N

    2009-01-01

    Primary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the ureter accounts for less than 1% of all malignancies of upper genitourinary tract .Ureteral stump after radical nephrectomy may develop malignancy very rarely, TCC being the commonest. Definite risk exists if the urinary bladder harbored TCC. Presence of TCC of the urinary bladder and persistent urinary tract infections in a nephrectomized patient may indicate closer evaluation.

  12. Influence of tree provenance on biogenic VOC emissions of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäenpää, Minna; Magsarjav, Narantsetseg; Ghimire, Rajendra; Markkanen, Juha-Matti; Heijari, Juha; Vuorinen, Martti; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2012-12-01

    Resin-storing plant species such as conifer trees can release substantial amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere under stress circumstances that cause resin flow. Wounding can be induced by animals, pathogens, wind or direct mechanical damage e.g. during harvesting. In atmospheric modelling of biogenic VOCs, actively growing vegetation has been mostly considered as the source of emissions. Root systems and stumps of resin-storing conifer trees could constitute a significant store of resin after tree cutting. Therefore, we assessed the VOC emission rates from the cut surface of Scots pine stumps and estimated the average emission rates for an area with a density of 2000 stumps per ha. The experiment was conducted with trees of one Estonian and three Finnish Scots pine provenances covering a 1200 km gradient at a common garden established in central Finland in 1991. VOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes and less than 0.1% of the total emission was sesquiterpenes. α-Pinene (7-92% of the total emissions) and 3-carene (0-76% of the total emissions) were the dominant monoterpenes. Proportions of α-pinene and camphene were significantly lower and proportions of 3-carene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and terpinolene higher in the southernmost Saaremaa provenance compared to the other provenances. Total terpene emission rates (standardised to +20 °C) from stumps varied from 27 to 1582 mg h-1 m-2 when measured within 2-3 h after tree cutting. Emission rates decreased rapidly to between 2 and 79 mg h-1 m-2 at 50 days after cutting. The estimated daily terpene emission rates on a hectare basis from freshly cut stumps at a cut tree density of 2000 per ha varied depending on provenance. Estimated emission ranges were 100-710 g ha-1 d-1 and 137-970 g ha-1 d-1 in 40 and in 60 year-old forest stands, respectively. Our result suggests that emission directly from stump surfaces could be a significant source of monoterpene emissions for a few weeks after

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of Caudal Regression Syndrome : a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Celikaslan Nurgul; Yanik Halil; Aslan Halil; Yildirim Gokhan; Ceylan Yavuz

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background Caudal regression is a rare syndrome which has a spectrum of congenital malformations ranging from simple anal atresia to absence of sacral, lumbar and possibly lower thoracic vertebrae, to the most severe form which is known as sirenomelia. Maternal diabetes, genetic predisposition and vascular hypoperfusion have been suggested as possible causative factors. Case presentation We report a case of caudal regression syndrome diagnosed in utero at 22 weeks' of gestation. Pren...

  14. Carbon and nitrogen pools and mineralization rates in boreal forest soil after stump harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarakka, Lilli; Hyvönen, Riitta; Strömgren, Monika; Palviainen, Marjo; Persson, Tryggve; Olsson, Bengt A.; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko

    2016-04-01

    The use of forest-derived biomass has steadily increased in the Finland and Sweden during the past decades. Thus, more intensive forest management practices are becoming more common in the region, such as whole-tree harvesting, both above- and belowground. Stump harvesting causes a direct removal of carbon (C) in the form of biomass from the stand and can cause extensive soil disturbance, which in turn can result in increased C mineralization. In this study, the effects of stump harvesting on soil C and nitrogen (N) mineralization, and soil surface disturbance were studied at two different clear-felled Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in Central Finland. The treatments were conventional stem-only harvesting combined with mounding (WTH) and stump harvesting (i.e. complete tree harvesting) combined with mounding (WTH+S). Logging residues were removed from all study sites. Soil samples down to a depth of 20 cm were systematically collected from the different soil disturbance surfaces (undisturbed soil, the mounds and the pits) 12-13 years after final harvest. Soil samples were incubated in the laboratory to determine the C and N mineralization rates. In addition, total C and N pools were estimated for each disturbance class and soil layer. Soil C and N pools were lower following stump harvesting, however, no statistically significant treatment effect was detected. Instead, C mineralization responses to treatment intensity was site-specific. C/N-ratio and organic matter content were significantly affected by harvest intensity. The observed changes in C and N pools appear to be related to the intrinsic variation of the surface disturbance and soil characteristics, and harvesting per se, rather than treatment intensity. Long-term studies are however needed to draw long-term conclusions whether stump harvesting significantly changes soil C and nutrient dynamics.

  15. Caudal epidural anesthesia during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that pain control during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer is insufficient in most hospitals in Japan. Our hospital began using caudal epidural anesthesia during high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy in 2011. The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the effects of caudal epidural anesthesia during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer patients. Caudal epidural anesthesia for 34 cervical cancer patients was performed during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy between October 2011 and August 2013. We used the patients' self-reported Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score at the first session of HDR intracavitary brachytherapy as a subjective evaluation of pain. We compared NRS scores of the patients with anesthesia with those of 30 patients who underwent HDR intracavitary brachytherapy without sacral epidural anesthesia at our hospital between May 2010 and August 2011. Caudal epidural anesthesia succeeded in 33 patients (97%), and the NRS score was recorded in 30 patients. The mean NRS score of the anesthesia group was 5.17 ± 2.97, significantly lower than that of the control group's 6.80 ± 2.59 (P = 0.035). The caudal epidural block resulted in no side-effects. Caudal epidural anesthesia is an effective and safe anesthesia option during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer. (author)

  16. Spinal anaesthesia for spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellish, W Scott; Shea, John F

    2003-09-01

    Spinal anaesthesia for spinal surgery is becoming increasingly more popular because this anaesthetic technique allows the patient to self-position and avoid neurological injury that may occur with prone positioning under general anaesthesia. Spinal anaesthesia reduces intraoperative surgical blood loss, improves perioperative haemodynamic stability and reduces pain in the immediate postoperative period. This leads to a reduced need for analgesics and a reduction in the incidence of nausea and vomiting in the postoperative setting. Spinal anaesthesia for lumbar spine surgery also decreases the incidence of lower extremity thrombo-embolic complications and does not increase the occurrence of problems with micturition. These benefits increase the patient's satisfaction, and they expedite discharge of the patient from the hospital. Combination anaesthetic techniques, using both subarachnoid and epidural dosing schemes, may be beneficial for improving postoperative pain control and add further to the benefit of spinal anaesthesia for lumbar spine surgical procedures. PMID:14529005

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Psychological Issues After Spinal Cord Injury Psychological Health After Spinal Cord Injury Psychological Health After Spinal Cord Injury The Psychologist's Role After ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Psychological Realities After Spinal Cord Injury Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation How Psychologists Help ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Psychological Realities after Spinal Cord Injury Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation How Psychologists Help ...

  20. Spinal fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the wound or vertebral bones Damage to a spinal nerve, causing weakness, pain, loss of sensation, problems with your bowels or bladder The vertebrae above and below the fusion are more likely to wear away, leading to more problems later

  1. Spinal stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make some changes in their activities or work. Spine surgery will often partly or fully relieve symptoms in ... disease of the bone Spinal fusion Patient Instructions Spine surgery - discharge Update Date 7/13/2015 Updated by: ...

  2. Spinal Hemangiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Norkin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The given article considers the modern view on etiology, pathogenesis, classifications, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment of spinal hemangiomas. Advantages of vertebroplasty over the other techniques of treatment of studied pathology are presented

  3. Spinal cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal cysticercosis is an extremely uncommon condition. We have examined four patients with complaints that resembled nervous root compression by disk herniation. Myelography was shown to be an efficient method to evaluate spinal involvement, that was characterized by findings of multiple filling defect images (cysts) plus signs of adhesive arachnoiditis. One cyst was found to be mobile. Because of the recent development of medical treatment, a quick and precise diagnosis is of high importance to determine the prognosis of this condition. (author)

  4. Spinal vascular malformations; Spinale Gefaessmalformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, U. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Spinal vascular malformations are a group of rare diseases with different clinical presentations ranging from incidental asymptomatic findings to progressive tetraplegia. This article provides an overview about imaging features as well as clinical and therapeutic aspects of spinal arteriovenous malformations, cavernomas and capillary telangiectasia. (orig.) [German] Spinale Gefaessmalformationen sind eine Gruppe seltener Erkrankungen mit unterschiedlichen klinischen Praesentationen, die vom asymptomatischen Zufallsbefund bis zur progredienten Tetraparese reichen. Dieser Artikel gibt einen Ueberblick ueber radiologische Befunde sowie klinische und therapeutische Aspekte von spinalen arteriovenoesen Malformationen, Kavernomen und kapillaeren Teleangiektasien. (orig.)

  5. The spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus and their distribution in the chinchilla

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Martinez-Pereira; E. M. Rickes

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus (plexus lumbosacrales) (LSP) and its distribution in Chinchilla lanigera were investigated. Ten chinchillas (6 males and 4 females) were used in this research. The spinal nerves that constitute the LSP were dissected and the distribution of pelvic limb nerves originating from the plexus was examined. The iliohypogastric nerve arose from L1 and L2,, giving rise to the cranial and caudal nerves, and the ilioinguinal nerve a...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Empowering the Patient After Spinal ...

  7. Spinal cord decompression reduces rat neural cell apoptosis secondary to spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kan XU; Qi-xin CHEN; Fang-cai LI; Wei-shan CHEN; Min LIN; Qiong-hua WET

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether spinal cord decompression plays a role in neural cell apoptosis after spinal cord injury. Study design: We used an animal model of compressive spinal cord injury with incomplete paraparesis to evaluate neural cell apoptosis after decompression. Apoptosis and cellular damage were assessed by staining with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labelling (TUNEL) and immunostaining for caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax. Methods: Experiments were conducted in male Spragne-Dawley rats (n=78) weighing 300-400 g. The spinal cord was compressed posteriorly at T10 level using a custom-made screw for 6 h, 24 h or continuously, followed by decompression by removal of the screw. The rats were sacrificed on Day 1 or 3 or in Week 1 or 4 post-decompression. The spinal cord was removed en bloc and examined at lesion site, rostral site and caudal site (7.5 mm away from the lesion). Results: The numbers of TUNEL-positive cells were significantly lower at the site of decompression on Day l, and also at the rostral and caudal sites between Day 3 and Week 4 post-decompression, compared with the persistently compressed group. The numbers of cells between Day 1 and Week 4 were immunoreactive to caspase-3 and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X-protein (Bax), but not to Bcl-2, correlated with those of TUNEL-positive cells. Conclusion: Our results suggest that decompression reduces neural cell apoptosis following spinal cord injury.

  8. Results of Laparoscopic Appendectomies Performed with the Use of Titanium Clips for Closure of the Appendicular Stump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strzałka Marcin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays laparoscopy is used frequently not only in elective surgery but also in abdominal emergencies, including acute appendicitis. There are several techniques used to close the appendicular stump during laparoscopic appendectomy.

  9. Conservative management of phantom-limb and amputation-stump pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    The causes of pain in the amputation stump or in the so-called phantom limb are far from clear and a wide variety of methods of treatment have been used with varying degrees of success. Surgical techniques do not always give lasting relief and it is suggested that conservative methods such as vibration therapy and various forms of electrical stimulation may prove more helpful.

  10. Combined Analysis of Cortical (EEG) and Nerve Stump Signals Improves Robotic Hand Control

    OpenAIRE

    Tombini, Mario; Rigosa, Jacopo; Zappasodi, Filippo; Porcaro, Camillo; Citi, Luca; Carpaneto, Jacopo; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Micera, Silvestro

    2012-01-01

    Background. Interfacing an amputee's upper-extremity stump nerves to control a robotic hand requires training of the individual and algorithms to process interactions between cortical and peripheral signals. Objective. To evaluate for the first time whether EEG-driven analysis of peripheral neural signals as an amputee practices could improve the classification of motor commands. Methods. Four thin-film longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes (tf-LIFEs-4) were implanted in the median and ulna...

  11. FDG uptake at the bronchial stump after curative lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyzer, Caroline; Corbusier, Florence; Kyratzi, Eirini; Gevenois, Pierre Alain [Universite libre de Bruxelles, Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium); Sokolow, Youri [Universite libre de Bruxelles, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium); Goldman, Serge [Universite libre de Bruxelles, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-05-15

    Focal areas of FDG uptake may occur at the bronchial stump following curative lobectomy for non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), even in the absence of suspicious CT changes. The purpose of our study was to investigate the significance of such PET/CT findings. FDG-PET/CT scans performed in 54 patients after lobectomy for NSCLC were reviewed. The presence of focal areas of FDG uptake at the bronchial stump, associated CT abnormalities, SUVmax, and normalized SUV (SUVnorm = SUVmax/mean liver SUV) were recorded. Final diagnosis was based on biopsy or imaging follow-up. Focal areas of FDG uptake at the bronchial stump were detected in 30 patients (56 %). Mean SUVmax was 4.0 ± 1.9 (range; 2.2-12.1) and mean SUVnorm was 1.8 ± 0.8 (range; 0.9-4.5). Biopsy showed recurrence in two patients. In these patients, SUVnorm was respectively 4.4 and 4.5 (with SUVmax of 8.8 and 12.1), whereas SUVnorm was lower than 4.0 in those without recurrence, with mean SUVnorm of 1.6 ± 0.5 (range; 0.9-3.4) and mean SUVmax of 3.6 ± 0.9 (range; 2.2-5.8). The CT component of the PET/CT revealed ill-defined peribronchial soft tissue opacity only in both patients with recurrence. FDG uptake at the bronchial stump is a frequent finding after pulmonary lobectomy. Moderate levels of FDG uptake (i.e., SUVnorm < 4.0) without corresponding abnormal CT findings might be a dual criterion for diagnosing benign post-surgical changes. (orig.)

  12. MR imaging evaluation of tethered spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven cases of tethered cord underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The associated findings included the following: case 1: caudal regression, inperforated anus, cutaneovesical fistula, and diverticulum of the bladder; case 2: Arnold-Chiari malformation, hydromyelia, and urinary reflux; case 3; lipoma; case 4: postoperative syringomyelia and residual lipoma; case 5: diastematomyelia and spinal bifida; case 6: dysraphism, diastematomyelia, and myelomeningocele; and case 7: postoperative split cord T1-weighted axial and sagittal images are sufficient for evaluation of tethered cord and associated anomalies and are also useful for postoperative follow-up and the detection of possible complications

  13. The Biocontrol Agent Phlebiopsis gigantea: Efficacy and Impacts on the Stump Bacterial Biota and Conifer tree Defences

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Phlebiopsis gigantea has been for a long time known as a strong competitor against Heterobasidion annosum and intensively applied as a biological control agent on stump surfaces of Picea abies in Fennoscandia. However, the mechanism underlying its antagonistic activity is still unknown. A primary concern is the possible impact of P. gigantea treatment on resident non-target microbial biota of conifer stumps. Additional risk factor is the potential of P. gigantea to acquire a necrotrophic habi...

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of Caudal Regression Syndrome : a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celikaslan Nurgul

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caudal regression is a rare syndrome which has a spectrum of congenital malformations ranging from simple anal atresia to absence of sacral, lumbar and possibly lower thoracic vertebrae, to the most severe form which is known as sirenomelia. Maternal diabetes, genetic predisposition and vascular hypoperfusion have been suggested as possible causative factors. Case presentation We report a case of caudal regression syndrome diagnosed in utero at 22 weeks' of gestation. Prenatal ultrasound examination revealed a sudden interruption of the spine and "frog-like" position of lower limbs. Termination of pregnancy and autopsy findings confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusion Prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis of caudal regression syndrome is possible at 22 weeks' of gestation by ultrasound examination.

  15. Visuospatial properties of caudal area 7b in Macaca fascicularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Hui JIANG; Ying-Zhou HU; Jian-Hong WANG; Yuan-Ye MA; Xin-Tian HU

    2013-01-01

    To proceed from sensation to movement,integration and transformation of information from different senses and reference frames are required.Several brain areas are involved in this transformation process,but previous neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies have implicated the caudal area 7b as one particular component of this transformation system.In this study,we present the first quantitative report on the spatial coding properties of caudal area 7b.The results showed that neurons in this area had intermediate component characteristics in the transformation system; the area contained bimodal neurons,and neurons in this area encode spatial information using a hybrid reference frame.These results provide evidence that caudal area 7b may belong to the reference frame transformation system,thus contributing to our general understanding of the transformation system.

  16. A Clinical Perspective and Definition of Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzer, Ryan M

    2016-04-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can be complete or incomplete. The level of injury in SCI is defined as the most caudal segment with motor function rated at greater than or equal to 3/5, with pain and temperature preserved. The standard neurological classification of SCI provided by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) assigns grades from ASIA A (complete SCI) through ASIA E (normal sensory/motor), with B, C, and D representing varying degrees of injury between these extremes. The most common causes of SCI include trauma (motor vehicle accidents, sports, violence, falls), degenerative spinal disease, vascular injury (anterior spinal artery syndrome, epidural hematoma), tumor, infection (epidural abscess), and demyelinating processes (). (SDC Figure 1, http://links.lww.com/BRS/B91)(Figure is included in full-text article.). PMID:27015067

  17. Stabilization of the ulnar stump using modified Breen method after the Sauve-Kapandji procedure in rheumatoid wrist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the utility of the modified Breen method in addition to the Sauve-Kapandji operation for the treatment of instability and pain in the proximal ulnar stump in rheumatoid arthrities (RA) wrist. We treated a total of 15 hands in 12 patients with disturbances due to instability and pain at the proximal ulnar stump. The average follow-up period was 47 months. We evaluated the range of motion, grip strength, radioulnar distance, and the radioulnar distance at the stump using CT during pronation, supination, and neutral positions of the forearm in 11 of the 15 operated hands. We observed that none of the patients showed any signs of pain at the proximal ulnar stump and no scallop sign was observed. In all the cases, the line connecting the center of the radial head to the proximal ulnar stump served as the axis of rotation for the forearm; this was confirmed by the CT images. We concluded that our operative method resulted in stabilization of the proximal ulnar stump and recovery of powerful grip without pain during forearm rotation. (author)

  18. Electrophysiological functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord hemisection injury following bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation under hypothermia★

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    Following successful establishment of a rat model of spinal cord hemisection injury by resecting right spinal cord tissues, bone marrow stem cells were transplanted into the spinal cord lesions via the caudal vein while maintaining rectal temperature at 34 ± 0.5°C for 6 hours (mild hypothermia). Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that astrocytes gathered around the injury site and formed scars at 4 weeks post-transplantation. Compared with rats transplanted with bone marrow stem cells under no...

  19. Robust upregulation of serotonin 2A receptors after chronic spinal transection of rats: An immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Xiang-Yu; Wienecke, Jacob; Hultborn, Hans;

    2010-01-01

    that of sham-operated rats. We also found a small number of intraspinal 5-HT neurons and clusters of 5-HT fibers and their varicosities in the spinal cord caudal to the lesion, which may provide an intrinsic source of 5-HT to act upon the upregulated 5-HT2A receptors. These results indicate...

  20. Caudal vena caval thrombosis following treatment of deep digital sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Katharine M.; Streeter, Robert N.; Cramer, Sarah; Lamm, Catherine G.; Love, Brenda C.

    2012-01-01

    A diagnosis of caudal vena caval thrombosis was made by ultrasonography of a Holstein cow presented for lethargy and poor milk production. Medical treatment was unsuccessful and the cow was euthanized. The diagnosis was confirmed at necropsy and Fusobacterium necrophorum was isolated from the thrombus. This paper discusses potential novel sources of caval thrombosis in this case.

  1. Caudal regression with sirenomelia and dysplasia renofacialis (Potter's syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of caudal regression in combination with sirenomelia and dysplasia renofacialis (Potter's syndrome) is reported. The formal pathogenesis of these malformations and clinical facts are shown and discussed. Findings of plain films, postmortal angiography and pathologic-anatomical changes are demonstrated. (orig.)

  2. Experimental Strategies to Bridge Large Tissue Gaps in the Injured Spinal Cord after Acute and Chronic Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazda, Nicole; Estrada, Veronica; Voss, Christian; Seide, Klaus; Trieu, Hoc Khiem; Müller, Hans Werner

    2016-01-01

    After a spinal cord injury (SCI) a scar forms in the lesion core which hinders axonal regeneration. Bridging the site of injury after an insult to the spinal cord, tumor resections, or tissue defects resulting from traumatic accidents can aid in facilitating general tissue repair as well as regenerative growth of nerve fibers into and beyond the affected area. Two experimental treatment strategies are presented: (1) implantation of a novel microconnector device into an acutely and completely transected thoracic rat spinal cord to readapt severed spinal cord tissue stumps, and (2) polyethylene glycol filling of the SCI site in chronically lesioned rats after scar resection. The chronic spinal cord lesion in this model is a complete spinal cord transection which was inflicted 5 weeks before treatment. Both methods have recently achieved very promising outcomes and promoted axonal regrowth, beneficial cellular invasion and functional improvements in rodent models of spinal cord injury. The mechanical microconnector system (mMS) is a multi-channel system composed of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) with an outlet tubing system to apply negative pressure to the mMS lumen thus pulling the spinal cord stumps into the honeycomb-structured holes. After its implantation into the 1 mm tissue gap the tissue is sucked into the device. Furthermore, the inner walls of the mMS are microstructured for better tissue adhesion. In the case of the chronic spinal cord injury approach, spinal cord tissue - including the scar-filled lesion area - is resected over an area of 4 mm in length. After the microsurgical scar resection the resulting cavity is filled with polyethylene glycol (PEG 600) which was found to provide an excellent substratum for cellular invasion, revascularization, axonal regeneration and even compact remyelination in vivo. PMID:27077921

  3. Experimental study on regeneration of ascending tract after spinal cord injury with predegenerated peripheral nerve graft and NGF infusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effects of predegenerated peripheral nerve graft (PPNG) combined with nerve growth factor (NGF) infusion on ascending sensory tract regeneration after spinal cord injury.Methods: Fifty female SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Group A was treated with PPNG and NGF infusion, group B with PPNG, group C with NGF infusion, group D and group E were blank and normal control, respectively. Horseradish peroxidase-labled (HRP) tracing method was employed to evaluate the regeneration of injured nerves after 8 weeks. The extent of regeneration in and beyond the nerve graft was determined by counting the number of HRP-labeled fibers intersecting imaginary lines perpendicular to the axis of the graft and cord. For the sake of convenience, according to the relation of the PNG and spinal cord, 6 model zones were divided, including caudal of spinal cord, caudal transition zone, caudal zone in graft, rostral zone in graft, rostral transition zone and rostral of spinal cord. Results: On the transverse section of caudal zone in graft, rostral zone in graft, rostral transition zone, the fibers in group A were significantly higher than that in group B and C (P<0.05). Conclusion: PPNG combined with NGF may significantly promote the regeneration of ascending long tract after spinal cord injury. The regenerative fibers can penetrate the 2 graft-host interface scars.

  4. Bronchial stump aspergillosis after lobectomy for lung cancer as an unusual cause of false positive fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Font Albert; Sanz-Santos Jose; Rosiñol Òria; Andreo Felipe; Garcia-Olivé Ignasi; Monsó Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Bronchial stump aspergillosis is a rare entity characterized by cough and hemoptysis. Case presentation We report the case of a 58-year-old Caucasian woman who developed bronchial stump aspergillosis two years after a left upper lobe resection for lung cancer. Bronchial stump aspergillosis was diagnosed as a result of a focus of increased fluorodeoxyglucose activity in a follow-up positron emission tomography and computed tomography scan. She was treated with oral antifu...

  5. Aspectos técnicos en la infiltración caudal guiada por tomografía computarizada Technical aspects of CT guided caudal infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muntané Sánchez

    2010-12-01

    epidural infiltration is currently one of the most used regional analgesia techniques for control of chronic low pack pain. Our primary objective in this presentation is to highlight a new technique for performing this intervention which is simpler and less aggressive for the patient than that classically used. Material and methods: This new technique has been used on 13 patients (2 males and 11 females between 33 and 84 years. All patients had chronic lumbar pain. A General Electric Light Speed 16 CT scanner, a 22G lumbar puncture needle and appropriate sterile measures, were used to perform the technique. The CT scanner is a tool that makes it much easier to visualise the sacrococcygeal ligament. After the needle is introduced, and checked using CT, into the caudal spinal canal, the bevel is turned in the cranial direction in order that the medication administered comes out of the needle orifice towards the neural canal. Discussion: The most common technique for performing caudal epidural infiltration is usually done in the prone position with the head turned to one side using an X-ray arch. Using this technique we show that the puncture is less aggressive, quicker and with fewer possibilities of complications. The risk of perforating the dural sac is practically non-existent. There is also less risk of producing haematomas or infections, due to there being much less manipulation of the needle and only involves a direct puncture. In the 100% of cases on which our technique has been performed, the diffusion of the administered medication has been made in the cranial direction, which has been verified using contrast added to the pharmacological mixture.

  6. Note: Dynamic analysis of a robotic fish motion with a caudal fin with vertical phase differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dongwon; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun; Kyung, Jinho; Lee, Sunghwi

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a robotic fish with a caudal fin with vertical phase differences is studied, especially focusing on the energy consumption. Energies for thrusting a conventional robotic fish and one with caudal fin with vertical phase differences are obtained and compared each other. It is shown that a robotic fish with a caudal fin with vertical phase differences can save more energy, which implies the efficient thrusting via a vertically waving caudal fin.

  7. Arterial circulation of the spinal cord and brain in the Monodontidae (order Cetacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, A W; Fisher, H D

    1981-11-01

    In this paper we document retial supply of the spinal cord and describe the arterial vascular pattern of the brain in the whale family Monodontidae. Observations are based on gross dissections of four brains, two each of Monodon monoceros and Delphinapterus leucas, and one spinal cord from M. monoceros. Vessels of the spinal cord arise from extradural retia in the neural canal. Arteries originating from the retia penetrate the dura between successive spinal roots (mainly ventral) and not in association with them, unlike radicular arteries of other mammals. Also, these vessels are uniformly distributed and contribute equally to a plexus surrounding the cord. An A. radicularis magna is not present, and neither are distinct anterior or posterior spinal arteries. Circulation to the brain is effected by two pairs of arteries originating from intracranial retia. The rostral pair supplies most of the forebrain (prosencephalon), whereas the more caudal pair supplies mainly the midbrain (mesencephalon) and hindbrain (rhombencephalon). The circulatory pattern is characterized by 1) complete independence of anterior cerebral arteries (no anastomoses); 2) extensive cortical supply by the anterior choroidal arteries; 3) absence of subdural communicating vessels between rostral and caudal trunks; 4) union of caudal trunks to form a small basilar artery; and 5) absence of vertebral arteries and hence of a vertebral basilar system. There are some obvious differences between subdural arteries in the Monodontidae and those in other mammals; however, their general patterns of distribution are similar, and we suggest that most of the vessels, at least in the cranium, are homologous. PMID:7299826

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ Spinal Cord Injury 101 Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... in countries outside the US ? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury How does the spinal cord work? What is a spinal cord injury? Why is the level of a spinal cord ... stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell ...

  10. Scintigraphic Evaluation of the Stump Region After Extremity Amputation and the Effect of Scintigraphy on Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadic, Murat; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Baskin, Aylin; Cinar, Alev; Koca, Gokhan; Demirel, Koray; Comak, Aylin; Ozyurt, Sinem; Yildirim, Sule; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the stump region with scintigraphy and compared the correlation of treatment modalities and scintigraphic results. Methods Sixty-eight cases with extremity amputation were included in the study. Amputation applied cases underwent four-phase Tc-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate scintigraphy. Groups were performed according to the scanning time after amputation and amputation regions. After scintigraphic evaluation, results were recorded into five groups: osteomyelitis, soft-tissue infection, reactive changes secondary to surgery, chronic osteomyelitis, and normal. Post-surgical treatment modalities of the patients were determined and compared with scintigraphic results. Results In the scintigraphic evaluation of stump regions of the 68 amputated cases, 34 patients had acute osteomyelitis, one had chronic osteomyelitis, 16 had soft-tissue infection, and eight had changes secondary to the surgery. Nine of 68 cases had normal scintigraphic features. In the scintigraphic evaluation, 43 patients took antibiotic treatment and 16 had surgery. There was a strong correlation between scintigraphic results and treatment approach (P < 0.0001, r = 0.803) by means of preferred therapy and effectiveness of the therapy according to the scintigraphic results. Scintigraphy need increases with age after amputation and a negative correlation between patient age and scintigraphic need was found (P < 0.02, r = -0.339). There was no pathology in the follow-up in the cases that were scintigraphically normal. Conclusion Bone scintigraphy is a cost-effective, non-invasive, and efficient method that directs treatment in the evaluation of the stump region after amputation. PMID:26858796

  11. Lumbar spinal loads vary with body height and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kap-Soo; Rohlmann, Antonius; Zander, Thomas; Taylor, William R

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge about spinal loading is required for designing and preclinical testing of spinal implants. It is assumed that loading of the spine depends upon body weight and height, as well as on the spine level, but a direct measurement of the loading conditions throughout the spine is not yet possible. Here, computer models can allow an estimation of the forces and moments acting in the spine. The objective of the present study was to calculate spinal loads for different postures and activities at several levels of the thoracolumbar spine for various combinations of body height and weight. A validated musculoskeletal model, together with commercially available software (AnyBody Technology), were used to calculate the segmental loads acting on the centre of the upper endplate of the vertebrae T12 to L5. The body height was varied between 150 and 200 cm and the weight between 50 and 120 kg. The loads were determined for five standard static postures and three lifting tasks. The resultant forces and moments increased approximately linearly with increasing body weight. The body height had a nearly linear effect on the spinal loads, but in almost all loading cases, the effect on spinal loads was stronger for variation of body weight than of body height. Spinal loads generally increased from cranial to caudal. The presented data now allow the estimation of the spinal load during activities of daily living on a subject specific basis, if body height and weight are known. PMID:23040051

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Social Life in a Wheelchair Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury How Family ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition ...

  14. Ecuaciones de caudal pico resultante de un rompimiento de presa.

    OpenAIRE

    Barros Martinez, Juan Fernando; Toro Botero, Francisco Mauricio

    2004-01-01

    Se aplican 13 ecuaciones de predicción para el caudal pico, a los 45 casos de falla. Con el fin de evaluar tanto la aproximación de los valores de caudal pico de las 13 ecuaciones de predicción para las 45 presas como la correspondencia de los datos de las presas de acuerdo con lo esperado por cada ecuación de predicción, se lleva a cabo un análisis estadístico siguiendo dos vias diferentes. Una vez realizados los análisis estadísticos se depura la base de datos de las 45 presas dejando única...

  15. MR epidurography: distribution of injectate at caudal epidural injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To (a) evaluate the feasibility of MR epidurography (MRE) and (b) assess the distribution of injectate using two different volumes at caudal epidural steroid injection. Twenty patients who were referred with symptomatic low back pain for caudal epidural steroid injection were assigned to have either 10 ml (9/20) or 20 ml (11/20) of injectate administered. Gadolinium was included in the injection. The patients proceeded to MRI where sagittal and coronal T1-weighted fat-saturated sequences were acquired and reviewed in the mid-sagittal and right and left parasagittal views at the level of the exit foramina. Gadolinium was observed at or above the L3/4 disc level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %), compared with only five of nine patients who received 10 ml (56 %). Injectate was seen to the L4 nerve root level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %) but only four out of nine patients who received 10 ml (44 %), not even reaching the L5 nerve root level in four further of these nine patients (44 %). Overall, there was a trend to visualize gadolinium at higher levels of the epidural space with higher volumes injected. Firstly, MR epidurography is a safe technique that allows excellent visualization of the distribution of gadolinium in the epidural space following injection via the caudal hiatus. Secondly, a volume of 10 ml is unlikely to treat L5/S1 disease in almost half of patients at caudal epidural steroid injection and at least 20 ml of injectate is likely required for any medication to reach the desired level. (orig.)

  16. MR epidurography: distribution of injectate at caudal epidural injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Darra T. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); St Paul' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Moynagh, Michael R.; Eustace, Stephen [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin 7 (Ireland); Poynton, Ashley; Chan, Vikki O. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland)

    2014-08-02

    To (a) evaluate the feasibility of MR epidurography (MRE) and (b) assess the distribution of injectate using two different volumes at caudal epidural steroid injection. Twenty patients who were referred with symptomatic low back pain for caudal epidural steroid injection were assigned to have either 10 ml (9/20) or 20 ml (11/20) of injectate administered. Gadolinium was included in the injection. The patients proceeded to MRI where sagittal and coronal T1-weighted fat-saturated sequences were acquired and reviewed in the mid-sagittal and right and left parasagittal views at the level of the exit foramina. Gadolinium was observed at or above the L3/4 disc level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %), compared with only five of nine patients who received 10 ml (56 %). Injectate was seen to the L4 nerve root level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %) but only four out of nine patients who received 10 ml (44 %), not even reaching the L5 nerve root level in four further of these nine patients (44 %). Overall, there was a trend to visualize gadolinium at higher levels of the epidural space with higher volumes injected. Firstly, MR epidurography is a safe technique that allows excellent visualization of the distribution of gadolinium in the epidural space following injection via the caudal hiatus. Secondly, a volume of 10 ml is unlikely to treat L5/S1 disease in almost half of patients at caudal epidural steroid injection and at least 20 ml of injectate is likely required for any medication to reach the desired level. (orig.)

  17. Wnt signaling in caudal dysgenesis and diabetic embryopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlinkova, Gabriela; Salbaum, J. Michael; Kappen, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    Congenital defects are a major complication of diabetic pregnancy, and the leading cause of infant death in the first year of life. Caudal dysgenesis, occurring up to 200-fold more frequently in children born to diabetic mothers, is a hallmark of diabetic pregnancy. Given that there is also an at least 3-fold higher risk for heart defects and neural tube defects, it is important to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms for aberrant embryonic development.

  18. A case of caudal regression syndrome: walking or sitting?

    OpenAIRE

    Bicakci, Irem; Turgut, Selin Turan; Turgut, Bekir; Icagasioglu, Afitap; Egilmez, Zeliha; Yumusakhuylu, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Caudal regression syndrome (CRS) is a congenital disorder which is seen vertebral anomalies in varying degrees from lower thoracic spineto the level of the coccyx. We present a case of CRS which is not intended operation for orthopedic deformities considering functionality. 2, 5 year-old girl referred to our clinic with complaints about walking disability, knee and foot deformities. Patient's mother with unregulated diabetes did not have a history of drug use, radiation exposure and serious i...

  19. Ultrasound as a Screening Tool for Performing Caudal Epidural Injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The caudal approach to the epidural space has been used for decades to treat low back pain caused by lumbosacral root compression. The use of fluoroscopy during epidural steroid injection is the preferred method for placing the needle more accurately in the sacral hiatus, but it carries the risk of radiation hazard. The aim of the study was to assess the anatomical structure of the sacral hiatus and the feasibility of caudal epidural injections under ultrasound guidance. Two hundred and forty patients (male = 100, female = 140) with low back pain and sciatica who were candidates for caudal epidural injection were enrolled into this study. Ultrasound images of the sacral hiatus and bilateral cornua were obtained by a real-time linear array ultrasound transducer. The distance between bilateral cornua and the anterior and posterior wall of the sacrum were measured at the base (sacral hiatus). Under the guide of ultrasonography, we defined the injection successful if turbulence of medication fluid was observed in the sacral canal, but correct placement of the needle and injectant was confirmed on fluoroscopic view as the gold standard technique. The epidurogram showed that the injection was successful in 230 of the 240 patients (95.8%). In eight patients, the injection was not in the correct place in the sacral canal. The sacral hiatus could not be identified by ultrasound images in only two patients who had a closed sacral hiatus identified by fluoroscopy. The mean distance of the sacral hiatus was 4.7 ± 1.7 mm and the mean distance between bilateral cornua was 18.0 ± 2.8 mm. The mean duration of the procedure was 10.8 ± 6.8 minutes. No major complication was observed in the next month. In conclusion, ultrasound could be used as a safe, fast and reliable modality to observe the anatomic variation of the sacral hiatus and to perform caudal epidural injections

  20. Numerical Study on Hydrodynamic Performance of Bionic Caudal Fin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, numerical simulations are conducted to reveal the hydrodynamic mechanism of caudal fin propulsion. In the modeling of a bionic caudal fin, a universal kinematics model with three degrees of freedom is adopted and the flexible deformation in the spanwise direction is considered. Navier-Stokes equations are used to solve the unsteady fluid flow and dynamic mesh method is applied to track the locomotion. The force coefficients, torque coefficient, and flow field characteristics are extracted and analyzed. Then the thrust efficiency is calculated. In order to verify validity and feasibility of the algorithm, hydrodynamic performance of flapping foil is analyzed. The present results of flapping foil compare well with those in experimental researches. After that, the influences of amplitude of angle of attack, amplitude of heave motion, Strouhal number, and spanwise flexibility are analyzed. The results show that, the performance can be improved by adjusting the motion and flexibility parameters. The spanwise flexibility of caudal fin can increase thrust force with high propulsive efficiency.

  1. Acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, K.; Foster, R.A.; Casillas, E.R.

    1986-05-01

    Recently, the authors identified mM concentrations of acetylcarnitine in epidiymal fluids and have investigated the metabolism of acetylcarnitine by bovine and hamster caudal epididymal spermatozoa. (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl-L-carnitine is oxidized to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by washed, intact hamster and bovine sperm at maximal rates of 8.4 and 15.2 nmol/hr/10/sup 7/ cells respectively. Conversely, the carnitine moiety of acetyl-L-(/sup 3/H-methyl)carnitine is not accumulated by sperm under similar conditions. Hydrolysis of (/sup 3/H)acetyl-L-carnitine and competition of uptake of (/sup 3/H)acetate by unlabeled acetate was demonstrated in incubations of intact cells of both species. The amount of (/sup 3/H)acetate accumulated in the incubation medium is time-dependent and also depends on the concentration of unlabeled acetate. A partial solubilization of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity from washed, intact bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa in buffer or 0.01% Triton X-100 is observed. There is an enrichment of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in purified plasma membranes from bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa when compared to the activity present in broken cell preparations or other cellular fractions. The results suggest that acetylcarnitine is a substrate for spermatozoa as they traverse the epididymis.

  2. Acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the authors identified mM concentrations of acetylcarnitine in epidiymal fluids and have investigated the metabolism of acetylcarnitine by bovine and hamster caudal epididymal spermatozoa. [1-14C]acetyl-L-carnitine is oxidized to 14CO2 by washed, intact hamster and bovine sperm at maximal rates of 8.4 and 15.2 nmol/hr/107 cells respectively. Conversely, the carnitine moiety of acetyl-L-[3H-methyl]carnitine is not accumulated by sperm under similar conditions. Hydrolysis of [3H]acetyl-L-carnitine and competition of uptake of [3H]acetate by unlabeled acetate was demonstrated in incubations of intact cells of both species. The amount of [3H]acetate accumulated in the incubation medium is time-dependent and also depends on the concentration of unlabeled acetate. A partial solubilization of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity from washed, intact bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa in buffer or 0.01% Triton X-100 is observed. There is an enrichment of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in purified plasma membranes from bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa when compared to the activity present in broken cell preparations or other cellular fractions. The results suggest that acetylcarnitine is a substrate for spermatozoa as they traverse the epididymis

  3. An amputation resets positional information to a proximal identity in the regenerating zebrafish caudal fin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Ana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism to study the process of regeneration. This teleost fish has the ability to regenerate various tissues and organs like the heart, spinal cord, retina and fins. In this study, we took advantage of the existence of an excellent morphological reference in the zebrafish caudal fin, the bony ray bifurcations, as a model to study positional information upon amputation. We investigated the existence of positional information for bifurcation formation by performing repeated amputations at different proximal-distal places along the fin. Results We show that, while amputations performed at a long distance from the bifurcation do not change its final proximal-distal position in the regenerated fin, consecutive amputations done at 1 segment proximal to the bifurcation (near the bifurcation induce a positional reset and progressively shift its position distally. Furthermore, we investigated the potential role of Shh and Fgf signalling pathways in the determination of the bifurcation position and observed that they do not seem to be involved in this process. Conclusions Our results reveal that, an amputation near the bifurcation inhibits the formation of the regenerated bifurcation in the pre-amputation position, inducing a distalization of this structure. This shows that the positional memory for bony ray bifurcations depends on the proximal-distal level of the amputation.

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help Transitions Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury How Occupational Therapists Work ...

  6. Incidental detection of a pseudoaneurysm at an amputation stump in a Tc-99m HMPAO labeled leukocyte scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    A 20-year-old man underwent a Tc-99m HMPAO labeled leukocyte scan for the evaluation of an infection at the stump of an AK amputation, which was conducted due to an open communicated fracture of the left lower leg. Blood-flow and blood-pool images demonstrated a pseudoaneurysm with a focus of intense activity medial to the stump, and centered within a large photopenic defect by surrounding hematoma. Delayed image obtained at 3 hours post-injection showed persistent intense and slight increased activity. Contrast angiography confirmed the presence of a pseudoaneurysm arising from a branch of the left superficial femoral artery.

  7. Incidental detection of a pseudoaneurysm at an amputation stump in a Tc-99m HMPAO labeled leukocyte scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 20-year-old man underwent a Tc-99m HMPAO labeled leukocyte scan for the evaluation of an infection at the stump of an AK amputation, which was conducted due to an open communicated fracture of the left lower leg. Blood-flow and blood-pool images demonstrated a pseudoaneurysm with a focus of intense activity medial to the stump, and centered within a large photopenic defect by surrounding hematoma. Delayed image obtained at 3 hours post-injection showed persistent intense and slight increased activity. Contrast angiography confirmed the presence of a pseudoaneurysm arising from a branch of the left superficial femoral artery

  8. Distribution of networks generating and coordinating locomotor activity in the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro: a lesion study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerulff, O; Kiehn, O

    1996-01-01

    ventral root recordings to monitor neuronal activity and tested the ability of various isolated parts of the caudal thoraciclumbar cord to generate rhythmic bursting in a combination of 5-HT and NMDA. In addition, pathways mediating left/right and rostrocaudal burst alternation were localized. We found...... decreased in the caudal direction, but the rhythm-generating network was found to be distributed over the entire lumbar region and to extend into the caudal thoracic region. The pathways mediating left/ right alternation exist primarily in the ventral commissure. As with the rhythmogenic ability......, these pathways were distributed along the lumbar enlargement. Both lateral and ventral funiculi were sufficient to coordinate activity in the rostral and caudal regions. We conclude that the networks organizing locomotor-related activity in the spinal cord of the newborn rat are distributed....

  9. Bronchial stump aspergillosis after lobectomy for lung cancer as an unusual cause of false positive fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Font Albert

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bronchial stump aspergillosis is a rare entity characterized by cough and hemoptysis. Case presentation We report the case of a 58-year-old Caucasian woman who developed bronchial stump aspergillosis two years after a left upper lobe resection for lung cancer. Bronchial stump aspergillosis was diagnosed as a result of a focus of increased fluorodeoxyglucose activity in a follow-up positron emission tomography and computed tomography scan. She was treated with oral antifungal therapy and presented with good evolution after three months of treatment. Conclusion Bronchial stump aspergillosis is an unusual complication after pulmonary resection. Clinicians should be aware of it when a local recurrence of cancer around the bronchial stump is suspected based on a positive positron emission tomography and computed tomography finding.

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury How does the spinal cord work? What is a spinal cord injury? Why is ...

  11. Comparison of two surgical techniques; simple ligation and ligation with invagination of appendicular stump in appendicectomy for acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appendicitis is an important differential diagnosis in patients with right lower quadrant pain. Acute appendicitis is the common emergency encountered round the globe. It is the cause of an acute surgical abdomen, and it remains one of the most challenging diagnoses in the emergency department. Appendicectomy is the accepted therapy for acute appendicitis. To compare the technique of simple ligation and ligation with burial of the stump during appendicectomy for acute appendicitis. Subjects and Methods: Eighty cases of acute appendicitis were analysed for this study. They were randomly allocated to the two surgical procedures such as simple ligation (Group I) and ligation with invagination (Group II) of appendicular stump in appendicectomy. The clinical variables were statistically evaluated. The frequency of postoperative ileus was more in group II (22.5%, and 5%) during first 48 and 72 hours respectively as compared to group I, P 0.05). Simple ligation of stump during appendicectomy is a better and safe procedure as compared to the invagination of stump because there is less incidence of postoperative complications such as postoperative paralytic ileus and wound infection. (author)

  12. Computer simulation of flow and mixing at the duodenal stump after gastric resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nenad Filipovic; Aleksandar Cvetkovic; Velibor Isailovic; Zoran Matovic; Mirko Rosic; Milos Kojic

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the flow and mixing at the duodenal stump after gastric resection, a computersimulation was implemented.METHODS: Using the finite element method, two different Billroth ? procedure cases (A and B) were modeled. Case A was defined with a shorter and almost straight duodenal section, while case B has a much longer and curved duodenal section. Velocity,pressure and food concentration distribution were determined and the numerical results were compared with experimental observations.RESULTS: The pressure distribution obtained by numerical simulation was in the range of the recorded experimental results. Case A had a more favorable pressure distribution in comparison with case B.However, case B had better performance in terms of food transport because of more continual fooddistribution,as well as better emptying of the duodenal section.

