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Sample records for caudal spinal stump

  1. Variations in the formation of the human caudal spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraga-Babić, M; Sapunar, D; Wartiovaara, J

    1995-01-01

    Collection of 15 human embryos between 4-8 developmental weeks was used to histologically investigate variations in the development of the caudal part of the spinal cord and the neighboring axial organs (notochord and vertebral column). In the 4-week embryo, two types of neurulation were parallelly observed along the anteroposterior body axis: primary in the areas cranial to the neuroporus caudalis and secondary in the more caudal tail regions. In the 5-week embryos, both parts of the neural tube fused, forming only one continuous lumen in the developing spinal cord. In the three examined embryos we found anomalous pattern of spinal cord formation. Caudal parts of these spinal cords displayed division of their central canal into two or three separate lumina, each surrounded by neuroepithelial layer. In the caudal area of the spinal cord, derived by secondary neurulation, formation of separate lumina was neither connected to any anomalous notochord or vertebral column formation, nor the appearance of any major axial disturbances. We suggest that development of the caudal part of the spinal cord differs from its cranial region not only in the type of neurulation, but also in the destiny of its derivatives and possible modes of abnormality formation.

  2. Distracted cervical spinal fusion for management of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy in large-breed dogs

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    Ellison, G. W.; Seim, III, H. B.; Clemmons, R. M.

    1988-08-15

    Using an autogenous bone graft (obtained from the iliac crest), 4-mm cancellous bone screws, and polymethylmethacrylate, a distracted cervical spinal fusion technique was performed on 10 dogs with myelographic evidence of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy. All dogs had evidence of dynamic soft tissue spinal cord compression, as indicated by flexion, extension, and traction myelographic views. Of the 10 dogs, 4 previously had undergone surgery by use of ventral slot or cervical disk fenestration techniques, and their neurologic status had deteriorated after the original surgery. Preoperative neurologic status of the 10 dogs included nonambulatory tetraparesis (n = 5), severe ataxia with conscious proprioceptive deficits (n = 2), and mild ambulatory ataxia with conscious proprioceptive deficits (n = 3). Five dogs had signs of various degrees of cervical pain. Clinical improvement was observed in 8 of 10 dogs--either improved neurologic status or elimination of cervical pain. Implant loosening developed in 3 dogs; 2 of them were euthanatized because of lack of neurologic improvement. Radiographic evidence of bony cervical fusion was observed during a 9- to 24-week period in 6 of the 8 surviving dogs. The distracted cervical fusion technique appears to be a valid surgical procedure to manage cervical spondylomyelopathy in those dogs in which the lesions are limited to one cervical intervertebral disk space.

  3. Distracted cervical spinal fusion for management of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy in large-breed dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, G.W.; Seim, H.B. III; Clemmons, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Using an autogenous bone graft (obtained from the iliac crest), 4-mm cancellous bone screws, and polymethylmethacrylate, a distracted cervical spinal fusion technique was performed on 10 dogs with myelographic evidence of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy. All dogs had evidence of dynamic soft tissue spinal cord compression, as indicated by flexion, extension, and traction myelographic views. Of the 10 dogs, 4 previously had undergone surgery by use of ventral slot or cervical disk fenestration techniques, and their neurologic status had deteriorated after the original surgery. Preoperative neurologic status of the 10 dogs included nonambulatory tetraparesis (n = 5), severe ataxia with conscious proprioceptive deficits (n = 2), and mild ambulatory ataxia with conscious proprioceptive deficits (n = 3). Five dogs had signs of various degrees of cervical pain. Clinical improvement was observed in 8 of 10 dogs--either improved neurologic status or elimination of cervical pain. Implant loosening developed in 3 dogs; 2 of them were euthanatized because of lack of neurologic improvement. Radiographic evidence of bony cervical fusion was observed during a 9- to 24-week period in 6 of the 8 surviving dogs. The distracted cervical fusion technique appears to be a valid surgical procedure to manage cervical spondylomyelopathy in those dogs in which the lesions are limited to one cervical intervertebral disk space

  4. Persistent cauda equina syndrome after caudal epidural injection under severe spinal stenosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo YT

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Young Tak Seo,1 Hyun Ho Kong,1 Goo Joo Lee,1 Heui Je Bang1,2 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Chungbuk National University Hospital, 2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea Abstract: Caudal epidural injection (CEI is one of the most common treatments for low-back pain with sciatica. CEI rarely leads to neurologic complications. We report a case of persistent cauda equina syndrome after CEI. A 44-year-old male patient with severe L4 and L5 spinal stenosis underwent CEI for low-back pain and sciatica. The CEI solution consisted of bupivacaine, hyaluronidase, triamcinolone acetonide, and normal saline. He experienced motor weakness and sensory loss in both lower extremities and neurogenic bladder for more than 1 year after the procedure. His ankle dorsiflexors, big-toe extensors, and ankle plantar flexors on both sides were checked and categorized as motor-power Medical Research Council grade 0. His bilateral ankle-jerk reflection was absent. An electrophysiological study showed lumbosacral polyradiculopathy affecting both sides of the L5 and S1 nerve roots. A urodynamic study revealed hypoactive neurogenic bladder affecting both sacral roots. Keywords: epidural injection, cauda equina syndrome, complications

  5. Regional (spinal, epidural, caudal) versus general anaesthesia in preterm infants undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa J; Craven, Paul D; Lakkundi, Anil; Foster, Jann P; Badawi, Nadia

    2015-06-09

    With improvements in neonatal intensive care, more preterm infants are surviving the neonatal period and presenting for surgery in early infancy. Inguinal hernia is the most common condition requiring early surgery, appearing in 38% of infants whose birth weight is between 751 grams and 1000 grams. Approximately 20% to 30% of otherwise healthy preterm infants having general anaesthesia for inguinal hernia surgery at a postmature age have at least one apnoeic episode within the postoperative period. Research studies have failed to adequately distinguish the effects of apnoeic episodes from other complications of extreme preterm gestation on the risk of brain injury, or to investigate the potential impact of postoperative apnoea upon longer term neurodevelopment. In addition to episodes of apnoea, there are concerns that anaesthetic and sedative agents may have a direct toxic effect on the developing brain of preterm infants even after reaching postmature age. It is proposed that regional anaesthesia may reduce the risk of postoperative apnoea, avoid the risk of anaesthetic-related neurotoxicity and improve neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants requiring surgery for inguinal hernia at a postmature age. To determine if regional anaesthesia reduces postoperative apnoea, bradycardia, the use of assisted ventilation, and neurological impairment, in comparison to general anaesthesia, in preterm infants undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy at a postmature age. The following databases and resources were searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, 2015, Issue 2), MEDLINE (December 2002 to 25 February 2015), EMBASE (December 2002 to 25 February 2015), controlled-trials.com and clinicaltrials.gov, reference lists of published trials and abstracts published in Pediatric Research and Pediatric Anesthesia. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of regional (spinal, epidural, caudal) versus general anaesthesia, or

  6. Spinal cord injury below-level neuropathic pain relief with dorsal root entry zone microcoagulation performed caudal to level of complete spinal cord transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falci, Scott; Indeck, Charlotte; Barnkow, Dave

    2018-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Surgically created lesions of the spinal cord dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) to relieve central pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) have historically been performed at and cephalad to, but not below, the level of SCI. This study was initiated to investigate the validity of 3 proposed concepts regarding the DREZ in SCI central pain: 1) The spinal cord DREZ caudal to the level of SCI can be a primary generator of SCI below-level central pain. 2) Neuronal transmission from a DREZ that generates SCI below-level central pain to brain pain centers can be primarily through sympathetic nervous system (SNS) pathways. 3) Perceived SCI below-level central pain follows a unique somatotopic map of DREZ pain-generators. METHODS Three unique patients with both intractable SCI below-level central pain and complete spinal cord transection at the level of SCI were identified. All 3 patients had previously undergone surgical intervention to their spinal cords-only cephalad to the level of spinal cord transection-with either DREZ microcoagulation or cyst shunting, in failed attempts to relieve their SCI below-level central pain. Subsequent to these surgeries, DREZ lesioning of the spinal cord solely caudal to the level of complete spinal cord transection was performed using electrical intramedullary guidance. The follow-up period ranged from 1 1/2 to 11 years. RESULTS All 3 patients in this study had complete or near-complete relief of all below-level neuropathic pain. The analyzed electrical data confirmed and enhanced a previously proposed somatotopic map of SCI below-level DREZ pain generators. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study support the following hypotheses. 1) The spinal cord DREZ caudal to the level of SCI can be a primary generator of SCI below-level central pain. 2) Neuronal transmission from a DREZ that generates SCI below-level central pain to brain pain centers can be primarily through SNS pathways. 3) Perceived SCI below-level central pain follows a unique

  7. Weight-bearing locomotion in the developing opossum, Monodelphis domestica following spinal transection: remodeling of neuronal circuits caudal to lesion.

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    Wheaton, Benjamin J; Noor, Natassya M; Whish, Sophie C; Truettner, Jessie S; Dietrich, W Dalton; Zhang, Moses; Crack, Peter J; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Saunders, Norman R

    2013-01-01

    Complete spinal transection in the mature nervous system is typically followed by minimal axonal repair, extensive motor paralysis and loss of sensory functions caudal to the injury. In contrast, the immature nervous system has greater capacity for repair, a phenomenon sometimes called the infant lesion effect. This study investigates spinal injuries early in development using the marsupial opossum Monodelphis domestica whose young are born very immature, allowing access to developmental stages only accessible in utero in eutherian mammals. Spinal cords of Monodelphis pups were completely transected in the lower thoracic region, T10, on postnatal-day (P)7 or P28 and the animals grew to adulthood. In P7-injured animals regrown supraspinal and propriospinal axons through the injury site were demonstrated using retrograde axonal labelling. These animals recovered near-normal coordinated overground locomotion, but with altered gait characteristics including foot placement phase lags. In P28-injured animals no axonal regrowth through the injury site could be demonstrated yet they were able to perform weight-supporting hindlimb stepping overground and on the treadmill. When placed in an environment of reduced sensory feedback (swimming) P7-injured animals swam using their hindlimbs, suggesting that the axons that grew across the lesion made functional connections; P28-injured animals swam using their forelimbs only, suggesting that their overground hindlimb movements were reflex-dependent and thus likely to be generated locally in the lumbar spinal cord. Modifications to propriospinal circuitry in P7- and P28-injured opossums were demonstrated by changes in the number of fluorescently labelled neurons detected in the lumbar cord following tracer studies and changes in the balance of excitatory, inhibitory and neuromodulatory neurotransmitter receptors' gene expression shown by qRT-PCR. These results are discussed in the context of studies indicating that although

  8. Weight-bearing locomotion in the developing opossum, Monodelphis domestica following spinal transection: remodeling of neuronal circuits caudal to lesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Wheaton

    Full Text Available Complete spinal transection in the mature nervous system is typically followed by minimal axonal repair, extensive motor paralysis and loss of sensory functions caudal to the injury. In contrast, the immature nervous system has greater capacity for repair, a phenomenon sometimes called the infant lesion effect. This study investigates spinal injuries early in development using the marsupial opossum Monodelphis domestica whose young are born very immature, allowing access to developmental stages only accessible in utero in eutherian mammals. Spinal cords of Monodelphis pups were completely transected in the lower thoracic region, T10, on postnatal-day (P7 or P28 and the animals grew to adulthood. In P7-injured animals regrown supraspinal and propriospinal axons through the injury site were demonstrated using retrograde axonal labelling. These animals recovered near-normal coordinated overground locomotion, but with altered gait characteristics including foot placement phase lags. In P28-injured animals no axonal regrowth through the injury site could be demonstrated yet they were able to perform weight-supporting hindlimb stepping overground and on the treadmill. When placed in an environment of reduced sensory feedback (swimming P7-injured animals swam using their hindlimbs, suggesting that the axons that grew across the lesion made functional connections; P28-injured animals swam using their forelimbs only, suggesting that their overground hindlimb movements were reflex-dependent and thus likely to be generated locally in the lumbar spinal cord. Modifications to propriospinal circuitry in P7- and P28-injured opossums were demonstrated by changes in the number of fluorescently labelled neurons detected in the lumbar cord following tracer studies and changes in the balance of excitatory, inhibitory and neuromodulatory neurotransmitter receptors' gene expression shown by qRT-PCR. These results are discussed in the context of studies indicating

  9. Fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection for management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: short-term and long-term results

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    Lee, Joon Woo; Myung, Jae Sung; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Park, Kun Woo; Yeom, Jin S. [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Kim, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Hyun-Jib [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea)

    2010-07-15

    To evaluate the short-term and long-term effects of fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection (ESI) for the management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) and to analyze outcome predictors. All patients who underwent caudal ESI in 2006 for DLSS were included in the study. Response was based on chart documentation (aggravated, no change, slightly improved, much improved, no pain). In June 2009 telephone interviews were conducted, using formatted questions including the North American Spine Society (NASS) patient satisfaction scale. For short-term and long-term effects, age difference was evaluated by the Mann-Whitney U test, and gender, duration of symptoms, level of DLSS, spondylolisthesis, and previous operations were evaluated by Fisher's exact test. Two hundred and sixteen patients (male: female = 75:141; mean age 69.2 years; range 48{proportional_to}91 years) were included in the study. Improvements (slightly improved, much improved, no pain) were seen in 185 patients (85.6%) after an initial caudal ESI and in 189 patients (87.5%) after a series of caudal ESIs. Half of the patients (89/179, 49.8%) replied positively to the NASS patient satisfaction scale (1 or 2). There were no significant outcome predictors for either the short-term or the long-term responses. Fluoroscopically guided caudal ESI was effective for the management of DLSS (especially central canal stenosis) with excellent short-term and good long-term results, without significant outcome predictors. (orig.)

  10. Origin and neurochemical properties of bulbospinal neurons projecting to the rat lumbar spinal cord via the medal longitudinal fasciculus and caudal ventrolateral medulla

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    Zilli eHuma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bulbospinal systems (BS originate from various regions of the brainstem and influence spinal neurons by classical synaptic and modulatory mechanisms. Our aim was to determine the brainstem locations of cells of origin of BS pathways passing through the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF and the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM. We also examined the transmitter content of spinal terminations of the CVLM pathway. Six adult rats received Fluorogold (FG injections to the right intermediate grey matter of the lumbar cord (L1-L2 and the b-subunit of cholera toxin (CTb was injected either into the MLF or the right CVLM (3 animals each. Double-labelled cells were identified within brainstem structures with confocal microscopy and mapped onto brainstem diagrams. An additional 3 rats were injected with CTb in the CVLM to label axon terminals in the lumbar spinal cord. Double-labelled cells projecting via the MLF or CVLM were found principally in reticular regions of the medulla and pons but small numbers of cells were also located within the midbrain. CVLM projections to the lumbar cord were almost exclusively ipsilateral and concentrated within the intermediate grey matter. Most (62% of terminals were immunoreactive for the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 while 23% contained the vesicular GABA transporter. The inhibitory subpopulation was glycinergic, GABAergic or contained both transmitters. The proportions of excitatory and inhibitory axons projecting via the CVLM to the lumbar cord are similar to those projecting via the MLF. Unlike the MLF pathway, CVLM projections are predominantly ipsilateral and concentrated within intermediate grey but do not extend into motor nuclei or laminia VIII. Terminations of the CVLM pathway are located in a region of the grey matter that is rich in premotor interneurons; thus its primary function may be to coordinate activity of premotor networks.

  11. Connections between EM2-containing terminals and GABA/μ-opioid receptor co-expressing neurons in the rat spinal trigeminal caudal nucleus

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    Li, Meng-Ying; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Lu, Ya-Cheng; Yin, Jun-Bin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Ting; Dong, Yu-Lin; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Endomorphin-2 (EM2) demonstrates a potent antinociceptive effect via the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). To provide morphological evidence for the pain control effect of EM2, the synaptic connections between EM2-immunoreactive (IR) axonal terminals and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)/MOR co-expressing neurons in lamina II of the spinal trigeminal caudal nucleus (Vc) were investigated in the rat. Dense EM2-, MOR- and GABA-IR fibers and terminals were mainly observed in lamina II of the Vc. Within lamina II, GABA- and MOR-neuronal cell bodies were also encountered. The results of immunofluorescent histochemical triple-staining showed that approximately 14.2 or 18.9% of GABA-IR or MOR-IR neurons also showed MOR- or GABA-immunopositive staining in lamina II; approximately 45.2 and 36.1% of the GABA-IR and MOR-IR neurons, respectively, expressed FOS protein in their nuclei induced by injecting formalin into the left lower lip of the mouth. Most of the GABA/MOR, GABA/FOS, and MOR/FOS double-labeled neurons made close contacts with EM2-IR fibers and terminals. Immuno-electron microscopy confirmed that the EM2-IR terminals formed synapses with GABA-IR or MOR-IR dendritic processes and neuronal cell bodies in lamina II of the Vc. These results suggest that EM2 might participate in pain transmission and modulation by binding to MOR-IR and GABAergic inhibitory interneuron in lamina II of the Vc to exert inhibitory effect on the excitatory interneuron in lamina II and projection neurons in laminae I and III. PMID:25386121

  12. MRI determination of the vertebral termination of the dural sac tip in a South African population: clinical significance during spinal irradiation and caudal anaesthesia

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    A Cilliers

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Knowing where the dural sac (DS ends is important, especially when placing the portal fields during craniospinal irradiation (CSI and performing caudal anesthesia. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the level of termination of the DS in relation to the spine in a group of South African patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We retrospectively reviewed the lumbosacral MR Imaging of 309 patients in each case identifying the tip of the DS. This level was recorded in relation to the adjacent vertebral body i.e. upper-, middle- and lower third and adjacent intervertebral disc. The overall mean of the DS position was at the middle third of S2. A notable percentage (13.9% of patients had a DS level lower than the lower third of S2 and (15.2% patients had a DS level higher than the S1-S2 intervertebral disc. This study failed to demonstrate a difference in the DS termination level, compared to the levels reported in various international studies; nor is there a statistical difference between gender, race and age. Our study shows that routine placement of the portal field at the lower border of S2 adequately treats the majority of CSI patients. However some patients (13.9% will be undertreated and some patients (15.2% will be overradiated. Using spinal MRI to establish the lower border of the CSI portal field will however benefit patients by ensuring adequate coverage of the entire neuroaxis as well as minimizing late gonadal toxicity due to overradiation.

  13. Des Ogle's old stump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.; Sutton, D.; Wallace, R.

    1998-01-01

    On 17 October 1997 Sylvia Bryan of RD4 Kaitaia wrote to 'Dear Somebody-Everybody' at the Anthropology Department, University of Auckland, urging further examination of an adzed stump found by Des Ogle during planting out of the Te Aupouri forest. The authors have since sought out relevant information and present it here for the interests of our readers. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig

  14. Caudal Regression Syndrome/neurogenic bladder presented as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burhan M. Edrees

    Impaired development in the caudal region will affect the general health status of ... mities within the spinal cord, brain, or nervous supply. A number .... The parenchyma of left ... The findings have shown non-functioning right kidney; however,.

  15. Pulsed radiofrequency of brachial plexus under ultrasound guidance for refractory stump pain: a case report

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    Zheng B

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bixin Zheng, Li Song, Hui Liu Department of Pain Management, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China Abstract: The post-amputation (pain syndrome, including stump pain, phantom limb sensation, and phantom limb pain is common but difficult to treat. Refractory stump pain in the syndrome is an extremely challenging and troublesome clinical condition. Patients respond poorly to drugs, nerve blocks, and other effective treatments like spinal cord stimulation and surgery. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF technique has been shown to be effective in reducing neuropathic pain. This report describes a patient with persistent and refractory upper limb stump pain being successfully relieved with PRF of brachial plexus under ultrasound guidance after a 6-month follow-up period, suggesting that PRF may be considered as an alternative treatment for refractory stump-neuroma pain. Keywords: ultrasound guidance, pulsed radiofrequency, brachial plexus, refractory stump pain 

  16. Stump torrefaction for bioenergy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Khanh-Quang; Luo, Xun; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim; Jirjis, Raida

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► First study on torrefaction of stump for bioenergy application. ► Stump can achieve higher energy densification factors. ► Torrefied stump requires longer grinding time than torrefied wood. - Abstract: A fixed bed reactor has been developed for study of biomass torrefaction, followed by thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Norway spruce stump was used as feedstock. Two other types of biomass, poplar and fuel chips were also included in the study for comparison. Effects of feedstock types and process parameters such as torrefaction temperature and reaction time on fuel properties of torrefied solid product were investigated. The study has demonstrated that fuel properties, including heating values and grindability of the investigated biomasses were improved by torrefaction. Both torrefaction temperature and reaction time had strong effects on the torrefaction process, but temperature effects are stronger than effects of reaction time. At the same torrefaction temperature, the longer reaction time, the better fuel qualities for the solid product were obtained. However, too long reaction times and/or too higher torrefaction temperatures would decrease the solid product yield. The torrefaction conditions of 300 °C for 35 min resulted in the energy densification factor of 1.219 for the stump, which is higher than that of 1.162 for the poplar wood samples and 1.145 for the fuel chips. It appears that torrefied stump requires much longer time for grinding, while its particle size distribution is only slightly better than the others. In addition, the TG analyses have shown that untreated biomass was more reactive than its torrefaction products. The stump has less hemicelluloses than the two other biomass types. SEM analyses indicated that the wood surface structure was broken and destroyed by torrefaction process

  17. Dermatological changes of amputation stump

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    Arora P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological changes of stumps of 174 amputees are presented. The commonest dermatological change recorded at the site of amputation stump was hyperpigmentation in 46 (26.4% followed by callosities in 32 (18.3%, scaling in 29 (16.7%, cutaneous atrophy in 20 (11.5%, lichenification in 19(10.9%, traumatic ulcer and bacterial infections in 18 (10.3% each, hypertrophic scar in 14 (8.1%, hypopigmentation and corns in 13 (7.4% each, verrucous hypertrophy of stump in 12 (6.9%, dermatophytic infection in 5(2.9%, stump oedema and phantom limb in 4 (2.3% each, intertriginous dermatitis in 3( 1.7%, allergic contact dermatitis (resin and frictional eczema in 2(1.1% each. Epidermoid cyst, keloid formation, anaesthesia, gangrene and cutaneous horn were recorded in 1 (0.6% each. Atrophy (epidermal and derma, anaesthesia, alopecia and elephantiasis of the stump have not been documented in the literature earlier.

  18. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months.......Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  19. [Cancer of the gastric stump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Bravo, F; Montero, L

    1992-01-01

    627 cases of gastric cancer treated surgically during the last 5 years, at the Hospital Nacional "Edgardo Rebagliati Martins" from Instituto Peruano de Seguridad Social (Lima-Perú) were revised. 4 of the patients had been operated before of hemigastrectomy or antrectomy with pyloroplasty for peptic ulcer. The time between the first operation and diagnosis of cancer of the gastric stump was more than 20 years. 3 of these cases were able to be resected. The international incidence of cancer in the gastric stump is 1.1% to 9.2% according to different authors. The risk is higher after 15 years. In the pathogenesis are advocated the lower gastric acidity, biliary reflux, the presence of bacteria, the formation of nitrosamines, intestinal metaplasia, etc. Is necessary to perform periodic endoscopic survey in patients who were treated surgically of peptic ulcer with antrectomy or hemigastrectomy with more than 15 years of evolution.

  20. Somatostatin in the caudal spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D

    1984-01-01

    . In all of these regions somatostatin-positive cell bodies were also observed. In the intermediate gray matter stained terminals were present around the central canal in a varying number. The most prominent stainability was found in the lumbosacral transition zone. Many terminals were also observed...... was particularly low in the motoneuron neuropil. However, a dense somatostatin network was found in the sixth lumbar segment in relation to the neurons in Onuf's nucleus X complex, the nucleus that innervates the small pelvic muscles including the striated sphincters. It is concluded that somatostatin, besides...

  1. Sirenomelia and caudal malformations in two families.

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    Gerard, Marion; Layet, Valérie; Costa, Teresa; Roumazeilles, Yves; Chenal, Pierre; Cailliez, Daniel; Gerard, Bénédicte

    2012-07-01

    We report on two families with co-occurrence of sirenomelia and caudal malformations. In the first family, the mother had undergone surgery for a short form of imperforate anus. Her first pregnancy was terminated because of bilateral renal agenesis with oligohydramnios. Her second pregnancy was interrupted because of sirenomelia. The second family was referred to us because of caudal malformation in their two children. The parents' spinal radiographs were normal. The first pregnancy resulted in a girl with imperforate anus, absence of S3-S5 and coccyx, abnormal pelvic floor, and an almost bifid anteriorly located bladder. The second pregnancy resulted in a baby girl with sirenomelia. No diabetes was present during the pregnancies in either of these two families. These families confirm the hypothesis that major genes are responsible for the embryogenesis of the caudal part of the embryo, with variable expression, as has been already described in sirenomelia mouse models (CYP26A1, BMP7/tsg). Molecular studies are underway in these families and in sporadic cases in our laboratory to explore the genetic basis of sirenomelia in humans. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A novel rat model of brachial plexus injury with nerve root stumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jintao; Yang, Jiantao; Yang, Yi; Li, Liang; Qin, Bengang; He, Wenting; Yan, Liwei; Chen, Gang; Tu, Zhehui; Liu, Xiaolin; Gu, Liqiang

    2018-02-01

    The C5-C6 nerve roots are usually spared from avulsion after brachial plexus injury (BPI) and thus can be used as donors for nerve grafting. To date, there are no appropriate animal models to evaluate spared nerve root stumps. Hence, the aim of this study was to establish and evaluate a rat model with spared nerve root stumps in BPI. In rupture group, the proximal parts of C5-T1 nerve roots were held with the surrounding muscles and the distal parts were pulled by a sudden force after the brachial plexus was fully exposed, and the results were compared with those of sham group. To validate the model, the lengths of C5-T1 spared nerve root stumps were measured and the histologies of the shortest one and the corresponding spinal cord were evaluated. C5 nerve root stump was found to be the shortest. Histology findings demonstrated that the nerve fibers became more irregular and the continuity decreased; numbers and diameters of myelinated axons and thickness of myelin sheaths significantly decreased over time. The survival of motoneurons was reduced, and the death of motoneurons may be related to the apoptotic process. Our model could successfully create BPI model with nerve root stumps by traction, which could simulate injury mechanisms. While other models involve root avulsion or rupturing by distal nerve transection. This model would be suitable for evaluating nerve root stumps and testing new therapeutic strategies for neuroprotection through nerve root stumps in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The caudal septum replacement graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2008-01-01

    To describe a technique for reconstructing the lost tip support in cases involving caudal septal and premaxillary deficiencies. The study included 120 patients with aesthetic and functional nasal problems resulting from the loss of caudal septal and premaxillary support. An external rhinoplasty approach was performed to reconstruct the lost support using a cartilaginous caudal septum replacement graft and premaxillary augmentation with Mersilene mesh. The majority of cases (75%) involved revisions in patients who had previously undergone 1 or more nasal surgical procedures. A caudal septum replacement graft was combined with premaxillary augmentation in 93 patients (77.5%). The mean follow-up period was 3 years (range, 1-12 years). The technique succeeded in correcting the external nasal deformities in all patients and resulted in a significant improvement in breathing in 74 patients (86%) with preoperative nasal obstruction. There were no cases of infection, displacement, or extrusion. The caudal septum replacement graft proved to be very effective in restoring the lost tip support in patients with caudal septal deficiency. Combining the graft with premaxillary augmentation using Mersilene mesh helped increase support and stability over long-term follow-up.

  4. Development of stump utilization in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karkkainen, M

    1975-01-01

    Presents a historical review of the utilization of stump- and rot-wood in Finland, based on Finnish literature from the mid 19th century until to-day. Pine stumps were used for tar production to a small extent during the 19th century, and on a much larger scale during the two World Wars. Other industrial uses of stumpwood have hitherto been of minor importance, but stumps are now beginning to be used in the pulp industry. The largest quantity of stumpwood used has always been that taken by the rural population for fuel; it amounted to >200 000 m/sup 3/ solid measure in the 1930's, and was still >100 000 m/sup 3/ in the 1960's.

  5. Neuronal responses to tactile stimuli and tactile sensations evoked by microstimulation in the human thalamic principal somatic sensory nucleus (ventral caudal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Anne-Christine; Chien, Jui-Hong; Greenspan, Joel D; Garonzik, Ira; Weiss, Nirit; Ohara, Shinji; Lenz, Frederick Arthur

    2016-06-01

    The normal organization and plasticity of the cutaneous core of the thalamic principal somatosensory nucleus (ventral caudal, Vc) have been studied by single-neuron recordings and microstimulation in patients undergoing awake stereotactic operations for essential tremor (ET) without apparent somatic sensory abnormality and in patients with dystonia or chronic pain secondary to major nervous system injury. In patients with ET, most Vc neurons responded to one of the four stimuli, each of which optimally activates one mechanoreceptor type. Sensations evoked by microstimulation were similar to those evoked by the optimal stimulus only among rapidly adapting neurons. In patients with ET, Vc was highly segmented somatotopically, and vibration, movement, pressure, and sharp sensations were usually evoked by microstimulation at separate sites in Vc. In patients with conditions including spinal cord transection, amputation, or dystonia, RFs were mismatched with projected fields more commonly than in patients with ET. The representation of the border of the anesthetic area (e.g., stump) or of the dystonic limb was much larger than that of the same part of the body in patients with ET. This review describes the organization and reorganization of human Vc neuronal activity in nervous system injury and dystonia and then proposes basic mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Computed tomography in the evaluation of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy of the Doberman Pinscher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, N.J.H.; Cofone, M.; Robertson, I.D.; DeCarlo, A.; Smith, G.K.; Thrall, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    Caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy is a common neurologic disorder of Doberman pinschers which has a number of striking similarities to cervical spondylotic myelopathy in humans. Diagnosis of this human disease is facilitated considerably by the use of computed tomographic (CT) myelography. Sixteen Doberman pinscher dogs with caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy were studied by conventional myelography followed by CT myelography. A close correlation was noted between the CT myelographic appearance of the cervical spinal cord in these dogs, and that reported for human cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Five dogs had atrophy of the spinal cord, and in another there was an accumulation of contrast medium within the spinal cord. These features are often associated with a poor response to surgical decompression in humans with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The CT examination provided information that could not be obtained by conventional myelography alone and should be considered as an additional diagnostic procedure in dogs with caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy

  7. Profitability of Precommericially Thinning Oak Stump Sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Dwyer; Daniel C. Dey; William B. Kurtz

    1993-01-01

    Thinning oak stump sprouts to a single stem at an early age will increase diameter growth of the released stem. However, percommercial thinning represents a substantial investment which must be carried for many years before any returns are realized. We estimated the incremental gains in yield and the present net worth for five crop-tree release treatments of 5-yr-old...

  8. Profitability of precommercially thinning oak stump sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Dwyer; Daniel C. Dey; William B. Kurtz

    1993-01-01

    Thinning oak stump sprouts to a single stem at an early age will increase diameter growth of the released stem. However, precommercial thinning represents a substantial investment which must be carried for many years before any returns are realized. We estimated the incremental gains in yield and the present net worth for five crop-tree release treatments of 5-year-old...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: caudal regression syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... umbilical artery: Further support for a caudal regression-sirenomelia spectrum. Am J Med Genet A. 2007 Dec ... AK, Dickinson JE, Bower C. Caudal dysgenesis and sirenomelia-single centre experience suggests common pathogenic basis. Am ...

  10. Spinal Cord Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain that is refractory to other treatment. Originally described by Shealy et al. in 1967(1), it is used to treat a range of conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I)(2), angina pectoris(3), radicular...... pain after failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS)(4), pain due to peripheral nerve injury, stump pain(5), peripheral vascular disease(6) and diabetic neuropathy(7,8); whereas phantom pain(9), postherpetic neuralgia(10), chronic visceral pain(11), and pain after partial spinal cord injury(12) remain more...

  11. Caudal regression syndrome : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Joo; Kim, Hi Hye; Kim, Hyung Sik; Park, So Young; Han, Hye Young; Lee, Kwang Hun

    1998-01-01

    Caudal regression syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly, which results from a developmental failure of the caudal mesoderm during the fetal period. We present a case of caudal regression syndrome composed of a spectrum of anomalies including sirenomelia, dysplasia of the lower lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx and pelvic bones,genitourinary and anorectal anomalies, and dysplasia of the lung, as seen during infantography and MR imaging

  12. Caudal regression syndrome : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Joo; Kim, Hi Hye; Kim, Hyung Sik; Park, So Young; Han, Hye Young; Lee, Kwang Hun [Chungang Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    Caudal regression syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly, which results from a developmental failure of the caudal mesoderm during the fetal period. We present a case of caudal regression syndrome composed of a spectrum of anomalies including sirenomelia, dysplasia of the lower lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx and pelvic bones,genitourinary and anorectal anomalies, and dysplasia of the lung, as seen during infantography and MR imaging.

  13. Aguas de un mismo caudal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Borges, creía que “el periodismo distorsiona la mentalidad del escritor”, el autor de este artículo, plantea en cambio que son “aguas de un mismo caudal, que muy a menudo viajan juntas”, varias han sido, y son, las concepciones que han expuesto célebres protagonistas de estos dos hechos escriturales a favor y en contra del ejercicio del periodismo para mejorar o perjudicar al escritor. El aparente divorcio entre literatura y periodismo radica cabalmente en el intento equivocado de separarlos. En verdad son lo mismo y bien podríamos clasificar al periodismo como un género dentro de la literatura.

  14. A study of radiation therapy for the cervical stump cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Reiko; Arai, Tatsuo; Morita, Shinroku; Takamizawa, Hirokichi.

    1979-01-01

    During a period of 17 years, between 1961 and 1977, 59 cases of the cervical stump cancer were treated at NIRS Hospital. We could not epidemically find the difference between the cervical stump cancer and the cervical cancer. 5-year survival rate of cervical stump cancer was 90% in stage I, 86% in stage II, and 63% in stage III, respectively. These results show higher 5-year survival rates, compared with those of cervical cancer. The frequencies of radiation complication in rectum and bladder were lower in the case of cervical stump cancer than in cervical cancer. It was suggested that the optimal radiation dose for cervical stump cancer was 80 - 90 TDF at point A. (author)

  15. Caudal bupivacaine supplemented with caudal or intravenous clonidine in children undergoing hypospadias repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Henneberg, Steen Winther; Walther-Larsen, Søren

    2004-01-01

    Clonidine is used increasingly in paediatric anaesthetic practice to prolong the duration of action of caudal block with a local anaesthetic agent. Which route of administration of clonidine is the most beneficial remains unknown. We compared the effects of caudal and i.v. clonidine on postoperat...... on postoperative analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine after hypospadias repair....

  16. Thirteen Year Loblolly Pine Growth Following Machine Application of Cut-Stump Treament Herbicides For Hardwood Stump-Sprout Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde G. Vidrine; John C. Adams

    2002-01-01

    Thirteen year growth results of 1-0 out-planted loblolly pine seedlings on nonintensively prepared up-land mixed pine-hardwood sites receiving machine applied cut-stump treatment (CST) herbicides onto hardwood stumps at the time of harvesting is presented. Plantation pine growth shows significantly higher growth for pine in the CST treated plots compared to non-CST...

  17. Occurrence patterns of lichens on stumps in young managed forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Måns; Dahlberg, Anders; Ranius, Thomas; Thor, Göran

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demand for forest-derived bio-fuel may decrease the amount of dead wood and hence also the amount of available substrate for saproxylic ( = dead-wood dependent) organisms. Cut stumps constitute a large portion of dead wood in managed boreal forests. The lichen flora of such stumps has received little interest. Therefore, we investigated which lichens that occur on stumps in young (4-19 years), managed forests and analyzed how species richness and occurrence of individual species were related to stump and stand characteristics. We performed lichen inventories of 576 Norway spruce stumps in 48 forest stands in two study areas in Central Sweden, recording in total 77 lichen species. Of these, 14 were obligately lignicolous, while the remaining were generalists that also grow on bark, soil or rocks. We tested the effect of characteristics reflecting successional stage, microclimate, substrate patch size, and the species pool in the surrounding area on (1) total lichen species richness, (2) species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens and (3) the occurrence of four obligately lignicolous lichen species. The most important variables were stump age, with more species on old stumps, and study area, with similar total species richness but differences in occupancy for individual species. Responses for total lichen species richness and species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens were overall similar, indicating similar ecological requirements of these two groups. Our results indicate that species richness measurements serve as poor proxies for the responses of individual, obligately lignicolous lichen species.

  18. Occurrence patterns of lichens on stumps in young managed forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Måns Svensson

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for forest-derived bio-fuel may decrease the amount of dead wood and hence also the amount of available substrate for saproxylic ( = dead-wood dependent organisms. Cut stumps constitute a large portion of dead wood in managed boreal forests. The lichen flora of such stumps has received little interest. Therefore, we investigated which lichens that occur on stumps in young (4-19 years, managed forests and analyzed how species richness and occurrence of individual species were related to stump and stand characteristics. We performed lichen inventories of 576 Norway spruce stumps in 48 forest stands in two study areas in Central Sweden, recording in total 77 lichen species. Of these, 14 were obligately lignicolous, while the remaining were generalists that also grow on bark, soil or rocks. We tested the effect of characteristics reflecting successional stage, microclimate, substrate patch size, and the species pool in the surrounding area on (1 total lichen species richness, (2 species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens and (3 the occurrence of four obligately lignicolous lichen species. The most important variables were stump age, with more species on old stumps, and study area, with similar total species richness but differences in occupancy for individual species. Responses for total lichen species richness and species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens were overall similar, indicating similar ecological requirements of these two groups. Our results indicate that species richness measurements serve as poor proxies for the responses of individual, obligately lignicolous lichen species.

  19. Catecholamine innervation of the caudal spinal cord in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Skagerberg, G

    1985-01-01

    matter were found to contain catecholamines. In the dorsal horn the most intense fluorescence was seen in the superficial layers. The motoneuron neuropil exhibited the most prominent catecholamine-fluorescence of the ventral horn layers. In the sixth lumbar segment, which contains the motor nuclei....... In the intermediate gray the intermediolateral nucleus in thoracic and upper lumbar segments was the most heavily innervated area, followed by the medial lumbar sympathetic group, which contains the majority of the sympathetic preganglionic neurons innervating the pelvic organs. The parasympathetic intermediolateral...... nucleus in the upper sacral segments received a catecholamine innervation of moderate density. The catecholamine innervation pattern is discussed in relation to the patterns of other putative transmitters. The distribution of catecholamine fluorescence in relation to nuclei that control the pelvic organs...

  20. Parotid salivary duct stenosis following caudal maxillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestrinho, Lisa A; Faísca, Pedro B; Niza, Maria M R E

    2014-01-01

    Parotid salivary duct dilation was diagnosed in a 9-year-old male dog. The dog had undergone caudal maxillectomy on the ipsilateral side 2-years prior to presentation. Treatment consisted of parotid salivary duct excision and superficial parotidectomy that lead to the resolution of clinical signs. Transient facial neuropraxia was observed immediately after surgery and resolved spontaneously after 2-weeks. Parotid salivary duct dilation should be considered as a chronic postoperative complication following caudal maxillectomy.

  1. Caudal articular process dysplasia of thoracic vertebrae in neurologically normal French bulldogs, English bulldogs, and Pugs: Prevalence and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Simon; Ter Haar, Gert; De Decker, Steven

    2018-02-20

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical characteristics of thoracic caudal articular process dysplasia in French bulldogs, English bulldogs and Pugs presenting for problems unrelated to spinal disease. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, computed tomography scans of the thoracic vertebral column of these three breeds were reviewed for the presence and location of caudal articular process hypoplasia and aplasia, and compared between breeds. A total of 271 dogs met the inclusion criteria: 108 French bulldogs, 63 English bulldogs, and 100 Pugs. A total of 70.4% of French bulldogs, 84.1% of English bulldogs, and 97.0% of Pugs showed evidence of caudal articular process dysplasia. Compared to French and English bulldogs, Pugs showed a significantly higher prevalence of caudal articular process aplasia, but also a lower prevalence of caudal articular process hypoplasia, a higher number of affected vertebrae per dog and demonstrated a generalized and bilateral spatial pattern more frequently. Furthermore, Pugs showed a significantly different anatomical distribution of caudal articular process dysplasia along the vertebral column, with a high prevalence of caudal articular process aplasia between T10 and T13. This area was almost completely spared in French and English bulldogs. As previously suggested, caudal articular process dysplasia is a common finding in neurologically normal Pugs but this also seems to apply to French and English bulldogs. The predisposition of clinically relevant caudal articular process dysplasia in Pugs is possibly not only caused by the higher prevalence of caudal articular process dysplasia, but also by breed specific anatomical characteristics. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  2. Caudal anesthesia in a patient with peritonitis: Is it safe??

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kako

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuraxial anesthesia combined with general anesthesia has become a widely accepted method of providing effective postoperative analgesia and decreasing intraoperative anesthetic needs in the pediatric population. In clinical practice, there still appears to be hesitancy for the use of a neuraxial technique (spinal or epidural in patients at risk for bacteremia or with an on-going systemic infection. However, evidence-based medicine lacks any data to support an increase in the risk of infectious complications following neuraxial anesthesia. We present two pediatric patients with intra-abdominal infectious processes who received caudal epidural blockade for postoperative operative analgesia. The use of neuraxial techniques in patients at risk for bacteremia is reviewed, evidence-based medicine regarding the risks of infection discussed, and the potential favorable effects of neuraxial blockade on the neurohumoral response to sepsis and the systemic inflammatory responses presented.

  3. C8 cross transfer for the treatment of caudal brachial plexus avulsion in three dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moissonnier, Pierre; Carozzo, Claude; Thibaut, Jean-Laurent; Escriou, Catherine; Hidalgo, Antoine; Blot, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the cervical nerve 8 cross-transfer technique (C8CT) as a part of surgical treatment of caudal brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) in the dog. Case series. Client-owned dogs suspected to have caudal BPA based on neurological examination and electrophysiological testing (n = 3). The distal stump of the surgically transected contralateral C8 ventral branch (donor) was bridged to the proximal stump of the avulsed C8 ventral branch (recipient) and secured with 9-0 polypropylene suture under an operating microscope. A carpal panarthrodesis was performed on the injured limb after C8CT. Surgical exploration confirmed avulsion of nerve roots C7, C8, and T1 in all cases. There was no evidence of an iatrogenic effect on the donor forelimb. Gradual improvement in function of the affected forelimb occurred in all dogs, with eventual recovery of voluntary elbow extension. Reinnervation was evident in EMG recordings 6 months postoperatively in all three dogs. Stimulation of the donor C8 ventral branch led to motor evoked potentials in the avulsed side triceps brachialis and radial carpus extensor muscles. Variable functional outcome was observed in the 3 dogs during clinical evaluation 3-4 years after surgery. Digital abrasion wounds, distal interphalangeal infectious arthritis, and self-mutilation necessitated distal phalanx amputation of digits 3 and 4 in 2 dogs. C8CT provided partial reconnection of the donor C8 ventral branch to the avulsed brachial plexus in the 3 dogs of this series. Reinnervation resulted in active elbow extension and promoted functional recovery in the affected limb. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  4. Testing two novel stump-lifting heads in a final felling Norway spruce stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi; Mutikainen, A. (TTS Research, Rajamaeki (Finland)), Email: arto.mutikainen@tts.fi

    2009-07-01

    The use of stump and root wood chips has increased very rapidly in the 21st century in Finland: in the year 2000, the total consumption of stump wood chips for energy generation was 10 GWh, while in 2008 it was around 1.2 TWh. Metsaeteho Oy and TTS Research tested two new stump-lifting devices for lifting stumps in a final felling Norway spruce (picea abies) stand. In the time study with the Vaekevae Stump Processor lifting head, the productivity of stump lifting was 7,5 m3 / E{sub 0}-hour when lifting spruce stumps with a diameter of 30 cm from clayey soil, and 8.3 m3 /E{sub 0}-hour when lifting spruce stumps from sandy soil. When lifting stumps with a diameter of 40 cm, the stump-lifting productivity was 9.0 m3 /E{sub 0}-h (clay) and 10,5 m3 / E{sub 0}-h (sand). The results of this relatively restricted test indicated that the Vaekevae Stump Processor is s reliable and effective stump-lifting head that enables the harvesting of high-quality stump raw material for energy generation. The stump lifting productivity of the other lifting head (Jaervinen) was lower than that of the Vaekevae Strump Processor. Some development suggestions for the Jaervinen lifting head were presented and discussed. (orig.)

  5. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors.

  6. Caudal anesthesia in pediatric surgical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S; Siddiqui, M A; Haque, M; Majumder, S K; Ali, M S; Majid, M A; Hasan, M R

    2006-07-01

    Prospective study was carried out on 100 patients since May 2005 in my private practice and in the department of pediatric surgery of MMCH. Under caudal anesthesia along with or without ketaminie induction and gas inhalation all the patients underwent different surgical procedure namely anorectal surgery (eg. anoplasty, rectal polyp), urogenital surgery (Circumcision, hypospadias, meatotomy), groin surgery (hernia, hydrocele) and foot & leg surgery. Calculated dose schedule of drugs used in anesthesia and volume were maintained. Time of giving anesthesia and time of starting analgesia were recorded. Per-operative and postoperative analgesia were evaluated. Every parent was explained regarding the merit of caudal anesthesia calculated and compared with that of general anesthesia. Application of caudal anesthesia with or without ketamine & diazepam induction can be used safely and cost effectively and may be put into protocol in many of the pediatric surgical practice both in institute and also in private practice.

  7. Wood-inhabiting beetles in low stumps, high stumps and logs on boreal clear-cuts: implications for dead wood management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Andersson

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for biofuels from logging residues require serious attention on the importance of dead wood substrates on clear-cuts for the many forestry-intolerant saproxylic (wood-inhabiting species. In particular, the emerging harvest of low stumps motivates further study of these substrates. On ten clear-cuts we compared the species richness, abundance and species composition of saproxylic beetles hatching from four to nine year old low stumps, high stumps and logs of Norway spruce. By using emergence traps we collected a total of 2,670 saproxylic beetles among 195 species during the summers of 2006, 2007 and 2009. We found that the species assemblages differed significantly between high stumps and logs all three years. The species assemblages of low stumps, on the other hand, were intermediate to those found in logs and high stumps. There were also significant difference in species richness between the three examined years, and we found significant effect of substrate type on richness of predators and fungivores. As shown in previous studies of low stumps on clear-cuts they can sustain large numbers of different saproxylic beetles, including red-listed species. Our study does, in addition to this fact, highlight a possible problem in creating just one type of substrate as a tool for conservation in forestry. Species assemblages in high stumps did not differ significantly from those found in low stumps. Instead logs, which constitute a scarcer substrate type on clear-cuts, provided habitat for a more distinct assemblage of saproxylic species than high stumps. It can therefore be questioned whether high stumps are an optimal tool for nature conservation in clear-cutting forestry. Our results also indicate that low stumps constitute an equally important substrate as high stumps and logs, and we therefore suggest that stump harvesting is done after carefully evaluating measures to provide habitat for saproxylic organisms.

  8. Wood-inhabiting beetles in low stumps, high stumps and logs on boreal clear-cuts: implications for dead wood management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Jon; Hjältén, Joakim; Dynesius, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The increasing demand for biofuels from logging residues require serious attention on the importance of dead wood substrates on clear-cuts for the many forestry-intolerant saproxylic (wood-inhabiting) species. In particular, the emerging harvest of low stumps motivates further study of these substrates. On ten clear-cuts we compared the species richness, abundance and species composition of saproxylic beetles hatching from four to nine year old low stumps, high stumps and logs of Norway spruce. By using emergence traps we collected a total of 2,670 saproxylic beetles among 195 species during the summers of 2006, 2007 and 2009. We found that the species assemblages differed significantly between high stumps and logs all three years. The species assemblages of low stumps, on the other hand, were intermediate to those found in logs and high stumps. There were also significant difference in species richness between the three examined years, and we found significant effect of substrate type on richness of predators and fungivores. As shown in previous studies of low stumps on clear-cuts they can sustain large numbers of different saproxylic beetles, including red-listed species. Our study does, in addition to this fact, highlight a possible problem in creating just one type of substrate as a tool for conservation in forestry. Species assemblages in high stumps did not differ significantly from those found in low stumps. Instead logs, which constitute a scarcer substrate type on clear-cuts, provided habitat for a more distinct assemblage of saproxylic species than high stumps. It can therefore be questioned whether high stumps are an optimal tool for nature conservation in clear-cutting forestry. Our results also indicate that low stumps constitute an equally important substrate as high stumps and logs, and we therefore suggest that stump harvesting is done after carefully evaluating measures to provide habitat for saproxylic organisms.

  9. Sindrome de regresión caudal

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado, A.; Pastor, A.; Sorni, A.; Pastor Durán, Xavier; Palomeque,A.

    1995-01-01

    El síndrome de regresión caudal o de agenesia sacra se caracteriza por un déficit funcional de los esfínteres y de la muscultatura de los miembros inferiores. Se suele asociar con otras malformaciones, como son las esqueléticas, genitourinarias y del tracto intestinal. La diabetes mellitus materna es uno de los factores predisponentes más destacados. Aquí se presenta un caso de síndrome de regresión caudal con insufiencia renal secundaria a la uropatía malformativa asociada. Se comentan los d...

  10. Accessory caudal axial and pelvic ribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohutova, J.; Kolar, J.; Vitovec, J.; Vyhnanek, L.

    1980-01-01

    Accessory caudal ribs are reported as an extremely curious anomaly in five patients. Once the fracture of this rib was a source of pains after injury. The different shapes of the ribs are documented in this clinical survey which is the most extensive in the present literature. Anomalous ribs arise due to inappropriate segmentation during the embryonal development of the axial skeleton. (orig.) [de

  11. Prospective Randomized Controlled Comparison of Caudal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bupivacaine and ropivacaine are commonly used agents for caudal anesthesia in pediatric patients. Several studies have shown different motor and cardiovascular effects of two drugs. Aim: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of both drugs and secondary objective was to compare ...

  12. Prospective Randomized Controlled Comparison of Caudal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including 50 consecutive patients in the age group of 1‑10 years, who underwent urogenital surgeries ... The duration of absolute analgesia was defined as the time from caudal injection until the pain score was >2. Motor block was assessed by modified Bromage scale. .... double-blind, phase III, controlled trial comparing.

  13. Tree diameter at breast height in relation to stump diameter by species group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur G. Horn; Richard C. Keller

    1957-01-01

    A stump tally is one method of determining the volume of timber previously removed from an area in a logging operation. To estimate volume of standing timber from stumps, foresters must first know the relationship between stump diameters and tree diameters at breast height (d.b.h.).

  14. Prediction and error of baldcypress stem volume from stump diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    1998-01-01

    The need to estimate the volume of removals occurs for many reasons, such as in trespass cases, severance tax reports, and post-harvest assessments. A logarithmic model is presented for prediction of baldcypress total stem cubic foot volume using stump diameter as the independent variable. Because the error of prediction is as important as the volume estimate, the...

  15. Risk Factors for Rectal Stump Cancer in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgens, M.W.M.D.; van Oijen, M.G.H.; Vleggaar, F.P.; Siersema, P.D.; Broekman, M.M.T.J.; Oldenburg, B.; van Bodegraven, A.A.; Dijkstra, G.; Hommes, D.; de Jong, D.J.; Stokkers, P.C.F.; van der Woude, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with long-standing colitis carry an increased risk of colorectal cancer and are therefore enrolled in colonoscopic surveillance programs. It is presently not known if endoscopic surveillance of patients with colitis with a closed rectal stump after a subtotal colectomy is

  16. Risk factors for rectal stump cancer in inflammatory bowel disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgens, M.W.; Oijen, M.G.H. van; Vleggaar, F.P.; Siersema, P.D.; Broekman, M.M.T.J.; Oldenburg, B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with long-standing colitis carry an increased risk of colorectal cancer and are therefore enrolled in colonoscopic surveillance programs. It is presently not known if endoscopic surveillance of patients with colitis with a closed rectal stump after a subtotal colectomy is

  17. Evaluation of home care management of umbilical cord stumps by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Umbilical cord care is an integral part of neonatal care in all communities and cultures and appropriate cord care reduces the risk of infection in the newborn infant. Objective: The present study assessed the home care management of the umbilical stump by the mothers at Ilesa, Southwestern Nigeria. Subjects ...

  18. Preliminary test of two stump surface protectants against Fomes annosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.E. Nelson; C.Y. Li

    1980-01-01

    Two materials, monolaurin (at two concentrations) and an unidentified species of the genus Streptomyces, were tested along with borax for ability to protect freshly cut stump surfaces of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) from colonization by Fomes annosus. Protectants were significantly (P...

  19. Percutaneous Management of Postoperative Duodenal Stump Leakage with Foley Catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jung Suk; Lee, Hae Giu; Chun, Ho Jong; Choi, Byung Gil; Lee, Sang Hoon; Hahn, Seong Tai; Ohm, Joon Young

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate retrospectively the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous management of duodenal stump leakage with a Foley catheter after subtotal gastrectomy. Methods: Ten consecutive patients (M:F = 9:1, median age: 64 years) were included in this retrospective study. The duodenal stump leakages were diagnosed in all the patients within a median of 10 days (range, 6–20). At first, the patients underwent percutaneous drainage on the day of or the day after confirmation of the presence of duodenal stump leakage, and then the Foley catheters were replaced at a median of 9 days (range, 6–38) after the percutaneous drainage. Results: Foley catheters were placed successfully in the duodenal lumen of all the patients under a fluoroscopic guide. No complication was observed during and after the procedures in all the patients. All of the patients started a regular diet 1 day after the Foley catheter placement. The patients were discharged at a median of 7 days (range, 5–14) after the Foley catheter placement. The catheters were removed in an outpatient clinic 10–58 days (median, 28) after the Foley catheter placement. Conclusions: Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous Foley catheter placement may be a safe and effective treatment option for postoperative duodenal stump leakage and may allow for shorter hospital stays, earlier oral intake, and more effective control of leakage sites

  20. Adeno-associated viral vector-mediated neurotrophin gene transfer in the injured adult rat spinal cord improves hind-limb function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blits, B; Oudega, M.; Boer, G J; Bartlett Bunge, M; Verhaagen, J

    2003-01-01

    To foster axonal growth from a Schwann cell bridge into the caudal spinal cord, spinal cells caudal to the implant were transduced with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors encoding for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (AAV-NT-3). Control rats received AAV vectors encoding

  1. Relation of Stump Length with Various Gait Parameters in Trans-tibial Amputee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyel Majumdar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is evaluating the impact of stump length of unilateral below knee amputees (BKA on different gait parameters. Nine unilateral BKA were chosen and divided into three groups comprising patients with short, medium, and long stump length. Each of them underwent gait analysis test by Computer Dynography (CDG system to measure the gait parameters. It was found that the ground reaction force is higher in the patients with medium stump length whereas the velocity, step length both for the prosthetic and sound limb and cadence were high in longer stump length. Statistical analysis shows a significant difference (p<0.05 between the gait parameters of BKA with medium and longer stump length. The patients with longer stump length were more efficient than medium and short stump patients as they consumed comparatively lesser energy while walking with self-selected velocity and conventional (Solid ankle cushioned heel SACH foot.

