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Sample records for caudal hindbrain specification

  1. Nkx2.2 and Nkx2.9 are the key regulators to determine cell fate of branchial and visceral motor neurons in caudal hindbrain.

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    Jarrar, Wassan; Dias, Jose M; Ericson, Johan; Arnold, Hans-Henning; Holz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cranial motor nerves in vertebrates are comprised of the three principal subtypes of branchial, visceral, and somatic motor neurons, which develop in typical patterns along the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes of hindbrain. Here we demonstrate that the formation of branchial and visceral motor neurons critically depends on the transcription factors Nkx2.2 and Nkx2.9, which together determine the cell fate of neuronal progenitor cells. Disruption of both genes in mouse embryos results in complete loss of the vagal and spinal accessory motor nerves, and partial loss of the facial and glossopharyngeal motor nerves, while the purely somatic hypoglossal and abducens motor nerves are not diminished. Cell lineage analysis in a genetically marked mouse line reveals that alterations of cranial nerves in Nkx2.2; Nkx2.9 double-deficient mouse embryos result from changes of cell fate in neuronal progenitor cells. As a consequence progenitors of branchiovisceral motor neurons in the ventral p3 domain of hindbrain are transformed to somatic motor neurons, which use ventral exit points to send axon trajectories to their targets. Cell fate transformation is limited to the caudal hindbrain, as the trigeminal nerve is not affected in double-mutant embryos suggesting that Nkx2.2 and Nkx2.9 proteins play no role in the development of branchiovisceral motor neurons in hindbrain rostral to rhombomere 4.

  2. Stem cells expanded from the human embryonic hindbrain stably retain regional specification and high neurogenic potency.

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    Tailor, Jignesh; Kittappa, Raja; Leto, Ketty; Gates, Monte; Borel, Melodie; Paulsen, Ole; Spitzer, Sonia; Karadottir, Ragnhildur Thora; Rossi, Ferdinando; Falk, Anna; Smith, Austin

    2013-07-24

    Stem cell lines that faithfully maintain the regional identity and developmental potency of progenitors in the human brain would create new opportunities in developmental neurobiology and provide a resource for generating specialized human neurons. However, to date, neural progenitor cultures derived from the human brain have either been short-lived or exhibit restricted, predominantly glial, differentiation capacity. Pluripotent stem cells are an alternative source, but to ascertain definitively the identity and fidelity of cell types generated solely in vitro is problematic. Here, we show that hindbrain neuroepithelial stem (hbNES) cells can be derived and massively expanded from early human embryos (week 5-7, Carnegie stage 15-17). These cell lines are propagated in adherent culture in the presence of EGF and FGF2 and retain progenitor characteristics, including SOX1 expression, formation of rosette-like structures, and high neurogenic capacity. They generate GABAergic, glutamatergic and, at lower frequency, serotonergic neurons. Importantly, hbNES cells stably maintain hindbrain specification and generate upper rhombic lip derivatives on exposure to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). When grafted into neonatal rat brain, they show potential for integration into cerebellar development and produce cerebellar granule-like cells, albeit at low frequency. hbNES cells offer a new system to study human cerebellar specification and development and to model diseases of the hindbrain. They also provide a benchmark for the production of similar long-term neuroepithelial-like stem cells (lt-NES) from pluripotent cell lines. To our knowledge, hbNES cells are the first demonstration of highly expandable neuroepithelial stem cells derived from the human embryo without genetic immortalization.

  3. Fate-mapping the mammalian hindbrain: segmental origins of vestibular projection neurons assessed using rhombomere-specific Hoxa2 enhancer elements in the mouse embryo.

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    Pasqualetti, Massimo; Díaz, Carmen; Renaud, Jean-Sébastien; Rijli, Filippo M; Glover, Joel C

    2007-09-05

    As a step toward generating a fate map of identified neuron populations in the mammalian hindbrain, we assessed the contributions of individual rhombomeres to the vestibular nuclear complex, a major sensorimotor area that spans the entire rhombencephalon. Transgenic mice harboring either the lacZ or the enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter genes under the transcriptional control of rhombomere-specific Hoxa2 enhancer elements were used to visualize rhombomere-derived domains. We labeled functionally identifiable vestibular projection neuron groups retrogradely with conjugated dextran-amines at successive embryonic stages and obtained developmental fate maps through direct comparison with the rhombomere-derived domains in the same embryos. The fate maps show that each vestibular neuron group derives from a unique rostrocaudal domain that is relatively stable developmentally, suggesting that anteroposterior migration is not a major contributor to the rostrocaudal patterning of the vestibular system. Most of the groups are multisegmental in origin, and each rhombomere is fated to give rise to two or more vestibular projection neuron types, in a complex pattern that is not segmentally iterated. Comparison with studies in the chicken embryo shows that the rostrocaudal patterning of identified vestibular projection neuron groups is generally well conserved between avians and mammalians but that significant species-specific differences exist in the rostrocaudal limits of particular groups. This mammalian hindbrain fate map can be used as the basis for targeting genetic manipulation to specific subpopulations of vestibular projection neurons.

  4. Hindbrain GLP-1 receptor mediation of cisplatin-induced anorexia and nausea.

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    De Jonghe, Bart C; Holland, Ruby A; Olivos, Diana R; Rupprecht, Laura E; Kanoski, Scott E; Hayes, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    While chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are clinically controlled in the acute (anorexia, nausea, fatigue, and other illness-type behaviors during the delayed phase (>24 h) of chemotherapy are largely uncontrolled. As the hindbrain glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) system contributes to energy balance and mediates aversive and stressful stimuli, here we examine the hypothesis that hindbrain GLP-1 signaling mediates aspects of chemotherapy-induced nausea and reductions in feeding behavior in rats. Specifically, hindbrain GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) blockade, via 4th intracerebroventricular (ICV) exendin-(9-39) injections, attenuates the anorexia, body weight reduction, and pica (nausea-induced ingestion of kaolin clay) elicited by cisplatin chemotherapy during the delayed phase (48 h) of chemotherapy-induced nausea. Additionally, the present data provide evidence that the central GLP-1-producing preproglucagon neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of the caudal brainstem are activated by cisplatin during the delayed phase of chemotherapy-induced nausea, as cisplatin led to a significant increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in NTS GLP-1-immunoreactive neurons. These data support a growing body of literature suggesting that the central GLP-1 system may be a potential pharmaceutical target for adjunct anti-emetics used to treat the delayed-phase of nausea and emesis, anorexia, and body weight loss that accompany chemotherapy treatments.

  5. Axonal patterns and targets of dA1 interneurons in the chick hindbrain.

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    Kohl, Ayelet; Hadas, Yoav; Klar, Avihu; Sela-Donenfeld, Dalit

    2012-04-25

    Hindbrain dorsal interneurons that comprise the rhombic lip relay sensory information and coordinate motor outputs. The progenitor dA1 subgroup of interneurons, which is formed along the dorsal-most region of the caudal rhombic lip, gives rise to the cochlear and precerebellar nuclei. These centers project sensory inputs toward upper-brain regions. The fundamental role of dA1 interneurons in the assembly and function of these brainstem nuclei is well characterized. However, the precise en route axonal patterns and synaptic targets of dA1 interneurons are not clear as of yet. Novel genetic tools were used to label dA1 neurons and trace their axonal trajectories and synaptic connections at various stages of chick embryos. Using dA1-specific enhancers, two contralateral ascending axonal projection patterns were identified; one derived from rhombomeres 6-7 that elongated in the dorsal funiculus, while the other originated from rhombomeres 2-5 and extended in the lateral funiculus. Targets of dA1 axons were followed at later stages using PiggyBac-mediated DNA transposition. dA1 axons were found to project and form synapses in the auditory nuclei and cerebellum. Investigation of mechanisms that regulate the patterns of dA1 axons revealed a fundamental role of Lim-homeodomain (HD) proteins. Switch in the expression of the specific dA1 Lim-HD proteins Lhx2/9 into Lhx1, which is typically expressed in dB1 interneurons, modified dA1 axonal patterns to project along the routes of dB1 subgroup. Together, the results of this research provided new tools and knowledge to the assembly of trajectories and connectivity of hindbrain dA1 interneurons and of molecular mechanisms that control these patterns.

  6. An FGF3-BMP Signaling Axis Regulates Caudal Neural Tube Closure, Neural Crest Specification and Anterior-Posterior Axis Extension.

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    Anderson, Matthew J; Schimmang, Thomas; Lewandoski, Mark

    2016-05-01

    During vertebrate axis extension, adjacent tissue layers undergo profound morphological changes: within the neuroepithelium, neural tube closure and neural crest formation are occurring, while within the paraxial mesoderm somites are segmenting from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). Little is known about the signals between these tissues that regulate their coordinated morphogenesis. Here, we analyze the posterior axis truncation of mouse Fgf3 null homozygotes and demonstrate that the earliest role of PSM-derived FGF3 is to regulate BMP signals in the adjacent neuroepithelium. FGF3 loss causes elevated BMP signals leading to increased neuroepithelium proliferation, delay in neural tube closure and premature neural crest specification. We demonstrate that elevated BMP4 depletes PSM progenitors in vitro, phenocopying the Fgf3 mutant, suggesting that excessive BMP signals cause the Fgf3 axis defect. To test this in vivo we increased BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants by removing one copy of Noggin, which encodes a BMP antagonist. In such mutants, all parameters of the Fgf3 phenotype were exacerbated: neural tube closure delay, premature neural crest specification, and premature axis termination. Conversely, genetically decreasing BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants, via loss of BMP receptor activity, alleviates morphological defects. Aberrant apoptosis is observed in the Fgf3 mutant tailbud. However, we demonstrate that cell death does not cause the Fgf3 phenotype: blocking apoptosis via deletion of pro-apoptotic genes surprisingly increases all Fgf3 defects including causing spina bifida. We demonstrate that this counterintuitive consequence of blocking apoptosis is caused by the increased survival of BMP-producing cells in the neuroepithelium. Thus, we show that FGF3 in the caudal vertebrate embryo regulates BMP signaling in the neuroepithelium, which in turn regulates neural tube closure, neural crest specification and axis termination. Uncovering this FGF3-BMP signaling axis is

  7. An FGF3-BMP Signaling Axis Regulates Caudal Neural Tube Closure, Neural Crest Specification and Anterior-Posterior Axis Extension.

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    Matthew J Anderson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During vertebrate axis extension, adjacent tissue layers undergo profound morphological changes: within the neuroepithelium, neural tube closure and neural crest formation are occurring, while within the paraxial mesoderm somites are segmenting from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM. Little is known about the signals between these tissues that regulate their coordinated morphogenesis. Here, we analyze the posterior axis truncation of mouse Fgf3 null homozygotes and demonstrate that the earliest role of PSM-derived FGF3 is to regulate BMP signals in the adjacent neuroepithelium. FGF3 loss causes elevated BMP signals leading to increased neuroepithelium proliferation, delay in neural tube closure and premature neural crest specification. We demonstrate that elevated BMP4 depletes PSM progenitors in vitro, phenocopying the Fgf3 mutant, suggesting that excessive BMP signals cause the Fgf3 axis defect. To test this in vivo we increased BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants by removing one copy of Noggin, which encodes a BMP antagonist. In such mutants, all parameters of the Fgf3 phenotype were exacerbated: neural tube closure delay, premature neural crest specification, and premature axis termination. Conversely, genetically decreasing BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants, via loss of BMP receptor activity, alleviates morphological defects. Aberrant apoptosis is observed in the Fgf3 mutant tailbud. However, we demonstrate that cell death does not cause the Fgf3 phenotype: blocking apoptosis via deletion of pro-apoptotic genes surprisingly increases all Fgf3 defects including causing spina bifida. We demonstrate that this counterintuitive consequence of blocking apoptosis is caused by the increased survival of BMP-producing cells in the neuroepithelium. Thus, we show that FGF3 in the caudal vertebrate embryo regulates BMP signaling in the neuroepithelium, which in turn regulates neural tube closure, neural crest specification and axis termination. Uncovering this FGF3

  8. Caudal Ganglionic Eminence Precursor Transplants Disperse and Integrate as Lineage-Specific Interneurons but Do Not Induce Cortical Plasticity

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    Phillip Larimer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The maturation of inhibitory GABAergic cortical circuits regulates experience-dependent plasticity. We recently showed that the heterochronic transplantation of parvalbumin (PV or somatostatin (SST interneurons from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE reactivates ocular dominance plasticity (ODP in the postnatal mouse visual cortex. Might other types of interneurons similarly induce cortical plasticity? Here, we establish that caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE-derived interneurons, when transplanted into the visual cortex of neonatal mice, migrate extensively in the host brain and acquire laminar distribution, marker expression, electrophysiological properties, and visual response properties like those of host CGE interneurons. Although transplants from the anatomical CGE do induce ODP, we found that this plasticity reactivation is mediated by a small fraction of MGE-derived cells contained in the transplant. These findings demonstrate that transplanted CGE cells can successfully engraft into the postnatal mouse brain and confirm the unique role of MGE lineage neurons in the induction of ODP.

  9. Midbrain and Hindbrain Involvement in Lissencephaly

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of the midbrain and hindbrain (MHB in the various groups of lissencephalies was examined in an MRI study of 111 patients (aged 1 day to 32 years; mean 5 years 4 months studied at University of California San Francisco, and centers in France, Belgium, and Turkey.

  10. Lhx2 and Lhx9 determine neuronal differentiation and compartition in the caudal forebrain by regulating Wnt signaling.

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    Daniela Peukert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Initial axial patterning of the neural tube into forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain primordia occurs during gastrulation. After this patterning phase, further diversification within the brain is thought to proceed largely independently in the different primordia. However, mechanisms that maintain the demarcation of brain subdivisions at later stages are poorly understood. In the alar plate of the caudal forebrain there are two principal units, the thalamus and the pretectum, each of which is a developmental compartment. Here we show that proper neuronal differentiation of the thalamus requires Lhx2 and Lhx9 function. In Lhx2/Lhx9-deficient zebrafish embryos the differentiation process is blocked and the dorsally adjacent Wnt positive epithalamus expands into the thalamus. This leads to an upregulation of Wnt signaling in the caudal forebrain. Lack of Lhx2/Lhx9 function as well as increased Wnt signaling alter the expression of the thalamus specific cell adhesion factor pcdh10b and lead subsequently to a striking anterior-posterior disorganization of the caudal forebrain. We therefore suggest that after initial neural tube patterning, neurogenesis within a brain compartment influences the integrity of the neuronal progenitor pool and border formation of a neuromeric compartment.

  11. Hindbrain DPP-IV inhibition improves glycemic control and promotes negative energy balance.

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    Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G; McGrath, Lauren E; Koch-Laskowski, Kieran; Krawczyk, Joanna; Pham, Tram; Lhamo, Rinzin; Reiner, David J; Hayes, Matthew R

    2017-01-22

    The beneficial glycemic and food intake-suppressive effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) have made this neuroendocrine system a leading target for pharmacological approaches to the treatment of diabetes and obesity. One strategy to increase the activity of endogenous GLP-1 is to prevent the rapid degradation of the hormone by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV). However, despite the expression of both DPP-IV and GLP-1 in the brain, and the clear importance of central GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling for glycemic and energy balance control, the metabolic effects of central inhibition of DPP-IV activity are unclear. To test whether hindbrain DPP-IV inhibition suppresses blood glucose, feeding, and body weight gain, the effects of 4th intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of the FDA-approved DPP-IV inhibitor sitagliptin were evaluated. Results indicate that hindbrain delivery of sitagliptin improves glycemic control in a GLP-1R-dependent manner, suggesting that this effect is due at least in part to increased endogenous brainstem GLP-1 activity after sitagliptin administration. Furthermore, 4th ICV injection of sitagliptin reduced 24h body weight gain and energy intake, with a selective suppression of high-fat diet, but not chow, intake. These data reveal a novel role for hindbrain GLP-1R activation in glycemic control and also demonstrate that DPP-IV inhibition in the caudal brainstem promotes negative energy balance.

  12. Silibinin modulates caudal-type homeobox transcription factor (CDX2), an intestine specific tumor suppressor to abrogate colon cancer in experimental rats.

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    Sangeetha, N; Nalini, N

    2015-01-01

    To authenticate the colon cancer preventive potential of silibinin, the efficacy of silibinin needs to be tested by evaluating an organ-specific biomarker. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of silibinin on the colonic expression of the caudal-type homeobox transcription factor (CDX2) an intestine specific tumor suppressor gene and its downstream targets in the colon of rats challenged with 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine (DMH). Rats of groups 1 and 2 were treated as control and silibinin control. Rats under groups 3 and 4 were given DMH (20 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) subcutaneously) once a week for 15 consecutive weeks from the 4th week of the experimental period. In addition, group 4 rats alone were treated with silibinin (50 mg/kg b.w. per os) everyday throughout the study period of 32 weeks. Histological investigation and messenger RNA and protein expression studies were performed in the colonic tissues of experimental rats. Findings of the study revealed that DMH administration significantly decreased the expression of CDX2 and Guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) in the colon of experimental rats. Further the decreased levels of CDX2 protein, colonic mucin content, and increased number of mast cells in the colon of DMH alone-administered rats reflects the onset of carcinogenesis. The pathological changes caused due to CDX2 suppression were attenuated by silibinin supplementation.

  13. Precerebellar cell groups in the hindbrain of the mouse defined by retrograde tracing and correlated with cumulative Wnt1-cre genetic labeling.

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    Fu, Yuhong; Tvrdik, Petr; Makki, Nadja; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles

    2011-09-01

    The precerebellar nuclei are hindbrain and spinal cord centers that send fibers to the cerebellum. The neurons of the major hindbrain precerebellar nuclei are derived from the rhombic lip. Wnt1, a developmentally important gene involved in intercellular signaling, is expressed in the developing rhombic lip. We sought to investigate the relationship between the cell clusters expressing Wnt1 and the precerebellar nuclei in the hindbrain. We therefore defined the hindbrain precerebellar nuclei by retrograde tracing, following cerebellar injections of HRP, and compared these results with the cell clusters expressing Wnt1 in newborn mice. We found that 39 distinct hindbrain nuclei project to the cerebellum. Of these nuclei, all but three (namely the oral pontine reticular nucleus, the caudal pontine reticular nucleus, and the subcoeruleus nucleus) contain neurons expressing Wnt1. This shows a high degree of overlap between the precerebellar nuclei and the nuclei that express Wnt1. However, it should be noted that neurons expressing Wnt1 are also found in the superior olivary complex, which is a basal plate derivative lacking cerebellar projections.

  14. Retinoic acid is a potential dorsalising signal in the late embryonic chick hindbrain

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    Maden Malcolm

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human retinoic acid teratogenesis results in malformations of dorsally derived hindbrain structures such as the cerebellum, noradrenergic hindbrain neurons and the precerebellar system. These structures originate from the rhombic lip and adjacent dorsal precursor pools that border the fourth ventricle roofplate. While retinoic acid synthesis is known to occur in the meninges that blanket the hindbrain, the particular sensitivity of only dorsal structures to disruptions in retinoid signalling is puzzling. We therefore looked for evidence within the neural tube for more spatiotemporally specific signalling pathways using an in situ hybridisation screen of known retinoic acid pathway transcripts. Results We find that there are highly restricted domains of retinoic acid synthesis and breakdown within specific hindbrain nuclei as well as the ventricular layer and roofplate. Intriguingly, transcripts of cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1 are always found at the interface between dividing and post-mitotic cells. By contrast to earlier stages of development, domains of synthesis and breakdown in post-mitotic neurons are co-localised. At the rhombic lip, expression of the mRNA for retinoic acid synthesising and catabolising enzymes is spatially highly organised with respect to the Cath1-positive precursors of migratory precerebellar neurons. Conclusion The late developing hindbrain shows patterns of retinoic acid synthesis and use that are distinct from the well characterised phase of rostrocaudal patterning. Selected post-mitotic populations, such as the locus coeruleus, appear to both make and break down retinoic acid suggesting that a requirement for an autocrine, or at least a highly localised paracrine signalling network, might explain its acute sensitivity to retinoic acid disruption. At the rhombic lip, retinoic acid is likely to act as a dorsalising factor in parallel with other roofplate signalling pathways. While its

  15. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C;

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  16. Clonal analysis of kit ligand a functional expression reveals lineage-specific competence to promote melanocyte rescue in the mutant regenerating caudal fin.

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    Robert C Tryon

    Full Text Available The study of regeneration in an in vivo vertebrate system has the potential to reveal targetable genes and pathways that could improve our ability to heal and repair damaged tissue. We have developed a system for clonal labeling of discrete cell lineages and independently inducing gene expression under control of the heat shock promoter in the zebrafish caudal fin. Consequently we are able to test the affects of overexpressing a single gene in the context of regeneration within each of the nine different cell lineage classes that comprise the caudal fin. This can test which lineage is necessary or sufficient to provide gene function. As a first example to demonstrate this approach, we explored which lineages were competent to functionally express the kit ligand a protein as assessed by the local complementation of the mutation in the sparse-like (kitlgatc244b background. We show that dermal fibroblast expression of kit ligand a robustly supports the rescue of melanocytes in the regenerating caudal fin. kit ligand a expression from skin and osteoblasts results in more modest and variable rescue of melanocytes, while lateral line expression was unable to complement the mutation.

  17. Regionalization of the shark hindbrain: a survey of an ancestral organization

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    Isabel eRodríguez-Moldes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cartilaginous fishes (chondrichthyans represent an ancient radiation of vertebrates currently considered the sister group of the group of gnathostomes with a bony skeleton that gave rise to land vertebrates. This out-group position makes chondrichthyans essential in assessing the ancestral organization of the brain of jawed vertebrates. To gain knowledge about hindbrain evolution we have studied its development in a shark, the lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula by analyzing the expression of some developmental genes and the origin and distribution of specific neuronal populations, which may help to identify hindbrain subdivisions and boundaries and the topology of specific cell groups. We have characterized three developmental periods that will serve as a framework to compare the development of different neuronal systems and may represent a suitable tool for comparing the absolute chronology of development among vertebrates. The expression patterns of Pax6, Wnt8 and Hoxa2 genes in early embryos of S. canicula showed close correspondence to what has been described in other vertebrates and helped to identify the anterior rhombomeres. Also in these early embryos, the combination of Pax6 with protein markers of migrating neuroblasts (DCX and early differentiating neurons (general: HuC/D; neuron type specific: GAD, the GABA synthesizing enzyme revealed the organization of S. canicula hindbrain in both transverse segmental units corresponding to visible rhombomeres and longitudinal columns. Later in development, when the interrhombomeric boundaries fade away, accurate information about S. canicula hindbrain subdivisions was achieved by comparing the expression patterns of Pax6 and GAD, serotonin (serotoninergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase (catecholaminergic neurons, choline acetyltransferase (cholinergic neurons and calretinin (a calcium-binding protein. The patterns observed revealed many topological correspondences with other vertebrates

  18. Electroporation of the hindbrain to trace axonal trajectories and synaptic targets in the chick embryo.

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    Kohl, Ayelet; Hadas, Yoav; Klar, Avihu; Sela-Donenfeld, Dalit

    2013-05-29

    Electroporation of the chick embryonic neural tube has many advantages such as being quick and efficient for the expression of foreign genes into neuronal cells. In this manuscript we provide a method that demonstrates uniquely how to electroporate DNA into the avian hindbrain at E2.75 in order to specifically label a subset of neuronal progenitors, and how to follow their axonal projections and synaptic targets at much advanced stages of development, up to E14.5. We have utilized novel genetic tools including specific enhancer elements, Cre/Lox - based plasmids and the PiggyBac-mediated DNA transposition system to drive GFP expression in a subtype of hindbrain cells (the dorsal most subgroup of interneurons, dA1). Axonal trajectories and targets of dA1 axons are followed at early and late embryonic stages at various brainstem regions. This strategy contributes advanced techniques for targeting cells of interest in the embryonic hindbrain and for tracing circuit formation at multiple stages of development.

  19. Caudal Regression Syndrome

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    Karim Hardani*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A 10-month-old baby presented with developmental delay. He had flaccid paralysis on physical examination.An MRI of the spine revealed malformation of the ninth and tenth thoracic vertebral bodies with complete agenesis of the rest of the spine down that level. The thoracic spinal cord ends at the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra with agenesis of the posterior arches of the eighth, ninth and tenth thoracic vertebral bodies. The roots of the cauda equina appear tightened down and backward and ended into a subdermal fibrous fatty tissue at the level of the ninth and tenth thoracic vertebral bodies (closed meningocele. These findings are consistent with caudal regression syndrome.

  20. Update on neuroimaging phenotypes of mid-hindbrain malformations

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    Jissendi-Tchofo, Patrice [University Hospital of Lille (CHRU), Department of Neuroradiology, MRI 3T Research, Plateforme Imagerie du vivant, IMPRT-IFR 114, Lille-Cedex (France); CHU Saint-Pierre, Radiology Department, Pediatric Neuroradiology Section, Brussels (Belgium); Severino, Mariasavina [Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Neuroradiology Unit, Genoa (Italy); Nguema-Edzang, Beatrice; Toure, Cisse; Soto Ares, Gustavo [University Hospital of Lille (CHRU), Department of Neuroradiology, MRI 3T Research, Plateforme Imagerie du vivant, IMPRT-IFR 114, Lille-Cedex (France); Barkovich, Anthony James [University of California, Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-23

    Neuroimaging techniques including structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional positron emission tomography (PET) are useful in categorizing various midbrain-hindbrain (MHB) malformations, both in allowing diagnosis and in helping to understand the developmental processes that were disturbed. Brain imaging phenotypes of numerous malformations are characteristic features that help in guiding the genetic testing in case of direct neuroimaging-genotype correlation or, at least, to differentiate among MHB malformations entities. The present review aims to provide the reader with an update of the use of neuroimaging applications in the fine analysis of MHB malformations, using a comprehensive, recently proposed developmental and genetic classification. We have performed an extensive systematic review of the literature, from the embryology main steps of MHB development through the malformations entities, with regard to their molecular and genetic basis, conventional MRI features, and other neuroimaging characteristics. We discuss disorders in which imaging features are distinctive and how these features reflect the structural and functional impairment of the brain. Recognition of specific MRI phenotypes, including advanced imaging features, is useful to recognize the MHB malformation entities, to suggest genetic investigations, and, eventually, to monitor the disease outcome after supportive therapies. (orig.)

  1. Development of spontaneous activity in the avian hindbrain

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    Yoko Momose-Sato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous activity in the developing central nervous system occurs before the brain responds to external sensory inputs, and appears in the hindbrain and spinal cord as rhythmic electrical discharges of cranial and spinal nerves. This spontaneous activity recruits a large population of neurons and propagates like a wave over a wide region of the central nervous system. Here, we review spontaneous activity in the chick hindbrain by focusing on this large-scale synchronized activity. Asynchronous activity that is expressed earlier than the abovementioned synchronized activity and activity originating in midline serotonergic neurons are also briefly mentioned.

  2. Sema4d is required for the development of the hindbrain boundary and skeletal muscle in zebrafish

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    Yang, Jie; Zeng, Zhen; Wei, Juncheng; Jiang, Lijun; Ma, Quanfu; Wu, Mingfu; Huang, Xiaoyuan; Ye, Shuangmei; Li, Ye; Ma, Ding [Cancer Biology Research Centre, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030 (China); Gao, Qinglei, E-mail: qlgao@tjh.tjmu.edu.cn [Cancer Biology Research Centre, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030 (China)

    2013-04-05

    Highlights: ► Sema4d was expressed at all developmental stages of zebrafish. ► Knockdown of sema4d in embryos resulted in defects in the hindbrain and the trunk structure. ► Knockdown of sema4d in embryos upregulated the expression of three hindbrain rhombomere markers. ► Knockdown of sema4d in embryos increased the expression of myogenic regulatory factors. ► Knockdown of sema4d in embryos resulted in an obvious increase of cell apoptosis. -- Abstract: Semaphorin4d (SEMA4D), also known as CD100, an oligodendrocyte secreted R-Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP), affecting axonal growth is involved in a range of processes including cell adhesion, motility, angiogenesis, immune responses and tumour progression. However, its actual physiological mechanisms and its role in development remain unclear. This study has focused on the role of sema4d in the development and expression patterns in zebrafish embryos and the effect of its suppression on development using sema4d-specific antisense morpholino-oligonucleotides. In this study the knockdown of sema4d, expressed at all developmental stages, lead to defects in the hindbrain and trunk structure of zebrafish embryos. In addition, these phenotypes appeared to be associated with the abnormal expression of three hindbrain rhombomere boundary markers, wnt1, epha4a and foxb1.2, and two myogenic regulatory factors, myod and myog. Further, a notable increase of cell apoptosis appeared in the sema4d knockdown embryos, while no obvious reduction in cell proliferation was observed. Collectively, these data suggest that sema4d plays an important role in the development of the hindbrain and skeletal muscle.

  3. Caudales ecológicos

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    En respuesta al aumento de la conciencia ambiental a escala mundial, se ha desarrollado lo que se puede denominar una nueva ciencia que se encarga de estudiar los caudales necesarios para mantener un hábitat deseado, es decir los denominados caudales ecológicos. En el presente artículo se expone una breve recopilación bibliográfica sobre la evolución de éste nuevo concepto, al igual que de las metodologías más importantes desarrolladas hasta la fecha, junto con las técnicas usadas en Es...

  4. Probing forebrain to hindbrain circuit functions in Xenopus.

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    Kelley, Darcy B; Elliott, Taffeta M; Evans, Ben J; Hall, Ian C; Leininger, Elizabeth C; Rhodes, Heather J; Yamaguchi, Ayako; Zornik, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The vertebrate hindbrain includes neural circuits that govern essential functions including breathing, blood pressure and heart rate. Hindbrain circuits also participate in generating rhythmic motor patterns for vocalization. In most tetrapods, sound production is powered by expiration and the circuitry underlying vocalization and respiration must be linked. Perception and arousal are also linked; acoustic features of social communication sounds-for example, a baby's cry-can drive autonomic responses. The close links between autonomic functions that are essential for life and vocal expression have been a major in vivo experimental challenge. Xenopus provides an opportunity to address this challenge using an ex vivo preparation: an isolated brain that generates vocal and breathing patterns. The isolated brain allows identification and manipulation of hindbrain vocal circuits as well as their activation by forebrain circuits that receive sensory input, initiate motor patterns and control arousal. Advances in imaging technologies, coupled to the production of Xenopus lines expressing genetically encoded calcium sensors, provide powerful tools for imaging neuronal patterns in the entire fictively behaving brain, a goal of the BRAIN Initiative. Comparisons of neural circuit activity across species (comparative neuromics) with distinctive vocal patterns can identify conserved features, and thereby reveal essential functional components.

  5. Hindbrain lactate regulates preoptic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron GnRH-I protein but not AMPK responses to hypoglycemia in the steroid-primed ovariectomized female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, P K; Briski, K P

    2015-07-09

    Steroid positive-feedback activation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) neuroendocrine axis propagates the pre ovulatory LH surge, a crucial component of female reproduction. Our work shows that this key event is restrained by inhibitory metabolic input from hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons. GnRH neurons express the ultra-sensitive energy sensor adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK); here, we investigated the hypothesis that GnRH nerve cell AMPK and peptide neurotransmitter responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia are controlled by hindbrain lack of the oxidizable glycolytic end-product L-lactate. Data show that hypoglycemic inhibition of LH release in steroid-primed ovariectomized female rats was reversed by coincident caudal hindbrain lactate infusion. Western blot analyses of laser-microdissected A2 neurons demonstrate hypoglycemic augmentation [Fos, estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β), phosphoAMPK (pAMPK)] and inhibition (dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, GLUT3, MCT2) of protein expression in these cells, responses that were normalized by insulin plus lactate treatment. Hypoglycemia diminished rostral preoptic GnRH nerve cell GnRH-I protein and pAMPK content; the former, but not the latter response was reversed by lactate. Results implicate caudal hindbrain lactoprivic signaling in hypoglycemia-induced suppression of the LH surge, demonstrating that lactate repletion of that site reverses decrements in A2 catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme and GnRH neuropeptide precursor protein expression. Lack of effect of lactate on hypoglycemic patterns of GnRH AMPK activity suggests that this sensor is uninvolved in metabolic-inhibition of positive-feedback-stimulated hypophysiotropic signaling to pituitary gonadotropes.

  6. Novel oxytocin gene expression in the hindbrain is induced by alcohol exposure: transgenic zebrafish enable visualization of sensitive neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitrín M Coffey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD are a collection of disorders resulting from fetal ethanol exposure, which causes a wide range of physical, neurological and behavioral deficits including heightened susceptibility for alcoholism and addictive disorders. While a number of mechanisms have been proposed for how ethanol exposure disrupts brain development, with selective groups of neurons undergoing reduced proliferation, dysfunction and death, the induction of a new neurotransmitter phenotype by ethanol exposure has not yet been reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effects of embryonic and larval ethanol exposure on brain development were visually monitored using transgenic zebrafish expressing cell-specific green fluorescent protein (GFP marker genes. Specific subsets of GFP-expressing neurons were highly sensitive to ethanol exposure, but only during defined developmental windows. In the med12 mutant, which affects the Mediator co-activator complex component Med12, exposure to lower concentrations of ethanol was sufficient to reduce GFP expression in transgenic embryos. In transgenic embryos and larva containing GFP driven by an oxytocin-like (oxtl promoter, ethanol exposure dramatically up-regulated GFP expression in a small group of hindbrain neurons, while having no effect on expression in the neuroendocrine preoptic area. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol exposure during limited embryonic periods impedes the development of specific, identifiable groups of neurons, and the med12 mutation sensitizes these neurons to the deleterious effects of ethanol. In contrast, ethanol exposure induces oxtl expression in the hindbrain, a finding with profound implications for understanding alcoholism and other addictive disorders.

  7. The meninges is a source of retinoic acid for the late-developing hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinghua; Smith, Deborah; Yamamoto, Miyuki; Ma, Lanhua; McCaffery, Peter

    2003-08-20

    One general function for retinoic acid (RA) is pattern organization in the CNS. This regulatory factor has an essential role in spinal cord motor neuron and early posterior hindbrain development. In the anterior CNS, however, there is only a limited number of foci of RA synthesis, and less attention has been placed on regions such as the anterior hindbrain where RA synthesizing enzymes are absent. This study shows that a rich source of RA lies around the hindbrain from the RA synthetic enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (RALDH2) present in the surrounding meninges and mesenchyme by embryonic day 13. RALDH2 is not distributed uniformly throughout the meninges but is restricted to territories over the developing hindbrain, suggesting that RA signaling may be localized to those regions. Further regulation of RA signaling is provided by the presence of a RA sink in the form of the CYP26B1 RA catabolic enzyme expressed in deeper regions of the brain. As a guide to the neural anatomy of hindbrain RA signaling, we used a mouse transgenic for a lacZ reporter gene driven by a RA response element (RAREhsplacZ) to identify regions of RA signaling. This reporter mouse provides evidence that RA signaling in the hindbrain after embryonic day 13 occurs in the regions of the cerebellum and precerebellar system adjacent to sources of RA, including the inferior olive and the pontine nuclei.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Malformations of Midbrain-Hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Castillo, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    We aim to review the magnetic resonance imaging appearance of malformations of midbrain and hindbrain. These can be classified as predominantly cerebellar malformations, combined cerebellar and brain stem malformations, and predominantly brain stem malformations. The diagnostic criteria for the majority of these morphological malformations are based on neuroimaging findings. The predominantly cerebellar malformations include predominantly vermian hypoplasia seen in Dandy-Walker malformation and rhombencephalosynapsis, global cerebellar hypoplasia reported in lissencephaly and microlissencephaly, and unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia seen in PHACES, vanishing cerebellum, and cerebellar cleft. Cerebellar dysplasias are seen in Chudley-McCullough syndrome, associated with LAMA1 mutations and GPR56 mutations; Lhermitte-Duclos disease; and focal cerebellar dysplasias. Cerebellar hyperplasias are seen in megalencephaly-related syndromes and hemimegalencephaly with ipsilateral cerebellomegaly. Cerebellar and brain stem malformations include tubulinopathies, Joubert syndrome, cobblestone malformations, pontocerebellar hypoplasias, and congenital disorders of glycosylation type Ia. Predominantly brain stem malformations include congenital innervation dysgenesis syndrome, pontine tegmental cap dysplasia, diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia, disconnection syndrome, and pontine clefts.