  13. Pyovagina and stump pyometra in a neutered XX sex-reversed Beagle: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 18-month-old, neutered male beagle presented with acute abdominal signs and a suppurative infection of the urogenital tract. Chromosomal sex was female (78, XX), gonadal sex was male (testicles), and phenotypic sex was ambiguous, with evidence of both male and female duct systems. The internal and external genitalia consisted of epididymides, an underdeveloped uterus with an immature spermatic cord, communication between the uterus or cranial vagina and the membranous urethra, a urethrographically male urethra, a hypoplastic os penis, and a hypoplastic penis with hypospadia. Based on these findings and the familial history of a similarly affected litter mate, the dog was diagnosed as having the XX male syndrome with pyovagina and uterine stump pyometra. Radiographic and ultrasonographic investigations are described, and abnormalities of chromosomal sex, gonadal sex, and phenotypic sex are discussed

  14. Physical rehabilitation of patients with amputation stump of thigh because of trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremova O.V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is exposition essence of problem of renewal of ability to work of a problem of restoration after amputation at the hip. The analysis of the standard program of the standard in traumatology programs of physical rehabilitation of patients after amputation and presents the results of the developed physical rehabilitation of patients with amputating the thigh stumps due to injury. The authors propose to use the means of physical rehabilitation in accordance with the flow dynamics of the reparative processes after amputation and clinical features of injury. All this contributes to the development of compensatory own human capabilities, resulting in remission. Since these funds most physiological, their correct application does not cause complications.

  15. Penatalaksanaan Trauma Spinal

    OpenAIRE

    Hanafiah, Hafas

    2010-01-01

    Spinal trauma has a potential capability for catastrophic neurologic injury and physical injury. Spinal Trauma usually involved bony elements (vertebral spine), spinal cord, nerve roots, peripheral nerves and soft tissue. Early treatment should begun at the site of injury and during transportation to hospital. Protection to cervical spine and cervical spinal cord and patent respiration are the top priorities. There has been an established definitive procedures for the treatment of spinal trauma.

  16. Spinal pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, R., E-mail: roberto1766@interfree.it [Neuroradiology Department, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Naples (Italy); Popolizio, T., E-mail: t.popolizio1@gmail.com [Radiology Department, Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo (Fg) (Italy); D’Aprile, P., E-mail: paoladaprile@yahoo.it [Neuroradiology Department, San Paolo Hospital, Bari (Italy); Muto, M., E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Neuroradiology Department, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Napoli (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Purpose of this review is to address the current concepts on the pathophysiology of discogenic, radicular, facet and dysfunctional spinal pain, focusing on the role of the imaging in the diagnostic setting, to potentially address a correct approach also to minimally invasive interventional techniques. • Special attention will be given to the discogenic pain, actually considered as the most frequent cause of chronic low back pain. • The correct distinction between referred pain and radicular pain contributes to give a more correct approach to spinal pain. • The pathogenesis of chronic pain renders this pain a true pathology requiring a specific management. - Abstract: The spinal pain, and expecially the low back pain (LBP), represents the second cause for a medical consultation in primary care setting and a leading cause of disability worldwide [1]. LBP is more often idiopathic. It has as most frequent cause the internal disc disruption (IDD) and is referred to as discogenic pain. IDD refers to annular fissures, disc collapse and mechanical failure, with no significant modification of external disc shape, with or without endplates changes. IDD is described as a separate clinical entity in respect to disc herniation, segmental instability and degenerative disc desease (DDD). The radicular pain has as most frequent causes a disc herniation and a canal stenosis. Both discogenic and radicular pain also have either a mechanical and an inflammatory genesis. For to be richly innervated, facet joints can be a direct source of pain, while for their degenerative changes cause compression of nerve roots in lateral recesses and in the neural foramina. Degenerative instability is a common and often misdiagnosed cause of axial and radicular pain, being also a frequent indication for surgery. Acute pain tends to extinguish along with its cause, but the setting of complex processes of peripheral and central sensitization may influence its evolution in chronic

  17. Spinal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Purpose of this review is to address the current concepts on the pathophysiology of discogenic, radicular, facet and dysfunctional spinal pain, focusing on the role of the imaging in the diagnostic setting, to potentially address a correct approach also to minimally invasive interventional techniques. • Special attention will be given to the discogenic pain, actually considered as the most frequent cause of chronic low back pain. • The correct distinction between referred pain and radicular pain contributes to give a more correct approach to spinal pain. • The pathogenesis of chronic pain renders this pain a true pathology requiring a specific management. - Abstract: The spinal pain, and expecially the low back pain (LBP), represents the second cause for a medical consultation in primary care setting and a leading cause of disability worldwide [1]. LBP is more often idiopathic. It has as most frequent cause the internal disc disruption (IDD) and is referred to as discogenic pain. IDD refers to annular fissures, disc collapse and mechanical failure, with no significant modification of external disc shape, with or without endplates changes. IDD is described as a separate clinical entity in respect to disc herniation, segmental instability and degenerative disc desease (DDD). The radicular pain has as most frequent causes a disc herniation and a canal stenosis. Both discogenic and radicular pain also have either a mechanical and an inflammatory genesis. For to be richly innervated, facet joints can be a direct source of pain, while for their degenerative changes cause compression of nerve roots in lateral recesses and in the neural foramina. Degenerative instability is a common and often misdiagnosed cause of axial and radicular pain, being also a frequent indication for surgery. Acute pain tends to extinguish along with its cause, but the setting of complex processes of peripheral and central sensitization may influence its evolution in chronic

  18. Spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tali, E. Turgut E-mail: turguttali@gazi.edu.tr

    2004-05-01

    Spinal infections can be thought of as a spectrum of disease comprising spondylitis, discitis, spondylodiscitis, pyogenic facet arthropathy, epidural infections, meningitis, polyradiculopathy and myelitis. Radiological evaluations have gained importance in the diagnosis, treatment planning, treatment and treatment monitoring of the spinal infections. Conventional radiographs are usually the initial imaging study. The sensitivity and specificity of the plain radiographs are very low. The sensitivity of CT is higher while it lacks of specificity. Conventional CT has played minor role for the diagnosis of early spondylitis and disc space infection and for follow-up, researches are going on the value of MDCT. MRI is as sensitive, specific and accurate as combined nuclear medicine studies and the method of choice for the spondylitis. Low signal areas of the vertebral body, loss of definition of the end plates and interruption of the cortical continuity, destruction of the cortical margins are typical on T1WI whereas high signal of affected areas of the vertebral body and disc is typical on T2WI. Contrast is mandatory and increases conspicuity, specificity, and observer confidence in the diagnosis and facilitates the treatment planning. Contrast enhancement is the earliest sign and pathognomonic in the acute inflammatory episode and even in the subtle infection then persists to a varying degree for several weeks or months. The outcome of the treatment is influenced by the type of infection and by the degree of neurologic compromise before treatment. There is an increasing move away from surgical intervention towards conservative therapy, percutaneous drainage of abscess or both. It is therefore critical to monitor treatment response, particularly in the immuno-deficient population.

  19. A comparison between caudal block versus splash block for postoperative analgesia following inguinal herniorrhaphy in children

    OpenAIRE

    Cheon, Jun Kong; Park, Cheon Hee; Hwang, Kan Taeck; Choi, Bo Yoon

    2011-01-01

    Background We wanted to determine the postoperative analgesic efficacy of preincisional caudal epidural block versus instillation (splash block) following inguinal herniorrhaphy in children. Methods Thirty children (age range: 1-7 years) who were scheduled to undergo inguinal herniorrhaphy were divided into 2 groups: the caudal block group and the splash block group with 15 children in each group. Tracheal intubation was performed. Fifteen children received caudal block with 1.0 ml/kg of 0.25...

  20. Is caudal fin colour in tigerfish Hydrocynus vittatus a sex or population trait?

    OpenAIRE

    Soekoe, M.; F. H. van der Bank; Smit, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tigerfish caudal fin colours vary from yellow to red, with distinct dissimilarities previously noted. To understand these colour differences, tigerfish were collected during 2008 to 2010 from four southern African populations in the Upper Zambezi River (ZAM), Okavango Delta (OKA), Pongolapoort Dam (POD) and Phongolo River (POR), and caudal fin colouration was classified according to pattern and sex. Muscle and liver tissue were assayed by starch electrophoresis. Caudal fin colour in OKA, ZAM ...

  1. Histomorphometry of Trabecular Bone of Caudal Vertebrae During Rat Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Shahtaheri

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy make demands upon maternal calcium hemeostasis and the extent to which the maternal bone mass is effected remains uncertain. Recently changes in the bone mass during human pregnancy have been associated also with the transformation of the cancellous architecture and the bone surface available for exchange. These jistomorphometrical structural changes were examined further in an animal model. Using uniparous laboratory rats fed at libitum, the histomorphometry of cancellous bone was compared in undecalcified of caudal vertebrae. Between 3 and 6 sections (8 m were analysed by an automated trabecular analysis system (TAS which measures a comprehensive range of structural variables including the trabecular separation, number, connectivity and width. There was an early stimulation of bone formation that was indicated by generation of thicker and interconnected trabeculae. However in caudal vertebrae, there were architectural changes in cancellous bone commencing with a significant increase in the trabecular separation. ‌‌ It was concluded that strengthens the cancellous component of the maternal skeleton possibly to counter increased load and to facilitate mineral mobilisation in maternal/neonate exchange during the subsequent lactation period.

  2. Incertidumbre en caudales instantáneos obtenidos con curvas nivel–caudal construidas con una baja densidad de aforos líquidos

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Plata, Juan Felipe; Domínguez Calle, Efraín Antonio; Rivera, Hebert Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se realizó un análisis de incertidumbre del proceso de construcción de la curva nivel-caudal, con el fin de estimar el error o incertidumbre de los caudales obtenidos considerando diversos escenarios de disponibilidad de aforos. Se implementó una metodología para generar muestras artificiales de aforos a partir de datos reales observados en campo y estudiar el efecto de la cantidad y distribución de las mediciones sobre la incertidumbre de los caudales instantáneos. Los...

  3. Quantitative anatomical and behavioral analyses of regeneration and collateral sprouting following spinal cord transection in the nurse shark (ginglymostoma cirratum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderd, J B

    1979-01-01

    The spinal cord was transected at the mid-thoracic level in 32 nurse sharks. Four animals per group were sacrificed at intervals of 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 and 90 days postoperative. Two groups of fish underwent a subsequent spinla1 cord retransection at the same site at 90 days and were sacrificed 10 and 20 days later. Three sections of spinal cord were removed from each shark for histological analysis. Behaviorally, timed trials for swimming speed and a strength test for axial musculature contraction caudal to the lesion site were performed at 5 day postoperative intervals. Histological analysis showed little regeneration (9-13 percent) of two descending tracts 90 days following the lesion and no return of rostrally controlled movements caudal to the lesion. However, synaptic readjustment did occur caudal to the lesion. This phenomenon was attributed to local segmental sprouting of adjacent, intact nerve fibers. A close correlation was shown between this synaptic readjustment and the strength of uncontrollable undulatory movements seen caudal to the lesion site following spinal cord transection. The relationship of regeneration and collateral sprouting to quantitative behavioral changes is discussed. PMID:543459

  4. Spinal cord stimulation for recurrent painful neuromas of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Giuseppe; Nazzi, Vittoria; Sinisi, Marco; Dones, Ivano; Pollo, Bianca; Franzini, Angelo

    2011-08-01

    The authors report the case of a patient affected by recurrent neuromas of the interdigital nerves of the left foot that appeared after surgery for Morton's disease. Implantation of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) system was performed after three unsuccessful surgical revisions, which demonstrated the presence of multiple neuromas growing at endings of the stumps of the nerves and fasciculi. The patient developed chronic neuropathic pain localized within the third metatarsal region of the left foot. Conservative treatments failed and autonomous gait became impossible. SCS immediately abolished pain and the patient was able to perform her normal daily activities within 1 month. At our knowledge, this is the first report in literature of SCS successfully employed for recurrent and refractory pain due to Morton's neuroma. PMID:21678072

  5. A Novel Vertebral Stabilization Method for Producing Contusive Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Melissa J.; Chandler L Walker; Zhang, Y. Ping; Shields, Lisa B. E.; Shields, Christopher B.; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Clinically-relevant animal cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) models are essential for developing and testing potential therapies; however, producing reliable cervical SCI is difficult due to lack of satisfactory methods of vertebral stabilization. The conventional method to stabilize the spine is to suspend the rostral and caudal cervical spine via clamps attached to cervical spinous processes.  However, this method of stabilization fails to prevent tissue yielding during the contusion as the...

  6. Caudal epidural injections for lumbar prolapsed inter vertebral disc: assessment with urdu version of oswestry disability index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background/Aims: Oswestry Disability index is an established tool for assessment of Spinal Disability. It has been translated into many languages and but not to Urdu. The aim of this prospective observational study was translation, application and validation of Urdu version of the Oswestry Disability Index (Urdu ODI) for our specific cultural background. Methods: Urdu version of ODI was developed and applied for outcome assessment in 50 patients, suffering from lumbar prolapsed inter vertebral discs and treated with caudal epidural steroid injection. All patients having mechanical low backache with radiculopathy and single level disc prolapse at L-4-5 or L5- S 1 on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) were included in the study. Single Steroid Injection with local anesthetic was injected into sacral caudal epidural space through sacral hiatus. A Performa was made for each patient and records were kept in a custom built Microsoft access database. Outcome was assessed using Urdu ODI and validation by comparing with Numeric rating Scale 0-10 at each visit. Results: Fifty patients received caudal epidural injections, 23 (46%) were male and 27 (54%) were female. The mean age was 34 years, with the range being 21-55. Low mechanical backache with right sided radiculopathy was in 29 (58%) and left sided in 21 (42%) patients. The commonest involved disc was L4-S in 28 (56%) and L5-S1 in 22 (44%) patients Pain was assessed with Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) of ten points. This was mean 7.35, range 9-6 at presentation and mean improvement was 4.15 with range 5-3 at fist week, 3.80 with range 5-2 at first month and 3.05 with range 4-1 after six months. Functional disability assessment was done using Urdu ODI. The mean Urdu ODI at the time of presentation was 66.23% with range 81%-48%. The mean functional status was found to be 38.64% with range 26%-45% at the end of the first week, 43.65% with range 31%-48% after one month and 44.85% with range 28%-48% after six months. So there was

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neural plasticity in a rat model of spinal cord transection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruxin Xing; Jia Liu; Hua Jin; Ping Dai; Tinghua Wang

    2011-01-01

    The present study employed a rat model of T10 spinal cord transection. Western blot analyses revealed increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in spinal cord segments caudal to the transection site following injection of replication incompetent herpes simplex virus vector (HSV-BDNF) into the subarachnoid space. In addition, hindlimb locomotor functions were improved. In contrast, BDNF levels decreased following treatment with replication defective herpes simplex virus vector construct small interference BDNF (HSV-siBDNF). Moreover, hindlimb locomotor functions gradually worsened. Compared with the replication incompetent herpes simplex virus vector control group, extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 expression increased in the HSV-BDNF group on days 14 and 28 after spinal cord transection, but expression was reduced in the HSV-siBDNF group. These results suggested that BDNF plays an important role in neural plasticity via extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 signaling pathway in a rat model of adult spinal cord transection.

  8. The diameters of the cervical spinal cord shown by Amipaque-myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sagittal and cross diameters of the cervical spinal cord were measured in 53 patients with cervical nerve root compression and with no evidence of spinal cord involvement, as well as in 45 patients with spastic tetraparesis and no localised space occupying lesion, and 29 patients with myelographically proven cervical myelography. The true diameters were calculated by the known magnification factor (1:1,4). Patients with spastic tetraparesis showed diameters in normal ranges, as well as widened or diminished sizes of the cord. Some of the patients with cervical myelopathy showed diminished diameters in the caudal parts. This may be a hint for a poor outcome after decompression operation. (orig.)

  9. Spinal cord trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can be removed or reduced before the spinal nerves are completely destroyed, paralysis may improve. Surgery may be needed to: Realign the spinal bones (vertebrae) Remove fluid or tissue that presses ...

  10. Spinal Cord Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatments Functional and Dysfunctional Spinal Circuitry: Role for Rehabilitation and Neural Prostheses Summary of NINDS New Strategies in Spinal Cord Injury workshop held June, 2000. NINDS Workshop on Re- ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? What is "Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury? What is the "Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems" program? ... family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries ...

  13. Spinal Cord Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this can also injure the spinal cord. Other spinal cord problems include Tumors Infections such as meningitis and polio Inflammatory diseases Autoimmune diseases Degenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral ...

  14. Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD) module supports the maintenance of local and national registries for the tracking of patients with spinal cord injury and disease...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Partnerships How Social Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help Transitions Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury How Occupational Therapists Work How Occupational Therapists Work Occupational Therapy Enables Daily ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for spinal cord injuries? What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal ... provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on ...

  17. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach. PMID:20809379

  18. Coevolution of caudal skeleton and tail feathers in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Ryan N

    2014-12-01

    Birds are capable of a wide range of aerial locomotor behaviors in part because of the derived structure and function of the avian tail. The tail apparatus consists of a several mobile (free) caudal vertebrae, a terminal skeletal element (the pygostyle), and an articulated fan of tail feathers that may be spread or folded, as well as muscular and fibroadipose structures that facilitate tail movements. Morphological variation in both the tail fan and the caudal skeleton that supports it are well documented. The structure of the tail feathers and the pygostyle each evolve in response to functional demands of differing locomotor behaviors. Here, I test whether the integument and skeleton coevolve in this important locomotor module. I quantified feather and skeletal morphology in a diverse sample of waterbirds and shorebirds using a combination of linear and geometric morphometrics. Covariation between tail fan shape and skeletal morphology was then tested using phylogenetic comparative methods. Pygostyle shape is found to be a good predictor of tail fan shape (e.g., forked, graduated), supporting the hypothesis that the tail fan and the tail skeleton have coevolved. This statistical relationship is used to reconstruct feather morphology in an exemplar fossil waterbird, Limnofregata azygosternon. Based on pygostyle morphology, this taxon is likely to have exhibited a forked tail fan similar to that of its extant sister clade Fregata, despite differing in inferred ecology and other aspects of skeletal anatomy. These methods may be useful in reconstructing rectricial morphology in other extinct birds and thus assist in characterizing the evolution of flight control surfaces in birds. PMID:25139752

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord ... Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life ...

  20. Brain and Spinal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Brain and Spinal Tumors Information Page Synonym(s): Spinal Cord ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Brain and Spinal Tumors? Tumors of the brain and ...

  1. Minimally Invasive Drainage of a Post-Laminectomy Subfascial Seroma with Cervical Spinal Cord Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitshoff, Adriaan Mynhardt; Van Goethem, Bart; Cornelis, Ine; Combes, Anais; Dvm, Ingeborgh Polis; Gielen, Ingrid; Vandekerckhove, Peter; de Rooster, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    A 14 mo old female neutered Doberman pinscher was evaluated for difficulty in rising, a wide based stance, pelvic limb gait abnormalities, and cervical pain of 2 mo duration. Neurologic examination revealed pelvic limb ataxia and cervical spinal hyperesthesia. Spinal reflexes and cranial nerve examination were normal. The pathology was localized to the C1-C5 or C6-T2 spinal cord segments. Computed tomography (CT) findings indicated bony proliferation of the caudal articular processes of C6 and the cranial articular processes of C7, resulting in bilateral dorsolateral spinal cord compression that was more pronounced on the left side. A limited dorsal laminectomy was performed at C6-C7. Due to progressive neurological deterioration, follow-up CT examination was performed 4 days postoperatively. At the level of the laminectomy defect, a subfacial seroma had developed, entering the spinal canal and causing significant spinal cord compression. Under ultrasonographic guidance a closed-suction wound catheter was placed. Drainage of the seroma successfully relieved its compressive effects on the spinal cord and the patient's neurological status improved. CT was a valuable tool in assessing spinal cord compression as a result of a postoperative subfascial seroma. Minimally invasive application of a wound catheter can be successfully used to manage this condition. PMID:27008321

  2. Eradicative brachytherapy with hyaluronate gel injection into pararectal space in treatment of bulky vaginal stump recurrence of uterine cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to develop a procedure for eradicative brachytherapy that can deliver a curative boost dose to bulky (>4 cm) vaginal stump recurrence of uterine cancer without risk of damaging surrounding organs. We separated risk organs (the rectum and sigmoid) from the target during brachytherapy, with a hyaluronate gel injection into the pararectal space via the percutaneous paraperineal approach under local anesthesia. The rectum anchored to the sacrum by native ligament was expected to shift posteriorly. We encountered a patient with bulky stump recurrence of uterine cancer, approximately 8 cm in maximum diameter. She was complaining of abdominal pain and constipation due to bowel encasement. Following 50 Gy of external beam radiotherapy, we applied a single fraction of brachytherapy under gel separation and delivered 14.5 Gy (50.8 GyE: equivalent dose in 2-Gy fraction calculated with linear quadratic model at α/β=3) to the target. The gel injection procedure was completed in 30 min without complications. A total irradiation dose of 100.8 GyE was delivered to the target and the cumulative minimum dose to the most irradiated rectosigmoidal volume of 2 cc (cumulative D2cc) was calculated as 58.5 GyE with gel injection, and was estimated to be 96 GyE without. Over three years, the local stump tumor has completely disappeared, with no complications. Brachytherapy with a pararectal gel injection can be a safe and effective eradicative option for bulky vaginal stump recurrence. (author)

  3. Effect of photoperiod on characteristics of semen obtained by electroejaculation in stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Granados, Mónica Dafne; Hernández López, Leonor Estela; Córdoba Aguilar, Alejandro; Cerda Molina, Ana Lilia; Pérez-Ramírez, Olivia; Mondragón-Ceballos, Ricardo

    2014-07-01

    Some environmental variables determining seasonal reproduction in mammals are temperature, humidity, food availability, and photoperiod. Among these, photoperiod is considered the main regulator of primates' seasonal reproduction, thus the latitudinal distribution of primate populations is a key factor determining the appearance of seasonal reproduction. The present work presents supporting discrete seasonality in male stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides). We investigated whether semen quality and testosterone covaried with Mexico City's photoperiod and relative humidity by analyzing variations in the portions that form the ejaculate: the seminal liquid, the seminal coagulum, and the copulatory plug. Five male adult stump-tailed macaques were electroejaculated once a month, obtaining three semen samples per male, from August 2011 to July 2012 (except for December 2011) (n = 165). Our results showed that stump-tailed macaque sperm counts were significantly different between the portions of the ejaculate. The seminal coagulum contained the significantly largest number of spermatozoids, followed by the copulatory plug and the seminal fluid. Photoperiod and relative humidity had major influence on the sperm count in the seminal coagulum and the testosterone concentrations. Testosterone reached its highest values around the time when days and nights lasted the same hours, decreasing when days either grew longer or became shorter. Concerning relative humidity, sperm counts in the seminal coagulum were highly variable on dry days, but decreased as the relative humidity increased. We conclude that stump-tailed macaques have a discrete seasonality, occurring in spring and fall when macaques' reproductive condition and readiness for postcopulatory intrasexual competition increase. PMID:24585247

  4. Renal Artery Stump to Inferior Vena Cava Fistula: Unusual Clinical Presentation and Transcatheter Embolization with the Amplatzer Vascular Plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fistulous communication between the renal artery stump and inferior vena cava following nephrectomy is rare. We describe the case of a 52-year-old man with a fistula detected on investigation for hemolytic anemia in the postoperative period. The patient had had a nephrectomy performed 2 weeks prior to presentation for blunt abdominal trauma. The fistula was successfully occluded percutaneously using an Amplatzer vascular plug. The patient recovered completely and was discharged 2 weeks later.

  5. Relation between Rice Crop Quality (Protein Content) and Fertilizer Amount as Well as Rice Stump Density Derived from Helicopter Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Arai; Masanoori Sakashita; Osamu Shigetomi; Yuko Miura

    2015-01-01

    Relation between protein content in rice crops and fertilizer amount as well as rice stump density is clarified with a multi-spectral camera data mounted on a radio-wave controlled helicopter. Estimation of protein content in rice crop and total nitrogen content in rice leaves through regression analysis with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index: NDVI derived from camera mounted radio-controlled helicopter is already proposed. Through experiments at rice paddy fields which is situated at Sa...

  6. Actuation of a robotic fish caudal fin for low reaction torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dongwon; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun; Kyung, Jinho; Lee, Sunghee

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a novel caudal fin for actuating a robotic fish is presented. The proposed caudal fin waves in a vertical direction with a specific spatial shape, which is determined by a so-called shape factor. For a specific shape factor, a traveling wave with a vertical phase difference is formed on a caudal fin during fin motion. It will be shown by the analysis that the maximum reaction torque at the joint of a caudal fin varies depending on the shape factors. Compared with a conventional plate type caudal fin, the proposed fin with a shape factor of 2π can eliminate the reaction torque perfectly, while keeping the propulsion force unchanged. The benefits of the proposed fin will be demonstrated by experiments.

  7. Bioimpedance system for monitoring muscle and cardiovascular activity in the stump of lower-limb amputees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bioimpedance system for the continuous measurement of non-invasive physiological parameters in lower-limb amputees is presented. The aim of the system is to monitor as many physiological parameters as possible from a single bioimpedance electrode configuration. In this way, a simple, low-cost and low-size autonomous system is developed that is able to continuously monitor the amputee in different environments (home, work, etc). The system measures both electrical impedance myography and electrical impedance plethysmography in the stump with electrodes placed in the inside face of a silicone interface. Such a system allows for the monitoring of a patient's muscle activity, and heart and breath rate, thus enabling the study and continuous monitoring of prosthesis adaptation and improvement of patient's gait to reduce physiological stress. Additionally, it can prevent cardiovascular problems due to the effort involved in the use of prostheses, which can decrease the life expectancy of amputees with previous vascular diseases. Experimental results obtained from different amputees' test validate the purpose of the system. (paper)

  8. Short-term effects of thinning, clear-cutting and stump harvesting on methane exchange in a boreal forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sundqvist

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest management practices can alter soil conditions, affecting the consumption and production processes that control soil methane (CH4 exchange. We studied the short-term effects of thinning, clear-cutting and stump harvesting on the CH4 exchange between soil and atmosphere at a boreal forest site in central Sweden, using an undisturbed plot as the control. Chambers in combination with a high precision laser gas analyser were used for continuous measurements. Both the undisturbed plot and the thinned plot were net sinks of CH4, whereas the clear-cut plot and the stump harvested plot were net CH4 sources. The CH4 uptake at the thinned plot was reduced in comparison to the undisturbed plot. The shift from sink to source at the clear-cut and stump harvested plots was probably due to a rise of the water table and an increase in soil moisture, leading to lower gas diffusivity and more reduced conditions which favour CH4 production by archea. Reduced evapotranspiration after harvesting leads to wetter soils, decreased CH4 consumption and increased CH4 production, and should be accounted for in the CH4 budget of managed forests.

  9. Carcinoma of the cervical stump: comparison of radiation therapy factors, survival and patterns of failure with carcinoma of the intact uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighty-nine patients with previously untreated invasive carcinoma of the cervical stump were seen at Yale-New Haven Hospital from 1953 through 1977. This represented 9.4% of the carcinomas of the cervix seen during this time period. Eighty-five of the 89 patients (95.5%) had ''true'' cancers of the cervical stump diagnosed 2 years or more after subtotal hysterectomy, while 4 of the 89 patients (4.5%) had ''coincident'' cancers diagnosed within 2 years of the subtotal hysterectomy. All cervical cancers were staged by the F.I.G.O. classification. Patient characteristics, methods of management, failure sites and survival of patients with carcinoma of the cervical stump were compared to those patients with carcinoma in the intact uterus. Patients with cervical stump cancers were treated in a similar manner to those with carcinomas of the intact uterus, using a combination of external beam irradiation and intracavitary radium. The stump cancer patients had a similar stage distribution to the patients with cancers of the intact uterus but, on the average, they were older and received less irradiation. The patterns of failure were similar on a stage for stage basis, but the survival and disease-free survival for stump cancer patients were superior to those of the patients with carcinoma of the intact uterus

  10. Spinal canal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.)

  11. Expression and cellular distribution of ubiquitin in response to injury in the developing spinal cord of Monodelphis domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noor, Natassya M; Møllgård, Kjeld; Wheaton, Benjamin J;

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitin, an 8.5 kDa protein associated with the proteasome degradation pathway has been recently identified as differentially expressed in segment of cord caudal to site of injury in developing spinal cord. Here we describe ubiquitin expression and cellular distribution in spinal cord up to pos....... Apparent changes in ubiquitin expression and cellular distribution in development and response to spinal injury suggest an intricate regulatory system that modulates these responses which, when better understood, may lead to potential therapeutic targets....... postnatal day P35 in control opossums (Monodelphis domestica) and in response to complete spinal transection (T10) at P7, when axonal growth through site of injury occurs, and P28 when this is no longer possible. Cords were collected 1 or 7 days after injury, with age-matched controls and segments rostral......Ubiquitin, an 8.5 kDa protein associated with the proteasome degradation pathway has been recently identified as differentially expressed in segment of cord caudal to site of injury in developing spinal cord. Here we describe ubiquitin expression and cellular distribution in spinal cord up to...

  12. Rostrocaudal distribution of motoneurones and variation in ventral horn area within a segment of the feline thoracic spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meehan, Claire Francesca; Ford, Tim W; Road, Jeremy D;

    2004-01-01

    Retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase, applied to cut peripheral nerves, was used to determine the rostrocaudal distribution of motoneurones supplying different branches of the ventral ramus for a single mid- or caudal thoracic segment in the cat. The motoneurones occupied a length...... of spinal cord equal to the segmental length but displaced rostrally from the segment as defined by the dorsal roots, with the number of motoneurones per unit length of cord higher in the rostral part of a segment (close to the entry of the most rostral dorsal root) than in the caudal part. The cross......-sectional area of the ventral horn showed a rostrocaudal variation that closely paralleled the motoneurone distribution. The ratio between the number of motoneurones per unit length in the caudal and rostral regions of a segment (0.70) was similar to the ratio previously reported for the strength of functional...

  13. Radiographic evaluation of caudal vena cava size in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilation of the caudal vena cava (CVC) on lateral thoracic radiographs is often interpreted as suggestive of right-sided congestive heart failure, To quantitate the clinical utility of evaluating CVC size as an indicator of right-sided heart disease, we compared the ratio of the diameter of the CVC as measured on a left lateral thoracic radiograph to the descending aorta (Ao), length of the thoracic vertebra above the tracheal bifurcation (VL), and width of the right fourth rib (R4) in 35 dogs with right heart disease and 35 control dogs, Each CVC ratio(CVC/Ao, CVC/VL, CVC/R4) was statistically larger in dogs with right heart disease, Response operating characteristic curves and likelihood ratios were used to determine ratios helpful in identifying dogs with right heart disease. A CVC/Ao > 1.50, CVC/VL > 1.30, or CVC/R4 > 3.50 are strongly suggestive of a right-sided heart abnormality in a patient

  14. Aproximaciones neuronales univariantes para la predicción de caudales diarios en cuencas portuguesas

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido-Calvo, I.; Manuela Portela, M.

    2007-01-01

    Desde hace unos años, las redes neuronales computacionales están siendo una de las herramientas más prometedoras para la estimación de caudales en cuencas. La mayoría de los trabajos de la literatura utilizan para las predicciones, junto con los datos registrados de caudales, otras variables de entrada de carácter hidro-metorológico. En este estudio se analizó el funcionamiento de redes neuronales de retropropagación para la estimación de caudales diarios en cuencas portuguesas, consideran...

  15. The prevalence of anatomical variations that can cause inadvertent dural puncture when performing caudal block in Koreans: a study using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, J; Kim, J; Lee, J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the anatomical abnormalities that can induce inadvertent dural puncture when performing caudal block. The anatomy of the lumbo-sacral area was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. In 2462 of the 2669 patients imaged, the dural sac terminal was located between the upper half of the 1st sacral vertebra and the lower half of the 2nd sacral vertebra. In 22 cases (0.8%), the dural sac terminal and the spinal canal were located at or below the 3rd sacral vertebra, and these were cases of simple anatomical variations. As regards pathologic conditions, there was one case of sacral meningocoele and 46 cases of sacral perineural cyst. In 21 cases (0.8%) out of the 46 perineural cyst cases, the cyst could be found at or below the 3rd sacral vertebra level. Inadvertent dural puncture may happen when performing caudal block in patients with such abnormal anatomy. PMID:19922508

  16. Spinal surgery -- cervical - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the vertebral bodies (osteophytes), which compress spinal nerves, trauma, and narrowing (stenosis) of the spinal column around the spinal cord. Symptoms of cervical spine problems include: pain that interferes with daily ...

  17. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  18. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  19. Spinal CT scan, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of CT of the cervical and thoracic spines were explained, and normal CT pictures of them were described. Spinal CT was evaluated in comparison with other methods in various spinal diseases. Plain CT revealed stenosis due to spondylosis or ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament and hernia of intervertebral disc. CT took an important role in the diagnosis of spinal cord tumors with calcification and destruction of the bone. CT scan in combination with other methods was also useful for the diagnosis of spinal injuries, congenital anomalies and infections. (Ueda, J.)

  20. "Pulling telescoped phantoms out of the stump": manipulating the perceived position of phantom limbs using a full-body illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzl, Laura; Thomke, Erik; Ragnö, Christina; Nilseryd, Maria; Stockselius, Anita; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Most amputees experience phantom limbs, or the sensation that their amputated limb is still attached to the body. Phantom limbs can be perceived in the location previously occupied by the intact limb, or they can gradually retract inside the stump, a phenomenon referred to as "telescoping".  Telescoping is relevant from a clinical point of view, as it tends to be related to increased levels of phantom pain. In the current study we demonstrate how a full-body illusion can be used to temporarily revoke telescoping sensations in upper limb amputees. During this illusion participants view the body of a mannequin from a first person perspective while being subjected to synchronized visuo-tactile stimulation through stroking, which makes them experience the mannequin's body as their own. In Experiment 1 we used an intact mannequin, and showed that amputees can experience ownership of an intact body as well as referral of touch from both hands of the mannequin. In Experiment 2 and 3 we used an amputated mannequin, and demonstrated that depending on the spatial location of the strokes applied to the mannequin, participants experienced their phantom hand to either remain telescoped, or to actually be located below the stump. The effects were supported by subjective data from questionnaires, as well as verbal reports of the perceived location of the phantom hand in a visual judgment task. These findings are of particular interest, as they show that the temporary revoking of telescoping sensations does not necessarily have to involve the visualization of an intact hand or illusory movement of the phantom (as in the rubber hand illusion or mirror visual feedback therapy), but that it can also be obtained through mere referral of touch from the stump to the spatial location corresponding to that previously occupied by the intact hand. Moreover, our study also provides preliminary evidence for the fact that these manipulations can have an effect on phantom pain sensations

  1. Pulling telescoped phantoms out of the stump: Manipulating the perceived position of phantom limbs using a full-body illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eSchmalzl

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Most amputees experience phantom limbs, or the sensation that their amputated limb is still attached to the body. Phantom limbs can be perceived in the location previously occupied by the intact limb, or they can gradually retract inside the stump, a phenomenon referred to as telescoping. Telescoping is relevant from a clinical point of view, as it tends to be related to increased levels of phantom pain. In the current study we demonstrate how a full-body illusion can be used to temporarily revoke telescoping sensations in upper limb amputees. During this illusion participants view the body of a mannequin from a first person perspective while being subjected to synchronized visuo-tactile stimulation through stroking, which makes them experience the mannequin’s body as their own. In Experiment 1 we used an intact mannequin, and showed that amputees can experience ownership of an intact body as well as referral of touch from both hands of the mannequin. In Experiment 2 and 3 we used an amputated mannequin, and demonstrated that depending on the spatial location of the strokes applied to the mannequin, participants experienced their phantom hand to either remain telescoped, or to actually be located below the stump. The effects were supported by subjective data from questionnaires, as well as verbal reports of the perceived location of the phantom hand in a visual judgment task. These findings are of particular interest, as they show that the temporary revoking of telescoping sensations does not necessarily have to involve the visualization of an intact hand or illusory movement of the phantom (as in the rubber hand illusion or mirror visual feedback therapy, but that it can also be obtained through mere referral of touch from the stump to the spatial location corresponding to that previously occupied by the intact hand. Moreover, our study also provides preliminary evidence for the fact that these manipulations can have an effect on phantom pain

  2. Dopaminergic modulation of the caudal photoreceptor in crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sosa, Leonardo; Calderón-Rosete, Gabina; Calvillo, Minerva E; Guevara, Jorge; Flores, Gonzalo

    2011-06-01

    In our study we investigated the influence of dopamine (DA) on the caudal photoreceptor (CPR) in crayfish. Here we report the following: (a) the chromatographic determination of DA in the sixth abdominal ganglion (6th AG) shows a variation in the content during a 24-h cycle with the maximum value at dawn. (b) There are possibly dopaminergic neurons in the 6th AG with antityrosine hydroxylase antibodies. Immunopositive neurons (164) were located in the anterior and posterior regions of the 6th AG with the mean (± SE) diameter of their somata 23 ± 1 μm. In addition, there is immunopositive staining in axons, neuropilar fibers, and varicosities. (c) We also identified, using immunohistochemistry, 108 neurons in the sixth AG that contain dopamine D1-like receptors, with the mean (±SE) diameter of their somata 18 ± 1 μm. (d) We examined the exogenous action of DA on the electrical activity of the CPR in the isolated sixth AG by conventional extracellular-recording methods. This CPR displays spontaneous activity and phasic-tonic responses to light pulses. Topical application of dopamine to ganglia kept in the dark increased the spontaneous firing rate of the CPR, whereas the photoresponse of the CPR remained unchanged. The effect on the spontaneous activity is dose-dependent with an ED₅₀ of 33 μM, and is blocked by the dopamine D1-like antagonist SCH23390. These observations suggested that the DA is playing the role of a neurotransmitter or a neuromodulator of the CPR in the 6th AG in both species of crayfish, Procambarus clarkii and Cherax quadricarinatus. PMID:20936686

  3. Caudal mesenteric ganglion in the sheep - macroanatomical and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, W; Chrószcz, A; Dudek, A; Janeczek, M; Kaleczyc, J

    2015-01-01

    The caudal mesenteric ganglion (CaMG) is a prevetrebral ganglion which provides innervation to a number of organs in the abdominal and pelvic cavity. The morphology of CaMG and the chemical coding of neurones in this ganglion have been described in humans and many animal species, but data on this topic in the sheep are entirely lacking. This prompted us to undertake a study to determine the localization and morphology of sheep CaMG as well as immunohistochemical properties of its neurons. The study was carried out on 8 adult sheep, weighing from 40 to 60 kg each. The sheep were deeply anaesthetised and transcardially perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde. CaMG-s were exposed and their location was determined. Macroanatomical observations have revealed that the ovine CaMG is located at the level of last two lumbar (L5 or L6) and the first sacral (S1) vertebrae. The ganglion represents an unpaired structure composed of several, sequentially arranged aggregates of neurons. Immunohistochemical investigations revealed that nearly all (99.5%) the neurons were DβH-IR and were richly supplied by VACHT-IR nerve terminals forming "basket-like" structures around the perikarya. VACHT-IR neurones were not determined. Many neurons (55%) contained immunoreactivity to NPY, some of them (10%) stained for Met-ENK and solitary nerve cells were GAL-positive. CGRP-IR nerve fibres were numerous and a large number of them simultaneously expressed immunoreactivity to SP. Single, weakly stained neurones were SP-IR and only very few nerve cells weakly stained for VIP. PMID:26172189

  4. Investigation of Fish Caudal Fin Locomotion Using a Bio-inspired Robotic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyu Ren

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to its advantages of realizing repeatable experiments, collecting data and isolating key factors, the bio-robotic model is becoming increasingly important in the study of biomechanics. The caudal fin of fish has long been understood to be central to propulsion performance, yet its contribution to manoeuverability, especially for homocercal caudal fin, has not been studied in depth. In the research outlined in this paper, we designed and fabricated a robotic caudal fin to mimic the morphology and the three-dimensional (3D locomotion of the tail of the Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus. We applied heave and pitch motions to the robot to model the movement of the caudal peduncle of its biological counterpart. Force measurements and 2D and 3D digital particle image velocimetry were then conducted under different movement patterns and flow speeds. From the force data, we found the addition of the 3D caudal fin locomotion significantly enhanced the lift force magnitude. The phase difference between the caudal fin ray and peduncle motion was a key factor in simultaneously controlling the thrust and lift. The increased flow speed had a negative impact on the generation of lift force. From the average 2D velocity field, we observed that the vortex wake directed water both axially and vertically, and formed a jet like structure with notable wake velocity. The 3D instantaneous velocity field at 0.6 T indicated the 3D motion of the caudal fin may result in asymmetry wake flow patterns relative to the mid-sagittal plane and change the heading direction of the shedding vortexes. Based on these results, we hypothesized that live fish may actively tune the movement between the caudal fin rays and the peduncle to change the wake structure behind the tail and hence obtain different thrust and lift forces, which contributes to its high manoeuvrability.

  5. Caudal duplication syndrome: imaging evaluation of a rare entity in an adult patient

    OpenAIRE

    Tianshen Hu, BS; Travis Browning, MD; Kristen Bishop, MD

    2016-01-01

    Several theories have been put forth to explain the complex yet symmetrical malformations and the myriad of clinical presentations of caudal duplication syndrome. Hereby, reported case is a 28-year-old female, gravida 2 para 2, with congenital caudal malformation who has undergone partial reconstructive surgeries in infancy to connect her 2 colons. She presented with recurrent left lower abdominal pain associated with nausea, vomiting, and subsequent feculent anal discharge. Imaging reveals d...

  6. Plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine with and without adrenaline following caudal anaesthesia in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Morton, N S; Cullen, P M;

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of adrenaline 1/400000 added to 0.25% bupivacaine significantly delays the systemic absorption of the drug from the caudal epidural space in young infants.......The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of adrenaline 1/400000 added to 0.25% bupivacaine significantly delays the systemic absorption of the drug from the caudal epidural space in young infants....

  7. Repair of a canine forelimb skin deficit by microvascular transfer of a caudal superficial epigastric flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, G A; Smith, J H

    2010-02-01

    Extensive skin loss from the forelimb of a Border collie was repaired by a microvascular caudal superficial epigastric flap, with secondary meshing of the flap to increase coverage. The caudal superficial epigastric artery and vein were anastomosed to the brachial artery and vein. End-to-end anastomosis to the brachial artery and vein did not compromise peripheral blood flow, and no flap necrosis was observed after subsequent limited meshing of the flap. PMID:20070493

  8. Effects of stump and slash removal on growth and mycorrhization of Picea abies seedlings outplanted on a forest clear-cut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkis, Audrius; Uotila, Antti; Arhipova, Natalija; Vasaitis, Rimvydas

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate impact of stump and slash removal on growth and mycorrhization of Picea abies seedlings outplanted on a forest clear-cut. Four non-replicated site preparation treatments included: (1) mounding (M), (2) removal of stumps (K), (3) mounding and removal of logging slash (HM) and (4) removal of logging slash and stumps (HK). Results showed that height increment of the seedlings was highest in K and lowest in M after the third growing season, and similar pattern remained after the fourth season. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonisation of seedling roots was highest in M (96.6%) and lowest in K (72.3%), and even in HK (76.0%) and HM (76.3%). Morphotyping and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer of fungal ribosomal DNA revealed a total of 13 ECM species. Among those, Thelephora terrestris and Cenococcum geophilum were the most common, found on 27.4% and 26.3% of roots, respectively. The rest of species colonised 26.6% of roots. Richness of ECM species was highest in M (10 species) and lowest in K (three species). Consequently, stump and slash removal from clear-felled sites had a positive effect on growth of outplanted spruce seedlings, but negative effect on their mycorrhization. This suggests that altered soil conditions due to site disturbance by stump and slash removal might be more favourable for tree growth than more abundant mycorrhization of their root systems in less disturbed soil. PMID:20174952

  9. Signet-Ring Cell Carcinoma Arising in the Gastric Stump After Duodenopancreatectomy for Ductal Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woubet T Kassahun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of malignancy in the gastric stump following surgery for peptic ulcer disease is well recognized. There are also few reports on carcinomas occurring after surgery for malignant gastric disease. However, carcinoma of the gastric stump after duodenopancreatectomy is extremely rare. We describe what we believe to be an unusual case of signetring cell carcinoma of the gastric stump developing at the anastomotic site 5 years after duodenopancreatectomy for ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head. We performed remnant gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy as a curative resection. This experience clearly underlies that gastric stump carcinoma (GSC may mimic metastatic disease recurrence leading to diagnostic confusion after surgery for malignancy. Although an increased risk of gastric stump carcinoma after pancreatoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer has not been established, the possibility of such a complication should be kept in mind when evaluating patients after gastric resection who present with symptoms of metastatic disease recurrence years after the primary operation. Investigations should be independent of the entity of the primary disease or its localization, since GSC may well be amenable to surgical cure as demonstrated in the presented case. Outpatient follow up results of the last four years indicated no recurrence in this case.