  2. Caudal bupivacaine supplemented with caudal or intravenous clonidine in children undergoing hypospadias repair: a double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T G; Henneberg, S W; Walther-Larsen, S

    2004-01-01

    Clonidine is used increasingly in paediatric anaesthetic practice to prolong the duration of action of caudal block with a local anaesthetic agent. Which route of administration of clonidine is the most beneficial remains unknown. We compared the effects of caudal and i.v. clonidine on postoperat...... on postoperative analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine after hypospadias repair....

  3. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with recurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma at the abdominal lymph nodes or postoperative stump including pancreatic stump and other stump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng XL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Xian-Liang Zeng,* Huan-Huan Wang,* Mao-Bin Meng, Zhi-Qiang Wu, Yong-Chun Song, Hong-Qing Zhuang, Dong Qian, Feng-Tong Li, Lu-Jun Zhao, Zhi-Yong Yuan, Ping Wang Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin’s Clinical Research Center for Cancer and Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT using CyberKnife in the treatment of patients with recurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma at the abdominal lymph node or stump after surgery. Patients and methods: Between October 1, 2006 and May 1, 2015, patients with recurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma at the abdominal lymph node or stump after surgery were enrolled and treated with SBRT at our hospital. The primary end point was local control rate after SBRT. Secondary end points were overall survival, time to symptom alleviation, and toxicity, assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Results: Twenty-four patients with 24 lesions (17 abdominal lymph nodes and seven stumps were treated with SBRT, of which five patients presented with abdominal lymph nodes and synchronous metastases in the liver and lung. The 6-, 12-, and 24-month actuarial local control rates were 95.2%, 83.8%, and 62.1%, respectively. For the entire cohort, the median overall survival from diagnosis and SBRT was 28.9 and 12.2 months, respectively. Symptom alleviation was observed in eleven of 14 patients (78.6% within a median of 8 days (range, 1–14 days after SBRT. Nine patients (37.5% experienced Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 grade 1–2 acute toxicities; one patient experienced grade 3 acute toxicity due to thrombocytopenia. Conclusion: SBRT is a safe and

  4. Systematization, distribution and territory of the caudal cerebral artery on the brain's surface of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarílis Díaz de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Meleagris gallopavo heads with their neck segments were used. Animals were contained and euthanized with the association of mebezonium iodide, embutramide and tetracaine hydrochloride (T 61, Intervet by intravenous injection. The arterial system was rinsed with cold saline solution (15°C, with 5000IU heparin and filled with red-colored latex. The samples were fixed in 20% formaldehyde for seven days. The brains were removed with a segment of cervical spinal cord and after, the dura-mater was removed and the arteries dissected. The cerebral carotid arteries, after the intercarotid anastomosis, were projected around the hypophysis, until they reached the tuber cinereum and divided into their terminal branches, the caudal branch and the rostral branch. The rostral branch was projected rostrolateralwards and gave off, in sequence, two collateral branches, the caudal cerebral and the middle cerebral arteries and the terminal branch was as cerebroethmoidal artery. The caudal cerebral artery of one antimere formed the interhemispheric artery, which gave off dorsal hemispheric branches to the convex surface of both antimeres. Its dorsal tectal mesencephalic branch, of only one antimere, originated the dorsal cerebellar artery. In the interior of the cerebral transverse fissure, after the origin of the dorsal tectal mesencephalic artery, the caudal cerebral artery emitted occipital hemispheric branches, pineal branches and medial hemispheric branches, on both antimeres. The caudal cerebral artery's territory comprehended the entire surface of the dorsal hemioptic lobe, the rostral surface of the cerebellum, the diencephalic structures, the caudal pole and the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere and in the convex surface, the sagittal eminence except for its most rostral third. Due to the asymmetry found in the caudal cerebral arteries' ramifications, the models were classified into three types and their respective subtypes.

  5. Surface-based GPR underestimates below-stump root biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; Lisa J. Samuelson; Thomas A. Stokes; Kurt H. Johnsen; Peter H. Anderson; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke

    2016-01-01

    Aims While lateral root mass is readily detectable with ground penetrating radar (GPR), the roots beneath a tree (below-stump) and overlapping lateral roots near large trees are problematic for surface-based antennas operated in reflection mode. We sought to determine if tree size (DBH) effects GPR root detection proximal to longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill) and if...

  6. [Stump forming after traumatic foot amputation of a child--description of a new surgical procedure and literature review of lawnmower accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, J; Zajonc, H; Strohm, P C; Vohrer, M; Maier-Lenz, D; Südkamp, N P; Schwering, L

    2009-01-01

    Amputation injuries in children occur in motor vehicle, farming and, importantly, lawn mower accidents. Treatment of lawn mower related injuries is complicated by gross wound contamination, avascular tissue, soft tissue defects and exposed bone. Many treatment options exist and often an adequate prosthetic supply is needed for rehabilitation. We report on an 8-year old boy who got under a ride-on lawn mower and sustained a subtotal amputation of his right foot. After initial surgery an amputation was subsequently necessary. For this, it had to be taken into account that the traumatic loss of the talus, calcaneus and parts of the cuboid bone would result in a length shortening of the right leg and so far not injured metatarsal and tarsal bones had to be sacrificed. Thus, we aimed to develop a new operation technique to optimize stump length as well as preserve tarsal bones and the possibility of limb growth. In order to achieve this, we performed a new stump forming operation in which we integrated uninjured tarsal and metatarsal bones. First a Lisfranc's amputation was performed and a metatarsal bone was kept aside. The talus, calcaneus as well as the cuboid bone were either completely or almost completely destroyed and were removed. The remaining cuneiform bones were transfixed by a notched metatarsal bone, thus achieving a tarsal arthrodesis, and the cartilages of the proximal joint surfaces were removed. The cartilage of the cranial and caudal navicular as well as the distal tibial joint surface was also removed and an arthrodesis between the distal tibia and the navicular bone was achieved by crossed Kirschner wires. Finally the cuneiform bones were placed inferior to the navicular bone. Further stump coverage was managed by skin and muscle flaps as well as split skin graft. Our patient was discharged on day 34. A fluent gait without crutches as well as sports activities were possible again as early as 6 1/2 months after the injury. Using our stump forming

  7. Imaging in spine and spinal cord malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Andrea; Biancheri, Roberta; Cama, Armando; Piatelli, Gianluca; Ravegnani, Marcello; Tortori-Donati, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    Spinal and spinal cord malformations are collectively named spinal dysraphisms. They arise from defects occurring in the early embryological stages of gastrulation (weeks 2-3), primary neurulation (weeks 3-4), and secondary neurulation (weeks 5-6). Spinal dysraphisms are categorized into open spinal dysraphisms (OSDs), in which there is exposure of abnormal nervous tissues through a skin defect, and closed spinal dysraphisms (CSD), in which there is a continuous skin coverage to the underlying malformation. Open spinal dysraphisms basically include myelomeningocele and other rare abnormalities such as myelocele and hemimyelo(meningo)cele. Closed spinal dysraphisms are further categorized based on the association with low-back subcutaneous masses. Closed spinal dysraphisms with mass are represented by lipomyelocele, lipomyelomeningocele, meningocele, and myelocystocele. Closed spinal dysraphisms without mass comprise simple dysraphic states (tight filum terminale, filar and intradural lipomas, persistent terminal ventricle, and dermal sinuses) and complex dysraphic states. The latter category further comprises defects of midline notochordal integration (basically represented by diastematomyelia) and defects of segmental notochordal formation (represented by caudal agenesis and spinal segmental dysgenesis). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the preferred modality for imaging these complex abnormalities. The use of the aforementioned classification scheme is greatly helpful to make the diagnosis

  8. A Rare Case: Appendectomy After Connected Stump Appendicitis Perforation of the Cecum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berke Manoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stump appendicitis is a rare complication after appendectomy . Stump appendicitis made of incomplete appendectomy after a rest appendix tissue develops as a result of the inflammation. Admitted to the emergency department with acute abdomen and a history of appendectomy in patients with a history of current pain in the right lower quadrant , especially that of the patient must be evaluated in terms of stump appendicitis. The fact that the earlier story appendectomy patients , causing a delay in diagnosis and increasing the morbidity Cecal perforation was offered an advanced case of delayed depending on the stump appendicitis in this article.

  9. Testing Open-Air Storage of Stumps to Provide Clean Biomass for Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Pari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available When orchards reach the end of the productive cycle, the stumps removal becomes a mandatory operation to allow new soil preparation and to establish new cultivations. The exploitation of the removed stump biomass seems a valuable option, especially in the growing energy market of the biofuels; however, the scarce quality of the material obtained after the extraction compromises its marketability, making this product a costly waste to be disposed. In this regard, the identification of affordable strategies for the extraction and the cleaning of the material will be crucial in order to provide to plantation owners the chance to sell the biomass and offset the extraction costs. Mechanical extraction and cleaning technologies have been already tested on forest stumps, but these systems work on the singular piece and would be inefficient in the conditions of an intensive orchard, where stumps are small and numerous. The objective of this study was to test the possibility to exploit a natural stumps cleaning system through open-air storage. The tested stumps were obtained from two different vineyards, extracted with an innovative stump puller specifically designed for continuous stump removal in intensively-planted orchards. The effects of weathering were evaluated to determine the fuel quality immediately after the extraction and after a storage period of six months with respect to moisture content, ash content, and heating value. Results indicated interesting storage performance, showing also different dynamics depending on the stumps utilized.

  10. The anatomy and histology of caudal autotomy and regeneration in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Emily A B; Payne, Samantha L; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Caudal autotomy-the ability to self-detach the tail-is a dramatic adaptation common to many structural-grade lizards. For most species, tail loss is followed by the equally dramatic phenomenon of tail regeneration. Here we review the anatomy and histology of caudal autotomy and regeneration in lizards, drawing heavily from research published over the past 2 decades. The autotomous tail is characterized by various structural adaptations, which act to minimize blood loss and trauma to adjacent tissues. The early phase of wound healing involves a leukocytic response but limited inflammation. Reepithelialization via a specialized wound epithelium is not only critical for scar-free healing but also necessary for subsequent tissue patterning and regenerative outgrowth. Regeneration begins with the formation of the blastema, a mass of proliferating mesenchymal-like cells. As the blastema expands, it is invaded by blood vessels and the spinal cord. Whereas the replacement tail outwardly resembles the original appendage, it differs in several notable respects, including the tissue composition and organization of the skeleton, muscular system, and spinal cord. Increasingly, the lizard tail is being recognized among biomedical scientists as an important model for the study of wound healing and multitissue restoration.

  11. Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Prasad Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting revealed pigeon chest and elevated right shoulder. Posterior examination of the trunk showed thoracic scoliosis with convexity to right. The patient was operated and at 1 year followup the boy had two separate legs with a good aesthetic and functional results.

  12. Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sakti Prasad; Ojha, Niranjan; Ganesh, G Shankar; Mohanty, Ram Narayan

    2013-07-01

    Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting revealed pigeon chest and elevated right shoulder. Posterior examination of the trunk showed thoracic scoliosis with convexity to right. The patient was operated and at 1 year followup the boy had two separate legs with a good aesthetic and functional results.

  13. Short-term responses of decomposers and vegetation to stump removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataja-aho, S.

    2011-07-01

    Stump removal has become a common practice to produce raw material for bioenergy production. It was hypothesized that stump removal is an extensive and more intense disturbance for forest ecosystems (soil decomposer organisms and vegetation) compared to traditional site preparation after clear cutting. Therefore, the effects of stump harvesting on forest soil decomposers, vegetation and nutrient dynamics in undisturbed patches of the forest soil and in exposed mineral soil were compared to the effects of the traditional site preparation method, mounding. Nematodes and enchytraeids were the only decomposer groups that were directly affected (negatively) by the stump removal. Regardless of the treatment, the abundances of most of the decomposer groups were consistently lower in the exposed mineral soil than in the intact forest soil. There was 2-3 times more exposed mineral soil in stump removal sites compared to mounding sites. When this was taken into account, the decomposer community was negatively affected by the stump removal at the forest stand level. However, the greater soil disturbance at the stump harvesting sites enhanced CO{sub 2} production, net nitrogen mineralisation and nitrification. The increased N availability and the changes in microclimate due to the disturbance probably explained the vegetation increase at the stump harvested sites. Planted Norway spruce seedlings grew faster during the first two growing periods at the stump removal sites than at the mounding sites. The seedlings had high and similar ectomycorrhizal colonization rate in both treatments. In the short-term, it is probably not the resources removed in the stumps themselves, but the degree and amount of soil disturbance during the stump harvesting procedure that affects the decomposer community and its function in the clear-felled stands. (orig.)

  14. Caudal analgesia for herniotomy: Comparative evaluation of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: There is currently a wide range of volume schemes for bupivacaine caudal anesthesia. This study evaluated the quality of caudal analgesia achieved with a dosing scheme of 0.75 ml/kg compared with 0.5 ml/kg of 0.25% plain bupivacaine for herniotomy. Methods: After the institutional approval, American Society ...

  15. Variation in Measurements of Transtibial Stump Model Volume A Comparison of Five Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, A.; de Boer-Wilzing, V. G.; Geertzen, J. H. B.; Emmelot, C. H.; Baars, E. C. T.; Dijkstra, P. U.

    Objective: To determine the right moment for fitting the first prosthesis, it is necessary to know when the volume of the stump has stabilized. The aim of this study is to analyze variation in measurements of transtibial stump model volumes using the water immersion method, the Design TT system, the

  16. Geographical variance in the risk of gastric stump cancer: no increased risk in Japan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tersmette, A. C.; Giardiello, F. M.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Tersmette, K. W.; Ohara, K.; Vandenbroucke, J. P.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    Geographical differences may exist in the risk of gastric stump cancer. Therefore, we performed meta-analysis of literature reports in Japan (n = 3), the USA (n = 4), and Europe (n = 20) on the risk of postgastrectomy cancer. The weighted mean relative risk of stump cancer in Japan was 0.28, 95%

  17. First rotation Eucalyptus macarthurii cut stump control in KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many cold tolerant eucalypts, E. macarthurii in particular, coppice vigorously following harvesting, and in contrast to E. grandis are proving difficult to kill by existing cut stump control methods. Based on past research, selected cut stump treatments were tested on single stem E. macarthurii trees, that had not been coppiced, ...

  18. Five cases of caudal regression with an aberrant abdominal umbilical artery: Further support for a caudal regression-sirenomelia spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesterhoeft, Sara M; Ernst, Linda M; Siebert, Joseph R; Kapur, Raj P

    2007-12-15

    Sirenomelia and caudal regression have sparked centuries of interest and recent debate regarding their classification and pathogenetic relationship. Specific anomalies are common to both conditions, but aside from fusion of the lower extremities, an aberrant abdominal umbilical artery ("persistent vitelline artery") has been invoked as the chief anatomic finding that distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression. This observation is important from a pathogenetic viewpoint, in that diversion of blood away from the caudal portion of the embryo through the abdominal umbilical artery ("vascular steal") has been proposed as the primary mechanism leading to sirenomelia. In contrast, caudal regression is hypothesized to arise from primary deficiency of caudal mesoderm. We present five cases of caudal regression that exhibit an aberrant abdominal umbilical artery similar to that typically associated with sirenomelia. Review of the literature identified four similar cases. Collectively, the series lends support for a caudal regression-sirenomelia spectrum with a common pathogenetic basis and suggests that abnormal umbilical arterial anatomy may be the consequence, rather than the cause, of deficient caudal mesoderm. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Rooting stem cuttings of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) utilizing hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew H. Gocke; Daniel J. Robinson

    2010-01-01

    The ability to root stem cuttings collected from hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees was evaluated for 26 codominant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) trees growing in Durham County, NC. Sprouting occurred, the same year as felling, on 23 of the 26 tree stumps and sprout number was significantly and positively correlated with stump diameter. The...

  20. Characterizing the location of spinal and vertebral levels in the human cervical spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadotte, D W; Cadotte, A; Cohen-Adad, J; Fleet, D; Livne, M; Wilson, J R; Mikulis, D; Nugaeva, N; Fehlings, M G

    2015-04-01

    Advanced MR imaging techniques are critical to understanding the pathophysiology of conditions involving the spinal cord. We provide a novel, quantitative solution to map vertebral and spinal cord levels accounting for anatomic variability within the human spinal cord. For the first time, we report a population distribution of the segmental anatomy of the cervical spinal cord that has direct implications for the interpretation of advanced imaging studies most often conducted across groups of subjects. Twenty healthy volunteers underwent a T2-weighted, 3T MRI of the cervical spinal cord. Two experts marked the C3-C8 cervical nerve rootlets, C3-C7 vertebral bodies, and pontomedullary junction. A semiautomated algorithm was used to locate the centerline of the spinal cord and measure rostral-caudal distances from a fixed point in the brain stem, the pontomedullary junction, to each of the spinal rootlets and vertebral bodies. Distances to each location were compared across subjects. Six volunteers had 2 additional scans in neck flexion and extension to measure the effects of patient positioning in the scanner. We demonstrated that substantial variation exists in the rostral-caudal position of spinal cord segments among individuals and that prior methods of predicting spinal segments are imprecise. We also show that neck flexion or extension has little effect on the relative location of vertebral-versus-spinal levels. Accounting for spinal level variation is lacking in existing imaging studies. Future studies should account for this variation for accurate interpretation of the neuroanatomic origin of acquired MR signals. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  1. Sirenomelia and severe caudal regression syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidahmed, Mohammed Z; Abdelbasit, Omer B; Alhussein, Khalid A; Miqdad, Abeer M; Khalil, Mohammed I; Salih, Mustafa A

    2014-12-01

    To describe cases of sirenomelia and severe caudal regression syndrome (CRS), to report the prevalence of sirenomelia, and compare our findings with the literature. Retrospective data was retrieved from the medical records of infants with the diagnosis of sirenomelia and CRS and their mothers from 1989 to 2010 (22 years) at the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A perinatologist, neonatologist, pediatric neurologist, and radiologist ascertained the diagnoses. The cases were identified as part of a study of neural tube defects during that period. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE. During the 22-year study period, the total number of deliveries was 124,933 out of whom, 4 patients with sirenomelia, and 2 patients with severe forms of CRS were identified. All the patients with sirenomelia had single umbilical artery, and none were the infant of a diabetic mother. One patient was a twin, and another was one of triplets. The 2 patients with CRS were sisters, their mother suffered from type II diabetes mellitus and morbid obesity on insulin, and neither of them had a single umbilical artery. Other associated anomalies with sirenomelia included an absent radius, thumb, and index finger in one patient, Potter's syndrome, abnormal ribs, microphthalmia, congenital heart disease, hypoplastic lungs, and diaphragmatic hernia. The prevalence of sirenomelia (3.2 per 100,000) is high compared with the international prevalence of one per 100,000. Both cases of CRS were infants of type II diabetic mother with poor control, supporting the strong correlation of CRS and maternal diabetes.

  2. Bronchial stump closure with amniotic membrane in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Mohajeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coverage of the bronchial stumps (BSs with adjacent tissues can improve healing and reduce bronchial complications in complex thoracic surgery. There is no evidence for the application of human amnion allograft for prevention of air leak from the BS. The comparison of the amniotic membrane (AM and pleural patch for BS healing after lobectomy in dogs was our aim in this study. Materials and Methods: A total of eight males and females 12-24-month-old dogs between 17 and 22 kg body-weight were used in this study in 2010, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Animals were separated into two groups: group A (n = 4; amniotic membrane and group P (n = 4; pleural patch according to the BS closure technique performed. After lobectomy of the right middle lobe, the BS was closed, while a small bronchopleural fistula (BPF was created by inserting a catheter via edges of closed stump. Then, it was covered with a piece of AM3 × 3 cm in group A and with a pedicle graft of pleura in group P. Rethoracotomy was performed after 15 days of observation, and the BS was removed for histological examination. Histological healing was classified as complete or incomplete healing. Neoangiogenesis was measured by Von Willebrand expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15 using Fisher′s exact test, Mann-Whitney test, and T tests. Results: BPF complications were not seen during observation period. There was no significant difference in histological healing between two groups. Similarly, no significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of neoangiogenesis based on IHC examination (P value = 0.69. Conclusion: Human amnion allograft could be as effective as pleural patch for BS wrapping following pulmonary resections.

  3. Traction suture modification to tongue-in-groove caudal septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indeyeva, Y A; Lee, T S; Gordin, E; Chan, D; Ducic, Y

    2018-02-01

    Caudal septal deviation leads to unfavorable esthetic as well as functional effects on the nasal airway. A modification to the tongue-in-groove (TIG) technique to correct these caudal septal deformities is described. With placement of a temporary suspension suture to the caudal septum, manual traction is applied, assuring that the caudal septum remains in the midline position while it is being secured with multiple through-and-through, trans-columellar and trans-septal sutures. From 2003 to 2016, 148 patients underwent endonasal septoplasty using this modified technique, with excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes and a revision rate of 1.4%. This modified TIG technique replaces the periosteal suture that secures the caudal septum to the midline nasal crest in the original TIG technique. This simplifies the procedure and minimizes the risk of securing the caudal septum off-midline when used in endonasal septoplasty. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Caudal epidural anesthesia during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoyama-Shirakawa, Yuko; Abe, Madoka; Nakamura, Katsumasa

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that pain control during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer is insufficient in most hospitals in Japan. Our hospital began using caudal epidural anesthesia during high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy in 2011. The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the effects of caudal epidural anesthesia during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer patients. Caudal epidural anesthesia for 34 cervical cancer patients was performed during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy between October 2011 and August 2013. We used the patients' self-reported Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score at the first session of HDR intracavitary brachytherapy as a subjective evaluation of pain. We compared NRS scores of the patients with anesthesia with those of 30 patients who underwent HDR intracavitary brachytherapy without sacral epidural anesthesia at our hospital between May 2010 and August 2011. Caudal epidural anesthesia succeeded in 33 patients (97%), and the NRS score was recorded in 30 patients. The mean NRS score of the anesthesia group was 5.17 ± 2.97, significantly lower than that of the control group's 6.80 ± 2.59 (P = 0.035). The caudal epidural block resulted in no side-effects. Caudal epidural anesthesia is an effective and safe anesthesia option during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer. (author)

  5. Spinal cerebrospinal fluid seeding of a clival chordoma; A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seung Hwan; Yu, In Kyu; Kim, Seong Min; Park, Ki Seok; Son, Hyun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Chordomas originate from remnants of the embryonic notochord and account for < 2% of all malignant bone tumors. Chordomas have a high rate of local recurrence. However, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) seeding of a chordoma is extremely rare. Here, we present a very rare case of clival chordoma with spinal seeding. Radiologists should consider spinal CSF seeding of a clival chordoma, particularly when accompanied by signs of dural perforation or caudal extension

  6. Spinal cerebrospinal fluid seeding of a clival chordoma; A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung Hwan; Yu, In Kyu; Kim, Seong Min; Park, Ki Seok; Son, Hyun Jin [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Chordomas originate from remnants of the embryonic notochord and account for < 2% of all malignant bone tumors. Chordomas have a high rate of local recurrence. However, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) seeding of a chordoma is extremely rare. Here, we present a very rare case of clival chordoma with spinal seeding. Radiologists should consider spinal CSF seeding of a clival chordoma, particularly when accompanied by signs of dural perforation or caudal extension.

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ... Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ...

  9. Effects of covering highland banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of covering post-harvest banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) oviposition levels was investigated at three locations, Sendusu, Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Ntungamo district of southwestern Uganda. In the first experiment

  10. SOUND VELOCITY and Other Data from USS STUMP DD-978) (NCEI Accession 9400069)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The sound velocity data in this accession were collected from USS STUMP DD-978 by US Navy. The sound velocity in water is analog profiles data that was recorded in...

  11. Stump treatment against Heterobasidion annosum - Techniques and biological effect in practical forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thor, M. [SkogForsk, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    This thesis summarises and discusses results from two studies on mechanized stump treatment to control the root rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. In Sweden, stump treatment is at present carried out with two chemical compounds, urea and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT), and a biological control agent, Phlebiopsis gigantea (Fr.) Juel. The first study investigated the H. annosum colonization of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stumps following mechanized thinning and stump treatment with the three control agents mentioned. The stumps were treated in the summer and were compared with untreated stumps, cut in the summer and winter, respectively. Experimental plots were established in 12 first thinning stands of Norway spruce. Six to seven weeks after thinning and treatment, sample discs were collected (N=1246) and examined for presence of H. annosum. Stump treatment with any of the control agents reduced the colonized stump area 6-7 weeks after thinning by 88-98% as compared with untreated stumps cut in the summer. The effects of the different treatments differed neither from each other nor from the effect of winter thinning. The variation between the stands was considerable, but mechanized stump treatment provided as good protection as manual treatment against H. annosum infections. Study II examined the survival of P. gigantea oidiospores in aqueous suspension when exposed to high temperature or pressure, which are potential problems in mechanized application. In the laboratory, temperatures of 20, 30 or 35 deg C did not affect the survival. The spores could withstand 40 deg C for a short period, but died at 60 deg C. Pressure of up to 2 200 kPa for 24 h did not affect P. gigantea spore germination. In the field, temperatures of the working suspension (10{sup 7} spores I{sup -1}) was assessed during practical operations. Spore viability was maintained through the applicator system. As long as the prescriptions are followed up to the time of

  12. Relationship of stump diameter to d.b.h. for white pine in the northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse D. Diller

    1954-01-01

    A need to estimate the volume cut from a timber tract when only the stumps are left is often felt by foresters, timber operators, and landowners. This need arises in areas where timber sales are based on stump diameters, in timber trespass cases, in check cruises on marked timber sales (to determine volume cut from unmarked trees), and as an aid in piecing together the...

  13. The use of tubular retractors for translaminar discectomy for cranially and caudally extruded discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind G Kulkarni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The conventional interlaminar approach is adequate for access to most disc herniations in lumbar spine surgery. The access to cranially and caudally migrated disc fragments, by conventional interlaminar fenestration, requires an extension of the fenestration with the potential destruction of the facet joint complex and consequent postsurgical instability. To describe the technique and results of the translaminar technique of targeted discectomy using tubular retractors for the surgical treatment of cranially and caudally extruded discs. Materials and Methods: The study period extended from January 2008 to December 2014. All patients with lumbar herniated discs who failed conservative management were selected for surgery and underwent routine erect radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the lumbar spine. The patients with cranially or caudally migrated discs were included in this study. The technique involves approaching migrated disc through an oval window (sculpted through an 18 mm tubular retractor using a burr in the lamina precisely over the location of the migrated disc as predicted by the preoperative MRI (inferior lamina for inferior migration and superior lamina for superior migration. The perioperative parameters studied were operative time, blood loss, complications, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, and visual analog scale (VAS for leg pain before surgery and at last followup. In the study, 4 patients underwent a postoperative computed tomography-scan with a three-dimensional reconstruction to visualize the oval window and to rule out any pars fracture. All technical difficulties and complications were analyzed. Results: 17 patients in the age group of 41–58 years underwent the translaminar technique of targeted discectomy. The migration of disc was cranial in 12 patients and caudal in 5 patients. Fourteen of the affected discs were at the L4–L5 level and three were at the L5-S1 level. The mean VAS (leg pain

  14. Morphohistological Features of Pancreatic Stump Are the Main Determinant of Pancreatic Fistula after Pancreatoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ridolfi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pancreatic surgery is challenging and associated with high morbidity, mainly represented by postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF and its further consequences. Identification of risk factors for POPF is essential for proper postoperative management. Aim of the Study. Evaluation of the role of morphological and histological features of pancreatic stump, other than main pancreatic duct diameter and glandular texture, in POPF occurrence after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Patients and Methods. Between March 2011 and April 2013, we performed 145 consecutive pancreaticoduodenectomies. We intraoperatively recorded morphological features of pancreatic stump and collected data about postoperative morbidity. Our dedicated pathologist designed a score to quantify fibrosis and inflammation of pancreatic tissue. Results. Overall morbidity was 59,3%. Mortality was 4,1%. POPF rate was 28,3%, while clinically significant POPF were 15,8%. Male sex (P=0.009, BMI≥25 (P=0.002, prolonged surgery (P=0.001, soft pancreatic texture (P<0.001, small pancreatic duct (P<0.001, pancreatic duct decentralization on stump anteroposterior axis, especially if close to the posterior margin (P=0.031, large stump area (P=0.001, and extended stump mobilization (P=0.001 were related to higher POPF rate. Our fibrosis-and-inflammation score is strongly associated with POPF (P=0.001. Discussion and Conclusions. Pancreatic stump features evaluation, including histology, can help the surgeon in fitting postoperative management to patient individual risk after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  15. Morphohistological features of pancreatic stump are the main determinant of pancreatic fistula after pancreatoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Cristina; Angiolini, Maria Rachele; Gavazzi, Francesca; Spaggiari, Paola; Tinti, Maria Carla; Uccelli, Fara; Madonini, Marco; Montorsi, Marco; Zerbi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic surgery is challenging and associated with high morbidity, mainly represented by postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) and its further consequences. Identification of risk factors for POPF is essential for proper postoperative management. Evaluation of the role of morphological and histological features of pancreatic stump, other than main pancreatic duct diameter and glandular texture, in POPF occurrence after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Between March 2011 and April 2013, we performed 145 consecutive pancreaticoduodenectomies. We intraoperatively recorded morphological features of pancreatic stump and collected data about postoperative morbidity. Our dedicated pathologist designed a score to quantify fibrosis and inflammation of pancreatic tissue. Overall morbidity was 59,3%. Mortality was 4,1%. POPF rate was 28,3%, while clinically significant POPF were 15,8%. Male sex (P = 0.009), BMI ≥ 25 (P = 0.002), prolonged surgery (P = 0.001), soft pancreatic texture (P < 0.001), small pancreatic duct (P < 0.001), pancreatic duct decentralization on stump anteroposterior axis, especially if close to the posterior margin (P = 0.031), large stump area (P = 0.001), and extended stump mobilization (P = 0.001) were related to higher POPF rate. Our fibrosis-and-inflammation score is strongly associated with POPF (P = 0.001). Pancreatic stump features evaluation, including histology, can help the surgeon in fitting postoperative management to patient individual risk after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of Caudal Regression Syndrome : a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celikaslan Nurgul

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caudal regression is a rare syndrome which has a spectrum of congenital malformations ranging from simple anal atresia to absence of sacral, lumbar and possibly lower thoracic vertebrae, to the most severe form which is known as sirenomelia. Maternal diabetes, genetic predisposition and vascular hypoperfusion have been suggested as possible causative factors. Case presentation We report a case of caudal regression syndrome diagnosed in utero at 22 weeks' of gestation. Prenatal ultrasound examination revealed a sudden interruption of the spine and "frog-like" position of lower limbs. Termination of pregnancy and autopsy findings confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusion Prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis of caudal regression syndrome is possible at 22 weeks' of gestation by ultrasound examination.

  17. DIABETES MELLITUS AND ITS ROLE IN CAUDAL REGRESSION SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Caudal regression syndrome also called as sacral agenesis or hypoplasia of the sacrum is a congenital disorder in which there is abnormal development of the lower part of the vertebral column 1 due to which there is a plethora of abnormalities such as gross motor deficiencies and other genitor-urinary malformations which in deed depends on the extent of malformations that is seen. Caudal regression syndrome is rare, with an estimated incidence of 1:7500-100,000. The aim of the study is to find the frequency of manifestations and the manifestations itself. METHODS Fifty patients who were pregnant and were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus were identified and were referred to the Department of Medicine. RESULTS In the present study the frequency of manifestations of caudal regression syndrome is 8 in 100 diagnosed patients. CONCLUSION The malformations in the babies born to diabetic mothers are high in the population of costal Karnataka and Kerala.

  18. Caudal Septal Stabilization Suturing Technique to Treat Crooked Noses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykal, Bahadir; Erdim, Ibrahim; Guvey, Ali; Oghan, Fatih; Kayhan, Fatma Tulin

    2016-10-01

    To rotate the nasal axis and septum to the midline using an L-strut graft and a novel caudal septal stabilization suturing technique to treat crooked noses. Thirty-six patients were included in the study. First, an L-strut graft was prepared by excising the deviated cartilage site in all patients. Second, multiple stabilization suturing, which we describe as a caudal septal stabilization suturing technique with a "fishing net"-like appearance, was applied between the anterior nasal spine and caudal septum in all patients. This new surgical technique, used to rotate the caudal septum, was applied to 22 I-type and 14 C-type crooked noses. Correction rates for the crooked noses were compared between the 2 inclination types with angular estimations. Deviation angles were measured using the AutoCAD 2012 software package and frontal (anterior) views, with the Frankfurt horizontal line parallel to the ground. Nasal axis angles showing angle improvement graded 4 categories as excellent, good, acceptable, and unsuccessful for evaluations at 6 months after surgery in the study. The success rate in the C-type nasal inclination was 86.7% (±21.9) and 88% (±16.7) in the I-type. The overall success rate of L-strut grafting and caudal septal stabilization suturing in crooked nose surgeries was 87.5% (±18.6). "Unsuccessful" results were not reported in any of the patients. L-strut grafting and caudal septal stabilization suturing techniques are efficacious in crooked noses according to objective measurement analysis results. However, a longer follow-up duration in a larger patient population is needed.

  19. Appalachian hardwood stump sprouts are potential sawlog crop trees. Research note NE-299. [Oak, maple, linden, cherry trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanson, N.I.

    1976-01-01

    Dbh and height of 8- and 12-year-old coppice shoots and the number of live shoots were recorded for 736 stumps at least 12 inches in diameter of Liriodendron tulipifera, Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, Acer rubrum, and Tilia americana in north-central West Virgina. Of the 8-year-old shoots, T. americana had the greatest number of live stems/stump (16.8) and the greatest number of potential crop trees (dominant or co-dominant shoots attached to the stump not more than 6 inches above the ground), averaging 2.5 stems/stump. The average numbers of potential crop trees/stump were similar at 8 and 12 year. At 12 years, at least 88% of stumps of each species had at least one stem of groundline origin with no forks below 25 feet were 84% for L. tulipifera, 59% for Q rubra, 73% for A. rubrum, and 65% for P. Serotina.

  20. Segmental distribution of high-volume caudal anesthesia in neonates, infants, and toddlers as assessed by ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, Märit; Lönnqvist, Per-Arne; Eksborg, Staffan; Marhofer, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this prospective, age-stratified, observational study was to determine the cranial extent of spread of a large volume (1.5 ml·kg(-1) , ropivacaine 0.2%), single-shot caudal epidural injection using real-time ultrasonography. Fifty ASA I-III children were included in the study, stratified in three age groups; neonates, infants (1-12 months), and toddlers (1-4 years). The caudal blocks were performed during ultrasonographic observation of the spread of local anesthetic (LA) in the epidural space. A significant inverse relationship was found between age, weight, and height, and the maximal cranial level reached by 1.5 ml·kg(-1) of LA. In neonates, 93% of the blocks reached a cranial level of ≥Th12 vs 73% and 25% in infants and toddlers, respectively. Based on our data, a predictive equation of segmental spread was generated: Dose (ml/spinal segment) = 0.1539·(BW in kg)-0.0937. This study found an inverse relationship between age, weight, and height and the number of segments covered by a caudal injection of 1.5 ml·kg(-1) of ropivacaine 0.2% in children 0-4 years of age. However, the cranial spread of local anesthetics within the spinal canal as assessed by immediate ultrasound visualization was found to be in poor agreement with previously published predictive equations that are based on actual cutaneous dermatomal testing. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Systematization, description and territory of the caudal cerebral artery of the brain in broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Almeida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty heads with the neck segment of Caiman latirostris were used. The animals were provided from a creation center called Mister Caiman, under the authorization of the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (Ibama. Animals were sacrificed according to the slaughtering routine of the abattoir, and the heads were sectioned at the level of the third cervical vertebra. The arterial system was washed with cold saline solution, with drainage through jugular veins. Subsequently, the system was filled with red colored latex injection. Pieces were than fixed in 20% formaldehyde, for seven days. The brains were removed, with a spinal cord segment, the duramater removed and the arteries dissected. At the level of the hypophysis, the internal carotid artery gave off a rostral branch, and a short caudal branch, continuing, naturally, as the caudal cerebral artery. This artery projected laterodorsalwards and, as it overpassed the optic tract, gave off its I (the first central branch. Penetrated in the cerebral transverse fissure, emitting the diencephalic artery and next its II (second central branch. Still inside the fissure, originated occipital hemispheric branches and a pineal branch. Emerged from the cerebral transverse fissure, over the occipital pole of the cerebral hemisphere. Projected rostralwards, sagital to the cerebral longitudinal fissure, as interhemispheric artery. This artery gave off medial and convex hemispheric branches to the respective surfaces of the cerebral hemispheres, anastomosed with its contralateral homologous, forming the common ethmoidal artery. This artery entered the fissure between the olfactory peduncles, emerging ventrally and dividing into ethmoidal arteries, right and left, which progressed towards the nasal cavities, vascularizing them. The territory of the caudal cerebral artery included the most caudal area of the base of the cerebral hemisphere, its convex surface, the olfactory

  2. Growth of teak regenerated by coppice and stump planting in Mae Moh Plantation, Lampang province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatta Auykim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The current annual increment (CAIdbh and the mean annual increment (MAIdbh both for the diameter at breast height (1.3 m were investigated to compare the differences between coppice and stump-planted teak in Mae Moh Plantation. Forty-eight sample cores were collected from a 9 yr-old teak plantation using an increment borer; annual increments were analyzed using dendrochronological techniques. The results indicated that there was no significant (p > 0.05 difference in the average diameter at breast height (DBH between the coppice and stump-planted teak, whereas the total height of stump planting was significantly greater than that of coppice teak. The CAIdbh of coppice teak was in the range 0.316–2.371 cm and continuously decreased throughout the 9 yr period. The CAIdbh of stump planting was in the range 0.162–1.982 cm and continuously increased from the beginning of growth for 5 yr followed by a decline thereafter for 4 yr. The CAIdbh of coppice showed rapid growth in the years 1–4 and was greater than for the stump-planted teak even in years 5–8 after planting; however, the growth of the stump-planted teak in the ninth year was higher than for the coppice. The MAIdbh values of coppice and stump-planted teak were not significantly (p > 0.05 different. The results showed that CAIdbh at age 5 yr can be used as a silvicultural guide to increase the yield of teak coppice.

  3. Crown-Stump Diameter Model for Parkia biglobosa Benth. Species in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chukwu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The crown of tree is the centre of physiological activity which gives an indication of the potential photosynthetic capacity on a tree. Though, its measurement remains a challenge in forest inventory task. The ability to predict crown diameter from stump diameter provides an effective technique of obtaining its estimate. This helps in detecting the excessive tree felling than actual requirements and wildlife suitability.The main objective of this study was to develop and test crown diameter prediction models for silvicultural management of naturally grown Parkia biglobosa within the University of Agriculture, Makurdi. Nine 100 m x 100 m temporary sample plots were established using simple random sampling method. Crown diameter and stump diameter were measured in all living P. biglobosa trees with stump diameter ≥10.0 cm. Least square method was used to convert the counted stumps into harvested crown dimension. Three linear and three non-linear models using stump diameter as the exploratory variable were developed and evaluated using the adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj.R2, standard error of estimate (SEE, prediction error sum of squares (PRESS and Akaike information criterion (AIC. The crown-stump diameter relationship was best described by the double logarithmic function with .The result showed that Crown diameter estimation was feasible even when the only information available is stump diameter.The resulting equation was tested for validation with independent data obtained from additional plots and was found to be desirable for estimating the crown diameter for Parkia biglobosa in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

  4. Langtidsbehandling med spinal cord-stimulation hos en patient med kronisk regionalt smertesyndrom type 1 og fantomsmerter efter amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Thomas P.; Scherer, Christian; Nikolajsen, Lone

    2008-01-01

    The development of stump and phantom pain after limb amputation in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is very frequent. Stump pain is typically recurred CRPS and the possibilities for effective pharmacological pain relief are often limited. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has a well......-documented pain relieving effect in patients with CRPS. This case story summarises the long term effect of SCS in a patient with CRPS after two amputations of the right leg. Pharmacological pain therapies as well as Guanethidine blockade were found to be ineffective. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb-4...

  5. Treatment of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris Stumps with Urea and Phlebiopsis gigantea for Control of Heterobasidion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Kärhä

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterobasidion spp. root rot causes severe damage to forests throughout the northern temperate zone. In order to prevent Heterobasidion infection in summertime cuttings, stumps can be treated with urea or Phlebiopsis gigantea. In this study, the consumption of stump treatment materials and the quality of stump treatment work were investigated. A total of 46 harvesters were examined in May–November 2016 in Finland. The average stem size of softwood removal and softwood removal per hectare explained the consumption of stump treatment material. The quality of stump treatment work was good in the study. The best coverage was achieved with the stumps of 20–39 cm diameter at stump height (d0. It can be recommended that the harvester operator self-monitors and actively controls his/her treatment result in cutting work and sets the stump treatment equipment in a harvester if needed. The results also suggested that when cutting mostly small- and medium-diameter (d0 ≤ 39 cm conifers, the stump treatment guide bars with relatively few (<18 open holes are used, and at the harvesting sites of large-diameter trees, the guide bars with a relatively great (>27 number of open holes are applied.

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available menu Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ...

  7. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for phantom pain and stump pain following amputation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark I; Mulvey, Matthew R; Bagnall, Anne-Marie

    2015-08-18

    This is the first update of a Cochrane review published in Issue 5, 2010 on transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for phantom pain and stump pain following amputation in adults. Pain may present in a body part that has been amputated (phantom pain) or at the site of amputation (stump pain), or both. Phantom pain and stump pain are complex and multidimensional and the underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. The condition remains a severe burden for those who are affected by it. The mainstay treatments are predominately pharmacological, with increasing acknowledgement of the need for non-drug interventions. TENS has been recommended as a treatment option but there has been no systematic review of available evidence. Hence, the effectiveness of TENS for phantom pain and stump pain is currently unknown. To assess the analgesic effectiveness of TENS for the treatment of phantom pain and stump pain following amputation in adults. For the original version of the review we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, AMED, CINAHL, PEDRO and SPORTDiscus (February 2010). For this update, we searched the same databases for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from 2010 to 25 March 2015. We only included RCTs investigating the use of TENS for the management of phantom pain and stump pain following an amputation in adults. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We planned that where available and appropriate, data from outcome measures were to be pooled and presented as an overall estimate of the effectiveness of TENS. In the original review there were no RCTs that examined the effectiveness of TENS for the treatment of phantom pain and stump pain in adults. For this update, we did not identify any additional RCTs for inclusion. There were no RCTs to judge the effectiveness of TENS for the management of phantom pain and stump pain. The published literature on TENS

  8. Comparison of Caudal Analgesia and Intravenous Diclofenac for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Effective postoperative pain management is a vital determinant to when a child can be safely discharged from the hospital after day case surgery. This study compared the effect of caudal bupivacaine block with intravenous diclofenac for postoperative pain relief in children aged 1-7years undergoing ...

  9. Comparing caudal and penile nerve blockade using bupivacaine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Caudal anaesthesia is recommended for most surgical procedures of the lower part of the body, mainly below the umbilicus. It has been well established that a dorsal penile nerve block immediately after surgery decreases postoperative pain in children undergoing hypospadias repair. This study aimed to ...

  10. Caudal regression with sirenomelia and dysplasia renofacialis (Potter's syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noeldge, G.; Billmann, P.; Boehm, N.; Freiburg Univ.

    1982-01-01

    A case of caudal regression in combination with sirenomelia and dysplasia renofacialis (Potter's syndrome) is reported. The formal pathogenesis of these malformations and clinical facts are shown and discussed. Findings of plain films, postmortal angiography and pathologic-anatomical changes are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  11. Biofuels from stumps and small roundwood - Costs and CO{sub 2} benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lisa Naeslund; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    In this study, we analysed and compared costs, primary energy use and CO{sub 2} benefits of recovering stumps and small roundwood from thinnings, together with logging residues. Small roundwood, chipped at a terminal or end-user, has a cost comparable to the chip system and a primary energy use comparable to the bundle system used for recovery of logging residues. The small roundwood system with roadside chipping is more expensive. As productivity in the cutting process improves, the small roundwood alternatives become more cost-effective. The stump system has costs in the same range as or lower than the chip and bundle systems. Forestry operations for stump and small roundwood recovery require considerable primary energy, but net recovery per hectare is much greater than for the chip and bundle systems, which means that more fossil fuel can be displaced per hectare of clearcut than with a chip or a bundle system. Stumps and small roundwood from thinnings can become as cost-effective as logging residues in the near future. Furthermore, when stumps and small roundwood from thinnings are also used to replace fossil fuels, the potential CO{sub 2} reduction will be about four times as great as when only logging residues are used with a traditional chip system. (author)

  12. Spinal stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the spine that was present from birth Narrow spinal canal that the person was born with Herniated or slipped disk, which ... when you sit down or lean forward. Most people with spinal stenosis cannot walk for a long ... During a physical exam, your health care provider will try to ...

  13. Glenohumeral interposition of rotator cuff stumps: a rare complication of traumatic rotator cuff tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Moraes Agnollitto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present report describes a case where typical findings of traumatic glenohumeral interposition of rotator cuff stumps were surgically confirmed. This condition is a rare complication of shoulder trauma. Generally, it occurs in high-energy trauma, frequently in association with glenohumeral joint dislocation. Radiography demonstrated increased joint space, internal rotation of the humerus and coracoid process fracture. In addition to the mentioned findings, magnetic resonance imaging showed massive rotator cuff tear with interposition of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and subscapularis stumps within the glenohumeral joint. Surgical treatment was performed confirming the injury and the rotator cuff stumps interposition. It is important that radiologists and orthopedic surgeons become familiar with this entity which, because of its rarity, might be neglected in cases of shoulder trauma.

  14. Ontogenetic scaling of caudal fin shape in Squalus acanthias (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii): a geometric morphometric analysis with implications for caudal fin functional morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Katie L; Bonnan, Matthew F

    2010-07-01

    The shark heterocercal caudal fin and its contribution to locomotion are of interest to biologists and paleontologists. Current hydrodynamic data show that the stiff dorsal lobe leads the ventral lobe, both lobes of the tail are synchronized during propulsion, and tail shape reflects its overall locomotor function. Given the difficulties surrounding the analysis of shark caudal fins in vivo, little is known about changes in tail shape related to ontogeny and sex in sharks. A quantifiable analysis of caudal fin shape may provide an acceptable proxy for inferring gross functional morphology where direct testing is difficult or impossible. We examined ontogenetic and sex-related shape changes in the caudal fins of 115 Squalus acanthias museum specimens, to test the hypothesis that significant shape changes in the caudal fin shape occur with increasing size and between the sexes. Using linear and geometric morphometrics, we examined caudal shape changes within the context of current hydrodynamic models. We found no statistically significant linear or shape difference between sexes, and near-isometric scaling trends for caudal dimensions. These results suggest that lift and thrust increase linearly with size and caudal span. Thin-plate splines results showed a significant allometric shape change associated with size and caudal span: the dorsal lobe elongates and narrows, whereas the ventral lobe broadens and expands ventrally. Our data suggest a combination of caudal fin morphology with other body morphology aspects, would refine, and better elucidate the hydrodynamic factors (if any) that underlie the significant shape changes we report here for S. acanthias.

  15. Stump entrapment of the anterior cruciate ligament in late childhood and adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Arthur B.; Laor, Tal; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Displacement of a portion of the torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) into the intercondylar notch can cause a focal fibrotic reaction similar to that seen following ACL reconstruction. This displacement, which can result in locking or limitation of knee extension, is termed stump entrapment and is described in adult MR imaging literature. We present a pictorial essay of the etiology and appearance of stump entrapment on MR imaging of the knee in an older child and adolescents and review the significance of this finding. (orig.)

  16. Note: Dynamic analysis of a robotic fish motion with a caudal fin with vertical phase differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dongwon; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun; Kyung, Jinho; Lee, Sunghwi

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a robotic fish with a caudal fin with vertical phase differences is studied, especially focusing on the energy consumption. Energies for thrusting a conventional robotic fish and one with caudal fin with vertical phase differences are obtained and compared each other. It is shown that a robotic fish with a caudal fin with vertical phase differences can save more energy, which implies the efficient thrusting via a vertically waving caudal fin.

  17. Histological Changes in the Proximal and Distal Tendon Stumps Following Transection of Achilles Tendon in the Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Mawlana, Ola Helmi; Mohammed Ahmed, Raeesa Abdel-Twab; Hawary, Khalid

    2016-05-01

    To determine tendon stump changes following unrepaired Achilles tendon lacerations in an animal model. An experimental study. King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2013 to January 2014. Arabbit model was developed and studied tendon retraction and histological changes in the proximal and distal stumps following transection of the Achilles tendon. Over a period of 12 weeks, retraction of the distal tendon stump was minimal (2 - 3 mm). In contrast, retraction of the proximal tendon stump peaked to reach 6 mm at 4 weeks post-injury and plateaued to reach 7 - 8 mm at the 12-week interval. Following complete transection of the Achilles tendon, tendon retraction correlated with the density of myofibroblast expression within the tendon stump. Further research is needed to investigate the pathophysiology of these findings.

  18. Histological Changes in the Proximal and Distal Tendon Stumps Following Transection of Achilles Tendon in the Rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qattan, M. M.; Hawary, K.; Mawlana, O. H.; Ahmed, R. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine tendon stump changes following unrepaired Achilles tendon lacerations in an animal model. Study Design: An experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2013 to January 2014. Methodology: Arabbit model was developed and studied tendon retraction and histological changes in the proximal and distal stumps following transection of the Achilles tendon. Result: Over a period of 12 weeks, retraction of the distal tendon stump was minimal (2 - 3 mm). In contrast, retraction of the proximal tendon stump peaked to reach 6 mm at 4 weeks post-injury and plateaued to reach 7 - 8 mm at the 12-week interval. Conclusion: Following complete transection of the Achilles tendon, tendon retraction correlated with the density of myofibroblast expression within the tendon stump. Further research is needed to investigate the pathophysiology of these findings. (author)

  19. Caudal Regression and Encephalocele: Rare Manifestations of Expanded Goldenhar Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella D’Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum, or Goldenhar Syndrome, is a condition characterized by variable degrees of uni- or bilateral involvement of craniofacial structures, ocular anomalies, and vertebral defects. Its expressivity is variable; therefore, the term “expanded Goldenhar complex” has been coined. The Goldenhar Syndrome usually involves anomalies in craniofacial structures, but it is known that nervous system anomalies, including encephalocele or caudal regression, may, rarely, occur in this condition. We report two rare cases of infants affected by Goldenhar Syndrome, associated with neural tube defects, specifically caudal regression syndrome and nasal encephaloceles, to underline the extremely complex and heterogeneous clinical features of this oculoauriculovertebral spectrum. These additional particular cases could increase the number of new variable spectrums to be included in the “expanded Goldenhar complex.”

  20. Sensory nerve conduction in the caudal nerves of rats with diabetes Condução nervosa sensorial no nervo caudal de ratos com diabetes experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Celina Cordeiro de Carvalho; Juliana Netto Maia; Otávio Gomes Lins; Sílvia Regina Arruda de Moraes

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate sensory nerve conduction of the caudal nerve in normal and diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in twenty 8-weeks old Wistar male rats. Twenty normal rats served as controls. Caudal nerve conduction studies were made before diabetes induction and the end of each week for six consecutive weeks. The caudal nerve was stimulated distally and nerve potentials were recorded proximally on the animal's tail using common "alligator" clips as surface electrodes. RESULTS:...

  1. Ultrasound as a Screening Tool for Performing Caudal Epidural Injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikooseresht, Mahshid; Hashemi, Masoud; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Shahandeh, Farideh; Agah, Mahvash

    2014-01-01

    The caudal approach to the epidural space has been used for decades to treat low back pain caused by lumbosacral root compression. The use of fluoroscopy during epidural steroid injection is the preferred method for placing the needle more accurately in the sacral hiatus, but it carries the risk of radiation hazard. The aim of the study was to assess the anatomical structure of the sacral hiatus and the feasibility of caudal epidural injections under ultrasound guidance. Two hundred and forty patients (male = 100, female = 140) with low back pain and sciatica who were candidates for caudal epidural injection were enrolled into this study. Ultrasound images of the sacral hiatus and bilateral cornua were obtained by a real-time linear array ultrasound transducer. The distance between bilateral cornua and the anterior and posterior wall of the sacrum were measured at the base (sacral hiatus). Under the guide of ultrasonography, we defined the injection successful if turbulence of medication fluid was observed in the sacral canal, but correct placement of the needle and injectant was confirmed on fluoroscopic view as the gold standard technique. The epidurogram showed that the injection was successful in 230 of the 240 patients (95.8%). In eight patients, the injection was not in the correct place in the sacral canal. The sacral hiatus could not be identified by ultrasound images in only two patients who had a closed sacral hiatus identified by fluoroscopy. The mean distance of the sacral hiatus was 4.7 ± 1.7 mm and the mean distance between bilateral cornua was 18.0 ± 2.8 mm. The mean duration of the procedure was 10.8 ± 6.8 minutes. No major complication was observed in the next month. In conclusion, ultrasound could be used as a safe, fast and reliable modality to observe the anatomic variation of the sacral hiatus and to perform caudal epidural injections

  2. Conjoined twin piglets with duplicated cranial and caudal axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, C A; Partlow, G D; Fisher, K R

    1994-06-01

    Twins with doubling of the cranial and caudal poles, yet having a single thorax, are rare. One set of diprosopus, dipygus porcine conjoined twins was studied. In addition to the conjoining anomaly, these twins also exhibited ambiguous internal reproductive features. The twins had two snouts, three eyes, a single thorax, and were duplicated from the umbilicus caudally. Radiography indicated a single vertebral column in the cervical region. The vertebral columns were separate caudally from this point. There was a total of six limbs--one pair of forelimbs and two pairs of hindlimbs. Many medial structures failed to develop in these twins. Medial cranial nerves V-XII were absent or displaced although apparently normal laterally. The medial palates were present but shortened, whereas the medial mandibular rami had folded back on themselves rostrally to form a midline mass between the two chins. Each twin had only one lateral kidney and one lateral testis. Medial scrotal sacs were present but devoid of a testis. There was a midline, "uterine"-like structure which crossed between the twins. However, histological analysis of this structure revealed it to be dysplastic testicular tissue. The relationship between the abnormal reproductive features in these twins and the conjoining is unclear. The anatomy of these twins, in addition to the literature reviewed, illustrates the internal anatomical heterogeneity of grossly similar conjoined twins. A review of the literature also suggests that conjoined twinning may be more common in swine than was previously suspected.