  9. Labeling and imaging cells in the zebrafish hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, Pradeepa; Hong, Elim; Brewster, Rachel

    2010-07-25

    Key to understanding the morphogenetic processes that shape the early vertebrate embryo is the ability to image cells at high resolution. In zebrafish embryos, injection of plasmid DNA results in mosaic expression, allowing for the visualization of single cells or small clusters of cells (1) . We describe how injection of plasmid DNA encoding membrane-targeted Green Fluorescent Protein (mGFP) under the control of a ubiquitous promoter can be used for imaging cells undergoing neurulation. Central to this protocol is the methodology for imaging labeled cells at high resolution in sections and also in real time. This protocol entails the injection of mGFP DNA into young zebrafish embryos. Embryos are then processed for vibratome sectioning, antibody labeling and imaging with a confocal microscope. Alternatively, live embryos expressing mGFP can be imaged using time-lapse confocal microscopy. We have previously used this straightforward approach to analyze the cellular behaviors that drive neural tube formation in the hindbrain region of zebrafish embryos (2). The fixed preparations allowed for unprecedented visualization of cell shapes and organization in the neural tube while live imaging complemented this approach enabling a better understanding of the cellular dynamics that take place during neurulation.

  10. The Order and Place of Neuronal Differentiation Establish the Topography of Sensory Projections and the Entry Points within the Hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecca, Andrea; Dyballa, Sylvia; Voltes, Adria; Bradley, Roger; Pujades, Cristina

    2015-05-13

    Establishing topographical maps of the external world is an important but still poorly understood feature of the vertebrate sensory system. To study the selective innervation of hindbrain regions by sensory afferents in the zebrafish embryo, we mapped the fine-grained topographical representation of sensory projections at the central level by specific photoconversion of sensory neurons. Sensory ganglia located anteriorly project more medially than do ganglia located posteriorly, and this relates to the order of sensory ganglion differentiation. By single-plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) in vivo imaging, we show that (1) the sequence of arrival of cranial ganglion inputs predicts the topography of central projections, and (2) delaminated neuroblasts differentiate in close contact with the neural tube, and they never loose contact with the neural ectoderm. Afferent entrance points are established by plasma membrane interactions between primary differentiated peripheral sensory neurons and neural tube border cells with the cooperation of neural crest cells. These first contacts remain during ensuing morphological growth to establish pioneer axons. Neural crest cells and repulsive slit1/robo2 signals then guide axons from later-differentiating neurons toward the neural tube. Thus, this study proposes a new model by which the topographical representation of cranial sensory ganglia is established by entrance order, with the entry points determined by cell contact between the sensory ganglion cell bodies and the hindbrain.

  11. Craniometric Analysis of the Hindbrain and Craniocervical Junction of Chihuahua, Affenpinscher and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Dogs With and Without Syringomyelia Secondary to Chiari-Like Malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviranta, Anna-Mariam; McFadyen, Angus K.; Jokinen, Tarja S.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Rusbridge, Clare

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To characterize and compare the phenotypic variables of the hindbrain and craniocervical junction associated with syringomyelia (SM) in the Chihuahua, Affenpinscher and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS). Method Analysis of 273 T1-weighted mid-sagittal DICOM sequences of the hindbrain and craniocervical junction from 99 Chihuahuas, 42 Affenpinschers and 132 CKCSs. The study compared 22 morphometric features (11 lines, eight angles and three ratios) of dogs with and without SM using refined techniques based on previous studies of the Griffon Bruxellois (GB) using Discriminant Function Analysis and ANOVA with post-hoc corrections. Results The analysis identified 14/22 significant traits for SM in the three dog breeds, five of which were identical to those reported for the GB and suggest inclusion of a common aetiology. One ratio, caudal fossa height to the length of the skull base extended to an imaginary point of alignment between the atlas and supraoccipital bones, was common to all three breeds (p values 0.029 to <0.001). Associated with SM were a reduced occipital crest and two acute changes in angulation i) ‘sphenoid flexure’ at the spheno-occipital synchondrosis ii) ‘cervical flexure’ at the foramen magnum allied with medulla oblongata elevation. Comparing dogs with and without SM, each breed had a unique trait: Chihuahua had a smaller angle between the dens, atlas and basioccipital bone (p value < 0.001); Affenpinschers had a smaller distance from atlas to dens (p value 0.009); CKCS had a shorter distance between the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and atlas (p value 0.007). Conclusion The selected morphometries successfully characterised conformational changes in the brain and craniocervical junction that might form the basis of a diagnostic tool for all breeds. The severity of SM involved a spectrum of abnormalities, incurred by changes in both angulation and size that could alter neural parenchyma compliance and/or impede cerebrospinal

  12. Fentanyl, dexmedetomidine, dexamethasone as adjuvant to local anesthetics in caudal analgesia in pediatrics: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham M. El-Feky

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Both caudal dexmedetomidine and caudal dexamethasone added to local anesthetics are good alternatives in prolongation of postoperative analgesia compared to caudal local anesthetic alone or added to caudal fentanyl. Also they showed less side effects compared to caudal fentanyl.

  13. Caudal bupivacaine supplemented with caudal or intravenous clonidine in children undergoing hypospadias repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Henneberg, Steen Winther; Walther-Larsen, Søren;

    2004-01-01

    Clonidine is used increasingly in paediatric anaesthetic practice to prolong the duration of action of caudal block with a local anaesthetic agent. Which route of administration of clonidine is the most beneficial remains unknown. We compared the effects of caudal and i.v. clonidine on postoperat...

  14. A Hox regulatory network of hindbrain segmentation is conserved to the base of vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Hugo J; Bronner, Marianne E; Krumlauf, Robb

    2014-10-23

    A defining feature governing head patterning of jawed vertebrates is a highly conserved gene regulatory network that integrates hindbrain segmentation with segmentally restricted domains of Hox gene expression. Although non-vertebrate chordates display nested domains of axial Hox expression, they lack hindbrain segmentation. The sea lamprey, a jawless fish, can provide unique insights into vertebrate origins owing to its phylogenetic position at the base of the vertebrate tree. It has been suggested that lamprey may represent an intermediate state where nested Hox expression has not been coupled to the process of hindbrain segmentation. However, little is known about the regulatory network underlying Hox expression in lamprey or its relationship to hindbrain segmentation. Here, using a novel tool that allows cross-species comparisons of regulatory elements between jawed and jawless vertebrates, we report deep conservation of both upstream regulators and segmental activity of enhancer elements across these distant species. Regulatory regions from diverse gnathostomes drive segmental reporter expression in the lamprey hindbrain and require the same transcriptional inputs (for example, Kreisler (also known as Mafba), Krox20 (also known as Egr2a)) in both lamprey and zebrafish. We find that lamprey hox genes display dynamic segmentally restricted domains of expression; we also isolated a conserved exonic hox2 enhancer from lamprey that drives segmental expression in rhombomeres 2 and 4. Our results show that coupling of Hox gene expression to segmentation of the hindbrain is an ancient trait with origin at the base of vertebrates that probably led to the formation of rhombomeric compartments with an underlying Hox code.

  15. Shifting boundaries of retinoic acid activity control hindbrain segmental gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbu, Ioan Ovidiu; Gresh, Lionel; Barra, Jacqueline; Duester, Gregg

    2005-06-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) generated by Raldh2 in paraxial mesoderm is required for specification of the posterior hindbrain, including restriction of Hoxb1 expression to presumptive rhombomere 4 (r4). Hoxb1 expression requires 3' and 5' RA response elements for widespread induction up to r4 and for r3/r5 repression, but RA has previously been detected only from r5-r8, and vHnf1 is required for repression of Hoxb1 posterior to r4 in zebrafish. We demonstrate in mouse embryos that an RA signal initially travels from the paraxial mesoderm to r3, forming a boundary next to the r2 expression domain of Cyp26a1 (which encodes an RA-degrading enzyme). After Hoxb1 induction, the RA boundary quickly shifts to r4/r5, coincident with induction of Cyp26c1 in r4. A functional role for Cyp26c1 in RA degradation was established through examination of RA-treated embryos. Analysis of Raldh2-/- and vHnf1-/- embryos supports a direct role for RA in Hoxb1 induction up to r4 and repression in r3/r5, as well as an indirect role for RA in Hoxb1 repression posterior to r4 via RA induction of vHnf1 up to the r4/r5 boundary. Our findings suggest that Raldh2 and Cyp26 generate shifting boundaries of RA activity, such that r3-r4 receives a short pulse of RA and r5-r8 receives a long pulse of RA. These two pulses of RA activity function to establish expression of Hoxb1 and vHnf1 on opposite sides of the r4/r5 boundary.

  16. The Eya1 phosphatase promotes Shh signaling during hindbrain development and oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Adriana; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F; Durresi, Ershela; Zhou, Pengcheng; Zhao, Xuesong; Chadwick, Emily C; Xu, Pin-Xian; Hillman, R Tyler; Scott, Matthew P; Greenberg, Michael E; Segal, Rosalind A

    2015-04-06

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is critical in development and oncogenesis, but the mechanisms regulating this pathway remain unclear. Although protein phosphorylation clearly affects Shh signaling, little is known about phosphatases governing the pathway. Here, we conducted a small hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen of the phosphatome and identified Eya1 as a positive regulator of Shh signaling. We find that the catalytically active phosphatase Eya1 cooperates with the DNA-binding protein Six1 to promote gene induction in response to Shh and that Eya1/Six1 together regulate Gli transcriptional activators. We show that Eya1, which is mutated in a human deafness disorder, branchio-oto-renal syndrome, is critical for Shh-dependent hindbrain growth and development. Moreover, Eya1 drives the growth of medulloblastoma, a Shh-dependent hindbrain tumor. Together, these results identify Eya1 and Six1 as key components of the Shh transcriptional network in normal development and in oncogenesis.

  17. NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF INFLUENCE OF THE CAUDAL FIN SHAPE ON THE PROPULSION PERFORMANCE OF A FLAPPING CAUDAL FIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xi; SU Yu-min; WANG Zhao-li

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive study of the effects of the caudal fin shape on the propulsion performance of a eandal fin in harmonic heaving and pitching.A numerical simulation based on an unsteady panel method was carried out to analyze the hydrodynamic performance of flapping caudal fins of three shapes (the whale caudal fin with the largest projected area, the dolphin caudal fin with the median projected area, and the tuna caudal fin with the smallest projected area).Then, a series of hydrodynamic experiments for three caudal fin shapes were performed.Both computational and experimental results indicate that the tuna caudal fin produces the highest efficiency.However the mean thrust coefficient of the tuna caudal fin is the smallest.It is found that although the mean thrust coefficient for the tuna caudal fin is not large, the input power of the tuna caudal fin is also quite small.So the tuna caudal fin achieves a high efficiency.

  18. Zebrafish Caudal Haematopoietic Embryonic Stromal Tissue (CHEST) Cells Support Haematopoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Anja; Aggio, Julian; Campbell, Clyde; Wright, Francis; Marquez, Gabriel; Traver, David; Stachura, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Haematopoiesis is an essential process in early vertebrate development that occurs in different distinct spatial locations in the embryo that shift over time. These different sites have distinct functions: in some anatomical locations specific hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are generated de novo. In others, HSPCs expand. HSPCs differentiate and renew in other locations, ensuring homeostatic maintenance. These niches primarily control haematopoiesis through a combination of cell-to-cell signalling and cytokine secretion that elicit unique biological effects in progenitors. To understand the molecular signals generated by these niches, we report the generation of caudal hematopoietic embryonic stromal tissue (CHEST) cells from 72-hours post fertilization (hpf) caudal hematopoietic tissue (CHT), the site of embryonic HSPC expansion in fish. CHEST cells are a primary cell line with perivascular endothelial properties that expand hematopoietic cells in vitro. Morphological and transcript analysis of these cultures indicates lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid differentiation, indicating that CHEST cells are a useful tool for identifying molecular signals critical for HSPC proliferation and differentiation in the zebrafish. These findings permit comparison with other temporally and spatially distinct haematopoietic-supportive zebrafish niches, as well as with mammalian haematopoietic-supportive cells to further the understanding of the evolution of the vertebrate hematopoietic system. PMID:28300168

  19. Proteomic analysis of zebrafish caudal fin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Sandeep; Singh, Sachin K; Lakshmi, Mula G Meena; Meghah, Vuppalapaty; Bhatti, Bhawna; Swamy, Cherukuvada V Brahmendra; Sundaram, Curam S; Idris, Mohammed M

    2012-06-01

    The epimorphic regeneration of zebrafish caudal fin is rapid and complete. We have analyzed the biomechanism of zebrafish caudal fin regeneration at various time points based on differential proteomics approaches. The spectrum of proteome changes caused by regeneration were analyzed among controls (0 h) and 1, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h postamputation involving quantitative differential proteomics analysis based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and differential in-gel electrophoresis Orbitrap analysis. A total of 96 proteins were found differentially regulated between the control nonregenerating and regenerating tissues of different time points for having at least 1.5-fold changes. 90 proteins were identified as differentially regulated for regeneration based on differential in-gel electrophoresis analysis between the control and regenerating tissues. 35 proteins were characterized for its expression in all of the five regenerating time points against the control samples. The proteins identified and associated with regeneration were found to be directly allied with various molecular, biological, and cellular functions. Based on network pathway analysis, the identified proteome data set for regeneration was majorly associated in maintaining cellular structure and architecture. Also the proteins were found associated for the cytoskeleton remodeling pathway and cellular immune defense mechanism. The major proteins that were found differentially regulated during zebrafish caudal fin regeneration includes keratin and its 10 isoforms, cofilin 2, annexin a1, skeletal α1 actin, and structural proteins. Annexin A1 was found to be exclusively undergoing phosphorylation during regeneration. The obtained differential proteome and the direct association of the various proteins might lead to a new understanding of the regeneration mechanism.

  20. Somatostatin in the caudal spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of somatostatin in the rat spinal cord was studied immunohistochemically with particular reference to the localization in the caudal centers that innervate the pelvic organs. For detailed studies of the laminar distribution of somatostatin the combination of immunohistochemistry...... was particularly low in the motoneuron neuropil. However, a dense somatostatin network was found in the sixth lumbar segment in relation to the neurons in Onuf's nucleus X complex, the nucleus that innervates the small pelvic muscles including the striated sphincters. It is concluded that somatostatin, besides...

  1. GATA-3 is involved in the development of serotonergic neurons in the caudal raphe nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Wees (Jacqueline); A. Karis (Alar); E. Goedknegt; M. Rutteman; F.G. Grosveld (Frank); J.H. van Doorninck (Hikke); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The GATA-3 transcription factor shows a specific and restricted expression pattern in the developing and adult mouse brain. In the present study we investigated the role of GATA-3 in the caudal raphe system, which is known to operate as a modulator of motor activity. We demonst

  2. Analysis of the Caudal Vortices Evolvement around Flapping Foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-dong; Zhang Xiao-qing; Su Yu-min; Xu Yu-ru

    2005-01-01

    The viscous flow field around two-dimensional flapping (heaving and pitching) foils was numerically computed. The structural characteristics of caudal vortices were investigated and the contour curves at different phase angles were obtained.The relationships between the structural characteristics of the vortices and the force acting on the foil and between the widths of the caudal vortex street and of the caudal flow field were analyzed. A method to determine the shedding frequency of the vortices was proposed.

  3. Ependymal variations in the caudal spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltenburg-Didinger, G; Bienentreu, R

    1981-01-01

    The lumbosacral spinal cord including the cauda equina was examined in 100 unselected autopsied cases of infants dying at or near term. A striking finding in 10% of these cases was the occurrence of bilateral collections of ependymal cells lying in rows on the surface of the lumbosacral cord. In another 25% the central canal was forked or duplicate. These foci were not associated with evidence of defective neural tube closure or spina bifida; the central canal was of normal length. There was no relationship between the ependymal structures and systemic clinical or pathological findings. The pathogenesis and significance of these lesions is unclear. Our observations suggest that they occur regularly and are not associated with neurological disturbances. The relationship of the ependymal cell collections to ependymomas of the caudal spinal cord is open to speculation.

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CAUDAL ROPIVACAINE WITH CAUDAL ROPIVACAINE AND DEXMEDETOMIDINE IN PEDIATRIC LOWER ABDOMINAL SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of caudal dexmedetomidine combined with Ropivacaine to provide postoperative analgesia in children and also to establish its safety in the pediatric patients. METHODS: In a randomized, prospective, parallel group, double-blinded study, 80 children of 1 year to 6years posted for lower abdominal surgeries were recruited and allocated into two groups: Group RD (n=40 received 0.25% Ropivacaine 1 ml/kg with dexmedetomidine2 μg/kg, making the volume to 0.5 ml and Group R (n=40 received 0.25% Ropivacaine1 ml/kg + 0.5 ml normal saline. Induction of anesthesia was achieved with Inj. Ketamine 2mg/kg + Inj. Succinylcholine 2mg/kg. Intubated with appropriate-sized Endotracheal tube and caudal block was performed in all patients. Maintained with 66% nitrous oxide in Oxygen and isoflurane 0.2-0.4%.Post-operative pain assessed with FLACC score. RESULTS: The duration of postoperative analgesia recorded a mean of 339 minutes (5.6hrs ± 2.4 hrs. in Group R compared with 884 minutes (14.7 hrs. ±5hrs in Group RD, with a p value of <0.001. Group RD patients achieved a statistically significant higher FLACC score compared with Group RD patients. The peri-operative hemodynamics were stable among both the groups. CONCLUSION: Caudal dexmedetomidine (2 μg/kg with 0.25%Ropivacaine (1 ml/kg for pediatric lower abdominal surgeries provides significant postoperative pain relief and better quality of sleep and a prolonged duration of arousable sedation.

  5. Origins and distributions of the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries in fetuses of wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa, Linnaeus – 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharlianne Alici Martins de Souza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical behavior of the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries was studied in 21 wild boars fetuses, female and male, in which one injected, through the thoracic aorta, a Neoprene Latex “450” solution, stained with a specific pigment and, then, they were fixed in a 10% formaldehyde solution. The analysis of results allowed one to state that the cranial mesenteric artery originated from the abdominal aorta, caudal to the celiac artery, issuing right and left adrenal branches, pancreatic, and the caudal pancreaticduodenal, jejunal, middle and right colic, and ileo-ceco-colic arteries. The caudal mesenteric artery originated from the abdominal aorta, from its caudal third, issuing the left colic and the cranial rectal arteries. Anastomoses were found between jejunal, left colic and cranial rectal, and left and middle colic arteries. In the three species, the cranial and caudal mesenteric, caudal pancreatic-duodenal, jejunal, right and middle colic, and ileo-cecocolic arteries showed similar vascular patterns, whereas the differences with regard to emission of branches or isolated emergence or emergence in common trunk didn’t change the blood supply.

  6. Visuospatial properties of caudal area 7b in Macaca fascicularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Hui JIANG; Ying-Zhou HU; Jian-Hong WANG; Yuan-Ye MA; Xin-Tian HU

    2013-01-01

    To proceed from sensation to movement,integration and transformation of information from different senses and reference frames are required.Several brain areas are involved in this transformation process,but previous neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies have implicated the caudal area 7b as one particular component of this transformation system.In this study,we present the first quantitative report on the spatial coding properties of caudal area 7b.The results showed that neurons in this area had intermediate component characteristics in the transformation system; the area contained bimodal neurons,and neurons in this area encode spatial information using a hybrid reference frame.These results provide evidence that caudal area 7b may belong to the reference frame transformation system,thus contributing to our general understanding of the transformation system.

  7. Early neurogenesis during caudal spinal cord regeneration in adult Gekko japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Youlang; Xu, Qing; Li, Donghui; Zhao, Lijuan; Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Mei; Gu, Xiaosong; Liu, Yan

    2013-06-01

    Gekko japonicus undergoes dramatic changes in the caudal spinal cord after tail amputation. The amputation induces cell proliferation in the caudal ependymal tube. We performed hematoxylin and eosin staining at different time points in the regeneration process to investigate the morphological characterization of the regenerated appendages. The central canal extended to the blastema post-amputation and the cartilage and muscle tissue appeared 3 weeks after injury. We performed the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay to detect proliferating cells during the regeneration process. BrdU positive cells were detected in the peri-central canal. Furthermore, nestin and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) immunocytochemistry were applied to detect neural stem/progenitor cells and neurons. Two weeks after injury, nestin-positive cells undergoing proliferation were located outside of the ependymal tube, and NSE positive cells appeared after 3 weeks of amputation. These data suggest that neurogenesis is an early event during caudal spinal cord regeneration in gecko.

  8. Megaesophagus in Friesian horses associated with muscular hypertrophy of the caudal esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komine, M; Langohr, I M; Kiupel, M

    2014-09-01

    Friesian horses have a perceived high rate of congenital or hereditary diseases, including megaesophagus, that may lead to choke and death. A retrospective study was performed to determine the prevalence and pathologic characteristics of esophageal disease in 852 horses, including 17 Friesians, that had been necropsied over a 6-year period at the Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health. Forty-two horses had grossly described esophageal lesions (25 muscular hypertrophy, 7 hemorrhage, 6 megaesophagus, 4 erosion/ulceration, 3 obstruction, 2 tears, 2 secondary neoplasms, 2 lymphoid patches, 1 thin wall, 1 esophagitis). Some of these lesions occurred concurrently in the same horse. Ten of these horses died or were euthanatized because of severe esophageal disease (6 megaesophagus causing tears in 2 horses, 3 esophageal obstruction with food bolus, and 1 esophagitis). All 6 horses with megaesophagus were Friesians. No cause for megaesophagus was noted in the necropsy reports; however, 5 of these 6 Friesians had marked caudal esophageal muscular hypertrophy (wall thickness: 1.9 ± 0.3 cm). Microscopic review of the esophagus of these Friesians confirmed smooth muscle hypertrophy, with no obvious fibrosis, degeneration, or loss of myenteric plexi. Unlike the Friesians, the 4 non-Friesian horses with severe esophageal disease had esophageal obstruction with an intraluminal food bolus or severe esophagitis. None had caudal esophageal muscular hypertrophy. It is concluded that in comparison to other horse breeds, Friesians have a higher prevalence of severe esophageal disease, specifically megaesophagus, that is commonly associated with marked caudal muscular hypertrophy.

  9. Organ and effective dose coefficients for cranial and caudal irradiation geometries: photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinot, K G; Eckerman, K F; Hertel, N E

    2016-02-01

    With the introduction of new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in Publication 103, the methodology for determining the protection quantity, effective dose, has been modified. The modifications include changes to the defined organs and tissues, the associated tissue weighting factors, radiation weighting factors and the introduction of reference sex-specific computational phantoms. Computations of equivalent doses in organs and tissues are now performed in both the male and female phantoms and the sex-averaged values used to determine the effective dose. Dose coefficients based on the ICRP 103 recommendations were reported in ICRP Publication 116, the revision of ICRP Publication 74 and ICRU Publication 57. The coefficients were determined for the following irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right and left lateral (RLAT and LLAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO). In this work, the methodology of ICRP Publication 116 was used to compute dose coefficients for photon irradiation of the body with parallel beams directed upward from below the feet (caudal) and directed downward from above the head (cranial). These geometries may be encountered in the workplace from personnel standing on contaminated surfaces or volumes and from overhead sources. Calculations of organ and tissue kerma and absorbed doses for caudal and cranial exposures to photons ranging in energy from 10 keV to 10 GeV have been performed using the MCNP6.1 radiation transport code and the adult reference phantoms of ICRP Publication 110. As with calculations reported in ICRP 116, the effects of charged-particle transport are evident when compared with values obtained by using the kerma approximation. At lower energies the effective dose per particle fluence for cranial and caudal exposures is less than AP orientations while above ∼30 MeV the cranial and caudal values are greater.

  10. Leptospira interrogans stably infects zebrafish embryos, altering phagocyte behavior and homing to specific tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Muse Davis

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an extremely widespread zoonotic infection with outcomes ranging from subclinical infection to fatal Weil's syndrome. Despite the global impact of the disease, key aspects of its pathogenesis remain unclear. To examine in detail the earliest steps in the host response to leptospires, we used fluorescently labelled Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni to infect 30 hour post fertilization zebrafish embryos by either the caudal vein or hindbrain ventricle. These embryos have functional innate immunity but have not yet developed an adaptive immune system. Furthermore, they are optically transparent, allowing direct visualization of host-pathogen interactions from the moment of infection. We observed rapid uptake of leptospires by phagocytes, followed by persistent, intracellular infection over the first 48 hours. Phagocytosis of leptospires occasionally resulted in formation of large cellular vesicles consistent with apoptotic bodies. By 24 hours, clusters of infected phagocytes were accumulating lateral to the dorsal artery, presumably in early hematopoietic tissue. Our observations suggest that phagocytosis may be a key defense mechanism in the early stages of leptospirosis, and that phagocytic cells play roles in immunopathogenesis and likely in the dissemination of leptospires to specific target tissues.

  11. Gbx2 is required for the morphogenesis of the mouse inner ear: a downstream candidate of hindbrain signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhengshi; Cantos, Raquel; Patente, Maria; Wu, Doris K

    2005-05-01

    Gbx2 is a homeobox-containing transcription factor that is related to unplugged in Drosophila. In mice, Gbx2 and Otx2 negatively regulate each other to establish the mid-hindbrain boundary in the neural tube. Here, we show that Gbx2 is required for the development of the mouse inner ear. Absence of the endolymphatic duct and swelling of the membranous labyrinth are common features in Gbx2-/- inner ears. More severe mutant phenotypes include absence of the anterior and posterior semicircular canals, and a malformed saccule and cochlear duct. However, formation of the lateral semicircular canal and its ampulla is usually unaffected. These inner ear phenotypes are remarkably similar to those reported in kreisler mice, which have inner ear defects attributed to defects in the hindbrain. Based on gene expression analyses, we propose that activation of Gbx2 expression within the inner ear is an important pathway whereby signals from the hindbrain regulate inner ear development. In addition, our results suggest that Gbx2 normally promotes dorsal fates such as the endolymphatic duct and semicircular canals by positively regulating genes such as Wnt2b and Dlx5. However, Gbx2 promotes ventral fates such as the saccule and cochlear duct, possibly by restricting Otx2 expression.

  12. Increased pulsatile movement of the hindbrain in syringomyelia associated with the Chiari malformation: cine-MRI with presaturation bolus tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terae, S. [Hokkaido Univ. School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Miyasaka, K. [Hokkaido Univ. School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Abe, S. [Hokkaido Univ. School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Abe, H.; Tashiro, K. [Hokkaido Univ. School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Neurology

    1994-02-01

    Cine-MRI with presaturation bolus tracking was used in patients with syringomyelia associated with a Chiari malformation to study pulsatile movement of the hindbrain, cervical spinal cord, cerebrospinal fluid and the fluid within the syrinx. Nine patients had 13 examinations, 6 preoperative, 3 after syringosubarachnoid shunting and 4 after posterior fossa decompression. Five controls were also examined. Dynamic display of the acquired images demonstrated downward displacement of the presaturation bolus on the cerebellar tonsils and medulla oblongata (or upper cervical cord) at the C1 level in all preoperative examinations and in two patients after syringo-subarachnoid shunting but with residual foramen magnum obstruction. Downward displacement of the bolus on the cervical spinal cord was also demonstrated in 7 examinations, but not observed in the controls. Thus, the hindbrain-spinal cord axis showed larger pulsatile movements in patients with foramen magnum obstruction. Based on these observations and a review of the literature, a new theory on the mode of extension of syringomyelia, emphasising the role of increased pulsatile movement of the hindbrain-spinal cord axis is proposed: that the pulsatile movements, together with a one-way valve mechanism in the syrinx cavity act as a ``vacuum-pump`` to enlarge the syrinx. (orig.)

  13. Excitatory Hindbrain-Forebrain Communication Is Required for Cisplatin-Induced Anorexia and Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff, Amber L; Holland, Ruby A; Zheng, Huiyuan; Rinaman, Linda; Grill, Harvey J; De Jonghe, Bart C

    2017-01-11

    Cisplatin chemotherapy is commonly used to treat cancer despite severe energy balance side effects. In rats, cisplatin activates nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) projections to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) projections from the lPBN to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We demonstrated previously that CeA glutamate receptor signaling mediates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Here, we used neuroanatomical tracing, immunofluorescence, and confocal imaging to demonstrate that virtually all NTS→lPBN and lPBN→CeA CGRP projections coexpress vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), providing evidence that excitatory projections mediate cisplatin-induced energy balance dysregulation. To test whether lPBN→CeA projection neurons are required for cisplatin-induced anorexia and weight loss, we inhibited these neurons chemogenetically using a retrograde Cre-recombinase-expressing canine adenovirus-2 in combination with Cre-dependent inhibitory Designer Receptors Exclusive Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) before cisplatin treatment. Inhibition of lPBN→CeA neurons attenuated cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss significantly. Using a similar approach, we additionally demonstrated that inhibition of NTS→lPBN neurons attenuated cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss significantly. Together, our data support the view that excitatory hindbrain-forebrain projections are necessary for cisplatin's untoward effects on energy intake, elucidating a key neuroanatomical circuit driving pathological anorexia and weight loss that accompanies chemotherapy treatment.

  14. A new oxytocin-saporin cytotoxin for lesioning oxytocin-receptive neurons in the rat hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Denis G; Kim, Francis; Gelling, Richard W; Russell, Brian J; Schwartz, Michael W; Morton, Gregory J; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Moralejo, Daniel H; Blevins, James E

    2010-09-01

    Evidence suggests that release of oxytocin in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of the hindbrain from descending projections that originate in the paraventricular nucleus can inhibit food intake by amplifying the satiety response to cholecystokinin (CCK). To further evaluate this mechanism in rats, we used a novel cytotoxin, saporin conjugated to oxytocin (OXY-SAP), a compound designed to destroy cells that express oxytocin receptors (OXYr). OXY-SAP was injected directly into the NTS to lesion neurons that express OXYr and that are implicated in potentiating CCK's satiety effects. The control consisted of injection of saporin conjugated to a nonsense peptide. We found that OXY-SAP was cytotoxic to human uterine smooth muscle cells in vitro, demonstrating that OXY-SAP can lesion cells that express OXYr. Using laser capture microdissection and real-time quantitative PCR, we demonstrated that OXYr mRNA levels were reduced in the NTS after OXY-SAP administration. Moreover, we found that OXY-SAP attenuated the efficacy of CCK-8 to reduce food intake and blocked the actions of an OXYr antagonist to stimulate food intake. The findings suggest that OXY-SAP is an effective neurotoxin for in vivo elimination of cells that express OXYr and is potentially useful for studies to analyze central nervous system mechanisms that involve the action of oxytocin on food intake and other physiological processes.

  15. Zebrafish gbx1 refines the Midbrain-Hindbrain Boundary border and mediates the Wnt8 posteriorization signal

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    Ahrendt Reiner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in mouse, Xenopus and chicken have shown that Otx2 and Gbx2 expression domains are fundamental for positioning the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB organizer. Of the two zebrafish gbx genes, gbx1 is a likely candidate to participate in this event because its early expression is similar to that reported for Gbx2 in other species. Zebrafish gbx2, on the other hand, acts relatively late at the MHB. To investigate the function of zebrafish gbx1 within the early neural plate, we used a combination of gain- and loss-of-function experiments. Results We found that ectopic gbx1 expression in the anterior neural plate reduces forebrain and midbrain, represses otx2 expression and repositions the MHB to a more anterior position at the new gbx1/otx2 border. In the case of gbx1 loss-of-function, the initially robust otx2 domain shifts slightly posterior at a given stage (70% epiboly, as does MHB marker expression. We further found that ectopic juxtaposition of otx2 and gbx1 leads to ectopic activation of MHB markers fgf8, pax2.1 and eng2. This indicates that, in zebrafish, an interaction between otx2 and gbx1 determines the site of MHB development. Our work also highlights a novel requirement for gbx1 in hindbrain development. Using cell-tracing experiments, gbx1 was found to cell-autonomously transform anterior neural tissue into posterior. Previous studies have shown that gbx1 is a target of Wnt8 graded activity in the early neural plate. Consistent with this, we show that gbx1 can partially restore hindbrain patterning in cases of Wnt8 loss-of-function. We propose that in addition to its role at the MHB, gbx1 acts at the transcriptional level to mediate Wnt8 posteriorizing signals that pattern the developing hindbrain. Conclusion Our results provide evidence that zebrafish gbx1 is involved in positioning the MHB in the early neural plate by refining the otx2 expression domain. In addition to its role in MHB formation, we have

  16. Ontogenetic scaling of caudal fin shape in Squalus acanthias (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii): a geometric morphometric analysis with implications for caudal fin functional morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Katie L; Bonnan, Matthew F

    2010-07-01

    The shark heterocercal caudal fin and its contribution to locomotion are of interest to biologists and paleontologists. Current hydrodynamic data show that the stiff dorsal lobe leads the ventral lobe, both lobes of the tail are synchronized during propulsion, and tail shape reflects its overall locomotor function. Given the difficulties surrounding the analysis of shark caudal fins in vivo, little is known about changes in tail shape related to ontogeny and sex in sharks. A quantifiable analysis of caudal fin shape may provide an acceptable proxy for inferring gross functional morphology where direct testing is difficult or impossible. We examined ontogenetic and sex-related shape changes in the caudal fins of 115 Squalus acanthias museum specimens, to test the hypothesis that significant shape changes in the caudal fin shape occur with increasing size and between the sexes. Using linear and geometric morphometrics, we examined caudal shape changes within the context of current hydrodynamic models. We found no statistically significant linear or shape difference between sexes, and near-isometric scaling trends for caudal dimensions. These results suggest that lift and thrust increase linearly with size and caudal span. Thin-plate splines results showed a significant allometric shape change associated with size and caudal span: the dorsal lobe elongates and narrows, whereas the ventral lobe broadens and expands ventrally. Our data suggest a combination of caudal fin morphology with other body morphology aspects, would refine, and better elucidate the hydrodynamic factors (if any) that underlie the significant shape changes we report here for S. acanthias.