  10. Cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries of the paca (Cuniculus paca, L. 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Cristina de Souza Marques

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766 is a medium-sized rodent that occurs in Brazil; however, there is little information regarding its morphology. The goal of this study was to describe the origin and branching of the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries of this rodent in order to contribute to comparative anatomy studies. Ten animals (males and females were used. After death, their thoracic inlet was opened between the fourth and sixth ribs to expose the thoracic aorta, which was cannulated caudally. A stained, neoprene latex solution was then injected, in order to fill the arterial system, and the preparations were fixed in a 10% aqueous formalin solution for over 72h. The fixed specimens were dissected to identify the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries. The cranial mesenteric artery started at the abdominal aorta, caudally to the celiac artery, and originated in the following arterial branches: caudal pancreatic duodenal, pancreatic, jejunal, ileum colic and cecal. The origin of the caudal mesenteric artery occurred next to the end of abdominal aorta and this vessel issued the left colic artery and cranial rectal artery from which the sigmoid arteries initiated. It was found that there was little difference in the branching pattern of the arteries compared to other rodents and domestic mammals.

  11. Origin of the infrarenal part of the caudal vena cava in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornillie, P; Van Den Broeck, W; Simoens, P

    2008-10-01

    The vascular topography in the lumbar region of pig embryos and young fetuses was three-dimensionally reconstructed to study some controversial aspects of the origin and development of the infrarenal part of the caudal vena cava. Contrary to general belief, it was found that the supracardinal veins, which form the azygos veins in the thorax, do not take part in the construction of the caudal vena cava in the lumbar region. These veins do appear in the abdomen, but they are only involved in the formation of the lumbar and ascending lumbar veins. The infrarenal part of the caudal vena cava arises from the lumbar part of the right caudal cardinal vein. Whilst this venous pattern is established, the lumbar part of the left caudal cardinal vein disappears and its former location is occupied by large lymphatic connections between the cysterna chyli and the retroperitoneal mesenteric lymphatic sac. On the basis of these findings, a number of hypotheses on the development of anatomical variations of the caudal vena cava should be reconsidered. PMID:18537942

  12. Effect of intravenous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on neurotransmitters and synapsins in rats with spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Wu, Bilian; Lin, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated, purified and cultured in vitro by Percoll density gradient centrifugation combined with the cell adherence method. Passages 3–5 bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into rats with traumatic spinal cord injury via the caudal vein. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scores indicate that neurological function of experimental rats was significantly improved over transplantation time (1–5 weeks). Expressions of choline acetyltransferase, gluta...

  13. Injury potentials associated with severity of acute spinal cord injury in an experimental rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suying Pan; Guanghao Zhang; Xiaolin Huo; Jinzhu Bai; Tao Song

    2011-01-01

    To investigate characteristics of injury potentials after different degrees of spinal cord injury in rats, the present study established models of spinal cord contusion with severe, moderate, and mild degrees of injury. Injury potential was measured in vivo using a direct current voltage amplification system. Results revealed that in the first 4 hours after acute spinal cord injury, initial amplitude of injury potential was greatest after severe injury, followed by moderate and mild injuries. Amplitude of injury potential decreased gradually with injury time, and the recession curve was logarithmic. Under the same degree of injuries, amplitude of rostral injury potential was generally less than caudal injury potential. Results suggested that injury potential reflected injury severity, because large initial amplitude of injury potential during the early injury stage implied severe injury.

  14. Transcriptome analyses reveal molecular mechanisms underlying functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hongmei; Ge, Weihong; Zhang, Aifeng; Xi, Yue; Chen, Zhihua; Luo, Dandan; Cheng, Yin; Fan, Kevin S; Horvath, Steve; Sofroniew, Michael V; Cheng, Liming; Yang, Zhaoyang; Sun, Yi E; Li, Xiaoguang

    2015-10-27

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is considered incurable because axonal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely challenging, due to harsh CNS injury environment and weak intrinsic regeneration capability of CNS neurons. We discovered that neurotrophin-3 (NT3)-loaded chitosan provided an excellent microenvironment to facilitate nerve growth, new neurogenesis, and functional recovery of completely transected spinal cord in rats. To acquire mechanistic insight, we conducted a series of comprehensive transcriptome analyses of spinal cord segments at the lesion site, as well as regions immediately rostral and caudal to the lesion, over a period of 90 days after SCI. Using weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA), we established gene modules/programs corresponding to various pathological events at different times after SCI. These objective measures of gene module expression also revealed that enhanced new neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and reduced inflammatory responses were keys to conferring the effect of NT3-chitosan on regeneration. PMID:26460053

  15. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  16. Spinal pain in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wedderkopp, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The severity and course of spinal pain is poorly understood in adolescents. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and two-year incidence, as well as the course, frequency, and intensity of pain in the neck, mid back, and low back (spinal pain). METHODS: This study was a school...

  17. International Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvorak, M F; Itshayek, E; Fehlings, M G;

    2015-01-01

    the final version. RESULTS: The data set consists of nine variables: (1) Intervention/Procedure Date and start time (2) Non-surgical bed rest and external immobilization, (3) Spinal intervention-closed manipulation and/or reduction of spinal elements, (4) Surgical procedure-approach, (5) Date and time...

  18. Spinal arteriography: a primer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David A KUMPE

    2005-01-01

    Spinal arteriography is an esoteric procedure that is seldom performed by peripheral interventionalists. This presentation is intended to outline some of the essential points that the interventionalist performing the procedure should be aware of, especially about spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae (SDAVF).

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal ... is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries and the ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes ... Patient Partnerships How Social Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help ... advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Coping with a New Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair ... after an injury? What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? What are the ...

  2. Spinal subdural metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of metastasis to the thoracic spinal subdural space is reported. Metrizamide myelography showed narrowing of the upper thoracic subarachnoid space. A tumor in the spinal subdural space is unusual; only a few cases have been reported. The myelographic appearance is not specific; and epidural metastasis can produce the same myelographic picture. (orig.)

  3. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... US ? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information ... spinal cord injuries and the members of their families. Our website has more than 1,500 videos ...

  5. Early Rupture of an Ultralow Duodenal Stump after Extended Surgery for Gastric Cancer with Duodenal Invasion Managed by Tube Duodenostomy and Cholangiostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Blouhos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When dealing with gastric cancer with duodenal invasion, gastrectomy with distal resection of the duodenum is necessary to achieve negative distal margin. However, rupture of an ultralow duodenal stump necessitates advanced surgical skills and close postoperative observation. The present study reports a case of an early duodenal stump rupture after subtotal gastrectomy with resection of the whole first part of the duodenum, complete omentectomy, bursectomy, and D2+ lymphadenectomy performed for a pT3pN2pM1 (+ number 13 lymph nodes adenocarcinoma of the antrum. Duodenal stump rupture was managed successfully by end tube duodenostomy, without omental patching, and tube cholangiostomy. Close assessment of clinical, physical, and radiological signs, output volume, and enzyme concentration of the tube duodenostomy, T-tube, and closed suction drain, which was placed near the tube duodenostomy site to drain the leak around the catheter, dictated postoperative management of the external duodenal fistula.

  6. Agency over a phantom limb and electromyographic activity on the stump depend on visuomotor synchrony: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Imaizumi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Most patients, post-amputation, report the experience of a phantom limb. Some even sense voluntary movements when viewing a mirror image of the intact limb superimposed onto the phantom limb. While delayed visual feedback of an action is known to reduce a sense of agency, the effect of delayed visual feedback on phantom motor sensation (i.e., sense of controlling a phantom limb has not been examined. Using a video-projection system, we examined the effect of delayed visual feedback on phantom motor sensation in an upper-limb amputee (male; left upper-limb amputation. He was instructed to view mirrored video images of his intact hand clasping and unclasping during a phantom limb movement. He then rated the intensity of the phantom motor sensation. Three types of hand movement images were presented as follows: synchronous, asynchronous with a 250-ms delay, and asynchronous with a 500-ms delay. Results showed that phantom motor sensation decreased when the image was delayed by 250 and 500 ms. However, when we instructed the patient to adjust the phase of phantom limb movement to that of the image with a 500-ms delay, phantom motor sensation increased. There was also a positive correlation between intensity of phantom motor sensation and electromyographic activity on deltoids at the patient’s stump. These results suggest that phantom motor sensation and electromyographic activity on the stump depend on visuomotor synchrony and top-down effects.

  7. Comparison and Efficacy of LigaSure and Rubber Band Ligature in Closing the Inflamed Cecal Stump in a Rat Model of Acute Appendicitis

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Chieh Yeh; Chia-Ing Jan; Horng-Ren Yang; Po-Han Huang; Long-Bin Jeng; Wen-Pang Su; Hui-Chen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Safety of either LigaSure or rubber band in closing inflamed appendiceal stump in acute appendicitis has been less investigated. In this study, cecal ligation followed by resecting inflamed cecum was performed to mimic appendectomy in a rat model of acute appendicitis. Rats were sacrificed immediately (Group A) and 7 days (Group B) after cecal resection, respectively. The cecal stumps were closed by silk ligature (S), 5 mm LigaSure (L), or rubber band (R). Seven days after cecal resection, th...

  8. A possible variant of Bouveret's syndrome presenting as a duodenal stump obstruction by a gallstone after Roux-en-Y gastrectomy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Shruti

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bouveret's syndrome is characterized by gastric outlet obstruction due to a gallstone in the duodenum, usually in association with a cholecystoduodenal fistula. Case presentation We report the case of a 69-year-old Caucasian man who developed duodenal stump obstruction due to an impacted gallstone after having previously undergone Roux-en-Y gastrectomy. Conclusions Duodenal stump obstruction after Roux-en-Y gastrectomy is rare, and may be difficult to manage. Patients who present with upper gastrointestinal or pancreatobiliary pathology after previous gastric surgery should be managed in centres with the availability of appropriate endoscopic and surgical experience.

  9. Nuclear magnetic imaging for MTRA. Spinal canal and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The booklet covers the following topics: (1) Clinical indications for NMR imaging of spinal cord and spinal canal; (2) Methodic requirements: magnets and coils, image processing, contrast media: (3) Examination technology: examination conditions, sequences, examination protocols; (4) Disease pattern and indications: diseases of the myelin, the spinal nerves and the spinal canal (infections, tumors, injuries, ischemia and bleedings, malformations); diseases of the spinal cord and the intervertebral disks (degenerative changes, infections, injuries, tumors, malformations).

  10. Chondroitinase ABC treatment of injured spinal cord in rats Evaluation of long-term outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifeng Yuan; Qingquan Kong; Yongli Ding; Yueming Song; Lihong Hu; Zili Wang; Hao Liu; Limin Liu; Quan Gong; Tao Li

    2010-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans(CSPGs)which are produced by mature oligodendrocytes and reactive astrocytes can be upregulated after spinal cord injury and contribute to regenerative failure.Chondroitinase ABC(ChABC)digests glycosaminoglycan chains on CSPGs and can thereby overcome CSPG-mediated inhibition.However,many current studies have used an incomplete spinal cord injury model,and examined results after 8 12 weeks of ChABC treatment.In this study,a complete rat spinal cord transection injury model was used to study the long-term effects of ChABC treatment by subarachnoid catheter.Pathology of spinal cord regeneration was compared with control 24 weeks following ChABC treatment using immunohistochemistry and axon tracing techniques.At 24 weeks after injury,neurofilament 200 expression was significantly greater in the ChABC treatment group compared with the transection group.In the ChABC treatment group,axonal growth was demonstrated by a large number of biotinylated dextran amine positive axons caudal to,or past,the epicenter of injury.Biotinylated dextran amine-labeled fibers were found in the proximal end of the spinal cord in the transection alone group.These results confirm that ChABC can promote axon growth,neural regeneration,and repair after spinal cord injury in rats long after the initial injury.

  11. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is an important cause of a slowly progressive sensorimotor transverse lesion in mostly elderly patients. The disease affects men in 80% of the cases. Per year and per 1 Million inhabitants only 5-10 new cases of the disease have to be expected. Although rare, the serious disease should not be missed. Diagnosis can be made by MRI and spinal angiography. The result of treatment depends on early diagnosis. The arteriovenous shunt is located within the dural layer of the spinal canal. It connects branches of a radiculomeningeal artery with the veins of the spinal cord. Spinal cord supplying vessels are not primarily involved. Arterialisation of the venous part of the spinal cord circulation results in a chronic congestive myelopathy, which can well be demonstrated by MR imaging. The role of selective spinal angiography is to detect and exactly localize the site of the avshunt, which is rather difficult in some cases. Therapeutic alternatives are effective embolization of the fistula with liquid agents or surgical dysconnection. (orig.)

  12. Analgesia caudal continua guiada por ultrasonido en una paciente de 4 años Caudal anesthesia ultrasound-guided continuos flow in patient 4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beltrán Franco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La epidural caudal es la técnica más popular en anestesia y analgesia regional pediátrica. El empleo de una guía ecográfica en este procedimiento, aunque aún no es un estándar, podría disminuir los riesgos inherentes a la técnica tradicional y ofrecer algunas ventajas. Nosotros describimos el caso de una niña de 4 años sometida a una resección de un rabdomiosarcoma en muslo izquierdo con metástasis ganglionar inguinal e implantación de catéteres para braquiterapia; a quien se le colocó un catéter caudal para analgesia postoperatoria continua, usando la ultrasonografía (US como método para guiar la colocación de dicho catéter. Después de inducir anestesia general, se realizó un escaneo ecográfico previo de la zona sacra identificando la anatomía, posteriormente después de implementar las medidas antisépticas y asépticas se colocó un catéter caudal guiado por US en tiempo real y con modo Doppler color se confirmó la posición en el espacio epidural caudal al inyectar una dosis en bolo de mezcla anestésica. Se presentó un adecuado control del dolor postoperatorio. El uso de US es una excelente alternativa a las técnicas clásicas fundamentadas en anatomía para la inserción de catéteres epidurales continuos en pediatría y permite ciertas ventajas que las técnicas a ciegas no pueden brindar.Caudal epidural is the most popular regional analgesia and anesthesia technique in pediatrics. The use of ultrasound (US guidance in this procedure, is not yet the standard, but could reduce the risks related with the traditional approach and offer some advantages. We described a case of a 4-years-old patient undergoing a resection of a rabdomyosarcome on the left thigh plus inguinal metastatic nodes and implantation of brachitherapy catheters, in whom a continous caudal epidural catheter was placed under US guidance. After general anesthesia induction, a scout scanning identified the anatomy and afterwards, using strict

  13. Caudal epidural anesthesia for a 2-year old child with congenital myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calişkan, Esra; Koçum, Aysu; Sener, Mesut; Bozdoğan, Nesrin; Ariboğan, Aniş

    2008-10-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease with antibodies directed against the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction. Anesthetists have a special interest in myasthenia gravis because of its interaction with various anesthetic agents. Unlike adult myasthenic patients; very little report has been written about the anesthetic management in children, other than in relation to thymectomy. Although the use of caudal anesthesia in pediatric patients is common, have not seen any report concerning its use in a myasthenic child. In this case report, we represented a 2 year-old boy was performed caudal anesthesia for orchiopexy operation. He had presented difficulty in breathing, generalized weakness and droopy eyes due to congenital myasthenia gravis. In the operating room, following the routine monitoring, the patient was sedated with intravenous 1mg midazolam and 10 mg ketamine. Then caudal block was performed. 17 minutes later from the local anesthetic injection; operation was started and lasted 45 minutes. The patient did not require intraoperative supplemental analgesia and postoperative course was uneventful. Specific attention should be paid to voluntary and respiratory muscle strength in myasthenia gravis patients. Caudal anesthesia allowed airway control of myasthenia gravis patients without endotracheal intubations and muscle relaxant. In conclusion, we think that caudal anesthetic technique may be considered as a safe and suitable for the myasthenic child and it may represent a valid alternative to general anesthesia for these patients. PMID:19117157

  14. Hydrodynamic Performance of an Undulatory Robot: Functional Roles of the Body and Caudal Fin Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Both body undulation and caudal fin flapping play essential locomotive roles while a fish is swimming, but how these two affect the swimming performance and hydrodynamics of fish individually is yet to be known. We implemented a biomimetic robotic fish that travel along a servo towing system, which can be regarded as “treadmill” of the model. Hydrodynamics was studied as a function of the principal kinetic parameters of the undulatory body and caudal fin of the model in a self‐propelled condition, under which the time‐averaged measured axial net force becomes zero. Thrust efficiency was estimated from two‐dimensional digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV measurements in the horizontal and mid‐caudal fin plane. The Single‐Row Reverse Karman wake (2S is commonly observed in many previous studies of live fish swimming. However, we show that a Double‐Row Two‐Paired vortices (2P wake was generated by the robotic model for most kinetic parameter combinations. Interestingly, the 2S wake emerged within the results of a narrow range of robotic caudal fin pitch angles (0≤θ≤10°, occurring concurrently with enhanced thrust efficiency. We also show that, compared with the effect of body wavelength (λ, the wake structure behind the robotic swimmer is more sensitive to the Strouhal number (St and caudal fin pitch angle (θ.

  15. Comparison of caudal bupivacaine and bupivacaine-tramadol for postoperative analgesia in children with hypospadias repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the effects after caudal bupivacaine alone and bupivacaine-tramadol in young children with hypospadias repair. Randomized controlled trial. Sixty children aged between 13-53 months coming for hypospadias repair were divided randomly into two groups A and B. A caudal block was performed immediately after induction of general anaesthesia. The patients in group A received 0.125% bupivacaine 1 ml/kg with tramadol 1 mg/kg body weight caudally. Group B patients received 0.25% bupivacaine 1 ml/kg body weight caudally. Anaesthesia was discontinued after completion of surgery. In the recovery area, ventilatory frequency and pain scores were recorded at 1 hourly interval for first 6 hours and then every 2 hours for next 6 hours postoperatively. A modified TPPPS (Toddler-Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale) was used to assess the pain. Episodes of vomiting, facial flush and pruritus were noted, if present. The duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in group A patients (p-value=0.001). A low frequency of postoperative vomiting was observed in both groups i.e. 10% in group A and 6.66% in group B (p-value=0.64). No respiratory depression, flushing and pruritus were observed. Low dose combination of bupivacaine and tramadol, when administered caudally, had an additive effect and provided prolonged and effective postoperative analgesia with minimal side effects. The risk of toxicity from bupivacaine decreased when combined with tramadol in low doses. (author)

  16. Spinal angiography with iohexol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iohexol 300 was used for 55 selective spinal angiograms in 50 patients; all were of good quality. There was no significant change in vital signs during the angiographic procedure in any case. Two patients with spinal dural arteriovenous fistula draining into a coronal venous plexus developed transient subjective slight increase in their disability during the immediate post-angiographic period. Eight cases embolised at the time of angiography showed improvement in their neurological deficits within 24 h of the study. The other patients were unaffected by the procedure. Iohexol 300 is a very suitable contrast medium for spinal angiography. (orig.)

  17. A Titanosaurian Sauropod Dinosaur with Opisthocoelous Caudal Vertebrae from the Early Late Cretaceous of Liaoning Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Hailu; JI Qiang; Matthew C. LAMANNA; LI Jinglu; LI Yinxian

    2004-01-01

    We describe a new titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur, Borealosaurus wimani gen. et sp. nov., based on a distinctive mid-distal caudal vertebra from the early Late Cretaceous Sunjiawan Formation exposed in the Shuangmiao village of Beipiao in Liaoning, China. We provisionally refer an isolated tooth crown, a middle caudal vertebra, and a right humerus from the same locality and horizon to this taxon. Borealosaurus is distinguished from other sauropods in its possession of opisthocoelous mid-distal caudal vertebrae. The occurrence of opisthocoelous caudals in Borealosaurus and the Mongolian sauropod Opisthocoelicaudia raises the possibility that these taxa pertain to an as-yet unrecognized titanosaurian subclade endemic to the Cretaceous Asia.

  18. Variabilidad temporal de caudales: aplicación a la gestión de ríos regulados

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Capel, Francisco; Baeza Sanz, D.; García de Jalón Lastra, D.

    2004-01-01

    Los efectos de la regulación de caudales en los ríos modifican severamente la variabilidad del régimen de caudales, así como su estacionalidad. Esto supone una alteración muy grave, puesto que el régimen de caudales es determinante para mantener la estructura de las comunidades (Poff, et al., 1997) y el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas fluviales. El estudio de un régimen de caudales debe contemplar un grupo de parámetros completo, y con significado biológico, que contemple la ...

  19. Glycine uptake by lamprey spinal neurons demonstrated by light microscopic autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have mapped the neuronal uptake of 3H-glycine in the spinal cords of large larval sea lampreys: Petromyzon marinus. Spinal cords were incubated in 10(-6) M 3H-glycine for 15 minutes. They were rinsed in lamprey solution, fixed in phosphate-buffered 2% glutaraldehyde, and washed in phosphate buffer. They were then sectioned with a cryostat at 16-m thickness or dehydrated, embedded in Epon, and sectioned at 1-4 micron. Sections were coated with a photographic emulsion and maintained at 4 degrees C for 1-7 days. By sectioning horizontally, it was possible to obtain complete serial reconstructions of up to 1.5-mm lengths of cord in 100-150 sections. The outlines of labelled cells were traced with a Nikon drawing attachment. For one Epon-embedded spinal cord sectioned at 4 micron, tracings were superimposed to form complete maps for 0.6-1.5-mm lengths in three representative regions of cord: rostral (gill region), caudal (dorsal fin region), and midsection. The labelled neurons were small (5-10-micron diameter) cells distributed throughout the central gray columns. They numbered 22 cells per hemisegment in the rostral region, 33 in the midsection, and 43 in the caudal region. None of the previously identified cell types were labelled, including lateral interneurons, edge cells, giant interneurons, dorsal cells, and Mueller and Mauthner axons

  20. Spinal cord trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other rehabilitation after the injury has healed. Rehabilitation will help you cope with the disability from your spinal cord injury. Support Groups Seek out organizations for additional information ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos Videos by Topic and Question Videos by Family Relationship Videos by Experts Resources The Short List Government ... Home Videos by Topic and Question Videos by Family Relationship Videos by Spinal Cord Experts Resources Forums Peer ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? When can we expect stem-cell ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  4. Spinal cord abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abscess: Back injuries or trauma, including minor ones Boils on the skin, especially on the back or ... of spinal cord abscess. Prevention Thorough treatment of boils, tuberculosis, and other infections decreases the risk. Early ...

  5. Spinal and epidural anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intraspinal anesthesia; Subarachnoid anesthesia; Epidural; Peridural anesthesia ... Spinal and epidural anesthesia have fewer side effects and risks than general anesthesia (asleep and pain-free). Patients usually recover their senses ...

  6. Ontogeny, variation, and homology in Salvelinus alpinus caudal skeleton (Teleostei: Salmonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünbaum, Thomas; Cloutier, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The ontogeny of the caudal skeleton in the Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus was examined using an extensive series of cleared and stained specimens. We demonstrate the presence of skeletal components never reported previously within the Salmonidae. In contrast to the generalized condition for salmonids, seven hypurals (instead of six), and four uroneurals (instead of three) have been found in some specimens. Variation in the number and condition of epurals is documented. New hypotheses are proposed concerning (1) relationships among centra and their associated elements, (2) phylogenetic distribution of caudal characters within the Salmonidae, and (3) homology of caudal components. Using the published phylogenetic hypotheses, we provide evidence, that a seventh hypural and a fourth uroneural are taxic atavism in salmonids. The development of the salmonid homocercal fin is discussed in the light of a polyural scheme based on evidences of a one-to-one relationship among ural centra and their associated elements. PMID:19603412

  7. Measurements and analysis of force and moment of caudal fin model in C-start

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liang; JING Jun; LU Xiyun; YIN Xiezhen

    2006-01-01

    The unsteady hydrodynamic forces and moments acting on caudal-fin models of fish with different shapes and different swing durations were experimentally measured to simulate the fish C-starts. The motion of models was characterized by rotating the model to a maximum deflection angle in an excursion time Tu and back to the initial position in a return time Td around its root-axis. Studies show that the caudal-fin plays an important role in fish C-starts and the caudal-fins with different shapes and different swing durations generate different forces and moments. In addition, the hydrodynamic forces and moments acting on the models with different shapes can be normalized by the 2nd and 3rd moments of area, respectively. The forces and moments acting on the models with different swing durations, but the same ratio of Tu to Td can also be scaled.

  8. The Effects of Caudal Fin Shape on the Propulsion Performance of Flapping Caudal Fin%尾鳍形状对摆动尾鳍推进性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曦; 苏玉民; 王兆立

    2012-01-01

    研究了尾鳍形状对摆动尾鳍推进性能的影响.设计了一套摆尾仿生推进装置,实验分析了仿金枪鱼、仿海豚、仿白鲸3种尾鳍的推进性能.同时采用数值方法对尾鳍的水动力性能进行了计算.实验和数值结果表明,仿金枪鱼尾鳍的平均推力系数和输入功率系数最小,推进效率最高.对尾涡的分析表明,仿金枪鱼尾鳍尾涡强度最弱,分布范围最小.%A comprehensive study was presented on the effects of the caudal fin shape on the propulsion performance of a harmonically heaving and pitching caudal fin.A bio-caudal fin propulsion mechanics was designed and a series of hydrodynamic experiments for three caudal fin shapes(the whale caudal fin,the dolphin caudal fin,and the tuna caudal fin) were performed.Then numerical simulations were done.Both the experimental and computational results indicate that the tuna caudal fin produces the highest efficiency,although the mean thrust coefficient and input power coefficient of the tuna caudal fin was the smallest.The characteristics of wake were analyzed to find that not only the wake scale of the tuna caudal fin is the smallest,but also the vorticity magnitude of the tuna caudal fin is the weakest.

  9. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...... publication date for the Annual Review of Neuroscience Volume 39 is July 08, 2016. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates....

  10. Comparison and efficacy of LigaSure and rubber band ligature in closing the inflamed cecal stump in a rat model of acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Jan, Chia-Ing; Yang, Horng-Ren; Huang, Po-Han; Jeng, Long-Bin; Su, Wen-Pang; Chen, Hui-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Safety of either LigaSure or rubber band in closing inflamed appendiceal stump in acute appendicitis has been less investigated. In this study, cecal ligation followed by resecting inflamed cecum was performed to mimic appendectomy in a rat model of acute appendicitis. Rats were sacrificed immediately (Group A) and 7 days (Group B) after cecal resection, respectively. The cecal stumps were closed by silk ligature (S), 5 mm LigaSure (L), or rubber band (R). Seven days after cecal resection, the LigaSure (BL) and silk subgroups (BS) had significantly less intra-abdominal adhesion and better laparotomy wound healing than rubber band subgroup (BR). The initial bursting pressure at cecal stump was comparable among the three methods; along with tissue healing process, both BL and BS provided a higher bursting pressure than BR 7 days after appendectomy. BL subgroup had more abundant hydroxyproline deposition than BS and BR subgroup. Furthermore, serum TNF-α in BR group kept persistently increasing along with time after cecal resection. Thus, the finding that LigaSure but not rubber band is safe in sealing off the inflamed cecal stump in rat model of acute appendicitis suggests the possibility of applying LigaSure for appendectomy via single port procedure or natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). PMID:25699264

  11. Comparison and Efficacy of LigaSure and Rubber Band Ligature in Closing the Inflamed Cecal Stump in a Rat Model of Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety of either LigaSure or rubber band in closing inflamed appendiceal stump in acute appendicitis has been less investigated. In this study, cecal ligation followed by resecting inflamed cecum was performed to mimic appendectomy in a rat model of acute appendicitis. Rats were sacrificed immediately (Group A and 7 days (Group B after cecal resection, respectively. The cecal stumps were closed by silk ligature (S, 5 mm LigaSure (L, or rubber band (R. Seven days after cecal resection, the LigaSure (BL and silk subgroups (BS had significantly less intra-abdominal adhesion and better laparotomy wound healing than rubber band subgroup (BR. The initial bursting pressure at cecal stump was comparable among the three methods; along with tissue healing process, both BL and BS provided a higher bursting pressure than BR 7 days after appendectomy. BL subgroup had more abundant hydroxyproline deposition than BS and BR subgroup. Furthermore, serum TNF-α in BR group kept persistently increasing along with time after cecal resection. Thus, the finding that LigaSure but not rubber band is safe in sealing off the inflamed cecal stump in rat model of acute appendicitis suggests the possibility of applying LigaSure for appendectomy via single port procedure or natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES.

  12. Cardiocirculatory intraoperative assessment during single-shot caudal anaesthesia in children: comparison between levobupivacaine and ropivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gentili

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caudal block with levobupivacaine or ropivacaine is the most commonly used regional anaesthesia in children. Methods: The aim of study was to compare the cardiocirculatory profile induced in two matched groups of young patients, submitted to caudal anaesthesia with levobupivacaine or ropivacaine for an elective subumbilical surgery. Sixty children were enrolled: thirty received levopubivacaine 0.25% and thirty ropivacaine 0.2%. Intraoperative heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP were monitored at following times: Ta0 (after anaesthesia induction, Ta1 (after caudal anaesthesia, Ta2 (five minutes later, Ta3 (ten minutes later, Ts1 (at surgical incision, Ts2, Ts3, Ts4, Ts5 (every 10 minutes during surgery, Taw (at the awakening. Results: In both groups the cardiocirculatory trend remained within normal ranges at all times considered, demonstrating the safety of the method with both drugs. Both groups showed a similar trend at the different monitoring times: low decrease in HR, SBP and DBP after caudal block, slight increase in parameters after skin incision, slight decrease during surgery, increase at awakening. Regarding SBP and DBP, the levobupivacaine group children generally showed higher levels compared to the ropivacaine group, especially for DBP. Conclusions: Paediatric caudal anaesthesia is an effective method with an very infrequent complication rate. Possible hypotheses for differing haemodynamic behaviour could include a stronger vasoconstriction reflex of innervated areas during caudal anaesthesia with levobupivacaine and a lower levobupivacaine induced block of the sympathetic fibers, related to different pharmacokinetic profile of low concentrations of the local anaesthetics used in paediatric epidural space.

  13. Comparative study of caudal bupivacaine versus bupivacaine with tramadol for postoperative analgesia in paediatric cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Hegazy; Ayman A. Ghoneim

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Caudal epidural analgesia has become very common analgesic technique in paediatric surgery. Add-ing tramadol to bupivacaine for caudal injection prolongs duration of analgesia with minimal side effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the different effects of caudal bupivacaine versus bupivacaine with thamadol for postoperative analgesia in paediatric cancer patients. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted over 40 paediatric cancer pa-tients who were recruited from Children Cancer Hospital of Egypt (57357 Hospital). Patients were randomized into 2 groups: bupivacaine group (group B, 20 patients) to receive single shot caudal block of 1 mL/kg 0.1875% bupivacaine; tramadol group (group T, 20 patients) prepared as group B with the addition of 1 mg/kg caudal tramadol. Results: The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer among group T than group B [(24 ± 13.7) hours versus (7 ± 3.7) hours respectively with P = 0.001]. Group T showed a significantly lower mean FLACC score than group B (2.2 ± 0.9 versus 3.6 ± 0.6 with P = 0.002). The difference in FLACC score was comparable on arrival, and after 2 and 4 hours. At 8 and 12 hours the group B recorded significantly higher scores (P = 0.002 and 0.0001 respectively). There were no significant differences between the groups as regards sedation score [the median in both groups was 1 (0–1) with P value = o.8]. No one developed facial flush or pruritis. Conclusion: Caudal injection of low dose tramadol 1 mg/kg with bupivacaine 0.1875% is proved to be effective, long standing technique for postoperative analgesia in major paediatric cancer surgery and almost devoid of side effect.

  14. Pediatric spinal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The infections of the spinal axis in children are rare when compared with adults. They encompass a large spectrum of diseases ranging from relatively benign diskitis to spinal osteomyleitis and to the rapidly progressive, rare, and potentially devastating spinal epidural, subdural, and intramedullary spinal cord infections. We present a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to these uncommon entities, in light of our experience from northern India. The most prevalent pediatric spinal infection in Indian scenario is tuberculosis, where an extradural involvement is more common than intradural. The craniovertebral junction is not an uncommon site of involvement in children of our milieu. The majority of pyogenic infections of pediatric spine are associated with congenital neuro-ectodermal defects such as congenital dermal sinus. The clinico-radiological findings of various spinal infections commonly overlap. Hence the endemicity of certain pathogens should be given due consideration, while considering the differential diagnosis. However, early suspicion, rapid diagnosis, and prompt treatment are the key factors in avoiding neurological morbidity and deformity in a growing child.

  15. Towards a Full Greenhouse Gas Budget at a Clear-Cut and Stump Harvested Boreal Forest Site in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestin, P.; Mölder, M.; Sundqvist, E.; Hellström, M.; Bâth, A.; Weslien, P.; Klemedtsson, L.; Lindroth, A.

    2012-04-01

    Clear-cutting and subsequent site preparation is common forest management practice in Sweden. In addition, stump harvesting (for bioenergy production) following clear-cutting has become more common in recent years. The net effects of clear-cutting/stump harvesting on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes are however not well-known. A full assessment of the benefits of any management practice has to include all greenhouse gases. Recent development of fast-response gas analyzers has made eddy covariance (EC) measurements of water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) possible. The applicability of these analyzers is however limited by high cost and in some cases by high power demand. By using the so-called flux-gradient method, it is possible to use one set of gas analyzers for a multi-tower setup to reduce both cost and total power consumption. In addition, using the same analyzers for measurements at several plots reduces systematic errors and minimizes the need for calibration. The effects of clear-cutting and stump harvesting on GHG fluxes were studied at Norunda forest in central Sweden. Four different plots were established on a new clear-cut. All plots were clear-cut (early 2009) and site prepared (May 2010). Two of the plots were then stump harvested. On each of the plots, a 3 m high tower was erected and equipped for flux-gradient measurements of CO2, H2O, CH4(May 2010 - October 2011), and N2O (June 2011 - October 2011) exchanges. Friction velocities and sensible heat fluxes were measured by sonic anemometers (Gill Windmaster, Gill Instruments Ltd). Air was continuously sampled at two heights in the towers and gas concentrations were analyzed for CH4, CO2, H2O (LGR DLT-100, Los Gatos Research) and N2O (QCL Mini Monitor, Aerodyne Research). In addition, EC flux measurements of CO2 and H2O (Li-7500, LI-COR) were carried out on two of the plots (one of each treatment). The EC measurements allows for verification of CO2 and H2O fluxes

  16. Volume estimation models from stump diameter for teak (Tectona grandis Linn f. plantation in Nimbia forest reserve, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Shamaki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Five different equations were developed for teak (Tectona grandis (Linn. f. plantation in Nimbia forest reserve using stump diameter (Dst as independent variable. The volume equations developed were linear, logarithmic and quadratic in nature. Stratified random sampling technique was employed to select 10 sampling plots for data collection. The number of trees per plot ranged from 21 to 43 with the total of 362 trees. The mean Dst and volume was 17.83 and 0.076607 respectively. Adjusted coefficient of determination (Adjusted R2 and root mean square error (RMSE were used to rank the developed models. The resulting equations were tested for validation with independent data set obtained from additional plots and were found to be desirable for estimating the merchantable volume for teak in Nimbia forest reserve, Nigeria.

  17. Effect of caudal fin flexibility on the propulsive efficiency of a fish-like swimmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computational model is used to examine the effect of caudal fin flexibility on the propulsive efficiency of a self-propelled swimmer. The computational model couples a penalization method based Navier–Stokes solver with a simple model of flow induced deformation and self-propelled motion at an intermediate Reynolds number of about 1000. The results indicate that a significant increase in efficiency is possible by careful choice of caudal fin rigidity. The flow-physics underlying this observation is explained through the use of a simple hydrodynamic force model and guidelines for bioinspired designs of flexible fin propulsors are proposed. (paper)

  18. Visualization of the Design Space of a Caudal Fin with Hydro-Elastic Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Eriko; Jeong, Shinkyu; Obayashi, Shigeru; Isogai, Koji

    Performance of a fish caudal fin is brought out from many factors, such as the shape, the movement and the elasticity. The present study treats all of these factors simultaneously and attempts to visualize the complex design space using Kriging and SOM. As a result, the present study succeeded in visualizing the complex structure of the design space of the oscillating wing (caudal fin), and the combined effects of the design variables are shown. This data will become extremely useful for practical design of fish robots and other nautical machines.

  19. Identification of QTL for dorso-caudal chronic pleuritis in 12 crossbred porcine families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, V R; Sørensen, K K; Christensen, O F;

    2010-01-01

    loci (QTL) or markers associated with the prevalence of CP should be identified. In this study, 7470 pigs from crosses between 12 Danish Duroc boars and 604 sows (Danish Landrace × Danish Large White) were evaluated for CP located on the dorso-caudal part of the lungs. Quantitative trait loci were...... within families, the odds-ratio of having CP was approximately twice as high for the unfavourable allele compared to the favourable one. These QTL and closely linked markers show promise for the development of gene-specific markers associated with a reduced incidence of CP located on the dorso-caudal...

  20. Congenital spinal malformations; Kongenitale spinale Malformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertl-Wagner, B.B.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2001-12-01

    Congenital spinal malformations form a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders whose pathogenesis is best explained embryologically. Radiologically, it is important to formulate a diagnosis when the disorder first becomes symptomatic. However, it is also crucial to detect complications of the disorder or of the respective therapeutic interventions in the further course of the disease such as hydromyelia or re-tethering after repair of a meningomyelocele. Moreover, once a congenital spinal malformation is diagnosed, associated malformations should be sought after. A possible syndromal classification such as in OEIS- or VACTERL-syndromes should also be considered. (orig.) [German] Kongenitale spinale Malformationen stellen eine komplexe Gruppe an Stoerungen dar, deren Genese sich am einfachsten aus der Embryologie heraus erklaeren laesst. Bei der klinisch-radiologischen Begutachtung ist zunaechst ihre korrekte Klassifikation im Rahmen der Erstdiagnose wichtig. Im weiteren Verlauf ist es jedoch zudem entscheidend, moegliche Komplikationen wie beispielsweise eine Hydromyelie oder ein Wiederanheften des Myelons nach Operation einer Spina bifida aperta zu erkennen. Zudem sollte bei der Diagnosestellung einer kongenitalen spinalen Malformation immer auch auf assoziierte Fehlbildungen, wie z.B. die Diastematomyelie oder das intraspinale Lipom bei der Spina bifida aperta, sowie auf eine moegliche syndromale Einordnung wie beispielsweise beim OEIS-oder VACTERL-Syndrom geachtet werden. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of spinal ultrasound in spinal dysraphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIMS: The aims of this study were to evaluate the role of spinal ultrasound in detecting occult spinal dysraphism (OSD) in neonates and infants, and to determine the degree of agreement between ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-five consecutive infants had spinal ultrasound over 31 months. Of these, 15 patients (age 1 day-7 months, mean 40 days; nine male) had follow-up MRI. Ultrasound and MRI findings were correlated retrospectively. RESULTS: Six out of 15 (40%) ultrasound examinations showed full agreement with MRI, seven of 15 (47%) had partial agreement, and two of 15 (13%) had no agreement. In the present series ultrasound failed to visualize: four of four dorsal dermal sinuses, three of four fatty filum terminales, one of one terminal lipoma, two of four partial sacral agenesis, three of four hydromyelia and one of 10 low-lying cords. CONCLUSION: Agreement between ultrasound and MRI was good, particularly for the detection of low-lying cord (90%). Therefore we recommend ultrasound as a first-line screening test for OSD. If ultrasound is abnormal, equivocal or technically limited, MRI is advised for full assessment

  2. Evaluation of spinal ultrasound in spinal dysraphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J.A.; Bruyn, R. de; Patel, K.; Thompson, D

    2003-03-01

    AIMS: The aims of this study were to evaluate the role of spinal ultrasound in detecting occult spinal dysraphism (OSD) in neonates and infants, and to determine the degree of agreement between ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-five consecutive infants had spinal ultrasound over 31 months. Of these, 15 patients (age 1 day-7 months, mean 40 days; nine male) had follow-up MRI. Ultrasound and MRI findings were correlated retrospectively. RESULTS: Six out of 15 (40%) ultrasound examinations showed full agreement with MRI, seven of 15 (47%) had partial agreement, and two of 15 (13%) had no agreement. In the present series ultrasound failed to visualize: four of four dorsal dermal sinuses, three of four fatty filum terminales, one of one terminal lipoma, two of four partial sacral agenesis, three of four hydromyelia and one of 10 low-lying cords. CONCLUSION: Agreement between ultrasound and MRI was good, particularly for the detection of low-lying cord (90%). Therefore we recommend ultrasound as a first-line screening test for OSD. If ultrasound is abnormal, equivocal or technically limited, MRI is advised for full assessment.

  3. Imaging in spinal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van [Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, University of Antwerp, Belgium, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Algemeen Ziekenhuis Maria Middelares, Department of Radiology, Sint-Niklaas (Belgium); Maes, Menno; Oezsarlak, Oezkan; Hauwe, Luc van den; Parizel, Paul M. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, University of Antwerp, Belgium, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium)

    2005-03-01

    Because it may cause paralysis, injury to the spine is one of the most feared traumas, and spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability. In the USA approximately 10,000 traumatic cervical spine fractures and 4000 traumatic thoracolumbar fractures are diagnosed each year. Although the number of individuals sustaining paralysis is far less than those with moderate or severe brain injury, the socioeconomic costs are significant. Since most of the spinal trauma patients survive their injuries, almost one out of 1000 inhabitants in the USA are currently being cared for partial or complete paralysis. Little controversy exists regarding the need for accurate and emergent imaging assessment of the traumatized spine in order to evaluate spinal stability and integrity of neural elements. Because clinicians fear missing occult spine injuries, they obtain radiographs for nearly all patients who present with blunt trauma. We are influenced on one side by fear of litigation and the possible devastating medical, psychologic and financial consequences of cervical spine injury, and on the other side by pressure to reduce health care costs. A set of clinical and/or anamnestic criteria, however, can be very useful in identifying patients who have an extremely low probability of injury and who consequently have no need for imaging studies. Multidetector (or multislice) computed tomography (MDCT) is the preferred primary imaging modality in blunt spinal trauma patients who do need imaging. Not only is CT more accurate in diagnosing spinal injury, it also reduces imaging time and patient manipulation. Evidence-based research has established that MDCT improves patient outcome and saves money in comparison to plain film. This review discusses the use, advantages and disadvantages of the different imaging techniques used in spinal trauma patients and the criteria used in selecting patients who do not need imaging. Finally an overview of different types of spinal injuries is given

  4. Imaging in spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because it may cause paralysis, injury to the spine is one of the most feared traumas, and spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability. In the USA approximately 10,000 traumatic cervical spine fractures and 4000 traumatic thoracolumbar fractures are diagnosed each year. Although the number of individuals sustaining paralysis is far less than those with moderate or severe brain injury, the socioeconomic costs are significant. Since most of the spinal trauma patients survive their injuries, almost one out of 1000 inhabitants in the USA are currently being cared for partial or complete paralysis. Little controversy exists regarding the need for accurate and emergent imaging assessment of the traumatized spine in order to evaluate spinal stability and integrity of neural elements. Because clinicians fear missing occult spine injuries, they obtain radiographs for nearly all patients who present with blunt trauma. We are influenced on one side by fear of litigation and the possible devastating medical, psychologic and financial consequences of cervical spine injury, and on the other side by pressure to reduce health care costs. A set of clinical and/or anamnestic criteria, however, can be very useful in identifying patients who have an extremely low probability of injury and who consequently have no need for imaging studies. Multidetector (or multislice) computed tomography (MDCT) is the preferred primary imaging modality in blunt spinal trauma patients who do need imaging. Not only is CT more accurate in diagnosing spinal injury, it also reduces imaging time and patient manipulation. Evidence-based research has established that MDCT improves patient outcome and saves money in comparison to plain film. This review discusses the use, advantages and disadvantages of the different imaging techniques used in spinal trauma patients and the criteria used in selecting patients who do not need imaging. Finally an overview of different types of spinal injuries is given

  5. Effect of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy: multicentre, blinded, randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Trond; Solberg, Tore K; Romner, Bertil;

    2011-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy in the short (6 weeks), intermediate (12 weeks), and long term (52 weeks).......To assess the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy in the short (6 weeks), intermediate (12 weeks), and long term (52 weeks)....

