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Sample records for caudal hindbrain specification

  1. Nkx2.2 and Nkx2.9 are the key regulators to determine cell fate of branchial and visceral motor neurons in caudal hindbrain.

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    Wassan Jarrar

    Full Text Available Cranial motor nerves in vertebrates are comprised of the three principal subtypes of branchial, visceral, and somatic motor neurons, which develop in typical patterns along the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes of hindbrain. Here we demonstrate that the formation of branchial and visceral motor neurons critically depends on the transcription factors Nkx2.2 and Nkx2.9, which together determine the cell fate of neuronal progenitor cells. Disruption of both genes in mouse embryos results in complete loss of the vagal and spinal accessory motor nerves, and partial loss of the facial and glossopharyngeal motor nerves, while the purely somatic hypoglossal and abducens motor nerves are not diminished. Cell lineage analysis in a genetically marked mouse line reveals that alterations of cranial nerves in Nkx2.2; Nkx2.9 double-deficient mouse embryos result from changes of cell fate in neuronal progenitor cells. As a consequence progenitors of branchiovisceral motor neurons in the ventral p3 domain of hindbrain are transformed to somatic motor neurons, which use ventral exit points to send axon trajectories to their targets. Cell fate transformation is limited to the caudal hindbrain, as the trigeminal nerve is not affected in double-mutant embryos suggesting that Nkx2.2 and Nkx2.9 proteins play no role in the development of branchiovisceral motor neurons in hindbrain rostral to rhombomere 4.

  2. Stem cells expanded from the human embryonic hindbrain stably retain regional specification and high neurogenic potency.

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    Tailor, Jignesh; Kittappa, Raja; Leto, Ketty; Gates, Monte; Borel, Melodie; Paulsen, Ole; Spitzer, Sonia; Karadottir, Ragnhildur Thora; Rossi, Ferdinando; Falk, Anna; Smith, Austin

    2013-07-24

    Stem cell lines that faithfully maintain the regional identity and developmental potency of progenitors in the human brain would create new opportunities in developmental neurobiology and provide a resource for generating specialized human neurons. However, to date, neural progenitor cultures derived from the human brain have either been short-lived or exhibit restricted, predominantly glial, differentiation capacity. Pluripotent stem cells are an alternative source, but to ascertain definitively the identity and fidelity of cell types generated solely in vitro is problematic. Here, we show that hindbrain neuroepithelial stem (hbNES) cells can be derived and massively expanded from early human embryos (week 5-7, Carnegie stage 15-17). These cell lines are propagated in adherent culture in the presence of EGF and FGF2 and retain progenitor characteristics, including SOX1 expression, formation of rosette-like structures, and high neurogenic capacity. They generate GABAergic, glutamatergic and, at lower frequency, serotonergic neurons. Importantly, hbNES cells stably maintain hindbrain specification and generate upper rhombic lip derivatives on exposure to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). When grafted into neonatal rat brain, they show potential for integration into cerebellar development and produce cerebellar granule-like cells, albeit at low frequency. hbNES cells offer a new system to study human cerebellar specification and development and to model diseases of the hindbrain. They also provide a benchmark for the production of similar long-term neuroepithelial-like stem cells (lt-NES) from pluripotent cell lines. To our knowledge, hbNES cells are the first demonstration of highly expandable neuroepithelial stem cells derived from the human embryo without genetic immortalization.

  3. Chondrocyte-Specific Inhibition of β-Catenin Signaling Leads to Dysplasia of the Caudal Vertebrae in Mice

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    Shu, Bing; Li, Tian-Fang; Li, Xiao-Feng; Tang, De-Zhi; Zhang, Yejia; Shi, Qi; Wang, Yong-Jun; Chen, Di

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. To inhibit β-catenin specifically signaling in chondrocytes Col2-ICAT transgenic mice were generated. Anomalies in caudal vertebrae were detected during embryonic and postnatal stages of Col2-ICAT transgenic mice. Objective. To determine the role of canonical β-catenin signaling in caudal vertebral development. Summary of Background Data. β-catenin signaling plays a critical role in skeletal development. Col2-ICAT transgenic mice were generated to selectively block β-catenin sig...

  4. Hindbrain GLP-1 receptor mediation of cisplatin-induced anorexia and nausea.

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    De Jonghe, Bart C; Holland, Ruby A; Olivos, Diana R; Rupprecht, Laura E; Kanoski, Scott E; Hayes, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    While chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are clinically controlled in the acute (anorexia, nausea, fatigue, and other illness-type behaviors during the delayed phase (>24 h) of chemotherapy are largely uncontrolled. As the hindbrain glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) system contributes to energy balance and mediates aversive and stressful stimuli, here we examine the hypothesis that hindbrain GLP-1 signaling mediates aspects of chemotherapy-induced nausea and reductions in feeding behavior in rats. Specifically, hindbrain GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) blockade, via 4th intracerebroventricular (ICV) exendin-(9-39) injections, attenuates the anorexia, body weight reduction, and pica (nausea-induced ingestion of kaolin clay) elicited by cisplatin chemotherapy during the delayed phase (48 h) of chemotherapy-induced nausea. Additionally, the present data provide evidence that the central GLP-1-producing preproglucagon neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of the caudal brainstem are activated by cisplatin during the delayed phase of chemotherapy-induced nausea, as cisplatin led to a significant increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in NTS GLP-1-immunoreactive neurons. These data support a growing body of literature suggesting that the central GLP-1 system may be a potential pharmaceutical target for adjunct anti-emetics used to treat the delayed-phase of nausea and emesis, anorexia, and body weight loss that accompany chemotherapy treatments.

  5. Hindbrain GLP-1 receptor mediation of cisplatin-induced anorexia and nausea.

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    De Jonghe, Bart C; Holland, Ruby A; Olivos, Diana R; Rupprecht, Laura E; Kanoski, Scott E; Hayes, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    While chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are clinically controlled in the acute (24 h) of chemotherapy are largely uncontrolled. As the hindbrain glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) system contributes to energy balance and mediates aversive and stressful stimuli, here we examine the hypothesis that hindbrain GLP-1 signaling mediates aspects of chemotherapy-induced nausea and reductions in feeding behavior in rats. Specifically, hindbrain GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) blockade, via 4th intracerebroventricular (ICV) exendin-(9-39) injections, attenuates the anorexia, body weight reduction, and pica (nausea-induced ingestion of kaolin clay) elicited by cisplatin chemotherapy during the delayed phase (48 h) of chemotherapy-induced nausea. Additionally, the present data provide evidence that the central GLP-1-producing preproglucagon neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of the caudal brainstem are activated by cisplatin during the delayed phase of chemotherapy-induced nausea, as cisplatin led to a significant increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in NTS GLP-1-immunoreactive neurons. These data support a growing body of literature suggesting that the central GLP-1 system may be a potential pharmaceutical target for adjunct anti-emetics used to treat the delayed-phase of nausea and emesis, anorexia, and body weight loss that accompany chemotherapy treatments. PMID:26522737

  6. An amphioxus Krox gene: insights into vertebrate hindbrain evolution.

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    Knight, R D; Panopoulou, G D; Holland, P W; Shimeld, S M

    2000-10-01

    The transcription factor Krox-20 has roles in the maintenance of segmentation and specification of segment identity in the vertebrate hindbrain. Overt hindbrain segmentation is a vertebrate novelty, and is not seen in invertebrate chordates such as amphioxus and tunicates. To test if the roles of Krox-20 are also derived, we cloned a Krox-20 related gene, AmphiKrox, from amphioxus. AmphiKrox is related to a small family of vertebrate Krox genes and is expressed in the most anterior region of the amphioxus brain and in the club shaped gland, a secretory organ that develops in the anterior pharynx. Neither expression domain overlaps with the expression of AmphiHox-1, -2, -3 or -4, suggesting that the roles of Krox-20 in hindbrain segmentation and in Hox gene regulation were acquired concomitant with the duplication of Krox genes in vertebrate evolution. PMID:11180801

  7. Axonal patterns and targets of dA1 interneurons in the chick hindbrain.

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    Kohl, Ayelet; Hadas, Yoav; Klar, Avihu; Sela-Donenfeld, Dalit

    2012-04-25

    Hindbrain dorsal interneurons that comprise the rhombic lip relay sensory information and coordinate motor outputs. The progenitor dA1 subgroup of interneurons, which is formed along the dorsal-most region of the caudal rhombic lip, gives rise to the cochlear and precerebellar nuclei. These centers project sensory inputs toward upper-brain regions. The fundamental role of dA1 interneurons in the assembly and function of these brainstem nuclei is well characterized. However, the precise en route axonal patterns and synaptic targets of dA1 interneurons are not clear as of yet. Novel genetic tools were used to label dA1 neurons and trace their axonal trajectories and synaptic connections at various stages of chick embryos. Using dA1-specific enhancers, two contralateral ascending axonal projection patterns were identified; one derived from rhombomeres 6-7 that elongated in the dorsal funiculus, while the other originated from rhombomeres 2-5 and extended in the lateral funiculus. Targets of dA1 axons were followed at later stages using PiggyBac-mediated DNA transposition. dA1 axons were found to project and form synapses in the auditory nuclei and cerebellum. Investigation of mechanisms that regulate the patterns of dA1 axons revealed a fundamental role of Lim-homeodomain (HD) proteins. Switch in the expression of the specific dA1 Lim-HD proteins Lhx2/9 into Lhx1, which is typically expressed in dB1 interneurons, modified dA1 axonal patterns to project along the routes of dB1 subgroup. Together, the results of this research provided new tools and knowledge to the assembly of trajectories and connectivity of hindbrain dA1 interneurons and of molecular mechanisms that control these patterns.

  8. An FGF3-BMP Signaling Axis Regulates Caudal Neural Tube Closure, Neural Crest Specification and Anterior-Posterior Axis Extension.

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    Matthew J Anderson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During vertebrate axis extension, adjacent tissue layers undergo profound morphological changes: within the neuroepithelium, neural tube closure and neural crest formation are occurring, while within the paraxial mesoderm somites are segmenting from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM. Little is known about the signals between these tissues that regulate their coordinated morphogenesis. Here, we analyze the posterior axis truncation of mouse Fgf3 null homozygotes and demonstrate that the earliest role of PSM-derived FGF3 is to regulate BMP signals in the adjacent neuroepithelium. FGF3 loss causes elevated BMP signals leading to increased neuroepithelium proliferation, delay in neural tube closure and premature neural crest specification. We demonstrate that elevated BMP4 depletes PSM progenitors in vitro, phenocopying the Fgf3 mutant, suggesting that excessive BMP signals cause the Fgf3 axis defect. To test this in vivo we increased BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants by removing one copy of Noggin, which encodes a BMP antagonist. In such mutants, all parameters of the Fgf3 phenotype were exacerbated: neural tube closure delay, premature neural crest specification, and premature axis termination. Conversely, genetically decreasing BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants, via loss of BMP receptor activity, alleviates morphological defects. Aberrant apoptosis is observed in the Fgf3 mutant tailbud. However, we demonstrate that cell death does not cause the Fgf3 phenotype: blocking apoptosis via deletion of pro-apoptotic genes surprisingly increases all Fgf3 defects including causing spina bifida. We demonstrate that this counterintuitive consequence of blocking apoptosis is caused by the increased survival of BMP-producing cells in the neuroepithelium. Thus, we show that FGF3 in the caudal vertebrate embryo regulates BMP signaling in the neuroepithelium, which in turn regulates neural tube closure, neural crest specification and axis termination. Uncovering this FGF3

  9. The vertebrate Hox gene regulatory network for hindbrain segmentation: Evolution and diversification: Coupling of a Hox gene regulatory network to hindbrain segmentation is an ancient trait originating at the base of vertebrates.

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    Parker, Hugo J; Bronner, Marianne E; Krumlauf, Robb

    2016-06-01

    Hindbrain development is orchestrated by a vertebrate gene regulatory network that generates segmental patterning along the anterior-posterior axis via Hox genes. Here, we review analyses of vertebrate and invertebrate chordate models that inform upon the evolutionary origin and diversification of this network. Evidence from the sea lamprey reveals that the hindbrain regulatory network generates rhombomeric compartments with segmental Hox expression and an underlying Hox code. We infer that this basal feature was present in ancestral vertebrates and, as an evolutionarily constrained developmental state, is fundamentally important for patterning of the vertebrate hindbrain across diverse lineages. Despite the common ground plan, vertebrates exhibit neuroanatomical diversity in lineage-specific patterns, with different vertebrates revealing variations of Hox expression in the hindbrain that could underlie this diversification. Invertebrate chordates lack hindbrain segmentation but exhibit some conserved aspects of this network, with retinoic acid signaling playing a role in establishing nested domains of Hox expression. PMID:27027928

  10. Caudal Ganglionic Eminence Precursor Transplants Disperse and Integrate as Lineage-Specific Interneurons but Do Not Induce Cortical Plasticity.

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    Larimer, Phillip; Spatazza, Julien; Espinosa, Juan Sebastian; Tang, Yunshuo; Kaneko, Megumi; Hasenstaub, Andrea R; Stryker, Michael P; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2016-08-01

    The maturation of inhibitory GABAergic cortical circuits regulates experience-dependent plasticity. We recently showed that the heterochronic transplantation of parvalbumin (PV) or somatostatin (SST) interneurons from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) reactivates ocular dominance plasticity (ODP) in the postnatal mouse visual cortex. Might other types of interneurons similarly induce cortical plasticity? Here, we establish that caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE)-derived interneurons, when transplanted into the visual cortex of neonatal mice, migrate extensively in the host brain and acquire laminar distribution, marker expression, electrophysiological properties, and visual response properties like those of host CGE interneurons. Although transplants from the anatomical CGE do induce ODP, we found that this plasticity reactivation is mediated by a small fraction of MGE-derived cells contained in the transplant. These findings demonstrate that transplanted CGE cells can successfully engraft into the postnatal mouse brain and confirm the unique role of MGE lineage neurons in the induction of ODP. PMID:27425623

  11. Caudal Ganglionic Eminence Precursor Transplants Disperse and Integrate as Lineage-Specific Interneurons but Do Not Induce Cortical Plasticity

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    Phillip Larimer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The maturation of inhibitory GABAergic cortical circuits regulates experience-dependent plasticity. We recently showed that the heterochronic transplantation of parvalbumin (PV or somatostatin (SST interneurons from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE reactivates ocular dominance plasticity (ODP in the postnatal mouse visual cortex. Might other types of interneurons similarly induce cortical plasticity? Here, we establish that caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE-derived interneurons, when transplanted into the visual cortex of neonatal mice, migrate extensively in the host brain and acquire laminar distribution, marker expression, electrophysiological properties, and visual response properties like those of host CGE interneurons. Although transplants from the anatomical CGE do induce ODP, we found that this plasticity reactivation is mediated by a small fraction of MGE-derived cells contained in the transplant. These findings demonstrate that transplanted CGE cells can successfully engraft into the postnatal mouse brain and confirm the unique role of MGE lineage neurons in the induction of ODP.

  12. Lhx2 and Lhx9 determine neuronal differentiation and compartition in the caudal forebrain by regulating Wnt signaling.

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    Daniela Peukert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Initial axial patterning of the neural tube into forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain primordia occurs during gastrulation. After this patterning phase, further diversification within the brain is thought to proceed largely independently in the different primordia. However, mechanisms that maintain the demarcation of brain subdivisions at later stages are poorly understood. In the alar plate of the caudal forebrain there are two principal units, the thalamus and the pretectum, each of which is a developmental compartment. Here we show that proper neuronal differentiation of the thalamus requires Lhx2 and Lhx9 function. In Lhx2/Lhx9-deficient zebrafish embryos the differentiation process is blocked and the dorsally adjacent Wnt positive epithalamus expands into the thalamus. This leads to an upregulation of Wnt signaling in the caudal forebrain. Lack of Lhx2/Lhx9 function as well as increased Wnt signaling alter the expression of the thalamus specific cell adhesion factor pcdh10b and lead subsequently to a striking anterior-posterior disorganization of the caudal forebrain. We therefore suggest that after initial neural tube patterning, neurogenesis within a brain compartment influences the integrity of the neuronal progenitor pool and border formation of a neuromeric compartment.

  13. Hindbrain Leptin Stimulation Induces Anorexia and Hyperthermia Mediated by Hindbrain Melanocortin Receptors

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    Skibicka, Karolina P; Grill, Harvey J.

    2008-01-01

    Of the central nervous system receptors that could mediate the energy balance effects of leptin, those of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus receive the greatest attention. Melanocortin receptors (MC-Rs) contribute to the feeding and energetic effects of hypothalamically delivered leptin. Energy balance effects of leptin are also mediated by extrahypothalamic neurons including the hindbrain nucleus tractus solitarius. Hindbrain leptin receptors play a role in leptin's anorectic effects, but the...

  14. Midbrain and Hindbrain Involvement in Lissencephaly

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of the midbrain and hindbrain (MHB in the various groups of lissencephalies was examined in an MRI study of 111 patients (aged 1 day to 32 years; mean 5 years 4 months studied at University of California San Francisco, and centers in France, Belgium, and Turkey.

  15. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C;

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months.......Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  16. Silibinin modulates caudal-type homeobox transcription factor (CDX2), an intestine specific tumor suppressor to abrogate colon cancer in experimental rats.

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    Sangeetha, N; Nalini, N

    2015-01-01

    To authenticate the colon cancer preventive potential of silibinin, the efficacy of silibinin needs to be tested by evaluating an organ-specific biomarker. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of silibinin on the colonic expression of the caudal-type homeobox transcription factor (CDX2) an intestine specific tumor suppressor gene and its downstream targets in the colon of rats challenged with 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine (DMH). Rats of groups 1 and 2 were treated as control and silibinin control. Rats under groups 3 and 4 were given DMH (20 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) subcutaneously) once a week for 15 consecutive weeks from the 4th week of the experimental period. In addition, group 4 rats alone were treated with silibinin (50 mg/kg b.w. per os) everyday throughout the study period of 32 weeks. Histological investigation and messenger RNA and protein expression studies were performed in the colonic tissues of experimental rats. Findings of the study revealed that DMH administration significantly decreased the expression of CDX2 and Guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) in the colon of experimental rats. Further the decreased levels of CDX2 protein, colonic mucin content, and increased number of mast cells in the colon of DMH alone-administered rats reflects the onset of carcinogenesis. The pathological changes caused due to CDX2 suppression were attenuated by silibinin supplementation. PMID:24740923

  17. Pbx proteins cooperate with Engrailed to pattern the midbrain-hindbrain and diencephalic-mesencephalic boundaries.

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    Erickson, Timothy; Scholpp, Steffen; Brand, Michael; Moens, Cecilia B; Waskiewicz, Andrew Jan

    2007-01-15

    Pbx proteins are a family of TALE-class transcription factors that are well characterized as Hox co-factors acting to impart segmental identity to the hindbrain rhombomeres. However, no role for Pbx in establishing more anterior neural compartments has been demonstrated. Studies done in Drosophila show that Engrailed requires Exd (Pbx orthologue) for its biological activity. Here, we present evidence that zebrafish Pbx proteins cooperate with Engrailed to compartmentalize the midbrain by regulating the maintenance of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) and the diencephalic-mesencephalic boundary (DMB). Embryos lacking Pbx function correctly initiate midbrain patterning, but fail to maintain eng2a, pax2a, fgf8, gbx2, and wnt1 expression at the MHB. Formation of the DMB is also defective as shown by a caudal expansion of diencephalic epha4a and pax6a expression into midbrain territory. These phenotypes are similar to the phenotype of an Engrailed loss-of-function embryo, supporting the hypothesis that Pbx and Engrailed act together on a common genetic pathway. Consistent with this model, we demonstrate that zebrafish Engrailed and Pbx interact in vitro and that this interaction is required for both the eng2a overexpression phenotype and Engrailed's role in patterning the MHB. Our data support a novel model of midbrain development in which Pbx and Engrailed proteins cooperatively pattern the mesencephalic region of the neural tube. PMID:16959235

  18. Clonal analysis of kit ligand a functional expression reveals lineage-specific competence to promote melanocyte rescue in the mutant regenerating caudal fin.

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    Robert C Tryon

    Full Text Available The study of regeneration in an in vivo vertebrate system has the potential to reveal targetable genes and pathways that could improve our ability to heal and repair damaged tissue. We have developed a system for clonal labeling of discrete cell lineages and independently inducing gene expression under control of the heat shock promoter in the zebrafish caudal fin. Consequently we are able to test the affects of overexpressing a single gene in the context of regeneration within each of the nine different cell lineage classes that comprise the caudal fin. This can test which lineage is necessary or sufficient to provide gene function. As a first example to demonstrate this approach, we explored which lineages were competent to functionally express the kit ligand a protein as assessed by the local complementation of the mutation in the sparse-like (kitlgatc244b background. We show that dermal fibroblast expression of kit ligand a robustly supports the rescue of melanocytes in the regenerating caudal fin. kit ligand a expression from skin and osteoblasts results in more modest and variable rescue of melanocytes, while lateral line expression was unable to complement the mutation.

  19. Regionalization of the shark hindbrain: a survey of an ancestral organization

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    Isabel eRodríguez-Moldes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cartilaginous fishes (chondrichthyans represent an ancient radiation of vertebrates currently considered the sister group of the group of gnathostomes with a bony skeleton that gave rise to land vertebrates. This out-group position makes chondrichthyans essential in assessing the ancestral organization of the brain of jawed vertebrates. To gain knowledge about hindbrain evolution we have studied its development in a shark, the lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula by analyzing the expression of some developmental genes and the origin and distribution of specific neuronal populations, which may help to identify hindbrain subdivisions and boundaries and the topology of specific cell groups. We have characterized three developmental periods that will serve as a framework to compare the development of different neuronal systems and may represent a suitable tool for comparing the absolute chronology of development among vertebrates. The expression patterns of Pax6, Wnt8 and Hoxa2 genes in early embryos of S. canicula showed close correspondence to what has been described in other vertebrates and helped to identify the anterior rhombomeres. Also in these early embryos, the combination of Pax6 with protein markers of migrating neuroblasts (DCX and early differentiating neurons (general: HuC/D; neuron type specific: GAD, the GABA synthesizing enzyme revealed the organization of S. canicula hindbrain in both transverse segmental units corresponding to visible rhombomeres and longitudinal columns. Later in development, when the interrhombomeric boundaries fade away, accurate information about S. canicula hindbrain subdivisions was achieved by comparing the expression patterns of Pax6 and GAD, serotonin (serotoninergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase (catecholaminergic neurons, choline acetyltransferase (cholinergic neurons and calretinin (a calcium-binding protein. The patterns observed revealed many topological correspondences with other vertebrates

  20. Electroporation of the hindbrain to trace axonal trajectories and synaptic targets in the chick embryo.

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    Kohl, Ayelet; Hadas, Yoav; Klar, Avihu; Sela-Donenfeld, Dalit

    2013-05-29

    Electroporation of the chick embryonic neural tube has many advantages such as being quick and efficient for the expression of foreign genes into neuronal cells. In this manuscript we provide a method that demonstrates uniquely how to electroporate DNA into the avian hindbrain at E2.75 in order to specifically label a subset of neuronal progenitors, and how to follow their axonal projections and synaptic targets at much advanced stages of development, up to E14.5. We have utilized novel genetic tools including specific enhancer elements, Cre/Lox - based plasmids and the PiggyBac-mediated DNA transposition system to drive GFP expression in a subtype of hindbrain cells (the dorsal most subgroup of interneurons, dA1). Axonal trajectories and targets of dA1 axons are followed at early and late embryonic stages at various brainstem regions. This strategy contributes advanced techniques for targeting cells of interest in the embryonic hindbrain and for tracing circuit formation at multiple stages of development.

  1. Caudal Regression Syndrome

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    Karim Hardani*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A 10-month-old baby presented with developmental delay. He had flaccid paralysis on physical examination.An MRI of the spine revealed malformation of the ninth and tenth thoracic vertebral bodies with complete agenesis of the rest of the spine down that level. The thoracic spinal cord ends at the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra with agenesis of the posterior arches of the eighth, ninth and tenth thoracic vertebral bodies. The roots of the cauda equina appear tightened down and backward and ended into a subdermal fibrous fatty tissue at the level of the ninth and tenth thoracic vertebral bodies (closed meningocele. These findings are consistent with caudal regression syndrome.

  2. Preproglucagon neurons in the hindbrain have IL-6 receptor-α and show Ca2+ influx in response to IL-6.

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    Anesten, Fredrik; Holt, Marie K; Schéle, Erik; Pálsdóttir, Vilborg; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M; Safari, Cecilia; Skibicka, Karolina P; Trapp, Stefan; Jansson, John-Olov

    2016-07-01

    Neuronal circuits in the hypothalamus and hindbrain are of importance for control of food intake, energy expenditure, and fat mass. We have recently shown that treatment with exendin-4 (Ex-4), an analog of the proglucagon-derived molecule glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), markedly increases mRNA expression of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the hypothalamus and hindbrain and that this increase partly mediates the suppression of food intake and body weight by Ex-4. Endogenous GLP-1 in the central nervous system (CNS) is produced by preproglucagon (PPG) neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in the hindbrain. These neurons project to various parts of the brain, including the hypothalamus. Outside the brain, IL-6 stimulates GLP-1 secretion from the gut and pancreas. In this study, we aim to investigate whether IL-6 can affect GLP-1-producing PPG neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in mouse hindbrain via the ligand binding part of the IL-6 receptor, IL-6 receptor-α (IL-6Rα). Using immunohistochemistry, we found that IL-6Rα was localized on PPG neurons of the NTS. Recordings of these neurons in GCaMP3/GLP-1 reporter mice showed that IL-6 enhances cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in neurons capable of expressing PPG. We also show that the Ca(2+) increase originates from the extracellular space. Furthermore, we found that IL-6Rα was localized on cells in the caudal hindbrain expressing immunoreactive NeuN (a neuronal marker) or CNP:ase (an oligodendrocyte marker). In summary, IL-6Rα is present on PPG neurons in the NTS, and IL-6 can stimulate these cells by increasing influx of Ca(2+) to the cytosol from the extracellular space. PMID:27097661

  3. Satiation and stress-induced hypophagia: examining the role of hindbrain neurons expressing prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP or glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1

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    James W. Maniscalco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits distributed within the brainstem, hypothalamus, and limbic forebrain interact to control food intake and energy balance under normal day-to-day conditions, and in response to stressful conditions under which homeostasis is threatened. Experimental studies using rats and mice have generated a voluminous literature regarding the functional organization of circuits that inhibit food intake in response to satiety signals, and in response to stress. Although the central neural bases of satiation and stress-induced hypophagia often are studied and discussed as if they were distinct, we propose that both behavioral states are generated, at least in part, by recruitment of two separate but intermingled groups of caudal hindbrain neurons. One group comprises a subpopulation of noradrenergic (NA neurons within the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (cNST; A2 cell group that is immunopositive for prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP. The second group comprises non-adrenergic neurons within the cNST and nearby reticular formation that synthesize glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1. Axonal projections from PrRP and GLP-1 neurons target distributed brainstem and forebrain regions that shape behavioral, autonomic, and endocrine responses to actual or anticipated homeostatic challenge, including the challenge of food intake. Evidence reviewed in this article supports the view that hindbrain PrRP and GLP-1 neurons contribute importantly to satiation and stress-induced hypophagia by modulating the activity of caudal brainstem circuits that control food intake. Hindbrain PrRP and GLP-1 neurons also engage hypothalamic and limbic forebrain networks that drive parallel behavioral and endocrine functions related to food intake and homeostatic challenge, and modulate conditioned and motivational aspects of food intake.

  4. Update on neuroimaging phenotypes of mid-hindbrain malformations

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    Jissendi-Tchofo, Patrice [University Hospital of Lille (CHRU), Department of Neuroradiology, MRI 3T Research, Plateforme Imagerie du vivant, IMPRT-IFR 114, Lille-Cedex (France); CHU Saint-Pierre, Radiology Department, Pediatric Neuroradiology Section, Brussels (Belgium); Severino, Mariasavina [Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Neuroradiology Unit, Genoa (Italy); Nguema-Edzang, Beatrice; Toure, Cisse; Soto Ares, Gustavo [University Hospital of Lille (CHRU), Department of Neuroradiology, MRI 3T Research, Plateforme Imagerie du vivant, IMPRT-IFR 114, Lille-Cedex (France); Barkovich, Anthony James [University of California, Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-23

    Neuroimaging techniques including structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional positron emission tomography (PET) are useful in categorizing various midbrain-hindbrain (MHB) malformations, both in allowing diagnosis and in helping to understand the developmental processes that were disturbed. Brain imaging phenotypes of numerous malformations are characteristic features that help in guiding the genetic testing in case of direct neuroimaging-genotype correlation or, at least, to differentiate among MHB malformations entities. The present review aims to provide the reader with an update of the use of neuroimaging applications in the fine analysis of MHB malformations, using a comprehensive, recently proposed developmental and genetic classification. We have performed an extensive systematic review of the literature, from the embryology main steps of MHB development through the malformations entities, with regard to their molecular and genetic basis, conventional MRI features, and other neuroimaging characteristics. We discuss disorders in which imaging features are distinctive and how these features reflect the structural and functional impairment of the brain. Recognition of specific MRI phenotypes, including advanced imaging features, is useful to recognize the MHB malformation entities, to suggest genetic investigations, and, eventually, to monitor the disease outcome after supportive therapies. (orig.)

  5. Sema4d is required for the development of the hindbrain boundary and skeletal muscle in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Zeng, Zhen; Wei, Juncheng; Jiang, Lijun; Ma, Quanfu; Wu, Mingfu; Huang, Xiaoyuan; Ye, Shuangmei; Li, Ye; Ma, Ding [Cancer Biology Research Centre, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030 (China); Gao, Qinglei, E-mail: qlgao@tjh.tjmu.edu.cn [Cancer Biology Research Centre, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030 (China)

    2013-04-05

    Highlights: ► Sema4d was expressed at all developmental stages of zebrafish. ► Knockdown of sema4d in embryos resulted in defects in the hindbrain and the trunk structure. ► Knockdown of sema4d in embryos upregulated the expression of three hindbrain rhombomere markers. ► Knockdown of sema4d in embryos increased the expression of myogenic regulatory factors. ► Knockdown of sema4d in embryos resulted in an obvious increase of cell apoptosis. -- Abstract: Semaphorin4d (SEMA4D), also known as CD100, an oligodendrocyte secreted R-Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP), affecting axonal growth is involved in a range of processes including cell adhesion, motility, angiogenesis, immune responses and tumour progression. However, its actual physiological mechanisms and its role in development remain unclear. This study has focused on the role of sema4d in the development and expression patterns in zebrafish embryos and the effect of its suppression on development using sema4d-specific antisense morpholino-oligonucleotides. In this study the knockdown of sema4d, expressed at all developmental stages, lead to defects in the hindbrain and trunk structure of zebrafish embryos. In addition, these phenotypes appeared to be associated with the abnormal expression of three hindbrain rhombomere boundary markers, wnt1, epha4a and foxb1.2, and two myogenic regulatory factors, myod and myog. Further, a notable increase of cell apoptosis appeared in the sema4d knockdown embryos, while no obvious reduction in cell proliferation was observed. Collectively, these data suggest that sema4d plays an important role in the development of the hindbrain and skeletal muscle.

  6. Hindbrain regional growth in preterm newborns and its impairment in relation to brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hosung; Gano, Dawn; Ho, Mai-Lan; Guo, Xiaoyue M; Unzueta, Alisa; Hess, Christopher; Ferriero, Donna M; Xu, Duan; Barkovich, A James

    2016-02-01

    Premature birth globally affects about 11.1% of all newborns and is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disability in surviving infants. Histology has suggested that hindbrain subdivisions grow differentially, especially in the third trimester. Prematurity-related brain injuries occurring in this period may selectively affect more rapidly developing areas of hindbrain, thus accompanying region-specific impairments in growth and ultimately neurodevelopmental deficits. The current study aimed to quantify regional growth of the cerebellum and the brainstem in preterm neonates (n = 65 with individually multiple scans). We probed associations of the regional volumes with severity of brain injury. In neonates with no imaging evidence of injury, our analysis using a mixed-effect linear model showed faster growth in the pons and the lateral convexity of anterior/posterior cerebellar lobes. Different patterns of growth impairment were found in relation to early cerebral intraventricular hemorrhage and cerebellar hemorrhage (P explaining different mechanisms through which neurogenesis is disrupted. The pattern of cerebellar growth identified in our study agreed excellently with details of cerebellar morphogenesis in perinatal development, which has only been observed in histological data. Our proposed analytic framework may provide predictive imaging biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcome, enabling early identification and treatment of high-risk patients. Hum Brain Mapp 37:678-688, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26589992

  7. Antecedent Hindbrain Glucoprivation Does Not Impair the Counterregulatory Response to Hypoglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Nicole M.; Taborsky, Gerald J.; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Daumen, Wendi; Figlewicz, Dianne P.

    2007-01-01

    Recurrent hypoglycemia impairs hormonal counterregulatory responses (CRRs) to further bouts of hypoglycemia. The hypothalamus and hindbrain are both critical for sensing hypoglycemia and triggering CRRs. Hypothalamic glucose sensing sites are implicated in the pathogenesis of defective CRRs; however, the contribution of hindbrain glucose sensing has not been elucidated. Using a rat model, we compared the effect of antecedent glucoprivation targeting hindbrain or hypothalamic glucose sensing s...

  8. In vitro evidence supports the presence of glucokinase-independent glucosensing mechanisms in hypothalamus and hindbrain of rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Velasco, Cristina; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2016-06-01

    We previously obtained evidence in rainbow trout for the presence and response to changes in circulating levels of glucose (induced by intraperitoneal hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic treatments) of glucosensing mechanisms based on liver X receptor (LXR), mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and sweet taste receptor in the hypothalamus, and on sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT-1) in hindbrain. However, these effects of glucose might be indirect. Therefore, we evaluated the response of parameters related to these glucosensing mechanisms in a first experiment using pooled sections of hypothalamus and hindbrain incubated for 6 h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium containing 2, 4 or 8 mmol l(-1) d-glucose. The responses observed in some cases were consistent with glucosensing capacity. In a second experiment, pooled sections of hypothalamus and hindbrain were incubated for 6 h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium with 8 mmol l(-1) d-glucose alone (control) or containing 1 mmol l(-1) phloridzin (SGLT-1 antagonist), 20 µmol l(-1) genipin (UCP2 inhibitor), 1 µmol l(-1) trolox (ROS scavenger), 100 µmol l(-1) bezafibrate (T1R3 inhibitor) and 50 µmol l(-1) geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate (LXR inhibitor). The response observed in the presence of these specific inhibitors/antagonists further supports the proposal that critical components of the different glucosensing mechanisms are functioning in rainbow trout hypothalamus and hindbrain. PMID:27026717

  9. FGF-receptor signalling controls neural cell diversity in the zebrafish hindbrain by regulating olig2 and sox9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esain, Virginie; Postlethwait, John H; Charnay, Patrick; Ghislain, Julien

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the generation of neural cell diversity are the subject of intense investigation, which has highlighted the involvement of different signalling molecules including Shh, BMP and Wnt. By contrast, relatively little is known about FGF in this process. In this report we identify an FGF-receptor-dependent pathway in zebrafish hindbrain neural progenitors that give rise to somatic motoneurons, oligodendrocyte progenitors and differentiating astroglia. Using a combination of chemical and genetic approaches to conditionally inactivate FGF-receptor signalling, we investigate the role of this pathway. We show that FGF-receptor signalling is not essential for the survival or maintenance of hindbrain neural progenitors but controls their fate by coordinately regulating key transcription factors. First, by cooperating with Shh, FGF-receptor signalling controls the expression of olig2, a patterning gene essential for the specification of somatic motoneurons and oligodendrocytes. Second, FGF-receptor signalling controls the development of both oligodendrocyte progenitors and astroglia through the regulation of sox9, a gliogenic transcription factor the function of which we show to be conserved in the zebrafish hindbrain. Overall, for the first time in vivo, our results reveal a mechanism of FGF in the control of neural cell diversity. PMID:20023158

  10. Actuation of a robotic fish caudal fin for low reaction torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dongwon; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun; Kyung, Jinho; Lee, Sunghee

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a novel caudal fin for actuating a robotic fish is presented. The proposed caudal fin waves in a vertical direction with a specific spatial shape, which is determined by a so-called shape factor. For a specific shape factor, a traveling wave with a vertical phase difference is formed on a caudal fin during fin motion. It will be shown by the analysis that the maximum reaction torque at the joint of a caudal fin varies depending on the shape factors. Compared with a conventional plate type caudal fin, the proposed fin with a shape factor of 2π can eliminate the reaction torque perfectly, while keeping the propulsion force unchanged. The benefits of the proposed fin will be demonstrated by experiments.

  11. Novel oxytocin gene expression in the hindbrain is induced by alcohol exposure: transgenic zebrafish enable visualization of sensitive neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitrín M Coffey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD are a collection of disorders resulting from fetal ethanol exposure, which causes a wide range of physical, neurological and behavioral deficits including heightened susceptibility for alcoholism and addictive disorders. While a number of mechanisms have been proposed for how ethanol exposure disrupts brain development, with selective groups of neurons undergoing reduced proliferation, dysfunction and death, the induction of a new neurotransmitter phenotype by ethanol exposure has not yet been reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effects of embryonic and larval ethanol exposure on brain development were visually monitored using transgenic zebrafish expressing cell-specific green fluorescent protein (GFP marker genes. Specific subsets of GFP-expressing neurons were highly sensitive to ethanol exposure, but only during defined developmental windows. In the med12 mutant, which affects the Mediator co-activator complex component Med12, exposure to lower concentrations of ethanol was sufficient to reduce GFP expression in transgenic embryos. In transgenic embryos and larva containing GFP driven by an oxytocin-like (oxtl promoter, ethanol exposure dramatically up-regulated GFP expression in a small group of hindbrain neurons, while having no effect on expression in the neuroendocrine preoptic area. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol exposure during limited embryonic periods impedes the development of specific, identifiable groups of neurons, and the med12 mutation sensitizes these neurons to the deleterious effects of ethanol. In contrast, ethanol exposure induces oxtl expression in the hindbrain, a finding with profound implications for understanding alcoholism and other addictive disorders.

  12. The Order and Place of Neuronal Differentiation Establish the Topography of Sensory Projections and the Entry Points within the Hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecca, Andrea; Dyballa, Sylvia; Voltes, Adria; Bradley, Roger; Pujades, Cristina

    2015-05-13

    Establishing topographical maps of the external world is an important but still poorly understood feature of the vertebrate sensory system. To study the selective innervation of hindbrain regions by sensory afferents in the zebrafish embryo, we mapped the fine-grained topographical representation of sensory projections at the central level by specific photoconversion of sensory neurons. Sensory ganglia located anteriorly project more medially than do ganglia located posteriorly, and this relates to the order of sensory ganglion differentiation. By single-plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) in vivo imaging, we show that (1) the sequence of arrival of cranial ganglion inputs predicts the topography of central projections, and (2) delaminated neuroblasts differentiate in close contact with the neural tube, and they never loose contact with the neural ectoderm. Afferent entrance points are established by plasma membrane interactions between primary differentiated peripheral sensory neurons and neural tube border cells with the cooperation of neural crest cells. These first contacts remain during ensuing morphological growth to establish pioneer axons. Neural crest cells and repulsive slit1/robo2 signals then guide axons from later-differentiating neurons toward the neural tube. Thus, this study proposes a new model by which the topographical representation of cranial sensory ganglia is established by entrance order, with the entry points determined by cell contact between the sensory ganglion cell bodies and the hindbrain.

  13. Positioning of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary organizer through global posteriorization of the neuroectoderm mediated by Wnt8 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhinn, Muriel; Lun, Klaus; Luz, Marta; Werner, Michaela; Brand, Michael

    2005-03-01

    The organizing center located at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) patterns the midbrain and hindbrain primordia of the neural plate. Studies in several vertebrates showed that the interface between cells expressing Otx and Gbx transcription factors marks the location in the neural plate where the organizer forms, but it is unclear how this location is set up. Using mutant analyses and shield ablation experiments in zebrafish, we find that axial mesendoderm, as a candidate tissue, has only a minor role in positioning the MHB. Instead, the blastoderm margin of the gastrula embryo acts as a source of signal(s) involved in this process. We demonstrate that positioning of the MHB organizer is tightly linked to overall neuroectodermal posteriorization, and specifically depends on Wnt8 signaling emanating from lateral mesendodermal precursors. Wnt8 is required for the initial subdivision of the neuroectoderm, including onset of posterior gbx1 expression and establishment of the posterior border of otx2 expression. Cell transplantation experiments further show that Wnt8 signaling acts directly and non-cell-autonomously. Consistent with these findings, a GFP-Wnt8 fusion protein travels from donor cells through early neural plate tissue. Our findings argue that graded Wnt8 activity mediates overall neuroectodermal posteriorization and thus determines the location of the MHB organizer. PMID:15703279

  14. Labeling and imaging cells in the zebrafish hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, Pradeepa; Hong, Elim; Brewster, Rachel

    2010-07-25

    Key to understanding the morphogenetic processes that shape the early vertebrate embryo is the ability to image cells at high resolution. In zebrafish embryos, injection of plasmid DNA results in mosaic expression, allowing for the visualization of single cells or small clusters of cells (1) . We describe how injection of plasmid DNA encoding membrane-targeted Green Fluorescent Protein (mGFP) under the control of a ubiquitous promoter can be used for imaging cells undergoing neurulation. Central to this protocol is the methodology for imaging labeled cells at high resolution in sections and also in real time. This protocol entails the injection of mGFP DNA into young zebrafish embryos. Embryos are then processed for vibratome sectioning, antibody labeling and imaging with a confocal microscope. Alternatively, live embryos expressing mGFP can be imaged using time-lapse confocal microscopy. We have previously used this straightforward approach to analyze the cellular behaviors that drive neural tube formation in the hindbrain region of zebrafish embryos (2). The fixed preparations allowed for unprecedented visualization of cell shapes and organization in the neural tube while live imaging complemented this approach enabling a better understanding of the cellular dynamics that take place during neurulation.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Malformations of Midbrain-Hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Castillo, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    We aim to review the magnetic resonance imaging appearance of malformations of midbrain and hindbrain. These can be classified as predominantly cerebellar malformations, combined cerebellar and brain stem malformations, and predominantly brain stem malformations. The diagnostic criteria for the majority of these morphological malformations are based on neuroimaging findings. The predominantly cerebellar malformations include predominantly vermian hypoplasia seen in Dandy-Walker malformation and rhombencephalosynapsis, global cerebellar hypoplasia reported in lissencephaly and microlissencephaly, and unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia seen in PHACES, vanishing cerebellum, and cerebellar cleft. Cerebellar dysplasias are seen in Chudley-McCullough syndrome, associated with LAMA1 mutations and GPR56 mutations; Lhermitte-Duclos disease; and focal cerebellar dysplasias. Cerebellar hyperplasias are seen in megalencephaly-related syndromes and hemimegalencephaly with ipsilateral cerebellomegaly. Cerebellar and brain stem malformations include tubulinopathies, Joubert syndrome, cobblestone malformations, pontocerebellar hypoplasias, and congenital disorders of glycosylation type Ia. Predominantly brain stem malformations include congenital innervation dysgenesis syndrome, pontine tegmental cap dysplasia, diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia, disconnection syndrome, and pontine clefts.

  16. Caudal bupivacaine supplemented with caudal or intravenous clonidine in children undergoing hypospadias repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Henneberg, Steen Winther; Walther-Larsen, Søren;

    2004-01-01

    Clonidine is used increasingly in paediatric anaesthetic practice to prolong the duration of action of caudal block with a local anaesthetic agent. Which route of administration of clonidine is the most beneficial remains unknown. We compared the effects of caudal and i.v. clonidine on postoperat...

  17. vox homeobox gene: a novel regulator of midbrain-hindbrain boundary development in medaka fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Peter; Pantzartzi, Chrysoula N; Kozmikova, Iryna; Kozmik, Zbynek

    2016-03-01

    The midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) is one of the key organizing centers of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). Its patterning is governed by a well-described gene regulatory network (GRN) involving several transcription factors, namely, pax, gbx, en, and otx, together with signaling molecules of the Wnt and Fgf families. Here, we describe the onset of these markers in Oryzias latipes (medaka) early brain development in comparison to previously known zebrafish expression patterns. Moreover, we show for the first time that vox, a member of the vent gene family, is expressed in the developing neural tube similarly to CNS markers. Overexpression of vox leads to profound changes in the gene expression patterns of individual components of MHB-specific GRN, most notably of fgf8, a crucial organizer molecule of MHB. Our data suggest that genes from the vent family, in addition to their crucial role in body axis formation, may play a role in regionalization of vertebrate CNS. PMID:26965282

  18. Operaciones de Flujo de Fluidos. Tema 5: Medida de caudales

    OpenAIRE

    Salcedo Díaz, Raquel

    2011-01-01

    Apuntes del tema 5. Medida de caudales. En este tema se resumen las principales características de los medidores de caudal, analizando de manera especial los que basan su medida en diferencias de presión.

  19. Shifting boundaries of retinoic acid activity control hindbrain segmental gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbu, Ioan Ovidiu; Gresh, Lionel; Barra, Jacqueline; Duester, Gregg

    2005-06-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) generated by Raldh2 in paraxial mesoderm is required for specification of the posterior hindbrain, including restriction of Hoxb1 expression to presumptive rhombomere 4 (r4). Hoxb1 expression requires 3' and 5' RA response elements for widespread induction up to r4 and for r3/r5 repression, but RA has previously been detected only from r5-r8, and vHnf1 is required for repression of Hoxb1 posterior to r4 in zebrafish. We demonstrate in mouse embryos that an RA signal initially travels from the paraxial mesoderm to r3, forming a boundary next to the r2 expression domain of Cyp26a1 (which encodes an RA-degrading enzyme). After Hoxb1 induction, the RA boundary quickly shifts to r4/r5, coincident with induction of Cyp26c1 in r4. A functional role for Cyp26c1 in RA degradation was established through examination of RA-treated embryos. Analysis of Raldh2-/- and vHnf1-/- embryos supports a direct role for RA in Hoxb1 induction up to r4 and repression in r3/r5, as well as an indirect role for RA in Hoxb1 repression posterior to r4 via RA induction of vHnf1 up to the r4/r5 boundary. Our findings suggest that Raldh2 and Cyp26 generate shifting boundaries of RA activity, such that r3-r4 receives a short pulse of RA and r5-r8 receives a long pulse of RA. These two pulses of RA activity function to establish expression of Hoxb1 and vHnf1 on opposite sides of the r4/r5 boundary.

  20. Caudal bupivacaine supplemented with caudal or intravenous clonidine in children undergoing hypospadias repair: a double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T G; Henneberg, S W; Walther-Larsen, S;

    2004-01-01

    Clonidine is used increasingly in paediatric anaesthetic practice to prolong the duration of action of caudal block with a local anaesthetic agent. Which route of administration of clonidine is the most beneficial remains unknown. We compared the effects of caudal and i.v. clonidine...... on postoperative analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine after hypospadias repair....

  1. NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF INFLUENCE OF THE CAUDAL FIN SHAPE ON THE PROPULSION PERFORMANCE OF A FLAPPING CAUDAL FIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xi; SU Yu-min; WANG Zhao-li

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive study of the effects of the caudal fin shape on the propulsion performance of a eandal fin in harmonic heaving and pitching.A numerical simulation based on an unsteady panel method was carried out to analyze the hydrodynamic performance of flapping caudal fins of three shapes (the whale caudal fin with the largest projected area, the dolphin caudal fin with the median projected area, and the tuna caudal fin with the smallest projected area).Then, a series of hydrodynamic experiments for three caudal fin shapes were performed.Both computational and experimental results indicate that the tuna caudal fin produces the highest efficiency.However the mean thrust coefficient of the tuna caudal fin is the smallest.It is found that although the mean thrust coefficient for the tuna caudal fin is not large, the input power of the tuna caudal fin is also quite small.So the tuna caudal fin achieves a high efficiency.

  2. Caudal epidural anesthesia for a 2-year old child with congenital myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calişkan, Esra; Koçum, Aysu; Sener, Mesut; Bozdoğan, Nesrin; Ariboğan, Aniş

    2008-10-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease with antibodies directed against the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction. Anesthetists have a special interest in myasthenia gravis because of its interaction with various anesthetic agents. Unlike adult myasthenic patients; very little report has been written about the anesthetic management in children, other than in relation to thymectomy. Although the use of caudal anesthesia in pediatric patients is common, have not seen any report concerning its use in a myasthenic child. In this case report, we represented a 2 year-old boy was performed caudal anesthesia for orchiopexy operation. He had presented difficulty in breathing, generalized weakness and droopy eyes due to congenital myasthenia gravis. In the operating room, following the routine monitoring, the patient was sedated with intravenous 1mg midazolam and 10 mg ketamine. Then caudal block was performed. 17 minutes later from the local anesthetic injection; operation was started and lasted 45 minutes. The patient did not require intraoperative supplemental analgesia and postoperative course was uneventful. Specific attention should be paid to voluntary and respiratory muscle strength in myasthenia gravis patients. Caudal anesthesia allowed airway control of myasthenia gravis patients without endotracheal intubations and muscle relaxant. In conclusion, we think that caudal anesthetic technique may be considered as a safe and suitable for the myasthenic child and it may represent a valid alternative to general anesthesia for these patients. PMID:19117157

  3. Behavioral effects of hindbrain vasotocin in goldfish are seasonally variable but not sexually dimorphic

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, James C.; Waxman, Brandon; Hoffbuhr, Kristen; Kennedy, Meaghan; Beth, Ellen; Scangos, Jennifer; Thompson, Richmond R.

    2009-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that centrally administered vasotocin (VT) inhibits social approach toward same-sex conspecifics in male and female goldfish, and that this behavioral effect is dependent upon VT projections to the hindbrain. We now show that there are no sex differences in sensitivity to the behavioral effects of VT, though differences do exist in responsiveness across seasons in both sexes. A central dose of 1 µg, but not 200 ng, inhibited social approach in goldfish in non-r...

  4. Analysis of the Caudal Vortices Evolvement around Flapping Foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-dong; Zhang Xiao-qing; Su Yu-min; Xu Yu-ru

    2005-01-01

    The viscous flow field around two-dimensional flapping (heaving and pitching) foils was numerically computed. The structural characteristics of caudal vortices were investigated and the contour curves at different phase angles were obtained.The relationships between the structural characteristics of the vortices and the force acting on the foil and between the widths of the caudal vortex street and of the caudal flow field were analyzed. A method to determine the shedding frequency of the vortices was proposed.

  5. GATA-3 is involved in the development of serotonergic neurons in the caudal raphe nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Wees (Jacqueline); A. Karis (Alar); E. Goedknegt; M. Rutteman; F.G. Grosveld (Frank); J.H. van Doorninck (Hikke); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The GATA-3 transcription factor shows a specific and restricted expression pattern in the developing and adult mouse brain. In the present study we investigated the role of GATA-3 in the caudal raphe system, which is known to operate as a modulator of motor activity. We demonst

  6. A procephalic territory in Drosophila exhibiting similarities and dissimilarities compared to the vertebrate midbrain/hindbrain boundary region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbach Rolf

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vertebrates, the primordium of the brain is subdivided by the expression of Otx genes (forebrain/anterior midbrain, Hox genes (posterior hindbrain, and the genes Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 (intervening region. The latter includes the midbrain/hindbrain boundary (MHB, which acts as a key organizer during brain patterning. Recent studies in Drosophila revealed that orthologous sets of genes are expressed in a similar tripartite pattern in the late embryonic brain, which suggested correspondence between the Drosophila deutocerebral/tritocerebral boundary region and the vertebrate MHB. To gain more insight into the evolution of brain regions, and particularly the MHB, I examined the expression of a comprehensive array of MHB-specific gene orthologs in the procephalic neuroectoderm and in individually identified neuroblasts during early embryonic stages 8–11, at which the segmental organization of the brain is most clearly displayed. Results and conclusion I show that the early embryonic brain exhibits an anterior Otx/otd domain and a posterior Hox1/lab domain, but that Pax2/5/8 orthologs are not expressed in the neuroectoderm and neuroblasts of the intervening territory. Furthermore, the expression domains of Otx/otd and Gbx/unpg exhibit a small common interface within the anterior deutocerebrum. In contrast to vertebrates, Fgf8-related genes are not expressed posterior to the otd/unpg interface. However, at the otd/unpg interface the early expression of other MHB-specific genes (including btd, wg, en, and of dorsoventral patterning genes, closely resembles the situation at the vertebrate MHB. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of an ancestral territory within the primordium of the deutocerebrum and adjacent protocerebrum, which might be the evolutionary equivalent of the region of the vertebrate MHB. However, lack of expression of Pax2/5/8 and Fgf8-related genes, and significant differences in the expression onset of

  7. Evidence that leptin-induced weight loss requires activation of both forebrain and hindbrain receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth B.S. Harris

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies with chronic decerebrate rats and rats infused with leptin into the 4th ventricle suggest that hindbrain leptin receptors attenuate the catabolic effect of forebrain leptin receptor activation. To test this further rats were fitted with both 3rd and 4th ventricle cannulae. They were infused for 12 days with different combinations of saline, low dose leptin or leptin receptor antagonist (leptin mutein protein). Infusion of 0.1 μg leptin/day into the 3rd ventricle or 0.6 μg lep...

  8. Noise modulation in retinoic acid signaling sharpens segmental boundaries of gene expression in the embryonic zebrafish hindbrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnik, Julian; Zheng, Likun; Rackauckas, Christopher V; Digman, Michelle; Gratton, Enrico; Nie, Qing; Schilling, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    Morphogen gradients induce sharply defined domains of gene expression in a concentration-dependent manner, yet how cells interpret these signals in the face of spatial and temporal noise remains unclear. Using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) and phasor analysis to measure endogenous retinoic acid (RA) directly in vivo, we have investigated the amplitude of noise in RA signaling, and how modulation of this noise affects patterning of hindbrain segments (rhombomeres) in the zebrafish embryo. We demonstrate that RA forms a noisy gradient during critical stages of hindbrain patterning and that cells use distinct intracellular binding proteins to attenuate noise in RA levels. Increasing noise disrupts sharpening of rhombomere boundaries and proper patterning of the hindbrain. These findings reveal novel cellular mechanisms of noise regulation, which are likely to play important roles in other aspects of physiology and disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14034.001 PMID:27067377

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CAUDAL ROPIVACAINE WITH CAUDAL ROPIVACAINE AND DEXMEDETOMIDINE IN PEDIATRIC LOWER ABDOMINAL SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of caudal dexmedetomidine combined with Ropivacaine to provide postoperative analgesia in children and also to establish its safety in the pediatric patients. METHODS: In a randomized, prospective, parallel group, double-blinded study, 80 children of 1 year to 6years posted for lower abdominal surgeries were recruited and allocated into two groups: Group RD (n=40 received 0.25% Ropivacaine 1 ml/kg with dexmedetomidine2 μg/kg, making the volume to 0.5 ml and Group R (n=40 received 0.25% Ropivacaine1 ml/kg + 0.5 ml normal saline. Induction of anesthesia was achieved with Inj. Ketamine 2mg/kg + Inj. Succinylcholine 2mg/kg. Intubated with appropriate-sized Endotracheal tube and caudal block was performed in all patients. Maintained with 66% nitrous oxide in Oxygen and isoflurane 0.2-0.4%.Post-operative pain assessed with FLACC score. RESULTS: The duration of postoperative analgesia recorded a mean of 339 minutes (5.6hrs ± 2.4 hrs. in Group R compared with 884 minutes (14.7 hrs. ±5hrs in Group RD, with a p value of <0.001. Group RD patients achieved a statistically significant higher FLACC score compared with Group RD patients. The peri-operative hemodynamics were stable among both the groups. CONCLUSION: Caudal dexmedetomidine (2 μg/kg with 0.25%Ropivacaine (1 ml/kg for pediatric lower abdominal surgeries provides significant postoperative pain relief and better quality of sleep and a prolonged duration of arousable sedation.

  10. Visuospatial properties of caudal area 7b in Macaca fascicularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Hui JIANG; Ying-Zhou HU; Jian-Hong WANG; Yuan-Ye MA; Xin-Tian HU

    2013-01-01

    To proceed from sensation to movement,integration and transformation of information from different senses and reference frames are required.Several brain areas are involved in this transformation process,but previous neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies have implicated the caudal area 7b as one particular component of this transformation system.In this study,we present the first quantitative report on the spatial coding properties of caudal area 7b.The results showed that neurons in this area had intermediate component characteristics in the transformation system; the area contained bimodal neurons,and neurons in this area encode spatial information using a hybrid reference frame.These results provide evidence that caudal area 7b may belong to the reference frame transformation system,thus contributing to our general understanding of the transformation system.

  11. Organ and effective dose coefficients for cranial and caudal irradiation geometries: photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the introduction of new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in Publication 103, the methodology for determining the protection quantity, effective dose, has been modified. The modifications include changes to the defined organs and tissues, the associated tissue weighting factors, radiation weighting factors and the introduction of reference sex-specific computational phantoms. Computations of equivalent doses in organs and tissues are now performed in both the male and female phantoms and the sex-averaged values used to determine the effective dose. Dose coefficients based on the ICRP 103 recommendations were reported in ICRP Publication 116, the revision of ICRP Publication 74 and ICRU Publication 57. The coefficients were determined for the following irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right and left lateral (RLAT and LLAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO). In this work, the methodology of ICRP Publication 116 was used to compute dose coefficients for photon irradiation of the body with parallel beams directed upward from below the feet (caudal) and directed downward from above the head (cranial). These geometries may be encountered in the workplace from personnel standing on contaminated surfaces or volumes and from overhead sources. Calculations of organ and tissue kerma and absorbed doses for caudal and cranial exposures to photons ranging in energy from 10 keV to 10 GeV have been performed using the MCNP6.1 radiation transport code and the adult reference phantoms of ICRP Publication 110. As with calculations reported in ICRP 116, the effects of charged-particle transport are evident when compared with values obtained by using the kerma approximation. At lower energies the effective dose per particle fluence for cranial and caudal exposures is less than AP orientations while above ∼30 MeV the cranial and caudal values are greater. (authors)

  12. Passive mechanical models of fish caudal fins: effects of shape and stiffness on self-propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feilich, Kara L; Lauder, George V

    2015-06-01

    Fishes are found in a great variety of body forms with tail shapes that vary from forked tuna-like tails to the square-shaped tails found in some deep-bodied species. Hydrodynamic theory suggests that a fish's body and tail shape affects undulatory swimming performance. For example, a narrow caudal peduncle is believed to reduce drag, and a tuna-like tail to increase thrust. Despite the prevalence of these assertions, there is no experimental verification of the hydrodynamic mechanisms that may confer advantages on specific forms. Here, we use a mechanically-actuated flapping foil model to study how two aspects of shape, caudal peduncle depth and presence or absence of a forked caudal fin, may affect different aspects of swimming performance. Four different foil shapes were each made of plastics of three different flexural stiffnesses, permitting us to study how shape might interact with stiffness to produce swimming performance. For each foil, we measured the self-propelling swimming speed. In addition, we measured the forces, torques, cost of transport and power coefficient of each foil swimming at its self-propelling speed. There was no single 'optimal' foil exhibiting the highest performance in all metrics, and for almost all measures of swimming performance, foil shape and flexural stiffness interacted in complicated ways. Particle image velocimetry of several foils suggested that stiffness might affect the relative phasing of the body trailing edge and the caudal fin leading edge, changing the flow incident to the tail, and affecting hydrodynamics of the entire foil. The results of this study of a simplified model of fish body and tail morphology suggest that considerable caution should be used when inferring a swimming performance advantage from body and tail shape alone. PMID:25879846

  13. Leptospira interrogans stably infects zebrafish embryos, altering phagocyte behavior and homing to specific tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Muse Davis

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an extremely widespread zoonotic infection with outcomes ranging from subclinical infection to fatal Weil's syndrome. Despite the global impact of the disease, key aspects of its pathogenesis remain unclear. To examine in detail the earliest steps in the host response to leptospires, we used fluorescently labelled Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni to infect 30 hour post fertilization zebrafish embryos by either the caudal vein or hindbrain ventricle. These embryos have functional innate immunity but have not yet developed an adaptive immune system. Furthermore, they are optically transparent, allowing direct visualization of host-pathogen interactions from the moment of infection. We observed rapid uptake of leptospires by phagocytes, followed by persistent, intracellular infection over the first 48 hours. Phagocytosis of leptospires occasionally resulted in formation of large cellular vesicles consistent with apoptotic bodies. By 24 hours, clusters of infected phagocytes were accumulating lateral to the dorsal artery, presumably in early hematopoietic tissue. Our observations suggest that phagocytosis may be a key defense mechanism in the early stages of leptospirosis, and that phagocytic cells play roles in immunopathogenesis and likely in the dissemination of leptospires to specific target tissues.

  14. A circuit motif in the zebrafish hindbrain for a two alternative behavioral choice to turn left or right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Minoru; Minale, Francesca; Shum, Jennifer; Nishimura, Nozomi; Schaffer, Chris B; Fetcho, Joseph R

    2016-01-01

    Animals collect sensory information from the world and make adaptive choices about how to respond to it. Here, we reveal a network motif in the brain for one of the most fundamental behavioral choices made by bilaterally symmetric animals: whether to respond to a sensory stimulus by moving to the left or to the right. We define network connectivity in the hindbrain important for the lateralized escape behavior of zebrafish and then test the role of neurons by using laser ablations and behavioral studies. Key inhibitory neurons in the circuit lie in a column of morphologically similar cells that is one of a series of such columns that form a developmental and functional ground plan for building hindbrain networks. Repetition within the columns of the network motif we defined may therefore lie at the foundation of other lateralized behavioral choices. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16808.001 PMID:27502742

  15. FGF-receptor signalling controls neural cell diversity in the zebrafish hindbrain by regulating olig2 and sox9

    OpenAIRE

    Esain, Virginie; Postlethwait, John H.; Charnay, Patrick; Ghislain, Julien

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the generation of neural cell diversity are the subject of intense investigation, which has highlighted the involvement of different signalling molecules including Shh, BMP and Wnt. By contrast, relatively little is known about FGF in this process. In this report we identify an FGF-receptor-dependent pathway in zebrafish hindbrain neural progenitors that give rise to somatic motoneurons, oligodendrocyte progenitors and differentiating astroglia. Using a combination o...

  16. Caudal vena caval thrombosis following treatment of deep digital sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Katharine M.; Streeter, Robert N.; Cramer, Sarah; Lamm, Catherine G.; Love, Brenda C.

    2012-01-01

    A diagnosis of caudal vena caval thrombosis was made by ultrasonography of a Holstein cow presented for lethargy and poor milk production. Medical treatment was unsuccessful and the cow was euthanized. The diagnosis was confirmed at necropsy and Fusobacterium necrophorum was isolated from the thrombus. This paper discusses potential novel sources of caval thrombosis in this case.

  17. Gbx2 is required for the morphogenesis of the mouse inner ear: a downstream candidate of hindbrain signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhengshi; Cantos, Raquel; Patente, Maria; Wu, Doris K

    2005-05-01

    Gbx2 is a homeobox-containing transcription factor that is related to unplugged in Drosophila. In mice, Gbx2 and Otx2 negatively regulate each other to establish the mid-hindbrain boundary in the neural tube. Here, we show that Gbx2 is required for the development of the mouse inner ear. Absence of the endolymphatic duct and swelling of the membranous labyrinth are common features in Gbx2-/- inner ears. More severe mutant phenotypes include absence of the anterior and posterior semicircular canals, and a malformed saccule and cochlear duct. However, formation of the lateral semicircular canal and its ampulla is usually unaffected. These inner ear phenotypes are remarkably similar to those reported in kreisler mice, which have inner ear defects attributed to defects in the hindbrain. Based on gene expression analyses, we propose that activation of Gbx2 expression within the inner ear is an important pathway whereby signals from the hindbrain regulate inner ear development. In addition, our results suggest that Gbx2 normally promotes dorsal fates such as the endolymphatic duct and semicircular canals by positively regulating genes such as Wnt2b and Dlx5. However, Gbx2 promotes ventral fates such as the saccule and cochlear duct, possibly by restricting Otx2 expression.