  3. Spinal Accessory Motor Neurons in the Mouse: A Special Type of Branchial Motor Neuron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charles; Tvrdik, Petr

    2018-04-16

    The spinal accessory nerve arises from motor neurons in the upper cervical spinal cord. The axons of these motor neurons exit dorsal to the ligamentum denticulatum and form the spinal accessory nerve. The nerve ascends in the spinal subarachnoid space to enter the posterior cranial fossa through the foramen magnum. The spinal accessory nerve then turns caudally to exit through the jugular foramen alongside the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves, and then travels to supply the sternomastoid and trapezius muscles in the neck. The unusual course of the spinal accessory nerve has long prompted speculation that it is not a typical spinal motor nerve and that it might represent a caudal remnant of the branchial motor system. Our cell lineage tracing data, combined with images from public databases, show that the spinal accessory motor neurons in the mouse transiently express Phox2b, a transcription factor that is required for development of brain stem branchial motor nuclei. While this is strong prima facie evidence that the spinal accessory motor neurons should be classified as branchial motor, the evolutionary history of these motor neurons in anamniote vertebrates suggests that they may be considered to be an atypical branchial group that possesses both branchial and somatic characteristics. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Acute intraparenchymal spinal cord injury in a cat due to high-rise syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Arámbulo, Robert; Nykamp, Stephanie

    2012-03-01

    A 9-year-old spayed female Bengal Red cat was evaluated for high-rise syndrome. The cat had paraplegia of the hind limbs, intact reflexes and pain perception, and hyperesthesia in the caudal thoracic area. Mentation, cranial nerve function, forelimb proprioceptive responses, and spinal reflexes were normal. There were no abnormalities on radiographs or computed tomography scan, but magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hyperintense intraparenchymal spinal cord lesion on T2-weighted and T2 fat saturation images.

  5. Acute intraparenchymal spinal cord injury in a cat due to high-rise syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz–Arámbulo, Robert; Nykamp, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    A 9-year-old spayed female Bengal Red cat was evaluated for high-rise syndrome. The cat had paraplegia of the hind limbs, intact reflexes and pain perception, and hyperesthesia in the caudal thoracic area. Mentation, cranial nerve function, forelimb proprioceptive responses, and spinal reflexes were normal. There were no abnormalities on radiographs or computed tomography scan, but magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hyperintense intraparenchymal spinal cord lesion on T2-weighted and T2 fat...

  6. Spinal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dallas, TX: American Red Cross; 2016. Kaji AH, Newton EJ, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  7. Old resinous turpentine stumps as an indicator of the range of longleaf pine in Southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Jolie M. Mahfouz; Chi-Leung So

    2006-01-01

    Wood anatomy cannot be used to differentiate between the southern yellow pine species. Wood samples collected from old resinous turpentine stumps in coastal Virginia were subjected to chemical and spectroscopic analyses in an effort to determine if they could be identified as longleaf pine. The age and resinous nature of the samples were manifested in high specific...

  8. The quest for methods to identify longleaf pine stump relicts in Southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Chi-Leung So; Arvind A.R. Bhuta; Karen G. Reed

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of lightwood and turpentine stumps in southeastern Virginia raised questions about the true historical range for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). Several investigative studies were therefore carried out to develop a method to determine the taxa of these relicts. Chemical approaches included the use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with...

  9. Predicting stump sprouting and competitive success of five oak species in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale R. Weigel; Chao-Ying Joanne Peng

    2002-01-01

    We measured 2188 oak trees (Quercus spp.) on the Hoosier National Forest in southern Indiana before and 1, 5, and 10 years after clear-cutting to determine the influence of parent tree age, diameter breast height, and site index on the probability that there was one or more living sprouts per stump: (i) 1 year after clear-cutting (sprouting...

  10. New Models for Predicting Diameter at Breast Height from Stump Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Westfall

    2010-01-01

    Models to predict dbh from stump dimensions are presented for 18 species groups. Data used to fit the models were collected across thirteen states in the northeastern United States. Primarily because of the presence of multiple measurements from each tree, a mixed-effects modeling approach was used to account for the lack of independence among observations. The...

  11. Stump-to-mill timber production cost equations for cable logging eastern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Chris B. LeDoux

    1985-01-01

    Logging cost simulators and data from logging cost studies have been assembled and converted into a series of equations that can be used to estimate the stump-to-mill cost of cable logging in mountainous terrain in the Eastern United States. These equations include the use of two small and four mediumsize cable yarders and are appropriate for harvested trees ranging in...

  12. A stump-to-mill timber production cost-estimating program for cable logging eastern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1987-01-01

    ECOST utilizes data from stand inventory, cruise data, and the logging plan for the tract in question. The program produces detailed stump-to-mill cost estimates for specific proposed timber sales. These estimates are then utilized, in combination with specific landowner objectives, to assess the economic feasibility of cable logging a given area. The program output is...

  13. Stump appendicitis 10 years after appendectomy, a rare, but serious complication of appendectomy, a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Paesschen, Carl; Haenen, Filip; Bestman, Raymond; Van Cleemput, Marc

    2017-02-01

    We describe a case of stump appendicitis with the formation of abdominal abscesses in a 41-year-old patient 10 years prior appendectomy. The patient consulted with fever (38.1 °C) and abdominal pain, located at the right iliac fossa. Imaging studies showed signs of abscesses, located at the right iliac fossa, without clear origin of these abscesses. The abscesses were drained through diagnostic laparoscopy, no bowel perforation or clear origin of the abscedation was found during laparoscopy. During postoperative stay, the inflammatory parameters rose and the abscesses reoccurred. Re-laparoscopy was performed, the abscesses were drained and on careful inspection and adhesiolysis, a perforated stump appendicitis was revealed, covered underneath layers of fibrous tissue. Stump appendicitis is a rare complication seen after appendectomy and is generally not considered a possible etiology in patients presenting with fever and right iliac fossa abdominal pain with a history of appendectomy. This often delays the correct diagnosis and results in an associated increased incidence of complications. We describe a case of stump appendicitis occurring 10 years after initial appendectomy.

  14. Spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tali, E. Turgut; Gueltekin, Serap

    2005-01-01

    Spinal infections have an increasing prevalence among the general population. Definitive diagnosis based solely on clinical grounds is usually not possible and radiological imaging is used in almost all patients. The primary aim of the authors is to present an overview of spinal infections located in epidural, intradural and intramedullary compartments and to provide diagnostic clues regarding different imaging modalities, particularly MRI, to the practicing physicians and radiologists. (orig.)

  15. Spinal cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedert, A.V.; Silva, S.H.F.

    1990-01-01

    Spinal cysticercosis is an extremely uncommon condition. We have examined four patients with complaints that resembled nervous root compression by disk herniation. Myelography was shown to be an efficient method to evaluate spinal involvement, that was characterized by findings of multiple filling defect images (cysts) plus signs of adhesive arachnoiditis. One cyst was found to be mobile. Because of the recent development of medical treatment, a quick and precise diagnosis is of high importance to determine the prognosis of this condition. (author)

  16. Influence of tree provenance on biogenic VOC emissions of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäenpää, Minna; Magsarjav, Narantsetseg; Ghimire, Rajendra; Markkanen, Juha-Matti; Heijari, Juha; Vuorinen, Martti; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2012-12-01

    Resin-storing plant species such as conifer trees can release substantial amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere under stress circumstances that cause resin flow. Wounding can be induced by animals, pathogens, wind or direct mechanical damage e.g. during harvesting. In atmospheric modelling of biogenic VOCs, actively growing vegetation has been mostly considered as the source of emissions. Root systems and stumps of resin-storing conifer trees could constitute a significant store of resin after tree cutting. Therefore, we assessed the VOC emission rates from the cut surface of Scots pine stumps and estimated the average emission rates for an area with a density of 2000 stumps per ha. The experiment was conducted with trees of one Estonian and three Finnish Scots pine provenances covering a 1200 km gradient at a common garden established in central Finland in 1991. VOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes and less than 0.1% of the total emission was sesquiterpenes. α-Pinene (7-92% of the total emissions) and 3-carene (0-76% of the total emissions) were the dominant monoterpenes. Proportions of α-pinene and camphene were significantly lower and proportions of 3-carene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and terpinolene higher in the southernmost Saaremaa provenance compared to the other provenances. Total terpene emission rates (standardised to +20 °C) from stumps varied from 27 to 1582 mg h-1 m-2 when measured within 2-3 h after tree cutting. Emission rates decreased rapidly to between 2 and 79 mg h-1 m-2 at 50 days after cutting. The estimated daily terpene emission rates on a hectare basis from freshly cut stumps at a cut tree density of 2000 per ha varied depending on provenance. Estimated emission ranges were 100-710 g ha-1 d-1 and 137-970 g ha-1 d-1 in 40 and in 60 year-old forest stands, respectively. Our result suggests that emission directly from stump surfaces could be a significant source of monoterpene emissions for a few weeks after

  17. Predictors of failure of awake regional anesthesia for neonatal hernia repair: data from the General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study: comparing apnoea and neurodevelopmental outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Geoff; Bell, Graham; Disma, Nicola; Withington, Davinia E.; de Graaff, Jurgen C.; Morton, Neil S.; McCann, Mary Ellen; Arnup, Sarah J.; Bagshaw, Oliver; Wolfler, Andrea; Bellinger, David; Davidson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Awake regional anesthesia (RA) is a viable alternative to general anesthesia (GA) for infants undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Benefits include lower incidence of postoperative apnea and avoidance of anesthetic agents that may increase neuroapoptosis and worsen neurocognitive outcomes. The General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study compares neurodevelopmental outcomes following awake RA or GA in otherwise healthy infants. Our aim was to describe success and failure rates of RA in this study and report factors associated with failure. Methods This was a nested cohort study within a prospective randomized, controlled, observer blind, equivalence trial. Seven hundred twenty two infants ≤ 60 weeks postmenstrual age, scheduled for herniorrhaphy under anesthesia were randomly assigned to receive RA (spinal, caudal epidural or combined spinal caudal anesthetic) or GA with sevoflurane. The data of 339 infants, where spinal or combined spinal caudal anesthetic was attempted, was analyzed. Possible predictors of failure were assessed including: patient factors, technique, experience of site and anesthetist and type of local anesthetic. Results RA was sufficient for the completion of surgery in 83.2% of patients. Spinal anesthesia was successful in 86.9% of cases and combined spinal caudal anesthetic in 76.1%. Thirty four patients required conversion to GA and an additional 23 (6.8%) required brief sedation. Bloody tap on the first attempt at lumbar puncture was the only risk factor significantly associated with block failure (OR = 2.46). Conclusions The failure rate of spinal anesthesia was low. Variability in application of combined spinal caudal anesthetic limited attempts to compare the success of this technique to spinal alone. PMID:26001028

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ...

  20. Comparison between the intravenous and caudal routes of sufentanil in children undergoing orchidopexy and further evaluation of the association of caudal adrenaline and neostigmine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rocha Lauretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the intravenous (IV and caudal routes of administration of sufentanil for children undergoing orchidopexy and also to evaluate the effects on addition of caudal adrenaline and neostigmine. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients scheduled for orchidopexy were divided into the following groups: 1 Group IVSu received IV 0.5 μg/kg sufentanil and caudal saline; 2 Group CSu received caudal 0.5 μg/kg sufentanil and IV saline; 3 Group CSuAdr received caudal sufentanil plus adrenaline 5 μg/ml (1:200,000 and IV saline; 4 Group CSuNeo received caudal sufentanil plus neostigmine, and IV saline; and 5 Group CSuNeoAdr received caudal sufentanil plus neostigmine plus adrenaline, and IV saline. Heart rate and mean blood pressure >15% was treated with increasing isoflurane concentration. Consumption of isoflurane, side effects, quality of sleep, time to first administration of analgesic, and number of doses of 24-h rescue analgesic were recorded. Results: Groups were demographically similar. Isoflurane consumption showed the following association: Group IVSu = Group CSuNeo = Group CSuNeoAdr Group CSuNeo = Group CSuNeoAdr (P < 0.005. Incidence of adverse effects was similar among groups. Conclusion: Caudal sufentanil alone was no better than when administered in the IV route, and would just be justified by the association of neostigmine, but not adrenaline. Neostigmine association resulted in better perioperative analgesia.

  1. Spinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van; Hauwe, L. van den; Oezsarlak, Oe.; Schepper, A.M.A. de; Parizel, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Spinal tumors are uncommon lesions but may cause significant morbidity in terms of limb dysfunction. In establishing the differential diagnosis for a spinal lesion, location is the most important feature, but the clinical presentation and the patient's age and gender are also important. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a central role in the imaging of spinal tumors, easily allowing tumors to be classified as extradural, intradural-extramedullary or intramedullary, which is very useful in tumor characterization. In the evaluation of lesions of the osseous spine both computed tomography (CT) and MR are important. We describe the most common spinal tumors in detail. In general, extradural lesions are the most common with metastasis being the most frequent. Intradural tumors are rare, and the majority is extramedullary, with meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors being the most frequent. Intramedullary tumors are uncommon spinal tumors. Astrocytomas and ependymomas comprise the majority of the intramedullary tumors. The most important tumors are documented with appropriate high quality CT or MR images and the characteristics of these tumors are also summarized in a comprehensive table. Finally we illustrate the use of the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of neoplasms affecting the central nervous system

  2. Spinal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, R N; Ben Husien, M

    2018-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains endemic in many parts of the developing world and is increasingly seen in the developed world due to migration. A total of 1.3 million people die annually from the disease. Spinal TB is the most common musculoskeletal manifestation, affecting about 1 to 2% of all cases of TB. The coexistence of HIV, which is endemic in some regions, adds to the burden and the complexity of management. This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, impact of HIV and both the medical and surgical options in the management of spinal TB. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:425-31.

  3. Functional anatomy of the caudal thoracolumbar and lumbosacral spine in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, N C; Hodges, P W; Jeffcott, L B; Cowin, G; Hodgson, D R; McGowan, C M

    2006-08-01

    Research in spinal biomechanics and functional anatomy has advanced back pain research in man. Yet, despite the performance limiting nature of back pain in horses, there are few data for the equine spine. To describe aspects of functional anatomy of the equine thoracolumbar and lumbosacral (LS) spine and potential effects on performance. The first study investigated variations in LS vertebral formula by post mortem examination of 120 horses. Midline vertebral transection was carried out on 65 Thoroughbred (TB), 24 Standardbred (SB) and 31 other breeds. The second study investigated morphology and biomechanics of the deep stabilising epaxial muscles of 13 horses using MRI (n = 3), anatomical dissection (n = 11) and biomechanical analysis (n = 6). The spinous process angular orientation relative to the vertebral body, was analysed at vertebrae T13, T18, L3, L5, L6 and S1. LS variations were found in 33.3% of the total group, 40.0% TB and 45.2% others, but 0% SB. Sacralisation of lumbar vertebra (L) 6 with LS motion between L5 and L6 occurred in 32.3% TB and 29.0% others. Five segmental multifidus fascicles were identified originating from spinous processes and vertebral laminae running craniocaudally onto the mammillary processes and lateral border of the sacrum, crossing between 1-5 intervertebral discs. Sacrocaudalis dorsalis (SCD) lateralis muscle was an extension of multifidus from L4, L5 and L6 depending on the vertebral formula whereas SCD medialis mm originated from S3. Both inserted on caudal vertebrae. Based on the location and direction of fibres, the principal action of the deep epaxial muscles was dorsoventral sagittal rotation. This action was dependent on vertebral spinous process/body orientation. We hypothesise that equine multifidus and SCD lateralis muscles act as caudal sagittal rotators of their vertebra of origin, as is the case in man, allowing dynamic stabilisation during dorsoventral motion. Equine multifidus anatomy and function are

  4. Vitrification of caudal fin explants from zebrafish adult specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Costa, J; Roig, J; Perez-Camps, M; García-Ximénez, F

    2006-01-01

    No data on vitrification of tissue samples are available in fishes. Three vitrification solutions were compared: V1: 20% ethylene glycol and 20% dimethyl sulphoxide; V2: 25% propylene glycol and 20% dimethyl sulphoxide, and; V3: 20% propylene glycol and 13% methanol, all three prepared in Hanks' buffered salt solution plus 20 percent FBS, following the same one step vitrification procedure developed in mammals. Caudal fin tissue pieces were vitrified into 0.25 ml plastic straws in 30s and stored in liquid nitrogen for 3 days minimum, warmed (10s in nitrogen vapour and 5s in a 25 degree C water bath) and cultured (L-15 plus 20% FBS at 28.5 degree C). At the third day of culture, both attachment and outgrowing rates were recorded. V3 led to the worst results (8% of attachment rate). V1 and V2 allow higher attachment rates (V1: 63% vs V2: 50%. P < 0.05) but not significantly different outgrowing rates (83% to 94%). Vitrification of caudal fin pieces is advantageous in fish biodiversity conservation, particularly in the wild, due to the simplicity of procedure and equipment.

  5. Cryptorchidism as a caudal developmental field defect. A new description of cryptorchidism associated with malformations and dysplasias of the kidneys, the ureters and the spine from T10 to S5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Beck, B L

    1998-01-01

    individuals with tritonmelia, the male variant of sirenomelia. Sirenomelia/tritonmelia is an extreme degree of abnormal differentiation of the caudal developmental field, also called caudal dysplasia, the caudal regression syndrome and the caudal regression malformation sequence. Caudal developmental field...

  6. Management of the difficult duodenal stump in penetrating duodenal ulcer disease: a comparative analysis of duodenojejunostomy with "classical" stump closure (Nissen-Bsteh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashist, Yogesh K; Yekebas, Emre F; Gebauer, Florian; Tachezy, Michael; Bachmann, Kai; König, Alexandra; Kutup, Asad; Izbicki, Jakob R

    2012-12-01

    Duodenal stump insufficiency after surgery for penetrating gastroduodenal ulcer is associated with substantial mortality. "Classical" technique of closing a difficult duodenal stump (Nissen-Bsteh) has, up to now, not been compared with duodenojejunostomy (DJ) in larger patient sets. This also refers to the potential benefit of a gastric and biliary diversion under such conditions. The aim of the present study was to compare classical duodenal closure (CC) with DJ and to evaluate the impact of gastric and biliary diversion on postoperative outcome after surgery for penetrating, high-risk duodenal ulcer in a matched control study. Out of 321 patients, treated for penetrating duodenal ulcer disease, the perioperative outcome of 62 DJ patients was compared with 62 patients undergoing CC matched for age, gender, biliary diversion, and the operating surgeon collective. A total of 70 patients, equally distributed between DJ and CC subsets, received temporary biliary diversion. Overall perioperative mortality was 10.5%. However, DJ significantly reduced the mortality rate (4.8%) associated with penetrating duodenal ulcer compared to CC (16.1%, P management of penetrating duodenal ulcer.

  7. Some regularities in invertebrate succession in different microhabitats on pine stumps

    OpenAIRE

    Franch, Joan

    1989-01-01

    Sixty eight pine stumps felled on known dates from one to sixteen years before the moment of sampling have been studied in the San Juan de la Peña woodland (province of Huesca). Four microhabitats were distinguished: bark, subcortical space, sapwood and heartwood. The object of the study is to compare the invertebrate macrofauna succession of the different microhabitats in order to find regularities among them. The biocenosis has not been completely studied: ipidae, diptera and annelidae are ...

  8. Concentrations of base cations, phosphorous and nitrogen in tree stumps in Sweden, Finland and Denmark; Halter av baskatjoner, fosfor och kvaeve i stubbar i Sverige, Finland och Danmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, Sofie; Waengberg, Ingvar (The Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)); Helmisaari, Heljae-Sisko; Kaakinen, Seija; Kukkola, Mikko; Saarsalmi, Anna (Metla, Vantaa (Finland)); Melin, Ylva; Petersson, Hans (Swedish Univ. of Agriculture, Umeaa (Sweden)); Skovsgaard, Jens Peter (Forest and Landscape Denmark, Univ. of Copenhagen, Hoersholm (Denmark)); Akselsson, Cecilia (Lunds Univ., Lund (Sweden))

    2009-05-15

    Stump removal is becoming increasingly important in as demand for renewable energy is increasing. Nutrient concentrations in stumps are applied when evaluating the environmental effect of stump removal on acidification and nutrient balances in forest soil. The objectives of this study was to evaluate concentrations of nutrients in stumps in Sweden, Finland and Denmark, and to evaluate how nutrient concentrations vary with site characteristics, stand age and deposition level. Concentrations of N, P, Ca, K, Mg and Na in spruce, pine and birch stumps were assessed in eight sites across Scandinavia. The results of this study indicate that the concentration of nutrients are higher in birch stumps compared with spruce and pine. In Sweden and Finland, the nutrient concentrations were generally higher in the southern sites compared with northern sites in the country, except for P. Nutrient concentrations were significantly higher in the bark of the stump and the roots compared to the wood for all nutrients. Furthermore nutrients concentration increased significantly with decreasing root diameter. In Jaedraaas, Sweden, nutrient concentration of N, K, Mg and P in pine decreased with age of the stump harvested tree, for stumps < 65 years. This relation was not evident for other age spans or sites. Further studies are needed to provide a broader picture of how the nutrient concentrations vary with site characteristics, stand age and forestry management to get a better foundation when setting up recommendations for stump removal

  9. Stabilization of the ulnar stump using modified Breen method after the Sauve-Kapandji procedure in rheumatoid wrist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanino, Yoshihiko; Yabe, Yutaka; Yamauchi, Kenji; Ikegami, Hiroyasu; Ichikawa, Tooru

    2006-01-01

    We report on the utility of the modified Breen method in addition to the Sauve-Kapandji operation for the treatment of instability and pain in the proximal ulnar stump in rheumatoid arthrities (RA) wrist. We treated a total of 15 hands in 12 patients with disturbances due to instability and pain at the proximal ulnar stump. The average follow-up period was 47 months. We evaluated the range of motion, grip strength, radioulnar distance, and the radioulnar distance at the stump using CT during pronation, supination, and neutral positions of the forearm in 11 of the 15 operated hands. We observed that none of the patients showed any signs of pain at the proximal ulnar stump and no scallop sign was observed. In all the cases, the line connecting the center of the radial head to the proximal ulnar stump served as the axis of rotation for the forearm; this was confirmed by the CT images. We concluded that our operative method resulted in stabilization of the proximal ulnar stump and recovery of powerful grip without pain during forearm rotation. (author)

  10. Effectiveness of caudal septal extension graft application in endonasal septoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Karadavut

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Septal deviation is a common disease seen in daily otorhinolaryngology practice and septoplasty is a commonly performed surgical procedure. Caudal septum deviation is also a challenging pathology for ear, nose, and throat specialists. Many techniques are defined for caudal septal deviation. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of caudal septal extension graft (CSEG application in patients who underwent endonasal septoplasty for a short and deviated nasal septum. Methods Forty patients with nasal septal deviation, short nasal septum, and weak nasal tip support who underwent endonasal septoplasty with or without CSEG placement between August 2012 and June 2013 were enrolled in this study. Twenty patients underwent endonasal septoplasty with CSEG placement. The rest of the group, who rejected auricular or costal cartilage harvest for CSEG placement, underwent only endonasal septoplasty without any additional intervention. Using the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE and Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation (ROE questionnaires, pre- and post-operative acoustic rhinometer measurements were evaluated to assess the effect of CESG placement on nasal obstruction. Results In the control group, preoperative and postoperative minimal cross-sectional areas (MCA1 were 0.44 ± 0.10 cm2 and 0.60 ± 0.11 cm2, respectively (p < 0.001. In the study group, pre- and postoperative MCA1 values were 0.45 ± 0.16 cm2 and 0.67 ± 0.16 cm2, respectively (p < 0.01. In the control group, the nasal cavity volume (VOL1 value was 1.71 ± 0.21 mL preoperatively and 1.94 ± 0.17 mL postoperatively (p < 0.001. In the study group, pre- and postoperative VOL1s were 1.72 ± 0.15 mL and 1.97 ± 0.12 mL, respectively (p < 0.001. Statistical analysis of postoperative MCA1 and VOL1 values in the study and the control groups could not detect any significant intergroup difference (p = 0.093 and 0.432, respectively. In the study group, mean nasolabial angles were

  11. Congenital anomalies of the spine and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, N.R.; McLone, D.G.; Naidich, T.P.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Raybaud, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    In the spine, the most common congenital lesions presenting to medical attention are the diverse forms of spinal dysraphism and the diverse forms of caudal spinal anomalies. Most commonly, these conditions are discovered at birth or in early childhood. Less commonly, they first present to medical attention in adulthood. Widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is expected to reduce the incidence of delayed diagnosis of the dysraphisms and the other spinal malformations. This paper addresses the most common forms of dysraphism and the most common caudal spinal anomalies. It provides an overview of embryology for orientation and then groups the anomalies in terms of the specific derangements of embryology that are believed to give rise to the anomalies. It is hoped that this approach will provide greater understanding of these lesions and better long-term retention of information about them. A conceptual framework of embryology and pathogenesis may eliminate the need for rote memorization; certainly it is a more satisfying approach intellectually

  12. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injury? play_arrow What kind of surgery is common after a spinal cord injury? play_ ... How soon after a spinal cord injury should surgery be performed? play_arrow Is it common to ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury ... Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical Director, Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program, Rehabilitation Institute ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  20. Spinal Cord Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of your back. It carries signals back ... of the spine, this can also injure the spinal cord. Other spinal cord problems include Tumors Infections such ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  2. Direct and indirect pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, Gert

    1988-01-01

    The pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat were traced using horse-radish-peroxidase (HRP) and autoradiographic techniques. The HRP results indicated that several neuronal cell groups in the brain stem and hypothalamus project to the spinal cord throughout its total length. The autoradiographic tracing results demonstrated that the strongest projections to lamina I are derived from the following four areas: the caudal nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), the ventral part of the caudal pontine and NRM, the contralaterally projecting lateral pontine or paralemniscal tegmentum, and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a limited, especially at lumbosacral levels, distinct projection to lamina I was found to originate in the most caudal part of the medullary tegmentum.

  3. Spinal cord contusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Gong; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yazhou; Zhao, Xianghui

    2014-04-15

    Spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability with devastating neurological outcomes and limited therapeutic opportunities, even though there are thousands of publications on spinal cord injury annually. There are two major types of spinal cord injury, transaction of the spinal cord and spinal cord contusion. Both can theoretically be treated, but there is no well documented treatment in human being. As for spinal cord contusion, we have developed an operation with fabulous result.

  4. Axonal sprouting of a brainstem-spinal pathway after estrogen administration in the adult female rhesus monkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderhorst, VGJM; Terasawa, E; Ralston, HJ

    2002-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) is located in the caudal medulla oblongata and contains premotor neurons that project to motoneuronal cell groups in the brainstem and spinal cord. NRA projections to the lumbosacral cord are species specific and might be involved in mating behavior. In the female

  5. Caudal anesthesia in a patient with peritonitis: Is it safe??

    OpenAIRE

    Kako, H; Hakim, M; Kundu, A; Tobias, TD

    2016-01-01

    Neuraxial anesthesia combined with general anesthesia has become a widely accepted method of providing effective postoperative analgesia and decreasing intraoperative anesthetic needs in the pediatric population. In clinical practice, there still appears to be hesitancy for the use of a neuraxial technique (spinal or epidural) in patients at risk for bacteremia or with an on-going systemic infection. However, evidence-based medicine lacks any data to support an increase in the risk of infecti...

  6. Caudal epidural injections for lumbar prolapsed inter vertebral disc: assessment with urdu version of oswestry disability index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, I.F.; Qureshi, M.A.; Farooq, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims: Oswestry Disability index is an established tool for assessment of Spinal Disability. It has been translated into many languages and but not to Urdu. The aim of this prospective observational study was translation, application and validation of Urdu version of the Oswestry Disability Index (Urdu ODI) for our specific cultural background. Methods: Urdu version of ODI was developed and applied for outcome assessment in 50 patients, suffering from lumbar prolapsed inter vertebral discs and treated with caudal epidural steroid injection. All patients having mechanical low backache with radiculopathy and single level disc prolapse at L-4-5 or L5- S 1 on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) were included in the study. Single Steroid Injection with local anesthetic was injected into sacral caudal epidural space through sacral hiatus. A Performa was made for each patient and records were kept in a custom built Microsoft access database. Outcome was assessed using Urdu ODI and validation by comparing with Numeric rating Scale 0-10 at each visit. Results: Fifty patients received caudal epidural injections, 23 (46%) were male and 27 (54%) were female. The mean age was 34 years, with the range being 21-55. Low mechanical backache with right sided radiculopathy was in 29 (58%) and left sided in 21 (42%) patients. The commonest involved disc was L4-S in 28 (56%) and L5-S1 in 22 (44%) patients Pain was assessed with Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) of ten points. This was mean 7.35, range 9-6 at presentation and mean improvement was 4.15 with range 5-3 at fist week, 3.80 with range 5-2 at first month and 3.05 with range 4-1 after six months. Functional disability assessment was done using Urdu ODI. The mean Urdu ODI at the time of presentation was 66.23% with range 81%-48%. The mean functional status was found to be 38.64% with range 26%-45% at the end of the first week, 43.65% with range 31%-48% after one month and 44.85% with range 28%-48% after six months. So there was

  7. Effects of season and urea treatment on infection of stumps of Picea abies by Heterobasidion annosum in stands on former arable land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandtberg, P.O. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research; Johansson, Martin [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology; Seeger, P. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Statistics

    1996-09-01

    Between 1986 and 1990, a series of thinnings were made in previously unthinned first rotation stands on former arable land located in the southern half of Sweden. The aim was to evaluate the effects of season and urea treatment on the frequency of infection of stumps of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) by the root-rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. Untreated stumps, resulting from 60 thinnings (22-100 stumps each, altogether ca 3000 stumps) made at different times of year, were investigated 3-24 months after cutting to determine whether they were infected with H. annosum. On average only 2% of the stumps from thinnings made in November-February were infected, whereas the incidence of infection among stumps thinned in June-July was 34%. Two methods of treating stumps with urea to prevent stump infection by H. annosum after thinning were evaluated in terms of effectiveness. The freshly cut stumps were treated with a 20% urea solution, transformed to a gel by adding 0.2% carboxymethyl cellulose, or with a 30% urea solution. On average, the reduction in infection rate obtained was 62% with the first method and 85% with the latter. In a separate study involving a concentration series of urea, there was a considerable drop in protection efficiency, from 89% to 58%, when the concentration was decreased from 30% to 15%. 38 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  8. Actuation of a robotic fish caudal fin for low reaction torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dongwon; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun; Kyung, Jinho; Lee, Sunghee

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a novel caudal fin for actuating a robotic fish is presented. The proposed caudal fin waves in a vertical direction with a specific spatial shape, which is determined by a so-called shape factor. For a specific shape factor, a traveling wave with a vertical phase difference is formed on a caudal fin during fin motion. It will be shown by the analysis that the maximum reaction torque at the joint of a caudal fin varies depending on the shape factors. Compared with a conventional plate type caudal fin, the proposed fin with a shape factor of 2π can eliminate the reaction torque perfectly, while keeping the propulsion force unchanged. The benefits of the proposed fin will be demonstrated by experiments.

  9. Combined analysis of cortical (EEG) and nerve stump signals improves robotic hand control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombini, Mario; Rigosa, Jacopo; Zappasodi, Filippo; Porcaro, Camillo; Citi, Luca; Carpaneto, Jacopo; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Micera, Silvestro

    2012-01-01

    Interfacing an amputee's upper-extremity stump nerves to control a robotic hand requires training of the individual and algorithms to process interactions between cortical and peripheral signals. To evaluate for the first time whether EEG-driven analysis of peripheral neural signals as an amputee practices could improve the classification of motor commands. Four thin-film longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes (tf-LIFEs-4) were implanted in the median and ulnar nerves of the stump in the distal upper arm for 4 weeks. Artificial intelligence classifiers were implemented to analyze LIFE signals recorded while the participant tried to perform 3 different hand and finger movements as pictures representing these tasks were randomly presented on a screen. In the final week, the participant was trained to perform the same movements with a robotic hand prosthesis through modulation of tf-LIFE-4 signals. To improve the classification performance, an event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) procedure was applied to EEG data to identify the exact timing of each motor command. Real-time control of neural (motor) output was achieved by the participant. By focusing electroneurographic (ENG) signal analysis in an EEG-driven time window, movement classification performance improved. After training, the participant regained normal modulation of background rhythms for movement preparation (α/β band desynchronization) in the sensorimotor area contralateral to the missing limb. Moreover, coherence analysis found a restored α band synchronization of Rolandic area with frontal and parietal ipsilateral regions, similar to that observed in the opposite hemisphere for movement of the intact hand. Of note, phantom limb pain (PLP) resolved for several months. Combining information from both cortical (EEG) and stump nerve (ENG) signals improved the classification performance compared with tf-LIFE signals processing alone; training led to cortical reorganization and

  10. Digital artery perforator (DAP) flaps: modifications for fingertip and finger stump reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsunaga, Narushima; Mihara, Makoto; Koshima, Isao; Gonda, Koichi; Takuya, Iida; Kato, Harunosuke; Araki, Jun; Yamamoto, Yushuke; Yuhei, Otaki; Todokoro, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Shoichi; Eri, Uehara; Mundinger, Gerhard S

    2010-08-01

    Various fingertip reconstructions have been reported for situations where microsurgical finger replantation is impossible. One method is the digital artery perforator (DAP) flap. Herein we report 13 DAP flaps for fingertip and finger stump reconstruction following traumatic finger amputations, highlighting modifications to the originally described DAP flap. From October 1998 to December 2007, a total of 13 fingers (11 patients) underwent fingertip and finger stump reconstruction with modified DAP flaps following traumatic finger amputations. We performed six adipocutaneous flaps, three adipose-only flaps, two supercharged flaps and two extended flaps. Flap size ranged from 1.44 to 8 cm(2) (average 3.25 cm(2)). All flaps survived completely with the exception of partial skin necrosis in two cases. One of these cases required debridement and skin grafting. Our initial three cases used donor-site skin grafting. The donor site was closed primarily in the 10 subsequent cases. No patients showed postoperative hypersensitivity of repaired fingertips. Semmes-Weinstein (SW) test result for flaps including a digital nerve branch did not differ from those without (average 4.07 vs. 3.92). Modified DAP flaps allow for preservation of digital length, volume and finger function. They can be raised as adiposal-only flaps or extended flaps and supercharged through perforator-to-perforator anastomoses. The donor defect on the lateral pulp can be closed primarily or by skin grafting. For traumatic fingertip and finger stump reconstructions, DAP flaps deliver consistent aesthetic and functional results. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Anesthesia Profile in Pediatric Patients after Inguinal Hernia Repair with Caudal Block or Local Wound Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Gavrilovska-Brzanov

    2016-02-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Between children undergoing inguinal hernia repair, local wound infiltration insures safety and satisfactory analgesia for surgery. Compared to caudal block it is not overwhelming. Caudal block provides longer analgesia, however complications are rather common.

  12. Recovery of bimodal locomotion in the spinal-transected salamander, Pleurodeles waltlii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Stéphanie; Landry, Marc; Nagy, Frédéric; Cabelguen, Jean-Marie

    2004-10-01

    Electromyographic (EMG) analysis was used to provide an assessment of the recovery of locomotion in spinal-transected adult salamanders (Pleurodeles waltlii). EMG recordings were performed during swimming and overground stepping in the same animal before and at various times (up to 500 days) after a mid-trunk spinalization. Two-three weeks after spinalization, locomotor EMG activity was limited to the forelimbs and the body rostral to the transection. Thereafter, there was a return of the locomotor EMG activity at progressively more caudal levels below the transection. The animals reached stable locomotor patterns 3-4 months post-transection. Several locomotor parameters (cycle duration, burst duration, burst proportion, intersegmental phase lag, interlimb coupling) measured at various recovery times after spinalization were compared with those in intact animals. These comparisons revealed transient and long-term alterations in the locomotor parameters both above and below the transection site. These alterations were much more pronounced for swimming than for stepping and revealed differences in adaptive plasticity between the two locomotor networks. Recovered locomotor activity was immediately abolished by retransection at the site of the original spinalization, suggesting that the spinal cord caudal to the transection was reinnervated by descending brain and/or propriospinal axons, and that this regeneration contributed to the restoration of locomotor activity. Anatomical studies conducted in parallel further demonstrated that some of the regenerated axons came from glutamatergic and serotoninergic immunoreactive cells within the reticular formation.

  13. Response Function of the Crayfish Caudal Photoreceptor to Hydrodynamic Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breite, Sally; Bahar, Sonya; Neiman, Alexander; Moss, Frank

    2002-03-01

    In its abdominal 6th ganglion the crayfish houses 2 light-sensitive neurons (caudal photoreceptors, or CPRs). It is known that these neurons work in tandem with a mechanosensory system of tiny hairs spread across the tailfan, which make synaptic contact with the photoreceptors. A stochastic resonance effect has been shown in this system in which light enhances the transduction of a weak, periodic mechanosensory (hydrodynamic) stimulus. It is not known, however, whether an optimal response from the CPR is induced by a single sine wave cycle or some other waveform. We have experimentally investigated this favorable waveform by driving a tailfan preparation with mechanical 10 Hz correlated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise and calculating the response function from the spike-triggered average of the applied noise waveform. We will discuss differences in the shape of the optimal waveform under dark and light conditions, as well as what seems to be a noticeable difference in the magnitude of the animals' response to a noisy stimulus in comparison with a periodic stimulus.

  14. Radiographic evaluation of caudal vena cava size in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmkuhl, L.B.; Bonagura, J.D.; Biller, D.S.; Hartman, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    Dilation of the caudal vena cava (CVC) on lateral thoracic radiographs is often interpreted as suggestive of right-sided congestive heart failure, To quantitate the clinical utility of evaluating CVC size as an indicator of right-sided heart disease, we compared the ratio of the diameter of the CVC as measured on a left lateral thoracic radiograph to the descending aorta (Ao), length of the thoracic vertebra above the tracheal bifurcation (VL), and width of the right fourth rib (R4) in 35 dogs with right heart disease and 35 control dogs, Each CVC ratio(CVC/Ao, CVC/VL, CVC/R4) was statistically larger in dogs with right heart disease, Response operating characteristic curves and likelihood ratios were used to determine ratios helpful in identifying dogs with right heart disease. A CVC/Ao > 1.50, CVC/VL > 1.30, or CVC/R4 > 3.50 are strongly suggestive of a right-sided heart abnormality in a patient

  15. Regulated viral BDNF delivery in combination with Schwann cells promotes axonal regeneration through capillary alginate hydrogels after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengwen; Sandner, Beatrice; Schackel, Thomas; Nicholson, LaShae; Chtarto, Abdelwahed; Tenenbaum, Liliane; Puttagunta, Radhika; Müller, Rainer; Weidner, Norbert; Blesch, Armin

    2017-09-15

    Grafting of cell-seeded alginate capillary hydrogels into a spinal cord lesion site provides an axonal bridge while physically directing regenerating axonal growth in a linear pattern. However, without an additional growth stimulus, bridging axons fail to extend into the distal host spinal cord. Here we examined whether a combinatory strategy would support regeneration of descending axons across a cervical (C5) lateral hemisection lesion in the rat spinal cord. Following spinal cord transections, Schwann cell (SC)-seeded alginate hydrogels were grafted to the lesion site and AAV5 expressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) under control of a tetracycline-regulated promoter was injected caudally. In addition, we examined whether SC injection into the caudal spinal parenchyma would further enhance regeneration of descending axons to re-enter the host spinal cord. Our data show that both serotonergic and descending axons traced by biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) extend throughout the scaffolds. The number of regenerating axons is significantly increased when caudal BDNF expression is activated and transient BDNF delivery is able to sustain axons after gene expression is switched off. Descending axons are confined to the caudal graft/host interface even with continuous BDNF expression for 8weeks. Only with a caudal injection of SCs, a pathway facilitating axonal regeneration through the host/graft interface is generated allowing axons to successfully re-enter the caudal spinal cord. Recovery from spinal cord injury is poor due to the limited regeneration observed in the adult mammalian central nervous system. Biomaterials, cell transplantation and growth factors that can guide axons across a lesion site, provide a cellular substrate, stimulate axon growth and have shown some promise in increasing the growth distance of regenerating axons. In the present study, we combined an alginate biomaterial with linear channels with transplantation of Schwann cells within

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal ... What is a spinal cord injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a ...

  17. Caudal Duplication Syndrome: the Vital Role of a Multidisciplinary Approach and Staged Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuk, Inbal; Levitt, Marc; Dlugy, Elena; Kravarusic, Dragan; Ben-Meir, David; Rajz, Gustavo; Konen, Osnat; Freud, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Caudal duplication syndrome is a rare entity that describes the association between congenital anomalies involving caudal structures and may have a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. A full-term male presented with combination of anomalies including anorectal malformation, duplication of the colon and lower urinary tract, split of the lower spine, and lipomyelomeningocele with tethering of the cord. We report this exceptional case of caudal duplication syndrome with special emphasis on surgical strategy and approach combining all disciplines involved. The purpose of this report is to present the pathology, assessment, and management strategy of this complex case. PMID:28018799

  18. Caudal Duplication Syndrome: the Vital Role of a Multidisciplinary Approach and Staged Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuk, Inbal; Levitt, Marc; Dlugy, Elena; Kravarusic, Dragan; Ben-Meir, David; Rajz, Gustavo; Konen, Osnat; Freud, Enrique

    2016-12-01

    Caudal duplication syndrome is a rare entity that describes the association between congenital anomalies involving caudal structures and may have a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. A full-term male presented with combination of anomalies including anorectal malformation, duplication of the colon and lower urinary tract, split of the lower spine, and lipomyelomeningocele with tethering of the cord. We report this exceptional case of caudal duplication syndrome with special emphasis on surgical strategy and approach combining all disciplines involved. The purpose of this report is to present the pathology, assessment, and management strategy of this complex case.

  19. Umbilical Cord Management and Stump Care in Normal Childbirth in Slovenian and Croatian Maternity Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivšek, Ana Polona; Petročnik, Petra; Skubic, Metka; Škodič Zakšek, Teja; Jug Došler, Anita

    2017-12-01

    The aim was to investigate first-care procedures for the newborn's umbilical cord at maternity hospitals in Slovenia and Croatia. The study was based on an empirical survey research approach and quantitative research paradigms and included all Slovenian (n=14) and all Croatian (n=35) maternity hospitals. Leaders of midwifery team of 14 Slovenian and 35 Croatian labor wards were invited to participate. The study was conducted in 2013, with 67% of Slovenian and 66% of Croatian maternity hospitals having responded. A causal and non-experimental method of empirical research was used. The research instrument was a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used on data analysis. The independence hypothesis was tested with the χ2-test or Kullback 2Î-test. A vast ma-jority of study wards employed delayed umbilical cord clamping, i.e. clamping the cord after pulsa-tion had ceased. Only 10% of Slovenian in comparison with 36.4% of Croatian maternity hospitals practiced dry cord care. Others applied disinfectant on the cord, in Slovenia most frequently 6% po-tassium permanganate, and in Croatia a combination of octenidine and phenoxyethanol. Most Croa-tian -maternity wards (95.7%) still covered the stump, while it was not regular practice in Slovenia. The authors estimate that the prevailing Slovenian and Croatian practices in regard to cord clamping are in accordance with the evidence, while improvements could be made regarding stump care, since dry cord care is the recommended method.

  20. Intercostal muscle flap to protect the bronchial stump in pediatric lobectomy for lung abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi, Gabriele; Lauriti, Giuseppe; Cascini, Valentina; Lococo, Achille; Chiesa, Pierluigi Lelli

    2013-01-01

    Lung suppurative diseases in children are usually responsive to medical treatment or percutaneous drainage. Rarely, pulmonary resection is required for lung abscess in childhood, particularly in presence of co-morbidities. In these cases, a lobectomy is usually performed through an open thoracotomy, with a reported incidence of bronco-pleural fistula up to 9.1% of pediatric series. This consequence is mainly due to the inflammatory condition; however the lack of knowledge of pediatric and thoracic surgeons with this rare condition in childhood can also play a role. In adults with lung cancer, the buttressing of bronchial stump with the additional support of an intercostal muscle (ICM) flap has proved to prevent this complication, as well as to reduce post-operative pain. We report the first pediatric experience of ICM flap used in 2 immunocompetent children requiring lobectomy for suppurative lung conditions. Our preliminary experience confirms the feasibility of protecting the bronchial stump after lobectomy in children, especially in conditions at risk for bronco-pleural fistula development.

  1. Spinal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, R.; Popolizio, T.; D’Aprile, P.; Muto, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Purpose of this review is to address the current concepts on the pathophysiology of discogenic, radicular, facet and dysfunctional spinal pain, focusing on the role of the imaging in the diagnostic setting, to potentially address a correct approach also to minimally invasive interventional techniques. • Special attention will be given to the discogenic pain, actually considered as the most frequent cause of chronic low back pain. • The correct distinction between referred pain and radicular pain contributes to give a more correct approach to spinal pain. • The pathogenesis of chronic pain renders this pain a true pathology requiring a specific management. - Abstract: The spinal pain, and expecially the low back pain (LBP), represents the second cause for a medical consultation in primary care setting and a leading cause of disability worldwide [1]. LBP is more often idiopathic. It has as most frequent cause the internal disc disruption (IDD) and is referred to as discogenic pain. IDD refers to annular fissures, disc collapse and mechanical failure, with no significant modification of external disc shape, with or without endplates changes. IDD is described as a separate clinical entity in respect to disc herniation, segmental instability and degenerative disc desease (DDD). The radicular pain has as most frequent causes a disc herniation and a canal stenosis. Both discogenic and radicular pain also have either a mechanical and an inflammatory genesis. For to be richly innervated, facet joints can be a direct source of pain, while for their degenerative changes cause compression of nerve roots in lateral recesses and in the neural foramina. Degenerative instability is a common and often misdiagnosed cause of axial and radicular pain, being also a frequent indication for surgery. Acute pain tends to extinguish along with its cause, but the setting of complex processes of peripheral and central sensitization may influence its evolution in chronic

  2. Spinal pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, R., E-mail: roberto1766@interfree.it [Neuroradiology Department, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Naples (Italy); Popolizio, T., E-mail: t.popolizio1@gmail.com [Radiology Department, Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo (Fg) (Italy); D’Aprile, P., E-mail: paoladaprile@yahoo.it [Neuroradiology Department, San Paolo Hospital, Bari (Italy); Muto, M., E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Neuroradiology Department, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Napoli (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Purpose of this review is to address the current concepts on the pathophysiology of discogenic, radicular, facet and dysfunctional spinal pain, focusing on the role of the imaging in the diagnostic setting, to potentially address a correct approach also to minimally invasive interventional techniques. • Special attention will be given to the discogenic pain, actually considered as the most frequent cause of chronic low back pain. • The correct distinction between referred pain and radicular pain contributes to give a more correct approach to spinal pain. • The pathogenesis of chronic pain renders this pain a true pathology requiring a specific management. - Abstract: The spinal pain, and expecially the low back pain (LBP), represents the second cause for a medical consultation in primary care setting and a leading cause of disability worldwide [1]. LBP is more often idiopathic. It has as most frequent cause the internal disc disruption (IDD) and is referred to as discogenic pain. IDD refers to annular fissures, disc collapse and mechanical failure, with no significant modification of external disc shape, with or without endplates changes. IDD is described as a separate clinical entity in respect to disc herniation, segmental instability and degenerative disc desease (DDD). The radicular pain has as most frequent causes a disc herniation and a canal stenosis. Both discogenic and radicular pain also have either a mechanical and an inflammatory genesis. For to be richly innervated, facet joints can be a direct source of pain, while for their degenerative changes cause compression of nerve roots in lateral recesses and in the neural foramina. Degenerative instability is a common and often misdiagnosed cause of axial and radicular pain, being also a frequent indication for surgery. Acute pain tends to extinguish along with its cause, but the setting of complex processes of peripheral and central sensitization may influence its evolution in chronic

  3. Spinal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, S.; Pathria, M.N.; Ross, J.S.; Masaryk, T.J.; Modic, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    The authors studied 50 patients who had spinal stenosis by means of MR imaging. All patients had undergone myelography and CT. Thirty patients underwent surgery. MR imaging included T1-weighted spin echo sequences with repetition time = 600 msec, echo time = 20 (600/20) sagittal and axial sections 4 mm thick with 2 mm gap. T2-weighted 2,000/60 axial images were obtained on 14 patients. Examinations were retrospectively evaluated for central stenosis, lateral recess narrowing, and foraminal encroachment. Measurements of sagittal, interpedicular, interfacet, and recess dimensions were made at L3-5. On MR images, 20 patients had single-level and 30 had multiple-level stenosis. There was excellent agreement between modalities with central canal stenosis, but a discrepancy in six patients with bony foraminal stenosis. MR imaging was an accurate method for assessment of lumbar stenosis, but CT appears marginally better for detection of bony foraminal stenosis in certain cases

  4. Quantitative anatomical and behavioral analyses of regeneration and collateral sprouting following spinal cord transection in the nurse shark (ginglymostoma cirratum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderd, J B

    1979-01-01

    The spinal cord was transected at the mid-thoracic level in 32 nurse sharks. Four animals per group were sacrificed at intervals of 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 and 90 days postoperative. Two groups of fish underwent a subsequent spinla1 cord retransection at the same site at 90 days and were sacrificed 10 and 20 days later. Three sections of spinal cord were removed from each shark for histological analysis. Behaviorally, timed trials for swimming speed and a strength test for axial musculature contraction caudal to the lesion site were performed at 5 day postoperative intervals. Histological analysis showed little regeneration (9-13 percent) of two descending tracts 90 days following the lesion and no return of rostrally controlled movements caudal to the lesion. However, synaptic readjustment did occur caudal to the lesion. This phenomenon was attributed to local segmental sprouting of adjacent, intact nerve fibers. A close correlation was shown between this synaptic readjustment and the strength of uncontrollable undulatory movements seen caudal to the lesion site following spinal cord transection. The relationship of regeneration and collateral sprouting to quantitative behavioral changes is discussed.

  5. Caudal Regression Syndrome with Partial Agenesis of the Corpus callosum and Partial Lobar Holoprosencephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashami, Hilal Al; Bataclan, Maria F; Mathew, Mariam; Krishnan, Lalitha

    2010-01-01

    Caudal regression syndrome is a rare fetal condition of diabetic pregnancy. Although the exact mechanism is not known, hyperglycaemia during embryogenesis seems to act as a teratogen. Independently, caudal regression syndrome (CRS), agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) and partial lobar holoprosencephaly (HPE) have been reported in infants of diabetic mothers. To our knowledge, a combination of all these three conditions has not been reported so far. PMID:21509087

  6. Caudal Regression Syndrome with Partial Agenesis of the Corpus callosum and Partial Lobar Holoprosencephaly: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashami, Hilal Al; Bataclan, Maria F; Mathew, Mariam; Krishnan, Lalitha

    2010-04-01

    Caudal regression syndrome is a rare fetal condition of diabetic pregnancy. Although the exact mechanism is not known, hyperglycaemia during embryogenesis seems to act as a teratogen. Independently, caudal regression syndrome (CRS), agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) and partial lobar holoprosencephaly (HPE) have been reported in infants of diabetic mothers. To our knowledge, a combination of all these three conditions has not been reported so far.

  7. Plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine with and without adrenaline following caudal anaesthesia in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Morton, N S; Cullen, P M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of adrenaline 1/400000 added to 0.25% bupivacaine significantly delays the systemic absorption of the drug from the caudal epidural space in young infants.......The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of adrenaline 1/400000 added to 0.25% bupivacaine significantly delays the systemic absorption of the drug from the caudal epidural space in young infants....

  8. The untold story of the caudal skeleton in the electric eel (ostariophysi: gymnotiformes: electrophorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos David de Santana

    Full Text Available Alternative hypotheses had been advanced as to the components forming the elongate fin coursing along the ventral margin of much of the body and tail from behind the abdominal region to the posterior margin of the tail in the Electric Eel, Electrophorus electricus. Although the original species description indicated that this fin was a composite of the caudal fin plus the elongate anal fin characteristic of other genera of the Gymnotiformes, subsequent researchers proposed that the posterior region of the fin was formed by the extension of the anal fin posteriorly to the tip of the tail, thereby forming a "false caudal fin." Examination of ontogenetic series of the genus reveal that Electrophorus possesses a true caudal fin formed of a terminal centrum, hypural plate and a low number of caudal-fin rays. The confluence of the two fins is proposed as an additional autapomorphy for the genus. Under all alternative proposed hypotheses of relationships within the order Gymnotiformes, the presence of a caudal fin in Electrophorus optimized as being independent of the occurence of the morphologically equivalent structure in the Apteronotidae. Possible functional advantages to the presence of a caudal fin in the genus are discussed.

  9. Cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries of the paca (Cuniculus paca, L. 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Cristina de Souza Marques

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766 is a medium-sized rodent that occurs in Brazil; however, there is little information regarding its morphology. The goal of this study was to describe the origin and branching of the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries of this rodent in order to contribute to comparative anatomy studies. Ten animals (males and females were used. After death, their thoracic inlet was opened between the fourth and sixth ribs to expose the thoracic aorta, which was cannulated caudally. A stained, neoprene latex solution was then injected, in order to fill the arterial system, and the preparations were fixed in a 10% aqueous formalin solution for over 72h. The fixed specimens were dissected to identify the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries. The cranial mesenteric artery started at the abdominal aorta, caudally to the celiac artery, and originated in the following arterial branches: caudal pancreatic duodenal, pancreatic, jejunal, ileum colic and cecal. The origin of the caudal mesenteric artery occurred next to the end of abdominal aorta and this vessel issued the left colic artery and cranial rectal artery from which the sigmoid arteries initiated. It was found that there was little difference in the branching pattern of the arteries compared to other rodents and domestic mammals.

  10. Multidetector row computed tomography and ultrasound characteristics of caudal vena cava duplication in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Giovanna; Diana, Alessia; Cipone, Mario; Drigo, Michele; Caldin, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Caudal vena cava duplication has been rarely reported in small animals. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe characteristics of duplicated caudal vena cava in a large group of dogs. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound databases from two hospitals were searched for canine reports having the diagnosis "double caudal vena cava." One observer reviewed CT images for 71 dogs and two observers reviewed ultrasound images for 21 dogs. In all CT cases, the duplication comprised two vessels that were bilaterally symmetrical and approximately the same calibre (similar to Type I complete duplication in humans). In all ultrasound cases, the duplicated caudal vena cava appeared as a distinct vessel running on the left side of the abdominal segment of the descending aorta and extending from the left common iliac vein to the left renal vein. The prevalence of caudal vena cava duplication was 0.46% for canine ultrasound studies and 2.08% for canine CT studies performed at these hospitals. Median body weight for affected dogs was significantly lower than that of unaffected dogs (P dogs, caudal vena cava duplication should be differentiated from other vascular anomalies when planning surgeries and for avoiding misdiagnoses. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  11. Computed tomographic characteristics of collateral venous pathways in dogs with caudal vena cava obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specchi, Swan; d'Anjou, Marc-André; Carmel, Eric Norman; Bertolini, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Collateral venous pathways develop in dogs with obstruction or increased blood flow resistance at any level of the caudal vena cava in order to maintain venous drainage to the right atrium. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the sites, causes of obstruction, and configurations of venous collateral pathways for a group of dogs with caudal vena cava obstruction. Computed tomography databases from two veterinary hospitals were searched for dogs with a diagnosis of caudal vena cava obstruction and multidetector row computed tomographic angiographic (CTA) scans that included the entire caudal vena cava. Images for each included dog were retrieved and collateral venous pathways were characterized using image postprocessing and a classification system previously reported for humans. A total of nine dogs met inclusion criteria and four major collateral venous pathways were identified: deep (n = 2), portal (n = 2), intermediate (n = 7), and superficial (n = 5). More than one collateral venous pathway was present in 5 dogs. An alternative pathway consisting of renal subcapsular collateral veins, arising mainly from the caudal pole of both kidneys, was found in three dogs. In conclusion, findings indicated that collateral venous pathway patterns similar to those described in humans are also present in dogs with caudal vena cava obstruction. These collateral pathways need to be distinguished from other vascular anomalies in dogs. Postprocessing of multidetector-row CTA images allowed delineation of the course of these complicated venous pathways and may be a helpful adjunct for treatment planning in future cases. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  12. Variation in Results of Volume Measurements of Stumps of Lower-Limb Amputees : A Comparison of 4 Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer-Wilzing, Vera G.; Bolt, Arjen; Geertzen, Jan H.; Emmelot, Cornelis H.; Baars, Erwin C.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    de Boer-Wilzing VG, Bolt A, Geertzen JH, Emmelot CH, Baars EC, Dijkstra PU. Variation in results of volume measurements of stumps of lower-limb amputees: a comparison of 4 methods. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92:941-6. Objective: To analyze the reliability of 4 methods (water immersion,

  13. Modern principles of prevention of anophthalmic syndrome: formation of the locomotor stump, the types of orbital implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zapuskalov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the current state of the problem of the correction of anophthalmic syndrome. Evaluated various methods of formation of the locomotor stump after removal of the eyeball, gave a detailed description of different types of materials for the fabrication of orbital implant, as well as reflect the basic principles of prevention of complications.