  17. MR epidurography: distribution of injectate at caudal epidural injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Darra T. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); St Paul' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Moynagh, Michael R.; Eustace, Stephen [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin 7 (Ireland); Poynton, Ashley; Chan, Vikki O. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland)

    2014-08-02

    To (a) evaluate the feasibility of MR epidurography (MRE) and (b) assess the distribution of injectate using two different volumes at caudal epidural steroid injection. Twenty patients who were referred with symptomatic low back pain for caudal epidural steroid injection were assigned to have either 10 ml (9/20) or 20 ml (11/20) of injectate administered. Gadolinium was included in the injection. The patients proceeded to MRI where sagittal and coronal T1-weighted fat-saturated sequences were acquired and reviewed in the mid-sagittal and right and left parasagittal views at the level of the exit foramina. Gadolinium was observed at or above the L3/4 disc level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %), compared with only five of nine patients who received 10 ml (56 %). Injectate was seen to the L4 nerve root level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %) but only four out of nine patients who received 10 ml (44 %), not even reaching the L5 nerve root level in four further of these nine patients (44 %). Overall, there was a trend to visualize gadolinium at higher levels of the epidural space with higher volumes injected. Firstly, MR epidurography is a safe technique that allows excellent visualization of the distribution of gadolinium in the epidural space following injection via the caudal hiatus. Secondly, a volume of 10 ml is unlikely to treat L5/S1 disease in almost half of patients at caudal epidural steroid injection and at least 20 ml of injectate is likely required for any medication to reach the desired level. (orig.)

  18. Anatomical Study of Sacral Hiatus for Caudal Epidural Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay S Patil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anatomy of the sacral hiatus is having clinical importance during caudal epidural block. Present study is aimed at determining anatomy of sacrum specially sacral hiatus for caudal epidural block, with the help of morphometric measurements of the sacrum in relation to sacral hiatus in dry sacral bones. Material & method: Total 103 complete and undamaged adult, dry sacral bones were measured with Vernier caliper (accuracy 0.1 mm and anatomical measurements were obtained. Results: Three bones were excluded because of total posterior closure defect. Agenesis of the sacral hiatus was detected in three sacral bones. Right and left superolateral sacral crests of the sacrum were taken as two points on dorsal surface of sacrum (forming the base of a triangle because posterior superior iliac spines impose on the superolateral sacral crests. The distance between the two superolateral sacral crests (base of a triangle, the distances between the right and left superolateral sacral crest and the sacral apex were on average 60.61(SD 6.71, 61.95 (11.71 and 61.4 (11.98 mm respectively.. Summary: An equilateral triangle formed between the apex of the sacral hiatus and right and left superolateral sacral crests. This equilateral triangle will help in determining the location of the sacral hiatus during caudal epidural block. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 272-275

  19. Numerical Study on Hydrodynamic Performance of Bionic Caudal Fin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, numerical simulations are conducted to reveal the hydrodynamic mechanism of caudal fin propulsion. In the modeling of a bionic caudal fin, a universal kinematics model with three degrees of freedom is adopted and the flexible deformation in the spanwise direction is considered. Navier-Stokes equations are used to solve the unsteady fluid flow and dynamic mesh method is applied to track the locomotion. The force coefficients, torque coefficient, and flow field characteristics are extracted and analyzed. Then the thrust efficiency is calculated. In order to verify validity and feasibility of the algorithm, hydrodynamic performance of flapping foil is analyzed. The present results of flapping foil compare well with those in experimental researches. After that, the influences of amplitude of angle of attack, amplitude of heave motion, Strouhal number, and spanwise flexibility are analyzed. The results show that, the performance can be improved by adjusting the motion and flexibility parameters. The spanwise flexibility of caudal fin can increase thrust force with high propulsive efficiency.

  20. Acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, K.; Foster, R.A.; Casillas, E.R.

    1986-05-01

    Recently, the authors identified mM concentrations of acetylcarnitine in epidiymal fluids and have investigated the metabolism of acetylcarnitine by bovine and hamster caudal epididymal spermatozoa. (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl-L-carnitine is oxidized to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by washed, intact hamster and bovine sperm at maximal rates of 8.4 and 15.2 nmol/hr/10/sup 7/ cells respectively. Conversely, the carnitine moiety of acetyl-L-(/sup 3/H-methyl)carnitine is not accumulated by sperm under similar conditions. Hydrolysis of (/sup 3/H)acetyl-L-carnitine and competition of uptake of (/sup 3/H)acetate by unlabeled acetate was demonstrated in incubations of intact cells of both species. The amount of (/sup 3/H)acetate accumulated in the incubation medium is time-dependent and also depends on the concentration of unlabeled acetate. A partial solubilization of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity from washed, intact bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa in buffer or 0.01% Triton X-100 is observed. There is an enrichment of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in purified plasma membranes from bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa when compared to the activity present in broken cell preparations or other cellular fractions. The results suggest that acetylcarnitine is a substrate for spermatozoa as they traverse the epididymis.

  1. Evidence for the Presence of Glucosensor Mechanisms Not Dependent on Glucokinase in Hypothalamus and Hindbrain of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss.

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    Cristina Otero-Rodiño

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that glucosensor mechanisms other than that mediated by glucokinase (GK operate in hypothalamus and hindbrain of the carnivorous fish species rainbow trout and stress affected them. Therefore, we evaluated in these areas changes in parameters which could be related to putative glucosensor mechanisms based on liver X receptor (LXR, mitochondrial activity, sweet taste receptor, and sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT-1 6 h after intraperitoneal injection of 5 mL x Kg(-1 of saline solution alone (normoglycaemic treatment or containing insulin (hypoglycaemic treatment, 4 mg bovine insulin x Kg(-1 body mass, or D-glucose (hyperglycaemic treatment, 500 mg x Kg(-1 body mass. Half of tanks were kept at a 10 Kg fish mass x m(-3 and denoted as fish under normal stocking density (NSD whereas the remaining tanks were kept at a stressful high stocking density (70 kg fish mass x m(-3 denoted as HSD. The results obtained in non-stressed rainbow trout provide evidence, for the first time in fish, that manipulation of glucose levels induce changes in parameters which could be related to putative glucosensor systems based on LXR, mitochondrial activity and sweet taste receptor in hypothalamus, and a system based on SGLT-1 in hindbrain. Stress altered the response of parameters related to these systems to changes in glycaemia.

  2. Comparison between the intravenous and caudal routes of sufentanil in children undergoing orchidopexy and further evaluation of the association of caudal adrenaline and neostigmine

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    Gabriela Rocha Lauretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the intravenous (IV and caudal routes of administration of sufentanil for children undergoing orchidopexy and also to evaluate the effects on addition of caudal adrenaline and neostigmine. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients scheduled for orchidopexy were divided into the following groups: 1 Group IVSu received IV 0.5 μg/kg sufentanil and caudal saline; 2 Group CSu received caudal 0.5 μg/kg sufentanil and IV saline; 3 Group CSuAdr received caudal sufentanil plus adrenaline 5 μg/ml (1:200,000 and IV saline; 4 Group CSuNeo received caudal sufentanil plus neostigmine, and IV saline; and 5 Group CSuNeoAdr received caudal sufentanil plus neostigmine plus adrenaline, and IV saline. Heart rate and mean blood pressure >15% was treated with increasing isoflurane concentration. Consumption of isoflurane, side effects, quality of sleep, time to first administration of analgesic, and number of doses of 24-h rescue analgesic were recorded. Results: Groups were demographically similar. Isoflurane consumption showed the following association: Group IVSu = Group CSuNeo = Group CSuNeoAdr Group CSuNeo = Group CSuNeoAdr (P < 0.005. Incidence of adverse effects was similar among groups. Conclusion: Caudal sufentanil alone was no better than when administered in the IV route, and would just be justified by the association of neostigmine, but not adrenaline. Neostigmine association resulted in better perioperative analgesia.

  3. Identification of QTL for dorso-caudal chronic pleuritis in 12 crossbred porcine families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, V R; Sørensen, K K; Christensen, O F; Busch, M E; Vingborg, R K K; Velander, I H; Lund, M S; Bendixen, C

    2010-10-01

    Pleuropneumonia is a major problem in pig production. At the time of slaughter, chronic pleuritis (CP) developed from pleuropneumonia is a common finding, and breeding for a reduced incidence of CP using marker-assisted selection (MAS) would be advantageous. Before applying MAS, quantitative trait loci (QTL) or markers associated with the prevalence of CP should be identified. In this study, 7470 pigs from crosses between 12 Danish Duroc boars and 604 sows (Danish Landrace × Danish Large White) were evaluated for CP located on the dorso-caudal part of the lungs. Quantitative trait loci were identified within boar families using both a Binomial logistic regression method and a chi-square test of association. Significant QTL for CP were detected on Sus scrofa chromosomes (SSC) 2, 8, 12, 13, 14 and 18 using both methods. One QTL on SSC 8 was also detected across families. For the QTL identified within families, the odds-ratio of having CP was approximately twice as high for the unfavourable allele compared to the favourable one. These QTL and closely linked markers show promise for the development of gene-specific markers associated with a reduced incidence of CP located on the dorso-caudal part of the lungs.

  4. La oficina del regante y la medida de caudales

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    En la actualidad tanto en las zonas con sistemas de riego presurizado como en las de riegos tradicionales, se está apreciando un gran interés en la mejora de los propios sistemas de riego y de la gestión del agua. Esto genera una gran demanda de información tecnológica por parte de los agricultores. Una parte importante de esta información incluye el conocimiento de los caudales que circulan en las redes de distribución de agua de las Comunidades de Regantes. El Departamento de Agr...

  5. ENFERMEDADES DEL TRACTO URINARIO CAUDAL DE LOS PERROS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Lasenfermedades)del)tracto)urinario)caudal)ETUC(en)perros)son)un)conjunto)de) enfermedades)que)afectan)a)la)vejiga,)uretra)y)próstata)siendo)los)signos)clínicos)más) comunes) la)estranguria,)polaquiuria,)disuria)y)hematuria.)Las)ETUC)más)comunes)en) los) perros) son) la) urolitiasis,) la) infección) del) tracto) urinario,) las) alteraciones) de) la) micción,) las)enfermedades)de) la)próstata,) las)neoplasias,) las)alteraciones)anatómicas) congénitas)y)los)traumatismos.)En)Méxic...

  6. Histomorphometry of Trabecular Bone of Caudal Vertebrae During Rat Pregnancy

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    S.M. Shahtaheri

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy make demands upon maternal calcium hemeostasis and the extent to which the maternal bone mass is effected remains uncertain. Recently changes in the bone mass during human pregnancy have been associated also with the transformation of the cancellous architecture and the bone surface available for exchange. These jistomorphometrical structural changes were examined further in an animal model. Using uniparous laboratory rats fed at libitum, the histomorphometry of cancellous bone was compared in undecalcified of caudal vertebrae. Between 3 and 6 sections (8 m were analysed by an automated trabecular analysis system (TAS which measures a comprehensive range of structural variables including the trabecular separation, number, connectivity and width. There was an early stimulation of bone formation that was indicated by generation of thicker and interconnected trabeculae. However in caudal vertebrae, there were architectural changes in cancellous bone commencing with a significant increase in the trabecular separation. ‌‌ It was concluded that strengthens the cancellous component of the maternal skeleton possibly to counter increased load and to facilitate mineral mobilisation in maternal/neonate exchange during the subsequent lactation period.

  7. Evaluation of caudal epidural anesthesia efficacy by measurement of feet skin temperature in children

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    M. Yu. Kurochkin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Caudal epidural anesthesia in children is not performed in pure form, but only in combination with superficial general anesthesia. Therefore, a search for reliable evaluation criteria of the caudal epidural block onset in children remains actual. Aim. To evaluate effectiveness of caudal epidural anesthesia efficacy by measurement of feet skin temperature in children. Methods and results. We investigated feet skin temperature before the caudal blockade by bupivacaine and after 15–20 minutes in 30 children. The control group included 20 children who underwent total intravenous anesthesia. The study showed that feet skin temperature after caudal blockade significantly increased from 30,1±0,15°C to 33,0±0,1°C (10% and in the control group it did not change significantly. Conclusion. Thus, feet skin thermometry may be considered to be a reliable non-invasive method for assessing the onset of the caudal block.

  8. Investigation of Fish Caudal Fin Locomotion Using a Bio-inspired Robotic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ziyu Ren; Kainan Hu; Tianmiao Wang; Li Wen

    2016-01-01

    Due to its advantages of realizing repeatable experiments, collecting data and isolating key factors, the bio-robotic model is becoming increasingly important in the study of biomechanics. The caudal fin of fish has long been understood to be central to propulsion performance, yet its contribution to manoeuverability, especially for homocercal caudal fin, has not been studied in depth. In the research outlined in this paper, we designed and fabricated a robotic caudal fin to mimic the morphol...

  9. Novel Dynamics Observed in a Spiking Neural Network Model of the NTS in the Rat Hind-brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingyi; Schaffer, J. David; Dilorenzo, Patricia; Laramee, Craig

    2012-02-01

    The Nucleus of the Solitary Tract (NTS) is a hind-brain structure in the rat that is the first way-station in taste processing. Its structure and function are poorly understood. Recently our group produced a model, implemented as a spiking neural network (SNN), that successfully replicated experimental data. The model's topology was manually devised and the parameters were set by a genetic algorithm. In order to better understand its information processing capabilities, we probed the model with a variety of input spike patterns and observed a striking winner-take-all decision-making dynamic. We show how the topology and tuned parameters enable this decision to depend on precise spike timing events. It is curious that the experimental data upon which the model was originally evolved did not include winner-take-all examples; this was an emergent capability. It remains for additional experiments on rats to confirm or reject this model prediction.

  10. Volumetric analysis of syringomyelia following hindbrain decompression for Chiari malformation Type I: syringomyelia resolution follows exponential kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumans, Jean-Valery; Walcott, Brian P.; Butler, William E.; Nahed, Brian V.; Kahle, Kristopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Object Resolution of syringomyelia is common following hindbrain decompression for Chiari malformation, yet little is known about the kinetics governing this process. The authors sought to establish the volumetric rate of syringomyelia resolution. Methods A retrospective cohort of patients undergoing hindbrain decompression for a Chiari malformation Type I with preoperative cervical or thoracic syringomyelia was identified. Patients were included in the study if they had at least 3 neuroimaging studies that detailed the entirety of their preoperative syringomyelia over a minimum of 6 months postoperatively. The authors reconstructed the MR images in 3 dimensions and calculated the volume of the syringomyelia. They plotted the syringomyelia volume over time and constructed regression models using the method of least squares. The Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion were used to calculate the relative goodness of fit. The coefficients of determination R2 (unadjusted and adjusted) were calculated to describe the proportion of variability in each individual data set accounted for by the statistical model. Results Two patients were identified as meeting inclusion criteria. Plots of the least-squares best fit were identified as 4.01459e−0.0180804x and 13.2556e−0.00615859x. Decay of the syringomyelia followed an exponential model in both patients (R2 = 0.989582 and 0.948864). Conclusions Three-dimensional analysis of syringomyelia resolution over time enables the kinetics to be estimated. This technique is yet to be validated in a large cohort. Because syringomyelia is the final common pathway for a number of different pathological processes, it is possible that this exponential only applies to syringomyelia related to treatment of Chiari malformation Type I. PMID:21882909

  11. Generation of Integration-free and Region-Specific Neural Progenitors from Primate Fibroblasts

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    Jianfeng Lu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal and adult human and monkey fibroblasts were infected with Sendai virus containing the Yamanaka factors for 24 hr, then they were cultured in a chemically defined medium containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, transforming growth factor (TGF-β inhibitor SB431542, and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β inhibitor CHIR99021 at 39°C for inactivation of the virus. Induced neural progenitor (iNP colonies appeared as early as day 13 and can be expanded for >20 passages. Under the same defined condition, no induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC colonies formed at either 37°C or 39°C. The iNPs predominantly express hindbrain genes and differentiate into hindbrain neurons, and when caudalized, they produced an enriched population of spinal motor neurons. Following transplantation into the forebrain, the iNP-derived cells retained the hindbrain identity. The ability to generate defined, integration-free iNPs from adult primate fibroblasts under a defined condition with predictable fate choices will facilitate disease modeling and therapeutic development.

  12. Effectiveness of caudal septal extension graft application in endonasal septoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Karadavut

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Septal deviation is a common disease seen in daily otorhinolaryngology practice and septoplasty is a commonly performed surgical procedure. Caudal septum deviation is also a challenging pathology for ear, nose, and throat specialists. Many techniques are defined for caudal septal deviation. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of caudal septal extension graft (CSEG application in patients who underwent endonasal septoplasty for a short and deviated nasal septum. Methods Forty patients with nasal septal deviation, short nasal septum, and weak nasal tip support who underwent endonasal septoplasty with or without CSEG placement between August 2012 and June 2013 were enrolled in this study. Twenty patients underwent endonasal septoplasty with CSEG placement. The rest of the group, who rejected auricular or costal cartilage harvest for CSEG placement, underwent only endonasal septoplasty without any additional intervention. Using the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE and Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation (ROE questionnaires, pre- and post-operative acoustic rhinometer measurements were evaluated to assess the effect of CESG placement on nasal obstruction. Results In the control group, preoperative and postoperative minimal cross-sectional areas (MCA1 were 0.44 ± 0.10 cm2 and 0.60 ± 0.11 cm2, respectively (p < 0.001. In the study group, pre- and postoperative MCA1 values were 0.45 ± 0.16 cm2 and 0.67 ± 0.16 cm2, respectively (p < 0.01. In the control group, the nasal cavity volume (VOL1 value was 1.71 ± 0.21 mL preoperatively and 1.94 ± 0.17 mL postoperatively (p < 0.001. In the study group, pre- and postoperative VOL1s were 1.72 ± 0.15 mL and 1.97 ± 0.12 mL, respectively (p < 0.001. Statistical analysis of postoperative MCA1 and VOL1 values in the study and the control groups could not detect any significant intergroup difference (p = 0.093 and 0.432, respectively. In the study group, mean nasolabial angles were

  13. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.

  14. Linking bone development on the caudal aspect of the distal phalanx with lameness during life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, R; Green, M J; Bell, N J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C S; Rutland, C S; Sturrock, C J; Whay, H R; Huxley, J N

    2016-06-01

    Claw horn disruption lesions (CHDL; sole hemorrhage, sole ulcer, and white line disease) cause a large proportion of lameness in dairy cattle, yet their etiopathogenesis remains poorly understood. Untreated CHDL may be associated with damage to the internal anatomy of the foot, including to the caudal aspect of the distal phalanx upon which bone developments have been reported with age and with sole ulcers at slaughter. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether bone development was associated with poor locomotion and occurrence of CHDL during a cow's life. A retrospective cohort study imaged 282 hind claws from 72 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows culled from a research herd using X-ray micro-computed tomography (μ-CT; resolution: 0.11mm). Four measures of bone development were taken from the caudal aspect of each distal phalanx, in caudal, ventral, and dorsal directions, and combined within each claw. Cow-level variables were constructed to quantify the average bone development on all hind feet (BD-Ave) and bone development on the most severely affected claw (BD-Max). Weekly locomotion scores (1-5 scale) were available from first calving. The variables BD-Ave and BD-Max were used as outcomes in linear regression models; the explanatory variables included locomotion score during life, age, binary variables denoting lifetime occurrence of CHDL and of infectious causes of lameness, and other cow variables. Both BD-Max and BD-Ave increased with age, CHDL occurrence, and an increasing proportion of locomotion scores at which a cow was lame (score 4 or 5). The models estimated that BD-Max would be 9.8mm (SE 3.9) greater in cows that had been lame at >50% of scores within the 12mo before slaughter (compared with cows that had been assigned no lame scores during the same period), or 7.0mm (SE 2.2) greater if the cow had been treated for a CHDL during life (compared with cows that had not). Additionally, histology demonstrated that new bone development was osteoma

  15. Awake caudal anesthesia for inguinal hernia operations: successful use in low birth weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geze, S; Imamoğlu, M; Cekic, B

    2011-09-01

    Neonates with inguinal hernia face a relatively high risk of incarcerated hernia and bowel obstruction and this therefore requires surgical treatment. Complications following general anesthesia even for minor surgery are more common in low birth weight neonates than in term neonates. Caudal epidural anesthesia without adjunct general anesthesia has been recommended for neonates to reduce the risk of postoperative complications. The successful application of awake caudal anesthesia with levobupivacaine for inguinal hernia repair in 15 low birth weight neonates is reported. Single dose caudal epidural anesthesia was administered for inguinal hernia surgery to avoid complications associated with general anesthesia. Caudal block was performed with 2.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) levobupivacaine. Caudal anesthesia can be recommended as an effective technique for avoiding postoperative anesthetic complications in low birth weight neonates.

  16. Evaluation of Anesthesia Profile in Pediatric Patients after Inguinal Hernia Repair with Caudal Block or Local Wound Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Gavrilovska-Brzanov

    2016-02-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Between children undergoing inguinal hernia repair, local wound infiltration insures safety and satisfactory analgesia for surgery. Compared to caudal block it is not overwhelming. Caudal block provides longer analgesia, however complications are rather common.

  17. Response Function of the Crayfish Caudal Photoreceptor to Hydrodynamic Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breite, Sally; Bahar, Sonya; Neiman, Alexander; Moss, Frank

    2002-03-01

    In its abdominal 6th ganglion the crayfish houses 2 light-sensitive neurons (caudal photoreceptors, or CPRs). It is known that these neurons work in tandem with a mechanosensory system of tiny hairs spread across the tailfan, which make synaptic contact with the photoreceptors. A stochastic resonance effect has been shown in this system in which light enhances the transduction of a weak, periodic mechanosensory (hydrodynamic) stimulus. It is not known, however, whether an optimal response from the CPR is induced by a single sine wave cycle or some other waveform. We have experimentally investigated this favorable waveform by driving a tailfan preparation with mechanical 10 Hz correlated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise and calculating the response function from the spike-triggered average of the applied noise waveform. We will discuss differences in the shape of the optimal waveform under dark and light conditions, as well as what seems to be a noticeable difference in the magnitude of the animals' response to a noisy stimulus in comparison with a periodic stimulus.

  18. Transcriptional Profiling of Caudal Fin Regeneration in Zebrafish

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    Michael Schebesta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of severed limbs in adult animals is restricted to urodele amphibians. Mammals, including humans, have very limited regenerative capabilities and even with proper treatment, only the tips of our digits can grow back. Teleost fish can regenerate amputated fins, the evolutionary ancestors of limbs. To elucidate the principles of limb-fin regeneration, we performed an Affymetrix microarray screen on regenerating caudal fins 12, 24, 48, and 72 h post amputation. Approximately 15,000 zebrafish transcripts were analyzed, identifying 829 transcripts as differentially expressed during regeneration. Of those, 563 were up-regulated and 266 were down-regulated. We constructed a comprehensive database containing expression data, functional assignment, and background information from the literature for each differentially expressed transcript. In order to validate our findings, we employed three approaches: (1 microarray expression analysis of genes previously implicated in fin regeneration, (2 RT-PCR analysis of genes newly identified as differentially expressed during regeneration, and (3 in situ hybridization of the up-regulated genes bambi, dlx5A, and her6. Moreover, we show that Smad 1/5/8 proteins, effector molecules of Bmp signaling, are phosphorylated during fin regeneration. Taken together, we provide a comprehensive database of fin regeneration that will serve as an important tool for understanding the molecular mechanisms of regeneration.

  19. [The choice of drugs for caudal anaesthesia in children. An overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhofer, P; Koinig, H; Kapral, S

    2003-01-01

    Caudal anaesthesia is the most frequently used regional technique in paediatric anaesthesia. Caudal in combination with general anaesthesia is usually performed in healthy children (i.e. for herniotomy or hypospadias). Therefore every complication of this method is a catastrophe, even when the incidence of these complications is very low. Some of the documented complications of caudal anaesthesia in children are caused by the local anaesthetic solutions and/or by additives. Thus, the choice of substances for paediatric caudal blocks should minimize the risk associated with the substances used for this indication. Over the last decades the standard was bupivacaine but because of serious cardiovascular and central-nervous toxicity following inadvertent intravascular injection of bupivacaine during caudal puncture, the less toxic ropivacaine should be favoured for this indication. A huge number of clinical studies have proven the clinical effectiveness and safety of ropivacaine also for this indication. In addition, levobupivacaine, the L-enantiomere of bupivacaine, will also be an interesting local anaesthetic in the future for paediatric caudal anaesthesia. By using additives to local anaesthetics better analgesic properties should be obtained. Following an exact review of the literature, only clonidine and S(+)-ketamine are useful additives to local anaesthetics in paediatric caudal anaesthesia.

  20. Numerical simulation and experimental research of a flexible caudal fin by piezoelectric fiber composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Lin Guan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A flexible caudal fin made of the macro fiber composites and the carbon fiber orthotropic composite was investigated by the numerical simulations and the experiments. First, a three-dimensional numerical simulation procedure was adopted to research the torsion propulsion mode of the caudal fin and the impact of the water for the structural torsion frequency of the caudal fin. Then, a two-dimensional unsteady fluid computational method was used to analyze the hydrodynamic performance with the periodic swing of the caudal fin on the torsion mode. Based on the simulation results, the flow field was demonstrated and discussed. The interaction between the caudal fin and the water was explained. Finally, the laser vibrometer system was built to verify the torsion propulsion mode. Meanwhile, the application of the caudal fin was realized on the torsion propulsion, and the measured system was established to demonstrate the performance of the caudal fin. The established simulation procedures and experimental methods in this study may provide guidance to the fins made of the composite materials during the structural design and the investigation of the flow field characteristics with the movement of the fins.

  1. Formation of body appendages during caudal regeneration in Platynereis dumerilii: adaptation of conserved molecular toolsets

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    Jan Grimmel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platynereis and other polychaete annelids with homonomous segmentation are regarded to closely resemble ancestral forms of bilateria. The head region comprises the prostomium, the peristomium, a variable number of cephalized body segments and several appendages, like cirri, antennae and palps. The trunk of such polychaetes shows numerous, nearly identical segments. Each segment bears a parapodium with species-specific morphology on either side. The posterior end of the trunk features a segment proliferation zone and a terminal pygidium with the anus and anal cirri. The removal of a substantial part of the posterior trunk is by no means lethal. Cells at the site of injury dedifferentiate and proliferate forming a blastema to regenerate both the pygidium and the proliferation zone. The pygidium forms new anal cirri, and the proliferation zone generates new segments at a rapid pace. The formation of body appendages like the cirri and the segmental parapodia can thus be studied in the caudal regenerate of Platynereis within only a few days. Results The development of body appendages in Platynereis is regulated by a network of genes common to polychaetes but also shared by distant taxa. We isolated DNA sequences from P. dumerilii of five genes known to be involved in appendage formation within other groups: Meis/homothorax, Pbx1/extradenticle, Dlx/Distal-less, decapentaplegic and specific protein 1/buttonhead. Analyses of expression patterns during caudal regeneration by in situ hybridization reveal striking similarities related to expression in arthropods and vertebrates. All genes exhibit transient expression during differentiation and growth of segments. As was shown previously in other phyla Pdu-Meis/hth and Pdu-Pbx1/exd are co-expressed, although the expression is not limited to the proximal part of the parapodia. Pdu-Dll is prominent in parapodia but upregulated in the anal cirri. No direct dependence concerning Pdu-Dll and

  2. The primary brain vesicles revisited: are the three primary vesicles (forebrain/midbrain/hindbrain) universal in vertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Yoshimoto, Masami; Ito, Hironobu

    2012-01-01

    It is widely held that three primary brain vesicles (forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain vesicles) develop into five secondary brain vesicles in all vertebrates (von Baer's scheme). We reviewed previous studies in various vertebrates to see if this currently accepted scheme of brain morphogenesis is a rule applicable to vertebrates in general. Classical morphological studies on lamprey, shark, zebrafish, frog, chick, Chinese hamster, and human embryos provide only partial evidence to support the existence of von Baer's primary vesicles at early stages. Rather, they suggest that early brain morphogenesis is diverse among vertebrates. Gene expression and fate map studies on medaka, chick, and mouse embryos show that the fates of initial brain vesicles do not accord with von Baer's scheme, at least in medaka and chick brains. The currently accepted von Baer's scheme of brain morphogenesis, therefore, is not a universal rule throughout vertebrates. We propose here a developmental hourglass model as an alternative general rule: Brain morphogenesis is highly conserved at the five-brain vesicle stage but diverges more extensively at earlier and later stages. This hypothesis does not preclude the existence of deep similarities in molecular prepatterns at early stages.

  3. Caudal Duplication Syndrome: the Vital Role of a Multidisciplinary Approach and Staged Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuk, Inbal; Levitt, Marc; Dlugy, Elena; Kravarusic, Dragan; Ben-Meir, David; Rajz, Gustavo; Konen, Osnat; Freud, Enrique

    2016-12-01

    Caudal duplication syndrome is a rare entity that describes the association between congenital anomalies involving caudal structures and may have a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. A full-term male presented with combination of anomalies including anorectal malformation, duplication of the colon and lower urinary tract, split of the lower spine, and lipomyelomeningocele with tethering of the cord. We report this exceptional case of caudal duplication syndrome with special emphasis on surgical strategy and approach combining all disciplines involved. The purpose of this report is to present the pathology, assessment, and management strategy of this complex case.

  4. The spinal cord ependymal region: a stem cell niche in the caudal central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugnot, Jean Philippe; Franzen, Rachelle

    2011-01-01

    In the brain, specific signalling pathways localized in highly organized regions called niches, allow the persistence of a pool of stem and progenitor cells that generate new neurons and glial cells in adulthood. Much less is known on the spinal cord central canal niche where a sustained adult neurogenesis is not observed. Here we review our current knowledge of this caudal niche in normal and pathological situations. Far from being a simple layer of homogenous cells, this region is composed of several cell types localized at specific locations, expressing characteristic markers and with different morphologies and functions. We further report on a screen of online gene-expression databases to better define this spinal cord niche. Several genes were found to be preferentially expressed within or around the central canal region (Bmp6, CXCR4, Gdf10, Fzd3, Mdk, Nrtn, Rbp1, Shh, Sox4, Wnt7a) some of which by specific cellular subtypes. In depth characterization of the spinal cord niche constitutes a framework to make the most out of this endogenous cell pool in spinal cord disorders.

  5. Plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine with and without adrenaline following caudal anaesthesia in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Morton, N S; Cullen, P M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of adrenaline 1/400000 added to 0.25% bupivacaine significantly delays the systemic absorption of the drug from the caudal epidural space in young infants.......The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of adrenaline 1/400000 added to 0.25% bupivacaine significantly delays the systemic absorption of the drug from the caudal epidural space in young infants....

  6. Investigation of Fish Caudal Fin Locomotion Using a Bio-inspired Robotic Model

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    Ziyu Ren

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to its advantages of realizing repeatable experiments, collecting data and isolating key factors, the bio-robotic model is becoming increasingly important in the study of biomechanics. The caudal fin of fish has long been understood to be central to propulsion performance, yet its contribution to manoeuverability, especially for homocercal caudal fin, has not been studied in depth. In the research outlined in this paper, we designed and fabricated a robotic caudal fin to mimic the morphology and the three-dimensional (3D locomotion of the tail of the Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus. We applied heave and pitch motions to the robot to model the movement of the caudal peduncle of its biological counterpart. Force measurements and 2D and 3D digital particle image velocimetry were then conducted under different movement patterns and flow speeds. From the force data, we found the addition of the 3D caudal fin locomotion significantly enhanced the lift force magnitude. The phase difference between the caudal fin ray and peduncle motion was a key factor in simultaneously controlling the thrust and lift. The increased flow speed had a negative impact on the generation of lift force. From the average 2D velocity field, we observed that the vortex wake directed water both axially and vertically, and formed a jet like structure with notable wake velocity. The 3D instantaneous velocity field at 0.6 T indicated the 3D motion of the caudal fin may result in asymmetry wake flow patterns relative to the mid-sagittal plane and change the heading direction of the shedding vortexes. Based on these results, we hypothesized that live fish may actively tune the movement between the caudal fin rays and the peduncle to change the wake structure behind the tail and hence obtain different thrust and lift forces, which contributes to its high manoeuvrability.

  7. Formulación iterativa de un modelo de transferencia lluvia bruta-caudal

    OpenAIRE

    Revilla Cortezón, José Antonio; Luceño Vázquez, Alberto; Liaño Herrera, Andrés; Sainz Borda, José Ángel; Díez-Cascón Sagrado, Joaquín

    1985-01-01

    RESUMEN. En este artículo se presenta un modelo de transferencia lluvia -caudal, cuyo ajuste se efectúa mediante técnicas de regresión múltiple y cuya base conceptual se establece mediante la dependencia que el caudal medio, en un momento determinado, debe tener con la lluvia bruta precipitada en él y en períodos anteriores.

  8. Cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries of the paca (Cuniculus paca, L. 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Cristina de Souza Marques

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766 is a medium-sized rodent that occurs in Brazil; however, there is little information regarding its morphology. The goal of this study was to describe the origin and branching of the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries of this rodent in order to contribute to comparative anatomy studies. Ten animals (males and females were used. After death, their thoracic inlet was opened between the fourth and sixth ribs to expose the thoracic aorta, which was cannulated caudally. A stained, neoprene latex solution was then injected, in order to fill the arterial system, and the preparations were fixed in a 10% aqueous formalin solution for over 72h. The fixed specimens were dissected to identify the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries. The cranial mesenteric artery started at the abdominal aorta, caudally to the celiac artery, and originated in the following arterial branches: caudal pancreatic duodenal, pancreatic, jejunal, ileum colic and cecal. The origin of the caudal mesenteric artery occurred next to the end of abdominal aorta and this vessel issued the left colic artery and cranial rectal artery from which the sigmoid arteries initiated. It was found that there was little difference in the branching pattern of the arteries compared to other rodents and domestic mammals.

  9. The evaluation of upper leg traction in lateral position for pediatric caudal block

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    Mahin Seyedhejazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A well-functioning caudal block is an excellent adjunct to general anesthesia, but misplaced injection results in poor analgesia as well as possibility of serious morbidity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of leg traction on success rate of caudal block in lateral position in children. Methods: Two hundred children, age 2 months to 6 years, ASA I and II, who underwent lower abdominal surgeries were randomized in prospective controlled clinical trial study in two groups. After induction of General anesthesia, the caudal block was performed in the lateral position with upper leg traction (L-T- or with the standard position (S-P (leg flexed 90΀. Hemodynamicchanges, movement of lower extremity in response to surgical stimulus were evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference in caudal block′s success rate between two groups at first attempt (P=0.25. In group (S-P the procedure was successful in 60% of cases at first attempt, 25% at second,10% at third attempt and 5% failure of caudal block, whereas in the first group it was 75%, 20%, 1% and 4% of cases respectively. There were no significant differences in heart rate and blood pressure changes between two groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: The success rate of pediatric caudal block in upper leg traction did not differ from that of the standard position.