  18. Zebrafish gbx1 refines the Midbrain-Hindbrain Boundary border and mediates the Wnt8 posteriorization signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahrendt Reiner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in mouse, Xenopus and chicken have shown that Otx2 and Gbx2 expression domains are fundamental for positioning the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB organizer. Of the two zebrafish gbx genes, gbx1 is a likely candidate to participate in this event because its early expression is similar to that reported for Gbx2 in other species. Zebrafish gbx2, on the other hand, acts relatively late at the MHB. To investigate the function of zebrafish gbx1 within the early neural plate, we used a combination of gain- and loss-of-function experiments. Results We found that ectopic gbx1 expression in the anterior neural plate reduces forebrain and midbrain, represses otx2 expression and repositions the MHB to a more anterior position at the new gbx1/otx2 border. In the case of gbx1 loss-of-function, the initially robust otx2 domain shifts slightly posterior at a given stage (70% epiboly, as does MHB marker expression. We further found that ectopic juxtaposition of otx2 and gbx1 leads to ectopic activation of MHB markers fgf8, pax2.1 and eng2. This indicates that, in zebrafish, an interaction between otx2 and gbx1 determines the site of MHB development. Our work also highlights a novel requirement for gbx1 in hindbrain development. Using cell-tracing experiments, gbx1 was found to cell-autonomously transform anterior neural tissue into posterior. Previous studies have shown that gbx1 is a target of Wnt8 graded activity in the early neural plate. Consistent with this, we show that gbx1 can partially restore hindbrain patterning in cases of Wnt8 loss-of-function. We propose that in addition to its role at the MHB, gbx1 acts at the transcriptional level to mediate Wnt8 posteriorizing signals that pattern the developing hindbrain. Conclusion Our results provide evidence that zebrafish gbx1 is involved in positioning the MHB in the early neural plate by refining the otx2 expression domain. In addition to its role in MHB formation, we have

  19. Note: Dynamic analysis of a robotic fish motion with a caudal fin with vertical phase differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dongwon; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun; Kyung, Jinho; Lee, Sunghwi

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a robotic fish with a caudal fin with vertical phase differences is studied, especially focusing on the energy consumption. Energies for thrusting a conventional robotic fish and one with caudal fin with vertical phase differences are obtained and compared each other. It is shown that a robotic fish with a caudal fin with vertical phase differences can save more energy, which implies the efficient thrusting via a vertically waving caudal fin.

  20. Wnt signaling in caudal dysgenesis and diabetic embryopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlinkova, Gabriela; Salbaum, J. Michael; Kappen, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    Congenital defects are a major complication of diabetic pregnancy, and the leading cause of infant death in the first year of life. Caudal dysgenesis, occurring up to 200-fold more frequently in children born to diabetic mothers, is a hallmark of diabetic pregnancy. Given that there is also an at least 3-fold higher risk for heart defects and neural tube defects, it is important to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms for aberrant embryonic development.

  1. MR epidurography: distribution of injectate at caudal epidural injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Darra T. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); St Paul' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Moynagh, Michael R.; Eustace, Stephen [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin 7 (Ireland); Poynton, Ashley; Chan, Vikki O. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland)

    2014-08-02

    To (a) evaluate the feasibility of MR epidurography (MRE) and (b) assess the distribution of injectate using two different volumes at caudal epidural steroid injection. Twenty patients who were referred with symptomatic low back pain for caudal epidural steroid injection were assigned to have either 10 ml (9/20) or 20 ml (11/20) of injectate administered. Gadolinium was included in the injection. The patients proceeded to MRI where sagittal and coronal T1-weighted fat-saturated sequences were acquired and reviewed in the mid-sagittal and right and left parasagittal views at the level of the exit foramina. Gadolinium was observed at or above the L3/4 disc level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %), compared with only five of nine patients who received 10 ml (56 %). Injectate was seen to the L4 nerve root level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %) but only four out of nine patients who received 10 ml (44 %), not even reaching the L5 nerve root level in four further of these nine patients (44 %). Overall, there was a trend to visualize gadolinium at higher levels of the epidural space with higher volumes injected. Firstly, MR epidurography is a safe technique that allows excellent visualization of the distribution of gadolinium in the epidural space following injection via the caudal hiatus. Secondly, a volume of 10 ml is unlikely to treat L5/S1 disease in almost half of patients at caudal epidural steroid injection and at least 20 ml of injectate is likely required for any medication to reach the desired level. (orig.)

  2. Numerical Study on Hydrodynamic Performance of Bionic Caudal Fin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, numerical simulations are conducted to reveal the hydrodynamic mechanism of caudal fin propulsion. In the modeling of a bionic caudal fin, a universal kinematics model with three degrees of freedom is adopted and the flexible deformation in the spanwise direction is considered. Navier-Stokes equations are used to solve the unsteady fluid flow and dynamic mesh method is applied to track the locomotion. The force coefficients, torque coefficient, and flow field characteristics are extracted and analyzed. Then the thrust efficiency is calculated. In order to verify validity and feasibility of the algorithm, hydrodynamic performance of flapping foil is analyzed. The present results of flapping foil compare well with those in experimental researches. After that, the influences of amplitude of angle of attack, amplitude of heave motion, Strouhal number, and spanwise flexibility are analyzed. The results show that, the performance can be improved by adjusting the motion and flexibility parameters. The spanwise flexibility of caudal fin can increase thrust force with high propulsive efficiency.

  3. Anatomical Study of Sacral Hiatus for Caudal Epidural Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay S Patil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anatomy of the sacral hiatus is having clinical importance during caudal epidural block. Present study is aimed at determining anatomy of sacrum specially sacral hiatus for caudal epidural block, with the help of morphometric measurements of the sacrum in relation to sacral hiatus in dry sacral bones. Material & method: Total 103 complete and undamaged adult, dry sacral bones were measured with Vernier caliper (accuracy 0.1 mm and anatomical measurements were obtained. Results: Three bones were excluded because of total posterior closure defect. Agenesis of the sacral hiatus was detected in three sacral bones. Right and left superolateral sacral crests of the sacrum were taken as two points on dorsal surface of sacrum (forming the base of a triangle because posterior superior iliac spines impose on the superolateral sacral crests. The distance between the two superolateral sacral crests (base of a triangle, the distances between the right and left superolateral sacral crest and the sacral apex were on average 60.61(SD 6.71, 61.95 (11.71 and 61.4 (11.98 mm respectively.. Summary: An equilateral triangle formed between the apex of the sacral hiatus and right and left superolateral sacral crests. This equilateral triangle will help in determining the location of the sacral hiatus during caudal epidural block. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 272-275

  4. Differential contributions of dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal prefrontal white matter tracts to cognitive control in healthy older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Strenziok

    Full Text Available Prefrontal cortex mediates cognitive control by means of circuitry organized along dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal axes. Along the dorso-ventral axis, ventrolateral PFC controls semantic information, whereas dorsolateral PFC encodes task rules. Along the rostro-caudal axis, anterior prefrontal cortex encodes complex rules and relationships between stimuli, whereas posterior prefrontal cortex encodes simple relationships between stimuli and behavior. Evidence of these gradients of prefrontal cortex organization has been well documented in fMRI studies, but their functional correlates have not been examined with regard to integrity of underlying white matter tracts. We hypothesized that (a the integrity of specific white matter tracts is related to cognitive functioning in a manner consistent with the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal organization of the prefrontal cortex, and (b this would be particularly evident in healthy older adults. We assessed three cognitive processes that recruit the prefrontal cortex and can distinguish white matter tracts along the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal dimensions -episodic memory, working memory, and reasoning. Correlations between cognition and fractional anisotropy as well as fiber tractography revealed: (a Episodic memory was related to ventral prefrontal cortex-thalamo-hippocampal fiber integrity; (b Working memory was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; and (c Reasoning was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving rostral and caudal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings confirm the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex's role in semantic control and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex's role in rule-based processing, in accordance with the dorso-ventral prefrontal cortex gradient. Reasoning-related rostral and caudal superior frontal white matter may facilitate different levels of task rule complexity. This study is the

  5. Comparison between the intravenous and caudal routes of sufentanil in children undergoing orchidopexy and further evaluation of the association of caudal adrenaline and neostigmine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rocha Lauretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the intravenous (IV and caudal routes of administration of sufentanil for children undergoing orchidopexy and also to evaluate the effects on addition of caudal adrenaline and neostigmine. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients scheduled for orchidopexy were divided into the following groups: 1 Group IVSu received IV 0.5 μg/kg sufentanil and caudal saline; 2 Group CSu received caudal 0.5 μg/kg sufentanil and IV saline; 3 Group CSuAdr received caudal sufentanil plus adrenaline 5 μg/ml (1:200,000 and IV saline; 4 Group CSuNeo received caudal sufentanil plus neostigmine, and IV saline; and 5 Group CSuNeoAdr received caudal sufentanil plus neostigmine plus adrenaline, and IV saline. Heart rate and mean blood pressure >15% was treated with increasing isoflurane concentration. Consumption of isoflurane, side effects, quality of sleep, time to first administration of analgesic, and number of doses of 24-h rescue analgesic were recorded. Results: Groups were demographically similar. Isoflurane consumption showed the following association: Group IVSu = Group CSuNeo = Group CSuNeoAdr Group CSuNeo = Group CSuNeoAdr (P < 0.005. Incidence of adverse effects was similar among groups. Conclusion: Caudal sufentanil alone was no better than when administered in the IV route, and would just be justified by the association of neostigmine, but not adrenaline. Neostigmine association resulted in better perioperative analgesia.

  6. Evidence for the Presence of Glucosensor Mechanisms Not Dependent on Glucokinase in Hypothalamus and Hindbrain of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Otero-Rodiño

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that glucosensor mechanisms other than that mediated by glucokinase (GK operate in hypothalamus and hindbrain of the carnivorous fish species rainbow trout and stress affected them. Therefore, we evaluated in these areas changes in parameters which could be related to putative glucosensor mechanisms based on liver X receptor (LXR, mitochondrial activity, sweet taste receptor, and sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT-1 6 h after intraperitoneal injection of 5 mL x Kg(-1 of saline solution alone (normoglycaemic treatment or containing insulin (hypoglycaemic treatment, 4 mg bovine insulin x Kg(-1 body mass, or D-glucose (hyperglycaemic treatment, 500 mg x Kg(-1 body mass. Half of tanks were kept at a 10 Kg fish mass x m(-3 and denoted as fish under normal stocking density (NSD whereas the remaining tanks were kept at a stressful high stocking density (70 kg fish mass x m(-3 denoted as HSD. The results obtained in non-stressed rainbow trout provide evidence, for the first time in fish, that manipulation of glucose levels induce changes in parameters which could be related to putative glucosensor systems based on LXR, mitochondrial activity and sweet taste receptor in hypothalamus, and a system based on SGLT-1 in hindbrain. Stress altered the response of parameters related to these systems to changes in glycaemia.

  7. Caudal septoplasty: efficacy of a surgical technique-preliminnary report Septoplastia caudal - eficácia de uma técnica cirúrgica: resultados preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bomediano Sousa Garcia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although not being the most frequent nasal septal deviations, those of the caudal septum account for many complaints. The correction of such defects has always been the subject of much controversy, and several different operative techniques have been described. AIM: To assess the efficacy of a surgical technique for correcting caudal septal deviations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective study with preliminary reports of 10 patients who answered a standardized, specific questionnaire (the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation, or NOSE, underwent acoustic rhinometry and had their noses photographed. Caudal deviations were then corrected through a surgical technique whereby the entire deviated portion is removed and a straight cartilage segment is placed between the medial crura of the alar cartilages, through a retrograde approach, to support the nasal tip. Sixty days after all patients were reassessed. RESULTS: As for the NOSE questionnaire, mean pre-operative and post-operative scores were 82.39 and 7.39 respectively (pOs desvios situados na parte caudal do septo nasal, apesar de não serem os mais frequentes, são causadores de muitas queixas, e sua correção sempre gerou muitas controvérsias. OBJETIVO: Avaliar, com resultados preliminares, a eficácia de uma técnica cirúrgica para correção dos desvios caudais do septo nasal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Ensaio Clínico prospectivo com 10 pacientes que responderam a um questionário padronizado - Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE -, foram submetidos ao exame de Rinometria Acústica e fotografados. Tiveram, então, os desvios caudais corrigidos cirurgicamente por uma técnica na qual toda a porção do desvio é retirada e uma parte sem desvios da cartilagem é recolocada entre as cruras mediais das cartilagens alares por via retrógrada para a sustentação da ponta nasal. Apos 60 dias os pacientes foram reavaliados. RESULTADOS: Quanto ao Questionário NOSE a média dos valores pr

  8. Histomorphometry of Trabecular Bone of Caudal Vertebrae During Rat Pregnancy

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    S.M. Shahtaheri

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy make demands upon maternal calcium hemeostasis and the extent to which the maternal bone mass is effected remains uncertain. Recently changes in the bone mass during human pregnancy have been associated also with the transformation of the cancellous architecture and the bone surface available for exchange. These jistomorphometrical structural changes were examined further in an animal model. Using uniparous laboratory rats fed at libitum, the histomorphometry of cancellous bone was compared in undecalcified of caudal vertebrae. Between 3 and 6 sections (8 m were analysed by an automated trabecular analysis system (TAS which measures a comprehensive range of structural variables including the trabecular separation, number, connectivity and width. There was an early stimulation of bone formation that was indicated by generation of thicker and interconnected trabeculae. However in caudal vertebrae, there were architectural changes in cancellous bone commencing with a significant increase in the trabecular separation. ‌‌ It was concluded that strengthens the cancellous component of the maternal skeleton possibly to counter increased load and to facilitate mineral mobilisation in maternal/neonate exchange during the subsequent lactation period.

  9. Is caudal fin colour in tigerfish Hydrocynus vittatus a sex or population trait?

    OpenAIRE

    Soekoe, M.; F. H. van der Bank; Smit, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tigerfish caudal fin colours vary from yellow to red, with distinct dissimilarities previously noted. To understand these colour differences, tigerfish were collected during 2008 to 2010 from four southern African populations in the Upper Zambezi River (ZAM), Okavango Delta (OKA), Pongolapoort Dam (POD) and Phongolo River (POR), and caudal fin colouration was classified according to pattern and sex. Muscle and liver tissue were assayed by starch electrophoresis. Caudal fin colour in OKA, ZAM ...

  10. A comparison between caudal block versus splash block for postoperative analgesia following inguinal herniorrhaphy in children

    OpenAIRE

    Cheon, Jun Kong; Park, Cheon Hee; Hwang, Kan Taeck; Choi, Bo Yoon

    2011-01-01

    Background We wanted to determine the postoperative analgesic efficacy of preincisional caudal epidural block versus instillation (splash block) following inguinal herniorrhaphy in children. Methods Thirty children (age range: 1-7 years) who were scheduled to undergo inguinal herniorrhaphy were divided into 2 groups: the caudal block group and the splash block group with 15 children in each group. Tracheal intubation was performed. Fifteen children received caudal block with 1.0 ml/kg of 0.25...

  11. Generation of Integration-free and Region-Specific Neural Progenitors from Primate Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianfeng; Liu, Huisheng; Huang, Cindy Tzu-Ling; Chen, Hong; Du, Zhongwei; Liu, Yan; Sherafat, Mohammad Amin; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Postnatal and adult human and monkey fibroblasts were infected with Sendai virus containing the Yamanaka factors for 24 hr, then they were cultured in a chemically defined medium containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inhibitor SB431542, and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β inhibitor CHIR99021 at 39°C for inactivation of the virus. Induced neural progenitor (iNP) colonies appeared as early as day 13 and can be expanded for >20 passages. Under the same defined condition, no induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) colonies formed at either 37°Cor 39°C. The iNPs predominantly express hindbrain genes and differentiate into hindbrain neurons, and when caudalized, they produced an enriched population of spinal motor neurons. Following transplantation into the forebrain, the iNP-derived cells retained the hindbrain identity. The ability to generate defined, integration-free iNPs from adult primate fibroblasts under a defined condition with predictable fate choices will facilitate disease modeling and therapeutic development. PMID:23643533

  12. Generation of Integration-free and Region-Specific Neural Progenitors from Primate Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Lu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal and adult human and monkey fibroblasts were infected with Sendai virus containing the Yamanaka factors for 24 hr, then they were cultured in a chemically defined medium containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, transforming growth factor (TGF-β inhibitor SB431542, and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β inhibitor CHIR99021 at 39°C for inactivation of the virus. Induced neural progenitor (iNP colonies appeared as early as day 13 and can be expanded for >20 passages. Under the same defined condition, no induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC colonies formed at either 37°C or 39°C. The iNPs predominantly express hindbrain genes and differentiate into hindbrain neurons, and when caudalized, they produced an enriched population of spinal motor neurons. Following transplantation into the forebrain, the iNP-derived cells retained the hindbrain identity. The ability to generate defined, integration-free iNPs from adult primate fibroblasts under a defined condition with predictable fate choices will facilitate disease modeling and therapeutic development.

  13. Incertidumbre en caudales instantáneos obtenidos con curvas nivel–caudal construidas con una baja densidad de aforos líquidos

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Plata, Juan Felipe; Domínguez Calle, Efraín Antonio; Rivera, Hebert Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se realizó un análisis de incertidumbre del proceso de construcción de la curva nivel-caudal, con el fin de estimar el error o incertidumbre de los caudales obtenidos considerando diversos escenarios de disponibilidad de aforos. Se implementó una metodología para generar muestras artificiales de aforos a partir de datos reales observados en campo y estudiar el efecto de la cantidad y distribución de las mediciones sobre la incertidumbre de los caudales instantáneos. Los...

  14. The effectiveness of the cranio-caudal mammogram projection among radiologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Phuong Dung (Yun); Lee, Warwick; Tapia, Kriscia; Brennan, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the single cranio-caudal (CC) mammogram in comparison with traditional two projection mammography for breast cancer detection. Sixteen radiologists were invited to report 60 two-projection (MLO and CC) mammograms of the left and right breasts of which 20 cases contained cancer. Participants searched for the presence of breast lesion(s) on each view and provided a confidence score. Sensitivity, lesion sensitivity and specificity were compared between the CC projection versus the two projection approach among different groups of readers. Results showed that expert readers needed only single CC mammogram in their reading while non-expert readers required two-projection mammography.

  15. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach. PMID:20809379

  16. Novel Dynamics Observed in a Spiking Neural Network Model of the NTS in the Rat Hind-brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingyi; Schaffer, J. David; Dilorenzo, Patricia; Laramee, Craig

    2012-02-01

    The Nucleus of the Solitary Tract (NTS) is a hind-brain structure in the rat that is the first way-station in taste processing. Its structure and function are poorly understood. Recently our group produced a model, implemented as a spiking neural network (SNN), that successfully replicated experimental data. The model's topology was manually devised and the parameters were set by a genetic algorithm. In order to better understand its information processing capabilities, we probed the model with a variety of input spike patterns and observed a striking winner-take-all decision-making dynamic. We show how the topology and tuned parameters enable this decision to depend on precise spike timing events. It is curious that the experimental data upon which the model was originally evolved did not include winner-take-all examples; this was an emergent capability. It remains for additional experiments on rats to confirm or reject this model prediction.

  17. Blockade of the cerebral aqueduct in rats provides evidence of antagonistic leptin responses in the forebrain and hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaill, Michael I; Desai, Bhavna N; Harris, Ruth B S

    2014-02-15

    Previously, we reported that low-dose leptin infusions into the fourth ventricle produced a small but significant increase in body fat. These data contrast with reports that injections of higher doses of leptin into the fourth ventricle inhibit food intake and weight gain. In this study, we tested whether exogenous leptin in the fourth ventricle opposed or contributed to weight loss caused by third ventricle leptin infusion by blocking diffusion of CSF from the third to the fourth ventricle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received third ventricle infusions of PBS or 0.3 μg leptin/24 h from miniosmotic pumps. After 4 days, rats received a 3-μl cerebral aqueduct injection of saline or of thermogelling nanoparticles (hydrogel) that solidified at body temperature. Third ventricle leptin infusion inhibited food intake and caused weight loss. Blocking the aqueduct exaggerated the effect of leptin on food intake and weight loss but had no effect on the weight of PBS-infused rats. Leptin reduced both body fat and lean body mass but did not change energy expenditure. Blocking the aqueduct decreased expenditure of rats infused with PBS or leptin. Infusion of leptin into the third ventricle increased phosphorylated STAT3 in the VMHDM of the hypothalamus and the medial NTS in the hindbrain. Blocking the aqueduct did not change hypothalamic p-STAT3 but decreased p-STAT3 in the medial NTS. These results support previous observations that low-level activation of hindbrain leptin receptors has the potential to blunt the catabolic effects of leptin in the third ventricle. PMID:24347057

  18. Volumetric analysis of syringomyelia following hindbrain decompression for Chiari malformation Type I: syringomyelia resolution follows exponential kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumans, Jean-Valery; Walcott, Brian P.; Butler, William E.; Nahed, Brian V.; Kahle, Kristopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Object Resolution of syringomyelia is common following hindbrain decompression for Chiari malformation, yet little is known about the kinetics governing this process. The authors sought to establish the volumetric rate of syringomyelia resolution. Methods A retrospective cohort of patients undergoing hindbrain decompression for a Chiari malformation Type I with preoperative cervical or thoracic syringomyelia was identified. Patients were included in the study if they had at least 3 neuroimaging studies that detailed the entirety of their preoperative syringomyelia over a minimum of 6 months postoperatively. The authors reconstructed the MR images in 3 dimensions and calculated the volume of the syringomyelia. They plotted the syringomyelia volume over time and constructed regression models using the method of least squares. The Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion were used to calculate the relative goodness of fit. The coefficients of determination R2 (unadjusted and adjusted) were calculated to describe the proportion of variability in each individual data set accounted for by the statistical model. Results Two patients were identified as meeting inclusion criteria. Plots of the least-squares best fit were identified as 4.01459e−0.0180804x and 13.2556e−0.00615859x. Decay of the syringomyelia followed an exponential model in both patients (R2 = 0.989582 and 0.948864). Conclusions Three-dimensional analysis of syringomyelia resolution over time enables the kinetics to be estimated. This technique is yet to be validated in a large cohort. Because syringomyelia is the final common pathway for a number of different pathological processes, it is possible that this exponential only applies to syringomyelia related to treatment of Chiari malformation Type I. PMID:21882909

  19. A comparison of the effectiveness of predictors of caudal block in children—swoosh test, anal sphincter tone, and heart rate response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Nandini M; Garasia, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effectiveness of three predictors of successful caudal block in children, viz. swoosh test, heart rate response to injection, and laxity of anal sphincter tone. Aim: To improve the success rates of caudal block in children by identifying the best predictor. Background: Caudal blocks in children are placed after induction of anesthesia. Although simple to learn and perform, the success rate of the blocks may be variable especially in teaching hospitals where trainee anesthetists perform these blocks. Materials and Methods: 223 patients, aged 2–12 years, undergoing lower abdominal and urologic surgery were studied. 0.25% Bupivacaine was administered after induction of general anesthesia according to the Armitage regimen. Results: The sensitivity and specificity were highest with the sphincter tone test (sensitivity 95.22%, specificity 92.86%), followed by the heart rate response (sensitivity 92.82%, specificity 78.57%) and the swoosh test (sensitivity 66.51%, specificity 35.71%). The anal sphincter tone test had the highest positive predictive value (99.5%) and positive likelihood ratio (13.33). The heart rate response had a positive predictive value of 98.48% and a positive likelihood ratio of 4.33. The swoosh test, in our study, had a positive predictive value of 93.92% and a positive likelihood ratio of 1.035. Conclusion: The anal sphincter tone test was the best predictor of successful caudal block. We recommend the use of these additional simple predictors of accurate needle placement to increase the success rate of caudal block especially in teaching hospitals. PMID:22345939

  20. Ultrasonographic findings in a cow with ascites due to thrombosis of the caudal vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Schefer, U; Gerber, D; Föhn, J

    1992-01-01

    This case report describes a three-year-old Swiss Braunvieh cow with ascites due to thrombosis of the caudal vena cava. Ultrasonography verified the ascites and revealed dilatation of the abdominal portion of the caudal vena cava (4.8 cm). It was presumed that the caudal vena cava was occluded by a thrombus or by perivenous compression cranial to the dilatation. Post mortem findings included: a massive accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity; a 15 cm long thrombus in the subphrenic region of the caudal vena cava; multiple pulmonary abscesses; severe thrombosis of the pulmonary vasculature; hepatic congestion; oedematous abomasal folds; and severe thrombophlebitis of the left jugular vein and both udder veins, due to poor intravenous injection technique. Ascites caused by thrombosis of the caudal vena cava is rare because collateral routes of venous return, including the udder veins, are usually established. It was therefore concluded that the ascites was attributable to bilateral thrombosis of the udder veins.

  1. Radiographic evaluation of caudal vena cava size in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilation of the caudal vena cava (CVC) on lateral thoracic radiographs is often interpreted as suggestive of right-sided congestive heart failure, To quantitate the clinical utility of evaluating CVC size as an indicator of right-sided heart disease, we compared the ratio of the diameter of the CVC as measured on a left lateral thoracic radiograph to the descending aorta (Ao), length of the thoracic vertebra above the tracheal bifurcation (VL), and width of the right fourth rib (R4) in 35 dogs with right heart disease and 35 control dogs, Each CVC ratio(CVC/Ao, CVC/VL, CVC/R4) was statistically larger in dogs with right heart disease, Response operating characteristic curves and likelihood ratios were used to determine ratios helpful in identifying dogs with right heart disease. A CVC/Ao > 1.50, CVC/VL > 1.30, or CVC/R4 > 3.50 are strongly suggestive of a right-sided heart abnormality in a patient

  2. Transcriptional Profiling of Caudal Fin Regeneration in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schebesta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of severed limbs in adult animals is restricted to urodele amphibians. Mammals, including humans, have very limited regenerative capabilities and even with proper treatment, only the tips of our digits can grow back. Teleost fish can regenerate amputated fins, the evolutionary ancestors of limbs. To elucidate the principles of limb-fin regeneration, we performed an Affymetrix microarray screen on regenerating caudal fins 12, 24, 48, and 72 h post amputation. Approximately 15,000 zebrafish transcripts were analyzed, identifying 829 transcripts as differentially expressed during regeneration. Of those, 563 were up-regulated and 266 were down-regulated. We constructed a comprehensive database containing expression data, functional assignment, and background information from the literature for each differentially expressed transcript. In order to validate our findings, we employed three approaches: (1 microarray expression analysis of genes previously implicated in fin regeneration, (2 RT-PCR analysis of genes newly identified as differentially expressed during regeneration, and (3 in situ hybridization of the up-regulated genes bambi, dlx5A, and her6. Moreover, we show that Smad 1/5/8 proteins, effector molecules of Bmp signaling, are phosphorylated during fin regeneration. Taken together, we provide a comprehensive database of fin regeneration that will serve as an important tool for understanding the molecular mechanisms of regeneration.

  3. Numerical simulation and experimental research of a flexible caudal fin by piezoelectric fiber composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Lin Guan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A flexible caudal fin made of the macro fiber composites and the carbon fiber orthotropic composite was investigated by the numerical simulations and the experiments. First, a three-dimensional numerical simulation procedure was adopted to research the torsion propulsion mode of the caudal fin and the impact of the water for the structural torsion frequency of the caudal fin. Then, a two-dimensional unsteady fluid computational method was used to analyze the hydrodynamic performance with the periodic swing of the caudal fin on the torsion mode. Based on the simulation results, the flow field was demonstrated and discussed. The interaction between the caudal fin and the water was explained. Finally, the laser vibrometer system was built to verify the torsion propulsion mode. Meanwhile, the application of the caudal fin was realized on the torsion propulsion, and the measured system was established to demonstrate the performance of the caudal fin. The established simulation procedures and experimental methods in this study may provide guidance to the fins made of the composite materials during the structural design and the investigation of the flow field characteristics with the movement of the fins.

  4. Aproximaciones neuronales univariantes para la predicción de caudales diarios en cuencas portuguesas

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido-Calvo, I.; Manuela Portela, M.

    2007-01-01

    Desde hace unos años, las redes neuronales computacionales están siendo una de las herramientas más prometedoras para la estimación de caudales en cuencas. La mayoría de los trabajos de la literatura utilizan para las predicciones, junto con los datos registrados de caudales, otras variables de entrada de carácter hidro-metorológico. En este estudio se analizó el funcionamiento de redes neuronales de retropropagación para la estimación de caudales diarios en cuencas portuguesas, consideran...

  5. Investigation of Fish Caudal Fin Locomotion Using a Bio-inspired Robotic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyu Ren

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to its advantages of realizing repeatable experiments, collecting data and isolating key factors, the bio-robotic model is becoming increasingly important in the study of biomechanics. The caudal fin of fish has long been understood to be central to propulsion performance, yet its contribution to manoeuverability, especially for homocercal caudal fin, has not been studied in depth. In the research outlined in this paper, we designed and fabricated a robotic caudal fin to mimic the morphology and the three-dimensional (3D locomotion of the tail of the Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus. We applied heave and pitch motions to the robot to model the movement of the caudal peduncle of its biological counterpart. Force measurements and 2D and 3D digital particle image velocimetry were then conducted under different movement patterns and flow speeds. From the force data, we found the addition of the 3D caudal fin locomotion significantly enhanced the lift force magnitude. The phase difference between the caudal fin ray and peduncle motion was a key factor in simultaneously controlling the thrust and lift. The increased flow speed had a negative impact on the generation of lift force. From the average 2D velocity field, we observed that the vortex wake directed water both axially and vertically, and formed a jet like structure with notable wake velocity. The 3D instantaneous velocity field at 0.6 T indicated the 3D motion of the caudal fin may result in asymmetry wake flow patterns relative to the mid-sagittal plane and change the heading direction of the shedding vortexes. Based on these results, we hypothesized that live fish may actively tune the movement between the caudal fin rays and the peduncle to change the wake structure behind the tail and hence obtain different thrust and lift forces, which contributes to its high manoeuvrability.

  6. Caudal duplication syndrome: imaging evaluation of a rare entity in an adult patient

    OpenAIRE

    Tianshen Hu, BS; Travis Browning, MD; Kristen Bishop, MD

    2016-01-01

    Several theories have been put forth to explain the complex yet symmetrical malformations and the myriad of clinical presentations of caudal duplication syndrome. Hereby, reported case is a 28-year-old female, gravida 2 para 2, with congenital caudal malformation who has undergone partial reconstructive surgeries in infancy to connect her 2 colons. She presented with recurrent left lower abdominal pain associated with nausea, vomiting, and subsequent feculent anal discharge. Imaging reveals d...

  7. Repair of a canine forelimb skin deficit by microvascular transfer of a caudal superficial epigastric flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, G A; Smith, J H

    2010-02-01

    Extensive skin loss from the forelimb of a Border collie was repaired by a microvascular caudal superficial epigastric flap, with secondary meshing of the flap to increase coverage. The caudal superficial epigastric artery and vein were anastomosed to the brachial artery and vein. End-to-end anastomosis to the brachial artery and vein did not compromise peripheral blood flow, and no flap necrosis was observed after subsequent limited meshing of the flap. PMID:20070493

  8. Plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine with and without adrenaline following caudal anaesthesia in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Morton, N S; Cullen, P M;

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of adrenaline 1/400000 added to 0.25% bupivacaine significantly delays the systemic absorption of the drug from the caudal epidural space in young infants.......The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of adrenaline 1/400000 added to 0.25% bupivacaine significantly delays the systemic absorption of the drug from the caudal epidural space in young infants....

  9. The evaluation of upper leg traction in lateral position for pediatric caudal block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Seyedhejazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A well-functioning caudal block is an excellent adjunct to general anesthesia, but misplaced injection results in poor analgesia as well as possibility of serious morbidity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of leg traction on success rate of caudal block in lateral position in children. Methods: Two hundred children, age 2 months to 6 years, ASA I and II, who underwent lower abdominal surgeries were randomized in prospective controlled clinical trial study in two groups. After induction of General anesthesia, the caudal block was performed in the lateral position with upper leg traction (L-T- or with the standard position (S-P (leg flexed 90΀. Hemodynamicchanges, movement of lower extremity in response to surgical stimulus were evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference in caudal block′s success rate between two groups at first attempt (P=0.25. In group (S-P the procedure was successful in 60% of cases at first attempt, 25% at second,10% at third attempt and 5% failure of caudal block, whereas in the first group it was 75%, 20%, 1% and 4% of cases respectively. There were no significant differences in heart rate and blood pressure changes between two groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: The success rate of pediatric caudal block in upper leg traction did not differ from that of the standard position.

  10. Origin of the infrarenal part of the caudal vena cava in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornillie, P; Van Den Broeck, W; Simoens, P

    2008-10-01

    The vascular topography in the lumbar region of pig embryos and young fetuses was three-dimensionally reconstructed to study some controversial aspects of the origin and development of the infrarenal part of the caudal vena cava. Contrary to general belief, it was found that the supracardinal veins, which form the azygos veins in the thorax, do not take part in the construction of the caudal vena cava in the lumbar region. These veins do appear in the abdomen, but they are only involved in the formation of the lumbar and ascending lumbar veins. The infrarenal part of the caudal vena cava arises from the lumbar part of the right caudal cardinal vein. Whilst this venous pattern is established, the lumbar part of the left caudal cardinal vein disappears and its former location is occupied by large lymphatic connections between the cysterna chyli and the retroperitoneal mesenteric lymphatic sac. On the basis of these findings, a number of hypotheses on the development of anatomical variations of the caudal vena cava should be reconsidered. PMID:18537942

  11. Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Danish RERTR Program, three fuel elements with LEU U3O8-Al fuel and three fuel elements with LEU U3Si2-Al fuel were manufactured by NUKEM for irradiation testing in the DR-3 reactor at the Risoe National Laboratory in Denmark. The specifications for the elements with U3O8-Al fuel are presented here as an illustration only. Specifications for the elements with U3Si2-Al fuel were very similar. In this example, materials, material numbers, documents numbers, and drawing numbers specific to a single fabricator have been deleted. (author)

  12. Evolutionary multiobjective design of a flexible caudal fin for robotic fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Anthony J; Tan, Xiaobo; McKinley, Philip K

    2015-12-01

    Robotic fish accomplish swimming by deforming their bodies or other fin-like appendages. As an emerging class of embedded computing system, robotic fish are anticipated to play an important role in environmental monitoring, inspection of underwater structures, tracking of hazardous wastes and oil spills, and the study of live fish behaviors. While integration of flexible materials (into the fins and/or body) holds the promise of improved swimming performance (in terms of both speed and maneuverability) for these robots, such components also introduce significant design challenges due to the complex material mechanics and hydrodynamic interactions. The problem is further exacerbated by the need for the robots to meet multiple objectives (e.g., both speed and energy efficiency). In this paper, we propose an evolutionary multiobjective optimization approach to the design and control of a robotic fish with a flexible caudal fin. Specifically, we use the NSGA-II algorithm to investigate morphological and control parameter values that optimize swimming speed and power usage. Several evolved fin designs are validated experimentally with a small robotic fish, where fins of different stiffness values and sizes are printed with a multi-material 3D printer. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed design approach in balancing the two competing objectives. PMID:26601975

  13. Anatomic atlas for computed tomography in the mesaticephalic dog: caudal abdomen and pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to produce a comprehensive anatomic atlas of CT anatomy of the dog for use by veterinary radiologists, clinicians, and surgeons. Whole-body CT images of two mature beagle dogs were made with the dogs supported in sternal recumbency and using a slice thickness of 13 mm. At the end of the CT session, each dog was euthanized, and while carefully maintaining the same position, the body was frozen. The body was then sectioned at 13-mm intervals, with the cuts matched as closely as possible to the CT slices. The frozen sections were cleaned, photographed, and radiographed using xeroradiography. Each CT image was studied and compared with its corresponding xeroradiograph and anatomic section to assist in the accurate identification of specific structures. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled in the three corresponding photographs (CT image, xeroradiograph, and anatomic section). In previous papers, the head and neck, and the thorax and cranial abdomen of the mesaticephalic (beagle) dog were presented. In this paper, the caudal part of the abdomen and pelvis of the bitch and male dog are presented

  14. Modeling the Behavior of Red Blood Cells within the Caudal Vein Plexus of Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Tijana R.; Karthik, Swapna; Saveljic, Igor; Djonov, Valentin; Filipovic, Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Due to the important biological role of red blood cells (RBCs) in vertebrates, the analysis of reshaping and dynamics of RBCs motion is a critical issue in physiology and biomechanics. In this paper the behavior of RBCs within the immature capillary plexus during embryonic development of zebrafish has been analyzed. Relying on the fact that zebrafish embryos are small and optically transparent, it is possible to image the blood flow. In this way the anatomy of blood vessels is monitored along with the circulation throughout their development. Numerical simulations were performed using a specific numerical model that combines fluid flow simulation, modeling of the interaction of individual RBCs immersed in blood plasma with the surrounding fluid and modeling the deformation of individual cells. The results of numerical simulations are in accordance with the in vivo observed region of interest within the caudal vein plexus of the zebrafish embryo. Good agreement of results demonstrates the capabilities of the developed numerical model to predict and analyze the motion and deformation of RBCs in complex geometries. The proposed model (methodology) will help to elucidate different rheological and hematological related pathologies and finally to design better treatment strategies. PMID:27774070

  15. Comparing caudal and penile nerve blockade using bupivacaine in hypospadias repair surgeries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Seyedhejazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caudal anaesthesia is recommended for most surgical procedures of the lower part of the body, mainly below the umbilicus. It has been well established that a dorsal penile nerve block immediately after surgery decreases postoperative pain in children undergoing hypospadias repair. This study aimed to compare caudal or penile nerve block using bupivacaine in postoperative pain control in hypospadias repair in children. Patients and Methods: After local ethical committee approval and obtaining informed parental consent, 85 American society of Anesthesiologists status I and II patients, aged 6 months to 6 years old, undergoing hypospadias repair, were prospectively enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly divided into the following two groups: Caudal block was performed in 44 and penile block was performed in 41 patients. Cardiorespiratory systems data, analgesic requirement and complications were compared between the groups. Results: There were statistically significant haemodynamic (blood pressureand heart rate alteration during operation in each group (P<0.01. The haemodynamic parameters were stable during operation in successful blocks in both groups. Caudal block success rate is 97.7%, whereas in penile block is 92.6%. Nineteen of 43 patients (44% in caudal group and 29 of 41 patients (70% in penile group received analgesia in the postoperative period and this difference was significant between the two groups (P = 0.025. Conclusions: Without ultrasonography and with blind block, with anatomic landmarks only, the caudal block success rate is high and if there is no contraindication for caudal block, it is the best choice in children under 6 years old (or 25 kg for hypospadias repai.

  16. Analgesia caudal continua guiada por ultrasonido en una paciente de 4 años Caudal anesthesia ultrasound-guided continuos flow in patient 4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beltrán Franco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La epidural caudal es la técnica más popular en anestesia y analgesia regional pediátrica. El empleo de una guía ecográfica en este procedimiento, aunque aún no es un estándar, podría disminuir los riesgos inherentes a la técnica tradicional y ofrecer algunas ventajas. Nosotros describimos el caso de una niña de 4 años sometida a una resección de un rabdomiosarcoma en muslo izquierdo con metástasis ganglionar inguinal e implantación de catéteres para braquiterapia; a quien se le colocó un catéter caudal para analgesia postoperatoria continua, usando la ultrasonografía (US como método para guiar la colocación de dicho catéter. Después de inducir anestesia general, se realizó un escaneo ecográfico previo de la zona sacra identificando la anatomía, posteriormente después de implementar las medidas antisépticas y asépticas se colocó un catéter caudal guiado por US en tiempo real y con modo Doppler color se confirmó la posición en el espacio epidural caudal al inyectar una dosis en bolo de mezcla anestésica. Se presentó un adecuado control del dolor postoperatorio. El uso de US es una excelente alternativa a las técnicas clásicas fundamentadas en anatomía para la inserción de catéteres epidurales continuos en pediatría y permite ciertas ventajas que las técnicas a ciegas no pueden brindar.Caudal epidural is the most popular regional analgesia and anesthesia technique in pediatrics. The use of ultrasound (US guidance in this procedure, is not yet the standard, but could reduce the risks related with the traditional approach and offer some advantages. We described a case of a 4-years-old patient undergoing a resection of a rabdomyosarcome on the left thigh plus inguinal metastatic nodes and implantation of brachitherapy catheters, in whom a continous caudal epidural catheter was placed under US guidance. After general anesthesia induction, a scout scanning identified the anatomy and afterwards, using strict

  17. Eletrophysiological study of the caudal nerve on developing rats Estudo eletrofisiológico do nervo caudal em ratos em desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Netto Maia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To non-invasively study the sensory nerve conduction of the caudal nerve of normal developing rats. METHODS: Twenty normal Wistar male rats served as subjects. Caudal nerve conduction studies were performed at 60 days from birth and weekly at end of six consecutive weeks. The caudal nerve was stimulated distally and nerve potentials were recorded proximally on the animal's tail using common "alligator" clips as surface electrodes. RESULTS: The amplitude and the conduction velocity of the caudal nerve sensory action potential increased linearly from 29±6 µV to 85±13 µV and from 34±3 m/s to 44±4 m/s, respectively, between the 8th and the 15th week of life. The equations of linear regressions were as followed: Amplitude (µV = 8.1 × weeks - 34 (R² = 0.99 and NCV (m/s = 1.2 × weeks + 25 (R² = 0.86. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to study non-invasively the sensitive conduction of the caudal nerve of normal developing rats and describe reference values. The technique and data may be used as animal model in physiological and pathological studies.OBJETIVO: Estudar de forma não invasiva a condução nervosa sensitiva do nervo caudal em ratos normais em desenvolvimento. MÉTODOS: Vinte ratos machos Wistar foram utilizados. A conducão nervosa foi realizada a partir dos 60 dias, semanal durante seis semanas consecutivas. O nervo caudal foi estimulado distalmente, os potenciais foram registrados proximalmente na cauda do animal usando garras comum do tipo "jacaré" como eletrodos de superficie. RESULTADOS: A amplitude do potencial de ação de nervo sensitivo a velocidade de condução nervosa do nervo caudal cresceu linearmente de 29 ± 6 µV para 85 ± 13 µV e de 34 ± 3 m/s para 44 ± 4 m/s, respectivamente, entre a 8º e a 15º semana da vida do animal. As equações de regressão linear foram as seguintes: Amplitude (µV = 8,1 × semanas - 34 (R² = 0,99 e velocidade de conducao nervosa (m/s = 1,2 × semanas + 25 (R² = 0

  18. CAUDAL BRAINSTEM DELIVERY OF GHRELIN INDUCES FOS EXPRESSION IN THE NUCLEUS OF THE SOLITARY TRACT, BUT NOT IN THE ARCUATE OR PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEI OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS

    OpenAIRE

    Faulconbridge, Lucy F.; Grill, Harvey J.; Kaplan, Joel M.; Daniels, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin increases food intake when injected into either the forebrain or hindbrain ventricles. Brain areas activated by ghrelin after forebrain delivery have been examined using Fos immunohistochemistry and include the hypothalamic arcuate (Arc) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei, and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in the medulla. It is not clear, however, if ghrelin applied directly to the hindbrain activates forebrain structures. Therefore, we examined Fos expression in the Arc, PVN,...

  19. Hydrodynamic Performance of an Undulatory Robot: Functional Roles of the Body and Caudal Fin Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Both body undulation and caudal fin flapping play essential locomotive roles while a fish is swimming, but how these two affect the swimming performance and hydrodynamics of fish individually is yet to be known. We implemented a biomimetic robotic fish that travel along a servo towing system, which can be regarded as “treadmill” of the model. Hydrodynamics was studied as a function of the principal kinetic parameters of the undulatory body and caudal fin of the model in a self‐propelled condition, under which the time‐averaged measured axial net force becomes zero. Thrust efficiency was estimated from two‐dimensional digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV measurements in the horizontal and mid‐caudal fin plane. The Single‐Row Reverse Karman wake (2S is commonly observed in many previous studies of live fish swimming. However, we show that a Double‐Row Two‐Paired vortices (2P wake was generated by the robotic model for most kinetic parameter combinations. Interestingly, the 2S wake emerged within the results of a narrow range of robotic caudal fin pitch angles (0≤θ≤10°, occurring concurrently with enhanced thrust efficiency. We also show that, compared with the effect of body wavelength (λ, the wake structure behind the robotic swimmer is more sensitive to the Strouhal number (St and caudal fin pitch angle (θ.

  20. Variabilidad temporal de caudales: aplicación a la gestión de ríos regulados

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Capel, Francisco; Baeza Sanz, D.; García de Jalón Lastra, D.

    2004-01-01

    Los efectos de la regulación de caudales en los ríos modifican severamente la variabilidad del régimen de caudales, así como su estacionalidad. Esto supone una alteración muy grave, puesto que el régimen de caudales es determinante para mantener la estructura de las comunidades (Poff, et al., 1997) y el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas fluviales. El estudio de un régimen de caudales debe contemplar un grupo de parámetros completo, y con significado biológico, que contemple la ...

  1. A Titanosaurian Sauropod Dinosaur with Opisthocoelous Caudal Vertebrae from the Early Late Cretaceous of Liaoning Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Hailu; JI Qiang; Matthew C. LAMANNA; LI Jinglu; LI Yinxian

    2004-01-01

    We describe a new titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur, Borealosaurus wimani gen. et sp. nov., based on a distinctive mid-distal caudal vertebra from the early Late Cretaceous Sunjiawan Formation exposed in the Shuangmiao village of Beipiao in Liaoning, China. We provisionally refer an isolated tooth crown, a middle caudal vertebra, and a right humerus from the same locality and horizon to this taxon. Borealosaurus is distinguished from other sauropods in its possession of opisthocoelous mid-distal caudal vertebrae. The occurrence of opisthocoelous caudals in Borealosaurus and the Mongolian sauropod Opisthocoelicaudia raises the possibility that these taxa pertain to an as-yet unrecognized titanosaurian subclade endemic to the Cretaceous Asia.

  2. Ontogeny, variation, and homology in Salvelinus alpinus caudal skeleton (Teleostei: Salmonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünbaum, Thomas; Cloutier, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The ontogeny of the caudal skeleton in the Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus was examined using an extensive series of cleared and stained specimens. We demonstrate the presence of skeletal components never reported previously within the Salmonidae. In contrast to the generalized condition for salmonids, seven hypurals (instead of six), and four uroneurals (instead of three) have been found in some specimens. Variation in the number and condition of epurals is documented. New hypotheses are proposed concerning (1) relationships among centra and their associated elements, (2) phylogenetic distribution of caudal characters within the Salmonidae, and (3) homology of caudal components. Using the published phylogenetic hypotheses, we provide evidence, that a seventh hypural and a fourth uroneural are taxic atavism in salmonids. The development of the salmonid homocercal fin is discussed in the light of a polyural scheme based on evidences of a one-to-one relationship among ural centra and their associated elements. PMID:19603412

  3. Measurements and analysis of force and moment of caudal fin model in C-start

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liang; JING Jun; LU Xiyun; YIN Xiezhen

    2006-01-01

    The unsteady hydrodynamic forces and moments acting on caudal-fin models of fish with different shapes and different swing durations were experimentally measured to simulate the fish C-starts. The motion of models was characterized by rotating the model to a maximum deflection angle in an excursion time Tu and back to the initial position in a return time Td around its root-axis. Studies show that the caudal-fin plays an important role in fish C-starts and the caudal-fins with different shapes and different swing durations generate different forces and moments. In addition, the hydrodynamic forces and moments acting on the models with different shapes can be normalized by the 2nd and 3rd moments of area, respectively. The forces and moments acting on the models with different swing durations, but the same ratio of Tu to Td can also be scaled.

  4. Cardiocirculatory intraoperative assessment during single-shot caudal anaesthesia in children: comparison between levobupivacaine and ropivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gentili

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caudal block with levobupivacaine or ropivacaine is the most commonly used regional anaesthesia in children. Methods: The aim of study was to compare the cardiocirculatory profile induced in two matched groups of young patients, submitted to caudal anaesthesia with levobupivacaine or ropivacaine for an elective subumbilical surgery. Sixty children were enrolled: thirty received levopubivacaine 0.25% and thirty ropivacaine 0.2%. Intraoperative heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP were monitored at following times: Ta0 (after anaesthesia induction, Ta1 (after caudal anaesthesia, Ta2 (five minutes later, Ta3 (ten minutes later, Ts1 (at surgical incision, Ts2, Ts3, Ts4, Ts5 (every 10 minutes during surgery, Taw (at the awakening. Results: In both groups the cardiocirculatory trend remained within normal ranges at all times considered, demonstrating the safety of the method with both drugs. Both groups showed a similar trend at the different monitoring times: low decrease in HR, SBP and DBP after caudal block, slight increase in parameters after skin incision, slight decrease during surgery, increase at awakening. Regarding SBP and DBP, the levobupivacaine group children generally showed higher levels compared to the ropivacaine group, especially for DBP. Conclusions: Paediatric caudal anaesthesia is an effective method with an very infrequent complication rate. Possible hypotheses for differing haemodynamic behaviour could include a stronger vasoconstriction reflex of innervated areas during caudal anaesthesia with levobupivacaine and a lower levobupivacaine induced block of the sympathetic fibers, related to different pharmacokinetic profile of low concentrations of the local anaesthetics used in paediatric epidural space.

  5. Comparative study of caudal bupivacaine versus bupivacaine with tramadol for postoperative analgesia in paediatric cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Hegazy; Ayman A. Ghoneim

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Caudal epidural analgesia has become very common analgesic technique in paediatric surgery. Add-ing tramadol to bupivacaine for caudal injection prolongs duration of analgesia with minimal side effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the different effects of caudal bupivacaine versus bupivacaine with thamadol for postoperative analgesia in paediatric cancer patients. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted over 40 paediatric cancer pa-tients who were recruited from Children Cancer Hospital of Egypt (57357 Hospital). Patients were randomized into 2 groups: bupivacaine group (group B, 20 patients) to receive single shot caudal block of 1 mL/kg 0.1875% bupivacaine; tramadol group (group T, 20 patients) prepared as group B with the addition of 1 mg/kg caudal tramadol. Results: The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer among group T than group B [(24 ± 13.7) hours versus (7 ± 3.7) hours respectively with P = 0.001]. Group T showed a significantly lower mean FLACC score than group B (2.2 ± 0.9 versus 3.6 ± 0.6 with P = 0.002). The difference in FLACC score was comparable on arrival, and after 2 and 4 hours. At 8 and 12 hours the group B recorded significantly higher scores (P = 0.002 and 0.0001 respectively). There were no significant differences between the groups as regards sedation score [the median in both groups was 1 (0–1) with P value = o.8]. No one developed facial flush or pruritis. Conclusion: Caudal injection of low dose tramadol 1 mg/kg with bupivacaine 0.1875% is proved to be effective, long standing technique for postoperative analgesia in major paediatric cancer surgery and almost devoid of side effect.

  6. The Effects of Caudal Fin Shape on the Propulsion Performance of Flapping Caudal Fin%尾鳍形状对摆动尾鳍推进性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曦; 苏玉民; 王兆立

    2012-01-01

    研究了尾鳍形状对摆动尾鳍推进性能的影响.设计了一套摆尾仿生推进装置,实验分析了仿金枪鱼、仿海豚、仿白鲸3种尾鳍的推进性能.同时采用数值方法对尾鳍的水动力性能进行了计算.实验和数值结果表明,仿金枪鱼尾鳍的平均推力系数和输入功率系数最小,推进效率最高.对尾涡的分析表明,仿金枪鱼尾鳍尾涡强度最弱,分布范围最小.%A comprehensive study was presented on the effects of the caudal fin shape on the propulsion performance of a harmonically heaving and pitching caudal fin.A bio-caudal fin propulsion mechanics was designed and a series of hydrodynamic experiments for three caudal fin shapes(the whale caudal fin,the dolphin caudal fin,and the tuna caudal fin) were performed.Then numerical simulations were done.Both the experimental and computational results indicate that the tuna caudal fin produces the highest efficiency,although the mean thrust coefficient and input power coefficient of the tuna caudal fin was the smallest.The characteristics of wake were analyzed to find that not only the wake scale of the tuna caudal fin is the smallest,but also the vorticity magnitude of the tuna caudal fin is the weakest.

  7. Visualization of the Design Space of a Caudal Fin with Hydro-Elastic Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Eriko; Jeong, Shinkyu; Obayashi, Shigeru; Isogai, Koji

    Performance of a fish caudal fin is brought out from many factors, such as the shape, the movement and the elasticity. The present study treats all of these factors simultaneously and attempts to visualize the complex design space using Kriging and SOM. As a result, the present study succeeded in visualizing the complex structure of the design space of the oscillating wing (caudal fin), and the combined effects of the design variables are shown. This data will become extremely useful for practical design of fish robots and other nautical machines.

  8. Rostral and caudal prefrontal contribution to creativity: A meta-analysis of functional imaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil eGonen-Yaacovi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is of central importance for human civilization, yet its neurocognitive bases are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to integrate existing functional imaging data by using the meta-analysis approach. We reviewed 34 functional imaging studies that reported activation foci during tasks assumed to engage creative thinking in healthy adults. A coordinate-based meta-analysis using Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE first showed a set of predominantly left-hemispheric regions shared by the various creativity tasks examined. These regions included the caudal lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC, the medial and lateral rostral PFC, and the inferior parietal and posterior temporal cortices. Further analyses showed that tasks involving the combination of remote information (combination tasks activated more anterior areas of the lateral PFC than tasks involving the free generation of unusual responses (unusual generation tasks, although both types of tasks shared caudal prefrontal areas. In addition, verbal and non-verbal tasks involved the same regions in the left caudal prefrontal, temporal, and parietal areas, but also distinct domain-oriented areas. Taken together, these findings suggest that several frontal and parieto-temporal regions may support cognitive processes shared by diverse creativity tasks, and that some regions may be specialized for distinct types of processes. In particular, the lateral PFC appeared to be organized along a rostro-caudal axis, with rostral regions involved in combining ideas creatively and more posterior regions involved in freely generating novel ideas.

  9. Caudal regulates the spatiotemporal dynamics of pair-rule waves in Tribolium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat El-Sherif

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short-germ beetle Tribolium castaneum, waves of pair-rule gene expression propagate from the posterior end of the embryo towards the anterior and eventually freeze into stable stripes, partitioning the anterior-posterior axis into segments. Similar waves in vertebrates are assumed to arise due to the modulation of a molecular clock by a posterior-to-anterior frequency gradient. However, neither a molecular candidate nor a functional role has been identified to date for such a frequency gradient, either in vertebrates or elsewhere. Here we provide evidence that the posterior gradient of Tc-caudal expression regulates the oscillation frequency of pair-rule gene expression in Tribolium. We show this by analyzing the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in strong and mild knockdown of Tc-caudal, and by correlating the extension, level and slope of the Tc-caudal expression gradient to the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in wild type as well as in different RNAi knockdowns of Tc-caudal regulators. Further, we show that besides its absolute importance for stripe generation in the static phase of the Tribolium blastoderm, a frequency gradient might serve as a buffer against noise during axis elongation phase in Tribolium as well as vertebrates. Our results highlight the role of frequency gradients in pattern formation.

  10. Shape optimization of the caudal fin of the three-dimensional self-propelled swimming fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, ZhiQiang; Wu, ChuiJie

    2013-02-01

    Shape optimization of the caudal fin of the three-dimensional self-propelled swimming fish, to increase the swimming efficiency and the swimming speed and control the motion direction more easily, is investigated by combining optimization algorithms, unsteady computational fluid dynamics and dynamic control in this study. The 3D computational fluid dynamics package contains the immersed boundary method, volume of fluid method, the adaptive multi-grid finite volume method and the control strategy of fish swimming. Through shape optimizations of various swimming speeds, the results show that the optimal caudal fins of different swimming modes are not exactly the same shape. However, the optimal fish of high swimming speed, whose caudal fin shape is similar to the crescent, also have higher efficiency and better maneuverability than the other optimal bionic fish at low and moderate swimming speeds. Finally, the mechanisms of vorticity creation of different optimal bionic fish are studied by using boundary vorticity-flux theory, and three-dimensional wake structures of self-propelled swimming of these fish are comparatively analyzed. The study of vortex dynamics reveals the nature of efficient swimming of the 3D bionic fish with the lunate caudal fin.

  11. Effect of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy: multicentre, blinded, randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Trond; Solberg, Tore K; Romner, Bertil;

    2011-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy in the short (6 weeks), intermediate (12 weeks), and long term (52 weeks).......To assess the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy in the short (6 weeks), intermediate (12 weeks), and long term (52 weeks)....

  12. Caudal fin in the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias (Lamnidae): a dynamic propeller for fast, efficient swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingham-Soliar, Theagarten

    2005-05-01

    The caudal peduncle and caudal fin of Carcharodon carcharias together form a dynamic locomotory structure. The caudal peduncle is a highly modified, dorsoventrally compressed and rigid structure that facilitates the oscillations of the caudal fin. Its stiffness appears to be principally achieved by a thick layer of adipose tissue ranging from 28-37% of its cross-sectional area, reinforced by cross-woven collagen fibers. Numerous overlying layers of collagen fibers of the stratum compactum, oriented in steep left- and right-handed helices (approximately 65 degrees to the shark's long axis), prevent bowstringing of the perimysial fibers, which lie just below the dermal layer. Perimysial fibers, muscles, and the notochord are restricted to the dorsal lobe of the caudal fin and comprise the bulk of its mass. Adipose tissue reinforces the leading edge of the dorsal lobe of the caudal fin and contributes to maintaining the ideal cross-sectional geometry required of an advanced hydrofoil. Most of the mass of the ventral lobe consists of the ceratotrichia or fin rays separated by thin partitions of connective tissue. Dermal fibers of the stratum compactum of the dorsal lobe occur in numerous distinct layers. The layers are more complex than in other sharks and appear to reflect a hierarchical development in C. carcharias. The fiber layer comprises a number of thick fiber bundles along the height of the layer and the layers get thicker deeper into the stratum compactum. Each of these layers alternates with a layer a single fiber-bundle deep, a formation thought to give stability to the stratum compactum and to enable freer movements of the fiber system. In tangential sections of the stratum compactum the fiber bundles in the dorsal lobe can be seen oriented with respect to the long axis of the shark at approximately 55-60 degrees in left- and right-handed helices. Because of the backward sweep of the dorsal lobe (approximately 55 degrees to the shark's long axis) the right

  13. Effect of an Artificial Caudal Fin on the Performance of a Biomimetic Fish Robot Propelled by Piezoelectric Actuators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of a biomimetic fish robot actuated by piezoceramic actuators and the effect of artificial caudal fins on the fish robot's performance. The limited bending displacement produced by a lightweight piezocomposite actuator was amplified and transformed into a large tail beat motion by means of a linkage system. Caudal fins that mimic the shape of a mackerel fin were fabricated for the purpose of examining the effect of caudal fin characteristics on thrust production at an operating frequency range. The thickness distribution of a real mackerel's fin was measured and used to design artificial caudal fins. The thrust performance of the biomimetic fish robot propelled by fins of various thicknesses was examined in terms of the Strouhal number, the Froude number, the Reynolds number, and the power consumption. For the same fin area and aspect ratio, an artificial caudal fin with a distributed thickness shows the best forward speed and the least power consumption.

  14. Holoprosencephaly with caudal dysplasia. Pseudo-trisomy 13 or a distinct entity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, R.P.B.; Aylsworth, A.S. [Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Durham, NC (United States); Timmons, M.C. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We have studied three chromosomally normal patients with multiple anomalies that include holoprosencephaly and caudal dysplasia. Each has features found in patients with pseudo-trisomy 13, though each lacks malformations common in that syndrome. Patients 1 and 2 did not have polydactyly and patients 2 and 3 had no congenital heart malformation. Patient 1 is also unusual in that he does not have typical holoprosencephalic facies and is alive at age 25 months. We have also identified two other similar patients in the London Dysmorphology Database, each of which had holoprosencephaly, congenital heart malformation, and imperforate anus. Isolated caudal dysplasia and holoprosencephaly are both causally heterogeneous. They have been reported together rarely in patients with several different syndromes including chromosomal abnormalities, monogenic syndromes, teratogenic insults, and syndromes of unknown cause. Over thirty cases of {open_quotes}pseudo-trisomy 13{close_quotes} have now been reported and eight of these have had features of caudal dysplasia. There have been four with imperforate anus or anal stenosis, one with lumbosacral vertebral anomaly, and three others with bilateral renal agenesis or hypoplasia. Based on our patients and this review of other reported and unreported cases, we suggest that caudal dysplasia may be a significant clinical feature of pseudo-trisomy 13. Alternatively, holoprosencephaly and caudal dysplasia with a normal karyotype may represent a similar though distinct entity. Some may have submicroscopic chromosomal deletions. Molecular studies of regions known to be associated with holoprosencephaly are currently in progress on tissue from Patient 1. We hope these observations will stimulate reports of similarly affected patients to allow better definition of pseudo-trisomy 13 and other overlap syndromes.

  15. Activation of the caudal anterior cingulate cortex due to task-related interference in an auditory Stroop paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Sven; Axmacher, Nikolai; Cohen, Michael X; Elger, Christian E; Fell, Juergen

    2009-09-01

    Successful information processing requires the focusing of attention on a certain stimulus property and the simultaneous suppression of irrelevant information. The Stroop task is a useful paradigm to study such attentional top-down control in the presence of interference. Here, we investigated the neural correlates of an auditory Stroop task using fMRI. Subjects focused either on tone pitch (relatively high or low; phonetic task) or on the meaning of a spoken word (high/low/good; semantic task), while ignoring the other stimulus feature. We differentiated between task-related (phonetic incongruent vs. semantic incongruent) and sensory-level interference (phonetic incongruent vs. phonetic congruent). Task-related interference activated similar regions as in visual Stroop tasks, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the presupplementary motor-area (pre-SMA). More specifically, we observed that the very caudal/posterior part of the ACC was activated and not the dorsal/anterior region. Because identical stimuli but different task demands are compared in this contrast, it reflects conflict at a relatively high processing level. A more conventional contrast between incongruent and congruent phonetic trials was associated with a different cluster in the pre-SMA/ACC which was observed in a large number of previous studies. Finally, functional connectivity analysis revealed that activity within the regions activated in the phonetic incongruent vs. semantic incongruent contrast was more strongly interrelated during semantically vs. phonetically incongruent trials. Taken together, we found (besides activation of regions well-known from visual Stroop tasks) activation of the very caudal and posterior part of the ACC due to task-related interference in an auditory Stroop task. PMID:19180558

  16. Caudal epidural injections for lumbar prolapsed inter vertebral disc: assessment with urdu version of oswestry disability index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background/Aims: Oswestry Disability index is an established tool for assessment of Spinal Disability. It has been translated into many languages and but not to Urdu. The aim of this prospective observational study was translation, application and validation of Urdu version of the Oswestry Disability Index (Urdu ODI) for our specific cultural background. Methods: Urdu version of ODI was developed and applied for outcome assessment in 50 patients, suffering from lumbar prolapsed inter vertebral discs and treated with caudal epidural steroid injection. All patients having mechanical low backache with radiculopathy and single level disc prolapse at L-4-5 or L5- S 1 on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) were included in the study. Single Steroid Injection with local anesthetic was injected into sacral caudal epidural space through sacral hiatus. A Performa was made for each patient and records were kept in a custom built Microsoft access database. Outcome was assessed using Urdu ODI and validation by comparing with Numeric rating Scale 0-10 at each visit. Results: Fifty patients received caudal epidural injections, 23 (46%) were male and 27 (54%) were female. The mean age was 34 years, with the range being 21-55. Low mechanical backache with right sided radiculopathy was in 29 (58%) and left sided in 21 (42%) patients. The commonest involved disc was L4-S in 28 (56%) and L5-S1 in 22 (44%) patients Pain was assessed with Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) of ten points. This was mean 7.35, range 9-6 at presentation and mean improvement was 4.15 with range 5-3 at fist week, 3.80 with range 5-2 at first month and 3.05 with range 4-1 after six months. Functional disability assessment was done using Urdu ODI. The mean Urdu ODI at the time of presentation was 66.23% with range 81%-48%. The mean functional status was found to be 38.64% with range 26%-45% at the end of the first week, 43.65% with range 31%-48% after one month and 44.85% with range 28%-48% after six months. So there was

  17. A comparison of the effectiveness of predictors of caudal block in children-swoosh test, anal sphincter tone, and heart rate response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini M Dave

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The anal sphincter tone test was the best predictor of successful caudal block. We recommend the use of these additional simple predictors of accurate needle placement to increase the success rate of caudal block especially in teaching hospitals.

  18. Metals in the caudal scutes of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) from the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillanes, C E; Pérez-Jiménez, J C; Rosíles-Martínez, R; González-Jáuregui, M

    2014-10-01

    Caudal scutes were collected from 92 Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) between May and August 2012, in three Wildlife Management and Use Units (UMAs, from its name in Spanish) and three wild sites in Campeche, Mexico. The UMAs are intensive, with an ex situ approach to manage crocodiles in captivity. The concentrations of arsenic, mercury, lead, nickel, cadmium and chromium were analyzed in each sample. As and Pb were detected in all samples, Hg in 86 and Ni in 74. The metal concentrations estimated were higher than most of the concentrations reported for skin, tail tip and caudal scutes in other crocodilians around the world. The concentration of As, Pb and Ni was significantly greater in the free-ranging groups than in the captive groups in UMAs (p moreletii is exposed to metals contamination and more studies are necessary to establish if represents a risk to their populations. PMID:25134925

  19. Caudal shif ting of hepatic vein anastomosis inright liver living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheung Tat Fan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In right liver living donor liver trans-plantation, hepatic venous anastomosis is performed using the recipient's right hepatic vein oriifce. There may be situations that the portal vein is short or the right liver graft is small, leading to dififculty in portal vein, hepatic artery or duct-to-duct anastomosis. METHODS: The recipient's right hepatic vein oriifce is closed partially for 2 cm at the cranial end or totally, and a new venotomy is made caudal to the right hepatic vein oriifce. Hepatic vein anastomosis is performed with the new venotomy. RESULTS: The distance between the liver graft hilum and hepatoduodenal ligament is reduced. Portal vein, hepatic artery and biliary anastomosis could be performed without tension or conduit. CONCLUSION: Caudal shifting of hepatic vein anasto-mosis facilitates implantation of a right liver living donor graft.