  14. Single-tree harvesting reduces survival and growth of oak stump sprouts in the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Randy G. Jensen; Michael J. Wallendorf

    2008-01-01

    Regeneration and recruitment into the overstory is critical to the success of using uneven-aged systems to sustain oak forests. We evaluated survival and growth of white oak (Quercus alba L.), black oak (Q. velutina Lam.), and scarlet oak (Q. coccinea Muenchh.) stump sprouts 10 years after harvesting Ozark...

  15. K-ras mutations in gastric stump carcinomas and in carcinomas from the non-operated stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rees, B. P.; Musler, A.; Caspers, E.; Drillenburg, P.; Craanen, M. E.; Polkowski, W.; Chibowski, D.; Offerhaus, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    Partial gastrectomy is a well-established pre-malignant condition. It is postulated that in the gastric stump an accelerated neoplastic process takes place, similar to that of (intestinal type) adenocarcinoma from the non-operated stomach. K-ras codon 12 mutation is one of the most frequent

  16. Borax Stump Treatment for Control of Annosus Root Disease in the Eastside Pine Type Forests of Northeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    John T. Kliejunas

    1989-01-01

    A historical perspective and description of recent studies on the use of borax to treat pine stumps against infection by Heterobasidion annosum in eastside pine stands of northeastern California are presented. The studies indicate that boraxing of pines in eastside pine stands is an effective means of preventing annosus infection. Data and...

  17. Paired anterior spinal arteries in a case of locked-in syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, J.; Matsubayashi, K.; Fukuyama, H.; Kitanaka, H.

    1981-01-01

    Paired anterior spinal arteries have rarely been demonstrated angiographically, although several anatomical studies have shown that they are not uncommonly observed. This report describes the angiographic and autopsy findings of such a variation, which was observed in a 65-year-old man with a locked-in syndrome. The paired trunks of the anterior spinal artery were visualized in a retrograde fashion through the left inferior thyroid artery and a radical branch at the 5th cervical level by left retrograde brachial angiography. The uppermost segments of either vertebral artery and the lower portion of the basilar artery were opacified through these channels. The autopsy confirmed the paired trunks of the anterior spinal artery, occlusion of the vertebral arteries just caudal to the origin of the main branches of the anterior spinal artery, and an old infarct involving the pontine tegmentum and cerebellum. (orig.)

  18. Pyovagina and stump pyometra in a neutered XX sex-reversed Beagle: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Partington, B.P.; Smith, B.; Hedlund, C.S.; Law, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    An 18-month-old, neutered male beagle presented with acute abdominal signs and a suppurative infection of the urogenital tract. Chromosomal sex was female (78, XX), gonadal sex was male (testicles), and phenotypic sex was ambiguous, with evidence of both male and female duct systems. The internal and external genitalia consisted of epididymides, an underdeveloped uterus with an immature spermatic cord, communication between the uterus or cranial vagina and the membranous urethra, a urethrographically male urethra, a hypoplastic os penis, and a hypoplastic penis with hypospadia. Based on these findings and the familial history of a similarly affected litter mate, the dog was diagnosed as having the XX male syndrome with pyovagina and uterine stump pyometra. Radiographic and ultrasonographic investigations are described, and abnormalities of chromosomal sex, gonadal sex, and phenotypic sex are discussed

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos ... Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, MS Occupational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Katie Powell, OT ... does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  1. Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD) module supports the maintenance of local and national registries for the tracking of patients with spinal cord injury and disease...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW Marguerite ... play_arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal ... with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect stem-cell treatments to become available for spinal cord injuries? ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect stem-cell treatments to become available for spinal cord injuries? ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources ... Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources ...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What are the chances of regaining feeling and mobility after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow How long does it usually take for feeling and movement to return after a spinal cord ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation ... Rogers, PT Recreational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By Topic Media Resources Donate to support families facing spinal cord ...

  13. Spinal cord stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007560.htm Spinal cord stimulation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ... a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? ...

  15. Minimally Invasive Drainage of a Post-Laminectomy Subfascial Seroma with Cervical Spinal Cord Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitshoff, Adriaan Mynhardt; Van Goethem, Bart; Cornelis, Ine; Combes, Anais; Dvm, Ingeborgh Polis; Gielen, Ingrid; Vandekerckhove, Peter; de Rooster, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    A 14 mo old female neutered Doberman pinscher was evaluated for difficulty in rising, a wide based stance, pelvic limb gait abnormalities, and cervical pain of 2 mo duration. Neurologic examination revealed pelvic limb ataxia and cervical spinal hyperesthesia. Spinal reflexes and cranial nerve examination were normal. The pathology was localized to the C1-C5 or C6-T2 spinal cord segments. Computed tomography (CT) findings indicated bony proliferation of the caudal articular processes of C6 and the cranial articular processes of C7, resulting in bilateral dorsolateral spinal cord compression that was more pronounced on the left side. A limited dorsal laminectomy was performed at C6-C7. Due to progressive neurological deterioration, follow-up CT examination was performed 4 days postoperatively. At the level of the laminectomy defect, a subfacial seroma had developed, entering the spinal canal and causing significant spinal cord compression. Under ultrasonographic guidance a closed-suction wound catheter was placed. Drainage of the seroma successfully relieved its compressive effects on the spinal cord and the patient's neurological status improved. CT was a valuable tool in assessing spinal cord compression as a result of a postoperative subfascial seroma. Minimally invasive application of a wound catheter can be successfully used to manage this condition.

  16. Spinal segmental dysgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mahomed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal segmental dysgenesis is a rare congenital spinal abnormality , seen in neonates and infants in which a segment of the spine and spinal cord fails to develop normally . The condition is segmental with normal vertebrae above and below the malformation. This condition is commonly associated with various abnormalities that affect the heart, genitourinary, gastrointestinal tract and skeletal system. We report two cases of spinal segmental dysgenesis and the associated abnormalities.

  17. Rectosigmoid stump washout as an alternative to permanent mucous fistula in patients undergoing subtotal colectomy for ulcerative colitis in emergency settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellino, Gianluca; Sciaudone, Guido; Candilio, Giuseppe; Canonico, Silvestro; Selvaggi, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileopouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the treatment of choice for intractable or complicated ulcerative colitis(UC). Elderly patients often present with acute colitis requiring emergent subtotal colectomy(SC). Frail patients are at risk of developing septic complications related to the closed rectosigmoidal stump, often requiring formation of a second stoma to be reversed at the time of completion proctectomy. This carries nuisance to such exhausted patients. We propose a simple and inexpensive trick to avoid the need for creating a mucous fistula. IPAA was performed as a 3-stage procedure in emergency settings. The rectosigmoidal stump was closed and placed subcutaneously; skin was closed over it. After SC, if patients showed signs of stump-related pelvic sepsis, a lavage of the rectal stump with povidone iodine solution and with saline was carried out as a rescue treatment aiming to avoid the need of opening the rectal stump to drain sepsis. Thirty-five patients underwent SC for UC between 1987 and 2012. The skin was closed over the closed stump in the 20. Seven patients out of these 20 experienced early stump-related septic complication. In five cases, we were able to avoid opening of the rectal stump, and a second stoma was unnecessary. After opening the closed stump in the remaining ones, a prompt improving of symptoms was observed. Rectal washout was well tolerated and avoided a second stoma in five out of seven patients, with better quality of life and body perception after IPAA surgery. This is relevant when dealing with geriatric patients, needing to completely recover before undergoing completion proctectomy.

  18. Rat disc torsional mechanics: effect of lumbar and caudal levels and axial compression load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Orías, Alejandro A; Malhotra, Neil R; Elliott, Dawn M

    2009-03-01

    Rat models with altered loading are used to study disc degeneration and mechano-transduction. Given the prominent role of mechanics in disc function and degeneration, it is critical to measure mechanical behavior to evaluate changes after model interventions. Axial compression mechanics of the rat disc are representative of the human disc when normalized by geometry, and differences between the lumbar and caudal disc have been quantified in axial compression. No study has quantified rat disc torsional mechanics. Compare the torsional mechanical behavior of rat lumbar and caudal discs, determine the contribution of combined axial load on torsional mechanics, and compare the torsional properties of rat discs to human lumbar discs. Cadaveric biomechanical study. Cyclic torsion without compressive load followed by cyclic torsion with a fixed compressive load was applied to rat lumbar and caudal disc levels. The apparent torsional modulus was higher in the lumbar region than in the caudal region: 0.081+/-0.026 (MPa/degrees, mean+/-SD) for lumbar axially loaded; 0.066+/-0.028 for caudal axially loaded; 0.091+/-0.033 for lumbar in pure torsion; and 0.056+/-0.035 for caudal in pure torsion. These values were similar to human disc properties reported in the literature ranging from 0.024 to 0.21 MPa/degrees. Use of the caudal disc as a model may be appropriate if the mechanical focus is within the linear region of the loading regime. These results provide support for use of this animal model in basic science studies with respect to torsional mechanics.

  19. Segmental hypersensitivity and spinothalamic function in spinal cord injury pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnerup, Nanna Brix; Sørensen, Leif Hougaard; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying central pain following spinal cord injury (SCI) are unsettled. The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in spinothalamic tract function below injury level and evoked pain in incomplete SCI patients with neuropathic pain below injury level (central pain......-free group. The rostral-caudal extent of the lesion measured by MRI did not differ between the two patient groups, and there were no statistically significant differences in any of the predefined areas of interest on the axial plane images. This study suggests that neuronal hyperexcitability plays a key role...... in central SCI pain and furthermore - in contrast to previous findings - that loss of spinothalamic functions does not appear to be a predictor for central neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury....

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... down on the nerve parts that carry signals. Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. With a complete ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  4. Eletrophysiological study of the caudal nerve on developing rats Estudo eletrofisiológico do nervo caudal em ratos em desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Netto Maia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To non-invasively study the sensory nerve conduction of the caudal nerve of normal developing rats. METHODS: Twenty normal Wistar male rats served as subjects. Caudal nerve conduction studies were performed at 60 days from birth and weekly at end of six consecutive weeks. The caudal nerve was stimulated distally and nerve potentials were recorded proximally on the animal's tail using common "alligator" clips as surface electrodes. RESULTS: The amplitude and the conduction velocity of the caudal nerve sensory action potential increased linearly from 29±6 µV to 85±13 µV and from 34±3 m/s to 44±4 m/s, respectively, between the 8th and the 15th week of life. The equations of linear regressions were as followed: Amplitude (µV = 8.1 × weeks - 34 (R² = 0.99 and NCV (m/s = 1.2 × weeks + 25 (R² = 0.86. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to study non-invasively the sensitive conduction of the caudal nerve of normal developing rats and describe reference values. The technique and data may be used as animal model in physiological and pathological studies.OBJETIVO: Estudar de forma não invasiva a condução nervosa sensitiva do nervo caudal em ratos normais em desenvolvimento. MÉTODOS: Vinte ratos machos Wistar foram utilizados. A conducão nervosa foi realizada a partir dos 60 dias, semanal durante seis semanas consecutivas. O nervo caudal foi estimulado distalmente, os potenciais foram registrados proximalmente na cauda do animal usando garras comum do tipo "jacaré" como eletrodos de superficie. RESULTADOS: A amplitude do potencial de ação de nervo sensitivo a velocidade de condução nervosa do nervo caudal cresceu linearmente de 29 ± 6 µV para 85 ± 13 µV e de 34 ± 3 m/s para 44 ± 4 m/s, respectivamente, entre a 8º e a 15º semana da vida do animal. As equações de regressão linear foram as seguintes: Amplitude (µV = 8,1 × semanas - 34 (R² = 0,99 e velocidade de conducao nervosa (m/s = 1,2 × semanas + 25 (R² = 0

  5. Trauma: Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Matthew J; Martin, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Injuries to the spinal column and spinal cord frequently occur after high-energy mechanisms of injury, or with lower-energy mechanisms, in select patient populations like the elderly. A focused yet complete neurologic examination during the initial evaluation will guide subsequent diagnostic procedures and early supportive measures to help prevent further injury. For patients with injury to bone and/or ligaments, the initial focus should be spinal immobilization and prevention of inducing injury to the spinal cord. Spinal cord injury is associated with numerous life-threatening complications during the acute and long-term phases of care that all acute care surgeons must recognize. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    Human studies in the past three decades have provided us with an emerging understanding of how cortical and spinal networks collaborate to ensure the vast repertoire of human behaviors. We differ from other animals in having direct cortical connections to spinal motoneurons, which bypass spinal...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  7. Comparison of caudal bupivacaine and bupivacaine-tramadol for postoperative analgesia in children with hypospadias repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Memon, M.I.

    2008-01-01

    To compare the effects after caudal bupivacaine alone and bupivacaine-tramadol in young children with hypospadias repair. Randomized controlled trial. Sixty children aged between 13-53 months coming for hypospadias repair were divided randomly into two groups A and B. A caudal block was performed immediately after induction of general anaesthesia. The patients in group A received 0.125% bupivacaine 1 ml/kg with tramadol 1 mg/kg body weight caudally. Group B patients received 0.25% bupivacaine 1 ml/kg body weight caudally. Anaesthesia was discontinued after completion of surgery. In the recovery area, ventilatory frequency and pain scores were recorded at 1 hourly interval for first 6 hours and then every 2 hours for next 6 hours postoperatively. A modified TPPPS (Toddler-Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale) was used to assess the pain. Episodes of vomiting, facial flush and pruritus were noted, if present. The duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in group A patients (p-value=0.001). A low frequency of postoperative vomiting was observed in both groups i.e. 10% in group A and 6.66% in group B (p-value=0.64). No respiratory depression, flushing and pruritus were observed. Low dose combination of bupivacaine and tramadol, when administered caudally, had an additive effect and provided prolonged and effective postoperative analgesia with minimal side effects. The risk of toxicity from bupivacaine decreased when combined with tramadol in low doses. (author)

  8. Rostro-Caudal Organization of Connectivity between Cingulate Motor Areas and Lateral Frontal Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kep Kee Loh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to contemporary views, the lateral frontal cortex is organized along a rostro-caudal functional axis with increasingly complex cognitive/behavioral control implemented rostrally, and increasingly detailed motor control implemented caudally. Whether the medial frontal cortex follows the same organization remains to be elucidated. To address this issue, the functional connectivity of the 3 cingulate motor areas (CMAs in the human brain with the lateral frontal cortex was investigated. First, the CMAs and their representations of hand, tongue, and eye movements were mapped via task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Second, using resting-state fMRI, their functional connectivity with lateral prefrontal and lateral motor cortical regions of interest (ROIs were examined. Importantly, the above analyses were conducted at the single-subject level to account for variability in individual cingulate morphology. The results demonstrated a rostro-caudal functional organization of the CMAs in the human brain that parallels that in the lateral frontal cortex: the rostral CMA has stronger functional connectivity with prefrontal regions and weaker connectivity with motor regions; conversely, the more caudal CMAs have weaker prefrontal and stronger motor connectivity. Connectivity patterns of the hand, tongue and eye representations within the CMAs are consistent with that of their parent CMAs. The parallel rostral-to-caudal functional organization observed in the medial and lateral frontal cortex could likely contribute to different hierarchies of cognitive-motor control.

  9. Distribution of spinal neuronal networks controlling forward and backward locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulyeva, Natalia; Veshchitskii, Aleksandr; Gorsky, Oleg; Pavlova, Natalia; Zelenin, Pavel V; Gerasimenko, Yury; Deliagina, Tatiana G; Musienko, Pavel

    2018-04-20

    Higher vertebrates, including humans, are capable not only of forward (FW) locomotion but also of walking in other directions relative to the body axis [backward (BW), sideways, etc.]. While the neural mechanisms responsible for controlling FW locomotion have been studied in considerable detail, the mechanisms controlling steps in other directions are mostly unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of spinal neuronal networks controlling FW and BW locomotion. First, we applied electrical epidural stimulation (ES) to different segments of the spinal cord from L2 to S2 to reveal zones triggering FW and BW locomotion in decerebrate cats of either sex. Second, to determine the location of spinal neurons activated during FW and BW locomotion, we used c-fos immunostaining. We found that the neuronal networks responsible for FW locomotion were distributed broadly in the lumbosacral spinal cord and could be activated by ES of any segment from L3 to S2. By contrast, networks generating BW locomotion were activated by ES of a limited zone from the caudal part of L5 to the caudal part of L7. In the intermediate part of the gray matter within this zone, a significantly higher number of c- fos -positive interneurons was revealed in BW-stepping cats compared with FW-stepping cats. We suggest that this region of the spinal cord contains the network that determines the BW direction of locomotion. Significance Statement Sequential and single steps in various directions relative to the body axis [forward (FW), backward (BW), sideways, etc.] are used during locomotion and to correct for perturbations, respectively. The mechanisms controlling step direction are unknown. In the present study, for the first time we compared the distributions of spinal neuronal networks controlling FW and BW locomotion. Using a marker to visualize active neurons, we demonstrated that in the intermediate part of the gray matter within L6 and L7 spinal segments

  10. International Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvorak, M F; Itshayek, E; Fehlings, M G

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Survey of expert opinion, feedback and final consensus. OBJECTIVE: To describe the development and the variables included in the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Spinal Interventions and Surgical Procedures Basic Data set. SETTING: International working group. METHODS......: A committee of experts was established to select and define data elements. The data set was then disseminated to the appropriate committees and organizations for comments. All suggested revisions were considered and both the International Spinal Cord Society and the American Spinal Injury Association endorsed...... spinal intervention and procedure is coded (variables 1 through 7) and the spinal segment level is described (variables 8 and 9). Sample clinical cases were developed to illustrate how to complete it. CONCLUSION: The International SCI Spinal Interventions and Surgical Procedures Basic Data Set...

  11. Caudal dysgenesis, sirenomelia, and situs inversus totalis: a primitive defect in blastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougemont, Anne-Laure; Bouron-Dal Soglio, Dorothée; Désilets, Valérie; Jovanovic, Mubina; Perreault, Gilles; Laurier Oligny, Luc; Fournet, Jean-Christophe

    2008-06-01

    Caudal dysgenesis (CD) constitutes a heterogeneous spectrum of congenital caudal anomalies, including varying degrees of agenesis of the vertebral column, as well as anorectal and genitourinary anomalies. Sirenomelia, characterized by a fusion of the lower limbs, could represent the most severe end of this spectrum. The two main debated pathogenic hypotheses are an aberrant vascular supply versus a primary axial mesoderm defect. We present the autopsy findings of two fetuses of non-diabetic mothers, with normal karyotype. Both fetuses presented situs inversus associated with a CD, in one case consisting of sirenomelia, establishing a very rare association profile that might be random. This association also suggests the occurrence of a common pathogenic mechanism, in accordance to recent genetic data, such as displayed in the Kif3A murine mutation phenotype. Some cases of sirenomelia and CD could represent developmental field defects of blastogenesis involving the caudal mesoderm, rather than being related to vascular insufficiency.

  12. Flow-structure Interaction Modeling of a Fish Caudal Fin during Steady Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Geng, Biao; Zheng, Xudong; Xue, Qian; Dong, Haibo

    2017-11-01

    It's widely thought that the flexibilities of fish fins play critical roles in propulsive performance enhancement (such as thrust augment and efficiency improvement) in nature. In order to explore the formation mechanisms of the fish fin's flexible morphing and its hydrodynamic benefits as well, a high-fidelity flow-structure/membrane interaction modeling of the fish caudal fin is conducted in this work. Following the realistic configuration of the fish caudal fin, a thin membrane supported by a series of beams is constructed. The material properties of the membrane and the beams are reversely determined by the realistic fin morphing obtained from the high-speed videos and the high fidelity flow-structure interaction simulations. With the accurate material property, we investigate the interplay between structure, kinematics and fluid flow in caudal fin propulsion. Detailed analyses on the relationship between the flexural stiffness, fin morphing patterns, hydrodynamic forces and vortex dynamics are then conducted.

  13. Unusual caudal vena cava thrombosis in a cow, secondary to Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Garcia Motta

    Full Text Available Abstract: The caudal vena cava thrombosis, or pulmonary thromboembolism, in cattle is correlated with lactic acidosis, caused by diets rich in grains and highly fermentable, associated or not to septic situations, used in feedlots of beef or high-producing dairy cattle. This paper reports an unusual caudal vena cava thrombosis in a cow, secondary to Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes infection, resulting in reduced milk production, anorexia, pale mucous membranes, ruminal atony, sternal decubitus and autoauscultation position. The heart was enlarged at necropsy, presence of clots distributed along the thoracic cavity, adherence between lung and pleura, abscesses, emphysema, petechiae, suffusions and ecchymosis in lungs, thickening of the caudal vena cava wall, hepatomegaly with chronic passive congestion ("nutmeg" aspect, and rumenitis. In lab, the actinomycete Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from liver and lung samples, probably resulting through dissemination of the bacteria of the rumen content, what reaffirms the opportunistic behavior of this actinomycete.

  14. Comparison of extra-corporeal knot-tying suture and metallic endo-clips in laparoscopic appendiceal stump closure in uncomplicated acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nadeem

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The use of metallic endoclip for appendix stump closure is safe and less time consuming but costs higher. Because of the simplicity of the technique it's a useful alternative to the extracorporeal knotting especially for learners.

  15. Cardiocirculatory intraoperative assessment during single-shot caudal anaesthesia in children: comparison between levobupivacaine and ropivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gentili

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caudal block with levobupivacaine or ropivacaine is the most commonly used regional anaesthesia in children. Methods: The aim of study was to compare the cardiocirculatory profile induced in two matched groups of young patients, submitted to caudal anaesthesia with levobupivacaine or ropivacaine for an elective subumbilical surgery. Sixty children were enrolled: thirty received levopubivacaine 0.25% and thirty ropivacaine 0.2%. Intraoperative heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP were monitored at following times: Ta0 (after anaesthesia induction, Ta1 (after caudal anaesthesia, Ta2 (five minutes later, Ta3 (ten minutes later, Ts1 (at surgical incision, Ts2, Ts3, Ts4, Ts5 (every 10 minutes during surgery, Taw (at the awakening. Results: In both groups the cardiocirculatory trend remained within normal ranges at all times considered, demonstrating the safety of the method with both drugs. Both groups showed a similar trend at the different monitoring times: low decrease in HR, SBP and DBP after caudal block, slight increase in parameters after skin incision, slight decrease during surgery, increase at awakening. Regarding SBP and DBP, the levobupivacaine group children generally showed higher levels compared to the ropivacaine group, especially for DBP. Conclusions: Paediatric caudal anaesthesia is an effective method with an very infrequent complication rate. Possible hypotheses for differing haemodynamic behaviour could include a stronger vasoconstriction reflex of innervated areas during caudal anaesthesia with levobupivacaine and a lower levobupivacaine induced block of the sympathetic fibers, related to different pharmacokinetic profile of low concentrations of the local anaesthetics used in paediatric epidural space.

  16. Comparative study of caudal bupivacaine versus bupivacaine with tramadol for postoperative analgesia in paediatric cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Hegazy; Ayman A. Ghoneim

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Caudal epidural analgesia has become very common analgesic technique in paediatric surgery. Add-ing tramadol to bupivacaine for caudal injection prolongs duration of analgesia with minimal side effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the different effects of caudal bupivacaine versus bupivacaine with thamadol for postoperative analgesia in paediatric cancer patients. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted over 40 paediatric cancer pa-tients who were recruited from Children Cancer Hospital of Egypt (57357 Hospital). Patients were randomized into 2 groups: bupivacaine group (group B, 20 patients) to receive single shot caudal block of 1 mL/kg 0.1875% bupivacaine; tramadol group (group T, 20 patients) prepared as group B with the addition of 1 mg/kg caudal tramadol. Results: The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer among group T than group B [(24 ± 13.7) hours versus (7 ± 3.7) hours respectively with P = 0.001]. Group T showed a significantly lower mean FLACC score than group B (2.2 ± 0.9 versus 3.6 ± 0.6 with P = 0.002). The difference in FLACC score was comparable on arrival, and after 2 and 4 hours. At 8 and 12 hours the group B recorded significantly higher scores (P = 0.002 and 0.0001 respectively). There were no significant differences between the groups as regards sedation score [the median in both groups was 1 (0–1) with P value = o.8]. No one developed facial flush or pruritis. Conclusion: Caudal injection of low dose tramadol 1 mg/kg with bupivacaine 0.1875% is proved to be effective, long standing technique for postoperative analgesia in major paediatric cancer surgery and almost devoid of side effect.

  17. Reverse Anterolateral Thigh Flap to Revise a Below-knee Amputation Stump at the Mid-tibial Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Lionel Sadigh, MB ChB

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The reconstruction of defects around the knee often poses a challenge due to the limited availability of local soft tissues. Indeed, this same problem is encountered when attempting to revise a below-knee amputation stump. Moreover, due to a paucity of recipient vessels in those who have undergone previous amputation secondary to trauma, free-flap reconstruction is often challenging and not always successful. We report a case of a reverse anterolateral thigh (ALT flap used to revise a long below-knee amputation stump. Previous reports in the literature attest to the versatility of the reverse ALT to cover defects around the knee and proximal tibia, but to our knowledge, this is the first report of a reverse ALT reaching to the mid-tibial level.

  18. Eradicative brachytherapy with hyaluronate gel injection into pararectal space in treatment of bulky vaginal stump recurrence of uterine cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Kazushi; Mabuchi, Yasushi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Shirai, Shintaro; Noda, Yasutaka; Sato, Morio; Ino, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a procedure for eradicative brachytherapy that can deliver a curative boost dose to bulky (>4 cm) vaginal stump recurrence of uterine cancer without risk of damaging surrounding organs. We separated risk organs (the rectum and sigmoid) from the target during brachytherapy, with a hyaluronate gel injection into the pararectal space via the percutaneous paraperineal approach under local anesthesia. The rectum anchored to the sacrum by native ligament was expected to shift posteriorly. We encountered a patient with bulky stump recurrence of uterine cancer, approximately 8 cm in maximum diameter. She was complaining of abdominal pain and constipation due to bowel encasement. Following 50 Gy of external beam radiotherapy, we applied a single fraction of brachytherapy under gel separation and delivered 14.5 Gy (50.8 GyE: equivalent dose in 2-Gy fraction calculated with linear quadratic model at α/β=3) to the target. The gel injection procedure was completed in 30 min without complications. A total irradiation dose of 100.8 GyE was delivered to the target and the cumulative minimum dose to the most irradiated rectosigmoidal volume of 2 cc (cumulative D 2cc ) was calculated as 58.5 GyE with gel injection, and was estimated to be 96 GyE without. Over three years, the local stump tumor has completely disappeared, with no complications. Brachytherapy with a pararectal gel injection can be a safe and effective eradicative option for bulky vaginal stump recurrence. (author)

  19. Carcinoma of the cervical stump: comparison of radiation therapy factors, survival and patterns of failure with carcinoma of the intact uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igboeli, P.; Kapp, D.S.; Lawrence, R.; Schwartz, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    Eighty-nine patients with previously untreated invasive carcinoma of the cervical stump were seen at Yale-New Haven Hospital from 1953 through 1977. This represented 9.4% of the carcinomas of the cervix seen during this time period. Eighty-five of the 89 patients (95.5%) had ''true'' cancers of the cervical stump diagnosed 2 years or more after subtotal hysterectomy, while 4 of the 89 patients (4.5%) had ''coincident'' cancers diagnosed within 2 years of the subtotal hysterectomy. All cervical cancers were staged by the F.I.G.O. classification. Patient characteristics, methods of management, failure sites and survival of patients with carcinoma of the cervical stump were compared to those patients with carcinoma in the intact uterus. Patients with cervical stump cancers were treated in a similar manner to those with carcinomas of the intact uterus, using a combination of external beam irradiation and intracavitary radium. The stump cancer patients had a similar stage distribution to the patients with cancers of the intact uterus but, on the average, they were older and received less irradiation. The patterns of failure were similar on a stage for stage basis, but the survival and disease-free survival for stump cancer patients were superior to those of the patients with carcinoma of the intact uterus

  20. Investigating the mechanism underlying urinary continence recovery after radical prostatectomy: effectiveness of a longer urethral stump to prevent urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadono, Yoshifumi; Nohara, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Shohei; Naito, Renato; Urata, Satoko; Nakashima, Kazufumi; Iijima, Masashi; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Izumi, Kouji; Gabata, Toshifumi; Mizokami, Atsushi

    2018-02-28

    To assess the chronological changes in urinary incontinence and urethral function before and after radical prostatectomy (RP), and to compare the findings of pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after RP to evaluate the anatomical changes. In total, 185 patients were evaluated with regard to the position of the distal end of the membranous urethra (DMU) on a mid-sagittal MRI slice and urethral sphincter function using the urethral pressure profilometry. The patients also underwent an abdominal leak point pressure test before RP and at 10 days and 12 months after RP. The results were then compared with the chronological changes in urinary incontinence. The MRI results showed that the DMU shifted proximally to an average distance of 4 mm at 10 days after RP and returned to the preoperative position at 12 months after RP. Urethral sphincter function also worsened 10 days after RP, with recovery after 12 months. The residual length of the urethral stump and urinary incontinence were significantly associated with the migration length of the DMU at 10 days after RP. The residual length of the urethral stump was a significant predictor of urinary incontinence after RP. This is the first study to elucidate that the slight vertical repositioning of the membranous urethra after RP causes chronological changes in urinary incontinence. A long urethral residual stump reduces urinary incontinence after RP. © 2018 The Authors BJU International © 2018 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Self-Expandable Stenting over a Stent Graft for the Exclusion of a Carotid Stump: Troubleshooting for Device Incompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Sung Won; Kim, Ho Kyun; Do, Jin Kook; Kim, Young Whan

    2011-01-01

    Carotid stump, the blind remnant of an occluded internal carotid artery, can be a potential source of microemboli, and warrants its exclusion from the vascular lumen to prevent the recurrence of a microembolism. In a 69-year-old male with a symptomatic carotid stump and acute angle between left common carotid artery and aortic arch, a 7-Fr. shuttle sheath was scarcely placed into the left carotid artery but the 7-mm-diameter stent-graft-loading balloon could not be inserted into the 7-Fr. shuttle sheath. With the mounting a stent graft over a 5-mm balloon, the balloon-expandable stent graft was unfolded. The self-expandable stent was placed over the stent graft, and an 8-mm balloon was subsequently expanded. Self-expanding stenting can be useful for troubleshooting in a case of device incompatibility coming from the different calibers of the external and common carotid arteries for the successful exclusion of a symptomatic carotid stump.

  2. The Capability of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors to Measure Amputees’ Trans-Tibial Stump/Socket Interface Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Rafiq Mahamd Adikan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first investigation into the capability of fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors to measure interface pressure between the stump and the prosthetic sockets of a trans-tibial amputee. FBG element(s were recoated with and embedded in a thin layer of epoxy material to form a sensing pad, which was in turn embedded in a silicone polymer material to form a pressure sensor. The sensor was tested in real time by inserting a heavy-duty balloon into the socket and inflating it by using an air compressor. This test was conducted to examine the sensitivity and repeatability of the sensor when subjected to pressure from the stump of the trans-tibial amputee and to mimic the actual environment of the amputee’s Patellar Tendon (PT bar. The sensor exhibited a sensitivity of 127 pm/N and a maximum FSO hysteresis of around ~0.09 in real-time operation. Very good reliability was achieved when the sensor was utilized for in situ measurements. This study may lead to smart FBG-based amputee stump/socket structures for pressure monitoring in amputee socket systems, which will result in better-designed prosthetic sockets that ensure improved patient satisfaction.

  3. The capability of fiber Bragg grating sensors to measure amputees' trans-tibial stump/socket interface pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fakih, Ebrahim A; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu; Eshraghi, Arezoo; Adikan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd

    2013-08-12

    This study presents the first investigation into the capability of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors to measure interface pressure between the stump and the prosthetic sockets of a trans-tibial amputee. FBG element(s) were recoated with and embedded in a thin layer of epoxy material to form a sensing pad, which was in turn embedded in a silicone polymer material to form a pressure sensor. The sensor was tested in real time by inserting a heavy-duty balloon into the socket and inflating it by using an air compressor. This test was conducted to examine the sensitivity and repeatability of the sensor when subjected to pressure from the stump of the trans-tibial amputee and to mimic the actual environment of the amputee's Patellar Tendon (PT) bar. The sensor exhibited a sensitivity of 127 pm/N and a maximum FSO hysteresis of around ~0.09 in real-time operation. Very good reliability was achieved when the sensor was utilized for in situ measurements. This study may lead to smart FBG-based amputee stump/socket structures for pressure monitoring in amputee socket systems, which will result in better-designed prosthetic sockets that ensure improved patient satisfaction.

  4. Self-Expandable Stenting over a Stent Graft for the Exclusion of a Carotid Stump: Troubleshooting for Device Incompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Sung Won; Kim, Ho Kyun [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Do, Jin Kook [Dept. of Neurology, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Whan [Dept. of Radiology, University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Carotid stump, the blind remnant of an occluded internal carotid artery, can be a potential source of microemboli, and warrants its exclusion from the vascular lumen to prevent the recurrence of a microembolism. In a 69-year-old male with a symptomatic carotid stump and acute angle between left common carotid artery and aortic arch, a 7-Fr. shuttle sheath was scarcely placed into the left carotid artery but the 7-mm-diameter stent-graft-loading balloon could not be inserted into the 7-Fr. shuttle sheath. With the mounting a stent graft over a 5-mm balloon, the balloon-expandable stent graft was unfolded. The self-expandable stent was placed over the stent graft, and an 8-mm balloon was subsequently expanded. Self-expanding stenting can be useful for troubleshooting in a case of device incompatibility coming from the different calibers of the external and common carotid arteries for the successful exclusion of a symptomatic carotid stump.

  5. [Lower limb stump reconstruction with a functional calcaneo-plantar unit free flap. A series of 16 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikov, S; Dubert, T; Koupatadze, D; Nabokov, V; Polosov, R

    1999-04-01

    The main objective of surgery, once amputation is inevitable, is to preserve a functional stump. This report describes the immediate reconstruction of 16 leg stumps in children by transfer of a functional calcaneo-plantar unit. Of these, 3 were thigh and 13 were lower leg reconstructions. Amputation was performed for tumor in 4 cases, and was due to accidents in the remaining twelve. The main technical features of flap preparation are preservation of the calcaneum branch and attachment of the heel skin to the greater tuberosity of the calcaneum. One case resulted in failure due to vascular thrombosis. The other 15 cases resulted in bone consolidation after an average of 45 days, sensitive protection by 70 days, and very good trophic and protective results. The provision of good distal pressure area encourages overall development of the child. There was no morbidity at the donor site, and because there is no major muscle mass in the distal fragment, the overall risk is very low compared to that of total proximal leg replantation. The transfer of functional calcaneo-plantar tissue as a single unit is the best strategy for one-step restoration of good distal support area for the stump. All surgeons liable to perform leg amputations should be aware of this technical approach.

  6. Distribution of networks generating and coordinating locomotor activity in the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro: a lesion study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerulff, O; Kiehn, O

    1996-01-01

    The isolated spinal cord of the newborn rat contains networks that are able to create a patterned motor output resembling normal locomotor movements. In this study, we sought to localize the regions of primary importance for rhythm and pattern generation using specific mechanical lesions. We used...... ventral root recordings to monitor neuronal activity and tested the ability of various isolated parts of the caudal thoraciclumbar cord to generate rhythmic bursting in a combination of 5-HT and NMDA. In addition, pathways mediating left/right and rostrocaudal burst alternation were localized. We found......, these pathways were distributed along the lumbar enlargement. Both lateral and ventral funiculi were sufficient to coordinate activity in the rostral and caudal regions. We conclude that the networks organizing locomotor-related activity in the spinal cord of the newborn rat are distributed....

  7. Emergence of Serotonergic Neurons After Spinal Cord Injury in Turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Fabbiani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity of neural circuits takes many forms and plays a fundamental role in regulating behavior to changing demands while maintaining stability. For example, during spinal cord development neurotransmitter identity in neurons is dynamically adjusted in response to changes in the activity of spinal networks. It is reasonable to speculate that this type of plasticity might occur also in mature spinal circuits in response to injury. Because serotonergic signaling has a central role in spinal cord functions, we hypothesized that spinal cord injury (SCI in the fresh water turtle Trachemys scripta elegans may trigger homeostatic changes in serotonergic innervation. To test this possibility we performed immunohistochemistry for serotonin (5-HT and key molecules involved in the determination of the serotonergic phenotype before and after SCI. We found that as expected, in the acute phase after injury the dense serotonergic innervation was strongly reduced. However, 30 days after SCI the population of serotonergic cells (5-HT+ increased in segments caudal to the lesion site. These cells expressed the neuronal marker HuC/D and the transcription factor Nkx6.1. The new serotonergic neurons did not incorporate the thymidine analog 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU and did not express the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA indicating that novel serotonergic neurons were not newborn but post-mitotic cells that have changed their neurochemical identity. Switching towards a serotonergic neurotransmitter phenotype may be a spinal cord homeostatic mechanism to compensate for the loss of descending serotonergic neuromodulation, thereby helping the outstanding functional recovery displayed by turtles. The 5-HT1A receptor agonist (±-8-Hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT blocked the increase in 5-HT+ cells suggesting 5-HT1A receptors may trigger the respecification process.

  8. Emergence of Serotonergic Neurons After Spinal Cord Injury in Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiani, Gabriela; Rehermann, María I.; Aldecosea, Carina; Trujillo-Cenóz, Omar; Russo, Raúl E.

    2018-01-01

    Plasticity of neural circuits takes many forms and plays a fundamental role in regulating behavior to changing demands while maintaining stability. For example, during spinal cord development neurotransmitter identity in neurons is dynamically adjusted in response to changes in the activity of spinal networks. It is reasonable to speculate that this type of plasticity might occur also in mature spinal circuits in response to injury. Because serotonergic signaling has a central role in spinal cord functions, we hypothesized that spinal cord injury (SCI) in the fresh water turtle Trachemys scripta elegans may trigger homeostatic changes in serotonergic innervation. To test this possibility we performed immunohistochemistry for serotonin (5-HT) and key molecules involved in the determination of the serotonergic phenotype before and after SCI. We found that as expected, in the acute phase after injury the dense serotonergic innervation was strongly reduced. However, 30 days after SCI the population of serotonergic cells (5-HT+) increased in segments caudal to the lesion site. These cells expressed the neuronal marker HuC/D and the transcription factor Nkx6.1. The new serotonergic neurons did not incorporate the thymidine analog 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and did not express the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) indicating that novel serotonergic neurons were not newborn but post-mitotic cells that have changed their neurochemical identity. Switching towards a serotonergic neurotransmitter phenotype may be a spinal cord homeostatic mechanism to compensate for the loss of descending serotonergic neuromodulation, thereby helping the outstanding functional recovery displayed by turtles. The 5-HT1A receptor agonist (±)-8-Hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) blocked the increase in 5-HT+ cells suggesting 5-HT1A receptors may trigger the respecification process. PMID:29593503

  9. [The endo-exo prosthesis for patients with a problematic amputation stump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölke, Jan Paul M; van de Meent, Henk

    2010-01-01

    Following lower limb amputation, quality of life is highly related to the ability to use a prosthetic limb. The conventional way to attach a prosthetic limb to the body is with a socket. Many patients experience serious discomfort wearing a conventional prosthesis because of pain, instability during walking, pressure sores, bad smell or skin irritation. In addition, sitting is uncomfortable and pelvic and lower back pain due to unstable gait is often seen in these patients. The main disadvantage of the current prosthesis is the attachment of a rigid prosthesis socket to a soft and variable body. The socket must fit tightly for stability during walking but should also be comfortable for sitting. The implantation of an osseointegrated, intramedullary, transcutaneously conducted prosthesis is a new procedure for attaching a limb prosthesis to the human body without the disadvantages of the conventional prosthesis. The intramedullary prosthesis is designed with a rough surface resembling cancellous bone to enable a secure solid integration with the long bone. We treated two patients with this new prosthesis, a 44-year-old man after a transfemoral amputation, and a 32-year-old woman after a lower leg amputation; both amputations were necessary because of trauma. Those two patients are now, more than one year after the operation, showing excellent functional results without infectious complications. We assume that endo-exo prosthesis may be a promising option for selected patients unable to use a conventional prosthesis because of a problematic amputation stump.

  10. Arterial Stump Thrombosis after Lung Resection Surgery: Clinical Presentation, Treatment and Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Padilla, Daniel; Peghini Gavilanes, Esteban; Revilla Ostolaza, Teresa Yolanda; Trujillo, María Dolores; Martínez Serna, Iván; Arenas Valls, Nuria; Girón Matute, Walther Iván; Larrosa-Barrero, Roberto; Manrique Mutiozabal, Adriana; Pérez Gallán, Marta; Zevallos, Annette; Sayas Catalán, Javier

    2016-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of arterial stump thrombosis (AST) after pulmonary resection surgery for lung cancer and to describe subsequent radiological follow-up and treatment. Observational, descriptive study of AST detected by computerized tomography angiography (CT) using intravenous contrast. Clinical and radiological variables were compared and a survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier curves was performed after dividing patients into 3 groups: patients with AST, patients with pulmonary embolism (PE), and patients without AST or PE. Nine cases of AST were detected after a total of 473 surgeries (1.9%), 6 of them in right-sided surgeries (67% of AST cases). Median time to detection after surgery was 11.3 months (interquartile range 2.7-42.2 months), and range 67.5 months (1.4-69.0 months). Statistically significant differences were found only in the number of CTs performed in AST patients compared to those without AST or PE, and in tumor recurrence in PE patients compared to the other 2 groups. No differences were found in baseline or oncological characteristics, nor in the survival analysis. In this series, AST prevalence was low and tended to occur in right-sided surgeries. Detection over time was variable, and unrelated to risk factors previous to surgery, histopathology, and tumor stage or recurrence. AST had no impact on patient survival. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioimpedance system for monitoring muscle and cardiovascular activity in the stump of lower-limb amputees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornero, G; Díaz, D; Casas, O

    2013-01-01

    A bioimpedance system for the continuous measurement of non-invasive physiological parameters in lower-limb amputees is presented. The aim of the system is to monitor as many physiological parameters as possible from a single bioimpedance electrode configuration. In this way, a simple, low-cost and low-size autonomous system is developed that is able to continuously monitor the amputee in different environments (home, work, etc). The system measures both electrical impedance myography and electrical impedance plethysmography in the stump with electrodes placed in the inside face of a silicone interface. Such a system allows for the monitoring of a patient's muscle activity, and heart and breath rate, thus enabling the study and continuous monitoring of prosthesis adaptation and improvement of patient's gait to reduce physiological stress. Additionally, it can prevent cardiovascular problems due to the effort involved in the use of prostheses, which can decrease the life expectancy of amputees with previous vascular diseases. Experimental results obtained from different amputees' test validate the purpose of the system. (paper)

  12. Marginal artery stump pressure in left colic artery-preserving rectal cancer surgery: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuchen; Wang, Daguang; He, Liang; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Shishun; Zhang, Luyao; Sun, Xuan; Suo, Jian

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this clinical trial is to evaluate the influence of high and low ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery with apical lymph node dissection on the anastomotic blood supply, lymph node retrieval rate, operative time and anastomotic leakage rate in rectal cancer surgery. A total of 57 Chinese patients were randomly distributed into group A and group B and underwent radical resection of rectal cancer. Patients in group A underwent high ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery, and patients in group B underwent apical lymph node resection around the root of the inferior mesenteric artery with preservation of the left colic artery. The marginal artery stump pressure was measured after colon and artery reconstruction. Systemic pressure, distal colon length, operative time and lymph node retrieval rate were measured and recorded. The results were analysed and related to patient characteristics and post-operative complications. The anastomotic blood supply negatively and linearly correlated with age and distal colon length and showed a positive linear correlation with systemic pressure. Patients who received low ligation with apical lymph node dissection had a better anastomotic blood supply than those who received high ligation. No differences were found in lymph node retrieval rate, operative time and anastomotic leakage rate. Anastomotic leakage was associated with a worse anastomotic blood supply. Low ligation with apical lymph node dissection in rectal cancer treatment provides better anastomotic blood supply but is not associated with differences in node retrieval rate or operation time. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  13. Feature Selection with Conjunctions of Decision Stumps and Learning from Microarray Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M; Marchand, M; Corbeil, J

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of designing feature selection learning algorithms is to obtain classifiers that depend on a small number of attributes and have verifiable future performance guarantees. There are few, if any, approaches that successfully address the two goals simultaneously. To the best of our knowledge, such algorithms that give theoretical bounds on the future performance have not been proposed so far in the context of the classification of gene expression data. In this work, we investigate the premise of learning a conjunction (or disjunction) of decision stumps in Occam's Razor, Sample Compression, and PAC-Bayes learning settings for identifying a small subset of attributes that can be used to perform reliable classification tasks. We apply the proposed approaches for gene identification from DNA microarray data and compare our results to those of the well-known successful approaches proposed for the task. We show that our algorithm not only finds hypotheses with a much smaller number of genes while giving competitive classification accuracy but also having tight risk guarantees on future performance, unlike other approaches. The proposed approaches are general and extensible in terms of both designing novel algorithms and application to other domains.

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About ... Your email address * This iframe contains the logic required to ...

  15. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  16. Spinal CT scan, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    Methods of CT of the cervical and thoracic spines were explained, and normal CT pictures of them were described. Spinal CT was evaluated in comparison with other methods in various spinal diseases. Plain CT revealed stenosis due to spondylosis or ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament and hernia of intervertebral disc. CT took an important role in the diagnosis of spinal cord tumors with calcification and destruction of the bone. CT scan in combination with other methods was also useful for the diagnosis of spinal injuries, congenital anomalies and infections. (Ueda, J.)

  17. MULTIPLE SPINAL CANAL MENINGIOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandigama Pratap Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Meningiomas of the spinal canal are common tumours with the incidence of 25 percent of all spinal cord tumours. But multiple spinal canal meningiomas are rare in compare to solitary lesions and account for 2 to 3.5% of all spinal meningiomas. Most of the reported cases are both intra cranial and spinal. Exclusive involvement of the spinal canal by multiple meningiomas are very rare. We could find only sixteen cases in the literature to the best of our knowledge. Exclusive multiple spinal canal meningiomas occurring in the first two decades of life are seldom reported in the literature. We are presenting a case of multiple spinal canal meningiomas in a young patient of 17 years, who was earlier operated for single lesion. We analysed the literature, with illustration of our case. MATERIALS AND METHODS In September 2016, we performed a literature search for multiple spinal canal meningiomas involving exclusively the spinal canal with no limitation for language and publication date. The search was conducted through http://pubmed.com, a wellknown worldwide internet medical address. To the best of our knowledge, we could find only sixteen cases of multiple meningiomas exclusively confined to the spinal canal. Exclusive multiple spinal canal meningiomas occurring in the first two decades of life are seldom reported in the literature. We are presenting a case of multiple spinal canal meningiomas in a young patient of 17 years, who was earlier operated for solitary intradural extra medullary spinal canal meningioma at D4-D6 level, again presented with spastic quadriparesis of two years duration and MRI whole spine demonstrated multiple intradural extra medullary lesions, which were excised completely and the histopathological diagnosis was transitional meningioma. RESULTS Patient recovered from his weakness and sensory symptoms gradually and bladder and bowel symptoms improved gradually over a period of two to three weeks. CONCLUSION Multiple

  18. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  19. Postoperative analgesia in children when using clonidine or fentanyl with ropivacaine given caudally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of clonidine and fentanyl as an additive to ropivacaine given via single shot caudal epidural in pediatric patients for postoperative pain relief. Materials and Methods: In the present double blind study, 90 children of ASA-I-II aged 3-8 years scheduled for infraumblical surgical procedures were randomly allocated to two groups to receive either ropivacaine 0.25% 1 ml/kg+clonidine 2 μg/kg (group I or ropivacaine 0.25% 1 μl/kg+fentanyl 1 μg/kg (group II. Caudal block was performed after the induction of general anesthesia. Postoperatively patients were observed for analgesia, sedation, hemodynamics, and side effects/complications. Results: Both the groups were similar with respect to patient and various block characteristics. The analgesic properties and hemodynamics were also comparable in both groups (P > 0.05. Side effects such as respiratory depression, vomiting bradycardia were significantly less in group I than group II (P < 0.05 ensuing more patient comfort. Conclusions: The analgesic properties of clonidine and fentanyl as additives to ropivacaine in single shot caudal epidural in children are comparable but clonidine offers a more favorable side effect profile. The use of clonidine as additive to ropivacaine in caudal epidural is superior choice to fentanyl because of lack of unwanted side effects and increased patient comfort.

  20. Caudal regulates the spatiotemporal dynamics of pair-rule waves in Tribolium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat El-Sherif

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short-germ beetle Tribolium castaneum, waves of pair-rule gene expression propagate from the posterior end of the embryo towards the anterior and eventually freeze into stable stripes, partitioning the anterior-posterior axis into segments. Similar waves in vertebrates are assumed to arise due to the modulation of a molecular clock by a posterior-to-anterior frequency gradient. However, neither a molecular candidate nor a functional role has been identified to date for such a frequency gradient, either in vertebrates or elsewhere. Here we provide evidence that the posterior gradient of Tc-caudal expression regulates the oscillation frequency of pair-rule gene expression in Tribolium. We show this by analyzing the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in strong and mild knockdown of Tc-caudal, and by correlating the extension, level and slope of the Tc-caudal expression gradient to the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in wild type as well as in different RNAi knockdowns of Tc-caudal regulators. Further, we show that besides its absolute importance for stripe generation in the static phase of the Tribolium blastoderm, a frequency gradient might serve as a buffer against noise during axis elongation phase in Tribolium as well as vertebrates. Our results highlight the role of frequency gradients in pattern formation.

  1. Evaluation of gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava in clinically normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, John T; Fossum, Theresa W; Bahr, Anne M; Miller, Matthew W; Edwards, John F

    2003-11-01

    To devise a technique for gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava in dogs and determine effects of complete occlusion of the caudal vena cava. 8 mixed-breed hounds that weighed between 25 and 30 kg. Baseline evaluation of dogs included serum biochemical analyses and determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with dynamic renal scintigraphy and plasma clearance analysis. An occluder was placed around the vena cava in the region cranial to the renal veins. The occluder was attached to a vascular access port. The vena cava was gradually occluded over 2 weeks. The GFR was measured every 2 weeks after surgery, and venograms were performed every 3 weeks after surgery. Blood samples were collected every 48 hours for the first week and then weekly thereafter to measure BUN and creatinine concentrations and activities of alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine kinase. Dogs were euthanatized 6 weeks after surgery, and tissues were submitted for histologic examination. The GFR and biochemical data were compared with baseline values. Gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava was easily and consistently performed with this method, and adverse clinical signs were not detected. Formation of collateral vessels allowed overall GFR to remain constant despite a decrease in function of the left kidney. Measured biochemical values did not deviate from reference ranges. Gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava may allow removal of adrenal gland tumors with vascular invasion that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to resect.

  2. Comparison of dysphagia outcomes between rostral and caudal lateral medullary infarct patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Min Ho; Kim, Daeha; Chang, Min Cheol

    2017-11-01

    A detailed knowledge of dysphagia outcomes in lateral medullary infarct (LMI) patients would enable proper establishment of swallowing therapy goals and strategies. However, little is known about the impact of infarct location on dysphagia outcomes in patients with LMI. Twenty patients with rostral LMI (rostral group) and 20 patients with caudal LMI (caudal group) participated in the study. All patients underwent swallowing therapy, which included compensatory treatments and strengthening exercises, for >3 months. Dysphagia evaluation was performed twice (during the subacute stage and six months after stroke onset) using videofluoroscopic swallowing studies. Dysphagia degree was assessed using the functional dysphagia scale (FDS), the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) and the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) National Outcome Measurement System (NOMS) swallowing scale. In the subacute stage, the rostral group had significantly higher FDS and PAS scores and a significantly lower ASHA NOMS score than the caudal group. Patients from both groups showed significant improvement from the initial evaluation to the six-month evaluation. There were no significant differences in these scale scores between the two groups at the six-month evaluation. In the subacute stage, patients in the rostral group had more severe dysphagia than those in the caudal group. Dysphagia improved in both groups after 3-6 months of swallowing therapy. At six months after onset, there were no significant differences in dysphagia severity between the two groups. Recovery from dysphagia after LMI was observed regardless of the infarct location.

  3. Caudal regression with sirenomelia and dysplasia renofacialis (Potter's syndrome)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noeldge, G.; Billmann, P.; Boehm, N.

    1982-05-01

    A case of caudal regression in combination with sirenomelia and dysplasia renofacialis (Potter's syndrome) is reported. The formal pathogenesis of these malformations and clinical facts are shown and discussed. Findings of plain films, postmortal angiography and pathologic-anatomical changes are demonstrated.

  4. Caudal venous return through a left azygos vein in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammarco, C.D.; Regan, J.; Ward, C.R.; Buchanan, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Clinical, radiologic and echocardiographic findings in a one-year old dog with mild subvalvular aortic stenosis and aberrant caudal vena circulation are described. Aberrant systemic venous return to the right side of the heart usually has little clinical significance, but the unusual features in survey radiographs, contrast angiograms and contrast echocardiograms constitute the reasons for this report

  5. Quantitative analysis of neurological effects induced by cranio-caudal gamma-irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, B.I.; Ushakov, I.B.; Karpov, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made of the frequency and duration of neurological disorders after cranio-caudal irradiation of rats with doses of 7.5-500 Gy delivered to the head. As the mean effective dose increased the neurological disorders occurred in the following order: tremor, rotatory movements hyperkinesia, opisthotonos, and convulsions. The europhysiological disorders observed were subjected to a pathophysiological analysis

  6. A Late Cretaceous theropod caudal vertebra from the Sultanate of Oman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Hanna, Samir S.; Hartman, Axel Frans; Jagt, John W M

    2000-01-01

    A caudal vertebra collected from conglomerates of the Al-Khod Formation (Late Cretaceous) in the Al-Khod area, Sultanate of Oman, is assigned to a medium-sized theropod dinosaur. The Al-Khod discovery represents one of the very few dinosaur records from the Middle East.