  6. Functional Validation of a Complex Loading Whole Spinal Segment Bioreactor Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Amanda M; Bowden, Anton E; Bridgewater, Laura C

    2016-06-01

    Intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration is a prevalent health problem that is highly linked to back pain. To understand the disease and tissue response to therapies, ex vivo whole IVD organ culture systems have recently been introduced. The goal of this work was to develop and validate the design of a whole spinal segment culturing system that loads the disk in complex loading similar to the in vivo condition, while preserving the adjacent endplates and vertebral bodies. The complex loading applied to the spinal segment (flexion-extension (FE), bilateral bending, and compression) was achieved with three pneumatic cylinders rigidly attached to a triangular loading platform. A culture container housed the spinal segment and was attached to the loading mechanism, which allowed for loading of the spinal segment. The dynamic bioreactor was able to achieve physiologic loading conditions with 100 N of applied compression and approximately 2-4 N · m of applied torque. The function of the bioreactor was validated through testing of bovine caudal IVDs with intact endplates and vertebral bodies that were isolated within 2 hrs of death and cultured for 14 days. The resulting IVD cell viability following 14 days of loading was much higher than unloaded control IVDs. The loading system accurately mimicked FE, bilateral bending, and compression motions seen during daily activities. The results indicate that this complex dynamic bioreactor may be appropriate for extended preclinical testing of vertebral-mounted spinal devices and therapies. PMID:27149909

  7. Morphological study of Schwann cells remyelination in contused spinal cord of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yue

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To study the role and effect of Schwann cells (SCs remyelination in contused spinal cord. Methods: Green fluorescence protein expressing-SCs were transplanted into the epicenter, rostral and caudal tis-sues of the injury site at 1 week after the spinal cords were contused. At 6 weeks, the spinal cords were removed for cryosections, semithin sections and ultrathin sections, and then immunocytochemical staining of myelin basic protein (MBP, P0 protein (P0 and S100 protein (S100 was carried out on the cryosections. Qualitative and semiquantitative analyses were performed on the cryosections and semithin sections. Ultrastructure of myelinated fibers was observed on the ultrathin sections under electron microscope. Results: Transplanted SCs and myelinated fibers im-munocytochemically labeled by MBP, P0 as well as S100 distributed in whole injured area. The quantity of myeli-nated fibers labeled by the three myelin proteins showed no statistical difference, however, which was significantly larger than that of controls. On the semithin sections, the experi-mental group demonstrated more myelinated fibers in the injured area than the controls, but the fibers had smaller diameter and thinner myelin sheath under electron microscope. Conclusion: SCs can promote regeneration of injured nerve fibers and enhance remyelination, which may be his-tological basis of SCs-mediated functional repair of injured spinal cords. Key words: Spinal cord injury; Schwann cells; My-elin basic protein; Myelin P0 protein; S100 proteins

  8. Electrophysiological functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord hemisection injury following bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation under hypothermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wang; Jianjun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Following successful establishment of a rat model of spinal cord hemisection injury by resecting right spinal cord tissues, bone marrow stem cells were transplanted into the spinal cord lesions via the caudal vein while maintaining rectal temperature at 34 ± 0.5°C for 6 hours (mild hypothermia). Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that astrocytes gathered around the injury site and formed scars at 4 weeks post-transplantation. Compared with rats transplanted with bone marrow stem cells under normal temperature, rats transplanted with bone marrow stem cells under hypothermia showed increased numbers of proliferating cells (bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells), better recovery of somatosensory-evoked and motor-evoked potentials, greater Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scores, and an increased degree of angle in the incline plate test. These findings suggested that hypothermia combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplantation effectively promoted electrical conduction and nerve functional repair in a rat model of spinal cord hemisection injury.

  9. Caudal regression with sirenomelia and dysplasia renofacialis (Potter's syndrome)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noeldge, G.; Billmann, P.; Boehm, N.

    1982-05-01

    A case of caudal regression in combination with sirenomelia and dysplasia renofacialis (Potter's syndrome) is reported. The formal pathogenesis of these malformations and clinical facts are shown and discussed. Findings of plain films, postmortal angiography and pathologic-anatomical changes are demonstrated.

  10. Rostral and caudal prefrontal contribution to creativity: A meta-analysis of functional imaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil eGonen-Yaacovi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is of central importance for human civilization, yet its neurocognitive bases are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to integrate existing functional imaging data by using the meta-analysis approach. We reviewed 34 functional imaging studies that reported activation foci during tasks assumed to engage creative thinking in healthy adults. A coordinate-based meta-analysis using Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE first showed a set of predominantly left-hemispheric regions shared by the various creativity tasks examined. These regions included the caudal lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC, the medial and lateral rostral PFC, and the inferior parietal and posterior temporal cortices. Further analyses showed that tasks involving the combination of remote information (combination tasks activated more anterior areas of the lateral PFC than tasks involving the free generation of unusual responses (unusual generation tasks, although both types of tasks shared caudal prefrontal areas. In addition, verbal and non-verbal tasks involved the same regions in the left caudal prefrontal, temporal, and parietal areas, but also distinct domain-oriented areas. Taken together, these findings suggest that several frontal and parieto-temporal regions may support cognitive processes shared by diverse creativity tasks, and that some regions may be specialized for distinct types of processes. In particular, the lateral PFC appeared to be organized along a rostro-caudal axis, with rostral regions involved in combining ideas creatively and more posterior regions involved in freely generating novel ideas.

  11. Shape optimization of the caudal fin of the three-dimensional self-propelled swimming fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, ZhiQiang; Wu, ChuiJie

    2013-02-01

    Shape optimization of the caudal fin of the three-dimensional self-propelled swimming fish, to increase the swimming efficiency and the swimming speed and control the motion direction more easily, is investigated by combining optimization algorithms, unsteady computational fluid dynamics and dynamic control in this study. The 3D computational fluid dynamics package contains the immersed boundary method, volume of fluid method, the adaptive multi-grid finite volume method and the control strategy of fish swimming. Through shape optimizations of various swimming speeds, the results show that the optimal caudal fins of different swimming modes are not exactly the same shape. However, the optimal fish of high swimming speed, whose caudal fin shape is similar to the crescent, also have higher efficiency and better maneuverability than the other optimal bionic fish at low and moderate swimming speeds. Finally, the mechanisms of vorticity creation of different optimal bionic fish are studied by using boundary vorticity-flux theory, and three-dimensional wake structures of self-propelled swimming of these fish are comparatively analyzed. The study of vortex dynamics reveals the nature of efficient swimming of the 3D bionic fish with the lunate caudal fin.

  12. Postoperative analgesia in children when using clonidine or fentanyl with ropivacaine given caudally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of clonidine and fentanyl as an additive to ropivacaine given via single shot caudal epidural in pediatric patients for postoperative pain relief. Materials and Methods: In the present double blind study, 90 children of ASA-I-II aged 3-8 years scheduled for infraumblical surgical procedures were randomly allocated to two groups to receive either ropivacaine 0.25% 1 ml/kg+clonidine 2 μg/kg (group I or ropivacaine 0.25% 1 μl/kg+fentanyl 1 μg/kg (group II. Caudal block was performed after the induction of general anesthesia. Postoperatively patients were observed for analgesia, sedation, hemodynamics, and side effects/complications. Results: Both the groups were similar with respect to patient and various block characteristics. The analgesic properties and hemodynamics were also comparable in both groups (P > 0.05. Side effects such as respiratory depression, vomiting bradycardia were significantly less in group I than group II (P < 0.05 ensuing more patient comfort. Conclusions: The analgesic properties of clonidine and fentanyl as additives to ropivacaine in single shot caudal epidural in children are comparable but clonidine offers a more favorable side effect profile. The use of clonidine as additive to ropivacaine in caudal epidural is superior choice to fentanyl because of lack of unwanted side effects and increased patient comfort.

  13. Spinal vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krings, Timo [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany); Mull, Michael; Thron, Armin [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Gilsbach, Joachim M. [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Spinal vascular malformations are rare diseases that consist of true inborn cavernomas and arteriovenous malformations (including perimedullary fistulae, glomerular and juvenile AVMs) and presumably acquired dural arteriovenous fistulae. This review article gives an overview of the imaging features both on MRI and angiography, the differential diagnoses, the clinical symptomatology and the potential therapeutic approaches to these diseases. It is concluded that MRI is the diagnostic modality of first choice in suspected spinal vascular malformation and should be complemented by selective spinal angiography. Treatment in symptomatic patients offers an improvement in the prognosis, but should be performed in specialized centers. Patients with spinal cord cavernomas and perimedullary fistulae type I are surgical candidates. Dural arteriovenous fistulae can either be operated upon or can be treated by an endovascular approach, the former being a simple, quick and secure approach to obliterate the fistula, while the latter is technically demanding. In spinal arteriovenous malformations, the endovascular approach is the method of first choice; in selected cases, a combined therapy might be sensible. (orig.)

  14. Spinal vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal vascular malformations are rare diseases that consist of true inborn cavernomas and arteriovenous malformations (including perimedullary fistulae, glomerular and juvenile AVMs) and presumably acquired dural arteriovenous fistulae. This review article gives an overview of the imaging features both on MRI and angiography, the differential diagnoses, the clinical symptomatology and the potential therapeutic approaches to these diseases. It is concluded that MRI is the diagnostic modality of first choice in suspected spinal vascular malformation and should be complemented by selective spinal angiography. Treatment in symptomatic patients offers an improvement in the prognosis, but should be performed in specialized centers. Patients with spinal cord cavernomas and perimedullary fistulae type I are surgical candidates. Dural arteriovenous fistulae can either be operated upon or can be treated by an endovascular approach, the former being a simple, quick and secure approach to obliterate the fistula, while the latter is technically demanding. In spinal arteriovenous malformations, the endovascular approach is the method of first choice; in selected cases, a combined therapy might be sensible. (orig.)

  15. Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

  16. Effect of an Artificial Caudal Fin on the Performance of a Biomimetic Fish Robot Propelled by Piezoelectric Actuators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of a biomimetic fish robot actuated by piezoceramic actuators and the effect of artificial caudal fins on the fish robot's performance. The limited bending displacement produced by a lightweight piezocomposite actuator was amplified and transformed into a large tail beat motion by means of a linkage system. Caudal fins that mimic the shape of a mackerel fin were fabricated for the purpose of examining the effect of caudal fin characteristics on thrust production at an operating frequency range. The thickness distribution of a real mackerel's fin was measured and used to design artificial caudal fins. The thrust performance of the biomimetic fish robot propelled by fins of various thicknesses was examined in terms of the Strouhal number, the Froude number, the Reynolds number, and the power consumption. For the same fin area and aspect ratio, an artificial caudal fin with a distributed thickness shows the best forward speed and the least power consumption.

  17. Anatomical and functional recovery following spinal cord transection in the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, I; Oppenheim, R W; O'Brien, M; Shneiderman, A

    1990-09-01

    Following complete transection of the thoracic spinal cord at various times during embryonic development, chick embryos and posthatched animals exhibited various degrees of anatomical and functional recovery depending upon the age of injury. Transection on embryonic day 2 (E2), when neurogenesis is still occurring and before descending or ascending fiber tracts have formed, produced no noticeable behavioral or anatomical deficits. Embryos hatched on their own and were behaviorally indistinguishable from control hatchlings. Similar results were found following transection on E5, an age when neurogenesis is complete and when ascending and descending fiber tracts have begun to project through the thoracic region. Within 48 h following injury on E5, large numbers of nerve fibers were observed growing across the site of transection. By E8, injections of horse-radish peroxidase (HRP) administered caudal to the lesion, retrogradely labelled rostral spinal and brainstem neurons. Embryos transected on E5 were able to hatch and could stand and locomote posthatching in a manner that was indistinguishable from controls. Following spinal cord transections on E10, anatomical recovery of the spinal cord at the site of injury was not quite as complete as after E5 transection. Nonetheless, anatomical continuity was restored at the site of injury, axons projected across this region, and rostral spinal and brainstem neurons could be retrogradely labelled following HRP injections administered caudal to the lesion. At least part of this anatomical recovery may be mediated by the regeneration or regrowth of lesioned axons. Although none of the embryos transected on E10 that survived to hatching were able to hatch on their own, because several sham-operated embryos were also unable to hatch, we do not attribute this deficit to the spinal transection. When E10-transected embryos were aided in escaping from the shell, they were able to support their own weight, could stand, and locomote

  18. Caudal fin in the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias (Lamnidae): a dynamic propeller for fast, efficient swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingham-Soliar, Theagarten

    2005-05-01

    The caudal peduncle and caudal fin of Carcharodon carcharias together form a dynamic locomotory structure. The caudal peduncle is a highly modified, dorsoventrally compressed and rigid structure that facilitates the oscillations of the caudal fin. Its stiffness appears to be principally achieved by a thick layer of adipose tissue ranging from 28-37% of its cross-sectional area, reinforced by cross-woven collagen fibers. Numerous overlying layers of collagen fibers of the stratum compactum, oriented in steep left- and right-handed helices (approximately 65 degrees to the shark's long axis), prevent bowstringing of the perimysial fibers, which lie just below the dermal layer. Perimysial fibers, muscles, and the notochord are restricted to the dorsal lobe of the caudal fin and comprise the bulk of its mass. Adipose tissue reinforces the leading edge of the dorsal lobe of the caudal fin and contributes to maintaining the ideal cross-sectional geometry required of an advanced hydrofoil. Most of the mass of the ventral lobe consists of the ceratotrichia or fin rays separated by thin partitions of connective tissue. Dermal fibers of the stratum compactum of the dorsal lobe occur in numerous distinct layers. The layers are more complex than in other sharks and appear to reflect a hierarchical development in C. carcharias. The fiber layer comprises a number of thick fiber bundles along the height of the layer and the layers get thicker deeper into the stratum compactum. Each of these layers alternates with a layer a single fiber-bundle deep, a formation thought to give stability to the stratum compactum and to enable freer movements of the fiber system. In tangential sections of the stratum compactum the fiber bundles in the dorsal lobe can be seen oriented with respect to the long axis of the shark at approximately 55-60 degrees in left- and right-handed helices. Because of the backward sweep of the dorsal lobe (approximately 55 degrees to the shark's long axis) the right

  19. Neurotrophins and spinal circuit function

    OpenAIRE

    Lorne M. Mendell

    2014-01-01

    Work early in the last century emphasized the stereotyped activity of spinal circuits based on studies of reflexes. However, the last several decades have focused on the plasticity of these spinal circuits. These considerations began with studies of the effects of monoamines on descending and reflex circuits. In recent years new classes of compounds called growth factors that are found in peripheral nerves and the spinal cord have been shown to affect circuit behavior in the spinal cord. In t...

  20. Potentialities of spinal liquor scanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that spinal liquor scanography is a harmless and informative method for the examination of patients, permitting to detect injury foci for spinal cord tumours in 90% cases, for acute injuries of the vertebral column and spinal cord in 89.5% cases, for herniation of nucleus pulposus in 81% cases. The method of spinal liquor scanography can be used in neurology and neurosurgery to select the method of treatment and to evaluate its efficiency

  1. Holoprosencephaly with caudal dysplasia. Pseudo-trisomy 13 or a distinct entity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, R.P.B.; Aylsworth, A.S. [Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Durham, NC (United States); Timmons, M.C. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We have studied three chromosomally normal patients with multiple anomalies that include holoprosencephaly and caudal dysplasia. Each has features found in patients with pseudo-trisomy 13, though each lacks malformations common in that syndrome. Patients 1 and 2 did not have polydactyly and patients 2 and 3 had no congenital heart malformation. Patient 1 is also unusual in that he does not have typical holoprosencephalic facies and is alive at age 25 months. We have also identified two other similar patients in the London Dysmorphology Database, each of which had holoprosencephaly, congenital heart malformation, and imperforate anus. Isolated caudal dysplasia and holoprosencephaly are both causally heterogeneous. They have been reported together rarely in patients with several different syndromes including chromosomal abnormalities, monogenic syndromes, teratogenic insults, and syndromes of unknown cause. Over thirty cases of {open_quotes}pseudo-trisomy 13{close_quotes} have now been reported and eight of these have had features of caudal dysplasia. There have been four with imperforate anus or anal stenosis, one with lumbosacral vertebral anomaly, and three others with bilateral renal agenesis or hypoplasia. Based on our patients and this review of other reported and unreported cases, we suggest that caudal dysplasia may be a significant clinical feature of pseudo-trisomy 13. Alternatively, holoprosencephaly and caudal dysplasia with a normal karyotype may represent a similar though distinct entity. Some may have submicroscopic chromosomal deletions. Molecular studies of regions known to be associated with holoprosencephaly are currently in progress on tissue from Patient 1. We hope these observations will stimulate reports of similarly affected patients to allow better definition of pseudo-trisomy 13 and other overlap syndromes.

  2. Spinal cord injury pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beric, Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    Awareness that SCI pain is common emerged during the past decade. However, there are a number of unresolved issues. There is a need for variety of experimental models to reflect diversity of SCI pains. Current classification is not as user-friendly as it should be. More attention should be given to a condition of the spinal cord below and above the SCI lesion. A consensus for what is an optimal SCI functional assessment for patients with sensory complaints and pain should be developed. Further extensive SCI pain research is needed prior to spinal cord regeneration trials in order to be able to cope with a potential for newly developed pains that may appear during incomplete spinal cord regenerative attempts. PMID:12821403

  3. Spinal leptomeningeal cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spinal forms of neurocysticercosis are extremely rare, with a frequency under 1% in large series. The types of involvement are a) subarachnoid cysts and b) intramedullary lesions (less frequent). The authors report the case of a 56-year-old female with central nervous system infection by the larval form of Taenia Solium, which conduced to a hydrocephalus, treated by neurosurgical ventricular-peritoneal shunting. After 2 years, the patient consulted due to paraesthesia, spastic paraparesis and incontinence. MRI showed an homogeneous cystic mass compressing the spinal cord at D5-D6 level. Laminectomies were performed and the arachnoid membrane appeared thickened (arachnoiditis); the larval cyst was removed. Anatomo-pathologic exam revealed a leptomeningeal cysticercosis. The patient had a favorable clinical evolution without spinal compression sings or symptoms. (author)

  4. Intramedullary spinal melanocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meic H. Schmidt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Meningeal melanocytoma is a benign lesion arising from leptomeningeal melanocytes that at times can mimic its malignant counterpart, melanoma. Lesions of the spine usually occur in extramedullary locations and present with spinal cord compression symptoms. Because most reported spinal cases occur in the thoracic region, these symptoms usually include lower extremity weakness or numbness. The authors present a case of primary intrame­dullary spinal meningeal melanocytoma presenting with bilateral lower extremity symptoms in which the patient had no known supratentorial primary lesions. Gross total surgical resection allowed for full recovery, but early recurrence of tumor was detected on close follow-up monitoring, allowing for elective local radiation without loss of neurological function. Case reports of such tumors discuss different treatment strategies, but just as important is the close follow-up monitoring in these patients even after gross total surgical resection, since these tumors can recur.

  5. Spinal CT scan, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plain CT described fairly accurately the anatomy and lesions of the lumbar and sacral spines on their transverse sections. Since hernia of the intervertebral disc could be directly diagnosed by CT, indications of myelography could be restricted. Spinal-canal stenosis of the lumbar spine occurs because of various factors, and CT not only demonstrated the accurate size and morphology of bony canals, but also elucidated thickening of the joints and yellow ligament. CT was also useful for the diagnosis of tumors in the lumbar and sacral spines, visualizing the images of bone changes and soft tissues on the trasverse sections. But the diagnosis of intradural tumors required myelography and metrizamide CT. CT has become important for the diagnosis of spinal and spinal-cord diseases and for selection of the route of surgical arrival. (Chiba, N.)

  6. MRI of closed spinal dysraphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badve, Chaitra A.; Khanna, Paritosh C.; Phillips, Grace S.; Thapa, Mahesh M.; Ishak, Gisele E. [Seattle Children' s Hospital and University of Washington Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2011-10-15

    We present a pictorial review of MRI features of various closed spinal dysraphisms based on previously described clinicoradiological classification of spinal dysraphisms proposed. The defining imaging features of each dysraphism type are highlighted and a diagnostic algorithm for closed spinal dysraphisms is suggested. (orig.)

  7. Spinal actinomycosis: A rare disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dua Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is an indolent, slowly progressive infection caused by Actinomyces species. Of human actinomycosis, the spinal form is rare and actinomycosis-related spinal neurological deficit is uncommon. We report two cases with cervical and dorsal actinomycosis and one of them with spinal neurological deficit.

  8. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was cauused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunsupporessed cancer patient. (orig.)

  9. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, K.; Gronseth, G.; Aldrich, M.; Williams, A.

    1982-11-01

    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was caused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunosuppressed cancer patient.

  10. A comparison of the effectiveness of predictors of caudal block in children-swoosh test, anal sphincter tone, and heart rate response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini M Dave

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The anal sphincter tone test was the best predictor of successful caudal block. We recommend the use of these additional simple predictors of accurate needle placement to increase the success rate of caudal block especially in teaching hospitals.

  11. Congenital spinal malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital spinal malformations form a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders whose pathogenesis is best explained embryologically. Radiologically, it is important to formulate a diagnosis when the disorder first becomes symptomatic. However, it is also crucial to detect complications of the disorder or of the respective therapeutic interventions in the further course of the disease such as hydromyelia or re-tethering after repair of a meningomyelocele. Moreover, once a congenital spinal malformation is diagnosed, associated malformations should be sought after. A possible syndromal classification such as in OEIS- or VACTERL-syndromes should also be considered. (orig.)

  12. Spinal Neurocysticercosis: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent parasitic illness of the central nervous system caused by the larval form of Taenia solium and its considered to be endemic in Latin America. Its diagnosis is based on imaging findings and epidemiological data; although its diagnosis can be made through the detection of specific IgG antibodies, these tests have limited availability in our environment. Central nervous system involvement is generally observed in the brain parenchyma, and less commonly in the ventricular system and subarachnoid space; only infrequently is reported to involve the structures within the spinal canal, in this article we review a case of a patient with spinal cysticercal involvement.

  13. Maladaptive spinal plasticity opposes spinal learning and recovery in spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R Ferguson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI. Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. The mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustain several forms of learning and memory, including limb-position training. However, not all spinal plasticity promotes recovery of function. Central sensitization of nociceptive (pain pathways in the spinal cord may emerge with certain patterns of activity, demonstrating that plasticity within the spinal cord may contribute to maladaptive pain states. In this review we discuss interactions between adaptive and maladaptive forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord. The literature demonstrates that activity-dependent plasticity within the spinal cord must be carefully tuned to promote adaptive spinal training. Stimulation that is delivered in a limb position-dependent manner or on a fixed interval can induce adaptive plasticity that promotes future spinal cord learning and reduces nociceptive hyper-reactivity. On the other hand, stimulation that is delivered in an unsynchronized fashion, such as randomized electrical stimulation or peripheral skin injuries, can generate maladaptive spinal plasticity that undermines future spinal cord learning, reduces recovery of locomotor function, and promotes nociceptive hyper-reactivity after spinal cord injury. We review these basic phenomena, discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and discuss implications of these findings for improved rehabilitative therapies after spinal cord injury.

  14. Acute Presentation of Lumbar Spinal Schwannoma Due to Torsion: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Ryan; Ortmeier, Thomas C; Tapia-Zegarra, Gino G; Lindley, Timothy E; Smith, Zachary A; Dahdaleh, Nader S

    2016-01-01

    Although schwannomas are common spinal tumors with insidious presentations, acute neurological deterioration is an extremely rare manifestation that can occur in the setting of tumor torsion and infarction. The present case reports an unusual presentation of a spinal schwannoma that underwent torsion and infarction. A 65-year-old male presented initially with acute radicular pain progressing to cauda equina syndrome and confusion. MRI of the lumbar spine revealed an intradural extramedullary lesion at the level of L1/L2 measuring 1.1x0.9 cm. Intraoperatively, a reddish mass was seen caudally twisted around itself. Gross total resection was achieved with a final diagnosis of schwannoma with areas of infarction. At his six week follow up clinical visit, the patient was asymptomatic and his neurological exam was normal. The neurosurgeon should be aware of such atypical radiographic and clinical presentation amongst the spectrum of clinical manifestation of these nerve sheath tumors.  PMID:27226945

  15. Acute Presentation of Lumbar Spinal Schwannoma Due to Torsion: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Winward; Khanna, Ryan; Ortmeier, Thomas C; Tapia-Zegarra, Gino G; Lindley, Timothy E; Smith, Zachary A; Dahdaleh, Nader S

    2016-01-01

    Although schwannomas are common spinal tumors with insidious presentations, acute neurological deterioration is an extremely rare manifestation that can occur in the setting of tumor torsion and infarction. The present case reports an unusual presentation of a spinal schwannoma that underwent torsion and infarction. A 65-year-old male presented initially with acute radicular pain progressing to cauda equina syndrome and confusion. MRI of the lumbar spine revealed an intradural extramedullary lesion at the level of L1/L2 measuring 1.1x0.9 cm. Intraoperatively, a reddish mass was seen caudally twisted around itself. Gross total resection was achieved with a final diagnosis of schwannoma with areas of infarction. At his six week follow up clinical visit, the patient was asymptomatic and his neurological exam was normal. The neurosurgeon should be aware of such atypical radiographic and clinical presentation amongst the spectrum of clinical manifestation of these nerve sheath tumors. PMID:27226945

  16. Role of endogenous Schwann cells in tissue repair after spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-xin Zhang; Fengfa Huang; Mary Gates; Eric G. Holmberg

    2013-01-01

    Schwann cells are glial cells of peripheral nervous system, responsible for axonal myelination and ensheathing, as well as tissue repair following a peripheral nervous system injury. They are one of several cell types that are widely studied and most commonly used for cell transplantation to treat spinal cord injury, due to their intrinsic characteristics including the ability to secrete a variety of neurotrophic factors. This mini review summarizes the recent findings of endogenous Schwann cells after spinal cord injury and discusses their role in tissue repair and axonal regeneration. After spinal cord injury, numerous endogenous Schwann cells migrate into the lesion site from the nerve roots, involving in the construction of newly formed repaired tissue and axonal myelination. These invading Schwann cells also can move a long distance away from the injury site both rostrally and caudally. In addition, Schwann cells can be induced to migrate by minimal insults (such as scar ablation) within the spinal cord and integrate with astrocytes under certain circumstances. More importantly, the host Schwann cells can be induced to migrate into spinal cord by transplantation of different cell types, such as exogenous Schwann cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, and bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells. Migration of endogenous Schwann cells following spinal cord injury is a common natural phenomenon found both in animal and human, and the myelination by Schwann cells has been examined effective in signal conduction electrophysiologically. Therefore, if the inherent properties of endogenous Schwann cells could be developed and utilized, it would offer a new avenue for the restoration of injured spinal cord.

  17. Spinal cord modular organization and rhythm generation: an NMDA iontophoretic study in the frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltiel, P; Tresch, M C; Bizzi, E

    1998-11-01

    Previous work using electrical microstimulation has suggested the existence of modules subserving limb posture in the spinal cord. In this study, the question of modular organization was reinvestigated with the more selective method of chemical microstimulation. N-methyl--aspartate (NMDA) iontophoresis was applied to 229 sites of the lumbar spinal cord gray while monitoring the isometric force output of the ipsilateral hindlimb at the ankle. A force response was elicited from 69 sites. At 18 of these sites, tonic forces were generated and rhythmic forces at 44. In the case of tonic forces, their directions clustered along four orientations: lateral extension, rostral flexion, adduction, and caudal extension. For the entire set of forces (tonic and rhythmic), the same clusters of orientations were found with the addition of a cluster directed as a flexion toward the body. This distribution of force orientations was quite comparable to that obtained with electrical stimulation at the same sites. The map of tonic responses revealed a topographic organization; each type of force orientation was elicited from sites that grouped together in zones at distinct rostrocaudal and depth locations. In the case of rhythmic sequences of force orientations, some were distinctly more common, whereas others were rarely elicited by NMDA. Mapping of the most common rhythms showed that each was elicited from two or three regions of the cord. These regions were close in location to the tonic regions that produced those forces that represented components specific to that rhythm. There was an additional caudal region from which the different rhythms also could be elicited. Taken together, these results support the concept of a modular organization of the motor system in the frog's spinal cord and delineate the topography of these modules. They also suggest that these modules are used by the circuitry underlying rhythmic pattern generation by the spinal cord. PMID:9819246

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? When can we ...

  19. Spinal computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartor, K.

    1980-10-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the spine and spinal cord is gaining more and more importance as a valuable investigative method in neuroradiology. Performed as a noninvasive procedure, with or without intravenous contrast enhancement, it can be used to diagnose paravertebral soft tissue lesions, constrictive lesions of the bony spinal canal, structure changes of the vertebral column or of individual vertebrae, vascular intraspinal lesions, and intraspinal tumors with abnormally high or abnormally low attenuation values. Performed as an invasive procedure, after intrathecal introduction of metrizamide, spinal CT can in selected cases be used in conjunction with conventional metrizamide myelography as an additional procedure (secondary CT-myelography) or even as initial procedure ( primary CT-myelography), taking advantage of its unique properties, namely to provide a transverse axial image of the spine and related soft tissue structures and to detect even small differences in density. Further improvement of spinal CT, particularly the routine non-invasive demonstration of the intraspinal soft tissues, is to be expected.

  20. Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order Brochures News From NINDS Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Spinal Muscular Atrophy Fact Sheet See a list of all NINDS Disorders Get Web page suited for printing Email this to a friend ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Videos by Topic and Question Videos by Family Relationship Videos by Spinal Cord Experts Resources Forums Peer Counseling Blog About Us Contact Donate Sitemap Privacy ... © 2011 – 2016 Hill Foundation for Families Living With Disabilities FacingDisability.com is an informational ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Videos by Topic and Question Videos by Family Relationship Videos by Spinal Cord Experts Resources Forums Peer Counseling Blog About Us Contact Donate Sitemap Privacy Statement Terms of Use © 2011 – 2016 Hill Foundation for Families Living With Disabilities FacingDisability.com is an informational ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is "Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? When can we ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the entire family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal ... Peer Counseling Blog About Us Contact Donate Sitemap Privacy Statement Terms of Use © 2011 – 2016 Hill Foundation ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How much do you know about taking good care of yourself? Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Illness & disability Types of ... Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a pediatric rehabilitation specialist at the Children’s National Medical Center. ...

  6. Normal nerve-fibres in the distal segment of nerves completely separated from the proximal stump for more than six months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eros Abrantes Erhart

    1962-12-01

    Full Text Available Our experimental and histopathological findings of normal nerve-fibres in the distal and intermediate segments of nerves completely separated from the proximal stump for more than six months differs from those of previous observers, and the application of our observations in surgical reconstruction of about one hundred human nerves, chiefly from the upper limb, has resulted in appreciably great degrees of success in most cases.

  7. Gastric Stump Cancer: More Than Just Another Proximal Gastric Cancer and Demanding a More Suitable TNM Staging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Costa-Pinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Considerable controversy persists about the biological behavior of gastric stump cancer (GSC. The aim of this study is to clarify if this cancer is just another proximal gastric cancer or if it emerges as a distinctive clinicopathologic entity. Methods. This review of a prospectively collected gastric cancer database identified 73 patients with GSC in a single institution between January 1980 and June 2012 and compared them with 328 patients with proximal gastric cancer (PGC and 291 patients with esophagogastric junction cancer (EGJC. Results. Patients with GSC were predominantly males. Eighty-three percent of GSC penetrated the subserosal or the serosal layers. The median number of lymph nodes retrieved in GSC patients was significantly lower than in PGC patients or in EGJC patients. Cumulative survival curves were not different between GSC, PGC, or EGJC patients. Unlike that observed in PGC and in EGJC, no significant differences in cumulative survival according to the TNM staging system were observed in GSC cases. Conclusions. The outcome of patients with GSC displayed significant differences when compared to those with other proximal gastric cancers concerning the lack of survival association with the TNM staging system. Therefore a more suitable staging system should be designed for these unique cancers.

  8. Variabilidad de las anomalías de caudales medios mensuales con el área de la cuenca.

    OpenAIRE

    Góez Arango , Catalina; Poveda Jaramillo, Germán

    2004-01-01

    Se estudia la variabilidad de las anomalías estandarizadas de los caudales medios mensuales con respecto al área de drenaje de la cuenca, usando registros históricos de caudales medios mensuales sobre estaciones localizadas a lo largo del cauce principal de las cuencas de los ríos Magdalena-Cauca en Colombia y Tocantins-Purus en Brasil. Las anomalías estandarizadas se definen como las desviaciones de los caudales con respecto a la media del mes, escalados por la desviación típica mensual....

  9. [Magnetic resonance imaging features of a caudal cruciate ligament rupture associated with a suspected bone bruise lesion in a dog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmohl, M; Konar, M; Tassani-Prell, M; Rupp, S

    2014-04-16

    In this case study we describe a surgically confirmed caudal cruciate ligament rupture in a 10-year-old Border Collie. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a complete rupture of the caudal cruciate ligament, a suspected bone bruise lesion on the proximolateral tibia and a muscle strain injury of the M. flexor digitorum lateralis. In human medicine, bone bruise lesions in MRI have been described as "footprint injuries" and can thereby explain the mechanism of trauma in ligament injuries. The combination of the MRI findings in this case can help to understand how the rarely diagnosed isolated rupture of the caudal cruciate ligament occurred in this dog. PMID:24737186

  10. Metals in the caudal scutes of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) from the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillanes, C E; Pérez-Jiménez, J C; Rosíles-Martínez, R; González-Jáuregui, M

    2014-10-01

    Caudal scutes were collected from 92 Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) between May and August 2012, in three Wildlife Management and Use Units (UMAs, from its name in Spanish) and three wild sites in Campeche, Mexico. The UMAs are intensive, with an ex situ approach to manage crocodiles in captivity. The concentrations of arsenic, mercury, lead, nickel, cadmium and chromium were analyzed in each sample. As and Pb were detected in all samples, Hg in 86 and Ni in 74. The metal concentrations estimated were higher than most of the concentrations reported for skin, tail tip and caudal scutes in other crocodilians around the world. The concentration of As, Pb and Ni was significantly greater in the free-ranging groups than in the captive groups in UMAs (p moreletii is exposed to metals contamination and more studies are necessary to establish if represents a risk to their populations. PMID:25134925

  11. Caudal shif ting of hepatic vein anastomosis inright liver living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheung Tat Fan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In right liver living donor liver trans-plantation, hepatic venous anastomosis is performed using the recipient's right hepatic vein oriifce. There may be situations that the portal vein is short or the right liver graft is small, leading to dififculty in portal vein, hepatic artery or duct-to-duct anastomosis. METHODS: The recipient's right hepatic vein oriifce is closed partially for 2 cm at the cranial end or totally, and a new venotomy is made caudal to the right hepatic vein oriifce. Hepatic vein anastomosis is performed with the new venotomy. RESULTS: The distance between the liver graft hilum and hepatoduodenal ligament is reduced. Portal vein, hepatic artery and biliary anastomosis could be performed without tension or conduit. CONCLUSION: Caudal shifting of hepatic vein anasto-mosis facilitates implantation of a right liver living donor graft.

  12. Organ and effective dose coefficients for cranial and caudal irradiation geometries: photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinot, K G; Eckerman, K F; Hertel, N E

    2016-02-01

    With the introduction of new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in Publication 103, the methodology for determining the protection quantity, effective dose, has been modified. The modifications include changes to the defined organs and tissues, the associated tissue weighting factors, radiation weighting factors and the introduction of reference sex-specific computational phantoms. Computations of equivalent doses in organs and tissues are now performed in both the male and female phantoms and the sex-averaged values used to determine the effective dose. Dose coefficients based on the ICRP 103 recommendations were reported in ICRP Publication 116, the revision of ICRP Publication 74 and ICRU Publication 57. The coefficients were determined for the following irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right and left lateral (RLAT and LLAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO). In this work, the methodology of ICRP Publication 116 was used to compute dose coefficients for photon irradiation of the body with parallel beams directed upward from below the feet (caudal) and directed downward from above the head (cranial). These geometries may be encountered in the workplace from personnel standing on contaminated surfaces or volumes and from overhead sources. Calculations of organ and tissue kerma and absorbed doses for caudal and cranial exposures to photons ranging in energy from 10 keV to 10 GeV have been performed using the MCNP6.1 radiation transport code and the adult reference phantoms of ICRP Publication 110. As with calculations reported in ICRP 116, the effects of charged-particle transport are evident when compared with values obtained by using the kerma approximation. At lower energies the effective dose per particle fluence for cranial and caudal exposures is less than AP orientations while above ∼30 MeV the cranial and caudal values are greater. PMID:25935016

  13. Expression and regulation of caudal in the lower cyclorrhaphan fly Megaselia

    OpenAIRE

    Stauber, Michael; Lemke, Steffen; Schmidt-Ott, Urs

    2008-01-01

    The homeobox gene caudal (cad) regulates posterior development in Drosophila. In early embryos, the cad protein (CAD) is expressed in a posterior-to-anterior concentration gradient, which contributes polarity to the developing embryo. The CAD gradient is complementary to and dependent on the anterior pattern organizer Bicoid (BCD), which represses the translation of ubiquitous maternal cad transcripts in the anterior embryo through a direct interaction with the cad 3′ untranslated region (UTR...

  14. A useful technique for adjusting nasal tip projection in Asian rhinoplasty: Trapezoidal caudal extension cartilage grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao-Cheng; Lin, Deng-Shan; Wang, Hsing-Won; Kao, Chuan-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present our experience with Asian patients in (1) using a trapezoidal caudal extension cartilage graft to adjust the tip projection in tip refinement for augmentation rhinoplasty, especially for the correction of short nose, and (2) avoiding complications of augmentation rhinoplasty with alloplastic implants. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 358 rhinoplasties that were performed by the corresponding author from January 2004 through July 2009. Patients were included in this study if they had undergone open rhinoplasty with a trapezoidal caudal extension cartilage graft as the only tip-modifying procedure. Patients in whom any additional grafting was performed that might have altered the nasal tip position were excluded. The surgical results were analyzed in terms of the degree of satisfaction judged separately by investigators and by patients. A total of 84 patients-46 males and 38 females, all Asians, aged 13 to 61 years (mean: 29.3)-met our eligibility criteria. Postoperative follow-up for 24 months was achieved in 62 patients. At the 24-month follow-up, the surgeons judged the results to be good or very good in 57 of the 62 patients (91.9%); at the same time, 56 patients (90.3%) said they were satisfied or very satisfied with their aesthetic outcome. Good nasal tip projection, a natural columellar appearance, and improvement in the nasolabial angle were achieved for most patients. Two patients required revision rhinoplasty to correct an insufficient augmentation and migration of the onlay graft. No severe complications were observed during the 2-year follow-up. We have found that trapezoidal caudal extension cartilage grafting in nasal tip refinement is an easy technique to learn and execute, its results are predictable, and it has been associated with no major complications. We recommend trapezoidal caudal extension cartilage grafting for Asian patients as a good and reliable alternative for managing tip projection

  15. Caudal fin allometry in the white shark Carcharodon carcharias: implications for locomotory performance and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingham-Soliar, Theagarten

    2005-05-01

    Allometric scaling analysis was employed to investigate the consequences of size evolution on hydrodynamic performance and ecology in the white shark Carcharodon carcharias. Discriminant analysis using the power equation y=axb was negative for caudal fin span (S) versus fork length (FL) in C. carcharias. In contrast in two delphinid species, Delphinus capensis and Tursiops aduncus, the span of the flukes versus fork length rises in positive allometric fashion, and strong positive allometry of S versus √A (area) was also recorded. The latter reflects a high lift/drag ratio. S versus √A in C. carcharias displays negative allometry and consequently a lower lift/drag ratio. A lower aspect ratio (AR) caudal fin in C. carcharias compared to that of the delphinids (mean 3.33 and 4.1, respectively) and other thunniform swimmers provides the potential for better maneuverability and acceleration. The liver in sharks is frequently associated with a buoyancy function and was found to be positively allometric in C. carcharias. The overall findings suggest that the negatively allometric caudal fin morphometrics in C. carcharias are unlikely to have deleterious evolutionary fitness consequences for predation. On the contrary, when considered in the context of positive liver allometry in C. carcharias it is hereby suggested that buoyancy may play a dominant role in larger white sharks in permitting slow swimming while minimizing energy demands needed to prevent sinking. In contrast hydrodynamic lift is considered more important in smaller white sharks. Larger caudal fin spans and higher lift/drag ratio in smaller C. carcharias indicate greater potential for prolonged, intermediate swimming speeds and for feeding predominantly on fast-moving fish, in contrast to slow-swimming search patterns of larger individuals for predominantly large mammalian prey. Such data may provide some answers to the lifestyle and widespread habitat capabilities of this still largely mysterious animal.

  16. Passive mechanical models of fish caudal fins: effects of shape and stiffness on self-propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feilich, Kara L; Lauder, George V

    2015-06-01

    Fishes are found in a great variety of body forms with tail shapes that vary from forked tuna-like tails to the square-shaped tails found in some deep-bodied species. Hydrodynamic theory suggests that a fish's body and tail shape affects undulatory swimming performance. For example, a narrow caudal peduncle is believed to reduce drag, and a tuna-like tail to increase thrust. Despite the prevalence of these assertions, there is no experimental verification of the hydrodynamic mechanisms that may confer advantages on specific forms. Here, we use a mechanically-actuated flapping foil model to study how two aspects of shape, caudal peduncle depth and presence or absence of a forked caudal fin, may affect different aspects of swimming performance. Four different foil shapes were each made of plastics of three different flexural stiffnesses, permitting us to study how shape might interact with stiffness to produce swimming performance. For each foil, we measured the self-propelling swimming speed. In addition, we measured the forces, torques, cost of transport and power coefficient of each foil swimming at its self-propelling speed. There was no single 'optimal' foil exhibiting the highest performance in all metrics, and for almost all measures of swimming performance, foil shape and flexural stiffness interacted in complicated ways. Particle image velocimetry of several foils suggested that stiffness might affect the relative phasing of the body trailing edge and the caudal fin leading edge, changing the flow incident to the tail, and affecting hydrodynamics of the entire foil. The results of this study of a simplified model of fish body and tail morphology suggest that considerable caution should be used when inferring a swimming performance advantage from body and tail shape alone. PMID:25879846

  17. Organ and effective dose coefficients for cranial and caudal irradiation geometries: photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the introduction of new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in Publication 103, the methodology for determining the protection quantity, effective dose, has been modified. The modifications include changes to the defined organs and tissues, the associated tissue weighting factors, radiation weighting factors and the introduction of reference sex-specific computational phantoms. Computations of equivalent doses in organs and tissues are now performed in both the male and female phantoms and the sex-averaged values used to determine the effective dose. Dose coefficients based on the ICRP 103 recommendations were reported in ICRP Publication 116, the revision of ICRP Publication 74 and ICRU Publication 57. The coefficients were determined for the following irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right and left lateral (RLAT and LLAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO). In this work, the methodology of ICRP Publication 116 was used to compute dose coefficients for photon irradiation of the body with parallel beams directed upward from below the feet (caudal) and directed downward from above the head (cranial). These geometries may be encountered in the workplace from personnel standing on contaminated surfaces or volumes and from overhead sources. Calculations of organ and tissue kerma and absorbed doses for caudal and cranial exposures to photons ranging in energy from 10 keV to 10 GeV have been performed using the MCNP6.1 radiation transport code and the adult reference phantoms of ICRP Publication 110. As with calculations reported in ICRP 116, the effects of charged-particle transport are evident when compared with values obtained by using the kerma approximation. At lower energies the effective dose per particle fluence for cranial and caudal exposures is less than AP orientations while above ∼30 MeV the cranial and caudal values are greater. (authors)

  18. Caudal regression syndrome (sirenomelia) and its pathogenesis correlation: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Vanadondi Usha Rani; Nakka Sreekantha Rao; Chaluvadi Jwalaram Kumar; Seethamsetty Saritha

    2015-01-01

    Congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormal development of caudal region of the body with different degrees of fusion of lower extremities, bears resemblance of Sirenomelia or mermaid of Greek Mythology. This type of deformity is also known as Symmelia, Symposia, Sympus, Uromelia and Monopodia. It is associated with the single umbilical artery. It is associated with severe malformations of urogenital i.e. renal agenesis and absence of both internal and external genitalia. The aim of this ...