  20. Variabilidad de las anomalías de caudales medios mensuales con el área de la cuenca.

    OpenAIRE

    Góez Arango , Catalina; Poveda Jaramillo, Germán

    2004-01-01

    Se estudia la variabilidad de las anomalías estandarizadas de los caudales medios mensuales con respecto al área de drenaje de la cuenca, usando registros históricos de caudales medios mensuales sobre estaciones localizadas a lo largo del cauce principal de las cuencas de los ríos Magdalena-Cauca en Colombia y Tocantins-Purus en Brasil. Las anomalías estandarizadas se definen como las desviaciones de los caudales con respecto a la media del mes, escalados por la desviación típica mensual....

  1. [Magnetic resonance imaging features of a caudal cruciate ligament rupture associated with a suspected bone bruise lesion in a dog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmohl, M; Konar, M; Tassani-Prell, M; Rupp, S

    2014-04-16

    In this case study we describe a surgically confirmed caudal cruciate ligament rupture in a 10-year-old Border Collie. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a complete rupture of the caudal cruciate ligament, a suspected bone bruise lesion on the proximolateral tibia and a muscle strain injury of the M. flexor digitorum lateralis. In human medicine, bone bruise lesions in MRI have been described as "footprint injuries" and can thereby explain the mechanism of trauma in ligament injuries. The combination of the MRI findings in this case can help to understand how the rarely diagnosed isolated rupture of the caudal cruciate ligament occurred in this dog. PMID:24737186

  2. A useful technique for adjusting nasal tip projection in Asian rhinoplasty: Trapezoidal caudal extension cartilage grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao-Cheng; Lin, Deng-Shan; Wang, Hsing-Won; Kao, Chuan-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present our experience with Asian patients in (1) using a trapezoidal caudal extension cartilage graft to adjust the tip projection in tip refinement for augmentation rhinoplasty, especially for the correction of short nose, and (2) avoiding complications of augmentation rhinoplasty with alloplastic implants. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 358 rhinoplasties that were performed by the corresponding author from January 2004 through July 2009. Patients were included in this study if they had undergone open rhinoplasty with a trapezoidal caudal extension cartilage graft as the only tip-modifying procedure. Patients in whom any additional grafting was performed that might have altered the nasal tip position were excluded. The surgical results were analyzed in terms of the degree of satisfaction judged separately by investigators and by patients. A total of 84 patients-46 males and 38 females, all Asians, aged 13 to 61 years (mean: 29.3)-met our eligibility criteria. Postoperative follow-up for 24 months was achieved in 62 patients. At the 24-month follow-up, the surgeons judged the results to be good or very good in 57 of the 62 patients (91.9%); at the same time, 56 patients (90.3%) said they were satisfied or very satisfied with their aesthetic outcome. Good nasal tip projection, a natural columellar appearance, and improvement in the nasolabial angle were achieved for most patients. Two patients required revision rhinoplasty to correct an insufficient augmentation and migration of the onlay graft. No severe complications were observed during the 2-year follow-up. We have found that trapezoidal caudal extension cartilage grafting in nasal tip refinement is an easy technique to learn and execute, its results are predictable, and it has been associated with no major complications. We recommend trapezoidal caudal extension cartilage grafting for Asian patients as a good and reliable alternative for managing tip projection

  3. Evaluation of a segmented rectal probe and caudal epidural anesthesia for electroejaculation of bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Etson, Cathy J.; Waldner, Cheryl L.; Barth, Albert D.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in concentrations of cortisol and progesterone in serial blood samples were used to quantify a stress response to different methods of electroejaculation in 10 Hereford bulls. Treatments included restraint (control), and electroejaculation using rectal probes with segmented electrodes or conventional nonsegmented electrodes, with or without lidocaine caudal epidural anesthesia. A subjective scoring system was used to assess behavioral responses to the different methods of electroejacu...

  4. Caudal fin allometry in the white shark Carcharodon carcharias: implications for locomotory performance and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingham-Soliar, Theagarten

    2005-05-01

    Allometric scaling analysis was employed to investigate the consequences of size evolution on hydrodynamic performance and ecology in the white shark Carcharodon carcharias. Discriminant analysis using the power equation y=axb was negative for caudal fin span (S) versus fork length (FL) in C. carcharias. In contrast in two delphinid species, Delphinus capensis and Tursiops aduncus, the span of the flukes versus fork length rises in positive allometric fashion, and strong positive allometry of S versus √A (area) was also recorded. The latter reflects a high lift/drag ratio. S versus √A in C. carcharias displays negative allometry and consequently a lower lift/drag ratio. A lower aspect ratio (AR) caudal fin in C. carcharias compared to that of the delphinids (mean 3.33 and 4.1, respectively) and other thunniform swimmers provides the potential for better maneuverability and acceleration. The liver in sharks is frequently associated with a buoyancy function and was found to be positively allometric in C. carcharias. The overall findings suggest that the negatively allometric caudal fin morphometrics in C. carcharias are unlikely to have deleterious evolutionary fitness consequences for predation. On the contrary, when considered in the context of positive liver allometry in C. carcharias it is hereby suggested that buoyancy may play a dominant role in larger white sharks in permitting slow swimming while minimizing energy demands needed to prevent sinking. In contrast hydrodynamic lift is considered more important in smaller white sharks. Larger caudal fin spans and higher lift/drag ratio in smaller C. carcharias indicate greater potential for prolonged, intermediate swimming speeds and for feeding predominantly on fast-moving fish, in contrast to slow-swimming search patterns of larger individuals for predominantly large mammalian prey. Such data may provide some answers to the lifestyle and widespread habitat capabilities of this still largely mysterious animal.

  5. Caudal block and emergence delirium in pediatric patients: Is it analgesia or sedation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergence delirium (ED although a short-lived and self-limiting phenomenon, makes a child prone to injury in the immediate postoperative period and hence is a cause of concern not only to the pediatric anesthesiologist, surgeons, and post anesthesia care unit staff but also amongst parents. Additional medication to quieten the child offsets the potential benefits of rapid emergence and delays recovery in day care settings. There is conflicting evidence of influence of analgesia and sedation following anesthesia on emergence agitation. We hypothesized that an anesthetic technique which improves analgesia and prolongs emergence time will reduce the incidence of ED. We selected ketamine as adjuvant to caudal block for this purpose. Methods: This randomized, double blind prospective study was performed in 150 premedicated children ASA I, II, aged 2 to 8 years who were randomly assigned to either group B (caudal with bupivacaine, BK (bupivacaine and ketamine, or NC (no caudal, soon after LMA placement. Recovery characteristics and complications were recorded. Results: Emergence time, duration of pain relief, and Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED scores were significantly higher in the NC group (P<0.05. Duration of analgesia and emergence time were significantly more in group BK than groups B and NC. However, the discharge readiness was comparable between all groups. No patient in BK group required to be given any medication to treat ED. Conclusion: Emergence time as well as duration of analgesia have significant influence on incidence of emergence delirium. Ketamine, as caudal adjuvant is a promising agent to protect against ED in children, following sevoflurane anesthesia.

  6. Postoperative analgesia in children: A comparison of three different doses of caudal epidural morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Baduni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Caudal epidural block is the most commonly used neuraxial block in children. Morphine has been used as a caudal additive for more than three decades. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and duration of analgesia of three different doses of caudal epidural morphine (CEM, and to find out the incidence of side effects. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 75 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists grades I and II, aged 2-12 years, undergoing lower abdominal and urogenital surgeries. Patients were randomly allocated to one of the three groups according to the dose of morphine. Group I received 30 μg/kg, group II 50 μg/kg, and group III 70 μg/kg. Heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, electrocardiogram, pain score, sedation score, duration of analgesia, and side-effects were noted. Results: The mean duration of analgesia was 8.63 h in group I, 13.36 h in group II and 19.19 h in group III. Respiratory depression was noted in three patients in group III. One patient in group I had itching. One patient each in groups I, II, and III had nausea/vomiting. Conclusion: CEM significantly prolongs the duration of analgesia, though with a higher dose the risk of respiratory depression should always be kept in mind.

  7. Pediatric regional anesthesia- A comparison between pediatric spinal and caudal anesthesia

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    Charu Pandya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional anesthesia in children was first studied by August Bier in 1899. Since then, spinal anesthesia was known to be practiced for several years with a series of cases published as early as in 1909-1910. (1 In 1900, Bainbridge reported a case of strangulated hernia repair under spinal anesthesia in an infant of three months(2. Thereafter, Tyrell Gray, a British surgeon published a series of 200 cases of lower abdominal surgeries in infants and children under spinal anesthesia in 1909-1910. The appearance of neuromuscular blocking agents and the development of volatile anesthetics in the forties shifted the techniques toward general anesthesia. However, spinal pediatric anesthesia did not disappear. In 1901, Sicard and Cathelin introduced independently the caudal approach in the anesthetic practice. The first publication that mentions this technique in children was written by Campbell in 1933 and the second one by Leigh and Belton in 1951. Subsequently, Fortuna (1963 in Brazil, Melman(10 (1973 in Mexico, Takasaki (1977 in Japan, Ecoffey(7 (1985 in France, and Rash (1995 in USA, introduced these techniques in their countries. The caudal technique is extensively described by Key in 1994. When regional anesthesia is given to older children, some variables such as the intervention site, age, and presence of chronic disease, cooperativeness and parental preferences should be considered. In present study we compared caudal block with spinal block in pediatric patients.

  8. Functional Connectivity of the Caudal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Is Decreased in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyue; Shi, Lijuan; Cui, Xilong; Wang, Suhong; Luo, Xuerong

    2016-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is frequently reported to have functionally distinct sub-regions that play key roles in different intrinsic networks. However, the contribution of the ACC, which is connected to several cortical areas and the limbic system, to autism is not clearly understood, although it may be involved in dysfunctions across several distinct but related functional domains. By comparing resting-state fMRI data from persons with autism and healthy controls, we sought to identify the abnormalities in the functional connectivity (FC) of ACC sub-regions in autism. The analyses found autism-related reductions in FC between the left caudal ACC and the right rolandic operculum, insula, postcentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and the middle temporal gyrus. The FC (z-scores) between the left caudal ACC and the right insula was negatively correlated with the Stereotyped Behaviors and Restricted Interests scores of the autism group. These findings suggest that the caudal ACC is recruited selectively in the pathomechanism of autism.

  9. MODELO AUTORREGRESIVO BILINEAL APLICADO A LA PREDICCIÓN MENSUAL DE CAUDALES EN COLOMBIA

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    Juan David Cadavid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se aplica un modelo estocástico bilineal, el cual inicialmente es propuesto para análisis de retornos financieros y otros sistemas complejos combinando la alta no linealidad y multiplicidad del ruido. Este modelo, por su carácter aleatorio, no tiene componente determinística que permita considerar la persistencia de los caudales en una aplicación a la Hidrología. Por lo tanto, se propone el acoplamiento entre la parte determinística de un modelo autorregresivo de orden 2 y el modelo estocástico bilineal como componente aleatorio, y se obtiene un modelo autorregresivo bilineal (MAB. El MAB se empleó para la predicción de caudales en ventanas de 3, 6 y 12 meses en 12 ríos de Colombia de diferentes regiones del país. El MAB tiene una estructura simple y muestra una mejora sustancial en la disminución de los errores para los caudales máximos y mínimos en el período de validación respecto de los modelos estocásticos tradicionales.

  10. Caudal migration and proliferation of renal progenitors regulates early nephron segment size in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Richard W.; Dodd, Rachel C.; Davidson, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney and is divided into distinct proximal and distal segments. The factors determining nephron segment size are not fully understood. In zebrafish, the embryonic kidney has long been thought to differentiate in situ into two proximal tubule segments and two distal tubule segments (distal early; DE, and distal late; DL) with little involvement of cell movement. Here, we overturn this notion by performing lineage-labelling experiments that reveal extensive caudal movement of the proximal and DE segments and a concomitant compaction of the DL segment as it fuses with the cloaca. Laser-mediated severing of the tubule, such that the DE and DL are disconnected or that the DL and cloaca do not fuse, results in a reduction in tubule cell proliferation and significantly shortens the DE segment while the caudal movement of the DL is unaffected. These results suggest that the DL mechanically pulls the more proximal segments, thereby driving both their caudal extension and their proliferation. Together, these data provide new insights into early nephron morphogenesis and demonstrate the importance of cell movement and proliferation in determining initial nephron segment size. PMID:27759103

  11. Efficacy of two doses of tramadol versus bupivacaine in perioperative caudal analgesia in adult hemorrhoidectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Hanan M.; Esmat, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study was conducted to evaluate the perioperative analgesic efficacy of the two doses of caudally administered tramadol versus bupivacaine in adult hemorrhoidectomy. Patients and Methods: A total of 90 patients, aged 20-50 years, undergoing hemorrhoidectomy were randomly scheduled to receive bupivacaine 0.25% in 20 ml (Group B; n = 30), tramadol 1 mg/kg in 20 ml (Group T1; n = 30), tramadol 2 mg/kg in 20 ml (Group T2; n = 30) through caudal route after induction of general anesthesia. Postoperative pain was assessed every hour until the visual analog scale was 6, which is 1st time for rescue analgesia. Postoperative sedation, hemodynamic changes, serum cortisol, and epinephrine levels and incidence of side effects were also evaluated. Results: Duration of analgesia was longer in Group T2 (20 [1.14] h] compared with the Group B (7 [1.2] h) or Group T1 (12 [0.75] h); all P < 0.001. There were no significant hemodynamic changes. There were not incidences of side effects. Conclusion: Caudal tramadol 2 mg/kg provided a longer duration of postoperative analgesia with rapid onset and no incidence of complications or adverse effects in adult hemorrhoidectomy. PMID:27051362

  12. Postoperative Analgesia in Children- Comparative Study between Caudal Bupivacaine and Bupivacaine plus Tramadol

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    Meena Doda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty children, ASAI-II, aged between 2yrs-5yrs, undergoing sub umbilical operation (inguinal and penile surgery were selected for this double blind study. They were randomly divided in two groups, group Aand group B. Group A(n15 received 0.25%bupivacaine 0.5ml.kg -1 and Group B (n=15 received 0.25% bupivaeaine 0.5ml.kg -1 and tramadol 2mg.kg -1 as single shot caudal block. Postoperative pain was assessed by a modified TPPPS (Toddler-Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale and analgesic given only when the score was more than 3. In the first 24 hrs it was observed that the mean duration of time interval between the caudal block and first dose of analgesic was significantly long(9. lhrs in Group B as compared to Group A (6.3hrs which was much shorter(p< 0.01.There was no significant haemodynamie changes, motor weakness or respiratory depression in both groups. This study con-cluded that addition of tramadol 2mg.kg -1 to caudal 0.25% bupivacaine 0.5ml.kg -1 significantly prolong the duration of postoperative analgesia in children withoutprodueing much adverse effects.

  13. Serotonergic neurons in the caudal raphe nuclei discharge in association with activity of masticatory muscles

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    Ribeiro-do-Valle L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a dense serotonergic projection from nucleus raphe pallidus and nucleus raphe obscurus to the trigeminal motor nucleus and serotonin exerts a strong facilitatory action on the trigeminal motoneurons. Some serotonergic neurons in these caudal raphe nuclei increase their discharge during feeding. The objective of the present study was to investigate the possibility that the activity of these serotonergic neurons is related to activity of masticatory muscles. Cats were implanted with microelectrodes and gross electrodes. Caudal raphe single neuron activity, electrocorticographic activity, and splenius, digastric and masseter electromyographic activities were recorded during active behaviors (feeding and grooming, during quiet waking and during sleep. Seven presumed serotonergic neurons were identified. These neurons showed a long duration action potential (>2.0 ms, and discharged slowly (2-7 Hz and very regularly (interspike interval coefficient of variation <0.3 during quiet waking. The activity of these neurons decreased remarkably during fast wave sleep (78-100%. Six of these neurons showed tonic changes in their activity positively related to digastric and/or masseter muscle activity but not to splenius muscle activity during waking. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that serotonergic neurons in the caudal raphe nuclei play an important role in the control of jaw movements

  14. Ultrasound guided TAP block versus ultrasound guided caudal block for pain relief in children undergoing lower abdominal surgeries

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    Wafaa Mohamed Alsadek

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: TAP block and caudal block under ultrasound guidance proved to be safe with no recorded complications either intra or postoperatively. Patient and parent satisfaction was markedly observed in case of TAP block.

  15. Effect of nalbuphine as an adjuvant on levobupivacaine induced caudal analgesia in children undergoing surgical procedures, controlled randomized double blinded

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    Riham Hussein Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Caudal epidural nalbuphine is safe in pediatric surgeries including the lower half of the body and effectively reduces postoperative pain. However it may cause early postoperative sedation, yet without respiratory depression.

  16. Comparison of Postoperative Analgesic Efficacy of Penile Block, Caudal Block and Intravenous Paracetamol for Circumcision: A prospective Randomized Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Hakan Haliloglu; Mehmet Ilker Gokce; Semih Tangal; Mehmet Salih Boga; Hakan Tapar; Ebru Aladag

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the postoperative analgesic efficacy of penile block, caudal block and intravenous paracetamol administration following circumcision. Materials and Methods In this prospective randomized study a total of 159 patients underwent circumcision under general anesthesia at urology clinic of Ufuk University Faculty of Medicine and Sorgun State Hospital between May 2012 and September 2012. The patients were randomized to three groups to receive penile block (Group 1), caudal blo...

  17. EFFICACY OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE AS AN ADJUVANT TO BUPIVACAINE FOR CAUDAL ANALGESIA IN PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS UNDERGOING LOWER ABDOMINAL SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Various adjuvants such as opioids or α2 agonists are being used to improve the quality and duration of caudal analgesia with local anesthetics. Dexmedetomidine a α2 agonist is used frequently in adult patients to enhance the local anesthetic effect. However there is little literature regarding its effectiveness in pediatric caudal analgesia. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of dexmedetomidine when used as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in increasing the duration of caudal analgesia. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding Dexmedetomidine to caudal Bupivacaine and observe the effect on the duration of analgesia in the post-operative period. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: One year hospital based Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Sixty children, aged 1-6 years, undergoing lower abdominal surgeries were included in this prospective randomized double-blind study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group I received Bupivacaine (0.25% 1ml/kg plus 1 ml of normal saline in the caudal epidural space. Group II was administered Bupivacaine (0.25% 1ml/ with Dexmedetomidine 2 mcg/ ml diluted to 1 ml of normal saline in the caudal epidural space. All anesthetic and surgical techniques were standardized. Heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate were monitored continuously. Surgery was started 10-15 minutes after the injection and confirming adequacy of caudal block. Duration of analgesia was assessed using FLACC scale (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale. The time from administration of caudal anesthesia to the first time the FLACC score equal or greater than 4 was considered as the duration of caudal analgesia. Paracetamol suppository was used as rescue analgesia with a loading dose of 40mg/kg. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Mann-Whitney test and Student ‘t’test was used to compare the data obtained in the two groups. RESULTS: The

  18. Fiabilidad técnica del bloqueo caudal guiado con ecografía

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    A. Mendiola de la Osa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el bloqueo-infiltración caudal es una técnica utilizada en las unidades de dolor para tratar el dolor de origen radicular lumbosacro. Esta técnica se ha realizado clásicamente mediante referencias anatómicas o guiado mediante fluoroscopia. Se presenta la realización de la técnica eco-guiada y las complicaciones surgidas tras la realización de la misma. Material y métodos: estudio observacional descriptivo en el que se estudiaron las complicaciones de la técnica. Se realizaron 126 procedimientos en pacientes adultos de ambos sexos. Procedimiento: se localizó el hiato sacro mediante ecografía y se insertó una aguja de Touhy 18 G en el espacio epidural caudal perforando el ligamento sacro-coccígeo. Resultados: no surgieron complicaciones graves en ninguno de los pacientes. No hubo casos de mala ventana ecográfica por lo que se pudo realizar la técnica en todos los enfermos programados. Conclusión: debido a la ausencia de complicaciones la realización de la técnica eco-guiada es una alternativa segura y fiable a la técnica guiada con fluoroscopia. Mediante esta técnica se evita la exposición de radiaciones ionizantes. Además el bloqueo caudal eco-guiado no necesita del uso de contrastes yodados y permite transportar el ecógrafo a la cabecera del enfermo en caso de ser necesario.

  19. A rostro-caudal gradient of structured sequence processing in the left inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddén, Julia; Bahlmann, Jörg

    2012-07-19

    In this paper, we present two novel perspectives on the function of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG). First, a structured sequence processing perspective facilitates the search for functional segregation within the LIFG and provides a way to express common aspects across cognitive domains including language, music and action. Converging evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation studies suggests that the LIFG is engaged in sequential processing in artificial grammar learning, independently of particular stimulus features of the elements (whether letters, syllables or shapes are used to build up sequences). The LIFG has been repeatedly linked to processing of artificial grammars across all different grammars tested, whether they include non-adjacent dependencies or mere adjacent dependencies. Second, we apply the sequence processing perspective to understand how the functional segregation of semantics, syntax and phonology in the LIFG can be integrated in the general organization of the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Recently, it was proposed that the functional organization of the lateral PFC follows a rostro-caudal gradient, such that more abstract processing in cognitive control is subserved by more rostral regions of the lateral PFC. We explore the literature from the viewpoint that functional segregation within the LIFG can be embedded in a general rostro-caudal abstraction gradient in the lateral PFC. If the lateral PFC follows a rostro-caudal abstraction gradient, then this predicts that the LIFG follows the same principles, but this prediction has not yet been tested or explored in the LIFG literature. Integration might provide further insights into the functional architecture of the LIFG and the lateral PFC.

  20. Collateral circulation in ferrets (Mustela putorius) during temporary occlusion of the caudal vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calicchio, Kristina W; Bennett, R Avery; Laraio, Leonard C; Weisse, Chick; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Rosenthal, Karen L; Johnston, Matthew S; Campbell, Vicki L; Solomon, Jeffrey A

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether extent of collateral circulation would change during temporary occlusion of the caudal vena cava (CVC) in ferrets (Mustela putorius), a pressure change would occur caudal to the occlusion, and differences would exist between the sexes with respect to those changes. ANIMALS 8 adult ferrets (4 castrated males and 4 spayed females). PROCEDURES Ferrets were anesthetized. A balloon occlusion catheter was introduced through a jugular vein, passed into the CVC by use of fluoroscopy, positioned cranial to the right renal vein, and inflated for 20 minutes. Venography was performed 5 and 15 minutes after occlusion. Pressure in the CVC caudal to the occlusion was measured continuously. A CBC, plasma biochemical analysis, and urinalysis were performed immediately after the procedure and 2 or 3 days later. RESULTS All 8 ferrets survived the procedure; no differences were apparent between the sexes. Vessels providing collateral circulation were identified in all ferrets, indicating blood flow to the paravertebral venous plexus. Complications observed prior to occlusion included atrial and ventricular premature contractions. Complications after occlusion included bradycardia, seizures, and extravasation of contrast medium. Mean baseline CVC pressure was 5.4 cm H2O. During occlusion, 6 ferrets had a moderate increase in CVC pressure (mean, 24.3 cm H2O) and 2 ferrets had a marked increase in CVC pressure to > 55.0 cm H2O. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Caval occlusion for 20 minutes was performed in healthy ferrets with minimal adverse effects noted within the follow-up period and no apparent differences between sexes. The CVC pressure during occlusion may be prognostic in ferrets undergoing surgical ligation of the CVC, which commonly occurs during adrenal tumor resection. PMID:27111022

  1. Automated spatial brain normalization and hindbrain white matter reference tissue give improved [18F]-florbetaben PET quantitation in Alzheimer´s model mice

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    Felix eOverhoff

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical PET studies of β-amyloid (Aβ accumulation are of growing importance, but comparisons between research sites require standardized and optimized methods for quantitation. Therefore we aimed to evaluate systematically the 1 impact of an automated algorithm for spatial brain normalization, and 2 intensity scaling methods of different reference regions for Aβ-PET in a large dataset of transgenic mice. PS2APP mice in a six week longitudinal setting (N = 37 and another set of PS2APP mice at a histologically assessed narrow range of Aβ burden (N = 40 were investigated by [18F]-florbetaben PET. Manual spatial normalization by three readers at different training levels was performed prior to application of an automated brain spatial normalization and inter-reader agreement was assessed by Fleiss Kappa (κ. For this method the impact of templates at different pathology stages was investigated. Four different reference regions on brain uptake normalization were used to calculate frontal cortical standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRCTX/REF, relative to raw SUVCTX. Results were compared on the basis of longitudinal stability (Cohen’s d, and in reference to gold standard histopathological quantitation (Pearson’s R.Application of an automated brain spatial normalization resulted in nearly perfect agreement (all κ ≥ 0.99 between different readers, with constant or improved correlation with histology. Templates based on inappropriate pathology stage resulted in up to 2.9% systematic bias for SUVRCTX/REF. All SUVRCTX/REF methods performed better than SUVCTX both with regard to longitudinal stability (d ≥ 1.21 vs. d = 0.23 and histological gold standard agreement (R ≥ 0.66 vs. R ≥ 0.31. Voxel-wise analysis suggested a physiologically implausible longitudinal decrease of global mean scaling. The hindbrain white matter reference (Rmean = 0.75 was slightly superior to the brainstem (Rmean = 0.74 and the cerebellum (Rmean = 0

  2. Ossification in the caudal attachments of the ligamentum flavum: an anatomic and computed tomographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of anatomic specimens and routine computed tomographic (CT) scans of the chest and abdomen demonstrated that ossification in the caudal attachments of the ligamentum flavum is a common anatomic finding, but a much less common CT finding. Its characteristic location should help prevent confusion with other entities. The present study was prompted by a case of thoracic spine trauma, reported here, in which areas of bone density in the spinal canal simulated fracture fragments. The true nature of these bony projections, namely ossification in the ligamentum flavum, was established by computer reconstruction of axial CT images

  3. Identification of QTL for dorso-caudal chronic pleuritis in 12 crossbred porcine families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, V R; Sørensen, K K; Christensen, O F;

    2010-01-01

    loci (QTL) or markers associated with the prevalence of CP should be identified. In this study, 7470 pigs from crosses between 12 Danish Duroc boars and 604 sows (Danish Landrace × Danish Large White) were evaluated for CP located on the dorso-caudal part of the lungs. Quantitative trait loci were...... identified within boar families using both a Binomial logistic regression method and a chi-square test of association. Significant QTL for CP were detected on Sus scrofa chromosomes (SSC) 2, 8, 12, 13, 14 and 18 using both methods. One QTL on SSC 8 was also detected across families. For the QTL identified...

  4. Caudal léxico en alumnos universitarios : Implicancias para la interacción textual

    OpenAIRE

    Piatti, Vanesa; Fernicola, Alfredo; Melillo, Oscar Roberto; Peralta, Diego de

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se comunican los resultados preliminares de una investigación en curso. Específicamente se refiere a los resultados encontrados en pruebas de que examinan el caudal léxico, por el interés de sus relaciones con la interacción textual. En razón de ello en la elaboración de esta comunicación se ha tenido particularmente en cuenta el modelo de comprensión lectora proporcionado por Kintsch y Rawson (2005) sobre los diferentes niveles de procesamiento cuando se lee. Los autores d...

  5. Comparison between two doses of dexmedetomidine added to bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in paediatric infraumbilical surgeries

    OpenAIRE

    Niveditha Padma Meenakshi Karuppiah; Sumalatha R Shetty; Krishna Prasad Patla

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Caudal block (CB) with adjuvants is routinely used in children for anaesthesia. We evaluated the efficacy of the α2 adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine at two different doses as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in CB. Methods: This study was conducted on ninety children. Control group BD0 received 0.25% bupivacaine 1 ml/kg, whereas, the study groups BD1 and BD2 received 1 μg/kg and 2 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, respectively, with 0.25% bupivacaine 1 ml/kg as a single shot CB. Adequa...

  6. Effect of Age, Adernaline and Operation Site on Duration of Caudal Analgesia in Paediatric Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kharirat Mohd., Yasir,G.A.Mir

    2003-01-01

    The effect ofage, operative site and addition of 1: 200,000 adrenaline to bupivacaine was evaluatedon the duration ofpost operative analgesia after caudal block in 200 children between the age groupof 1 year to 14 years. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained on Halothane/N20I02• After thiscaudal block was performed with 0.5 mllkg of0.25% bupivacaine in one group of 100 Children andwith 0.25% bupivacaine with adrenaline 1 : 200,000 in another 100 children. The duration of postoperative analge...

  7. Tuning in caudal fastigial nucleus units during natural and galvanic labyrinth stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, H G; Guldin, W O; Grüsser, O J

    2001-05-25

    Neurons of the caudal fastigial nucleus were investigated by means of single unit recordings. Natural vestibular stimuli were applied as well as galvanic labyrinth polarization. One-third of the neurons showed a convergence of vertical and horizontal canals. More than 80% of the neurons responded to polarization of both the ipsilateral and contralateral canals (binaural responders). Most neurons had a limited response range. Two classes of neurons could be distinguished: up to 1 Hz responders and up to 10 Hz responders. In addition a group of fastigial cells showed a tuning within a small range of frequencies (sharp-tuning responders).

  8. Hemodynamics are altered in the caudal artery of beef heifers fed different ergot alkaloid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G E; Strickland, J R; Looper, M L; Bush, L P; Schrick, F N

    2009-06-01

    Doppler ultrasonography was used to compare blood flow characteristics in the caudal artery of heifers fed diets with endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) noninfected (E-, 0 microg of ergovaline/g of DM), a 1:1 mixture of endophyte-infected and E- (E+E-; 0.39 microg of ergovaline/g of DM), or endophyte-infected (E+, 0.79 microg of ergovaline/g of DM) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) seed. Eighteen crossbred (Angus x Brangus) heifers [345 +/- 19 kg (SD)] were assigned to individual pens and fed chopped alfalfa hay plus a concentrate that contained E- tall fescue seed for 7 d during an adjustment period. A 9-d experimental period followed with feeding treatments of chopped alfalfa hay plus a concentrate with E+, E-, or E+E- seed being assigned randomly to pens. Doppler ultrasound measurements (caudal artery luminal area, peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, mean velocity, heart rate, and flow rate) and serum prolactin were monitored during the adjustment (3 baseline measures) and during the experimental period (7 measures). Statistical analyses compared proportionate differences between baseline and responses at 3, 27, 51, 75, 171, and 195 h from initial feeding of the experimental diets. Serum prolactin concentrations for E+ and E+E- diets were less (P < 0.001) than baseline concentrations beginning at 27 and 51 h, respectively, from initial feeding of the diets. Although baseline measures were taken when ambient temperatures were likely below thermoneutrality, caudal artery luminal cross-sectional area in E+ heifers had declined (P = 0.004) from baseline by 27 h and remained less (P < 0.02) until 195 h, and caudal artery luminal area declined (P = 0.004) in E+E- heifers from baseline by 51 h and remained less (P < 0.07) until 171 h. Blood flow rate was slower than the baseline rate at 51 h for E+ (P = 0.058) and E+E- (P = 0.02 heifers, but blood flow remained slower in E+E- heifers for 48 h, whereas it remained slower in E+ heifers for 96 h

  9. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF CLONIDINE AS AN ADJUNCT TO CAUDAL ROPIVACAINE IN PEDIATRIC INFRAUMBILICAL SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The addition of clonidine as an adjuvant has allowed the use of lower concentration of the local anaesthetic for achieving the same level of anaesthesia but with the prolonged duration of analgesia which increases the margin of safety and reduces the inci dence of unwanted motor blockades. With these facts in mind we undertook the study to compare the analgesic properties of 0.25% ropivacaine with the addition of clonidine (1 μ g/kg to that of ropivacaine 0.25% following caudal administration in children. ME THODS: After approval from ethical committee 60 children of age 1 - 10 yrs of ASA grade I or II undergoing elective sub umbilical surgeries were selected for the study. We gave caudal bloc k with 0.25% ropivacaine 1ml/kg +1ml normal saline for group R or 0.25% ropivacaine 1ml/kg + clonidine 1microgram/kg+1ml normal saline to make volume 1ml for group C. To perform caudal block all patient received IV injection glycopyrolate - 0.01mg/kg, IV injection midazolam - 0.1mg/kg and IV Injection ketamine - 1mg/kg. Hemodynam ic parameters were observed before, during and after the surgical procedure. Quality of surgical anesthesia & requirement of supplemental midazolam/ketamine were also noted. Duration of Post - operative analgesia, pain scores, level of sedation and side effe cts if any were looked for and duly recorded. RESULT: Duration of analgesia in group R was 6.45±0.52 hrs. and in group C was 13.01±0.89hrs i.e. significantly prolonged in group C (P<0.0001. Post - operative pain score and sedation score were also significan tly better in group C (P<0.0001. The quality of surgical analgesia was also significantly excellent in group C. Other vital parameters were not statistically significant in both the groups. CONCLUSION: Ropivacaine (0.25% with clonidine (1μg/kg in caudal block showed prolong duration of analgesia as well as better quality of surgical anaesthesia than plain ropivacaine (0.25% in pediatric patients without any

  10. Systematization, distribution and territory of the caudal cerebral artery on the brain's surface of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo

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    Amarílis Díaz de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Meleagris gallopavo heads with their neck segments were used. Animals were contained and euthanized with the association of mebezonium iodide, embutramide and tetracaine hydrochloride (T 61, Intervet by intravenous injection. The arterial system was rinsed with cold saline solution (15°C, with 5000IU heparin and filled with red-colored latex. The samples were fixed in 20% formaldehyde for seven days. The brains were removed with a segment of cervical spinal cord and after, the dura-mater was removed and the arteries dissected. The cerebral carotid arteries, after the intercarotid anastomosis, were projected around the hypophysis, until they reached the tuber cinereum and divided into their terminal branches, the caudal branch and the rostral branch. The rostral branch was projected rostrolateralwards and gave off, in sequence, two collateral branches, the caudal cerebral and the middle cerebral arteries and the terminal branch was as cerebroethmoidal artery. The caudal cerebral artery of one antimere formed the interhemispheric artery, which gave off dorsal hemispheric branches to the convex surface of both antimeres. Its dorsal tectal mesencephalic branch, of only one antimere, originated the dorsal cerebellar artery. In the interior of the cerebral transverse fissure, after the origin of the dorsal tectal mesencephalic artery, the caudal cerebral artery emitted occipital hemispheric branches, pineal branches and medial hemispheric branches, on both antimeres. The caudal cerebral artery's territory comprehended the entire surface of the dorsal hemioptic lobe, the rostral surface of the cerebellum, the diencephalic structures, the caudal pole and the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere and in the convex surface, the sagittal eminence except for its most rostral third. Due to the asymmetry found in the caudal cerebral arteries' ramifications, the models were classified into three types and their respective subtypes.

  11. Mirror movement-like defects in startle behavior of zebrafish dcc mutants are caused by aberrant midline guidance of identified descending hindbrain neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Roshan A; Bell, Hannah; Lim, Amy; Chien, Chi-Bin; Granato, Michael

    2014-02-19

    Mirror movements are involuntary movements on one side of the body that occur simultaneously with intentional movements on the contralateral side. Humans with heterozygous mutations in the axon guidance receptor DCC display such mirror movements, where unilateral stimulation results in inappropriate bilateral motor output. Currently, it is unclear whether mirror movements are caused by incomplete midline crossing and reduced commissural connectivity of DCC-dependent descending pathways or by aberrant ectopic ipsilateral axonal projections of normally commissural neurons. Here, we show that in response to unilateral tactile stimuli, zebrafish dcc mutant larvae perform involuntary turns on the inappropriate body side. We show that these mirror movement-like deficits are associated with axonal guidance defects of two identified groups of commissural reticulospinal hindbrain neurons. Moreover, we demonstrate that in dcc mutants, axons of these identified neurons frequently fail to cross the midline and instead project ipsilaterally. Whereas laser ablation of these neurons in wild-type animals does not affect turning movements, their ablation in dcc mutants restores turning movements. Thus, our results demonstrate that in dcc mutants, turns on the inappropriate side of the body are caused by aberrant ipsilateral axonal projections, and suggest that aberrant ipsilateral connectivity of a very small number of descending axons is sufficient to induce incorrect movement patterns.

  12. Caudal duplication syndrome: imaging evaluation of a rare entity in an adult patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tianshen; Browning, Travis; Bishop, Kristen

    2016-03-01

    Several theories have been put forth to explain the complex yet symmetrical malformations and the myriad of clinical presentations of caudal duplication syndrome. Hereby, reported case is a 28-year-old female, gravida 2 para 2, with congenital caudal malformation who has undergone partial reconstructive surgeries in infancy to connect her 2 colons. She presented with recurrent left lower abdominal pain associated with nausea, vomiting, and subsequent feculent anal discharge. Imaging reveals duplication of the urinary bladder, urethra, and colon with with cloacal malformations and fistulae from the left-sided cloaca, uterus didelphys with separate cervices and vaginal canals, right-sided aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta, and dysraphic midline sacrococcygeal defect. Hydronephrosis of the left kidney with left hydroureter and inflammation of one of the colons were suspected to be the cause of the patient's acute complaints. She improved symptomatically over the course of her hospitalization stay with conservative treatments. The management for this syndrome is individualized and may include surgical intervention to fuse or excise the duplicated organs. PMID:26973727

  13. Caudal duplication syndrome: imaging evaluation of a rare entity in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianshen Hu, BS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several theories have been put forth to explain the complex yet symmetrical malformations and the myriad of clinical presentations of caudal duplication syndrome. Hereby, reported case is a 28-year-old female, gravida 2 para 2, with congenital caudal malformation who has undergone partial reconstructive surgeries in infancy to connect her 2 colons. She presented with recurrent left lower abdominal pain associated with nausea, vomiting, and subsequent feculent anal discharge. Imaging reveals duplication of the urinary bladder, urethra, and colon with with cloacal malformations and fistulae from the left-sided cloaca, uterus didelphys with separate cervices and vaginal canals, right-sided aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta, and dysraphic midline sacrococcygeal defect. Hydronephrosis of the left kidney with left hydroureter and inflammation of one of the colons were suspected to be the cause of the patient’s acute complaints. She improved symptomatically over the course of her hospitalization stay with conservative treatments. The management for this syndrome is individualized and may include surgical intervention to fuse or excise the duplicated organs.

  14. The anatomy and histology of caudal autotomy and regeneration in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Emily A B; Payne, Samantha L; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Caudal autotomy-the ability to self-detach the tail-is a dramatic adaptation common to many structural-grade lizards. For most species, tail loss is followed by the equally dramatic phenomenon of tail regeneration. Here we review the anatomy and histology of caudal autotomy and regeneration in lizards, drawing heavily from research published over the past 2 decades. The autotomous tail is characterized by various structural adaptations, which act to minimize blood loss and trauma to adjacent tissues. The early phase of wound healing involves a leukocytic response but limited inflammation. Reepithelialization via a specialized wound epithelium is not only critical for scar-free healing but also necessary for subsequent tissue patterning and regenerative outgrowth. Regeneration begins with the formation of the blastema, a mass of proliferating mesenchymal-like cells. As the blastema expands, it is invaded by blood vessels and the spinal cord. Whereas the replacement tail outwardly resembles the original appendage, it differs in several notable respects, including the tissue composition and organization of the skeleton, muscular system, and spinal cord. Increasingly, the lizard tail is being recognized among biomedical scientists as an important model for the study of wound healing and multitissue restoration.

  15. Cortical Connections of the Caudal Portion of Posterior Parietal Cortex in Prosimian Galagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepniewska, Iwona; Cerkevich, Christina M; Kaas, Jon H

    2016-06-01

    Posterior parietal cortex (PPC) of prosimian galagos includes a rostral portion (PPCr) where electrical stimulation evokes different classes of complex movements from different subregions, and a caudal portion (PPCc) where such stimulation fails to evoke movements in anesthetized preparations ( Stepniewska, Fang et al. 2009). We placed tracer injections into PPCc to reveal patterns of its cortical connections. There were widespread connections within PPCc as well as connections with PPCr and extrastriate visual areas, including V2 and V3. Weaker connections were with dorsal premotor cortex, and the frontal eye field. The connections of different parts of PPCc with visual areas were roughly retinotopic such that injections to dorsal PPCc labeled more neurons in the dorsal portions of visual areas, representing lower visual quadrant, and injections to ventral PPCc labeled more neurons in ventral portions of these visual areas, representing the upper visual quadrant. We conclude that much of the PPCc contains a crude representation of the contralateral visual hemifield, with inputs largely, but not exclusively, from higher-order visual areas that are considered part of the dorsal visuomotor processing stream. As in galagos, the caudal half of PPC was likely visual in early primates, with the rostral PPC half mediating sensorimotor functions. PMID:26088972

  16. Development of the caudal exoskeleton of the pliomerid trilobite Hintzeia plicamarginis new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, A.G.; Hughes, N.C.; Kopaska-Merkel, D. C.; Ludvigsen, R.

    2005-01-01

    The later juvenile ontogeny of the caudal plate of the early Ordovician pliomerid trilobite Hintzeia plicamarginis new species likely comprised an initial phase during which the rate of appearance of new segments subterminally exceeded that of segment release into the thorax, a short phase of constant segment numbers, and a later phase during which release occurred but in which no new segments appeared. A distinct terminal region became manifest in the second phase. During the second and third phases growth coefficients for individual segments were about 1.1-1.2 per instar. Although the shapes of segments varied during growth, the pattern of ontogenetic shape change appears to have been broadly similar among segments. This suggests an homonomous trunk segment morphology regardless of thoracic or caudal identity in maturity. These results imply that control of trunk exoskeletal segment appearance and articulation were decoupled in this trilobite, and that the terminal region had a distinct mature morphology. H. plicamarginis is described as a new species. ?? Blackwell Publishing, Inc.

  17. Parametric study of the swimming performance of a fish robot propelled by a flexible caudal fin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we aim to study the swimming performance of fish robots by using a statistical approach. A fish robot employing a carangiform swimming mode had been used as an experimental platform for the performance study. The experiments conducted aim to investigate the effect of various design parameters on the thrust capability of the fish robot with a flexible caudal fin. The controllable parameters associated with the fin include frequency, amplitude of oscillation, aspect ratio and the rigidity of the caudal fin. The significance of these parameters was determined in the first set of experiments by using a statistical approach. A more detailed parametric experimental study was then conducted with only those significant parameters. As a result, the parametric study could be completed with a reduced number of experiments and time spent. With the obtained experimental result, we were able to understand the relationship between various parameters and a possible adjustment of parameters to obtain a higher thrust. The proposed statistical method for experimentation provides an objective and thorough analysis of the effects of individual or combinations of parameters on the swimming performance. Such an efficient experimental design helps to optimize the process and determine factors that influence variability.

  18. Manatee cerebral cortex: cytoarchitecture of the caudal region in Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, C D; Reep, R L

    1995-01-01

    In several brains of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, the architecture of caudal regions of cerebral cortex was examined in order to complete a map of cortical areas in the brain of this unique herbivore. Through observation of sections stained for Nissl substance, myelinated axons, acetylcholinesterase and cytochrome oxidase, we have identified 11 new cortical areas based on qualitative cytoarchitectural appearance and measurements of laminar thicknesses, for a total of 24 such cortical areas in manatee cerebral cortex. Some areas exhibit poorly differentiated laminae while in others there are 6 clearly demarcated layers, often with sublaminar organization. Some previously identified areas were found to extend into the region caudal to the vertically oriented lateral fissure. As in other mammalian brains, cortical areas in manatees are organized in concentric rings of allocortex, mesocortex, and isocortex. Putative functional roles have been assigned to most of the identified areas based on location, architecture, behavioral and anatomical considerations, and extrapolation from other taxa in which functional mapping has been done. PMID:7866767

  19. Medial prefrontal depressor response: involvement of the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, N C; Verberne, A J

    2000-01-14

    The importance of neurones of the caudal and rostral ventrolateral medulla (CVLM and RVLM, respectively) in mediation of the medial prefrontal cortex depressor response was studied in halothane-anaesthetised rats. Blockade of GABA(A) receptors in the RVLM produced by microinjection of bicuculline (50 nl, 2 mM, n = 6) resulted in reversal of the depressor (-9.5 +/- 1.2 mm Hg) and lumbar sympathetic (-6.5 +/- 5.7 units) responses to pressor (+7.8 +/- 3.5 mm Hg) and sympathoexcitatory (+19.3 +/- 12.5 units) responses and simultaneous blockade of baroreceptor reflex-mediated sympathoinhibition. Baroreflex blockade was reflected by a significant reduction in the gain (slope of the blood pressure vs. lumbar sympathetic nerve discharge regression line) of the reflex. Microinjection of the excitatory amino acid antagonist kynurenic acid (100 nl, 50 mM, n = 6) into the CVLM blocked the baroreflex and significantly reduced the depressor (-9.6 +/- 0.4 to -6.9 +/- 0.6 mm Hg) and lumbar sympathetic (-4.0 +/- 2.1 to 2.9 +/- 1.9 units) responses to medial prefrontal cortex stimulation. These results support the hypothesis that the medial prefrontal cortex depressor response is mediated by a pathway which converges at the level of the RVLM and which is only partly dependent on an excitatory input to caudal ventrolateral medullary neurones.

  20. Caudal epidural analgesia using lidocaine alone or in combination with ketamine in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Azari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the analgesic effect of lidocaine and a combination of lidocaine and ketamine following epidural administration in dromedary camels. Ten 12–18-month-old camels were randomly divided into two equal groups. In group L, the animals received 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg and in group LK the animals received a mixture of 10% ketamine (1 mg/kg and 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg administered into the first intercoccygeal (Co1–Co2 epidural space while standing. Onset time and duration of caudal analgesia, sedation level and ataxia were recorded after drug administration. Data were analysed by U Mann-Whitney tests and significance was taken as p < 0.05. The results showed that epidural lidocaine and co-administration of lidocaine and ketamine produced complete analgesia in the tail, anus and perineum. Epidural administration of the lidocaine-ketamine mixture resulted in mild to moderate sedation, whilst the animals that received epidural lidocaine alone were alert and nervous during the study. Ataxia was observed in all test subjects and was slightly more severe in camels that received the lidocaine-ketamine mixture. It was concluded that epidural administration of lidocaine plus ketamine resulted in longer caudal analgesia in standing conscious dromedary camels compared with the effect of administering lidocaine alone.

  1. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE HYDRODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF AN UNSYMMETRICAL FLAPPING CAUDAL FIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xi; SU Yu-min; WANG Zhao-li

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic performance of a caudal fin with unsymmetric flapping motion is carried out.The unsymmetrical motion is induced by adding a pitch bias or a heave bias.A numerical simulation program based on the unsteady panel method is developed to simulate the hydrodynamics of an unsymmetrical flapping caudal fin.A CFD code based on Navier-Stokes equations is used to analyze the flow field.Computational results of both the panel method and the CFD method indicate that the hydrodynamics are greatly affected by the pitch bias and the heave bias.The mean lateral force coefficient is not zero as in contrast with the symmetrical flapping motion.By increasing the pitch bias angle,the mean thrust force coefficient is reduced rapidly.By adding a heave bias,the hydrodynamic coefficients are separated as two parts:in one part,the amplitude is the heave amplitude plus the bias and in the other part,it is the heave amplitude minus the bias.Analysis of the flow field shows that the vortex distribution is not symmetrical,which generates the non-zero mean lateral force coefficient.

  2. SPLIT-APPENDIX TECHNIQUE: SURGICAL CHOICE FOR COMPLETE INCONTINENCE IN CAUDAL REGRESSION SYNDROME

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    E. Cerchia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the surgery for total continent reconstruction has been changed by the introduction of intermittent catheterized stoma with the purpose to preserve urinary tract function, urinary continence, elimination of fecal soiling, preservation of quality of life with complete self-sufficiency. We report a rare case of complete incontinence in caudal regression syndrome in whom the appendix was long enough to be divided for creation of both channels for the treatment of urinary and fecal incontinence. A 9-year-old male patient with complete incontinence in caudal regression syndrome was submitted to a Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy procedure (AV in conjunction with appendicocecostomy procedure (ACE. The appendix was divided into two different parts preserving adequate perfusion. Fecal continence was achieved for a period of 18-20 hours after a colonic irrigation with 500 ml of saline solution one time daily, while urinary continence was obtained after suburethral endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid (Deflux and intermittent catheterization every 3 hours with an evident reduction of upper urinary tract dilatation. The combination of ACE and Mitrofanoff principle have revolutionized the management of urinary and fecal incontinence in patients who are unable to utilize their urethra to keep themselves dry.

  3. Sirenomelia phenotype in bmp7;shh compound mutants: a novel experimental model for studies of caudal body malformations.

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    Carlos Garrido-Allepuz

    Full Text Available Sirenomelia is a severe congenital malformation of the lower body characterized by the fusion of the legs into a single lower limb. This striking external phenotype consistently associates severe visceral abnormalities, most commonly of the kidneys, intestine, and genitalia that generally make the condition lethal. Although the causes of sirenomelia remain unknown, clinical studies have yielded two major hypotheses: i a primary defect in the generation of caudal mesoderm, ii a primary vascular defect that leaves the caudal part of the embryo hypoperfused. Interestingly, Sirenomelia has been shown to have a genetic basis in mice, and although it has been considered a sporadic condition in humans, recently some possible familial cases have been reported. Here, we report that the removal of one or both functional alleles of Shh from the Bmp7-null background leads to a sirenomelia phenotype that faithfully replicates the constellation of external and internal malformations, typical of the human condition. These mutants represent an invaluable model in which we have analyzed the pathogenesis of sirenomelia. We show that the signaling defect predominantly impacts the morphogenesis of the hindgut and the development of the caudal end of the dorsal aortas. The deficient formation of ventral midline structures, including the interlimb mesoderm caudal to the umbilicus, leads to the approximation and merging of the hindlimb fields. Our study provides new insights for the understanding of the mechanisms resulting in caudal body malformations, including sirenomelia.

  4. Efficacy of clonidine as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in children undergoing sub-umbilical surgery

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    Aruna Parameswari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Caudal epidural analgesia with bupivacaine is very popular in paediatric anaesthesia for providing intra- and postoperative analgesia. Several adjuvants have been used to prolong the action of bupivacaine. We evaluated the efficacy of clonidine added to bupivacaine in prolonging the analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine in children undergoing sub-umbilical surgery. One hundred children, age one to three years, undergoing sub-umbilical surgery, were prospectively randomized to one of two groups: caudal analgesia with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine in normal saline (Group A or caudal analgesia with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine with 1 μg/kg of clonidine in normal saline (Group B. Post-operative pain was assessed for 24 hours using the FLACC scale. The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer in Group B (593.4 ± 423.3 min than in Group A (288.7 ± 259.1 min; P < 0.05. The pain score assessed using FLACC scale was compared between the two groups, and children in Group B had lower pain scores, which was statistically significant. The requirement of rescue medicine was lesser in Group B. Clonidine in a dose of 1 μg/kg added to 0.25% bupivacaine for caudal analgesia, during sub-umbilical surgeries, prolongs the duration of analgesia of bupivacaine, without any side effects.

  5. Dinosaur speed demon: the caudal musculature of Carnotaurus sastrei and implications for the evolution of South American abelisaurids.

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    W Scott Persons

    Full Text Available In the South American abelisaurids Carnotaurus sastrei, Aucasaurus garridoi, and, to a lesser extent Skorpiovenator bustingorryi, the anterior caudal ribs project at a high dorsolateral inclination and have interlocking lateral tips. This unique morphology facilitated the expansion of the caudal hypaxial musculature at the expense of the epaxial musculature. Distinct ridges on the ventrolateral surfaces of the caudal ribs of Aucasaurus garridoi are interpreted as attachment scars from the intra caudofemoralis/ilio-ischiocaudalis septa, and confirm that the M. caudofemoralis of advanced South American abelisaurids originated from a portion of the caudal ribs. Digital muscle models indicate that, relative to its overall body size, Carnotaurus sastrei had a substantially larger M. caudofemoralis than any other theropod yet studied. In most non-avian theropods, as in many extant sauropsids, the M. caudofemoralis served as the primary femoral retractor muscle during the locomotive power stroke. This large investment in the M. caudofemoralis suggests that Carnotaurus sastrei had the potential for great cursorial abilities, particularly short-burst sprinting. However, the tightly interlocking morphology of the anterior caudal vertebrae implies a reduced ability to make tight turns. Examination of these vertebral traits in evolutionary context reveals a progressive sequence of increasing caudofemoral mass and tail rigidity among the Abelisauridae of South America.

  6. A comparison of the effectiveness of predictors of caudal block in children—swoosh test, anal sphincter tone, and heart rate response

    OpenAIRE

    Nandini M Dave; Madhu Garasia

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effectiveness of three predictors of successful caudal block in children, viz. swoosh test, heart rate response to injection, and laxity of anal sphincter tone. Aim: To improve the success rates of caudal block in children by identifying the best predictor. Background: Caudal blocks in children are placed after induction of anesthesia. Although simple to learn and perform, the success rate of the blocks may be variable especially in teaching hospitals where tra...

  7. Wnt/β-catenin signaling in midbrain dopaminergic neuron specification and neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joksimovic, Milan; Awatramani, Rajeshwar

    2014-02-01

    Loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons underlies the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Towards cell replacement, studies have focused on mechanisms underlying embryonic mDA production, as a rational basis for deriving mDA neurons from stem cells. We will review studies of β-catenin, an obligate component of the Wnt cascade that is critical to mDA specification and neurogenesis. mDA neurons have a unique origin--the midbrain floor plate (FP). Unlike the hindbrain and spinal cord FP, the midbrain FP is highly neurogenic and Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical to this difference in neurogenic potential. In β-catenin loss-of-function experiments, the midbrain FP resembles the hindbrain FP, and key mDA progenitor genes such as Otx2, Lmx1a, Msx1, and Ngn2 are downregulated whereas Shh is maintained. Accordingly, the neurogenic capacity of the midbrain FP is diminished, resulting in fewer mDA neurons. Conversely, in β-catenin gain-of-function experiments, the hindbrain FP expresses key mDA progenitor genes, and is highly neurogenic. Interestingly, when excessive β-catenin is supplied to the midbrain FP, less mDA neurons are produced suggesting that the dosage of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical. These studies of β-catenin have facilitated new protocols to derive mDA neurons from stem cells.

  8. Evaluación de la sensibilidad de los caudales máximos de diseño ante la influencia del cambio climático

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Yulia; CORREDOR, JORGE

    2009-01-01

    El calentamiento global producirá cambios en el patrón de precipitaciones de todo el planeta. Esto alterará el comportamiento de los caudales de los ríos. Al cambiar el régimen de caudales se produce no sólo un cambio en los valores medios sino también en los valores extremos. Los valores extremos representan los caudales mínimos de sequía hidrológica y los caudales máximos de las grandes avenidas. Estos últimos son importantes en el diseño estructural de los puentes que habilitan la intersec...

  9. Modelos de predicción de caudales mensuales para el sector eléctrico colombiano.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Quintero, Ricardo Agustín; Vélez Upegui, Jaime Ignacio; Velásquez Henao, Juan David; Ceballos López, Adrian; Correa Velásquez, Paula Lizeth; Góez Arango , Catalina; Hernández Navarro, Olver Olfrey; Salazar Velásquez, Luis Fernando; Zapata Gómez, Elizabeth Catalina

    2004-01-01

    Se hace una breve descripción de cinco metodologías para la predicción de caudales medios mensuales en Colombia: Redes Neuronales Artificiales, Redes Adaptativas Neuro-Difusas, Análisis Espectral Singular, Modelo Estructural y Modelo físico y la aplicación de estos modelos en diferentes estaciones de medición de caudal pertenecientes al sistema de Generación de Energía Eléctrica de Colombia.

  10. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF DEXMEDETOMEDINE AS AN ADJUNCT TO CAUDAL ROPIVACAINE IN PEDIATRIC INFRAUMBILICAL SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caudal epidural is one of the most popular reliable & safe technique mainly used for intra and post-op analgesia in pediatric patients undergoing infra umbilical surgeries. To prolong the duration of analgesia various adjuvants like epinephrine, opioids, ketamine, midazolam, tramadol, clonidine, were added to local anesthetic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of CAUDAL administration of plain Ropivacaine 0.2% (1miligram/kilogram body weight with and without dexmedetomedine (2 microgram/kilogram body weight in children undergoing infraumbilical surgeries; in terms of quality of surgical anesthesia and the duration of post-operative analgesia.

  11. Histology of the rectus abdominis muscle in rats subjected to cranial and caudal devascularization Histologia do músculo reto do abdome de ratos submetidos à desvascularização cranial e caudal

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    Walder Costa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the microscopic changes in the rectus abdominis muscle in rats subjected to five delay procedure. METHODS: 30 male holtzmann rats, weighting between 250 and 350 grams, were used. The animals were divided into five groups (n=6: A - cranial section of the right muscle; B - caudal section of the right muscle; C - craniocaudal section of the right muscle; D - cranial section reflecting the right muscle in the craniocaudal direction; E - caudal section reflecting the right muscle in the caudocranial direction. On the seventh day after surgery, a resection of the cranial and caudal fragments of the right and left muscles, respectively, was performed for microscopic analysis. Histological alterations were quantified and the right and left (control muscle fragments compared. Fisher's exact test was used for statistical purposes with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The comparison between right and left muscles showed statistically significant differences in group A - inflammatory infiltrate in the cranial fragment (p=0.015; in group C - inflammatory infiltrate (p=0.000 and necrosis (p=0.015 in the caudal fragment; and in group E - edema in the caudal fragment (p=0.000. No significant alterations were noted in groups B and D. CONCLUSIONS: Irrigation exclusively through the perforating muscle vessels is inappropriate; irrigation exclusively through the cranial pedicle causes milder, insignificant histological alterations, when compared with irrigation exclusively through the caudal pedicle; irrigation exclusively through the caudal pedicle causes more pronounced, but still insignificant, histological alterations when compared with other forms of devascularization.OBJETIVO: Investigar as alterações microscópicas no músculo reto do abdome de ratos submetidos a cinco técnicas de autonomização. MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 30 ratos machos Holtzmann, pesando entre 250 e 350 gramas. Os animais foram distribuídos em cinco grupos (n

  12. Scaling effects in caudal fin propulsion and the speed of ichthyosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motani, Ryosuke

    2002-01-17

    Four unrelated groups of large cruising vertebrates (tunas, whales, lamnid sharks and parvipelvian ichthyosaurs) evolved tuna-shaped (thunniform) body plans. Stringent physical constraints, imposed by the surrounding fluids, are probably responsible for this example of evolutionary convergence. Here I present a mathematical model of swimming kinematics and fluid mechanics that specifies and quantifies such constraints, and test the model with empirical data. The test shows quantitatively that morphology, kinematics, and physiology indeed covary tightly in large cruisers. The model enables calculations of optimal cruising speed from external measurements, and also predicts that wide caudal fin spans, typical of thunniform swimmers, are necessary for large cruisers. This finding is contrary to a popular yet rather teleological view that thunniform tails were selected for their high aspect ratios that increased propulsive efficiency. I also show by calculation that Stenopterygius, a Jurassic ichthyosaur, probably had optimal cruising speeds and basal metabolic rates similar to living tunas. PMID:11797005

  13. Effect of Age, Adernaline and Operation Site on Duration of Caudal Analgesia in Paediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharirat Mohd., Yasir,G.A.Mir

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect ofage, operative site and addition of 1: 200,000 adrenaline to bupivacaine was evaluatedon the duration ofpost operative analgesia after caudal block in 200 children between the age groupof 1 year to 14 years. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained on Halothane/N20I02• After thiscaudal block was performed with 0.5 mllkg of0.25% bupivacaine in one group of 100 Children andwith 0.25% bupivacaine with adrenaline 1 : 200,000 in another 100 children. The duration of postoperative analgesia was noted to be significantly longer in young children, in children having penoscrotaloperations and when adrenaline was added to bupivacaine. Conclusion was drawn that durationofpost-operative analgesia depended upon age, site and addition of adrenaline to bupivacaine.

  14. Excitatory synapses on dendritic shafts of the caudal basal amygdala exhibit elevated levels of GABAA receptor α4 subunits following the induction of activity-based anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wable, Gauri S; Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C; Chowdhury, Tara G; Sabaliauskas, Nicole A; Farb, Claudia R; Aoki, Chiye

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by self-imposed severe starvation, excessive exercise, and anxiety. The onset of AN is most often at puberty, suggesting that gonadal hormonal fluctuations may contribute to AN vulnerability. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an animal model that reproduces some of the behavioral phenotypes of AN, including the paradoxical increase in voluntary exercise following food restriction. The basal amygdala as well as the GABAergic system regulate trait anxiety. We therefore examined the subcellular distribution of GABA receptors (GABARs) in the basal amygdala of female pubertal rats and specifically of their α4 subunits, because expression of α4-containing GABARs is regulated by gonadal hormone fluctuations. Moreover, because these GABARs reduce neuronal excitability through shunting of EPSPs, we quantified the frequency of occurrence of these GABARs adjacent to excitatory synapses. Electron microscopic immunoctychemistry revealed no change in the frequency of association of α4 subunits with excitatory synapses on dendritic spines, whether in the anterior (Bregma -2.8 mm) or caudal (Bregma -3.8 mm) portion of the basal amygdala. Sholl analysis of golgi-stained neurons also revealed no change in the extent of dendritic branching by these densely spiny, pyramidal-like neurons. However, there was an increase of membranous α4 subunits near excitatory synapses on dendritic shafts, specifically in the caudal basal amygdala, and this was accompanied by a rise of α4 subunits intracellularly. Because most dendritic shafts exhibiting excitatory synapses are GABAergic interneurons, the results predict disinhibition, which would increase excitability of the amygdaloid network, in turn augmenting ABA animals' anxiety.

  15. Conserved size and periodicity of pyramidal patches in layer 2 of medial/caudal entorhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Robert K; Ray, Saikat; Prokop, Stefan; Las, Liora; Heppner, Frank L; Brecht, Michael

    2016-03-01

    To understand the structural basis of grid cell activity, we compare medial entorhinal cortex architecture in layer 2 across five mammalian species (Etruscan shrews, mice, rats, Egyptian fruit bats, and humans), bridging ∼100 million years of evolutionary diversity. Principal neurons in layer 2 are divided into two distinct cell types, pyramidal and stellate, based on morphology, immunoreactivity, and functional properties. We confirm the existence of patches of calbindin-positive pyramidal cells across these species, arranged periodically according to analyses techniques like spatial autocorrelation, grid scores, and modifiable areal unit analysis. In rodents, which show sustained theta oscillations in entorhinal cortex, cholinergic innervation targeted calbindin patches. In bats and humans, which only show intermittent entorhinal theta activity, cholinergic innervation avoided calbindin patches. The organization of calbindin-negative and calbindin-positive cells showed marked differences in entorhinal subregions of the human brain. Layer 2 of the rodent medial and the human caudal entorhinal cortex were structurally similar in that in both species patches of calbindin-positive pyramidal cells were superimposed on scattered stellate cells. The number of calbindin-positive neurons in a patch increased from ∼80 in Etruscan shrews to ∼800 in humans, only an ∼10-fold over a 20,000-fold difference in brain size. The relatively constant size of calbindin patches differs from cortical modules such as barrels, which scale with brain size. Thus, selective pressure appears to conserve the distribution of stellate and pyramidal cells, periodic arrangement of calbindin patches, and relatively constant neuron number in calbindin patches in medial/caudal entorhinal cortex. PMID:26223342

  16. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Thomas R; Wu, Ted H; Finger, Adam G; Cañas, Jaclyn E; Yu, Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A; McMurry, Scott T

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n=25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n=6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations. PMID:17182086

  17. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.rainwater@tiehh.ttu.edu; Wu, Ted H. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Yu Lu [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Reynolds, Kevin D. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Barr, Brady [National Geographic Channel, 1145 17th St. NW Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States); Cobb, George P. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  18. Involvement of the caudal raphe nuclei in the feeding behavior of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Takase

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of the caudal raphe nuclei (raphe pallidus, RPa; raphe magnus, RMg, and raphe obscurus, ROb in feeding behavior of adult rats was studied by measuring c-Fos protein expression, in animals submitted to the "meal-feeding" model of food restriction in which the rats were fed ad libitum only from 7:00 to 9:00 h, for 15 days. The experimental groups submitted to chronic fasting, named 'search for food' (SF, 'ingestion of food' (IF and 'satiety of food' (SaF were scheduled after a previous study in which the body weight and the general and feeding behaviors were evaluated by daily monitoring. Acute, 48-h fasting (AF was used as control. In the chronic group, the animals presented a 16% reduction in body weight in the first week, followed by a continuous, slow rise in weight over the subsequent days. Entrainment of the sleep-wake cycle to the schedule of food presentation was also observed. The RPa was the most Fos immunopositive nucleus in the chronic fasting group, followed by the RMg. The ANOVA and Tukey test (P<0.05 confirmed these results. The IF group was significantly different from the other three groups, as also was the number of labeled cells in the RPa in SF and IF groups. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed between RMg and RPa, or RMg and ROb in the SaF and AF. However, it is interesting to observe that the groups in which the animals were more active, searching for or ingesting food, presented a larger number of labeled cells. These results suggest a different involvement of the caudal raphe nuclei in the somatic and autonomic events of feeding behavior, corroborating the functions reported for them earlier.