  7. GATA-3 is involved in the development of serotonergic neurons in the caudal raphe nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Wees (Jacqueline); A. Karis (Alar); E. Goedknegt; M. Rutteman; F.G. Grosveld (Frank); J.H. van Doorninck (Hikke); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The GATA-3 transcription factor shows a specific and restricted expression pattern in the developing and adult mouse brain. In the present study we investigated the role of GATA-3 in the caudal raphe system, which is known to operate as a modulator of motor activity. We

  8. Effect of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy: multicentre, blinded, randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Trond; Solberg, Tore K; Romner, Bertil

    2011-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy in the short (6 weeks), intermediate (12 weeks), and long term (52 weeks).......To assess the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy in the short (6 weeks), intermediate (12 weeks), and long term (52 weeks)....

  9. Comparison of caudal ropivacaine-morphine and paravertebral catheter for major upper abdominal surgery in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Makoto; Iida, Takafumi; Kikuchi, Chika; Sasakawa, Tomoki; Kunisawa, Takayuki

    2017-05-01

    The caudal epidural block is one of the most commonly used regional anesthetic techniques in children. Administration of morphine via caudal injection enables analgesia, even for upper abdominal surgery. The thoracic paravertebral block has also been successfully used to treat perioperative pain during upper abdominal procedures in pediatric patients. In the current study, we compared the two regional techniques for upper abdominal surgery in infants to determine whether one of them was preferable to the other. Consecutive patients under 12 months of age who underwent upper abdominal surgery were retrospectively divided according to the chosen postoperative analgesia: Group C, caudal ropivacaine-morphine; Group P, paravertebral catheter. We analyzed the following outcomes: requirement for additional analgesics, pain scores, need for mechanical ventilation and oxygen dosage, postoperative blood pressure and heart rate, time to pass first stool, time until first full meal, and complications. Twenty-one consecutive patients were included: 10 in Group C and 11 in Group P. Median age at surgery was 80 (47.5-270.0) and 84.5 (34.3-287.5) days, respectively. No difference was found between the two groups in requirement for additional analgesics at 24 h after surgery (median 1 in Group C vs 1 in Group P, P = 0.288, 95% CI: -2 to 1). BOPS pain scores were only lower in Group P when compared to Group C at 24 h after surgery (median 1 vs 2, P = 0.041, 95% CI: -2 to 0). None of the patients had perioperative complications. In this small series, there was no significant difference between caudal ropivacaine-morphine and paravertebral catheter for postoperative care in infants undergoing upper abdominal surgery. Further prospective studies are needed to compare the efficacy and incidence of complications of caudal block and paravertebral catheter for postoperative analgesia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Sensory nerve conduction in the caudal nerves of rats with diabetes Condução nervosa sensorial no nervo caudal de ratos com diabetes experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Cordeiro de Carvalho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate sensory nerve conduction of the caudal nerve in normal and diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in twenty 8-weeks old Wistar male rats. Twenty normal rats served as controls. Caudal nerve conduction studies were made before diabetes induction and the end of each week for six consecutive weeks. The caudal nerve was stimulated distally and nerve potentials were recorded proximally on the animal's tail using common "alligator" clips as surface electrodes. RESULTS: After induction, nerve conduction velocities (NCV increased slower in the diabetic than in the control group. Sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP conduction velocities increased slower in the diabetic than in the control group (slope of regression line: 0.5 vs 1.3m/s per week; NCV in the 15th week = 39±3m/s vs 44±4m/s. Tukey's tests showed differences between groups at the 11th, 13th and 15th weeks old. From the 10th week on, SNAP amplitudes increased faster in the diabetic than in the control group (slopes of the regression line: 10 vs 8µV per week; SNAP amplitudes in the 15th week: 107±23µV vs 85±13µV. Differences at the 12th, 13th and 15th weeks were significant. CONCLUSION: In diabetic rats nerve conduction velocities were slower whereas amplitudes were larger than in normal rats.OBJETIVO: Investigar a condução nervosa sensorial do nervo caudal em ratos normais e diabéticos. MÉTODOS: O diabetes foi induzido em vinte ratos Wistar com idade de oito semanas. Vinte ratos serviram como controle. Os estudos da condução do nervo caudal foram feitos antes da indução do diabetes e ao final de cada semana, durante seis semanas consecutivas. O nervo caudal foi estimulado distalmente e potenciais foram registrados proximalmente na cauda do animal, usando clipes comuns "jacaré" como eletrodos de superfície. RESULTADOS: Após a indução, a velocidade de condução nervosa (VCN aumentou mais lentamente no grupo diabético que no controle

  11. Guiding Device for Precision Grafting of Peripheral Nerves in Complete Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury: Design and Sizing for Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid Frostell

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn an effort to translate preclinical success in achieving spinal cord regeneration through peripheral nerve grafts, this study details the design and sizing of a guiding device for precision grafting of peripheral nerves for use in a clinical trial in complete (AIS-A thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI. The device’s design and sizing are compared to a simulation of human spinal cord sizes based on the best available data.MethodsSpinal cord segmental sizes were generated by computer simulation based on data from a meta-analysis recently published by our group. Thoracic segments T2–T12 were plotted, and seven elliptical shapes were positioned across the center of the distribution of sizes. Geometrical measures of error-of-fit were calculated. CAD modeling was used to create cranial and caudal interfaces for the human spinal cord, aiming to guide descending white matter tracts to gray matter at the caudal end of the device and ascending white matter tracts to gray matter at the cranial end of the device. The interfaces were compared qualitatively to the simulated spinal cord sizes and gray-to-white matter delineations.ResultsThe mean error-of-fit comparing simulated spinal cord segments T2–T12 to the best elliptical shape was 0.41 and 0.36 mm, and the 95th percentile was found at 1.3 and 0.98 mm for transverse and anteroposterior diameter, respectively. A guiding device design was reached for capturing the majority of corticospinal axons at the cranial end of the device and guiding them obliquely to gray matter at the caudal end of the device. Based on qualitative comparison, the vast majority of spinal cord sizes generated indicate an excellent fit to the device’s interfaces.ConclusionA set of SCI guiding devices of seven sizes can cover the variability of human thoracic spinal cord segments T2–T12 with an acceptable error-of-fit for the elliptical shape as well as guiding channels. The computational framework developed can

  12. Changes in galanin immunoreactivity in rat lumbosacral spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvarova, K; Murray, E; Vizzard, M A

    2004-08-02

    Alterations in the expression of the neuropeptide galanin were examined in micturition reflex pathways 6 weeks after complete spinal cord transection (T8). In control animals, galanin expression was present in specific regions of the gray matter in the rostral lumbar and caudal lumbosacral spinal cord, including: (1) the dorsal commissure; (2) the superficial dorsal horn; (3) the regions of the intermediolateral cell column (L1-L2) and the sacral parasympathetic nucleus (L6-S1); and (4) the lateral collateral pathway in lumbosacral spinal segments. Densitometry analysis demonstrated significant increases (P < or = 0.001) in galanin immunoreactivity (IR) in these regions of the S1 spinal cord after spinal cord injury (SCI). Changes in galanin-IR were not observed at the L4-L6 segments except for an increase in galanin-IR in the dorsal commissure in the L4 segment. In contrast, decreases in galanin-IR were observed in the L1 segment. The number of galanin-IR cells increased (P < or = 0.001) in the L1 and S1 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after SCI. In all DRG examined (L1, L2, L6, and S1), the percentage of bladder afferent cells expressing galanin-IR significantly increased (4-19-fold) after chronic SCI. In contrast, galanin expression in nerve fibers in the urinary bladder detrusor and urothelium was decreased or eliminated after SCI. Expression of the neurotrophic factors nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was altered in the spinal cord after SCI. A significant increase in BDNF expression was present in spinal cord segments after SCI. In contrast, NGF expression was only increased in the spinal segments adjacent and rostral to the transection site (T7-T8), whereas spinal segments (T13-L1; L6-S1), distal to the transection site exhibited decreased NGF expression. Changes in galanin expression in micturition pathways after SCI may be mediated by changing neurotrophic factor expression, particularly BDNF. These changes may contribute to

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a ...

  14. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C.; Czech, T.; Diekmann, K.; Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A.; Prayer, D.

    2004-01-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Guy W. Fried, MD Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How ... arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  17. Lumbar spinal stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønne, Greger; Fritzell, Peter; Hägg, Olle

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Decompression surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is the most common spinal procedure in the elderly. To avoid persisting low back pain, adding arthrodesis has been recommended, especially if there is a coexisting degenerative spondylolisthesis. However, this strategy remains con...

  18. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  19. Speech-like orofacial oscillations in stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides) facial and vocal signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Aru; Maruhashi, Tamaki; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Koda, Hiroki

    2017-10-01

    Speech is unique to humans and characterized by facial actions of ∼5 Hz oscillations of lip, mouth or jaw movements. Lip-smacking, a facial display of primates characterized by oscillatory actions involving the vertical opening and closing of the jaw and lips, exhibits stable 5-Hz oscillation patterns, matching that of speech, suggesting that lip-smacking is a precursor of speech. We tested if facial or vocal actions exhibiting the same rate of oscillation are found in wide forms of facial or vocal displays in various social contexts, exhibiting diversity among species. We observed facial and vocal actions of wild stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides), and selected video clips including facial displays (teeth chattering; TC), panting calls, and feeding. Ten open-to-open mouth durations during TC and feeding and five amplitude peak-to-peak durations in panting were analyzed. Facial display (TC) and vocalization (panting) oscillated within 5.74 ± 1.19 and 6.71 ± 2.91 Hz, respectively, similar to the reported lip-smacking of long-tailed macaques and the speech of humans. These results indicated a common mechanism for the central pattern generator underlying orofacial movements, which would evolve to speech. Similar oscillations in panting, which evolved from different muscular control than the orofacial action, suggested the sensory foundations for perceptual saliency particular to 5-Hz rhythms in macaques. This supports the pre-adaptation hypothesis of speech evolution, which states a central pattern generator for 5-Hz facial oscillation and perceptual background tuned to 5-Hz actions existed in common ancestors of macaques and humans, before the emergence of speech. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. On the paleoenvironmental potential of 253 newly discovered pine stumps from Zurich, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinig, Frederick; Nievergelt, Daniel; Esper, Jan; Friedrich, Michael; Helle, Gerhard; Hellmann, Lena; Kromer, Bernd; Morganti, Sandro; Pauly, Maren; Sookdeo, Adam; Tegel, Willy; Treydte, Kerstin; Wacker, Lukas; Büntgen, Ulf

    2017-04-01

    The transition from the last Ice Age to the early Holocene 15'000-10'000 BP represents a close natural analog to the ongoing and predicted rates of anthropogenic climate change. A reduced quality and quantity of high-resolution proxy archives during this period, however, limits our understanding of the magnitude and pace of Late Glacial (LG) environmental variability. Here, we present the world's best preserved, most replicated and oldest forest remains: A total of 253 subfossil pine stumps were recently discovered in Zurich. The combined approach of tree-ring and radiocarbon (14C) measurements results in an absolutely dated Preboreal Swiss tree-ring width chronology and eight floating chronologies. With tree ages ranging between 41 and 506 years, often including pith and bark, and a mean segment length of 163 years, this exceptional find is distributed over nearly 2'000 years between the Allerød and the Preboreal. Together with 200 previously collected LG pines from the greater Zurich region, this study sets a benchmark in terms of sample replication and dating precision for stable more dynamic climatic periods such as the Laacher See eruption, the Older and Younger Dryas. The paleoenvironmental significance would even increase when annually resolved 14C-measurements help fixing a major, Northern Hemispheric gap in the absolutely dated dendro time series during the Younger Dryas. While overcoming this interlude, our results further emphasize the importance of interdisciplinary research on these striking LG climatic shifts to better understand and assess their ecological and environmental impact.

  1. Chronic spinal subdural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, T.; Lensch, T.

    2008-01-01

    Compared with spinal epidural hematomas, spinal subdural hematomas are rare; chronic forms are even more uncommon. These hematomas are associated not only with lumbar puncture and spinal trauma, but also with coagulopathies, vascular malformations and tumors. Compression of the spinal cord and the cauda equina means that the patients develop increasing back or radicular pain, followed by paraparesis and bladder and bowel paralysis, so that in most cases surgical decompression is carried out. On magnetic resonance imaging these hematomas present as thoracic or lumbar subdural masses, their signal intensity varying with the age of the hematoma. We report the clinical course and the findings revealed by imaging that led to the diagnosis in three cases of chronic spinal subdural hematoma. (orig.) [de

  2. Edaravone combined with Schwann cell transplantation may repair spinal cord injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-quan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Edaravone has been shown to delay neuronal apoptosis, thereby improving nerve function and the microenvironment after spinal cord injury. Edaravone can provide a favorable environment for the treatment of spinal cord injury using Schwann cell transplantation. This study used rat models of complete spinal cord transection at T 9. Six hours later, Schwann cells were transplanted in the head and tail ends of the injury site. Simultaneously, edaravone was injected through the caudal vein. Eight weeks later, the PKH-26-labeled Schwann cells had survived and migrated to the center of the spinal cord injury region in rats after combined treatment with edaravone and Schwann cells. Moreover, the number of PKH-26-labeled Schwann cells in the rat spinal cord was more than that in rats undergoing Schwann cell transplantation alone or rats without any treatment. Horseradish peroxidase retrograde tracing revealed that the number of horseradish peroxidase-positive nerve fibers was greater in rats treated with edaravone combined withSchwann cells than in rats with Schwann cell transplantation alone. The results demonstrated that lower extremity motor function and neurophysiological function were better in rats treated with edaravone and Schwann cells than in rats with Schwann cell transplantation only. These data confirmed that Schwann cell transplantation combined with edaravone injection promoted the regeneration of nerve fibers of rats with spinal cord injury and improved neurological function.

  3. Ecomorphological inferences in early vertebrates: reconstructing Dunkleosteus terrelli (Arthrodira, Placodermi) caudal fin from palaeoecological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrón, Humberto G; Martínez-Pérez, Carlos; Botella, Héctor

    2017-01-01

    Our knowledge about the body morphology of many extinct early vertebrates is very limited, especially in regard to their post-thoracic region. The prompt disarticulation of the dermo-skeletal elements due to taphonomic processes and the lack of a well-ossified endoskeleton in a large number of groups hinder the preservation of complete specimens. Previous reconstructions of most early vertebrates known from partial remains have been wholly based on phylogenetically closely related taxa. However, body design of fishes is determined, to a large extent, by their swimming mode and feeding niche, making it possible to recognise different morphological traits that have evolved several times in non-closely related groups with similar lifestyles. Based on this well-known ecomorphological correlation, here we propose a useful comparative framework established on extant taxa for predicting some anatomical aspects in extinct aquatic vertebrates from palaeoecological data and vice versa. For this, we have assessed the relationship between the locomotory patterns and the morphological variability of the caudal region in extant sharks by means of geometric morphometrics and allometric regression analysis. Multivariate analyses reveal a strong morphological convergence in non-closely related shark species that share similar modes of life, enabling the characterization of the caudal fin morphology of different ecological subgroups. In addition, interspecific positive allometry, affecting mainly the caudal fin span, has been detected. This phenomenon seems to be stronger in sharks with more pelagic habits, supporting its role as a compensation mechanism for the loss of hydrodynamic lift associated with the increase in body size, as previously suggested for many other living and extinct aquatic vertebrates. The quantification of shape change per unit size in each ecological subgroup has allowed us to establish a basis for inferring not only qualitative aspects of the caudal fin

  4. Ecomorphological inferences in early vertebrates: reconstructing Dunkleosteus terrelli (Arthrodira, Placodermi caudal fin from palaeoecological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto G. Ferrón

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge about the body morphology of many extinct early vertebrates is very limited, especially in regard to their post-thoracic region. The prompt disarticulation of the dermo-skeletal elements due to taphonomic processes and the lack of a well-ossified endoskeleton in a large number of groups hinder the preservation of complete specimens. Previous reconstructions of most early vertebrates known from partial remains have been wholly based on phylogenetically closely related taxa. However, body design of fishes is determined, to a large extent, by their swimming mode and feeding niche, making it possible to recognise different morphological traits that have evolved several times in non-closely related groups with similar lifestyles. Based on this well-known ecomorphological correlation, here we propose a useful comparative framework established on extant taxa for predicting some anatomical aspects in extinct aquatic vertebrates from palaeoecological data and vice versa. For this, we have assessed the relationship between the locomotory patterns and the morphological variability of the caudal region in extant sharks by means of geometric morphometrics and allometric regression analysis. Multivariate analyses reveal a strong morphological convergence in non-closely related shark species that share similar modes of life, enabling the characterization of the caudal fin morphology of different ecological subgroups. In addition, interspecific positive allometry, affecting mainly the caudal fin span, has been detected. This phenomenon seems to be stronger in sharks with more pelagic habits, supporting its role as a compensation mechanism for the loss of hydrodynamic lift associated with the increase in body size, as previously suggested for many other living and extinct aquatic vertebrates. The quantification of shape change per unit size in each ecological subgroup has allowed us to establish a basis for inferring not only qualitative aspects of

  5. Age-Related Uptake of Heavy Metals in Human Spinal Interneurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Pamphlett

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals have been implicated in the loss of spinal motoneurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND. Motoneuron loss in the spinal anterior horn is severe in ALS/MND at the time of death, making this tissue unsuitable for examination. We therefore examined spinal cords of people without muscle weakness to look for any presence of heavy metals that could make these neurons susceptible to damage. Spinal cord samples from 50 individuals aged 1-95 y who had no clinical or histopathological evidence of spinal motoneuron loss were studied. Seven μm formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained for heavy metals with silver nitrate autometallography (AMGHM which detects intracellular mercury, silver or bismuth. Neurons in the spinal cord were classified as interneurons or α-motoneurons based on their site and cell body diameter. Spinal interneurons containing heavy metals were present in 8 of 24 people (33% aged 61-95 y, but not at younger ages. These AMGHM interneurons were most numerous in the lumbar spinal cord, with moderate numbers in the caudal cervical cord, few in the rostral cervical cord, and almost none in the thoracic cord. All people with AMGHM interneurons had occasional AMGHM staining in α-motoneurons as well. In one man AMGHM staining was present in addition in dorsomedial nucleus and sensory neurons. In conclusion, heavy metals are present in many spinal interneurons, and in a few α-motoneurons, in a large proportion of older people. Damage to inhibitory interneurons from toxic metals in later life could result in excitotoxic injury to motoneurons and may underlie motoneuron injury or loss in conditions such as ALS/MND, multiple sclerosis, sarcopenia and calf fasciculations.

  6. Nuclear magnetic imaging for MTRA. Spinal canal and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsch, Dominik; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus

    2011-01-01

    The booklet covers the following topics: (1) Clinical indications for NMR imaging of spinal cord and spinal canal; (2) Methodic requirements: magnets and coils, image processing, contrast media: (3) Examination technology: examination conditions, sequences, examination protocols; (4) Disease pattern and indications: diseases of the myelin, the spinal nerves and the spinal canal (infections, tumors, injuries, ischemia and bleedings, malformations); diseases of the spinal cord and the intervertebral disks (degenerative changes, infections, injuries, tumors, malformations).

  7. Evaluation of Anesthesia Profile in Pediatric Patients after Inguinal Hernia Repair with Caudal Block or Local Wound Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilovska-Brzanov, Aleksandra; Kuzmanovska, Biljana; Kartalov, Andrijan; Donev, Ljupco; Lleshi, Albert; Jovanovski-Srceva, Marija; Spirovska, Tatjana; Brzanov, Nikola; Simeonov, Risto

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate anesthesia and recovery profile in pediatric patients after inguinal hernia repair with caudal block or local wound infiltration. In this prospective interventional clinical study, the anesthesia and recovery profile was assessed in sixty pediatric patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair. Enrolled children were randomly assigned to either Group Caudal or Group Local infiltration. For caudal blocks, Caudal Group received 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine; Local Infiltration Group received 0.2 ml/kg 0.25% bupivacaine. Investigator who was blinded to group allocation provided postoperative care and assessments. Postoperative pain was assessed. Motor functions and sedation were assessed as well. The two groups did not differ in terms of patient characteristic data and surgical profiles and there weren't any hemodynamic changes between groups. Regarding the difference between groups for analgesic requirement there were two major points - on one hand it was statistically significant p < 0.05 whereas on the other hand time to first analgesic administration was not statistically significant p = 0.40. There were significant differences in the incidence of adverse effects in caudal and local group including: vomiting, delirium and urinary retention. Between children undergoing inguinal hernia repair, local wound infiltration insures safety and satisfactory analgesia for surgery. Compared to caudal block it is not overwhelming. Caudal block provides longer analgesia, however complications are rather common.

  8. [Vacuum sealing drainage combined with free skin graft in repairing cutaneous deficiency of traumatic shank amputation stump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-fei; Li, Chun-you; Jin, Guo-qiang; Ming, Xiao-feng; Wang, Guo-jie

    2014-12-01

    To observe clinical efficacy in treating cutaneous deficiency of traumatic shank amputation stump with full-thickness skin graft combined with vacuum sealing drainage. From September 2009 to December 2012, 15 patients with cutaneous deficiency of traumatic shank amputation stump were treated with full-thickness skin graft combined with vacuum sealing drainage. Among patients, there were 11 males and 4 females with an average age of 41.5 (ranged from 25 to 62) years old. Ten cases were caused by traffic accident and 5 cases were caused by heavy object, 9 cases on left and 6 cases on right. Six patients with smashed wound were treated with debridement and amputation, combined with vacuum aspiration in-emergency; 9 patients caused by infection and necrosis were treated with debridement and amputation, combined with vacuum aspiration, and full-thickness skin graft were performed at stage II. The skin defect area of residual limbs ranged from 40 cm x 20 cm to 25 cm x 15 cm. All patients were followed up from 3 months to 1 year. Full-thickness skin graft of residual limbs were survived,and obtained satisfactory walking function with prosthetic. Residual skin increased thicken, wearproof without rupture and pain. Full-thickness skin graft combined with vacuum sealing drainage in treating cutaneous deficiency of traumatic shank amputation stump could reserve the length of residual limbs, increase survival rate of skin graft with less scar of survival skin, get good wearability and it is conducive to prosthetic wear. It is a simple and easy treatment method.

  9. Pancreatic stump closure using only stapler is associated with high postoperative fistula rate after minimal invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Adem; Bostancı, Erdal Birol; Çolakoğlu, Muhammet Kadri; Ulaş, Murat; Özer, İlter; Karaman, Kerem; Akoğlu, Musa

    2018-03-01

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality after distal pancreatectomy (DP). The aim of the present study is to determine the risk factors that can lead to POPF. The study was conducted between January 2008 and December 2012. A total of 96 patients who underwent DP were retrospectively analyzed. Overall, 24 patients (25%) underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) and 72 patients (75%) open surgery. The overall morbidity rate was 51% (49/96). POPF (32/96, 33.3%) was the most common postoperative complication. Grade B fistula (18/32, 56.2%) was the most common fistula type according to the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula definition. POPF rate was significantly higher in the minimally invasive surgery group (50%, p=0.046). POPF rate was 58.6% (17/29) in patients whose pancreatic stump closure was performed with only stapler, whereas POPF rate was 3.6% (1/28) in the group where the stump was closed with stapler plus oversewing sutures. Both minimally invasive surgery (OR: 0.286, 95% CI: 0.106-0.776, p=0.014) and intraoperative blood transfusion (OR: 4.210, 95% CI: 1.155-15.354, p=0.029) were detected as independent risk factors for POPF in multi-variety analysis. LDP is associated with a higher risk of POPF when stump closure is performed with only staplers. Intraoperative blood transfusion is another risk factor for POPF. On the other hand, oversewing sutures to the stapler line reduces the risk of POPF.

  10. Regeneration of descending spinal axons after transection of the thoracic spinal cord during early development in the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G F; Terman, J R; Wang, X M

    2000-11-15

    Opossums are born in an immature, fetal-like state, making it possible to lesion their spinal cord early in development without intrauterine surgery. When the thoracic spinal cord of the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, is transected on postnatal day 5, and injections of Fast Blue (FB) are made caudal to the lesion site 30-40 days or 6 months later, neurons are labeled in all of the spinal and supraspinal areas that are labeled after comparable injections in age-matched, unlesioned controls. Double-labeling studies document that regeneration of cut axons contributes to growth of axons through the lesion site and behavioral studies show that animals lesioned on postnatal day 5 use their hindlimbs in normal appearing locomotion as adults. The critical period for developmental plasticity of descending spinal axons extends to postnatal day 26, although axons which grow through the lesion site become fewer in number and more restricted as to origin with increasing age. Animals lesioned between postnatal day 12 and 26 use the hindlimbs better than animals lesioned as adults, but hindlimb function is markedly abnormal and uncoordinated with that of the forelimbs. We conclude that restoration of anatomical continuity occurs after transection of the spinal cord in developing opossums, that descending axons grow through the lesion site, that regeneration of cut axons contributes to such growth, and that animals lesioned early enough in development have relatively normal motor function as adults.

  11. Preliminary clinical applications of DTI in human cervical spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Ting; Mai Weiwen; Liang Biling; Shen Jun; Huang Suiqiao; Hu Chunhong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To condcut preliminary study of the value of DTI(diffusion tensor imaging) in human cervical spinal cord. Methods: Twenty-one patients suffering from cervical spondylotic myelopathy and twenty volunteers without any clinical symptoms underwent routine MRI and DTI examination. DTI was performed in six non-collinear directions with single-shot fast spin echo echo, planar imaging sequence(b value = 400 s·mm -2 ). ADC(apparent diffusion coefficient) and FA(fractional anisotropy)values were measured by ROIs(regions of interest) in 4 different level segment spinal cord (C 2/3 , C 3/4 , C 4/5 , C 5/6 ) in normal volunteers, in lesions and normal segmental spinal cord in clinical cases respectively. DTI original images were automatically processed by using IDL (Version 5.6) soft- ware to produce color tensor images. SPSS11.0 software for windows was used for t-test and one-way ANOVA analysis. The difference was considered statistically significant if P 2/3 , C 3/4 , C 4/5 , C 5/6 , were analyzed and it was found that FA value between them had a significant difference by ANOVA, F=159.24, P 2/3 level. However, ADC value between 4 segments had no significant difference(F=2.191, P>0.05). (2)In patients of cervical spondylotic myelopathy, routine MRI T2WI showed abnormal signal in 9 cases, and showed no abnormal signal in 12 dases. In sixteen cases it was found that abnormal patchy green signal on colorized tensor maps appeared on the normal blue spinal cord. Also, in patients of cervical spondylotic myelopathy, there was significant difference in ADC and FA value between lesions and normal spinal cord (paired t test, for ADC, t=2.88, P 2/3 level segment spinal cord in normal volunteers (0.85 ± 0.03) is the highest among other segments. FA value decreases gradually along cervical spinal cord towards the caudal direction. However, the difference of ADC values amongst 4 segments is not significant. DTI colorized tensor maps can show more lesions than routine MRI

  12. Disorders of spinal blood circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hevyak, O.M.; Kuzminskyy, A.P.

    2017-01-01

    Spinal strokes are rare. The most common causes of the haemorrhage are spinal cord trauma, vasculitis with signs of haemorrhagic diathesis, spinal vascular congenital anomalies (malformations) and haemangioma. By localization, haemorrhagic strokes are divided into three groups: haematomyelia, spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage, epidural hematoma. Most cavernous malformations are localized at the cervical level, fewer — at thoracic and lumbar levels of the spinal cord. The clinical case of diagno...

  13. Caudal ecológico del río Chambas en la provincia Ciego de Ávila

    OpenAIRE

    Brown Manrique, Oscar; Gallardo Ballat, Yurisbel; Williams Harriote, Patricio W.; Torres Martínez, Yuneisi

    2016-01-01

    La investigación se desarrolló en el río Chambas de la provincia Ciego de Ávila con el objetivo de determinar el caudal ecológico mediante cinco metodologías: Curva de Permanencia de Caudales, Rafael Heras, Tennant, Franquet y Perímetro Mojado. Se analizó una serie de 21 años de gastos medios mensuales en el periodo comprendido de 1976 al 1986, obtenidos de la estación hidrométrica Puente Circuito Norte. Los principales resultados demostraron que los caudales promedios del río Chambas present...

  14. Regionalizacion de caudales mensuales en la región hidrográfica del Titicaca Puno Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Lujano Laura, Apolinario; Autoridad Nacional del Agua – Perú; Quispe Aragón, José Pitágoras; Autoridad Nacional del Agua – Perú; Lujano Laura, Efraín; Universidad Peruana Unión – Perú

    2017-01-01

    RESUMENLa presente investigación se realizó en la Región Hidrográfica del Titicaca, Perú. El objetivo principal fue desarrollar modelos regionales de caudales medios mensuales y de persistencia de los principales ríos, aplicado a la problemática de la estimación de caudales en cuencas sin registro hidrométrico. Se tomaron como variables independientes las características climáticas y fisiográficas de las cuencas en estudio y como variable dependiente los caudales medios mensuales y de persist...

  15. [Magnetic resonance imaging features of a caudal cruciate ligament rupture associated with a suspected bone bruise lesion in a dog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmohl, M; Konar, M; Tassani-Prell, M; Rupp, S

    2014-04-16

    In this case study we describe a surgically confirmed caudal cruciate ligament rupture in a 10-year-old Border Collie. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a complete rupture of the caudal cruciate ligament, a suspected bone bruise lesion on the proximolateral tibia and a muscle strain injury of the M. flexor digitorum lateralis. In human medicine, bone bruise lesions in MRI have been described as "footprint injuries" and can thereby explain the mechanism of trauma in ligament injuries. The combination of the MRI findings in this case can help to understand how the rarely diagnosed isolated rupture of the caudal cruciate ligament occurred in this dog.

  16. Caudal block and emergence delirium in pediatric patients: Is it analgesia or sedation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergence delirium (ED although a short-lived and self-limiting phenomenon, makes a child prone to injury in the immediate postoperative period and hence is a cause of concern not only to the pediatric anesthesiologist, surgeons, and post anesthesia care unit staff but also amongst parents. Additional medication to quieten the child offsets the potential benefits of rapid emergence and delays recovery in day care settings. There is conflicting evidence of influence of analgesia and sedation following anesthesia on emergence agitation. We hypothesized that an anesthetic technique which improves analgesia and prolongs emergence time will reduce the incidence of ED. We selected ketamine as adjuvant to caudal block for this purpose. Methods: This randomized, double blind prospective study was performed in 150 premedicated children ASA I, II, aged 2 to 8 years who were randomly assigned to either group B (caudal with bupivacaine, BK (bupivacaine and ketamine, or NC (no caudal, soon after LMA placement. Recovery characteristics and complications were recorded. Results: Emergence time, duration of pain relief, and Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED scores were significantly higher in the NC group (P<0.05. Duration of analgesia and emergence time were significantly more in group BK than groups B and NC. However, the discharge readiness was comparable between all groups. No patient in BK group required to be given any medication to treat ED. Conclusion: Emergence time as well as duration of analgesia have significant influence on incidence of emergence delirium. Ketamine, as caudal adjuvant is a promising agent to protect against ED in children, following sevoflurane anesthesia.

  17. Unique caudal plumage of Jeholornis and complex tail evolution in early birds

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Jingmai; Wang, Xiaoli; Sullivan, Corwin; Zheng, Xiaoting; Tubaro, Pablo; Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Zhonghe

    2013-01-01

    The Early Cretaceous bird Jeholornis was previously only known to have a distally restricted ornamental frond of tail feathers. We describe a previously unrecognized fan-shaped tract of feathers situated dorsal to the proximal caudal vertebrae. The position and morphology of these feathers is reminiscent of the specialized upper tail coverts observed in males of some sexually dimorphic neornithines. As in the neornithine tail, the unique “two-tail” plumage in Jeholornis probably evolved as th...

  18. Indirect caudal lymphography using a new water-soluble contrast agent - animal experimental studies in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apitzsch, D.E.; Kroll, H.U.; Zuehlke, H.V.

    1981-01-01

    Animal experiments on caudal lymphography in pigs are presented, using a new water-soluble contrast medium which is renally excreted. Indirect cutaneous administration renders possible the radiological visualization of the entire lymphatic drainage system of the lower limb, the retro-peritoneal space and the thoracic duct. Visualization of the lymphatic system is rapid, homogeneous and can be repeated as often as desired. The quality of the lymphogram is as good as that obtained by the current methods in common use. (orig.)

  19. Organ and Effective Dose Coefficients for Cranial and Caudal Irradiation Geometries: Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinot, K. G.; Eckerman, K. F.; Hertel, N. E.; Hiller, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    With the introduction of new recommendations by ICRP Publication 103, the methodology for determining the protection quantity, effective dose, has been modified. The modifications include changes to the defined organs and tissues, the associated tissue weighting factors, radiation weighting factors, and the introduction of reference sex-specific computational phantoms (ICRP Publication 110). Computations of equivalent doses in organs and tissues are now performed in both the male and female phantoms and the sex-averaged values used to determine the effective dose. Dose coefficients based on the ICRP 103 recommendations were reported in ICRP Publication 116, the revision of ICRP Publication 74 and ICRU Publication 57. The coefficients were determined for the following irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right and left lateral (RLAT and LLAT), rotational (ROT), and isotropic (ISO). In this work, the methodology of ICRP Publication 116 was used to compute dose coefficients for neutron irradiation of the body with parallel beams directed upward from below the feet (caudal) and directed downward from above the head (cranial). These geometries may be encountered in the workplace from personnel standing on contaminated surfaces or volumes and from overhead sources. Calculations of organ and tissue absorbed doses for caudal and cranial exposures to neutrons ranging in energy from 10-9 MeV to 10 GeV have been performed using the MCNP6 radiation transport code and the adult reference voxel phantoms of ICRP Publication 110. At lower energies the effective dose per particle fluence for cranial and caudal exposures is less than AP orientations while above about 30 MeV the cranial and caudal values are greater.

  20. Organ and effective dose coefficients for cranial and caudal irradiation geometries: photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veinot, K.G.; Eckerman, K.F.; Hertel, N.E.

    2016-01-01

    With the introduction of new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in Publication 103, the methodology for determining the protection quantity, effective dose, has been modified. The modifications include changes to the defined organs and tissues, the associated tissue weighting factors, radiation weighting factors and the introduction of reference sex-specific computational phantoms. Computations of equivalent doses in organs and tissues are now performed in both the male and female phantoms and the sex-averaged values used to determine the effective dose. Dose coefficients based on the ICRP 103 recommendations were reported in ICRP Publication 116, the revision of ICRP Publication 74 and ICRU Publication 57. The coefficients were determined for the following irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right and left lateral (RLAT and LLAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO). In this work, the methodology of ICRP Publication 116 was used to compute dose coefficients for photon irradiation of the body with parallel beams directed upward from below the feet (caudal) and directed downward from above the head (cranial). These geometries may be encountered in the workplace from personnel standing on contaminated surfaces or volumes and from overhead sources. Calculations of organ and tissue kerma and absorbed doses for caudal and cranial exposures to photons ranging in energy from 10 keV to 10 GeV have been performed using the MCNP6.1 radiation transport code and the adult reference phantoms of ICRP Publication 110. As with calculations reported in ICRP 116, the effects of charged-particle transport are evident when compared with values obtained by using the kerma approximation. At lower energies the effective dose per particle fluence for cranial and caudal exposures is less than AP orientations while above ∼30 MeV the cranial and caudal values are greater. (authors)

  1. Caudal fin allometry in the white shark Carcharodon carcharias: implications for locomotory performance and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingham-Soliar, Theagarten

    2005-05-01

    Allometric scaling analysis was employed to investigate the consequences of size evolution on hydrodynamic performance and ecology in the white shark Carcharodon carcharias. Discriminant analysis using the power equation y=axb was negative for caudal fin span (S) versus fork length (FL) in C. carcharias. In contrast in two delphinid species, Delphinus capensis and Tursiops aduncus, the span of the flukes versus fork length rises in positive allometric fashion, and strong positive allometry of S versus √A (area) was also recorded. The latter reflects a high lift/drag ratio. S versus √A in C. carcharias displays negative allometry and consequently a lower lift/drag ratio. A lower aspect ratio (AR) caudal fin in C. carcharias compared to that of the delphinids (mean 3.33 and 4.1, respectively) and other thunniform swimmers provides the potential for better maneuverability and acceleration. The liver in sharks is frequently associated with a buoyancy function and was found to be positively allometric in C. carcharias. The overall findings suggest that the negatively allometric caudal fin morphometrics in C. carcharias are unlikely to have deleterious evolutionary fitness consequences for predation. On the contrary, when considered in the context of positive liver allometry in C. carcharias it is hereby suggested that buoyancy may play a dominant role in larger white sharks in permitting slow swimming while minimizing energy demands needed to prevent sinking. In contrast hydrodynamic lift is considered more important in smaller white sharks. Larger caudal fin spans and higher lift/drag ratio in smaller C. carcharias indicate greater potential for prolonged, intermediate swimming speeds and for feeding predominantly on fast-moving fish, in contrast to slow-swimming search patterns of larger individuals for predominantly large mammalian prey. Such data may provide some answers to the lifestyle and widespread habitat capabilities of this still largely mysterious animal.

  2. Caudal pneumaticity and pneumatic hiatuses in the sauropod dinosaurs Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew J Wedel

    Full Text Available Skeletal pneumaticity is found in the presacral vertebrae of most sauropod dinosaurs, but pneumaticity is much less common in the vertebrae of the tail. We describe previously unrecognized pneumatic fossae in the mid-caudal vertebrae of specimens of Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus. In both taxa, the most distal pneumatic vertebrae are separated from other pneumatic vertebrae by sequences of three to seven apneumatic vertebrae. Caudal pneumaticity is not prominent in most individuals of either of these taxa, and its unpredictable development means that it may be more widespread than previously recognised within Sauropoda and elsewhere in Saurischia. The erratic patterns of caudal pneumatization in Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus, including the pneumatic hiatuses, show that pneumatic diverticula were more broadly distributed in the bodies of the living animals than are their traces in the skeleton. Together with recently published evidence of cryptic diverticula--those that leave few or no skeletal traces--in basal sauropodomorphs and in pterosaurs, this is further evidence that pneumatic diverticula were widespread in ornithodirans, both across phylogeny and throughout anatomy.

  3. MODELO AUTORREGRESIVO BILINEAL APLICADO A LA PREDICCIÓN MENSUAL DE CAUDALES EN COLOMBIA

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    Juan David Cadavid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se aplica un modelo estocástico bilineal, el cual inicialmente es propuesto para análisis de retornos financieros y otros sistemas complejos combinando la alta no linealidad y multiplicidad del ruido. Este modelo, por su carácter aleatorio, no tiene componente determinística que permita considerar la persistencia de los caudales en una aplicación a la Hidrología. Por lo tanto, se propone el acoplamiento entre la parte determinística de un modelo autorregresivo de orden 2 y el modelo estocástico bilineal como componente aleatorio, y se obtiene un modelo autorregresivo bilineal (MAB. El MAB se empleó para la predicción de caudales en ventanas de 3, 6 y 12 meses en 12 ríos de Colombia de diferentes regiones del país. El MAB tiene una estructura simple y muestra una mejora sustancial en la disminución de los errores para los caudales máximos y mínimos en el período de validación respecto de los modelos estocásticos tradicionales.

  4. Orexin inputs to caudal raphé neurons involved in thermal, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Patterson, Laurel M; Sutton, Gregory M; Morrison, Christopher; Zheng, Huiyuan

    2005-02-01

    Orexin-expressing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus with their wide projections throughout the brain are important for the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, ingestive behavior, and the coordination of these behaviors in the environmental context. To further identify downstream effector targets of the orexin system, we examined in detail orexin-A innervation of the caudal raphe nuclei in the medulla, known to harbor sympathetic preganglionic motor neurons involved in thermal, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal regulation. All three components of the caudal raphe nuclei, raphe pallidus, raphe obscurus, and parapyramidal nucleus, are innervated by orexin-A-immunoreactive fibers. Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrate close anatomical appositions between varicose orexin-A immunoreactive axon profiles and sympathetic premotor neurons identified with either a transneuronal retrograde pseudorabies virus tracer injected into the interscapular brown fat pads, or with in situ hybridization of pro-TRH mRNA. Furthermore, orexin-A injected into the fourth ventricle induced c-Fos expression in the raphe pallidus and parapyramidal nucleus. These findings suggest that orexin neurons in the hypothalamus can modulate brown fat thermogenesis, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal functions by acting directly on neurons in the caudal raphe nuclei, and support the idea that orexin's simultaneous stimulation of food intake and sympathetic activity might have evolved as a mechanism to stay alert while foraging.

  5. Postoperative analgesia in children when using clonidine in addition to fentanyl with bupivacaine given caudally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarraya, Anouar; Elleuch, Sahar; Zouari, Jawhar; Smaoui, Mohamed; Laabidi, Sofiene; Kolsi, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of clonidine in association with fentanyl as an additive to bupivacaine 0.25% given via single shot caudal epidural in pediatric patients for postoperative pain relief. In the present prospective randomized double blind study, 40 children of ASA-I-II aged 1-5 years scheduled for infraumblical surgical procedures were randomly allocated to two groups to receive either bupivacaine 0.25% (1 ml/kg) with fentanyl 1 μg/kg and clonidine 1μg/kg (group I) or bupivacaine 0.25% (1 ml/kg) with fentanyl 1 μg/kg (group II). Caudal block was performed after the induction of general anesthesia. Postoperatively patients were observed for analgesia, sedation, hemodynamic parameters, and side effects or complications. Both the groups were similar with respect to patient and various block characteristics. Heart rate and blood pressure were not different in 2 groups. Significantly prolonged duration of post-operative analgesia was observed in group I (Pbupivacaine in single shot caudal epidural in children may provide better and longer analgesia after infraumblical surgical procedures.

  6. Diagnosis and management of cranial and caudal nuchal bursitis in four horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, José M; Jenei, Thomas; Chope, Kate; Bubeck, Kirstin A

    2010-10-01

    4 horses with a history of neck pain, abnormal head carriage, and related inability to perform were examined. Cranial nuchal bursitis was diagnosed in 2 horses, and caudal nuchal bursitis was diagnosed in the other 2. All 4 horses had prominent swelling in the region between the frontal bone and temporal fossa (ie, the poll) and abnormal head carriage. Ultrasonographic examination revealed fluid distention and synovial thickening of the cranial or caudal nuchal bursa in all 4 horses. Ultrasonography-guided aspiration of the affected region was performed successfully in 3 horses. Radiography revealed bony remodeling and mineralization over the dorsal aspect of the atlas in 1 horse and a radiolucency at the axis in another. Nuclear scintigraphy revealed an increase in radioisotope uptake at the level of C2 in 1 horse. Although a septic process was considered among the differential diagnoses in all horses, a septic process could only be confirmed in 1 horse. All horses were refractory to conservative management consisting of intrabursal injection of anti-inflammatory medications. Bursoscopic debridement and lavage of the affected bursae resulted in resolution of the clinical signs in all horses, and they all returned to their intended use. Cranial and caudal nuchal bursitis, of nonseptic or septic origin, should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with head and neck pain. Horses undergoing surgical intervention consisting of nuchal bursoscopy have the opportunity to return to their original degree of exercise.

  7. Caudal dysgenesis and sirenomelia-single centre experience suggests common pathogenic basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thottungal, Anjana D; Charles, Adrian K; Dickinson, Jan E; Bower, Carol

    2010-10-01

    Abnormally formed lower limbs with varying degrees of fusion are the major feature of sirenomelia whereas maldeveloped lower limbs without fusion are found in association with caudal dysgenesis (CD). The relationship between these two entities has been a topic of debate for many years. The presence of a single umbilical artery originating from the abdominal aorta was considered a major feature distinguishing sirenomelia from CD. Based on this finding, the vascular steal theory was put forward as the causative mechanism of sirenomelia. CD and sirenomelia were considered to be two entirely different entities with distinct pathogenic mechanisms. However, it is now clear that a single umbilical artery can be found in some patients of CD and normal umbilical arteries in some patients of sirenomelia. The hypothesis of primary deficiency of caudal mesoderm caused by early developmental disruption suggests that sirenomelia and CD are two ends of a spectrum of maldevelopment of caudal mesoderm. In this paper we report on the clinical and pathological features of 16 patients of CD and 9 patients of sirenomelia from our institution and review the literature. This series of cases is notable for the significant association with neural tube defects, refining the renal and urogenital pathology associated with these conditions, and supporting the concept of a continuum of the disease spectrum. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Postoperative Analgesia in Children- Comparative Study between Caudal Bupivacaine and Bupivacaine plus Tramadol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Doda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty children, ASAI-II, aged between 2yrs-5yrs, undergoing sub umbilical operation (inguinal and penile surgery were selected for this double blind study. They were randomly divided in two groups, group Aand group B. Group A(n15 received 0.25%bupivacaine 0.5ml.kg -1 and Group B (n=15 received 0.25% bupivaeaine 0.5ml.kg -1 and tramadol 2mg.kg -1 as single shot caudal block. Postoperative pain was assessed by a modified TPPPS (Toddler-Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale and analgesic given only when the score was more than 3. In the first 24 hrs it was observed that the mean duration of time interval between the caudal block and first dose of analgesic was significantly long(9. lhrs in Group B as compared to Group A (6.3hrs which was much shorter(p< 0.01.There was no significant haemodynamie changes, motor weakness or respiratory depression in both groups. This study con-cluded that addition of tramadol 2mg.kg -1 to caudal 0.25% bupivacaine 0.5ml.kg -1 significantly prolong the duration of postoperative analgesia in children withoutprodueing much adverse effects.

  9. Electrophysical properties, synaptic transmission and neuromodulation in serotonergic caudal raphe neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y W; Bayliss, D A

    1998-06-01

    1. We studied electrophysiological properties, synaptic transmission and modulation by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) of caudal raphe neurons using whole-cell recording in a neonatal rat brain slice preparation; recorded neurons were identified as serotonergic by post-hoc immunohistochemical detection of tryptophan hydroxylase, the 5-HT-synthesizing enzyme. 2. Serotonergic neurons fired spontaneously (approximately 1 Hz), with maximal steady state firing rates of < 4 Hz. 5-Hydroxytryptamine caused hyperpolarization and cessation of spike activity in these neurons by activating inwardly rectifying K+ conductance via somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors. 3. Unitary glutamatergic excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSP) and currents (EPSC) were evoked in serotonergic neurons by local electrical stimulation. Evoked EPSC were potently inhibited by 5-HT, an effect mediated by presynaptic 5-HT1B receptors. 4. In conclusion, serotonergic caudal raphe neurons are spontaneously active in vitro; they receive prominent glutamatergic synaptic inputs. 5-Hydroxytryptamine regulates serotonergic neuronal activity of the caudal raphe by decreasing spontaneous activity via somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors and by inhibiting excitatory synaptic transmission onto these neurons via presynaptic 5-HT1B receptors. These local modulatory mechanisms provide multiple levels of feedback autoregulation of serotonergic raphe neurons by 5-HT.

  10. Early Rupture of an Ultralow Duodenal Stump after Extended Surgery for Gastric Cancer with Duodenal Invasion Managed by Tube Duodenostomy and Cholangiostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Blouhos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When dealing with gastric cancer with duodenal invasion, gastrectomy with distal resection of the duodenum is necessary to achieve negative distal margin. However, rupture of an ultralow duodenal stump necessitates advanced surgical skills and close postoperative observation. The present study reports a case of an early duodenal stump rupture after subtotal gastrectomy with resection of the whole first part of the duodenum, complete omentectomy, bursectomy, and D2+ lymphadenectomy performed for a pT3pN2pM1 (+ number 13 lymph nodes adenocarcinoma of the antrum. Duodenal stump rupture was managed successfully by end tube duodenostomy, without omental patching, and tube cholangiostomy. Close assessment of clinical, physical, and radiological signs, output volume, and enzyme concentration of the tube duodenostomy, T-tube, and closed suction drain, which was placed near the tube duodenostomy site to drain the leak around the catheter, dictated postoperative management of the external duodenal fistula.

  11. Adult opossums (Didelphis virginiana) demonstrate near normal locomotion after spinal cord transection as neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X M; Basso, D M; Terman, J R; Bresnahan, J C; Martin, G F

    1998-05-01

    When the thoracic spinal cord of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is transected on postnatal day (PD) 5, the site of injury becomes bridged by histologically recognizable spinal cord and axons which form major long tracts grow through the lesion. In the present study we asked whether opossums lesioned on PD5 have normal use of the hindlimbs as adults and, if so, whether that use is dependent upon axons which grow through the lesion site. The thoracic spinal cord was transected on PD5 and 6 months later, hindlimb function was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale. All animals supported their weight with the hindlimbs and used their hindlimbs normally during overground locomotion. In some cases, the spinal cord was retransected at the original lesion site or just caudal to it 6 months after the original transection and paralysis of the hindlimbs ensued. Surprisingly, however, these animals gradually recovered some ability to support their weight and to step with the hindlimbs. Similar recovery was not seen in animals transected only as adults. In order to verify that descending axons which grew through the lesion during development were still present in the adult animal, opossums subjected to transection of the thoracic cord on PD5 were reoperated and Fast blue was injected several segments caudal to the lesion. In all cases, neurons were labeled rostral to the lesion in each of the spinal and supraspinal nuclei labeled by comparable injections in unlesioned, age-matched controls. The results of orthograde tracing studies indicated that axons which grew through the lesion innervated areas that were appropriate for them. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat T. George Hornby, PhD, PT Empowering ... Rogers, SW Marguerite David, MSW Kathy Hulse, MSW Physical Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Laura Wehrli, PT ...

  14. Spinal cord trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 32. Kaji AH, Newton EJ, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... com is an informational and support website for families facing spinal cord injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD Understanding SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, ...

  18. Spinal pain in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The severity and course of spinal pain is poorly understood in adolescents. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and two-year incidence, as well as the course, frequency, and intensity of pain in the neck, mid back, and low back (spinal pain). METHODS: This study was a school......-based prospective cohort study. All 5th and 6th grade students (11-13 years) at 14 schools in the Region of Southern Denmark were invited to participate (N = 1,348). Data were collected in 2010 and again two years later, using an e-survey completed during school time. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of spinal pain...... reported their pain as relatively infrequent and of low intensity, whereas the participants with frequent pain also experienced pain of higher intensity. The two-year incidence of spinal pain varied between 40% and 60% across the physical locations. Progression of pain from one to more locations and from...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  2. Spinal Injury: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EmergencyManual/WhatToDoInMedicalEmergency/Default.aspx?id=258&terms=spinal+injuries. Accessed Jan. 8, 2015. Marx JA, et al. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD ... Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical ...

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  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...

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  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  15. Spinal extradural arachnoid cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Rahimizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Extradural arachnoid cysts (EACs are rare causes of spinal cord compression and cauda equina. These benign lesions appear in the literature mainly as single case reports. In this article, we present the largest series found in literature, with four new cases of spinal extradural arachnoid cysts. The characteristic imaging features, details of surgical steps and strategies to prevent postoperative kyphosis in this cystic pathology will be discussed.

  16. On the appearance of acetylcholine receptors in denervated rat diaphragm, and its dependence on nerve stump length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchitel, O.; Robbins, N.

    1978-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) sensitivity and extrajunctional receptor distribution of the rat diaphragm were closely monitored during the early period following denervation. Both contracture in response to 10 μg/ml of ACh and extrajunctional binding of [ 125 I]alpha-bungarotoxin ([ 125 I]α-BTX) were first detectable 30 h after cutting the phrenic nerve in the thorax. If the nerve were cut more proximally, leaving a 3.5 cm distal nerve stump, the same level of ACh contracture and [ 125 I]α-BTX binding did not appear until 40 h after operation. This 10-h delay was far longer than the 3-h delay in transmission failure reportedly dependent on stump length. The earliest detectable extrajunctional [ 125 I]α-BTX binding appeared throughout the entire muscle fiber, and was not localized to the endplate region as would be expected if degeneration in the nerve terminal induced new receptors. However, later significant increases in [ 125 I]α-BTX binding at the endplate region could have resulted from such degeneration. All these results are consistent with neurotrophic regulation of muscle ACh receptors, working via a mechanism involving axonal transport. (Auth.)

  17. Fungal Transformation of Tree Stumps into a Suitable Resource for Xylophagous Beetles via Changes in Elemental Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Filipiak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The elements present in dead pine stumps inhabited by larvae of wood-boring beetles (Stictoleptura rubra, Arhopalus rusticus and Chalcophora mariana were analyzed over the initial (first 5 years; a chronosequence stages of wood decay. The quantities of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and Na (but not S increased with increases in the content of ergosterol (used as a proxy for the amount of fungal tissue. In fact, the amounts of P, N, K, Fe and Cu presented marked increases. These findings show that fungi stoichiometrically rearrange dead wood by importing externally occurring nutrients to decaying stumps. During the first years of wood decay, the ratios of C to other elements decrease substantially, but differently, for various elements, whereas the N:Fe, N:Cu, N:P and N:K ratios remain relatively stable. Therefore, the stoichiometric mismatch between xylophages and their food is greatly reduced. By changing the nutritional stoichiometry of dead wood, fungi create a nutritional niche for wood-eaters, and these changes enable the development of xylophages.

  18. Fungal Transformation of Tree Stumps into a Suitable Resource for Xylophagous Beetles via Changes in Elemental Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, Michał; Sobczyk, Łukasz; Weiner, January

    2016-01-01

    The elements present in dead pine stumps inhabited by larvae of wood-boring beetles (Stictoleptura rubra, Arhopalus rusticus and Chalcophora mariana) were analyzed over the initial (first 5 years; a chronosequence) stages of wood decay. The quantities of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and Na (but not S) increased with increases in the content of ergosterol (used as a proxy for the amount of fungal tissue). In fact, the amounts of P, N, K, Fe and Cu presented marked increases. These findings show that fungi stoichiometrically rearrange dead wood by importing externally occurring nutrients to decaying stumps. During the first years of wood decay, the ratios of C to other elements decrease substantially, but differently, for various elements, whereas the N:Fe, N:Cu, N:P and N:K ratios remain relatively stable. Therefore, the stoichiometric mismatch between xylophages and their food is greatly reduced. By changing the nutritional stoichiometry of dead wood, fungi create a nutritional niche for wood-eaters, and these changes enable the development of xylophages.

  19. Destruction of the medial forebrain bundle caudal to the site of stimulation reduces rewarding efficacy but destruction rostrally does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Leon, M; Lim, B T; Sim, J C; Waraczynski, M

    1996-08-01

    Rats with an electrode in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) in or near the ventral tegmental area and another at the level of the rostral hypothalamus sustained large electrolytic lesions at either the rostral or the caudal electrode. The rewarding efficacy of stimulation through the other electrode was determined before and after the lesion. Massive damage to the MFB in the rostral lateral hypothalamus (LH) generally had little effect on the rewarding efficacy of more caudal stimulation, whereas large lesions in the caudal MFB generally reduced the rewarding efficacy of LH stimulation by 35-60%. Similar reductions were produced by knife cuts in the caudal MFB. These results appear to be inconsistent with the hypothesis that the reward fibers consist either of descending or ascending fibers coursing in or near the MFB. It is suggested that the reward fibers are collaterals from neurons with both their somata and their behaviorally significant terminals located primarily in the midbrain.

  20. Effect of nalbuphine as an adjuvant on levobupivacaine induced caudal analgesia in children undergoing surgical procedures, controlled randomized double blinded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riham Hussein Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Caudal epidural nalbuphine is safe in pediatric surgeries including the lower half of the body and effectively reduces postoperative pain. However it may cause early postoperative sedation, yet without respiratory depression.