  19. Evaluation of a segmented rectal probe and caudal epidural anesthesia for electroejaculation of bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Etson, Cathy J.; Waldner, Cheryl L.; Barth, Albert D.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in concentrations of cortisol and progesterone in serial blood samples were used to quantify a stress response to different methods of electroejaculation in 10 Hereford bulls. Treatments included restraint (control), and electroejaculation using rectal probes with segmented electrodes or conventional nonsegmented electrodes, with or without lidocaine caudal epidural anesthesia. A subjective scoring system was used to assess behavioral responses to the different methods of electroejacu...

  20. Caudal block and emergence delirium in pediatric patients: Is it analgesia or sedation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergence delirium (ED although a short-lived and self-limiting phenomenon, makes a child prone to injury in the immediate postoperative period and hence is a cause of concern not only to the pediatric anesthesiologist, surgeons, and post anesthesia care unit staff but also amongst parents. Additional medication to quieten the child offsets the potential benefits of rapid emergence and delays recovery in day care settings. There is conflicting evidence of influence of analgesia and sedation following anesthesia on emergence agitation. We hypothesized that an anesthetic technique which improves analgesia and prolongs emergence time will reduce the incidence of ED. We selected ketamine as adjuvant to caudal block for this purpose. Methods: This randomized, double blind prospective study was performed in 150 premedicated children ASA I, II, aged 2 to 8 years who were randomly assigned to either group B (caudal with bupivacaine, BK (bupivacaine and ketamine, or NC (no caudal, soon after LMA placement. Recovery characteristics and complications were recorded. Results: Emergence time, duration of pain relief, and Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED scores were significantly higher in the NC group (P<0.05. Duration of analgesia and emergence time were significantly more in group BK than groups B and NC. However, the discharge readiness was comparable between all groups. No patient in BK group required to be given any medication to treat ED. Conclusion: Emergence time as well as duration of analgesia have significant influence on incidence of emergence delirium. Ketamine, as caudal adjuvant is a promising agent to protect against ED in children, following sevoflurane anesthesia.

  1. The search for a role of the caudal intralaminar nuclei in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lanciego, J.L. (José Luis); Lopez, I P; Rico, A.J. (Alberto J.); Aymerich, M.S. (María S.); Perez-Manso, M. (Mónica); Conte, L.; Combarro, C. (C.); Roda, E.; Molina, C.; Gonzalo, N.; Castle, M; Tuñon, T; Erro, E.; Barroso-Chinea, P. (P.)

    2009-01-01

    The situation of the caudal intralaminar thalamic nuclei within basal ganglia circuits has gained increased attention over the past few years. Although initially considered as a "non-specific" thalamic nuclei, tract-tracing studies carried out over the past two decades have demonstrated that the centromedian-parafascicular thalamic complex (CM-Pf) is connected to virtually all basal ganglia components and related nuclei. Although the anatomical basis sustaining the thalamic modulation of basa...

  2. Serotonergic neurons in the caudal raphe nuclei discharge in association with activity of masticatory muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Ribeiro-do-Valle

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a dense serotonergic projection from nucleus raphe pallidus and nucleus raphe obscurus to the trigeminal motor nucleus and serotonin exerts a strong facilitatory action on the trigeminal motoneurons. Some serotonergic neurons in these caudal raphe nuclei increase their discharge during feeding. The objective of the present study was to investigate the possibility that the activity of these serotonergic neurons is related to activity of masticatory muscles. Cats were implanted with microelectrodes and gross electrodes. Caudal raphe single neuron activity, electrocorticographic activity, and splenius, digastric and masseter electromyographic activities were recorded during active behaviors (feeding and grooming, during quiet waking and during sleep. Seven presumed serotonergic neurons were identified. These neurons showed a long duration action potential (>2.0 ms, and discharged slowly (2-7 Hz and very regularly (interspike interval coefficient of variation <0.3 during quiet waking. The activity of these neurons decreased remarkably during fast wave sleep (78-100%. Six of these neurons showed tonic changes in their activity positively related to digastric and/or masseter muscle activity but not to splenius muscle activity during waking. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that serotonergic neurons in the caudal raphe nuclei play an important role in the control of jaw movements

  3. Postoperative Analgesia in Children- Comparative Study between Caudal Bupivacaine and Bupivacaine plus Tramadol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Doda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty children, ASAI-II, aged between 2yrs-5yrs, undergoing sub umbilical operation (inguinal and penile surgery were selected for this double blind study. They were randomly divided in two groups, group Aand group B. Group A(n15 received 0.25%bupivacaine 0.5ml.kg -1 and Group B (n=15 received 0.25% bupivaeaine 0.5ml.kg -1 and tramadol 2mg.kg -1 as single shot caudal block. Postoperative pain was assessed by a modified TPPPS (Toddler-Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale and analgesic given only when the score was more than 3. In the first 24 hrs it was observed that the mean duration of time interval between the caudal block and first dose of analgesic was significantly long(9. lhrs in Group B as compared to Group A (6.3hrs which was much shorter(p< 0.01.There was no significant haemodynamie changes, motor weakness or respiratory depression in both groups. This study con-cluded that addition of tramadol 2mg.kg -1 to caudal 0.25% bupivacaine 0.5ml.kg -1 significantly prolong the duration of postoperative analgesia in children withoutprodueing much adverse effects.

  4. Postoperative analgesia in children: A comparison of three different doses of caudal epidural morphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baduni, Neha; Sanwal, Manoj Kumar; Vajifdar, Homay; Agarwala, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Caudal epidural block is the most commonly used neuraxial block in children. Morphine has been used as a caudal additive for more than three decades. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and duration of analgesia of three different doses of caudal epidural morphine (CEM), and to find out the incidence of side effects. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 75 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists grades I and II, aged 2-12 years, undergoing lower abdominal and urogenital surgeries. Patients were randomly allocated to one of the three groups according to the dose of morphine. Group I received 30 μg/kg, group II 50 μg/kg, and group III 70 μg/kg. Heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, electrocardiogram, pain score, sedation score, duration of analgesia, and side-effects were noted. Results: The mean duration of analgesia was 8.63 h in group I, 13.36 h in group II and 19.19 h in group III. Respiratory depression was noted in three patients in group III. One patient in group I had itching. One patient each in groups I, II, and III had nausea/vomiting. Conclusion: CEM significantly prolongs the duration of analgesia, though with a higher dose the risk of respiratory depression should always be kept in mind. PMID:27275053

  5. A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CLONIDINE & DEXMEDETOMIDINE AS ADJUVANTS TO ROPIVACAINE IN CAUDAL BLOCK IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caudal analgesia has been successfully used in paediatric patients since 1933. Ropivacaine a stereo isomer of Bupivacaine was used to increase duration of analgesia. The present study is designed to compare clonidine and dexmedetomidine as adjuvants to Ropivacaine in caudal block in children. METHODS: A total of 60 patients of 3 - 10 years age, either sex, ASA I/II posted for infraumblical surgeries under GA with caudal analgesia were randomly allocated to receive 0.2% ropivacaine plain@1ml/kg+normal saline (1ml, 0.2% ropivacaine @1ml/kg+clonidine 1microg/kg (1ml, 0.2% ropivacaine @1ml/kg+dexmedetomidine 1microg/kg(1ml. The children were monitored postoperatively for duration of analgesia, sedation score and postoperative complications if any. RESULTS: Duration of analgesia was maximum in Group - III (Ropivacaine+ Dexmedetomidine – 14hrs., 12hrs. I n Group - II (Ropivacaine+Clonidine and 6 - 8 hrs. I n Group - I (Ropivacaine Plain. Children were more sedated in early postoperative period in Group - II & III as compared to Group - I. CONCLUSION : Duration of analgesia was prolonged in Group - II & III, the same group children were more sedated and calm in postoperative period.

  6. Arachnoiditis following caudal epidural injections for the lumbo-sacral radicular pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjayan, Shashi Kumar; Swamy, Girish Nanjunda; Yallappa, Sachin; Bommireddy, Rajendra

    2013-12-01

    Caudal epidural steroid injection is a very common intervention in treatment of low back pain and sciatica symptoms. Although extensively used, it is not devoid of complications. A few reports of chemical and infective arachnoiditis exist following lumbar epidural anaesthesia, but none following a caudal epidural steroid injection.We report a case of arachnoiditis following caudal epidural steroid injections for lumbar radiculopathy. The patient presented with contralateral sciatica, worsening low back pain and urinary retention few days following the injection, followed by worsening motor functions in L4/L5/S1 myotomes with resultant dense foot drop. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging suggested infective arachnoiditis with diffuse enhancement and clumping of the nerve roots within the lumbar and sacral thecal sac. As the number of injections in the management of back pain and lumbo-sacral radicular pain is increasing annually, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of this potentially dangerous complication and educate the patients appropriately. PMID:24353855

  7. The hydrodynamic principle for the caudal fin shape of small aquatic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongsu; Park, Yong-Jai; Cho, Kyu-Jin; Kim, Ho-Young

    2014-11-01

    The shape of caudal fins of small aquatic animals is completely different from that of large cruising animals like dolphin and tuna which have high aspect-ratio lunate tail. To unveil the physical principle behind natural selection of caudal fins of small aquatic animals, here we investigate the hydrodynamics of an angularly reciprocating plate as a model for the caudal fin oscillation. We find that the thrust production of a reciprocating plate at high Strouhal numbers is dominated by generation of two distinct vortical structures associated with the acceleration and deceleration of the plate regardless of their shape. Based on our observations, we construct a scaling law to predict the thrust of the flapping plate, which agrees well with the experimental data. We then seek the optimal aspect ratio to maximize thrust and efficiency of a flapping plate for fixed flapping frequency and amplitude. Thrust is maximized for the aspect ratio of approximately 0.7. We also theoretically explain the power law behaviors of the thrust and efficiency as a function of the aspect ratio.

  8. MODELO AUTORREGRESIVO BILINEAL APLICADO A LA PREDICCIÓN MENSUAL DE CAUDALES EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Cadavid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se aplica un modelo estocástico bilineal, el cual inicialmente es propuesto para análisis de retornos financieros y otros sistemas complejos combinando la alta no linealidad y multiplicidad del ruido. Este modelo, por su carácter aleatorio, no tiene componente determinística que permita considerar la persistencia de los caudales en una aplicación a la Hidrología. Por lo tanto, se propone el acoplamiento entre la parte determinística de un modelo autorregresivo de orden 2 y el modelo estocástico bilineal como componente aleatorio, y se obtiene un modelo autorregresivo bilineal (MAB. El MAB se empleó para la predicción de caudales en ventanas de 3, 6 y 12 meses en 12 ríos de Colombia de diferentes regiones del país. El MAB tiene una estructura simple y muestra una mejora sustancial en la disminución de los errores para los caudales máximos y mínimos en el período de validación respecto de los modelos estocásticos tradicionales.

  9. Spinal Arteriovenous Fistula with Progressive Paraplegia after Spinal Anaesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Baltsavias, Gerasimos; Argyrakis, Nikolaos; Georgios K Matis; Mpata-Tshibemba, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    A case of an iatrogenic spinal arteriovenous fistula with progressive paraplegia in a young woman is reported. The fistula was eventually created after repetitive lumbar punctures performed in the process of spinal anaesthesia. Her symptoms were progressed to paraplegia over a period of 2 years. The digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a single-hole fistula, involving the anterior spinal artery and vein. The lesion was occluded by embolization with immediate improvement. The potential...

  10. Spinal arteriovenous fistula with progressive paraplegia after spinal anaesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Baltsavias, Gerasimos; Argyrakis, Nikolaos; Georgios K Matis; Mpata-Tshibemba, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    A case of an iatrogenic spinal arteriovenous fistula with progressive paraplegia in a young woman is reported. The fistula was eventually created after repetitive lumbar punctures performed in the process of spinal anaesthesia. Her symptoms were progressed to paraplegia over a period of 2 years. The digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a single-hole fistula, involving the anterior spinal artery and vein. The lesion was occluded by embolization with immediate improvement. The potential...

  11. Germline ablation of dermatan-4O-sulfotransferase1 reduces regeneration after mouse spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, S; Akyüz, N; Martinovic, T; Huckhagel, T; Jakovcevski, I; Schachner, M

    2016-01-15

    Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs/DSPGs) are major components of the extracellular matrix. Their expression is generally upregulated after injuries to the adult mammalian central nervous system, which is known for its low ability to restore function after injury. Several studies support the view that CSPGs inhibit regeneration after injury, whereas the functions of DSPGs in injury paradigms are less certain. To characterize the functions of DSPGs in the presence of CSPGs, we studied young adult dermatan-4O-sulfotransferase1-deficient (Chst14(-/-)) mice, which express chondroitin sulfates (CSs), but not dermatan sulfates (DSs), to characterize the functional outcome after severe compression injury of the spinal cord. In comparison to their wild-type (Chst14(+/+)) littermates, regeneration was reduced in Chst14(-/-) mice. No differences between genotypes were seen in the size of spinal cords, numbers of microglia and astrocytes neither in intact nor injured spinal cords after injury. Monoaminergic innervation and re-innervation of the spinal cord caudal to the lesion site as well as expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and myelin basic protein (MBP) were similar in both genotypes, independent of whether they were injured and examined 6weeks after injury or not injured. These results suggest that, in contrast to CSPGs, DSPGs, being the products of Chst14 enzymatic activity, promote regeneration after injury of the adult mouse central nervous system. PMID:26586562

  12. Morphological study of Schwann cells remyelination in contused spinal cord of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue; ZHANG Lu; ZHANG Jie-yuan; LIU Zheng; DUAN Zhao-xia; LI Bing-cang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the role and effect of Schwann cells (SCs) remyelination in contused spinal cord.Methods:Green fluorescence protein expressing-SCs were transplanted into the epicenter,rostral and caudal tissues of the injury site at 1 week after the spinal cords were contused.At 6 weeks,the spinal cords were removed for cryosections,semithin sections and ultrathin sections,and then immunocytochemical staining of myelin basic protein (MBP),P0 protein (P0) and S 100 protein (S100) was carried out on the cryosections.Qualitative and semiquantitative analyses were performed on the cryosections and semithin sections.Ultrastructure ofmyelinated fibers was observed on the ultrathin sections under electron microscope.Results:Transplanted SCs and myelinated fibers immunocytochemically labeled by MBP,P0 as well as S100 distributed in whole injured area.The quantity of myelinated fibers labeled by the three myelin proteins showed no statistical difference,however,which was significantly larger than that of controls.On the semithin sections,the experimental group demonstrated more myelinated fibers in the injured area than the controls,but the fibers had smaller diameter and thinner myelin sheath under electron microscope.Conclusion:SCs can promote regeneration of injured nerve fibers and enhance remyelination,which may be histological basis of SCs-mediated functional repair of injured spinal cords.

  13. Permissive Schwann cell graft/spinal cord interfaces for axon regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ryan R; Henao, Martha; Pearse, Damien D; Bunge, Mary Bartlett

    2015-01-01

    The transplantation of autologous Schwann cells (SCs) to repair the injured spinal cord is currently being evaluated in a clinical trial. In support, this study determined properties of spinal cord/SC bridge interfaces that enabled regenerated brainstem axons to cross them, possibly leading to improvement in rat hindlimb movement. Fluid bridges of SCs and Matrigel were placed in complete spinal cord transections. Compared to pregelled bridges of SCs and Matrigel, they improved regeneration of brainstem axons across the rostral interface. The regenerating brainstem axons formed synaptophysin(+) bouton-like terminals and contacted MAP2A(+) dendrites at the caudal interface. Brainstem axon regeneration was directly associated with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP(+)) astrocyte processes that elongated into the SC bridge. Electron microscopy revealed that axons, SCs, and astrocytes were enclosed together within tunnels bounded by a continuous basal lamina. Neuroglycan (NG2) expression was associated with these tunnels. One week after injury, the GFAP(+) processes coexpressed nestin and brain lipid-binding protein, and the tips of GFAP(+)/NG2(+) processes extended into the bridges together with the regenerating brainstem axons. Both brainstem axon regeneration and number of GFAP(+) processes in the bridges correlated with improvement in hindlimb locomotion. Following SCI, astrocytes may enter a reactive state that prohibits axon regeneration. Elongation of astrocyte processes into SC bridges, however, and formation of NG2(+) tunnels enable brainstem axon regeneration and improvement in function. It is important for spinal cord repair to define conditions that favor elongation of astrocytes into lesions/transplants. PMID:24152553

  14. Histochemical study of the pre—and postnatal development of acetylcholinesterase in the rat spinal cord

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGQIN; XINWENDONG; 等

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of acetylcholinesterase(AChE)-positive structures in the developing rat spinal cord was studied with AChE-histochemistry.AChE-positive perikarya were first seen on embryonic day 14(E14) in the ventrolateral portion of the spinal cord.From that time onward.AChE=containing cells appeared gradually in the intermediate gray,dorsal horn and lateral spinal nucleus of the spinal cord in a ventral-to-dorsal,and lateral-to-medial order.No obvious rostral-to-caudal sequence was found.At birth,the distribution pattern of AChE-positive perikarya was basically similar to that in adults.After birth a dramatic increase in the AChE staining intensity extended from postnatal day 5(P5) to postnatal day 21(P21),In addition,two phases of transient AChE staining were observed in the external surface of the dorsal horn from embryonic day 15(E15) to embryonic day 21(E21) and in the marginal layer from embryonic day 21(E21) to postnatal day 14(P14),respectively.

  15. Effect of nalbuphine as an adjuvant on levobupivacaine induced caudal analgesia in children undergoing surgical procedures, controlled randomized double blinded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riham Hussein Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Caudal epidural nalbuphine is safe in pediatric surgeries including the lower half of the body and effectively reduces postoperative pain. However it may cause early postoperative sedation, yet without respiratory depression.

  16. Primary spinal epidural lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutham Cugati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidural location for lymphoma is observed in 0.1-6.5% of all the lymphomas. Primary spinal epidural lymphoma (PSEL is a subset of lymphomas, where there are no other recognizable sites of lymphomas at the time of diagnosis. The incidence of this subset of lymphomas is much less. It, however, is increasingly diagnosed, due to the increased use of more sensitive imaging modalities. For the electronic search, Pubmed was used to identify journals that enlisted and enumerated PSEL from 1961 to January 2011. The following combination of terms: "primary," "spinal," "epidural," and "lymphoma" were used. The most significant articles and their bibliographies were analyzed by the authors. The symptoms, pathogenesis, diagnostic workup, histopathology, treatment, and outcome have been analyzed in a systematic manner

  17. Spinal trauma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the child with suspected spinal injury can be a difficult task for the radiologist. Added to the problems posed by lack of familiarity with the normal appearances of the paediatric spine is anxiety about missing a potentially significant injury resulting in neurological damage. Due to differences in anatomy and function, the pattern of injury in the paediatric spine is different from that in the adolescent or adult. Lack of appreciation of these differences may lead to over investigation and inappropriate treatment. This review attempts to clarify some of the problems frequently encountered. It is based on a review of the literature as well as personal experience. The normal appearances and variants of the spine in children, the mechanisms and patterns of injury are reviewed highlighting the differences between children and adults. Specific fractures, a practical scheme for the assessment of spinal radiographs in children, and the role of cross sectional imaging are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Transverse myelitis following spinal anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Sanjeev

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal anesthesia is widely used during surgical procedures. It is generally safe and the frequency of severe, permanent neurological complications associated with it has been reported to be extremely low. We report a patient, who developed paraplegia following spinal anesthesia. A 29-year-old male was referred with acute, flaccid, sensory motor paraplegia, with bladder and bowel involvement. He developed this immediately after an operation for inguinal hernia under spinal anesthesia. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging revealed hemorrhagic myelitis in the conus at D12. He was referred after he did not respond to intravenous methylprednisolone for 10 days. This case brings up the difficulty encountered in determination of the interspace used for spinal anesthesia and the potential for traumatic injury to the spinal cord. It also demonstrates the tragic outcome after a clinician violates some important, standard and established guidelines.

  19. Differential Neuroproteomic and Systems Biology Analysis of Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghieb, Ahmed; Bramlett, Helen M; Das, Jyotirmoy H; Yang, Zhihui; Selig, Tyler; Yost, Richard A; Wang, Michael S; Dietrich, W Dalton; Wang, Kevin K W

    2016-07-01

    Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with many consequences and no known effective treatment. Although it is quite easy to diagnose traumatic SCI, the assessment of injury severity and projection of disease progression or recovery are often challenging, as no consensus biomarkers have been clearly identified. Here rats were subjected to experimental moderate or severe thoracic SCI. At 24h and 7d postinjury, spinal cord segment caudal to injury center versus sham samples was harvested and subjected to differential proteomic analysis. Cationic/anionic-exchange chromatography, followed by 1D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was used to reduce protein complexity. A reverse phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry proteomic platform was then utilized to identify proteome changes associated with SCI. Twenty-two and 22 proteins were up-regulated at 24 h and 7 day after SCI, respectively; whereas 19 and 16 proteins are down-regulated at 24 h and 7 day after SCI, respectively, when compared with sham control. A subset of 12 proteins were identified as candidate SCI biomarkers - TF (Transferrin), FASN (Fatty acid synthase), NME1 (Nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1), STMN1 (Stathmin 1), EEF2 (Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2), CTSD (Cathepsin D), ANXA1 (Annexin A1), ANXA2 (Annexin A2), PGM1 (Phosphoglucomutase 1), PEA15 (Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15), GOT2 (Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2), and TPI-1 (Triosephosphate isomerase 1), data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003473. In addition, Transferrin, Cathepsin D, and TPI-1 and PEA15 were further verified in rat spinal cord tissue and/or CSF samples after SCI and in human CSF samples from moderate/severe SCI patients. Lastly, a systems biology approach was utilized to determine the critical biochemical pathways and interactome in the pathogenesis of SCI. Thus, SCI candidate biomarkers identified can be used to correlate with disease progression or

  20. Effects of simulated microgravity on circadian rhythm of caudal arterial pressure and heart rate in rats and their underlying mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Lu; Xie, Man-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective  To explore the effects of simulated microgravity on the circadian rhythm of rats' caudal arterial pressure and heart rate, and their underlying mechanism. Methods  Eighteen male SD rats (aged 8 weeks) were randomly assigned to control (CON) and tail suspension (SUS) group (9 each). Rats with tail suspension for 28 days were adopted as the animal model to simulate microgravity. Caudal arterial pressure and heart rate of rats were measured every 3 hours. The circadian difference of a...

  1. Chondrocyte-Specific Inhibition of β-Catenin Signaling Leads to Dysplasia of the Caudal Vertebrae in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Bing; Li, Tian-Fang; Li, Xiao-Feng; Tang, De-Zhi; Zhang, Yejia; Shi, Qi; Wang, Yong-Jun; Chen, Di

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. To inhibit β-catenin specifically signaling in chondrocytes Col2-ICAT transgenic mice were generated. Anomalies in caudal vertebrae were detected during embryonic and postnatal stages of Col2-ICAT transgenic mice. Objective. To determine the role of canonical β-catenin signaling in caudal vertebral development. Summary of Background Data. β-catenin signaling plays a critical role in skeletal development. Col2-ICAT transgenic mice were generated to selectively block β-catenin sig...

  2. Caudal regression syndrome and popliteal webbing in connection with maternal diabetes mellitus: a case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Klaushofer, Klaus; Grill, Franz

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Most cases of caudal regression are sporadic or associated with gestational/maternal diabetes. The condition is thought to be part of a spectrum including imperforate anus, sacral agenesis and sirenomelia. Infants of diabetic mothers have two to three times the average incidence of congenital anomalies. Case Presentation We report on a 7-year-old boy from non-consanguineous family in Austria was born with features of caudal regression syndrome. A constellation of malformation com...

  3. CLINICAL STUDY OF PATHA-YAVINI IN THE MANAGEMENT OF POSTOPERATIVE PAIN ON ANO-RECTAL SURGERY UNDER CAUDAL BLOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Paswan Anil Kumar; Singh Ravindra Prasad; Prakash Sashi; Dutt Anil

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the comparative effects of Patha-yavani (ayurvedic medicine) and diclofenac sodium on postoperative pain and pentazocine requirement as rescue analgesic in anorectal surgery under caudal block with lidnocaine 2% with adrenaline. sixty patient ASA I and II patients were randomly assigned to receive patha-yavani 2 gram with honey and tab diclofenac sodium 50 mg postoperatively in a double-blind manner in anorectal surgery under caudal analgesia with lidnocain 2%. Pos...

  4. Spinal accessory nerve neurilemmoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neurilemmoma of the spinal accessory nerve extending from the lower brain stem to the high cervical region, without typical jugular foramen syndome is presented. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a high cervical intradural extramedullary lesion in patients with lower cranial nerve(s) dysfunction. The value of intrathecal and intravenous contrast enhancement computed tomography (CT) myelogram is emphasized. 13 refs.; 3 figs

  5. Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host

  6. Spinal brucellosis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, relatively frequent in Mediterranean countries and in the Middle East. It is a systemic infection, caused by facultative intra-cellular bacteria of the genus Brucella, that can involve many organs and tissues. The spine is the most common site of musculoskeletal involvement, followed by the sacroiliac joints. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and imaging features of spinal brucellosis. (orig.)

  7. Infections in spinal instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Gerometta, Antoine; Olaverri, Juan Carlos Rodriguez; Bitan, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    Surgical-site infection (SSI ) in the spine is a serious postoperative complication. Factors such as posterior surgical approach, arthrodesis, use of spinal instrumentation, age, obesity, diabetes, tobacco use, operating-room environment and estimated blood loss are well established in the literature to affect the risk of infection. Infection after spine surgery with instrumentation is becoming a common pathology. The reported infection rates range from 0.7% to 11.9%, depending on the diagnos...

  8. Spinal brucellosis: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelli Bouaziz, Mouna; Ladeb, Mohamed Fethi; Chakroun, Mohamed; Chaabane, Skander [Institut M T Kassab d' orthopedie, Department of Radiology, Ksar Said (Tunisia)

    2008-09-15

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, relatively frequent in Mediterranean countries and in the Middle East. It is a systemic infection, caused by facultative intra-cellular bacteria of the genus Brucella, that can involve many organs and tissues. The spine is the most common site of musculoskeletal involvement, followed by the sacroiliac joints. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and imaging features of spinal brucellosis. (orig.)

  9. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  10. Vertebral spinal osteophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Zachary; Tubbs, R Shane; Apaydin, Nihal; Hage, Robert; Jordan, Robert; Loukas, Marios

    2011-03-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common complication in the elderly and is often associated with osteophyte growth on vertebral bodies. The clinical presentation of vertebral osteophytes is related to anatomical structures adjacent to the spinal column. For instance, cervical osteophytes potentially involve the pharynx and esophagus, leading to dysphagic symptoms that may be accompanied by food aspiration, vocal fold paralysis and obstructive sleep apnea. In addition to anterior cervical osteophytes, posterior and uncinate process osteophytes may form, compressing the spinal cord and vertebral artery blood supply, respectively. Cervical osteophytes have also been shown to form an accessory median atlanto-occipital joint when the relationship between the atlas, dens and basiocciput is involved. In the thorax, the esophagus is often affected by osteophytes and may result in dysphagia. Traumatic and non-traumatic thoracic aorta pseudoaneurysm formation has been attributed to sharp osteophytes lacerating the aorta, a direct complication of the relationship between the aorta anterior vertebral column. Additionally, aspiration pneumonia was reported in patients with compression of a main stem bronchus, due to mechanical compression by thoracic osteophytes. In the lumbar spinal region, the two major structures in close proximity to the spine are the inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta, both of which have been reported to be affected by osteophytes. Treatment of osteophytes is initially conservative with anti-inflammatory medications, followed by surgical removal. Increasing obesity and geriatric populations will continue to result in an array of osteoarthritic degenerative changes such as osteophyte formation. PMID:20383671

  11. Complications of spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dursun, Erbil; Hamamci, Nigar; Ozbey, Aydan; Cakci, Aytul

    2004-01-01

    Spinal cord injury and its complications cause important physical, psychosocial and economical problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the complications resulting from spinal cord injury, to show their adverse effects on the rehabilitation program, and to make related clinicians to call attention especially to preventable complications. Sixty-two spinal cord injured patients were included in the study. All the patients were evaluated regarding age, gender, etiology, time since inj...

  12. Traumatic lumbar spinal subdural hematoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, William E.; Brent Y. Kimball; Arthur, Adam S

    2014-01-01

    Spinal subdural hematoma (SDH) is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition associated with trauma, lumbar puncture, hemorrhagic disorder, anticoagulant therapy, spinal surgery, tumor, vascular malformations, and spinal or epidural anesthesia. Traumatic SDH is even more uncommon than other forms of SDH with only 10 reported cases in the literature. Following a punch to the head and loss of consciousness, a 35-year-old man reported headaches, right-sided tinnitus, and dull ache behi...

  13. Drug therapy in spinal tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekaran, S.; Khandelwal, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    Although the discovery of effective anti-tuberculosis drugs has made uncomplicated spinal tuberculosis a medical disease, the advent of multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the co-infection of HIV with tuberculosis have led to a resurgence of the disease recently. The principles of drug treatment of spinal tuberculosis are derived from our experience in treating pulmonary tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis is classified to be a severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and henc...

  14. Spinal angiography. Anatomy, technique and indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal angiography is a diagnostic modality requiring detailed knowledge of spinal vascular anatomy. The cervical spinal cord is supplied by the vertebral arteries while segmental arteries which are preserved from fetal anatomy, supply the thoracic and lumbar regions. As spinal angiography carries the risk of paraplegia the indications have to be considered very carefully. Nevertheless, spinal angiography should be performed if there is reason to suspect a spinal vascular malformation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (orig.)

  15. SDF1 in the dorsal corticospinal tract promotes CXCR4+ cell migration after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hosung

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1 and its major signaling receptor, CXCR4, were initially described in the immune system; however, they are also expressed in the nervous system, including the spinal cord. After spinal cord injury, the blood brain barrier is compromised, opening the way for chemokine signaling between these two systems. These experiments clarified prior contradictory findings on normal expression of SDF1 and CXCR4 as well as examined the resulting spinal cord responses resulting from this signaling. Methods These experiments examined the expression and function of SDF1 and CXCR4 in the normal and injured adult mouse spinal cord primarily using CXCR4-EGFP and SDF1-EGFP transgenic reporter mice. Results In the uninjured spinal cord, SDF1 was expressed in the dorsal corticospinal tract (dCST as well as the meninges, whereas CXCR4 was found only in ependymal cells surrounding the central canal. After spinal cord injury (SCI, the pattern of SDF1 expression did not change rostral to the lesion but it disappeared from the degenerating dCST caudally. By contrast, CXCR4 expression changed dramatically after SCI. In addition to the CXCR4+ cells in the ependymal layer, numerous CXCR4+ cells appeared in the peripheral white matter and in the dorsal white matter localized between the dorsal corticospinal tract and the gray matter rostral to the lesion site. The non-ependymal CXCR4+ cells were found to be NG2+ and CD11b+ macrophages that presumably infiltrated through the broken blood-brain barrier. One population of macrophages appeared to be migrating towards the dCST that contains SDF1 rostral to the injury but not towards the caudal dCST in which SDF1 is no longer present. A second population of the CXCR4+ macrophages was present near the SDF1-expressing meningeal cells. Conclusions These observations suggest that attraction of CXCR4+ macrophages is part of a programmed response to injury and that modulation of the

  16. Imaging procedures in spinal infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A targeted successful treatment of spinal infectious diseases requires clinical and laboratory data that are completed by the contribution of imaging procedures. Neuroimaging only provides essential informations on the correct topography, localisation, acuity and differential diagnosis of spinal infectious lesions. MRI with its sensitivity concerning soft tissue lesions is a useful tool in detecting infectious alterations of spinal bone marrow, intervertebral disks, leptomeninges and the spinal cord itself. Crucial imaging patterns of typical spinal infections are displayed and illustrated by clinical case studies. We present pyogenic, granulomatous and postoperative variants of spondylodicitis, spinal epidural abscess, spinal meningitis and spinal cord infections. The importance of intravenous contrastmedia application is pointed out. (orig.)

  17. 神经断端肌肉内埋入法治疗汶川地震截肢伤员痛性神经瘤%Treatment of painful stump neuroma by resection and nerve stump implantation into muscle in twelve Wenchuan earthquake amputees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何纯青; 赵正恩; 许猛; 张立海; 柳现飞; 唐佩福

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨神经断端肌肉内埋入法治疗地震伤截肢残端痛性神经瘤的临床疗效.方法:应用神经断端肌肉内埋入法治疗汶川地震伤截肢伤员痛性神经瘤12例27处,观察术后症状、体征及患肢功能改变情况.结果:12例全部获随访12~26个月,平均16个月.随访时患者主诉肢体残端疼痛和触电感消失;局部无压痛、叩击痛和Tinel征,残端软组织内未触及硬性结节或包块;患肢功能较术前明显改善.结论:采用神经断端肌肉内埋入法治疗地震伤截肢残端痛性神经瘤,可减轻痛苦,疗效确切.%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of a painful stump neuroma treatment by resection and nerve stump implantation into muscle in treating Wenchuan earthquake amputees. Methods In 12 Wenchuan earthquake amputees (27 painful neuromas), painful neuroma underwent resection and implantation into the nearby muscle. Changes of symptoms and limb function were observed. Results All the cases were followed up for 12 -26 months with an average of 16 months. It was shown that limb stump pain and “electric -shock” sensation disappeared without any local tenderness, percussion tenderness or Tinel sign. The soft tissue nodule or mass of limb stump disappeared. Limb function improved, compared with preoperative evaluation. Conclusions Pesection and nerve stump implantation into muscle is a feasible and effective method for treatment of painful stump neuroma after amputation.

  18. Poly-lactic acid and agarose gelatin play an active role in the recovery of spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of poly-lactic acid and agarose gelatin in promoting the functional recovery of the injured spinal cord. Methods Poly-lactic acid (PLA) or agarose was embedded in the space between two stumps of the hemisectioned spinal cord. Immunohistochemistry was used to show astroglia proliferation and the infiltration of RhoA-positive cells. Locomotor activity recovery was evaluated by testing the function of hindlimbs. Results Astroglias and RhoA labeled non-neuronal cells accumulated in the area adjacent to the implant, while the number of RhoA-positive cells was decreased dramatically in the absence of implant. Animals implanted with agarose gelatin recovered more quickly than those with PLA, concomitant with a higher survival rate of the neurons. Conclusion Both PLA and agarose gelatin benefited the recovery of spinal cord after injury by providing a scaffold for astroglia processes. Modulation of the rigidity, pore size and inner structure of PLA and agarose gelatin might make these biodegradable materials more effective in the regeneration of the central nervous system (CNS).

  19. EFFICACY OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE AS AN ADJUVANT TO BUPIVACAINE FOR CAUDAL ANALGESIA IN PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS UNDERGOING LOWER ABDOMINAL SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Various adjuvants such as opioids or α2 agonists are being used to improve the quality and duration of caudal analgesia with local anesthetics. Dexmedetomidine a α2 agonist is used frequently in adult patients to enhance the local anesthetic effect. However there is little literature regarding its effectiveness in pediatric caudal analgesia. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of dexmedetomidine when used as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in increasing the duration of caudal analgesia. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding Dexmedetomidine to caudal Bupivacaine and observe the effect on the duration of analgesia in the post-operative period. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: One year hospital based Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Sixty children, aged 1-6 years, undergoing lower abdominal surgeries were included in this prospective randomized double-blind study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group I received Bupivacaine (0.25% 1ml/kg plus 1 ml of normal saline in the caudal epidural space. Group II was administered Bupivacaine (0.25% 1ml/ with Dexmedetomidine 2 mcg/ ml diluted to 1 ml of normal saline in the caudal epidural space. All anesthetic and surgical techniques were standardized. Heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate were monitored continuously. Surgery was started 10-15 minutes after the injection and confirming adequacy of caudal block. Duration of analgesia was assessed using FLACC scale (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale. The time from administration of caudal anesthesia to the first time the FLACC score equal or greater than 4 was considered as the duration of caudal analgesia. Paracetamol suppository was used as rescue analgesia with a loading dose of 40mg/kg. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Mann-Whitney test and Student ‘t’test was used to compare the data obtained in the two groups. RESULTS: The

  20. Electrode alignment of transverse tripoles using a percutaneous triple-lead approach in spinal cord stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankarasubramanian, V.; Buitenweg, J. R.; Holsheimer, J.; Veltink, P.

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this modeling study is to determine the influence of electrode alignment of transverse tripoles on the paresthesia coverage of the pain area in spinal cord stimulation, using a percutaneous triple-lead approach. Transverse tripoles, comprising a central cathode and two lateral anodes, were modeled on the low-thoracic vertebral region (T10-T12) using percutaneous triple-lead configurations, with the center lead on the spinal cord midline. The triple leads were oriented both aligned and staggered. In the staggered configuration, the anodes were offset either caudally (caudally staggered) or rostrally (rostrally staggered) with respect to the midline cathode. The transverse tripolar field steering with the aligned and staggered configurations enabled the estimation of dorsal column fiber thresholds (IDC) and dorsal root fiber thresholds (IDR) at various anodal current ratios. IDC and IDR were considerably higher for the aligned transverse tripoles as compared to the staggered transverse tripoles. The aligned transverse tripoles facilitated deeper penetration into the medial dorsal columns (DCs). The staggered transverse tripoles always enabled broad and bilateral DC activation, at the expense of mediolateral steerability. The largest DC recruited area was obtained with the rostrally staggered transverse tripole. Transverse tripolar geometries, using percutaneous leads, allow for selective targeting of either medial or lateral DC fibers, if and only if the transverse tripole is aligned. Steering of anodal currents between the lateral leads of the staggered transverse tripoles cannot target medially confined populations of DC fibers in the spinal cord. An aligned transverse tripolar configuration is strongly recommended, because of its ability to provide more post-operative flexibility than other configurations.

  1. What Is Spinal Cord Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back. Generally speaking, SCI is damage to the spinal nerves, the body's central and most important nerve bundle, ... This, in turn, damages the axons—the long nerve cell "wires" that pass through ... point on the spinal cord below which sensory feeling and motor movement ...

  2. Radiotherapy of presenile spinal osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painfull conditions of presenile spinal osteoporosis may no longer respond to medication or physical therapy. Analgesic radiotherapy coupled with mild physical therapy and if necessary supported by orthopedic measures frequently results in pain relief and physical stability. Fifty-two cases of osteoporosis and osteoporotic spinal fractures illustrate how better longterm results are achieved by increasing the customary dosage and speeding up radiotherapy. (orig.)

  3. Single dose caudal tramadol with bupivacaine and bupivacaine alone in pediatric inguinoscrotal surgeries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the postoperative analgesic effect of Tramadol when given with caudally administered Bupivacaine in children undergoing inguinoscrotal surgeries. A total of 60 children, undergoing inguinoscrotal surgeries, aged from 1 to 12 years, ASA 1 and 2, were included. The patients were divided into two equal groups. The group given Bupivacaine with Tramadol was called group BT and the group which was given only Bupivacaine was labeled as group B. Group BT was given 0.25%, 0.8 ml/kg Bupivacaine and Tramadol 2 mg/kg while the other group B was given 0.25%, 0.8 ml/kg Bupivacaine through caudal route after induction of general anesthesia. No other analgesic was given intraoperatively. The postoperative pain was evaluated by using visual analogue scale/Ocher face scale/CHEOPS and sedation was assessed by 5 points sedation score at immediate postoperative period 1,2,3,4,6,12 and 24 hours. Supplemental analgesia in the form of paracetamol suppositories and syrup ibuprofen was given accordingly. SaO 2, pulse, blood pressure, and motor block were monitored in all the patients. Addition of Tramadol with Bupivacaine resulted in meaningfully increased postoperative analgesic period (16.06 +- 4.04 hours). No other side effects like respiratory depression, pruritus, urinary retention were found in both the groups except for nausea and vomiting. The demand for supplemental analgesia was more in the patients belonging to B group than BT group. The sedation scores were similar in both the groups. The use of Tramadol as an additive with local anesthetics can prolong the postoperative analgesic period when administered caudally. Its use is safe in children. (author)

  4. Collateral circulation in ferrets (Mustela putorius) during temporary occlusion of the caudal vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calicchio, Kristina W; Bennett, R Avery; Laraio, Leonard C; Weisse, Chick; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Rosenthal, Karen L; Johnston, Matthew S; Campbell, Vicki L; Solomon, Jeffrey A

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether extent of collateral circulation would change during temporary occlusion of the caudal vena cava (CVC) in ferrets (Mustela putorius), a pressure change would occur caudal to the occlusion, and differences would exist between the sexes with respect to those changes. ANIMALS 8 adult ferrets (4 castrated males and 4 spayed females). PROCEDURES Ferrets were anesthetized. A balloon occlusion catheter was introduced through a jugular vein, passed into the CVC by use of fluoroscopy, positioned cranial to the right renal vein, and inflated for 20 minutes. Venography was performed 5 and 15 minutes after occlusion. Pressure in the CVC caudal to the occlusion was measured continuously. A CBC, plasma biochemical analysis, and urinalysis were performed immediately after the procedure and 2 or 3 days later. RESULTS All 8 ferrets survived the procedure; no differences were apparent between the sexes. Vessels providing collateral circulation were identified in all ferrets, indicating blood flow to the paravertebral venous plexus. Complications observed prior to occlusion included atrial and ventricular premature contractions. Complications after occlusion included bradycardia, seizures, and extravasation of contrast medium. Mean baseline CVC pressure was 5.4 cm H2O. During occlusion, 6 ferrets had a moderate increase in CVC pressure (mean, 24.3 cm H2O) and 2 ferrets had a marked increase in CVC pressure to > 55.0 cm H2O. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Caval occlusion for 20 minutes was performed in healthy ferrets with minimal adverse effects noted within the follow-up period and no apparent differences between sexes. The CVC pressure during occlusion may be prognostic in ferrets undergoing surgical ligation of the CVC, which commonly occurs during adrenal tumor resection. PMID:27111022

  5. Paediatric Spinal Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhee Goyal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric spinal anesthesia is not only a safe alternative to general anaesthesia but often the anaesthesia technique of choice in many lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries in children. The misconception regarding its safety and feasibility is broken and is now found to be even more cost-effective. It is a much preferred technique especially for the common daycase surgeries generally performed in the paediatric age group. There is no require-ment of any additional expensive equipment either and this procedure can be easily performed in peripheral centers. However, greater acceptance and experience is yet desired for this technique to become popular.

  6. Effect of Age, Adernaline and Operation Site on Duration of Caudal Analgesia in Paediatric Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kharirat Mohd., Yasir,G.A.Mir

    2003-01-01

    The effect ofage, operative site and addition of 1: 200,000 adrenaline to bupivacaine was evaluatedon the duration ofpost operative analgesia after caudal block in 200 children between the age groupof 1 year to 14 years. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained on Halothane/N20I02• After thiscaudal block was performed with 0.5 mllkg of0.25% bupivacaine in one group of 100 Children andwith 0.25% bupivacaine with adrenaline 1 : 200,000 in another 100 children. The duration of postoperative analge...

  7. Comparison between two doses of dexmedetomidine added to bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in paediatric infraumbilical surgeries

    OpenAIRE

    Niveditha Padma Meenakshi Karuppiah; Sumalatha R Shetty; Krishna Prasad Patla

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Caudal block (CB) with adjuvants is routinely used in children for anaesthesia. We evaluated the efficacy of the α2 adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine at two different doses as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in CB. Methods: This study was conducted on ninety children. Control group BD0 received 0.25% bupivacaine 1 ml/kg, whereas, the study groups BD1 and BD2 received 1 μg/kg and 2 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, respectively, with 0.25% bupivacaine 1 ml/kg as a single shot CB. Adequa...