  19. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations

  20. Hemodynamic responses of the caudal artery to toxic tall fescue in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G E; Kirch, B H; Strickland, J R; Bush, L P; Looper, M L; Schrick, F N

    2007-09-01

    Color Doppler ultrasonography was used to compare blood flow characteristics in the caudal artery of heifers fed diets with endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected (E+) or noninfected (E-) tall fescue seed. Eighteen crossbred (Angus x Brangus) heifers were assigned to 6 pens and were fed chopped alfalfa hay for 5 d and chopped alfalfa hay plus a concentrate that contained E-tall fescue seed for 9 d during an adjustment period. An 11-d experimental period followed, with animals in 3 pens fed chopped alfalfa hay plus a concentrate with E+ seed and those in the other 3 pens fed chopped hay plus concentrate with E E- seed. Color Doppler ultrasound measurements (caudal artery area, peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, mean velocity, heart rate, stroke volume, and flow rate) and serum prolactin were monitored during the adjustment (baseline measures) and during the experimental period. Three baseline measures were collected on d 3, 5, and 6 during the adjustment period for comparison to post E+ seed exposure. Statistical analyses compared the proportionate differences between baseline and response at 4, 28, 52, 76, 100, 172, and 268 h from initial feeding of E+ seed. Serum prolactin concentrations on both diets were lower (P 0.10) to the baseline for 172 and 268 h measures. Blood flow in E+ heifers was consistently lower than the baseline from 4 (P 0.10) from baseline measures during the experimental period. Results indicated that onset of toxicosis was within 4 h of cattle exposure to E+ tall fescue and is related to vasoconstriction and reduction in heart rate. PMID:17526671

  1. Assessment of Caudal Fin Clips as a Non-lethal Technique for Predicting Muscle Tissue Mercury Concentrations in Largeouth Bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The statistical relationship between total mercury (Hg) concentration in clips from the caudal fin and muscle tissue of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from 26 freshwater sites in Rhode Island, USA was developed and evaluated to determine the utility of fin clip analysis ...

  2. Pitching stabilization via caudal fin-wave propagation in a forward-sinking parrot cichlid (Cichlasoma citrinellum x Cichlasoma synspilum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, S C; Yang, J T

    2008-10-01

    Caudal fin-wave propagation (CFP) is a commonly observed behavior in a fish but has been little investigated. Our objective is to understand the function of a CFP for a forward-sinking parrot cichlid that adopts a tilted-down swimming posture. We utilized stereoscopic digital particle-image velocimetry to measure the velocity fields in the wake of both the caudal fin and the pectoral fins and to evaluate the corresponding hydrodynamic forces. The tilted-down posture of this fish is inherently unstable because of the presence of the head-down pitching moment induced from the buoyant force of the body. The down-stroke of the pectoral fins results also in a head-down pitching moment that destabilizes the fish. Our results indicate that a CFP facilitates the pitching stabilization of a fish. In a forward-sinking parrot cichlid, a CFP produces periodic jets (CFP jets) that are oriented laterally and posterodorsally, which result in both thrust and negative lift that induce a head-up pitching moment. The CFP jets are initially trapped by the ventral part of the caudal fin, strengthened and reoriented by the dorsally propagating fin wave, and expelled near the dorsal part of the caudal fin. PMID:18805814

  3. EFFICACY OF CLONIDINE AS AN ADJUVANT TO BUPIVACAINE FOR CAUDAL BLOCK IN CHILDREN UNDERGOING INFRA - UMBILICAL SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Caudal epidural analgesia with bupivacaine is common in paediatric anaesthesia for providing intra and postoperative analgesia. But duration of analgesia even with bupivacaine; long acting anaesthetic is short only 4-6hrs. Hence, several adjuvants have been tried to prolong the duration of action of bupivacaine. We evaluated the efficacy of clonidine added to bupivacaine in prolonging the analgesic effect provided by caudal bupivacaine in children undergoing infra-umbilical surgery. Forty children, aged one to seven years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA Grade I/II, undergoing infra-umbilical surgery, were included in prospective randomized double blind study to one of two groups: caudal analgesia with 0.75 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine in normal saline (Group A or caudal analgesia with 0.75ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine with 1 μg/kg of clonidine in normal saline (Group B. Post-operative pain was assessed for 24 hours using the Objective Pain Scale (OPS. The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer in Group B (10.2 Hrs. than in Group A (4.2 1Hrs; P0.05. The requirement of rescue medicine was lesser in Group B. Clonidine as an adjunct to bupivacaine prolongs the post-operative pain relief in children and is safe compared to bupivacaine alone in paediatric infra umbilical surgeries.

  4. Noradrenergic inhibitory modulation in the caudal commissural NTS of the pressor response to chemoreflex activation in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva de Oliveira, Luciana C; Bonagamba, Leni G H; Machado, Benedito H

    2007-10-30

    In the present study we evaluated the possible modulatory role of noradrenaline on the neurotransmission of the peripheral chemoreflex afferents in the caudal commissural NTS of awake rats. To reach this goal we performed a dose-response curve to microinjection of increasing dose of noradrenaline into the caudal commissural NTS of awake rats and then the threshold dose, which produces minor changes in the baseline mean arterial pressure, was selected to be used in the chemoreflex experiment. The peripheral chemoreflex was activated with KCN before and after bilateral microinjections of noradrenaline (5 nMol/50 nL, threshold dose) into the NTS. The data show that microinjection of noradrenaline into the caudal NTS produced a significant reduction in the pressor response to the chemoreflex 30 s after the injection when compared to the control response (30+/-6 vs. 49+/-3 mm Hg) but no significant changes in the bradycardic response. The data indicate that noradrenaline in the caudal commissural NTS of awake rats may play an important inhibitory neuromodulatory role on the processing of the pressor/sympathoexcitatory component of the chemoreflex.

  5. Ecology and caudal skeletal morphology in birds: the convergent evolution of pygostyle shape in underwater foraging taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan N Felice

    Full Text Available Birds exhibit a specialized tail that serves as an integral part of the flight apparatus, supplementing the role of the wings in facilitating high performance aerial locomotion. The evolution of this function for the tail contributed to the diversification of birds by allowing them to utilize a wider range of flight behaviors and thus exploit a greater range of ecological niches. The shape of the wings and the tail feathers influence the aerodynamic properties of a bird. Accordingly, taxa that habitually utilize different flight behaviors are characterized by different flight apparatus morphologies. This study explores whether differences in flight behavior are also associated with variation in caudal vertebra and pygostyle morphology. Details of the tail skeleton were characterized in 51 Aequornithes and Charadriiformes species. Free caudal vertebral morphology was measured using linear metrics. Variation in pygostyle morphology was characterized using Elliptical Fourier Analysis, a geometric morphometric method for the analysis of outline shapes. Each taxon was categorized based on flight style (flap, flap-glide, dynamic soar, etc. and foraging style (aerial, terrestrial, plunge dive, etc.. Phylogenetic MANOVAs and Flexible Discriminant Analyses were used to test whether caudal skeletal morphology can be used to predict flight behavior. Foraging style groups differ significantly in pygostyle shape, and pygostyle shape predicts foraging style with less than 4% misclassification error. Four distinct lineages of underwater foraging birds exhibit an elongate, straight pygostyle, whereas aerial and terrestrial birds are characterized by a short, dorsally deflected pygostyle. Convergent evolution of a common pygostyle phenotype in diving birds suggests that this morphology is related to the mechanical demands of using the tail as a rudder during underwater foraging. Thus, distinct locomotor behaviors influence not only feather attributes but also

  6. Unpredictable chronic mild stress exerts anxiogenic-like effects and activates neurons in the dorsal and caudal region and in the lateral wings of the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Danielle A; Lemes, Jéssica A; Melo-Thomas, Liana; Schor, Herbert; de Andrade, José S; Machado, Carla M; Horta-Júnior, José A C; Céspedes, Isabel C; Viana, Milena B

    2016-01-15

    In previous studies, we verified that exposure to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) facilitates avoidance responses in the elevated T-maze (ETM) and increased Fos-immunoreactivity in different brain structures involved in the regulation of anxiety, including the dorsal raphe (DR). Since, it has been shown that the DR is composed of distinct subpopulations of serotonergic and non-serotonergic neurons, the present study investigated the pattern of activation of these different subnuclei of the region in response to this stress protocol. Male Wistar rats were either unstressed or exposed to the UCMS procedure for two weeks and, subsequently, analyzed for Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in serotonergic cells of the DR. To verify if the anxiogenic effects observed in the ETM could be generalized to other anxiety models, a group of animals was also tested in the light/dark transition test after UCMS exposure. Results showed that the UCMS procedure decreased the number of transitions and increased the number of stretched attend postures in the model, an anxiogenic effect. UCMS exposure also increased Fos-ir and the number of double-labeled neurons in the mid-rostral subdivision of the dorsal part of the DR and in the mid-caudal region of the lateral wings. In the caudal region of the DR there was a significant increase in the number of Fos-ir. No significant effects were found in the other DR subnuclei. These results corroborate the idea that neurons of specific subnuclei of the DR regulate anxiety responses and are differently activated by chronic stress exposure. PMID:26462572

  7. Recovering missing data: estimating position and size of caudal vertebrae in Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando N. Grillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Missing data is a common problem in paleontology. It makes it difficult to reconstruct extinct taxa accurately and restrains the inclusion of some taxa on comparative and biomechanical studies. Particularly, estimating the position of vertebrae on incomplete series is often non-empirical and does not allow precise estimation of missing parts. In this work we present a method for calculating the position of preserved middle sequences of caudal vertebrae in the saurischian dinosaur Staurikosaurus pricei, based on the length and height of preserved anterior and posterior caudal vertebral centra. Regression equations were used to estimate these dimensions for middle vertebrae and, consequently, to assess the position of the preserved middle sequences. It also allowed estimating these dimensions for non-preserved vertebrae. Results indicate that the preserved caudal vertebrae of Staurikosaurus may correspond to positions 1-3, 5, 7, 14-19/15-20, 24-25/25-26, and 29-47, and that at least 25 vertebrae had transverse processes. Total length of the tail was estimated in 134 cm and total body length was 220-225 cm.Dados lacunares são um problema comum na paleontologia. Eles dificultam a reconstrução acurada de táxons extintos e limitam a inclusão de alguns táxons em estudos comparativose biomecânicos. Particularmente, estimar a posição de vértebras em séries incompletas tem sido feito com base em métodos não empíricos que não permitem estimar corretamente as partes ausentes. Neste trabalho apresentamos uma metodologia que permite estimar a posição de sequências médias preservadas de vértebras caudais no dinossauro saurísquio Staurikosaurus pricei, com base no comprimento e altura dos centros das vértebras anteriores e posteriores preservadas. Equações de regressão foram usadas para estimar essas dimensões para as vértebras médias e, consequentemente, para posicionar as sequências médias preservadas e para estimar o tamanho das

  8. Directional specificity and patterning of sensory axons in trigeminal ganglion–whisker pad cocultures

    OpenAIRE

    Gunhan-Agar, Emine; Haeberle, Adam; Erzurumlu, Reha S.

    2000-01-01

    In the rodent trigeminal pathway, trigeminal axons invade the developing whisker pad from a caudal to rostral direction. We investigated directional specificity of embryonic day (E). 15 rat trigeminal axons within this peripheral target field using explant cocultures. E15 trigeminal axons readily grow into the same age whisker pad explants and form follicle-related patterns along a caudal to rostral direction. They also can grow into this target from its lateral aspects. In contrast, they are...

  9. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF CAUDAL EPIDURAL STEROID INJECTIONS IN MANAGING LUMBAR DISC PROLAPSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhrubajyoti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lumber disc prolapse as a cause of back and leg pain is quite a common presentation at a pain clinic which results in significant disability & overall loss of productive work. This study is an uncontrolled, prospective study that included 25 patients (15 m ales and 10 females during the period 2013 – 2014 with signs and symptoms of back pain associated with lumber disc prolapsed with lumbar radiculopathy, in whom conservative treatment of least 6 weeks had failed. The present study was undertaken with the aim to observe the effectiveness of caudal epidural injection of a combination of depomedrol ( M ethyl prednisolone acetate along with a local anesthetic (0.5% bupivacaine in relieving symptoms of lumbar disc prolapse with radiculopathy. Quantitative assessme nt was done for back pain & leg pain separately using the visual analogue scale and the functional disability was measured using oswestry disability index (ODI before the procedure and at regular intervals after the procedure for a period of 6 months. All the patients had an ODI more than 40% before the procedure . At 24 hours, significant pain relief was seen in all the patients. After 3 weeks, symptomatic improvement was seen in 100.0% (25/25 patients of the cases, with good results in 68.0% (17/25, ODI 0 - 20% and fair result (ODI 20 - 40% in 32.0% (8/25 patients. At 6 months follow up, 60.0% (15 patients/25 of patients showed functional improvement of which with good results were seen in 52.0% (13/25 and fair result in 8.0% (2/25 and poor results in 40.0% (10/25. None of the patients had any major complications. Thus, it can be concluded that caudal epidural steroid injections are one of the safe and effective modality of treatment in back pain associated with lumbar disc prolapse with good short ter m results and possibly long term in some patients.

  10. Recombinant lentivirus with enhanced expression of caudal-related homeobox protein 2 inhibits human colorectal cancer cell proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Sai; Sun, Xue-Jun; Zheng, Jian-Bao; Qi, Jie; Chen, Nan-Zheng; Wang, Wei; Wei, Guang-Bing; Liu, Dong; Yu, Jun-Hui; Lu, Shao-Ying; Wang, Hui

    2015-08-01

    Caudal-related homeobox protein 2 (CDX2), a tumor suppressor in the adult colon, is overexpressed under a non-cancer specific cytomegalovirus promoter in certain tumor cells; furthermore, non-specific expression of CDX2 may result in aberrant side effects in normal cells. The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter is active in the majority of cancer cells but not in normal cells. Hypoxia is a key feature of solid tumors, and targeted genes may be significantly upregulated by five copies of hypoxia-response elements (HREs) under hypoxic conditions. However, the effect of CDX2 overexpression, as controlled by five copies of HREs and the hTERT promoter, on human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell proliferation in vitro remains to be fully elucidated. In the current study, a recombinant lentivirus containing the CDX2 gene under the control of five HREs and the hTERT promoter was generated. An immunofluorescence assay was used to detect CDX2 expression by the 5 HhC lentivirus, whereas an MTT assay was used to detect the effects of CoCl2 on the viability of LoVo cells. Western blot analysis was conducted in order to determine the relative ratios of recombinant CDX2 protein to the internal control β-actin, following 5 HhC/LoVo cell culture under normoxic and hypoxic conditions (100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 µmol/l CoCl2) for 24 h, then for 12, 24 or 36 h with the optimal concentration (300 µmol/l) of CoCl2. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to determine the transcription of recombinant CDX2 mRNA following culture of 5 HhC/LoVo cells under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Finally, a cloning assay was used to detect the proliferative ability of 5 HhC/LoVo and 5 Hh cells. High CDX2 expression was observed in hTERT-positive LoVo cells under hypoxic conditions, an effect which was mimicked by treatment with CoCl2 to inhibit LoVo cell proliferation in vitro. High expression of CDX2 therefore provides a promising strategy for the

  11. The Enhancer of split transcription factor Her8a is a novel dimerisation partner for Her3 that controls anterior hindbrain neurogenesis in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloeckner Christian J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurogenesis control and the prevention of premature differentiation in the vertebrate embryo are crucial processes, allowing the formation of late-born cell types and ensuring the correct shape and cytoarchitecture of the brain. Members of the Hairy/Enhancer of Split (Hairy/E(spl family of bHLH-Orange transcription factors, such as zebrafish Her3, 5, 9 and 11, are implicated in the local inhibition of neurogenesis to maintain progenitor pools within the early neural plate. To better understand how these factors exert their inhibitory function, we aimed to isolate some of their functional interactors. Results We used a yeast two-hybrid screen with Her5 as bait and recovered a novel zebrafish Hairy/E(spl factor - Her8a. Using phylogenetic and synteny analyses, we demonstrate that her8a evolved from an ancient duplicate of Hes6 that was recently lost in the mammalian lineage. We show that her8a is expressed across the mid- and anterior hindbrain from the start of segmentation. Through knockdown and misexpression experiments, we demonstrate that Her8a is a negative regulator of neurogenesis and plays an essential role in generating progenitor pools within rhombomeres 2 and 4 - a role resembling that of Her3. Her8a co-purifies with Her3, suggesting that Her8a-Her3 heterodimers may be relevant in this domain of the neural plate, where both proteins are co-expressed. Finally, we demonstrate that her8a expression is independent of Notch signaling at the early neural plate stage but that SoxB factors play a role in its expression, linking patterning information to neurogenesis control. Overall, the regulation and function of Her8a differ strikingly from those of its closest relative in other vertebrates - the Hes6-like proteins. Conclusions Our results characterize the phylogeny, expression and functional interactions involving a new Her factor, Her8a, and highlight the complex interplay of E(spl proteins that generates the

  12. A COMPARISON OF RECTAL DICLOFENAC WITH CAUDAL LEVOBUPIVACAINE FOR POST OPERATIVE PAIN RELIEF IN CHILDREN FOLLOWING LOWER ABDOMINAL OPERATION

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    Supriya De

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. . Adequate pain relief reduces the stress response and pain relief through epidural route. Caudal epidural analgesia is very commonly practiced technique in children with levobupivacaine. Rectal administration of diclofenac in children is safe and convenient route and su s tained action of this drug provides analgesia in early and late post - operative period. AIMS: The aim of the study is to compare post - operative analgesic effect of rectal diclofenac with caudal levobupivacaine. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Hundred children were a llocated randomly in two groups in equal numbers using generated randomisation chart. All the patients underwent general anaesthesia. At the conclusion of surgery group A (n=50 received caudal injection of 1ml/kg of 0.25% levobupivacaine. The patients we re put left lateral and 23 gauge 25 mm long , short bevelled needle was used for this purpose. Group B (N=50 received a suppository of diclofenac sodium 2.5mg/kg. All anaesthesia , caudal block and suppository insertion was performed by the same anaesthet ist. No information on the method of analgesia or the study group to which the children belong was given to the ward nurse for post - operative observation. Syr. Paracetamol was as post - operative rescue analgesic as 15 mg/kg orally. The ward nurse assessed pain according to the observer pain scale. Assessment was undertaken in four occasions , 1 , 3 and 6 hours post operatively and overnight. If the patient were comfortable without any complain , they were discharged in the in following morning after completion of 24 hours. RESULT AND ANALYSIS: Statistical analysis of the data for pain and use of post - operative analgesic was done by chi - square test analysis with yati’s correction. Intergroup comparision of parametricv data were made by using student un paired t test. P<0.05 was considered to be significant.100 patients were grouped as Group C

  13. Caudal regression syndrome (sirenomelia and its pathogenesis correlation: a case report

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    Vanadondi Usha Rani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormal development of caudal region of the body with different degrees of fusion of lower extremities, bears resemblance of Sirenomelia or mermaid of Greek Mythology. This type of deformity is also known as Symmelia, Symposia, Sympus, Uromelia and Monopodia. It is associated with the single umbilical artery. It is associated with severe malformations of urogenital i.e. renal agenesis and absence of both internal and external genitalia. The aim of this study is to present, a rare congenital malformation Sirenomelia. In this context, we report a case of Sirenomelia illustrating the prenatal sonographic and pathological features. In our study 25 years old primigravida gave birth to still born full term baby, sex could not be identified. The specimen was collected from private nursing home at Ongole, no relevant history of consanguineous marriage or tobacco smoking or drugs taking etc. Fetal USG, X-ray and CT were taken after birth. Fetal autopsy was done; the gonad, thymus and umbilical cord were sent to histopathological examination. The etiopathogenesis and characteristic features of Sirenomelia were discussed with the findings and review of the literature. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3406-3411

  14. Distracted cervical spinal fusion for management of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy in large-breed dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an autogenous bone graft (obtained from the iliac crest), 4-mm cancellous bone screws, and polymethylmethacrylate, a distracted cervical spinal fusion technique was performed on 10 dogs with myelographic evidence of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy. All dogs had evidence of dynamic soft tissue spinal cord compression, as indicated by flexion, extension, and traction myelographic views. Of the 10 dogs, 4 previously had undergone surgery by use of ventral slot or cervical disk fenestration techniques, and their neurologic status had deteriorated after the original surgery. Preoperative neurologic status of the 10 dogs included nonambulatory tetraparesis (n = 5), severe ataxia with conscious proprioceptive deficits (n = 2), and mild ambulatory ataxia with conscious proprioceptive deficits (n = 3). Five dogs had signs of various degrees of cervical pain. Clinical improvement was observed in 8 of 10 dogs--either improved neurologic status or elimination of cervical pain. Implant loosening developed in 3 dogs; 2 of them were euthanatized because of lack of neurologic improvement. Radiographic evidence of bony cervical fusion was observed during a 9- to 24-week period in 6 of the 8 surviving dogs. The distracted cervical fusion technique appears to be a valid surgical procedure to manage cervical spondylomyelopathy in those dogs in which the lesions are limited to one cervical intervertebral disk space

  15. Microarray analysis in caudal medulla of cattle orally challenged with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, L M; Basu, U; Williams, J L; Moore, S S; Guan, L L

    2011-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal disorder in cattle characterized by progressive neurodegeneration of the central nervous system. We investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration during prion infection through the identification of genes that are differentially expressed (DE) between experimentally infected and non-challenged cattle. Gene expression of caudal medulla from control and orally infected animals was compared by microarray analysis using 24,000 bovine oligonucleotides representing 16,846 different genes to identify DE genes associated with BSE disease. In total, 182 DE genes were identified between normal and BSE-infected tissues (>2.0-fold change, P apoptosis, and cytoskeleton organization; 13 of these genes were found to be involved in 26 different Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The expression of five DE genes associated with synapse function (tachykinin, synuclein, neuropeptide Y, cocaine, amphetamine-responsive transcript, and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa) and three DE genes associated with calcium ion regulation (parvalbumin, visinin-like, and cadherin) was further validated in the medulla tissue of cattle at different infection times (6, 12, 42, and 45 months post-infection) by qRT-PCR. These data will contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuropathology in bovine species. PMID:22033911

  16. Variation in Spot and Stripe Patterns in Original and Regenerated Zebrafish Caudal Fins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anorve-Andress, Kyle; Arcand, Amy Lucille; Borg, Bethanie R; Brown, Jayce Lee; Chartrand, Caitlin A; Frank, Marisohn L; Jansen, Jedediah N; Joyce, Michael J; Joyce, Michael T; Kinney, Joseph A; Kruggel, Spencer Lee; Lecy, Amanda D; Ma, Phyo; Malecha, Katchen M; Melgaard, Kelsey; Miller, Paula L; Nelson, Kristina K; Nieto Robles, Marvin; Perosino, Tianna Ruth; Peterson, Jenna Marie; Rollins, April Diane; Scherkenbach, Whitney Lee; Smith, Andrea L; Sodergren, Kelsey A; Stiller, Jacob Jo; Wehber, Kevin R; Liang, Jennifer Ostrom

    2016-08-01

    Tissue regeneration requires not only the replacement of lost cells and tissues, but also the recreation of morphologies and patterns. Skin pigment pattern is a relatively simple system that can allow researchers to uncover the underlying mechanisms of pattern formation. To gain insight into how pigment patterns form, undergraduate students in the senior level course Developmental Biology designed an experiment that assayed pigment patterns in original and regenerated caudal fins of wild-type, striped, and mutant, spotted zebrafish. A majority of the WT fins regenerated with a similar striped pattern. In contrast, the pattern of spots even in the original fins of the mutants varied among individual fish. Similarly, the majority of the spots in the mutants did not regenerate with the same morphology, size, or spacing as the original fins. This was true even when only a small amount of fin was removed, leaving most of the fin to potentially reseed the pattern in the regenerating tissue. This suggests that the mechanism that creates the wild-type, striped pattern persists to recreate the pattern during regeneration. The mechanism that creates the spots in the mutants, however, must include an unknown element that introduces variability. PMID:27096743

  17. A Case Report of Jarcho–Levin Syndrome and Caudal Regression Syndrome in A Five Year Old Girl

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    H. Emad Momtaz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Jarcho- Levin syndrome and caudal regression syndrome are rare syndromes with clinical and radiologic findings of cervical and thoracic vertebral anomalies with rib deformities (jarcho-levin syndrome and sacrococcygeal agenesis, lower extremity anomalies, truncated spinal cord and neurogenic bladder (caudal regression syndrome. There are only one report of simultaneous existence of these two syndromes in a dead fetus in literature.Case Report: The case was a 5 year old girl who had history of bilateral hip dysplasia and spastic dipleigia of lower limbs who presented with recurrent urinary tract infections. X - Ray findings was extensive vertebral anomalies such as hemivertebrae, butterfly vertebrae, coccygeal agenesis and rib deformities. MRI findings was termination of spinal cord at low thoracic level, cystic mass of sacral area.Conclusion: This case is a rare simultaneous occurrence of Jarcho-levin and Cauda regression syndrome in a patient and to our best knowledge is reported for the first time in Iran.

  18. Variabilidad de las anomalías y de la escala de fluctuación de caudales medios mensuales con el área de la cuenca.

    OpenAIRE

    Góez Arango , Catalina; Poveda Jaramillo, Germán

    2005-01-01

    Se estudia la variabilidad de las anomalías de caudales medios mensuales y la variabilidad de la escala de fluctuación con el área de la cuenca de drenaje, usando registros históricos de caudales medios mensuales en las cuencas de los ríos Magdalena-Cauca en Colombia y Tocantins-Purus en Brasil. Las anomalías se definen como las desviaciones de los caudales con respecto a la media del mes, escalados por la desviación típica mensual. Se efectuaron análisis de correlación entre las series de an...

  19. The caudal regeneration blastema is an accumulation of rapidly proliferating stem cells in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano

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    Adamski Zbigniew

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrostomum lignano is a small free-living flatworm capable of regenerating all body parts posterior of the pharynx and anterior to the brain. We quantified the cellular composition of the caudal-most body region, the tail plate, and investigated regeneration of the tail plate in vivo and in semithin sections labeled with bromodeoxyuridine, a marker for stem cells (neoblasts in S-phase. Results The tail plate accomodates the male genital apparatus and consists of about 3,100 cells, about half of which are epidermal cells. A distinct regeneration blastema, characterized by a local accumulation of rapidly proliferating neoblasts and consisting of about 420 cells (excluding epidermal cells, was formed 24 hours after amputation. Differentiated cells in the blastema were observed two days after amputation (with about 920 blastema cells, while the male genital apparatus required four to five days for full differentiation. At all time points, mitoses were found within the blastema. At the place of organ differentiation, neoblasts did not replicate or divide. After three days, the blastema was made of about 1420 cells and gradually transformed into organ primordia, while the proliferation rate decreased. The cell number of the tail plate, including about 960 epidermal cells, was restored to 75% at this time point. Conclusion Regeneration after artificial amputation of the tail plate of adult specimens of Macrostomum lignano involves wound healing and the formation of a regeneration blastema. Neoblasts undergo extensive proliferation within the blastema. Proliferation patterns of S-phase neoblasts indicate that neoblasts are either determined to follow a specific cell fate not before, but after going through S-phase, or that they can be redetermined after S-phase. In pulse-chase experiments, dispersed distribution of label suggests that S-phase labeled progenitor cells of the male genital apparatus undergo further proliferation before

  20. Hydrodynamics of a robotic fish tail: effects of the caudal peduncle, fin ray motions and the flow speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ziyu; Yang, Xingbang; Wang, Tianmiao; Wen, Li

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in understanding fish locomotion with robotic devices have included the use of biomimetic flapping based and fin undulatory locomotion based robots, treating two locomotions separately from each other. However, in most fish species, patterns of active movements of fins occur in concert with the body undulatory deformation during swimming. In this paper, we describe a biomimetic robotic caudal fin programmed with individually actuated fin rays to mimic the fin motion of the Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) and coupled with heave and pitch oscillatory motions adding to the robot to mimic the peduncle motion which is derived from the undulatory fish body. Multiple-axis force and digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experiments from both the vertical and horizontal planes behind the robotic model were conducted under different motion programs and flow speeds. We found that both mean thrust and lift could be altered by changing the phase difference (φ) from 0° to 360° between the robotic caudal peduncle and the fin ray motion (spanning from 3 mN to 124 mN). Notably, DPIV results demonstrated that the caudal fin generated multiple wake flow patterns in both the vertical and horizontal planes by varying φ. Vortex jet angle and thrust impulse also varied significantly both in these two planes. In addition, the vortex shedding position along the spanwise tail direction could be shifted around the mid-sagittal position between the upper and lower lobes by changing the phase difference. We hypothesize that the fish caudal fin may serve as a flexible vectoring propeller during swimming and may be critical for the high maneuverability of fish. PMID:26855405

  1. Comparison of preemptive intravenous paracetamol and caudal block in terms of analgesic and hemodynamic parameters in children

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    Serbülent Gökhan Beyaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Paracetamol has a widespread use for feverand symptomatic relief of pain in children. The aim ofthis study was to compare analgesic effects of preemptiveintravenous (i.v. paracetamol, and caudal block withlevobupivacaine.Materials and methods: A total of 60 children with ASAI-II physical status, aged 5-15 years and undergoing inguinalhernia repair, were randomly allocated to threegroups so that each group contained 20 patients. Group Pchildren received i.v. 15mg/kg paracetamol. Group C receivedonly caudal block with levobupivacaine, and GroupPC received both i.v. paracetamol, and caudal block withlevobupivacaine. Pain level assessed by modified EasternOntario Children’s Hospital pain scale (mCHEOPs,sedation status by Ramsey sedation scale at postoperative5, 15, 30 min and 1,3, and 6th hours.Results: No significant differences were found in age,gender distribution, body weight, ASA status, type andduration of surgery between three groups (p>0.05. Althoughsignificant difference were found in mCHEOPsscores within groups by repeated measures, no differenceof pain scores was observed between three groups(p>0.05. There were no significant differences in the hemodynamicparameters (heart rate, blood pressure bothwithin groups and between groups (p>0.05.Conclusions: Preemptive intravenous paracetamol hadsimilar analgesic effects compared with caudal block withlevobupivacaine with regard to postoperative pain scoresin children undergoing inguinal hernia repair. No hemodynamicor other adverse effects were observed withintravenous paracetamol. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(2:202-208

  2. Systematization, description and territory of the caudal cerebral artery of the brain in broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris

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    Lygia Almeida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty heads with the neck segment of Caiman latirostris were used. The animals were provided from a creation center called Mister Caiman, under the authorization of the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (Ibama. Animals were sacrificed according to the slaughtering routine of the abattoir, and the heads were sectioned at the level of the third cervical vertebra. The arterial system was washed with cold saline solution, with drainage through jugular veins. Subsequently, the system was filled with red colored latex injection. Pieces were than fixed in 20% formaldehyde, for seven days. The brains were removed, with a spinal cord segment, the duramater removed and the arteries dissected. At the level of the hypophysis, the internal carotid artery gave off a rostral branch, and a short caudal branch, continuing, naturally, as the caudal cerebral artery. This artery projected laterodorsalwards and, as it overpassed the optic tract, gave off its I (the first central branch. Penetrated in the cerebral transverse fissure, emitting the diencephalic artery and next its II (second central branch. Still inside the fissure, originated occipital hemispheric branches and a pineal branch. Emerged from the cerebral transverse fissure, over the occipital pole of the cerebral hemisphere. Projected rostralwards, sagital to the cerebral longitudinal fissure, as interhemispheric artery. This artery gave off medial and convex hemispheric branches to the respective surfaces of the cerebral hemispheres, anastomosed with its contralateral homologous, forming the common ethmoidal artery. This artery entered the fissure between the olfactory peduncles, emerging ventrally and dividing into ethmoidal arteries, right and left, which progressed towards the nasal cavities, vascularizing them. The territory of the caudal cerebral artery included the most caudal area of the base of the cerebral hemisphere, its convex surface, the olfactory

  3. Comparison of Postoperative Analgesic Efficacy of Penile Block, Caudal Block and Intravenous Paracetamol for Circumcision: A prospective Randomized Study

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    Ahmet Hakan Haliloglu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate the postoperative analgesic efficacy of penile block, caudal block and intravenous paracetamol administration following circumcision. Materials and Methods In this prospective randomized study a total of 159 patients underwent circumcision under general anesthesia at urology clinic of Ufuk University Faculty of Medicine and Sorgun State Hospital between May 2012 and September 2012. The patients were randomized to three groups to receive penile block (Group 1, caudal block (Group 2 and intravenous paracetamol administration (group 3. Pain measurement of the patients was done via CHEOPS scoring system at 30,60,120 and 180 minutes postoperatively and compared. Statistical tests were performed with a conventional statistics program and statistical significance was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results The mean age of the patients was 5.7 years. Patients in group 1 had significantly lower pain score at 30 minutes compared to other two groups. At 60 minutes groups 1 and 2 had significantly lower score compared to group 3. At 120 and 180 minutes no difference between the groups was observed. No significant major complications were observed in all 3 groups. Conclusion Penile block and caudal block provide similar pain scores and painless postoperative periods after circumcision under general anesthesia. Intravenous paracetamol is insufficient at the early postoperative period. The three procedures were shown to be safe for analgesia following circumcision.

  4. Effects of calmodulin and calmodulin inhibitors on Ca uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum of saponin skinned caudal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmodulin (CaM) stimulates plasma membrane transport in many cell types, however, its role in Ca regulation by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in smooth muscle has not been established. 45Ca uptake was studied in saponin skinned strips of rat caudal artery as a function of CaM and the CaM inhibitors, W-7, calmidazolium (CaMZ), and trifluoperazine (TFP). Although caudal artery strips lose approximately 30% of total tissue CaM during skinning, 0.3 - 2 μM CaM did not increase 45Ca uptake over a wide range of free Ca concentrations (10-8 - 10-6M). Neither W-7 nor CaMZ at concentration of 10-4 - 2 x 10-4M inhibited the MgATP-dependent Ca uptake. Ca uptake was not affected by 50 μM TFP but a significant inhibition was produced by 500 μM. Studies of the effects of TFP on 45Ca efflux indicated that TFP concentrations which inhibited Ca uptake also significantly increased the rate of Ca release. The results suggest that total Ca uptake in caudal artery depends mainly upon MgATP and is not modulated by exogenous CaM or affected by these CaM inhibitors. They cannot preclude that CaM may affect initial velocities or that the CaM inhibitors failed to reach active sites

  5. Influence from Length of Flexible Caudal-fin for Caudal-fin-type Piezoelectric Pump%柔性尾长对尾鳍式压电泵的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡笑奇; 张建辉; 夏齐霄; 黄俊; 王守印; 赵淳生

    2012-01-01

    In order to overcome existing common faults of the traditional volumetric type valve-less pump, such as fluctuation, backflow and lack ability of pumping, a valve-less pump which imitates the swing of the caudal-fin is proposed. The researches on the variable-cross-section oscillating vibrator with flexible caudal-fin are carried out. Based on the study carried on the swing of the tuna. which has high cruise speed, a variable cross-section vibrator with flexible caudle-fin is designed. The harmonic analysis of vibrator immerged in water is conducted with the ANSYS software. The tip amplitude of vibrator, which has different flexible caudal-fin length, is extracted when the vibrator operates in the second order bending mode. The analysis results suggest that the tip amplitude has great influence on the theoretical flow rate. Thirdly, the tip amplitude is measured utilizing a charge coupled device(CCD) laser displacement sensor. When the length of the flexible caudal-fin is 5 mm, the tip amplitude of second bending mode reaches 0.4 mm. Meanwhile, the trend of the tip amplitude, which varies with the length of the flexible caudal-fin, coincides with the result of simulation. Finally, the performance of the pump is tested experimentally: Driven by 60 V AC signals, the pressure head reaches 78 mm when the length of the flexible caudal-fin is S mm. This research reveals that when the other structure parameters are fixed, the length of the flexible caudal-fin determined the performance of the pump.%为克服传统的容积型无阀压电泵存在的流动波动大、有回流、泵水能力差等通病,提出并设计模仿鱼尾摆动的无阀泵,并针对具有柔性尾鳍的变截面摆动子进行研究.在研究巡游速度最大的金枪鱼尾鳍摆动的基础上,设计具有柔性尾鳍的变截面摆动子;基于有限元分析软件ANSYS进行摆动子在水中的谐响应分析,提取不同长度的柔性尾鳍工作在二阶谐振下的端部振幅,

  6. Comparison between two doses of dexmedetomidine added to bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in paediatric infraumbilical surgeries

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    Niveditha Padma Meenakshi Karuppiah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Caudal block (CB with adjuvants is routinely used in children for anaesthesia. We evaluated the efficacy of the α2 adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine at two different doses as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in CB. Methods: This study was conducted on ninety children. Control group BD0 received 0.25% bupivacaine 1 ml/kg, whereas, the study groups BD1 and BD2 received 1 μg/kg and 2 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, respectively, with 0.25% bupivacaine 1 ml/kg as a single shot CB. Adequacy of the block, haemodynamic changes, duration of analgesia and side effects were compared. Analysis of Variance was used for between-group comparisons of numerical variables. Student's t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test were used for quantitative data. Results: The demography was comparable. Anal sphincter 5 min after administration of the CB was relaxed in 89.3%, 82.1% and 75% of cases in BD0, BD1 and BD2 groups, respectively. The sphincter was relaxed at the end of surgery in all the cases. Comparable haemodynamics was noted with significantly prolonged duration of analgesia in the groups BD1 (964.2 ± 309 min and BD2 (1152.6 ± 380.4 min compared to control (444.6 ± 179.4 min. While no complications were encountered in groups BD0 and BD1, bradycardia was observed in four cases of BD2 group with accompanied hypotension in one of them. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to bupivacaine improves the quality of CB, provides good operating conditions and increases the duration of post-operative analgesia. We conclude that 1 μg/kg is as effective as 2 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine and with a better safety profile.

  7. Caudal topographic nucleus isthmi and the rostral nontopographic nucleus isthmi in the turtle, Pseudemys scripta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, M I; Ulinski, P S

    1987-07-15

    Isthmotectal projections in turtles were examined by making serial section reconstructions of axonal and dendritic arborizations that were anterogradely or retrogradely filled with HRP. Two prominent tectal-recipient isthmic nuclei--the caudal magnocellular nucleus isthmi (Imc) and the rostral magnocellular nucleus isthmi (Imr)--exhibited strikingly different patterns of organization. Imc cells have flattened, bipolar dendritic fields that cover a few percent of the area of the cell plate constituting the nucleus and they project topographically to the ipsilateral tectum without local axon branches. The topography was examined explicitly at the single-cell level by using cases with two injections at widely separated tectal loci. Each Imc axon terminates as a compact swarm of several thousand boutons placed mainly in the upper central gray and superficial gray layers. One Imc terminal spans less that 1% of the tectal surface. Imr cells, by contrast, have large, sparsely branched dendritic fields overlapped by local axon collaterals while distally, their axons nontopographically innervate not only the deeper layers of the ipsilateral tectum but also ipsilateral Imc. Imr receives a nontopographic tectal input that contrasts with the topographic tectal input to Imc. Previous work on nucleus isthmi emphasized the role of the contralateral isthmotectal projection (which originates from a third isthmic nucleus in turtles) in mediating binocular interactions in the tectum. The present results on the two different but overlapping ipsilateral tecto-isthmo-tectal circuits set up by Imc and Imr are discussed in the light of physiological evidence for selective attention effects and local-global interactions in the tectum.

  8. Predicción no lineal de caudales medios mensuales usando funciones de influencia radial y técnicas espectrales.

    OpenAIRE

    Rojo Hernández, Julián David; Carvajal Serna, Luis Fernando

    2012-01-01

    La estrecha relación no lineal entre los caudales y los procesos climáticos de escala global justifican la modelación no lineal para la predicción de caudales. El presente trabajo muestra una aproximación a la dinámica no lineal de los caudales usando un modelo no paramétrico de regresión basado en las funciones de influencia radial y técnicas de descomposición espectral. El modelo propuesto es aplicado para la predicción de los caudales medios mensuales para horizontes de pronóstico de 1,3 y...

  9. Ultrasound guided single injection caudal epidural anesthesia of isobaric bupivacaine with/without dexamethasone for geriatric patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery

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    H.A. El Gendy

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Adding dexamethasone with isobaric bupivacaine caudal anesthesia prolongs the duration of postoperative analgesia and decreased postoperative analgesic requirement in geriatric patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery in comparison isobaric bupivacaine alone.

  10. Embryonic Gut Anomalies in a Mouse Model of Retinoic Acid-Induced Caudal Regression Syndrome : Delayed Gut Looping, Rudimentary Cecum, and Anorectal Anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Pitera, Jolanta E.; Smith, Virpi V.; Woolf, Adrian S.; Milla, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    Vitamin A and its derivatives such as retinoic acid (RA) are important signaling molecules for morphogenesis of vertebrate embryos. Little is known, however, about morphogenetic factors controlling the development of the gastrointestinal tract and RA is likely to be involved. In the mouse, teratogenic doses of RA cause truncation of the embryonic caudal body axis that parallel the caudal regression syndrome as described in humans. These changes are often associated with anomalies of the lower...

  11. Combined lineage mapping and fate specification profiling with NLOM-OCM using sub-10-fs pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, H. C.; Dodson, C. R.; Bai, Y.; Lekven, A. C.; Yeh, A. T.

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a combined NLOM-OCM method using ultrashort sub-10-fs pulses to study cell lineages and their gene expression profiles in zebrafish. First, time-lapse NLOM is used to capture embryo morphology (broadly excited autofluorescence) and cell lineage dynamics (eGFP reporter). The embryo is then fixed and an in situ hybridization performed, depositing NBT/BCIP precipitate where a gene of interest is actively expressed. Combined NLOM-OCM is then used to capture the gene expression pattern with 3-D resolution and these two data sets acquired from the same embryo are merged using morphological landmarks. We have used this approach to study the dynamics of the wnt1 lineage at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) in normal and in fgf8a(ace) morphant embryos. We show that with fgf8a knock-down, the MHB constriction begins to form but subsequent failure of the constriction causes the incorporation of a transient cerebellar structure into caudal tectum. Concomitantly, this morphological distortion in the dorsal MHB causes anterior displacement in a ventral subpopulation of the wnt1 lineage at the MHB. NLOM-OCM confirms the displaced wnt1 MHB lineage stops expressing the wnt1 reporter, and with further experiments we can investigate markers such as wnt4 or ascl1a, which have been shown to be expanded caudally in ace mutants, to understand the transformed molecular fate of this displaced tissue. We conclude this approach of co-registering dynamic lineage tracing and in situ hybridization data sets using morphological context will help shed light on developmental mechanisms by integrating established analysis techniques at the morphological, cellular, and molecular levels.

  12. DETERMINACIÓN DE CAUDALES AMBIENTALES CONFIABLES EN COLOMBIA: EL EJEMPLO DEL RÍO PALACÉ (CAUCA

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    Diez Hernández Juan Manuel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available La explotación creciente de los recursos hídricos en Colombia requiere una reglamentación avanzada para determinar los Regímenes de Caudales Ambientales (RCA que fundamentan los Planes de Ordenación y Manejo de Cuencas Hidrográficas (POMCA. Entre la diversidad de enfoques propuestos para evaluar RCA, el más utilizado y aceptado científicamente es la conocida metodología «Instream Flow Incremental Methodology» (IFIM, cuya aplicabilidad en los ríos de Colombia se ensaya por primera vez en este trabajo. La modelación IFIM del río Palacé aguas abajo de la nueva captación de 500 l/s para el acueducto de Popayán (Cauca revela que el efecto de la detracción limitada del 6.78% del caudal medio anual sobre la integridad ecosistémica fluvial es muy leve. Las simulaciones eco­ hidráulica y eco­ hidrológica del tramo fluvial representativo (longitud 500m, anchura 18m, pendiente 5% y granulometría gruesa con el programa RHABSIM 3.0, detectaron disminuciones poco significativas del hábitat disponible para la ictiofauna y los macroinvetebrados acuáticos. En consecuencia, el manejo de caudales actual del Palacé vinculado a la captación del nuevo acueducto de Popayán es corroborado, según este análisis avanzado IFIM, como un RCA satisfactorio. Este trabajo sugiere investigaciones dirigidas al perfeccionamiento y particularización de IFIM para las condiciones fluviales de Colombia.

  13. Ontogeny of head and caudal fin shape of an apex marine predator: The tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Amy L; Hammerschlag, Neil; Lauder, George V; Wilga, Cheryl D; Kuo, Chi-Yun; Irschick, Duncan J

    2016-05-01

    How morphology changes with size can have profound effects on the life history and ecology of an animal. For apex predators that can impact higher level ecosystem processes, such changes may have consequences for other species. Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are an apex predator in tropical seas, and, as adults, are highly migratory. However, little is known about ontogenetic changes in their body form, especially in relation to two aspects of shape that influence locomotion (caudal fin) and feeding (head shape). We captured digital images of the heads and caudal fins of live tiger sharks from Southern Florida and the Bahamas ranging in body size (hence age), and quantified shape of each using elliptical Fourier analysis. This revealed changes in the shape of the head and caudal fin of tiger sharks across ontogeny. Smaller juvenile tiger sharks show an asymmetrical tail with the dorsal (upper) lobe being substantially larger than the ventral (lower) lobe, and transition to more symmetrical tail in larger adults, although the upper lobe remains relatively larger in adults. The heads of juvenile tiger sharks are more conical, which transition to relatively broader heads over ontogeny. We interpret these changes as a result of two ecological transitions. First, adult tiger sharks can undertake extensive migrations and a more symmetrical tail could be more efficient for swimming longer distances, although we did not test this possibility. Second, adult tiger sharks expand their diet to consume larger and more diverse prey with age (turtles, mammals, and elasmobranchs), which requires substantially greater bite area and force to process. In contrast, juvenile tiger sharks consume smaller prey, such as fishes, crustaceans, and invertebrates. Our data reveal significant morphological shifts in an apex predator, which could have effects for other species that tiger sharks consume and interact with. PMID:26869274

  14. Effects of ketamine and midazolam on emergence agitation after sevoflurane anaesthesia in children receiving caudal block: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Ozcan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Emergence agitation is a common postanaesthetic problem in children after sevoflurane anaesthesia. We aimed to compare the effects of ketamine and midazolam administered intravenously, before the end of surgery, for prevention of emergence agitation in children who received caudal block for pain relief under sevoflurane anaesthesia. Methods: 62 American Society of Anesthesiologists patient classification status I children, aged 2–7 years, scheduled for inguinal hernia repair, circumcision or orchidopexy were enrolled to the study. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane 8% in a mixture of 50% oxygen and nitrous oxide. After achieving adequate depth of anaesthesia, a laryngeal mask was placed and then caudal block was performed with 0.75 mL kg−1, 0.25% bupivacaine. At the end of the surgery, ketamine 0.25 mg kg−1, midazolam 0.03 mg kg−1 and saline were given to ketamine, midazolam and control groups, respectively. Agitation was assessed using Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and postoperative pain was evaluated with modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale. Results and conclusions: Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores were found higher in control group than in ketamine and midazolam groups. Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores were similar between groups. Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale and Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores showed a significant decrease by time in all groups during follow-up in postanaesthesia care unit. The present study resulted in satisfactory Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores which are below 10 in all groups. As a conclusion, neither ketamine nor midazolam added to caudal block under sevoflurane anaesthesia did show further effect on emergence agitation. In addition, pain relief still seems to be the major factor in preventing emergence agitation after

  15. Effects of simulated microgravity on circadian rhythm of caudal arterial pressure and heart rate in rats and their underlying mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li CHEN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the effects of simulated microgravity on the circadian rhythm of rats' caudal arterial pressure and heart rate, and their underlying mechanism. Methods  Eighteen male SD rats (aged 8 weeks were randomly assigned to control (CON and tail suspension (SUS group (9 each. Rats with tail suspension for 28 days were adopted as the animal model to simulate microgravity. Caudal arterial pressure and heart rate of rats were measured every 3 hours. The circadian difference of abdominal aorta contraction was measured by aortic ring test. Western blotting was performed to determine and compare the protein expression level of clock genes such as Per2 (Period2, Bmal1 (Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocatorlike and dbp (D element binding protein in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and abdominal aorta of rats in CON and SUS group at different time points. Results  Compared with CON group, the caudal arterial pressure, both systolic and diastolic pressure, decreased significantly and the diurnal variability disappeared, meanwhile the heart rate increased obviously and also the diurnal variability disappeared in rats of SUS group. Compared with CON group, the contraction reactivity of abdominal aorta decreased with disappearence of the diurnal variability, and also the clock genes expression in SCN and abdominal aorta showed no diurnal variability in rats of SUS group. Conclusion  Simulated microgravity may lead to circadian rhythm disorders in rats' cardiovascular system, which may be associated with the changes of the clock genes expression. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.06

  16. GABAA- and glycine-mediated inhibitory modulation of the cough reflex in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Elenia; Iovino, Ludovica; Bongianni, Fulvia; Pantaleo, Tito; Mutolo, Donatella

    2016-09-01

    Cough-related sensory inputs from rapidly adapting receptors (RARs) and C fibers are processed by second-order neurons mainly located in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). Both GABAA and glycine receptors have been proven to be involved in the inhibitory control of second-order cells receiving RAR projections. We investigated the role of these receptors within the caudal NTS in the modulation of the cough reflex induced by either mechanical or chemical stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits. Bilateral microinjections (30-50 nl) of the receptor antagonists bicuculline and strychnine as well as of the receptor agonists muscimol and glycine were performed. Bicuculline (0.1 mM) and strychnine (1 mM) caused decreases in peak abdominal activity and marked increases in respiratory frequency due to decreases in both inspiratory time (Ti) and expiratory time (Te), without concomitant changes in arterial blood pressure. Noticeably, these microinjections induced potentiation of the cough reflex consisting of increases in the cough number associated with decreases either in cough-related Ti after bicuculline or in both cough-related Ti and Te after strychnine. The effects caused by muscimol (0.1 mM) and glycine (10 mM) were in the opposite direction to those produced by the corresponding antagonists. The results show that both GABAA and glycine receptors within the caudal NTS mediate a potent inhibitory modulation of the pattern of breathing and cough reflex responses. They strongly suggest that disinhibition is one important mechanism underlying cough regulation and possibly provide new hints for novel effective antitussive strategies. PMID:27402692

  17. Ontogeny of head and caudal fin shape of an apex marine predator: The tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Amy L; Hammerschlag, Neil; Lauder, George V; Wilga, Cheryl D; Kuo, Chi-Yun; Irschick, Duncan J

    2016-05-01

    How morphology changes with size can have profound effects on the life history and ecology of an animal. For apex predators that can impact higher level ecosystem processes, such changes may have consequences for other species. Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are an apex predator in tropical seas, and, as adults, are highly migratory. However, little is known about ontogenetic changes in their body form, especially in relation to two aspects of shape that influence locomotion (caudal fin) and feeding (head shape). We captured digital images of the heads and caudal fins of live tiger sharks from Southern Florida and the Bahamas ranging in body size (hence age), and quantified shape of each using elliptical Fourier analysis. This revealed changes in the shape of the head and caudal fin of tiger sharks across ontogeny. Smaller juvenile tiger sharks show an asymmetrical tail with the dorsal (upper) lobe being substantially larger than the ventral (lower) lobe, and transition to more symmetrical tail in larger adults, although the upper lobe remains relatively larger in adults. The heads of juvenile tiger sharks are more conical, which transition to relatively broader heads over ontogeny. We interpret these changes as a result of two ecological transitions. First, adult tiger sharks can undertake extensive migrations and a more symmetrical tail could be more efficient for swimming longer distances, although we did not test this possibility. Second, adult tiger sharks expand their diet to consume larger and more diverse prey with age (turtles, mammals, and elasmobranchs), which requires substantially greater bite area and force to process. In contrast, juvenile tiger sharks consume smaller prey, such as fishes, crustaceans, and invertebrates. Our data reveal significant morphological shifts in an apex predator, which could have effects for other species that tiger sharks consume and interact with.

  18. Desarrollo metodológico para la caracterización de caudales y niveles de sedimentación

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Bernardo; Tangarife, Diana M.; Rojas Palacios, Hernán

    1999-01-01

    La dinámica que ha alcanzado en Latinoamérica el desarrollo metodológico para el análisis de sistemas de producción, no ha tenido el mismo grado de desarrollo para la caracterización de la disponibilidad y uso de los recursos naturales. El objetivo de la investigación fue identificar metodologías sencillas, para estimar la producción de caudales y niveles de sedimentación a nivel de cuenca, de tal manera que estimule su incorporación a los procesos utinarios de caracterización de los siste...

  19. Regeneração da barbatana caudal em peixe-zebra (Danio rerio): uma perspectiva biofísica

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Fernando Ricardo da Silva, 1987-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Evolutiva e do Desenvolvimento). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 O peixe-zebra (Danio rerio) regenera vários órgãos, o que o torna um excelente modelo para estudos de regeneração. Partindo de uma hipótese biofísica onde fluxos iónicos e correntes associadas são considerados eventos epigenéticos à regeneração, determinou-se o perfil de fluxos extracelulares dos iões cloreto e sódio na barbatana caudal durante as diferentes fases da re...

  20. Cardiovascular and respiratory responses to microinjection of L-glutamate into the caudal pressor area in conscious and anesthetized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Silva N.F.; Pires J.G.P.; Campos R.R.; Futuro Neto H.A.

    2001-01-01

    The role of the caudal pressor area (CPA) in the maintenance of vasomotor tonus in anesthetized and decerebrate animals has been clearly established. In conscious animals, however, the participation of CPA in the cardiovascular control remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, unilateral L-glutamate (L-Glu) (10 and/or 20 nmol/70 nl) microinjection into CPA, in conscious male Wistar rats (250-280 g) caused a significant increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP; control: 112 ± ...

  1. Tendencias en la distribución de probabilidades de lluvias y caudales en Antioquía.

    OpenAIRE

    Rave Herrera, Claudia Cristina; Mantilla Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Poveda Jaramillo, Germán

    2000-01-01

    Se estudia una metodología para el análisis de cambios y tendencias de los cuantiles de las distribuciones de probabilidades de series de registros de lluvias y caudales diarios en Antioquia, para las cuales ya existian resultados de analisis de tendencias y cambios en la media y la varianza. El análisis de cuantiles verificó dichos resultados y aporto importantes conclusiones sobre los fenómenos fisicos involucrados en los cambios; además de un acercamiento mas serio en la consideración de u...

  2. Systematization, description, and territory of the caudal cerebral artery in surface of the brain of the ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazer, Manoel; Campos, Rui

    2014-08-01

    Brain specimens from 30 ostriches were injected with red-dyed latex via the internal carotid arteries, and the caudal cerebral arteries and their branches were systematically described. On the right side, the caudal cerebral artery was double-, triple-, quadruple-, and single-branched in 73.5%, 23.3%, 3.3%, and 3.3% of cases, respectively; on the left side, it was double-, triple-, quadruple-, and single-branched in 76.7%, 20%, 3.3%, and 3.3% of cases, respectively. The dorsal tectal mesencephalic artery appeared as a single vessel in 96.7% of cases, emerging as a collateral branch of the caudal cerebral artery. The dorsal mesencephalic tectal artery originated from the right dorsal cerebellar artery in 40% of cases and from the left side in 63.3% of cases. On the right side, there were four and three medial occipital hemispheric branches in 46.7% and 20% of cases, respectively; on the left side, there were four and three branches in 30% and 26.7% of cases. On the right side, the pineal artery was double-, single-, triple-, and quadruple-branched in 50%, 23.3%, 20%, and 6.7% of cases, respectively; on the left side, this artery was double-, single-, triple-, and quadruple-branched in 50%, 23.3%, 16.7%, and 10% of cases, respectively. The diencephalic artery was on the right side in 43.3% of cases and on the left side in 56.7% of cases. The interhemispheric artery was on the right side in 56.7% of cases and on the left side in 43.3% of cases; four, three, two, five, and one dorsal hemispheric trunks branched off of the interhemispheric artery in 40%, 40%, 10%, 6.7%, and 26.7% of cases, respectively. The caudal cerebral artery was classified as Type I in 56.7% of cases (subtype IA in 33.3% of cases and IB in 23.3% of cases), Type II in 40% of cases (subtype IIA in 20% of cases and IIB in 20% of cases), and Type III in 3.3% of cases.

  3. TWENTY-ONE CASES OF CAUDAL PAIN TREATED WITH MOXIBUSTION OF CHANGQIANG POINT IN COMBINATION WITH INTRA-ANAL MASSAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茎

    2003-01-01

    @@ Caudal pain is a relatively special disease of orthopedics and refers to the pain around the coccyx region, the lower part of sacral bone and its surrounding soft tissues including muscles, etc.. The serious case is usually caused by trauma and accompanied with dropping and distending sensation in the local region. The author of the present paper adopted moxibustion of Changqiang (GV 1) point in combination with massage around the inside of the anus and achieved an obviously curative effect. The results are reported as follows.

  4. Consequences of lost endings: caudal autotomy as a lens for focusing attention on tail function during locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Gary; Higham, Timothy E

    2016-08-15

    Autotomy has evolved in many animal lineages as a means of predator escape, and involves the voluntary shedding of body parts. In vertebrates, caudal autotomy (or tail shedding) is the most common form, and it is particularly widespread in lizards. Here, we develop a framework for thinking about how tail loss can have fitness consequences, particularly through its impacts on locomotion. Caudal autotomy is fundamentally an alteration of morphology that affects an animal's mass and mass distribution. These morphological changes affect balance and stability, along with the performance of a range of locomotor activities, from running and climbing to jumping and swimming. These locomotor effects can impact on activities critical for survival and reproduction, including escaping predators, capturing prey and acquiring mates. In this Commentary, we first review work illustrating the (mostly) negative effects of tail loss on locomotor performance, and highlight what these consequences reveal about tail function during locomotion. We also identify important areas of future study, including the exploration of new behaviors (e.g. prey capture), increased use of biomechanical measurements and the incorporation of more field-based studies to continue to build our understanding of the tail, an ancestral and nearly ubiquitous feature of the vertebrate body plan. PMID:27535984

  5. Bronchoalveolar lavage of cranial and caudal lung regions in selected normal calves: cellular, microbiological, immunoglobulin, serological and histological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, J K; Viel, L; Shewen, P E; Willoughby, R A; Martin, S W; Valli, V E

    1988-01-01

    Of a group of 30 clinically normal male Holstein calves two to eight weeks of age, six two week old and six four week old calves met various radiographical and clinicopathological criteria for normality. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy on cranial and caudal lung regions in all 30 calves and samples analyzed for free cells, microorganisms, and immunoglobulins. Lateral chest radiographs and lung biopsies were also conducted on each calf. Calves were euthanized and necropsied ten days after bronchoalveolar lavage was conducted. Reported in this paper are results from the 12 normal calves. Microorganisms were present in small numbers in the lower respiratory tract of some normal calves. There were no differences in the above parameters between cranial and caudal lobes. There were statistically significant changes in bronchoalveolar lavage cell proportions with age although there were no detectable differences in clinical signs. Four week old calves had a lower percentage of macrophages and a higher percentage of epithelial cells than two week old animals (p less than 0.05). There was also a trend toward an increased percentage of neutrophils in older calves but this was not significant (p greater than 0.05). Total bronchoalveolar lavage protein also appeared to increase with age (p less than 0.05). In both groups a higher proportion of IgG2 in bronchoalveolar lavage compared to serum was found, suggesting the presence of a local selective transfer mechanism into respiratory secretions. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3370559

  6. Hemodynamic and respiratory responses to microinjection of ATP into the intermediate and caudal NTS of awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Vagner R; Bonagamba, Leni G H; Machado, Benedito H

    2005-01-25

    The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) is the site of integration of the peripheral chemoreceptor afferents in the brainstem. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that microinjection of ATP into the intermediate NTS produced increases in arterial pressure and bradycardia. In the present study, we evaluated the hemodynamic and respiratory responses to microinjection of ATP into the intermediate and caudal commissural NTS. In the same group of rats the responses were compared with cardiorespiratory responses to chemoreflex activation (KCN, i.v.). The data show that microinjection of ATP into the intermediate NTS produced pressor and bradycardic responses similar to those observed in response to chemoreflex activation but apnoea instead of tachypnoea. Microinjection of ATP into caudal commissural NTS produced increase in arterial pressure and tachypnoea similar to the chemoreflex but a minor bradycardia. The data show that microinjection of ATP into different sub-regions of the NTS produces a diverse pattern of hemodynamic and respiratory responses and suggest the involvement of this purine in the neurotransmission of the cardiovascular reflex in the NTS.

  7. COMPARISON OF HAEMODYNAMICS AND BLOOD LOSS IN URETHROPLASTY SURGERIES DONE UNDER GENERAL ANAESTHESIA WITH AND WITHOUT CAUDAL BLOCK IN CHILDREN AGED BETWEEN 2–5 YRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aavula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urethroplasty surgery is a painful procedure demanding high doses of analgesics, which may be associated with adverse effects and associated with significant blood loss. Caudal blockade provides good analgesia and hemodynamic stability and is probably a useful supplement in these surgeries. OBJECTIVES To compare the heart rate, blood pressure response to surgical stimuli and the incidence of blood transfusion rate post-operatively between 2 groups – A General Anaesthesia only. B General Anaesthesia with caudal block. SETTINGS AND DESIGN Study was conducted in 100 children, randomly divided into two groups A and B. Only ASA grade 1 patients aged 2-5yrs. undergoing urethroplasty for hypospadias were included. MATERIALS AND METHODS 1ml/kg of 0.125% bupivacaine was used for caudal blockade in group B (GA+CAUDAL and compared with group A (Only GA. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded for every 5 min. Blood loss and requirement of blood transfusions were recorded at the end of the surgery. RESULTS There were statistically significant haemodynamic changes and blood transfusion requirement during surgery in group A. In Group B haemodynamic parameters were stable (P value 0 and blood transfusion requirement was also less (p value 0.00054 (P<0.01. CONCLUSION Caudal blockade when supplemented with general anaesthesia reduces blood loss, decreases requirement for blood transfusion and maintains haemodynamic stability.

  8. Fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection for management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: short-term and long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Woo; Myung, Jae Sung; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Park, Kun Woo; Yeom, Jin S. [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Kim, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Hyun-Jib [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea)

    2010-07-15

    To evaluate the short-term and long-term effects of fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection (ESI) for the management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) and to analyze outcome predictors. All patients who underwent caudal ESI in 2006 for DLSS were included in the study. Response was based on chart documentation (aggravated, no change, slightly improved, much improved, no pain). In June 2009 telephone interviews were conducted, using formatted questions including the North American Spine Society (NASS) patient satisfaction scale. For short-term and long-term effects, age difference was evaluated by the Mann-Whitney U test, and gender, duration of symptoms, level of DLSS, spondylolisthesis, and previous operations were evaluated by Fisher's exact test. Two hundred and sixteen patients (male: female = 75:141; mean age 69.2 years; range 48{proportional_to}91 years) were included in the study. Improvements (slightly improved, much improved, no pain) were seen in 185 patients (85.6%) after an initial caudal ESI and in 189 patients (87.5%) after a series of caudal ESIs. Half of the patients (89/179, 49.8%) replied positively to the NASS patient satisfaction scale (1 or 2). There were no significant outcome predictors for either the short-term or the long-term responses. Fluoroscopically guided caudal ESI was effective for the management of DLSS (especially central canal stenosis) with excellent short-term and good long-term results, without significant outcome predictors. (orig.)

  9. Orofacial inflammatory pain affects the expression of MT1 and NADPH-d in rat caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus and trigeminal ganglion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Huang; Hongwen He; Wenguo Fan; Yongliang Liu; Hongyu Zhou; Bin Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the role of melatonin in the trigeminal system, including the function of melatonin receptor 1. In the present study, adult rats were injected with formaldehyde into the right vibrissae pad to establish a model of orofacial inflammatory pain. The distribution of melatonin re-ceptor 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase in the caudal spinal minal nucleus and trigeminal ganglion was determined with immunohistochemistry and mistry. The results show that there are significant differences in melatonin receptor 1 expression and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase expression in the trigeminal ganglia and caudal spinal nucleus during the early stage of orofacial inflammatory pain. Our findings sug-gest that when melatonin receptor 1 expression in the caudal spinal nucleus is significantly reduced, melatonin’s regulatory effect on pain is attenuated.