  1. Ultrasound guided TAP block versus ultrasound guided caudal block for pain relief in children undergoing lower abdominal surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa Mohamed Alsadek

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: TAP block and caudal block under ultrasound guidance proved to be safe with no recorded complications either intra or postoperatively. Patient and parent satisfaction was markedly observed in case of TAP block.

  2. Pediatric spinal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The infections of the spinal axis in children are rare when compared with adults. They encompass a large spectrum of diseases ranging from relatively benign diskitis to spinal osteomyleitis and to the rapidly progressive, rare, and potentially devastating spinal epidural, subdural, and intramedullary spinal cord infections. We present a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to these uncommon entities, in light of our experience from northern India. The most prevalent pediatric spinal infection in Indian scenario is tuberculosis, where an extradural involvement is more common than intradural. The craniovertebral junction is not an uncommon site of involvement in children of our milieu. The majority of pyogenic infections of pediatric spine are associated with congenital neuro-ectodermal defects such as congenital dermal sinus. The clinico-radiological findings of various spinal infections commonly overlap. Hence the endemicity of certain pathogens should be given due consideration, while considering the differential diagnosis. However, early suspicion, rapid diagnosis, and prompt treatment are the key factors in avoiding neurological morbidity and deformity in a growing child.

  3. Mini-open spinal column shortening for the treatment of adult tethered cord syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaee, Michael M; Winkler, Ethan A; Chou, Dean

    2017-10-01

    Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) is a challenging entity characterized by adhesions at the caudal spinal cord that prevent upward movement during growth and result in stretching of the cord with a concomitant constellation of neurologic symptoms. Although growth in height stops in adulthood, some patients still develop progressive symptoms; many underwent detethering as a child or adolescent, resulting in significant scar tissue and re-tethering. Recent strategies have focused on spinal column shortening to reduce tension on the spinal cord without exposing the previous de-tethering site. Mini-open and minimally invasive approaches avoid the large dissection and exposure associated with traditional approaches and are associated with reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stay, and similar outcomes when compared to conventional open approaches. We describe a technique for mini-open spinal column shortening. Using intraoperative navigation pedicle screws were placed at T10, T11, L1, and L2. A mini-open 3-column "egg shell" decancellation osteotomy of T12 was performed through a transpedicular approach with preservation of the superior and inferior endplates. This procedure was performed on a 28year old male with recurrent TCS and neurogenic bladder. Postoperative imaging showed a reduction in spinal column length of 1.5cm and evidence of decreased tension on the spinal cord. At last follow-up he was recovering well with improved urinary function. Spinal column shortening for adult TCS can be safely achieved through a mini-open approach. Future studies should compare the efficacy of this technique to both traditional de-tethering and open spinal column shortening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The distribution of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) in the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, cranial and spinal nerves of frog, Microhyla ornata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhao, Arun G; Biswas, Saikat P; Bhoyar, Rahul C; Pinelli, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) enzymatic activity has been reported in few amphibian species. In this study, we report its unusual localization in the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and ganglions of the frog, Microhyla ornata. In the rhombencephalon, at the level of facial and vagus nerves, the NADPH-d labeling was noted in the nucleus of the abducent and facial nerves, dorsal nucleus of the vestibulocochlear nerve, the nucleus of hypoglossus nerve, dorsal and lateral column nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the dorsal field of spinal grey, the lateral and medial motor fields of spinal grey and radix ventralis and dorsalis (2-10). Many ependymal cells around the lining of the fourth ventricle, both facial and vagus nerves and dorsal root ganglion, were intensely labeled with NADPH-d. Most strikingly the NADPH-d activity was seen in small and large sized motoneurons in both medial and lateral motor neuron columns on the right and left sides of the brain. This is the largest stained group observed from the caudal rhombencephalon up to the level of radix dorsalis 10 in the spinal cord. The neurons were either oval or elongated in shape with long processes and showed significant variation in the nuclear and cellular diameter. A massive NADPH-d activity in the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, and spinal nerves implied an important role of this enzyme in the neuronal signaling as well as in the modulation of motor functions in the peripheral nervous systems of the amphibians. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Incertidumbres en Mediciones de Caudal con Perfiladores de Corriente Acústicos Doppler desde Plataformas Móviles

    OpenAIRE

    Tarrab, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    Tesis (DCI)--FCEFN-UNC, 2013 Determina la incertidumbre en las mediciones de caudal con Perfiladores de Corriente Acústicos Doppler (ADCP) desde plataformas móviles a los fines de optimizar las técnicas de medición y elaborar recomendaciones para minimizar los errores (sesgo e incertidumbre aleatoria) en el uso de las técnicas de medición de caudales.

  6. The association between caudal anesthesia and increased risk of postoperative surgical complications in boys undergoing hypospadias repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taicher, Brad M; Routh, Jonathan C; Eck, John B; Ross, Sherry S; Wiener, John S; Ross, Allison K

    2017-07-01

    Recent reports have suggested that caudal anesthesia may be associated with an increased risk of postoperative surgical complications. We examined our experience with caudal anesthesia in hypospadias repair to evaluate for increased risk of urethrocutaneous fistula or glanular dehiscence. All hypospadias repairs performed by a single surgeon in 2001-2014 were reviewed. Staged or revision surgeries were excluded. Patient age, weight, hypospadias severity, surgery duration, month and year of surgery, caudal anesthesia use, and postoperative complications were recorded. Bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. We identified 395 single-stage primary hypospadias repairs. Mean age was 15.6 months; 326 patients had distal (83%) and 69 had proximal (17%) hypospadias. Caudal anesthetics were used in 230 (58%) cases; 165 patients (42%) underwent local penile block at the discretion of the surgeon and/or anesthesiologist. Complications of urethrocutaneous fistula or glanular deshiscence occurred in 22 patients (5.6%) and were associated with caudal anesthetic use (OR 16.5, 95% CI 2.2-123.8, P = 0.007), proximal hypospadias (OR 8.2, 95% CI 3.3-20.0, P anesthesia was associated with an over 13-fold increase in the odds of developing postoperative surgical complications in boys undergoing hypospadias repair even after adjusting for urethral meatus location. Until further investigation occurs, clinicians should carefully consider the use of caudal anesthesia for children undergoing hypospadias repair. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Congenital spinal malformations; Kongenitale spinale Malformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertl-Wagner, B.B.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2001-12-01

    Congenital spinal malformations form a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders whose pathogenesis is best explained embryologically. Radiologically, it is important to formulate a diagnosis when the disorder first becomes symptomatic. However, it is also crucial to detect complications of the disorder or of the respective therapeutic interventions in the further course of the disease such as hydromyelia or re-tethering after repair of a meningomyelocele. Moreover, once a congenital spinal malformation is diagnosed, associated malformations should be sought after. A possible syndromal classification such as in OEIS- or VACTERL-syndromes should also be considered. (orig.) [German] Kongenitale spinale Malformationen stellen eine komplexe Gruppe an Stoerungen dar, deren Genese sich am einfachsten aus der Embryologie heraus erklaeren laesst. Bei der klinisch-radiologischen Begutachtung ist zunaechst ihre korrekte Klassifikation im Rahmen der Erstdiagnose wichtig. Im weiteren Verlauf ist es jedoch zudem entscheidend, moegliche Komplikationen wie beispielsweise eine Hydromyelie oder ein Wiederanheften des Myelons nach Operation einer Spina bifida aperta zu erkennen. Zudem sollte bei der Diagnosestellung einer kongenitalen spinalen Malformation immer auch auf assoziierte Fehlbildungen, wie z.B. die Diastematomyelie oder das intraspinale Lipom bei der Spina bifida aperta, sowie auf eine moegliche syndromale Einordnung wie beispielsweise beim OEIS-oder VACTERL-Syndrom geachtet werden. (orig.)

  8. Assessment of motor recovery and MRI correlates in a porcine spinal cord injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Šulla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study concentrated on behavioral and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI characteristics in a porcine spinal cord injury model. Six adult minipigs weighing 32–35 kg were narcotized by thiopental, intubated, and placed on a volume-cycled ventilator. Anaesthesia was maintained by 1.5% sevoflurane with oxygen. Following location of the 1st lumbar vertebra animals were fastened in an immobilization frame. The spinal cord, exposed through a laminectomy, was compressed by a 5 mm thick circular rod with a peak force of 0.8 kg at a velocity of 3 cm·s-1. The next day the minipigs were paraplegic but improved rapidly to paraparesis. On the 12th postoperative day they were euthanasied. Neural tissue changes were evaluated by post mortem MRI, which showed damage to the spinal cord white and/or gray matter in the epicentre of compression with longitudinal spreading over one segment cranially and caudally. Statistical analyses performed by Spearman’s rho test revealed positive correlations between damaged areas and the whole area of the spinal cord white/gray matter (P = 0.047; rs = 0.742 and (P = 0.002; rs = 0.943, respectively. The study confirmed the reliability and reproducibility of the utilised model of spinal cord trauma. The structural changes in the epicentre of injury did not impede the rapid but incomplete recovery of motor functions.

  9. Management of Penetrating Spinal Cord Injuries in a Non Spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of Penetrating Spinal Cord Injuries in a Non Spinal Centre: Experience at Enugu, Nigeria. ... The thoracic spine{9(41%)}was most often involved. ... Five (23%) patients with injury at cervical level died from respiratory failure.

  10. Continuous spinal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James M

    2009-01-01

    Continuous spinal anesthesia (CSA) is an underutilized technique in modern anesthesia practice. Compared with other techniques of neuraxial anesthesia, CSA allows incremental dosing of an intrathecal local anesthetic for an indefinite duration, whereas traditional single-shot spinal anesthesia usually involves larger doses, a finite, unpredictable duration, and greater potential for detrimental hemodynamic effects including hypotension, and epidural anesthesia via a catheter may produce lesser motor block and suboptimal anesthesia in sacral nerve root distributions. This review compares CSA with other anesthetic techniques and also describes the history of CSA, its clinical applications, concerns regarding neurotoxicity, and other pharmacologic implications of its use. CSA has seen a waxing and waning of its popularity in clinical practice since its initial description in 1907. After case reports of cauda equina syndrome were reported with the use of spinal microcatheters for CSA, these microcatheters were withdrawn from clinical practice in the United States but continued to be used in Europe with no further neurologic sequelae. Because only large-bore catheters may be used in the United States, CSA is usually reserved for elderly patients out of concern for the risk of postdural puncture headache in younger patients. However, even in younger patients, sometimes the unique clinical benefits and hemodynamic stability involved in CSA outweigh concerns regarding postdural puncture headache. Clinical scenarios in which CSA may be of particular benefit include patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing lower extremity surgery and obstetric patients with complex heart disease. CSA is an underutilized technique in modern anesthesia practice. Perhaps more accurately termed fractional spinal anesthesia, CSA involves intermittent dosing of local anesthetic solution via an intrathecal catheter. Where traditional spinal anesthesia involves a single injection with a

  11. Imaging in spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van; Maes, Menno; Oezsarlak, Oezkan; Hauwe, Luc van den; Parizel, Paul M.

    2005-01-01

    Because it may cause paralysis, injury to the spine is one of the most feared traumas, and spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability. In the USA approximately 10,000 traumatic cervical spine fractures and 4000 traumatic thoracolumbar fractures are diagnosed each year. Although the number of individuals sustaining paralysis is far less than those with moderate or severe brain injury, the socioeconomic costs are significant. Since most of the spinal trauma patients survive their injuries, almost one out of 1000 inhabitants in the USA are currently being cared for partial or complete paralysis. Little controversy exists regarding the need for accurate and emergent imaging assessment of the traumatized spine in order to evaluate spinal stability and integrity of neural elements. Because clinicians fear missing occult spine injuries, they obtain radiographs for nearly all patients who present with blunt trauma. We are influenced on one side by fear of litigation and the possible devastating medical, psychologic and financial consequences of cervical spine injury, and on the other side by pressure to reduce health care costs. A set of clinical and/or anamnestic criteria, however, can be very useful in identifying patients who have an extremely low probability of injury and who consequently have no need for imaging studies. Multidetector (or multislice) computed tomography (MDCT) is the preferred primary imaging modality in blunt spinal trauma patients who do need imaging. Not only is CT more accurate in diagnosing spinal injury, it also reduces imaging time and patient manipulation. Evidence-based research has established that MDCT improves patient outcome and saves money in comparison to plain film. This review discusses the use, advantages and disadvantages of the different imaging techniques used in spinal trauma patients and the criteria used in selecting patients who do not need imaging. Finally an overview of different types of spinal injuries is given

  12. Imaging in spinal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van [Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, University of Antwerp, Belgium, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Algemeen Ziekenhuis Maria Middelares, Department of Radiology, Sint-Niklaas (Belgium); Maes, Menno; Oezsarlak, Oezkan; Hauwe, Luc van den; Parizel, Paul M. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, University of Antwerp, Belgium, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium)

    2005-03-01

    Because it may cause paralysis, injury to the spine is one of the most feared traumas, and spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability. In the USA approximately 10,000 traumatic cervical spine fractures and 4000 traumatic thoracolumbar fractures are diagnosed each year. Although the number of individuals sustaining paralysis is far less than those with moderate or severe brain injury, the socioeconomic costs are significant. Since most of the spinal trauma patients survive their injuries, almost one out of 1000 inhabitants in the USA are currently being cared for partial or complete paralysis. Little controversy exists regarding the need for accurate and emergent imaging assessment of the traumatized spine in order to evaluate spinal stability and integrity of neural elements. Because clinicians fear missing occult spine injuries, they obtain radiographs for nearly all patients who present with blunt trauma. We are influenced on one side by fear of litigation and the possible devastating medical, psychologic and financial consequences of cervical spine injury, and on the other side by pressure to reduce health care costs. A set of clinical and/or anamnestic criteria, however, can be very useful in identifying patients who have an extremely low probability of injury and who consequently have no need for imaging studies. Multidetector (or multislice) computed tomography (MDCT) is the preferred primary imaging modality in blunt spinal trauma patients who do need imaging. Not only is CT more accurate in diagnosing spinal injury, it also reduces imaging time and patient manipulation. Evidence-based research has established that MDCT improves patient outcome and saves money in comparison to plain film. This review discusses the use, advantages and disadvantages of the different imaging techniques used in spinal trauma patients and the criteria used in selecting patients who do not need imaging. Finally an overview of different types of spinal injuries is given

  13. Single dose caudal tramadol with bupivacaine and bupivacaine alone in pediatric inguinoscrotal surgeries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A.; Siddiqui, S.Z.; Aftab, S.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the postoperative analgesic effect of Tramadol when given with caudally administered Bupivacaine in children undergoing inguinoscrotal surgeries. A total of 60 children, undergoing inguinoscrotal surgeries, aged from 1 to 12 years, ASA 1 and 2, were included. The patients were divided into two equal groups. The group given Bupivacaine with Tramadol was called group BT and the group which was given only Bupivacaine was labeled as group B. Group BT was given 0.25%, 0.8 ml/kg Bupivacaine and Tramadol 2 mg/kg while the other group B was given 0.25%, 0.8 ml/kg Bupivacaine through caudal route after induction of general anesthesia. No other analgesic was given intraoperatively. The postoperative pain was evaluated by using visual analogue scale/Ocher face scale/CHEOPS and sedation was assessed by 5 points sedation score at immediate postoperative period 1,2,3,4,6,12 and 24 hours. Supplemental analgesia in the form of paracetamol suppositories and syrup ibuprofen was given accordingly. SaO 2, pulse, blood pressure, and motor block were monitored in all the patients. Addition of Tramadol with Bupivacaine resulted in meaningfully increased postoperative analgesic period (16.06 +- 4.04 hours). No other side effects like respiratory depression, pruritus, urinary retention were found in both the groups except for nausea and vomiting. The demand for supplemental analgesia was more in the patients belonging to B group than BT group. The sedation scores were similar in both the groups. The use of Tramadol as an additive with local anesthetics can prolong the postoperative analgesic period when administered caudally. Its use is safe in children. (author)

  14. Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

  15. Sirenomelia: a review of embryogenic theories and discussion of the differences from caudal regression syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik Kaygusuz, Ecmel; Kurek Eken, Meryem; Sivrikoz, Oya Nermin; Cetiner, Handan

    2016-03-01

    To discuss the pathological features of sirenomelia in the light of our 10 cases and review the current theories. We identified 10 patients with sirenomelia from our hospital database. All clinical details and the autopsy features of 10 cases were noted. Of the 10 children with sirenomelia seven had bilateral renal agenesis, three had bladder agenesis and one had a renal hypoplasia. Single umbilical artery was found in 60% of children with sirenomelia. External genitalia was ambiguous in seven of 10 patients. Even though the etiology of caudal regression syndrome (CRS) and sirenomelia remains unknown we tend to believe that sirenomelia and CRS might be different entities.

  16. Caudal léxico en alumnos universitarios : Implicancias para la interacción textual

    OpenAIRE

    Piatti, Vanesa; Fernicola, Alfredo; Melillo, Oscar Roberto; Peralta, Diego

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se comunican los resultados preliminares de una investigación en curso. Específicamente se refiere a los resultados encontrados en pruebas de que examinan el caudal léxico, por el interés de sus relaciones con la interacción textual. En razón de ello en la elaboración de esta comunicación se ha tenido particularmente en cuenta el modelo de comprensión lectora proporcionado por Kintsch y Rawson (2005) sobre los diferentes niveles de procesamiento cuando se lee. Los autores d...

  17. Pondering the monoterpene composition of Pinus serotina Michx.: can limonene be used as a chemotaxonomic marker for the identification of old turpentine stumps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Jolie M. Mahfouz; Philip M. Sheridan

    2010-01-01

    Wood samples from old turpentine stumps in Virginia were analyzed by GC-MS to determine if the monoterpene compositions could be used for species identification. Given that limonene is reported to be the predominant monoterpene for pond pine (Pinus serotina Michx.), low relative proportions of limonene in these samples appeared to suggest that these...

  18. Comparison and Efficacy of LigaSure and Rubber Band Ligature in Closing the Inflamed Cecal Stump in a Rat Model of Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety of either LigaSure or rubber band in closing inflamed appendiceal stump in acute appendicitis has been less investigated. In this study, cecal ligation followed by resecting inflamed cecum was performed to mimic appendectomy in a rat model of acute appendicitis. Rats were sacrificed immediately (Group A and 7 days (Group B after cecal resection, respectively. The cecal stumps were closed by silk ligature (S, 5 mm LigaSure (L, or rubber band (R. Seven days after cecal resection, the LigaSure (BL and silk subgroups (BS had significantly less intra-abdominal adhesion and better laparotomy wound healing than rubber band subgroup (BR. The initial bursting pressure at cecal stump was comparable among the three methods; along with tissue healing process, both BL and BS provided a higher bursting pressure than BR 7 days after appendectomy. BL subgroup had more abundant hydroxyproline deposition than BS and BR subgroup. Furthermore, serum TNF-α in BR group kept persistently increasing along with time after cecal resection. Thus, the finding that LigaSure but not rubber band is safe in sealing off the inflamed cecal stump in rat model of acute appendicitis suggests the possibility of applying LigaSure for appendectomy via single port procedure or natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES.

  19. Characterization of sulfur deposition over the period of industrialization in Japan using sulfur isotope ratio in Japanese cedar tree rings taken from stumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takuya; Tayasu, Ichiro; Takenaka, Chisato

    2015-07-01

    We characterized the sulfur deposition history over the period of industrialization in Japan based on the sulfur isotope ratio (δ(34)S) in tree rings of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) stumps. We analyzed and compared δ(34)S values in the rings from two types of disk samples from 170-year-old stumps that had been cut 5 years earlier (older forest stand) and from 40-year-old living trees (younger forest stand) in order to confirm the validity of using stump disks for δ(34)S analysis. No differences in δ(34)S values by age were found between the sample types, indicating that stump disks can be used for δ(34)S analysis. The δ(34)S profile in tree rings was significantly correlated with anthropogenic SO2 emissions in Japan (r = -0.76, p tree rings serve as a record of anthropogenic sulfur emissions. In addition, the values did not change largely from pre-industrialization to the 1940s (+4.2 to +6.1‰). The values before the 1940s are expected to reflect the background sulfur conditions in Japan and, thus, disks containing rings formed before the 1940s contain information about the natural environmental sulfur, which is useful for biogeochemical studies.

  20. Potentialities of spinal liquor scanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlakhov, N.; Vylkanov, P.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that spinal liquor scanography is a harmless and informative method for the examination of patients, permitting to detect injury foci for spinal cord tumours in 90% cases, for acute injuries of the vertebral column and spinal cord in 89.5% cases, for herniation of nucleus pulposus in 81% cases. The method of spinal liquor scanography can be used in neurology and neurosurgery to select the method of treatment and to evaluate its efficiency

  1. Neuroradiology of the spinal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, R.; Molsen, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    Radiodiagnostics of the vertebral column and of the spinal cord under normal conditions and under different pathological alterations are elaborated. Especially cervical and thoracal myelography, lumbosacral myeloradiculography, spinal arteriography and phlebography as well as spinal computerized tomography are discussed in detail

  2. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, K.; Gronseth, G.; Aldrich, M.; Williams, A.

    1982-01-01

    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was cauused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunsupporessed cancer patient. (orig.)

  3. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, K.; Gronseth, G.; Aldrich, M.; Williams, A.

    1982-11-01

    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was caused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunosuppressed cancer patient.

  4. Spinal CT scan, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    Plain CT described fairly accurately the anatomy and lesions of the lumbar and sacral spines on their transverse sections. Since hernia of the intervertebral disc could be directly diagnosed by CT, indications of myelography could be restricted. Spinal-canal stenosis of the lumbar spine occurs because of various factors, and CT not only demonstrated the accurate size and morphology of bony canals, but also elucidated thickening of the joints and yellow ligament. CT was also useful for the diagnosis of tumors in the lumbar and sacral spines, visualizing the images of bone changes and soft tissues on the trasverse sections. But the diagnosis of intradural tumors required myelography and metrizamide CT. CT has become important for the diagnosis of spinal and spinal-cord diseases and for selection of the route of surgical arrival. (Chiba, N.)

  5. Intramedullary spinal melanocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meic H. Schmidt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Meningeal melanocytoma is a benign lesion arising from leptomeningeal melanocytes that at times can mimic its malignant counterpart, melanoma. Lesions of the spine usually occur in extramedullary locations and present with spinal cord compression symptoms. Because most reported spinal cases occur in the thoracic region, these symptoms usually include lower extremity weakness or numbness. The authors present a case of primary intrame­dullary spinal meningeal melanocytoma presenting with bilateral lower extremity symptoms in which the patient had no known supratentorial primary lesions. Gross total surgical resection allowed for full recovery, but early recurrence of tumor was detected on close follow-up monitoring, allowing for elective local radiation without loss of neurological function. Case reports of such tumors discuss different treatment strategies, but just as important is the close follow-up monitoring in these patients even after gross total surgical resection, since these tumors can recur.

  6. Preoperative DTI and probabilistic tractography in an amputee with deep brain stimulation for lower limb stump pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S L F; Heath, J; Kringelbach, M L; Stein, J F; Aziz, T Z

    2007-10-01

    This study aimed to find out whether preoperative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and probabilistic tractography could help with surgical planning for deep brain stimulation in the periaqueductal/periventricular grey area (PAG/PVG) in a patient with lower leg stump pain. A preoperative DTI was obtained from the patient, who then received DBS surgery in the PAG/PVG area with good pain relief. The postoperative MRI scan showing electrode placement was used to calculate four seed areas to represent the contacts on the Medtronic 3387 electrode. Probabilistic tractography was then performed from the pre-operative DTI image. Tracts were seen to connect to many areas within the pain network from the four different contacts. These initial findings suggest that preoperative DTI scanning and probabilistic tractography may be able to assist surgical planning in the future.

  7. Congenital spinal malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl-Wagner, B.B.; Reiser, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    Congenital spinal malformations form a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders whose pathogenesis is best explained embryologically. Radiologically, it is important to formulate a diagnosis when the disorder first becomes symptomatic. However, it is also crucial to detect complications of the disorder or of the respective therapeutic interventions in the further course of the disease such as hydromyelia or re-tethering after repair of a meningomyelocele. Moreover, once a congenital spinal malformation is diagnosed, associated malformations should be sought after. A possible syndromal classification such as in OEIS- or VACTERL-syndromes should also be considered. (orig.) [de

  8. Spinal Neurocysticercosis: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaya P, Melina; Roa, Jose L

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent parasitic illness of the central nervous system caused by the larval form of Taenia solium and its considered to be endemic in Latin America. Its diagnosis is based on imaging findings and epidemiological data; although its diagnosis can be made through the detection of specific IgG antibodies, these tests have limited availability in our environment. Central nervous system involvement is generally observed in the brain parenchyma, and less commonly in the ventricular system and subarachnoid space; only infrequently is reported to involve the structures within the spinal canal, in this article we review a case of a patient with spinal cysticercal involvement.

  9. Radiography used to measure internal spinal cord deformation in an in vivo rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, E; Whyte, T; Liu, J; Tetzlaff, W; Cripton, P A

    2018-04-11

    Little is known about the internal mechanics of the in vivo spinal cord during injury. The objective of this study was to develop a method of tracking internal and surface deformation of in vivo rat spinal cord during compression using radiography. Since neural tissue is radio-translucent, radio-opaque markers were injected into the spinal cord. Two tantalum beads (260 µm) were injected into the cord (dorsal and ventral) at C5 of nine anesthetized rats. Four beads were glued to the lateral surface of the cord, caudal and cranial to the injection site. A compression plate was displaced 0.5 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm into the spinal cord and lateral X-ray images were taken before, during, and after each compression for measuring bead displacements. Potential bead migration was monitored for by comparing displacements of the internal and glued surface beads. Dorsal beads moved significantly more than ventral beads with a range in averages of 0.57-0.71 mm and 0.31-0.35 mm respectively. Bead displacements during 0.5 mm compressions were significantly lower than 2 mm and 3 mm compressions. There was no statistically significant migration of the internal beads. The results indicate the merit of this technique for measuring in vivo spinal cord deformation. The pattern of bead displacements illustrates the complex internal and surface deformations of the spinal cord during transverse compression. This information is needed for validating physical and finite element spinal cord surrogates and to define relationships between loading parameters, internal cord deformation, and biological and functional outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Agmatine Modulates the Phenotype of Macrophage Acute Phase after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jae Young; Mun, Chin Hee; Suh, Minah; Lee, Jong Eun

    2017-10-01

    Agmatine is a decarboxylated arginine by arginine decarboxylase. Agmatine is known to be a neuroprotective agent. It has been reported that agmatine works as a NMDA receptor blocker or a competitive nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in CNS injuries. In spinal cord injury, agmatine showed reduction of neuropathic pain, improvement of locomotor function, and neuroprotection. Macrophage is a key cellular component in neuroinflammation, a major cause of impairment after spinal cord injury. Macrophage has subtypes, M1 and M2 macrophages. M1 macrophage induces a pro-inflammatory response, but M2 inspires an anti-inflammatory response. In this study, it was clarified whether the neuroprotective effect of agmatine is related with the modulation of macrophage subdivision after spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury was induced in rats with contusion using MASCIS. Animals received agmatine (100 mg/kg, IP) daily for 6 days beginning the day after spinal cord injury. The proportion of M1 and M2 macrophages are confirmed with immunohistochemistry and FACS. CD206 + & ED1 + cells were counted as M2 macrophages. The systemic treatment of agmatine increased M2 macrophages caudal side to epicenter 1 week after spinal cord injury in immunohistochemistry. M2 macrophage related markers, Arginase-1 and CD206 mRNA, were increased in the agmatine treatment group and M2 macrophage expressing and stimulated cytokine, IL-10 mRNA, also was significantly overexpressed by agmatine injection. Among BMPs, BMP2/4/7, agmatine significantly increased only the expression of BMP2 known to reduce M1 macrophage under inflammatory status. These results suggest that agmatine reduces impairment after spinal cord injury through modulating the macrophage phenotype.

  11. Maladaptive spinal plasticity opposes spinal learning and recovery in spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R Ferguson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI. Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. The mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustain several forms of learning and memory, including limb-position training. However, not all spinal plasticity promotes recovery of function. Central sensitization of nociceptive (pain pathways in the spinal cord may emerge with certain patterns of activity, demonstrating that plasticity within the spinal cord may contribute to maladaptive pain states. In this review we discuss interactions between adaptive and maladaptive forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord. The literature demonstrates that activity-dependent plasticity within the spinal cord must be carefully tuned to promote adaptive spinal training. Stimulation that is delivered in a limb position-dependent manner or on a fixed interval can induce adaptive plasticity that promotes future spinal cord learning and reduces nociceptive hyper-reactivity. On the other hand, stimulation that is delivered in an unsynchronized fashion, such as randomized electrical stimulation or peripheral skin injuries, can generate maladaptive spinal plasticity that undermines future spinal cord learning, reduces recovery of locomotor function, and promotes nociceptive hyper-reactivity after spinal cord injury. We review these basic phenomena, discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and discuss implications of these findings for improved rehabilitative therapies after spinal cord injury.

  12. Parametric study of the swimming performance of a fish robot propelled by a flexible caudal fin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, K H; Chong, C W, E-mail: mkhlow@ntu.edu.s, E-mail: ch0018ee@ntu.edu.s [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, we aim to study the swimming performance of fish robots by using a statistical approach. A fish robot employing a carangiform swimming mode had been used as an experimental platform for the performance study. The experiments conducted aim to investigate the effect of various design parameters on the thrust capability of the fish robot with a flexible caudal fin. The controllable parameters associated with the fin include frequency, amplitude of oscillation, aspect ratio and the rigidity of the caudal fin. The significance of these parameters was determined in the first set of experiments by using a statistical approach. A more detailed parametric experimental study was then conducted with only those significant parameters. As a result, the parametric study could be completed with a reduced number of experiments and time spent. With the obtained experimental result, we were able to understand the relationship between various parameters and a possible adjustment of parameters to obtain a higher thrust. The proposed statistical method for experimentation provides an objective and thorough analysis of the effects of individual or combinations of parameters on the swimming performance. Such an efficient experimental design helps to optimize the process and determine factors that influence variability.

  13. Parametric study of the swimming performance of a fish robot propelled by a flexible caudal fin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, K H; Chong, C W

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we aim to study the swimming performance of fish robots by using a statistical approach. A fish robot employing a carangiform swimming mode had been used as an experimental platform for the performance study. The experiments conducted aim to investigate the effect of various design parameters on the thrust capability of the fish robot with a flexible caudal fin. The controllable parameters associated with the fin include frequency, amplitude of oscillation, aspect ratio and the rigidity of the caudal fin. The significance of these parameters was determined in the first set of experiments by using a statistical approach. A more detailed parametric experimental study was then conducted with only those significant parameters. As a result, the parametric study could be completed with a reduced number of experiments and time spent. With the obtained experimental result, we were able to understand the relationship between various parameters and a possible adjustment of parameters to obtain a higher thrust. The proposed statistical method for experimentation provides an objective and thorough analysis of the effects of individual or combinations of parameters on the swimming performance. Such an efficient experimental design helps to optimize the process and determine factors that influence variability.

  14. Development of the caudal exoskeleton of the pliomerid trilobite Hintzeia plicamarginis new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, A.G.; Hughes, N.C.; Kopaska-Merkel, D. C.; Ludvigsen, R.

    2005-01-01

    The later juvenile ontogeny of the caudal plate of the early Ordovician pliomerid trilobite Hintzeia plicamarginis new species likely comprised an initial phase during which the rate of appearance of new segments subterminally exceeded that of segment release into the thorax, a short phase of constant segment numbers, and a later phase during which release occurred but in which no new segments appeared. A distinct terminal region became manifest in the second phase. During the second and third phases growth coefficients for individual segments were about 1.1-1.2 per instar. Although the shapes of segments varied during growth, the pattern of ontogenetic shape change appears to have been broadly similar among segments. This suggests an homonomous trunk segment morphology regardless of thoracic or caudal identity in maturity. These results imply that control of trunk exoskeletal segment appearance and articulation were decoupled in this trilobite, and that the terminal region had a distinct mature morphology. H. plicamarginis is described as a new species. ?? Blackwell Publishing, Inc.

  15. Metals in the caudal scutes of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) from the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillanes, C E; Pérez-Jiménez, J C; Rosíles-Martínez, R; González-Jáuregui, M

    2014-10-01

    Caudal scutes were collected from 92 Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) between May and August 2012, in three Wildlife Management and Use Units (UMAs, from its name in Spanish) and three wild sites in Campeche, Mexico. The UMAs are intensive, with an ex situ approach to manage crocodiles in captivity. The concentrations of arsenic, mercury, lead, nickel, cadmium and chromium were analyzed in each sample. As and Pb were detected in all samples, Hg in 86 and Ni in 74. The metal concentrations estimated were higher than most of the concentrations reported for skin, tail tip and caudal scutes in other crocodilians around the world. The concentration of As, Pb and Ni was significantly greater in the free-ranging groups than in the captive groups in UMAs (p < 0.05). Negative linear relationship was estimated between the snout-vent length and the concentration of Pb (in five groups) and Ni (in three groups). In this region C. moreletii is exposed to metals contamination and more studies are necessary to establish if represents a risk to their populations.

  16. Parametric study of the swimming performance of a fish robot propelled by a flexible caudal fin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, K H; Chong, C W

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to study the swimming performance of fish robots by using a statistical approach. A fish robot employing a carangiform swimming mode had been used as an experimental platform for the performance study. The experiments conducted aim to investigate the effect of various design parameters on the thrust capability of the fish robot with a flexible caudal fin. The controllable parameters associated with the fin include frequency, amplitude of oscillation, aspect ratio and the rigidity of the caudal fin. The significance of these parameters was determined in the first set of experiments by using a statistical approach. A more detailed parametric experimental study was then conducted with only those significant parameters. As a result, the parametric study could be completed with a reduced number of experiments and time spent. With the obtained experimental result, we were able to understand the relationship between various parameters and a possible adjustment of parameters to obtain a higher thrust. The proposed statistical method for experimentation provides an objective and thorough analysis of the effects of individual or combinations of parameters on the swimming performance. Such an efficient experimental design helps to optimize the process and determine factors that influence variability.

  17. Caudal duplication syndrome: imaging evaluation of a rare entity in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianshen Hu, BS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several theories have been put forth to explain the complex yet symmetrical malformations and the myriad of clinical presentations of caudal duplication syndrome. Hereby, reported case is a 28-year-old female, gravida 2 para 2, with congenital caudal malformation who has undergone partial reconstructive surgeries in infancy to connect her 2 colons. She presented with recurrent left lower abdominal pain associated with nausea, vomiting, and subsequent feculent anal discharge. Imaging reveals duplication of the urinary bladder, urethra, and colon with with cloacal malformations and fistulae from the left-sided cloaca, uterus didelphys with separate cervices and vaginal canals, right-sided aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta, and dysraphic midline sacrococcygeal defect. Hydronephrosis of the left kidney with left hydroureter and inflammation of one of the colons were suspected to be the cause of the patient’s acute complaints. She improved symptomatically over the course of her hospitalization stay with conservative treatments. The management for this syndrome is individualized and may include surgical intervention to fuse or excise the duplicated organs.

  18. Norepinephrine accumulation by the rat caudal artery in the presence of hypertensive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freas, W.; Thompson, D.A.; Hart, J.L.; Muldoon, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    We have partially isolated endogenous factors from canine plasma which inhibit 3 H-norepinephrine (NE) accumulation by the canine saphenous vein. The purpose of this study is to determine if these circulating factors may account for the observed differences in 3 H-NE uptake by hypertensive and normotensive blood vessels. Three models of hypertension were examined in this study. Blood vessels were compared from SHR and WKY rats, deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and control rats, and reduced renal mass (RRM) and control rats. There was no significant difference in 3 H-NE accumulation between blood vessels obtained from RRM and paired control rats. However, both the SHR and DOCA hypertensive caudal arteries and aorta accumulated significantly more 3 H-NE than their corresponding control tissues. There was not a significant change in 3 H-NE accumulation between hypertensive and control vena cava and mesenteric arteries. Normotensive and hypertensive plasma inhibited 3 H-NE accumulation by the rat caudal artery. However, there was not a correlation between blood pressure of plasma donor rats and accumulation of 3 H-NE. Therefore, although there are differences in 3 H-NE accumulation between hypertensive and normotensive blood vessels, plasma does not contain a factor responsible for this observed difference

  19. Alteration of Na-K pump activity in supersensitive rat caudal artery following 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.K.; Foley, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Contractile response and the Na-K pump activity, measured as ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb-uptake, were determined in caudal artery strips of rats pretreated with 6-OHDA. At 6-7 days after 6-OHDA treatment, the potencies of norepinephrine and serotonin in causing contraction of rat caudal artery were significantly increased by 2.3 - and 1.7 - fold respectively. There was, however, no change in maximum contractile response to either agent. Treatment with 6-OHDA also reduced endogenous catecholamine content of the caudal artery to 7% of the control. Analysis of ouabain-inhibitable 86 Rb-uptake of rat caudal artery by the double-reciprocal plots showed that both the rate of 86 Rb-uptake and the affinity for rubidium were depressed after 6-OHDA treatment. The results indicate that 6-OHDA induced supersensitivity in the rat caudal artery is associated with a decrease in the Na-K pump activity. These data provide additional support to the concept that inhibition of the Na-K pump may result in partial depolarization of the cell membrane which leads to supersensitivity of smooth muscle to excitatory drugs

  20. Efficacy of clonidine as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in children undergoing sub-umbilical surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Parameswari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Caudal epidural analgesia with bupivacaine is very popular in paediatric anaesthesia for providing intra- and postoperative analgesia. Several adjuvants have been used to prolong the action of bupivacaine. We evaluated the efficacy of clonidine added to bupivacaine in prolonging the analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine in children undergoing sub-umbilical surgery. One hundred children, age one to three years, undergoing sub-umbilical surgery, were prospectively randomized to one of two groups: caudal analgesia with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine in normal saline (Group A or caudal analgesia with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine with 1 μg/kg of clonidine in normal saline (Group B. Post-operative pain was assessed for 24 hours using the FLACC scale. The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer in Group B (593.4 ± 423.3 min than in Group A (288.7 ± 259.1 min; P < 0.05. The pain score assessed using FLACC scale was compared between the two groups, and children in Group B had lower pain scores, which was statistically significant. The requirement of rescue medicine was lesser in Group B. Clonidine in a dose of 1 μg/kg added to 0.25% bupivacaine for caudal analgesia, during sub-umbilical surgeries, prolongs the duration of analgesia of bupivacaine, without any side effects.

  1. Sirenomelia phenotype in bmp7;shh compound mutants: a novel experimental model for studies of caudal body malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Allepuz, Carlos; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Ros, Maria A

    2012-01-01

    Sirenomelia is a severe congenital malformation of the lower body characterized by the fusion of the legs into a single lower limb. This striking external phenotype consistently associates severe visceral abnormalities, most commonly of the kidneys, intestine, and genitalia that generally make the condition lethal. Although the causes of sirenomelia remain unknown, clinical studies have yielded two major hypotheses: i) a primary defect in the generation of caudal mesoderm, ii) a primary vascular defect that leaves the caudal part of the embryo hypoperfused. Interestingly, Sirenomelia has been shown to have a genetic basis in mice, and although it has been considered a sporadic condition in humans, recently some possible familial cases have been reported. Here, we report that the removal of one or both functional alleles of Shh from the Bmp7-null background leads to a sirenomelia phenotype that faithfully replicates the constellation of external and internal malformations, typical of the human condition. These mutants represent an invaluable model in which we have analyzed the pathogenesis of sirenomelia. We show that the signaling defect predominantly impacts the morphogenesis of the hindgut and the development of the caudal end of the dorsal aortas. The deficient formation of ventral midline structures, including the interlimb mesoderm caudal to the umbilicus, leads to the approximation and merging of the hindlimb fields. Our study provides new insights for the understanding of the mechanisms resulting in caudal body malformations, including sirenomelia.

  2. Sirenomelia phenotype in bmp7;shh compound mutants: a novel experimental model for studies of caudal body malformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Garrido-Allepuz

    Full Text Available Sirenomelia is a severe congenital malformation of the lower body characterized by the fusion of the legs into a single lower limb. This striking external phenotype consistently associates severe visceral abnormalities, most commonly of the kidneys, intestine, and genitalia that generally make the condition lethal. Although the causes of sirenomelia remain unknown, clinical studies have yielded two major hypotheses: i a primary defect in the generation of caudal mesoderm, ii a primary vascular defect that leaves the caudal part of the embryo hypoperfused. Interestingly, Sirenomelia has been shown to have a genetic basis in mice, and although it has been considered a sporadic condition in humans, recently some possible familial cases have been reported. Here, we report that the removal of one or both functional alleles of Shh from the Bmp7-null background leads to a sirenomelia phenotype that faithfully replicates the constellation of external and internal malformations, typical of the human condition. These mutants represent an invaluable model in which we have analyzed the pathogenesis of sirenomelia. We show that the signaling defect predominantly impacts the morphogenesis of the hindgut and the development of the caudal end of the dorsal aortas. The deficient formation of ventral midline structures, including the interlimb mesoderm caudal to the umbilicus, leads to the approximation and merging of the hindlimb fields. Our study provides new insights for the understanding of the mechanisms resulting in caudal body malformations, including sirenomelia.

  3. Dinosaur speed demon: the caudal musculature of Carnotaurus sastrei and implications for the evolution of South American abelisaurids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Scott Persons

    Full Text Available In the South American abelisaurids Carnotaurus sastrei, Aucasaurus garridoi, and, to a lesser extent Skorpiovenator bustingorryi, the anterior caudal ribs project at a high dorsolateral inclination and have interlocking lateral tips. This unique morphology facilitated the expansion of the caudal hypaxial musculature at the expense of the epaxial musculature. Distinct ridges on the ventrolateral surfaces of the caudal ribs of Aucasaurus garridoi are interpreted as attachment scars from the intra caudofemoralis/ilio-ischiocaudalis septa, and confirm that the M. caudofemoralis of advanced South American abelisaurids originated from a portion of the caudal ribs. Digital muscle models indicate that, relative to its overall body size, Carnotaurus sastrei had a substantially larger M. caudofemoralis than any other theropod yet studied. In most non-avian theropods, as in many extant sauropsids, the M. caudofemoralis served as the primary femoral retractor muscle during the locomotive power stroke. This large investment in the M. caudofemoralis suggests that Carnotaurus sastrei had the potential for great cursorial abilities, particularly short-burst sprinting. However, the tightly interlocking morphology of the anterior caudal vertebrae implies a reduced ability to make tight turns. Examination of these vertebral traits in evolutionary context reveals a progressive sequence of increasing caudofemoral mass and tail rigidity among the Abelisauridae of South America.

  4. Anterior spinal cord syndrome of unknown etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Klakeel, Merrine; Thompson, Justin; Srinivasan, Rajashree; McDonald, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A spinal cord injury encompasses a physical insult to the spinal cord. In the case of anterior spinal cord syndrome, the insult is a vascular lesion at the anterior spinal artery. We present the cases of two 13-year-old boys with anterior spinal cord syndrome, along with a review of the anatomy and vasculature of the spinal cord and an explanation of how a lesion in the cord corresponds to anterior spinal cord syndrome.

  5. Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) Recurrence after Amputation for CRPS, and Failure of Conventional Spinal Cord Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Andreas; Lewis, Sarah; Phillip, Rhodri; Sharma, Manohar

    2018-01-01

    Limb amputation is sometimes being performed in long-standing complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), although little evidence is available guiding management decisions, including how CRPS recurrence should be managed. This report details the management of a young soldier with CRPS recurrence 2 years after midtibial amputation for CRPS. Conventional spinal cord stimulation did not achieve paraesthetic coverage, or pain relief in the stump, whereas L4 dorsal root ganglion stimulation achieved both coverage and initially modest pain relief, and over time, substantial pain relief. Current evidence does not support the use of amputation to improve either pain or function in CRPS. Before a decision is made, in exceptional cases, about referral for amputation, dorsal root ganglion stimulation should be considered as a potentially effective treatment, even where conventional spinal cord stimulator treatment has failed to achieve reliable paraesthetic cover. Furthermore, this treatment may provide pain relief in those patients with CRPS recurrence in the stump after amputation. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  6. Lumbar spinal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Spinal stenosis, which has attracted increasing attention in recent years, represents an important group of clinical and radiologic entities. Recognition and ultimate surgical management of the many abnormalities found in this group require precise preoperative delineation of the morbid anatomy. Conventional axial tomography provided the first accurate picture of the sagittal dimension, but it was limited by poor contrast resolution. Computerized tomography and ultrasound have finally provided the means for accurate measurement of midsagittal diameter and surface area. It is now possible to provide a preoperative assessment of bony and soft-tissue canal compression and to guide surgical decompression by objective anatomic measurements. True spinal stenosis of the lumbar vertebral canal is a form of compression produced by the walls of the vertebral canal. It involves the whole of the vertebral canal by exerting compression at two of its opposite surfaces. There are two types of stenosis: (1) transport stenosis, wherein the clinical manifestations are due to impeded flow of fluid, which is dependent on the available cross-sectional area of the canal surface of the stenotic structure, and (2) compressive stenosis, which includes abnormal compression of opposing surfaces only. According to these definitions, indentation on the spinal canal by disc protrusion or localized tumor is not considered true spinal stenoses. In this chapter the authors discuss only those conditions that produce true canal stenosis

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work ... cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After ... program? play_arrow What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When ...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When ...

  11. Occult spinal dysraphism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paediatricians, paediatric neurosurgeons, urologists, orthopaedic surgeons, occupational ... Occult spinal dysraphism refers to a diverse group of congenital abnormalities resulting from varying degrees of disordered neuro- embryogenesis. Several terms have .... can image the whole spine. T1-weighted sagittal and axial ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW Marguerite David, ... injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  14. Maladaptive spinal plasticity opposes spinal learning and recovery in spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Adam R.; Huie, J. Russell; Crown, Eric D.; Baumbauer, Kyle M.; Hook, Michelle A.; Garraway, Sandra M.; Lee, Kuan H.; Hoy, Kevin C.; Grau, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. A mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustain several forms of learning and memory, including limb-position training. However, not all spinal plasticity promotes recovery of function. Central sensitization of nociceptive (pain) pathways in the spinal cord may emerge in response to various noxious inputs, demonstrating that plasticity within the spinal cord may contribute to maladaptive pain states. In this review we discuss interactions between adaptive and maladaptive forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord below the level of SCI. The literature demonstrates that activity-dependent plasticity within the spinal cord must be carefully tuned to promote adaptive spinal training. Prior work from our group has shown that stimulation that is delivered in a limb position-dependent manner or on a fixed interval can induce adaptive plasticity that promotes future spinal cord learning and reduces nociceptive hyper-reactivity. On the other hand, stimulation that is delivered in an unsynchronized fashion, such as randomized electrical stimulation or peripheral skin injuries, can generate maladaptive spinal plasticity that undermines future spinal cord learning, reduces recovery of locomotor function, and promotes nociceptive hyper-reactivity after SCI. We review these basic phenomena, how these findings relate to the broader spinal plasticity literature, discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and finally discuss implications of these and other findings for improved rehabilitative therapies after SCI. PMID

  15. Metameric pattern of intervertebral disc/vertebral body is generated independently of Mesp2/Ripply-mediated rostro-caudal patterning of somites in the mouse embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yu; Yasuhiko, Yukuto; Takahashi, Jun; Takada, Shinji; Johnson, Randy L; Saga, Yumiko; Kanno, Jun

    2013-08-15

    The vertebrae are derived from the sclerotome of somites. Formation of the vertebral body involves a process called resegmentation, by which the caudal half of a sclerotome is combined with the rostral half of the next sclerotome. To elucidate the relationship between resegmentation and rostro-caudal patterning of somite, we used the Uncx4.1-LacZ transgene to characterize the resegmentation process. Our observations suggested that in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, the Uncx4.1-expressing caudal sclerotome gave rise to the intervertebral disc (IVD) and rostral portion of the vertebral body (VB). In the cervical vertebrae, the Uncx4.1-expressing caudal sclerotome appeared to contribute to the IVD and both caudal and rostral ends of the VB. This finding suggests that the rostro-caudal gene expression boundary does not necessarily coincide with the resegmentation boundary. This conclusion was supported by analyses of Mesp2 KO and Ripply1/2 double KO embryos lacking rostral and caudal properties, respectively. Resegmentation was not observed in Mesp2 KO embryos, but both the IVD and whole VB were formed from the caudalized sclerotome. Expression analysis of IVD marker genes including Pax1 in the wild-type, Mesp2 KO, and Ripply1/2 DKO embryos also supported the idea that a metameric pattern of IVD/VB is generated independently of Mesp2/Ripply-mediated rostro-caudal patterning of somite. However, in the lumbar region, IVD differentiation appeared to be stimulated by the caudal property and suppressed by the rostral property. Therefore, we propose that rostro-caudal patterning of somites is not a prerequisite for metameric patterning of the IVD and VB, but instead required to stimulate IVD differentiation in the caudal half of the sclerotome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of pulse width and contact configuration on paresthesia coverage in spinal cord stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsheimer, Jan; Buitenweg, Jan R; Das, John; de Sutter, Paul; Manola, Ljubomir; Nuttin, Bart

    2011-05-01

    In spinal cord stimulation for the management of chronic, intractable pain, a satisfactory analgesic effect can be obtained only when the stimulation-induced paresthesias cover all painful body areas completely or partially. To investigate the effect of stimulus pulse width (PW) and contact configuration (CC) on the area of paresthesia (PA), perception threshold (VPT), discomfort threshold (VDT), and usage range (UR) in spinal cord stimulation. Chronic pain patients were tested during a follow-up visit. They were stimulated monopolarly and with the CC giving each patient the best analgesia. VPT, VDT, and UR were determined for PWs of 90, 210, and 450 microseconds. The paresthesia contours at VDT were drawn on a body map and digitized; PA was calculated; and its anatomic composition was described. The effects of PW and CC on PA, VPT, VDT, and UR were tested statistically. Twenty-four of 31 tests with low thoracic stimulation and 8 of 9 tests with cervical stimulation gave a significant extension of PA at increasing PW. In 14 of 18 tests (low thoracic), a caudal extension was obtained (primarily in L5-S2). In cervical stimulation the extension was predominantly caudal as well. In contrast to VPT and VDT, UR is not significantly different when stimulating with any CC. PA extends caudally with increasing PW. The mechanism includes that the larger and smaller dorsal column fibers have a different mediolateral distribution and that smaller dorsal column fibers have a smaller UR and can be activated only when PW is sufficiently large. A similar effect of CC on PA is unlikely as long as electrodes with a large intercontact distance are applied.

  17. Evaluation of caudal dexamethasone with ropivacaine for post-operative analgesia in paediatric herniotomies: A randomised controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Choudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Caudal analgesia is one of the most popular regional blocks in paediatric patients undergoing infra-umbilical surgeries but with the drawback of short duration of action after single shot local anaesthetic injection. We evaluated whether caudal dexamethasone 0.1 mg/kg as an adjuvant to the ropivacaine improved analgesic efficacy after paediatric herniotomies. Methods: Totally 128 patients of 1–5 years age group, American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I and II undergoing elective inguinal herniotomy were randomly allocated to two groups in double-blind manner. Group A received 1 ml/kg of 0.2% ropivacaine caudally and Group B received 1 ml/kg of 0.2% ropivacaine, in which 0.1 mg/kg dexamethasone was added for caudal analgesia. Post operative pain by faces, legs, activity, cry and consolability tool score, rescue analgesic requirement and adverse effects were noted for 24 h. Results: Results were statistically analysed using Student's t-test. Pain scores measured at 1, 2, 4, and 6 h post-operative, were lower in Group B as compared to Group A. Mean duration of analgesia in Group A was 248.4 ± 54.1 min and in Group B was 478.046 ± 104.57 min with P = 0.001. Rescue analgesic requirement was more in Group A as compared to Group B. Adverse effects after surgery were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: Caudal dexamethasone added to ropivacaine is a good alternative to prolong post-operative analgesia with less pain score compared to caudal ropivacaine alone.

  18. Diurnal change in gonadotropic activity in cephalic and caudal lobes of anterior pituitary in capons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyoshi, Michiharu; Yoshihara, Masato; Tanaka, Katuhide

    1977-01-01

    Two groups of male white leghorn chickens were raised under two light regimens after hatch, 14 hr (0500 - 1900 hours) and 8 hr (0500 - 1300 hours) lighting per day, respectively. Both groups were caponized at 4 weeks of the age. At 10 weeks of the age, the anterior pituitaries were excised at different times during 24 hr period, and the gonadotropic activities of the cephalic and caudal lobes of anterior pituitary were measured by the bioassay of 32 D-uptake in chick test. In the 14 hr lighting per day group, peak gonadotropic activity was observed at 1100 hour (6 hr of lighting) in both lobes, but in the 8 hr lighting per day group, no peak was observed. The diurnal change of pituitary gonadotropic activity may be related to the photoperiod. (Mori, K.)

  19. EVALUACIÓN DEL COMPORTAMIENTO HIDRÁULICO DE DOCE MODELOS DE GOTEROS DE BAJO CAUDAL

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor J., Rocío; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú.; Narro D., Ángel; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    La investigación se realizó en el laboratorio de Riego y Drenaje de la Facultad de Ingeniería Agrícola, de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. El objetivo fue determinar el coeficiente de variación y las curvas caudal-presión de 12 modelos de goteros. Las mangueras fueron evaluadas en un banco de pruebas que consta de una estructura de soporte que sostiene a la bandeja de captación. Las dimensiones son 2,0 m de largo por 1,0 m de ancho y la estructura de conducción de 0,45 m de largo p...

  20. Caudal regression syndrome and sirenomelia in only one twin in two diabetic pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assimakopoulos, E; Athanasiadis, A; Zafrakas, M; Dragoumis, K; Bontis, J

    2004-01-01

    Many authors consider sirenomelia to be an extreme form of caudal regression syndrome (CRS), while others argue that they are two distinct entities. Maternal diabetes mellitus is considered to be an important predisposing factor for both CRS and sirenomelia. Two rare cases of diabetic, dizygotic twin pregnancies, each with one normal and one affected fetus are presented. In case 1 the affected fetus had CRS. In case 2 the affected fetus had sirenomelia. The present cases suggest that the pathogenesis of CRS and sirenomelia is more complex than previously thought, that maternal diabetes is not the only underlying pathogenetic mechanism and that genetic or epigenetic factors probably contribute to the formation of these conditions.