  10. The untold story of the caudal skeleton in the electric eel (ostariophysi: gymnotiformes: electrophorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos David de Santana

    Full Text Available Alternative hypotheses had been advanced as to the components forming the elongate fin coursing along the ventral margin of much of the body and tail from behind the abdominal region to the posterior margin of the tail in the Electric Eel, Electrophorus electricus. Although the original species description indicated that this fin was a composite of the caudal fin plus the elongate anal fin characteristic of other genera of the Gymnotiformes, subsequent researchers proposed that the posterior region of the fin was formed by the extension of the anal fin posteriorly to the tip of the tail, thereby forming a "false caudal fin." Examination of ontogenetic series of the genus reveal that Electrophorus possesses a true caudal fin formed of a terminal centrum, hypural plate and a low number of caudal-fin rays. The confluence of the two fins is proposed as an additional autapomorphy for the genus. Under all alternative proposed hypotheses of relationships within the order Gymnotiformes, the presence of a caudal fin in Electrophorus optimized as being independent of the occurence of the morphologically equivalent structure in the Apteronotidae. Possible functional advantages to the presence of a caudal fin in the genus are discussed.

  11. Modeling the Behavior of Red Blood Cells within the Caudal Vein Plexus of Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Tijana R.; Karthik, Swapna; Saveljic, Igor; Djonov, Valentin; Filipovic, Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Due to the important biological role of red blood cells (RBCs) in vertebrates, the analysis of reshaping and dynamics of RBCs motion is a critical issue in physiology and biomechanics. In this paper the behavior of RBCs within the immature capillary plexus during embryonic development of zebrafish has been analyzed. Relying on the fact that zebrafish embryos are small and optically transparent, it is possible to image the blood flow. In this way the anatomy of blood vessels is monitored along with the circulation throughout their development. Numerical simulations were performed using a specific numerical model that combines fluid flow simulation, modeling of the interaction of individual RBCs immersed in blood plasma with the surrounding fluid and modeling the deformation of individual cells. The results of numerical simulations are in accordance with the in vivo observed region of interest within the caudal vein plexus of the zebrafish embryo. Good agreement of results demonstrates the capabilities of the developed numerical model to predict and analyze the motion and deformation of RBCs in complex geometries. The proposed model (methodology) will help to elucidate different rheological and hematological related pathologies and finally to design better treatment strategies. PMID:27774070

  12. Evolutionary multiobjective design of a flexible caudal fin for robotic fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Anthony J; Tan, Xiaobo; McKinley, Philip K

    2015-11-25

    Robotic fish accomplish swimming by deforming their bodies or other fin-like appendages. As an emerging class of embedded computing system, robotic fish are anticipated to play an important role in environmental monitoring, inspection of underwater structures, tracking of hazardous wastes and oil spills, and the study of live fish behaviors. While integration of flexible materials (into the fins and/or body) holds the promise of improved swimming performance (in terms of both speed and maneuverability) for these robots, such components also introduce significant design challenges due to the complex material mechanics and hydrodynamic interactions. The problem is further exacerbated by the need for the robots to meet multiple objectives (e.g., both speed and energy efficiency). In this paper, we propose an evolutionary multiobjective optimization approach to the design and control of a robotic fish with a flexible caudal fin. Specifically, we use the NSGA-II algorithm to investigate morphological and control parameter values that optimize swimming speed and power usage. Several evolved fin designs are validated experimentally with a small robotic fish, where fins of different stiffness values and sizes are printed with a multi-material 3D printer. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed design approach in balancing the two competing objectives.

  13. Comparing caudal and penile nerve blockade using bupivacaine in hypospadias repair surgeries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Seyedhejazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caudal anaesthesia is recommended for most surgical procedures of the lower part of the body, mainly below the umbilicus. It has been well established that a dorsal penile nerve block immediately after surgery decreases postoperative pain in children undergoing hypospadias repair. This study aimed to compare caudal or penile nerve block using bupivacaine in postoperative pain control in hypospadias repair in children. Patients and Methods: After local ethical committee approval and obtaining informed parental consent, 85 American society of Anesthesiologists status I and II patients, aged 6 months to 6 years old, undergoing hypospadias repair, were prospectively enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly divided into the following two groups: Caudal block was performed in 44 and penile block was performed in 41 patients. Cardiorespiratory systems data, analgesic requirement and complications were compared between the groups. Results: There were statistically significant haemodynamic (blood pressureand heart rate alteration during operation in each group (P<0.01. The haemodynamic parameters were stable during operation in successful blocks in both groups. Caudal block success rate is 97.7%, whereas in penile block is 92.6%. Nineteen of 43 patients (44% in caudal group and 29 of 41 patients (70% in penile group received analgesia in the postoperative period and this difference was significant between the two groups (P = 0.025. Conclusions: Without ultrasonography and with blind block, with anatomic landmarks only, the caudal block success rate is high and if there is no contraindication for caudal block, it is the best choice in children under 6 years old (or 25 kg for hypospadias repai.

  14. Neural pathway for aggressive display in Betta splendens: midbrain and hindbrain control of gill-cover erection behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlick, D L

    1990-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used to identify parts of the presumptive neural pathway for gill cover erection, a behavioral display pattern performed by Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) during aggressive interactions. Motor, motor integration and sensory areas were identified in the medulla and mesencephalon. Motor neurons of the dilator operculi muscle, the effector muscle for gill cover erection, are located in the lateral and medial parts of the caudal trigeminal motor nucleus. Iontophoretic injections of HRP into the lateral trigeminal motor nucleus resulted in labeled cell bodies in two motor areas (medial part of the trigeminal motor nucleus, anterior part of the motor nucleus of cranial nerve IX-X), two parts of the reticular formation (medial and inferior reticular areas), and two nuclei of the octavolateralis system (nucleus medialis, magnocellular octaval nucleus). The HRP injections in the medial part of the caudal trigeminal motor nucleus resulted in labeled cells in the lateral part of the nucleus and in the medial reticular nucleus. Discrete injections of HRP into nucleus medialis revealed a strong axonal projection that terminated in the torus semicircularis. The medial reticular area and both of the octavolateralis nuclei received projections from their contralateral counterparts. Connections between motor areas, and between parts of the reticular formation, may coordinate the performance of gill cover erection with other behavioral patterns used during aggressive display. Connections with the octavolateralis system may provide information on the strength of an opponent's tail beats via the lateral-line system, as well as vestibular information about the fish's own orientation during aggressive display. The organization of inputs to the trigeminal motor nucleus in Betta, a perciform fish, was found to differ from that reported in the common carp, a cypriniform fish. These differences may underlie the different behavioral capabilities of

  15. Eletrophysiological study of the caudal nerve on developing rats Estudo eletrofisiológico do nervo caudal em ratos em desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Netto Maia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To non-invasively study the sensory nerve conduction of the caudal nerve of normal developing rats. METHODS: Twenty normal Wistar male rats served as subjects. Caudal nerve conduction studies were performed at 60 days from birth and weekly at end of six consecutive weeks. The caudal nerve was stimulated distally and nerve potentials were recorded proximally on the animal's tail using common "alligator" clips as surface electrodes. RESULTS: The amplitude and the conduction velocity of the caudal nerve sensory action potential increased linearly from 29±6 µV to 85±13 µV and from 34±3 m/s to 44±4 m/s, respectively, between the 8th and the 15th week of life. The equations of linear regressions were as followed: Amplitude (µV = 8.1 × weeks - 34 (R² = 0.99 and NCV (m/s = 1.2 × weeks + 25 (R² = 0.86. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to study non-invasively the sensitive conduction of the caudal nerve of normal developing rats and describe reference values. The technique and data may be used as animal model in physiological and pathological studies.OBJETIVO: Estudar de forma não invasiva a condução nervosa sensitiva do nervo caudal em ratos normais em desenvolvimento. MÉTODOS: Vinte ratos machos Wistar foram utilizados. A conducão nervosa foi realizada a partir dos 60 dias, semanal durante seis semanas consecutivas. O nervo caudal foi estimulado distalmente, os potenciais foram registrados proximalmente na cauda do animal usando garras comum do tipo "jacaré" como eletrodos de superficie. RESULTADOS: A amplitude do potencial de ação de nervo sensitivo a velocidade de condução nervosa do nervo caudal cresceu linearmente de 29 ± 6 µV para 85 ± 13 µV e de 34 ± 3 m/s para 44 ± 4 m/s, respectivamente, entre a 8º e a 15º semana da vida do animal. As equações de regressão linear foram as seguintes: Amplitude (µV = 8,1 × semanas - 34 (R² = 0,99 e velocidade de conducao nervosa (m/s = 1,2 × semanas + 25 (R² = 0

  16. Hydrodynamic Performance of an Undulatory Robot: Functional Roles of the Body and Caudal Fin Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Both body undulation and caudal fin flapping play essential locomotive roles while a fish is swimming, but how these two affect the swimming performance and hydrodynamics of fish individually is yet to be known. We implemented a biomimetic robotic fish that travel along a servo towing system, which can be regarded as “treadmill” of the model. Hydrodynamics was studied as a function of the principal kinetic parameters of the undulatory body and caudal fin of the model in a self‐propelled condition, under which the time‐averaged measured axial net force becomes zero. Thrust efficiency was estimated from two‐dimensional digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV measurements in the horizontal and mid‐caudal fin plane. The Single‐Row Reverse Karman wake (2S is commonly observed in many previous studies of live fish swimming. However, we show that a Double‐Row Two‐Paired vortices (2P wake was generated by the robotic model for most kinetic parameter combinations. Interestingly, the 2S wake emerged within the results of a narrow range of robotic caudal fin pitch angles (0≤θ≤10°, occurring concurrently with enhanced thrust efficiency. We also show that, compared with the effect of body wavelength (λ, the wake structure behind the robotic swimmer is more sensitive to the Strouhal number (St and caudal fin pitch angle (θ.

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of caudal dysplasia sequence associated with undiagnosed type I diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Oliver, Cecilia; Martín-Bayón, Tina; Martinez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos

    2013-06-03

    Caudal regression or caudal dysplasia sequence (CDS) is a rare congenital malformation, which includes a wide spectrum of musculoskeletal abnormalities involving the lumbosacral spine, pelvis and lower limbs. It can be associated to visceral defects in various degrees. Maternal diabetes, genetic predisposition and vascular hypoperfusion have been suggested as possible causative factors. Women with diabetes who are dependent on insulin are 200-400 times more likely to have a child with caudal regression, making CDS the most characteristic fetal abnormality of diabetic embryopathy. Prenatal diagnosis is possible by ultrasonographic examination. The sonographic findings include abrupt interruption of the lumbar spine and 'Buddha or frog position' of the lower limbs. MRI has demonstrated the level of the vertebral anomalies as well as the associated abnormalities and this is crucial because the prognosis of this condition depends on the severity of the lesion and the presence of associated disorders.

  18. [Caudal and spinal anesthesia in sub-umbilical surgery in children. Apropos of 1875 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguemon, A R; Terrier, G; Lansade, A; Favereau, J P; Nathan, N; Feiss, P

    1996-01-01

    Caudal and spinal anaesthesia are two techniques widely used in European children. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the applicability of this practice in developing countries. The study concerned 1875 children, 1 day to 17 years old. isobaric 0.5% bupivacaine was used for spinal anaesthesia (n = 730) and mixture a of 1% lidocaine-0.25% bupivacaine with epinephrine 1/200,000 for caudal anaesthesia (n = 1,145). Spinal anaesthesia was performed in neonates and infants (< 3 years) and caudal anaesthesia in children (aged 14 days to 17 years) undergoing urological and lower extremity surgery. No variation of heart rate, blood pressure or blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) were observed during surgery. Failure of the technique was less than 1%. These two regional anaesthesia techniques are easy to perform and are inexpensive. This is advantageous for developing countries.

  19. Comparative study of caudal bupivacaine versus bupivacaine with tramadol for postoperative analgesia in paediatric cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Hegazy; Ayman A. Ghoneim

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Caudal epidural analgesia has become very common analgesic technique in paediatric surgery. Add-ing tramadol to bupivacaine for caudal injection prolongs duration of analgesia with minimal side effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the different effects of caudal bupivacaine versus bupivacaine with thamadol for postoperative analgesia in paediatric cancer patients. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted over 40 paediatric cancer pa-tients who were recruited from Children Cancer Hospital of Egypt (57357 Hospital). Patients were randomized into 2 groups: bupivacaine group (group B, 20 patients) to receive single shot caudal block of 1 mL/kg 0.1875% bupivacaine; tramadol group (group T, 20 patients) prepared as group B with the addition of 1 mg/kg caudal tramadol. Results: The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer among group T than group B [(24 ± 13.7) hours versus (7 ± 3.7) hours respectively with P = 0.001]. Group T showed a significantly lower mean FLACC score than group B (2.2 ± 0.9 versus 3.6 ± 0.6 with P = 0.002). The difference in FLACC score was comparable on arrival, and after 2 and 4 hours. At 8 and 12 hours the group B recorded significantly higher scores (P = 0.002 and 0.0001 respectively). There were no significant differences between the groups as regards sedation score [the median in both groups was 1 (0–1) with P value = o.8]. No one developed facial flush or pruritis. Conclusion: Caudal injection of low dose tramadol 1 mg/kg with bupivacaine 0.1875% is proved to be effective, long standing technique for postoperative analgesia in major paediatric cancer surgery and almost devoid of side effect.

  20. Cardiocirculatory intraoperative assessment during single-shot caudal anaesthesia in children: comparison between levobupivacaine and ropivacaine

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    A. Gentili

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caudal block with levobupivacaine or ropivacaine is the most commonly used regional anaesthesia in children. Methods: The aim of study was to compare the cardiocirculatory profile induced in two matched groups of young patients, submitted to caudal anaesthesia with levobupivacaine or ropivacaine for an elective subumbilical surgery. Sixty children were enrolled: thirty received levopubivacaine 0.25% and thirty ropivacaine 0.2%. Intraoperative heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP were monitored at following times: Ta0 (after anaesthesia induction, Ta1 (after caudal anaesthesia, Ta2 (five minutes later, Ta3 (ten minutes later, Ts1 (at surgical incision, Ts2, Ts3, Ts4, Ts5 (every 10 minutes during surgery, Taw (at the awakening. Results: In both groups the cardiocirculatory trend remained within normal ranges at all times considered, demonstrating the safety of the method with both drugs. Both groups showed a similar trend at the different monitoring times: low decrease in HR, SBP and DBP after caudal block, slight increase in parameters after skin incision, slight decrease during surgery, increase at awakening. Regarding SBP and DBP, the levobupivacaine group children generally showed higher levels compared to the ropivacaine group, especially for DBP. Conclusions: Paediatric caudal anaesthesia is an effective method with an very infrequent complication rate. Possible hypotheses for differing haemodynamic behaviour could include a stronger vasoconstriction reflex of innervated areas during caudal anaesthesia with levobupivacaine and a lower levobupivacaine induced block of the sympathetic fibers, related to different pharmacokinetic profile of low concentrations of the local anaesthetics used in paediatric epidural space.

  1. Effect of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy: multicentre, blinded, randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Trond; Solberg, Tore K; Romner, Bertil;

    2011-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy in the short (6 weeks), intermediate (12 weeks), and long term (52 weeks).......To assess the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy in the short (6 weeks), intermediate (12 weeks), and long term (52 weeks)....

  2. Rostral and caudal prefrontal contribution to creativity: A meta-analysis of functional imaging data

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    Gil eGonen-Yaacovi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is of central importance for human civilization, yet its neurocognitive bases are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to integrate existing functional imaging data by using the meta-analysis approach. We reviewed 34 functional imaging studies that reported activation foci during tasks assumed to engage creative thinking in healthy adults. A coordinate-based meta-analysis using Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE first showed a set of predominantly left-hemispheric regions shared by the various creativity tasks examined. These regions included the caudal lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC, the medial and lateral rostral PFC, and the inferior parietal and posterior temporal cortices. Further analyses showed that tasks involving the combination of remote information (combination tasks activated more anterior areas of the lateral PFC than tasks involving the free generation of unusual responses (unusual generation tasks, although both types of tasks shared caudal prefrontal areas. In addition, verbal and non-verbal tasks involved the same regions in the left caudal prefrontal, temporal, and parietal areas, but also distinct domain-oriented areas. Taken together, these findings suggest that several frontal and parieto-temporal regions may support cognitive processes shared by diverse creativity tasks, and that some regions may be specialized for distinct types of processes. In particular, the lateral PFC appeared to be organized along a rostro-caudal axis, with rostral regions involved in combining ideas creatively and more posterior regions involved in freely generating novel ideas.

  3. Two cases of the caudal duplication anomaly including a discordant monozygotic twin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, HY; Takahashi, M; Zijlstra, RJ; Baert, JALL; Kooi, KA; Hofstra, RMW; van Essen, AJ

    2002-01-01

    We present two unrelated patients with various duplications in the caudal region. One patient presented with a duplication of the distal spine from L4, left double ureter, duplication of the vagina and cervix, and duplication of the distal colon. The second patient was diagnosed with a duplication o

  4. Caudal regulates the spatiotemporal dynamics of pair-rule waves in Tribolium.

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    Ezzat El-Sherif

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short-germ beetle Tribolium castaneum, waves of pair-rule gene expression propagate from the posterior end of the embryo towards the anterior and eventually freeze into stable stripes, partitioning the anterior-posterior axis into segments. Similar waves in vertebrates are assumed to arise due to the modulation of a molecular clock by a posterior-to-anterior frequency gradient. However, neither a molecular candidate nor a functional role has been identified to date for such a frequency gradient, either in vertebrates or elsewhere. Here we provide evidence that the posterior gradient of Tc-caudal expression regulates the oscillation frequency of pair-rule gene expression in Tribolium. We show this by analyzing the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in strong and mild knockdown of Tc-caudal, and by correlating the extension, level and slope of the Tc-caudal expression gradient to the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in wild type as well as in different RNAi knockdowns of Tc-caudal regulators. Further, we show that besides its absolute importance for stripe generation in the static phase of the Tribolium blastoderm, a frequency gradient might serve as a buffer against noise during axis elongation phase in Tribolium as well as vertebrates. Our results highlight the role of frequency gradients in pattern formation.

  5. Effect of an Artificial Caudal Fin on the Performance of a Biomimetic Fish Robot Propelled by Piezoelectric Actuators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of a biomimetic fish robot actuated by piezoceramic actuators and the effect of artificial caudal fins on the fish robot's performance. The limited bending displacement produced by a lightweight piezocomposite actuator was amplified and transformed into a large tail beat motion by means of a linkage system. Caudal fins that mimic the shape of a mackerel fin were fabricated for the purpose of examining the effect of caudal fin characteristics on thrust production at an operating frequency range. The thickness distribution of a real mackerel's fin was measured and used to design artificial caudal fins. The thrust performance of the biomimetic fish robot propelled by fins of various thicknesses was examined in terms of the Strouhal number, the Froude number, the Reynolds number, and the power consumption. For the same fin area and aspect ratio, an artificial caudal fin with a distributed thickness shows the best forward speed and the least power consumption.

  6. Neostigmine does not prolong the duration of analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine in children undergoing urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj N

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Neostigmine extends the duration of analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine in children. Aims : To study the effect of different doses of caudal neostigmine on the duration of postoperative analgesia. Settings and Design : A randomized, double-blind study was conducted in 120 boys aged 1-12 years undergoing urethroplasty under combined general and caudal anesthesia. Materials and Methods : Children were administered 1.875 mg/kg bupivacaine alone (Group B, or with 2, 3 or 4 µg/kg of neostigmine (groups BN 2 , BN 3 or BN 4 respectively as caudal drug (0.75 ml/kg. Children with a pain score of 4 or more (OPS and NRS postoperatively were administered rescue analgesic. Time to first analgesic and the number of analgesic doses administered in the 24h were recorded. Statistical Analysis : Parametric data were analyzed using ANOVA. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for the time to first analgesic administration were plotted and compared using log rank analysis. Chi-square test was used to analyze the incidence data. Results : The median [IQR] time to first analgesic in Group B (540 [240-1441] min was similar to that in Groups BN 2 (450 [240-720], BN 3 (600 [360-1020] and BN 4 (990 [420-1441]. Significantly more patients in Groups B (9 [34.6%] and BN 4 (13 [44.8%] required no supplemental analgesic for 24h than those in Groups BN 2 and BN 3 (4 [13.8%] and 4 [13.3%]. The number of analgesic doses required in 24h in the four groups was similar. Conclusion : Addition of neostigmine to 1.875 mg/kg of caudal bupivacaine did not prolong the analgesia following urethroplasty in children.

  7. Wnt3 and Wnt3a are required for induction of the mid-diencephalic organizer in the caudal forebrain

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    Mattes Benjamin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental requirement for development of diverse brain regions is the function of local organizers at morphological boundaries. These organizers are restricted groups of cells that secrete signaling molecules, which in turn regulate the fate of the adjacent neural tissue. The thalamus is located in the caudal diencephalon and is the central relay station between the sense organs and higher brain areas. The mid-diencephalic organizer (MDO orchestrates the development of the thalamus by releasing secreted signaling molecules such as Shh. Results Here we show that canonical Wnt signaling in the caudal forebrain is required for the formation of the Shh-secreting MD organizer in zebrafish. Wnt signaling induces the MDO in a narrow time window of 4 hours - between 10 and 14 hours post fertilization. Loss of Wnt3 and Wnt3a prevents induction of the MDO, a phenotype also observed upon blockage of canonical Wnt signaling per se. Pharmaceutical activation of the canonical Wnt pathways in Wnt3/Wnt3a compound morphant embryos is able to restore the lack of the MDO. After blockage of Wnt signaling or knock-down of Wnt3/Wnt3a we find an increase of apoptotic cells specifically within the organizer primordium. Consistently, blockage of apoptosis restores the thalamus organizer MDO in Wnt deficient embryos. Conclusion We have identified canonical Wnt signaling as a novel pathway, that is required for proper formation of the MDO and consequently for the development of the major relay station of the brain - the thalamus. We propose that Wnt ligands are necessary to maintain the primordial tissue of the organizer during somitogenesis by suppressing Tp53-mediated apoptosis.

  8. Caudal shif ting of hepatic vein anastomosis inright liver living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheung Tat Fan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In right liver living donor liver trans-plantation, hepatic venous anastomosis is performed using the recipient's right hepatic vein oriifce. There may be situations that the portal vein is short or the right liver graft is small, leading to dififculty in portal vein, hepatic artery or duct-to-duct anastomosis. METHODS: The recipient's right hepatic vein oriifce is closed partially for 2 cm at the cranial end or totally, and a new venotomy is made caudal to the right hepatic vein oriifce. Hepatic vein anastomosis is performed with the new venotomy. RESULTS: The distance between the liver graft hilum and hepatoduodenal ligament is reduced. Portal vein, hepatic artery and biliary anastomosis could be performed without tension or conduit. CONCLUSION: Caudal shifting of hepatic vein anasto-mosis facilitates implantation of a right liver living donor graft.

  9. Caudal Elbow Luxation in a Dog Managed by Temporary Transarticular External Skeletal Fixation

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    K. Hamilton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report details a caudal unilateral traumatic elbow luxation in a 4-year-old male neutered Labrador following a road traffic trauma. This is a highly unusual injury in the dog. The pathogenesis and successful treatment by closed reduction followed by stabilisation with a temporary transarticular external skeletal fixator are discussed. The dog was assessed at 4 weeks and 6 months after surgery. Findings at 6 months after treatment demonstrated a normal gait with no pain or crepitation. A mild amount of soft tissue thickening around the elbow was noted. The range of motion of the elbow was limited to 45 degrees of flexion and 150 degrees of extension. This is the first case of a traumatic caudal luxation of the elbow in a dog described in the English veterinary literature and the first report of successful management of an elbow luxation in a dog by closed reduction and temporary transarticular fixation.

  10. The quality of cryopreserved sperm collected from feline caudal epididymides stored at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyonaga, Mari; Kaihara, Aya; Tsutsui, Toshihiko

    2011-10-01

    On the assumption that animals of wild feline species died in the field, caudal epididymal sperm were cryopreserved following storage of the feline epididymides at 20°C for 0-24 hr, and their qualities were observed. Compared to the qualities at 0 hr, no significant differences were noted following 12 hr of storage at 20°C. On comparison of the qualities between caudal sperm cryopreserved after 24 hr storage at 4°C and after 12 hr at 20°C followed by 12 hr storage at 4°C, no significant differences were noted. These findings suggest that the cryopreserved sperm collected from epididymides of dead animals might be useful for artificial insemination if cryopreservation was performed within 12 hr exposure to ambient temperature.

  11. Caudal block and emergence delirium in pediatric patients: Is it analgesia or sedation?

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    Aparna Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergence delirium (ED although a short-lived and self-limiting phenomenon, makes a child prone to injury in the immediate postoperative period and hence is a cause of concern not only to the pediatric anesthesiologist, surgeons, and post anesthesia care unit staff but also amongst parents. Additional medication to quieten the child offsets the potential benefits of rapid emergence and delays recovery in day care settings. There is conflicting evidence of influence of analgesia and sedation following anesthesia on emergence agitation. We hypothesized that an anesthetic technique which improves analgesia and prolongs emergence time will reduce the incidence of ED. We selected ketamine as adjuvant to caudal block for this purpose. Methods: This randomized, double blind prospective study was performed in 150 premedicated children ASA I, II, aged 2 to 8 years who were randomly assigned to either group B (caudal with bupivacaine, BK (bupivacaine and ketamine, or NC (no caudal, soon after LMA placement. Recovery characteristics and complications were recorded. Results: Emergence time, duration of pain relief, and Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED scores were significantly higher in the NC group (P<0.05. Duration of analgesia and emergence time were significantly more in group BK than groups B and NC. However, the discharge readiness was comparable between all groups. No patient in BK group required to be given any medication to treat ED. Conclusion: Emergence time as well as duration of analgesia have significant influence on incidence of emergence delirium. Ketamine, as caudal adjuvant is a promising agent to protect against ED in children, following sevoflurane anesthesia.

  12. Overlapping Features of Caudal Regression Syndrome and VACTERL Complex in a Neonate

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    Lubna Ijaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Caudal regression syndrome (CRS is characterized by a group of heterogeneous anomalies involving the distal spinal cord and vertebral column, genitourinary system, hind gut and limbs. The malformation may range from minor anomalies of spine and spinal cord to the extreme, the sirenomelia. Various authors pointed out an overlap of spectrum of anomalies in CRS and VACTERL (vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheo-esophageal, renal and limb anomalies complex.

  13. Caudal Elbow Luxation in a Dog Managed by Temporary Transarticular External Skeletal Fixation

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, K.; Langley-Hobbs, S.; Warren-Smith, C.; Parsons, K

    2014-01-01

    This case report details a caudal unilateral traumatic elbow luxation in a 4-year-old male neutered Labrador following a road traffic trauma. This is a highly unusual injury in the dog. The pathogenesis and successful treatment by closed reduction followed by stabilisation with a temporary transarticular external skeletal fixator are discussed. The dog was assessed at 4 weeks and 6 months after surgery. Findings at 6 months after treatment demonstrated a normal gait with no pain or crepitatio...

  14. A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CLONIDINE & DEXMEDETOMIDINE AS ADJUVANTS TO ROPIVACAINE IN CAUDAL BLOCK IN CHILDREN

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    Jyoti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caudal analgesia has been successfully used in paediatric patients since 1933. Ropivacaine a stereo isomer of Bupivacaine was used to increase duration of analgesia. The present study is designed to compare clonidine and dexmedetomidine as adjuvants to Ropivacaine in caudal block in children. METHODS: A total of 60 patients of 3 - 10 years age, either sex, ASA I/II posted for infraumblical surgeries under GA with caudal analgesia were randomly allocated to receive 0.2% ropivacaine plain@1ml/kg+normal saline (1ml, 0.2% ropivacaine @1ml/kg+clonidine 1microg/kg (1ml, 0.2% ropivacaine @1ml/kg+dexmedetomidine 1microg/kg(1ml. The children were monitored postoperatively for duration of analgesia, sedation score and postoperative complications if any. RESULTS: Duration of analgesia was maximum in Group - III (Ropivacaine+ Dexmedetomidine – 14hrs., 12hrs. I n Group - II (Ropivacaine+Clonidine and 6 - 8 hrs. I n Group - I (Ropivacaine Plain. Children were more sedated in early postoperative period in Group - II & III as compared to Group - I. CONCLUSION : Duration of analgesia was prolonged in Group - II & III, the same group children were more sedated and calm in postoperative period.

  15. Efficacy of two doses of tramadol versus bupivacaine in perioperative caudal analgesia in adult hemorrhoidectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Hanan M.; Esmat, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study was conducted to evaluate the perioperative analgesic efficacy of the two doses of caudally administered tramadol versus bupivacaine in adult hemorrhoidectomy. Patients and Methods: A total of 90 patients, aged 20-50 years, undergoing hemorrhoidectomy were randomly scheduled to receive bupivacaine 0.25% in 20 ml (Group B; n = 30), tramadol 1 mg/kg in 20 ml (Group T1; n = 30), tramadol 2 mg/kg in 20 ml (Group T2; n = 30) through caudal route after induction of general anesthesia. Postoperative pain was assessed every hour until the visual analog scale was 6, which is 1st time for rescue analgesia. Postoperative sedation, hemodynamic changes, serum cortisol, and epinephrine levels and incidence of side effects were also evaluated. Results: Duration of analgesia was longer in Group T2 (20 [1.14] h] compared with the Group B (7 [1.2] h) or Group T1 (12 [0.75] h); all P < 0.001. There were no significant hemodynamic changes. There were not incidences of side effects. Conclusion: Caudal tramadol 2 mg/kg provided a longer duration of postoperative analgesia with rapid onset and no incidence of complications or adverse effects in adult hemorrhoidectomy. PMID:27051362

  16. Simplified three-dimensional model provides anatomical insights in lizards' caudal autotomy as printed illustration

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    JOANA D.C.G. DE AMORIM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lizards' caudal autotomy is a complex and vastly employed antipredator mechanism, with thorough anatomic adaptations involved. Due to its diminished size and intricate structures, vertebral anatomy is hard to be clearly conveyed to students and researchers of other areas. Three-dimensional models are prodigious tools in unveiling anatomical nuances. Some of the techniques used to create them can produce irregular and complicated forms, which despite being very accurate, lack didactical uniformity and simplicity. Since both are considered fundamental characteristics for comprehension, a simplified model could be the key to improve learning. The model here presented depicts the caudal osteology of Tropidurus itambere, and was designed to be concise, in order to be easily assimilated, yet complete, not to compromise the informative aspect. The creation process requires only basic skills in manipulating polygons in 3D modeling softwares, in addition to the appropriate knowledge of the structure to be modeled. As reference for the modeling, we used microscopic observation and a photograph database of the caudal structures. This way, no advanced laboratory equipment was needed and all biological materials were preserved for future research. Therefore, we propose a wider usage of simplified 3D models both in the classroom and as illustrations for scientific publications.

  17. Effects of Caudal Elevation on Testicular Function in Rats: Separation of Effects on Spermatogenesis and Steroidogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaver, D. R.; Amann, R. P.; Hammerstedt, R. H.; Ball, R.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of biologic processes are perturbed when exposed to microgravity (space flight) for more than 7 days, including testicular function. Suspension of rats in a special harness (caudal elevation) to induce thoracic pooling of blood fluids and remove the support function of the hind limbs is used to mimic, on earth, the effects of microgravity encountered during space flight. Typically, this induces cryptorchidism in male rats. Three experiments were conducted to differentiate the effects of caudal elevation (30 deg angle) and anatomic location of testes on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. Rats were subjected to caudal elevation for 7 days using either a tail harness or a whole-body harness. Testes of rats fell into the abdominal cavity when a tail harness was used, but ligation of the iguinal canal prevented this repositioning. For rats with abdominal testes, testicular weight was reduced (P less than 0.05) and histology of testes was abnormal; the number of spermatids per gram parenchyma was lower (P less than 0.05) in tail-suspended rats compared with control rats.

  18. A caudal proliferating growth center contributes to both poles of the forming heart tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Gert; Abu-Issa, Radwan; de Boer, Bouke A; Hutson, Mary R; de Boer, Piet A J; Soufan, Alexandre T; Ruijter, Jan M; Kirby, Margaret L; van den Hoff, Maurice J B; Moorman, Antoon F M

    2009-01-30

    Recent studies have shown that the primary heart tube continues to grow by addition of cells from the coelomic wall. This growth occurs concomitantly with embryonic folding and formation of the coelomic cavity, making early heart formation morphologically complex. A scarcity of data on localized growth parameters further hampers the understanding of cardiac growth. Therefore, we investigated local proliferation during early heart formation. Firstly, we determined the cell cycle length of primary myocardium of the early heart tube to be 5.5 days, showing that this myocardium is nonproliferating and implying that initial heart formation occurs solely by addition of cells. In line with this, we show that the heart tube rapidly lengthens at its inflow by differentiation of recently divided precursor cells. To track the origin of these cells, we made quantitative 3D reconstructions of proliferation in the forming heart tube and the mesoderm of its flanking coelomic walls. These reconstructions show a single, albeit bilateral, center of rapid proliferation in the caudomedial pericardial back wall. This center expresses Islet1. Cell tracing showed that cells from this caudal growth center, besides feeding into the venous pole of the heart, also move cranially via the dorsal pericardial mesoderm and differentiate into myocardium at the arterial pole. Inhibition of caudal proliferation impairs the formation of both the atria and the right ventricle. These data show how a proliferating growth center in the caudal coelomic wall elongates the heart tube at both its venous and arterial pole, providing a morphological mechanism for early heart formation.

  19. Caudal pneumaticity and pneumatic hiatuses in the sauropod dinosaurs Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedel, Mathew J; Taylor, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal pneumaticity is found in the presacral vertebrae of most sauropod dinosaurs, but pneumaticity is much less common in the vertebrae of the tail. We describe previously unrecognized pneumatic fossae in the mid-caudal vertebrae of specimens of Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus. In both taxa, the most distal pneumatic vertebrae are separated from other pneumatic vertebrae by sequences of three to seven apneumatic vertebrae. Caudal pneumaticity is not prominent in most individuals of either of these taxa, and its unpredictable development means that it may be more widespread than previously recognised within Sauropoda and elsewhere in Saurischia. The erratic patterns of caudal pneumatization in Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus, including the pneumatic hiatuses, show that pneumatic diverticula were more broadly distributed in the bodies of the living animals than are their traces in the skeleton. Together with recently published evidence of cryptic diverticula--those that leave few or no skeletal traces--in basal sauropodomorphs and in pterosaurs, this is further evidence that pneumatic diverticula were widespread in ornithodirans, both across phylogeny and throughout anatomy.