  10. Expression of caudal-related homeobox transcription factor caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 in intestinal-type carcinoma%CDX2基因与肠型胃癌关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武洋; 辛彦

    2007-01-01

    根据Lauren分型,胃癌分为肠型和弥漫型胃癌两种.肠型胃癌经历了正常胃黏膜、肠上皮化生到异型增生再到肠型胃癌的多步骤、多阶段逐渐发展的过程.肠道特异性转录因子(caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2,CDX2),对肠黏膜上皮的发育及保持其形态起着重要作用.正常情况下其产物特异的表达于小肠和结肠上皮中.迄今的研究发现,CDX2基因的异常表达与胃黏膜肠上皮化生和肠型胃癌的发生密切相关.

  11. Cleaning up the Nalon, Caudal and Nora rivers: FEDER provide 1,000 million pesetas for the HUNOSA project. Saneamiento de los rios Nalon, Caudal y Nora. El FEDER aporta mil millones para un proyecto de HUNOSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The Commission of the European Communities has recently approved aid from FEDER (European Regional Development Fund) for the HUNOSA project 'Cleaning discharge into public waterways from HUNOSA's coal washeries' to the value of 1,000 million pesetas. This is the maximum grant available from the Fund and equates to 45% of the total investment, estimated at 2,200 million pesetas. The project has been organised and carried out by HUNOSA and involves cleaning up the Nalon, Caudal and Nora rivers between 1990 and 1992. The project also includes a comprehensive study of the six washeries contributing to the pollution of the rivers and will apply to each the cheapest and most viable solution from an operational standpoint. 1 fig.

  12. Ultrasound-guided ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve blocks versus caudal block for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing unilateral groin surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abualhassan A Abdellatif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ultrasound (US guidance is strongly recommended when performing peripheral nerve blocks in infants and children. Aims: To assess whether US-guided ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric (II/IH nerve blocks with local anesthetic (LA would provide comparable postoperative analgesia to blind technique caudal block with LA following pediatric unilateral groin surgery. Secondary endpoints included analgesic consumption, parental satisfaction, and postoperative complications. Settings and Design: Prospective, crossover randomized controlled trial performed on children undergoing unilateral groin surgery. Methods: Fifty children aged 1-6 years scheduled for unilateral groin surgery were included in the study. After induction of general anesthesia and prior to surgical incision, patients were prospectively randomized into one of two groups: Group B received US-guided II/IH nerve blocks with 0.1 ml.kg−1 of 0.25% bupivacaine and Group C received a caudal blockade with 0.7 ml.kg−1 of 0.25% bupivacaine. Patients were assessed in the recovery room, the day-stay unit and for 24 h at home for pain score, analgesic consumption, and parental satisfaction. Statistical Analysis: Arithmetic mean and standard deviation values were calculated and statistical analyses were performed for each group. Independent sample t-test was used to compare continuous variables exhibiting normal distribution, and Chi-squared test or Fisher exact test for non-continuous variables. P0.05. The average time to first rescue analgesia was longer in group B 253±102.6 min as compared to 219.6±48.4 min in group C. In recovery room, four patients in group C required pain rescue medication compared to five patients in group B (P>0.05. Similarly eight patients in the group C and six patients in group B required pain rescue medication at day-stay unit or at home (P>0.05. Group C received 0.74 pain rescue medication doses (range 0-8, while group B received 0.65 pain rescue medication doses

  13. Somatostatin- and enkephalin-like immunoreactivities are frequently colocalized in neurons in the caudal brain stem of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millhorn, D E; Hökfelt, T; Terenius, L; Buchan, A; Brown, J C

    1987-01-01

    The medulla oblongata and pons of colchicine treated rats were analyzed with a double-staining technique using mouse monoclonal antibodies to somatostatin and rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against methionine-enkephalin. Numerous cells reacted with both antisera but cells reacting with only one antiserum were also observed. Double-stained cells were most frequently encountered at all levels of the nucleus tractus solitarii, in a well defined group in the caudal medullary reticular formation, along the lateral ventral surface of the medulla oblongata, dorsolateral to the inferior olive and in the nucleus raphe magnus. These findings provide further examples of coexistence of two peptides and indicate the possibility that somatostatin- and enkephalin-like peptides are co-released. PMID:2887451

  14. Cranial-to-caudal approach for radical lymph node dissection along the surgical trunk in laparoscopic right hemicolectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takeru; Iwasaki, Takeshi; Mitsutsuji, Masaaki; Hirata, Kenro; Maekawa, Yoko; Tanaka, Tomoko; Shimada, Etsuji; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2015-04-01

    Complete mesocolic excision with central vascular ligation is considered to contribute to superior oncological outcomes after colon cancer surgery [1]. For advanced right-sided colon cancer, this surgery sometimes requires lymph node (LN) dissection along the superior mesenteric vein (SMV), with division of the middle colic vessels, or their right branches, at origin [2]. Here, we present cranially approached radical LN dissection along the surgical trunk during laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. The omental bursa is first opened wide, and the gastrocolic trunk of Henle is exposed, using the right gastroepiploic vessels and the accessory right colic vein (ARCV) as landmarks. After division of ARCV, SMV and middle colic vein (MCV) are identified. After dividing MCV at its root, LN dissection along SMV is conducted in a cranial-to-caudal manner. Concurrently, the middle colic artery, or its right branch, is exposed and divided at origin. The transverse colon is then raised ventrally, and LN dissection along SMV using a cranial-to-caudal approach is again performed. The ileocolic and right colic vessels are divided at origin. The ascending and transverse mesocolon, including the pedicles, are then separated from the retroperitoneal tissues, pancreatic head, and duodenum, using a medial approach. The key characteristics in this procedure consist of easy access to pancreas, early division of ARCV and middle colic vessels at origin, and easy dissection along SMV. We performed a laparoscopic colectomy using this approach for 18 patients with right-sided colon cancer. The mean operative time and blood loss were 288 min and 83 ml, respectively. The mean number of harvested LNs was 24. There were 6 cases with positive LN metastasis. There were no recurrent cases at a median follow-up period of 24 months. We consider this approach to be safe and useful for radical LN dissection along SMV for right-sided colon cancers.

  15. Energetics of median and paired fin swimming, body and caudal fin swimming, and gait transition in parrotfish (Scarus schlegeli) and triggerfish (Rhinecanthus aculeatus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsmeyer, Keith E; Steffensen, John Fleng; Herskin, Jannik

    2002-01-01

    To determine the energetic costs of rigid-body, median or paired-fin (MPF) swimming versus undulatory, body-caudal fin (BCF) swimming, we measured oxygen consumption as a function of swimming speed in two MPF swimming specialists, Schlegel's parrotfish and Picasso triggerfish. The parrotfish swam...

  16. Classical eyeblink conditioning using electrical stimulation of caudal mPFC as conditioned stimulus is dependent on cerebellar interpositus nucleus in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-yan WU; Juan YAO; Zheng-li FAN; Lang-qian ZHANG; Xuan LI; Chuang-dong ZHAO; Zhen-hua ZHOU; Jian-feng SUI

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To determine whether electrical stimulation of caudal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with airpuff unconditioned stimulus (US) was sufficient for establishing eyeblink conditioning in guinea pigs,and whether it was dependent on cerebellar interpositus nucleus.Methods:Thirty adult guinea pigs were divided into 3 conditioned groups,and trained on the delay eyeblink conditioning,short-trace eyeblink conditioning,and long-trace eyeblink conditioning paradigms,respectively,in which electrical stimulation of the right caudal mPFC was used as CS and paired with corneal airpuff US.A pseudo conditioned group of another 10 adult guinea pigs was given unpaired caudal mPFC electrical stimulation and the US.Muscimol (1 μg in 1 μL saline) and saline (1 μL) were infused into the cerebellar interpositus nucleus of the animals through the infusion cannula on d 11 and 12,respectively.Results:The 3 eyeblink conditioning paradigms have been successfully established in guinea pigs.The animals acquired the delay and short-trace conditioned responses more rapidly than long-trace conditioned responses.Muscimol infusion into the cerebellar interpositus nucleus markedly impaired the expression of the 3 eyeblink conditioned responses.Conclusion:Electrical stimulation of caudal mPFC is effective CS for establishing eyeblink conditioning in guinea pigs,and it is dependent on the cerebellar interpositus nucleus.

  17. The Effects of Single-Dose Rectal Midazolam Application on Postoperative Recovery, Sedation, and Analgesia in Children Given Caudal Anesthesia Plus Bupivacaine

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    Sedat Saylan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to compare the effects of rectal midazolam addition after applying bupivacaine and caudal anesthesia on postoperative analgesia time, the need for additional analgesics, postoperative recovery, and sedation and to find out its adverse effects in children having lower abdominal surgery. Methods. 40 children between 2 and 10 years of ASA I-II were randomized, and they received caudal anesthesia under general anesthesia. Patients underwent the application of caudal block in addition to saline and 1 mL/kg bupivacaine 0.25%. In the postoperative period, Group C (n = 20 was given 5 mL saline, and Group M (n = 20 was given 0.30 mg/kg rectal midazolam diluted with 5 mL saline. Sedation scale and postoperative pain scale (CHIPPS of the patients were evaluated. The patients were observed for their analgesic need, first analgesic time, and adverse effects for 24 hours. Results. Demographic and hemodynamic data of the two groups did not differ. Postoperative sedation scores in both groups were significantly lower compared with the preoperative period. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of sedation and sufficient analgesia. Conclusions. We conclude that caudal anesthesia provided sufficient analgesia in peroperative and postoperative periods, and rectal midazolam addition did not create any differences. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02127489.

  18. Estimación de caudales ecológicos en dos cuencas de Andalucía. Uso conjunto de aguas superficiales y subterráneas

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    D. Baeza Sanz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las líneas de actuación que en políticas de aguas emanan de la Directiva Marco de Aguas (Directiva 2000/60/CE obligan a considerar nuevos enfoques en las metodologías hasta ahora empleadas en la gestión del agua, incluyendo elementos innovadores y de mayor eficacia como la utilización conjunta de aguas superficiales, subterráneas y los caudales ambientales. Varias instituciones y administraciones estatales yandaluzas están llevando a cabo una serie de trabajos de investigación en dos sistemas deexplotación de recursos hídricos que se localizan en la Comunidad Autónoma de Andalucía. Localizados en la provincia de Jaén y Granada ambos presentan peculiaridadesinteresantes en cuanto a la circulación del agua subterránea. El objetivo de estos trabajos es desarrollar y aplicar tecnologías que integren criterios medioambientales (caudales ecológicos, económicos (coste del agua suministrada y degestión. Los resultados muestran como, aplicando criterios de eficacia y uso conjunto, es posible mantener unos caudales ambientales en el primer sistema, y como los caudales ambientales que se proponen en el segundo sistema serían fundamentales para mantener laestructura y composición del ecosistema ripario de la cuenca estudiada.

  19. An optimized method for measuring hypocretin-1 peptide in the mouse brain reveals differential circadian regulation of hypocretin-1 levels rostral and caudal to the hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justinussen, Jessica; Holm, A; Kornum, B R

    2015-01-01

    as does prepro-hypocretin mRNA in the hypothalamus. However, in midbrain and brainstem tissue caudal to the hypothalamus, there was less circadian fluctuation and a tendency for higher levels during the light phase. These data suggest that regulation of the hypocretin system differs between brain areas....

  20. Cdx2反转录病毒载体的构建及转染膀胱上皮细胞的研究%Construction of human caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 retrovoral vector and transfection of urothelium cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林明恩; 邓毕华; 吕夷松; 荣禄; 姚友生

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 plays an important role in the development of epithelium in digestive tract, especial y the smal intestine and colon. OBJECTIVE:To construct the retroviral expression vector of pLNCX2-caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2, and to observe the effect of in vitro transfection of pLNCX2-caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 in intestinal metaplasia. METHODS:Gene recombinant technology was employed to clone human caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 gene to the retroviral expression vector of pLNCX2, then identified with enzyme digestion and sequencing and packed to the PA317 cells. The plasmids were transfect in urothelium cells, real-time PCR and western blot were used to detect the expressions of caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2, vil in and liverintestin-cadherin at the protein and mRNA levels. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The retroviral vector pLNCX2-caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 was successful y constructed. The levels of caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 protein and mRNA expressions in bladder urothelium celltransfected with pLNCX2-caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 were higher than that in control. And the over-expression of caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 could up-regulate the levels of vil in and liverintestin-cadherin expressions. Interestingly, specific changes of intestine-like cells were seen in the bladder urothelium cells transfected by pLNCX2-caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2. Over-expression of caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 can activate the caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 of urothelium cells and induce intestinal epithelial differentiation, thus inducing the development of cystitis glanduaris.%背景:尾侧型同源转录因子2在消化道尤其是小肠与结肠上皮的发育中起到关键作用。  目的:构建尾侧型同源转录因子2反转录病毒表达载体pLNCX2-Cdx2

  1. Differential Gene Expression Profile in the Rat Caudal Vestibular Nucleus is Associated with Individual Differences in Motion Sickness Susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Qin Wang

    Full Text Available To identify differentially expressed genes associated with motion sickness (MS susceptibility in the rat caudal vestibular nucleus.We identified MS susceptible (MSS and insusceptible (inMSS rats by quantifying rotation-induced MS symptoms: defecation and spontaneous locomotion activity. Microarray analysis was used to screen differentially expressed genes in the caudal vestibular nucleus (CVN after rotation. Plasma stress hormones were identified by radioimmunoassay. Candidate genes were selected by bioinformatics analysis and the microarray results were verified by real-time quantitative-PCR (RT-qPCR methods. By using Elvax implantation, receptor antagonists or recombinant adenovirus targeting the candidate genes were applied to the CVN to evaluate their contribution to MS susceptibility variability. Validity of gene expression manipulation was verified by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis.A total of 304 transcripts were differentially expressed in the MSS group compared with the inMSS group. RT-qPCR analysis verified the expression pattern of candidate genes, including nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAchR α3 subunit, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 (5-HT4R, tachykinin neurokinin-1 (NK1R, γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR α6 subunit, olfactory receptor 81 (Olr81 and homology 2 domain-containing transforming protein 1 (Shc1. In MSS animals, the nAchR antagonist mecamylamine significantly alleviated rotation-induced MS symptoms and the plasma β-endorphin response. The NK1R antagonist CP99994 and Olr81 knock-down were effective for the defecation response, while the 5-HT4R antagonist RS39604 and Shc1 over-expression showed no therapeutic effect. In inMSS animals, rotation-induced changes in spontaneous locomotion activity and the plasma β-endorphin level occurred in the presence of the GABAAR antagonist gabazine.Our findings suggested that the variability of the CVN gene expression profile after motion stimulation might be a putative

  2. Sistematização da origem, da distribuição e dos territórios da artéria cerebral caudal na superfície do encéfalo em gatos Systematization of the origin, distribution and territory of the caudal cerebral artery on the surface of the encephalon in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 26 encéfalos de gatos, adultos, sem diferenciação de sexo, sem raça definida, corados com látex e fixados por solução aquosa de formaldeído. As artérias cerebrais caudais, direita e esquerda, apresentaram-se únicas em 96,1 e 88,4% dos casos, respectivamente. Em 69,2% dos casos no antímero direito e 80,8% no esquerdo, a artéria cerebral caudal originou-se pela anastomose entre o ramo caudal da artéria carótida interna, com maior contribuição, e o ramo terminal da artéria basilar. Em 88,4% dos casos no antímero direito e em 84,6% no esquerdo, a artéria cerebral caudal originou a artéria tectal rostral e um ramo caudal. O ramo caudal bifurcou-se e vascularizou os colículos rostrais e caudais dos corpos quadrigêmeos e em alguns casos contribuiu na formação do plexo coroide do terceiro ventrículo. A artéria tectal rostral seguiu ventralmente ao lobo piriforme e durante seu trajeto liberou ramos para o hipocampo e, no antímero esquerdo, supriu a superfície dorsal do tálamo, contribuindo para a formação do plexo coroide do terceiro ventrículo.In this study were used 26 brains of adult cats, without sex differentiation and definable race, colored with latex and fixed in formaldehyde aqueous solution. The right and left caudal cerebral arteries were single in 96.1% and 88.4% of the sample, respectively. In 69.2% of the samples on the right side and 80.8% on the left, the caudal cerebral artery fin from the anastomosis behind the caudal branch of the internal carotid artery, with a large contribution, and the basal artery terminal branch. In 88.4% of the samples on the right side and 84.6% on the left, the caudal cerebral artery showed the tectal rostral artery and one caudal branche. The caudal branch forked in two branches that supplied the rostral and caudal colliculis of the quadruplet bodies and formed the choroid plexus of the third ventricle. The tectal rostral artery followed ventrally to the

  3. Antagonism of glutamate receptors in the intermediate and caudal NTS of awake rats produced no changes in the hypertensive response to chemoreflex activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Benedito H; Bonagamba, Leni G H

    2005-01-15

    The role of excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors in the neurotransmission of the sympathoexcitatory component of the chemoreflex (pressor response) in the intermediate and caudal aspects of the commissural nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of awake rats was evaluated. Microinjection of kynurenic acid, a non-selective antagonist of EAA receptors, into the intermediate and caudal commissural NTS produced a large increase in the baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP), which may reduce the magnitude of the pressor response to chemoreflex activation. To avoid this problem sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was infused (i.v.) after microinjections of kynurenic acid (2 nmol/50 nl) into the NTS, in order to normalize the MAP and then the chemoreflex was activated and the magnitude of the pressor response evaluated. Microinjection of kynurenic acid into the intermediate (bilaterally) and caudal (midline) commissural NTS (n=6) produced a significant increase in baseline MAP (103+/-5 vs. 137+/-6 mm Hg) normalized by SNP infusion (107+/-4 mm Hg) and under this experimental condition the pressor response to chemoreflex activation was not statistically different in relation to the control (37+/-7 vs. 44+/-6 mm Hg). Bilateral microinjections of kynurenic acid into the caudal NTS (n=8) also produced a significant increase in baseline MAP (109+/-4 vs. 145+/-6 mm Hg) normalized by SNP infusion (109+/-6 mm Hg). After normalization of MAP, the pressor response to chemoreflex activation at 3 (34+/-6 mm Hg) and 10 min (37+/-6 mm Hg) was also not different in relation to the control (46+/-5 mm Hg). These data indicate that the antagonism of EAA receptors simultaneously in the intermediate (bilateral) and caudal (midline) commissural NTS or only in the caudal commissural NTS (bilateral) of awake rats had no effect on the hypertensive response to chemoreflex activation. We suggest that neurotransmitter other than l-glutamate may take part in the neurotransmission of the sympathoexcitatory component

  4. A new epithelial cell line, HBF from caudal fin of endangered yellow catfish, Horabagrus brachysoma (Gunther, 1864).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, T Raja; Basheer, V S; Gopalakrishnan, A; Sood, Neeraj; Pradhan, P K

    2016-05-01

    A new epithelial cell line, Horabagrus brachysoma fin (HBF), was established from the caudal fin tissue of yellow catfish, H. brachysoma and characterized. This HBF cell line was maintained in Leibovitz's-15 medium supplemented with 15 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) and subcultured more than 62 times over a period of 20 months. The HBF cell line consists predominantly of epithelial cells and is able to grow at temperatures between 20 and 35 °C with an optimum temperature of 28 °C. The growth rate of these cells increased as the proportion of FBS increased from 5 to 20 % at 28 °C with optimum growth at the concentrations of 15 % FBS. Partial amplification and sequencing of fragments of two mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA and COI confirmed that HBF cell line originated from yellow catfish. The HBF cells showed strong positive reaction to the cytokeratin marker, indicating that it was epithelial in nature. HBF cell line was inoculated with tissue homogenate from juveniles of Sea bass, Lates calcarifer infected with viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV) and found not susceptible to VNNV. The extracellular products of Vibrio cholerae MTCC 3904 were toxic to the HBF cells. These cells were confirmed for the absence of Mycoplasma sp by PCR. PMID:25359669

  5. Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects on Diadochokinetic Rate

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    Fredrik Karlsson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypokinetic dysarthria observed in Parkinson's disease (PD affects the range, speed, and accuracy of articulatory gestures in patients, reducing the perceived quality of speech acoustic output in continuous speech. Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS and of the caudal zona incerta (cZi-DBS are current surgical treatment options for PD. This study aimed at investigating the outcome of STN-DBS (7 patients and cZi-DBS (7 patients in two articulatory diadochokinesis tasks (AMR and SMR using measurements of articulation rate and quality of the plosive consonants (using the percent measurable VOT metric. The results indicate that patients receiving STN-DBS increased in articulation rate in the Stim-ON condition in the AMR task only, with no effect on production quality. Patients receiving cZi-DBS decreased in articulation rate in the Stim-ON condition and further showed a reduction in production quality. The data therefore suggest that cZi-DBS is more detrimental for extended articulatory movements than STN-DBS.

  6. Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects on Voice Intensity

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    Sofie Lundgren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD affects speech inconsistently. Recently, stimulation of the caudal zona incerta (cZi-DBS has shown superior motor outcomes for PD patients, but effects on speech have not been systematically investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cZi-DBS and STN-DBS on voice intensity in PD patients. Mean intensity during reading and intensity decay during rapid syllable repetition were measured for STN-DBS and cZi-DBS patients (eight patients per group, before- and 12 months after-surgery on- and off-stimulation. For mean intensity, there were small significant differences on- versus off-stimulation in each group: 74.2 (2.0 dB contra 72.1 (2.2 dB (=.002 for STN-DBS, and 71.6 (4.1 dB contra 72.8 (3.4 dB (=.03 for cZi-DBS, with significant interaction (<.001. Intensity decay showed no significant changes. The subtle differences found for mean intensity suggest that STN-DBS and cZi-DBS may influence voice intensity differently.

  7. The anatomy of the dog soft palate. III. Histological evaluation of the caudal soft palate in brachycephalic neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichetto, Michela; Arrighi, Silvana; Gobbetti, Matteo; Romussi, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    A thickened and abnormally long soft palate is mostly involved in the pathogenesis of both nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal narrowing, affecting the respiratory activity in virtually all of the brachycephalic dogs suffering from Brachycephalic Airway Obstructive Syndrome (BAOS). The morphology of the soft palate in adult mesaticephalic and brachycephalic dogs has been previously described. In this article specimens from brachycephalic dog neonates (N=10) dead from one to 3 hr after birth of unrelated conditions were collected and histologically evaluated at three transverse levels to describe the microscopic aspect of the caudal part of the soft palate. The soft palate of neonate brachycephalic dogs was histologically characterized by a musculo-connective axis containing salivary glands and coated by a mucosal layer on both the nasopharyngeal and the oral side. Quali-quantitative features, such as thickened superficial epithelium, broad oedema of the lamina propria, mucous gland hyperplasia and diverse muscular modifications described in adult brachycephalic dogs, were not observed in the soft palate of brachycephalic neonate dogs. The lack of tissue lesions in the soft palate of newborn brachycephalic dogs further supports the hypothesis that inspiratory depression during the inspiratory phase causes chronic vibration and microtrauma, which lead to soft palate alterations in adult brachycephalic dogs starting from the earliest grade of the respiratory syndrome. Overall, this study provides baseline information for the comprehension of the pathogenesis of BAOS.

  8. 维生素A缺乏致斑马鱼胚胎体节不对称及后脑图式形成异常%Vitamin A deficiency causes asymmetric somitogenesis and abnormal hindbrain patterning in zebrafish embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹莎莎; 贾文双; 赵庆顺

    2012-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays essential roles in vertebrate embryogenesis. However, vertebrates cannot synthesize RA de novo. They synthesize it by two oxidative steps, first converting the precursor vitamin A into retinal by retinol dehy-drogenase, and then oxidizing retinal into RA irreversibly by retinal dehydrogenase. It is known that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) causes Vitamin A Deficiency Syndrome in animals including quail, mouse, rat, and human. However, little is known about the effects of VAD on zebrafish embryogenesis. In this study, we obtained zebrafish VAD embryos from the zebrafish fed a retinoids-free diet. By analyzing the VAD embryos, we found that VAD caused asymmetric somitogenesis and abnormal hindbrain patterning in zebrafish embryos. However, the phenotype of defected hindbrain in VAD embryos was not as severe as that in the embryos in which aldhla2, the major gene that is responsible for RA synthesis in zebrafish early development, was knocked down, or the embryos treated with 10 nmol/L DEAB (diethylaminobenzaldehyde, inhibitor of retinal dehydrogenases). Our results indicated that the VAD embryos were short of but not free of vitamin A, and they might also have a RA generation pathway independent of retinal dehydrogenase.%视黄酸(RA)在脊椎动物胚胎发生过程中发挥着关键作用.但是脊椎动物不能从头合成RA,而必须以维生素A为前体通过视黄醇脱氢酶和视黄醛脱氢酶(Aldh1A)先将其氧化为视黄醛再氧化成RA.已知维生素A缺乏(VAD)会导致多种动物出现维生素A缺乏综合征,但有关VAD对斑马鱼胚胎发育的影响尚未见报道.文章通过用不含维生素A及其他视黄类前体的饲料饲喂斑马鱼获得斑马鱼VAD胚胎.分析表明,缺乏维生素A可导致斑马鱼胚胎体节出现不对称发育、胚胎的后脑图式形成异常.这些表型虽与aldh1a2基因敲落的及经醛脱氢酶抑制剂处理的斑马鱼胚胎表型类似,但远不及后二

  9. EFFICACY OF MUSIC THERAPY IN THE REDUCTION OF REQUIREMENT OF SEDATIVE AGENTS, IN SURGERIES PERFORMED UNDER CAUDAL ANAESTHESIA: A ONE YEAR DOUBLE BLINDED RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Manjunath C.; Vijay S; Santhosh B; Avinash Kumar

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Paediatric patients undergoing surgeries under regional anaesthesia require adequate sedation. Various intravenous agents and inhalational anaesthetics have been used for this purpose. The purpose of this study is to establish a relationship between music and intra operative requirement of sedative agents (inhalational and intravenous agents) in pediatric patients undergoing surgeries under caudal epidural anaesthesia. AIM: The aim of this study is to establish a ...

  10. The Human Thalamic Somatic Sensory Nucleus [Ventral Caudal (Vc)] Shows Neuronal Mechanoreceptor-Like Responses to Optimal Stimuli for Peripheral Mechanoreceptors

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, N.; Ohara, S.; Johnson, K. O.; Lenz, F. A.

    2008-01-01

    Although the response of human cutaneous mechanoreceptors to controlled stimuli is well studied, it is not clear how these peripheral signals may be reflected in neuronal activity of the human CNS. We now test the hypothesis that individual neurons in the human thalamic principal somatic sensory nucleus [ventral caudal (Vc)] respond selectively to the optimal stimulus for one of the four mechanoreceptors. The optimal stimuli for particular mechanoreceptors were defined as follows: Pacinian co...

  11. Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Identify Outcome Predictors of Caudal Epidural Steroid Injections for Lower Lumbar Radicular Pain Caused by a Herniated Disc

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Sung Oh; Jang, Chul Hoon; Hong, Jin Oh; Park, Joon Sang; Park, Jung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective We used lumbar magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings to determine possible outcome predictors of a caudal epidural steroid injection (CESI) for radicular pain caused by a herniated lumbar disc (HLD). Methods Ninety-one patients with radicular pain whose MRI indicated a HLD were enrolled between September 2010 and July 2013. The CESIs were performed using ultrasound (US). A responder was defined as having complete relief or at least a 50% reduction of pain as assessed by the visual...

  12. Medición del caudal ecológico del río Acaponeta, Nayarit, comparando distintos intervalos de tiempo

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    Guadalupe de la Lanza Espino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El manejo diverso del agua de los ríos en México ha sido inadecuado por las diferentes actividades antrópicas, asociado a los cambios interanuales del clima y en consecuencia del patrón de sus escurrimientos, lo que ha llevado a la pérdida de los ecosistemas. Sin embargo, actualmente existen diversas metodologías para determinar el caudal necesario para conservar al medio ambiente y dentro de ellas están las de tipo hidrológicas, como la que aquí se aplica, y que se basa en una información de caudales quecomprenden registros de décadas que en el país no siempre se cuentan. Por lo anterior, esta contribución compararegistros de escurrimientos de diferentes lapsos de tiempo mínimos de 10 años, medios de 20 y más de 50 años para cuantificar el caudal ecológico. Dichos intervalos de tiempo dieron resultados semejantes, lo que significa que no sólo en el río Acaponeta sino posiblemente en otros, se puedan utilizar satisfactoriamente bases de datos de diez años. Endicho río el agua que escurre, que debe ser reservada con fines ambientales, fue para 10 años 70.1%, para 20 años 78.1% y para > de 50 años 68.8%% con un 72.3% promedio del caudal total o escurrimiento medio anual.

  13. Ultrasound versus fluoroscopy-guided caudal epidural steroid injection for the treatment of chronic low back pain with radiculopathy: A randomised, controlled clinical trial

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    Arindam Kumar Hazra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Caudal epidural steroid administration is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain (LBP. Fluoroscopy guidance is the gold standard for pain procedures. Ultrasound guidance is recently being used in pain clinic procedures. We compared the fluoroscopy guidance and ultrasound guidance for caudal epidural steroid injection with respect to the time needed for correct placement of the needle and clinical effectiveness in patients with chronic LBP. Methods: Fifty patients with chronic LBP with radiculopathy, not responding to conventional medical management, were randomly allocated to receive injection depot methyl prednisolone (40 mg through caudal route either using ultrasound guidance (Group U, n = 25 or fluoroscopy guidance (Group F, n = 25. Pre-procedural visual analogue scale (VAS score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI were noted. During the procedure, the time needed for correct placement of needle was observed. Adverse events, if any, were also noted. All patients were followed up for next 2 months to evaluate Visual Analogue Scale (VAS score and ODI at the 2nd week and again at the end of 1st and 2nd month. Results: The needle-placement time was less using ultrasound guidance as compared to fluoroscopy guidance (119 ± 7.66 vs. 222.28 ± 29.65 s, respectively,P< 0.001. Significant reduction in VAS score and ODI (clinical improvement was noted in the follow-up time points and comparable between the groups at all time points. Conclusion: Ultrasound guidance can be a safe alternative tool for achieving faster needle placement in caudal epidural space. Clinical effectiveness (reduction of VAS and ODI scores remains comparable between both the techniques.

  14. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA BY CAUDAL EPIDURAL ROUTE USING BUPIVACAINE WITH TRAMADOL AND BUPIVACAINE WITH FENTANYL IN PAEDIATRIC BELOW UMBILICAL SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Bupivacaine (0.25% 0.5 ml/kg with Fentanyl 1μg/kg and Bupivacaine (0.25% 0.5 ml/kg with Tramadol 2 mg/kg in caudal block for postoperative analgesia. In the present study, 60 children of ASA I and II, aged between 5-12 years who were scheduled for below umbilical surgical procedures were randomly allotted into 2 groups (30 each to receive either bupivacaine with fentanyl or bupivacaine with tramadol. Caudal block was performed after induction of general anesthesia, no analgesics were given intra-operatively. Postoperative analgesia was evaluated by Numerical Rating Scale and sedation was assessed by five point sedation score. Postoperative analgesia was supplemented with Syrup Paracetamol (10mg/kg when Numerical Rating Scale was 4. Any adverse effect like respiratory depression, urinary retention, nausea and vomiting were recorded in all patients. Caudal tramadol with bupivacaine produced significant increased postoperative analgesia. The duration of analgesia was 861±23 minutes in tramadol with bupivacaine group, as compared to 353.46±31.79 minutes in fentanyl with bupivacaine group. No significant difference found in sedation score in both groups in first hour postoperatively. Two cases in fentanyl with bupivacaine and three cases in tramadol with bupivacaine group developed urinary retention in postoperative period. Four cases in fentanyl with bupivacaine and three cases in tramadol with bupivacaine group developed nausea and vomiting. Our study showed that caudal tramadol with bupivacaine provided longer duration of postoperative analgesia without having significant side effects.

  15. Concerted involvement of Cdx/Hox genes and Wnt signaling in morphogenesis of the caudal neural tube and cloacal derivatives from the posterior growth zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Cesca; Bialecka, Monika; Neijts, Roel; Young, Teddy; Rowland, Jennifer E; Stringer, Emma J; Van Rooijen, Carina; Meijlink, Frits; Nóvoa, Ana; Freund, Jean-Noel; Mallo, Moises; Beck, Felix; Deschamps, Jacqueline

    2011-08-01

    Decrease in Cdx dosage in an allelic series of mouse Cdx mutants leads to progressively more severe posterior vertebral defects. These defects are corrected by posterior gain of function of the Wnt effector Lef1. Precocious expression of Hox paralogous 13 genes also induces vertebral axis truncation by antagonizing Cdx function. We report here that the phenotypic similarity also applies to patterning of the caudal neural tube and uro-rectal tracts in Cdx and Wnt3a mutants, and in embryos precociously expressing Hox13 genes. Cdx2 inactivation after placentation leads to posterior defects, including incomplete uro-rectal septation. Compound mutants carrying one active Cdx2 allele in the Cdx4-null background (Cdx2/4), transgenic embryos precociously expressing Hox13 genes and a novel Wnt3a hypomorph mutant all manifest a comparable phenotype with similar uro-rectal defects. Phenotype and transcriptome analysis in early Cdx mutants, genetic rescue experiments and gene expression studies lead us to propose that Cdx transcription factors act via Wnt signaling during the laying down of uro-rectal mesoderm, and that they are operative in an early phase of these events, at the site of tissue progenitors in the posterior growth zone of the embryo. Cdx and Wnt mutations and premature Hox13 expression also cause similar neural dysmorphology, including ectopic neural structures that sometimes lead to neural tube splitting at caudal axial levels. These findings involve the Cdx genes, canonical Wnt signaling and the temporal control of posterior Hox gene expression in posterior morphogenesis in the different embryonic germ layers. They shed a new light on the etiology of the caudal dysplasia or caudal regression range of human congenital defects.

  16. Evaluación de requerimientos ecológicos para el diseño de regímenes ambientales de caudales fluviales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Diez-Hernández

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Las sociedades avanzadas medioambientalmente están reclamando progresivamente una gestión fluvial auténticamente integral, que implemente Planes de Manejo de Cuencas Hidrográficas fundamentados en el paradigma del Régimen Ambiental de Caudales (RAC. Este trabajo sugiere una metodología genérica para establecer RAC confiables, que posibiliten el aprovechamiento hídrico a un coste ecológico admisible. Adicionalmente, plantea los criterios y técnicas preferentes para la evaluación de los requerimientos ecosistémicos de caudal, los cuales componen el RAC mediante el Régimen de Caudales Ecológicos (RCE. La adaptación de estos procedimientos para los ríos de Colombia favorecerá la conservación de su valiosa biodiversidad. / The environmentally advanced societies are claiming progressively an authentically integral fluvial management, that implements Watershed Management Programs based on the paradigm of the Environmental Flows Regime (EFR. This work suggests a generic methodology for the reliable EFR setting, that facilitate the water use with an environmental acceptable cost. Additionally, it outlines the approaches and outstanding techniques for the evaluation of instream flow requirements, which constitute the EFR by means of the Instream Flow Regime (IFR. The adaptation of these approaches to the Colombian rivers will contribute to the conservation of their valuable biodiversity.

  17. Modulation of the cough reflex by GABAA receptors in the caudal ventral respiratory group of the rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenia eCinelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the caudal ventral respiratory group (cVRG is a possible site of action of some antitussive drugs and plays a crucial role in determining both the expiratory and inspiratory components of the cough motor pattern. In addition, it has been reported that medullary expiratory neurons of the cVRG are subject to potent GABAergic gain modulation. This study was devoted to investigate the role of cVRG GABAA receptors in the control of baseline respiratory activity and cough responses to mechanical and chemical (citric acid stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree. To this purpose, bilateral microinjections (30-50 nl of bicuculline or muscimol were performed into the cVRG of pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits. Bicuculline (1 mM increased peak abdominal activity and respiratory frequency due to decreases in TE. Cough responses were potentiated mainly owing to increases in the cough number. The recovery was observed within ~ 2 h. On the contrary, muscimol (0.3 mM abolished abdominal activity and decreased respiratory frequency due to increases in TE. In addition, cough responses were progressively reduced and completely suppressed within ~ 20 min. Partial recovery of cough responses was achieved after ~ 3 h or within ~ 5 min following bicuculline microinjections at the same locations. The sneeze reflex induced by mechanical stimulation of the nasal mucosa persisted following bicuculline and muscimol microinjections. However, the number and intensity of expiratory thrusts were enhanced by bicuculline and suppressed by muscimol. The results provide evidence that a potent GABAA-mediated inhibitory modulation is exerted at the level of the cVRG not only on respiratory activity, but also on cough and sneeze reflex responses.

  18. Weight-bearing locomotion in the developing opossum, Monodelphis domestica following spinal transection: remodeling of neuronal circuits caudal to lesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Wheaton

    Full Text Available Complete spinal transection in the mature nervous system is typically followed by minimal axonal repair, extensive motor paralysis and loss of sensory functions caudal to the injury. In contrast, the immature nervous system has greater capacity for repair, a phenomenon sometimes called the infant lesion effect. This study investigates spinal injuries early in development using the marsupial opossum Monodelphis domestica whose young are born very immature, allowing access to developmental stages only accessible in utero in eutherian mammals. Spinal cords of Monodelphis pups were completely transected in the lower thoracic region, T10, on postnatal-day (P7 or P28 and the animals grew to adulthood. In P7-injured animals regrown supraspinal and propriospinal axons through the injury site were demonstrated using retrograde axonal labelling. These animals recovered near-normal coordinated overground locomotion, but with altered gait characteristics including foot placement phase lags. In P28-injured animals no axonal regrowth through the injury site could be demonstrated yet they were able to perform weight-supporting hindlimb stepping overground and on the treadmill. When placed in an environment of reduced sensory feedback (swimming P7-injured animals swam using their hindlimbs, suggesting that the axons that grew across the lesion made functional connections; P28-injured animals swam using their forelimbs only, suggesting that their overground hindlimb movements were reflex-dependent and thus likely to be generated locally in the lumbar spinal cord. Modifications to propriospinal circuitry in P7- and P28-injured opossums were demonstrated by changes in the number of fluorescently labelled neurons detected in the lumbar cord following tracer studies and changes in the balance of excitatory, inhibitory and neuromodulatory neurotransmitter receptors' gene expression shown by qRT-PCR. These results are discussed in the context of studies indicating

  19. Application of caudal septal advancement technique in nasal tip plasty%鼻中隔尾段前徙术在鼻尖成形中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐航

    2012-01-01

    Objective To build the steady framework of the nasal tip by using caudal septal advancement technique to obtain the permanent nasorostral configuration.Methods From Oct 2009 to Apr 2011,the caudal septal advancement technique was used to reconstruct the septum to make the septal anterior angel and the caudal septal margin reach the anticipated height and length of the tip,then medial crus and the vault of the lower lateral cartilage were sutured to the caudal septum to form the steady supporting structure of the nasal tip.Results 3-16 months follow-up in 26 cases showed that 2 cases appeared the staircase deformity in the junction of the bone and the cartilage in the dorsum,but the nasorostral configuration was good.3 cases whose tip and columella were deviated before the operation appeared the deviation again after 3 months but the nasorostral configuration was better than before.The other 21 cases were good.Conclusions It is a available method of using caudal septal advancement technique to form the steady nasorostral configuration.%目的 通过鼻中隔尾段前徙术,建立稳定的鼻尖支撑结构,以获得持久的鼻尖形态.方法 应用鼻中隔尾段前徙术重构鼻中隔,使鼻中隔前角及尾侧缘达到鼻尖预计的高度和长度;再将下外侧软骨穹窿、鼻翼内侧脚与鼻中隔尾侧缝合,从而形成稳定的鼻尖支撑结构.结果 26例受术者随访3~16个月,其中2例出现鼻背骨与软骨衔接处阶梯状改变,但鼻尖形态良好;3例原有鼻尖鼻小柱偏斜的患者,在3个月后出现再次偏斜,但较原先有一定改善;其余21例均鼻尖形态良好.结论 利用鼻中隔尾段前徙术可形成稳定的鼻尖形态,是一种有效的方法.

  20. SMA丝驱动的仿生尾鳍推进器的实验研究%Experimental Research on Bionic Caudal Fin Actuated by SMA Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 郭艳玲; 王振龙; 袁斯洋

    2013-01-01

    To study the movement mechanism of fish caudal fin,a bionic caudal fin propulsor actuated by SMA wires imitating the real fin well was developed based on studying its structure.The propulsive performance experimental results revealed the relation between thrust with action parameters,configuration and dimension of caudal fin.For further research on the hydromechanical mechanism,a surface flow display system was developed based on poly tetra fluoro ethylene (PTFE)micro powder.Visualization research of the formation process of vortex ring produced by the bionic propulsor was successfully done on the forementioned system.The experimental results approve of the swimming characters and mechanism of caudal fin.The bionic caudal fin is suited to research fish swimming mechanism and as a groundwork for further research on bionic robot fish.%为了研究鱼类尾鳍的推进机理,在研究鱼类尾鳍结构的基础上,研制了形状记忆合金(SMA)丝驱动的仿生尾鳍推进器,并完成了其推进性能试验,得到了动作参数、被动尾鳍形态、尺寸对推进力的影响.为进一步研究其流场机制,研制了基于改性聚四氟乙烯微粉(PTFE)的液面流场显示系统,并在该系统上对尾鳍推进器摆动后的涡环形成过程进行了可视化研究,实验结果验证了文献中鱼类真实尾鳍的游动特点和游动机制,可见所研制的仿生尾鳍推进器仿生性能好,适用于鱼类游动机理研究,并为仿生鱼的研制奠定了基础.

  1. Formation of VEGF isoform-specific spatial distributions governing angiogenesis: computational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Gabhann Feilim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spatial distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF is an important mediator of vascular patterning. Previous experimental studies in the mouse hindbrain and retina have suggested that VEGF alternative splicing, which controls the ability of VEGF to bind to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs in the extracellular matrix (ECM, plays a key role in controlling VEGF diffusion and gradients in tissues. Conversely, proteolysis notably by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, plays a critical role in pathological situations by releasing matrix-sequestered VEGF and modulating angiogenesis. However, computational models have predicted that HSPG binding alone does not affect VEGF localization or gradients at steady state. Results Using a 3D molecular-detailed reaction-diffusion model of VEGF ligand-receptor kinetics and transport, we test alternate models of VEGF transport in the extracellular environment surrounding an endothelial sprout. We show that differences in localization between VEGF isoforms, as observed experimentally in the mouse hindbrain, as well as the ability of proteases to redistribute VEGF in pathological situations, are consistent with a model where VEGF is endogenously cleared or degraded in an isoform-specific manner. We use our predictions of the VEGF distribution to quantify a tip cell's receptor binding and gradient sensing capacity. A novel prediction is that neuropilin-1, despite functioning as a coreceptor to VEGF165-VEGFR2 binding, reduces the ability of a cell to gauge the relative steepness of the VEGF distribution. Comparing our model to available in vivo vascular patterning data suggests that vascular phenotypes are most consistently predicted at short range by the soluble fraction of the VEGF distributions, or at longer range by matrix-bound VEGF detected in a filopodia-dependent manner. Conclusions Isoform-specific VEGF degradation provides a possible explanation for numerous examples

  2. EFFICACY OF MUSIC THERAPY IN THE REDUCTION OF REQUIREMENT OF SEDATIVE AGENTS, IN SURGERIES PERFORMED UNDER CAUDAL ANAESTHESIA: A ONE YEAR DOUBLE BLINDED RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath C

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Paediatric patients undergoing surgeries under regional anaesthesia require adequate sedation. Various intravenous agents and inhalational anaesthetics have been used for this purpose. The purpose of this study is to establish a relationship between music and intra operative requirement of sedative agents (inhalational and intravenous agents in pediatric patients undergoing surgeries under caudal epidural anaesthesia. AIM: The aim of this study is to establish a relationship between music and reduction in intra operative requirement of sedative agents (inhalational and intravenous agents in pediatric patients undergoing surgeries under caudal epidural anaesthesia. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: One year hospital based double blinded randomized clinical controlled trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 ASA grade I and II children in the age group of 1 to 6 years who were scheduled for herniotomy were included in this study. Children were randomly divided into two groups A and B. All the children received 1 ml/kg body weight of 0.25% bupivacaine in caudal epidural space, in addition all the a head phone was applied in all the children, the children in Group A were played a classical Indian music via head phone whereas children in Group B were devoid of any music in the intra operative period. SpO2, ECG, NIBP were monitored intra operatively. Level of sedation using “Ramsay Sedation Scale”. If the sedation scale was < 3, Inj.midazolam-0.03 mg/kg was administered i.v. as and when required, so that the maximum dose did not cross 0.6mg/kg4. If the midazolam requirement exceeded the maximum dose then adequate sedation scores were achieved using sevoflurane. The total number of doses of sedatives required and the total dose required were noted. STASTICAL ANALYSIS: The data was analyzed using the Mann Whitney test and Student’s t test comparing the sedation scores of between the two groups. RESULTS: The demographic parameters, duration of surgery were

  3. Medición del caudal ecológico del río Acaponeta, Nayarit, comparando distintos intervalos de tiempo

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe de la Lanza Espino; Jose Luis Carbajal Pérez; Sergio Alberto Salinas Rodríguez; Jorge Eugenio Barrios Ordóñez

    2012-01-01

    El manejo diverso del agua de los ríos en México ha sido inadecuado por las diferentes actividades antrópicas, asociado a los cambios interanuales del clima y en consecuencia del patrón de sus escurrimientos, lo que ha llevado a la pérdida de los ecosistemas. Sin embargo, actualmente existen diversas metodologías para determinar el caudal necesario para conservar al medio ambiente y dentro de ellas están las de tipo hidrológicas, como la que aquí se aplica, y que se basa en una información de...

  4. Microinjection of DLH into the region of the caudal ventral respiratory column in the cat: Evidence for an endogenous cough suppressant mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Poliacek, Ivan; Corrie, Lu Wen-Chi; Wang, Cheng; Rose, Melanie J.; Bolser, Donald C

    2006-01-01

    The caudal ventral respiratory column (cVRC) contains premotor expiratory neurons that play an important role in cough-related expiratory activity of chest wall and abdominal muscles. Microinjection of D,L-homocysteic acid (DLH) was used to test the hypothesis that local activation of cVRC neurons can suppress the cough reflex. DLH (20-50 mM, 10-30 nl) was injected into the region of cVRC in 9 anesthetized spontaneously breathing cats. Repetitive coughing was elicited by mechanical stimulatio...

  5. Reconstrucción histórica de los caudales mensuales a lo largo de la red de drenaje de Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Roldán Taborda, Ernesto; Mesa Sánchez, Óscar José

    2011-01-01

    Se implementó un modelo mensual de balance de agua distribuido para estimar caudales medios mensuales en cualquier punto de la red hidrográfica de Colombia, en el período comprendido entre los años 1975 y 2005. Se adoptó el esquema del modelo agregado GR2M, el cual se alimenta de datos mensuales de precipitación y evaporación potencial. Su conceptualización consta de un tanque de producción, asociado al almacenamiento de agua en el suelo, un tanque de tránsito y una componente para modelar...

  6. Prediction of water flows in Colorado River, Argentina Predicción de caudales en río Colorado, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge O Pierini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification of suitable models for predicting daily water flow is important for planning and management of water storage in reservoirs of Argentina. Long-term prediction of water flow is crucial for regulating reservoirs and hydroelectric plants, for assessing environmental protection and sustainable development, for guaranteeing correct operation of public water supply in cities like Catriel, 25 de Mayo, Colorado River and potentially also Bahía Blanca. In this paper, we analyze in Buta Ranquil flow time series upstream reservoir and hydroelectric plant in order to model and predict daily fluctuations. We compare results obtained by using a three-layer artificial neural network (ANN, and an autoregressive (AR model, using 18 years of data, of which the last 3 years are used for model validation by means of the root mean square error (RMSE, and measure of certainty (Skill. Our results point out to the better performance to predict daily water flow or refill them of the ANN model performance respect to the AR model.La identificación de modelos adecuados para predecir caudales diarios es importante para la planificación y la gestión de almacenamiento de agua en los embalses de la Argentina. La predicción a largo plazo del caudal es crucial para la regulación de los embalses y centrales hidroeléctricas, evaluar la protección del medio ambiente y el desarrollo sostenible, garantizar el correcto funcionamiento del abastecimiento público de agua en ciudades como Catriel, 25 de Mayo, río Colorado y también, eventualmente, en Bahía Blanca. En este trabajo, se analizan series de tiempo de caudales de agua, arriba del embalse y de la planta hidroeléctrica en Buta Ranquil, para modelar y predecir las fluctuaciones diarias. Se comparan los resultados obtenidos mediante el uso de una red neuronal artificial (ANN de tres capas y un modelo autoregresivo (AR, con 18 anos de datos, cuyos últimos 3 anos se utilizan para la validación del

  7. Experience of Treatment for Lumbar Disc Herniation by Caudal Injection%骶管注射治疗腰椎间盘突出症的体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁涛

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨骶管注射治疗腰椎间盘突出症的临床效果和体会。方法:回顾性分析我院收治的160例椎间盘突出的病人的临床资料,采用骶管注射治疗腰4~5及腰5~骶1椎间盘突出。结果:160例患者中有效130例,好转16例,总有效率为91.25%;无效者14例;复发10例,占6.85%,其中有6例经再次骶管注射而痊愈,另外4例则改为手术治疗。结论:骶管注射治疗腰椎间盘突出症易于操作,且疗效显著,安全可靠,费用低,无明显的并发症,故很值得临床使用和推广。%Objective:To investigate the caudal injection for lumbar disc herniation clinical results and experience .Methods:A retro-spective analysis of 160 cases in our hospital clinical data disc herniation , lumbar caudal injection using 4 to 5 lumbar 5 sacral 1 disc.Re-sults:160 patients, 130 cases effective, 16 cases improved, the total effective rate was 91.25%;ineffective in 14 cases;recurrence in 10 cases, accounting for 6.85%, of which 6 cases were cured again caudal injection while the other four cases the to surgery .Conclusion:caudal injection for lumbar disc herniation is easy to operate , and the effect is significant , safe, reliable, low cost, without significant complications, so it is worthy of clinical use and promotion .

  8. Caudal Anaesthesia in Cardiac Catheterization and Angiocardiography%小儿骶管麻醉用于心导管和心血管造影术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁惠芬; 郝复; 徐金龙; 陈文英; 汤卫平; 康健; 肖菡

    1987-01-01

    本文报告骶管麻醉在小儿先天性心脏病心导管和心血管造影术中的应用.骶管麻醉组44例,静脉麻醉12例.结果,骶管麻醉组并发症明显低于单纯静脉麻醉.骶管麻醉不仅有助于导管操作和造影时体位固定,且有利于代谢和血流动力的稳定.%This paper reports the use of caudal anaesthesia in cardiac catheterization and angiocardiaography on children with congenital heart diseases,and the comparison between it and the intravenous anaesthesia on the basis of their angiocardiographic data.In the group of caudal anaesthesia(44 cases),1-1.75% procaine and 0.1-0.15% dicaine solution with adrenaline(1ml /Kg body weight)were given.Intermittent increments of Valium or Ketamine was administered when necessary.Intravenous anaesthesia was applied to 12 cases(Group Ⅱ)with Ketamine and α-hydroxybutyrat or Valium.Results:43.18% of the patients in Group Ⅰ did not require increments of intravenous anaesthetics,but 13 cases Ketamine was given(dosage:0.85-0.49 mg/kg/hr).Ketamine was administered unexceptionally in GroupⅡ with a dosage of 1.61-0.84 mg/kg/hr.There was significant difference between the two groups in the dosage of Ketamie(p<0.02).The caudal anaesthsia group had a much lower occurrence of complications as compared with those who received intravenous anaesthesia alone.The authors considered that caudal anaesthesia is better than intravenous anaethsia in angiocardiography in pediatric cases,for it keeps the pateint well immobulized and makes catheter manipulation easier,and also provides a stable metabolic and haemodynamic condition.

  9. Bloqueo caudal en dolor crónico lumbar: ¿Es necesario el apoyo radiológico para disminuir los fallos de la técnica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cortiñas Sáenz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las infiltraciones de esteroides epidurales no ofrecen beneficio a largo plazo en el tratamiento del dolor de espalda, pero pueden ser eficaces en los pacientes con dolor radicular lumbosacro agudo. Los bloqueos epidurales vía caudal de esteroides son eficaces en el alivio sintomático a corto plazo (evidencia de nivel II, así como a largo plazo (nivel de evidencia III. Objetivos: evaluar la eficacia del bloqueo caudal con y sin guía fluoroscópica. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo, observacional y descriptivo para evaluar la tasa de fallos de la realización del bloqueo caudal mediante la técnica "a ciegas" respecto a la guiada por radiología. El análisis estadístico incluyó chi2 de Mantel y Haensel, t de Student y test ANOVA, considerándose una p Introduction: epidural steroid injections offer no long-term benefit for the treatment of low back pain but may be effective in the small subset of patients with acute lumbosacral radicular pain. Caudal epidural steroid injection was effective in producing short-term improvement (level II evidence as well as long-term relief (level III evidence. Objetives: to evaluate of the effectiveness of the caudal epidural block under fluoroscopic guidance. Material and methods: prospective, observational and descriptive study to assess the failure rates of caudal block using the technique "blind" with respect to radiological vision. Statistical comparisons were based on the chi2 test, the long-rank test, t test and ANOVA test, considering a statistically significant result p < 0.05. Results: we performed 129 caudal epidural blocks in 89 patients for chronic pain conditions. The overall success rate of caudal block with a blind technique was of 65.11%. Statistically significant differences in the rate of technical failure of the blind for the variables professional experience of the anesthesiologist and the presence of obesity. The most common malposition in our cohort is the

  10. Intrinsic properties guide proximal abducens and oculomotor nerve outgrowth in avian embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance-Jones, Cynthia; Shah, Veeral; Noden, Drew M; Sours, Emily

    2012-02-01

    Proper movement of the vertebrate eye requires the formation of precisely patterned axonal connections linking cranial somatic motoneurons, located at defined positions in the ventral midbrain and hindbrain, with extraocular muscles. The aim of this research was to assess the relative contributions of intrinsic, population-specific properties and extrinsic, outgrowth site-specific cues during the early stages of abducens and oculomotor nerve development in avian embryos. This was accomplished by surgically transposing midbrain and caudal hindbrain segments, which had been pre-labeled by electroporation with an EGFP construct. Graft-derived EGFP+ oculomotor axons entering a hindbrain microenvironment often mimicked an abducens initial pathway and coursed cranially. Similarly, some EGFP+ abducens axons entering a midbrain microenvironment mimicked an oculomotor initial pathway and coursed ventrally. Many but not all of these axons subsequently projected to extraocular muscles that they would not normally innervate. Strikingly, EGFP+ axons also took initial paths atypical for their new location. Upon exiting from a hindbrain position, most EGFP+ oculomotor axons actually coursed ventrally and joined host branchiomotor nerves, whose neurons share molecular features with oculomotor neurons. Similarly, upon exiting from a midbrain position, some EGFP+ abducens axons turned caudally, elongated parallel to the brainstem, and contacted the lateral rectus muscle, their originally correct target. These data reveal an interplay between intrinsic properties that are unique to oculomotor and abducens populations and shared ability to recognize and respond to extrinsic directional cues. The former play a prominent role in initial pathway choices, whereas the latter appear more instructive during subsequent directional choices. PMID:21739615

  11. The Effect of Caudal Fin's Shape and Motion Parameters on Propulsion Velocity%尾鳍的形状与运动参数对推进速度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军考; 陈维山; 陈在礼

    2001-01-01

    The shape (sweepback angle,aspect ratio) and motion (oscillating frequency and amplitude) parameters are very important performance parameters of new type of underwater turbine with oscillating caudal fin. Form the viewpoint of propulsion velocity, some experiments were caught out to investigate the effect of caudal fin′s shape parameters and motion on propulsion velocity. The experimental results were showed. It has potential benefits to the design of underwater turbine with oscillating caudal fin.%从推进速度的角度出发,实验研究了尾鳍摆动式水下推进器尾鳍的形状参数与运动参数对推进速度的影响,给出了实验结果。对尾鳍摆动式水下推进器的设计具有重要的意义。

  12. Bloqueo caudal en dolor crónico lumbar: ¿Es necesario el apoyo radiológico para disminuir los fallos de la técnica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cortiñas Sáenz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las infiltraciones de esteroides epidurales no ofrecen beneficio a largo plazo en el tratamiento del dolor de espalda, pero pueden ser eficaces en los pacientes con dolor radicular lumbosacro agudo. Los bloqueos epidurales vía caudal de esteroides son eficaces en el alivio sintomático a corto plazo (evidencia de nivel II, así como a largo plazo (nivel de evidencia III. Objetivos: evaluar la eficacia del bloqueo caudal con y sin guía fluoroscópica. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo, observacional y descriptivo para evaluar la tasa de fallos de la realización del bloqueo caudal mediante la técnica "a ciegas" respecto a la guiada por radiología. El análisis estadístico incluyó chi2 de Mantel y Haensel, t de Student y test ANOVA, considerándose una p < 0,05 con significación estadística. Resultados: se realizaron 129 bloqueos epidurales caudales en 89 pacientes por cuadros de dolor crónico. La tasa global de éxito del bloqueo caudal con la técnica a ciegas fue de un 65,11%. Existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la tasa de fallos de la técnica a ciegas para las variables: experiencia profesional del médico anestesiólogo y la presencia de obesidad. La mal posición más frecuente en nuestra cohorte es la colocación subcutánea de la aguja, que representa un 80% de los casos (36/45. Conclusiones: recomendamos el uso de la visión radiológica para realizar los bloqueos epidurales caudales.

  13. La escala de fluctuación de caudales medios mensuales en función del área de la cuenca (río Tocantis-Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    Góez Arango , Catalina; Poveda Jaramillo, Germán

    2004-01-01

    Se estudió la variabilidad de la escala de fluctuación de caudales medios mensuales con el área de la cuenca de drenaje. El caso de estudio se aplicó a series de caudales medios mensuales en estaciones de medición localizadas a lo largo de la cuenca del río Tocantins en Brasil. La estimación de la escala de fluctuación se realizó usando: (i) el autocorrelograma, (ii) la función de varianza, y (iii) la función de densidad espectral de área unitaria, evaluada en la frecuencia cero.

  14. [Selective histochemical identification of neuronal cell populations using fucose-specific lectins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkuratov, E G; Nozdrachev, A D

    2004-01-01

    We studied lectin histochemical properties of structures of caudal ganglia of the vagus nerve and ganglion of the trigeminal nerve in white rats using fucose-specific conjugates to peroxidase. Morphological samples were processed on a computer video analyzer. Metrical and optical indices of the afferent neurons were analyzed. The obtained data demonstrate different topography of glycoconjugates in the afferent ganglia. Application of recent image processing techniques allows revealing neuron populations in afferent ganglia of rats undetectable by standard morphological techniques.

  15. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: Detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Skirrow, Rachel C. [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Rieberger, Kevin J. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Aggelen, Graham van [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Meays, Cynthia L. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Helbing, Caren C., E-mail: chelbing@uvic.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •A minimally-invasive tail fin biopsy assay was developed for use in fish. •Quantitative real time polymerase reaction provided gene expression readout. •Results were comparable to classical liver tissue responses. •The approach was used on two salmonid species and can be coupled with genomic sex determination using an additional biopsy for maximal information. -- Abstract: An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in

  16. Análisis de Caudales Máximos Anuales usando la Distribución GVE para tres Poblaciones Flood Frequency Analysis via three Population GEV Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Raynal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La función de distribución de probabilidad general de valores extremos para tres poblaciones (TPGVE, es presentada para su aplicación en el análisis de frecuencias de caudales máximos anuales. Se propone también un procedimiento para estimar sus parámetros, basado en el método de máxima verosimilitud. El modelo ha funcionado muy bien en la mayoría de las muestras de caudales máximos hasta ahora analizadas, dos de las cuales se incluyen como ejemplos de aplicación para ilustrar el procedimiento. El modelo propuesto ha resultado ser la mejor opción de ajuste a los datos de muestra provenientes de varias poblaciones, cuando ha sido comparado con dos distribuciones de probabilidad de una población y con otro modelo de tres poblaciones.This study examines the three population general extreme value (TPGEV distribution for application in annual flood frequency analysis. We also propose a procedure for estimating its' parameters based on a maximum likelihood method. The model has functioned very well for most of the samples of maximum flows studied to date, two of which are included as illustrative examples in use of the procedure. The proposed model has proved to be the best option for the fitting of data arising from various populations when it has been compared with two probability distributions from one population and another model of three populations.

  17. Intraspecific Variation Patterns of the Caudal Complex in Extant and Fossil Teleosts, with Comments on Implications into Taxonomy and Systematics: a Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduarda de Castro Leal

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Comparative morphology remains as afundamental support of the interrelationshiphypotheses of living and fossil fish taxa. Theconceptualization of the characters is only possibleafter the comparative analysis that shows themorphological variation of groups from differenttaxonomical rank. The intraspecific morphologicalvariation of a large number of teleostean speciesis relatively unknown. Osteological studies ofteninclude some few specimens minimizing thepossibility to recognize the intraspecific variation.This observation is also valid in the cases were theontogenetic changes are analyzed. The discoveryof such morphological variations requires the studyof a large sample size. The caudal skeleton is amajor anatomical complex and data source usedin the evaluation of teleostean interrelationships.However, the intraspecific variation of its elementshad been rarely investigated. Intraspecific variationobserved in extant taxa provides critical control forrecognition of intraspecific variation in fossil taxa,and integrated studies of fossil and living teleostsare required. Attempting to provide new data on thesubject, this study deals with intraspecific variationobserved in the caudal skeleton complex of twoteleost species: the extant Osteoglossum bicirrhosum(Osteoglossomorpha: Osteoglossidae from theAmazonian drainage, and the fossil Cladocyclusgardneri (Ichthyodectiformes from the LowerCretaceous of Araripe Basin, northeastern Brazil. Weanalyzed fifthy-three specimens of O. bicirrhosum(SL 37,4 mm to 580 mm and twenty-two specimensof C. gardneri (SL 70 mm to 260 mm, describing andquantifying the morphological variation. The caudalskeleton of O. bicirrhosum displays the highestdegrees of intraspecific variation in the patterns ofneural spines and hypurals associated to U2, andneural arches and spines counts for PU1, whereasC. gardneri presented a more conservative pattern.An overview of all the different patterns observedis given, and the implications

  18. Excitatory amino acid receptor blockade within the caudal pressor area and rostral ventrolateral medulla alters cardiovascular responses to nucleus raphe obscurus stimulation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva N.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressor responses elicited by stimulation of the nucleus raphe obscurus (NRO depend on the integrity of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM. Therefore, to test the participation of excitatory amino acid (EAA receptors in the cardiovascular responses evoked by NRO stimulation (1 ms, 100 Hz, 40-70 µA, for 10 s, the EAA antagonist kynurenic acid (Kyn was microinjected at different sites in the ventrolateral medullar surface (2.7 nmol/200 nl of male Wistar rats (270-320 g, N = 39 and NRO stimulation was repeated. The effects of NRO stimulation were: hypertension (deltaMAP = +43 ± 1 mmHg, P<0.01, bradycardia (deltaHR = -30 ± 7 bpm, P<0.01 and apnea. Bilateral microinjection of Kyn into the RVLM, which did not change baseline parameters, almost abolished the bradycardia induced by NRO stimulation (deltaHR = -61 ± 3 before vs -2 ± 3 bpm after Kyn, P<0.01, N = 7. Unilateral microinjection of Kyn into the CVLM did not change baseline parameters or reduce the pressor response to NRO stimulation (deltaMAP = +46 ± 5 before vs +48 ± 5 mmHg after Kyn, N = 6. Kyn bilaterally microinjected into the caudal pressor area reduced blood pressure and heart rate and almost abolished the pressor response to NRO stimulation (deltaMAP = +46 ± 4 mmHg before vs +4 ± 2 mmHg after Kyn, P<0.01, N = 7. These results indicate that EAA receptors on the medullary ventrolateral surface play a role in the modulation of the cardiovascular responses induced by NRO stimulation, and also suggest that the RVLM participates in the modulation of heart rate responses and that the caudal pressor area modulates the pressor response following NRO stimulation.