  8. Vitamin D and Caudal Primary Motor Cortex: A Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    OpenAIRE

    Annweiler, Cedric; Beauchet, Olivier; Bartha, Robert; Hachinski, Vladimir; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; ,

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin D is involved in brain physiology and lower-extremity function. We investigated spectroscopy in a cohort of older adults to explore the hypothesis that lower vitamin D status was associated with impaired neuronal function in caudal primary motor cortex (cPMC) measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Methods Twenty Caucasian community-dwellers (mean±standard deviation, 74.6±6.2 years; 35.0% female) from the ‘Gait and Brain Study’ were included in this ana...

  9. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF CLONIDINE AS AN ADJUNCT TO CAUDAL ROPIVACAINE IN PEDIATRIC INFRAUMBILICAL SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The addition of clonidine as an adjuvant has allowed the use of lower concentration of the local anaesthetic for achieving the same level of anaesthesia but with the prolonged duration of analgesia which increases the margin of safety and reduces the inci dence of unwanted motor blockades. With these facts in mind we undertook the study to compare the analgesic properties of 0.25% ropivacaine with the addition of clonidine (1 μ g/kg to that of ropivacaine 0.25% following caudal administration in children. ME THODS: After approval from ethical committee 60 children of age 1 - 10 yrs of ASA grade I or II undergoing elective sub umbilical surgeries were selected for the study. We gave caudal bloc k with 0.25% ropivacaine 1ml/kg +1ml normal saline for group R or 0.25% ropivacaine 1ml/kg + clonidine 1microgram/kg+1ml normal saline to make volume 1ml for group C. To perform caudal block all patient received IV injection glycopyrolate - 0.01mg/kg, IV injection midazolam - 0.1mg/kg and IV Injection ketamine - 1mg/kg. Hemodynam ic parameters were observed before, during and after the surgical procedure. Quality of surgical anesthesia & requirement of supplemental midazolam/ketamine were also noted. Duration of Post - operative analgesia, pain scores, level of sedation and side effe cts if any were looked for and duly recorded. RESULT: Duration of analgesia in group R was 6.45±0.52 hrs. and in group C was 13.01±0.89hrs i.e. significantly prolonged in group C (P<0.0001. Post - operative pain score and sedation score were also significan tly better in group C (P<0.0001. The quality of surgical analgesia was also significantly excellent in group C. Other vital parameters were not statistically significant in both the groups. CONCLUSION: Ropivacaine (0.25% with clonidine (1μg/kg in caudal block showed prolong duration of analgesia as well as better quality of surgical anaesthesia than plain ropivacaine (0.25% in pediatric patients without any

  10. Estudio de Impacto Ambiental de una minicentral hidroeléctrica de caudal fluyente

    OpenAIRE

    ROSELLÓ TORNERO, JAVIER

    2015-01-01

    [ES] En el presente trabajo se realiza el Estudio de Impacto Ambiental (EsIA) del proyecto de construcción/rehabilitación y posterior explotación de una minicentral hidroeléctrica de caudal fluyente en el río Tuéjar. Se pretende determinar la compatibilidad o incompatibilidad medioambiental de dicho proyecto. Con este propósito se ha realizado una completa búsqueda de información de todos los factores ambientales presentes en el lugar, recopilada en el Inventario Ambiental, y ...

  11. Hemodynamics are altered in the caudal artery of beef heifers fed different ergot alkaloid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G E; Strickland, J R; Looper, M L; Bush, L P; Schrick, F N

    2009-06-01

    Doppler ultrasonography was used to compare blood flow characteristics in the caudal artery of heifers fed diets with endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) noninfected (E-, 0 microg of ergovaline/g of DM), a 1:1 mixture of endophyte-infected and E- (E+E-; 0.39 microg of ergovaline/g of DM), or endophyte-infected (E+, 0.79 microg of ergovaline/g of DM) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) seed. Eighteen crossbred (Angus x Brangus) heifers [345 +/- 19 kg (SD)] were assigned to individual pens and fed chopped alfalfa hay plus a concentrate that contained E- tall fescue seed for 7 d during an adjustment period. A 9-d experimental period followed with feeding treatments of chopped alfalfa hay plus a concentrate with E+, E-, or E+E- seed being assigned randomly to pens. Doppler ultrasound measurements (caudal artery luminal area, peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, mean velocity, heart rate, and flow rate) and serum prolactin were monitored during the adjustment (3 baseline measures) and during the experimental period (7 measures). Statistical analyses compared proportionate differences between baseline and responses at 3, 27, 51, 75, 171, and 195 h from initial feeding of the experimental diets. Serum prolactin concentrations for E+ and E+E- diets were less (P < 0.001) than baseline concentrations beginning at 27 and 51 h, respectively, from initial feeding of the diets. Although baseline measures were taken when ambient temperatures were likely below thermoneutrality, caudal artery luminal cross-sectional area in E+ heifers had declined (P = 0.004) from baseline by 27 h and remained less (P < 0.02) until 195 h, and caudal artery luminal area declined (P = 0.004) in E+E- heifers from baseline by 51 h and remained less (P < 0.07) until 171 h. Blood flow rate was slower than the baseline rate at 51 h for E+ (P = 0.058) and E+E- (P = 0.02 heifers, but blood flow remained slower in E+E- heifers for 48 h, whereas it remained slower in E+ heifers for 96 h

  12. Constitutive activation with overexpression of the mTORC2-phospholipase D1 pathway in uterine leiomyosarcoma and STUMP: morphoproteomic analysis with therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Sadhna; Rodriguez, Michelle E; Shen, Qi; Duan, Xuizhen; Stanton, Melissa L; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Rongzhen; Brown, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is centrally involved in growth, survival and metabolism. In cancer, mTOR is frequently hyperactivated and is a clinically validated target for therapy and drug development. Biologically, mTOR acts as the catalytic subunit of two functionally distinct complexes, called mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) which is predominantly cytoplasmic in subcellular localization and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) which is both cytoplasmic and nuclear. mTORC1 is sensitive to the selective inhibitor rapamycin. By contrast, mTORC2 is relatively resistant to rapamycin. Moreover, its putative downstream effector, Akt phosphorylated on serine 473 represents a signal transduction pathway for tumor survival. Phospholipase D (PLD) and its product, phosphatidic acid (PA) have been implicated as an activator of mTOR signaling, including the direct phosphorylative activation of p70S6K atthreonine 389. The latter promotes cell cycle progression. In this study, we investigated the activation status and subcellular localization of mTOR and the relative expression of PLD1, as well as their downstream effectors in a spectrum of uterine smooth muscle tumors using normal myometria as controls. The results show significant activation with overexpression of phosphorylated mTORC2 complex in uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) and smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) as evidenced by nuclear localization of p-mTOR (Ser 2448) in ULMS>STUMP>uterine leiomyoma and normal myometria (p<0.05) and with overexpression of PLD1(p<0.05). Cor-relatively, there are overexpressions of nuclear p-Akt (Ser 473) and nuclear p-p70S6K (Thr 389) in ULMS and STUMP (p<0.05). The activation with overexpression of components of the mTORC2-PLD1 pathway in ULMS and to a lesser degree in STUMP provides insight into their tumorigenic mechanisms. Thus the development of therapies designed to target mTORC2 and PLD1 activity may be beneficial in treating ULMS. PMID:21326806

  13. Optical and elektron microscopy and GC/MS studies in identification of tree stumps from the Bílina open cast mine, Most Basin. Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkorová, Ivana; Havelcová, Martina; Matysová, Petra; Trejtnarová, Hana; Mach, K.; Šulc, Alexandr; Čermák, Ivo

    Porto Alegre : International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP) and The Society for organic Petrology (TSOP), 2009. P46/89. [Joint 61st ICCP/26th meeting, Gramado/Porto Alegre/Brazil, September 19th-26th 2009, Advances in Organic Petrology and Organic Geochemistry. 19.09.2009-26.09.2009, Gramado] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : tree stumps * huminite * biomarkers Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  14. Retraining the injured spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, V. R.; Leon, R. D.; Harkema, S. J.; Hodgson, J. A.; London, N.; Reinkensmeyer, D. J.; Roy, R. R.; Talmadge, R. J.; Tillakaratne, N. J.; Timoszyk, W.; Tobin, A.

    2001-01-01

    The present review presents a series of concepts that may be useful in developing rehabilitative strategies to enhance recovery of posture and locomotion following spinal cord injury. First, the loss of supraspinal input results in a marked change in the functional efficacy of the remaining synapses and neurons of intraspinal and peripheral afferent (dorsal root ganglion) origin. Second, following a complete transection the lumbrosacral spinal cord can recover greater levels of motor performance if it has been exposed to the afferent and intraspinal activation patterns that are associated with standing and stepping. Third, the spinal cord can more readily reacquire the ability to stand and step following spinal cord transection with repetitive exposure to standing and stepping. Fourth, robotic assistive devices can be used to guide the kinematics of the limbs and thus expose the spinal cord to the new normal activity patterns associated with a particular motor task following spinal cord injury. In addition, such robotic assistive devices can provide immediate quantification of the limb kinematics. Fifth, the behavioural and physiological effects of spinal cord transection are reflected in adaptations in most, if not all, neurotransmitter systems in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Evidence is presented that both the GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory systems are up-regulated following complete spinal cord transection and that step training results in some aspects of these transmitter systems being down-regulated towards control levels. These concepts and observations demonstrate that (a) the spinal cord can interpret complex afferent information and generate the appropriate motor task; and (b) motor ability can be defined to a large degree by training.

  15. Sirenomelia phenotype in bmp7;shh compound mutants: a novel experimental model for studies of caudal body malformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Garrido-Allepuz

    Full Text Available Sirenomelia is a severe congenital malformation of the lower body characterized by the fusion of the legs into a single lower limb. This striking external phenotype consistently associates severe visceral abnormalities, most commonly of the kidneys, intestine, and genitalia that generally make the condition lethal. Although the causes of sirenomelia remain unknown, clinical studies have yielded two major hypotheses: i a primary defect in the generation of caudal mesoderm, ii a primary vascular defect that leaves the caudal part of the embryo hypoperfused. Interestingly, Sirenomelia has been shown to have a genetic basis in mice, and although it has been considered a sporadic condition in humans, recently some possible familial cases have been reported. Here, we report that the removal of one or both functional alleles of Shh from the Bmp7-null background leads to a sirenomelia phenotype that faithfully replicates the constellation of external and internal malformations, typical of the human condition. These mutants represent an invaluable model in which we have analyzed the pathogenesis of sirenomelia. We show that the signaling defect predominantly impacts the morphogenesis of the hindgut and the development of the caudal end of the dorsal aortas. The deficient formation of ventral midline structures, including the interlimb mesoderm caudal to the umbilicus, leads to the approximation and merging of the hindlimb fields. Our study provides new insights for the understanding of the mechanisms resulting in caudal body malformations, including sirenomelia.

  16. Dinosaur speed demon: the caudal musculature of Carnotaurus sastrei and implications for the evolution of South American abelisaurids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Scott Persons

    Full Text Available In the South American abelisaurids Carnotaurus sastrei, Aucasaurus garridoi, and, to a lesser extent Skorpiovenator bustingorryi, the anterior caudal ribs project at a high dorsolateral inclination and have interlocking lateral tips. This unique morphology facilitated the expansion of the caudal hypaxial musculature at the expense of the epaxial musculature. Distinct ridges on the ventrolateral surfaces of the caudal ribs of Aucasaurus garridoi are interpreted as attachment scars from the intra caudofemoralis/ilio-ischiocaudalis septa, and confirm that the M. caudofemoralis of advanced South American abelisaurids originated from a portion of the caudal ribs. Digital muscle models indicate that, relative to its overall body size, Carnotaurus sastrei had a substantially larger M. caudofemoralis than any other theropod yet studied. In most non-avian theropods, as in many extant sauropsids, the M. caudofemoralis served as the primary femoral retractor muscle during the locomotive power stroke. This large investment in the M. caudofemoralis suggests that Carnotaurus sastrei had the potential for great cursorial abilities, particularly short-burst sprinting. However, the tightly interlocking morphology of the anterior caudal vertebrae implies a reduced ability to make tight turns. Examination of these vertebral traits in evolutionary context reveals a progressive sequence of increasing caudofemoral mass and tail rigidity among the Abelisauridae of South America.

  17. A comparison of the effectiveness of predictors of caudal block in children—swoosh test, anal sphincter tone, and heart rate response

    OpenAIRE

    Nandini M Dave; Madhu Garasia

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effectiveness of three predictors of successful caudal block in children, viz. swoosh test, heart rate response to injection, and laxity of anal sphincter tone. Aim: To improve the success rates of caudal block in children by identifying the best predictor. Background: Caudal blocks in children are placed after induction of anesthesia. Although simple to learn and perform, the success rate of the blocks may be variable especially in teaching hospitals where tra...

  18. Caudal duplication syndrome: imaging evaluation of a rare entity in an adult patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tianshen; Browning, Travis; Bishop, Kristen

    2016-03-01

    Several theories have been put forth to explain the complex yet symmetrical malformations and the myriad of clinical presentations of caudal duplication syndrome. Hereby, reported case is a 28-year-old female, gravida 2 para 2, with congenital caudal malformation who has undergone partial reconstructive surgeries in infancy to connect her 2 colons. She presented with recurrent left lower abdominal pain associated with nausea, vomiting, and subsequent feculent anal discharge. Imaging reveals duplication of the urinary bladder, urethra, and colon with with cloacal malformations and fistulae from the left-sided cloaca, uterus didelphys with separate cervices and vaginal canals, right-sided aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta, and dysraphic midline sacrococcygeal defect. Hydronephrosis of the left kidney with left hydroureter and inflammation of one of the colons were suspected to be the cause of the patient's acute complaints. She improved symptomatically over the course of her hospitalization stay with conservative treatments. The management for this syndrome is individualized and may include surgical intervention to fuse or excise the duplicated organs. PMID:26973727

  19. Caudal duplication syndrome: imaging evaluation of a rare entity in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianshen Hu, BS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several theories have been put forth to explain the complex yet symmetrical malformations and the myriad of clinical presentations of caudal duplication syndrome. Hereby, reported case is a 28-year-old female, gravida 2 para 2, with congenital caudal malformation who has undergone partial reconstructive surgeries in infancy to connect her 2 colons. She presented with recurrent left lower abdominal pain associated with nausea, vomiting, and subsequent feculent anal discharge. Imaging reveals duplication of the urinary bladder, urethra, and colon with with cloacal malformations and fistulae from the left-sided cloaca, uterus didelphys with separate cervices and vaginal canals, right-sided aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta, and dysraphic midline sacrococcygeal defect. Hydronephrosis of the left kidney with left hydroureter and inflammation of one of the colons were suspected to be the cause of the patient’s acute complaints. She improved symptomatically over the course of her hospitalization stay with conservative treatments. The management for this syndrome is individualized and may include surgical intervention to fuse or excise the duplicated organs.

  20. Caudal epidural analgesia using lidocaine alone or in combination with ketamine in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Azari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the analgesic effect of lidocaine and a combination of lidocaine and ketamine following epidural administration in dromedary camels. Ten 12–18-month-old camels were randomly divided into two equal groups. In group L, the animals received 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg and in group LK the animals received a mixture of 10% ketamine (1 mg/kg and 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg administered into the first intercoccygeal (Co1–Co2 epidural space while standing. Onset time and duration of caudal analgesia, sedation level and ataxia were recorded after drug administration. Data were analysed by U Mann-Whitney tests and significance was taken as p < 0.05. The results showed that epidural lidocaine and co-administration of lidocaine and ketamine produced complete analgesia in the tail, anus and perineum. Epidural administration of the lidocaine-ketamine mixture resulted in mild to moderate sedation, whilst the animals that received epidural lidocaine alone were alert and nervous during the study. Ataxia was observed in all test subjects and was slightly more severe in camels that received the lidocaine-ketamine mixture. It was concluded that epidural administration of lidocaine plus ketamine resulted in longer caudal analgesia in standing conscious dromedary camels compared with the effect of administering lidocaine alone.

  1. Manatee cerebral cortex: cytoarchitecture of the caudal region in Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, C D; Reep, R L

    1995-01-01

    In several brains of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, the architecture of caudal regions of cerebral cortex was examined in order to complete a map of cortical areas in the brain of this unique herbivore. Through observation of sections stained for Nissl substance, myelinated axons, acetylcholinesterase and cytochrome oxidase, we have identified 11 new cortical areas based on qualitative cytoarchitectural appearance and measurements of laminar thicknesses, for a total of 24 such cortical areas in manatee cerebral cortex. Some areas exhibit poorly differentiated laminae while in others there are 6 clearly demarcated layers, often with sublaminar organization. Some previously identified areas were found to extend into the region caudal to the vertically oriented lateral fissure. As in other mammalian brains, cortical areas in manatees are organized in concentric rings of allocortex, mesocortex, and isocortex. Putative functional roles have been assigned to most of the identified areas based on location, architecture, behavioral and anatomical considerations, and extrapolation from other taxa in which functional mapping has been done. PMID:7866767

  2. Cortical Connections of the Caudal Portion of Posterior Parietal Cortex in Prosimian Galagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepniewska, Iwona; Cerkevich, Christina M; Kaas, Jon H

    2016-06-01

    Posterior parietal cortex (PPC) of prosimian galagos includes a rostral portion (PPCr) where electrical stimulation evokes different classes of complex movements from different subregions, and a caudal portion (PPCc) where such stimulation fails to evoke movements in anesthetized preparations ( Stepniewska, Fang et al. 2009). We placed tracer injections into PPCc to reveal patterns of its cortical connections. There were widespread connections within PPCc as well as connections with PPCr and extrastriate visual areas, including V2 and V3. Weaker connections were with dorsal premotor cortex, and the frontal eye field. The connections of different parts of PPCc with visual areas were roughly retinotopic such that injections to dorsal PPCc labeled more neurons in the dorsal portions of visual areas, representing lower visual quadrant, and injections to ventral PPCc labeled more neurons in ventral portions of these visual areas, representing the upper visual quadrant. We conclude that much of the PPCc contains a crude representation of the contralateral visual hemifield, with inputs largely, but not exclusively, from higher-order visual areas that are considered part of the dorsal visuomotor processing stream. As in galagos, the caudal half of PPC was likely visual in early primates, with the rostral PPC half mediating sensorimotor functions. PMID:26088972

  3. Development of the caudal exoskeleton of the pliomerid trilobite Hintzeia plicamarginis new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, A.G.; Hughes, N.C.; Kopaska-Merkel, D. C.; Ludvigsen, R.

    2005-01-01

    The later juvenile ontogeny of the caudal plate of the early Ordovician pliomerid trilobite Hintzeia plicamarginis new species likely comprised an initial phase during which the rate of appearance of new segments subterminally exceeded that of segment release into the thorax, a short phase of constant segment numbers, and a later phase during which release occurred but in which no new segments appeared. A distinct terminal region became manifest in the second phase. During the second and third phases growth coefficients for individual segments were about 1.1-1.2 per instar. Although the shapes of segments varied during growth, the pattern of ontogenetic shape change appears to have been broadly similar among segments. This suggests an homonomous trunk segment morphology regardless of thoracic or caudal identity in maturity. These results imply that control of trunk exoskeletal segment appearance and articulation were decoupled in this trilobite, and that the terminal region had a distinct mature morphology. H. plicamarginis is described as a new species. ?? Blackwell Publishing, Inc.

  4. Parametric study of the swimming performance of a fish robot propelled by a flexible caudal fin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we aim to study the swimming performance of fish robots by using a statistical approach. A fish robot employing a carangiform swimming mode had been used as an experimental platform for the performance study. The experiments conducted aim to investigate the effect of various design parameters on the thrust capability of the fish robot with a flexible caudal fin. The controllable parameters associated with the fin include frequency, amplitude of oscillation, aspect ratio and the rigidity of the caudal fin. The significance of these parameters was determined in the first set of experiments by using a statistical approach. A more detailed parametric experimental study was then conducted with only those significant parameters. As a result, the parametric study could be completed with a reduced number of experiments and time spent. With the obtained experimental result, we were able to understand the relationship between various parameters and a possible adjustment of parameters to obtain a higher thrust. The proposed statistical method for experimentation provides an objective and thorough analysis of the effects of individual or combinations of parameters on the swimming performance. Such an efficient experimental design helps to optimize the process and determine factors that influence variability.

  5. SPLIT-APPENDIX TECHNIQUE: SURGICAL CHOICE FOR COMPLETE INCONTINENCE IN CAUDAL REGRESSION SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cerchia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the surgery for total continent reconstruction has been changed by the introduction of intermittent catheterized stoma with the purpose to preserve urinary tract function, urinary continence, elimination of fecal soiling, preservation of quality of life with complete self-sufficiency. We report a rare case of complete incontinence in caudal regression syndrome in whom the appendix was long enough to be divided for creation of both channels for the treatment of urinary and fecal incontinence. A 9-year-old male patient with complete incontinence in caudal regression syndrome was submitted to a Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy procedure (AV in conjunction with appendicocecostomy procedure (ACE. The appendix was divided into two different parts preserving adequate perfusion. Fecal continence was achieved for a period of 18-20 hours after a colonic irrigation with 500 ml of saline solution one time daily, while urinary continence was obtained after suburethral endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid (Deflux and intermittent catheterization every 3 hours with an evident reduction of upper urinary tract dilatation. The combination of ACE and Mitrofanoff principle have revolutionized the management of urinary and fecal incontinence in patients who are unable to utilize their urethra to keep themselves dry.

  6. Vasa, PL10, and Piwi gene expression during caudal regeneration of the polychaete annelid Alitta virens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozin, Vitaly V; Kostyuchenko, Roman P

    2015-06-01

    Polychaetes are famous for their outstanding ability to regenerate lost body parts. Moreover, these worms possess a number of ancestral features in anatomy, development, and genetics, making them particularly suitable for comparative studies. Thus, fundamental as well as new undisclosed so far features of regenerative processes may be revealed, using polychaetes as a model. In the present work, we aimed to analyze the molecular basis of caudal regeneration in the nereid polychaete Alitta virens (formerly Nereis virens). We focused on homologues genes of RNA helicases Vasa and PL10 and ncRNA-binding proteins Piwi. These markers are suggested to play a significant role in maintenance of undifferentiated state of primordial germ cells and multipotent stem cells across invertebrates. In normal conditions, A. virens homologues of Vasa, PL10, and Piwi were differentially expressed in the subterminal growth zone and germline cells. Caudal amputation induced expression of studied genes de novo, which further accompanies all steps of regeneration. An early appearance of the transcripts in wound epithelium and internal blastemal cells suggests involvement of these genes in the well-known cell dedifferentiation events that assure polychaete regeneration. Provided interpretation of the gene expression dynamics implies the primary restoration of the pygidium and growth zone, which promotes following segment formation. Obtained results are valuable as a molecular fingerprint of the alterations occurring in regulatory state of locally regenerating tissues. PMID:25772273

  7. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE HYDRODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF AN UNSYMMETRICAL FLAPPING CAUDAL FIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xi; SU Yu-min; WANG Zhao-li

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic performance of a caudal fin with unsymmetric flapping motion is carried out.The unsymmetrical motion is induced by adding a pitch bias or a heave bias.A numerical simulation program based on the unsteady panel method is developed to simulate the hydrodynamics of an unsymmetrical flapping caudal fin.A CFD code based on Navier-Stokes equations is used to analyze the flow field.Computational results of both the panel method and the CFD method indicate that the hydrodynamics are greatly affected by the pitch bias and the heave bias.The mean lateral force coefficient is not zero as in contrast with the symmetrical flapping motion.By increasing the pitch bias angle,the mean thrust force coefficient is reduced rapidly.By adding a heave bias,the hydrodynamic coefficients are separated as two parts:in one part,the amplitude is the heave amplitude plus the bias and in the other part,it is the heave amplitude minus the bias.Analysis of the flow field shows that the vortex distribution is not symmetrical,which generates the non-zero mean lateral force coefficient.

  8. Evaluación de la sensibilidad de los caudales máximos de diseño ante la influencia del cambio climático

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Yulia; CORREDOR, JORGE

    2009-01-01

    El calentamiento global producirá cambios en el patrón de precipitaciones de todo el planeta. Esto alterará el comportamiento de los caudales de los ríos. Al cambiar el régimen de caudales se produce no sólo un cambio en los valores medios sino también en los valores extremos. Los valores extremos representan los caudales mínimos de sequía hidrológica y los caudales máximos de las grandes avenidas. Estos últimos son importantes en el diseño estructural de los puentes que habilitan la intersec...

  9. MANAGEMENT OF LUMBAR SPINAL CANAL STENOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhergee G. S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Spinal stenosis is one of the most common conditions in the elderly. It is defined as a narrowing of the spinal canal. The term stenosis is derived from the Greek word for narrow, which is “Stenos”. The first description of this condition is attributed to Antoine portal in 1803. Verbiest is credited with coining the term spinal stenosis and the associated narrowing of the spinal canal as its potential cause. [1-10] Kirkaldy–Willis subsequently described the degenerative cascade in the lumbar spine as the cause for the altered anatomy and pathophysiology in spinal stenosis. [11-15] If compression does not occur, the canal should be described as narrow but not stenotic. Some studies defined lumbar spinal stenosis as a “narrowing of the osteoligamentous vertebral canal and/or the intervertebral foramina causing compression of the thecal sac and/or the caudal nerve roots; at a single vertebral level, narrowing may affect the whole canal or part of it” (Postacchini 1983. This definition distinguished between disc herniation and stenosis. [16] . The most common type of spinal stenosis is caused by degenerative arthritis of the spine. Hypertrophy and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament which usually are confined to the cervical spine, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH syndrome also may result in an acquired form of spinal stenosis. Congenital forms caused by disorders such as achondroplasia and dysplastic spondylolisthesis are much less common. Congenital spinal stenosis usually is central and is evident or imaging studies. Idiopathic congenital narrowing usually involves the anteroposterior dimension of the canal secondary to short pedicles; the patient otherwise is normal. In contrast, in achondroplasia, the canal is narrowed in the anteroposterior plane owing to shortened pedicles and in lateral dimension because of diminished interpedicular distance. Acquired forms of spinal stenosis usually are

  10. Modern spinal instrumentation. Part 1: Normal spinal implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general radiologist frequently encounters studies demonstrating spinal instrumentation, either as part of the patient's postoperative evaluation or as incidental to a study performed for another purpose. There are various surgical approaches and devices used in spinal surgery with an increased understanding of spinal and spinal implant biomechanics drives development of modern fixation devices. It is, therefore, important that the radiologist can recognize commonly used devices and identify their potential complications demonstrated on imaging. The aim of part 1 of this review is to familiarize the reader with terms used to describe surgical approaches to the spine, review the function and normal appearances of commonly used instrumentations, and understand the importance of the different fixation techniques. The second part of this review will concentrate on the roles that the different imaging techniques play in assessing the instrumented spine and the recognition of complications that can potentially occur.

  11. Spinal dysraphism: a review of neuroradiological features with embryological correlations and proposal for a new classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to review the neuroradiological features of spinal dysraphism and to correlate them with clinical findings and up-to-date embryological theory. We also aimed to formulate a working classification which might prove useful in clinical practice. We reviewed series of 986 children referred to our Spina Bifida Centre in the past 24 years. There were 353 children with open spinal (OSD) and 633 with closed (skin-covered) spinal (CSD) dysraphism. By far the most common open abnormality was myelomeningocele, and all patients with OSD had a Chiari II malformation. CSD was categorised clinically, depending on the presence of a subcutaneous mass in the back. CSD with a mass mainly consisted of lipomas with dural defects and meningoceles, and accounted for 18.8 % of CSD. CSD without a mass were simple (tight filum terminale, intradural lipoma) or complex (split cord malformations, caudal regression). Our suggested classification is easy to use and to remember and takes into account clinical and MRI features; we have found it useful and reliable when making a preoperative neuroradiological diagnosis in clinical practice. (orig.)

  12. Spinal dysraphism: a review of neuroradiological features with embryological correlations and proposal for a new classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortori-Donati, P.; Rossi, A. [Dept. of Paediatric Neuroradiology, G. Gaslini Children' s Research Hospital, Genova (Italy); Cama, A. [Dept. of Paediatric Neurosurgery, G. Gaslini Children' s Research Hospital, Genova (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Our purpose was to review the neuroradiological features of spinal dysraphism and to correlate them with clinical findings and up-to-date embryological theory. We also aimed to formulate a working classification which might prove useful in clinical practice. We reviewed series of 986 children referred to our Spina Bifida Centre in the past 24 years. There were 353 children with open spinal (OSD) and 633 with closed (skin-covered) spinal (CSD) dysraphism. By far the most common open abnormality was myelomeningocele, and all patients with OSD had a Chiari II malformation. CSD was categorised clinically, depending on the presence of a subcutaneous mass in the back. CSD with a mass mainly consisted of lipomas with dural defects and meningoceles, and accounted for 18.8 % of CSD. CSD without a mass were simple (tight filum terminale, intradural lipoma) or complex (split cord malformations, caudal regression). Our suggested classification is easy to use and to remember and takes into account clinical and MRI features; we have found it useful and reliable when making a preoperative neuroradiological diagnosis in clinical practice. (orig.)

  13. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula: clinical and radiological findings in 54 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Presentation of the clinical and radiological findings in spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVF) based on the experience in 54 patients. Material and Methods: Evaluation of patients' records and myelography (n = 23), MRI (n = 54) as well as conventional angiography (n = 54) with respect to history, symptoms, clinical and radiological results. Results: Clinically, a long history (mean 20 months) with progressive ascending paresis (100%), sensory deficits (93%) and loss of control over bladder and bowel function (89%) in male patients (78%) of advanced age (mean 60 years) indicates the disease. Typical signs in MRI are central cord hyperintensity (100%) with slight medullary distension (74%), contrast enhancement (79%) and distended perimedullary veins (89%), the latter being disclosed by myelography in 78% of cases. For diagnosis spinal angiography is necessary which most often shows a thoracic location of the fistula (69%), more than one feeding artery (67%) and caudal as well as rostral venous drainage (63%). Conclusion: MRI is superior to myelography to detect diagnostic signs of SDAVF in patients with typical clinical presentation. For definitive diagnosis spinal angiography is still indispensable. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of caudal dexamethasone with ropivacaine for post-operative analgesia in paediatric herniotomies: A randomised controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Choudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Caudal analgesia is one of the most popular regional blocks in paediatric patients undergoing infra-umbilical surgeries but with the drawback of short duration of action after single shot local anaesthetic injection. We evaluated whether caudal dexamethasone 0.1 mg/kg as an adjuvant to the ropivacaine improved analgesic efficacy after paediatric herniotomies. Methods: Totally 128 patients of 1–5 years age group, American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I and II undergoing elective inguinal herniotomy were randomly allocated to two groups in double-blind manner. Group A received 1 ml/kg of 0.2% ropivacaine caudally and Group B received 1 ml/kg of 0.2% ropivacaine, in which 0.1 mg/kg dexamethasone was added for caudal analgesia. Post operative pain by faces, legs, activity, cry and consolability tool score, rescue analgesic requirement and adverse effects were noted for 24 h. Results: Results were statistically analysed using Student's t-test. Pain scores measured at 1, 2, 4, and 6 h post-operative, were lower in Group B as compared to Group A. Mean duration of analgesia in Group A was 248.4 ± 54.1 min and in Group B was 478.046 ± 104.57 min with P = 0.001. Rescue analgesic requirement was more in Group A as compared to Group B. Adverse effects after surgery were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: Caudal dexamethasone added to ropivacaine is a good alternative to prolong post-operative analgesia with less pain score compared to caudal ropivacaine alone.

  15. Spinal muscular atrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darras, Basil T

    2015-06-01

    Spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) are hereditary degenerative disorders of lower motor neurons associated with progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Proximal 5q SMA is caused by decreased levels of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein and is the most common genetic cause of infant mortality. Its inheritance pattern is autosomal recessive, resulting from mutations involving the SMN1 gene on chromosome 5q13. Unlike other autosomal recessive diseases, the SMN gene has a unique structure (an inverted duplication) that presents potential therapeutic targets. Although there is currently no effective treatment of SMA, the field of translational research in this disorder is active and clinical trials are ongoing. Advances in the multidisciplinary supportive care of children with SMA also offer hope for improved life expectancy and quality of life. PMID:26022173

  16. The spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spinal cord develops initially as an invagination of the thickened ectodermal neural plate to form the neural groove. This is then closed over by the neural folds, which fuse first in the thoracic region, then progressively rostrad and caudad to form the neural tube. The neural tube is completely formed by the fourth fetal week and is separated from the overlying ectoderm by intervening mesoderm, part of which has simultaneously segmented into somites to become the vertebral column. The cartilaginous and ossifying neural arches of the vertebral column are completely developed and fused by the third month of fetal life. The fetal spine can be detected by US by 12 weeks of gestational age

  17. Chronic spinal subdural hematoma; Spinales chronisches subdurales Haematom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, T.; Lensch, T. [Radiologengemeinschaft, Augsburg (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Compared with spinal epidural hematomas, spinal subdural hematomas are rare; chronic forms are even more uncommon. These hematomas are associated not only with lumbar puncture and spinal trauma, but also with coagulopathies, vascular malformations and tumors. Compression of the spinal cord and the cauda equina means that the patients develop increasing back or radicular pain, followed by paraparesis and bladder and bowel paralysis, so that in most cases surgical decompression is carried out. On magnetic resonance imaging these hematomas present as thoracic or lumbar subdural masses, their signal intensity varying with the age of the hematoma. We report the clinical course and the findings revealed by imaging that led to the diagnosis in three cases of chronic spinal subdural hematoma. (orig.) [German] Spinale subdurale Haematome sind im Vergleich zu epiduralen Haematomen selten, chronische Verlaufsformen noch seltener. Ursaechlich sind neben Lumbalpunktionen und traumatischen Verletzungen auch Blutgerinnungsstoerungen, Gefaessmalformationen und Tumoren. Aufgrund der Kompression von Myelon und Cauda equina kommt es zu zunehmenden Ruecken- oder radikulaeren Schmerzen mit anschliessender Paraparese sowie einer Darm- und Blasenstoerung, weshalb in den meisten Faellen eine operative Entlastung durchgefuehrt wird. Magnetresonanztomographisch stellen sich die Haematome meist als thorakale bzw. lumbale subdurale Raumforderungen dar, die Signalintensitaet variiert mit dem Blutungsalter. Wir berichten ueber den klinischen Verlauf und die bildgebende Diagnostik von 3 Patienten mit spinalen chronischen subduralen Haematomen. (orig.)

  18. Tendencias en la distribución de probabilidades de lluvias y caudales en algunas cuencas Colombianas

    OpenAIRE

    Rave Herrera, Claudia Cristina; Mantilla Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Poveda Jaramillo, Germán

    2001-01-01

    Se examina la evolución temporal de los cuantíles de la función de distribución de probabilidad de registros de precipitación y caudal a nivel diario en Colombia, dentro de una búsqueda de señales de cambio climático. Se usan pruebas estadísticas de cambio en la media, en la varianza y de tendencias de las series de cuantíles. Las series de registros de lluvia y caudal corresponden a 10 departamentos de Colombia y se dividen en dos grupos según el periodo de registro. DISTRIBUCIONES...

  19. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF DEXMEDETOMEDINE AS AN ADJUNCT TO CAUDAL ROPIVACAINE IN PEDIATRIC INFRAUMBILICAL SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caudal epidural is one of the most popular reliable & safe technique mainly used for intra and post-op analgesia in pediatric patients undergoing infra umbilical surgeries. To prolong the duration of analgesia various adjuvants like epinephrine, opioids, ketamine, midazolam, tramadol, clonidine, were added to local anesthetic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of CAUDAL administration of plain Ropivacaine 0.2% (1miligram/kilogram body weight with and without dexmedetomedine (2 microgram/kilogram body weight in children undergoing infraumbilical surgeries; in terms of quality of surgical anesthesia and the duration of post-operative analgesia.

  20. Comparison of interlaminar epidural steroid versus caudal steroid injection for low back pain with radiculopathy due to disc prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Nikose

    2015-12-01

    Results: The change in pain scores were rated as mild, moderate and excellent. The interlaminar epidural steroid injection fared excellent in earlier follow up, getting to moderate at 12 weeks' time. The caudal steroid injection produced moderate relief in early phase at 12 weeks' time. Conclusions: The caudal steroid injection is cost effective, easy to administer and is having much less complications as compared to interlaminar steroid injection. Both these procedures are safe, well tolerated procedures, and can be performed as outpatient procedures. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3665-3671

  1. Modelos de predicción de caudales mensuales para el sector eléctrico colombiano.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Quintero, Ricardo Agustín; Vélez Upegui, Jaime Ignacio; Velásquez Henao, Juan David; Ceballos López, Adrian; Correa Velásquez, Paula Lizeth; Góez Arango , Catalina; Hernández Navarro, Olver Olfrey; Salazar Velásquez, Luis Fernando; Zapata Gómez, Elizabeth Catalina

    2004-01-01

    Se hace una breve descripción de cinco metodologías para la predicción de caudales medios mensuales en Colombia: Redes Neuronales Artificiales, Redes Adaptativas Neuro-Difusas, Análisis Espectral Singular, Modelo Estructural y Modelo físico y la aplicación de estos modelos en diferentes estaciones de medición de caudal pertenecientes al sistema de Generación de Energía Eléctrica de Colombia.

  2. Estimación de Caudales Máximos en Contexto de Cambio Climático

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal Gómez, Andrés Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la importancia de considerar análisis no estacionarios para la estimación de caudales máximos en Colombia. Con el fin de debatir la hipótesis de estacionariedad, se hicieron análisis de tendencias en series se caudales máximos en Colombia y en la cuenca del Río Amazonas, donde se encontró que para el 63% de las 130 estaciones analizadas en la cuenca del Río Amazonas y el 70% de las 20 estaciones analizadas en Colombia no se cumple la hipótesis de esta...

  3. Corticotrigeminal projections from the insular cortex to the trigeminal caudal subnucleus regulate orofacial pain after nerve injury via extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in insular cortex neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian eWang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cortical neuroplasticity alterations are implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic orofacial pain. However, the relationship between critical cortex excitability and orofacial pain maintenance has not been fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated a top-down corticospinal descending pain modulation pathway from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC to the spinal dorsal horn that could directly regulate nociceptive transmission. Thus, we aimed to investigate possible corticotrigeminal connections that directly influence orofacial nociception in rats. Infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI induced significant orofacial nociceptive behaviors as well as pain-related negative emotions such as anxiety/depression in rats. By combining retrograde and anterograde tract tracing, we found powerful evidence that the trigeminal caudal subnucleus (Vc, especially the superficial laminae (I/II, received direct descending projections from granular and dysgranular parts of the insular cortex (IC. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, an important signaling molecule involved in neuroplasticity, was significantly activated in the IC following IoN-CCI. Moreover, in IC slices from IoN-CCI rats, U0126, an inhibitor of ERK activation, decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and reduced the paired-pulse ratio (PPR of Vc-projecting neurons. Additionally, U0126 also reduced the number of action potentials in the Vc-projecting neurons. Finally, intra-IC infusion of U0126 obviously decreased Fos expression in the Vc, accompanied by the alleviation of both nociceptive behavior and negative emotions. Thus, the corticotrigeminal descending pathway from the IC to the Vc could directly regulate orofacial pain, and ERK deactivation in the IC could effectively alleviate neuropathic pain as well as pain-related negative emotions in IoN-CCI rats, probably through this top-down pathway. These

  4. Depression and Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Washington-operated SCI Clinics: Harborview Medical Center Rehabilitation Medicine Clinic 325 9th Ave., Seattle WA 98104 Spinal Cord Injury Clinic nurses: 206-744-5862 University of Washington ...

  5. Transcutaneous Spinal Direct Current Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cogiamanian, Filippo; Ardolino, Gianluca; Vergari, Maurizio; Ferrucci, Roberta; Ciocca, Matteo; Scelzo, Emma; Barbieri, Sergio; Priori, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    In the past 10 years renewed interest has centered on non-invasive transcutaneous weak direct currents applied over the scalp to modulate cortical excitability (“brain polarization” or transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS). Extensive literature shows that tDCS induces marked changes in cortical excitability that outlast stimulation. Aiming at developing a new, non-invasive, approach to spinal cord neuromodulation we assessed the after-effects of thoracic transcutaneous spinal DC stim...

  6. Traumatic lumbar spinal subdural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Gordon

    2014-12-01

    Our case illustrates rapid resolution of a posttraumatic spinal SDH after treatment with oral corticosteroids. Recognition of blood products on MRI is vital to diagnosis and expedient treatment. There is agreement that prompt laminectomy with evacuation of SDH should be performed before permanent damage to the spinal cord occurs. Including our patient, 4 of 11 reported cases of thoracic or lumbar SDH resolved with conservative treatment.

  7. Effect of intravenous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on neurotransmitters and synapsins in rats with spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaoqiang Chen; Bilian Wu; Jianhua Lin

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated,purified and cultured in vitro by Percoll density gradient centrifugation combined with the cell adherence method.Passages 3-5 bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into rats with traumatic spinal cord injury via the caudal vein.Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scores indicate that neurological function of experimental rats was significantly improved over transplantation time (1-5 weeks).Expressions of choline acetyltransferase,glutamic acid decarboxylase and synapsins in the damaged spinal cord of rats was significantly increased after transplantation,determined by immunofluorescence staining and laser confocal scanning microscopy.Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells that had migrated into the damaged area of rats in the experimental group began to express choline acetyltransferase,glutamic acid decarboxylase and synapsins,3 weeks after transplantation.The Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scores positively correlated with expression of choline acetyltransferase and synapsins.Experimental findings indicate that intravenously transplanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells traverse into the damaged spinal cord of rats,promote expression of choline acetyltransferase,glutamic acid decarboxylase and synapsins,and improve nerve function in rats with spinal cord injury.

  8. Scaling effects in caudal fin propulsion and the speed of ichthyosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motani, Ryosuke

    2002-01-17

    Four unrelated groups of large cruising vertebrates (tunas, whales, lamnid sharks and parvipelvian ichthyosaurs) evolved tuna-shaped (thunniform) body plans. Stringent physical constraints, imposed by the surrounding fluids, are probably responsible for this example of evolutionary convergence. Here I present a mathematical model of swimming kinematics and fluid mechanics that specifies and quantifies such constraints, and test the model with empirical data. The test shows quantitatively that morphology, kinematics, and physiology indeed covary tightly in large cruisers. The model enables calculations of optimal cruising speed from external measurements, and also predicts that wide caudal fin spans, typical of thunniform swimmers, are necessary for large cruisers. This finding is contrary to a popular yet rather teleological view that thunniform tails were selected for their high aspect ratios that increased propulsive efficiency. I also show by calculation that Stenopterygius, a Jurassic ichthyosaur, probably had optimal cruising speeds and basal metabolic rates similar to living tunas. PMID:11797005

  9. The effectiveness of the cranio-caudal mammogram projection among radiologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Phuong Dung (Yun); Lee, Warwick; Tapia, Kriscia; Brennan, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the single cranio-caudal (CC) mammogram in comparison with traditional two projection mammography for breast cancer detection. Sixteen radiologists were invited to report 60 two-projection (MLO and CC) mammograms of the left and right breasts of which 20 cases contained cancer. Participants searched for the presence of breast lesion(s) on each view and provided a confidence score. Sensitivity, lesion sensitivity and specificity were compared between the CC projection versus the two projection approach among different groups of readers. Results showed that expert readers needed only single CC mammogram in their reading while non-expert readers required two-projection mammography.