  20. MODELO AUTORREGRESIVO BILINEAL APLICADO A LA PREDICCIÓN MENSUAL DE CAUDALES EN COLOMBIA

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    Juan David Cadavid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se aplica un modelo estocástico bilineal, el cual inicialmente es propuesto para análisis de retornos financieros y otros sistemas complejos combinando la alta no linealidad y multiplicidad del ruido. Este modelo, por su carácter aleatorio, no tiene componente determinística que permita considerar la persistencia de los caudales en una aplicación a la Hidrología. Por lo tanto, se propone el acoplamiento entre la parte determinística de un modelo autorregresivo de orden 2 y el modelo estocástico bilineal como componente aleatorio, y se obtiene un modelo autorregresivo bilineal (MAB. El MAB se empleó para la predicción de caudales en ventanas de 3, 6 y 12 meses en 12 ríos de Colombia de diferentes regiones del país. El MAB tiene una estructura simple y muestra una mejora sustancial en la disminución de los errores para los caudales máximos y mínimos en el período de validación respecto de los modelos estocásticos tradicionales.

  1. Functional Connectivity of the Caudal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Is Decreased in Autism.

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    Zhou, Yuanyue; Shi, Lijuan; Cui, Xilong; Wang, Suhong; Luo, Xuerong

    2016-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is frequently reported to have functionally distinct sub-regions that play key roles in different intrinsic networks. However, the contribution of the ACC, which is connected to several cortical areas and the limbic system, to autism is not clearly understood, although it may be involved in dysfunctions across several distinct but related functional domains. By comparing resting-state fMRI data from persons with autism and healthy controls, we sought to identify the abnormalities in the functional connectivity (FC) of ACC sub-regions in autism. The analyses found autism-related reductions in FC between the left caudal ACC and the right rolandic operculum, insula, postcentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and the middle temporal gyrus. The FC (z-scores) between the left caudal ACC and the right insula was negatively correlated with the Stereotyped Behaviors and Restricted Interests scores of the autism group. These findings suggest that the caudal ACC is recruited selectively in the pathomechanism of autism.

  2. Caudal migration and proliferation of renal progenitors regulates early nephron segment size in zebrafish

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    Naylor, Richard W.; Dodd, Rachel C.; Davidson, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney and is divided into distinct proximal and distal segments. The factors determining nephron segment size are not fully understood. In zebrafish, the embryonic kidney has long been thought to differentiate in situ into two proximal tubule segments and two distal tubule segments (distal early; DE, and distal late; DL) with little involvement of cell movement. Here, we overturn this notion by performing lineage-labelling experiments that reveal extensive caudal movement of the proximal and DE segments and a concomitant compaction of the DL segment as it fuses with the cloaca. Laser-mediated severing of the tubule, such that the DE and DL are disconnected or that the DL and cloaca do not fuse, results in a reduction in tubule cell proliferation and significantly shortens the DE segment while the caudal movement of the DL is unaffected. These results suggest that the DL mechanically pulls the more proximal segments, thereby driving both their caudal extension and their proliferation. Together, these data provide new insights into early nephron morphogenesis and demonstrate the importance of cell movement and proliferation in determining initial nephron segment size. PMID:27759103

  3. Postoperative analgesia in children: A comparison of three different doses of caudal epidural morphine

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    Neha Baduni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Caudal epidural block is the most commonly used neuraxial block in children. Morphine has been used as a caudal additive for more than three decades. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and duration of analgesia of three different doses of caudal epidural morphine (CEM, and to find out the incidence of side effects. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 75 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists grades I and II, aged 2-12 years, undergoing lower abdominal and urogenital surgeries. Patients were randomly allocated to one of the three groups according to the dose of morphine. Group I received 30 μg/kg, group II 50 μg/kg, and group III 70 μg/kg. Heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, electrocardiogram, pain score, sedation score, duration of analgesia, and side-effects were noted. Results: The mean duration of analgesia was 8.63 h in group I, 13.36 h in group II and 19.19 h in group III. Respiratory depression was noted in three patients in group III. One patient in group I had itching. One patient each in groups I, II, and III had nausea/vomiting. Conclusion: CEM significantly prolongs the duration of analgesia, though with a higher dose the risk of respiratory depression should always be kept in mind.

  4. Postoperative Analgesia in Children- Comparative Study between Caudal Bupivacaine and Bupivacaine plus Tramadol

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    Meena Doda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty children, ASAI-II, aged between 2yrs-5yrs, undergoing sub umbilical operation (inguinal and penile surgery were selected for this double blind study. They were randomly divided in two groups, group Aand group B. Group A(n15 received 0.25%bupivacaine 0.5ml.kg -1 and Group B (n=15 received 0.25% bupivaeaine 0.5ml.kg -1 and tramadol 2mg.kg -1 as single shot caudal block. Postoperative pain was assessed by a modified TPPPS (Toddler-Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale and analgesic given only when the score was more than 3. In the first 24 hrs it was observed that the mean duration of time interval between the caudal block and first dose of analgesic was significantly long(9. lhrs in Group B as compared to Group A (6.3hrs which was much shorter(p< 0.01.There was no significant haemodynamie changes, motor weakness or respiratory depression in both groups. This study con-cluded that addition of tramadol 2mg.kg -1 to caudal 0.25% bupivacaine 0.5ml.kg -1 significantly prolong the duration of postoperative analgesia in children withoutprodueing much adverse effects.

  5. Postoperative analgesia in children when using clonidine in addition to fentanyl with bupivacaine given caudally.

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    Jarraya, Anouar; Elleuch, Sahar; Zouari, Jawhar; Smaoui, Mohamed; Laabidi, Sofiene; Kolsi, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of clonidine in association with fentanyl as an additive to bupivacaine 0.25% given via single shot caudal epidural in pediatric patients for postoperative pain relief. In the present prospective randomized double blind study, 40 children of ASA-I-II aged 1-5 years scheduled for infraumblical surgical procedures were randomly allocated to two groups to receive either bupivacaine 0.25% (1 ml/kg) with fentanyl 1 μg/kg and clonidine 1μg/kg (group I) or bupivacaine 0.25% (1 ml/kg) with fentanyl 1 μg/kg (group II). Caudal block was performed after the induction of general anesthesia. Postoperatively patients were observed for analgesia, sedation, hemodynamic parameters, and side effects or complications. Both the groups were similar with respect to patient and various block characteristics. Heart rate and blood pressure were not different in 2 groups. Significantly prolonged duration of post-operative analgesia was observed in group I (Pbupivacaine in single shot caudal epidural in children may provide better and longer analgesia after infraumblical surgical procedures.

  6. Serotonergic neurons in the caudal raphe nuclei discharge in association with activity of masticatory muscles

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    Ribeiro-do-Valle L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a dense serotonergic projection from nucleus raphe pallidus and nucleus raphe obscurus to the trigeminal motor nucleus and serotonin exerts a strong facilitatory action on the trigeminal motoneurons. Some serotonergic neurons in these caudal raphe nuclei increase their discharge during feeding. The objective of the present study was to investigate the possibility that the activity of these serotonergic neurons is related to activity of masticatory muscles. Cats were implanted with microelectrodes and gross electrodes. Caudal raphe single neuron activity, electrocorticographic activity, and splenius, digastric and masseter electromyographic activities were recorded during active behaviors (feeding and grooming, during quiet waking and during sleep. Seven presumed serotonergic neurons were identified. These neurons showed a long duration action potential (>2.0 ms, and discharged slowly (2-7 Hz and very regularly (interspike interval coefficient of variation <0.3 during quiet waking. The activity of these neurons decreased remarkably during fast wave sleep (78-100%. Six of these neurons showed tonic changes in their activity positively related to digastric and/or masseter muscle activity but not to splenius muscle activity during waking. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that serotonergic neurons in the caudal raphe nuclei play an important role in the control of jaw movements

  7. Ultrasound guided TAP block versus ultrasound guided caudal block for pain relief in children undergoing lower abdominal surgeries

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    Wafaa Mohamed Alsadek

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: TAP block and caudal block under ultrasound guidance proved to be safe with no recorded complications either intra or postoperatively. Patient and parent satisfaction was markedly observed in case of TAP block.

  8. Effect of nalbuphine as an adjuvant on levobupivacaine induced caudal analgesia in children undergoing surgical procedures, controlled randomized double blinded

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    Riham Hussein Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Caudal epidural nalbuphine is safe in pediatric surgeries including the lower half of the body and effectively reduces postoperative pain. However it may cause early postoperative sedation, yet without respiratory depression.

  9. Comparison of Postoperative Analgesic Efficacy of Penile Block, Caudal Block and Intravenous Paracetamol for Circumcision: A prospective Randomized Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Hakan Haliloglu; Mehmet Ilker Gokce; Semih Tangal; Mehmet Salih Boga; Hakan Tapar; Ebru Aladag

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the postoperative analgesic efficacy of penile block, caudal block and intravenous paracetamol administration following circumcision. Materials and Methods In this prospective randomized study a total of 159 patients underwent circumcision under general anesthesia at urology clinic of Ufuk University Faculty of Medicine and Sorgun State Hospital between May 2012 and September 2012. The patients were randomized to three groups to receive penile block (Group 1), caudal blo...

  10. Automated Spatial Brain Normalization and Hindbrain White Matter Reference Tissue Give Improved [(18)F]-Florbetaben PET Quantitation in Alzheimer's Model Mice.

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    Overhoff, Felix; Brendel, Matthias; Jaworska, Anna; Korzhova, Viktoria; Delker, Andreas; Probst, Federico; Focke, Carola; Gildehaus, Franz-Josef; Carlsen, Janette; Baumann, Karlheinz; Haass, Christian; Bartenstein, Peter; Herms, Jochen; Rominger, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical PET studies of β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation are of growing importance, but comparisons between research sites require standardized and optimized methods for quantitation. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate systematically the (1) impact of an automated algorithm for spatial brain normalization, and (2) intensity scaling methods of different reference regions for Aβ-PET in a large dataset of transgenic mice. PS2APP mice in a 6 week longitudinal setting (N = 37) and another set of PS2APP mice at a histologically assessed narrow range of Aβ burden (N = 40) were investigated by [(18)F]-florbetaben PET. Manual spatial normalization by three readers at different training levels was performed prior to application of an automated brain spatial normalization and inter-reader agreement was assessed by Fleiss Kappa (κ). For this method the impact of templates at different pathology stages was investigated. Four different reference regions on brain uptake normalization were used to calculate frontal cortical standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRCTX∕REF), relative to raw SUVCTX. Results were compared on the basis of longitudinal stability (Cohen's d), and in reference to gold standard histopathological quantitation (Pearson's R). Application of an automated brain spatial normalization resulted in nearly perfect agreement (all κ≥0.99) between different readers, with constant or improved correlation with histology. Templates based on inappropriate pathology stage resulted in up to 2.9% systematic bias for SUVRCTX∕REF. All SUVRCTX∕REF methods performed better than SUVCTX both with regard to longitudinal stability (d≥1.21 vs. d = 0.23) and histological gold standard agreement (R≥0.66 vs. R≥0.31). Voxel-wise analysis suggested a physiologically implausible longitudinal decrease by global mean scaling. The hindbrain white matter reference (R mean = 0.75) was slightly superior to the brainstem (R mean = 0.74) and the cerebellum (R mean = 0.73). Automated

  11. Automated spatial brain normalization and hindbrain white matter reference tissue give improved [18F]-florbetaben PET quantitation in Alzheimer´s model mice

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    Felix eOverhoff

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical PET studies of β-amyloid (Aβ accumulation are of growing importance, but comparisons between research sites require standardized and optimized methods for quantitation. Therefore we aimed to evaluate systematically the 1 impact of an automated algorithm for spatial brain normalization, and 2 intensity scaling methods of different reference regions for Aβ-PET in a large dataset of transgenic mice. PS2APP mice in a six week longitudinal setting (N = 37 and another set of PS2APP mice at a histologically assessed narrow range of Aβ burden (N = 40 were investigated by [18F]-florbetaben PET. Manual spatial normalization by three readers at different training levels was performed prior to application of an automated brain spatial normalization and inter-reader agreement was assessed by Fleiss Kappa (κ. For this method the impact of templates at different pathology stages was investigated. Four different reference regions on brain uptake normalization were used to calculate frontal cortical standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRCTX/REF, relative to raw SUVCTX. Results were compared on the basis of longitudinal stability (Cohen’s d, and in reference to gold standard histopathological quantitation (Pearson’s R.Application of an automated brain spatial normalization resulted in nearly perfect agreement (all κ ≥ 0.99 between different readers, with constant or improved correlation with histology. Templates based on inappropriate pathology stage resulted in up to 2.9% systematic bias for SUVRCTX/REF. All SUVRCTX/REF methods performed better than SUVCTX both with regard to longitudinal stability (d ≥ 1.21 vs. d = 0.23 and histological gold standard agreement (R ≥ 0.66 vs. R ≥ 0.31. Voxel-wise analysis suggested a physiologically implausible longitudinal decrease of global mean scaling. The hindbrain white matter reference (Rmean = 0.75 was slightly superior to the brainstem (Rmean = 0.74 and the cerebellum (Rmean = 0

  12. EFFICACY OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE AS AN ADJUVANT TO BUPIVACAINE FOR CAUDAL ANALGESIA IN PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS UNDERGOING LOWER ABDOMINAL SURGERIES

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    Vijay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Various adjuvants such as opioids or α2 agonists are being used to improve the quality and duration of caudal analgesia with local anesthetics. Dexmedetomidine a α2 agonist is used frequently in adult patients to enhance the local anesthetic effect. However there is little literature regarding its effectiveness in pediatric caudal analgesia. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of dexmedetomidine when used as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in increasing the duration of caudal analgesia. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding Dexmedetomidine to caudal Bupivacaine and observe the effect on the duration of analgesia in the post-operative period. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: One year hospital based Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Sixty children, aged 1-6 years, undergoing lower abdominal surgeries were included in this prospective randomized double-blind study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group I received Bupivacaine (0.25% 1ml/kg plus 1 ml of normal saline in the caudal epidural space. Group II was administered Bupivacaine (0.25% 1ml/ with Dexmedetomidine 2 mcg/ ml diluted to 1 ml of normal saline in the caudal epidural space. All anesthetic and surgical techniques were standardized. Heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate were monitored continuously. Surgery was started 10-15 minutes after the injection and confirming adequacy of caudal block. Duration of analgesia was assessed using FLACC scale (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale. The time from administration of caudal anesthesia to the first time the FLACC score equal or greater than 4 was considered as the duration of caudal analgesia. Paracetamol suppository was used as rescue analgesia with a loading dose of 40mg/kg. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Mann-Whitney test and Student ‘t’test was used to compare the data obtained in the two groups. RESULTS: The

  13. Mirror movement-like defects in startle behavior of zebrafish dcc mutants are caused by aberrant midline guidance of identified descending hindbrain neurons.

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    Jain, Roshan A; Bell, Hannah; Lim, Amy; Chien, Chi-Bin; Granato, Michael

    2014-02-19

    Mirror movements are involuntary movements on one side of the body that occur simultaneously with intentional movements on the contralateral side. Humans with heterozygous mutations in the axon guidance receptor DCC display such mirror movements, where unilateral stimulation results in inappropriate bilateral motor output. Currently, it is unclear whether mirror movements are caused by incomplete midline crossing and reduced commissural connectivity of DCC-dependent descending pathways or by aberrant ectopic ipsilateral axonal projections of normally commissural neurons. Here, we show that in response to unilateral tactile stimuli, zebrafish dcc mutant larvae perform involuntary turns on the inappropriate body side. We show that these mirror movement-like deficits are associated with axonal guidance defects of two identified groups of commissural reticulospinal hindbrain neurons. Moreover, we demonstrate that in dcc mutants, axons of these identified neurons frequently fail to cross the midline and instead project ipsilaterally. Whereas laser ablation of these neurons in wild-type animals does not affect turning movements, their ablation in dcc mutants restores turning movements. Thus, our results demonstrate that in dcc mutants, turns on the inappropriate side of the body are caused by aberrant ipsilateral axonal projections, and suggest that aberrant ipsilateral connectivity of a very small number of descending axons is sufficient to induce incorrect movement patterns.

  14. Normobaric hyperoxia stimulates superoxide and nitric oxide production in the caudal solitary complex of rat brain slices.

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    Ciarlone, Geoffrey E; Dean, Jay B

    2016-12-01

    Central CO2-chemosensitive neurons in the caudal solitary complex (cSC) are stimulated not only by hypercapnic acidosis, but by hyperoxia as well. While a cellular mechanism for the CO2 response has yet to be isolated, previous data show that a redox-sensitive mechanism underlies neuronal excitability to hyperoxia. However, it remains unknown how changes in Po2 affect the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in the cSC that can lead to increased cellular excitability and, with larger doses, to cellular dysfunction and death. To this end, we used fluorescence microscopy in real time to determine how normobaric hyperoxia increases the production of key RONS in the cSC. Because neurons in the region are CO2 sensitive, we also examined the potential effects of CO2 narcosis, used during euthanasia before brain slice harvesting, on RONS production. Our findings show that normobaric hyperoxia (0.4 → 0.95 atmospheres absolute O2) increases the fluorescence rates of fluorogenic dyes specific to both superoxide and nitric oxide. Interestingly, different results were seen for superoxide fluorescence when CO2 narcosis was used during euthanasia, suggesting long-lasting changes in superoxide production and/or antioxidant activity subsequent to CO2 narcosis before brain slicing. Further research needs to distinguish whether the increased levels of RONS reported here are merely increases in oxidative and nitrosative signaling or, alternatively, evidence of redox and nitrosative stress.

  15. Hypovolemic shock: critical involvement of a projection from the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray to the caudal midline medulla.

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    Vagg, D J; Bandler, R; Keay, K A

    2008-04-09

    Previous research has suggested that the ventrolateral column of the periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) plays a crucial role in triggering a decompensatory response (sympathoinhibition, hypotension, bradycardia) to severe blood loss. vlPAG excitation triggers also quiescence, decreased vigilance and decreased reactivity, the behavioral response which usually accompanies hypovolemic shock. The aim of this study was to identify, in unanesthetized rats, the main descending pathway(s) via which vlPAG neurons trigger sympathoinhibition and bradycardia in response to severe blood loss. Firstly, immediate early gene (c-Fos) expression was used to identify vlPAG neurons selectively activated by severe blood loss. Subsequently, the specific medullary projections of these vlPAG neurons were defined by combined c-Fos, retrograde tracing (double-label) experiments. It was found that vlPAG neurons selectively activated by severe hemorrhage project overwhelmingly to the vasodepressor portion of the caudal midline medulla (CMM). Previous studies indicate that this CMM region mediates behaviorally-coupled cardiovascular adjustments and the findings described here fit with the idea that CMM neurons are uniquely recruited by salient challenges, the adaptive responses to which require more than reflexive homeostatic cardiovascular adjustments.

  16. A CLINICAL STUDY OF CAUDAL EPIDURAL ANAESTHESIA FOR TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE

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    Satyendra S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Urological surgery, the most commonly performed procedure in Transurethral Resection of Prostate. Most of these patients are elderly above the age of 60 years with various systemic problems. The common problem includes cardiovascular disorder, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and various old age problems. These patients present as a challenge to anaesthesiologists because they are high risk patients for endoscopic surgeries. Various worker since many years tried different type of anesthesia procedure. The regional techniques have been proved to be safe and less risky. It includes spinal, lumbar epidural, combined spinal epidural and caudal epidural. The caudal epidural block have been used by many workers for TURP in elderly patients since so many years. The Present study includes 50 patients of ASA grade I, II, III including cardiovascular problem, COPD, and other spinal deformities, scheduled for TURP. After pre anesthetic checkup and through investigation, caudal epidural block were given by standard technique. Observation and results were recorded by observing the onset and duration of analgesia, level of block, any side effects. The changes in pulse rate, blood pressure, SPO 2 , ECG were closely monitored throughout the procedure. The observation showed that 60% of patients having co - existing diseases and most of them having chronic Hypertension (30%, onset of analgesia was 10 - 15 mins in 30 patients. Motor blockade by modified bromage scale was observed and found that 45 patients ( 90% has MBS - O. There were no significant changes observed in PR, BP, R/R, ECG and SPO 2 throughout the procedure in all patients. Response to total procedure was found excellent in 40 patients ( 80%. There were no significant complication observed in maximum number of patients. Only 5 patients had complained of nausea and vomiting, which was successfully treated by antiemetics

  17. Fiabilidad técnica del bloqueo caudal guiado con ecografía

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    A. Mendiola de la Osa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el bloqueo-infiltración caudal es una técnica utilizada en las unidades de dolor para tratar el dolor de origen radicular lumbosacro. Esta técnica se ha realizado clásicamente mediante referencias anatómicas o guiado mediante fluoroscopia. Se presenta la realización de la técnica eco-guiada y las complicaciones surgidas tras la realización de la misma. Material y métodos: estudio observacional descriptivo en el que se estudiaron las complicaciones de la técnica. Se realizaron 126 procedimientos en pacientes adultos de ambos sexos. Procedimiento: se localizó el hiato sacro mediante ecografía y se insertó una aguja de Touhy 18 G en el espacio epidural caudal perforando el ligamento sacro-coccígeo. Resultados: no surgieron complicaciones graves en ninguno de los pacientes. No hubo casos de mala ventana ecográfica por lo que se pudo realizar la técnica en todos los enfermos programados. Conclusión: debido a la ausencia de complicaciones la realización de la técnica eco-guiada es una alternativa segura y fiable a la técnica guiada con fluoroscopia. Mediante esta técnica se evita la exposición de radiaciones ionizantes. Además el bloqueo caudal eco-guiado no necesita del uso de contrastes yodados y permite transportar el ecógrafo a la cabecera del enfermo en caso de ser necesario.

  18. A rostro-caudal gradient of structured sequence processing in the left inferior frontal gyrus.

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    Uddén, Julia; Bahlmann, Jörg

    2012-07-19

    In this paper, we present two novel perspectives on the function of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG). First, a structured sequence processing perspective facilitates the search for functional segregation within the LIFG and provides a way to express common aspects across cognitive domains including language, music and action. Converging evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation studies suggests that the LIFG is engaged in sequential processing in artificial grammar learning, independently of particular stimulus features of the elements (whether letters, syllables or shapes are used to build up sequences). The LIFG has been repeatedly linked to processing of artificial grammars across all different grammars tested, whether they include non-adjacent dependencies or mere adjacent dependencies. Second, we apply the sequence processing perspective to understand how the functional segregation of semantics, syntax and phonology in the LIFG can be integrated in the general organization of the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Recently, it was proposed that the functional organization of the lateral PFC follows a rostro-caudal gradient, such that more abstract processing in cognitive control is subserved by more rostral regions of the lateral PFC. We explore the literature from the viewpoint that functional segregation within the LIFG can be embedded in a general rostro-caudal abstraction gradient in the lateral PFC. If the lateral PFC follows a rostro-caudal abstraction gradient, then this predicts that the LIFG follows the same principles, but this prediction has not yet been tested or explored in the LIFG literature. Integration might provide further insights into the functional architecture of the LIFG and the lateral PFC.

  19. Effects of dexmedetomidine added to caudal ropivacaine in paediatric lower abdominal surgeries

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    Vijay G Anand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of caudal dexmedetomidine combined with ropivacaine to provide postoperative analgesia in children and also to establish its safety in the paediatric population. Methods: In a randomised, prospective, parallel group, double-blinded study, 60 children were recruited and allocated into two groups: Group RD (n=30 received 0.25% ropivacaine 1 ml/kg with dexmedetomidine 2 μg/kg, making the volume to 0.5 ml and Group R (n=30 received 0.25% ropivacaine 1 ml/kg + 0.5 ml normal saline. Induction of anaesthesia was achieved with 50% N 2 O and 8% sevoflurane in oxygen in spontaneous ventilation. An appropriate-sized LMA was then inserted and a caudal block performed in all patients. Behaviour during emergence was rated with a 4-point scale, sedation with Ramsay′s sedation scale, and pain assessed with face, legs, activity, cry, consolability (FLACC pain score. Results: The duration of postoperative analgesia recorded a median of 5.5 hours in Group R compared with 14.5 hours in Group RD, with a P value of <0.001. Group R patients achieved a statistically significant higher FLACC score compared with Group RD patients. The difference between the means of mean sedation score, emergence behaviour score, mean emergence time was statistically highly significant (P<0.001. The peri-operative haemodynamics were stable among both the groups. Conclusion: Caudal dexmedetomidine (2 μg/kg with 0.25% ropivacaine (1 ml/kg for paediatric lower abdominal surgeries achieved significant postoperative pain relief that resulted in a better quality of sleep and a prolonged duration of arousable sedation and produced less incidence of emergence agitation following sevoflurane anaesthesia.

  20. Tuning in caudal fastigial nucleus units during natural and galvanic labyrinth stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, H G; Guldin, W O; Grüsser, O J

    2001-05-25

    Neurons of the caudal fastigial nucleus were investigated by means of single unit recordings. Natural vestibular stimuli were applied as well as galvanic labyrinth polarization. One-third of the neurons showed a convergence of vertical and horizontal canals. More than 80% of the neurons responded to polarization of both the ipsilateral and contralateral canals (binaural responders). Most neurons had a limited response range. Two classes of neurons could be distinguished: up to 1 Hz responders and up to 10 Hz responders. In addition a group of fastigial cells showed a tuning within a small range of frequencies (sharp-tuning responders).

  1. Use of CO2 laser as an adjunctive treatment for caudal stomatitis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John R; Tsugawa, Anson J; Reiter, Alexander M

    2007-12-01

    Lasers have become a popular tool in veterinary practice, particularly the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. In humans, the CO2 laser is used most commonly in oral and maxillofacial soft tissue surgery due to its favorable interactions with oral soft tissues. Other types of lasers are better suited for use on hard tissues such as enamel and dentin. This article reviews the history of laser use, physics of laser-tissue interaction, delivery systems, and laser types used in dentistry and oral surgery. This is followed by a case report describing the use of CO2 laser as an adjunctive treatment for therapy of refractory caudal stomatitis in a cat.

  2. Morphometric study of sacral hiatus in adult human Egyptian sacra: Their significance in caudal epidural anesthesia

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    Mohamed S Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reliability and success of caudal epidural anesthesia depends on anatomic variations of sacral hiatus (SH as observed by various authors. SH is an important landmark during caudal epidural block (CEB.The purpose of the present study was to clarify the morphometric characteristics of the SH in human Egyptian dry sacra and pelvic radiographs and identification of nearest ony landmarks to permit correct and uncomplicated caudal epidural accesses. Methods: The present study was done on 46 human adult Egyptian dry sacra. The maximum height, midventral curved length, and maximum breadth of each sacrum were measured and sacral and curvature indices were calculated. According to sacral indices, sacra were divided into 2 groups (22 male and 24 female sacra. SH was evaluated in each sacrum according to its shape, level of its apex, and base according to sacral and coccygeal vertebrae, length, anteroposterior (AP diameter at its apex, and transverse width at its base. Linear distances were measured between the apex of SH and second sacral foramina, right and left superolateral sacral crests. The distance between the 2 superolateral sacral crests also was measured. Results: The most common types of SH were the inverted U and inverted V (in male and inverted V and dumbbell shaped (in female. Absent SH was observed in male group only. The most common location of SH apex was at the level of S4 in all groups of dry sacra and S3 in all groups of lumbosacral spine radiographs, whereas S5 was the common level of its base. The mean SH length, transverse width of its base, and AP diameter of its apex were 2.1±0.80, 1.7±0.26, and 0.48±0.19 cm. Female sacra showed narrower SH apex than male. The distance between the S2 foramen and the apex of the SH was 4.1±1.14, 3.67±1.21, and 4.48±1.01 cm in total, female and male sacra, respectively. Conclusion: Sacrum and SH showed morphometric variations in adult Egyptians. The equilateral triangle is an

  3. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF CLONIDINE AS AN ADJUNCT TO CAUDAL ROPIVACAINE IN PEDIATRIC INFRAUMBILICAL SURGERIES

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    Urmila

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The addition of clonidine as an adjuvant has allowed the use of lower concentration of the local anaesthetic for achieving the same level of anaesthesia but with the prolonged duration of analgesia which increases the margin of safety and reduces the inci dence of unwanted motor blockades. With these facts in mind we undertook the study to compare the analgesic properties of 0.25% ropivacaine with the addition of clonidine (1 μ g/kg to that of ropivacaine 0.25% following caudal administration in children. ME THODS: After approval from ethical committee 60 children of age 1 - 10 yrs of ASA grade I or II undergoing elective sub umbilical surgeries were selected for the study. We gave caudal bloc k with 0.25% ropivacaine 1ml/kg +1ml normal saline for group R or 0.25% ropivacaine 1ml/kg + clonidine 1microgram/kg+1ml normal saline to make volume 1ml for group C. To perform caudal block all patient received IV injection glycopyrolate - 0.01mg/kg, IV injection midazolam - 0.1mg/kg and IV Injection ketamine - 1mg/kg. Hemodynam ic parameters were observed before, during and after the surgical procedure. Quality of surgical anesthesia & requirement of supplemental midazolam/ketamine were also noted. Duration of Post - operative analgesia, pain scores, level of sedation and side effe cts if any were looked for and duly recorded. RESULT: Duration of analgesia in group R was 6.45±0.52 hrs. and in group C was 13.01±0.89hrs i.e. significantly prolonged in group C (P<0.0001. Post - operative pain score and sedation score were also significan tly better in group C (P<0.0001. The quality of surgical analgesia was also significantly excellent in group C. Other vital parameters were not statistically significant in both the groups. CONCLUSION: Ropivacaine (0.25% with clonidine (1μg/kg in caudal block showed prolong duration of analgesia as well as better quality of surgical anaesthesia than plain ropivacaine (0.25% in pediatric patients without any

  4. Microarray analysis in caudal medulla of cattle orally challenged with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

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    Almeida, L M; Basu, U; Williams, J L; Moore, S S; Guan, L L

    2011-10-25

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal disorder in cattle characterized by progressive neurodegeneration of the central nervous system. We investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration during prion infection through the identification of genes that are differentially expressed (DE) between experimentally infected and non-challenged cattle. Gene expression of caudal medulla from control and orally infected animals was compared by microarray analysis using 24,000 bovine oligonucleotides representing 16,846 different genes to identify DE genes associated with BSE disease. In total, 182 DE genes were identified between normal and BSE-infected tissues (>2.0-fold change, P bovine species.

  5. Systematization, distribution and territory of the caudal cerebral artery on the brain's surface of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo

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    Amarílis Díaz de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Meleagris gallopavo heads with their neck segments were used. Animals were contained and euthanized with the association of mebezonium iodide, embutramide and tetracaine hydrochloride (T 61, Intervet by intravenous injection. The arterial system was rinsed with cold saline solution (15°C, with 5000IU heparin and filled with red-colored latex. The samples were fixed in 20% formaldehyde for seven days. The brains were removed with a segment of cervical spinal cord and after, the dura-mater was removed and the arteries dissected. The cerebral carotid arteries, after the intercarotid anastomosis, were projected around the hypophysis, until they reached the tuber cinereum and divided into their terminal branches, the caudal branch and the rostral branch. The rostral branch was projected rostrolateralwards and gave off, in sequence, two collateral branches, the caudal cerebral and the middle cerebral arteries and the terminal branch was as cerebroethmoidal artery. The caudal cerebral artery of one antimere formed the interhemispheric artery, which gave off dorsal hemispheric branches to the convex surface of both antimeres. Its dorsal tectal mesencephalic branch, of only one antimere, originated the dorsal cerebellar artery. In the interior of the cerebral transverse fissure, after the origin of the dorsal tectal mesencephalic artery, the caudal cerebral artery emitted occipital hemispheric branches, pineal branches and medial hemispheric branches, on both antimeres. The caudal cerebral artery's territory comprehended the entire surface of the dorsal hemioptic lobe, the rostral surface of the cerebellum, the diencephalic structures, the caudal pole and the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere and in the convex surface, the sagittal eminence except for its most rostral third. Due to the asymmetry found in the caudal cerebral arteries' ramifications, the models were classified into three types and their respective subtypes.

  6. Development of the caudal exoskeleton of the pliomerid trilobite Hintzeia plicamarginis new species

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    Simpson, A.G.; Hughes, N.C.; Kopaska-Merkel, D. C.; Ludvigsen, R.

    2005-01-01

    The later juvenile ontogeny of the caudal plate of the early Ordovician pliomerid trilobite Hintzeia plicamarginis new species likely comprised an initial phase during which the rate of appearance of new segments subterminally exceeded that of segment release into the thorax, a short phase of constant segment numbers, and a later phase during which release occurred but in which no new segments appeared. A distinct terminal region became manifest in the second phase. During the second and third phases growth coefficients for individual segments were about 1.1-1.2 per instar. Although the shapes of segments varied during growth, the pattern of ontogenetic shape change appears to have been broadly similar among segments. This suggests an homonomous trunk segment morphology regardless of thoracic or caudal identity in maturity. These results imply that control of trunk exoskeletal segment appearance and articulation were decoupled in this trilobite, and that the terminal region had a distinct mature morphology. H. plicamarginis is described as a new species. ?? Blackwell Publishing, Inc.

  7. Caudal duplication syndrome: imaging evaluation of a rare entity in an adult patient

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    Tianshen Hu, BS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several theories have been put forth to explain the complex yet symmetrical malformations and the myriad of clinical presentations of caudal duplication syndrome. Hereby, reported case is a 28-year-old female, gravida 2 para 2, with congenital caudal malformation who has undergone partial reconstructive surgeries in infancy to connect her 2 colons. She presented with recurrent left lower abdominal pain associated with nausea, vomiting, and subsequent feculent anal discharge. Imaging reveals duplication of the urinary bladder, urethra, and colon with with cloacal malformations and fistulae from the left-sided cloaca, uterus didelphys with separate cervices and vaginal canals, right-sided aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta, and dysraphic midline sacrococcygeal defect. Hydronephrosis of the left kidney with left hydroureter and inflammation of one of the colons were suspected to be the cause of the patient’s acute complaints. She improved symptomatically over the course of her hospitalization stay with conservative treatments. The management for this syndrome is individualized and may include surgical intervention to fuse or excise the duplicated organs.

  8. Medial prefrontal depressor response: involvement of the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla in the rat.

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    Owens, N C; Verberne, A J

    2000-01-14

    The importance of neurones of the caudal and rostral ventrolateral medulla (CVLM and RVLM, respectively) in mediation of the medial prefrontal cortex depressor response was studied in halothane-anaesthetised rats. Blockade of GABA(A) receptors in the RVLM produced by microinjection of bicuculline (50 nl, 2 mM, n = 6) resulted in reversal of the depressor (-9.5 +/- 1.2 mm Hg) and lumbar sympathetic (-6.5 +/- 5.7 units) responses to pressor (+7.8 +/- 3.5 mm Hg) and sympathoexcitatory (+19.3 +/- 12.5 units) responses and simultaneous blockade of baroreceptor reflex-mediated sympathoinhibition. Baroreflex blockade was reflected by a significant reduction in the gain (slope of the blood pressure vs. lumbar sympathetic nerve discharge regression line) of the reflex. Microinjection of the excitatory amino acid antagonist kynurenic acid (100 nl, 50 mM, n = 6) into the CVLM blocked the baroreflex and significantly reduced the depressor (-9.6 +/- 0.4 to -6.9 +/- 0.6 mm Hg) and lumbar sympathetic (-4.0 +/- 2.1 to 2.9 +/- 1.9 units) responses to medial prefrontal cortex stimulation. These results support the hypothesis that the medial prefrontal cortex depressor response is mediated by a pathway which converges at the level of the RVLM and which is only partly dependent on an excitatory input to caudal ventrolateral medullary neurones.