  19. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: Detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •A minimally-invasive tail fin biopsy assay was developed for use in fish. •Quantitative real time polymerase reaction provided gene expression readout. •Results were comparable to classical liver tissue responses. •The approach was used on two salmonid species and can be coupled with genomic sex determination using an additional biopsy for maximal information. -- Abstract: An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in

  20. The atypical cadherin Celsr1 functions non-cell autonomously to block rostral migration of facial branchiomotor neurons in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasco, Derrick M; Pike, Whitney; Qu, Yibo; Reustle, Lindsay; Misra, Kamana; Di Bonito, Maria; Studer, Michele; Fritzsch, Bernd; Goffinet, André M; Tissir, Fadel; Chandrasekhar, Anand

    2016-09-01

    The caudal migration of facial branchiomotor (FBM) neurons from rhombomere (r) 4 to r6 in the hindbrain is an excellent model to study neuronal migration mechanisms. Although several Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) components are required for FBM neuron migration, only Celsr1, an atypical cadherin, regulates the direction of migration in mice. In Celsr1 mutants, a subset of FBM neurons migrates rostrally instead of caudally. Interestingly, Celsr1 is not expressed in the migrating FBM neurons, but rather in the adjacent floor plate and adjoining ventricular zone. To evaluate the contribution of different expression domains to neuronal migration, we conditionally inactivated Celsr1 in specific cell types. Intriguingly, inactivation of Celsr1 in the ventricular zone of r3-r5, but not in the floor plate, leads to rostral migration of FBM neurons, greatly resembling the migration defect of Celsr1 mutants. Dye fill experiments indicate that the rostrally-migrated FBM neurons in Celsr1 mutants originate from the anterior margin of r4. These data suggest strongly that Celsr1 ensures that FBM neurons migrate caudally by suppressing molecular cues in the rostral hindbrain that can attract FBM neurons. PMID:27395006

  1. The atypical cadherin Celsr1 functions non-cell autonomously to block rostral migration of facial branchiomotor neurons in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasco, Derrick M; Pike, Whitney; Qu, Yibo; Reustle, Lindsay; Misra, Kamana; Di Bonito, Maria; Studer, Michele; Fritzsch, Bernd; Goffinet, André M; Tissir, Fadel; Chandrasekhar, Anand

    2016-09-01

    The caudal migration of facial branchiomotor (FBM) neurons from rhombomere (r) 4 to r6 in the hindbrain is an excellent model to study neuronal migration mechanisms. Although several Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) components are required for FBM neuron migration, only Celsr1, an atypical cadherin, regulates the direction of migration in mice. In Celsr1 mutants, a subset of FBM neurons migrates rostrally instead of caudally. Interestingly, Celsr1 is not expressed in the migrating FBM neurons, but rather in the adjacent floor plate and adjoining ventricular zone. To evaluate the contribution of different expression domains to neuronal migration, we conditionally inactivated Celsr1 in specific cell types. Intriguingly, inactivation of Celsr1 in the ventricular zone of r3-r5, but not in the floor plate, leads to rostral migration of FBM neurons, greatly resembling the migration defect of Celsr1 mutants. Dye fill experiments indicate that the rostrally-migrated FBM neurons in Celsr1 mutants originate from the anterior margin of r4. These data suggest strongly that Celsr1 ensures that FBM neurons migrate caudally by suppressing molecular cues in the rostral hindbrain that can attract FBM neurons.

  2. Cryptorchidism as a caudal developmental field defect. A new description of cryptorchidism associated with malformations and dysplasias of the kidneys, the ureters and the spine from T10 to S5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Beck, B L;

    1998-01-01

    to in cryptorchidism in general. In the literature the association was reported in 5-10% of boys considered to suffer from cryptorchidism only. Furthermore, our observations are concordant with recent theories about cryptorchidism. Consequently, we propose that cryptorchidism in general may be a caudal developmental...

  3. Bloqueio peridural caudal: técnica anestésica de uso exclusivo em crianças? É possível sua realização em adultos? Qual o papel do ultrassom nesse contexto?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Esquenazi Najman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio peridural caudal é a mais popular entre todas as técnicas de anestesia regional em crianças. Com o avanço da idade, apenas a relativa dificuldade em localizar o hiato sacral limita seu uso. Entretanto, em adultos a técnica vem sendo largamente utilizada para controle de dor crônica com o auxílio da fluoroscopia. Assim, a habilidade em localizar o hiato e definir as variações anatômicas é o principal fator determinante do sucesso e segurança na execução do bloqueio peridural pela via caudal. Nesse contexto, o ultrassom vem ganhando espaço como guia para a realização do bloqueio caudal. O objetivo desta revisão foi elucidar o papel do ultrassom na anestesia caudal, além de demonstrar que o bloqueio caudal, muito utilizado em crianças, também é útil e pode ser usado em adultos. CONTEÚDO: Uma revisão literária sobre a anatomia da região sacral e da técnica anestésica necessária para a realização adequada do bloqueio caudal foi promovida. Além disso, artigos recentes sobre estudos realizados com bloqueios peridurais caudais guiados por ultrassom tanto em crianças quanto em adultos também foram incluídos. CONCLUSÕES: O ultrassom, apesar de suas limitações, pode ser útil como ferramenta adjuvante no posicionamento da agulha no espaço caudal. Permite a fácil identificação da anatomia sacral, além de visualização da injeção, em tempo real. Sua natureza portátil, não invasiva e livre de exposição à radiação faz dele uma tecnologia atrativa na sala operatória, principalmente na emergência de casos difíceis. Entretanto, como seu uso em bloqueios centrais do neuroeixo ainda é muito primitivo, é necessário que mais pesquisas sejam feitas para se consagre como técnica de rotina na prática anestésica.

  4. Caudal Nuclei Of The Rat Nucleus Of The Solitary Tract Differentially Innervate Respiratory Compartments Within The Ventrolateral Medulla

    OpenAIRE

    Alheid, George F.; Jiao, Weijie; McCrimmon, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial array of respiratory, cardiovascular, visceral and somatic afferents are relayed via the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) to the brainstem (and forebrain). Despite some degree of overlap within the NTS, specificity is maintained in central respiratory reflexes driven by 2nd order afferent relay neurons in the NTS. While the topographical arrangement of respiratory-related afferents targeting the NTS has been extensively investigated, their higher order brainstem targets beyon...

  5. Estudio probabilístico de precipitación y caudal en la cuenca hidrográfica del río Cali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marulanda V. Edgar

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Se analizó el comportamiento probabilístico de la precipitación y el caudal, así como la influencia del fenómeno del Niño en la cuenca hidrográfica del río Cali (123 Km2, localizada en la vertiente Oriental de la cordillera Occidental en el Municipio de Santiago de Cali, en el Valle del Cauca (Colombia. En la determinación de las curvas de variación temporal y el análisis de los eventos extremos, se obtuvo buen ajuste con el método probabilístico de Weibull, la precipitación media de 2046 mm varía entre 3600 (Zona Alta y 1200 mm (Zona Baja; el escurrimiento superficial anual de 3.94 m3 s-1 oscila entre 2.32 (julio y 6.09 m3s-1 (mayo. Los caudales extremos del río Cali han variado entre 0.20 (sequia y 193.0 m3 S-1 (época de lluvias intensas; mientras que en el río Pichindé, su principal afluente, la fluctuación ha oscilado entre 0.17 y 79.9 m3s-1.  Entre 1990 y 1993 el caudal medio anual del no se redujo en 26% respecto al promedio histórico. En los años de incidencia del fenómeno del Niño han ocurrido los eventos más intensos: entre el 52 y el 84% de las precipitaciones máximas mayores de 60 mm en 24 horas los caudales críticos máximos (193.0 y mínimos (0.20 m3 s-1; el Niño 1991-1992 tuvo la mayor incidencia en la disponibilidad de agua en los últimos 43 años, redujo en 36% (1311 mm la precipitación anual y en 50% (1.97 m3 s-1 el caudal medio anual.

    The probabilistic behavior of the precipitation and the flow in the Cali River catchment (123 km2 was analyzed. The attained curves with the Weibull probabilistic method followed a very good adjustment. The catchment shows a medium precipitation of 2046 mm that varies from 3600 (High Zone to 1200 mm (Low zone. The annual superficial flow was about 3.94 m3S-1 with monthly variations between 2.32 (july and 6

  6. 摆动尾鳍水动力性能的试验和数值研究%Experimental and numerical study on hydrodynamic performance of a flapping caudal fin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏玉民; 张曦; 杨亮

    2012-01-01

    鱼类能够在水下高速度、低噪音、高效率地游动.鱼类出色的推进性能通过其摆动尾鳍实现.这种摆动尾鳍推进方式已经用在了水下无人航行器上.因此研究摆动尾鳍的水动力性能是非常有意义的.对摆动尾鳍的推进水动力性能进行了详尽的研究.设计、装配了一套仿尾鳍推进系统,并对其进行了相应的水动力试验.在试验中研究了运动参数对摆动尾鳍水动力性能的影响.与此同时,采用基于雷诺平均N-S方程的数值方法对摆动尾鳍的水动力性能进行了研究.在数值计算中采用了k-ω SST湍流模型和有限体积法.数值计算结果和水动力试验结果进行了比较.对尾鳍表面的压力分布和流场中的尾涡结构进行了分析.水动力试验和数值计算都表明摆动尾鳍可以产生推进力和较高的推进效率.%Fish can cruise under water with large speed, low noise, and high propulsion efficiency. The excellent propulsion performance is achieved by the flapping caudal fin of fish, which has been used in unmanned underwater vehicle. Therefore, it is significant to study the propulsion performance of the flapping caudal fin. This paper presents a comprehensive study on the hydrodynamic performance of a flapping caudal fin. A bionic caudal fin propulsion system is designed and installed. Hydrodynamic experiments are performed. Effects of motion parameters are shown in experimental results. Meanwhile, numerical simulations based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations are done. A k-ω SST turbulent model and a finite volume method are employed. Numerical results are compared with experimental results. Pressure distribution on the caudal fin and vorticity structure are analyzed in numerical results. Both experimental and numerical results indicate that thrust force with high propulsion efficiency can be generated by a flapping caudal fin

  7. Origin of a Non-Clarke's Column Division of the Dorsal Spinocerebellar Tract and the Role of Caudal Proprioceptive Neurons in Motor Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuengert, Rachel; Hori, Kei; Kibodeaux, Erin E; McClellan, Jacob X; Morales, Justin E; Huang, Teng-Wei P; Neul, Jeffrey L; Lai, Helen C

    2015-11-10

    Proprioception, the sense of limb and body position, is essential for generating proper movement. Unconscious proprioceptive information travels through cerebellar-projecting neurons in the spinal cord and medulla. The progenitor domain defined by the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, ATOH1, has been implicated in forming these cerebellar-projecting neurons; however, their precise contribution to proprioceptive tracts and motor behavior is unknown. Significantly, we demonstrate that Atoh1-lineage neurons in the spinal cord reside outside Clarke's column (CC), a main contributor of neurons relaying hindlimb proprioception, despite giving rise to the anatomical and functional correlate of CC in the medulla, the external cuneate nucleus (ECu), which mediates forelimb proprioception. Elimination of caudal Atoh1-lineages results in mice with relatively normal locomotion but unable to perform coordinated motor tasks. Altogether, we reveal that proprioceptive nuclei in the spinal cord and medulla develop from more than one progenitor source, suggesting an avenue to uncover distinct proprioceptive functions.

  8. Microinjection of DLH into the region of the caudal ventral respiratory column in the cat: evidence for an endogenous cough-suppressant mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliacek, Ivan; Corrie, Lu Wen-Chi; Wang, Cheng; Rose, Melanie J; Bolser, Donald C

    2007-03-01

    The caudal ventral respiratory column (cVRC) contains premotor expiratory neurons that play an important role in cough-related expiratory activity of chest wall and abdominal muscles. Microinjection of d,l-homocysteic acid (DLH) was used to test the hypothesis that local activation of cVRC neurons can suppress the cough reflex. DLH (20-50 mM, 10-30 nl) was injected into the region of cVRC in nine anesthetized spontaneously breathing cats. Repetitive coughing was elicited by mechanical stimulation of the intrathoracic airways. Electromyograms (EMG) were recorded bilaterally from inspiratory parasternal and expiratory transversus abdominis (ABD) and unilaterally from laryngeal posterior cricoarytenoid and thyroarytenoid muscles. Unilateral microinjection of DLH (1-1.5 nmol) elicited bilateral increases in tonic and phasic respiratory ABD EMG activity, and it altered the respiratory pattern and laryngeal motor activities. However, DLH also decreased cough frequency by 51 +/- 7% compared with control (P coughs compared with control. The cough alterations were much less pronounced after microinjection of a lower dose of DLH (0.34-0.8 nmol). No cough depression was observed after microinjections of vehicle. These results suggest that an endogenous cough suppressant neuronal network in the region of the cVRC may exist, and this network may be involved in the control of cough reflex excitability. PMID:17138836

  9. The Wnt and Delta-Notch signalling pathways interact to direct pair-rule gene expression via caudal during segment addition in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönauer, Anna; Paese, Christian L B; Hilbrant, Maarten; Leite, Daniel J; Schwager, Evelyn E; Feitosa, Natália Martins; Eibner, Cornelius; Damen, Wim G M; McGregor, Alistair P

    2016-07-01

    In short-germ arthropods, posterior segments are added sequentially from a segment addition zone (SAZ) during embryogenesis. Studies in spiders such as Parasteatoda tepidariorum have provided insights into the gene regulatory network (GRN) underlying segment addition, and revealed that Wnt8 is required for dynamic Delta (Dl) expression associated with the formation of new segments. However, it remains unclear how these pathways interact during SAZ formation and segment addition. Here, we show that Delta-Notch signalling is required for Wnt8 expression in posterior SAZ cells, but represses the expression of this Wnt gene in anterior SAZ cells. We also found that these two signalling pathways are required for the expression of the spider orthologues of even-skipped (eve) and runt-1 (run-1), at least in part via caudal (cad). Moreover, it appears that dynamic expression of eve in this spider does not require a feedback loop with run-1, as is found in the pair-rule circuit of the beetle Tribolium Taken together, our results suggest that the development of posterior segments in Parasteatoda is directed by dynamic interactions between Wnt8 and Delta-Notch signalling that are read out by cad, which is necessary but probably not sufficient to regulate the expression of eve and run-1 Our study therefore provides new insights towards better understanding the evolution and developmental regulation of segmentation in other arthropods, including insects.

  10. The Wnt and Delta-Notch signalling pathways interact to direct pair-rule gene expression via caudal during segment addition in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönauer, Anna; Paese, Christian L B; Hilbrant, Maarten; Leite, Daniel J; Schwager, Evelyn E; Feitosa, Natália Martins; Eibner, Cornelius; Damen, Wim G M; McGregor, Alistair P

    2016-07-01

    In short-germ arthropods, posterior segments are added sequentially from a segment addition zone (SAZ) during embryogenesis. Studies in spiders such as Parasteatoda tepidariorum have provided insights into the gene regulatory network (GRN) underlying segment addition, and revealed that Wnt8 is required for dynamic Delta (Dl) expression associated with the formation of new segments. However, it remains unclear how these pathways interact during SAZ formation and segment addition. Here, we show that Delta-Notch signalling is required for Wnt8 expression in posterior SAZ cells, but represses the expression of this Wnt gene in anterior SAZ cells. We also found that these two signalling pathways are required for the expression of the spider orthologues of even-skipped (eve) and runt-1 (run-1), at least in part via caudal (cad). Moreover, it appears that dynamic expression of eve in this spider does not require a feedback loop with run-1, as is found in the pair-rule circuit of the beetle Tribolium Taken together, our results suggest that the development of posterior segments in Parasteatoda is directed by dynamic interactions between Wnt8 and Delta-Notch signalling that are read out by cad, which is necessary but probably not sufficient to regulate the expression of eve and run-1 Our study therefore provides new insights towards better understanding the evolution and developmental regulation of segmentation in other arthropods, including insects. PMID:27287802

  11. Establishment of caudal fin cell lines from tropical ornamental fishes Puntius fasciatus and Pristolepis fasciata endemic to the Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, T Raja; Basheer, V S; Gopalakrishnan, A; Rathore, Gaurav; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Kumar, Raj; Jena, J K

    2013-12-01

    Two new cell lines, PFF and CFF were established from the caudal fin of the Puntius fasciatus, and Pristolepis fasciata respectively. Since their initiation, these cell lines (PFF and CFF) have been subcultured in L-15 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum for more than 35 passages at 28°C and both the cell lines were characterized. Karyotyping analysis of PFF and CFF cells at 25th passage indicated that the modal chromosome number was 2n=50 and 2n=48 respectively. The cell line was cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen at -196°C and could be recovered from storage after six months with good cell viability. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the fragments of two mitochondrial genes, 16S rRNA and COI confirmed that the cell lines originated from the respective species. The bacterial extracellular products from Vibrio cholerae MTCC3904 and Aeromonas hydrophila were found to be toxic to PFF and CFF. Both the cells were resistant to the marine viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV). No CPE could be found in both cell lines inoculated with the fish samples and cell culture supernatants were demonstrated free of SVC, iridovirus and KHV by molecular methods. These results indicated the absence of SVC, iridovirus and KHV in the ornamental fishes collected from the Western Ghats of India.

  12. Phosphorylation of Dpsyl2 (CRMP2) and Dpsyl3 (CRMP4) is required for positioning of caudal primary motor neurons in the zebrafish spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Rii; Nozawa, Keisuke; Tanaka, Hideomi; Ohshima, Toshio

    2013-12-01

    Dpysls (CRMPs) that were initially identified as mediator proteins of Semaphorin3a (Sema3a) signaling are involved in neuronal polarity and axon elongation in cultured neurons. Previous studies have shown that knockdown of neuropilin1a, one of the sema3a receptors, exhibited ectopic primary motor neurons (PMNs) outside of the spinal cord in zebrafish. However, downstream molecules of sema3a signaling involved in the positioning of motor neurons are largely unknown. Here, we addressed the role of Dpysl2 (CRMP2) and Dpysl3 (CRMP4) in the positioning of PMNs in the zebrafish spinal cord. We found that the knockdown of dpysls by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (AMO) causes abnormal positioning of caudal primary (CaP) motor neurons outside the spinal cord. The knockdown of cdk5 and dyrk2 by AMO also caused similar phenotype in the positioning of CaP motor neurons, and this phenotype was rescued by co-injection of phosphorylation-mimic type dpysl2 mRNA. These results suggest that the phosphorylation of Dpysl2 and Dpysl3 by Cdk5 and Dyrk2 is required for correct positioning of CaP motor neurons in the zebrafish spinal cord.

  13. Bupivacaína-buprenorfina vs. bupivacaína por vía caudal para analgesia postoperatoria en el paciente pediátrico en cirugía ortopédica Bupivacaine-buprenorphine vs. caudal bupivacaine as postoperative analgesia for pediatric patients undergoing orthopedic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Flores Arana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el dolor postoperatorio en el niño constituye una entidad especial ya que en el influyen varios factores, por tanto es una experiencia no esperada por el niño y más difícil de tratar. Objetivos: evaluar y comparar la duración y calidad de la analgesia postoperatoria caudal así como la estabilidad hemodinámica y los efectos adversos entre bupivacaína-buprenorfina contra bupivacaína. Material y método: ensayo clínico controlado, prospectivo, longitudinal y comparativo; se estudian 40 pacientes de 1 a 7 años, para cirugía ortopédica bajo bloqueo caudal en el HTO No 21 de Monterrey, Nuevo León, de mayo 2009 a enero 2010. Se asignan en forma aleatoria a dos grupos: grupo A bupivacaína 0,25% 1,4 ml/kg y grupo B se le administrará bupivacaína al 0,25% 1,4 ml/kg adicionada de 1 μg/kg de buprenorfina. La intensidad del dolor postoperatorio se medirá a través del EVA, NIPS Y CRIES a las 2, 4, 6, 12 y 24 horas posteriores. Análisis estadístico: T de Student, U de Mann-Whitney; y prueba de Chi cuadrado. Resultados: el tiempo de administración del primer analgésico posterior a cirugía fue más corto en el grupo A (5,33 vs. 8,46 horas, con una diferencia a favor del grupo B (p Background: postoperative pain in children is a special entity and that the influence various factors, therefore it is an unexpected experience for the child and more difficult to treat. Objective: to evaluate and compare the length and quality of post-operative caudal analgesia and hemodynamic stability and adverse effects between bupivacaine-buprenorphine against bupivacaine. Material and methods: a controlled clinical trial, prospective, longitudinal, comparative study included 40 patients 1-7 years for orthopedic surgery under caudal block in the HTO No 21, of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, from May 2009 to January 2010. Are assigned at random to two groups: group A 0.25% bupivacaine 1.4 ml/kg, and group B bupivacaine mL/kg 0.25% 1.4 mg/kg of

  14. 中药热敷结合骶管封闭治疗轻中度腰椎间盘突出症%Treating mild to moderate lumbar disc herniation by herbal compress combined with caudal block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳宗进; 刘汝银; 赵子龙

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical curative effect of the TCM herbal compress plus caudal block in the treatment of mild to moderate lumbar disc herniation. Methods:78 cases were given herbal fomentation combined with caudal block. To analyze the curative effect after treatment for 3 weeks. Results:30 cases were cured (38.46%), effective in 40 cases (51.28%), ineffective in 8 cases (10.26%), the total efficiency was 89.74%. Conclusion:Treating mild to moderate lumbar disc herniation by herbal compress combined with caudal block is significantly effective.%  目的:观察中药热敷结合骶管封闭治疗轻中度腰椎间盘突出症的临床疗效。方法:78例患者给予中药热敷结合骶管封闭治疗。治疗后3周进行疗效分析。结果:治愈30例(38.46%),有效40例(51.28%),无效8例(10.26%),总有效率为89.74%。结论:中药热敷结合骶管封闭治疗轻中度腰椎间盘突出疗效显著。

  15. Orexin in Rostral Hotspot of Nucleus Accumbens Enhances Sucrose 'Liking' and Intake but Scopolamine in Caudal Shell Shifts 'Liking' Toward 'Disgust' and 'Fear'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Daniel C; Terry, Rachel A; Berridge, Kent C

    2016-07-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) contains a hedonic hotspot in the rostral half of medial shell, where opioid agonist microinjections are known to enhance positive hedonic orofacial reactions to the taste of sucrose ('liking' reactions). Within NAc shell, orexin/hypocretin also has been reported to stimulate food intake and is implicated in reward, whereas blockade of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by scopolamine suppresses intake and may have anti-reward effects. Here, we show that NAc microinjection of orexin-A in medial shell amplifies the hedonic impact of sucrose taste, but only within the same anatomically rostral site, identical to the opioid hotspot. By comparison, at all sites throughout medial shell, orexin microinjections stimulated 'wanting' to eat, as reflected by increases in intake of palatable sweet chocolates. At NAc shell sites outside the hotspot, orexin selectively enhanced 'wanting' to eat without enhancing sweetness 'liking' reactions. In contrast, microinjections of the antagonist scopolamine at all sites in NAc shell suppressed sucrose 'liking' reactions as well as suppressing intake of palatable food. Conversely, scopolamine increased aversive 'disgust' reactions elicited by bitter quinine at all NAc shell sites. Finally, scopolamine microinjections localized to the caudal half of medial shell additionally generated a fear-related anti-predator reaction of defensive treading and burying directed toward the corners of the transparent chamber. Together, these results confirm a rostral hotspot in NAc medial shell as a unique site for orexin induction of hedonic 'liking' enhancement, similar to opioid enhancement. They also reveal distinct roles for orexin and acetylcholine signals in NAc shell for hedonic reactions and motivated behaviors.

  16. The human thalamic somatic sensory nucleus [ventral caudal (Vc)] shows neuronal mechanoreceptor-like responses to optimal stimuli for peripheral mechanoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, N; Ohara, S; Johnson, K O; Lenz, F A

    2009-02-01

    Although the response of human cutaneous mechanoreceptors to controlled stimuli is well studied, it is not clear how these peripheral signals may be reflected in neuronal activity of the human CNS. We now test the hypothesis that individual neurons in the human thalamic principal somatic sensory nucleus [ventral caudal (Vc)] respond selectively to the optimal stimulus for one of the four mechanoreceptors. The optimal stimuli for particular mechanoreceptors were defined as follows: Pacinian corpuscles (PC), vibration at 128 Hz; rapidly adapting (RA), vibration at 32 or 64 Hz; slowly adapting type 1 (SA1), edge; slowly adapting type 2 (SA2), skin stretch. Nineteen neurons had a significant response to at least one optimal stimulus, and 17 had a significantly greater response to one stimulus than to the other three, including 7 PC-related, 7 RA-like, 3 SA1-like, and 2 SA2-like neurons. One of each of the SA1- and SA2-like thalamic neurons responded to vibration with firing rates that were lower than those to edge or stretch but not significantly. Except in the case of PC-related neurons, the receptive field (RF) sizes were larger for these thalamic neurons than for the corresponding mechanoreceptor. Von Frey thresholds were higher than those for the corresponding human RA and SA1 mechanoreceptors. These results suggest that there is a convergence of pathways transmitting input from multiple mechanoreceptors of one type on single thalamic neurons via the dorsal columns. They are also consistent with the presence of primate thalamic elements of modality and somatotopic isorepresentation.

  17. Corticotrigeminal projections from the insular cortex to the trigeminal caudal subnucleus regulate orofacial pain after nerve injury via extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in insular cortex neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian eWang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cortical neuroplasticity alterations are implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic orofacial pain. However, the relationship between critical cortex excitability and orofacial pain maintenance has not been fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated a top-down corticospinal descending pain modulation pathway from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC to the spinal dorsal horn that could directly regulate nociceptive transmission. Thus, we aimed to investigate possible corticotrigeminal connections that directly influence orofacial nociception in rats. Infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI induced significant orofacial nociceptive behaviors as well as pain-related negative emotions such as anxiety/depression in rats. By combining retrograde and anterograde tract tracing, we found powerful evidence that the trigeminal caudal subnucleus (Vc, especially the superficial laminae (I/II, received direct descending projections from granular and dysgranular parts of the insular cortex (IC. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, an important signaling molecule involved in neuroplasticity, was significantly activated in the IC following IoN-CCI. Moreover, in IC slices from IoN-CCI rats, U0126, an inhibitor of ERK activation, decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and reduced the paired-pulse ratio (PPR of Vc-projecting neurons. Additionally, U0126 also reduced the number of action potentials in the Vc-projecting neurons. Finally, intra-IC infusion of U0126 obviously decreased Fos expression in the Vc, accompanied by the alleviation of both nociceptive behavior and negative emotions. Thus, the corticotrigeminal descending pathway from the IC to the Vc could directly regulate orofacial pain, and ERK deactivation in the IC could effectively alleviate neuropathic pain as well as pain-related negative emotions in IoN-CCI rats, probably through this top-down pathway. These

  18. Go/No Go task performance predicts cortical thickness in the caudal inferior frontal gyrus in young adults with and without ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Erik; Jernigan, Terry L; Lisdahl, Krista M; Tamm, Leanne; Tapert, Susan F; Potkin, Steven G; Mathalon, Daniel; Molina, Brooke; Bjork, James; Castellanos, F Xavier; Swanson, James; Kuperman, Joshua M; Bartsch, Hauke; Chen, Chi-Hua; Dale, Anders M; Epstein, Jeffery N; Group, Mta Neuroimaging

    2016-09-01

    Response inhibition deficits are widely believed to be at the core of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Several studies have examined neural architectural correlates of ADHD, but research directly examining structural correlates of response inhibition is lacking. Here we examine the relationship between response inhibition as measured by a Go/No Go task, and cortical surface area and thickness of the caudal inferior frontal gyrus (cIFG), a region implicated in functional imaging studies of response inhibition, in a sample of 114 young adults with and without ADHD diagnosed initially during childhood. We used multiple linear regression models to test the hypothesis that Go/No Go performance would be associated with cIFG surface area or thickness. Results showed that poorer Go/No Go performance was associated with thicker cIFG cortex, and this effect was not mediated by ADHD status or history of substance use. However, independent of Go/No Go performance, persistence of ADHD symptoms and more frequent cannabis use were associated with thinner cIFG. Go/No Go performance was not associated with cortical surface area. The association between poor inhibitory functioning and thicker cIFG suggests that maturation of this region may differ in low performing participants. An independent association of persistent ADHD symptoms and frequent cannabis use with thinner cIFG cortex suggests that distinct neural mechanisms within this region may play a role in inhibitory function, broader ADHD symptomatology, and cannabis use. These results contribute to Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) by revealing novel associations between neural architectural phenotypes and basic neurobehavioral processes measured dimensionally. PMID:26404018

  19. Analgesia pós-operatória em correção cirúrgica de pé torto congênito: comparação entre bloqueio nervoso periférico e bloqueio peridural caudal Analgesia postoperatoria en corrección quirúrgica de pie jorobado congénito: comparación entre bloqueo nervioso periférico y bloqueo epidural caudal Postoperative analgesia for the surgical correction of congenital clubfoot: comparison between peripheral nerve block and caudal epidural block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Rossi Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O procedimento de correção de pé torto congênito (PTC cursa com dor pós-operatória intensa. A técnica mais utilizada em crianças é a peridural caudal associada à anestesia geral. Tem como limitação a curta duração da analgesia pós-operatória. Os bloqueios de nervos periféricos têm sido apontados como procedimentos com baixa incidência de complicações e tempo prolongado de analgesia. O objetivo do estudo foi comparar o tempo de analgesia dos bloqueios nervosos periféricos e bloqueio caudal e o consumo de morfina nas primeiras 24 horas após a correção de PTC em crianças. MÉTODO: Estudo randômico, encoberto, em crianças submetidas à intervenção cirúrgica para liberação póstero-medial de PTC, alocadas em 4 grupos conforme a técnica anestésica: Caudal (ACa; Bloqueios isquiático e femoral (IF; Bloqueios isquiático e safeno (IS; Bloqueio isquiático e anestesia local (IL, associados à anestesia geral. Nas primeiras 24 horas os pacientes receberam dipirona e paracetamol via oral e foram avaliados por anestesiologista que desconhecia a técnica empregada. Conforme escores da escala CHIPPS (Children's and infants postoperative pain scale era administrada morfina via oral (0,19 mg.kg-1 por dia. RESULTADOS: Foram estudadas 118 crianças distribuídas nos grupos ACa (30, IF (32, IS (28 IL (28. O tempo médio entre o bloqueio e a primeira dose de morfina foi 6,16 horas no grupo ACa, 7,05 horas no IF, 7,58 horas no IS e 8,18 horas no IL. O consumo de morfina foi 0,3 mg.kg-1 por dia nos quatro grupos. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: Os bloqueios nervosos periféricos não promoveram maior tempo de analgesia, tampouco redução no consumo de morfina nas primeiras 24 horas em crianças submetidas à correção de PTC quando comparados ao bloqueio peridural caudal.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El procedimiento de corrección de pie jorobado congénito (PJC, debuta

  20. A PROSPECTIVE, RANDOMIZED, DOUBLE BLIND, CONTROLLED CLINICAL STUDY OF ADJUVANT EFFECT OF FENTANYL (1 µg/kg OR CLONIDINE (2µg / kg TO ROPIVACAINE 0.2% 1ML/KG FOR CAUDAL ANALGESIA IN CHILDREN UNDERGOING LOWER ABDOMINAL SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ropivacaine having better safety profile and less motor blockade than bupivacaine is well suited for caudal analgesia. Since studies done regarding the effect of fentanyl and clonidine as adjuvants to ropivacaine for prolongation of caudal analgesia are scant and have shown conflicting results, the present study was conducted. METHODS: A total of 90 children aged between 3-6yrs belonging to ASA class I and II undergoing surgical procedures below the umbilicus were randomly allocated to one of two groups: Group R received ropivacaine 0.2%, 1 ml/kg with saline 0.02ml/kg and Group RF received ropivacaine 0.2%, 1 ml/kg with fentanyl 1 μg/kg (0.02ml/kg and Group RC (clonidine received 1ml/kg of 0.2% Ropivacaine plus clonidine 2µg / kg caudally after induction of general endotracheal anaesthesia. The pain score was evaluated using Hannallah pain scale, motor blockade using modified bromage scale and sedation assessed using 4 point sedation score at 30 minutes after extubation and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h. The time to awakening, first analgesic requirement time, number of doses of rescue analgesic and side-effects in a 24 hours period were also recorded. The results were evaluated using SPSS 17 statistical method. RESULTS: There were no differences in demographic characteristics between the groups. However, mean duration of caudal analgesia was 659.5 minutes in group R, 784.5 minutes in group RF and 960.5 minutes in group RC which was statistically highly significant (P<0.01.The total dose of rescue analgesic in 24 hours was lower in groups RF and RC. Also the number of children receiving rescue analgesia at 12 hours was higher in placebo group than fentanyl group and clonidine group which was statistically highly significant (P<0.01. Increased incidence of urinary retention and pruritis was noted in group RF which was statistically not significant (P=0.366. CONCLUSION: Addition of inj. Fentanyl 1µg/kg or clonidine 2µg/kg to Ropivacaine 0.2% 1ml

  1. Image Specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Jas, Mainak; Parikh, Devi

    2015-01-01

    For some images, descriptions written by multiple people are consistent with each other. But for other images, descriptions across people vary considerably. In other words, some images are specific $-$ they elicit consistent descriptions from different people $-$ while other images are ambiguous. Applications involving images and text can benefit from an understanding of which images are specific and which ones are ambiguous. For instance, consider text-based image retrieval. If a query descr...

  2. Alterações do diâmetro da veia cava caudal nas diferentes fases do ciclo respiratório, como um indicador não invasivo da volémia e correlação com a pressão venosa central

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Carla Alexandra Almeida

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT - Ultrasound evaluation of caudal vena cava diameter changes with breathing as an estimate of volemia and central venous pressure - Estimating volemia is essential for the care of critical patients. Traditionally this has been achieved through indirect parameters or invasive methods such as central venous pressure (CVP). Recently several human studies demonstrated that ultrasound (US) kinetic respiratory changes of caudal vena cava (CVC) can be a reliable indicator of the v...

  3. Subset specification of central serotonergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten P Smidt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The last decade the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT system has received enormous attention due to its role in regulation of behavior, exemplified by the discovery that increased 5-HT tone in the central nervous system is able to alleviate affective disorders. Here, we review the developmental processes, with a special emphasis on subset specification, leading to the formation of the 5-HT system in the brain. Molecular classification of 5-HT neuronal groups leads to the definition of two independent rostral groups positioned in rhombomere 1 and 2/3 and a caudal group in rhombomere 5-8. In addition, more disperse refinement of these subsets is present as shown by the selective expression of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor, indicating functional diversity between 5-HT subsets. The functional significance of the molecular coding differences is not well known and the molecular basis of described specific connectivity patterns remain to be elucidated. Recent developments in genetic lineage tracing models will provide these data and form a major step-up towards the full understanding of the importance of developmental programming and function of 5-HT neuronal subsets.

  4. 混合应用罗哌卡因、氯胺酮在新生儿骶管阻滞中的作用%Effection of Ropivacaine and Ketamine in Neonatal Caudal Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 刘之娜; 陈静; 刘芳; 李少波

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effection and the adverse reactions of ropivacaine and ketamine in neonatal caudal block.Methods:From 45 patients who will be suffered caudal block,we divided them into A,B,C three groups randomly and each group have 15 people.The patients of group A will be injected in caudal block by ropivacaine,the patients of group B will be injected in caudal block by ropivacaine and ketamine subcutaneous injection,the patients of group C will be injected in caudal block by the miscible liquids of ropivacaine and ketamine.After the operation,we record the patients' pain and analgesic time in 1,2,4,6,8,12,24hour.FLACC method will be used to evaluate analgesic effect,and taking the score<4 points as an effective analgesic time time.Results:Comparing the analgesic time and cases different point in time without pain patients of group A and group B,we find that no bigger difference between the two groups(P>0.05).Compared with A,B two groups,the analgesic time of group C seems longer significantly.And after 4,6,8,12,24 h patients there are more patients who don't need analgesic increased obviously (P<0.05).However,three groups of patients were not shown strong adverse reaction.Conclusion:Using ropivacaine and ketamine in neonatal caudal block effects better.%目的:探明罗哌卡因、氯胺酮混合液在新生儿骶管阻滞术后镇痛的疗效和不良反应.方法:选取45例即将行骶管阻滞的新生儿,随机分成A、B、C三组,每组15人,其中A组患者行罗哌卡因骶管阻滞,B组患者行罗哌卡因骶管阻滞并氯胺酮皮下注射,C组患者行罗哌卡因、氯胺酮混合液骶管阻滞.术后于1、2、4、6、8、12、24h分别记录各患者的镇痛情况以及镇痛时间,采用FLACC法评价镇痛效果,以评分<4分的维持时间作为有效镇痛时间.并且观察术后48h内不良反应的发生情况.结果:A组与B组之间比较镇痛时间以及术后不同时间点不需要镇痛的患者例数,发

  5. Estimación de los caudales ecológicos en el Río Valles con el método Tennant Estimates of ecological flows in the Río Valles with the Tennant method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Santacruz de León

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Los caudales ecológicos se definen como el régimen fluvial en un cuerpo de agua que permite mantener el funcionamiento del ecosistema acuático en condiciones naturales. La legislación ambiental en México establece la importancia de fijar estos caudales en los cuerpos de aguas nacionales, sin embargo, son pocos los ríos en los que se tienen establecidos. Se fijaron dos puntos (Micos y Santa Rosa sobre el cauce principal del Río Valles, San Luis Potosí; a la información hidrométrica registrada en esos puntos se le aplicó el método Tennant para estimar los caudales ecológicos. Los resultados mostraron que en los últimos treinta años, dichos flujos han disminuido entre 10% y 11%. Se concluyó que, en términos de flujo de agua, las condiciones más adversas para la vida acuática se presentan de marzo a mayo en el tramo Micos-Santa Rosa.The ecological flows are defined as the fluvial regime in a water body needed to function fluvial ecosystem. The environmental legislation in Mexico establishes the importance to setup ecological flows in water; however they are few rivers with established ecological flows. In this research were set two points (Micos and Santa Rosa on the mainstream River Valles, San Luis Potosí; on these points was applied Tennant method for estimating ecological flows. Results showed that over the past thirty years ecological flows have declined between 10% and 11%. We conclude that in terms of water flow, the most adverse conditions for aquatic life are presented from March to May in the Micos-Santa Rosa section.

  6. Modelo de balance hídrico para la estimación de los caudales de lixiviados generados en la operación del relleno sanitario del Centro Industrial del Sur - El Guacal, Heliconia-Antíoquia.

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Guerrero, Marinella

    2009-01-01

    Se revisó y analizó los modelos desarrollados para estimar los caudales de lixiviados que se generan en un relleno sanitario identificando sus limitaciones y desventajas. Se selecciono los modelos de mayor aplicación y aceptación para modelar las condiciones operativas del relleno sanitario El Guacal (Heliconia-Antioquia, Colombia). Se analizó la influencia del método de operación del relleno sanitario y de las variables climáticas del sitio de localización sobre la producción de lixiviado...

  7. 小儿骶管内复合右美托嘧定术后镇痛效果的观察%Effect of Addition of Dexmedetomidine to Lidocaine and Ropivacaine Caudal Block on Postoperative Analgesia in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李义辉

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察小儿骶管内复合右美托咪定的术后镇痛效果。方法40例6个月~6岁患儿随机分为2组,每组20例。静脉麻醉后利多卡因6 mg/kg,罗哌卡因2 mg/kg,容量0.75 mL/kg行骶管阻滞:A组局麻药中不加其他药,B组局麻药中加入右美托咪定2µg/kg。采用FLACC疼痛评分表进行评分,记录镇痛时间、不良反应。结果 B组的镇痛效果明显优于A组(P<0.05)。结论2µg/kg右美托咪定复合利多卡因6 mg/kg,罗哌卡因2 mg/kg,容量0.75 mL/kg行骶管阻滞的术后镇痛效果好,不增加不良反应的发生。%Objective To investigate the effect of addition of dexmedetomidine to lidocaine and ropivacaine caudal block on postoperative analgesia in children.Methods Forty children age 6months to 6 years old were evenly and randomly assigned into two groups in a double-blinded manner. each patient received a single caudal block with lidocaine 6 mg/kg and ropivacaine 2 mg/kg and the total volume 0.75 mL/kg. The local anesthetic solution was added dexmedetomidine 2 µg/kg in group B. Pain scores were evaluated after surgery with the paediatric observational FLACC. The duration of caudal analgesia , and side-effects were recorded.Result Method Group B has a better analgesic effect than Group A (P<0.05).Conclusion Addition of dexmedetomidine to lidocaine and ropivacaine caudal block signiifcantly promoted analgesia in children without an increase in incidence of side-effects.

  8. HRT Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Möller, M

    1996-01-01

    In the context of the AIS Project (Advanced Informatics Systems for administration and management) a study has been conducted that resulted in the definition of a high level information systems model. Thirteen proposed systems were defined for detailed analysis. The Finance, Foundation, Human Resources, Logistics and Purchasing areas have been studied in detail. These studies have lead to the purchase and implementation of the ORIAC and SIRIAC packages, the Foundation database, the Oracle HR package, the Triton package and EDH and BHT. This specification describes the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) intended to be used for accessing data in the HR and Foundation systems. This toolkit should help the divisions carry out their Human Resource management, planning and follow-up. It will have extensive report generation capabilities and offer a variety of standard graphs. It should have an easy-to-use graphical user interface and run on the CERN standard desktop platforms.

  9. Early determination of nasal-temporal retinotopic specificity in the eye anlage of the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dütting, D; Thanos, S

    1995-01-01

    The retinotectal projection of the chick is established between Embryonic Days 3 and 13 (E3 to E13). Fate mappings of the eye anlage by local injections of the fluorescent dyes DiI and DiA revealed that the anteroposterior axis of the optic vesicle corresponds to the nasotemporal axis of the retina. To investigate possible alterations in retinotopic specificity after ablating parts of the early eye anlage, we resected either most of the presumptive temporal or a large part of the presumptive nasal half of the eye anlage around stage 11 of the Hamburger-Hamilton scale (40-45 hr). After such treatment, the axes are restored in the healed optic vesicle. In the healing process the wound is closed by cells moving in from surrounding areas. After early posterior (i.e., temporal) ablation, the projection from the restored temporal half-retina onto the optic tectum was examined in embryos (E13 to E17) and juvenile chicken (P16) by retrograde and anterograde labeling of ganglion cells and their axons with DiI and DiASP. Normally, only a small fraction of ganglion cells from the temporal retina (between 6.4% on E13 and 0.08% on P16) projects onto the caudal part of the tectum. In experimental embryos and juvenile chicken this fraction is significantly increased (up to 80%). Retrograde double-labeling from the rostral and the caudal tectum reveals that temporal cells project onto either the rostral or the caudal tectum, but not via collaterals upon both areas. The ganglion cells with "displaced nasal" identity within the temporal retina that were backlabeled from the caudal tectum were to a large extent segregated into distinct clusters, indicating their derivation from few or possibly even single progenitor cells. Likewise, ablation of the anterior half of the optic vesicle led to clusters of rostrally projecting cells of "displaced temporal" identity within the restored nasal retina. In these experiments the dorsal-ventral retinotectal relationship remained intact. The

  10. Specific phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Alfons O

    2009-09-01

    Exposure based treatments in which patients are systematically confronted with their feared objects of situations are highly effective in the treatment of specific phobias and produce stable improvement both in reported fear and behavioral avoidance. Exposure in reality is more effective in most cases than exposure in sensu. For situations that are difficult to realize, exposure in virtual environments has become increasingly valuable. Exposure in vivo is clearly superior to pharmacotherapy, although cognitive enhancers have been successfully used recently to increase the effect of exposure therapy. The induction of relaxation is not a necessary precondition for exposure therapy. Rather the current mechanisms of change focus on extinction learning as being the central mechanism both on a cognitive level namely that the feared object is no longer associated with severely threatening consequence but also on an affective level, meaning that feared cue is no longer capable to activate the fear circuit in the brain. Accordingly future diagnostic categorizations of phobic disorders in the DSM-V should rather focus on the pattern of the fear response that needs to be changed than on the eliciting cues or situations that are avoided. PMID:19716991

  11. 腰麻与骶管麻醉应用于肛门手术74例%Spinal anesthesia or caudal anesthesia for anorectal surgery: An analysis of 74 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱怀宇; 胡四育; 王增文

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To observe the clinical effect of spinal anesthesia and caudal anesthesia in anorectal surgery. METHODS: Seventy-four patients who underwent anorectal surgery between September 2009 and May 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into spinal anesthesia group (n = 36) and caudal anesthesia group (n = 38). There were no significant differences in age, sex, illness, and operation time between the two groups. Anesthesia effect, onset time, cardiovascular complication, urinary retention, and time to sensory recovery were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The rate of satisfaction with anesthesia effect was 95% in the spinal anesthesia group and 79% in the caudal anesthesia group (P 0.05). Mean time to sensory recovery was 324 min in the spinal anesthesia group and 288 min in the caudal anesthesia group (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Spinal anesthesia has better clinical effect than caudal anesthesia when used in anorectal surgery, but the blood pressure and heart rate must be closely monitored and cardiovascular changes must be handled on time.%目的:比较腰麻与骶管麻醉在肛门手术中的效果.方法:回顾性分析2008-09/2012-05应用腰麻及骶管麻醉行肛门手术病例共74例,36例采用腰麻(腰麻组),38例采用骶管麻醉(骶麻组).两组性别、年龄、病种分类及手术时间等资料相比,P>0.05.比较两组麻醉效果、起效时间、术中心血管系统不良反应情况、术后尿潴留的发生、术后感觉恢复时间.结果:腰麻组与骶麻组麻醉效果满意率分别为95%和79%(P<0.05),腰麻组与骶麻组术中心血管系统不良反应的发生率分别为30.6%和5.3%(P<0.01),腰麻组与骶麻组的平均麻醉起效时间分别为1.98 min和8.99 min(P<0.01),腰麻组与骶麻组分别发生尿潴留4例、3例(P>0.05),腰麻组与骶麻组术后平均感觉恢复时间分别为324 min和288 min(P>0.05).结论:肛门手术中应用腰麻效果优于骶管麻醉,

  12. Segmental identity and cerebellar granule cell induction in rhombomere 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Esther

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebellar granule cell precursors are specifically generated within the hindbrain segment, rhombomere 1, which is bounded rostrally by the midbrain/hindbrain isthmus and caudally by the boundary of the Hoxa2 expression domain. While graded signals from the isthmus have a demonstrable patterning role within this region, the significance of segmental identity for neuronal specification within rhombomere 1 is unexplored. We examined the response of granule cell precursors to the overexpression of Hoxa2, which normally determines patterns of development specific to the hindbrain. How much does the development of the cerebellum, a midbrain/hindbrain structure, reflect its neuromeric origin as a hindbrain segment? Results We show that a Gbx2-positive, Otx2-/Hoxa2-negative territory corresponding to rhombomere 1 forms prior to an identifiable isthmic organiser. Early global overexpression of Hoxa2 at embryonic day 0 has no effect on the expression of isthmic signalling molecules or the allocation of rhombomere 1 territory, but selectively results in the loss of granule cell markers at embryonic day 6 and the depletion of cell bodies from the external granule cell layer. By comparison the trochlear nucleus and locus coeruleus form normally in ventral rhombomere 1 under these conditions. Microsurgery, coupled with electroporation, to target Hoxa2 overexpression to rhombic lip precursors, reveals a profound, autonomous respecification of migration. Rhombic lip derivatives, normally destined to occupy the external granule cell layer, violate the cerebellar boundary to form a ventrolateral nucleus in a position comparable to that occupied by rhombic lip derived neurons in rhombomere 2. Conclusions Different overexpression strategies reveal that the recognition of migration cues by granule cell precursors is dependent on their identity as rhombomere 1 derivatives. Segmental patterning cues operate autonomously within the rhombic lip

  13. Specification of region-specific neurons including forebrain glutamatergic neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC into functional, region-specific neural cells is a key step to realizing their therapeutic promise to treat various neural disorders, which awaits detailed elucidation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed neural differentiation from various hiPSC lines generated by others and ourselves. Although heterogeneity in efficiency of neuroepithelial (NE cell differentiation was observed among different hiPSC lines, the NE differentiation process resembles that from human embryonic stem cells (hESC in morphology, timing, transcriptional profile, and requirement for FGF signaling. NE cells differentiated from hiPSC, like those from hESC, can also form rostral phenotypes by default, and form the midbrain or spinal progenitors upon caudalization by morphogens. The rostrocaudal neural progenitors can further mature to develop forebrain glutamatergic projection neurons, midbrain dopaminergic neurons, and spinal motor neurons, respectively. Typical ion channels and action potentials were recorded in the hiPSC-derived neurons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that hiPSC, regardless of how they were derived, can differentiate into a spectrum of rostrocaudal neurons with functionality, which supports the considerable value of hiPSC for study and treatment of patient-specific neural disorders.

  14. 七氟醚联合骶管麻醉在患儿下腹部手术中的应用%Sevoflurane Combined with Caudal Anesthesia in Pediatric Abdominal Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵会奇

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨七氟醚联合骶管麻醉在患儿下腹部手术中的应用。方法收集2012年4月至2014年4月于本院行下腹部手术的患儿88例资料,将患儿按照随机数字表法分为两组,对照组患者应用七氟醚麻醉,观察组患者行七氟醚联合骶管麻醉,观察比较两组患者各时点平均动脉压(MAP)、心率(HR),诱导时间及苏醒时间比较情况。结果麻醉后观察组各时点MAP、HR均低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05)。结论小儿下腹部手术应用七氟醚联合骶管麻醉,获得明显效果。%Objective To investigate the sevoflurane combined caudal anesthesia in pediatric abdominal surgery applications.Methods Data selected at random from April 2012 to April 2014 to 88 cases in children under hospital abdominal surgery,according to a random number table is divided into two groups,the application of the patients in the control group sevoflurane anesthesia,patients in the observation group of seven desflurane combined caudal anesthesia,two groups were compared at each time point were observed in mean arterial pressure(MAP),heart rate (HR),the induction time and wake time comparison situation.Results Observation group at al time points after anesthesia MAP,HR values were lower than the control group,the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05). Conclusion Pediatric abdominal surgery under sevoflurane combined caudal anesthesia,achieve significant results.

  15. Complicações determinadas por placas de cloreto de polivinila (PVC na estabilização da porção cervical caudal da coluna vertebral de cães Complications determined by polyvinylchloride (PVC plates in the stabilization of caudal cervical vertebral column of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 10 cães com peso médio de 14,6kg, as vértebras cervicais 5 e 6 foram cirurgicamente desestabilizadas através da secção do disco intervertebral e, em seguida, estabilizadas com placas ortopédicas confeccionadas com PVC de 2mm de espessura, para após 180 dias, proceder-se ao estudo histológico do tecido ósseo e conjuntivo circunvizinho. Constatou-se que o PVC causou alterações ósseas que podem ter favorecido o afrouxamento dos parafusos e a falha do implante. O material induziu ainda à formação de granuloma de corpo estranho e a reações inflamatórias locais que podem ter causado degradação do material implantado. Assim, placas de PVC, apesar de proporcionarem estabilidade e alinhamento da coluna vertebral, não satisfazem a maioria das propriedades necessárias a um biomaterial, não sendo recomendadaa a sua utilização em ortopedia veterinária.In ten dogs with an average mean weight of 14,6 kg, the cervical vertebra 5 and 6 were destabilized and fixed with plates of 2mm of thickness. The purpose of this work was to verify the effect of orthopedic PVC plates on the internal stabilization of the caudal cervical spine of dogs by studying the occurrence of alterations in the bone tissue and fibrous tissue adjacent to the plate after 180 days of permanence of the material in the dogs' organism. PVC causes progressive bone alterations, which, in the long term, could promote the loosening of the screws and failure of the implant. It also induces the formation of foreign body granuloma and inflammatory reactions which could cause degradation of the implant. Thus, PVC plates do not satisfy the majority of properties required of a biomaterial, its use not being recommended in veterinary orthopedics.

  16. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid alfentanil, butorphanol, and morphine concentrations following caudal epidural administration in horses Concentrações plasmáticas e no líquido cérebro-espinhal de alfentanil, butorfanol e morfina após administração epidural caudal em eqüinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Corrêa Natalini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective of determining the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF concentrations after epidurally administered alfentanil, butorphanol, and morphine in horses. Five clinically healthy adult horses were studied. Morphine 0.1mg kg-1, alfentanil 0.02mg kg-1, and butorphanol 0.08mg kg-1 in equal volumes (20ml were epidurally injected. A 10-ml sample of CSF and blood were drawn at sampling times before the epidural administration and at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 120 minutes, and hourly for 24 hours Enzyme-linked immonosorbent assay (ELISA was used as the screening test to detect the injected opioids. ANOVA and Bonferroni’s test were used with a P values Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de se detectar as concentrações plasmáticas e no líquido cérebro-espinhal de alfentanil, butorfanol e morfina administrados por via epidural caudal em cavalos. Foram utilizados cinco eqüinos adultos, clinicamente hígidos. Doses de morfina (0,1mg kg-1, alfentanil (0,02mg kg-1, e butorfanol (0,08mg kg-1, diluídos em volume idêntico de 20ml em solução salina 0,9%, foram administrados por via epidural. Uma amostra de 10ml de sangüe venoso e de líqüido cérebro-espinhal foram colhidas anteriormente à administração epidural e 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 120 minutos e a cada hora por 24 horas. O teste enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA foi utilizado como método analítico para detecção dos opióides. Os resultados foram avaliados com teste ANOVA e Bonferroni com valor de P<0,05. O teste de ELISA mostrou-se eficiente para detecção plasmática e no LCE de alfentanil, butorfanol, e morfina administrados por via epidural. A administração epidural de alfentanil em eqüinos produz níveis no líquido cérebro-espinhal mais rapidamente que no plasma. Opióides de maior hidrossolubilidade tais como morfina e butorfanol produzem níveis plasmáticos mais rapidamente do que no líquido cérebro-espinhal quando

  17. Epb41l5 competes with Delta as a substrate for Mib1 to coordinate specification and differentiation of neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Miho; Rand, Kinneret; Palardy, Greg; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Hiromi; Dalle Nogare, Damian; Itoh, Motoyuki; Chitnis, Ajay B

    2016-09-01

    We identified Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 5 (Epb41l5) as a substrate for the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mind bomb 1 (Mib1), which is essential for activation of Notch signaling. Although loss of Epb41l5 does not significantly alter the pattern of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) specified as neurons at the neural plate stage, it delays their delamination and differentiation after neurulation when NPCs normally acquire organized apical junctional complexes (AJCs) in the zebrafish hindbrain. Delays in differentiation are reduced by knocking down N-cadherin, a manipulation expected to help destabilize adherens junctions (AJs). This suggested that delays in neuronal differentiation in epb41l5-deficient embryos are related to a previously described role for Epb41l5 in facilitating disassembly of cadherin-dependent AJCs. Mib1 ubiquitylates Epb41l5 to promote its degradation. DeltaD can compete with Epb41l5 to reduce Mib1-dependent Epb41l5 degradation. In this context, increasing the number of NPCs specified to become neurons, i.e. cells expressing high levels of DeltaD, stabilizes Epb41l5 in the embryo. Together, these observations suggest that relatively high levels of Delta stabilize Epb41l5 in NPCs specified as neurons. This, we suggest, helps coordinate NPC specification with Epb41l5-dependent delamination and differentiation as neurons.

  18. Epb41l5 competes with Delta as a substrate for Mib1 to coordinate specification and differentiation of neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Miho; Rand, Kinneret; Palardy, Greg; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Hiromi; Dalle Nogare, Damian; Itoh, Motoyuki; Chitnis, Ajay B

    2016-09-01

    We identified Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 5 (Epb41l5) as a substrate for the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mind bomb 1 (Mib1), which is essential for activation of Notch signaling. Although loss of Epb41l5 does not significantly alter the pattern of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) specified as neurons at the neural plate stage, it delays their delamination and differentiation after neurulation when NPCs normally acquire organized apical junctional complexes (AJCs) in the zebrafish hindbrain. Delays in differentiation are reduced by knocking down N-cadherin, a manipulation expected to help destabilize adherens junctions (AJs). This suggested that delays in neuronal differentiation in epb41l5-deficient embryos are related to a previously described role for Epb41l5 in facilitating disassembly of cadherin-dependent AJCs. Mib1 ubiquitylates Epb41l5 to promote its degradation. DeltaD can compete with Epb41l5 to reduce Mib1-dependent Epb41l5 degradation. In this context, increasing the number of NPCs specified to become neurons, i.e. cells expressing high levels of DeltaD, stabilizes Epb41l5 in the embryo. Together, these observations suggest that relatively high levels of Delta stabilize Epb41l5 in NPCs specified as neurons. This, we suggest, helps coordinate NPC specification with Epb41l5-dependent delamination and differentiation as neurons. PMID:27510968

  19. Cryptorchidism as a caudal developmental field defect. A new description of cryptorchidism associated with malformations and dysplasias of the kidneys, the ureters and the spine from T10 to S5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, J M; Beck, Bjarne Lomholdt;

    1998-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is a feature of abnormalities in the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis, and almost all disorders of sexual differentiation in which a testis is present. We found cryptorchidism to be associated with malformations and dysplasias of the kidneys, the ureters and the spine from T10...... defects were also the predominant abnormalities in the other groups of patients. Thus, cryptorchidism may be a feature of abnormal differentiation of the caudal developmental field. Position and histology of the undescended testes of the patients included in the association were similar...... field defect. Study of cryptorchid patients exhibiting malformations or dysplasias of the kidneys, the ureters or the spine from T10 to S5 is essential in order to isolate new genetic disorders and to spot environmental factors causing cryptorchidism....

  20. Estado del arte en la medición de magnitudes hidráulicas (I): medición de caudales en conducciones cerradas, en diámetros pequeños y medianos

    OpenAIRE

    Larreategui Fadrique, Andoni

    1994-01-01

    En este artículo y entregas sucesivas se pasa revista al estado actual de la tecnología y el conocimiento, en lo concerniente a mediciones hidráulicas. En este número la exposición se centra en los caudales, en tuberías de pequeño y mediano diámetro. Por su extensión este primer artículo se divide en dos partes: En primer lugar se realiza una descripción básica de los principales equipos de medida disponibles en el mercado. Se incluye un listado de normas técnicas y legales y a ...

  1. Hindbrain decompression in a dog with scoliosis associated with syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Satoshi; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Ohsaki, Tomohiro; Hoshino, Yuki; Okumura, Masahiro; Fujinaga, Toru

    2005-04-15

    A 6-month-old female Border Collie was examined because of a 1-month history of progressive curvature of the cervical portion of the vertebral column. Radiography revealed severe cervical and thoracic scoliosis. Cervical syringomyelia and hydrocephalus were observed by means of magnetic resonance imaging. Suboccipital craniotomy and laminectomy of the first cervical vertebra were performed, and substantial improvement in the scoliosis and syringomyelia was observed 3 months after surgery. No recurrences were seen during the first year after surgery. PMID:15844429

  2. Correlación de variables macroclimáticas del Océano Pacífico con los caudales en los ríos interandinos del Valle del Cauca (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesid Carvajal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los fenómenos climáticos sobre los océanos ejercen gran influencia sobre la hidroclimatología del valle del río Cauca (Colombia, en especial el evento "El Niño Oscilación Sur" (ENOS, que es responsable de la variabilidad climática en escalas de tiempo que van desde meses hasta décadas. Debido a esta dependencia, se estudió la correlación entre 8 variables indicadoras del clima en los Océanos Pacífico y Atlántico con los caudales medios mensuales de 8 ríos del valle del río Cauca. Las series cubren un período promedio de 40 años 1957-1997. Los resultados muestran las variaciones regionales de la situación hidrológica del valle del río Cauca respecto a las variables macroclimáticas. Los coeficientes de correlación indican que las variables que presentan mayor asociación con los caudales analizados son en su orden: Las temperaturas de la superficie del mar en las regiones Niño 3, Niño 3-4, Niño 4 Y SOl, mientras en el Atlántico, las mejores correlaciones las presentan: la Temperatura en el Trópico, en el Atlántico Norte (NATL y Atlántico Sur (SATL respectivamente.

  3. 超声检测与传统方法用于小儿骶管阻滞的比较%A comparison of ultrasonography versus traditional approach for caudal block in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金柱; 吴雪青; 李榕; 章艳君

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较采用超声定位与传统定位对小儿骶管阻滞的监测效果.方法 经医院伦理委员会审核通过及患儿家长知情同意后,2010年6月至2011年5月,选择入住天津市儿童医院拟行尿道或会阴部手术、美国麻醉医师协会(ASA)Ⅰ~Ⅱ级小儿102例,按数字表随机法分为超声组(n=52)和对照组(n=50),采用超声法和体表标志法,确定骶管穿刺点后进行穿刺,用超声法和Swoosh法同时监测注药时骶腔管的反应,观察并记录相关数据.结果 超声组与对照组患儿,穿刺次数分别是(1.10±0.30)次和(1.56±0.63)次,操作时间分别为(1.40±0.39) min和(3.23±1.23)min,一针穿刺成功率分别为90.4%和66%,总穿刺成功率分别为100%和92%.对骶管麻醉针位置正确判断的阳性率超声法和Swoosh法分别为97.96%和62.24%.超声法各项指标均优于传统法(P<0.01).结论 应用超声定位和监测行小儿骶管阻滞优于传统方法,具有较高的临床使用价值.%Objective To apply ultrasoni(c) technology in positioning and monitoring for pediatric caudal blocks and comparc it with traditional landmark approach and Swoosh test.Methods After obtaining the approval of hospital ethics committee and written parental informed consent,a total of 102 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Ⅰ- Ⅱ pediatric patients aged from 1 month to 8 years and scheduled for urologic or perineal surgery were recruited.Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups:ultrasound group (n =52 ) and control group (n =50 ).The sites of sacral cornu and sacral hiatus were determined by ultrasonic imaging or classic method of anatomical surface landmarks.Patients of two groups were punctured according to the scheduled site.Local anesthetic was injected slowly into caudal space after a successful caudal puncture and the positive reaction in caudal space was monitored simultaneously by ultrasound and classic swoosh test.The observational results and

  4. Historical database for estimating flows in a water supply network; Base de datos historica para estimacion de caudales en una red de abastecimiento de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez Martinez, A.; Ariel Gomez Gutierrez, A.; Alvarez Ramos, I.; Biscarri Trivino, F. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Monitoring the flows managed by water supply companies involves processing huge amounts of data. These data also have to correspond to the topology of the network in a way that is consistent with the data collection time. The specific purpose database described in this article was developed to meet such requirements. (Author) 4 refs.

  5. Selective activation of tumor growth-promoting Ca2+ channel MS4A12 in colon cancer by caudal type homeobox transcription factor CDX2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Christoph

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Colon cancer-associated MS4A12 is a novel colon-specific component of store-operated Ca2+ (SOC entry sensitizing cells for epidermal growth factor (EGF-mediated effects on proliferation and chemotaxis. In the present study, we investigated regulation of the MS4A12 promoter to understand the mechanisms responsible for strict transcriptional restriction of this gene to the colonic epithelial cell lineage. DNA-binding assays and luciferase reporter assays showed that MS4A12 promoter activity is governed by a single CDX homeobox transcription factor binding element. RNA interference (RNAi-mediated silencing of intestine-specific transcription factors CDX1 and CDX2 and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP in LoVo and SW48 colon cancer cells revealed that MS4A12 transcript and protein expression is essentially dependent on the presence of endogenous CDX2. In summary, our findings provide a rationale for colon-specific expression of MS4A12. Moreover, this is the first report establishing CDX2 as transactivator of tumor growth-promoting gene expression in colon cancer, adding to untangle the complex and conflicting biological functions of CDX2 in colon cancer and supporting MS4A12 as important factor for normal colonic development as well as for the biology and treatment of colon cancer.

  6. Efecto de la regulación del caudal del Río Guadalquivir sobre las características fisicoquímicas del agua y la macrofauna acuática de su estuario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La temperatura, salinidad y turbidez del agua en el estuario del Guadalquivir, así como la abundancia, biomasa y número de especies de su macrofauna acuática (necton e hiperbentos, se estimaron mensualmente, entre junio de 1997 y mayo de 1999, en cinco estaciones de muestreo a 8, 20, 30, 40 y 50 km de la desembocadura utilizando para la toma de muestras un barco angulero provisto de un arte de pesca con malla de 1 mm de luz. En el estuario existió horizontalmente un marcado gradiente salino: la salinidad media mensual osciló habitualmente entre 17 y 27 en la estación más externa, mientras que en la zona más interna raramente sobrepasó 4. La temperatura fue homogénea en todo el estuario, con máximos estivales (28ºC y mínimos invernales (10ºC. La turbidez también fue relativamente homogénea en todo el estuario, con valores máximos invernales (362 UNT y mínimos principalmente estivales (10 UNT. Los máximos de turbidez coincidieron con la zona de confluencia del agua marina y dulce. Los resultados de los análisis de regresión múltiple por pasos indican que la distancia a la desembocadura y el caudal medio de agua desembalsada (el mes previo desde la presa de Alcalá del Río (a 110 km de la desembocadura explican 70% de la varianza de la salinidad, mientras que el caudal desembalsado apenas explica 17% de la varianza observada en la temperatura y la turbidez del agua. La salinidad explica 50% de la varianza del número de especies, mientras que la salinidad y la temperatura son las variables ambientales que controlan la variación de la abundancia y biomasa de la macrofauna estuárica, llegando a explicar 75% y 71% de la varianza de la abundancia y biomasa de la comunidad nectónica, respectivamente, y 54% y 48% de la varianza de la abundancia y biomasa hiperbentónica, respectivamente. La salinidad fue, en todos los casos, la variable que explicó un mayor porcentaje de la varianza.