  10. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations

  11. Hemodynamic responses of the caudal artery to toxic tall fescue in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G E; Kirch, B H; Strickland, J R; Bush, L P; Looper, M L; Schrick, F N

    2007-09-01

    Color Doppler ultrasonography was used to compare blood flow characteristics in the caudal artery of heifers fed diets with endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected (E+) or noninfected (E-) tall fescue seed. Eighteen crossbred (Angus x Brangus) heifers were assigned to 6 pens and were fed chopped alfalfa hay for 5 d and chopped alfalfa hay plus a concentrate that contained E-tall fescue seed for 9 d during an adjustment period. An 11-d experimental period followed, with animals in 3 pens fed chopped alfalfa hay plus a concentrate with E+ seed and those in the other 3 pens fed chopped hay plus concentrate with E E- seed. Color Doppler ultrasound measurements (caudal artery area, peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, mean velocity, heart rate, stroke volume, and flow rate) and serum prolactin were monitored during the adjustment (baseline measures) and during the experimental period. Three baseline measures were collected on d 3, 5, and 6 during the adjustment period for comparison to post E+ seed exposure. Statistical analyses compared the proportionate differences between baseline and response at 4, 28, 52, 76, 100, 172, and 268 h from initial feeding of E+ seed. Serum prolactin concentrations on both diets were lower (P 0.10) to the baseline for 172 and 268 h measures. Blood flow in E+ heifers was consistently lower than the baseline from 4 (P 0.10) from baseline measures during the experimental period. Results indicated that onset of toxicosis was within 4 h of cattle exposure to E+ tall fescue and is related to vasoconstriction and reduction in heart rate. PMID:17526671

  12. Conserved size and periodicity of pyramidal patches in layer 2 of medial/caudal entorhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Robert K; Ray, Saikat; Prokop, Stefan; Las, Liora; Heppner, Frank L; Brecht, Michael

    2016-03-01

    To understand the structural basis of grid cell activity, we compare medial entorhinal cortex architecture in layer 2 across five mammalian species (Etruscan shrews, mice, rats, Egyptian fruit bats, and humans), bridging ∼100 million years of evolutionary diversity. Principal neurons in layer 2 are divided into two distinct cell types, pyramidal and stellate, based on morphology, immunoreactivity, and functional properties. We confirm the existence of patches of calbindin-positive pyramidal cells across these species, arranged periodically according to analyses techniques like spatial autocorrelation, grid scores, and modifiable areal unit analysis. In rodents, which show sustained theta oscillations in entorhinal cortex, cholinergic innervation targeted calbindin patches. In bats and humans, which only show intermittent entorhinal theta activity, cholinergic innervation avoided calbindin patches. The organization of calbindin-negative and calbindin-positive cells showed marked differences in entorhinal subregions of the human brain. Layer 2 of the rodent medial and the human caudal entorhinal cortex were structurally similar in that in both species patches of calbindin-positive pyramidal cells were superimposed on scattered stellate cells. The number of calbindin-positive neurons in a patch increased from ∼80 in Etruscan shrews to ∼800 in humans, only an ∼10-fold over a 20,000-fold difference in brain size. The relatively constant size of calbindin patches differs from cortical modules such as barrels, which scale with brain size. Thus, selective pressure appears to conserve the distribution of stellate and pyramidal cells, periodic arrangement of calbindin patches, and relatively constant neuron number in calbindin patches in medial/caudal entorhinal cortex. PMID:26223342

  13. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Thomas R; Wu, Ted H; Finger, Adam G; Cañas, Jaclyn E; Yu, Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A; McMurry, Scott T

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n=25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n=6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations. PMID:17182086

  14. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.rainwater@tiehh.ttu.edu; Wu, Ted H. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Yu Lu [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Reynolds, Kevin D. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Barr, Brady [National Geographic Channel, 1145 17th St. NW Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States); Cobb, George P. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  15. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor 99mTc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and 67Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [18F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including radiolabelled

  16. Imaging corticospinal tract connectivity in injured rat spinal cord using manganese-enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEI) offers a novel neuroimaging modality to trace corticospinal tract (CST) in live animals. This paper expands this capability further and tests the utility of MEI to image axonal fiber connectivity in CST of injured spinal cord (SC). A rat was injured at the thoracic T4 level of the SC. The CST was labeled with manganese (Mn) injected intracortically at two weeks post injury. Next day, the injured SC was imaged using MEI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) modalities. In vivo MEI data obtained from cervical SC confirmed that CST was successfully labeled with Mn. Ex vivo MEI data obtained from excised SC depicted Mn labeling of the CST in SC sections caudal to the lesion, which meant that Mn was transported through the injury, possibly mediated by viable CST fibers present at the injury site. Examining the ex vivo data from the injury epicenter closely revealed a thin strip of signal enhancement located ventrally between the dorsal horns. This enhancement was presumably associated with the Mn accumulation in these intact fibers projecting caudally as part of the CST. Additional measurements with DTI supported this view. Combining these preliminary results collectively demonstrated the feasibility of imaging fiber connectivity in experimentally injured SC using MEI. This approach may play important role in future investigations aimed at understanding the neuroplasticity in experimental SCI research

  17. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas; Spinale durale arteriovenoese Fisteln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thron, A. [Abt. Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum der RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    The spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is an important cause of a slowly progressive sensorimotor transverse lesion in mostly elderly patients. The disease affects men in 80% of the cases. Per year and per 1 Million inhabitants only 5-10 new cases of the disease have to be expected. Although rare, the serious disease should not be missed. Diagnosis can be made by MRI and spinal angiography. The result of treatment depends on early diagnosis. The arteriovenous shunt is located within the dural layer of the spinal canal. It connects branches of a radiculomeningeal artery with the veins of the spinal cord. Spinal cord supplying vessels are not primarily involved. Arterialisation of the venous part of the spinal cord circulation results in a chronic congestive myelopathy, which can well be demonstrated by MR imaging. The role of selective spinal angiography is to detect and exactly localize the site of the avshunt, which is rather difficult in some cases. Therapeutic alternatives are effective embolization of the fistula with liquid agents or surgical dysconnection. (orig.) [German] Die spinale durale arteriovenoese Fistel (SDAVF) ist eine wichtige Ursache fuer eine sich langsam, aber progredient entwickelnde Querschnittslaehmung des meist aelteren Patienten. 80% der Betroffenen sind Maenner. Die Erkrankungshaeufigkeit ist mit 5-10 Neuerkrankungen/1 Mio. Einwohner/Jahr zwar selten. Die unbehandelt ernste Prognose sowie die Tatsache, dass diese Erkrankung diagnostizierbar ist und der Erfolg der Behandlung von einer moeglichst fruehzeitigen Diagnosestellung abhaengt, machen sie jedoch zu einer wichtigen Erkrankung. Die der Erkrankung zugrundeliegende arteriovenoese Gefaessfehlverbindung ist in der Dura mater des Rueckenmarks gelegen. Ihre Ursache ist ungeklaert, sie ist vermutlich erworben wie die ihr aehnlichen arteriovenoesen Fisteln in der harten Hirnhaut des Schaedels. Im Gegensatz zu den angeborenen arteriovenoesen Gefaessmissbildungen zwischen

  18. Pitch Variability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; van Doorn, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) pitch characteristics of connected speech in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The authors evaluated 16 patients preoperatively and 12 months after DBS surgery. Eight…

  19. In vitro and in vivo responses of saccular and caudal nucleus neurons in the grassfrog (Rana temporaria)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Walkowiak, W

    1999-01-01

    We present results from in vitro and in vivo studies of response properties of neurons in the saccular and caudal nuclei in the frog. In the in vitro studies the saccular nerve of the isolated brain was stimulated with electrical pulses. In the in vivo experiments, the neurons were stimulated...

  20. Clinical picture of spinal tumors; Klinik spinaler Raumforderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, F. [Helios-Kliniken, Neurologische Klinik, Schwerin (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    Spinal tumors may present with symptoms such as pain and motor and sensory deficits. Sphincter dysfunction may also occur. The clinical picture depends upon the size and localization of the tumor in relation to the cross section and the height along the longitudinal axis of the spinal cord. Typical symptoms due to transverse damage of the spinal cord are complete lesion, Brown-Sequard syndrome, a lesion of the central spinal cord, and posterior cord syndrome. Tetraparesis, spastic, or flaccid paraparesis result from lesions at the cervical spine, thoracic spine, or below the first lumbar vertebral body, respectively. (orig.) Schmerzen, Paresen und Sensibilitaetsstoerungen stellen die wesentlichen und haeufigen Symptome spinaler Raumforderungen dar. Blasen- und Mastdarmstoerungen sind weitere moegliche Symptome. Ausdehnungen der Raumforderungen im Querschnitt und im Hinblick auf die Laengsachse des Rueckenmarks bestimmen das klinische Bild. Kompletter Querschnitt, Brown-Sequard-Syndrom, zentrale Rueckenmarkschaedigung und Hinterstrangsyndrom sind haeufige Auspraegungen entsprechend der Querschnittslaesion. Tetraparese, spastische oder schlaffe Paraparese resultieren aus Laesionen in Hoehe HWS, BWS bzw. unterhalb von LWK1. (orig.)

  1. Ecology and caudal skeletal morphology in birds: the convergent evolution of pygostyle shape in underwater foraging taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan N Felice

    Full Text Available Birds exhibit a specialized tail that serves as an integral part of the flight apparatus, supplementing the role of the wings in facilitating high performance aerial locomotion. The evolution of this function for the tail contributed to the diversification of birds by allowing them to utilize a wider range of flight behaviors and thus exploit a greater range of ecological niches. The shape of the wings and the tail feathers influence the aerodynamic properties of a bird. Accordingly, taxa that habitually utilize different flight behaviors are characterized by different flight apparatus morphologies. This study explores whether differences in flight behavior are also associated with variation in caudal vertebra and pygostyle morphology. Details of the tail skeleton were characterized in 51 Aequornithes and Charadriiformes species. Free caudal vertebral morphology was measured using linear metrics. Variation in pygostyle morphology was characterized using Elliptical Fourier Analysis, a geometric morphometric method for the analysis of outline shapes. Each taxon was categorized based on flight style (flap, flap-glide, dynamic soar, etc. and foraging style (aerial, terrestrial, plunge dive, etc.. Phylogenetic MANOVAs and Flexible Discriminant Analyses were used to test whether caudal skeletal morphology can be used to predict flight behavior. Foraging style groups differ significantly in pygostyle shape, and pygostyle shape predicts foraging style with less than 4% misclassification error. Four distinct lineages of underwater foraging birds exhibit an elongate, straight pygostyle, whereas aerial and terrestrial birds are characterized by a short, dorsally deflected pygostyle. Convergent evolution of a common pygostyle phenotype in diving birds suggests that this morphology is related to the mechanical demands of using the tail as a rudder during underwater foraging. Thus, distinct locomotor behaviors influence not only feather attributes but also

  2. Spontaneous regression and recurrence of primary low-grade B-cell gastric lymphoma on the gastric stump 15 and 20 years after gastroresection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentimone, F; Moncini, C; Pastine, F; Gerini, A; Lucchesi, Q

    2002-09-01

    The recurrence of primary gastric lymphoma (PGL) on the gastric stump after gastroresection is rare. We describe the case of an 84-year-old man who had recurrences 15 and 20 years after a Billroth I gastrectomy. The concordance of the three gastric biopsies showing a low grade B-cell lymphocytic lymphoma of the mucosa-associated tissue, demonstrated the recurrence of the disease. The patient has serological evidence of Helicobacter pylori infection but the eradication therapy had no effect on the evolution of the disease. The case suggests that PGL is really a particular entity in the non-Hodgkin's lymphoma group, characterized by a long spontaneous natural history, with long lasting spontaneous remissions and recurrences. PMID:12094145

  3. Spinal cord stimulation or prostacyclin in unrevascularizable arteriopathy of lower limbs (SPINAL study: interim analysis results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedrini L

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Luciano Pedrini,1 Maria Sandra Ballestrazzi,1 Fabio Chierichetti,2 Luigi Comandatore,3 Filippo Magnoni,1 Reinhold Perkmann,4 Tommaso Castrucci,5 Domenico Palombo6On behalf of the SPINAL Study Group1Operative Unit of Vascular Surgery, Maggiore Hospital of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; 2Operative Unit of Vascular Surgery, Circle Hospital of Busto Arsizio, Busto Arsizio, Italy; 3Operative Unit of Vascular Surgery, AEO Morelli of Sondalo, Sondalo, Italy; 4Operative Unit of Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, Hospital of Bolzano, Bolzano, Italy; 5Operative Unit of Vascular Surgery of Sant'Eugenio Hospital, Rome, Italy; 6Operative Unit of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, IRCCS San Martino, Genoa, ItalyObjective: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy and the safety of spinal cord stimulation (SCS plus medical treatment versus iloprost plus medical treatment in patients with severe unrevascularizable ischemia of the lower limbs due to atherosclerotic disease of the limbs and to identify predictive parameters for a positive outcome of SCS.Methods: A multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT with central randomization and core laboratory evaluation of angiography, subdivided into two treatment arms (SCS and iloprost and two subgroups (rest pain and ulcer/gangrene. After the 15-day clinical efficacy evaluation, responder patients continued follow-up in their arm, while nonresponders could change arms or decline participation. The primary endpoint was 1-year limb salvage. Principal secondary endpoints were: survival rate; minor amputations and stump healing; ulcer healing; pain relief and analgesic intake; and predictive criteria for SCS treatment.Results: The trial was stopped at 35.6% of the expected sample due to low accrual rate. Fifty-two patients (55 legs entered the study. At the 15-day efficacy evaluation, responders (reduced pain, no increase of ulcer area comprised 74% of the SCS arm and 26% of the iloprost arm, (P=0.003. Nine

  4. Suicide in a spinal cord injured population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartkopp, A; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Seidenschnur, A M;

    1998-01-01

    To determine the relation between functional status and risk of suicide among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI).......To determine the relation between functional status and risk of suicide among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI)....

  5. Lentivirus-mediated PGC-1α overexpression protects against traumatic spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianzhong; Lang, Ye; Zhang, Tao; Ni, Shuangfei; Lu, Hongbin

    2016-07-22

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) is a crucial neuronal regulator in the brain. However, its role in the spinal cord and the underlying regulating mechanisms remain poorly understood. Our previous study demonstrated that PGC-1α is significantly down-regulated following acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. The current study aimed to explore the effects of PGC-1α overexpression on the injured spinal cord by establishing a contusive SCI model in adult Sprague-Dawley rats, followed by immediate intraspinal injection of lentiviral vectors at rostral and caudal sites 3mm from the lesion epicenter. Hindlimb motor function was monitored using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan Locomotor Rating Scale (BBB scores), and cords were collected. Transfection efficiency analysis showed that lentivirus successfully induced enhanced PGC-1α expression. This resulted in attenuated apoptotic changes and a greater number of surviving spinal neurons, as determined by transmission electron microscopy and Nissl staining, respectively. Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses revealed increased growth-associated protein 43 and 5-hydroxytryptamine expression, two key markers of axonal regeneration. Importantly, BBB scores showed improved hindlimb motor functional recovery. Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated significantly inhibited RhoA, ROCK1, and ROCK2 mRNA expression, revealing a potential mechanism of PGC-1α overexpression following traumatic SCI. Altogether, these results suggest that gene delivery of PGC-1α exerts a significant neuroprotective effect following traumatic SCI, which could serve as a promising treatment for repair of the injured cord, and RhoA-ROCK pathway inhibition may partially underlie this neuroprotection. PMID:27132229

  6. Exciting innovations for the spinally injured

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, K.J.; McLean, A.N.

    2002-01-01

    Spinal injury can be devastating, resulting, as it often does, in some paralysis and loss of sensation. Engineering plays an important role in spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Here, the authors survey current research into the uses of functional electrical stimulation to improve the quality of life of spinally injured people. Touching on the area of spinal cord repair and nerve regeneration, they also consider the question of whether technology can help paraplegics to take steps again.

  7. Syringomyelia Associated with a Spinal Arachnoid Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Seong-Ho

    2009-01-01

    While syringomyelia is not a rare spinal disorder, syringomyelia associated with a spinal arachnoid cyst is very unusual. Here, we report a 62-year-old man who suffered from gait disturbance and numbness of bilateral lower extremities. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the presence of a spinal arachnoid cyst between the 7th cervical and 3rd thoracic vertebral segment and syringomyelia extending between the 6th cervical and 1st thoracic vertebral segment. The cyst had compressed t...

  8. Recurrent Spinal Meningioma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hoi Jung; Paeng, Sung Hwa; Kim, Sung Tae; Jung, Yong Tae

    2012-01-01

    Meningiomas are the second most common intradural spinal tumors accounting for 25% of all spinal tumors. Being a slow growing and invariably benign tumor, it responds favorably to surgical excision. In addition, spinal meningioma has low recurrence rates. However, we experienced a case of intradural extramedullary spinal meningioma which recurred 16 years after the initial surgery on a 64-year-old woman. She presented with progressive neurological symptoms and had a surgical history of remova...

  9. Radiosurgery of Spinal Meningiomas and Schwannomas

    OpenAIRE

    Kufeld, M; Wowra, B.; Muacevic, A.; Zausinger, Stefan; Tonn, Jörg-Christian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to analyze local control, clinical symptoms and toxicity after image-guided radiosurgery of spinal meningiomas and schwannomas. Standard treatment of benign spinal lesions is microsurgical resection. While a few publications have reported about radiosurgery for benign spinal lesions, this is the first study analyzing the outcome of robotic radiosurgery for benign spinal tumors, treated exclusively with a non-invasive, fiducial free, single-fraction setup. Thirty-six p...

  10. Langerhans cell histiocytosis with multiple spinal involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Liang; Liu, Xiao Guang; Zhong, Wo Quan; Ma, Qing Jun; Wei, Feng; Yuan, Hui Shu; Dang, Geng Ting; Liu, Zhong Jun

    2010-01-01

    To stress the clinical and radiologic presentation and treatment outcome of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) with multiple spinal involvements. A total of 42 cases with spinal LCH were reviewed in our hospital and 5 had multifocal spinal lesions. Multiple spinal LCH has been reported in 50 cases in the literature. All cases including ours were analyzed concerning age, sex, clinical and radiologic presentation, therapy and outcome. Of our five cases, three had neurological symptom, four sof...

  11. Nuclear magnetic imaging for MTRA. Spinal canal and spinal cord; Magnetresonanztomographie fuer MTRA. Spinalkanal und Wirbelsaeule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsch, Dominik; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie

    2011-07-01

    The booklet covers the following topics: (1) Clinical indications for NMR imaging of spinal cord and spinal canal; (2) Methodic requirements: magnets and coils, image processing, contrast media: (3) Examination technology: examination conditions, sequences, examination protocols; (4) Disease pattern and indications: diseases of the myelin, the spinal nerves and the spinal canal (infections, tumors, injuries, ischemia and bleedings, malformations); diseases of the spinal cord and the intervertebral disks (degenerative changes, infections, injuries, tumors, malformations).

  12. Primary Dural Spinal Lymphoma Presentation of a Rare Spinal Tumor Case

    OpenAIRE

    Dilber Ayçiçek Çeçen; Necati Tatarlı; Hikmet Turan Süslü; Selçuk Özdoğan; Nagehan Özdemir Barışık

    2015-01-01

    Background. Primary spinal dural lymphomas (PSDL) are tumors with characteristic histopathology of a lymphoma, which are completely in the spinal epidural space without any other systemic involvement. Extranodal primary lymphoma involving nervous system prefers thalamus/basal ganglia, periventricular region, cerebellum, eyes, meninges/dura, and cranial nerves or spinal cord. Rare spinal localization with acute spinal cord compression is worth attention. Case Presentation. A 48-year-old male p...

  13. Unusual presentation of spinal lipomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephenson W

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available William Stephenson,1 Matthew J Kauflin2,3 1Primary Care, Huntington Veteran's Affairs Medical Center, Huntington, WV, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy, Grandview Medical Center, Dayton, Ohio, OH, USA; 3Ohio Northern University, Ada, Ohio, OH, USA Abstract: Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL is a rare condition characterized by overgrowth of normal adipose tissue in the extradural space within the spinal canal that can lead to significant spinal cord compression. It is most commonly reported in patients receiving chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Other causes can include obesity and hypercortisolism. Occasionally, idiopathic SEL will occur in patients with no known risk factors, but cases are more generally reported in obesity and males. We present the case of a 35 year-old non-obese woman found to have rapidly progressive SEL that was not associated with any of the common causes of the disorder. Keywords: lipomatosis, laminectomy, hypercortisolism

  14. Recurrent Primary Spinal Hydatid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Turk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary hydatid disease of spine is rare and spinal hydatitosis constitute only 1% of all hydatitosis. We report a case of recurrent primary intraspinal extradural hydatid cyst of the thoracic region causing progressive paraparesis. The patient was operated 16 years ago for primary spinal hydatid disease involvement and was instrumented dorsally for stabilization. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of thoracic spine showed a cystic lesion at T11-12 level and compressed spinal cord posterolaterally. Intraspinal cyst was excised through T11-12 laminectomy which made formerly. The early postoperative period showed a progressive improvement of his neurological deficit and he was discharged with antihelmintic treatment consisting of albendazole and amoxicillin-sulbactam combination. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 84-89

  15. FAQs about Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Care? Emergency Medical Services Hospital (Acute) Care Rehabilitation More FAQs about Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) If you or a loved one is ... spinal cord injury? What recovery is expected following spinal cord injury? Where is the ... on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR grant number 90SI5005). NIDILRR is a ...

  16. Motorcycle-related spinal injury: crash characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkipli, Zarir Hafiz; Abdul Rahmat, Abdul Manap; Mohd Faudzi, Siti Atiqah; Paiman, Noor Faradila; Wong, Shaw Voon; Hassan, Ahamedali

    2012-11-01

    This study presents an analysis of crash characteristics of motorcyclists who sustained spinal injuries in motorcycle crashes. The aim of the study is to identify the salient crash characteristics that would help explain spinal injury risks for motorcyclists. Data were retrospectively collected from police case reports that were archived at MIROS from year 2005 to 2007. The data were categorized into two subcategories; the first group was motorcycle crashes with spinal injury (case) and the second group was motorcycle crashes without spinal injury (control). A total of 363 motorcyclists with spinal injury and 873 motorcyclists without spinal injury were identified and analyzed. Descriptive analysis and multivariate analysis were performed in order to determine the odds of each characteristic in contributing to spinal injury. Single vehicle crash, collision with fixed objects and crash configuration were found to have significant influence on motorcyclists in sustaining spinal injury (p<0.05). Although relatively few than other impact configurations, the rear-end impacted motorcyclist shows the highest risk of spinal injury. Helmets have helped to reduce head injury but they did not seem to offer corresponding protection for the spine in the study. With a growing number of young motorcyclists, further efforts are needed to find effective measures to help reduce the crash incidents and severity of spinal injury. In sum, the study provides some insights on some vital crash characteristics associated with spinal injury that can be further investigated to determine the appropriate counter-measures and prevention strategies to reduce spinal injury. PMID:23036400

  17. Evaluation of spinal cord injury animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Zhang; Marong Fang; Haohao Chen; Fangming Gou; Mingxing Ding

    2014-01-01

    Because there is no curative treatment for spinal cord injury, establishing an ideal animal model is important to identify injury mechanisms and develop therapies for individuals suffering from spinal cord injuries. In this article, we systematically review and analyze various kinds of animal models of spinal cord injury and assess their advantages and disadvantages for further studies.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: spinal muscular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... accumulate and impair the normal function of motor neurons. Other types of spinal muscular atrophy that primarily affect the lower legs and feet and the lower arms and hands are caused by the dysfunction of neurons in the spinal cord. When spinal muscular atrophy ...

  19. TWIK-Related Spinal Cord K+ Channel Expression Is Increased in the Spinal Dorsal Horn after Spinal Nerve Ligation

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Hee Youn; Zhang, Enji; Park, Sangil; Chung, Woosuk; Lee, Sunyeul; Kim, Dong Woon; Ko, Youngkwon; Lee, Wonhyung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The TWIK-related spinal cord K+ channel (TRESK) has recently been discovered and plays an important role in nociceptor excitability in the pain pathway. Because there have been no reports on the TRESK expression or its function in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in neuropathic pain, we analyzed TRESK expression in the spinal dorsal horn in a spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model. Materials and Methods We established a SNL mouse model by using the L5-6 spinal nerves ligation. We used re...

  20. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF CAUDAL EPIDURAL STEROID INJECTIONS IN MANAGING LUMBAR DISC PROLAPSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhrubajyoti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lumber disc prolapse as a cause of back and leg pain is quite a common presentation at a pain clinic which results in significant disability & overall loss of productive work. This study is an uncontrolled, prospective study that included 25 patients (15 m ales and 10 females during the period 2013 – 2014 with signs and symptoms of back pain associated with lumber disc prolapsed with lumbar radiculopathy, in whom conservative treatment of least 6 weeks had failed. The present study was undertaken with the aim to observe the effectiveness of caudal epidural injection of a combination of depomedrol ( M ethyl prednisolone acetate along with a local anesthetic (0.5% bupivacaine in relieving symptoms of lumbar disc prolapse with radiculopathy. Quantitative assessme nt was done for back pain & leg pain separately using the visual analogue scale and the functional disability was measured using oswestry disability index (ODI before the procedure and at regular intervals after the procedure for a period of 6 months. All the patients had an ODI more than 40% before the procedure . At 24 hours, significant pain relief was seen in all the patients. After 3 weeks, symptomatic improvement was seen in 100.0% (25/25 patients of the cases, with good results in 68.0% (17/25, ODI 0 - 20% and fair result (ODI 20 - 40% in 32.0% (8/25 patients. At 6 months follow up, 60.0% (15 patients/25 of patients showed functional improvement of which with good results were seen in 52.0% (13/25 and fair result in 8.0% (2/25 and poor results in 40.0% (10/25. None of the patients had any major complications. Thus, it can be concluded that caudal epidural steroid injections are one of the safe and effective modality of treatment in back pain associated with lumbar disc prolapse with good short ter m results and possibly long term in some patients.

  1. A COMPARISON OF RECTAL DICLOFENAC WITH CAUDAL LEVOBUPIVACAINE FOR POST OPERATIVE PAIN RELIEF IN CHILDREN FOLLOWING LOWER ABDOMINAL OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya De

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. . Adequate pain relief reduces the stress response and pain relief through epidural route. Caudal epidural analgesia is very commonly practiced technique in children with levobupivacaine. Rectal administration of diclofenac in children is safe and convenient route and su s tained action of this drug provides analgesia in early and late post - operative period. AIMS: The aim of the study is to compare post - operative analgesic effect of rectal diclofenac with caudal levobupivacaine. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Hundred children were a llocated randomly in two groups in equal numbers using generated randomisation chart. All the patients underwent general anaesthesia. At the conclusion of surgery group A (n=50 received caudal injection of 1ml/kg of 0.25% levobupivacaine. The patients we re put left lateral and 23 gauge 25 mm long , short bevelled needle was used for this purpose. Group B (N=50 received a suppository of diclofenac sodium 2.5mg/kg. All anaesthesia , caudal block and suppository insertion was performed by the same anaesthet ist. No information on the method of analgesia or the study group to which the children belong was given to the ward nurse for post - operative observation. Syr. Paracetamol was as post - operative rescue analgesic as 15 mg/kg orally. The ward nurse assessed pain according to the observer pain scale. Assessment was undertaken in four occasions , 1 , 3 and 6 hours post operatively and overnight. If the patient were comfortable without any complain , they were discharged in the in following morning after completion of 24 hours. RESULT AND ANALYSIS: Statistical analysis of the data for pain and use of post - operative analgesic was done by chi - square test analysis with yati’s correction. Intergroup comparision of parametricv data were made by using student un paired t test. P<0.05 was considered to be significant.100 patients were grouped as Group C

  2. Letak Conus Medularis terhadap Vertebra Menggunakan Hasil Pencitraan Magnetic Resonance Imaging di Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung untuk Anestesi Spinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfitriani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The position of conus medullaris is important to be identified by anesthesiologists during spinal anesthesia to avoid serious spinal cord trauma risk. Conus medullaris can be accurately identified through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI images. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of conus medullaris in Indonesians through a descriptive observation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI images of lumbosacral. The locations of conus medullaris were observed retrospectively on 135 MRI images scanned, aged 18–65 years, during the period of January 2013 to March 2014 at the Departement of Radiology, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. From this study, it was revealed that the conus medullaris are mostly located at the middle third of L1, ranging from the middle third of T12 to the lower third of L2. With gender as a parameter, it was shown that the distribution of conus medullaris in women tends to be more caudal than in men

  3. Comparison of commonly used retrograde tracers in rat spinal motor neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-lai Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of four fluorescent dyes, True Blue (TB, Fluoro-Gold (FG, Fluoro-Ruby (FR, and 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI, in retrograde tracing of rat spinal motor neurons. We transected the muscle branch of the rat femoral nerve and applied each tracer to the proximal stump in single labeling experiments, or combinations of tracers (FG-DiI and TB-DiI in double labeling experiments. In the single labeling experiments, significantly fewer labeled motor neurons were observed after FR labeling than after TB, FG, or DiI, 3 days after tracer application. By 1 week, there were no significant differences in the number of labeled neurons between the four groups. In the double-labeling experiment, the number of double-labeled neurons in the FG-DiI group was not significantly different from that in the TB-DiI group 1 week after tracer application. Our findings indicate that TB, FG, and DiI have similar labeling efficacies in the retrograde labeling of spinal motor neurons in the rat femoral nerve when used alone. Furthermore, combinations of DiI and TB or FG are similarly effective. Therefore, of the dyes studied, TB, FG and DiI, and combinations of DiI with TB or FG, are the most suitable for retrograde labeling studies of motor neurons in the rat femoral nerve.

  4. Evolutionary multiobjective design of a flexible caudal fin for robotic fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Anthony J; Tan, Xiaobo; McKinley, Philip K

    2015-12-01

    Robotic fish accomplish swimming by deforming their bodies or other fin-like appendages. As an emerging class of embedded computing system, robotic fish are anticipated to play an important role in environmental monitoring, inspection of underwater structures, tracking of hazardous wastes and oil spills, and the study of live fish behaviors. While integration of flexible materials (into the fins and/or body) holds the promise of improved swimming performance (in terms of both speed and maneuverability) for these robots, such components also introduce significant design challenges due to the complex material mechanics and hydrodynamic interactions. The problem is further exacerbated by the need for the robots to meet multiple objectives (e.g., both speed and energy efficiency). In this paper, we propose an evolutionary multiobjective optimization approach to the design and control of a robotic fish with a flexible caudal fin. Specifically, we use the NSGA-II algorithm to investigate morphological and control parameter values that optimize swimming speed and power usage. Several evolved fin designs are validated experimentally with a small robotic fish, where fins of different stiffness values and sizes are printed with a multi-material 3D printer. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed design approach in balancing the two competing objectives. PMID:26601975

  5. Anatomic atlas for computed tomography in the mesaticephalic dog: caudal abdomen and pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to produce a comprehensive anatomic atlas of CT anatomy of the dog for use by veterinary radiologists, clinicians, and surgeons. Whole-body CT images of two mature beagle dogs were made with the dogs supported in sternal recumbency and using a slice thickness of 13 mm. At the end of the CT session, each dog was euthanized, and while carefully maintaining the same position, the body was frozen. The body was then sectioned at 13-mm intervals, with the cuts matched as closely as possible to the CT slices. The frozen sections were cleaned, photographed, and radiographed using xeroradiography. Each CT image was studied and compared with its corresponding xeroradiograph and anatomic section to assist in the accurate identification of specific structures. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled in the three corresponding photographs (CT image, xeroradiograph, and anatomic section). In previous papers, the head and neck, and the thorax and cranial abdomen of the mesaticephalic (beagle) dog were presented. In this paper, the caudal part of the abdomen and pelvis of the bitch and male dog are presented

  6. Microarray analysis in caudal medulla of cattle orally challenged with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, L M; Basu, U; Williams, J L; Moore, S S; Guan, L L

    2011-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal disorder in cattle characterized by progressive neurodegeneration of the central nervous system. We investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration during prion infection through the identification of genes that are differentially expressed (DE) between experimentally infected and non-challenged cattle. Gene expression of caudal medulla from control and orally infected animals was compared by microarray analysis using 24,000 bovine oligonucleotides representing 16,846 different genes to identify DE genes associated with BSE disease. In total, 182 DE genes were identified between normal and BSE-infected tissues (>2.0-fold change, P apoptosis, and cytoskeleton organization; 13 of these genes were found to be involved in 26 different Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The expression of five DE genes associated with synapse function (tachykinin, synuclein, neuropeptide Y, cocaine, amphetamine-responsive transcript, and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa) and three DE genes associated with calcium ion regulation (parvalbumin, visinin-like, and cadherin) was further validated in the medulla tissue of cattle at different infection times (6, 12, 42, and 45 months post-infection) by qRT-PCR. These data will contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuropathology in bovine species. PMID:22033911

  7. Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into Medial Ganglionic Eminence vs. Caudal Ganglionic Eminence cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sandra; Kim, Tae-Gon; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Chung, Sangmi

    2016-05-15

    Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represent an opportunity to study human development in vitro, to model diseases in a dish, to screen drugs as well as to provide an unlimited and ethically unimpeded source of therapeutic cells. Cortical GABAergic interneurons, which are generated from Medial Ganglionic Eminence (MGE) cells and Caudal Ganglionic Eminence (CGE) cells during embryonic development, regulate cortical neural networks by providing inhibitory inputs. Their malfunction, resulting in failure to intricately regulate neural circuit balance, has been implicated in brain diseases, such as schizophrenia, autism and epilepsy. In this study, using combinatorial and temporal modulation of developmentally relevant dorsoventral and rostrocaudal signaling pathways, we efficiently generated MGE cells vs. CGE cells from human PSCs, which predominantly generate Parvalbumin-expressing or Somatostatin-expressing interneurons vs. Calretinin-expressing interneurons, respectively. Efficient generation of specific differentiated progenies of hPSCs as shown in this study will be a pivotal step to realize the full potential of hPSCs for regenerative medicine, developmental studies, disease modeling, bioassay, and drug screening. PMID:26364591

  8. Caudal regression syndrome (sirenomelia and its pathogenesis correlation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanadondi Usha Rani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormal development of caudal region of the body with different degrees of fusion of lower extremities, bears resemblance of Sirenomelia or mermaid of Greek Mythology. This type of deformity is also known as Symmelia, Symposia, Sympus, Uromelia and Monopodia. It is associated with the single umbilical artery. It is associated with severe malformations of urogenital i.e. renal agenesis and absence of both internal and external genitalia. The aim of this study is to present, a rare congenital malformation Sirenomelia. In this context, we report a case of Sirenomelia illustrating the prenatal sonographic and pathological features. In our study 25 years old primigravida gave birth to still born full term baby, sex could not be identified. The specimen was collected from private nursing home at Ongole, no relevant history of consanguineous marriage or tobacco smoking or drugs taking etc. Fetal USG, X-ray and CT were taken after birth. Fetal autopsy was done; the gonad, thymus and umbilical cord were sent to histopathological examination. The etiopathogenesis and characteristic features of Sirenomelia were discussed with the findings and review of the literature. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3406-3411

  9. Variation in Spot and Stripe Patterns in Original and Regenerated Zebrafish Caudal Fins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anorve-Andress, Kyle; Arcand, Amy Lucille; Borg, Bethanie R; Brown, Jayce Lee; Chartrand, Caitlin A; Frank, Marisohn L; Jansen, Jedediah N; Joyce, Michael J; Joyce, Michael T; Kinney, Joseph A; Kruggel, Spencer Lee; Lecy, Amanda D; Ma, Phyo; Malecha, Katchen M; Melgaard, Kelsey; Miller, Paula L; Nelson, Kristina K; Nieto Robles, Marvin; Perosino, Tianna Ruth; Peterson, Jenna Marie; Rollins, April Diane; Scherkenbach, Whitney Lee; Smith, Andrea L; Sodergren, Kelsey A; Stiller, Jacob Jo; Wehber, Kevin R; Liang, Jennifer Ostrom

    2016-08-01

    Tissue regeneration requires not only the replacement of lost cells and tissues, but also the recreation of morphologies and patterns. Skin pigment pattern is a relatively simple system that can allow researchers to uncover the underlying mechanisms of pattern formation. To gain insight into how pigment patterns form, undergraduate students in the senior level course Developmental Biology designed an experiment that assayed pigment patterns in original and regenerated caudal fins of wild-type, striped, and mutant, spotted zebrafish. A majority of the WT fins regenerated with a similar striped pattern. In contrast, the pattern of spots even in the original fins of the mutants varied among individual fish. Similarly, the majority of the spots in the mutants did not regenerate with the same morphology, size, or spacing as the original fins. This was true even when only a small amount of fin was removed, leaving most of the fin to potentially reseed the pattern in the regenerating tissue. This suggests that the mechanism that creates the wild-type, striped pattern persists to recreate the pattern during regeneration. The mechanism that creates the spots in the mutants, however, must include an unknown element that introduces variability. PMID:27096743

  10. Variabilidad de las anomalías y de la escala de fluctuación de caudales medios mensuales con el área de la cuenca.

    OpenAIRE

    Góez Arango , Catalina; Poveda Jaramillo, Germán

    2005-01-01

    Se estudia la variabilidad de las anomalías de caudales medios mensuales y la variabilidad de la escala de fluctuación con el área de la cuenca de drenaje, usando registros históricos de caudales medios mensuales en las cuencas de los ríos Magdalena-Cauca en Colombia y Tocantins-Purus en Brasil. Las anomalías se definen como las desviaciones de los caudales con respecto a la media del mes, escalados por la desviación típica mensual. Se efectuaron análisis de correlación entre las series de an...

  11. DETERMINACIÓN DEL CAUDAL AMBIENTAL Y SU RELACIÓN CON VARIABLES INDICADORAS DE CALIDAD DEL RECURSO HÍDRICO

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Fernando Casanova O.; Apolinar Figueroa C.

    2014-01-01

    El objeto de esta investigación es la determinación del caudal ambiental en la subcuenca del río Las Piedras y su correlación con diferentes variables fisicoquímicas e índices de calidad del agua. Inicialmente se realizó la determinación del caudal ambiental utilizando una aproximación a la metodología para la determinación del caudal ambiental en proyectos licenciados de Colombia, los cuales son aquellos que de acuerdo con la ley y reglamentos puedan producir deterioro g...

  12. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula: clinical and radiological findings in 54 patients; Die spinale durale arteriovenoese Fistelerkrankung (SDAVF): klinische und radiologische Befunde von 54 Patienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, C.; Kucinski, T.; Eckert, B.; Zeumer, H. [Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf (Germany); Roether, J. [Klinik fuer Neurologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    Purpose: Presentation of the clinical and radiological findings in spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVF) based on the experience in 54 patients. Material and Methods: Evaluation of patients' records and myelography (n = 23), MRI (n = 54) as well as conventional angiography (n = 54) with respect to history, symptoms, clinical and radiological results. Results: Clinically, a long history (mean 20 months) with progressive ascending paresis (100%), sensory deficits (93%) and loss of control over bladder and bowel function (89%) in male patients (78%) of advanced age (mean 60 years) indicates the disease. Typical signs in MRI are central cord hyperintensity (100%) with slight medullary distension (74%), contrast enhancement (79%) and distended perimedullary veins (89%), the latter being disclosed by myelography in 78% of cases. For diagnosis spinal angiography is necessary which most often shows a thoracic location of the fistula (69%), more than one feeding artery (67%) and caudal as well as rostral venous drainage (63%). Conclusion: MRI is superior to myelography to detect diagnostic signs of SDAVF in patients with typical clinical presentation. For definitive diagnosis spinal angiography is still indispensable. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Darstellung der klinischen und radiologischen Befunde der spinalen duralen arteriovenoesen Fistelerkrankung (SDAVF) anhand von 54 diagnostizierten Faellen. Methoden: Auswertung der Krankengeschichten und der radiologischen Untersuchungsbefunde (23 Myelographien, 54 Magnetresonanztomographien, 54 Katheterangiographien) hinsichtlich Anamnese, klinischer Symptome und krankheitsspezifischer Befunde. Ergebnisse: Lange Anamnesedauer (Mittelwert 20 Monate) mit progredienten, aufsteigenden Paresen (100%), Sensibilitaetsstoerungen (93%) und Blasen-Mastdarmstoerungen (89%) bei maennlichen Patienten (78%) im fortgeschrittenen Lebensalter (Mittelwert 60 Jahre) weisen auf die Krankheit hin. Typische Befunde der MRT sind eine zentrale

  13. Muscle after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Bo; Kristensen, Ida Bruun; Kjaer, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    The morphological and contractile changes of muscles below the level of the lesion after spinal cord injury (SCI) are dramatic. In humans with SCI, a fiber-type transformation away from type I begins 4-7 months post-SCI and reaches a new steady state with predominantly fast glycolytic IIX fibers...

  14. Spinal trauma. An imaging approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of trauma to the spine - where the slightest oversight may have catastrophic results - requires a thorough grasp of the spectrum of resultant pathology as well as the imaging modalities used in making an accurate diagnosis. In Spinal Trauma, the internationally renowned team of experts provides a comprehensive, cutting-edge exposition of the current vital role of imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of injuries to the axial skeleton. Beginning with a valuable clinical perspective of spinal trauma, the book offers the reader a unique overview of the biomechanics underlying the pathology of cervical trauma. Acute trauma topics include: - Optimization of imaging modalities - Malalignment - signs and significance - Vertebral fractures - detection and implications - Classification of thoraco-lumbar fractures - rationale and relevance - Neurovascular injury. Distilling decades of clinical and teaching expertise, the contributors further discuss the current role of imaging in special focus topics, which include: - The pediatric spine - Sports injuries - The rigid spine - Trauma in the elderly - Vertebral collapse, benign and malignant - Spinal trauma therapy - Vertebral fractures and osteoporosis - Neuropathic spine. All throughout the book, the focus is on understanding the injury, and its implications and complications, through 'an imaging approach'. Lavishly illustrated with hundreds of superb MR images and CT scans, and clear full-color drawings, the authors conclude with a look into the future, defining clinical trends and research directions. Spinal Trauma - with its broad scope, practical imaging approach, and current focus - is designed to enhance confidence and accuracy, making it essential reading for clinicians and radiologists at all levels. (orig.)

  15. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxoplasmosis is the most common brain parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Spinal cord localizations are still rare (2 cases with cerebral involvement, 2 cases without). A case of both spinal cord and cerebral involvement is reported. Magnetic resonance imaging (MR imaging) was performed because of sensory level (L 1). A focal conus medullaris enlargement was seen, iso intense on T 1 weighted images. This lesion was hyperintense on T 2 weighted sequence, and was homogeneously enhanced after Gadolinium on T 1 weighted images. A medullary oedema was noted. A toxoplasmosis treatment was initiated, without cortico therapy. MR imaging performed one month later (D 30), while important clinical improvements were seen, pointed out normal thickness of conus medullaris, without enhancement after Gadolinium. Disease lesions in AIDS with focal spinal cord processes are reviewed, and diagnostic work-up is discussed. Spinal cord single lesion, associated or not with brain involvements should be treated as a toxoplasmic infection, with MR imaging follow up. This work up should avoid medullary biopsy, still required in case of treatment failure. Cerebral involvements, with multiples lesions can mask medullary localization. (authors). 8 refs., 2 figs

  16. Efecto del cambio ambiental global sobre los caudales medios y extremos en la cuenca del Río Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Pérez, Andrés Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Resumen: Se estiman los caudales medios y extremos en toda la red de drenaje de la cuenca del Río Amazonas, mediante la combinación de la ecuación de balance hídrico de largo plazo y la teoría del escalamiento estadístico, suponiendo la validez de la hipótesis de estacionariedad. Utilizando la metodología de regresión por cuantiles, se observó que la función de distribución de probabilidad de los caudales anuales exhibe tendencia para cada uno de sus cuantiles, lo cual contradice esta hipótes...

  17. Hydrodynamics of a robotic fish tail: effects of the caudal peduncle, fin ray motions and the flow speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ziyu; Yang, Xingbang; Wang, Tianmiao; Wen, Li

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in understanding fish locomotion with robotic devices have included the use of biomimetic flapping based and fin undulatory locomotion based robots, treating two locomotions separately from each other. However, in most fish species, patterns of active movements of fins occur in concert with the body undulatory deformation during swimming. In this paper, we describe a biomimetic robotic caudal fin programmed with individually actuated fin rays to mimic the fin motion of the Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) and coupled with heave and pitch oscillatory motions adding to the robot to mimic the peduncle motion which is derived from the undulatory fish body. Multiple-axis force and digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experiments from both the vertical and horizontal planes behind the robotic model were conducted under different motion programs and flow speeds. We found that both mean thrust and lift could be altered by changing the phase difference (φ) from 0° to 360° between the robotic caudal peduncle and the fin ray motion (spanning from 3 mN to 124 mN). Notably, DPIV results demonstrated that the caudal fin generated multiple wake flow patterns in both the vertical and horizontal planes by varying φ. Vortex jet angle and thrust impulse also varied significantly both in these two planes. In addition, the vortex shedding position along the spanwise tail direction could be shifted around the mid-sagittal position between the upper and lower lobes by changing the phase difference. We hypothesize that the fish caudal fin may serve as a flexible vectoring propeller during swimming and may be critical for the high maneuverability of fish. PMID:26855405

  18. Sirenomelia phenotype in Bmp7;Shh compound mutants: A novel experimental model for studies of caudal body malformations

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido-Allepuz, Carlos; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Ros, María A.