  9. Caudal epidural analgesia using lidocaine alone or in combination with ketamine in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    Omid Azari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the analgesic effect of lidocaine and a combination of lidocaine and ketamine following epidural administration in dromedary camels. Ten 12–18-month-old camels were randomly divided into two equal groups. In group L, the animals received 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg and in group LK the animals received a mixture of 10% ketamine (1 mg/kg and 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg administered into the first intercoccygeal (Co1–Co2 epidural space while standing. Onset time and duration of caudal analgesia, sedation level and ataxia were recorded after drug administration. Data were analysed by U Mann-Whitney tests and significance was taken as p < 0.05. The results showed that epidural lidocaine and co-administration of lidocaine and ketamine produced complete analgesia in the tail, anus and perineum. Epidural administration of the lidocaine-ketamine mixture resulted in mild to moderate sedation, whilst the animals that received epidural lidocaine alone were alert and nervous during the study. Ataxia was observed in all test subjects and was slightly more severe in camels that received the lidocaine-ketamine mixture. It was concluded that epidural administration of lidocaine plus ketamine resulted in longer caudal analgesia in standing conscious dromedary camels compared with the effect of administering lidocaine alone.

  10. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE HYDRODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF AN UNSYMMETRICAL FLAPPING CAUDAL FIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xi; SU Yu-min; WANG Zhao-li

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic performance of a caudal fin with unsymmetric flapping motion is carried out.The unsymmetrical motion is induced by adding a pitch bias or a heave bias.A numerical simulation program based on the unsteady panel method is developed to simulate the hydrodynamics of an unsymmetrical flapping caudal fin.A CFD code based on Navier-Stokes equations is used to analyze the flow field.Computational results of both the panel method and the CFD method indicate that the hydrodynamics are greatly affected by the pitch bias and the heave bias.The mean lateral force coefficient is not zero as in contrast with the symmetrical flapping motion.By increasing the pitch bias angle,the mean thrust force coefficient is reduced rapidly.By adding a heave bias,the hydrodynamic coefficients are separated as two parts:in one part,the amplitude is the heave amplitude plus the bias and in the other part,it is the heave amplitude minus the bias.Analysis of the flow field shows that the vortex distribution is not symmetrical,which generates the non-zero mean lateral force coefficient.

  11. The anatomy and histology of caudal autotomy and regeneration in lizards.

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    Gilbert, Emily A B; Payne, Samantha L; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Caudal autotomy-the ability to self-detach the tail-is a dramatic adaptation common to many structural-grade lizards. For most species, tail loss is followed by the equally dramatic phenomenon of tail regeneration. Here we review the anatomy and histology of caudal autotomy and regeneration in lizards, drawing heavily from research published over the past 2 decades. The autotomous tail is characterized by various structural adaptations, which act to minimize blood loss and trauma to adjacent tissues. The early phase of wound healing involves a leukocytic response but limited inflammation. Reepithelialization via a specialized wound epithelium is not only critical for scar-free healing but also necessary for subsequent tissue patterning and regenerative outgrowth. Regeneration begins with the formation of the blastema, a mass of proliferating mesenchymal-like cells. As the blastema expands, it is invaded by blood vessels and the spinal cord. Whereas the replacement tail outwardly resembles the original appendage, it differs in several notable respects, including the tissue composition and organization of the skeleton, muscular system, and spinal cord. Increasingly, the lizard tail is being recognized among biomedical scientists as an important model for the study of wound healing and multitissue restoration.

  12. Efficacy of clonidine as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in children undergoing sub-umbilical surgery

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    Aruna Parameswari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Caudal epidural analgesia with bupivacaine is very popular in paediatric anaesthesia for providing intra- and postoperative analgesia. Several adjuvants have been used to prolong the action of bupivacaine. We evaluated the efficacy of clonidine added to bupivacaine in prolonging the analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine in children undergoing sub-umbilical surgery. One hundred children, age one to three years, undergoing sub-umbilical surgery, were prospectively randomized to one of two groups: caudal analgesia with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine in normal saline (Group A or caudal analgesia with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine with 1 μg/kg of clonidine in normal saline (Group B. Post-operative pain was assessed for 24 hours using the FLACC scale. The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer in Group B (593.4 ± 423.3 min than in Group A (288.7 ± 259.1 min; P < 0.05. The pain score assessed using FLACC scale was compared between the two groups, and children in Group B had lower pain scores, which was statistically significant. The requirement of rescue medicine was lesser in Group B. Clonidine in a dose of 1 μg/kg added to 0.25% bupivacaine for caudal analgesia, during sub-umbilical surgeries, prolongs the duration of analgesia of bupivacaine, without any side effects.

  13. Sirenomelia phenotype in bmp7;shh compound mutants: a novel experimental model for studies of caudal body malformations.

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    Carlos Garrido-Allepuz

    Full Text Available Sirenomelia is a severe congenital malformation of the lower body characterized by the fusion of the legs into a single lower limb. This striking external phenotype consistently associates severe visceral abnormalities, most commonly of the kidneys, intestine, and genitalia that generally make the condition lethal. Although the causes of sirenomelia remain unknown, clinical studies have yielded two major hypotheses: i a primary defect in the generation of caudal mesoderm, ii a primary vascular defect that leaves the caudal part of the embryo hypoperfused. Interestingly, Sirenomelia has been shown to have a genetic basis in mice, and although it has been considered a sporadic condition in humans, recently some possible familial cases have been reported. Here, we report that the removal of one or both functional alleles of Shh from the Bmp7-null background leads to a sirenomelia phenotype that faithfully replicates the constellation of external and internal malformations, typical of the human condition. These mutants represent an invaluable model in which we have analyzed the pathogenesis of sirenomelia. We show that the signaling defect predominantly impacts the morphogenesis of the hindgut and the development of the caudal end of the dorsal aortas. The deficient formation of ventral midline structures, including the interlimb mesoderm caudal to the umbilicus, leads to the approximation and merging of the hindlimb fields. Our study provides new insights for the understanding of the mechanisms resulting in caudal body malformations, including sirenomelia.

  14. Dinosaur speed demon: the caudal musculature of Carnotaurus sastrei and implications for the evolution of South American abelisaurids.

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    W Scott Persons

    Full Text Available In the South American abelisaurids Carnotaurus sastrei, Aucasaurus garridoi, and, to a lesser extent Skorpiovenator bustingorryi, the anterior caudal ribs project at a high dorsolateral inclination and have interlocking lateral tips. This unique morphology facilitated the expansion of the caudal hypaxial musculature at the expense of the epaxial musculature. Distinct ridges on the ventrolateral surfaces of the caudal ribs of Aucasaurus garridoi are interpreted as attachment scars from the intra caudofemoralis/ilio-ischiocaudalis septa, and confirm that the M. caudofemoralis of advanced South American abelisaurids originated from a portion of the caudal ribs. Digital muscle models indicate that, relative to its overall body size, Carnotaurus sastrei had a substantially larger M. caudofemoralis than any other theropod yet studied. In most non-avian theropods, as in many extant sauropsids, the M. caudofemoralis served as the primary femoral retractor muscle during the locomotive power stroke. This large investment in the M. caudofemoralis suggests that Carnotaurus sastrei had the potential for great cursorial abilities, particularly short-burst sprinting. However, the tightly interlocking morphology of the anterior caudal vertebrae implies a reduced ability to make tight turns. Examination of these vertebral traits in evolutionary context reveals a progressive sequence of increasing caudofemoral mass and tail rigidity among the Abelisauridae of South America.

  15. Wnt/β-catenin signaling in midbrain dopaminergic neuron specification and neurogenesis.

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    Joksimovic, Milan; Awatramani, Rajeshwar

    2014-02-01

    Loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons underlies the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Towards cell replacement, studies have focused on mechanisms underlying embryonic mDA production, as a rational basis for deriving mDA neurons from stem cells. We will review studies of β-catenin, an obligate component of the Wnt cascade that is critical to mDA specification and neurogenesis. mDA neurons have a unique origin--the midbrain floor plate (FP). Unlike the hindbrain and spinal cord FP, the midbrain FP is highly neurogenic and Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical to this difference in neurogenic potential. In β-catenin loss-of-function experiments, the midbrain FP resembles the hindbrain FP, and key mDA progenitor genes such as Otx2, Lmx1a, Msx1, and Ngn2 are downregulated whereas Shh is maintained. Accordingly, the neurogenic capacity of the midbrain FP is diminished, resulting in fewer mDA neurons. Conversely, in β-catenin gain-of-function experiments, the hindbrain FP expresses key mDA progenitor genes, and is highly neurogenic. Interestingly, when excessive β-catenin is supplied to the midbrain FP, less mDA neurons are produced suggesting that the dosage of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical. These studies of β-catenin have facilitated new protocols to derive mDA neurons from stem cells.

  16. When two equals three: developmental osteology and homology of the caudal skeleton in carangid fishes (Perciformes: Carangidae).

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    Hilton, Eric J; Johnson, G David

    2007-01-01

    Ontogeny often provides the most compelling evidence for primary homology in evolutionary developmental studies and is critical to interpreting complex structures in a phylogenetic context. As an example of this, we document the ontogenetic development of the caudal skeleton of Caranx crysos by examining a series of cleared and stained larval and postlarval specimens. By studying ontogeny, we are able to more accurately identify some elements of the adult caudal skeleton than is possible when studying the adult stage alone. The presence of two epurals has been used as a synapomorphy of Caranginae (homoplastically present in the scomberoidine genera Scomberoides and Oligoplites). Here we find that three epurals (ep) are present in larvae and small postlarval juveniles (i.e.,osteology of the caudal skeleton of carangoid fishes generally and emphasize the power and importance of ontogeny in the identification of primary homology.

  17. A comparative study of the effect of caudal dexmedetomidine versus morphine added to bupivacaine in pediatric infra-umbilical surgery

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    Hossam A El Shamaa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most commonly used regional anesthetic techniques in pediatric surgeries is the caudal epidural block. Its main disadvantage remains the short duration of action. Hence, different additives have been used. Dexmedetomidine is a potent as well as highly selective α2 adrenergic receptor agonist. The aim of this randomized, double-blinded, study was to compare the duration of postoperative analgesia of caudal dexmedetomidine versus morphine in combination with bupivacaine in pediatric patients undergoing lower abdominal or perineal surgery. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 pediatric patients 1-5 years old The American Society of Anesthesiologists status I, II scheduled for lower abdominal and perineal surgeries were included in the study. The patients were enrolled into 2 equal groups: Group A patients (n = 25 received dexmedetomidine with bupivacaine while Group B patients (n = 25 received morphine with bupivacaine. Patients were placed in a supine position then inhalational general anesthesia was induced, and laryngeal mask airway (LMA was placed. Patients were then given caudal epidural analgesia. By the end of surgery reversal of muscle relaxation was done and the LMA was removed. Post-operatively, the sedation as well as pain score were observed and recorded. Results: The current study showed that minor complications were recorded in the post-anesthesia care unit; in addition, significantly longer periods of analgesia and sedation were detected in Group A. However, no significant differences in demographic data, as well as in the duration of surgery, and the time of emergence from anesthesia and patient condition during recovery were detected. Conclusion: The present study suggested that use of dexmedetomidine, during single dose injection, as an additive to the local anesthetic bupivacaine in caudal epidural analgesia prolongs the duration of post-operative analgesia following lower abdominal as well as perineal

  18. Responses of primate caudal parabrachial nucleus and Kolliker-fuse nucleus neurons to whole body rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Carey D.; McGee, David M.; Zhou, Jianxun; Scudder, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    The caudal aspect of the parabrachial (PBN) and Kolliker-Fuse (KF) nuclei receive vestibular nuclear and visceral afferent information and are connected reciprocally with the spinal cord, hypothalamus, amygdala, and limbic cortex. Hence, they may be important sites of vestibulo-visceral integration, particularly for the development of affective responses to gravitoinertial challenges. Extracellular recordings were made from caudal PBN cells in three alert, adult female Macaca nemestrina through an implanted chamber. Sinusoidal and position trapezoid angular whole body rotation was delivered in yaw, roll, pitch, and vertical semicircular canal planes. Sites were confirmed histologically. Units that responded during rotation were located in lateral and medial PBN and KF caudal to the trochlear nerve at sites that were confirmed anatomically to receive superior vestibular nucleus afferents. Responses to whole-body angular rotation were modeled as a sum of three signals: angular velocity, a leaky integration of angular velocity, and vertical position. All neurons displayed angular velocity and integrated angular velocity sensitivity, but only 60% of the neurons were position-sensitive. These responses to vertical rotation could display symmetric, asymmetric, or fully rectified cosinusoidal spatial tuning about a best orientation in different cells. The spatial properties of velocity and integrated velocity and position responses were independent for all position-sensitive neurons; the angular velocity and integrated angular velocity signals showed independent spatial tuning in the position-insensitive neurons. Individual units showed one of three different orientations of their excitatory axis of velocity rotation sensitivity: vertical-plane-only responses, positive elevation responses (vertical plane plus ipsilateral yaw), and negative elevation axis responses (vertical plane plus negative yaw). The interactions between the velocity and integrated velocity components

  19. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF DEXMEDETOMEDINE AS AN ADJUNCT TO CAUDAL ROPIVACAINE IN PEDIATRIC INFRAUMBILICAL SURGERIES

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    Urmila

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caudal epidural is one of the most popular reliable & safe technique mainly used for intra and post-op analgesia in pediatric patients undergoing infra umbilical surgeries. To prolong the duration of analgesia various adjuvants like epinephrine, opioids, ketamine, midazolam, tramadol, clonidine, were added to local anesthetic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of CAUDAL administration of plain Ropivacaine 0.2% (1miligram/kilogram body weight with and without dexmedetomedine (2 microgram/kilogram body weight in children undergoing infraumbilical surgeries; in terms of quality of surgical anesthesia and the duration of post-operative analgesia.

  20. Histology of the rectus abdominis muscle in rats subjected to cranial and caudal devascularization Histologia do músculo reto do abdome de ratos submetidos à desvascularização cranial e caudal

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    Walder Costa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the microscopic changes in the rectus abdominis muscle in rats subjected to five delay procedure. METHODS: 30 male holtzmann rats, weighting between 250 and 350 grams, were used. The animals were divided into five groups (n=6: A - cranial section of the right muscle; B - caudal section of the right muscle; C - craniocaudal section of the right muscle; D - cranial section reflecting the right muscle in the craniocaudal direction; E - caudal section reflecting the right muscle in the caudocranial direction. On the seventh day after surgery, a resection of the cranial and caudal fragments of the right and left muscles, respectively, was performed for microscopic analysis. Histological alterations were quantified and the right and left (control muscle fragments compared. Fisher's exact test was used for statistical purposes with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The comparison between right and left muscles showed statistically significant differences in group A - inflammatory infiltrate in the cranial fragment (p=0.015; in group C - inflammatory infiltrate (p=0.000 and necrosis (p=0.015 in the caudal fragment; and in group E - edema in the caudal fragment (p=0.000. No significant alterations were noted in groups B and D. CONCLUSIONS: Irrigation exclusively through the perforating muscle vessels is inappropriate; irrigation exclusively through the cranial pedicle causes milder, insignificant histological alterations, when compared with irrigation exclusively through the caudal pedicle; irrigation exclusively through the caudal pedicle causes more pronounced, but still insignificant, histological alterations when compared with other forms of devascularization.OBJETIVO: Investigar as alterações microscópicas no músculo reto do abdome de ratos submetidos a cinco técnicas de autonomização. MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 30 ratos machos Holtzmann, pesando entre 250 e 350 gramas. Os animais foram distribuídos em cinco grupos (n

  1. Effect of Age, Adernaline and Operation Site on Duration of Caudal Analgesia in Paediatric Patients

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    Kharirat Mohd., Yasir,G.A.Mir

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect ofage, operative site and addition of 1: 200,000 adrenaline to bupivacaine was evaluatedon the duration ofpost operative analgesia after caudal block in 200 children between the age groupof 1 year to 14 years. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained on Halothane/N20I02• After thiscaudal block was performed with 0.5 mllkg of0.25% bupivacaine in one group of 100 Children andwith 0.25% bupivacaine with adrenaline 1 : 200,000 in another 100 children. The duration of postoperative analgesia was noted to be significantly longer in young children, in children having penoscrotaloperations and when adrenaline was added to bupivacaine. Conclusion was drawn that durationofpost-operative analgesia depended upon age, site and addition of adrenaline to bupivacaine.

  2. Caudal epidural analgesia using lidocaine alone or in combination with ketamine in dromedary camels Camelus dromedarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, Omid; Molaei, Mohammad M; Ehsani, Amir H

    2014-02-27

    This study was performed to investigate the analgesic effect of lidocaine and a combination of lidocaine and ketamine following epidural administration in dromedary camels. Ten 12-18-month-old camels were randomly divided into two equal groups. In group L, the animals received 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg) and in group LK the animals received a mixture of 10% ketamine (1 mg/kg) and 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg) administered into the first intercoccygeal (Co1-Co2) epidural space while standing. Onset time and duration of caudal analgesia, sedation level and ataxia were recorded after drug administration. Data were analysed by U Mann-Whitney tests and significance was taken as p dromedary camels compared with the effect of administering lidocaine alone.

  3. Excitatory synapses on dendritic shafts of the caudal basal amygdala exhibit elevated levels of GABAA receptor α4 subunits following the induction of activity-based anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wable, Gauri S; Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C; Chowdhury, Tara G; Sabaliauskas, Nicole A; Farb, Claudia R; Aoki, Chiye

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by self-imposed severe starvation, excessive exercise, and anxiety. The onset of AN is most often at puberty, suggesting that gonadal hormonal fluctuations may contribute to AN vulnerability. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an animal model that reproduces some of the behavioral phenotypes of AN, including the paradoxical increase in voluntary exercise following food restriction. The basal amygdala as well as the GABAergic system regulate trait anxiety. We therefore examined the subcellular distribution of GABA receptors (GABARs) in the basal amygdala of female pubertal rats and specifically of their α4 subunits, because expression of α4-containing GABARs is regulated by gonadal hormone fluctuations. Moreover, because these GABARs reduce neuronal excitability through shunting of EPSPs, we quantified the frequency of occurrence of these GABARs adjacent to excitatory synapses. Electron microscopic immunoctychemistry revealed no change in the frequency of association of α4 subunits with excitatory synapses on dendritic spines, whether in the anterior (Bregma -2.8 mm) or caudal (Bregma -3.8 mm) portion of the basal amygdala. Sholl analysis of golgi-stained neurons also revealed no change in the extent of dendritic branching by these densely spiny, pyramidal-like neurons. However, there was an increase of membranous α4 subunits near excitatory synapses on dendritic shafts, specifically in the caudal basal amygdala, and this was accompanied by a rise of α4 subunits intracellularly. Because most dendritic shafts exhibiting excitatory synapses are GABAergic interneurons, the results predict disinhibition, which would increase excitability of the amygdaloid network, in turn augmenting ABA animals' anxiety.

  4. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Thomas R; Wu, Ted H; Finger, Adam G; Cañas, Jaclyn E; Yu, Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A; McMurry, Scott T

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n=25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n=6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  5. β-catenin regulates Pax3 and Cdx2 for caudal neural tube closure and elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianyu; Gan, Qini; Stokes, Arjun; Lassiter, Rhonda N T; Wang, Yongping; Chan, Jason; Han, Jane X; Pleasure, David E; Epstein, Jonathan A; Zhou, Chengji J

    2014-01-01

    Non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling plays a primary role in the convergent extension that drives neural tube closure and body axis elongation. PCP signaling gene mutations cause severe neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the role of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in neural tube closure and NTDs remains poorly understood. This study shows that conditional gene targeting of β-catenin in the dorsal neural folds of mouse embryos represses the expression of the homeobox-containing genes Pax3 and Cdx2 at the dorsal posterior neuropore (PNP), and subsequently diminishes the expression of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling target genes T, Tbx6 and Fgf8 at the tail bud, leading to spina bifida aperta, caudal axis bending and tail truncation. We demonstrate that Pax3 and Cdx2 are novel downstream targets of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Transgenic activation of Pax3 cDNA can rescue the closure defect in the β-catenin mutants, suggesting that Pax3 is a key downstream effector of β-catenin signaling in the PNP closure process. Cdx2 is known to be crucial in posterior axis elongation and in neural tube closure. We found that Cdx2 expression is also repressed in the dorsal PNPs of Pax3-null embryos. However, the ectopically activated Pax3 in the β-catenin mutants cannot restore Cdx2 mRNA in the dorsal PNP, suggesting that the presence of both β-catenin and Pax3 is required for regional Cdx2 expression. Thus, β-catenin signaling is required for caudal neural tube closure and elongation, acting through the transcriptional regulation of key target genes in the PNP.

  6. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.rainwater@tiehh.ttu.edu; Wu, Ted H. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Yu Lu [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Reynolds, Kevin D. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Barr, Brady [National Geographic Channel, 1145 17th St. NW Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States); Cobb, George P. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  7. In vitro and in vivo responses of saccular and caudal nucleus neurons in the grassfrog (Rana temporaria)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Walkowiak, W

    1999-01-01

    We present results from in vitro and in vivo studies of response properties of neurons in the saccular and caudal nuclei in the frog. In the in vitro studies the saccular nerve of the isolated brain was stimulated with electrical pulses. In the in vivo experiments, the neurons were stimulated by ...

  8. EFFICACY OF CLONIDINE AS AN ADJUVANT TO BUPIVACAINE FOR CAUDAL BLOCK IN CHILDREN UNDERGOING INFRA - UMBILICAL SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Caudal epidural analgesia with bupivacaine is common in paediatric anaesthesia for providing intra and postoperative analgesia. But duration of analgesia even with bupivacaine; long acting anaesthetic is short only 4-6hrs. Hence, several adjuvants have been tried to prolong the duration of action of bupivacaine. We evaluated the efficacy of clonidine added to bupivacaine in prolonging the analgesic effect provided by caudal bupivacaine in children undergoing infra-umbilical surgery. Forty children, aged one to seven years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA Grade I/II, undergoing infra-umbilical surgery, were included in prospective randomized double blind study to one of two groups: caudal analgesia with 0.75 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine in normal saline (Group A or caudal analgesia with 0.75ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine with 1 μg/kg of clonidine in normal saline (Group B. Post-operative pain was assessed for 24 hours using the Objective Pain Scale (OPS. The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer in Group B (10.2 Hrs. than in Group A (4.2 1Hrs; P0.05. The requirement of rescue medicine was lesser in Group B. Clonidine as an adjunct to bupivacaine prolongs the post-operative pain relief in children and is safe compared to bupivacaine alone in paediatric infra umbilical surgeries.

  9. Pitch Variability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; van Doorn, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) pitch characteristics of connected speech in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The authors evaluated 16 patients preoperatively and 12 months after DBS surgery. Eight…

  10. Noradrenergic inhibitory modulation in the caudal commissural NTS of the pressor response to chemoreflex activation in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva de Oliveira, Luciana C; Bonagamba, Leni G H; Machado, Benedito H

    2007-10-30

    In the present study we evaluated the possible modulatory role of noradrenaline on the neurotransmission of the peripheral chemoreflex afferents in the caudal commissural NTS of awake rats. To reach this goal we performed a dose-response curve to microinjection of increasing dose of noradrenaline into the caudal commissural NTS of awake rats and then the threshold dose, which produces minor changes in the baseline mean arterial pressure, was selected to be used in the chemoreflex experiment. The peripheral chemoreflex was activated with KCN before and after bilateral microinjections of noradrenaline (5 nMol/50 nL, threshold dose) into the NTS. The data show that microinjection of noradrenaline into the caudal NTS produced a significant reduction in the pressor response to the chemoreflex 30 s after the injection when compared to the control response (30+/-6 vs. 49+/-3 mm Hg) but no significant changes in the bradycardic response. The data indicate that noradrenaline in the caudal commissural NTS of awake rats may play an important inhibitory neuromodulatory role on the processing of the pressor/sympathoexcitatory component of the chemoreflex.

  11. Targeting of the Plzf Gene in the Rat by Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nuclease Results in Caudal Regression Syndrome in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liška, František; Peterková, Renata; Peterka, Miroslav; Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šilhavý, Jan; Šimáková, Miroslava; Křen, Vladimír; Starker, Colby G; Voytas, Daniel F; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Pravenec, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been found that spontaneous mutation Lx (polydactyly-luxate syndrome) in the rat is determined by deletion of a conserved intronic sequence of the Plzf (Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein) gene. In addition, Plzf is a prominent candidate gene for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). In the current study, we tested the effects of Plzf gene targeting in the SHR using TALENs (transcription activator-like effector nucleases). SHR ova were microinjected with constructs pTAL438/439 coding for a sequence-specific endonuclease that binds to target sequence in the first coding exon of the Plzf gene. Out of 43 animals born after microinjection, we detected a single male founder. Sequence analysis revealed a deletion of G that resulted in frame shift mutation starting in codon 31 and causing a premature stop codon at position of amino acid 58. The Plzftm1Ipcv allele is semi-lethal since approximately 95% of newborn homozygous animals died perinatally. All homozygous animals exhibited manifestations of a caudal regression syndrome including tail anomalies and serious size reduction and deformities of long bones, and oligo- or polydactyly on the hindlimbs. The heterozygous animals only exhibited the tail anomalies. Impaired development of the urinary tract was also revealed: one homozygous and one heterozygous rat exhibited a vesico-ureteric reflux with enormous dilatation of ureters and renal pelvis. In the homozygote, this was combined with a hypoplastic kidney. These results provide evidence for the important role of Plzf gene during development of the caudal part of a body-column vertebrae, hindlimbs and urinary system in the rat.

  12. Targeting of the Plzf Gene in the Rat by Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nuclease Results in Caudal Regression Syndrome in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liška, František; Peterková, Renata; Peterka, Miroslav; Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šilhavý, Jan; Šimáková, Miroslava; Křen, Vladimír; Starker, Colby G.; Voytas, Daniel F.; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Pravenec, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been found that spontaneous mutation Lx (polydactyly-luxate syndrome) in the rat is determined by deletion of a conserved intronic sequence of the Plzf (Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein) gene. In addition, Plzf is a prominent candidate gene for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). In the current study, we tested the effects of Plzf gene targeting in the SHR using TALENs (transcription activator-like effector nucleases). SHR ova were microinjected with constructs pTAL438/439 coding for a sequence-specific endonuclease that binds to target sequence in the first coding exon of the Plzf gene. Out of 43 animals born after microinjection, we detected a single male founder. Sequence analysis revealed a deletion of G that resulted in frame shift mutation starting in codon 31 and causing a premature stop codon at position of amino acid 58. The Plzftm1Ipcv allele is semi-lethal since approximately 95% of newborn homozygous animals died perinatally. All homozygous animals exhibited manifestations of a caudal regression syndrome including tail anomalies and serious size reduction and deformities of long bones, and oligo- or polydactyly on the hindlimbs. The heterozygous animals only exhibited the tail anomalies. Impaired development of the urinary tract was also revealed: one homozygous and one heterozygous rat exhibited a vesico-ureteric reflux with enormous dilatation of ureters and renal pelvis. In the homozygote, this was combined with a hypoplastic kidney. These results provide evidence for the important role of Plzf gene during development of the caudal part of a body—column vertebrae, hindlimbs and urinary system in the rat. PMID:27727328

  13. Recovering missing data: estimating position and size of caudal vertebrae in Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando N. Grillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Missing data is a common problem in paleontology. It makes it difficult to reconstruct extinct taxa accurately and restrains the inclusion of some taxa on comparative and biomechanical studies. Particularly, estimating the position of vertebrae on incomplete series is often non-empirical and does not allow precise estimation of missing parts. In this work we present a method for calculating the position of preserved middle sequences of caudal vertebrae in the saurischian dinosaur Staurikosaurus pricei, based on the length and height of preserved anterior and posterior caudal vertebral centra. Regression equations were used to estimate these dimensions for middle vertebrae and, consequently, to assess the position of the preserved middle sequences. It also allowed estimating these dimensions for non-preserved vertebrae. Results indicate that the preserved caudal vertebrae of Staurikosaurus may correspond to positions 1-3, 5, 7, 14-19/15-20, 24-25/25-26, and 29-47, and that at least 25 vertebrae had transverse processes. Total length of the tail was estimated in 134 cm and total body length was 220-225 cm.Dados lacunares são um problema comum na paleontologia. Eles dificultam a reconstrução acurada de táxons extintos e limitam a inclusão de alguns táxons em estudos comparativose biomecânicos. Particularmente, estimar a posição de vértebras em séries incompletas tem sido feito com base em métodos não empíricos que não permitem estimar corretamente as partes ausentes. Neste trabalho apresentamos uma metodologia que permite estimar a posição de sequências médias preservadas de vértebras caudais no dinossauro saurísquio Staurikosaurus pricei, com base no comprimento e altura dos centros das vértebras anteriores e posteriores preservadas. Equações de regressão foram usadas para estimar essas dimensões para as vértebras médias e, consequentemente, para posicionar as sequências médias preservadas e para estimar o tamanho das

  14. Postembryonic morphology in epsilonematidae, with a discussion on the variability of caudal gland outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Maarten; Decraemer, Wilfrida; Vanreusel, Ann

    2006-03-01

    intergeneric variability. The variability in the number and orientation of caudal gland outlets among different nematode taxa is discussed. The presence of separate outlets for the caudal glands seems to be widespread within the family Epsilonematidae and has also been observed in various other, unrelated taxa of free-living aquatic nematodes, although their arrangement in Epsilonematidae is opposite. This aberrant arrangement is probably related to the aberrant locomotory pattern in this family.

  15. Recombinant lentivirus with enhanced expression of caudal-related homeobox protein 2 inhibits human colorectal cancer cell proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Sai; Sun, Xue-Jun; Zheng, Jian-Bao; Qi, Jie; Chen, Nan-Zheng; Wang, Wei; Wei, Guang-Bing; Liu, Dong; Yu, Jun-Hui; Lu, Shao-Ying; Wang, Hui

    2015-08-01

    Caudal-related homeobox protein 2 (CDX2), a tumor suppressor in the adult colon, is overexpressed under a non-cancer specific cytomegalovirus promoter in certain tumor cells; furthermore, non-specific expression of CDX2 may result in aberrant side effects in normal cells. The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter is active in the majority of cancer cells but not in normal cells. Hypoxia is a key feature of solid tumors, and targeted genes may be significantly upregulated by five copies of hypoxia-response elements (HREs) under hypoxic conditions. However, the effect of CDX2 overexpression, as controlled by five copies of HREs and the hTERT promoter, on human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell proliferation in vitro remains to be fully elucidated. In the current study, a recombinant lentivirus containing the CDX2 gene under the control of five HREs and the hTERT promoter was generated. An immunofluorescence assay was used to detect CDX2 expression by the 5 HhC lentivirus, whereas an MTT assay was used to detect the effects of CoCl2 on the viability of LoVo cells. Western blot analysis was conducted in order to determine the relative ratios of recombinant CDX2 protein to the internal control β-actin, following 5 HhC/LoVo cell culture under normoxic and hypoxic conditions (100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 µmol/l CoCl2) for 24 h, then for 12, 24 or 36 h with the optimal concentration (300 µmol/l) of CoCl2. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to determine the transcription of recombinant CDX2 mRNA following culture of 5 HhC/LoVo cells under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Finally, a cloning assay was used to detect the proliferative ability of 5 HhC/LoVo and 5 Hh cells. High CDX2 expression was observed in hTERT-positive LoVo cells under hypoxic conditions, an effect which was mimicked by treatment with CoCl2 to inhibit LoVo cell proliferation in vitro. High expression of CDX2 therefore provides a promising strategy for the

  16. A COMPARISON OF RECTAL DICLOFENAC WITH CAUDAL LEVOBUPIVACAINE FOR POST OPERATIVE PAIN RELIEF IN CHILDREN FOLLOWING LOWER ABDOMINAL OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya De

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. . Adequate pain relief reduces the stress response and pain relief through epidural route. Caudal epidural analgesia is very commonly practiced technique in children with levobupivacaine. Rectal administration of diclofenac in children is safe and convenient route and su s tained action of this drug provides analgesia in early and late post - operative period. AIMS: The aim of the study is to compare post - operative analgesic effect of rectal diclofenac with caudal levobupivacaine. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Hundred children were a llocated randomly in two groups in equal numbers using generated randomisation chart. All the patients underwent general anaesthesia. At the conclusion of surgery group A (n=50 received caudal injection of 1ml/kg of 0.25% levobupivacaine. The patients we re put left lateral and 23 gauge 25 mm long , short bevelled needle was used for this purpose. Group B (N=50 received a suppository of diclofenac sodium 2.5mg/kg. All anaesthesia , caudal block and suppository insertion was performed by the same anaesthet ist. No information on the method of analgesia or the study group to which the children belong was given to the ward nurse for post - operative observation. Syr. Paracetamol was as post - operative rescue analgesic as 15 mg/kg orally. The ward nurse assessed pain according to the observer pain scale. Assessment was undertaken in four occasions , 1 , 3 and 6 hours post operatively and overnight. If the patient were comfortable without any complain , they were discharged in the in following morning after completion of 24 hours. RESULT AND ANALYSIS: Statistical analysis of the data for pain and use of post - operative analgesic was done by chi - square test analysis with yati’s correction. Intergroup comparision of parametricv data were made by using student un paired t test. P<0.05 was considered to be significant.100 patients were grouped as Group C

  17. [Osteological development of the vertebral column and caudal complex of Lujanus guttatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) larvae under rearing conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ibarra, Luz Estela; Abdo-de la Parra, María Isabel; Aguilar-Zárate, Gabriela; Valasco-Blanco, Gabriela; Ibarra-Castro, Leonardo

    2015-03-01

    The spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) is an important commercial species in Mexico with good culture potential. The osteological study at early stages in this species is an important tool to confirm normal bone structure and for the detection of malformations that may occur during early development. This study was carried out in order to evaluate and describe the normal osteological development of the vertebral column and caudal complex of this species grown under controlled conditions. For this, a total of 540 larvae of L. guttatus, between 2.1 and 17.5 mm of total length (TL), were cultured during 36 days; culture conditions were 28 degrees C, 5.74 mg/L oxygen and 32.2 ups salinity with standard feeding rates. To detect growth changes, a sample of 15 organisms was daily taken from day one until day 36 of post-hatch (DPH). Samples were processed following standard techniques of clearing, and cartilage (alcian blue) and bone staining (alizarin red). Results showed that the vertebral column is composed of ten vertebrae in the abdominal region, and 14 vertebrae including the urostyle in the caudal region. The development of the axial skeleton starts with the neural arches and haemal arches at 3.8 mm TL. Caudal elements such as the hypurals and parahypural began to develop at 4.1 mm TL. Pre-flexion and flexion of the notochord and the formation of all hypurals were observed between 5.3 and 5.8 mm TL. Ossification of the vertebrae in the abdominal region and in some neural arches initiated at 9.5mm TL. In the caudal region, all the neural and haemal arches ossified at 10.2 mm TL. All the abdominal vertebrae and their respective neural arches and parapophyses ossified at 11.2 mm TL, while the elements of the caudal complex that ossified were the hypurals, parahypurals and modified haemal spines. All caudal fm rays, 12 neural spines and 3 haemal arches were ossified by 15.5 mm. The complete ossification process of this specie under laboratory culture conditions

  18. Sobre remisión de caudales en las fragatas "Gloria" y "Santa Agueda" 1794

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Historia Social y de la Cultura Anuario Colombiano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Es copia de su original y remitida por los Ministros de RealHacienda de la Plaza de Cartagena, De que certifico. Santa fe, 19de diciembre de 1794.Razón General para el Exmo. señor Secretario de Estado ydel Despacho Universal de Hacienda de los caudales que Oficiales Reales de Cartagena de Indias y de las Cajas Reales de su cargo remiten registrados en las dos Fragatas de Guerra, a saber, en la "Santa Agueda", del mando del Capitán de Fragata don Marcelo Espinola, y de que es Maestre don Alejandro de Lanas, y la titulada "Gloria", del mando del Capitán de Navío don Miguel Goycochea, y de que es Maestre don Luis Muñoz, que todo se ha de entregar al señor Presidente Juez de Arribadas del Puerto de Cádiz, para que desde allí les de su respectivo destino, en la forma siguiente. 