  7. The role of voltage-gated calcium channels in neurotransmitter phenotype specification: Coexpression and functional analysis in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Brittany B; Miller, Lauren E; Herbst, Wendy A; Saha, Margaret S

    2014-08-01

    Calcium activity has been implicated in many neurodevelopmental events, including the specification of neurotransmitter phenotypes. Higher levels of calcium activity lead to an increased number of inhibitory neural phenotypes, whereas lower levels of calcium activity lead to excitatory neural phenotypes. Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) allow for rapid calcium entry and are expressed during early neural stages, making them likely regulators of activity-dependent neurotransmitter phenotype specification. To test this hypothesis, multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to characterize the coexpression of eight VGCC α1 subunits with the excitatory and inhibitory neural markers xVGlut1 and xVIAAT in Xenopus laevis embryos. VGCC coexpression was higher with xVGlut1 than xVIAAT, especially in the hindbrain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves. Calcium activity was also analyzed on a single-cell level, and spike frequency was correlated with the expression of VGCC α1 subunits in cell culture. Cells expressing Cav 2.1 and Cav 2.2 displayed increased calcium spiking compared with cells not expressing this marker. The VGCC antagonist diltiazem and agonist (-)BayK 8644 were used to manipulate calcium activity. Diltiazem exposure increased the number of glutamatergic cells and decreased the number of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic cells, whereas (-)BayK 8644 exposure decreased the number of glutamatergic cells without having an effect on the number of GABAergic cells. Given that the expression and functional manipulation of VGCCs are correlated with neurotransmitter phenotype in some, but not all, experiments, VGCCs likely act in combination with a variety of other signaling factors to determine neuronal phenotype specification. PMID:24477801

  8. Myositis specific autoantibodies : specificity and clinical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengstman, G.J.D.

    2005-01-01

    The sera of about half of the patients with myositis contain autoantibodies that are specific for this group of diseases compared to other inflammatory connective tissue disorders. In a recent study we showed that these myositis specific autoantibodies (MSAs) are also specific for myositis as compar

  9. Implementación de un Control Predictivo Basado en Modelo Aplicado a un Sistema de Control de Caudal de Agua Didáctico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin H. Lopera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The proportional-integral-derivative controller -PID- has become the most used tool of regulation of process variables, and so it has been applied indiscriminately on linear and nonlinear dynamic systems, resulting in control problems in the industry, occurring loss of efficiency in productivity and decreased quality of manufactured products. Among the modern control techniques that have emerged to respond to those applications in which the PID controller has not operated satisfactorily, there is the model based predictive control -MPC-. This control algorithm has been characterized by its great capacity to respond, however, its expansion in the industrial sector has been slow, as it has been commercialized for specific applications. This paper presents an application of MPC on the regulation of water flow in a laboratory system using commercial control equipment and instrumentation, describing the formulation process control algorithm, the technical assistance required for the execution of experimental tests necessary to obtain the mathematical model of the plant and finally implementing the proposed control technique. The results evidence the great possibilities of applying effectively this control technique in variable regulation of general dynamic systems.

  10. 痔疮手术中骶管阻滞和硬膜外腔阻滞的效果比较分析%Comparative Analysis of Effect Between Caudal Block and Epidural Anesthesia in Hemorrhoids Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车金峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析痔疮手术使用骶管阻滞以及硬膜外腔阻滞进行麻醉的临床效果,对这两种麻醉方式进行对比分析。方法2010~2012年我院有59例痔疮手术患者接受治疗,将这些患者随机分组为A1、A2两组,A1组30例患者使用骶管阻滞麻醉,A2组29例患者使用硬膜外腔阻滞麻醉,对两组的临床麻醉情况进行对比分析。结果麻醉治疗后,A1比A2组患者起效时间短,两组患者的麻醉评分结果无统计学差异, P>0.05。A1组比A2组的运动评分低,P0.05. The motor score in A1 group was lower than A2 group,P<0.05. Conclusion The effect of caudal anesthesia in Hemorrhoid surgery is better, with shorter onset time,it can be widely used.

  11. Evaluación y clasificación preliminar de la calidad del agua de la cuenca del río Tárcoles y el Reventazón Parte II: Modelo utilizado en la medición de caudales investigados

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Calvo Brenes; Jesús Mora Molina

    2007-01-01

    La determinación del caudal en los ríos es una medición muy importante que usualmente se lleva a cabo durante el monitoreo de cuencas hidrográficas. En algunos casos, esta medición no es una tarea fácil de efectuar dadas las diferencias morfológicas de los ríos, la profundidad y el ancho del cauce, la velocidad de la corriente y la accesibilidad a los puntos de medición.Uno de los parámetros estudiados fue la medición del caudal de varios ríos cada mes, localizados en la Cuenca del Tárcoles y...

  12. Evaluación y clasificación preliminar de la calidad del agua de la cuenca del río Tárcoles y el Reventazón Parte II: Modelo utilizado en la medición de caudales investigados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Calvo Brenes

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available La determinación del caudal en los ríos es una medición muy importante que usualmente se lleva a cabo durante el monitoreo de cuencas hidrográficas. En algunos casos, esta medición no es una tarea fácil de efectuar dadas las diferencias morfológicas de los ríos, la profundidad y el ancho del cauce, la velocidad de la corriente y la accesibilidad a los puntos de medición.Uno de los parámetros estudiados fue la medición del caudal de varios ríos cada mes, localizados en la Cuenca del Tárcoles y el Reventazón, de enero hasta junio del 2006. En el primer muestreo de cada río, se midió el ancho del cauce y se dividió en tramos, midiéndose la profundidad en cada uno de ellos. Esta cuidadosa medición se hizo una única vez ya que se seleccionó un punto de referencia fijo a un costado del efluente tal como una piedra grande sobre la cual se estableció una marca de referencia con pintura aproximadamente a 20 centímetros sobre el nivel del agua. Esta metodología simple para la medición del área en el efluente simplificó sustancialmente el trabajo de campo.En esta segunda publicación solo nos enfocaremos en presentar los resultados obtenidos en la medición de caudales en los distintos puntos de muestreo, la metodología utilizada y el modelomatemático desarrollado en una hoja de cálculo en Excel para el cálculo de los caudales.

  13. Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors inhibit startle-mediating giant neurons in the caudal pontine reticular nucleus but do not mediate synaptic depression/short-term habituation of startle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Susanne; Brown, Tyler; Simons-Weidenmaier, Nadine; Weber, Maruschka; Fendt, Markus

    2010-08-01

    Short-term habituation is a basic form of learning that is analyzed in different species and using different behavioral models. Previous studies on mechanisms of short-term habituation yielded evidence for a potential role of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRIIIs). Here we tested the hypothesis that mGluRIII mediate short-term habituation of startle in rats, combining electrophysiological experiments in vitro with behavioral studies in vivo. We applied different mGluRIII agonists and antagonists on rat brainstem slices while recording from startle-mediating neurons in the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC) and monitoring synaptic depression presumably underlying habituation. Furthermore, we injected the mGluRIII antagonist (RS)-alpha-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG) and the agonist L-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) into the PnC of rats in vivo and measured its effect on startle habituation. Our results show that activation of mGluRIIIs in the PnC strongly inhibits startle-mediating giant neurons in vitro. Accordingly, L-AP4 reduced startle responses in vivo. However, synaptic depression in the slice was not disrupted by mGluRIII antagonists or agonists. Correspondingly, the in vivo application of the mGluRIII antagonist MPPG failed to show any effect on short-term habituation of startle responses. We therefore conclude that mGluRs are expressed within the primary startle pathway and that they inhibit startle responses upon activation; however, this inhibition does not play any role in synaptic depression and short-term habituation of startle. This is in contrast to the role of mGluRIIIs in other forms of habituation and supports the notion that there are different mechanisms involved in habituation of sensory-evoked behaviors. PMID:20685984

  14. Medium-term Survival of Bovine Caudal Epididymal Sperm under Conditions Based on Epididymal Fluid Characteristics%牛附睾和附睾液分析与牛附睾尾精子在模拟附睾液中存活试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪建宏; 刘长彬; 张宾; Graham W Kay

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] Fresh semen has a very limited life span after it leaves the gonad. The relative research showed that the epididymal plasma provides a special environment to spermatozoa for survival. In this study, the osmolarity and protein concentration of caput and caudal bull epididymis were analyzed. [Method] Bovine caudal epididymal sperm was incubated in different protein and sorbitol combinations of CEP - 2 diluents at 4℃ for 120h and sperm viability was assessed. [ Result] Under these conditions, sperm viability was still more than 60% after 5 days. The osmolarity of caput and caudal epididymis were (287 . 0 ± 13. 7) mOsm and (310.8 ± 17. 0) mOsm respectively . The protein concentration of caput and caudal epididymis were (37.43 ± 12.55) mg/ml and (50.58 ± 11 .08) mg/mL respectively . This may have an application in the animal production industry. [ Conclusion ] The highest viability of fresh extracted caudal epididymal sperm was in the modified CEP - 2 diluent with 40mg/ml protein concentration and 345 mOsm.%[目的]新鲜精液在离开生殖腺后存活时间很短.相关研究表明副睾液为精子的存活提供了特殊的环境.试验探讨和研究牛附睾精子在体外模拟附睾液中的存活试验的各因素的影响.[方法]试验对公牛附睾头部和尾部的摩尔渗透压和蛋白质浓度进行了分析,牛附睾尾部精子在不同蛋白浓度的CEP-2溶液中,在4℃条件下孵育120h.每24h做一次精子活力检测.[结果]5 d后精子活力仍然超过60%.附睾头、尾部的渗透压分别为(287.0±13.7)mOsm和(310.8±17.0)mOsm.蛋白浓度分别为(37.43±12.55)mg/mL和(50.58±11.08)mg/mL.[结论]附睾尾精子在蛋白浓度为40mg/mL,渗透压为345 mOsm时,精子存活率最高.

  15. Evaluation of caudal block with dexmedetomidine mixed with lidocaine for management of perioperative analgesia in children%右美托咪定混合利多卡因骶管阻滞用于小儿围术期镇痛管理的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海扣; 拾翠翠; 崔恩慧; 李茂; 孙红梅; 陈华军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of caudal block with dexmedetomidine mixed with lidocaine for management of perioperative analgesia in children. Methods Thirty pediatric patients, aged 2-6 yr, weighing 8-23 kg, scheduled for elective unilateral high ligation of hernial sac, were equally and randomly assigned into either lidocaine group ( group L ) or dexmedetomidine mixed with lidocaine group ( group DL) using a random number table. Each patient received a single caudal dose of 1% lidocaine 1 ml∕kg in group L. Each patient received a single caudal dose of 1% lidocaine 1 ml∕kg mixed with dexmedetomidine 1 μg∕kg in group DL. Postoperative analgesia was assessed using FLACC scale. When FLACC score ≥4, ibuprofen suspension 10 mg∕kg was given orally. The consumption of ibuprofen was recorded within 8 h after operation. The onset time of caudal block and duration of analgesia were recorded, and adverse effects were observed. Results Compared with group L, the onset time of caudal block was significantly shortened, the duration of analgesia was prolonged, and the requirement for ibuprofen was decreased in group L. There was no significant difference in adverse effects between the two groups. Conclusion Addition of dexmedetomidine 1 μg∕kg to caudal lidocaine can significantly optimize the efficacy of caudal block with lidocaine alone for the management of perioperative analgesia in children.%目的:评价右美托咪定混合利多卡因骶管阻滞用于小儿围术期镇痛管理的效果。方法拟行单侧疝囊高位结扎术的患儿30例,年龄2~6岁,体重8~23 kg,采用随机数字表法分为利多卡因组( L组)和右美托咪定混合利多卡因组( DL组),每组15例。 L组骶管注射1%利多卡因1 ml∕kg,DL组骶管注射1%利多卡因1 ml∕kg混合右美托咪定1μg∕kg。 FLACC评分≥4分时口服布洛芬混悬液10 mg∕kg。记录术后8 h内布洛芬使用情况,记录骶管阻滞起效时间和

  16. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  17. Tick-Host Specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogstraal, H.; Aeschlimann, André

    2010-01-01

    A review the various patterns of tick-host relationships are discussed in detail in order to answer the following questions : 1. How, when and where did host specificity of each parasite group evolve ? 2. How strict is specificity in each case ? 3. Why and under what circumstances does specificity break down ? The authors present several definitions which characterize the various degrees of parasitic specificity existing today between ticks and their hosts. Tick-host relationships are ...

  18. Distinct enhancers of ptf1a mediate specification and expansion of ventral pancreas in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashos, Evanthia; Park, Joon Tae; Leach, Steven; Fisher, Shannon

    2013-09-15

    Development of the pancreas and cerebellum require Pancreas-specific transcription factor-1a (Ptf1a), which encodes a subunit of the transcription factor complex PTF1. Ptf1a is required in succession for specification of the pancreas, proper allocation of pancreatic progenitors to endocrine and exocrine fates, and the production of digestive enzymes from the exocrine acini. In several neuronal structures, including the cerebellum, hindbrain, retina and spinal cord, Ptf1a is transiently expressed and promotes inhibitory neuron fates at the expense of excitatory fates. Transcription of Ptf1a in mouse is maintained in part by PTF1 acting on an upstream autoregulatory enhancer. However, the transcription factors and enhancers that initially activate Ptf1a expression in the pancreas and in certain structures of the nervous system have not yet been identified. Here we describe a zebrafish autoregulatory element, conserved among teleosts, with activity similar to that described in mouse. In addition, we performed a comprehensive survey of all non-coding sequences in a 67kb interval encompassing zebrafish ptf1a, and identified several neuronal enhancers, and an enhancer active in the ventral pancreas prior to activation of the autoregulatory enhancer. To test the requirement for autoregulatory control during pancreatic development, we restored ptf1a function through BAC transgenesis in ptf1a morphants, either with an intact BAC or one lacking the autoregulatory enhancer. We find that ptf1a autoregulation is required for development of the exocrine pancreas and full rescue of the ptf1a morphant phenotype. Similarly, we demonstrate that a ptf1a locus lacking the early enhancer region is also capable of rescue, but only supports formation of a hypoplastic exocrine pancreas. Through our dissection of the complex regulatory control of ptf1a, we identified separate cis-regulatory elements that underlie different aspects of its expression and function, and further demonstrated

  19. Análisis correlatorio y espectral de los caudales del manantial de Iturriotz (Vizcaya: El sistema del barranco de Peñalba como ejemplo de un tipo de Karst de caraclerísticas mixtas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Latorre, F.

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to define the structure of the time series of rainfall and discharge, and also to improve the knowledge of the Barranco Peñalba karstic system, a correlation and spectral analysis has been made of the Iturriotz spring and the Juncal pluviometer data (period: 6th August 1983 to 12th October 1985. Such analysis reveals a relatively important memory effect and a regulation time of 23,5 days. However, it has been made clear a very small modulation effect with a spectral band of 0.30-0.32. The cross correlation reveals a lag very small between the input and output signals, in spite of the existence of a some regulation power at the end of the impulsional answer. These results do not match exactly any of the type-model defined by Mangin (1982, but suggests a system with mixed characteristics. The apparently contradictory features inferred from this analysis can be atributed to the heterogeneity of the aquifer materials and to the complexity of the recharge mecanisms.Con objeto de definir la estructura de las series cronológicas de lluvias y caudales, así como para mejorar el conocimiento del sistema kárstico del barranco de Peñalba, se ha aplicado el análisis de correlación y espectral a los datos del manantial de Iturriotz y del pluviómetro del Juncal, del período 6 de Agosto de 1983 a 12 de Octubre de 1985. Dicho análisis revela un efecto memoria relativamente importante y un tiempo de regulación de 23,5 días; sin embargo, se pone de manifiesto un efecto de filtro muy reducido, con una banda espectral de 0.30-0.32; el correlograma cruzado evidencia un desfase muy corto entre las señales de entrada y salida, a pesar de que existe un cierto poder regulador al final de la respuesta impulsional. Estos resultados no corresponden exactamente a ninguno de los modelos-tipo definidos por Mangin (1982, sino que sugieren un sistema de características mixtas. Los rasgos aparentemente contradictorios que se deducen de este análisis pueden

  20. 右美托咪定混合罗哌卡因骶管阻滞用于小儿围术期镇痛管理的评价%Evaluation of caudal block with dexmedetomidine mixed with ropivacaine for management of perioperative analgesia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新宇; 张莉; 崔云凤; 潘振祥

    2015-01-01

    目的 评价右美托咪定混合罗哌卡因骶管阻滞用于小儿围术期镇痛管理的效果.方法 择期拟行尿道下裂手术患儿60例,年龄1~5岁,ASA分级Ⅰ或Ⅱ级.采用随机数字表法,将其分为2组(n=30):罗哌卡因组(R组)和右美托咪定混合罗哌卡因组(DR组).R组骶管注射0.25%罗哌卡因1 ml/kg;DR组骶管注射0.25%罗哌卡因1 ml/kg与右美托咪定2μg/kg混合液.于术后24 h内采用FLACC评分法评价镇痛效果,采用改良Bromage评分法评价运动阻滞程度,记录镇痛时间(骶管阻滞起效至术后首次使用补救镇痛药物的时间)及不良反应发生情况.结果 与R组比较,DR组镇痛时间明显延长,心动过缓及过度镇静发生率明显升高(P<0.05),而两组均未见低氧血症、低血压、术后运动阻滞发生.结论 骶管注射右美托咪定2 μg/kg可显著优化单纯罗哌卡因骶管阻滞用于小儿围术期镇痛管理的效果.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy of caudal block with dexmedetomidine mixed with ropivacaine for the management of perioperative analgesia in children.Methods Sixty pediatric patients,aged 1-5 yr,of ASA physical status Ⅰ or Ⅱ,scheduled for elective hypospadias repair,were equally and randomly assigned into 2 groups using a random number table:ropivacaine group (group R) and dexmedetomidine mixed with ropivacaine group (group DR).Each patient received a single caudal dose of 0.25% ropivacaine 1 ml/kg in group R.Each patient received a single caudal dose of 0.25% ropivacaine 1 ml/kg mixed with dexmedetomidine 2 μg/kg in group DR.Postoperative analgesia was assessed using FLACC scale,and the degree of motor block was assessed using modified Bromage scale within 24 h after the end of operation.The duration of analgesia (the time from onset of caudal block to first requirement for the rescue analgesic) and development of side effects were recorded.Results Compared with group R,the duration of analgesia was significantly

  1. Hemodynamic effects of caudal block with bupivacaine and adrenaline in the newborn undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia%布比卡因混合肾上腺素骶管阻滞对全麻新生儿血液动力学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓萌; 王炫; 贺琳; 郑珊

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of caudal block with bupivacaine and adrenaline on the hemodynamics in the newborn undergoing general anesthesia for elective surgery. Methods Thirty ASA Ⅰ or Ⅱ fall-term neonates aged ≤ 28 days weighing ≥ 2 500 g undergoing elective abdominal or genitourinary surgery under general anesthesia were studied. Children with known cardiovascular abnormalities, infections diseases or intestinal obstruction and those with conditions contraindicating caudal block were excluded from the study. The children were randomly allocated into 3 groups (n = 10 each) : group Ⅰ general anesthesia (A) ;group Ⅱ general anesthesia + caudal block (0.2% bupivacaine 1.25 ml/kg) (AP) and group Ⅲ general anesthesia + caudal block (0.2% bupivacaine 1.25 ml/kg + adrenaline 1:200 000) (AE). Anesthesia was induced with propefal 3 mg/kg iv. Tracheal intubation was facilitated with vecuronium 0.15 mg/kg. The patients were mechanically ventilated. PETCO2 Was maintained at 30-35 mm Hg. Anesthesia was maintained with 0.4% sevoflurane + 40% N2O + 60 % O2. Radial artery was cannulated for continuous BP monitoring. HR, cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV) were monitored using noninvasive transthoracic echocardiagraphy and recorded at 5 min before, and 5, 10 and 15 min after performance of caudal block. Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) was calculated (SVR = MAP/CO × 80). Results There were no significant differences in the hemodynamic variables between the 3 groups. Conclusion Caudal block with bupivacaine alone or with adrenaline exerts no significant effects on hemodynamics in the newborn undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia.%目的 评价布比卡因混合肾上腺素骶管阻滞对全麻新生儿血液动力学的影响.方法 择期或限期行腹部或会阴部手术的足月新生儿30例,性别不限,ASA Ⅰ或Ⅱ级,出生体重≥2 500 g,日龄≤28 d,随机分为3组(n=10):全麻组(A组)、全麻+骶管阻滞(0.2%

  2. Clinical effects and nursing on treating lumbar disc herniation by TCM fumigation combined with caudal injection therapy%中药熏蒸联合骶管注射治疗腰椎间盘突出症的临床观察与护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范碧云; 陈竹云

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical effects and nursing of lumbar disc herniation by TCM fumigation combined with caudal injection therapy. Methods:98 cases were randomly divided into two groups, 40 in the control, others in the treated. The treated group was given TCM fumigation combined with caudal injection therapy, while the control group was given the traction, physical therapy and modern medicine therapy. Results:The total efficiency of the treated group was 92.5%, and 67.2%in the control, the treated group is significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusion:TCM fumigation combined with caudal injection therapy and nursing was effective in treating lumbar disc herniation.%  目的:探讨腰椎间盘突出症患者行中药熏蒸联合骶管注射治疗的临床疗效与护理。方法:98例随机分为两组,治疗组40例,采用中药熏蒸配合骶管注射治疗。对照组58例,采用牵引、物理治疗及西药对症支持治疗。结果:治疗组和对照组的有效率分别为92.5%、67.2%,治疗组治愈、显效率明显高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:中药熏蒸联合骶管注射治疗腰椎间盘突出症,加以适当的护理,临床疗效确切。

  3. Experiences with effects specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten; Barlach, Anders

    2011-01-01

    workshops with effects specification with management and end-users and an agile development process including prototypes configured from the effects specifications. We describe the project and the effects-specification process through which effects were related to the system design and instruments for......We describe the effects-specification process from a project that was conducted during the fall 2010 and spring of 2011 in this chapter. The project configured and implemented an electronic patient record system at a maternity ward at a hospital located in a European region. The process comprised...... measuring effects were designed. The project is analyzed and lessons learned are discussed....

  4. Lidar base specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Hans Karl.

    2012-01-01

    In late 2009, a $14.3 million allocation from the “American Recovery and Reinvestment Act” for new light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data prompted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program (NGP) to develop a common base specification for all lidar data acquired for The National Map. Released as a draft in 2010 and formally published in 2012, the USGS–NGP “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” (now Lidar Base Specification) was quickly embraced as the foundation for numerous state, county, and foreign country lidar specifications.

  5. Review of technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with position and function of technical specifications before and during the manufacturing of reactor components, their structure and reasons for specific regulations due to safety philosophy and explains the cooperation of supplier, manufacturer, utilities and supervisory organizations. (RW)

  6. Improved technical specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Improved technical specifications for nuclear power plants are outlined. The objectives of this work are to improve safety, provide a clearer understanding of safety significance, and ease NRC and industry administrative burdens. Line item improvements, bases, and implementation of the specifications are discussed.

  7. Non-NMDA receptors within caudal ventrolateral medulla are involved in transmission of baroreflex of rats%大鼠尾端延髓腹外侧区非NMDA受体参与压力反射传导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟忠; 袁文俊; 潘燕霞; 白洁; 廖茂瑶; 唐朝枢

    2003-01-01

    目的:探讨大鼠尾端延髓腹外侧区(CVLM)非N-甲基-D-天门冬氨酸(non NMDA)受体在介导压力反射中的作用.方法:在戊巴比妥钠和氨基甲酸乙酯麻醉、制动和人工呼吸的SD大鼠,观察CVLM内局部给予non-NMDA受体选择性阻断剂CNQX对刺激主动脉神经导致的减压反应和头端延髓腹外侧区(RVLM)神经元的压力敏感性的作用.结果:双侧CVLM微量注射CNQX(每侧200 pmo1/100 nL)后明显(P<0.01)地增高基础血压(BP)和心率,而且显著(P<0.01)地减弱刺激主动脉神经导致的降压反应.单侧CVLM内给予CNQX(200 pmol/100 nL)明显(P<0.01)增高同侧RVLM压力敏感性神经元的基础放电频率,但显著(P<0.01)减弱刺激主动脉神经和升高血压导致的神经元活动的抑制效应和部分抑制神经元的心性节律.结论:大鼠尾端延髓腹外侧区non-NMDA受体在维持紧张性兴奋的心血管活动和传递压力感受器信息中具有重要的意义.%AIM: To investigate the role of non N-methyl-D-aspartate acid (non-NMDA) receptors within the caudal ventrolat-eral medulla (CVLM) in mediating the baroreflex. METHODS: In urethane-anesthetized, paralyzed, and artificiallyventilated rats, the effects of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dinoe (CNQX, a selective non-NMDA receptorsantagonist) locally injected into the CVLM on the depressor responses evoked by aortic nerve stimulation and thebarosensitivity of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) barosensitive neurons were observed. RESULTS: Bilat-eral microinjection of CNQX (200 pmol in 100 nL for each side) into the CVLM significantly (P<0.01) increasedthe blood pressure (BP) and heart rate, and markedly (P<0.01) attenuated the depressor response to the aortic nervestimulation. CNQX (200 pmol in 100 nL) unilaterally injected into the CVLM significantly (P<0.01) increased thefiring rate of the ispilateral RVLM barosensitive neurons and reduced the inhibitory responses of neurons evoked

  8. SPECIFIC DEGRADATION OF WATERSHEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boubacar KANE; Pierre Y.JULIEN

    2007-01-01

    An extensive database of reservoir sedimentation surveys throughout continental United States is compiled and analyzed to determine specific degradation SD relationships as function of mean annual rainfall R, drainage area A, and watershed slope S. The database contains 1463 field measurements and specific degradation relationships are defined as function of A, R and S. Weak trends and significant variability in the data are noticeable. Specific degradation measurements are log normally distributed with respect to R, A, and S and 95% confidence intervals are determined accordingly. The accuracy of the predictions does not significantly increase as more independent variables are added to the regression analyses.

  9. The Learning Design Specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, Bill; Tattersall, Colin

    2005-01-01

    Olivier, B. & Tattersall, C. (2005). The Learning Design Specification In: Koper, R. & Tattersall, C., Learning Design: A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training (pp. 21-40). Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.

  10. Screening for Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screening for Social Anxiety Disorder Screening for Specific Phobias Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Children Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Family Member Self- ...

  11. Ontology Requirements Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen; A. GÓMEZ-PÉREZ

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the ontology requirements specification activity is to state why the ontology is being built, what its intended uses are, who the end users are, and which requirements the ontology should fulfill. This chapter presents detailed methodological guidelines for specifying ontology requirements efficiently. These guidelines will help ontology engineers to capture ontology requirements and produce the ontology requirements specification document (ORSD). The ORSD will play a key role dur...

  12. Nkx2.2:Cre knock-in mouse line: a novel tool for pancreas- and CNS-specific gene deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderes, Dina A; Magnuson, Mark A; Sussel, Lori

    2013-12-01

    Nkx2.2 is a homeodomain-containing transcriptional regulator necessary for the appropriate differentiation of ventral neuronal populations in the spinal cord and hindbrain, and endocrine cell populations in the pancreas and intestine. In each tissue, Nkx2.2 inactivation leads to reciprocal cell fate alterations. To confirm the cell fate changes are due to respecification of Nkx2.2-expressing progenitors and to provide a novel tool for lineage tracing in the pancreas and CNS, we generated an Nkx2.2:Cre mouse line by knocking in a Cre-EGFP cassette into the Nkx2.2 genomic locus and inactivating endogenous Nkx2.2. The R26R-CAG-LSL-tdTomato reporter was used to monitor the specificity and efficiency of Nkx2.2:Cre activity; the tomato reporter faithfully recapitulated endogenous Nkx2.2 expression and could be detected as early as embryonic day (e) 9.25 in the developing CNS and was initiated shortly thereafter at e9.5 in the pancreas. Lineage analyses in the CNS confirmed the cell populations thought to be derived from Nkx2.2-expressing progenitor domains. Furthermore, lineage studies verified Nkx2.2 expression in the earliest pancreatic progenitors that give rise to all cell types of the pancreas; however they also revealed more robust Cre activity in the dorsal versus ventral pancreas. Thus, the Nkx2.2:Cre line provides a novel tool for gene manipulations in the CNS and pancreas.

  13. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

     This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....... This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....

  14. Facilities Specifications Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athletic Business, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides line drawings of indoor and outdoor sporting fields reflecting the specifications and dimensional standards of each, including where additional information can be found. Sporting events from badminton, baseball, and basketball to lacrosse, swimming/diving, and volleyball are addressed. (GR)

  15. IDC System Specification Document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, David J.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  16. LOCKE Detailed Specification Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Menezo, Lucia G; Gregorio, Jose-Angel

    2012-01-01

    This document shows the detailed specification of LOCKE coherence protocol for each cache controller, using a table-based technique. This representation provides clear, concise visual information yet includes sufficient detail (e.g., transient states) arguably lacking in the traditional, graphical form of state diagrams.

  17. Testing abstract behavioral specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, P.Y.H.; Bubel, R.; Boer, F.S. de; Gouw, C.P.T. de; Gómez-Zamalloa, M.; Haehnle, R; Meinke, K.; Sindhu, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a range of testing techniques for the Abstract Behavioral Specification (ABS) language and apply them to an industrial case study. ABS is a formal modeling language for highly variable, concurrent, component-based systems. The nature of these systems makes them susceptible to the introduc

  18. Site-Specific Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik; Hemmersam, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Currently, cities across the Northern European region are actively redeveloping their former industrial harbours. Indeed, harbours areas are essential in the long-term transition from industrial to information and experience societies; harbours are becoming sites for new businesses and residences...... question is how innovation may contribute to urban life and site-specific qualities....

  19. Dynamic specification and cointegration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); H.P. Boswijk (Peter)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe article discusses the use of some Monte Carlo experiments to investigate the effects of dynamic specification on the size and power of three cointegration tests. The first test, proposed by Engle and Granger (1987), is the residual augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test. The second i

  20. Specificity in LSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas N. Huckin

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The defining feature of our field is the teaching and use of language for specific purposes. Not surprisingly, this has led to a debate over just how specific those purposes should be. The debate is longstanding, stirred initially by Hutchinson and Waters' classic 1980 article, 'ESP at the Crossroads' and reinvigorated most recently by Hyland (2002, who argues that the field has drifted away from specificity, becoming too generalized and diffuse. This paper lays out the arguments on both sides and then stakes out a position that draws from each of them. While agreeing with some of Hyland's criticisms of the 'wide-angle' position (for example, that generalized LSP can fail to appreciate the distinct linguistic and rhetorical features of specialized discourses, the paper criticizes his 'narrow-angle' position as well by pointing out that it can easily lead to a teacher-centered prescriptivism and to an overly rigid focus on certain forms and tasks at the expense of others. Furthermore, such an approach fails to prepare students for the unpredictable new forms of communication that await them in their professional careers. In general, a teachercentered approach, no matter how specific, is unlikely to have the pedagogical effectiveness of a student-centered approach, especially in heterogeneous classes. Specificity, it is argued, must ultimately be supplied by the student, not by the teacher, for it is the student more than the LSP teacher who is in the process of becoming an insider and whose interests are best served by becoming an astute analyst of the specialist discourse. The teacher's role should be that of facilitator, instructing students in analytic strategies, both rhetorical and textual. The paper concludes with a number of illustrations in how this can be done, drawing especially on work in genre study.

  1. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. In the comp....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases. The comparative test cases include: ventilation, shading and geometry....

  2. Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. I....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases....

  3. Domain-specific languages

    OpenAIRE

    Jasný, Vojtěch

    2009-01-01

    The topic of the thesis are domain-specific languages (DSL) and their use in software development. The target audience are developers interested in learning more about this progressive area of software development. It starts with a necessary theoretical introduction to programming languages. Then, a classification of DSLs is given and software development methodologies based on DSLs are described, notably Language Oriented Programming and Intentional Programming. Another important piece in co...

  4. 针刀松解术联合骶管阻滞治疗腰椎间盘突出症的疗效观察%Under X-ray Machine Positioning Needle Knife Surgery Combined with Caudal Block for Lumbar Disc Herniation of Efficacy Observed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志; 刘明雪

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察针刀松解术联合骶管阻滞治疗腰椎间盘突出症的疗效和安全性.方法:49例腰椎间盘突出症患者在X光机定位下行针刀松解术联合骶管阻滞治疗,在治疗前、治疗后7d、30 d、3个月、6个月对如下疗效与安全性指标进行评价.疗效指标包括:疼痛视觉模拟评分( VAS);局部压痛评分;直腿抬高角度;疗效评定等指标.结果:经治疗后第7d、30 d、3个月、6个月,患者各项指标均有明显的改善(P<0.05),第7d时总有效率达到100%,第3个月及6个月总有效率为97.9%及95.9%.49例治疗无一例出现不良反应.结论:X光机定位下行针刀松解术联合骶管阻滞治疗疼痛具有疗效确切、稳定、安全性高、不良反应少等优点.%Objective; Observe the needle knife surgery combined with caudal block for lumbar disc hemiation of the efficacy and safety. Methods: 49 patients with lumbar disc hemiation in patients with X-ray machine positioning downstream needle knife sur gery combined caudal block treatment, before treatment, after 7 days, 30 days, 3 months, 6 months on the following efficacy and To e valuate the safety index. Outcome measures included: pain visual analogue scale ( VAS) ; local tenderness score; straight leg raising angle; efficacy evaluation and other indicators. Results; After treatment, 7 days, 30 days, 3 months, 6 months, patients were signifi cantly improved indicators (P <0. 05) , when the first 7 days and 100% total efficiency, the first 3 Month and 6 months the total ef fective rate was 97. 9% and 95. 9%. None of 49 patients with treatment of adverse reactions. Conclusion; X-ray machine positioning downstream needle knife surgery combined with caudal block for pain precise, stable efficacy, safety, adverse reactions and so on.

  5. 家长陪护对静脉麻醉复合骶麻小儿患者麻醉复苏期躁动的影响%The Impact of Parental Accompaniment in Children on Postoperative Recovery Period after Intravenous Anesthesia Combined with Caudal Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冉; 陈慧; 黄昆

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the impact of parental accompaniment in children on postoperative recovery period after intravenous anesthesia combined with caudal block. Methods The randomized controlled trial involved 60 children having operations under intravenous anesthesia combined with caudal block in our hospital. The children of observation group had parents accompanied during postoperative recovery period, while those of control group took conventional methods of anesthesia recovery. The wake-up time, the sedation scales and the incidence of restlessness and adverse reactions of both groups were recorded. Results The incidence of adverse reactions and the results of recovery indexes of observation group were significantly better than the results of control group. Conclusion Parental accompaniment improves the quality of the recovery and reduces the psychological trauma in children on postoperative period after intravenous anesthesia combined with caudal block.%目的::探讨家长陪护对静脉麻醉复合骶麻小儿患者麻醉复苏期躁动的影响。方法:采用随机对照法将某二甲医:2~6周岁静脉麻醉复合骶麻小儿患者60例作为研究对象,随机分为干预组和对照组。干预组采用在患儿麻醉复苏期安排家长陪护;对照组采取常规麻醉复苏方法。监测两组患儿术后睁眼时间、镇静评分、躁动评分和不良反应的发生率。结果:两组患儿睁眼时间和镇静评分无统计学差异,干预组患儿躁动评分、不良反应的发生率明显低于对照组。结论:家长陪护有利于减少静脉麻醉复合骶麻患儿复苏期躁动和不良反应发生率,减少患儿的心理创伤。

  6. Allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moote William

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy is a potentially disease-modifying therapy that is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis, allergic asthma and stinging insect hypersensitivity. However, despite its proven efficacy in these conditions, it is frequently underutilized in Canada. The decision to proceed with allergen-specific immunotherapy should be made on a case-by-case basis, taking into account individual patient factors such as the degree to which symptoms can be reduced by avoidance measures and pharmacological therapy, the amount and type of medication required to control symptoms, the adverse effects of pharmacological treatment, and patient preferences. Since this form of therapy carries the risk of anaphylactic reactions, it should only be prescribed by physicians who are adequately trained in the treatment of allergy. Furthermore, injections must be given under medical supervision in clinics that are equipped to manage anaphylaxis. In this article, the authors review the indications and contraindications, patient selection criteria, and the administration, safety and efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  7. Data specifications for INSPIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portele, Clemens; Woolf, Andrew; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    In Europe a major recent development has been the entering in force of the INSPIRE Directive in May 2007, establishing an infrastructure for spatial information in Europe to support Community environmental policies, and policies or activities which may have an impact on the environment. INSPIRE is based on the infrastructures for spatial information established and operated by the 27 Member States of the European Union. The Directive addresses 34 spatial data themes needed for environmental applications, with key components specified through technical implementing rules. This makes INSPIRE a unique example of a legislative "regional" approach. One of the requirements of the INSPIRE Directive is to make existing spatial data sets with relevance for one of the spatial data themes available in an interoperable way, i.e. where the spatial data from different sources in Europe can be combined to a coherent result. Since INSPIRE covers a wide range of spatial data themes, the first step has been the development of a modelling framework that provides a common foundation for all themes. This framework is largely based on the ISO 19100 series of standards. The use of common generic spatial modelling concepts across all themes is an important enabler for interoperability. As a second step, data specifications for the first set of themes has been developed based on the modelling framework. The themes include addresses, transport networks, protected sites, hydrography, administrative areas and others. The data specifications were developed by selected experts nominated by stakeholders from all over Europe. For each theme a working group was established in early 2008 working on their specific theme and collaborating with the other working groups on cross-theme issues. After a public review of the draft specifications starting in December 2008, an open testing process and thorough comment resolution process, the draft technical implementing rules for these themes have been

  8. Neural crest contributions to the lamprey head

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, David W.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    The neural crest is a vertebrate-specific cell population that contributes to the facial skeleton and other derivatives. We have performed focal DiI injection into the cranial neural tube of the developing lamprey in order to follow the migratory pathways of discrete groups of cells from origin to destination and to compare neural crest migratory pathways in a basal vertebrate to those of gnathostomes. The results show that the general pathways of cranial neural crest migration are conserved throughout the vertebrates, with cells migrating in streams analogous to the mandibular and hyoid streams. Caudal branchial neural crest cells migrate ventrally as a sheet of cells from the hindbrain and super-pharyngeal region of the neural tube and form a cylinder surrounding a core of mesoderm in each pharyngeal arch, similar to that seen in zebrafish and axolotl. In addition to these similarities, we also uncovered important differences. Migration into the presumptive caudal branchial arches of the lamprey involves both rostral and caudal movements of neural crest cells that have not been described in gnathostomes, suggesting that barriers that constrain rostrocaudal movement of cranial neural crest cells may have arisen after the agnathan/gnathostome split. Accordingly, neural crest cells from a single axial level contributed to multiple arches and there was extensive mixing between populations. There was no apparent filling of neural crest derivatives in a ventral-to-dorsal order, as has been observed in higher vertebrates, nor did we find evidence of a neural crest contribution to cranial sensory ganglia. These results suggest that migratory constraints and additional neural crest derivatives arose later in gnathostome evolution.

  9. Tendering specification and contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lecture tendering, specification and contracting is prepared in two parts: This first part deals with technical aspects while part two features the commercial and legal situation in the partnership of two: the supplier of the fuel bundles and the utility. In this lecture a look is given on the way how a supplier can offer its fuel and some certain points are mentioned which are important to compare the bid of one competitor to the other. The major points are summarized which are or at least should be in an offer so as to find out which offer is the best. (orig./FW)

  10. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    Concurrent objects are named concurrent processes that interact by invoking each other's operations. We describe how such concurrent objects can be specified, how objects can be composed, and how it can be shown that one object refines another.First a model is defined, based on a transition...... relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract...

  11. 骶管阻滞对小儿喉罩拔除七氟烷最低肺泡有效浓度的影响%Caudal block reduces the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane for laryngeal mask airway removal in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢庆林; 易明亮; 姚玉笙

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价单次骶管阻滞对患儿拔除喉罩七氟烷最低肺泡有效浓度(MACLMA)的影响。方法选择2012年1~12月在四川省简阳市中医医院择期行单侧腹股沟斜疝手术患儿50例为研究对象,年龄2~5岁,美国麻醉医师协会分级为Ⅰ级,按照计算机生成的随机种子表将其随机分为七氟烷全身麻醉+骶管阻滞组(研究组)和七氟烷全身麻醉组(对照组),两组均为25例。研究组行单次骶管阻滞(0.25%罗哌卡因1 ml/kg);对照组未行骶管阻滞。两组患儿均采用七氟烷吸入诱导并维持,喉罩维持自主呼吸的麻醉方法。根据Dixon序贯法确定MACLMA。Probit概率单位法确定50%和95%患儿拔除喉罩七氟烷肺泡有效浓度(EC50和EC95)。结果两组患儿年龄、体质量等一般临床资料比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。研究组患儿拔除喉罩的七氟烷EC50值为1.21%(95%CI 1.14%~1.31%),EC95值为1.56%(95%CI 1.39%~2.14%);对照组患儿拔除喉罩的七氟烷EC50值为1.78%(95%CI 1.63%~1.87%),EC95值为2.21%(95%CI 1.96%~2.87%)。研究组患儿喉罩拔除七氟烷EC50和EC95均低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.001)。单次骶管阻滞后,患儿拔除喉罩的七氟烷EC50和EC95值分别下降了32.1%和29.4%。结论骶管阻滞可降低小儿喉罩拔除七氟烷最低肺泡有效浓度。%Objective The present study was designed to evaluate the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane for Laryngeal mask airway removal (MACLMA) with and without caudal block in children. Methods A total of 50 subjects between 2 and 5 years old, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical statusⅠ, who were undergoing unilateral oblique inguinal hernia repair from January 2012 to December 2012 in Jianyang Integrated Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital. Subjects were allocated to receive or not to receive caudal block according to random list

  12. Macrofauna del curso inferior y estuario del río Biobío (Chile: cambios asociados a variabilidad estacional del caudal hídrico Macrofauna of the lower reach and estuary of Biobío river (Chile: changes associated to seasonal changes of the river flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS BERTRÁN

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los sistemas lóticos chilenos de mayor importancia de acuerdo a su caudal es el río Biobío (ca. 37º S. Su estuario es reducido, especialmente en las épocas de máximo caudal. Con el objetivo de poner a prueba la hipótesis de que en verano la disminución del caudal del río Biobío, determina una mayor depositación del material particulado fino y que el aumento del caudal en invierno resulta en el lavado y transporte del material depositado hacia el mar, y consecuentemente en una disminución de la macrofauna bentónica, se recolectaron muestras para análisis sedimentológicos y faunísticos en el curso inferior y estuario del río Biobío, durante agosto de 1993 y marzo de 1994. Los análisis sedimentológicos indican que el tamaño medio del sedimento correspondió a arenas gruesas. La depositación del material fino suspendido, que ocurre durante el verano se manifiesta en el mayor porcentaje de finos y materia orgánica durante este período. La macrofauna bentónica estuvo compuesta por 16 taxa en el muestreo de invierno y 42 taxa en el de verano. Durante el invierno, la mayoría de ellas estuvo representada por muy pocos individuos. Durante el verano aumentó la riqueza específica y abundancias totales de la macrofauna. Los taxa más abundantes fueron un Archiannelida indeterminado y el poliqueto Perinereis gualpensis. El aumento del caudal en la época invernal, determina el transporte del material depositado hacia el mar y consecuentemente el arrastre de organismos bentónicos. Aún cuando los valores de abundancia y biomasa de macrofauna durante el verano fueron de un orden de magnitud mayor que en la fase invernal, fueron menores que los citados para otros estuarios del centro-sur de Chile (ca. 39º S. Eso contribuye a confirmar el carácter atípico del estuario del río Biobío, el que debido a sus cambios estacionales de caudal genera cambios significativos en la estructura comunitaria de la macrofauna bent

  13. A specific hygiene hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunsheng Han, Cliff

    2016-08-01

    Allergic diseases have reached epidemic proportions in Western populations in the last several decades. The hygiene hypothesis proposed more than twenty years ago has helped us to understand the epidemic and has been verified with numerous studies. However, translational measures deduced from these studies to prevent allergic diseases have not proven effective. Recent studies on immigrants' allergies and any potential association between oral infection and allergic diseases prompt me to propose a specific hygiene hypothesis to explain how oral hygiene practices might have contributed to the uprising of hay fever, the most common allergic disease. The historic oral hygiene level in US is closely associated with the emerging allergic epidemic. Future studies to test the hypothesis are needed and verification of the hypothesis can potentially yield highly effective measures to prevent allergic diseases. PMID:27372876

  14. Intent Specifications: An Approach to Building Human-Centered Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines and proposes an approach to writing software specifications, based on research in systems theory, cognitive psychology, and human-machine interaction. The goal is to provide specifications that support human problem solving and the tasks that humans must perform in software development and evolution. A type of specification, called intent specifications, is constructed upon this underlying foundation.

  15. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to regional specific neural precursors in chemically defined medium conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaven Erceg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells (hESC provide a unique model to study early events in human development. The hESC-derived cells can potentially be used to replace or restore different tissues including neuronal that have been damaged by disease or injury. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cells of two different hESC lines were converted to neural rosettes using adherent and chemically defined conditions. The progenitor cells were exposed to retinoic acid (RA or to human recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF in the late phase of the rosette formation. Exposing the progenitor cells to RA suppressed differentiation to rostral forebrain dopamine neural lineage and promoted that of spinal neural tissue including motor neurons. The functional characteristics of these differentiated neuronal precursors under both, rostral (bFGF and caudalizing (RA signals were confirmed by patch clamp analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that our differentiation protocol has the capacity to generate region-specific and electrophysiologically active neurons under in vitro conditions without embryoid body formation, co-culture with stromal cells and without presence of cells of mesodermal or endodermal lineages.

  16. ADANS database specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-16

    The purpose of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) Database Specification (DS) is to describe the database organization and storage allocation and to provide the detailed data model of the physical design and information necessary for the construction of the parts of the database (e.g., tables, indexes, rules, defaults). The DS includes entity relationship diagrams, table and field definitions, reports on other database objects, and a description of the ADANS data dictionary. ADANS is the automated system used by Headquarters AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) for airlift planning and scheduling of peacetime and contingency operations as well as for deliberate planning. ADANS also supports planning and scheduling of Air Refueling Events by the TACC and the unit-level tanker schedulers. ADANS receives input in the form of movement requirements and air refueling requests. It provides a suite of tools for planners to manipulate these requirements/requests against mobility assets and to develop, analyze, and distribute schedules. Analysis tools are provided for assessing the products of the scheduling subsystems, and editing capabilities support the refinement of schedules. A reporting capability provides formatted screen, print, and/or file outputs of various standard reports. An interface subsystem handles message traffic to and from external systems. The database is an integral part of the functionality summarized above.

  17. Specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhi, Alan G; Clark, Mary Kristen

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of language is one of the most important achievements in young children, in part because most children appear to acquire language with little effort. Some children are not so fortunate, however. There is a large group of children who also have difficulty learning language, but do not have obvious neurological, cognitive, sensory, emotional, or environmental deficits. Clinicians often refer to these children as language disordered or language impaired. Researchers tend to refer to these children as specific language impaired (SLI). Children with SLI have intrigued researchers for many years because there is no obvious reason for their language learning difficulties. SLI has been found to be an enduring condition that begins in early childhood and often persists into adolescence and adulthood. The language problems of children with SLI are not limited to spoken language; they also affect reading and writing and thus much of academic learning. Knowledge of the characteristics of SLI should aid physicians, pediatricians, and early childhood specialists to identify these children during the preschool years and ensure that they receive appropriate services. With high-quality language intervention and literacy instruction, most children with SLI should be able to perform and function adequately in school and beyond. PMID:23622167

  18. Genotype Specification Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Erin H; Sagawa, Shiori; Weis, James W; Schubert, Max G; Bissell, Michael; Hawthorne, Brian; Reeves, Christopher D; Dean, Jed; Platt, Darren

    2016-06-17

    We describe here the Genotype Specification Language (GSL), a language that facilitates the rapid design of large and complex DNA constructs used to engineer genomes. The GSL compiler implements a high-level language based on traditional genetic notation, as well as a set of low-level DNA manipulation primitives. The language allows facile incorporation of parts from a library of cloned DNA constructs and from the "natural" library of parts in fully sequenced and annotated genomes. GSL was designed to engage genetic engineers in their native language while providing a framework for higher level abstract tooling. To this end we define four language levels, Level 0 (literal DNA sequence) through Level 3, with increasing abstraction of part selection and construction paths. GSL targets an intermediate language based on DNA slices that translates efficiently into a wide range of final output formats, such as FASTA and GenBank, and includes formats that specify instructions and materials such as oligonucleotide primers to allow the physical construction of the GSL designs by individual strain engineers or an automated DNA assembly core facility. PMID:26886161

  19. Use Case Specification Using the SILABREQ Domain Specific Language

    OpenAIRE

    Dušan Savić; Siniša Vlajić; Saša Lazarević; Ilija Antović; Vojislav Stanojević; Miloš Milić; Alberto Rodrigues da Silva

    2016-01-01

    The software requirements engineering process is a part of a software development process and one of the key processes in software development. The elicitation, analysis, specification and validation of software requirements occur during the requirements engineering process. Use cases are used as a technique for functional system specification. Different notations can be used for a use case specification. In this paper, we present SilabReq Domain Specific Language (SilabReq DSL) for use case ...

  20. 骶管阻滞联合静脉麻醉在先天性心脏病介入封堵术中的应用%Application of caudal block combined with intravenous anesthesia for children of congenital heart disease undergoing blocking intervention surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉清; 冷玉芳; 王晓庆; 李玉兰

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨骶管阻滞联合静脉麻醉在先天性心脏病介入封堵术患儿中的安全性和有效性.方法 将60例择期进行先天性心脏病封堵手术患儿随机分为骶管阻滞联合静脉麻醉组(A组)和单纯静脉麻醉组(B组).A组静脉给药后进行骶管阻滞,B组单纯静脉麻醉.分别观察诱导前(To)、鞘管置入时(T1)、动、静脉轨道建立时(T2)、封堵器安放时(T3)、术后10 min (T4)患儿心率、平均动脉压和血氧饱和度的变化;记录全麻药氯胺酮和丙泊酚的使用量;记录手术时间、苏醒时间、术后5h疼痛评分、术中体动例数、术后躁动和恶心呕吐等不良反应的例数.结果 A组手术中血流动力学平稳,B组在T1、T2、T3、T4时间点患儿心率、平均动脉压较诱导前升高(P<0.05);A组术中体动例数少于B组(P<0.01),苏醒时间短于B组(P<0.05);A组患儿全麻药氯胺酮和丙泊酚的使用量少,术后躁动和恶心呕吐等苏醒期不良反应发生率低(P<0.01),苏醒质量高,手术后5h疼痛评分显著低于B组(P<0.01).结论 手术期患儿血液动力学平稳,术中体动少,麻醉效果确切;苏醒时间短,术后躁动和恶心呕吐等苏醒期不良反应少,苏醒质量高;术后镇痛作用时间持久.%Objective To study the efficacy and safety of caudal block combined with intravenous anesthesia for children of congenital heart disease undergoing blocking intervention surgery. Methods 60 patients were randomly divided into two groups. Caudal block combined with intravenous anesthesia was performed on group A and only intravenous anesthesia was used to group B. Both heart rate, mean blood pressure and pulse oxygen saturation before operation, and scabbard tube placement, arteriovenous rail in the building, deviceimplantation 10 min after operation were recorded. Awaking time, postoperative analgesia and postoperative vomiting were also recorded at time points. Results Group A showed

  1. Modular Specification of Java Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Tushkanova, Elena; Giorgetti, Alain; Marché, Claude; Kouchnarenko, Olga

    2009-01-01

    This work investigates the question of modular specification of generic Java classes and methods. The first part introduces a specification language for Java programs. In the second part the language is used to specify an array sorting algorithm by selection. The third and the fourth parts define a syntax proposal for the specification a generic Java programs, through two examples. The former is the specification of the generic method for sorting arrays which comes in the java.util.Arrays cla...

  2. Compositional Specification of Software Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penix, John; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes our experience using parameterized algebraic specifications to model properties of software architectures. The goal is to model the decomposition of requirements independent of the style used to implement the architecture. We begin by providing an overview of the role of architecture specification in software development. We then describe how architecture specifications are build up from component and connector specifications and give an overview of insights gained from a case study used to validate the method.

  3. Teaching English for Specific Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Nijolė Netikšienė

    2011-01-01

    Teaching English for Specific Purposes and General English is analysed in the article. The scientific approach of a scientist M. Rosenberg is presented. The experience of teaching English for Specific Purposesat VGTU is alsopresented. The ideas and teaching methods from the classes of general English can be transferred to the classes of English for Specific Purposes.

  4. Teaching English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Netikšienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English for Specific Purposes and General English is analysed in the article. The scientific approach of a scientist M. Rosenberg is presented. The experience of teaching English for Specific Purposesat VGTU is alsopresented. The ideas and teaching methods from the classes of general English can be transferred to the classes of English for Specific Purposes.

  5. An Anthropometric-Based Subject-Specific Finite Element Model of the Human Breast for Predicting Large Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianigiani, Silvia; Ruggiero, Leonardo; Innocenti, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    The large deformation of the human breast threatens proper nodules tracking when the subject mammograms are used as pre-planning data for biopsy. However, techniques capable of accurately supporting the surgeons during biopsy are missing. Finite element (FE) models are at the basis of currently investigated methodologies to track nodules displacement. Nonetheless, the impact of breast material modeling on the mechanical response of its tissues (e.g., tumors) is not clear. This study proposes a subject-specific FE model of the breast, obtained by anthropometric measurements, to predict breast large deformation. A healthy breast subject-specific FE parametric model was developed and validated by Cranio-caudal (CC) and Medio-Lateral Oblique (MLO) mammograms. The model was successively modified, including nodules, and utilized to investigate the effect of nodules size, typology, and material modeling on nodules shift under the effect of CC, MLO, and gravity loads. Results show that a Mooney–Rivlin material model can estimate healthy breast large deformation. For a pathological breast, under CC compression, the nodules displacement is very close to zero when a linear elastic material model is used. Finally, when nodules are modeled, including tumor material properties, under CC, or MLO or gravity loads, nodules shift shows ~15% average relative difference. PMID:26734604

  6. Specification-Based Testing Via Domain Specific Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sroka Michal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents tCF (testCaseFramework - a domain specific language with corresponding toolchain for specification-based software testing of embedded software. tCF is designed for efficient preparation of maintainable and intelligible test cases and for testing process automation, as it allows to generate platform specific test cases for various testing levels. The article describes the essential parts of the tCF meta-model and the applied concept of platform specific test cases generators.

  7. Xenopus Vocalizations Are Controlled by a Sexually Differentiated Hindbrain Central Pattern Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Heather J.; Yu, Heather J.; YAMAGUCHI, ayako

    2007-01-01

    Male and female African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) produce rhythmic, sexually distinct vocalizations as part of courtship and mating. We found that Xenopus vocal behavior is governed by a sexually dimorphic central pattern generator (CPG) and that fictive vocalizations can be elicited from an in vitro brain preparation by application of serotonin or by electrical stimulation of a premotor nucleus. Male brains produced fictive vocal patterns representing two calls commonly produced by males...

  8. Study of the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of hindbrain boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Calzolari, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Durant el desenvolupament embrionari, els teixits s’especifiquen gradualment fins a que adquireixen un destí final. En els vertebrats el Sistema Nerviós Central (SNC) deriva del tub neural, una estructura embrionària transitòria que està regionalitzada al llarg de l'eix anteroposterior (AP) en tres diferents vesícules cerebrals i en la medul·la espinal. El romboencèfal, la vesícula cerebral posterior, és la més conservada evolutivament i donarà lloc a estructures importants com el cerebel. La...

  9. Forebrain melanocortin signaling enhances the hindbrain satiety response to CCK-8

    OpenAIRE

    Blevins, James E.; Morton, Gregory J.; Williams, Diana L.; Caldwell, David W.; Bastian, Lloyd S.; Wisse, Brent E.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Baskin, Denis G.

    2009-01-01

    Melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R) are hypothesized to mediate the central nervous system actions of leptin to enhance the satiety effects of cholecystokinin (CCK). To further elucidate this mechanism, we confirmed that peripheral administration of CCK-8 is less effective in producing this effect in MC4R-deficient mice (MC4R−/−). Whereas intraperitoneal (ip) CCK-8 at 0.75 nmol/kg lean body mass (lbm) suppressed food intake in wild-type mice, CCK-8 doses of 7.5 nmol/kg lbm were required to attenu...

  10. Filariasis and serum specific gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-01-01

    "nFilariasis is a problematic tropical vector borne infection. Here, the author proposes an idea on a physical change, serum specific gravity, in serum of filariasis cases and further extrapolates for its clinical usefulness.  According to this study, the finalized estimated serum specificity in filariasis is more than that of normal condition. The change of the specific gravity due to additional content or mass can be demonstrated and might be useful for diagnosis and following...

  11. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  12. Hanford Site environmental management specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.

    1998-06-10

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) uses this Hanford Site Environmental Management Specification (Specification) to document top-level mission requirements and planning assumptions for the prime contractors involved in Hanford Site cleanup and infrastructure activities under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. This Specification describes at a top level the activities, facilities, and infrastructure necessary to accomplish the cleanup of the Hanford Site and assigns this scope to Site contractors and their respective projects. This Specification also references the key National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), and safety documentation necessary to accurately describe the cleanup at a summary level. The information contained in this document reflects RL`s application of values, priorities, and critical success factors expressed by those involved with and affected by the Hanford Site project. The prime contractors and their projects develop complete baselines and work plans to implement this Specification. These lower-level documents and the data that support them, together with this Specification, represent the full set of requirements applicable to the contractors and their projects. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this Specification to the other basic Site documents. Similarly, the documents, orders, and laws referenced in this specification represent only the most salient sources of requirements. Current and contractual reference data contain a complete set of source documents.

  13. Hanford Site environmental management specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) uses this Hanford Site Environmental Management Specification (Specification) to document top-level mission requirements and planning assumptions for the prime contractors involved in Hanford Site cleanup and infrastructure activities under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. This Specification describes at a top level the activities, facilities, and infrastructure necessary to accomplish the cleanup of the Hanford Site and assigns this scope to Site contractors and their respective projects. This Specification also references the key National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), and safety documentation necessary to accurately describe the cleanup at a summary level. The information contained in this document reflects RL's application of values, priorities, and critical success factors expressed by those involved with and affected by the Hanford Site project. The prime contractors and their projects develop complete baselines and work plans to implement this Specification. These lower-level documents and the data that support them, together with this Specification, represent the full set of requirements applicable to the contractors and their projects. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this Specification to the other basic Site documents. Similarly, the documents, orders, and laws referenced in this specification represent only the most salient sources of requirements. Current and contractual reference data contain a complete set of source documents

  14. Performance Specifications for Occupational Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore. Div. of Career Technology and Adult Learning.

    This document lists and discusses the development of Maryland's performance specifications for occupational programs. The introduction explains the process used to develop performance standards and specifications for 10 career cluster majors that were identified by a task force of educators and employers as high-demand occupational areas in…

  15. Specificity of Exercise and Specificity of Training: A Subcellular Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, William B.; Horvath, Steven M.

    1977-01-01

    Selection of proper competitive activities for athletes is discussed in relation to the acknowledged fact that cellular adaptation is dependent upon the specific program employed in training for competitive events. (MB)

  16. SPECIFIC RESISTANCE AND SPECIFIC INTENSITY OF BELT SANDING OF WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boleslaw Porankiewicz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and discusses the specific belt sanding resistance K (N·cm-2 and specific belt sanding intensity SI (g·cm-2·min-1, for wood of Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies L., Quercus robra L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and Populus Nigra L., by different sanding pressure pS, different sanding grit NG number, and different wood grain angles Phi(v.

  17. Distinct localization and target specificity of galanin-immunoreactive sympathetic preganglionic neurons of a teleost, the filefish Stephanolepis cirrhifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, K; Kadota, T; Atobe, Y; Nakano, M; Hibiya, K; Goris, R C; Kishida, R

    2000-03-15

    Immunoreactivity for galanin was examined in the sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord, adrenal glands, sympathetic ganglia, and some sensory ganglia of the filefish Stephanolepis cirrhifer. Galanin-immunoreactive neurons were found only in the rostral part, but not in the caudal part of the central autonomic nucleus (a column of sympathetic preganglionic neurons of teleosts). Many galanin-immunoreactive nerve terminals were found in contact with neurons in the celiac ganglia and the cranial sympathetic ganglia on both sides of the body. Most neurons encircled by galanin-immunoreactive nerve fibers were negative for tyrosine hydroxylase. Galanin-immunoreactive nerve fibers were very sparse in the spinal sympathetic paravertebral ganglia. No galanin-immunoreactive nerve fibers were found in the adrenal glands. No sensory neurons of the trigeminal, vagal, or spinal dorsal root ganglia were positive for galanin-immunoreactivity. These results suggest that galanin-immunoreactive sympathetic preganglionic neurons have distinct segmental localization and might project specifically to a population of non-adrenergic sympathetic postganglionic neurons in the celiac and cranial sympathetic ganglia.

  18. Specificity of immunoassays. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Practical aspects of the measurement of the specificity of immunoassay are reviewed. Antibody heterogeneity in an antiserum makes a pragmatic rather than a theoretical approach necessary. A new method for the measurement of immunoassay specificity is described. This method is based on the errors caused by the cross-reacting antigens and is directly relevant to the validity of results obtained by immunoassay methods. The effect of selectively blocking the least specific antibodies in antisera raised against steroid haptens is tested. The practical consequences of these considerations are tested using steroid radioimmunoassay and enzyme-immunoassay. (orig.)

  19. Patient-Specific Computational Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Peña, Estefanía

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses patient-specific modeling. It integrates computational modeling, experimental procedures, imagine clinical segmentation and mesh generation with the finite element method (FEM) to solve problems in computational biomedicine and bioengineering. Specific areas of interest include cardiovascular problems, ocular and muscular systems and soft tissue modeling. Patient-specific modeling has been the subject of serious research over the last seven years and interest in the area is continually growing and this area is expected to further develop in the near future.

  20. Cell-specific precursor processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Bundgaard, Jens R

    2010-01-01

    The singular gene for a peptide hormone is expressed not only in a specific endocrine cell type but also in other endocrine cells as well as in entirely different cells such as neurons, adipocytes, myocytes, immune cells, and cells of the sex-glands. The cellular expression pattern for each gene...... varies with development, time and species. Endocrine regulation is, however, based on the release of a given hormone from an endocrine cell to the general circulation from whose cappilaries the hormone reaches the specific target cell elsewhere in the body. The widespread expression of hormone genes in...... different cells and tissues therefore requires control of biogenesis and secretion in order to avoid interference with the function of a specific hormonal peptide from a particular endocrine cell. Several mechanisms are involved in such control, one of them being cell-specific processing of prohormones. The...

  1. EEG in Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The value of routine wake electroencephalography in children with specific language impairment was reviewed retrospectively in 111 children examined over a 10-year interval at Montreal Children’s Hospital, Quebec, Çanada.

  2. Specific yield, High Plains aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents specific-yield ranges in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer underlies 112.6 million acres...

  3. Youth job market specific features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Yu. Zhuravleva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers youth job market peculiarities, its specific features and regulation means, determines theoretical and application tasks of qualitative and quantitative comparison of vocations, which are highly in demand at the job market.

  4. Eternity Variables to Simulate Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, WH; Boiten, EA; Moller, B

    2002-01-01

    Simulation of specifications is introduced as a unification and generalization of refinement mappings, history variables, forward simulations, prophecy variables, and backward simulations. Eternity variables are introduced as a more powerful alternative for prophecy variables and backward simulation

  5. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  6. Marketing Research for Specific Product

    OpenAIRE

    Gärtner, Ota

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to conduct the marketing research for specific product. In the thesis are described marketing means and channel, which influence presentation of the product and have influence on the final sale of product. The practical part of my work is focused on the calculation of the market potential for specific product and defines the customer base. In the second part is suggested a possible presentation through marketing media and possible approach of ...

  7. THE Z SPECIFICATION DEPENDENCE GRAPH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Fangjun; Yi Tong

    2005-01-01

    The lack of existing solutions makes it really hard to understand formal specification languages since the application domain for representations is useful for the purpose of carrying out certain software engineering operations such as slicing and the computation of program metrics.A Z specification dependence graph is presented in this letter. It draws on the strengths of a range of earlier works and adapts them, if necessary, to the Z language.