    2012-01-01

    Sirenomelia is a severe congenital malformation of the lower body characterized by the fusion of the legs into a single lower limb. This striking external phenotype consistently associates severe visceral abnormalities, most commonly of the kidneys, intestine, and genitalia that generally make the condition lethal. Although the causes of sirenomelia remain unknown, clinical studies have yielded two major hypotheses: i) a primary defect in the generation of caudal mesoderm, ii) a primary vascu...

  19. Comparison of preemptive intravenous paracetamol and caudal block in terms of analgesic and hemodynamic parameters in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serbülent Gökhan Beyaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Paracetamol has a widespread use for feverand symptomatic relief of pain in children. The aim ofthis study was to compare analgesic effects of preemptiveintravenous (i.v. paracetamol, and caudal block withlevobupivacaine.Materials and methods: A total of 60 children with ASAI-II physical status, aged 5-15 years and undergoing inguinalhernia repair, were randomly allocated to threegroups so that each group contained 20 patients. Group Pchildren received i.v. 15mg/kg paracetamol. Group C receivedonly caudal block with levobupivacaine, and GroupPC received both i.v. paracetamol, and caudal block withlevobupivacaine. Pain level assessed by modified EasternOntario Children’s Hospital pain scale (mCHEOPs,sedation status by Ramsey sedation scale at postoperative5, 15, 30 min and 1,3, and 6th hours.Results: No significant differences were found in age,gender distribution, body weight, ASA status, type andduration of surgery between three groups (p>0.05. Althoughsignificant difference were found in mCHEOPsscores within groups by repeated measures, no differenceof pain scores was observed between three groups(p>0.05. There were no significant differences in the hemodynamicparameters (heart rate, blood pressure bothwithin groups and between groups (p>0.05.Conclusions: Preemptive intravenous paracetamol hadsimilar analgesic effects compared with caudal block withlevobupivacaine with regard to postoperative pain scoresin children undergoing inguinal hernia repair. No hemodynamicor other adverse effects were observed withintravenous paracetamol. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(2:202-208

  20. Biomechanics of Degenerative Spinal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Justin A.; Jakoi, Andre M.

    2016-01-01

    The spine has several important functions including load transmission, permission of limited motion, and protection of the spinal cord. The vertebrae form functional spinal units, which represent the smallest segment that has characteristics of the entire spinal column. Discs and paired facet joints within each functional unit form a three-joint complex between which loads are transmitted. Surrounding the spinal motion segment are ligaments, composed of elastin and collagen, and joint capsules which restrict motion to within normal limits. Ligaments have variable strengths and act via different lever arm lengths to contribute to spinal stability. As a consequence of the longer moment arm from the spinous process to the instantaneous axis of rotation, inherently weaker ligaments (interspinous and supraspinous) are able to provide resistance to excessive flexion. Degenerative processes of the spine are a normal result of aging and occur on a spectrum. During the second decade of life, the intervertebral disc demonstrates histologic evidence of nucleus pulposus degradation caused by reduced end plate blood supply. As disc height decreases, the functional unit is capable of an increased range of axial rotation which subjects the posterior facet capsules to greater mechanical loads. A concurrent change in load transmission across the end plates and translation of the instantaneous axis of rotation further increase the degenerative processes at adjacent structures. The behavior of the functional unit is impacted by these processes and is reflected by changes in the stress-strain relationship. Back pain and other clinical symptoms may occur as a result of the biomechanical alterations of degeneration. PMID:27114783

  1. Comparison of Postoperative Analgesic Efficacy of Penile Block, Caudal Block and Intravenous Paracetamol for Circumcision: A prospective Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Hakan Haliloglu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate the postoperative analgesic efficacy of penile block, caudal block and intravenous paracetamol administration following circumcision. Materials and Methods In this prospective randomized study a total of 159 patients underwent circumcision under general anesthesia at urology clinic of Ufuk University Faculty of Medicine and Sorgun State Hospital between May 2012 and September 2012. The patients were randomized to three groups to receive penile block (Group 1, caudal block (Group 2 and intravenous paracetamol administration (group 3. Pain measurement of the patients was done via CHEOPS scoring system at 30,60,120 and 180 minutes postoperatively and compared. Statistical tests were performed with a conventional statistics program and statistical significance was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results The mean age of the patients was 5.7 years. Patients in group 1 had significantly lower pain score at 30 minutes compared to other two groups. At 60 minutes groups 1 and 2 had significantly lower score compared to group 3. At 120 and 180 minutes no difference between the groups was observed. No significant major complications were observed in all 3 groups. Conclusion Penile block and caudal block provide similar pain scores and painless postoperative periods after circumcision under general anesthesia. Intravenous paracetamol is insufficient at the early postoperative period. The three procedures were shown to be safe for analgesia following circumcision.

  2. Effects of calmodulin and calmodulin inhibitors on Ca uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum of saponin skinned caudal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmodulin (CaM) stimulates plasma membrane transport in many cell types, however, its role in Ca regulation by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in smooth muscle has not been established. 45Ca uptake was studied in saponin skinned strips of rat caudal artery as a function of CaM and the CaM inhibitors, W-7, calmidazolium (CaMZ), and trifluoperazine (TFP). Although caudal artery strips lose approximately 30% of total tissue CaM during skinning, 0.3 - 2 μM CaM did not increase 45Ca uptake over a wide range of free Ca concentrations (10-8 - 10-6M). Neither W-7 nor CaMZ at concentration of 10-4 - 2 x 10-4M inhibited the MgATP-dependent Ca uptake. Ca uptake was not affected by 50 μM TFP but a significant inhibition was produced by 500 μM. Studies of the effects of TFP on 45Ca efflux indicated that TFP concentrations which inhibited Ca uptake also significantly increased the rate of Ca release. The results suggest that total Ca uptake in caudal artery depends mainly upon MgATP and is not modulated by exogenous CaM or affected by these CaM inhibitors. They cannot preclude that CaM may affect initial velocities or that the CaM inhibitors failed to reach active sites

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CAUDAL ROPIVACAINE AND ROPIVACAINE - CLONIDINE COMBINATION IN PAEDIATRIC UROGENITAL SURGERIES FOR POST - OPERATIVE ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Addition of clonidine to ropivacaine (0.2% can potentially enhance analgesia without producing prolonged motor blockade. The aim of the study was to compare the post - operative pain relieving quality of ropivacaine (0.2% and clonidine mixture to that of p lain ropivacaine (0.2% following caudal block in children’s. OBJECTIVE: In this study I examined the quality, post - operative analgesia and haemodynamics effects in children when clonidine is added to ropivacaine for urogenital surgeries in caudal anaesthe sia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this clinical trial, 30 children’s aged 1 - 10 years who were candidates for elective urogenital surgeries were studied. Induction and maintenance of anaesthesia were achieved using propofol, sevoflurane and nitrous oxide. Child ren were randomly divided into 2 groups in double blind fashion, and were given caudal block with 0.2% ropivacaine (1ml/kg alone and ropivacaine plus clonidine 2mcg/kg. Haemodynamic parameters were observed before, during and after the surgical procedure. Post - operative analgesia evaluated using FLACC score and sedation was assessed using Ramsey sedation scale. Paracetamol was given orally for cases with FLACC score 4 or more. RESULTS: Duration of analgesia was found to be significantly longer in the group given ropivacaine plus clonidine. CONCLUSIONS: I concluded that addition of clonidine to ropivacaine prolongs the duration of post - operative analgesia without any respiratory or heamodynamic side - effects.

  4. Effects of calmodulin and calmodulin inhibitors on Ca uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum of saponin skinned caudal artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, M.A.; Silver, P.J.

    1986-03-05

    Calmodulin (CaM) stimulates plasma membrane transport in many cell types, however, its role in Ca regulation by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in smooth muscle has not been established. /sup 45/Ca uptake was studied in saponin skinned strips of rat caudal artery as a function of CaM and the CaM inhibitors, W-7, calmidazolium (CaMZ), and trifluoperazine (TFP). Although caudal artery strips lose approximately 30% of total tissue CaM during skinning, 0.3 - 2 ..mu..M CaM did not increase /sup 45/Ca uptake over a wide range of free Ca concentrations (10/sup -8/ - 10/sup -6/M). Neither W-7 nor CaMZ at concentration of 10/sup -4/ - 2 x 10/sup -4/M inhibited the MgATP-dependent Ca uptake. Ca uptake was not affected by 50 ..mu..M TFP but a significant inhibition was produced by 500 ..mu..M. Studies of the effects of TFP on /sup 45/Ca efflux indicated that TFP concentrations which inhibited Ca uptake also significantly increased the rate of Ca release. The results suggest that total Ca uptake in caudal artery depends mainly upon MgATP and is not modulated by exogenous CaM or affected by these CaM inhibitors. They cannot preclude that CaM may affect initial velocities or that the CaM inhibitors failed to reach active sites.

  5. Experimental Model of Proximal Junctional Fracture after Multilevel Posterior Spinal Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Levasseur, Annie; Parent, Stefan; Petit, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    There is a high risk of proximal junctional fractures (PJF) with multilevel spinal instrumentation, especially in the osteoporotic spine. This problem is associated with significant morbidity and possibly the need for reoperation. Various techniques have been proposed in an attempt to decrease the risk of PJF but there is no experimental model described for in vitro production of PJF after multilevel instrumentation. The objective of this study is to develop an experimental model of PJF after multilevel posterior instrumentation. Initially, four porcine specimens including 4 vertebrae and instrumented at the 3 caudal vertebrae using a pedicle screw construct were subjected to different loading conditions. Loading conditions on porcine specimens involving cyclic loading along the axis of the center vertebral body line, with constrained flexion between 0° and 15° proximally, and fully constraining the specimen distally resulted in a fracture pattern most representative of a PJF seen clinically in humans, so to undergo human cadaveric testing with similar loading conditions was decided. Clinically relevant PJF were produced in all 3 human specimens. The experimental model described in this study will allow the evaluation of different parameters influencing the incidence and prevention of PJF after multilevel posterior spinal instrumentation. PMID:27610381

  6. Morphology and topographic anatomy of the spinal cord of the red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael C Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the topography of the spinal cord of the red-footed tortoise to establish a morphological basis for applied research in anesthesiology and morphology. Six tortoises from the state of Maranhão (Brazil that had died of natural causes were used. The common carotid artery was used to perfuse the arterial system with saline solution (heated to 37ºC and to fix the material with a 20% formaldehyde solution. The specimens were then placed in a modified decalcifying solution for 72 hours to allow dorsal opening of the carapace with a chisel and an orthopedic hammer. Dissection of the dorsal musculature and sectioning of the vertebral arches were performed to access the spinal cord. The results revealed the spinal cord of G. carbonaria to be an elongated, whitish mass that reached the articulation between the penultimate and last caudal vertebrae. The cervical intumescence (Intumescentia cervicalis was located between vertebral segments C5 and T1, whereas the lumbosacral intumescence (Intumescentia lumbalis was located between T6 and Ca1.

  7. Influence from Length of Flexible Caudal-fin for Caudal-fin-type Piezoelectric Pump%柔性尾长对尾鳍式压电泵的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡笑奇; 张建辉; 夏齐霄; 黄俊; 王守印; 赵淳生

    2012-01-01

    In order to overcome existing common faults of the traditional volumetric type valve-less pump, such as fluctuation, backflow and lack ability of pumping, a valve-less pump which imitates the swing of the caudal-fin is proposed. The researches on the variable-cross-section oscillating vibrator with flexible caudal-fin are carried out. Based on the study carried on the swing of the tuna. which has high cruise speed, a variable cross-section vibrator with flexible caudle-fin is designed. The harmonic analysis of vibrator immerged in water is conducted with the ANSYS software. The tip amplitude of vibrator, which has different flexible caudal-fin length, is extracted when the vibrator operates in the second order bending mode. The analysis results suggest that the tip amplitude has great influence on the theoretical flow rate. Thirdly, the tip amplitude is measured utilizing a charge coupled device(CCD) laser displacement sensor. When the length of the flexible caudal-fin is 5 mm, the tip amplitude of second bending mode reaches 0.4 mm. Meanwhile, the trend of the tip amplitude, which varies with the length of the flexible caudal-fin, coincides with the result of simulation. Finally, the performance of the pump is tested experimentally: Driven by 60 V AC signals, the pressure head reaches 78 mm when the length of the flexible caudal-fin is S mm. This research reveals that when the other structure parameters are fixed, the length of the flexible caudal-fin determined the performance of the pump.%为克服传统的容积型无阀压电泵存在的流动波动大、有回流、泵水能力差等通病,提出并设计模仿鱼尾摆动的无阀泵,并针对具有柔性尾鳍的变截面摆动子进行研究.在研究巡游速度最大的金枪鱼尾鳍摆动的基础上,设计具有柔性尾鳍的变截面摆动子;基于有限元分析软件ANSYS进行摆动子在水中的谐响应分析,提取不同长度的柔性尾鳍工作在二阶谐振下的端部振幅,

  8. Cryptorchidism as a caudal developmental field defect. A new description of cryptorchidism associated with malformations and dysplasias of the kidneys, the ureters and the spine from T10 to S5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, J M; Beck, Bjarne Lomholdt;

    1998-01-01

    individuals with tritonmelia, the male variant of sirenomelia. Sirenomelia/tritonmelia is an extreme degree of abnormal differentiation of the caudal developmental field, also called caudal dysplasia, the caudal regression syndrome and the caudal regression malformation sequence. Caudal developmental field...... defects were also the predominant abnormalities in the other groups of patients. Thus, cryptorchidism may be a feature of abnormal differentiation of the caudal developmental field. Position and histology of the undescended testes of the patients included in the association were similar...... to in cryptorchidism in general. In the literature the association was reported in 5-10% of boys considered to suffer from cryptorchidism only. Furthermore, our observations are concordant with recent theories about cryptorchidism. Consequently, we propose that cryptorchidism in general may be a caudal developmental...

  9. Predicción no lineal de caudales medios mensuales usando funciones de influencia radial y técnicas espectrales.

    OpenAIRE

    Rojo Hernández, Julián David; Carvajal Serna, Luis Fernando

    2012-01-01

    La estrecha relación no lineal entre los caudales y los procesos climáticos de escala global justifican la modelación no lineal para la predicción de caudales. El presente trabajo muestra una aproximación a la dinámica no lineal de los caudales usando un modelo no paramétrico de regresión basado en las funciones de influencia radial y técnicas de descomposición espectral. El modelo propuesto es aplicado para la predicción de los caudales medios mensuales para horizontes de pronóstico de 1,3 y...

  10. Neuroimaging for spine and spinal cord surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Izumi [Hokkaido Neurosurgical Memorial Hospital (Japan); Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Hida, Kazutoshi

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging of the spine and spinal cord are described based upon our clinical experiences with spinal disorders. Preoperative neuroradiological examinations, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computerized tomography (CT) with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D-CT), were retrospectively analyzed in patients with cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (130 cases), spinal trauma (43 cases) and intramedullary spinal cord tumors (92 cases). CT scan and 3D-CT were useful in elucidating the spine pathology associated with degenerative and traumatic spine diseases. Visualization of the deformity of the spine or fracture-dislocation of the spinal column with 3D-CT helped to determine the correct surgical treatment. MR imaging was most important in the diagnosis of both spine and spinal cord abnormalities. The axial MR images of the spinal cord were essential in understanding the laterality of the spinal cord compression in spinal column disorders and in determining surgical approaches to the intramedullary lesions. Although non-invasive diagnostic modalities such as MR imaging and CT scans are adequate for deciding which surgical treatment to use in the majority of spine and spinal cord disorders, conventional myelography is still needed in the diagnosis of nerve root compression in some cases of cervical spondylosis. (author)

  11. Neuroimaging for spine and spinal cord surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in neuroimaging of the spine and spinal cord are described based upon our clinical experiences with spinal disorders. Preoperative neuroradiological examinations, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computerized tomography (CT) with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D-CT), were retrospectively analyzed in patients with cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (130 cases), spinal trauma (43 cases) and intramedullary spinal cord tumors (92 cases). CT scan and 3D-CT were useful in elucidating the spine pathology associated with degenerative and traumatic spine diseases. Visualization of the deformity of the spine or fracture-dislocation of the spinal column with 3D-CT helped to determine the correct surgical treatment. MR imaging was most important in the diagnosis of both spine and spinal cord abnormalities. The axial MR images of the spinal cord were essential in understanding the laterality of the spinal cord compression in spinal column disorders and in determining surgical approaches to the intramedullary lesions. Although non-invasive diagnostic modalities such as MR imaging and CT scans are adequate for deciding which surgical treatment to use in the majority of spine and spinal cord disorders, conventional myelography is still needed in the diagnosis of nerve root compression in some cases of cervical spondylosis. (author)

  12. Comparisons of MR findings of the spinal metastasis and the spinal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR findings of the spinal metastasis and the tuberculosis are well known, but sometimes it might be difficult to differentiate these lesions. Therefore we reviewed and analyzed the MR findings which would be useful for the differentiation. T1- and T2- weighted spin echo images and gadolinium-enhanced T1- weighted images were obtained with 1.5 T and 1.0 T superconductive MR imager. We reviewed MR findings in 16 cases of spinal metastases and 24 cases of spinal tuberculosis in terms of signal intensity, contrast enhancement pattern, disc space involvement, spinal canal compressing feature and paraspinal soft tissue mass. The signal intensities of both lesions were hypointense on T1WI and hyperintense on T2WI except those of the metastatic lesions from the prostatic carcinoma. Heterogeneous enhancement was noted in 63% of metastasis, whereas peripheral rim enhancement was noted 83% of spinal tuberculosis(p < .001). Spinal canal compression by collapsed vertebra was only noted in spinal metastasis, and that by paraspinal soft tissue was noted in both spinal metastasis and tuberculosis(p<.001). Disc space invasion was noted in 19% of spinal metastasis and 88% of spinal tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis was common at lower thoracic spine(T10) and typically involved two or more adjacent vertebral bodies(96%). The important differential point between spinal metastasis and tuberculosis was the enhancement pattern, involvement of two or more contiguous vertebral bodies and the feature of spinal canal compressing. The secondary importance was the disc space involvement pattern

  13. The Effectiveness of Transforaminal Versus Caudal Routes for Epidural Steroid Injections in Managing Lumbosacral Radicular Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhou, Hengxing; Lu, Lu; Li, Xueying; Jia, Jun; Shi, Zhongju; Yao, Xue; Wu, Qiuli; Feng, Shiqing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epidural steroid injection (ESI) is one of the most commonly used treatments for radiculopathy. Previous studies have described the effectiveness of ESI in the management of radiculopathy. However, controversy exists regarding the route that is most beneficial and effective with respect to the administration of epidural steroids, as both transforaminal (TF) and caudal (C) routes are commonly used. This analysis reviewed studies comparing the effectiveness of TF-ESIs with that of C-ESIs in the treatment of radiculopathy as a means of providing pain relief and improving functionality. This meta-analysis was performed to guide clinical decision-making. The study was a systematic review of comparative studies. A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases for trials written in English. The randomized trials and observational studies that met our inclusion criteria were subsequently included. Two reviewers, respectively, extracted data and estimated the risk of bias. All statistical analyses were performed using Review Manager 5.3. Six prospective and 2 retrospective studies involving 664 patients were included. Statistical analysis was performed utilizing only the 6 prospective studies. Although slight pain and functional improvements were noted in the TF-ESI groups compared with the C-ESI groups, these improvements were neither clinically nor statistically significant. The limitations of this meta-analysis resulted primarily from the weaknesses of the comparative studies and the relative paucity of patients included in each study. Both the TF and C approaches are effective in reducing pain and improving functional scores, and they demonstrated similar efficacies in the management of lumbosacral radicular pain. PMID:27149443

  14. Comparison between two doses of dexmedetomidine added to bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in paediatric infraumbilical surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niveditha Padma Meenakshi Karuppiah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Caudal block (CB with adjuvants is routinely used in children for anaesthesia. We evaluated the efficacy of the α2 adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine at two different doses as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in CB. Methods: This study was conducted on ninety children. Control group BD0 received 0.25% bupivacaine 1 ml/kg, whereas, the study groups BD1 and BD2 received 1 μg/kg and 2 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, respectively, with 0.25% bupivacaine 1 ml/kg as a single shot CB. Adequacy of the block, haemodynamic changes, duration of analgesia and side effects were compared. Analysis of Variance was used for between-group comparisons of numerical variables. Student's t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test were used for quantitative data. Results: The demography was comparable. Anal sphincter 5 min after administration of the CB was relaxed in 89.3%, 82.1% and 75% of cases in BD0, BD1 and BD2 groups, respectively. The sphincter was relaxed at the end of surgery in all the cases. Comparable haemodynamics was noted with significantly prolonged duration of analgesia in the groups BD1 (964.2 ± 309 min and BD2 (1152.6 ± 380.4 min compared to control (444.6 ± 179.4 min. While no complications were encountered in groups BD0 and BD1, bradycardia was observed in four cases of BD2 group with accompanied hypotension in one of them. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to bupivacaine improves the quality of CB, provides good operating conditions and increases the duration of post-operative analgesia. We conclude that 1 μg/kg is as effective as 2 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine and with a better safety profile.

  15. Embryonic Gut Anomalies in a Mouse Model of Retinoic Acid-Induced Caudal Regression Syndrome : Delayed Gut Looping, Rudimentary Cecum, and Anorectal Anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Pitera, Jolanta E.; Smith, Virpi V.; Woolf, Adrian S.; Milla, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    Vitamin A and its derivatives such as retinoic acid (RA) are important signaling molecules for morphogenesis of vertebrate embryos. Little is known, however, about morphogenetic factors controlling the development of the gastrointestinal tract and RA is likely to be involved. In the mouse, teratogenic doses of RA cause truncation of the embryonic caudal body axis that parallel the caudal regression syndrome as described in humans. These changes are often associated with anomalies of the lower...

  16. Spinal Plasticity following Intermittent Hypoxia: Implications for Spinal Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dale-Nagle, Erica A.; Hoffman, Michael S.; MacFarlane, Peter M.; Satriotomo, Irawan; Lovett-Barr, Mary Rachael; Vinit, Stéphane; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2010-01-01

    Plasticity is a fundamental property of the neural system controlling breathing. One frequently studied model of respiratory plasticity is long-term facilitation of phrenic motor output (pLTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH). pLTF arises from spinal plasticity, increasing respiratory motor output through a mechanism that requires new synthesis of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), activation of its high affinity receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) and extracellular...

  17. Herbicidas e danos físicos em tocos de teca para controle de brotos após o desbaste Herbicides and physical damages in teak stumps to control of sprouts after thinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Fernando Caldeira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tocos de árvores desbastadas de Tectona grandis apresentam rebrota intensa que compete com as árvores remanescentes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia da aplicação isolada ou combinada de diferentes concentrações dos herbicidas picloram e triclopyr, associados ou não à aplicação de danos físicos, no controle dessas brotações. Em um povoamento com quatro anos de idade, os tocos foram tratados imediatamente após o desbaste. Em outro povoamento com seis anos, foram tratadas as brotações presentes nos tocos desbastados no ano anterior. Foi registrada a porcentagem de tocos mortos, o número de brotações por toco e as respectivas alturas. No primeiro ensaio, a aplicação combinada de picloram a 0,48% com triclopyr a 0,96%, associada a 20 rachas com machado matou todos os tocos. No segundo ensaio, a maior eficácia, 21,7%, foi registrada com roçada prévia das brotações e a aplicação de picloram a 0,96%. Após o desbaste, a aplicação isolada de picloram ou combinada com triclopyr associada ou não aos danos físicos é eficiente para controlar os brotos de teca. A aplicação nas rebrotas de tocos desbastados no ano anterior apresenta alguma eficiência, mas com menor percentual de tocos mortos em relação à aplicação após o desbaste.The stumps of thinning trees of Tectona grandis L.f. present intense sprouts that compete with the remaining trees. The efficacy of the control of sprouts with the herbicides picloram and triclopyr, associated or no it applications of physical damages, were evaluated. Immediately after thinning, in plantation with four years old, the stumps were treated, and in other plantation, with age of six, the sprouts of stumps thinned in the previous year, were treated. The percentage of died stumps, the number of sprouts by stump and the respective heights were registered. In the first trial, the combined application of picloram at 0.48% with triclopyr at 0.96%, associated a 20 cracks

  18. 上肢残肢的常规康复治疗和肌电信号反馈训练%The prosthetic rehabilitation and training of myoelectric signal for upper limb stumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武继祥; 刘宏亮; 周贤丽; 林永辉; 赵正福; 陈东; 吴宗耀

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of prosthetic rehabilitation and analyze the exercise training program with myoelectric signal for upper limb stumps.Methods Twenty canes with 22 upper limb stumps were treated with exercise for strength training,muscle contraction and control training and the complication of stump were managed.The myoelectrlc signal of upper limb stumps were detected and the stumps were trained with electronic biofeedback software system,including basic signal of biofeedback training and visual biofeedback training.Then the myoelectric prostheses were assembled.Results After prosthetic rehabilitation and myoelectfic signal training,there Wan no significant atrophy of muscle of stumps,muscle strength and range of motion of these twenty limb stumps increased.The amputees could control muscle contraction and grasp,pinch,wrist rotation,elbow extension or flexion consciously.Twenty myoelectrie prostheses were assembled.Conclusion The prosthetic rehabilitation and myoelectric signal training of limb stump is important for assembling myoelectric prosthesis.%目的 探讨上肢截肢患者的常规康复治疗、残肢肌电信号训练程序以及装配肌电假肢的方法 ,并观察其效果.方法 对20例截肢患者(22个残肢)进行常规康复治疗,包括肌力训练、肌肉收缩控制训练和残肢并发症的处理.采用德国Otto Bock公司提供的肌电信号检测和训练软件系统进行肌电信号训练(分为基础肌电信号训练和视觉反馈训练两个阶段),并装配肌电假肢.观察患者的治疗效果.结果 20例截肢患者22个残肢肌肉无明显萎缩,肌力好,关节活动范围无明显受限,患者能较好地控制残肢肌肉收缩.装配肌电假肢20例(20个),所有残肢均能有意识地引出肌电信号,控制假肢的手指打开、闭合以及腕关节的旋转或肘关节的屈伸.结论 残肢常规康复治疗和肌电信号训练对装配肌电假肢,实现有意识地控制假肢功能极为重要.

  19. Acquired spondylolysis after spinal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, J A; Wiley, J J

    1984-11-01

    Spondylolysis occurring after a spinal fusion is considered to result from operative damage to the pars interarticularis on both sides. Fourteen cases are reported, and compared with the 23 cases which have previously been published. The defects are usually recognised within five years of fusion, and usually occur immediately above the fusion mass. Other contributory causes may be: fatigue fracture from concentration of stress; damage and altered function of the posterior ligament complex; and degenerative disc disease immediately above or below the fusion. Fusion technique is critical, since virtually all cases occurred after posterior interlaminar fusions. This complication is easily overlooked in patients with recurrent back pain after an originally successful posterior spinal fusion. PMID:6501368

  20. Therapy induces widespread reorganization of motor cortex after complete spinal transection that supports motor recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzer, Patrick D; Manohar, Anitha; Shumsky, Jed S; Moxon, Karen A

    2016-05-01

    Reorganization of the somatosensory system and its relationship to functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) has been well studied. However, little is known about the impact of SCI on organization of the motor system. Recent studies suggest that step-training paradigms in combination with spinal stimulation, either electrically or through pharmacology, are more effective than step training alone at inducing recovery and that reorganization of descending corticospinal circuits is necessary. However, simpler, passive exercise combined with pharmacotherapy has also shown functional improvement after SCI and reorganization of, at least, the sensory cortex. In this study we assessed the effect of passive exercise and serotonergic (5-HT) pharmacological therapies on behavioral recovery and organization of the motor cortex. We compared the effects of passive hindlimb bike exercise to bike exercise combined with daily injections of 5-HT agonists in a rat model of complete mid-thoracic transection. 5-HT pharmacotherapy combined with bike exercise allowed the animals to achieve unassisted weight support in the open field. This combination of therapies also produced extensive expansion of the axial trunk motor cortex into the deafferented hindlimb motor cortex and, surprisingly, reorganization within the caudal and even the rostral forelimb motor cortex areas. The extent of the axial trunk expansion was correlated to improvement in behavioral recovery of hindlimbs during open field locomotion, including weight support. From a translational perspective, these data suggest a rationale for developing and optimizing cost-effective, non-invasive, pharmacological and passive exercise regimes to promote plasticity that supports restoration of movement after spinal cord injury. PMID:26826448

  1. "NIMS technique" for minimally invasive spinal fixation using non-fenestrated pedicle screws: A technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alugolu Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Design: Case series. Objective: To reduce the cost of minimally invasive spinal fixation. Background: Minimally invasive spine (MIS surgery is an upcoming modality of managing a multitude of spinal pathologies. However, in a resource-limited situations, using fenestrated screws (FSs may prove very costly for patients with poor affordability. We here in describe the Nizam′s Institute of Medical Sciences (NIMS experience of using routine non-FSs (NFSs for transpedicular fixation by the minimally invasive way to bridge the economic gap. Materials and Methods: A total of 7 patients underwent NFS-minimally invasive spine (MIS surgery. Male to female distribution was 6:1. The average blood loss was 50 ml and the mean operating time was 2 and 1/2 h. All patients were mobilized the very next day after confirming the position of implants on X-ray/computed tomography. Results: All 7 patients are doing well in follow-up with no complaints of a backache or fresh neurological deficits. There was no case with pedicle breach or screw pullout. The average cost of a single level fixation by FS and NFS was `1, 30,000/patient and `32,000/patient respectively ($2166 and $530, respectively. At the end of 1-year follow-up, we had two cases of screw cap loosening and with a displacement of the rod cranio-caudally in one case which was revised through the same incisions. Conclusions: Transpedicular fixation by using NFS for thoracolumbar spinal pathologies is a cost-effective extension of MIS surgery. This may extend the benefits to a lower socioeconomic group who cannot afford the cost of fenestrated screw (FS.

  2. Electrophysiological study of supraspinal input and spinal output of cat's subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Velo

    Full Text Available This work addressed the study of subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD neurons in relation to their supraspinal input and the spinal terminating sites of their descending axons. SRD extracellular unitary recordings from anesthetized cats aimed to specifically test, 1 the rostrocaudal segmental level reached by axons of spinally projecting (SPr neurons collateralizing or not to or through the ipsilateral nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NRGc, 2 whether SPr fibers bifurcate to the thalamus, and 3 the effects exerted on SRD cells by electrically stimulating the locus coeruleus, the periaqueductal grey, the nucleus raphe magnus, and the mesencephalic locomotor region. From a total of 191 SPr fibers tested to cervical 2 (Ce2, thoracic 5 (Th5 and lumbar5 (Lu5 stimulation, 81 ended between Ce2 and Th5 with 39 of them branching to or through the NRGc; 21/49 terminating between Th5 and Lu5 collateralized to or through the same nucleus, as did 34/61 reaching Lu5. The mean antidromic conduction velocity of SPr fibers slowed in the more proximal segments and increased with terminating distance along the cord. None of the 110 axons tested sent collaterals to the thalamus; instead thalamic stimulation induced long-latency polysynaptic responses in most cells but also short-latency, presumed monosynaptic, in 7.9% of the tested neurons (18/227. Antidromic and orthodromic spikes were elicited from the locus coeruleus and nucleus raphe magnus, but exclusively orthodromic responses were observed following stimulation of the periaqueductal gray or mesencephalic locomotor region. The results suggest that information from pain-and-motor-related supraspinal structures converge on SRD cells that through SPr axons having conduction velocities tuned to their length may affect rostral and caudal spinal cord neurons at fixed delays, both directly and in parallel through different descending systems. The SRD will thus play a dual functional role by simultaneously

  3. Non-contiguous spinal injury in cervical spinal trauma: evaluation with cervical spine MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sang Jin [Sanggyepaik Hospital, Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    We wished to evaluate the incidence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) or the upper thoracic spines on cervical spinal MR images in the patients with cervical spinal injuries. Seventy-five cervical spine MR imagings for acute cervical spinal injury were retrospectively reviewed (58 men and 17 women, mean age: 35.3, range: 18-81 years). They were divided into three groups based on the mechanism of injury; axial compression, hyperflexion or hyperextension injury, according to the findings on the MR and CT images. On cervical spine MR images, we evaluated the presence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the CTJ or upper thoracic spine with regard to the presence of marrow contusion or fracture, ligament injury, traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury. Twenty-one cases (28%) showed CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries (C7-T5) on cervical spinal MR images that were separated from the cervical spinal injuries. Seven of 21 cases revealed overt fractures in the CTJs or upper thoracic spines. Ligament injury in these regions was found in three cases. Traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury in these regions were shown in one and two cases, respectively. The incidence of the non-contiguous spinal injuries in CTJ or upper thoracic spines was higher in the axial compression injury group (35.5%) than in the hyperflexion injury group (26.9%) or the hyperextension (25%) injury group. However, there was no statistical significance ({rho} > 0.05). Cervical spinal MR revealed non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries in 28% of the patients with cervical spinal injury. The mechanism of cervical spinal injury did not significantly affect the incidence of the non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injury.

  4. Non-Contiguous Spinal Injury in Cervical Spinal Trauma: Evaluation with Cervical Spine MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Soo-Jung; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Bae, Sang-Jin

    2004-01-01

    Objective We wished to evaluate the incidence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) or the upper thoracic spines on cervical spinal MR images in the patients with cervical spinal injuries. Materials and Methods Seventy-five cervical spine MR imagings for acute cervical spinal injury were retrospectively reviewed (58 men and 17 women, mean age: 35.3, range: 18-81 years). They were divided into three groups based on the mechanism of injury; axial compression, hyp...

  5. Non-contiguous spinal injury in cervical spinal trauma: evaluation with cervical spine MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wished to evaluate the incidence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) or the upper thoracic spines on cervical spinal MR images in the patients with cervical spinal injuries. Seventy-five cervical spine MR imagings for acute cervical spinal injury were retrospectively reviewed (58 men and 17 women, mean age: 35.3, range: 18-81 years). They were divided into three groups based on the mechanism of injury; axial compression, hyperflexion or hyperextension injury, according to the findings on the MR and CT images. On cervical spine MR images, we evaluated the presence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the CTJ or upper thoracic spine with regard to the presence of marrow contusion or fracture, ligament injury, traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury. Twenty-one cases (28%) showed CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries (C7-T5) on cervical spinal MR images that were separated from the cervical spinal injuries. Seven of 21 cases revealed overt fractures in the CTJs or upper thoracic spines. Ligament injury in these regions was found in three cases. Traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury in these regions were shown in one and two cases, respectively. The incidence of the non-contiguous spinal injuries in CTJ or upper thoracic spines was higher in the axial compression injury group (35.5%) than in the hyperflexion injury group (26.9%) or the hyperextension (25%) injury group. However, there was no statistical significance (ρ > 0.05). Cervical spinal MR revealed non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries in 28% of the patients with cervical spinal injury. The mechanism of cervical spinal injury did not significantly affect the incidence of the non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injury

  6. Management of postoperative spinal infections

    OpenAIRE

    Hegde, Vishal; Meredith, Dennis S; Kepler, Christopher K.; Huang, Russel C.

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication after posterior lumbar spine surgery. This review details an approach to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of SSIs. Factors contributing to the development of a SSI can be split into three categories: (1) microbiological factors; (2) factors related to the patient and their spinal pathology; and (3) factors relating to the surgical procedure. SSI is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The virulence of the or...

  7. Acute Hydrocephalus Following Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Seong; Lee, Sang Gu; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Woo Kyung

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of acute hydrocephalus secondary to cervical spinal cord injury in a patient with diffuse ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). A 75-year-old male patient visited the emergency department with tetraparesis and spinal shock. Imaging studies showed cervical spinal cord injury with hemorrhage and diffuse OPLL from C1 to C4. We performed decompressive laminectomy and occipitocervical fusion. Two days after surgery, his mental status had deteriorated to drow...

  8. Spinal Gap Junction Channels in Neuropathic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Young Hoon; Youn, Dong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Damage to peripheral nerves or the spinal cord is often accompanied by neuropathic pain, which is a complex, chronic pain state. Increasing evidence indicates that alterations in the expression and activity of gap junction channels in the spinal cord are involved in the development of neuropathic pain. Thus, this review briefly summarizes evidence that regulation of the expression, coupling, and activity of spinal gap junction channels modulates pain signals in neuropathic pain states induced...

  9. Nanomedicine for Treating Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Jacqueline Y.; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injury results in significant mortality and morbidity, lifestyle changes, and difficult rehabilitation. Treatment of spinal cord injury is challenging because the spinal cord is both complex to treat acutely and difficult to regenerate. Nanomaterials can be used to provide effective treatments; their unique properties can facilitate drug delivery to the injury site, enact as neuroprotective agents, or provide platforms to stimulate regrowth of damaged tissues. We review recent use...

  10. Mobile myelographic filling defects: Spinal cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoiardo, M.; Cimino, C.; Passerini, A.; La Mantia, L.

    1986-03-01

    Cysticercosis usually affects the brain and is easily demonstrated by CT. Spinal cysticercosis is much rarer and is usually diagnosed only at surgery. Myelographic demonstration of multiple rounded filling defects, some of which were mobile, allowed diagnosis of spinal extramedullary cysticercosis in an unsuspected case. The literature on spinal cysticercosis is briefly reviewed. Diagnosis is important in view of the recent development of medical treatment.

  11. Mobile myelographic filling defects: Spinal cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cysticercosis usually affects the brain and is easily demonstrated by CT. Spinal cysticercosis is much rarer and is usually diagnosed only at surgery. Myelographic demonstration of multiple rounded filling defects, some of which were mobile, allowed diagnosis of spinal extramedullary cysticercosis in an unsuspected case. The literature on spinal cysticercosis is briefly reviewed. Diagnosis is important in view of the recent development of medical treatment. (orig.)

  12. Management of acute spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F C

    1977-06-01

    Based on the experience with 58 patients with acute spinal cord injuries, a system for rapidly evaluating such patients has been developed. With the knowledge that has been acquired clinically and experimentally of spinal cord injury and with the information provided by laminography and by either air or Pantopaque myelography, a reasonably certain diagnosis of the type of spinal cord injury may be made. Treatment designed to restore neurological function may then be instituted promptly. PMID:882906

  13. MRI Findings in Spinal Canal Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Barzin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal canal stenosis results from progressive narrowing of the central spinal canal and the lateral recesses. Primary (congenital lumbar spinal stenosis is associated with achondroplastic dwarfism. The spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the facet joints, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spondylosis of the intervertebral disc margins and uncovertebral joint hypertrophy in the neck. The central canal and the neurorecess may be compromised by tumor infiltration, such as metastatic disease, or by infectious spondylitis."nAP diameter of the normal adult cervical canal has a mean value of 17-18 mm at vertebral levels C3-5. The lower cervical canal measures 12-14 mm. Cervical stenosis is associated with an AP diameter of less than 10 mm. The thoracic spinal canal varies from 12 to 14 mm in diameter in the adult. The diameter of the normal lumbar spinal canal varies from 15 to 27 mm. Lumbar stenosis results from a spinal canal diameter of less than 12 mm in some patients; a diameter of 10 mm is definitely stenotic."nSpinal MRI is the most suitable technique for the diagnosis of spinal stenosis. The examination should be performed using thin sections (3 mm and high resolution, including the axial and sagittal planes using T1-weighted, proton-density, and T2-weighted techniques. The bony and osteophytic components are seen best using a T2-weighted gradient-echo technique."nOn MRI, findings of spinal stenosis have a variable presentation depending on the specific disease. The goal of spinal imaging is to localize the site and level of disease and to help differentiate between conditions in which patients require surgery or conservative treatment."nIn this presentation, different kinds of spinal canal stenosis and their MRI findings would be discussed.

  14. Neuronal degeneration in spinal multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhardt, Lydia

    2010-01-01

    To elucidate neuronal degeneration in spinal multiple sclerosis the spinal cord of 27 post mortem patients of the years 1997 to 2000 was investigated in comparison to 29 controls matched for sex, age and year of death. In addition to immunohistochemical examinations and demonstration of pathological cell changes, we also quantified the neurons of the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. In comparison to controls, MS-patients show a significant loss of 43% of the cervical neurons and a signif...

  15. Metal levels in corrosion of spinal implants

    OpenAIRE

    Rio, J. (Joaquín) del; Beguiristain, J. (José); Duart, J.

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion affects spinal instrumentations and may cause local and systemic complications. Diagnosis of corrosion is difficult, and nowadays it is performed almost exclusively by the examination of retrieved instrumentations. We conducted this study to determine whether it is possible to detect corrosion by measuring metal levels on patients with posterior instrumented spinal fusion. Eleven asymptomatic patients, with radiological signs of corrosion of their stainless steel spinal instrumentat...

  16. Intracranial metastasis of spinal intramedullary anaplastic astrocytoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kataria, Rashim; Bhasme, Vishal; Chopra, Sanjeev; V D Sinha; Singhvi, Shashi

    2011-01-01

    Meningeal spread of spinal intramedullary astrocytoma into the cranium is rare. Only few case reports are available so far in the literature. We report a case of intramedullary high grade astrocytoma of the conus, developing intracranial metastasis after three months of partial excision of the spinal mass. The need for radical surgery, entire neuroaxis radiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy is suggested in the management of malignant spinal cord astrocytoma to prevent dissemination.

  17. Testosterone Plus Finasteride Treatment After Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-07

    Spinal Cord Injury; Spinal Cord Injuries; Trauma, Nervous System; Wounds and Injuries; Central Nervous System Diseases; Nervous System Diseases; Spinal Cord Diseases; Gonadal Disorders; Endocrine System Diseases; Hypogonadism; Genital Diseases, Male

  18. Plasticity of TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons mediating autonomic dysreflexia following spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeanneMRamer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI triggers profound changes in visceral and somatic targets of sensory neurons below the level of injury. Despite this, little is known about the influence of injury to the spinal cord on sensory ganglia. One of the defining characteristics of sensory neurons is the size of their cell body: for example, nociceptors are smaller in size than mechanoreceptors or proprioceptors. In these experiments, we first used a comprehensive immunohistochemical approach to characterize the size distribution of sensory neurons after high- and low-thoracic SCI. Male Wistar rats (300g received a spinal cord transection (T3 or T10 or sham injury. At 30 days post-injury, dorsal root ganglia (DRGs and spinal cords were harvested and analyzed immunohistochemically. In a wide survey of primary afferents, only those expressing the capsaicin receptor (TRPV1 exhibited somal hypertrophy after T3 SCI. Hypertrophy only occurred caudal to SCI and was pronounced in ganglia far distal to SCI (i.e., in L4-S1 DRGs. Injury-induced hypertrophy was accompanied by a small expansion of central territory in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn and by evidence of TRPV1 upregulation. Importantly, hypertrophy of TRPV1-positive neurons was modest after T10 SCI. Given the specific effects of T3 SCI on TRPV1-positive afferents, we hypothesized that these afferents contribute to autonomic dysreflexia (AD. Rats with T3 SCI received vehicle or capsaicin via intrathecal injection at 2 or 28 days post-SCI; at 30 days, AD was assessed by recording intra-arterial blood pressure during colo-rectal distension. In both groups of capsaicin-treated animals, the severity of AD was dramatically reduced. While AD is multi-factorial in origin, TRPV1-positive afferents are clearly involved in AD elicited by colo-rectal distension. These findings implicate TRPV1-positive afferents in the initiation of AD and suggest that TRPV1 may be a therapeutic target for amelioration or prevention of AD

  19. MR imaging of spinal epidural sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal epidural abscess is uncommonly found in adults and children. Early diagnosis and treatment improves prognosis and prevents serious neurologic sequelae. Four patients with spinal epidural infections were recently evaluated with MR and CT of the spine. In all cases, MR and CT localized the site of infection accurately and showed adjacent bony osteomyelitis. MR proved superior in characterizing infection (abscess vs. inflammatory edema) and demonstrating epidural involvement and spinal cord compression. In all cases, MR obviated the need for myelography. Early recognition by MR of spinal epidural sepsis led to expeditious treatment and better clinical outcome

  20. Spinal arteriovenous malformation: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is abnormal connections between arteries and veins, without intervening capillaries, located in the spinal cord and/or its leptomeninges. There are two main types spinal of AVM; d ural AV fistulas, in which the nidus of the AV fistula is imbeded in the dural covering of the nerve root, and intradural AVMs, in which the nidus of the AVM is within the cord tissue or the pia. The intradural AVMs are further subclassified into juvenile AVMs, glomus AVMs, and direct AV fistulas. The authors report a case of spinal AVM, intradural and glomus type, confirmed by operation in 17 years old male patient