  1. Acute traumatic brain-stem hemorrhage produced by sudden caudal displacement of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirvis, S.E.; Wolf, A.L.; Thompson, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines in an experimental canine study and a clinical review, whether acute caudal displacement of the brain following blunt trauma produces hemorrhage in the rostral anterior midline of the brain stem by tethering the basilar to the fixed carotid arteries. In four dogs, a balloon catheter was suddenly inflated over the frontal lobe; in two, the carotid-basilar vascular connections were severed prior to balloon inflation. ICP was monitored during and after balloon inflation. Hemorrhage was verified by MR imaging and direct inspection of the fixed brain specimens. Admission CT scans demonstrating acute traumatic brain stem hemorrhage (TBH) in human patients were reviewed to determine the site of TBH, predominant site of impact, and neurologic outcome

  2. Fluoroscopically guided tunneled trans-caudal epidural catheter technique for opioid-free neonatal epidural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Andrew D; Hughes, Elisabeth M

    2016-06-01

    Epidural analgesia confers significant perioperative advantages to neonates undergoing surgical procedures but may be very technically challenging to place using a standard interlaminar loss-of-resistance to saline technique given the shallow depth of the epidural space. Thoracic epidural catheters placed via the caudal route may reduce the risk of direct neural injury from needle placement, but often pose higher risks of infection and/or improper positioning if placed without radiographic guidance. We present a detailed method of placing a fluoroscopically guided, tunneled transcaudal epidural catheter, which may reduce both of these risks. The accuracy and precision of this technique often provides adequate analgesia to allow for opioid-free epidural infusions as well as significant reductions in systemic opioids through the perioperative period. Opioid-free analgesia using a regional anesthetic technique allows for earlier extubation and reduced perioperative sedation, which may have a less deleterious neurocognitive effect on the developing brain of the neonate.

  3. Differential diagnoses of spinal tumors; Differenzialdiagnose spinaler Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, U. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    A wide variety of degenerative, inflammatory and vascular diseases can resemble the clinical presentation and imaging findings of spinal tumors. This article provides an overview of the most frequent diseases which are important to recognize for diagnostic imaging of the spine. (orig.) [German] Eine Vielzahl degenerativer, entzuendlicher und vaskulaerer Erkrankungen kann das klinische Bild und radiologische Befunde spinaler Tumoren imitieren. Dieser Artikel dient der Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten dieser Erkrankungen, deren Kenntnis wichtig fuer die spinale Bildgebung ist. (orig.)

  4. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.rainwater@tiehh.ttu.edu; Wu, Ted H. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Yu Lu [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Reynolds, Kevin D. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Barr, Brady [National Geographic Channel, 1145 17th St. NW Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States); Cobb, George P. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  5. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainwater, Thomas R.; Wu, Ted H.; Finger, Adam G.; Canas, Jaclyn E.; Yu Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D.; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G.; Cobb, George P.; Anderson, Todd A.; McMurry, Scott T.

    2007-01-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations

  6. Conserved size and periodicity of pyramidal patches in layer 2 of medial/caudal entorhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Robert K; Ray, Saikat; Prokop, Stefan; Las, Liora; Heppner, Frank L; Brecht, Michael

    2016-03-01

    To understand the structural basis of grid cell activity, we compare medial entorhinal cortex architecture in layer 2 across five mammalian species (Etruscan shrews, mice, rats, Egyptian fruit bats, and humans), bridging ∼100 million years of evolutionary diversity. Principal neurons in layer 2 are divided into two distinct cell types, pyramidal and stellate, based on morphology, immunoreactivity, and functional properties. We confirm the existence of patches of calbindin-positive pyramidal cells across these species, arranged periodically according to analyses techniques like spatial autocorrelation, grid scores, and modifiable areal unit analysis. In rodents, which show sustained theta oscillations in entorhinal cortex, cholinergic innervation targeted calbindin patches. In bats and humans, which only show intermittent entorhinal theta activity, cholinergic innervation avoided calbindin patches. The organization of calbindin-negative and calbindin-positive cells showed marked differences in entorhinal subregions of the human brain. Layer 2 of the rodent medial and the human caudal entorhinal cortex were structurally similar in that in both species patches of calbindin-positive pyramidal cells were superimposed on scattered stellate cells. The number of calbindin-positive neurons in a patch increased from ∼80 in Etruscan shrews to ∼800 in humans, only an ∼10-fold over a 20,000-fold difference in brain size. The relatively constant size of calbindin patches differs from cortical modules such as barrels, which scale with brain size. Thus, selective pressure appears to conserve the distribution of stellate and pyramidal cells, periodic arrangement of calbindin patches, and relatively constant neuron number in calbindin patches in medial/caudal entorhinal cortex. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Conserved size and periodicity of pyramidal patches in layer 2 of medial/caudal entorhinal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Robert K.; Ray, Saikat; Prokop, Stefan; Las, Liora; Heppner, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To understand the structural basis of grid cell activity, we compare medial entorhinal cortex architecture in layer 2 across five mammalian species (Etruscan shrews, mice, rats, Egyptian fruit bats, and humans), bridging ∼100 million years of evolutionary diversity. Principal neurons in layer 2 are divided into two distinct cell types, pyramidal and stellate, based on morphology, immunoreactivity, and functional properties. We confirm the existence of patches of calbindin‐positive pyramidal cells across these species, arranged periodically according to analyses techniques like spatial autocorrelation, grid scores, and modifiable areal unit analysis. In rodents, which show sustained theta oscillations in entorhinal cortex, cholinergic innervation targeted calbindin patches. In bats and humans, which only show intermittent entorhinal theta activity, cholinergic innervation avoided calbindin patches. The organization of calbindin‐negative and calbindin‐positive cells showed marked differences in entorhinal subregions of the human brain. Layer 2 of the rodent medial and the human caudal entorhinal cortex were structurally similar in that in both species patches of calbindin‐positive pyramidal cells were superimposed on scattered stellate cells. The number of calbindin‐positive neurons in a patch increased from ∼80 in Etruscan shrews to ∼800 in humans, only an ∼10‐fold over a 20,000‐fold difference in brain size. The relatively constant size of calbindin patches differs from cortical modules such as barrels, which scale with brain size. Thus, selective pressure appears to conserve the distribution of stellate and pyramidal cells, periodic arrangement of calbindin patches, and relatively constant neuron number in calbindin patches in medial/caudal entorhinal cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:783–806, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26223342

  8. Caudal dysplasia syndrome and sirenomelia: are they part of a spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Jocelyn H; Romaguera, Rita L; Rodriguez, Maria M; González-Quintero, Víctor H; Azouz, E Michel

    2009-01-01

    Caudal dysplasia syndrome (CDS) is associated with hypoplastic lower extremities, caudal vertebrae, sacrum, neural tube, and urogenital organs. Sirenomelia is characterized by a single lower extremity, absent sacrum, urogenital anomalies, and imperforate anus. There is controversy in the medical literature about whether sirenomelia and CDS are part of the spectrum of the same malformation. Patients with CDS and sirenomelia were identified from our pathology files from 1991 to 2006. Maternal history, pathologic examination, and radiographs were collected and tabulated. We found 9 cases with CDS and 6 with sirenomelia. Fully 7 of 9 patients with CDS (77.7%) versus none of sirenomelic babies were infants of diabetic mothers. Congenital heart disease was present in 5 patients with CDS (55.5%) and none of the infants with sirenomelia. Of 9 children with CDS 2 (22.2%) had bilateral renal agenesis versus 66% of sirenomelics. Single umbilical artery was found in 33% of cases with CDS and 100% of children with sirenomelia. External genitalia were ambiguous in 2 of 9 patients (22.2%) with CDS and in all patients with sirenomelia. Imperforate anus was found in 10 cases (66.6%) divided as 4 of 9 babies with CDS (44.4%) and all patients with sirenomelia. Three patients with CDS had concomitant maternal diabetes mellitus and chronic hypertension. These babies also had cleft lip and palate. Congenital heart disease was found in 55.5% of cases with CDS and none of the children with sirenomelia. We conclude that although CDS and sirenomelia share many similar features, they are two different entities.

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE ANALGESIC EFFICACY OF CAUDAL MIDAZOLAM AND CLONIDINE POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalinga Raju A.V.S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Caudal epidural analgesia is one of the most popular regional techniques used in paediatric patients undergoing lower limb, anoperineal and abdominal surgical procedures for postoperative pain relief. The aim of postoperative pain relief is to provide subjective comfort and inhibit trauma-induced nociceptive impulses to blunt autonomic and reflex responses to pain and subsequently to enhance the restoration of function. Caudal epidural analgesia though practiced widely is of short duration even when used with long-acting local anaesthetics. MATERIALS AND METHODS Children of either sex undergoing elective hernia or hydrocele surgery within in the age group of 2-8 years belonging to ASA I and II were included in the study. Informed consent was obtained from the parents before procedure. RESULTS The duration of analgesia in the study group was 10.14 ± 4.69 hrs. and 6.83 ± 0.79 hrs. in the clonidine group and midazolam group. Duration of analgesia in clonidine group was significantly longer when compared to with midazolam group with a p value of <0.05. Sedation Score- There was decrease in heart rate and mean arterial pressure from baseline, but these were under allowable limits of 20%. The patient had pain scores of less than 8 for first 6-8 hrs. The patients were well sedated and were easily arousable. CONCLUSION We conclude that in our study we found that clonidine 8 μg/kg provided good analgesia for a longer duration when compared with midazolam. Clonidine also provided good sedation with minimal haemodynamic variations. This is in agreement with studies conducted to know haemodynamic stability with higher doses of clonidine.

  10. Modified fenestration with restorative spinoplasty for lumbar spinal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Ko; Yamazaki, Takashi; Seichi, Atsushi; Hoshi, Kazuto; Hara, Nobuhiro; Ogiwara, Satoshi; Terayama, Sei; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Takeshita, Katsushi; Nakamura, Kozo

    2009-06-01

    The authors developed an original procedure, modified fenestration with restorative spinoplasty (MFRS) for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. The first step is to cut the spinous process in an L-shape, which is caudally reflected. This procedure allows easy access to the spinal canal, including lateral recesses, and makes it easy to perform a trumpet-style decompression of the nerve roots without violating the facet joints. After the decompression of neural tissues, the spinous process is anatomically restored (spinoplasty). The clinical outcomes at 2 years were evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scale and patients' satisfaction. Radiological follow-up included radiographs and CT. Between January 2000 and December 2002, 109 patients with neurogenic intermittent claudication with or without mild spondylolisthesis underwent MFRS. Of these, 101 were followed up for at least 2 years (follow-up rate 93%). The average score on the self-administered JOA scale in 89 patients without comorbidity causing gait disturbance improved from 13.3 preoperatively to 22.9 at 2 years' follow-up. Neurogenic intermittent claudication disappeared in all cases. The patients' assessment of treatment satisfaction was "satisfied" in 74 cases, "slightly satisfied" in 12, "slightly dissatisfied" in 2, and "dissatisfied" in 1 case. In 16 cases (18%), a minimum progression of slippage occurred, but no symptomatic instability or recurrent stenosis was observed. Computed tomography showed that the lateral part of the facet joints was well preserved, and the mean residual ratio was 80%. The MFRS technique produces an adequate and safe decompression of the spinal canal, even in patients with narrow and steep facet joints in whom conventional fenestration is technically demanding.

  11. Corticotrigeminal Projections from the Insular Cortex to the Trigeminal Caudal Subnucleus Regulate Orofacial Pain after Nerve Injury via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation in Insular Cortex Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Zhi-Hua; Feng, Ban; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Han; Li, Hui; Chen, Tao; Cui, Jing; Zang, Wei-Dong; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cortical neuroplasticity alterations are implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic orofacial pain. However, the relationship between critical cortex excitability and orofacial pain maintenance has not been fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated a top-down corticospinal descending pain modulation pathway from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the spinal dorsal horn that could directly regulate nociceptive transmission. Thus, we aimed to investigate possible corticotrigeminal connections that directly influence orofacial nociception in rats. Infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI) induced significant orofacial nociceptive behaviors as well as pain-related negative emotions such as anxiety/depression in rats. By combining retrograde and anterograde tract tracing, we found powerful evidence that the trigeminal caudal subnucleus (Vc), especially the superficial laminae (I/II), received direct descending projections from granular and dysgranular parts of the insular cortex (IC). Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), an important signaling molecule involved in neuroplasticity, was significantly activated in the IC following IoN-CCI. Moreover, in IC slices from IoN-CCI rats, U0126, an inhibitor of ERK activation, decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and reduced the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) of Vc-projecting neurons. Additionally, U0126 also reduced the number of action potentials in the Vc-projecting neurons. Finally, intra-IC infusion of U0126 obviously decreased Fos expression in the Vc, accompanied by the alleviation of both nociceptive behavior and negative emotions. Thus, the corticotrigeminal descending pathway from the IC to the Vc could directly regulate orofacial pain, and ERK deactivation in the IC could effectively alleviate neuropathic pain as well as pain-related negative emotions in IoN-CCI rats, probably through this top-down pathway. These findings may help

  12. Changes in spinal alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veintemillas Aráiz, M T; Beltrán Salazar, V P; Rivera Valladares, L; Marín Aznar, A; Melloni Ribas, P; Valls Pascual, R

    2016-04-01

    Spinal misalignments are a common reason for consultation at primary care centers and specialized departments. Misalignment has diverse causes and is influenced by multiple factors: in adolescence, the most frequent misalignment is scoliosis, which is idiopathic in 80% of cases and normally asymptomatic. In adults, the most common cause is degenerative. It is important to know the natural history and to detect factors that might predict progression. The correct diagnosis of spinal deformities requires specific imaging studies. The degree of deformity determines the type of treatment. The aim is to prevent progression of the deformity and to recover the flexibility and balance of the body. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute spinal cord injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Izunaga, H.; Sato, R.; Shinzato, I.; Korogi, Y.; Yamashita, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on sequential MR images and neurologic findings that were correlated in 40 acute spinal cord injuries. Within 1 week after injury, frequent initial MR changes appeared isointense on both T1- and T2-weighted images and isointense on T1- and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. After 2 months, hypointensity appeared on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity persisted or appeared on T2-weighted images. Clinical improvements were observed in patients with isointensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images at the initial examination. A larger area of hyperintensity on subsequent T2-weighted images was correlated with no neurologic improvement. MR findings were good indicators of the spinal cord injury

  14. Spinal trauma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, C.; Carty, H.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of the child with suspected spinal injury can be a difficult task for the radiologist. Added to the problems posed by lack of familiarity with the normal appearances of the paediatric spine is anxiety about missing a potentially significant injury resulting in neurological damage. Due to differences in anatomy and function, the pattern of injury in the paediatric spine is different from that in the adolescent or adult. Lack of appreciation of these differences may lead to over investigation and inappropriate treatment. This review attempts to clarify some of the problems frequently encountered. It is based on a review of the literature as well as personal experience. The normal appearances and variants of the spine in children, the mechanisms and patterns of injury are reviewed highlighting the differences between children and adults. Specific fractures, a practical scheme for the assessment of spinal radiographs in children, and the role of cross sectional imaging are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Imaging of Spinal Metastatic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubdha M. Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastases to the spine can involve the bone, epidural space, leptomeninges, and spinal cord. The spine is the third most common site for metastatic disease, following the lung and the liver. Approximately 60–70% of patients with systemic cancer will have spinal metastasis. Materials/Methods. This is a review of the imaging techniques and typical imaging appearances of spinal metastatic disease. Conclusions. Awareness of the different manifestations of spinal metastatic disease is essential as the spine is the most common site of osseous metastatic disease. Imaging modalities have complimentary roles in the evaluation of spinal metastatic disease. CT best delineates osseous integrity, while MRI is better at assessing soft tissue involvement. Physiologic properties, particularly in treated disease, can be evaluated with other imaging modalities such as FDG PET and advanced MRI sequences. Imaging plays a fundamental role in not only diagnosis but also treatment planning of spinal metastatic disease.

  16. Motor cortex and spinal cord neuromodulation promote corticospinal tract axonal outgrowth and motor recovery after cervical contusion spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareen, N; Shinozaki, M; Ryan, D; Alexander, H; Amer, A; Truong, D Q; Khadka, N; Sarkar, A; Naeem, S; Bikson, M; Martin, J H

    2017-11-01

    Cervical injuries are the most common form of SCI. In this study, we used a neuromodulatory approach to promote skilled movement recovery and repair of the corticospinal tract (CST) after a moderately severe C4 midline contusion in adult rats. We used bilateral epidural intermittent theta burst (iTBS) electrical stimulation of motor cortex to promote CST axonal sprouting and cathodal trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) to enhance spinal cord activation to motor cortex stimulation after injury. We used Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling to direct tsDCS to the cervical enlargement. Combined iTBS-tsDCS was delivered for 30min daily for 10days. We compared the effect of stimulation on performance in the horizontal ladder and the Irvine Beattie and Bresnahan forepaw manipulation tasks and CST axonal sprouting in injury-only and injury+stimulation animals. The contusion eliminated the dorsal CST in all animals. tsDCS significantly enhanced motor cortex evoked responses after C4 injury. Using this combined spinal-M1 neuromodulatory approach, we found significant recovery of skilled locomotion and forepaw manipulation skills compared with injury-only controls. The spared CST axons caudal to the lesion in both animal groups derived mostly from lateral CST axons that populated the contralateral intermediate zone. Stimulation enhanced injury-dependent CST axonal outgrowth below and above the level of the injury. This dual neuromodulatory approach produced partial recovery of skilled motor behaviors that normally require integration of posture, upper limb sensory information, and intent for performance. We propose that the motor systems use these new CST projections to control movements better after injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Spinal brucellosis: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelli Bouaziz, Mouna; Ladeb, Mohamed Fethi; Chakroun, Mohamed; Chaabane, Skander [Institut M T Kassab d' orthopedie, Department of Radiology, Ksar Said (Tunisia)

    2008-09-15

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, relatively frequent in Mediterranean countries and in the Middle East. It is a systemic infection, caused by facultative intra-cellular bacteria of the genus Brucella, that can involve many organs and tissues. The spine is the most common site of musculoskeletal involvement, followed by the sacroiliac joints. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and imaging features of spinal brucellosis. (orig.)

  18. Spinal brucellosis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelli Bouaziz, Mouna; Ladeb, Mohamed Fethi; Chakroun, Mohamed; Chaabane, Skander

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, relatively frequent in Mediterranean countries and in the Middle East. It is a systemic infection, caused by facultative intra-cellular bacteria of the genus Brucella, that can involve many organs and tissues. The spine is the most common site of musculoskeletal involvement, followed by the sacroiliac joints. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and imaging features of spinal brucellosis. (orig.)

  19. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  20. [Lumbar spinal angiolipoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, Alberto; Ortega Martinez, Rodrigo; Pérez López, Carlos; Gómez de la Riva, Alvaro; Mansilla, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are fairly infrequent benign tumours that are usually located in the epidural space of the thoracic column and represent 0.14% to 1.3% of all spinal tumours. Lumbar angiolipomas are extremely rare, representing only 9.6% of all spinal extradural angiolipomas. We report the case of a woman who complained of a lumbar pain of several months duration with no neurological focality and that had intensified in the last three days without her having had any injury or made a physical effort. The MR revealed an extradural mass L1-L2, on the posterior face of the medulla, decreasing the anteroposterior diameter of the canal. The patient symptoms improved after surgery. Total extirpation of the lesion is possible in most cases, and the prognosis is excellent even if the lesion is infiltrative. For this reason, excessively aggressive surgery is not necessary to obtain complete resection. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Spinal dermoid cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshihisa; Makita, Yasumasa; Nabeshima, Sachio; Tei, Taikyoku; Keyaki, Atsushi; Takahashi, Jun; Kawamura, Junichiro

    1987-01-01

    A 25-year-old male complained of intermittent, sharp pains about the left eye and in the left side of the chest. Neurological examination revealed paresthesia and impaired perception of touch and pin-pricks in the dermatomes of Th8 and Th9 on the left side. In all four extremities, the muscle stretch reflexes were equal and slightly hyperactive, without weakness or sensory deficits. Metrizamide myelography showed defective filling at the level between the upper 8th and 9th thoracic vertebrae. The lesion was also demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) scan performed 1 hour later, appearing as an oval, radiolucent mass in the left dorsal spinal canal, which compressed the spinal cord forward and toward the right. Serial sections of the spinal canal revealed the lesion to be partly filled with contrast medium. Repeat CT scan 24 hours after metrizamide myelography showed more contrast medium in the periphery of the lesion, giving it a doughnut-shaped appearance. At surgery a smooth-surfaced cyst containing sebum and white hair was totally removed from the intradural extramedullary space. The histological diagnosis was dermoid cyst. There have been a few reported cases of intracranial epidermoid cyst in which filling of the cyst was suggested on metrizamide CT myelography. These findings may complicate the differential diagnosis of arachnoid cyst and dermoid or epidermoid cyst when only CT is used. (author)

  2. Embolization of spinal arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Mi Young; Kim, Sun Yong; Park, Bok Hwan

    1990-01-01

    Recently, therapeutic embolization has been advocated as the treatment of choice for spinal AVM(arteriovenous malformations). The authors review our experience with two cases of spinal AVM treated by embolization using coaxial Tracker-18 microcatheter with Latvian. The patients included a 10 year old male with glomus type and a 14 year old female with juvenile type spinal AVM revealed recanalization 5 month later. Embolization provides curative or temporary treatment for spinal AVM. After embolic occlusion, delayed reassessment with arteriography is indicated, particularly if symptoms persist or recur

  3. Pitch Variability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; van Doorn, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) pitch characteristics of connected speech in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The authors evaluated 16 patients preoperatively and 12 months after DBS surgery. Eight…

  4. Lateral prefrontal cortex is organized into parallel dorsal and ventral streams along the rostro-caudal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Robert S; Nomura, Emi M; Gratton, Caterina; D'Esposito, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Anatomical connectivity differences between the dorsal and ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the non-human primate strongly suggests that these regions support different functions. However, after years of study, it remains unclear whether these regions are functionally distinct. In contrast, there has been a groundswell of recent studies providing evidence for a rostro-caudal functional organization, along the lateral as well as dorsomedial frontal cortex. Thus, it is not known whether dorsal and ventral regions of lateral PFC form distinct functional networks and how to reconcile any dorso-ventral organization with the medio-lateral and rostro-caudal axes. Here, we used resting-state connectivity data to identify parallel dorsolateral and ventrolateral streams of intrinsic connectivity with the dorsomedial frontal cortex. Moreover, we show that this connectivity follows a rostro-caudal gradient. Our results provide evidence for a novel framework for the intrinsic organization of the frontal cortex that incorporates connections between medio-lateral, dorso-ventral, and rostro-caudal axes.

  5. Local injection of Lenti-Olig2 at lesion site promotes functional recovery of spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bo-Tao; Jiang, Long; Liu, Li; Yin, Ying; Luo, Ze-Ru-Xin; Long, Zai-Yun; Li, Sen; Yu, Le-Hua; Wu, Ya-Min; Liu, Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Olig2 is one of the most critical factors during CNS development, which belongs to b-HLH transcription factor family. Previous reports have shown that Olig2 regulates the remyelination processes in CNS demyelination diseases models. However, the role of Olig2 in contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and the possible therapeutic effects remain obscure. This study aims to investigate the effects of overexpression Olig2 by lentivirus on adult spinal cord injury rats. Lenti-Olig2 expression and control Lenti-eGFP vectors were prepared, and virus in a total of 5 μL (10 8 TU/mL) was locally injected into the injured spinal cord 1.5 mm rostral and caudal near the epicenter. Immunostaining, Western blot, electron microscopy, and CatWalk analyzes were employed to investigate the effects of Olig2 on spinal cord tissue repair and functional recovery. Injection of Lenti-Olig2 significantly increased the number of oligodendrocytes lineage cells and enhanced myelination after SCI. More importantly, the introduction of Olig2 greatly improved hindlimb locomotor performances. Other oligodendrocyte-related transcription factors, which were downregulated or upregulated after injury, were reversed by Olig2 induction. Our findings provided the evidence that overexpression Olig2 promotes myelination and locomotor recovery of contusion SCI, which gives us more understanding of Olig2 on spinal cord injury treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Imaging procedures in spinal infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiek, S.O.

    2001-01-01

    A targeted successful treatment of spinal infectious diseases requires clinical and laboratory data that are completed by the contribution of imaging procedures. Neuroimaging only provides essential informations on the correct topography, localisation, acuity and differential diagnosis of spinal infectious lesions. MRI with its sensitivity concerning soft tissue lesions is a useful tool in detecting infectious alterations of spinal bone marrow, intervertebral disks, leptomeninges and the spinal cord itself. Crucial imaging patterns of typical spinal infections are displayed and illustrated by clinical case studies. We present pyogenic, granulomatous and postoperative variants of spondylodicitis, spinal epidural abscess, spinal meningitis and spinal cord infections. The importance of intravenous contrastmedia application is pointed out. (orig.) [de

  7. Computed tomography of the spinal canal for the cervical spine and spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Isao; Niimiya, Hikosuke; Nasu, Kichiro; Shioya, Akihide; Ohhama, Mitsuru

    1983-01-01

    The cervical spinal canal and cervical spinal cord were measured in normal cases and 34 cases of spinal or spinal cord injury. The anteroposterior diameter and area of the normal cervical spinal canal showed a high correlation. The area ratio of the normal cervical spinal canal to the cervical spinal cord showed that the proportion of the cervical spinal cord in the spinal canal was 1/3 - 1/5, Csub(4,5) showing a particularly large proportion. In acute and subacute spinal or spinal cord injury, CT visualized in more details of the spinal canal in cases that x-ray showed definite bone injuries. Computer assisted myelography visualized more clearly the condition of the spinal cord in cases without definite findings bone injuries on x-ray. Demonstrating the morphology of spinal injury in more details, CT is useful for selection of therapy for injured spines. (Chiba, N.)

  8. Electrode alignment of transverse tripoles using a percutaneous triple-lead approach in spinal cord stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankarasubramanian, V.; Buitenweg, J. R.; Holsheimer, J.; Veltink, P.

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this modeling study is to determine the influence of electrode alignment of transverse tripoles on the paresthesia coverage of the pain area in spinal cord stimulation, using a percutaneous triple-lead approach. Transverse tripoles, comprising a central cathode and two lateral anodes, were modeled on the low-thoracic vertebral region (T10-T12) using percutaneous triple-lead configurations, with the center lead on the spinal cord midline. The triple leads were oriented both aligned and staggered. In the staggered configuration, the anodes were offset either caudally (caudally staggered) or rostrally (rostrally staggered) with respect to the midline cathode. The transverse tripolar field steering with the aligned and staggered configurations enabled the estimation of dorsal column fiber thresholds (IDC) and dorsal root fiber thresholds (IDR) at various anodal current ratios. IDC and IDR were considerably higher for the aligned transverse tripoles as compared to the staggered transverse tripoles. The aligned transverse tripoles facilitated deeper penetration into the medial dorsal columns (DCs). The staggered transverse tripoles always enabled broad and bilateral DC activation, at the expense of mediolateral steerability. The largest DC recruited area was obtained with the rostrally staggered transverse tripole. Transverse tripolar geometries, using percutaneous leads, allow for selective targeting of either medial or lateral DC fibers, if and only if the transverse tripole is aligned. Steering of anodal currents between the lateral leads of the staggered transverse tripoles cannot target medially confined populations of DC fibers in the spinal cord. An aligned transverse tripolar configuration is strongly recommended, because of its ability to provide more post-operative flexibility than other configurations.

  9. Descending propriospinal neurons mediate restoration of locomotor function following spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthall, Katelyn N.; Hough, Ryan A.

    2016-01-01

    Following spinal cord injury (SCI) in the lamprey, there is virtually complete recovery of locomotion within a few weeks, but interestingly, axonal regeneration of reticulospinal (RS) neurons is mostly limited to short distances caudal to the injury site. To explain this situation, we hypothesize that descending propriospinal (PS) neurons relay descending drive from RS neurons to indirectly activate spinal central pattern generators (CPGs). In the present study, the contributions of PS neurons to locomotor recovery were tested in the lamprey following SCI. First, long RS neuron projections were interrupted by staggered spinal hemitransections on the right side at 10% body length (BL; normalized from the tip of the oral hood) and on the left side at 30% BL. For acute recovery conditions (≤1 wk) and before axonal regeneration, swimming muscle burst activity was relatively normal, but with some deficits in coordination. Second, lampreys received two spaced complete spinal transections, one at 10% BL and one at 30% BL, to interrupt long-axon RS neuron projections. At short recovery times (3–5 wk), RS and PS neurons will have regenerated their axons for short distances and potentially established a polysynaptic descending command pathway. At these short recovery times, swimming muscle burst activity had only minor coordination deficits. A computer model that incorporated either of the two spinal lesions could mimic many aspects of the experimental data. In conclusion, descending PS neurons are a viable mechanism for indirect activation of spinal locomotor CPGs, although there can be coordination deficits of locomotor activity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In the lamprey following spinal lesion-mediated interruption of long axonal projections of reticulospinal (RS) neurons, sensory stimulation still elicited relatively normal locomotor muscle burst activity, but with some coordination deficits. Computer models incorporating the spinal lesions could mimic many aspects of the

  10. Descending propriospinal neurons mediate restoration of locomotor function following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthall, Katelyn N; Hough, Ryan A; McClellan, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Following spinal cord injury (SCI) in the lamprey, there is virtually complete recovery of locomotion within a few weeks, but interestingly, axonal regeneration of reticulospinal (RS) neurons is mostly limited to short distances caudal to the injury site. To explain this situation, we hypothesize that descending propriospinal (PS) neurons relay descending drive from RS neurons to indirectly activate spinal central pattern generators (CPGs). In the present study, the contributions of PS neurons to locomotor recovery were tested in the lamprey following SCI. First, long RS neuron projections were interrupted by staggered spinal hemitransections on the right side at 10% body length (BL; normalized from the tip of the oral hood) and on the left side at 30% BL. For acute recovery conditions (≤1 wk) and before axonal regeneration, swimming muscle burst activity was relatively normal, but with some deficits in coordination. Second, lampreys received two spaced complete spinal transections, one at 10% BL and one at 30% BL, to interrupt long-axon RS neuron projections. At short recovery times (3-5 wk), RS and PS neurons will have regenerated their axons for short distances and potentially established a polysynaptic descending command pathway. At these short recovery times, swimming muscle burst activity had only minor coordination deficits. A computer model that incorporated either of the two spinal lesions could mimic many aspects of the experimental data. In conclusion, descending PS neurons are a viable mechanism for indirect activation of spinal locomotor CPGs, although there can be coordination deficits of locomotor activity. In the lamprey following spinal lesion-mediated interruption of long axonal projections of reticulospinal (RS) neurons, sensory stimulation still elicited relatively normal locomotor muscle burst activity, but with some coordination deficits. Computer models incorporating the spinal lesions could mimic many aspects of the experimental results

  11. Anatomical recovery of the GABAergic system after a complete spinal cord injury in lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaus-Sanjurjo, D; Valle-Maroto, S M; Barreiro-Iglesias, A; Fernández-López, B; Rodicio, M C

    2018-03-15

    Lampreys recover locomotion spontaneously several weeks after a complete spinal cord injury. Dysfunction of the GABAergic system following SCI has been reported in mammalian models. So, it is of great interest to understand how the GABAergic system of lampreys adapts to the post-injury situation and how this relates to spontaneous recovery. The spinal cord of lampreys contains 3 populations of GABAergic neurons and most of the GABAergic innervation of the spinal cord comes from these local cells. GABAB receptors are expressed in the spinal cord of lampreys and they play important roles in the control of locomotion. The aims of the present study were to quantify: 1) the changes in the number of GABAergic neurons and innervation of the spinal cord and 2) the changes in the expression of the gabab receptor subunits b1 and b2 in the spinal cord of the sea lamprey after SCI. We performed complete spinal cord transections at the level of the fifth gill of mature larval lampreys and GABA immunohistochemistry or gabab in situ hybridization experiments. Animals were analysed up to 10 weeks post-lesion (wpl), when behavioural analyses showed that they recovered normal appearing locomotion (stage 6 in the Ayer's scale of locomotor recovery). We observed a significant decrease in the number of GABA-ir cells and fibres 1 h after lesion both rostral and caudal to the lesion site. GABA-ir cell numbers and innervation were recovered to control levels 1 to 2 wpl. At 1, 4 and 10 wpl the expression of gabab1 and gabab2 transcripts was significantly decreased in the spinal cord compared to control un-lesioned animals. This is the first study reporting the quantitative long-term changes in the number of GABAergic cells and fibres and in the expression of gabab receptors in the spinal cord of any vertebrate following a traumatic SCI. Our results show that in lampreys there is a full recovery of the GABAergic neurons and a decrease in the expression of gabab receptors when functional

  12. Laparoscopic Radical Extended Right Hemicolectomy Using a Caudal-to-Cranial Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liaonan; Xiong, Wenjun; Mo, Delong; He, Yaobin; Li, Hongming; Tan, Ping; Wang, Wei; Wan, Jin

    2016-08-01

    Due to the emphasis of oncologic principle, a medial-to-lateral approach for laparoscopic right hemicolectomy was recommended.1 (,) 2 This approach, however, is technically challenging and involves several limitations with overweight patients, whose mesocolon may be too thick for identification of the vessel landmarks. Moreover, it is difficult for inexperienced surgeons to enter the retroperitoneum space accurately. This report describes a caudal-to-cranial approach for laparoscopic radical extended right hemicolectomy. First, a "yellow-white borderline" between the right mesostenium and retroperitoneum in the right iliac fossa is dissected as the entry for separation of the fusion fascial space between the visceral and parietal peritoneum.3 The right Toldt's fascia is dissected and expanded medial to the periphery of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV), cranial to the pancreas head, and lateral to the ascending colon. The posterior paries of ileocolic vessels (ICVs), right colic vessels (RCVs), and Henle's trunk are exposed. Second, the mesocolon between the ICV and SMV is dissected safely, and the ICV, RCV, and right gastroepiploic vessels as well as the right branch of the middle colic vessel are divided and ligated easily because of the separated retroperitoneal space. The lymph nodes along the SMV are dissected using a caudal-to-cranial approach. Third, the greater omental is dissected for full mobilization of the mesocolon containing 10 cm of normal colon distal to the lesion followed by complete mobilization of the lateral attachments of the ascending colon. In this study, 10 men and 8 women with hepatic flexure cancer underwent laparoscopic extended right hemicolectomy using a caudal-to-cranial approach. No conversion was recorded. The overall complication rate was 11.2 %, including one case of pulmonary infection and one case of urinary tract infection, both of which were cured with conservative measures. The mean age of the patients was 61.3 ± 12.7

  13. Recovering missing data: estimating position and size of caudal vertebrae in Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando N. Grillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Missing data is a common problem in paleontology. It makes it difficult to reconstruct extinct taxa accurately and restrains the inclusion of some taxa on comparative and biomechanical studies. Particularly, estimating the position of vertebrae on incomplete series is often non-empirical and does not allow precise estimation of missing parts. In this work we present a method for calculating the position of preserved middle sequences of caudal vertebrae in the saurischian dinosaur Staurikosaurus pricei, based on the length and height of preserved anterior and posterior caudal vertebral centra. Regression equations were used to estimate these dimensions for middle vertebrae and, consequently, to assess the position of the preserved middle sequences. It also allowed estimating these dimensions for non-preserved vertebrae. Results indicate that the preserved caudal vertebrae of Staurikosaurus may correspond to positions 1-3, 5, 7, 14-19/15-20, 24-25/25-26, and 29-47, and that at least 25 vertebrae had transverse processes. Total length of the tail was estimated in 134 cm and total body length was 220-225 cm.Dados lacunares são um problema comum na paleontologia. Eles dificultam a reconstrução acurada de táxons extintos e limitam a inclusão de alguns táxons em estudos comparativose biomecânicos. Particularmente, estimar a posição de vértebras em séries incompletas tem sido feito com base em métodos não empíricos que não permitem estimar corretamente as partes ausentes. Neste trabalho apresentamos uma metodologia que permite estimar a posição de sequências médias preservadas de vértebras caudais no dinossauro saurísquio Staurikosaurus pricei, com base no comprimento e altura dos centros das vértebras anteriores e posteriores preservadas. Equações de regressão foram usadas para estimar essas dimensões para as vértebras médias e, consequentemente, para posicionar as sequências médias preservadas e para estimar o tamanho das

  14. Post spinal meningitis and asepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videira, Rogerio L R; Ruiz-Neto, P P; Brandao Neto, M

    2002-07-01

    Post spinal meningitis (PSM) is a complication still currently being reported. After two PSM cases in our hospital an epidemiological study was initiated, which included a survey of techniques for asepsis that are applied in our department. Cases defined as PSM comprised meningitis within a week after spinal anesthesia. Anesthesia records, anesthesia complication files and the records of the Hospital Commission for Infection Control from 1997 to 2000 were reviewed. Asepsis techniques applied were surveyed by a questionnaire answered by all our department's anesthesiologists. The equipment and procedures for spinal anesthesia were listed. Current anesthesia textbooks were reviewed for recommendations regarding asepsis techniques in conjunction with spinal anesthesia. Three cases of PSM were identified following 38,128 spinal anesthesias whereas none was observed in 12,822 patients subjected to other types of regional or general anesthesia (P>0.05). Culture of cerebrospinal fluid yielded Streptococcus in two patients and was negative in the other patient. The asepsis technique applied by the anesthesiologists varied considerably. The literature review showed that aspects on asepsis for spinal anesthesia are poorly covered. The incidence of meningitis was similar in patients subjected to spinal anesthesia and in those subjected to other anesthetic techniques. Asepsis techniques were found to differ considerably among our staff members, reflecting the lack of well-defined published standards for this procedure. We recommend that asepsis for spinal anesthesia should not be less rigorous than for surgical asepsis.

  15. Functional plasticity in the respiratory drive to thoracic motoneurons in the segment above a chronic lateral spinal cord lesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ford, T W; Anissimova, Natalia P; Meehan, Claire Francesca

    2016-01-01

    A previous neurophysiological investigation demonstrated an increase in functional projections of expiratory bulbospinal neurons (EBSNs) in the segment above a chronic lateral thoracic spinal cord lesion that severed their axons. We have now investigated how this plasticity might be manifested...... in thoracic motoneurons by measuring their respiratory drive and the connections to them from individual EBSNs. In anesthetized cats, simultaneous recordings were made intracellularly from motoneurons in the segment above a left-side chronic (16 wk) lesion of the spinal cord in the rostral part of T8, T9......, or T10 and extracellularly from EBSNs in the right caudal medulla, antidromically excited from just above the lesion but not from below. Spike-triggered averaging was used to measure the connections between pairs of EBSNs and motoneurons. Connections were found to have a very similar distribution...

  16. Observations on the interactions of Schwann cells and astrocytes following x irradiation of neonatal rat spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakemore, W F; Patterson, R C

    1975-10-01

    Myelination was inhibited in the spinal cord of three day-old rats with 2000 rads of x irradiation. Myelination subsequently occurred as a result of caudal migration of oligodendrocytes and extensive invasion of the cord by Schwann cells. Although oligodendrocytes were present in areas containing Schwann cells, astrocytes were absent. The presence of Schwann cells in the neuropil of the spinal cord did not stimulate production of basement membrane by astrocytes, so no new glial limiting membrane was formed. Evidence is presented which suggests that if astrocytes do not form a glial limiting membrane when opposed by large numbers of Schwann cells they are destroyed by the invading cells. It is suggested that the glial limiting membrane normally inhibits entry of Schwann cells into the central nervous system; if this is destroyed and not reconstituted, Schwann cells can migrate freely into the neuropil.

  17. Spinal Extradural Arachnoid Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Seung Won; Seong, Han Yu; Roh, Sung Woo

    2013-01-01

    Spinal extradural arachnoid cyst (SEAC) is a rare disease and uncommon cause of compressive myelopathy. The etiology remains still unclear. We experienced 2 cases of SEACs and reviewed the cases and previous literatures. A 59-year-old man complained of both leg radiating pain and paresthesia for 4 years. His MRI showed an extradural cyst from T12 to L3 and we performed cyst fenestration and repaired the dural defect with tailored laminectomy. Another 51-year-old female patient visited our cli...

  18. Different phase delays of peripheral input to primate motor cortex and spinal cord promote cancellation at physiological tremor frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koželj, Saša; Baker, Stuart N

    2014-05-01

    Neurons in the spinal cord and motor cortex (M1) are partially phase-locked to cycles of physiological tremor, but with opposite phases. Convergence of spinal and cortical activity onto motoneurons may thus produce phase cancellation and a reduction in tremor amplitude. The mechanisms underlying this phase difference are unknown. We investigated coherence between spinal and M1 activity with sensory input. In two anesthetized monkeys, we electrically stimulated the medial, ulnar, deep radial, and superficial radial nerves; stimuli were timed as independent Poisson processes (rate 10 Hz). Single units were recorded from M1 (147 cells) or cervical spinal cord (61 cells). Ninety M1 cells were antidromically identified as pyramidal tract neurons (PTNs); M1 neurons were additionally classified according to M1 subdivision (rostral/caudal, M1r/c). Spike-stimulus coherence analysis revealed significant coupling over a broad range of frequencies, with the strongest coherence at <50 Hz. Delays implied by the slope of the coherence phase-frequency relationship were greater than the response onset latency, reflecting the importance of late response components for the transmission of oscillatory inputs. The spike-stimulus coherence phase over the 6-13 Hz physiological tremor band differed significantly between M1 and spinal cells (phase differences relative to the cord of 2.72 ± 0.29 and 1.72 ± 0.37 radians for PTNs from M1c and M1r, respectively). We conclude that different phases of the response to peripheral input could partially underlie antiphase M1 and spinal cord activity during motor behavior. The coordinated action of spinal and cortical feedback will act to reduce tremulous oscillations, possibly improving the overall stability and precision of motor control. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Conflict-related activity in the caudal anterior cingulate cortex in the absence of awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursu, Stefan; Clark, Kristi A.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Stenger, V. Andrew; Carter, Cameron S.

    2009-01-01

    The caudal anterior cingulate cortex (cACC) is thought to be involved in performance monitoring, as conflict and error-related activity frequently co-localize in this area. Recent results suggest that these effects may be differentially modulated by awareness. To clarify the role of awareness in performance monitoring by the cACC, we used rapid event-related fMRI to examine the cACC activity while subjects performed a dual task: a delayed recognition task and a serial response task (SRT) with an implicit probabilistic learning rule (i.e. the stimulus location followed a probabilistic sequence of which the subjects were unaware). Task performance confirmed that the location sequence was learned implicitly. Even though we found no evidence of awareness for the presence of the sequence, imaging data revealed increased cACC activity during correct trials which violated the sequence (high conflict), relative to trials when stimuli followed the sequence (low conflict). Errors made with awareness also activated the same brain region. These results suggest that the performance monitoring function of the cACC extends beyond detection of errors made with or without awareness, and involves detection of multiple responses even when they are outside of awareness. PMID:19026710

  20. Anatomic atlas for computed tomography in the mesaticephalic dog: caudal abdomen and pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, J.E.; George, T. II.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a comprehensive anatomic atlas of CT anatomy of the dog for use by veterinary radiologists, clinicians, and surgeons. Whole-body CT images of two mature beagle dogs were made with the dogs supported in sternal recumbency and using a slice thickness of 13 mm. At the end of the CT session, each dog was euthanized, and while carefully maintaining the same position, the body was frozen. The body was then sectioned at 13-mm intervals, with the cuts matched as closely as possible to the CT slices. The frozen sections were cleaned, photographed, and radiographed using xeroradiography. Each CT image was studied and compared with its corresponding xeroradiograph and anatomic section to assist in the accurate identification of specific structures. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled in the three corresponding photographs (CT image, xeroradiograph, and anatomic section). In previous papers, the head and neck, and the thorax and cranial abdomen of the mesaticephalic (beagle) dog were presented. In this paper, the caudal part of the abdomen and pelvis of the bitch and male dog are presented

  1. Role of annexin gene and its regulation during zebrafish caudal fin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Sandeep; Purushothaman, Sruthi; Meghah, Vuppalapaty; Bhatti, Bhawna; Poruri, Akhila; Meena Lakshmi, Mula G; Sarath Babu, Nukala; Narasimha Murthy, Ch Lakshmi; Mandal, Komal K; Kumar, Arvind; Idris, Mohammed M

    2016-05-01

    The molecular mechanism of epimorphic regeneration is elusive due to its complexity and limitation in mammals. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms play a crucial role in development and regeneration. This investigation attempted to reveal the role of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, such as histone H3 and H4 lysine acetylation and methylation during zebrafish caudal fin regeneration. It was intriguing to observe that H3K9,14 acetylation, H4K20 trimethylation, H3K4 trimethylation and H3K9 dimethylation along with their respective regulatory genes, such as GCN5, SETd8b, SETD7/9, and SUV39h1, were differentially regulated in the regenerating fin at various time points of post-amputation. Annexin genes have been associated with regeneration; this study reveals the significant up-regulation of ANXA2a and ANXA2b transcripts and their protein products during the regeneration process. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and PCR analysis of the regulatory regions of the ANXA2a and ANXA2b genes demonstrated the ability to repress two histone methylations, H3K27me3 and H4K20me3, in transcriptional regulation during regeneration. It is hypothesized that this novel insight into the diverse epigenetic mechanisms that play a critical role during the regeneration process may help to strategize the translational efforts, in addition to identifying the molecules involved in vertebrate regeneration. © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.

  2. MANAGEMENT OF LUMBAR SPINAL CANAL STENOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhergee G. S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Spinal stenosis is one of the most common conditions in the elderly. It is defined as a narrowing of the spinal canal. The term stenosis is derived from the Greek word for narrow, which is “Stenos”. The first description of this condition is attributed to Antoine portal in 1803. Verbiest is credited with coining the term spinal stenosis and the associated narrowing of the spinal canal as its potential cause. [1-10] Kirkaldy–Willis subsequently described the degenerative cascade in the lumbar spine as the cause for the altered anatomy and pathophysiology in spinal stenosis. [11-15] If compression does not occur, the canal should be described as narrow but not stenotic. Some studies defined lumbar spinal stenosis as a “narrowing of the osteoligamentous vertebral canal and/or the intervertebral foramina causing compression of the thecal sac and/or the caudal nerve roots; at a single vertebral level, narrowing may affect the whole canal or part of it” (Postacchini 1983. This definition distinguished between disc herniation and stenosis. [16] . The most common type of spinal stenosis is caused by degenerative arthritis of the spine. Hypertrophy and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament which usually are confined to the cervical spine, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH syndrome also may result in an acquired form of spinal stenosis. Congenital forms caused by disorders such as achondroplasia and dysplastic spondylolisthesis are much less common. Congenital spinal stenosis usually is central and is evident or imaging studies. Idiopathic congenital narrowing usually involves the anteroposterior dimension of the canal secondary to short pedicles; the patient otherwise is normal. In contrast, in achondroplasia, the canal is narrowed in the anteroposterior plane owing to shortened pedicles and in lateral dimension because of diminished interpedicular distance. Acquired forms of spinal stenosis usually are

  3. MR imaging of spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchberger, W.; Springer, P.; Birbamer, G.; Judmaier, W.; Kathrein, A.; Daniaux, H.

    1995-01-01

    To assess the value of MR imaging in the acute and chronic stages of spinal trauma. 126 MR examinations of 120 patients were evaluated retrospectively. In 15 cases of acute spinal cord injury, correlation of MR findings with the degree of neurological deficit and eventual recovery was undertaken. Cord anomalies in the acute stage were seen in 16 patients. Intramedullary haemorrhage (n=6) and cord transection (n=2) were associated with complete injuries and poor prognosis, whereas patients with cord oedema (n=7) had incomplete injuries and recovered significant neurological function. In the chronic stage, MR findings included persistent cord compression in 8 patients, syringomyelia or post-traumatic cyst in 12, myelomalacia in 6, cord atrophy in 9, and cord transection in 7 patients. In acute spinal trauma, MR proved useful in assessing spinal cord compression and instability. In addition, direct visualisation and characterisation of posttraumatic changes within the spinal cord may offer new possibilities in establishing the prognosis for neurological recovery. In the later stages, potentially remediable causes of persistent or progressive symptoms, such as chronic spinal cord compression or syringomyelia can be distinguished from other sequelae of spinal trauma, such as myelomalacia, cord transection or atrophy. (orig.) [de

  4. Pathological changes in the white matter after spinal contusion injury in the rat.

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    C Joakim Ek

    Full Text Available It has been shown previously that after spinal cord injury, the loss of grey matter is relatively faster than loss of white matter suggesting interventions to save white matter tracts offer better therapeutic possibilities. Loss of white matter in and around the injury site is believed to be the main underlying cause for the subsequent loss of neurological functions. In this study we used a series of techniques, including estimations of the number of axons with pathology, immunohistochemistry and mapping of distribution of pathological axons, to better understand the temporal and spatial pathological events in white matter following contusion injury to the rat spinal cord. There was an initial rapid loss of axons with no detectable further loss beyond 1 week after injury. Immunoreactivity for CNPase indicated that changes to oligodendrocytes are rapid, extending to several millimetres away from injury site and preceding much of the axonal loss, giving early prediction of the final volume of white matter that survived. It seems that in juvenile rats the myelination of axons in white matter tracts continues for some time, which has an important bearing on interpretation of our, and previous, studies. The amount of myelin debris and axon pathology progressively decreased with time but could still be observed at 10 weeks after injury, especially at more distant rostral and caudal levels from the injury site. This study provides new methods to assess injuries to spinal cord and indicates that early interventions are needed for the successful sparing of white matter tracts following injury.

  5. Termination of supraspinal descending pathways in the spinal cord of the tegu lizard, Tupinambis nigropunctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruce, W L

    1975-01-01

    Descending fiber projections to the lizard spinal cord were studied using anterograde axonal degeneration. Following hemisection of the cord at the first spinal segment, degeneration was found in the white and gray matter as far down as the 31st (caudal) segment. Degenerating fibers in the white matter were confined to the ipsilateral side and were found in the medial longitudinal fasiculus and the outer half ot the lateral and ventral funiculi. Degeneration was more intense in the dorsolateral and ventromedial funiculi than in the ventrolateral funiculus. In the gray matter, REXED's criteria were applied to Nissl-stained material to delimit boundaries of ten laminae. Degeneration of suprospinal axons was most intense in the medial part of VII, dorsal and ventral commissures to ramify contralaterally in the medial part of VII, in VII, and in medial IX. No degeneration was present in the lateral part of the spinal gray on the contralateral side. In Golgi-stained material, dendrites of lateral IX cells were seen to extend into lamina VII, the dorsolateral part of VII, and the lateral funiculus. Thus, fibers of the ventromedial supraspinal pathway may make axodendritic contact with motoneurons of lateral IX as well as medial IX, ipsilaterally. In addition, there is a possibility of a crossed connection to contralateral motoneurons.

  6. Spinal dysraphism: a review of neuroradiological features with embryological correlations and proposal for a new classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortori-Donati, P.; Rossi, A.; Cama, A.

    2000-01-01

    Our purpose was to review the neuroradiological features of spinal dysraphism and to correlate them with clinical findings and up-to-date embryological theory. We also aimed to formulate a working classification which might prove useful in clinical practice. We reviewed series of 986 children referred to our Spina Bifida Centre in the past 24 years. There were 353 children with open spinal (OSD) and 633 with closed (skin-covered) spinal (CSD) dysraphism. By far the most common open abnormality was myelomeningocele, and all patients with OSD had a Chiari II malformation. CSD was categorised clinically, depending on the presence of a subcutaneous mass in the back. CSD with a mass mainly consisted of lipomas with dural defects and meningoceles, and accounted for 18.8 % of CSD. CSD without a mass were simple (tight filum terminale, intradural lipoma) or complex (split cord malformations, caudal regression). Our suggested classification is easy to use and to remember and takes into account clinical and MRI features; we have found it useful and reliable when making a preoperative neuroradiological diagnosis in clinical practice. (orig.)

  7. Hydrodynamics of a robotic fish tail: effects of the caudal peduncle, fin ray motions and the flow speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ziyu; Yang, Xingbang; Wang, Tianmiao; Wen, Li

    2016-02-08

    Recent advances in understanding fish locomotion with robotic devices have included the use of biomimetic flapping based and fin undulatory locomotion based robots, treating two locomotions separately from each other. However, in most fish species, patterns of active movements of fins occur in concert with the body undulatory deformation during swimming. In this paper, we describe a biomimetic robotic caudal fin programmed with individually actuated fin rays to mimic the fin motion of the Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) and coupled with heave and pitch oscillatory motions adding to the robot to mimic the peduncle motion which is derived from the undulatory fish body. Multiple-axis force and digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experiments from both the vertical and horizontal planes behind the robotic model were conducted under different motion programs and flow speeds. We found that both mean thrust and lift could be altered by changing the phase difference (φ) from 0° to 360° between the robotic caudal peduncle and the fin ray motion (spanning from 3 mN to 124 mN). Notably, DPIV results demonstrated that the caudal fin generated multiple wake flow patterns in both the vertical and horizontal planes by varying φ. Vortex jet angle and thrust impulse also varied significantly both in these two planes. In addition, the vortex shedding position along the spanwise tail direction could be shifted around the mid-sagittal position between the upper and lower lobes by changing the phase difference. We hypothesize that the fish caudal fin may serve as a flexible vectoring propeller during swimming and may be critical for the high maneuverability of fish.

  8. Modified Labial Button Technique for Maintaining Occlusion After Caudal Mandibular Fracture/Temporomandibular Joint Luxation in the Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Alice E; Carmichael, Daniel T

    2016-03-01

    Maxillofacial trauma in cats often results in mandibular symphyseal separation in addition to injuries of the caudal mandible and/or temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Caudal mandibular and TMJ injuries are difficult to access and stabilize using direct fixation techniques, thus indirect fixation is commonly employed. The immediate goals of fixation include stabilization for return to normal occlusion and function with the long-term objective of bony union. Indirect fixation techniques commonly used for stabilization of caudal mandibular and temporomandibular joint fracture/luxation include maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) with acrylic composite, interarcade wiring, tape muzzles, and the bignathic encircling and retaining device (BEARD) technique. This article introduces a modification of the previously described "labial reverse suture through buttons" technique used by Koestlin et al and the "labial locking with buttons" technique by Rocha et al. In cases with minimally displaced subcondylar and pericondylar fractures without joint involvement, the labial button technique can provide sufficient stabilization for healing. Advantages of the modified labial button technique include ease of application, noninvasive nature, and use of readily available materials. The construct can remain in place for a variable of amount of time, depending on its intended purpose. It serves as an alternative to the tape muzzle, which is rarely tolerated by cats. This technique can be easily used in conjunction with other maxillomandibular repairs, such as cerclage wire fixation of mandibular symphyseal separation. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate a modified labial button technique for maintaining occlusion of feline caudal mandibular fractures/TMJ luxations in a step-by-step fashion.