  19. Role of annexin gene and its regulation during zebrafish caudal fin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Sandeep; Purushothaman, Sruthi; Meghah, Vuppalapaty; Bhatti, Bhawna; Poruri, Akhila; Meena Lakshmi, Mula G; Sarath Babu, Nukala; Narasimha Murthy, Ch Lakshmi; Mandal, Komal K; Kumar, Arvind; Idris, Mohammed M

    2016-05-01

    The molecular mechanism of epimorphic regeneration is elusive due to its complexity and limitation in mammals. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms play a crucial role in development and regeneration. This investigation attempted to reveal the role of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, such as histone H3 and H4 lysine acetylation and methylation during zebrafish caudal fin regeneration. It was intriguing to observe that H3K9,14 acetylation, H4K20 trimethylation, H3K4 trimethylation and H3K9 dimethylation along with their respective regulatory genes, such as GCN5, SETd8b, SETD7/9, and SUV39h1, were differentially regulated in the regenerating fin at various time points of post-amputation. Annexin genes have been associated with regeneration; this study reveals the significant up-regulation of ANXA2a and ANXA2b transcripts and their protein products during the regeneration process. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and PCR analysis of the regulatory regions of the ANXA2a and ANXA2b genes demonstrated the ability to repress two histone methylations, H3K27me3 and H4K20me3, in transcriptional regulation during regeneration. It is hypothesized that this novel insight into the diverse epigenetic mechanisms that play a critical role during the regeneration process may help to strategize the translational efforts, in addition to identifying the molecules involved in vertebrate regeneration.

  20. Caudal regression syndrome (sirenomelia and its pathogenesis correlation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanadondi Usha Rani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormal development of caudal region of the body with different degrees of fusion of lower extremities, bears resemblance of Sirenomelia or mermaid of Greek Mythology. This type of deformity is also known as Symmelia, Symposia, Sympus, Uromelia and Monopodia. It is associated with the single umbilical artery. It is associated with severe malformations of urogenital i.e. renal agenesis and absence of both internal and external genitalia. The aim of this study is to present, a rare congenital malformation Sirenomelia. In this context, we report a case of Sirenomelia illustrating the prenatal sonographic and pathological features. In our study 25 years old primigravida gave birth to still born full term baby, sex could not be identified. The specimen was collected from private nursing home at Ongole, no relevant history of consanguineous marriage or tobacco smoking or drugs taking etc. Fetal USG, X-ray and CT were taken after birth. Fetal autopsy was done; the gonad, thymus and umbilical cord were sent to histopathological examination. The etiopathogenesis and characteristic features of Sirenomelia were discussed with the findings and review of the literature. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3406-3411

  1. Post-operative pain relief in children following caudal bupivacaine and buprenorphine--a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilkumar T

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-five paediatric patients (age range: 6 mths-12yrs undergoing lower abdominal surgery were studied for post-operative pain relief following either caudal bupivacaine (GpI: n = 43 or buprenorphine (GpII: n = 42. Bupivacaine was administered as 0.5ml/kg body weight of 0.25% solution and buprenorphine as 4 micrograms/ml and volume of 0.5 ml/Kg body weight in normal saline. Post-operatively pain was graded on a 4-point scale and behaviour on a 5-point scale. Any post-operative complications and need for additional analgesia were also noted. Bupivacaine provided good pain relief in the early post-operative hours but buprenorphine provided pain relief lasting for 24 hrs or more post-operatively. Post-operative behaviour of 10 patients receiving buprenorphine was graded as cheerful as compared to 2 from bupivacaine group. Till the end of observation period (i.e. 8 hr post-operatively, majority of patients receiving buprenorphine remained cheerful.

  2. Substituição dos ligamentos cruzados cranial e caudal em cães por duplo implante de polipropileno Replacement of the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments in dogs by double t polypropylene implant

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    Daniel Curvello de Mendonça Müller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é salientar uma alternativa eficaz no tratamento da ruptura dos ligamentos cruzados cranial e caudal de cães, sem associação de imobilização externa. Foram atendidos seis animais portadores de ruptura de ambos os ligamentos cruzados. Optou-se pela correção cirúrgica intracapsular, utilizando-se dois implantes sintéticos de polipropileno, para a estabilização da articulação. Os pacientes retornaram ao apoio completo do membro em 11,8±3,5 dias e não mantiveram instabilidade articular, após 0, 30 e 90 dias de avaliação clínica pós-operatória. Aos 90 dias após a cirurgia, não se percebeu claudicação nos pacientes avaliados. Concluiu-se que a técnica utilizada promoveu total estabilidade articular na ausência dos ligamentos cruzados cranial e caudal.The objective of this study is to point out an effective alternative in the treatment of the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments rupture in dogs, with no association of external immobilization. Six dogs with rupture of both cruciate ligaments were included in the present study. Stifle joint was surgically stabilized by an intracapsular technique, using two polypropylene synthetic implants. The animals returned to full member support in 11.8±3.5 days and did not sustain any joint instability degree after 0, 30 and 90 days of clinical evaluation after surgery. At 90 days after surgery, it became apparent lameness in any of the six patients. It was concluded that the technique employed caused total joint stability in the absence of caudal and cranial cruciate ligaments.

  3. The conserved barH-like homeobox-2 gene barhl2 acts downstream of orthodentricle-2 and together with iroquois-3 in establishment of the caudal forebrain signaling center induced by Sonic Hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraver-Geslin, Hugo A; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Durand, Béatrice C

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the gene regulatory network that governs formation of the Zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI), a signaling center that secretes Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) to control the growth and regionalization of the caudal forebrain. Using loss- and gain-of-function, explants and grafting experiments in amphibians, we demonstrate that barhl2 acts downstream of otx2 and together with the iroquois (irx)-3 gene in establishment of the ZLI compartment initiated by Shh influence. We find that the presumptive (pre)-ZLI domain expresses barhl2, otx2 and irx3, whereas the thalamus territory caudally bordering the pre-ZLI expresses barhl2, otx2 and irx1/2 and early on irx3. We demonstrate that Barhl2 activity is required for determination of the ZLI and thalamus fates and that within the p2 alar plate the ratio of Irx3 to Irx1/2 contributes to ZLI specification and size determination. We show that when continuously exposed to Shh, neuroepithelial cells coexpressing barhl2, otx2 and irx3 acquire two characteristics of the ZLI compartment-the competence to express shh and the ability to segregate from anterior neural plate cells. In contrast, neuroepithelial cells expressing barhl2, otx2 and irx1/2, are not competent to express shh. Noteworthy in explants, under Shh influence, ZLI-like cells segregate from thalamic-like cells. Our study establishes that Barhl2 activity plays a key role in p2 alar plate patterning, specifically ZLI formation, and provides new insights on establishment of the signaling center of the caudal forebrain.

  4. RÉGIMEN DE CAUDAL ECOLÓGICO, HERRAMIENTA DE GESTIÓN PARA CONSERVAR LA BIOTA ACUÁTICA

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    En el presente artículo de revisión se consolidó información sobre el Régimen de Caudal Ecológico, al constituirse en una herramienta de gestión en la conservación de la Biota Acuática. De esta manera, se considera relevante informar a la comunidad académica y actores de gestión, sobre la importancia de la gestión del recurso hídrico, el análisis de conceptos sobre el caudal ambiental y ecológico, la descripción de las diferentes metodologías que permiten su determinación y la normatividad am...

  5. The caudal regeneration blastema is an accumulation of rapidly proliferating stem cells in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano

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    Adamski Zbigniew

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrostomum lignano is a small free-living flatworm capable of regenerating all body parts posterior of the pharynx and anterior to the brain. We quantified the cellular composition of the caudal-most body region, the tail plate, and investigated regeneration of the tail plate in vivo and in semithin sections labeled with bromodeoxyuridine, a marker for stem cells (neoblasts in S-phase. Results The tail plate accomodates the male genital apparatus and consists of about 3,100 cells, about half of which are epidermal cells. A distinct regeneration blastema, characterized by a local accumulation of rapidly proliferating neoblasts and consisting of about 420 cells (excluding epidermal cells, was formed 24 hours after amputation. Differentiated cells in the blastema were observed two days after amputation (with about 920 blastema cells, while the male genital apparatus required four to five days for full differentiation. At all time points, mitoses were found within the blastema. At the place of organ differentiation, neoblasts did not replicate or divide. After three days, the blastema was made of about 1420 cells and gradually transformed into organ primordia, while the proliferation rate decreased. The cell number of the tail plate, including about 960 epidermal cells, was restored to 75% at this time point. Conclusion Regeneration after artificial amputation of the tail plate of adult specimens of Macrostomum lignano involves wound healing and the formation of a regeneration blastema. Neoblasts undergo extensive proliferation within the blastema. Proliferation patterns of S-phase neoblasts indicate that neoblasts are either determined to follow a specific cell fate not before, but after going through S-phase, or that they can be redetermined after S-phase. In pulse-chase experiments, dispersed distribution of label suggests that S-phase labeled progenitor cells of the male genital apparatus undergo further proliferation before

  6. Success rates and complications of awake caudal versus spinal block in preterm infants undergoing inguinal hernia repair: A prospective study

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    Mahin Seyedhejazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inguinal hernia is a common disease in preterm infants necessitating surgical repair. Despite the increased risk of postoperative apnea in preterm infants, the procedure was conventionally performed under general anesthesia. Recently, regional anesthesia approaches, including spinal and caudal blocks have been proposed as safe and efficient alternative anesthesia methods in this group of patients. The current study evaluates awake caudal and spinal blocks in preterm infants undergoing inguinal hernia repair. Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 66 neonates and infants (weight <5 kg undergoing inguinal hernia repair were recruited in Tabriz Teaching Children Hospital during a 12-month period. They were randomly divided into two equal groups; receiving either caudal block by 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine plus 20 μg adrenaline (group C or spinal block by 1 mg/kg of 0.5% bupivacaine plus 20 μg adrenaline (group S. Vital signs and pain scores were documented during operation and thereafter up to 24 h after operation. Results: Decrease in heart rate and systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in group C throughout the study period (P < 0.05. The mean recovery time was significantly higher in group S (27.3 ± 5.5 min vs. 21.8 ± 9.3 min; P = 0.03. Postoperative need for analgesia was significantly more frequent in group S (75.8% vs. 36.4%; P = 0.001. Failure in anesthesia was significantly higher in group S (24.4% vs. 6.1%; P = 0.04. Conclusion: More appropriate success rate, duration of recovery and postoperative need of analgesics could contribute to caudal block being a superior anesthesia technique compared to spinal anesthesia in awaked preterm infants undergoing inguinal hernia repair.

  7. Caudal Nucleus Accumbens Core Is Critical in the Regulation of Cue-Elicited Approach-Avoidance Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Laurie; Thangarasa, Tharshika; Samadi, Osai

    2017-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is thought to be a site of integration of positively and negatively valenced information and action selection. Functional differentiation in valence processing has previously been found along the rostrocaudal axis of the shell region of the NAc in assessments of unconditioned motivation. Given that the core region of the NAc has been implicated in the elicitation of motivated behavior in response to conditioned cues, we sought to assess the role of caudal, intermediate, and rostral sites within this subregion in cue-elicited approach-avoidance decisions. Rats were trained to associate visuo-tactile cues with appetitive, aversive, and neutral outcomes. Following the successful acquisition of the cue-outcome associations, rats received microinfusions of GABAA and GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol/baclofen) or saline into the caudal, intermediate, or rostral NAc core and were then exposed to a superimposition of appetitively and aversively valenced cues versus neutral cues in a “conflict test,” as well as to the appetitive versus neutral cues, and aversive cues versus neutral cues, in separate conditioned preference/avoidance tests. Disruption of activity in the intermediate to caudal parts of the NAc core resulted in a robust avoidance bias in response to motivationally conflicting cues, as well as a potentiated avoidance of aversive cues as compared with control animals, coupled with an attenuated conditioned preference for the appetitive cue. These results suggest that the caudal NAc core may have the capacity to exert bidirectional control over appetitively and aversively motivated responses to valence signals. PMID:28275709

  8. Comparison of preemptive intravenous paracetamol and caudal block in terms of analgesic and hemodynamic parameters in children

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    Serbülent Gökhan Beyaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Paracetamol has a widespread use for feverand symptomatic relief of pain in children. The aim ofthis study was to compare analgesic effects of preemptiveintravenous (i.v. paracetamol, and caudal block withlevobupivacaine.Materials and methods: A total of 60 children with ASAI-II physical status, aged 5-15 years and undergoing inguinalhernia repair, were randomly allocated to threegroups so that each group contained 20 patients. Group Pchildren received i.v. 15mg/kg paracetamol. Group C receivedonly caudal block with levobupivacaine, and GroupPC received both i.v. paracetamol, and caudal block withlevobupivacaine. Pain level assessed by modified EasternOntario Children’s Hospital pain scale (mCHEOPs,sedation status by Ramsey sedation scale at postoperative5, 15, 30 min and 1,3, and 6th hours.Results: No significant differences were found in age,gender distribution, body weight, ASA status, type andduration of surgery between three groups (p>0.05. Althoughsignificant difference were found in mCHEOPsscores within groups by repeated measures, no differenceof pain scores was observed between three groups(p>0.05. There were no significant differences in the hemodynamicparameters (heart rate, blood pressure bothwithin groups and between groups (p>0.05.Conclusions: Preemptive intravenous paracetamol hadsimilar analgesic effects compared with caudal block withlevobupivacaine with regard to postoperative pain scoresin children undergoing inguinal hernia repair. No hemodynamicor other adverse effects were observed withintravenous paracetamol. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(2:202-208

  9. Systematization, description and territory of the caudal cerebral artery of the brain in broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris

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    Lygia Almeida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty heads with the neck segment of Caiman latirostris were used. The animals were provided from a creation center called Mister Caiman, under the authorization of the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (Ibama. Animals were sacrificed according to the slaughtering routine of the abattoir, and the heads were sectioned at the level of the third cervical vertebra. The arterial system was washed with cold saline solution, with drainage through jugular veins. Subsequently, the system was filled with red colored latex injection. Pieces were than fixed in 20% formaldehyde, for seven days. The brains were removed, with a spinal cord segment, the duramater removed and the arteries dissected. At the level of the hypophysis, the internal carotid artery gave off a rostral branch, and a short caudal branch, continuing, naturally, as the caudal cerebral artery. This artery projected laterodorsalwards and, as it overpassed the optic tract, gave off its I (the first central branch. Penetrated in the cerebral transverse fissure, emitting the diencephalic artery and next its II (second central branch. Still inside the fissure, originated occipital hemispheric branches and a pineal branch. Emerged from the cerebral transverse fissure, over the occipital pole of the cerebral hemisphere. Projected rostralwards, sagital to the cerebral longitudinal fissure, as interhemispheric artery. This artery gave off medial and convex hemispheric branches to the respective surfaces of the cerebral hemispheres, anastomosed with its contralateral homologous, forming the common ethmoidal artery. This artery entered the fissure between the olfactory peduncles, emerging ventrally and dividing into ethmoidal arteries, right and left, which progressed towards the nasal cavities, vascularizing them. The territory of the caudal cerebral artery included the most caudal area of the base of the cerebral hemisphere, its convex surface, the olfactory

  10. Comparative Analysis of Gastrointestinal Microbiota Between Normal and Caudal-Related Homeobox 2 (Cdx2) Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, Hirotsugu; Asahara, Takashi; Chonan, Osamu; Yuki, Norikatsu; Mutoh, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Shunji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Sugano, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Caudal-related homeobox 2 (Cdx2) is expressed in the human intestinal metaplastic mucosa and induces intestinal metaplastic mucosa in the Cdx2 transgenic mouse stomach. Atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia commonly lead to gastric achlorhydria, which predisposes the stomach to bacterial overgrowth. In the present study, we determined the differences in gut microbiota between normal and Cdx2 transgenic mice, using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reac...

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CAUDAL ROPIVACAINE AND ROPIVACAINE - CLONIDINE COMBINATION IN PAEDIATRIC UROGENITAL SURGERIES FOR POST - OPERATIVE ANALGESIA

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    Ravi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Addition of clonidine to ropivacaine (0.2% can potentially enhance analgesia without producing prolonged motor blockade. The aim of the study was to compare the post - operative pain relieving quality of ropivacaine (0.2% and clonidine mixture to that of p lain ropivacaine (0.2% following caudal block in children’s. OBJECTIVE: In this study I examined the quality, post - operative analgesia and haemodynamics effects in children when clonidine is added to ropivacaine for urogenital surgeries in caudal anaesthe sia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this clinical trial, 30 children’s aged 1 - 10 years who were candidates for elective urogenital surgeries were studied. Induction and maintenance of anaesthesia were achieved using propofol, sevoflurane and nitrous oxide. Child ren were randomly divided into 2 groups in double blind fashion, and were given caudal block with 0.2% ropivacaine (1ml/kg alone and ropivacaine plus clonidine 2mcg/kg. Haemodynamic parameters were observed before, during and after the surgical procedure. Post - operative analgesia evaluated using FLACC score and sedation was assessed using Ramsey sedation scale. Paracetamol was given orally for cases with FLACC score 4 or more. RESULTS: Duration of analgesia was found to be significantly longer in the group given ropivacaine plus clonidine. CONCLUSIONS: I concluded that addition of clonidine to ropivacaine prolongs the duration of post - operative analgesia without any respiratory or heamodynamic side - effects.

  12. Comparison of Postoperative Analgesic Efficacy of Penile Block, Caudal Block and Intravenous Paracetamol for Circumcision: A prospective Randomized Study

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    Ahmet Hakan Haliloglu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate the postoperative analgesic efficacy of penile block, caudal block and intravenous paracetamol administration following circumcision. Materials and Methods In this prospective randomized study a total of 159 patients underwent circumcision under general anesthesia at urology clinic of Ufuk University Faculty of Medicine and Sorgun State Hospital between May 2012 and September 2012. The patients were randomized to three groups to receive penile block (Group 1, caudal block (Group 2 and intravenous paracetamol administration (group 3. Pain measurement of the patients was done via CHEOPS scoring system at 30,60,120 and 180 minutes postoperatively and compared. Statistical tests were performed with a conventional statistics program and statistical significance was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results The mean age of the patients was 5.7 years. Patients in group 1 had significantly lower pain score at 30 minutes compared to other two groups. At 60 minutes groups 1 and 2 had significantly lower score compared to group 3. At 120 and 180 minutes no difference between the groups was observed. No significant major complications were observed in all 3 groups. Conclusion Penile block and caudal block provide similar pain scores and painless postoperative periods after circumcision under general anesthesia. Intravenous paracetamol is insufficient at the early postoperative period. The three procedures were shown to be safe for analgesia following circumcision.

  13. The effect of inflammation on sympathetic nerve mediated contractions in rat isolated caudal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso Soh, Jocelyn; Strong, Hilary R; Daneshtalab, Noriko; Tabrizchi, Reza

    2016-12-05

    Chronic inflammatory process(es) contributes to changes in vascular function in a variety of diseases. Sympathetic nerve-mediated responses in blood vessels play a pivotal role in regular physiological functions. We tested the hypothesis that sympathetic neuro-effector function will be altered as consequence of inflammatory state. Sympathetic nerve-mediated contractions and alpha adrenergic receptor expressions were evaluated in isolated caudal arteries of rats treated with saline and Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). While CFA-treated animals had significantly higher plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha compared to saline, blood pressure remained unchanged. Immunofluorescence revealed increased expression of ionized calcium adapter binding molecule-1 in the adventitia of blood vessels from CFA-treated animals compared to saline. In isolated arteries, electrical field stimulations between 1.25 and 40Hz resulted in frequency-dependent contractions that wasabolished by tetrodotoxin. Neurogenic contractions from CFA groups were significantly greater than saline. While the presence of alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist (prazosin) significantly inhibited contractions at lower frequencies of stimulation (1.25-5Hz) in isolated arteries of CFA-treated rats compared to controls, alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist (rauwolscine) had modest effects. Inhibition of neuronal reuptake by cocaine comparably enhanced field-stimulated responses in vessels of experimental and control animals. Immunofluorescence revealed a difference in expression of alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptors in the endothelium of blood vessels of CFA compared to saline controls. Collectively, our observations lend support to enhanced neurogenic contractions in blood vessels of inflamed animals possibly attributing to alterations in responsiveness and/or distribution of post-junctional alpha1-adrenoceptors.

  14. Anatomical mechanism of spontaneous recovery in regions caudal to thoracic spinal cord injury lesions in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu-sheng; Yu, Hao; Raynald, Raynald; Wang, Xiao-dong; Dai, Guang-hui; Cheng, Hong-bin; Liu, Xue-bin

    2017-01-01

    Background The nerve fibre circuits around a lesion play a major role in the spontaneous recovery process after spinal cord hemisection in rats. The aim of the present study was to answer the following question: in the re-control process, do all spinal cord nerves below the lesion site participate, or do the spinal cord nerves of only one vertebral segment have a role in repair? Methods First we made a T7 spinal cord hemisection in 50 rats. Eight weeks later, they were divided into three groups based on distinct second operations at T7: ipsilateral hemisection operation, contralateral hemisection, or transection. We then tested recovery of hindlimbs for another eight weeks. The first step was to confirm the lesion had role or not in the spontaneous recovery process. Secondly, we performed T7 spinal cord hemisections in 125 rats. Eight weeks later, we performed a second single hemisection on the ipsilateral side at T8–T12 and then tested hindlimb recovery for another six weeks. Results In the first part, the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scores and the electrophysiology tests of both hindlimbs weren’t significantly different after the second hemisection of the ipsilateral side. In the second part, the closer the second hemisection was to T12, the more substantial the resulting impairment in BBB score tests and prolonged latency periods. Conclusions The nerve regeneration from the lesion area after hemisection has no effect on spontaneous recovery of the spinal cord. Repair is carried out by all vertebrae caudal and ipsilateral to the lesion, with T12 being most important. PMID:28097067

  15. Growth Hormone (GH) and Rehabilitation Promoted Distal Innervation in a Child Affected by Caudal Regression Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devesa, Jesús; Alonso, Alba; López, Natalia; García, José; Puell, Carlos I; Pablos, Tamara; Devesa, Pablo

    2017-01-23

    Caudal regression syndrome (CRS) is a malformation occurring during the fetal period and mainly characterized by an incomplete development of the spinal cord (SC), which is often accompanied by other developmental anomalies. We studied a 9-month old child with CRS who presented interruption of the SC at the L2-L3 level, sacral agenesis, a lack of innervation of the inferior limbs (flaccid paraplegia), and neurogenic bladder and bowel. Given the known positive effects of growth hormone (GH) on neural stem cells (NSCs), we treated him with GH and rehabilitation, trying to induce recovery from the aforementioned sequelae. The Gross Motor Function Test (GMFM)-88 test score was 12.31%. After a blood analysis, GH treatment (0.3 mg/day, 5 days/week, during 3 months and then 15 days without GH) and rehabilitation commenced. This protocol was followed for 5 years, the last GH dose being 1 mg/day. Blood analysis and physical exams were performed every 3 months initially and then every 6 months. Six months after commencing the treatment the GMFM-88 score increased to 39.48%. Responses to sensitive stimuli appeared in most of the territories explored; 18 months later sensitive innervation was complete and the patient moved all muscles over the knees and controlled his sphincters. Three years later he began to walk with crutches, there was plantar flexion, and the GMFM-88 score was 78.48%. In summary, GH plus rehabilitation may be useful for innervating distal areas below the level of the incomplete spinal cord in CRS. It is likely that GH acted on the ependymal SC NSCs, as the hormone does in the neurogenic niches of the brain, and rehabilitation helped to achieve practically full functionality.

  16. Growth Hormone (GH) and Rehabilitation Promoted Distal Innervation in a Child Affected by Caudal Regression Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devesa, Jesús; Alonso, Alba; López, Natalia; García, José; Puell, Carlos I.; Pablos, Tamara; Devesa, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Caudal regression syndrome (CRS) is a malformation occurring during the fetal period and mainly characterized by an incomplete development of the spinal cord (SC), which is often accompanied by other developmental anomalies. We studied a 9-month old child with CRS who presented interruption of the SC at the L2–L3 level, sacral agenesis, a lack of innervation of the inferior limbs (flaccid paraplegia), and neurogenic bladder and bowel. Given the known positive effects of growth hormone (GH) on neural stem cells (NSCs), we treated him with GH and rehabilitation, trying to induce recovery from the aforementioned sequelae. The Gross Motor Function Test (GMFM)-88 test score was 12.31%. After a blood analysis, GH treatment (0.3 mg/day, 5 days/week, during 3 months and then 15 days without GH) and rehabilitation commenced. This protocol was followed for 5 years, the last GH dose being 1 mg/day. Blood analysis and physical exams were performed every 3 months initially and then every 6 months. Six months after commencing the treatment the GMFM-88 score increased to 39.48%. Responses to sensitive stimuli appeared in most of the territories explored; 18 months later sensitive innervation was complete and the patient moved all muscles over the knees and controlled his sphincters. Three years later he began to walk with crutches, there was plantar flexion, and the GMFM-88 score was 78.48%. In summary, GH plus rehabilitation may be useful for innervating distal areas below the level of the incomplete spinal cord in CRS. It is likely that GH acted on the ependymal SC NSCs, as the hormone does in the neurogenic niches of the brain, and rehabilitation helped to achieve practically full functionality. PMID:28124993

  17. Caudal topographic nucleus isthmi and the rostral nontopographic nucleus isthmi in the turtle, Pseudemys scripta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, M I; Ulinski, P S

    1987-07-15

    Isthmotectal projections in turtles were examined by making serial section reconstructions of axonal and dendritic arborizations that were anterogradely or retrogradely filled with HRP. Two prominent tectal-recipient isthmic nuclei--the caudal magnocellular nucleus isthmi (Imc) and the rostral magnocellular nucleus isthmi (Imr)--exhibited strikingly different patterns of organization. Imc cells have flattened, bipolar dendritic fields that cover a few percent of the area of the cell plate constituting the nucleus and they project topographically to the ipsilateral tectum without local axon branches. The topography was examined explicitly at the single-cell level by using cases with two injections at widely separated tectal loci. Each Imc axon terminates as a compact swarm of several thousand boutons placed mainly in the upper central gray and superficial gray layers. One Imc terminal spans less that 1% of the tectal surface. Imr cells, by contrast, have large, sparsely branched dendritic fields overlapped by local axon collaterals while distally, their axons nontopographically innervate not only the deeper layers of the ipsilateral tectum but also ipsilateral Imc. Imr receives a nontopographic tectal input that contrasts with the topographic tectal input to Imc. Previous work on nucleus isthmi emphasized the role of the contralateral isthmotectal projection (which originates from a third isthmic nucleus in turtles) in mediating binocular interactions in the tectum. The present results on the two different but overlapping ipsilateral tecto-isthmo-tectal circuits set up by Imc and Imr are discussed in the light of physiological evidence for selective attention effects and local-global interactions in the tectum.

  18. Zebrafish Caudal Fin Angiogenesis Assay-Advanced Quantitative Assessment Including 3-Way Correlative Microscopy.

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    Ruslan Hlushchuk

    Full Text Available Researchers evaluating angiomodulating compounds as a part of scientific projects or pre-clinical studies are often confronted with limitations of applied animal models. The rough and insufficient early-stage compound assessment without reliable quantification of the vascular response counts, at least partially, to the low transition rate to clinics.To establish an advanced, rapid and cost-effective angiogenesis assay for the precise and sensitive assessment of angiomodulating compounds using zebrafish caudal fin regeneration. It should provide information regarding the angiogenic mechanisms involved and should include qualitative and quantitative data of drug effects in a non-biased and time-efficient way.Basic vascular parameters (total regenerated area, vascular projection area, contour length, vessel area density were extracted from in vivo fluorescence microscopy images using a stereological approach. Skeletonization of the vasculature by our custom-made software Skelios provided additional parameters including "graph energy" and "distance to farthest node". The latter gave important insights into the complexity, connectivity and maturation status of the regenerating vascular network. The employment of a reference point (vascular parameters prior amputation is unique for the model and crucial for a proper assessment. Additionally, the assay provides exceptional possibilities for correlative microscopy by combining in vivo-imaging and morphological investigation of the area of interest. The 3-way correlative microscopy links the dynamic changes in vivo with their structural substrate at the subcellular level.The improved zebrafish fin regeneration model with advanced quantitative analysis and optional 3-way correlative morphology is a promising in vivo angiogenesis assay, well-suitable for basic research and preclinical investigations.

  19. Ultrasound guided single injection caudal epidural anesthesia of isobaric bupivacaine with/without dexamethasone for geriatric patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery

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    H.A. El Gendy

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Adding dexamethasone with isobaric bupivacaine caudal anesthesia prolongs the duration of postoperative analgesia and decreased postoperative analgesic requirement in geriatric patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery in comparison isobaric bupivacaine alone.

  20. Substituição dos ligamentos cruzados cranial e caudal em cães por duplo implante de polipropileno Replacement of the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments in dogs by double t polypropylene implant

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Curvello de Mendonça Müller; Paula Cristina Basso; Gabriele Maria Callegaro Serafini; Maurício Borges da Rosa; Arícia Gomes Sprada; João Paulo Monteiro Carvalho Mori da Cunha; Ney Luis Pippi

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é salientar uma alternativa eficaz no tratamento da ruptura dos ligamentos cruzados cranial e caudal de cães, sem associação de imobilização externa. Foram atendidos seis animais portadores de ruptura de ambos os ligamentos cruzados. Optou-se pela correção cirúrgica intracapsular, utilizando-se dois implantes sintéticos de polipropileno, para a estabilização da articulação. Os pacientes retornaram ao apoio completo do membro em 11,8±3,5 dias e não mantiveram i...

  1. Loss of COUP-TFI alters the balance between caudal ganglionic eminence- and medial ganglionic eminence-derived cortical interneurons and results in resistance to epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodato, Simona; Tomassy, Giulio Srubek; De Leonibus, Elvira; Uzcategui, Yoryani G; Andolfi, Gennaro; Armentano, Maria; Touzot, Audrey; Gaztelu, Jose M; Arlotta, Paola; Menendez de la Prida, Liset; Studer, Michèle

    2011-03-23

    In rodents, cortical interneurons originate from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) and caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE) according to precise temporal schedules. The mechanisms controlling the specification of CGE-derived interneurons and their role in cortical circuitry are still unknown. Here, we show that COUP-TFI expression becomes restricted to the dorsal MGE and CGE at embryonic day 13.5 in the basal telencephalon. Conditional loss of function of COUP-TFI in subventricular precursors and postmitotic cells leads to a decrease of late-born, CGE-derived, VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide)- and CR (calretinin)-expressing bipolar cortical neurons, compensated by the concurrent increase of early-born MGE-derived, PV (parvalbumin)-expressing interneurons. Strikingly, COUP-TFI mutants are more resistant to pharmacologically induced seizures, a phenotype that is dependent on GABAergic signaling. Together, our data indicate that COUP-TFI controls the delicate balance between MGE- and CGE-derived cortical interneurons by regulating intermediate progenitor divisions and ultimately affecting the activity of the cortical inhibitory circuitry.

  2. Effects of simulated microgravity on circadian rhythm of caudal arterial pressure and heart rate in rats and their underlying mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li CHEN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the effects of simulated microgravity on the circadian rhythm of rats' caudal arterial pressure and heart rate, and their underlying mechanism. Methods  Eighteen male SD rats (aged 8 weeks were randomly assigned to control (CON and tail suspension (SUS group (9 each. Rats with tail suspension for 28 days were adopted as the animal model to simulate microgravity. Caudal arterial pressure and heart rate of rats were measured every 3 hours. The circadian difference of abdominal aorta contraction was measured by aortic ring test. Western blotting was performed to determine and compare the protein expression level of clock genes such as Per2 (Period2, Bmal1 (Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocatorlike and dbp (D element binding protein in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and abdominal aorta of rats in CON and SUS group at different time points. Results  Compared with CON group, the caudal arterial pressure, both systolic and diastolic pressure, decreased significantly and the diurnal variability disappeared, meanwhile the heart rate increased obviously and also the diurnal variability disappeared in rats of SUS group. Compared with CON group, the contraction reactivity of abdominal aorta decreased with disappearence of the diurnal variability, and also the clock genes expression in SCN and abdominal aorta showed no diurnal variability in rats of SUS group. Conclusion  Simulated microgravity may lead to circadian rhythm disorders in rats' cardiovascular system, which may be associated with the changes of the clock genes expression. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.06

  3. DETERMINACIÓN DE CAUDALES AMBIENTALES CONFIABLES EN COLOMBIA: EL EJEMPLO DEL RÍO PALACÉ (CAUCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diez Hernández Juan Manuel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available La explotación creciente de los recursos hídricos en Colombia requiere una reglamentación avanzada para determinar los Regímenes de Caudales Ambientales (RCA que fundamentan los Planes de Ordenación y Manejo de Cuencas Hidrográficas (POMCA. Entre la diversidad de enfoques propuestos para evaluar RCA, el más utilizado y aceptado científicamente es la conocida metodología «Instream Flow Incremental Methodology» (IFIM, cuya aplicabilidad en los ríos de Colombia se ensaya por primera vez en este trabajo. La modelación IFIM del río Palacé aguas abajo de la nueva captación de 500 l/s para el acueducto de Popayán (Cauca revela que el efecto de la detracción limitada del 6.78% del caudal medio anual sobre la integridad ecosistémica fluvial es muy leve. Las simulaciones eco­ hidráulica y eco­ hidrológica del tramo fluvial representativo (longitud 500m, anchura 18m, pendiente 5% y granulometría gruesa con el programa RHABSIM 3.0, detectaron disminuciones poco significativas del hábitat disponible para la ictiofauna y los macroinvetebrados acuáticos. En consecuencia, el manejo de caudales actual del Palacé vinculado a la captación del nuevo acueducto de Popayán es corroborado, según este análisis avanzado IFIM, como un RCA satisfactorio. Este trabajo sugiere investigaciones dirigidas al perfeccionamiento y particularización de IFIM para las condiciones fluviales de Colombia.