  8. ESTIMACIÓN DE CAUDALES DE AVENIDA Y DELIMITACIÓN DE ÁREAS INUNDABLES MEDIANTE MÉTODOS HIDROMETEOROLÓGICOS E HIDRÁULICOS Y TÉCNICAS S.I.G., ESTUDIO APLICADO AL LITORAL SUR DE LA REGIÓN DE MURCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael García Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se centra en el empleo combinado de datos de precipitación, modelos hidrológicos e hidráulicos, y técnicas S.I.G. (Sistema de Información Geográfica para la estimación de caudales de avenidas y la delimitación de áreas inundables en el Sur de la Región de Murcia. Con el fin de obtener datos espacialmente distribuidos en las áreas potenciales de inundación, se han integrado en un S.I.G. diferentes modelos de conversión lluvia-escorrentía superficial (Hidrograma Unitario Adimensional SCS, Hidrograma Unitario Gamma de Témez y el Método Racional Modificado y métodos de geometría hidráulica. Para la conversión de datos de lluvia (tormentas de diseño por periodos de retorno a escorrentía se ha empleado el programa HEC-HMS 3.0.0 en combinación con la extensión HEC-GeoHMS 1.1 de ArcView 3.x. La modelización hidrológica se realiza con ayuda de ArcGIS 9.x y GRASS (v.5.4, mientras que la hidráulica ha requerido el uso de HEC-RAS y HEC-GeoRAS.

  9. NIF optical specifications - the importance of the RMS gradient specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerbach, J M; Cotton, C T; English, R E; Henesian, M A; Hunt J T; Kelly, J H; Lawson, J K; Sacks, J B; Shoup, M J; Trenholme, W H

    1998-07-06

    The performance of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), especially in terms of laser focusability, will be determined by several key factors. One of these key factors is the optical specification for the thousands of large aperture optics that will comprise the 192 beamlines. We have previously reported on the importance of the specification of the power spectral density (PSD) on NIF performance. Recently, we have been studying the importance of long spatial wavelength (>33 mm) phase errors on focusability. We have concluded that the preferred metric for determining the impact of these long spatial wavelength phase errors is the rms phase gradient. In this paper, we outline the overall approach to NIF optical specifications, detail the impact of the rms phase gradient on NIF focusability, discuss its trade-off with the PSD in determining the spot size and review measurements of optics similar to those to be manufactured for NIF.

  10. VHDL Specification Methodology from High-level Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmohammed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Design complexity has been increasing exponentially this last decade. In order to cope with such an increase and to keep up designers' productivity, higher level specifications were required. Moreover new synthesis systems, starting with a high level specification, have been developed in order to automate and speed up processor design. This study presents a VHDL specification methodology aimed to extend structured design methodologies to the behavioral level. The goal is to develop VHDL modeling strategies in order to master the design and analysis of large and complex systems. Structured design methodologies are combined with a high-level synthesis system, a VHDL based behavioral synthesis tool, in order to allow hierarchical design and component re-use.

  11. 单次骶管阻滞联合气管插管全麻在婴幼儿先天性巨结肠Soave手术中的应用%Application of caudal block combined with general anesthesia for Soave radical operation on children with hirschsprung's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚涛; 冷玉芳; 刘永强; 万占海

    2011-01-01

    Objective To research the anesthesia effects of caudal block combined with general anesthesia for Soave radical operation on children with hirschsprung's disease. Methods Forty children were divided into two groups: group A was given caudal block combined with general anesthesia while group B was given general anesthesia. Heart rate and mean blood pressure were recorded before inducement, after changing body into operation position, expanded anus, separated colon, 5 min after extubation, 15 min after extubation. The rate-pressure product was calculated and recorded at time points mentioned above. The dosage of fentanyl and muscle relaxant, the grade of anus laxity, patients awaking time, operation time, and postoperative intensity of pain were recorded and compared between the two groups. Results Group A showed a smoothly perioperative hemodyamic state in perioperation. But in group B, heart rate, mean blood pressure and rate-pressure product were significantly higher at the times of expanded anus, separated colon, post-extubation 5 min, post-extubation 15 min than those before inducement (P <0.05). Compared with group B, group A showed better anus muscle relaxation(P <0.01), shorter operation time and awaking time(F <0.05), lower antelgic score at postoperative 3 h and 5 h(P <0.01). Group A didn't need fentanyl and muscle relaxant after intubation. Conclusion For Soave radical operation on children with hirschsprung's disease, caudal block combined with general anesthesia is much better than general anesthesia used alone and there is no significant side effect.%目的 探讨单次骶管阻滞联合气管插管全麻用于婴幼儿先天性巨结肠Soave手术的麻醉效果.方法将40例择期进行先天性巨结肠Soave手术的婴幼儿随机分为A、B组,A组全麻诱导气管插管后进行单次骶管阻滞,B组进行单纯气管插管全麻,分别观察诱导前、摆手术体位后、扩张肛门、游离肠管、拔管后5、15 min患儿心率和平均

  12. 带翼型髋臼加强杯在重建髋臼肿瘤切除后骨缺损中的应用%UTILIZATION OF REINFORCED ACETABULAR CAGES WITH CAUDAL FLANGE IN RECONSTRUCTING PELVIC DEFECT AFTER ACETABULAR TUMOR RESECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大森; 郭卫; 杨荣利; 汤小东; 曲华毅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the surgical procedure of reinforced acetabular cage with caudal flange in reconstruction of pelvic defect after acetabular tumor resection. Methods Between June 2003 and December 2009, 25 patients with Harrington class III pelvic defect underwent reconstruction with a reinforced acetabular cage with caudal flange and total hip arthroplasty (THA). There were 13 males and 12 females with an average age of 51.2 years (range, 13-73 years). The main clinical manifestations included hip pain and buttock pain, with a median disease duration of 6 months (range, 1-96 months). Pathological findings showed 18 cases of metastasis, 3 cases of multiple myeloma, 1 case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 1 case of grade I chondrosarcoma, 1 case of giant cell tumor, and 1 case of chondroblastoma. For the patient with chondroblastoma, THA with LINK RIBBED system was used. An artificial total hip system made in China was used in 6 patients and LINK SP II system was used in the other 18 patients. Results No patients died perioperatively. Deep infection and hip dislocations occurred inI and 2 patients, respectively. At last follow-up, 8 of 18 patients with metastasis died of cancer and the average survival time wasII months. The other 10 who were alive were followed up 15 months on average. One patient with multiple myeloma died of pulmonary infection at 21 months after operation and the other 2 with multiple myeloma and 1 with lymphoma were alive with an average follow-up of 17 months. The patient with grade I chondrosarcoma and patient with chondroblastoma were followed up 58 and 12 months, respectively, without recurrence. Recurrence occurred in the patient with giant cell tumor at 19 months after operation. Loosening of implant occurred in 3 patients because of local tumor recurrence. For the 23 patients at 6 months after operation, the mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) 93 score was 81% (range, 57%-93%). Conclusion Reinforced acetabular cage with caudal

  13. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10-5 to 10-11 Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components

  14. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaw, J. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -11/ Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components. (LEW)

  15. Standard Technical Specifications, Westinghouse plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This NUREG contains improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Westinghouse Plants and documents the positions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission based on the Westinghouse Owners Group's proposed STS. This document is the result of extensive technical meetings and discussions among the NRC staff, the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, the NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the interim Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specification Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated February 6, 1987. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. This document, Volume 1, contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS

  16. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  17. Standard Technical Specifications, Westinghouse plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This NUREG contains improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Westinghouse Plants and documents the positions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission based on the Westinghouse Owners Group's proposed STS. This document is the result of extensive technical meetings and discussions among the NRC staff, the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, the NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the interim Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specification Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated February 6, 1987. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. This document, Volume 3, contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS

  18. Compiler writing system detail design specification. Volume 1: Language specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Construction within the Meta language for both language and target machine specification is reported. The elements of the function language as a meaning and syntax are presented, and the structure of the target language is described which represents the target dependent object text representation of applications programs.

  19. Wnt-3a is critical for caudal embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camper, S.A.; Greco, T.L.; Newhouse, M.M. [Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Skeletal and neural tube defects represent an important class of birth defects. The majority of mouse mutants with neural tube defects also have malformations of the tail. Vestigial tail (vt) is an autosomal recessive mouse mutation characterized by reduction or absence of the tail, vertebral abnormalities, and reduced fertility. The phenotype has been described as the result of failure of cell migration through the primitive streak, causing abnormalities in the development of the neural tube and a reduction in the ventral ectodermal ridge. Wnt3a is an excellent candidate gene for vt because Wnt3a is expressed in the primitive streak and in the embryonic mesoderm, and it is thought to be involved in cell-to-cell communication and formation of the dorsal-ventral axis in the CNS. A lack of Wnt3a might be expected to result in overdorsalization of the neural tube and reduction of the ventral ectodermal ridge characteristic of vt/vt embryos. In a high resolution backcross segregating vt, we observed no recombination between vt and Wnt3a in 363 individuals analyzed. In vt/vt mice, Southern blot analysis revealed no abnormalities in the Wnt3a gene, and the Wnt3a cDNA sequence does not encode any amino acid changes. Whole mount in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that Wnt3a expression is severely reduced in the developing tailbud of day 9.5 vt/vt embryos, suggestive of a lesion in the regulation on Wnt3a expression. An alleleism test, carried out by mating vt/vt males with Wnt3a +/Wnt3a- females, demonstrated that vt and Wnt3a are noncomplementing alleles. All of the compound heterozygotes exhibited severe tail defects, including occasional examples of hind limb parlaysis and spina bifida. The vertebral defects are intermediate between those of vt and Wnt3a homozygotes, suggesting that the concentration of Wnt3a correlates with the severity of the defect.

  20. Hydraulic Modelling of Instream flows; Modelizacion hidraulica de caudales ecologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docampo Perez, L.

    1999-06-01

    The Manning`s equation for current velocity is usually used like a hydraulic simulation in the models for determining instream flows (for examples, IFIM, RECE, Moving Average Models, etc). In this work, a comparison of the Manning`s equation with Chezy`s formula is made. Chezy`s equation is fitted with the Moddy`s formulation (it is based Reynolds number and friction factor to flow). Both equations, Manning and Chezy, are applied to ten sampling stations distributed in Llobregat and Cardener rivers. When canal`s relative roughness (epsilon/Dh) has different values to interval 0,0002= > epsilon/Dh>0,1, we obtain significant mistakes to calculate fluvial discharges and instream flows with Manning`s equation (the mistakes are between 20% and 61%). To avoid the said mistakes we propose a hydraulic modelling of instream flows with Chezy`s equation. (Author) 27 refs.

  1. Specific probiotics or 'fecal transplantation'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The intestinal ecosystem consists mainly of the enteric flora and to a large extent determines intestinal but also extraintestinal health and disease. General alterations and specific molecular changes of intestinal bacteria cause local as well as systemic immune reactions. Nonantibiotic treatment of the enteric flora has a long tradition and spans a range of different interventions from nutrition to specific probiotics and complete fecal transplantation. When comparing therapy to specific probiotics and fecal transplantation, several aspects need to be considered, like biological consequences, safety and therapeutic evidence. The introduction of probiotics into therapy occurred more than hundred years ago. In contrast, experiences with fecal transplantation are more recent and more limited. Safety issues have not been definitively clarified. Because of the different biological activities of probiotics and fecal transplantation, it can be hypothesized that they may play different roles in the treatment of various diseases. More research is needed before the details, safety and therapeutic effects of bacteriotherapy for IBD become sufficiently clear.

  2. Program Construction by Verifying Specification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林洪; 陈国良

    1998-01-01

    A program construction method based on Gamma language is proposed.The problem to be solved is specified by first-order predicate logic and a semantic verification program is constructed directly from the specification.Ways for improving efficiency of the program are also studied.The method differs from the one proposed by Manna and Waldinger,where a program is extracted from the proof of the existence of an object meeting the given specification.On the other hand,it also differs from the classical one used for deriving Gamma programs of Banatre and Le metayes,which consists in decomposing the specification into an invariant and a termination conditon.

  3. Methylation-Specific PCR Unraveled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Derks

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylation‐specific PCR (MSP is a simple, quick and cost‐effective method to analyze the DNA methylation status of virtually any group of CpG sites within a CpG island. The technique comprises two parts: (1 sodium bisulfite conversion of unmethylated cytosine's to uracil under conditions whereby methylated cytosines remains unchanged and (2 detection of the bisulfite induced sequence differences by PCR using specific primer sets for both unmethylated and methylated DNA. This review discusses the critical parameters of MSP and presents an overview of the available MSP variants and the (clinical applications.

  4. SPECIFICS OF THE ENERGY MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Vasilica ROTARU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have analyzed the specific characteristics of the energy markets in general and the products transacted, in particular. Due to its unique features, electricity, one of the most important products for the economic development of a country, has brought challenges to the organization of a liberalized market to be transacted on. The paper also offers a view on the evolution of the supply and demand on the energy market in the last past years, along with a forecast analysis. The last part of the paper offers a presentation of the specific steps taken in the deregulation of the energy market process.

  5. Formation of the avian nucleus magnocellularis from the auditory anlage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Susan J; Rubel, Edwin W; Nishi, Rae

    2006-10-01

    In the avian auditory system, the neural network for computing the localization of sound in space begins with bilateral innervation of nucleus laminaris (NL) by nucleus magnocellularis (NM) neurons. We used antibodies against the neural specific markers Hu C/D, neurofilament, and SV2 together with retrograde fluorescent dextran labeling from the contralateral hindbrain to identify NM neurons within the anlage and follow their development. NM neurons could be identified by retrograde labeling as early as embryonic day (E) 6. While the auditory anlage organized itself into NM and NL in a rostral-to-caudal fashion between E6 and E8, labeled NM neurons were visible throughout the extent of the anlage at E6. By observing the pattern of neuronal rearrangements together with the pattern of contralaterally projecting NM fibers, we could identify NL in the ventral anlage. Ipsilateral NM fibers contacted the developing NL at E8, well after NM collaterals had projected contralaterally. Furthermore, the formation of ipsilateral connections between NM and NL neurons appeared to coincide with the arrival of VIIIth nerve fibers in NM. By E10, immunoreactivity for SV2 was heavily concentrated in the dorsal and ventral neuropils of NL. Thus, extensive pathfinding and morphological rearrangement of central auditory nuclei occurs well before the arrival of cochlear afferents. Our results suggest that NM neurons may play a central role in formation of tonotopic connections in the auditory system.

  6. Niche-specific cognitive strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgard, K.; Ratcliffe, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Related species with different diets are predicted to rely on different cognitive strategies: those best suited for locating available and appropriate foods. Here we tested two predictions of the niche-specific cognitive strategies hypothesis in bats, which suggests that predatory species should ...... the niche-specific cognitive strategies hypothesis and suggest that for gleaning and clutter-resistant aerial hawking bats, learning to associate shape with food interferes with subsequent spatial memory learning.......Related species with different diets are predicted to rely on different cognitive strategies: those best suited for locating available and appropriate foods. Here we tested two predictions of the niche-specific cognitive strategies hypothesis in bats, which suggests that predatory species should...... rely more on object memory than on spatial memory for finding food and that the opposite is true of frugivorous and nectivorous species. Specifically, we predicted that: (1) predatory bats would readily learn to associate shapes with palatable prey and (2) once bats had made such associations...

  7. Vibrio chromosome-specific families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David

    2014-01-01

    We have compared chromosome-specific genes in a set of 18 finished Vibrio genomes, and, in addition, also calculated the pan- and core-genomes from a data set of more than 250 draft Vibrio genome sequences. These genomes come from 9 known species and 2 unknown species. Within the finished...

  8. Final Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one....

  9. Domain specific MT in use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus; Almsten, Lisbeth Kjeldgaard;

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on domain specific use of MT with a special focus on SMT in the workflow of a Language Service Provider (LSP). We report on the feedback of post-editors using fluency/adequacy evaluation and the evaluation metric ’Usability’, understood in this context as where users on a three ...

  10. Adaptive Assessments Using Open Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Hector Barbosa; Garcia-Penalvo, Francisco J.; Rodriguez-Conde, Maria Jose; Morales, Erla M.; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation is a key element in formal education processes; it must be constructed in a way that the item questions within help students understand by adapting them to the learning style as well. The focus of the present research work specifically in the convenience to adapt an associated multimedia material in each single question besides the…

  11. Netware-Specific Network Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin M.

    This paper focuses on practical and cost-effective NetWare-specific approaches to information systems and computer security. A series of real world experiences is presented that illustrate fundamental information systems and security concepts. A NetWare network is a client-server network which uses a file server to share files while client…

  12. Human-Specific Endogenous Retroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Buzdin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on a small family of human-specific genomic repetitive elements, presented by 134 members that shaped ~330 kb of the human DNA. Although modest in terms of its copy number, this group appeared to modify the human genome activity by endogenizing ~50 functional copies of viral genes that may have important implications in the immune response, cancer progression, and antiretroviral host defense. A total of 134 potential promoters and enhancers have been added to the human DNA, about 50% of them in the close gene vicinity and 22% in gene introns. For 60 such human-specific promoters, their activity was confirmed by in vivo assays, with the transcriptional level varying ~1000-fold from hardly detectable to as high as ~3% of β-actin transcript level. New polyadenylation signals have been provided to four human RNAs, and a number of potential antisense regulators of known human genes appeared due to human-specific retroviral insertional activity. This information is given here in the context of other major genomic changes underlining differences between human and chimpanzee DNAs. Finally, a comprehensive database, is available for download, of human-specific and polymorphic endogenous retroviruses is presented, which encompasses the data on their genomic localization, primary structure, encoded viral genes, human gene neighborhood, transcriptional activity, and methylation status.

  13. Portable File Format (PFF) specifications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H.,

    2015-02-01

    Created at Sandia National Laboratories, the Portable File Format (PFF) allows binary data transfer across computer platforms. Although this capability is supported by many other formats, PFF files are still in use at Sandia, particularly in pulsed power research. This report provides detailed PFF specifications for accessing data without relying on legacy code.

  14. CONTRACT DOCUMENTS AND PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First California Commission on School Construction Systems, Palo Alto.

    A SET OF EDUCATIONAL SPECIFICATION DRAFTED BY THE FIRST CALIFORNIA COMMISSION ON SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS GIVES INFORMATION ON BIDDING PROCEDURES, A DESCRIPTION OF THE CURRENT CONSTRUCTION PROGRAM, PROCEDURES FOR SUBMITTING A PROPOSAL, DATA AND CONDITIONS RELATED TO THE DEVELOPMENT PHASE OF THE PROJECT, COMPONENT CONTRACTS, AND GENERAL…

  15. Priming the Query Specification Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toms, Elaine G.; Freund, Luanne

    2003-01-01

    Tests the use of questions as a technique in the query specification process. Using a within-subjects design, 48 people interacted with a modified Google interface to solve four information problems in four domains. Half the tasks were entered as typical keyword queries, and half as questions or statements. Results suggest the typical search box…

  16. Reflight certification software design specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The PDSS/IMC Software Design Specification for the Payload Development Support System (PDSS)/Image Motion Compensator (IMC) is contained. The PDSS/IMC is to be used for checkout and verification of the IMC flight hardware and software by NASA/MSFC.

  17. Descriptions of Philometra aenei n. sp. and P. tunisiensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from Epinephelus spp. off Tunisia confirm a high degree of host specificity of gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 in groupers (Serranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-02-01

    Based on light and electron microscopical studies of males and mature females, two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of groupers, Epinephelus spp. (Perciformes; Serranidae), in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Sfax): Philometra aenei n. sp. from the white grouper E. aeneus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire) and P. tunisiensis n. sp. from the goldblotch grouper E. costae (Steindachner). Identification of both fish hosts was confirmed by barcoding of the infected fish specimens. Philometra aenei is mainly characterised by the length of conspicuously distended spicules (108-123 µm), the presence of a distinct dorsal barb at the middle region of the gubernaculum and a distinct protuberance consisting of two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field at its distal tip, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity and by the body length of the males (2.34-3.05 mm). The male of this species was found to possess minute deirids in the cervical region, which is quite exceptional within the Philometridae. Philometra tunisiensis is distinguished from other gonad-infecting congeneric species parasitising serranids by the length of the needle-like spicules and gubernaculum (201-219 and 78-87 µm, respectively), spicule length representing 9-11% of body length, the gubernaculum/spicules length ratio of 1:2.52-2.77, the length of oesophagus in the male comprising 15-16% of the body length, the absence of a dorsal protuberance on the distal lamellar part of the gubernaculum and a pair of large papillae posterior to the cloaca, a dorsally interrupted mound on the male caudal extremity and the body length of the male (2.01-2.42 mm). The presence of three morphologically very different species of Philometra in congeneric hosts in the Mediterranean Sea confirms a high degree of host specificity of these gonad-infecting nematodes parasitising groupers. PMID:26790677

  18. Epididymis-specific lipocalin promoters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kichiya Suzuki; Xiuping Yu; Pierre Chaurand; Yoshihiko Araki; Jean-Jacques Lareyre; Richard M. Caprioli; Marie-Claire Orgebin-Crist; Robert J. Matusik

    2007-01-01

    Our goal is to decipher which DNA sequences are required for tissue-specific expression of epididymal genes. At least 6 epididymis-specific lipocalin genes are known. These are differently regulated and regionalized in the epididymis.Lipocalin 5 (Lcn5 or mE-RABP) and Lipocalin 8 (Lcn8 or mEP17) are homologous genes belonging to the epididymis-specific lipocalin gene cluster. Both the 5 kb promoter fragment of the Lcn5 gene and the 5.3 kb promoter fragment of the Lcn8 gene can direct transgene expression in the epididymis (Lcn5 to the distal caput and Lcn8 to the initial segment), indicating that these promoter fragments contain important cis-regulatory element(s) for epididymisspecific gene expression. To define further the fragments regulating gene expression, the Lcn5 promoter was examined in transgenic mice and immortalized epididymal cell lines. After serial deletion, the 1.8 kb promoter fragment of the Lcn5 gene was sufficient for tissue-specific and region-specific gene expression in transgenic mice. Transient transfection analysis revealed that a transcription factor forkhead box A2 (Foxa2) interacts with androgen receptor and binds to the 100 bp fragment of the Lcn5 promoter between 1.2 kb and 1.3 kb and that Foxa2 expression inhibitsandrogen-dependent induction of the Lcn5 promoter activity. Immunohistochemistry indicated a restricted expression of Foxa2 in the epididymis where endogenous Lcn5 gene expression is suppressed and that the Foxa2 inhibition of the Lcn5 promoter is consistent with the lack of expression of Lcn5 in the corpus and cauda. Our approach provides a basic strategy for further analysis of the epididymal lipocalin gene regulation and flexible control of epididymal function.

  19. Specific bibliography on Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most publications on Anastrepha fraterculus are in the literature sources from South America, and papers were published in Spanish or Portuguese. Many literature sources mentioned in this list are not indexed in entomological abstracts and, consequently, are not easily available outside their home state or country. Due to this fact, the inclusion of a list of specific bibliography on A. fraterculus could be a help for researchers and students interested in fruit flies. In this list are included only references directly dealing with Anastrepha fraterculus. Obviously, many more references exist that consider this species, but general or non-specific work or data concerning A. fraterculus were not included in the present list. (author)

  20. Isotope specific arbitrary material sorter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barty, Christopher P.J.

    2015-12-08

    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide a rapid and unique, isotope specific method for sorting materials. The objects to be sorted are passed on a conveyor in front of a MEGa-ray beam which has been tuned to the nuclear resonance fluorescence transition of the desired material. As the material containing the desired isotope traverses the beam, a reduction in the transmitted MEGa-ray beam occurs. Alternately, the laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  1. Multilingualism and Specific Language Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Is a multilingual education beneficial for children? What are the optimal conditions under which a child can become perfectly multilingual? When should we be concerned about a multilingual child's language skills? What are the signs of Specific Language Impairment in a child who speaks more than one language? Developmental psychologist and Associate Professor in multilingual cognitive development at the University of Luxembourg Pascale Engel de Abreu will address these questions based on what...

  2. Chemical Specification of Autonomic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Banâtre, Jean-Pierre; Fradet, Pascal; Radenac, Yann

    2004-01-01

    Autonomic computing provides a vision of information systems allowing self-management of many predefined properties. Such systems take care of their own behavior and of their interactions with other components without any external intervention. One of the major challenges concerns the expression of properties and constraints of autonomic systems. We believe that the {\\em chemical programming paradigm} (represented here by the Gamma formalism) is well-suited to the specification of autonomic s...

  3. Music Marketing - Specifics, Tools, Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Palounek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is focused on music marketing and its current influence on the music industry. It describes the recent evolution of the industry and tries to capture the current status quo in the field. It also tries to estimate the industry's probable development in the nearest future. The theoretical part summarizes basic tools, specifics and trends of the music marketing, with emphasis on independent musicians facing the world of today's digital music. The practical part subsequently focuses o...

  4. Hanford-specific waste constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section gives an overview of the specific chemical separation problems that need to be addressed for the Hanford Site. The constituents of the waste include toxic metals, oxy-anions, sequestering agents, actinides (mainly plutonium and americium), noble metals, other radioactive materials (technetium, cesium, strontium), and organic materials. The four waste matrices in which these wastes are found are the underground storage tanks, the soils, groundwater, and decommissioned reactors and equipment

  5. A development calculus for specifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李未

    2003-01-01

    A first order inference system, named R-calculus, is defined to develop the specifications.This system intends to eliminate the laws which are not consistent with users' requirements. TheR-calculus consists of the structural rules, an axiom, a cut rule, and the rules for logical connectives.Some examples are given to demonstrate the usage of the R-calculus. Furthermore, the propertiesregarding reachability and completeness of the R-calculus are formally defined and proved.

  6. Lack of specificity of commercially available antisera: better specifications needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradidarcheep, Wisuit; Labruyère, Wil T; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F; Lamers, Wouter H

    2008-12-01

    The ideal antiserum for immunohistochemical (IHC) applications contains monospecific high-affinity antibodies with little nonspecific adherence to sections. Many commercially available antibodies are "affinity" purified, but it is unknown if they meet "hard" specificity criteria, such as absence of staining in tissues genetically deficient for the antigen or a staining pattern that is identical to that of an antibody raised against a different epitope on the same protein. Reviewers, therefore, often require additional characterization. Although the affinity-purified antibodies used in our study on the distribution of muscarinic receptors produced selective staining patterns on sections, few passed the preabsorption test, and none produced bands of the anticipated size on Western blots. More importantly, none showed a difference in staining pattern on sections or Western blots between wild-type and knockout mice. Because these antibodies were used in most studies published thus far, our findings cast doubts on the validity of the extant body of morphological knowledge of the whole family of muscarinic receptors. We formulate requirements that antibody-specification data sheets should meet and propose that journals for which IHC is a core technique facilitate consumer rating of antibodies. "Certified" antibodies could avoid fruitless and costly validation assays and should become the standard of commercial suppliers. PMID:18796405

  7. Lack of specificity of commercially available antisera: better specifications needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradidarcheep, Wisuit; Labruyère, Wil T; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F; Lamers, Wouter H

    2008-12-01

    The ideal antiserum for immunohistochemical (IHC) applications contains monospecific high-affinity antibodies with little nonspecific adherence to sections. Many commercially available antibodies are "affinity" purified, but it is unknown if they meet "hard" specificity criteria, such as absence of staining in tissues genetically deficient for the antigen or a staining pattern that is identical to that of an antibody raised against a different epitope on the same protein. Reviewers, therefore, often require additional characterization. Although the affinity-purified antibodies used in our study on the distribution of muscarinic receptors produced selective staining patterns on sections, few passed the preabsorption test, and none produced bands of the anticipated size on Western blots. More importantly, none showed a difference in staining pattern on sections or Western blots between wild-type and knockout mice. Because these antibodies were used in most studies published thus far, our findings cast doubts on the validity of the extant body of morphological knowledge of the whole family of muscarinic receptors. We formulate requirements that antibody-specification data sheets should meet and propose that journals for which IHC is a core technique facilitate consumer rating of antibodies. "Certified" antibodies could avoid fruitless and costly validation assays and should become the standard of commercial suppliers.

  8. Conversion of NEK standard technical specifications into improved technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neck is currently using a standard format of operation's Technical Specifications - STS (based on NUREG-0452), which are planned to be converted into Improved Technical Specifications - ITS (based on NUREG-1431). To facilitate the development of individual ITS, each reactor vendor owners group (OG) and the NRC staff developed improved standard TS (ISTS). For Westinghouse plants, the ISTS are published as NUREG-1431, and this document is going to be the basis for the new NEK ITS. It has been recognized that nuclear safety in all plants would benefit from improvement and standardization of ITS, so this was also addressed and recognized by the NRC. There are several plants around Europe and US, which have replaced the format into ITS which brings a lot of improvements and practical value in operations. The main objective of conversion is to completely rewrite, reformat, and streamline the existing STS. Emphasis is placed on human factors principles to improve clarity and understanding. The Bases section will be significantly expanded to clarify and better explain the purpose and foundation of each specification. There might be some proposed changes to the existing STS that deviated from the ITS in NUREG-1431 and constitute a relaxation of the existing STS. Each of these additional proposed changes will be described and evaluated in amendment application and justified on a case-by-case basis. Since the NEK is going to operate for more than 20 year without considering life extension, such conversion will be beneficial for operation personnel as well as regulation, surveillance and focus on operation's safety. At the present, only preliminary plan of STS conversion exists, showing the time frame of approximately 2 years of conversion process and numerous tasks that need to be performed. The plan is to begin with process in year 2004 and finish project in 2006, which means use of new ITS in main control room in year 2007. Beside the main process of conversion, there are

  9. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  10. Flight Guidance System Requirements Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven P.; Tribble, Alan C.; Carlson, Timothy M.; Danielson, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a requirements specification written in the RSML-e language for the mode logic of a Flight Guidance System of a typical regional jet aircraft. This model was created as one of the first steps in a five-year project sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center, Rockwell Collins Inc., and the Critical Systems Research Group of the University of Minnesota to develop new methods and tools to improve the safety of avionics designs. This model will be used to demonstrate the application of a variety of methods and techniques, including safety analysis of system and subsystem requirements, verification of key properties using theorem provers and model checkers, identification of potential sources mode confusion in system designs, partitioning of applications based on the criticality of system hazards, and autogeneration of avionics quality code. While this model is representative of the mode logic of a typical regional jet aircraft, it does not describe an actual or planned product. Several aspects of a full Flight Guidance System, such as recovery from failed sensors, have been omitted, and no claims are made regarding the accuracy or completeness of this specification.

  11. Specificity of radioimmunoassays for relaxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specificities of two radioimmunoassays (RIA) for relaxin, based upon crude porcine relaxin (NIH-R-P1;RIA I) and a highly purified porcine relaxin (RIA II) have been studied concurrently using purified hormones and plasma samples. A labelled fraction, selected from radio-iodinated NIH-R-P1 and used in that RIA, was also bound to antiserum raised to the highly purified relaxin. Hence a third RIA was possible in which both the crude and the purified relaxins inhibited in the ng/ml range. Porcine insulin and the connecting peptide of porcine proinsulin did not inhibit any of the assay systems whereas porcine proinsulin did inhibit in each assay at the μg/ml range. Concurrent measurements by assays I and II have been made in sheep plasma obtained during both delivery of the lamb and suckling. The peak values obtained by assays I and II are 3 and 6 min out of phase during suckling and delivery respectively; the NIH-R-P1 relaxin immunoactivity appearing first. The plasma inhibition curves of both appear to be the sum of individual contributions from relaxin and relaxin-like peptides, such as prorelaxin and its fragments, as seen by different antisera. Both assays, however, give qualitatively similar indices of relaxin immunoactivity. The RIA developed for the more purified peptide would be expected to yield a better quantitative estimate of relaxin secretion but this, like specificity, cannot be shown absolutely. (author)

  12. Arithmetic Memory Is Modality Specific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Myers

    Full Text Available In regards to numerical cognition and working memory, it is an open question as to whether numbers are stored into and retrieved from a central abstract representation or from separate notation-specific representations. This study seeks to help answer this by utilizing the numeral modality effect (NME in three experiments to explore how numbers are processed by the human brain. The participants were presented with numbers (1-9 as either Arabic digits or written number words (Arabic digits and dot matrices in Experiment 2 at the first (S1 and second (S2 stimuli. The participant's task was to add the first two stimuli together and verify whether the answer (S3, presented simultaneously with S2, was correct. We hypothesized that if reaction time (RT at S2/S3 depends on the modality of S1 then numbers are retrieved from modality specific memory stores. Indeed, RT depended on the modality of S1 whenever S2 was an Arabic digit which argues against the concept of numbers being stored and retrieved from a central, abstract representation.

  13. Distribution-Specific Agnostic Boosting

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Vitaly

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of boosting the accuracy of weak learning algorithms in the agnostic learning framework of Haussler (1992) and Kearns et al. (1992). Known algorithms for this problem (Ben-David et al., 2001; Gavinsky, 2002; Kalai et al., 2008) follow the same strategy as boosting algorithms in the PAC model: the weak learner is executed on the same target function but over different distributions on the domain. We demonstrate boosting algorithms for the agnostic learning framework that only modify the distribution on the labels of the points (or, equivalently, modify the target function). This allows boosting a distribution-specific weak agnostic learner to a strong agnostic learner with respect to the same distribution. When applied to the weak agnostic parity learning algorithm of Goldreich and Levin (1989) our algorithm yields a simple PAC learning algorithm for DNF and an agnostic learning algorithm for decision trees over the uniform distribution using membership queries. These results substantia...

  14. Testing of badminton specific endurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Møller; Højlyng, Mads; Nybo, Lars

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a novel intermittent badminton endurance test (B-ENDURANCE) was developed and tested in elite (n=17) and skilled (n=9) badminton players as well as in age-matched physically active men (non-badminton players; n=8). In addition, B-ENDURANCE test-retest reproducibility was...... evaluated in nine badminton players.B-ENDURANCE is an incremental test where each level consists of repeated sequences of badminton specific actions towards the four corners on the court. The subject starts in the center of the court in front of a computer screen and within each sequence he must in a...... decreases until the subjects cannot follow the dictated tempo.B-ENDURANCE performance for elite players was better (P<0.05) compared to the skilled players and non-badminton players. In addition, B-ENDURANCE performance correlated (r=0.8; P<0.0001) with elite players' national single ranking. Test...

  15. Molecular-specific urokinase antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atassi, M. Zouhair (Inventor); Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have been developed against the different molecular forms of urokinase using synthetic peptides as immunogens. The peptides were synthesized specifically to represent those regions of the urokinase molecules which are exposed in the three-dimensional configuration of the molecule and are uniquely homologous to urokinase. Antibodies are directed against the lysine 158-isoleucine 159 peptide bond which is cleaved during activation from the single-chain (ScuPA) form to the bioactive double chain (54 KDa and 33 KDa) forms of urokinase and against the lysine 135 lysine 136 bond that is cleaved in the process of removing the alpha-chain from the 54 KDa form to produce the 33 KDa form of urokinase. These antibodies enable the direct measurement of the different molecular forms of urokinase from small samples of conditioned medium harvested from cell cultures.

  16. MATISSE: specifications and expected performances

    CERN Document Server

    Matter, A; Petrov, R G; Berio, P; Robbe-Dubois, S; Lopez, B; Antonelli, P; Allouche, F; Cruzalebes, P; Millour, F; Bazin, G; Bourgès, L

    2016-01-01

    MATISSE (Multi AperTure mid-Infrared SpectroScopic Experiment) is the next generation spectro-interferometer at the European Southern Observatory VLTI operating in the spectral bands L, M and N, and combining four beams from the unit and auxiliary telescopes. MATISSE is now fully integrated at the Observatoire de la C\\^ote d'Azur in Nice (France), and has entered very recently its testing phase in laboratory. This paper summarizes the equations describing the MATISSE signal and the associated sources of noise. The specifications and the expected performances of the instrument are then evaluated taking into account the current characteristics of the instrument and the VLTI infrastructure, including transmission and contrast degradation budgets. In addition, we present the different MATISSE simulation tools that will be made available to the future users.

  17. Identificación de áreas de homogeneidad estadística para los caudales de ríos andinos argentinos y su relación con la circulación atmosférica y la temperatura superficial del mar Identification of statistical homogeneous areas for argentinean andean river flows and their relationship with the atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa H. Compagnucci

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se centra en localizar las distintas regiones a lo largo de la Cordillera de los Andes sobre las cuales el comportamiento de los caudales de los ríos involucrados muestran homogeneidades estadísticas, estudiando además su vinculación con las condiciones de Temperatura de la Superficie del Mar y Circulación Atmosférica. Se define un índice lineal de correlación corregido, utilizado como medida de distancia en un Análisis de Componentes Principales. Las primeras dos Componentes permiten identificar dos regiones independientes que explican la mayor variabilidad. Estas regiones abarcan: I desde el río Neuquén hasta el río Senguer y II desde el río Jachal hasta el río Colorado. La región I presenta un régimen de doble máximo de caudal en invierno-primavera, mientras que la región II se caracteriza por un máximo en verano. Esta última estaría íntimamente ligada a los patrones del ciclo El Niño / Oscilación Sur. Las diferencias más relevantes de la circulación asociada a los extremos de caudal en la región I con respecto a la II serían: 1 el corrimiento de los sistemas de circulación hacia mayores latitudes, 2 la mayor relevancia de los sistemas de latitudes medias, 3 la menor importancia de los ubicados sobre el Pasaje de Drake y 4 la presencia en altura de un tren de ondas estacionarias de menor longitud que atraviesa el continente por latitudes subtropicales provenientes del Pacífico central en dirección NO-SE.The purpose of this paper is to locate the different regions in Los Andes mountain range on which the behavior of the flows of the involved rivers shows statistical homogeneities, studying also their entailment with sea surface temperature and atmospheric circulation. A corrected correlation linear index is defined and used as a distance measurement in a Principal Component Analysis. The first two Components identify two independent regions that explain the greater variability. These regions

  18. SPECIFICITIES OF MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nadim

    1971-07-01

    Full Text Available Mortality case registration is one of the oldest statistical data keeping, more for the legal reasons. Mortality statistical data are used for demographic and health purposes, if they classified and adjusted for factors such as age, gender, etc. Deficiencies in mortality registration are absence of descriptive factors, absence of some case reports, inaccuracy in reported cases, and changes of description of the cause of disease in time. Specificities of mortality are: age, gender, and disease. Of the age related one, three categories are the most important, children under the age of one, 1-4 years group, and relative death rate, that is, percentage of death related to the group of over 50 years. In present time, the mortality specific data are based on reports on the Ministry of Health which is obtained from the reports of the cemeteries in Tehran and several large cities. According to these reports, children mortality in the large cities is 29 to 145 in 1000. Independent studies in the rural areas showed this rate to be 112.8 to 217 in 1000. Reported figures for the mortality rate of 1-4 years old age group in the large cities vary from 281 to 2206 per 1000. The reason for this difference is considered to be the deficiencies in the methods of reports of the regions. In all reported figures, the sex related group showed higher mortality rate in men, but due to deficiencies of the system of registration, this difference can not be considered real. The more important causes of death in Iran are related to malnutrition and infections. Sources of data for determination of morbidity rates are consistent reports of the contagious diseases, registration of all cases of chronic and non contagious diseases, and collection of data from the people as morbidity survey. In Iran, most of the cases are not reported; also, diagnoses are mostly on the bases of suspicions and guesses. For these reasons, the published statistical data and their variations can not

  19. FY97 ICCS prototype specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, J.

    1997-02-20

    The ICCS software team will implement and test two iterations of their software product during FY97. The first of these iterations will concentrate on construction of selected framework components; the subsequent iteration will extend the product and perform measurements of performance based on emulated FEP devices. This document specifies the products to be delivered in that first prototype and projects the direction that the second prototype will take. Detailed specification of the later iteration will be written when the results of the first iteration are complete. The selection of frameworks to be implemented early is made on a basis of risk analysis from the point of view of future development in the ICCS project. The prototype will address risks in integration of object- oriented components, in refining our development process, and in emulation testing for FEP devices. This document is a specification that identifies products and processes to undertake for resolving these risks. The goals of this activity are to exercise our development process at a modest scale and to probe our architecture plan for fundamental limits and failure modes. The product of the iterations will be the framework software which will be useful in future ICCS code. Thus the FY97 products are intended for internal usage by the ICCS team and for demonstration to the FEP software developers of the strategy for integrating supervisory software with FEP computers. This will be the first of several expected iterations of the software development process and the performance measurements that ICCS will demonstrate, intended to support confidence in our ability to meet project RAM goals. The design of the application software is being carried out in a separate WBS 1.5.2 activity. The design activity has as its FY97 product a series of Software Design Documents that will specify the functionality of the controls software of ICCS. During the testing of this year`s prototypes, the application

  20. Tumor specific cytotoxicity of glucosylceramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Hirosuke; Wongtangtintharn, Sawitree; Iwasaki, Hironori; Inafuku, Masashi; Shimatani, Masayuki; Toda, Takayoshi

    2007-11-01

    To develop a new taxon of anti-cancer agent with lower side effect, this study described a tumor selective cytotoxicity of glucosylceramide extracted from malt feed of beer brewing waste. Interpretation of (13)C- and (1)H-NMR spectra identified the chemical structure of major component of glucosylceramide as 1-O-beta-D: -glucopyranosyl-2(2'-hydroxyeicosanoylamino)-4,11-octadecadiene-1,3-diol. Selective cytotoxicity was studied with three pairs of normal and cancer cells: liver, skin and lung. The glucosylceramide selectively lowered the relative viability of cancer cells. Of the pairs, the selectivity was most pronounced with the liver cells, and, for this reason, further experiment was conducted with this pair of normal (CS-HC) and cancer cells (HepG2) to get more insight into the selective toxicity. The glucosylceramide significantly increased the cell population at G(2)/M phase in HepG2 cells, and also increased the numbers of apoptotic (sub-G(0)/G(1)) cells, but to much lesser extent compared with the increase in G(2)/M phase. Treatment of HepG2 cells with this agent selectively disrupted the mitochondrial membrane integrity without activation of caspase pathway to induce apoptosis. These findings suggested that the glucosylceramide specifically suppressed the growth of cancer cells by inhibiting cell renewal capacity rather than induction of apoptosis. The underlying mechanism for the selectivity remains to be answered in the forthcoming study.

  1. RNB-specific linac development

    CERN Document Server

    Ratzinger, U

    2002-01-01

    The acceleration of secondary, radioactive beams from primary beam driven ion sources provides many challenges when compared to the case of conventional ion beams. The clean separation of the specific ion species, the low beam current, the short life time of the ions as well as the needed energy variability have consequences on the layout of the accelerator. As also experiments with astrophysical relevance are performed, the energy range should go down below 1 MeV/u in some cases. Additionally, to investigate nuclear reactions around the Coulomb barrier, the beam energy should be flexible up to around 8 MeV/u. Short isotope life times below a few milliseconds do not allow for charge breeding. In these cases, low charged ions from 'simple' ion sources have to be accepted by the accelerator. Furthermore, stripping processes along the linac are excluded in case of low beam currents. Multicoincidence experiments profit a lot from cw operation of ion source and accelerators. During the last three decades, room tem...

  2. 尾静脉注射K562细胞建立慢性髓系白血病小鼠模型及其鉴定%Establishment and Identification of CML Model via Injection of K562 cells into the Murine Caudal Vein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳; 杨文华; 杨向东; 史哲新; 王兴丽; 于文俊; 郝征

    2012-01-01

    本研究通过给NOD/SCID小鼠尾静脉注射K562细胞的方式,建立人慢性髓系白血病(CML)- NOD/SCID小鼠髓外浸润模型,并通过组织病理学检查及RT-PCR检测BCR- ABL融合基因等进行模型鉴定.将24只NOD/SCID小鼠经137s全身照射,剂量270 cGy,吸收剂量率80 cGy/min,之后随机分为实验Ⅰ组、实验Ⅱ组和对照组,每组8只.照射后24h内,实验组小鼠经尾静脉注射K562细胞,实验Ⅰ组:5×106/只,实验Ⅱ组:1×107/只;对照组注射生理盐水0.2 ml/只.持续观察小鼠的一般情况和生存时间,应用组织病理学检查和RT-PCR方法检测白血病细胞髓外浸润表现.结果表明,注射4-8周后,2个实验组均发生白血病细胞髓外浸润,提示成功建立CML/NOD-SCID小鼠髓外浸润模型.结论:应用尾静脉注射K562细胞的方法可成功建立CML/NOD-SCID小鼠髓外浸润模型.通过组织病理学检查及RT-PCR检测BCR-ABL融合基因可对模型进行鉴定.%This study was purposed to establish and identify the model of extramedullary infiltration of CML- NOD/ SCID mice. 24 mice were irradiated with 270 cGy of137Cs and absorbed dose rate 80 cGy/min, and were randomly divided into test group I , test group II and control group. The mice in test group I and test group Q were injected with 5 x 106 and 1 x 10' K562 cells per mouse respectively, the mice in control group were injected with 0.2 ml of normal saline. The general situation and survival time of these mice were monitored, the extramedullary infiltration of leukemia cells was detected by histopathology examination and RT-PCR. The results indicated that at 4 -8 weeks after injection, all the mice of group I and group II displayed extramedullary infiltration, suggesting that CML/NOD-SCID model was successfully established. It is concluded that the model of extramedullary infiltration of CML/NOD-SCID mice can be established by injection K562 cells into caudal vein, and can be comfirmed by histopathologic

  3. Estimación de la escorrentía superficial para el cálculo de la recarga a los acuíferos del macizo kárstico de los Ports de Beseit (Tarragona, España combinando balance de agua en el suelo y análisis de hidrogramas de caudales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa Martínez, S.

    2016-06-01

    Galera. A partir del modelo conceptual hidrogeológico se realiza la estimación de la escorrentía superficial media anual, que incluye la de los acuíferos colgados temporales de los Ports de Beseit, tanto en su vertiente NW, cuenca del río Matarraña, como en su vertiente SE, Plana de La Galera. Para ello se analizan los hidrogramas de caudales de los ríos y sus afluentes, los hidrogramas de llenado y vaciado del embalse de Ulldecona y el balance de agua en el suelo realizado con el código Visual Balan en la cuenca receptora del embalse de Ulldecona. La escorrentía superficial en los Ports se ha estimado en 105±20 mm·a-1, lo cual supone el 20–30% de la recarga media anual calculada por los métodos de balance de agua en el suelo y deposición atmosférica de ión cloruro, en torno a 350–500 mm·a-1, cuya mayor parte es transferida lateralmente a la Plana de La Galera.

  4. Role of serotonin transporter inhibition in the regulation of tryptophan hydroxylase in brainstem raphe nuclei: time course and regional specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, L; Lagrou, L M; Reynolds, K B; Rosebush, P I; Mazurek, M F

    2010-12-01

    Drugs that selectively inhibit the serotonin transporter (SERT) are widely prescribed for treatment of depression and a range of anxiety disorders. We studied the time course of changes in tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in four raphe nuclei after initiation of two different SERT inhibitors, citalopram and fluoxetine. In the first experiment, groups of Sprague-Dawley rats received daily meals of rice pudding either alone (n=9) or mixed with citalopram 5 mg/kg/day (n=27). Rats were sacrificed after 24 h, 7 days or 28 days of treatment. Sections of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), median raphe nucleus (MRN), raphe magnus nucleus (RMN) and caudal linear nucleus (CLN) were processed for TPH immunohistochemistry. Citalopram induced a significant reduction in DRN TPH-positive cell counts at 24 h (41%), 7 days (38%) and 28 days (52%). Similar reductions in TPH-positive cell counts were also observed at each timepoint in the MRN and in the RMN. In the MRN, citalopram resulted in significant reductions at 24 h (26%), 7 days (16%) and 28 days (23%). In the RMN, citalopram induced significant reductions of TPH-positive cell counts at 24 h (45%), 7 days (34%) and 28 days (43%). By contrast, no significant differences between control and treatment groups were observed in the CLN at any of the time points that we studied. To investigate whether these changes would occur with other SERT inhibitors, we conducted a second experiment, this time with a 28-day course of fluoxetine. As was observed with citalopram, fluoxetine induced significant reductions of TPH cell counts in the DRN (39%), MRN (38%) and RMN (41%), with no significant differences in the CLN. These results indicate that SERT inhibition can alter the regulation of TPH, the rate limiting enzyme for serotonin biosynthesis. This persistent and regionally specific downregulation of serotonin biosynthesis may account for some of the clinical withdrawal symptoms associated with drugs that inhibit SERT.

  5. Specific CT findings of eclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of specific computed tomographic (CT) findings of eclampsia were reported. Case 1 was a 25-year-old primipara in the 10th month of pregnancy, and Case 2 was a 36-year-old primipara in the 9th month of pregnancy. Both were brought to our hospital because of attacks of preeclampsia and eclampsia. On admission, they were in a comatose state. Computed tomography (CT) on admission showed low- and high-density areas in the basal ganglia regions in Case 1 and low-density areas in the same regions in Case 2. In Case 1, cerebral angiograms obtained two days after the attack showed diffuse cerebral vasospasms in the anterior and middle cerebral arteries of both sides and the basilar artery. In Case 2, however, cerebral angiograms obtained three days after the attack showed no abnormal findings. The patients were saved by crisis-overcoming emergency treatment and care. The neurological condition gradually improved. Repeated CT three weeks after the onset showed only a slight low-density area and a small high-density area in the left basal ganglia region in Case 1, while the low-density areas in the bilateral basal ganglia regions disappeared in Case 2. Seven weeks after the attack, cerebral angiography was again performed, but the diffuse vasospasms had disappeared. The clinical courses were good, and the patients were discharged about eight weeks after the onset, by which time their consciousness had become clear and the neurological deficits had been well overcome. Cerebrovascular disorders caused by toxemia of pregnancy is rare; when they do occur, the main lesions of the brain are edema, focal ischemia, thrombosis, and hemorrhage. They may be related to cerebral vasospasm, and subsequent ischemic changes are observed at times with eclampsia. (author)

  6. Imaging based, patient specific dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The prognosis of achieving longtime remission for disseminated cancer disease is in many cases poor. A systemic treatment is required and therefore external beam radiation therapy is less suited. Treatment with radiolabeled pharmaceuticals, so called radionuclide therapy is such a systemic treatment. In radionuclide therapy, the absorbed dose is delivered by administration of radionuclides that emit electrons or alpha particles. It is here assumed that the released kinetic energy is transferred by interactions to sensitive parts of the cells activating cell death, and thus an accurate dosimetry is important. However, absorbed dose planning for radionuclide therapy is a real challenge in that the source cannot be turned on or off (as in external beam therapy) but decays exponentially with characteristics depending on the biokinetics and the radionuclide half-life. On a small-scale, the radiopharmaceutical is also heterogeneously distributed which means that the energy deposition is generally nonuniform. The biokinetics may also change over time which means that activity measurements need to be made at several time points to estimate the total amount of released energy in an organ or tumour. Practical issues regarding the number of measurements and patient mobility may therefore limit the accuracy in this calculation. The dose-rate for radionuclide therapy is also much lower than in external beam therapy. Since the treatment is systemic, circulating activity may result in absorbed doses to normal organs and tissues. Often this poses a problem and puts a limit on the amount of activity to can be administered. This is one of the major reasons for the requirement of an accurate patient-specific dosimetry. One of the major problems is that the biokinetics varies between patients and the activity uptake and clearance should therefore be measured for each individual patient in order to estimate the total number of decays in a particular organ/tissue. The way

  7. "11~13周超声扫描颅内透明层诊断胎儿脊柱裂价值"点评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈萍

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1论文题目及原文摘要 Assessment of intracranial translucency ( IT) in the detection of spina bifida at the 11-13-week scan Prenatal diagnosis of open spina bifida is carried out by ultrasound examination in the second trimester of pregnancy.Objective The diagnosis is suspected by the presence of a 'lemon-shaped' head and a 'bananashaped' cerebellum, thought to be consequences of caudal displacement of the hindbrain.The aim of the study was to determine whether in fetuses with spina bifida this displacement of the brain is evident from the first trimester of pregnancy.

  8. Peptide binding specificity of the chaperone calreticulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, N.; Duus, K.; Jorgensen, C.S.;

    2007-01-01

    Calreticulin is a molecular chaperone with specificity for polypeptides and N-linked monoglucosylated glycans. In order to determine the specificity of polypeptide binding, the interaction of calreticulin with polypeptides was investigated using synthetic peptides of different length and composit...

  9. Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The objectives of Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications are to ensure that the design team applies commissioning concepts to the design and prepares commissioning specifications and a commission plan for inclusion in the bid construction documents.

  10. Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women Of the approximately ... adverse reactions to the drugs. Women also suffer gender-specific consequences of HIV, including recurrent vaginal yeast ...

  11. A zebrafish larval model reveals early tissue-specific innate immune responses to Mucor circinelloides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Voelz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is an emerging fungal infection that is clinically difficult to manage, with increasing incidence and extremely high mortality rates. Individuals with diabetes, suppressed immunity or traumatic injury are at increased risk of developing disease. These individuals often present with defects in phagocytic effector cell function. Research using mammalian models and phagocytic effector cell lines has attempted to decipher the importance of the innate immune system in host defence against mucormycosis. However, these model systems have not been satisfactory for direct analysis of the interaction between innate immune effector cells and infectious sporangiospores in vivo. Here, we report the first real-time in vivo analysis of the early innate immune response to mucormycete infection using a whole-animal zebrafish larval model system. We identified differential host susceptibility, dependent on the site of infection (hindbrain ventricle and swim bladder, as well as differential functions of the two major phagocyte effector cell types in response to viable and non-viable spores. Larval susceptibility to mucormycete spore infection was increased upon immunosuppressant treatment. We showed for the first time that macrophages and neutrophils were readily recruited in vivo to the site of infection in an intact host and that spore phagocytosis can be observed in real-time in vivo. While exploring innate immune effector recruitment dynamics, we discovered the formation of phagocyte clusters in response to fungal spores that potentially play a role in fungal spore dissemination. Spores failed to activate pro-inflammatory gene expression by 6 h post-infection in both infection models. After 24 h, induction of a pro-inflammatory response was observed only in hindbrain ventricle infections. Only a weak pro-inflammatory response was initiated after spore injection into the swim bladder during the same time frame. In the future, the zebrafish larva

  12. Genre-Specific Semantic Video Indexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Wu; M. Worring

    2010-01-01

    In many applications, we find large video collections from different genres where the user is often only interested in one or two specific video genres. So, when users are querying the system with a specific semantic concept, they are likely aiming a genre specific instantiation of this concept. Thu

  13. Programming Bacteriophages by Swapping Their Specificity Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Moran G; Yosef, Ido; Qimron, Udi

    2015-12-01

    Bacteriophages, bacteria's natural enemies, may serve as potent antibacterial agents. Their specificity for certain bacterial sub-species limits their effectiveness, but allows selective targeting of bacteria. Lu and colleagues present a platform for such targeting through alteration of bacteriophages' host specificity by swapping specificity domains in their host-recognition ligand.

  14. The etiology of specific phobias : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckelbach, H; de Jong, Peter; Muris, P; vandenHout, MA

    1996-01-01

    The present article summarizes theory and data about symptomatology, epidemiology, and etiology of specific phobias. Additionally, the cognitive mechanisms involved in specific Phobias are briefly discussed By and large, the general pattern behind the development of specific phobias can be summarize

  15. Methods for chromosome-specific staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel

    1995-01-01

    Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining are provided. Compositions comprise heterogenous mixtures of labeled nucleic acid fragments having substantially complementary base sequences to unique sequence regions of the chromosomal DNA for which their associated staining reagent is specific. Methods include methods for making the chromosome-specific staining compositions of the invention, and methods for applying the staining compositions to chromosomes.

  16. 50 CFR 648.260 - Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Specifications include the specification of OY, the setting of any target TACs, allocation of DAS, and/or... allocation based on target TAC. For purposes of determining the appropriate DAS allocation, any overage of... developing the management measures and specifications, the PDT shall review at least the following data,...

  17. Checking MSC Specifications for Timing Inconsistency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuandong(李宣东); TAN Wenkai(谭文凯); ZHENG Guoliang(郑国梁)

    2002-01-01

    Message sequence chart (MSC) is a graphical and textual language for the description and specification of the interactions between system components. MSC specifica tions allow convenient expression of multiple scenarios, and offer an intuitive and visual way of describing design requirements. Like any other aspect of the specification and design process, MSCs are amenable to errors, and their analysis is important. In this paper, the verification problem of MSC specification for timing inconsistency is studied, which means that no execu tion scenario described by an MSC specification is timing consistent. An algorithm is developed to check MSC specifications for timing inconsistency.

  18. Towards a theory of product design specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2004-01-01

    . In the design methodology literature we find guidelines and methods to compile a product design specification. The contributions are based on the common underlying assumption that it is meaningful and the only feasible approach to interpret the result of a need analysis into a set of technical specifications......, which express the customers¿ need and perception of value. In this paper we will scrutinize this assumption. We outline the roles and tasks of the product design specification in order to identify the requirements on a theory of product design specifications and we identify existing theory elements...... to build such a theory of product design specifications upon....

  19. Standard technical specifications combustion engineering plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Combustion Engineering Plants. The improved STS wee developed based on the criteria in the interim Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specification Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated February 6, 1987. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. This document, Volume 1, contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS

  20. Enhancer trapping in zebrafish using the Sleeping Beauty transposon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welle Zachary

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among functional elements of a metazoan gene, enhancers are particularly difficult to find and annotate. Pioneering experiments in Drosophila have demonstrated the value of enhancer "trapping" using an invertebrate to address this functional genomics problem. Results We modulated a Sleeping Beauty transposon-based transgenesis cassette to establish an enhancer trapping technique for use in a vertebrate model system, zebrafish Danio rerio. We established 9 lines of zebrafish with distinct tissue- or organ-specific GFP expression patterns from 90 founders that produced GFP-expressing progeny. We have molecularly characterized these lines and show that in each line, a specific GFP expression pattern is due to a single transposition event. Many of the insertions are into introns of zebrafish genes predicted in the current genome assembly. We have identified both previously characterized as well as novel expression patterns from this screen. For example, the ET7 line harbors a transposon insertion near the mkp3 locus and expresses GFP in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary, forebrain and the ventricle, matching a subset of the known FGF8-dependent mkp3 expression domain. The ET2 line, in contrast, expresses GFP specifically in caudal primary motoneurons due to an insertion into the poly(ADP-ribose glycohydrolase (PARG locus. This surprising expression pattern was confirmed using in situ hybridization techniques for the endogenous PARG mRNA, indicating the enhancer trap has replicated this unexpected and highly localized PARG expression with good fidelity. Finally, we show that it is possible to excise a Sleeping Beauty transposon from a genomic location in the zebrafish germline. Conclusions This genomics tool offers the opportunity for large-scale biological approaches combining both expression and genomic-level sequence analysis using as a template an entire vertebrate genome.

  1. Energy Status Determines Hindbrain Signal Transduction Pathway Transcriptional Reactivity to AMPK in the Estradiol-Treated Ovariectomized Female Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Baher A.; Alenazi, Fahaad S.H.; Briski, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Dorsal vagal complex (DVC) AMPK regulation of food intake in the estradiol-treated ovariectomized (OVX) female rat is energy state-dependent. Here, RT-PCR array technology was used to identify estradiol-sensitive AMPK-regulated DVC signal transduction pathways that exhibit differential reactivity to sensor activation during energy balance versus imbalance. The AMP mimetic AICAR correspondingly reduced or stimulated cDVC phosphoAMPK (pAMPK) and estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ) proteins in full-fed...

  2. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...... specifications as well as applicative sequential ones. It also describes the logical definition of RSL, its axiomatic semantics, as well as the proof system for carrying out proofs....

  3. Map Specifications and Exchange of Geographical Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1999-01-01

    Specifications for Technical Maps 1993 – 99 are described giving an overview of the specification structure including the object description of the latest version: TK99.The technical map specifications are related to the standards for topographical maps - especially the TOP10DK standard. Common...... object definitions are essential for the standards. Technical as well as topographical map information is exchangeable through the Danish developed “Standard for Exchange of Digital Map Information”, known as the DSFL-format....

  4. Embedded systems specification and design languages

    CERN Document Server

    Villar, Eugenio

    2008-01-01

    This book is the latest contribution to the Chip Design Languages series and it consists of selected papers presented at the Forum on Specifications and Design Languages (FDL'07), in September 2007. The book represents the state-of-the-art in research and practice, and it identifies new research directions. It highlights the role of specification and modelling languages, and presents practical experiences with specification and modelling languages.

  5. Domain-Specific Ontology of Botany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Gu; Cun-Gen Cao; Yue-Fei Sui; Wen Tian

    2004-01-01

    Domain-specific ontologies are greatly useful in knowledge acquisition, sharing and analysis. In this paper, botany-specific ontology for acquiring and analyzing botanical knowledge is presented. The ontology is represented in a set of well-defined categories, and each concept is viewed as an instance of certain category. The authors also introduce botany-specific axioms, an integral part of the ontology, for checking and reasoning with the acquired knowledge. Consistency, completeness and redundancy of the axioms are discussed.

  6. Treatment options for the specific phobias

    OpenAIRE

    Jarnail Singh; Janardhan Singh

    2016-01-01

    Specific phobias are among the most common psychological problems both in men and women. For treatment of specific phobias, exposure-based therapy is the first choice followed by cognitive therapy, relaxation techniques and short-term pharmacotherapy. Long-term pharmacotherapy for specific phobias, is associated with adverse drug reactions and drug abuse, thus not a reasonable choice for long-term symptom control. Glucocorticoids and d-cycloserine (DCS) cause fear reduction when used in combi...

  7. AOV Facility Tool/Facility Safety Specifications

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Develop and maintain authorizing documents that are standards that facilities must follow. These standards are references of FAA regulations and are specific to the...

  8. High flux isotope reactor technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical specifications are presented concerning safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation; surveillance requirements; design features; administrative controls; and accidents and anticipated transients

  9. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...... specifications as well as applicative sequential ones. It also describes the logical definition of RSL, its axiomatic semantics, as well as the proof system for carrying out proofs. Finally, a case study illustrates specification and verification methods in RAISE....

  10. U.S. technical specification improvement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Nuclear Community has underway an extensive Technical Specification improvement effort. The overall goal of the effort is to improve operational safety by simplifying the Technical Specifications, making them more usable by the operators, and providing a clear link between the technical requirements and their safety significance. This will allow the operators and plant staff to focus on the more risk significant requirements. General improvements are being made to both the overall format and content of Technical Specifications as well as to specific technical requirements within the specifications. The focal point for making these improvements is the recently issued Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specification Improvements. Implementing this Policy Statement will result in new Standard Technical Specifications for each of the four U.S. nuclear steam supply system vendors, new standards which we believe will be adopted at a significant number of the nuclear power plants in our country. This presentation briefly describes some of the Technical Specification problems encountered, some of the studies that were done and recommendations that were made to correct these problems. Details are given about the NRC Policy Statement on Technical Specification Improvements and how it will be implemented

  11. Technical specifications for the Bulk Shielding Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-04-01

    Technical specifications are presented concerning the safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation; surveillance requirements; design features; and administrative controls.

  12. An Institution for Imperative RSL Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    -oriented type definitions, declaration of state variables, axiomatic specification of values (including functions), and explicit function definitions. Functions may be imperative. The semantics of an RSLI specification is defined to be the loose semantics of a theory presentation consisting of a signature Σ...

  13. Cell-Specific Aptamers as Emerging Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Cindy Meyer; Ulrich Hahn; Andrea Rentmeister

    2011-01-01

    Aptamers are short nucleic acids that bind to defined targets with high affinity and specificity. The first aptamers have been selected about two decades ago by an in vitro process named SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment). Since then, numerous aptamers with specificities for a variety of targets from small molecules to proteins or even whole cells have...

  14. Motorcycle Education Curriculum Specifications. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, A. James; And Others

    This report contains specifications for a motorcycle safety education curriculum designed to reduce the incidence and severity of motorcycle accidents. The specifications prescribe objectives, prerequisites, methods, materials, equipment, facilities, and proficiency measures for six units of instruction: (1) basic riding skills, (2) street riding…

  15. Specific vulnerability of substantia nigra compacta neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Smidt

    2009-01-01

    The specific loss of substantia nigra compacta (SNc) neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been the main driving force in initiating research efforts to unravel the apparent SNc-specific vulnerability. Initially, metabolic constraints due to high dopamine turnover have been the main focus in the a

  16. Technical specifications: Health Physics Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical specifications define the key limitations that must be observed for safe operation of the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) and an envelope of operation within which there is assurance that these limits will not be exceeded. The specifications were written to satisfy the requirements of the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0540, September 1, 1972

  17. 324 and 327 Facilities Environmental Effluent Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These effluent specifications address requirements for the 324/321 Facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs

  18. 324/327 facilities environmental effluent specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These effluent technical specifications address requirements for the 324/327 facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent technical specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs

  19. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  20. PCR specific for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, L.; Jones, S.C.P.; Angen, Øystein;

    2008-01-01

    , but the method has liminations, for example, cross-reactions between serotypes 3, 6, and 8. This study describes the development of a serotype 3-specific PCR, based on the capsule locus, which can be used in a multiplex format with the organism's specific gene apxIV. The PCR test was evaluated on 266 strains...