  9. Comparison of preemptive intravenous paracetamol and caudal block in terms of analgesic and hemodynamic parameters in children

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    Serbülent Gökhan Beyaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Paracetamol has a widespread use for feverand symptomatic relief of pain in children. The aim ofthis study was to compare analgesic effects of preemptiveintravenous (i.v. paracetamol, and caudal block withlevobupivacaine.Materials and methods: A total of 60 children with ASAI-II physical status, aged 5-15 years and undergoing inguinalhernia repair, were randomly allocated to threegroups so that each group contained 20 patients. Group Pchildren received i.v. 15mg/kg paracetamol. Group C receivedonly caudal block with levobupivacaine, and GroupPC received both i.v. paracetamol, and caudal block withlevobupivacaine. Pain level assessed by modified EasternOntario Children’s Hospital pain scale (mCHEOPs,sedation status by Ramsey sedation scale at postoperative5, 15, 30 min and 1,3, and 6th hours.Results: No significant differences were found in age,gender distribution, body weight, ASA status, type andduration of surgery between three groups (p>0.05. Althoughsignificant difference were found in mCHEOPsscores within groups by repeated measures, no differenceof pain scores was observed between three groups(p>0.05. There were no significant differences in the hemodynamicparameters (heart rate, blood pressure bothwithin groups and between groups (p>0.05.Conclusions: Preemptive intravenous paracetamol hadsimilar analgesic effects compared with caudal block withlevobupivacaine with regard to postoperative pain scoresin children undergoing inguinal hernia repair. No hemodynamicor other adverse effects were observed withintravenous paracetamol. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(2:202-208

  10. Organization of projections from the spinal trigeminal subnucleus oralis to the spinal cord in the rat: a neuroanatomical substrate for reciprocal orofacial-cervical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoize, Laurent; Doméjean, Sophie; Melin, Céline; Raboisson, Patrick; Artola, Alain; Dallel, Radhouane

    2010-07-09

    The organization of efferent projections from the spinal trigeminal nucleus oralis (Sp5O) to the spinal cord in the rat was studied using the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin. Sp5O projections to the spinal cord are restricted to the cervical cord. No labeled terminal can be detected in the thoracic and lumbar cord. The organization of these projections happens to critically depend on the dorso-ventral location of the injection site. On the one hand, the dorsal part of the Sp5O projects to the medial part of the dorsal horn (laminae III-V) at the C1 level, on the ipsilateral side, and to the ventral horn, on both sides but mainly on the ipsilateral one. Ipsilateral labeled terminals are distributed throughout laminae VII to IX but tend to cluster around the dorso-medial motor nuclei, especially at C3-C5 levels. Within the contralateral ventral horn, label terminals are found particularly in the region of the ventro-medial motor nucleus. This projection extends as far caudally as C3 or C4 level. On the other hand, the ventral part of the Sp5O projects to the lateral part of the dorsal horn (laminae III-V) at the C1 level, on the ipsilateral side, and to the ventral horn, on both sides but mainly on the contralateral one. Contralateral labeled terminals are distributed within the region of the dorso- and ventro-medial motor nuclei at C1-C4 levels whereas they are restricted to the dorso-medial motor nucleus at C5-C8 levels. These findings suggest that Sp5O is involved in the coordination of neck movements and in the modulation of incoming sensory information at the cervical spinal cord. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnosis of spinal cord diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, P.; Sigal, R.; Doyon, D.; David, P.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) nowadays plays a predominant role in the diagnosis and evaluation of spinal canal pathologies and has reduced the other exploratory methods, including computerized tomography (CT) and myelography, to an ancillary role. These pathologies are divided into three groups: those where MRI is the only imaging method (syringomyela, tumours in the spinal canal, phakomatoses, external pachimeningitis, spinal cord injuries, myelitis); those where MRI is the initial method and is completed by other examinations (vascular malformations, dysraphism, myelopathies due to cervical osteoarthritis) and those where MRI still play a lesser role than CT (degenerative lesions of the lumbar column) [fr

  12. Spinal dysraphism illustrated; Embroyology revisited

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    Ullas V Acharya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord development occurs through three consecutive periods of gastrulation, primary nerulation and secondary neurulation. Aberration in these stages causes abnormalities of the spine and spinal cord, collectively referred as spinal dysraphism. They can be broadly classified as anomalies of gastrulation (disorders of notochord formation and of integration; anomalies of primary neurulation (premature dysjunction and nondysjunction; combined anomalies of gastrulation and primary neurulation and anomalies of secondary neurulation. Correlation with clinical and embryological data and common imaging findings provides an organized approach in their diagnosis.

  13. Modern spinal instrumentation. Part 1: Normal spinal implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.; Allouni, A.K.; Mankad, K.; Prezzi, D.; Elias, T.; Rankine, J.; Davagnanam, I.

    2013-01-01

    The general radiologist frequently encounters studies demonstrating spinal instrumentation, either as part of the patient's postoperative evaluation or as incidental to a study performed for another purpose. There are various surgical approaches and devices used in spinal surgery with an increased understanding of spinal and spinal implant biomechanics drives development of modern fixation devices. It is, therefore, important that the radiologist can recognize commonly used devices and identify their potential complications demonstrated on imaging. The aim of part 1 of this review is to familiarize the reader with terms used to describe surgical approaches to the spine, review the function and normal appearances of commonly used instrumentations, and understand the importance of the different fixation techniques. The second part of this review will concentrate on the roles that the different imaging techniques play in assessing the instrumented spine and the recognition of complications that can potentially occur.

  14. Three-dimensional motion pattern of the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Monika I; Seiler, Gabriela S; Robinson, Leanne E; Ferguson, Stephen J; Bonél, Harald M; Busato, André R; Lang, Johann

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate the 3-dimensional motion pattern including main and coupled motions of the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column of dogs. Vertebral columns of 9 German Shepherd Dogs (GSDs) and 16 dogs of other breeds with similar body weights and body conditions. Main and coupled motions of the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column (L4 to S1) were determined by use of a testing apparatus that permitted precise application of known pure moments to the vertebral column. Motion was compared between GSDs and dogs of other breeds. All specimens had a similar motion pattern consisting of main motion and a certain amount of coupled motion including translation. Vertebral columns of GSDs had significantly less main motion in all directions than that of dogs of other breeds. Translation was similar in GSDs and dogs of other breeds and was smallest at the lumbosacral motion segment. Results indicated that motion in the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column of dogs is complex and provided a basis for further studies evaluating abnormal vertebral columns.

  15. Traumatic injury induces changes in the expression of the serotonin 1A receptor in the spinal cord of lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornide-Petronio, María Eugenia; Fernández-López, Blanca; Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Rodicio, María Celina

    2014-02-01

    After spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals, the loss of serotonin coming from the brainstem reduces the excitability of motor neurons and leads to a compensatory overexpression of serotonin receptors. Despite the key role of the serotonin receptor 1a in the control of locomotion, little attention has been put in the study of this receptor after SCI. In contrast to mammals, lampreys recover locomotion after a complete SCI, so, studies in this specie could help to understand events that lead to recovery of function. Here, we showed that in lampreys there is an acute increase in the expression of the serotonin 1A receptor transcript (5-ht1a) after SCI and a few weeks later expression levels go back to normal rostrally and caudally to the lesion. Overexpression of the 5-ht1a in rostral levels after SCI has not been reported in mammals, suggesting that this could be part of the plastic events that lead to the recovery of function in lampreys. The analysis of changes in 5-ht1a expression by zones (periventricular region and horizontally extended grey matter) showed that they followed the same pattern of changes detected in the spinal cord as a whole, with the exception of the caudal periventricular layer, where no significant differences were observed between control and experimental animals at any time post lesion. This suggests that different molecular signals act on the periventricular cells of the rostral and caudal regions to injury site and thus affecting their response to the injury in terms of expression of the 5-ht1a.

  16. Chronic spinal subdural hematoma; Spinales chronisches subdurales Haematom

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    Hagen, T.; Lensch, T. [Radiologengemeinschaft, Augsburg (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Compared with spinal epidural hematomas, spinal subdural hematomas are rare; chronic forms are even more uncommon. These hematomas are associated not only with lumbar puncture and spinal trauma, but also with coagulopathies, vascular malformations and tumors. Compression of the spinal cord and the cauda equina means that the patients develop increasing back or radicular pain, followed by paraparesis and bladder and bowel paralysis, so that in most cases surgical decompression is carried out. On magnetic resonance imaging these hematomas present as thoracic or lumbar subdural masses, their signal intensity varying with the age of the hematoma. We report the clinical course and the findings revealed by imaging that led to the diagnosis in three cases of chronic spinal subdural hematoma. (orig.) [German] Spinale subdurale Haematome sind im Vergleich zu epiduralen Haematomen selten, chronische Verlaufsformen noch seltener. Ursaechlich sind neben Lumbalpunktionen und traumatischen Verletzungen auch Blutgerinnungsstoerungen, Gefaessmalformationen und Tumoren. Aufgrund der Kompression von Myelon und Cauda equina kommt es zu zunehmenden Ruecken- oder radikulaeren Schmerzen mit anschliessender Paraparese sowie einer Darm- und Blasenstoerung, weshalb in den meisten Faellen eine operative Entlastung durchgefuehrt wird. Magnetresonanztomographisch stellen sich die Haematome meist als thorakale bzw. lumbale subdurale Raumforderungen dar, die Signalintensitaet variiert mit dem Blutungsalter. Wir berichten ueber den klinischen Verlauf und die bildgebende Diagnostik von 3 Patienten mit spinalen chronischen subduralen Haematomen. (orig.)

  17. Effect of intravenous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on neurotransmitters and synapsins in rats with spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Wu, Bilian; Lin, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated, purified and cultured in vitro by Percoll density gradient centrifugation combined with the cell adherence method. Passages 3–5 bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into rats with traumatic spinal cord injury via the caudal vein. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scores indicate that neurological function of experimental rats was significantly improved over transplantation time (1–5 weeks). Expressions of choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase and synapsins in the damaged spinal cord of rats was significantly increased after transplantation, determined by immunofluorescence staining and laser confocal scanning microscopy. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells that had migrated into the damaged area of rats in the experimental group began to express choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase and synapsins, 3 weeks after transplantation. The Basso-Beattie- Bresnahan scores positively correlated with expression of choline acetyltransferase and synapsins. Experimental findings indicate that intravenously transplanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells traverse into the damaged spinal cord of rats, promote expression of choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase and synapsins, and improve nerve function in rats with spinal cord injury. PMID:25657678

  18. Artérias mesentéricas cranial e caudal da paca (Cuniculus paca, L. 1766

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    Isabela Cristina de Souza Marques

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n1p165 A paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766 é um roedor de porte médio, que embora pertença à fauna brasileira, poucas são as informações sobre sua morfologia na literatura especializada. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se descrever a origem e as ramificações de suas artérias mesentéricas cranial e caudal no intuito de contribuir com estudos de anatomia comparativa. Foram utilizados dez animais, entre machos e fêmeas, que após o óbito, tiveram sua parede torácica rebatida entre a quarta e a sexta costelas, para a exposição da aorta torácica, a qual foi canulada no sentido caudal e procedeu-se a injeção de solução de neoprene do tipo látex, corado convenientemente, para o preenchimento de todo o sistema arterial. Estas preparações foram fixadas em solução aquosa de formol a 10% por período superior à 72h; em seguida, as peças foram dissecadas e as artérias mesentéricas cranial e caudal identificadas. A artéria mesentérica cranial se originava da aorta abdominal, caudalmente à artéria celíaca, emitindo os seguintes ramos arteriais: pancreaticoduodenal caudal, pancreáticos, jejunais, íleocólicos e cecais. A origem da artéria mesentérica caudal ocorria próximo ao final da aorta abdominal, e este vaso emitia a artéria cólica esquerda e a artéria retal cranial, da qual partiam as artérias sigmóideas. Constatou-se que houve pouca variação no padrão de ramificação das artérias em relação aos referidos roedores e mamíferos domésticos.

  19. Spinal metastases of malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materlik, B.; Steidle-Katic, U.; Feyerabend, T.; Richter, E.; Wauschkuhn, B.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Extracranial metastases of malignant gliomas are rare. We report 2 cases with spinal metastases in patients suffering from glioma. Patients and Method: Two patients (33 and 57 years old) developed spinal canal metastases of a glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma Grade III respectively 25 and 9 months after surgical resection and radiotherapy. Both metastases were confirmed pathohistologically. Results: Intraspinal metastases were irradiated with a total dose of 12.6 Gy and 50 Gy. Treatment withdrawal was necessary in one patient due to reduced clinical condition. Regression of neurological symptoms was observed in the second patient. Conclusions: Spinal spread of malignant glioma should be considered during care and follow-up in glioma patients with spinal symptoms. (orig.) [de

  20. Imaging of extradural spinal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Schulte-Altedorneburg, G.; Naumann, N.; Reith, W.; Nabhan, A.

    2006-01-01

    There is a wide variety of spinal extradural tumors. In addition to real neoplasms, degenerative diseases, congenital abnormalities and inflammatory disorders can be causes of extradural masses. Due to the bony boundary of the spinal canal, both benign as well as malignant masses can cause progressive neurological deficits including paraplegia. Most of the spinal tumors are benign (hemangioma of the vertebral body, degenerative diseases). In younger patients congenital abnormalities and primary tumors of the spine have to be considered, whereas in adults the list of differential diagnoses should include secondary malignancies such as metastases and lymphomas as well as metabolic disorders such as osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture and Paget's disease. Cross-sectional imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) of the spine often help to make a specific diagnosis of extradural spinal lesions and represent important tools for tumor staging and preoperative evaluation. (orig.) [de

  1. Spinal cord: motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Kourosh; Roos, Raymond P

    2013-02-01

    Spinal cord motor neuron diseases affect lower motor neurons in the ventral horn. This article focuses on the most common spinal cord motor neuron disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which also affects upper motor neurons. Also discussed are other motor neuron diseases that only affect the lower motor neurons. Despite the identification of several genes associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the pathogenesis of this complex disease remains elusive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiotherapy of presenile spinal osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keim, H.M.; Schiebusch, M.

    1982-01-01

    Painfull conditions of presenile spinal osteoporosis may no longer respond to medication or physical therapy. Analgesic radiotherapy coupled with mild physical therapy and if necessary supported by orthopedic measures frequently results in pain relief and physical stability. Fifty-two cases of osteoporosis and osteoporotic spinal fractures illustrate how better longterm results are achieved by increasing the customary dosage and speeding up radiotherapy. (orig.) [de

  3. Assessing attitudes toward spinal immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouland, Andrew J; Jenkins, J Lee; Levy, Matthew J

    2013-10-01

    Prospective studies have improved knowledge of prehospital spinal immobilization. The opinion of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers regarding spinal immobilization is unknown, as is their knowledge of recent research advances. To examine the attitudes, knowledge, and comfort of prehospital and Emergency Department (ED) EMS providers regarding spinal immobilization performed under a non-selective protocol. An online survey was conducted from May to July of 2011. Participants were drawn from the Howard County Department of Fire and Rescue Services and the Howard County General Hospital ED. The survey included multiple choice questions and responses on a modified Likert scale. Correlation analysis and descriptive data were used to analyze results. Comfort using the Kendrick Extrication Device was low among ED providers. Experienced providers were more likely to indicate comfort using this device. Respondents often believed that spinal immobilization is appropriate in the management of penetrating trauma to the chest and abdomen. Reported use of padding decreased along with the frequency with which providers practice and encounter immobilized patients. Respondents often indicated that they perform spinal immobilization due solely to mechanism of injury. Providers who feel as if spinal immobilization is often performed unnecessarily were more likely to agree that immobilization causes an unnecessary delay in patient care. The results demonstrate the need for improved EMS education in the use of the Kendrick Extrication Device, backboard padding, and spinal immobilization in the management of penetrating trauma. The attitudes highlighted in this study are relevant to the implementation of a selective spinal immobilization protocol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Percutaneous Iliac Screws for Minimally Invasive Spinal Deformity Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Y. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adult spinal deformity (ASD surgeries carry significant morbidity, and this has led many surgeons to apply minimally invasive surgery (MIS techniques to reduce the blood loss, infections, and other peri-operative complications. A spectrum of techniques for MIS correction of ASD has thus evolved, most recently the application of percutaneous iliac screws. Methods. Over an 18 months 10 patients with thoracolumbar scoliosis underwent MIS surgery. The mean age was 73 years (70% females. Patients were treated with multi-level facet osteotomies and interbody fusion using expandable cages followed by percutaneous screw fixation. Percutaneous iliac screws were placed bilaterally using the obturator outlet view to target the ischial body. Results. All patients were successfully instrumented without conversion to an open technique. Mean operative time was 302 minutes and the mean blood loss was 480 cc, with no intraoperative complications. A total of 20 screws were placed successfully as judged by CT scanning to confirm no bony violations. Complications included: two asymptomatic medial breaches at T10 and L5, and one patient requiring delayed epidural hematoma evacuation. Conclusions. Percutaneous iliac screws can be placed safely in patients with ASD. This MIS technique allows for successful caudal anchoring to stress-shield the sacrum and L5-S1 fusion site in long-segment constructs.

  5. Biomechanical implications of lumbar spinal ligament transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Forell, Gregory A; Bowden, Anton E

    2014-11-01

    Many lumbar spine surgeries either intentionally or inadvertently damage or transect spinal ligaments. The purpose of this work was to quantify the previously unknown biomechanical consequences of isolated spinal ligament transection on the remaining spinal ligaments (stress transfer), vertebrae (bone remodelling stimulus) and intervertebral discs (disc pressure) of the lumbar spine. A finite element model of the full lumbar spine was developed and validated against experimental data and tested in the primary modes of spinal motion in the intact condition. Once a ligament was removed, stress increased in the remaining spinal ligaments and changes occurred in vertebral strain energy, but disc pressure remained similar. All major biomechanical changes occurred at the same spinal level as the transected ligament, with minor changes at adjacent levels. This work demonstrates that iatrogenic damage to spinal ligaments disturbs the load sharing within the spinal ligament network and may induce significant clinically relevant changes in the spinal motion segment.

  6. Anatomy of the Spinal Meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Laurent; Gabrillargues, Jean; Coll, Guillaume

    2016-06-01

    The spinal meninges have received less attention than the cranial meninges in the literature, although several points remain debatable and poorly understood, like their phylogenesis, their development, and their interactions with the spinal cord. Their constancy among the chordates shows their crucial importance in central nervous system homeostasis and suggests a role far beyond mechanical protection of the neuraxis. This work provides an extensive study of the spinal meninges, from an overview of their phylogenesis and embryology to a descriptive and topographic anatomy with clinical implications. It examines their involvement in spinal cord development, functioning, and repair. This work is a review of the literature using PubMed as a search engine on Medline. The stages followed by the meninges along the phylogenesis could not be easily compared with their development in vertebrates for methodological aspects and convergence processes throughout evolution. The distinction between arachnoid and pia mater appeared controversial. Several points of descriptive anatomy remain debatable: the functional organization of the arterial network, and the venous and lymphatic drainages, considered differently by classical anatomic and neuroradiological approaches. Spinal meninges are involved in neurodevelopment and neurorepair producing neural stem cells and morphogens, in cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and neuraxis functioning by the synthesis of active molecules, and the elimination of waste products of central nervous system metabolism. The spinal meninges should be considered as dynamic functional formations evolving over a lifetime, with ultrastructural features and functional interactions with the neuraxis remaining not fully understood.

  7. MR imaging and spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azar-Kia, B.; Fine, M.; Naheedy, M.; Elias, D.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging has significantly improved diagnostic capability of spinal cord injuries. Other available diagnostic modalities such as plain films, myelography, CT, and post-CT myelography have failed to consistently show the secific evidence of spinal cord injuries and their true extent. The authors are presenting our experiences with MR imaging in spinal column injury. They have found MR imaging to be the procedure of choice for prognostic evaluation of spinal cord trauma. They are showing examples of recent and old spinal cord injury such as hematomyelia, myelomalacia, transection, spinal cord edema, and cavitation

  8. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmel, Filip; Dumarey, Nicolas; Palestro, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor 99m Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and 67 Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [ 18 F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including radiolabelled

  9. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Filip [Ghent Maria-Middelares, General Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Medical Center Leeuwarden (MCL), Division of Nuclear Medicine, Henri Dunantweg 2, Postbus 888, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Dumarey, Nicolas [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Brussels (Belgium); Palestro, Christopher J. [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Long Island, NY (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor {sup 99m}Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and {sup 67}Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including

  10. Dendrochronologically dated pine stumps document phase-wise bog expansion at a northwest German site between ca. 6700 and ca. 3400 BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maike Achterberg, Inke Elisabeth; Eckstein, Jan; Birkholz, Bernhard; Bauerochse, Andreas; Leuschner, Hanns Hubert

    2018-01-01

    The investigated northwest German mire site at Totes Moor is densely covered with subfossil pine stumps (Pinus sylvestris L.) from the fen-bog transition. This facilitates the spatio-temporal reconstruction of mire development, which is based on 212 in situ tree stumps in the case study presented here. Six dendrochronologically dated site chronologies together cover 2345 years between 6703 and 3403 BC. The gaps in between are 6 to 550 years long. Additionally, a floating chronology of 309 years, containing 30 trees, was radiocarbon-dated to the beginning of the 7th millennium cal BC. Peat-stratigraphical survey was carried out additionally, and elevations a.s.l. were determined at several locations. Tree dying-off phases, which indicate water level rise at the site, mostly in context of the local fen-bog transition, are evident for ca. 6600-6450, ca. 6350-5750, ca. 5300-4900, ca. 4700-4550, ca. 3900-3850, ca. 3700-3600, ca. 3500-3450 and ca. 3400 BC. The spatial distribution of the dated in situ trees illustrates the phase-wise expansion of raised bog over fen peat at the site. The documented bog expansion pulses likely correspond to climatic wet sifts.

  11. Full-thickness thoracic laminar erosion after posterior spinal fusion associated with late-presenting infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribus, Clifford B; Garvey, Kathleen E

    2003-05-15

    A case report describes unilateral complete laminar erosion of the caudal thoracic spine and late-presenting infection in a patient 10 years after anteroposterior reconstruction for scoliosis. To present an unusual but significant complication that may occur after implantation of spinal instrumentation. The reported patient presented with a deep infection and persistent back pain 10 years after successful anteroposterior reconstruction for adult idiopathic scoliosis. Delayed onset infections after implantation of spinal instrumentation are infrequent, yet when present, often require hardware removal. The case of a 51-year-old woman who underwent irrigation and debridement for a late-presenting infection and removal of posterior hardware 10 years after her index procedure is presented. Interoperatively, it was noted that full-thickness laminar erosion was present from T4 to T12. The patient was taken to the operating room for wound irrigation, debridement, and hardware removal. It was discovered that a Cotrel-Dubousset rod placed on the convexity of the curve had completely eroded through the lamina of T7-T12. Infectious material was found along the entire length of both the convex and concave Cotrel-Dubousset rods. Intraoperative cultures grew Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes. Intravenous and oral antibiotics were administered, resulting in resolution of the infection and preoperative pain. The exact role of late-presenting infection with regard to the laminar erosion and rod migration seen in this case remains to be elucidated. However, the authors believe the primary cause of bony erosion was mechanical in origin. Regardless, most spine surgeons will treat many patients who have had posterior spinal implants and will perform hardware removal on a significant number of these patients during their careers. A full-thickness laminar erosion exposes the spinal cord to traumatic injury during hardware removal and debridement. This case is

  12. Effects of ketamine and midazolam on emergence agitation after sevoflurane anaesthesia in children receiving caudal block: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Ozcan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Emergence agitation is a common postanaesthetic problem in children after sevoflurane anaesthesia. We aimed to compare the effects of ketamine and midazolam administered intravenously, before the end of surgery, for prevention of emergence agitation in children who received caudal block for pain relief under sevoflurane anaesthesia. Methods: 62 American Society of Anesthesiologists patient classification status I children, aged 2–7 years, scheduled for inguinal hernia repair, circumcision or orchidopexy were enrolled to the study. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane 8% in a mixture of 50% oxygen and nitrous oxide. After achieving adequate depth of anaesthesia, a laryngeal mask was placed and then caudal block was performed with 0.75 mL kg−1, 0.25% bupivacaine. At the end of the surgery, ketamine 0.25 mg kg−1, midazolam 0.03 mg kg−1 and saline were given to ketamine, midazolam and control groups, respectively. Agitation was assessed using Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and postoperative pain was evaluated with modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale. Results and conclusions: Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores were found higher in control group than in ketamine and midazolam groups. Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores were similar between groups. Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale and Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores showed a significant decrease by time in all groups during follow-up in postanaesthesia care unit. The present study resulted in satisfactory Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores which are below 10 in all groups. As a conclusion, neither ketamine nor midazolam added to caudal block under sevoflurane anaesthesia did show further effect on emergence agitation. In addition, pain relief still seems to be the major factor in preventing emergence agitation after

  13. Ontogeny of head and caudal fin shape of an apex marine predator: The tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Amy L; Hammerschlag, Neil; Lauder, George V; Wilga, Cheryl D; Kuo, Chi-Yun; Irschick, Duncan J

    2016-05-01

    How morphology changes with size can have profound effects on the life history and ecology of an animal. For apex predators that can impact higher level ecosystem processes, such changes may have consequences for other species. Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are an apex predator in tropical seas, and, as adults, are highly migratory. However, little is known about ontogenetic changes in their body form, especially in relation to two aspects of shape that influence locomotion (caudal fin) and feeding (head shape). We captured digital images of the heads and caudal fins of live tiger sharks from Southern Florida and the Bahamas ranging in body size (hence age), and quantified shape of each using elliptical Fourier analysis. This revealed changes in the shape of the head and caudal fin of tiger sharks across ontogeny. Smaller juvenile tiger sharks show an asymmetrical tail with the dorsal (upper) lobe being substantially larger than the ventral (lower) lobe, and transition to more symmetrical tail in larger adults, although the upper lobe remains relatively larger in adults. The heads of juvenile tiger sharks are more conical, which transition to relatively broader heads over ontogeny. We interpret these changes as a result of two ecological transitions. First, adult tiger sharks can undertake extensive migrations and a more symmetrical tail could be more efficient for swimming longer distances, although we did not test this possibility. Second, adult tiger sharks expand their diet to consume larger and more diverse prey with age (turtles, mammals, and elasmobranchs), which requires substantially greater bite area and force to process. In contrast, juvenile tiger sharks consume smaller prey, such as fishes, crustaceans, and invertebrates. Our data reveal significant morphological shifts in an apex predator, which could have effects for other species that tiger sharks consume and interact with. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effects of simulated microgravity on circadian rhythm of caudal arterial pressure and heart rate in rats and their underlying mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li CHEN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the effects of simulated microgravity on the circadian rhythm of rats' caudal arterial pressure and heart rate, and their underlying mechanism. Methods  Eighteen male SD rats (aged 8 weeks were randomly assigned to control (CON and tail suspension (SUS group (9 each. Rats with tail suspension for 28 days were adopted as the animal model to simulate microgravity. Caudal arterial pressure and heart rate of rats were measured every 3 hours. The circadian difference of abdominal aorta contraction was measured by aortic ring test. Western blotting was performed to determine and compare the protein expression level of clock genes such as Per2 (Period2, Bmal1 (Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocatorlike and dbp (D element binding protein in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and abdominal aorta of rats in CON and SUS group at different time points. Results  Compared with CON group, the caudal arterial pressure, both systolic and diastolic pressure, decreased significantly and the diurnal variability disappeared, meanwhile the heart rate increased obviously and also the diurnal variability disappeared in rats of SUS group. Compared with CON group, the contraction reactivity of abdominal aorta decreased with disappearence of the diurnal variability, and also the clock genes expression in SCN and abdominal aorta showed no diurnal variability in rats of SUS group. Conclusion  Simulated microgravity may lead to circadian rhythm disorders in rats' cardiovascular system, which may be associated with the changes of the clock genes expression. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.06

  15. Subdural Thoracolumbar Spine Hematoma after Spinal Anesthesia: A Rare Occurrence and Literature Review of Spinal Hematomas after Spinal Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddali, Prasanthi; Walker, Blake; Fisahn, Christian; Page, Jeni; Diaz, Vicki; Zwillman, Michael E; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane; Moisi, Marc

    2017-02-16

    Spinal hematomas are a rare but serious complication of spinal epidural anesthesia and are typically seen in the epidural space; however, they have been documented in the subdural space. Spinal subdural hematomas likely exist within a traumatically induced space within the dural border cell layer, rather than an anatomical subdural space. Spinal subdural hematomas present a dangerous clinical situation as they have the potential to cause significant compression of neural elements and can be easily mistaken for spinal epidural hematomas. Ultrasound can be an effective modality to diagnose subdural hematoma when no epidural blood is visualized. We have reviewed the literature and present a full literature review and a case presentation of an 82-year-old male who developed a thoracolumbar spinal subdural hematoma after spinal epidural anesthesia. Anticoagulant therapy is an important predisposing risk factor for spinal epidural hematomas and likely also predispose to spinal subdural hematomas. It is important to consider spinal subdural hematomas in addition to spinal epidural hematomas in patients who develop weakness after spinal epidural anesthesia, especially in patients who have received anticoagulation.

  16. Suicide in a spinal cord injured population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartkopp, A; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Seidenschnur, A M

    1998-01-01

    To determine the relation between functional status and risk of suicide among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI).......To determine the relation between functional status and risk of suicide among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI)....

  17. Genetics Home Reference: spinal muscular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficulty breathing. Children with this type often have joint deformities (contractures) that impair movement. In severe cases, ... Proximal spinal muscular atrophy Washington University, St. Louis: Neuromuscular Disease Center: Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patient Support and ...

  18. Pericytes Make Spinal Cord Breathless after Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Viviani M; Paiva, Ana E; Sena, Isadora F G; Mintz, Akiva; Magno, Luiz Alexandre V; Birbrair, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury is a devastating condition that leads to significant neurological deficits and reduced quality of life. Therapeutic interventions after spinal cord lesions are designed to address multiple aspects of the secondary damage. However, the lack of detailed knowledge about the cellular and molecular changes that occur after spinal cord injury restricts the design of effective treatments. Li and colleagues using a rat model of spinal cord injury and in vivo microscopy reveal that pericytes play a key role in the regulation of capillary tone and blood flow in the spinal cord below the site of the lesion. Strikingly, inhibition of specific proteins expressed by pericytes after spinal cord injury diminished hypoxia and improved motor function and locomotion of the injured rats. This work highlights a novel central cellular population that might be pharmacologically targeted in patients with spinal cord trauma. The emerging knowledge from this research may provide new approaches for the treatment of spinal cord injury.

  19. Drug therapy in spinal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, S; Khandelwal, Gaurav

    2013-06-01

    Although the discovery of effective anti-tuberculosis drugs has made uncomplicated spinal tuberculosis a medical disease, the advent of multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the co-infection of HIV with tuberculosis have led to a resurgence of the disease recently. The principles of drug treatment of spinal tuberculosis are derived from our experience in treating pulmonary tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis is classified to be a severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and hence is included in Category I of the WHO classification. The tuberculosis bacilli isolated from patients are of four different types with different growth kinetics and metabolic characteristics. Hence multiple drugs, which act on the different groups of the mycobacteria, are included in each anti-tuberculosis drug regimen. Prolonged and uninterrupted chemotherapy (which may be 'short course' and 'intermittent' but preferably 'directly observed') is effective in controlling the infection. Spinal Multi-drug-resistant TB and spinal TB in HIV-positive patients present unique problems in management and have much poorer prognosis. Failure of chemotherapy and emergence of drug resistance are frequent due to the failure of compliance hence all efforts must be made to improve patient compliance to the prescribed drug regimen.

  20. Ligation of the caudal mesenteric artery during resection and anastomosis of the colorectal junction for annular adenocarcinoma in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarathchandra, S K; Lunn, J A; Hunt, G B

    2009-09-01

    An 8-year-old terrier cross and a 10-year-old German Shorthaired Pointer presented to the University Veterinary Centre, Sydney, for investigation of long-standing tenesmus and dyschezia. Both patients had an annular adenocarcinoma at the colorectal junction. Exploratory laparotomy was performed and the affected large intestinal segment was removed by resection and anastomosis. In both dogs, the caudal mesenteric artery was intimately associated with the mass, necessitating its ligation and transection. Postoperatively, there was no evidence of anastomosis breakdown in either case and both animals recovered well from surgery. The dogs were euthanased 8 and 10 months, respectively, after surgery because of clinical signs relating to metastatic disease.

  1. Spinal infection: Evaluation with MR imaging and intraoperative spinal US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan Post, M.J.; Montalvo, B.M.; Quencer, R.M.; Katz, B.H.; Green, B.A.; Elsmont, F.

    1987-01-01

    MR spine images and/or intraoperative US scans in 15 patients were reviewed retrospectively and correlated with clinical and pathologic data to determine the diagnostic value of these modalities in spinal infection. In osteomyelitis and retrospinal abscess MR imaging was definitive; in myelitis it was positive but nonspecific. In epidural abscess concomitant with meningitis, myelography with CT and intraoperative US were superior to MR imaging. Intraoperative US could be used to distinguish these processes and to monitor surgical decompression. The authors recommend that MR imaging be performed at the screening examination in cases of spinal infection, accompanied by intraoperative US in all surgical cases

  2. Unusual causes of spinal foraminal widening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zibis, A.H.; Markonis, A.; Karantanas, A.H. [Dept. of CT and MRI, Larissa General Hospital (Greece)

    2000-01-01

    Spinal neural foraminal widening is usually caused by benign lesions, most commonly neurofibromas. Rare lesions can also cause spinal neural foraminal widening. Computed tomography and/or MRI are the modalities of choice for studying the spinal foraminal widening. The present pictorial review describes six rare lesions, namely a lateral thoracic meningocele, a malignant fibrous histiocytoma, a tuberculous abscess, an osteoblastoma, a chondrosarcoma and a malignant tumour of the lung which caused spinal neural foraminal widening. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of the effect of sevoflurane and halothane anesthesia on the fall in hear rate as a predictor of successful single shot caudal epidural in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercan, A.; Ture, H.; Sayin, Murat M.; Koner, O.; Aykac, B.; Sozubir, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on heart rate (HR) fall with the injection of the initial drug in caudal space to confirm the correct needle placement. After the ethical approval was obtained from the hospital's ethics committee, a prospective randomized, clinical study was designed in Yeditepe University Hospital, in 2007. Children aged 1-12 years, scheduled for infraumblical surgery under general anesthesia and caudal block were included in the study. Anesthesia was induced and maintained by sevoflurane in group S (n=8) and by halothane in group H (n=82). Baseline HR was recorded before the caudal block was performed. The HR changes during the initial dose and total drug injection was recorded followed by 2 more HR recordings taken 5 and 10 minutes after caudal injection. The success of the block was recorded by a blind observer. There were 167 children included in the study. Caudal block success was 96.5% in group S and 97.6% in group H. Basal HR was 110.9+-10.9 in group S and 105.9+-10.1 in group H. Following the initial drug injection, mean HR was 109.8+-10.9 in group S and 102.9+-9.9 in group H. It was significantly lower than the baseline in group. The only significant decrease in the HR of the patients in group S was at the tenth minute following caudal injection. The decrease in HR with drug injection has no value to predict the success of caudal block under sevoflurane anesthesia. (author)

  4. Effect of magnesium added to local anesthetics for caudal anesthesia on postoperative pain in pediatric surgical patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis with Trial Sequential Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hiromasa; Mihara, Takahiro; Nakamura, Nobuhito; Ka, Koui; Goto, Takahisa

    2018-01-01

    Magnesium has been investigated as an adjuvant for neuraxial anesthesia, but the effect of caudal magnesium on postoperative pain is inconsistent. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the analgesic effect of caudal magnesium. We searched six databases, including trial registration sites. Randomized clinical trials reporting the effect of caudal magnesium on postoperative pain after general anesthesia were eligible. The risk ratio for use of rescue analgesics after surgery was combined using a random-effects model. We also assessed adverse events. The I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. We assessed risk of bias with Cochrane domains. We controlled type I and II errors due to sparse data and repetitive testing with Trial Sequential Analysis. We assessed the quality of evidence with GRADE. Four randomized controlled trials (247 patients) evaluated the need for rescue analgesics. In all four trials, 50 mg of magnesium was administered with caudal ropivacaine. The results suggested that the need for rescue analgesia was reduced significantly by caudal magnesium administration (risk ratio 0.45; 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.86). There was considerable heterogeneity as indicated by an I2 value of 62.5%. The Trial Sequential Analysis-adjusted confidence interval was 0.04-5.55, indicating that further trials are required. The quality of evidence was very low. The rate of adverse events was comparable between treatment groups. Caudal magnesium may reduce the need for rescue analgesia after surgery, but further randomized clinical trials with a low risk of bias and a low risk of random errors are necessary to assess the effect of caudal magnesium on postoperative pain and adverse events. University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000025344.

  5. Differential contributions of dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal prefrontal white matter tracts to cognitive control in healthy older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Strenziok

    Full Text Available Prefrontal cortex mediates cognitive control by means of circuitry organized along dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal axes. Along the dorso-ventral axis, ventrolateral PFC controls semantic information, whereas dorsolateral PFC encodes task rules. Along the rostro-caudal axis, anterior prefrontal cortex encodes complex rules and relationships between stimuli, whereas posterior prefrontal cortex encodes simple relationships between stimuli and behavior. Evidence of these gradients of prefrontal cortex organization has been well documented in fMRI studies, but their functional correlates have not been examined with regard to integrity of underlying white matter tracts. We hypothesized that (a the integrity of specific white matter tracts is related to cognitive functioning in a manner consistent with the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal organization of the prefrontal cortex, and (b this would be particularly evident in healthy older adults. We assessed three cognitive processes that recruit the prefrontal cortex and can distinguish white matter tracts along the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal dimensions -episodic memory, working memory, and reasoning. Correlations between cognition and fractional anisotropy as well as fiber tractography revealed: (a Episodic memory was related to ventral prefrontal cortex-thalamo-hippocampal fiber integrity; (b Working memory was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; and (c Reasoning was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving rostral and caudal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings confirm the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex's role in semantic control and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex's role in rule-based processing, in accordance with the dorso-ventral prefrontal cortex gradient. Reasoning-related rostral and caudal superior frontal white matter may facilitate different levels of task rule complexity. This study is the

  6. Differential contributions of dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal prefrontal white matter tracts to cognitive control in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenziok, Maren; Greenwood, Pamela M; Santa Cruz, Sophia A; Thompson, James C; Parasuraman, Raja

    2013-01-01

    Prefrontal cortex mediates cognitive control by means of circuitry organized along dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal axes. Along the dorso-ventral axis, ventrolateral PFC controls semantic information, whereas dorsolateral PFC encodes task rules. Along the rostro-caudal axis, anterior prefrontal cortex encodes complex rules and relationships between stimuli, whereas posterior prefrontal cortex encodes simple relationships between stimuli and behavior. Evidence of these gradients of prefrontal cortex organization has been well documented in fMRI studies, but their functional correlates have not been examined with regard to integrity of underlying white matter tracts. We hypothesized that (a) the integrity of specific white matter tracts is related to cognitive functioning in a manner consistent with the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal organization of the prefrontal cortex, and (b) this would be particularly evident in healthy older adults. We assessed three cognitive processes that recruit the prefrontal cortex and can distinguish white matter tracts along the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal dimensions -episodic memory, working memory, and reasoning. Correlations between cognition and fractional anisotropy as well as fiber tractography revealed: (a) Episodic memory was related to ventral prefrontal cortex-thalamo-hippocampal fiber integrity; (b) Working memory was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; and (c) Reasoning was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving rostral and caudal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings confirm the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex's role in semantic control and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex's role in rule-based processing, in accordance with the dorso-ventral prefrontal cortex gradient. Reasoning-related rostral and caudal superior frontal white matter may facilitate different levels of task rule complexity. This study is the first to

  7. Study of the efficiency of transplantation of human neural stem cells to rats with spinal trauma: the use of functional load tests and BBB test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, S V; Karasev, A V; Chekhonin, V P; Savchenko, E A; Viktorov, I V; Chelyshev, Yu A; Shaimardanova, G F

    2010-09-01

    Human ensheating neural stem cells of the olfactory epithelium were transplanted to adult male rats immediately after contusion trauma of the spinal cord at T9 level rostrally and caudally to the injury. Voluntary movements (by a 21-point BBB scale), rota-rod performance, and walking along a narrowing beam were monitored weekly over 60 days. In rats receiving cell transplantation, the mean BBB score significantly increased by 11% by the end of the experiment. The mean parameters of load tests also regularly surpassed the corresponding parameters in controls. The efficiency of transplantation (percent of animals with motor function recovery parameters surpassing the corresponding mean values in the control groups) was 62% by the state of voluntary motions, 37% by the rota-rod test, and 32% by the narrowing beam test. Morphometry revealed considerable shrinking of the zone of traumatic damage in the spinal cord and activation of posttraumatic remyelination in animals receiving transplantation of human neural stem cells.

  8. Letak Conus Medularis terhadap Vertebra Menggunakan Hasil Pencitraan Magnetic Resonance Imaging di Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung untuk Anestesi Spinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfitriani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The position of conus medullaris is important to be identified by anesthesiologists during spinal anesthesia to avoid serious spinal cord trauma risk. Conus medullaris can be accurately identified through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI images. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of conus medullaris in Indonesians through a descriptive observation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI images of lumbosacral. The locations of conus medullaris were observed retrospectively on 135 MRI images scanned, aged 18–65 years, during the period of January 2013 to March 2014 at the Departement of Radiology, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. From this study, it was revealed that the conus medullaris are mostly located at the middle third of L1, ranging from the middle third of T12 to the lower third of L2. With gender as a parameter, it was shown that the distribution of conus medullaris in women tends to be more caudal than in men

  9. Radiation treatment of spinal cord neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    Results of radiation treatment of spinal cord neoplasms are presented. The results of combined (surgical and radiation) treatment of tumors are studied. On the whole it is noted that radiation treatment of initial spinal cord tumours is not practised on a large scale because of low radiostability of spinal cord

  10. Spinal cord involvement in tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R K; Malhotra, H S; Gupta, R

    2015-09-01

    To summarize the incidence and spectrum of spinal cord-related complications in patients of tuberculous meningitis. Reports from multiple countries were included. An extensive review of the literature, published in English, was carried out using Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Tuberculous meningitis frequently affects the spinal cord and nerve roots. Initial evidence of spinal cord involvement came from post-mortem examination. Subsequent advancement in neuroimaging like conventional lumbar myelography, computed tomographic myelography and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance-myelography have contributed immensely. Spinal involvement manifests in several forms, like tuberculous radiculomyelitis, spinal tuberculoma, myelitis, syringomyelia, vertebral tuberculosis and very rarely spinal tuberculous abscess. Frequently, tuberculous spinal arachnoiditis develops paradoxically. Infrequently, spinal cord involvement may even be asymptomatic. Spinal cord and spinal nerve involvement is demonstrated by diffuse enhancement of cord parenchyma, nerve roots and meninges on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. High cerebrospinal fluid protein content is often a risk factor for arachnoiditis. The most important differential diagnosis of tuberculous arachnoiditis is meningeal carcinomatosis. Anti-tuberculosis therapy is the main stay of treatment for tuberculous meningitis. Higher doses of corticosteroids have been found effective. Surgery should be considered only when pathological confirmation is needed or there is significant spinal cord compression. The outcome in these patients has been unpredictable. Some reports observed excellent recovery and some reported unfavorable outcomes after surgical decompression and debridement. Tuberculous meningitis is frequently associated with disabling spinal cord and radicular complications. Available treatment options are far from satisfactory.

  11. Functional outcome after a spinal fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Richard Bernardus

    2008-01-01

    This thesis takes a closer look at the functional outcome after a spinal fracture. An introduction to different aspects regarding spinal fractures is presented in Chapter 1. The incidence of traumatic thoracolumbar spinal fractures without neurological deficit in the Netherlands is approximately 1.2

  12. Automatic spinal cord localization, robust to MRI contrasts using global curve optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Charley; De Leener, Benjamin; Dupont, Sara M; Martin, Allan R; Fehlings, Michael G; Bakshi, Rohit; Tummala, Subhash; Auclair, Vincent; McLaren, Donald G; Callot, Virginie; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Sdika, Michaël

    2018-02-01

    During the last two decades, MRI has been increasingly used for providing valuable quantitative information about spinal cord morphometry, such as quantification of the spinal cord atrophy in various diseases. However, despite the significant improvement of MR sequences adapted to the spinal cord, automatic image processing tools for spinal cord MRI data are not yet as developed as for the brain. There is nonetheless great interest in fully automatic and fast processing methods to be able to propose quantitative analysis pipelines on large datasets without user bias. The first step of most of these analysis pipelines is to detect the spinal cord, which is challenging to achieve automatically across the broad range of MRI contrasts, field of view, resolutions and pathologies. In this paper, a fully automated, robust and fast method for detecting the spinal cord centerline on MRI volumes is introduced. The algorithm uses a global optimization scheme that attempts to strike a balance between a probabilistic localization map of the spinal cord center point and the overall spatial consistency of the spinal cord centerline (i.e. the rostro-caudal continuity of the spinal cord). Additionally, a new post-processing feature, which aims to automatically split brain and spine regions is introduced, to be able to detect a consistent spinal cord centerline, independently from the field of view. We present data on the validation of the proposed algorithm, known as "OptiC", from a large dataset involving 20 centers, 4 contrasts (T 2 -weighted n = 287, T 1 -weighted n = 120, T 2 ∗ -weighted n = 307, diffusion-weighted n = 90), 501 subjects including 173 patients with a variety of neurologic diseases. Validation involved the gold-standard centerline coverage, the mean square error between the true and predicted centerlines and the ability to accurately separate brain and spine regions. Overall, OptiC was able to cover 98.77% of the gold-standard centerline, with a

  13. ATYPICAL GOUT: SPINAL TOPHACEOUS INJURY

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    Maksim Sergeevich Eliseev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal injury in gout occurs rarely at a young age. In the past 5 years, the Pubmed has published only 44 papers on this site of tophi mainly in gouty patients over 40 years of age. We report two such cases in patients with chronic tophaceous gout in a 28-year-old man with a 3-year history of gout and in a 30-year-old man with its 7-year history. In both cases, spinal injury with tophus masses gave rise to neurological symptomatology. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were of informative value in identifying the causes of pain. In one case, the patient underwent laminectomy; histological evidence confirmed the gouty genesis of spinal injury.

  14. Recurrent Primary Spinal Hydatid Cyst

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    Okan Turk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary hydatid disease of spine is rare and spinal hydatitosis constitute only 1% of all hydatitosis. We report a case of recurrent primary intraspinal extradural hydatid cyst of the thoracic region causing progressive paraparesis. The patient was operated 16 years ago for primary spinal hydatid disease involvement and was instrumented dorsally for stabilization. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of thoracic spine showed a cystic lesion at T11-12 level and compressed spinal cord posterolaterally. Intraspinal cyst was excised through T11-12 laminectomy which made formerly. The early postoperative period showed a progressive improvement of his neurological deficit and he was discharged with antihelmintic treatment consisting of albendazole and amoxicillin-sulbactam combination. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 84-89

  15. Musashi and Plasticity of Xenopus and Axolotl Spinal Cord Ependymal Cells

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    Ellen A. G. Chernoff

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The differentiated state of spinal cord ependymal cells in regeneration-competent amphibians varies between a constitutively active state in what is essentially a developing organism, the tadpole of the frog Xenopus laevis, and a quiescent, activatable state in a slowly growing adult salamander Ambystoma mexicanum, the Axolotl. Ependymal cells are epithelial in intact spinal cord of all vertebrates. After transection, body region ependymal epithelium in both Xenopus and the Axolotl disorganizes for regenerative outgrowth (gap replacement. Injury-reactive ependymal cells serve as a stem/progenitor cell population in regeneration and reconstruct the central canal. Expression patterns of mRNA and protein for the stem/progenitor cell-maintenance Notch signaling pathway mRNA-binding protein Musashi (msi change with life stage and regeneration competence. Msi-1 is missing (immunohistochemistry, or at very low levels (polymerase chain reaction, PCR, in both intact regeneration-competent adult Axolotl cord and intact non-regeneration-competent Xenopus tadpole (Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 62+, NF 62+. The critical correlation for successful regeneration is msi-1 expression/upregulation after injury in the ependymal outgrowth and stump-region ependymal cells. msi-1 and msi-2 isoforms were cloned for the Axolotl as well as previously unknown isoforms of Xenopus msi-2. Intact Xenopus spinal cord ependymal cells show a loss of msi-1 expression between regeneration-competent (NF 50–53 and non-regenerating stages (NF 62+ and in post-metamorphosis froglets, while msi-2 displays a lower molecular weight isoform in non-regenerating cord. In the Axolotl, embryos and juveniles maintain Msi-1 expression in the intact cord. In the adult Axolotl, Msi-1 is absent, but upregulates after injury. Msi-2 levels are more variable among Axolotl life stages: rising between late tailbud embryos and juveniles and decreasing in adult cord. Cultures of regeneration

  16. Musashi and Plasticity of Xenopus and Axolotl Spinal Cord Ependymal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoff, Ellen A. G.; Sato, Kazuna; Salfity, Hai V. N.; Sarria, Deborah A.; Belecky-Adams, Teri

    2018-01-01

    The differentiated state of spinal cord ependymal cells in regeneration-competent amphibians varies between a constitutively active state in what is essentially a developing organism, the tadpole of the frog Xenopus laevis, and a quiescent, activatable state in a slowly growing adult salamander Ambystoma mexicanum, the Axolotl. Ependymal cells are epithelial in intact spinal cord of all vertebrates. After transection, body region ependymal epithelium in both Xenopus and the Axolotl disorganizes for regenerative outgrowth (gap replacement). Injury-reactive ependymal cells serve as a stem/progenitor cell population in regeneration and reconstruct the central canal. Expression patterns of mRNA and protein for the stem/progenitor cell-maintenance Notch signaling pathway mRNA-binding protein Musashi (msi) change with life stage and regeneration competence. Msi-1 is missing (immunohistochemistry), or at very low levels (polymerase chain reaction, PCR), in both intact regeneration-competent adult Axolotl cord and intact non-regeneration-competent Xenopus tadpole (Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 62+, NF 62+). The critical correlation for successful regeneration is msi-1 expression/upregulation after injury in the ependymal outgrowth and stump-region ependymal cells. msi-1 and msi-2 isoforms were cloned for the Axolotl as well as previously unknown isoforms of Xenopus msi-2. Intact Xenopus spinal cord ependymal cells show a loss of msi-1 expression between regeneration-competent (NF 50–53) and non-regenerating stages (NF 62+) and in post-metamorphosis froglets, while msi-2 displays a lower molecular weight isoform in non-regenerating cord. In the Axolotl, embryos and juveniles maintain Msi-1 expression in the intact cord. In the adult Axolotl, Msi-1 is absent, but upregulates after injury. Msi-2 levels are more variable among Axolotl life stages: rising between late tailbud embryos and juveniles and decreasing in adult cord. Cultures of regeneration-competent Xenopus tadpole

  17. Bone marrow stem cells delivered into the subarachnoid space via cisterna magna improve repair of injured rat spinal cord white matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcol, Wiesław; Slusarczyk, Wojciech; Sieroń, Aleksander L; Koryciak-Komarska, Halina; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The influence of bone marrow stem cells on regeneration of spinal cord in rats was investigated. Young adult male Wistar rats were used (n=22). Focal injury of spinal cord white matter at Th10 level was produced using our original non-laminectomy method by means of high-pressured air stream. Cells from tibial and femoral bone marrow of 1-month old rats (n=3) were cultured, labeled with BrdU/Hoechst and injected into cisterna magna (experimental group) three times: immediately after spinal cord injury and 3 as well as 7 days later. Neurons in brain stem and motor cortex were labeled with FluoroGold (FG) delivered caudally from the injury site a week before the end of experiment. Functional outcome and morphological features of regeneration were analyzed during 12-week follow-up. The lesions were characterized by means of MRI. Maximal distance of expansion of implanted cells in the spinal cord was measured and the number of FG-positive neurons in the brain was counted. Rats treated with stem cells presented significant improvement of locomotor performance and spinal cord morphology when compared to the control group. Distance covered by stem cells was 7 mm from the epicenter of the injury. Number of brain stem and motor cortex FG-positive neurons in experimental group was significantly higher than in control. Obtained data showed that bone marrow stem cells are able to induce the repair of injured spinal cord white matter. The route of cells application via cisterna magna appeared to be useful for their delivery in spinal cord injury therapy. PMID:26628950

  18. Effects of ketamine and midazolam on emergence agitation after sevoflurane anaesthesia in children receiving caudal block: a randomized trial

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    Ayse Ozcan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Emergence agitation is a common postanaesthetic problem in children after sevoflurane anaesthesia. We aimed to compare the effects of ketamine and midazolam administered intravenously, before the end of surgery, for prevention of emergence agitation in children who received caudal block for pain relief under sevoflurane anaesthesia. Methods: 62 American Society of Anesthesiologists patient classification status I children, aged 2–7 years, scheduled for inguinal hernia repair, circumcision or orchidopexy were enrolled to the study. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane 8% in a mixture of 50% oxygen and nitrous oxide. After achieving adequate depth of anaesthesia, a laryngeal mask was placed and then caudal block was performed with 0.75 mL kg−1, 0.25% bupivacaine. At the end of the surgery, ketamine 0.25 mg kg−1, midazolam 0.03 mg kg−1 and saline were given to ketamine, midazolam and control groups, respectively. Agitation was assessed using Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and postoperative pain was evaluated with modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale. Results and conclusions: Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores were found higher in control group than in ketamine and midazolam groups. Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores were similar between groups. Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale and Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores showed a significant decrease by time in all groups during follow-up in postanaesthesia care unit. The present study resulted in satisfactory Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores which are below 10 in all groups. As a conclusion, neither ketamine nor midazolam added to caudal block under sevoflurane anaesthesia did show further effect on emergence agitation. In addition, pain relief still seems to be the major factor in preventing emergence agitation after

  19. Evaluation of Artificial Caudal Fin for Fish Robot with Two Joints by Using Three-Dimensional Fluid-Structure Simulation

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    Yogo Takada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fish robot with image sensors is useful to research for underwater creatures such as fish. However, the propulsion velocity of a fish robot is very slow compared with live fish. It is necessary to swim at a speed several times faster than the speed of the current robots for various usages. Therefore, we are searching for the method of making the robot swim fast. The simulation before making the robot is important. We have made the computational simulation program of three-dimensional fluid-structure analysis. The flow around the caudal fin can be examined by analyzing the fin as an elastic body. We compared the results of numerical analysis with the results of PIV measurement. Both were agreed well. Because the performance of a fish robot with two joints is better than that of a fish robot with one joint, we searched for an excellent fin for the fish robot with two joints by using CFD. We confirmed that the swimming performance of a fish robot becomes very good when the caudal fin is rigid except for the root of the fin which is comparatively flexible.

  20. Auxillary system for optimizing simulation and percutaneous irradiation in cranio-caudally contiguous head-neck-mediastinum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sistermanns, J.

    1994-01-01

    Percutaneous irradiation in the head and neck region via opponing lateral fields with caudally contiguous ventral and/or dorsal fields makes very high demands on simulation, instrument adjustment and documentation. At the outer boundaries of the irradiation volumes, there is always the danger of overdosage or underdosage with the familiar consequences. Four targeting systems in one plane were inserted in a perspex frame each consisting of two concentric rings and two orthogonal crossbars. Under simulation conditions, the lateral radiation fields take up one half of the targeting systems and the ventro-dorsal fields occupy the remaining half. The corresponding targeting systems project exactly on or into each other with compensation of the beam divergence. A definitively exact irradiation via cranio-caudally contiguous fields with different incident beam direction is possible by using the four targeting systems in one plane. Compensation of divergence is aimed for by rotation of the table and gantry angle modification, errors of compensation can already be checked optically from 0,5 . Deviations of 5 mm in the simulated longitudinal arrangement of the contiguous fields can be imaged on the documentation film made with therapy activity. On the one hand, the auxillary system presented allows both recognition of undesired field overlap and gaps in contiguous fields with different incident beam direction. On the other hand, it can be unequivocally documented whether the therapy is correct. Treatment errors can thus be minimized. (orig./MG) [de