  4. Effects of ketamine and midazolam on emergence agitation after sevoflurane anaesthesia in children receiving caudal block: a randomized trial

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    Ayse Ozcan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Emergence agitation is a common postanaesthetic problem in children after sevoflurane anaesthesia. We aimed to compare the effects of ketamine and midazolam administered intravenously, before the end of surgery, for prevention of emergence agitation in children who received caudal block for pain relief under sevoflurane anaesthesia. Methods: 62 American Society of Anesthesiologists patient classification status I children, aged 2–7 years, scheduled for inguinal hernia repair, circumcision or orchidopexy were enrolled to the study. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane 8% in a mixture of 50% oxygen and nitrous oxide. After achieving adequate depth of anaesthesia, a laryngeal mask was placed and then caudal block was performed with 0.75 mL kg−1, 0.25% bupivacaine. At the end of the surgery, ketamine 0.25 mg kg−1, midazolam 0.03 mg kg−1 and saline were given to ketamine, midazolam and control groups, respectively. Agitation was assessed using Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and postoperative pain was evaluated with modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale. Results and conclusions: Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores were found higher in control group than in ketamine and midazolam groups. Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores were similar between groups. Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale and Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores showed a significant decrease by time in all groups during follow-up in postanaesthesia care unit. The present study resulted in satisfactory Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores which are below 10 in all groups. As a conclusion, neither ketamine nor midazolam added to caudal block under sevoflurane anaesthesia did show further effect on emergence agitation. In addition, pain relief still seems to be the major factor in preventing emergence agitation after

  5. Ontogeny of head and caudal fin shape of an apex marine predator: The tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Amy L; Hammerschlag, Neil; Lauder, George V; Wilga, Cheryl D; Kuo, Chi-Yun; Irschick, Duncan J

    2016-05-01

    How morphology changes with size can have profound effects on the life history and ecology of an animal. For apex predators that can impact higher level ecosystem processes, such changes may have consequences for other species. Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are an apex predator in tropical seas, and, as adults, are highly migratory. However, little is known about ontogenetic changes in their body form, especially in relation to two aspects of shape that influence locomotion (caudal fin) and feeding (head shape). We captured digital images of the heads and caudal fins of live tiger sharks from Southern Florida and the Bahamas ranging in body size (hence age), and quantified shape of each using elliptical Fourier analysis. This revealed changes in the shape of the head and caudal fin of tiger sharks across ontogeny. Smaller juvenile tiger sharks show an asymmetrical tail with the dorsal (upper) lobe being substantially larger than the ventral (lower) lobe, and transition to more symmetrical tail in larger adults, although the upper lobe remains relatively larger in adults. The heads of juvenile tiger sharks are more conical, which transition to relatively broader heads over ontogeny. We interpret these changes as a result of two ecological transitions. First, adult tiger sharks can undertake extensive migrations and a more symmetrical tail could be more efficient for swimming longer distances, although we did not test this possibility. Second, adult tiger sharks expand their diet to consume larger and more diverse prey with age (turtles, mammals, and elasmobranchs), which requires substantially greater bite area and force to process. In contrast, juvenile tiger sharks consume smaller prey, such as fishes, crustaceans, and invertebrates. Our data reveal significant morphological shifts in an apex predator, which could have effects for other species that tiger sharks consume and interact with.

  6. Fluoroscopic caudal epidural injections in managing chronic axial low back pain without disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchikanti L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Laxmaiah Manchikanti,1,2 Kimberly A Cash,1 Carla D McManus,1 Vidyasagar Pampati11Pain Management Center of Paducah, Paducah, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USABackground: Chronic low back pain without disc herniation is common. Various modalities of treatments are utilized in managing this condition, including epidural injections. However, there is continued debate on the effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity of any treatment modality utilized for managing axial or discogenic pain, including epidural injections.Methods: A randomized, double-blind, actively controlled trial was conducted. The objective was to evaluate the ability to assess the effectiveness of caudal epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for managing chronic low back pain not caused by disc herniation, radiculitis, facet joints, or sacroiliac joints. A total of 120 patients were randomized to two groups; one group did not receive steroids (group 1 and the other group did (group 2. There were 60 patients in each group. The primary outcome measure was at least 50% improvement in Numeric Rating Scale and Oswestry Disability Index. Secondary outcome measures were employment status and opioid intake. These measures were assessed at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment.Results: Significant pain relief and functional status improvement (primary outcome defined as a 50% or more reduction in scores from baseline, were observed in 54% of patients in group 1 and 60% of patients in group 2 at 24 months. In contrast, 84% of patients in group 1 and 73% in group 2 saw significant pain relief and functional status improvement in the successful groups at 24 months.Conclusion: Caudal epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids are effective in patients with chronic axial low back pain of discogenic origin without facet joint pain, disc herniation, and

  7. TWENTY-ONE CASES OF CAUDAL PAIN TREATED WITH MOXIBUSTION OF CHANGQIANG POINT IN COMBINATION WITH INTRA-ANAL MASSAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茎

    2003-01-01

    @@ Caudal pain is a relatively special disease of orthopedics and refers to the pain around the coccyx region, the lower part of sacral bone and its surrounding soft tissues including muscles, etc.. The serious case is usually caused by trauma and accompanied with dropping and distending sensation in the local region. The author of the present paper adopted moxibustion of Changqiang (GV 1) point in combination with massage around the inside of the anus and achieved an obviously curative effect. The results are reported as follows.

  8. Systematization, description, and territory of the caudal cerebral artery in surface of the brain of the ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazer, Manoel; Campos, Rui

    2014-08-01

    Brain specimens from 30 ostriches were injected with red-dyed latex via the internal carotid arteries, and the caudal cerebral arteries and their branches were systematically described. On the right side, the caudal cerebral artery was double-, triple-, quadruple-, and single-branched in 73.5%, 23.3%, 3.3%, and 3.3% of cases, respectively; on the left side, it was double-, triple-, quadruple-, and single-branched in 76.7%, 20%, 3.3%, and 3.3% of cases, respectively. The dorsal tectal mesencephalic artery appeared as a single vessel in 96.7% of cases, emerging as a collateral branch of the caudal cerebral artery. The dorsal mesencephalic tectal artery originated from the right dorsal cerebellar artery in 40% of cases and from the left side in 63.3% of cases. On the right side, there were four and three medial occipital hemispheric branches in 46.7% and 20% of cases, respectively; on the left side, there were four and three branches in 30% and 26.7% of cases. On the right side, the pineal artery was double-, single-, triple-, and quadruple-branched in 50%, 23.3%, 20%, and 6.7% of cases, respectively; on the left side, this artery was double-, single-, triple-, and quadruple-branched in 50%, 23.3%, 16.7%, and 10% of cases, respectively. The diencephalic artery was on the right side in 43.3% of cases and on the left side in 56.7% of cases. The interhemispheric artery was on the right side in 56.7% of cases and on the left side in 43.3% of cases; four, three, two, five, and one dorsal hemispheric trunks branched off of the interhemispheric artery in 40%, 40%, 10%, 6.7%, and 26.7% of cases, respectively. The caudal cerebral artery was classified as Type I in 56.7% of cases (subtype IA in 33.3% of cases and IB in 23.3% of cases), Type II in 40% of cases (subtype IIA in 20% of cases and IIB in 20% of cases), and Type III in 3.3% of cases.

  9. Predicción de caudales medios mensuales en ríos de Colombia usando RNA y MARS.

    OpenAIRE

    Velásquez Girón, Nicolás; SÁNCHEZ MOLINA, JOANY; Carvajal Serna, Luis Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Se implementan dos metodologías para el pronóstico de caudales medios mensuales en ríos de Colombia: (i) MARS ("Multivariate Adaptative Regresion Splines"), y (ii) RNA (Redes Neuronales Artificiales). El método no paramétrico de MARS y el método RNA, permiten incorporar la persistencia hidrológica y la influencia de fenómenos macroclimáticos como el ENSO. Las predicciones se hicieron durante el período 1996-2007 para seis ríos de Colombia, los cuales son importantes en la generación de ener...

  10. Addition of clonidine or fentanyl to local anaesthetics prolongs the duration of surgical analgesia after single shot caudal block in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, I; Gall, O; Gouyet, L; Chauvin, M; Murat, I

    1998-03-01

    Caudal anaesthesia is indicated for surgical procedures lasting less than 90 min. Fentanyl and clonidine are known to prolong postoperative caudal analgesia, but there are no data on their effect on duration of surgical analgesia. We evaluated if the addition of clonidine or fentanyl to local anaesthetics prolonged the duration of surgical analgesia after single shot caudal block in children in a randomized, double-blind study. We studied 64 children, aged 6-108 months, undergoing bilateral correction of vesicoureteral reflux which was expected to last more than 90 min. Patients were allocated to one of four groups: group O received 1 ml kg-1 of a mixture of 0.25% bupivacaine with epinephrine and 1% lidocaine in equal parts; group F received the same mixture of local anaesthetics in addition to fentanyl 1 microgram kg-1; group C received the same mixture of local anaesthetics in addition to clonidine 1.5 micrograms kg-1; and group C + F received the same mixture of local anaesthetics in addition to fentanyl 0.5 microgram kg-1 and clonidine 0.75 microgram kg-1. Single shot caudal block was sufficient in only 57% of children in group O compared with 93% in groups C and F and 86% in group C + F (P = 0.035). Global assessment of anaesthesia, defined as the time from caudal injection to the first administration of analgesic (either during or after surgery), was significantly longer in the three groups of children who received additives compared with local anaesthetics alone (P = 0.035), but there were no differences between the three additive groups. Vomiting was observed only in children who received fentanyl. Addition of clonidine or fentanyl to local anaesthetics prolonged the duration of surgical analgesia of caudal block, allowing single shot caudal anaesthesia to be recommended for surgery lasting 90-150 minutes. Clonidine had some advantages over fentanyl as it did not produce clinically significant side effects.

  11. Acetylcarnitine metabolism and the partial purification and characterization of an acetylcarnitine hydrolase from bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Epididymal spermatozoa are capable of utilizing extracellular substrates for energy, but carbohydrates and free or esterified fatty acids are present in only very low concentrations in epididymal fluid. Acetyl-L-carnitine has been identified in epididymal fluid in low mM concentrations in several mammalian species and could possibly be an energy substrate for epididymal spermatozoa. Evidence that extracellular acetyl-L-carnitine can be used by intact caudal epididymal spermatozoa for energy, and a model for the metabolism of acetyl-L-carnitine by epididymal spermatozoa are presented here. Intact bovine and hamster caudal epididymal spermatozoa oxidized (1-{sup 14}C) acetyl-L-carnitine to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in a time-, cell number-, and substrate concentration-dependent manner. No concomitant uptake of acetyl-D,L-(N-methyl-{sup 3}H) carnitine was observed by cells from the same preparations. Half-maximal rates of oxidation were observed at 8 mM and 4.5 mM acetyl-L-carnitine for the two species, respectively; the rates of oxidation at these concentrations were 15.3 nmol/10{sup 8} cells{centered dot}h and 2.9 nmol/10{sup 7} cells{centered dot}h. Intact spermatozoa in incubation with ({sup 3}H) acetyl-L-carnitine were observed to produce ({sup 3}H) acetate in the medium, and addition of sodium acetate competed for the uptake of radioactive acetate by these cells.

  12. Hemodynamic and respiratory responses to microinjection of ATP into the intermediate and caudal NTS of awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Vagner R; Bonagamba, Leni G H; Machado, Benedito H

    2005-01-25

    The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) is the site of integration of the peripheral chemoreceptor afferents in the brainstem. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that microinjection of ATP into the intermediate NTS produced increases in arterial pressure and bradycardia. In the present study, we evaluated the hemodynamic and respiratory responses to microinjection of ATP into the intermediate and caudal commissural NTS. In the same group of rats the responses were compared with cardiorespiratory responses to chemoreflex activation (KCN, i.v.). The data show that microinjection of ATP into the intermediate NTS produced pressor and bradycardic responses similar to those observed in response to chemoreflex activation but apnoea instead of tachypnoea. Microinjection of ATP into caudal commissural NTS produced increase in arterial pressure and tachypnoea similar to the chemoreflex but a minor bradycardia. The data show that microinjection of ATP into different sub-regions of the NTS produces a diverse pattern of hemodynamic and respiratory responses and suggest the involvement of this purine in the neurotransmission of the cardiovascular reflex in the NTS.

  13. Fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection for management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: short-term and long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Woo; Myung, Jae Sung; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Park, Kun Woo; Yeom, Jin S. [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Kim, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Hyun-Jib [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea)

    2010-07-15

    To evaluate the short-term and long-term effects of fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection (ESI) for the management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) and to analyze outcome predictors. All patients who underwent caudal ESI in 2006 for DLSS were included in the study. Response was based on chart documentation (aggravated, no change, slightly improved, much improved, no pain). In June 2009 telephone interviews were conducted, using formatted questions including the North American Spine Society (NASS) patient satisfaction scale. For short-term and long-term effects, age difference was evaluated by the Mann-Whitney U test, and gender, duration of symptoms, level of DLSS, spondylolisthesis, and previous operations were evaluated by Fisher's exact test. Two hundred and sixteen patients (male: female = 75:141; mean age 69.2 years; range 48{proportional_to}91 years) were included in the study. Improvements (slightly improved, much improved, no pain) were seen in 185 patients (85.6%) after an initial caudal ESI and in 189 patients (87.5%) after a series of caudal ESIs. Half of the patients (89/179, 49.8%) replied positively to the NASS patient satisfaction scale (1 or 2). There were no significant outcome predictors for either the short-term or the long-term responses. Fluoroscopically guided caudal ESI was effective for the management of DLSS (especially central canal stenosis) with excellent short-term and good long-term results, without significant outcome predictors. (orig.)

  14. COMPARISON OF HAEMODYNAMICS AND BLOOD LOSS IN URETHROPLASTY SURGERIES DONE UNDER GENERAL ANAESTHESIA WITH AND WITHOUT CAUDAL BLOCK IN CHILDREN AGED BETWEEN 2–5 YRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aavula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urethroplasty surgery is a painful procedure demanding high doses of analgesics, which may be associated with adverse effects and associated with significant blood loss. Caudal blockade provides good analgesia and hemodynamic stability and is probably a useful supplement in these surgeries. OBJECTIVES To compare the heart rate, blood pressure response to surgical stimuli and the incidence of blood transfusion rate post-operatively between 2 groups – A General Anaesthesia only. B General Anaesthesia with caudal block. SETTINGS AND DESIGN Study was conducted in 100 children, randomly divided into two groups A and B. Only ASA grade 1 patients aged 2-5yrs. undergoing urethroplasty for hypospadias were included. MATERIALS AND METHODS 1ml/kg of 0.125% bupivacaine was used for caudal blockade in group B (GA+CAUDAL and compared with group A (Only GA. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded for every 5 min. Blood loss and requirement of blood transfusions were recorded at the end of the surgery. RESULTS There were statistically significant haemodynamic changes and blood transfusion requirement during surgery in group A. In Group B haemodynamic parameters were stable (P value 0 and blood transfusion requirement was also less (p value 0.00054 (P<0.01. CONCLUSION Caudal blockade when supplemented with general anaesthesia reduces blood loss, decreases requirement for blood transfusion and maintains haemodynamic stability.

  15. Cryptorchidism as a caudal developmental field defect. A new description of cryptorchidism associated with malformations and dysplasias of the kidneys, the ureters and the spine from T10 to S5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Beck, B L;

    1998-01-01

    to S5. The description of this association is new. The association was seen in 18% of cryptorchid boys younger than 3 years of age in a department of paediatric surgery, in 34% of cryptorchid foetuses who died in the third trimester, in 65% of cryptorchid patients with imperforate anus, and in all...... individuals with tritonmelia, the male variant of sirenomelia. Sirenomelia/tritonmelia is an extreme degree of abnormal differentiation of the caudal developmental field, also called caudal dysplasia, the caudal regression syndrome and the caudal regression malformation sequence. Caudal developmental field...... defects were also the predominant abnormalities in the other groups of patients. Thus, cryptorchidism may be a feature of abnormal differentiation of the caudal developmental field. Position and histology of the undescended testes of the patients included in the association were similar...

  16. Orofacial inflammatory pain affects the expression of MT1 and NADPH-d in rat caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus and trigeminal ganglion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Huang; Hongwen He; Wenguo Fan; Yongliang Liu; Hongyu Zhou; Bin Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the role of melatonin in the trigeminal system, including the function of melatonin receptor 1. In the present study, adult rats were injected with formaldehyde into the right vibrissae pad to establish a model of orofacial inflammatory pain. The distribution of melatonin re-ceptor 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase in the caudal spinal minal nucleus and trigeminal ganglion was determined with immunohistochemistry and mistry. The results show that there are significant differences in melatonin receptor 1 expression and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase expression in the trigeminal ganglia and caudal spinal nucleus during the early stage of orofacial inflammatory pain. Our findings sug-gest that when melatonin receptor 1 expression in the caudal spinal nucleus is significantly reduced, melatonin’s regulatory effect on pain is attenuated.

  17. Artérias mesentéricas cranial e caudal em mocós Kerodon rupestris (Wied, 1820

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula V.S. Queiroz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available No estudo sobre a origem e ramificações das artérias mesentéricas cranial (AMCr e caudal (AMCa do mocó, foram utilizados 20 animais (18 machos e 2 fêmeas de diferentes idades, que, após morte natural, foram dissecados rebatendo-se as paredes torácica e abdominal, pelo antímero esquerdo, expondo-se a aorta que foi então canulada em seu trajeto pré-diafragmático, procedendo-se a injeção de neoprene látex corado, no sentido caudal. A seguir, foram fixados em solução aquosa de formol a 10%, durante 48 horas, e posteriormente dissecados. Os resultados mostraram que em 18 animais (90%, a AMCr originou-se da aorta abdominal isoladamente, logo após a artéria celíaca, emitindo as artérias cólica média (CoM, pancreaticoduodenal caudal (PDC, duodenojejunal (DJ, jejunal (J e ileocecocólica (ICeCo. Em um mocó (5%, as AMCr e AC se originaram da aorta abdominal em um tronco comum. Neste caso, a AMCr originou às artérias CoM, PDC, ICeCo e J. Em uma observação (5%, as artérias AMCr e AMCa surgiram em tronco comum. Neste animal, as artérias PDC, DJ, ICeCo, CoM e J foram originadas da AMCr, enquanto as aterias cólica esquerda (CoE e retal cranial (ARCr derivaram da AMCa. Dois animais (10% apresentaram como colaterais da AMCr as artérias CoM, PDC, DJ, J e o tronco ICeCo, que originou às artérias CoD e ileocecal (ICe. No que diz respeito a AMCa, nos 20 casos (100% originou as artérias CoE e RCr.

  18. Peripheral type facial palsy in a patient with dorsolateral medullary infarction with infranuclear involvement of the caudal pons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Ho; Yoo, Han-Uk; Shin, Hyung-Woo

    2008-09-01

    The corticobulbar tract fibers descend near the corticospinal tract, mostly to the upper medulla, where they decussate and ascend in the dorsolateral medulla to connect with the contralateral facial nucleus. Therefore, central type facial palsy can be present in patients with ipsilateral dorsolateral upper medullar lesion. We describe a 71-year-old man with lateral medullary infarction who showed ipsilateral peripheral type facial palsy. Brain diffusion-weighted image showed hyperintensities on the left dorsolateral portion of upper medulla and adjacent inferomedial tegmentum of the lower pons. Transfemoral cerebral angiography depicted prominence of ipsilateral posterior inferior cerebellar artery with focal stenosis. Left posterior inferior cerebellar artery might supply the inferolateral tegmentum of the lower pons, which is usually supplied from anterior inferior cerebellar artery. The peripheral type facial palsy in our patient may have resulted from facial infranuclear involvement of the caudal pons extended from dorsolateral upper medullary lesion in ascending pathway of corticobulbar tract fibers.

  19. [Aneurysm of the internal carotid artery--a differential diagnosis of paralysis of the caudal cranial nerves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscielny, S; Koch, J; Behrendt, W

    2003-09-01

    Paralysis of the caudal cranial nerves, e. g. the nervus glossopharyngeus, vagus and accessorius, may cause disorders in swallowing and speaking leading to a reduction in the patient's quality of life. Glomus tumors or malignant lesions of the skull base are a frequent cause of such lesions. We report on the case of a 48 year old patient who presented an acute lesion of these cranial nerves in combination with paresis of the nervus hypoglossus as a result of an aneurysm of the internal carotid artery directly underneath the base of the skull. The aneurysm was treated by parent vessel occlusion. The results of this procedure were a shrinkage of the aneurysm and an improvement in the neurological symptoms.

  20. RÉGIMEN DE CAUDAL ECOLÓGICO, HERRAMIENTA DE GESTIÓN PARA CONSERVAR LA BIOTA ACUÁTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Lucía Izquierdo Santacruz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo de revisión se consolidó información sobre el Régimen de Caudal Ecológico, al constituirse en una herramienta de gestión en la conservación de la Biota Acuática. De esta manera, se considera relevante informar a la comunidad académica y actores de gestión, sobre la importancia de la gestión del recurso hídrico, el análisis de conceptos sobre el caudal ambiental y ecológico, la descripción de las diferentes metodologías que permiten su determinación y la normatividad ambiental que lo protege. Finalmente, se hace especial énfasis, en la metodología ecohidráulica en la que se aplica el modelo IFIM-PHABSIM, considerada la modelación del hábitat fluvial, que precisa de información sobre la relación entre la densidad de organismos acuáticos y variables hidráulicas de velocidad, profundidad y sustrato; obteniendo como resultado curvas de idoneidad de hábitat e índices de idoneidad, que permitirán entender el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas acuáticos, utilizando dicha información en el manejo y planificación del recurso hídrico.

  1. Cranial-to-caudal approach for radical lymph node dissection along the surgical trunk in laparoscopic right hemicolectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takeru; Iwasaki, Takeshi; Mitsutsuji, Masaaki; Hirata, Kenro; Maekawa, Yoko; Tanaka, Tomoko; Shimada, Etsuji; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2015-04-01

    Complete mesocolic excision with central vascular ligation is considered to contribute to superior oncological outcomes after colon cancer surgery [1]. For advanced right-sided colon cancer, this surgery sometimes requires lymph node (LN) dissection along the superior mesenteric vein (SMV), with division of the middle colic vessels, or their right branches, at origin [2]. Here, we present cranially approached radical LN dissection along the surgical trunk during laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. The omental bursa is first opened wide, and the gastrocolic trunk of Henle is exposed, using the right gastroepiploic vessels and the accessory right colic vein (ARCV) as landmarks. After division of ARCV, SMV and middle colic vein (MCV) are identified. After dividing MCV at its root, LN dissection along SMV is conducted in a cranial-to-caudal manner. Concurrently, the middle colic artery, or its right branch, is exposed and divided at origin. The transverse colon is then raised ventrally, and LN dissection along SMV using a cranial-to-caudal approach is again performed. The ileocolic and right colic vessels are divided at origin. The ascending and transverse mesocolon, including the pedicles, are then separated from the retroperitoneal tissues, pancreatic head, and duodenum, using a medial approach. The key characteristics in this procedure consist of easy access to pancreas, early division of ARCV and middle colic vessels at origin, and easy dissection along SMV. We performed a laparoscopic colectomy using this approach for 18 patients with right-sided colon cancer. The mean operative time and blood loss were 288 min and 83 ml, respectively. The mean number of harvested LNs was 24. There were 6 cases with positive LN metastasis. There were no recurrent cases at a median follow-up period of 24 months. We consider this approach to be safe and useful for radical LN dissection along SMV for right-sided colon cancers.

  2. Dispositivo electrónico de medición del caudal de agua para canales abiertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Ayala López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El método de riego por inundación, que desplaza el agua mediante canales abiertos y surcos ha sido usado durante años en la producción agrícola, aunque requiere una gran cantidad de agua y su eficacia no es muy alta ya que la mayoría del agua no se puede extraer directamente en las raíces de las plantas. Siendo de vital importancia lograr datos de campo confiables y lo suficientemente precisos que nos permitan estudiar y proyectar manejos del agua con el menor grado de incertidumbre posible. Para poder aplicar conocimientos actuales de la relación agua-suelo-planta debemos conocer la cantidad de agua en el campo o en regiones específicas del mismo, para así poder prever un uso eficiente del agua mediante la aplicación en el momento oportuno y en volúmenes adecuados, Por lo que en el Centro de Mecanización Agropecuaria (CEMA diseñ ó un dispositivo electrónico de medición e indicación de caudales y consumo de agua para canales abiertos, apli - cable para cualquier estructura hidráulica que relacione el nivel de agua de una sección de área conocida, con el caudal de agua que pasa por la misma sección, con el propósito de crear un dispositivo preciso y económico, capaz de realizar mediciones en el campo.

  3. Classical eyeblink conditioning using electrical stimulation of caudal mPFC as conditioned stimulus is dependent on cerebellar interpositus nucleus in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-yan WU; Juan YAO; Zheng-li FAN; Lang-qian ZHANG; Xuan LI; Chuang-dong ZHAO; Zhen-hua ZHOU; Jian-feng SUI

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To determine whether electrical stimulation of caudal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with airpuff unconditioned stimulus (US) was sufficient for establishing eyeblink conditioning in guinea pigs,and whether it was dependent on cerebellar interpositus nucleus.Methods:Thirty adult guinea pigs were divided into 3 conditioned groups,and trained on the delay eyeblink conditioning,short-trace eyeblink conditioning,and long-trace eyeblink conditioning paradigms,respectively,in which electrical stimulation of the right caudal mPFC was used as CS and paired with corneal airpuff US.A pseudo conditioned group of another 10 adult guinea pigs was given unpaired caudal mPFC electrical stimulation and the US.Muscimol (1 μg in 1 μL saline) and saline (1 μL) were infused into the cerebellar interpositus nucleus of the animals through the infusion cannula on d 11 and 12,respectively.Results:The 3 eyeblink conditioning paradigms have been successfully established in guinea pigs.The animals acquired the delay and short-trace conditioned responses more rapidly than long-trace conditioned responses.Muscimol infusion into the cerebellar interpositus nucleus markedly impaired the expression of the 3 eyeblink conditioned responses.Conclusion:Electrical stimulation of caudal mPFC is effective CS for establishing eyeblink conditioning in guinea pigs,and it is dependent on the cerebellar interpositus nucleus.

  4. An optimized method for measuring hypocretin-1 peptide in the mouse brain reveals differential circadian regulation of hypocretin-1 levels rostral and caudal to the hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justinussen, Jessica; Holm, A; Kornum, B R

    2015-01-01

    as does prepro-hypocretin mRNA in the hypothalamus. However, in midbrain and brainstem tissue caudal to the hypothalamus, there was less circadian fluctuation and a tendency for higher levels during the light phase. These data suggest that regulation of the hypocretin system differs between brain areas....

  5. Estimación de caudales ecológicos en dos cuencas de Andalucía. Uso conjunto de aguas superficiales y subterráneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baeza Sanz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las líneas de actuación que en políticas de aguas emanan de la Directiva Marco de Aguas (Directiva 2000/60/CE obligan a considerar nuevos enfoques en las metodologías hasta ahora empleadas en la gestión del agua, incluyendo elementos innovadores y de mayor eficacia como la utilización conjunta de aguas superficiales, subterráneas y los caudales ambientales. Varias instituciones y administraciones estatales yandaluzas están llevando a cabo una serie de trabajos de investigación en dos sistemas deexplotación de recursos hídricos que se localizan en la Comunidad Autónoma de Andalucía. Localizados en la provincia de Jaén y Granada ambos presentan peculiaridadesinteresantes en cuanto a la circulación del agua subterránea. El objetivo de estos trabajos es desarrollar y aplicar tecnologías que integren criterios medioambientales (caudales ecológicos, económicos (coste del agua suministrada y degestión. Los resultados muestran como, aplicando criterios de eficacia y uso conjunto, es posible mantener unos caudales ambientales en el primer sistema, y como los caudales ambientales que se proponen en el segundo sistema serían fundamentales para mantener laestructura y composición del ecosistema ripario de la cuenca estudiada.

  6. The Effects of Single-Dose Rectal Midazolam Application on Postoperative Recovery, Sedation, and Analgesia in Children Given Caudal Anesthesia Plus Bupivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Saylan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to compare the effects of rectal midazolam addition after applying bupivacaine and caudal anesthesia on postoperative analgesia time, the need for additional analgesics, postoperative recovery, and sedation and to find out its adverse effects in children having lower abdominal surgery. Methods. 40 children between 2 and 10 years of ASA I-II were randomized, and they received caudal anesthesia under general anesthesia. Patients underwent the application of caudal block in addition to saline and 1 mL/kg bupivacaine 0.25%. In the postoperative period, Group C (n = 20 was given 5 mL saline, and Group M (n = 20 was given 0.30 mg/kg rectal midazolam diluted with 5 mL saline. Sedation scale and postoperative pain scale (CHIPPS of the patients were evaluated. The patients were observed for their analgesic need, first analgesic time, and adverse effects for 24 hours. Results. Demographic and hemodynamic data of the two groups did not differ. Postoperative sedation scores in both groups were significantly lower compared with the preoperative period. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of sedation and sufficient analgesia. Conclusions. We conclude that caudal anesthesia provided sufficient analgesia in peroperative and postoperative periods, and rectal midazolam addition did not create any differences. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02127489.

  7. Tfap2a promotes specification and maturation of neurons in the inner ear through modulation of Bmp, Fgf and notch signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarci, Husniye; Edlund, Renee K; Groves, Andrew K; Riley, Bruce B

    2015-03-01

    Neurons of the statoacoustic ganglion (SAG) transmit auditory and vestibular information from the inner ear to the hindbrain. SAG neuroblasts originate in the floor of the otic vesicle. New neuroblasts soon delaminate and migrate towards the hindbrain while continuing to proliferate, a phase known as transit amplification. SAG cells eventually come to rest between the ear and hindbrain before terminally differentiating. Regulation of these events is only partially understood. Fgf initiates neuroblast specification within the ear. Subsequently, Fgf secreted by mature SAG neurons exceeds a maximum threshold, serving to terminate specification and delay maturation of transit-amplifying cells. Notch signaling also limits SAG development, but how it is coordinated with Fgf is unknown. Here we show that transcription factor Tfap2a coordinates multiple signaling pathways to promote neurogenesis in the zebrafish inner ear. In both zebrafish and chick, Tfap2a is expressed in a ventrolateral domain of the otic vesicle that includes neurogenic precursors. Functional studies were conducted in zebrafish. Loss of Tfap2a elevated Fgf and Notch signaling, thereby inhibiting SAG specification and slowing maturation of transit-amplifying cells. Conversely, overexpression of Tfap2a inhibited Fgf and Notch signaling, leading to excess and accelerated SAG production. However, most SAG neurons produced by Tfap2a overexpression died soon after maturation. Directly blocking either Fgf or Notch caused less dramatic acceleration of SAG development without neuronal death, whereas blocking both pathways mimicked all observed effects of Tfap2a overexpression, including apoptosis of mature neurons. Analysis of genetic mosaics showed that Tfap2a acts non-autonomously to inhibit Fgf. This led to the discovery that Tfap2a activates expression of Bmp7a, which in turn inhibits both Fgf and Notch signaling. Blocking Bmp signaling reversed the effects of overexpressing Tfap2a. Together, these data

  8. Simplet controls cell proliferation and gene transcription during zebrafish caudal fin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizil, Caghan; Otto, Georg W; Geisler, Robert; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane; Antos, Christopher L

    2009-01-15

    Two hallmarks of vertebrate epimorphic regeneration are a significant increase in the proliferation of normally quiescent cells and a re-activation of genes that are active during embryonic development. It is unclear what the molecular determinants are that regulate these events and how they are coordinated. Zebrafish have the ability to regenerate several compound structures by regulating cell proliferation and gene transcription. We report that fam53b/simplet (smp) regulates both cell proliferation and the transcription of specific genes. In situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR experiments showed that amputation of zebrafish hearts and fins resulted in strong up-regulation of the smp gene. In regenerating adult fin, smp expression remained strong in the distal mesenchyme which later expanded to the basal layers of the distal epidermis and distal tip epithelium. Morpholino knockdown of smp reduced regenerative outgrowth by decreasing cell proliferation as measured by BrdU incorporation and histone H3 phosphorylation. In addition, smp knockdown increased the expression of msxb, msxc, and shh, as well as the later formation of ectopic bone. Taken together, these data indicate a requirement for smp in fin regeneration through control of cell proliferation, the regulation of specific genes and proper bone patterning.

  9. Differential Gene Expression Profile in the Rat Caudal Vestibular Nucleus is Associated with Individual Differences in Motion Sickness Susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Qin Wang

    Full Text Available To identify differentially expressed genes associated with motion sickness (MS susceptibility in the rat caudal vestibular nucleus.We identified MS susceptible (MSS and insusceptible (inMSS rats by quantifying rotation-induced MS symptoms: defecation and spontaneous locomotion activity. Microarray analysis was used to screen differentially expressed genes in the caudal vestibular nucleus (CVN after rotation. Plasma stress hormones were identified by radioimmunoassay. Candidate genes were selected by bioinformatics analysis and the microarray results were verified by real-time quantitative-PCR (RT-qPCR methods. By using Elvax implantation, receptor antagonists or recombinant adenovirus targeting the candidate genes were applied to the CVN to evaluate their contribution to MS susceptibility variability. Validity of gene expression manipulation was verified by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis.A total of 304 transcripts were differentially expressed in the MSS group compared with the inMSS group. RT-qPCR analysis verified the expression pattern of candidate genes, including nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAchR α3 subunit, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 (5-HT4R, tachykinin neurokinin-1 (NK1R, γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR α6 subunit, olfactory receptor 81 (Olr81 and homology 2 domain-containing transforming protein 1 (Shc1. In MSS animals, the nAchR antagonist mecamylamine significantly alleviated rotation-induced MS symptoms and the plasma β-endorphin response. The NK1R antagonist CP99994 and Olr81 knock-down were effective for the defecation response, while the 5-HT4R antagonist RS39604 and Shc1 over-expression showed no therapeutic effect. In inMSS animals, rotation-induced changes in spontaneous locomotion activity and the plasma β-endorphin level occurred in the presence of the GABAAR antagonist gabazine.Our findings suggested that the variability of the CVN gene expression profile after motion stimulation might be a putative

  10. Sistematização da origem, da distribuição e dos territórios da artéria cerebral caudal na superfície do encéfalo em gatos Systematization of the origin, distribution and territory of the caudal cerebral artery on the surface of the encephalon in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 26 encéfalos de gatos, adultos, sem diferenciação de sexo, sem raça definida, corados com látex e fixados por solução aquosa de formaldeído. As artérias cerebrais caudais, direita e esquerda, apresentaram-se únicas em 96,1 e 88,4% dos casos, respectivamente. Em 69,2% dos casos no antímero direito e 80,8% no esquerdo, a artéria cerebral caudal originou-se pela anastomose entre o ramo caudal da artéria carótida interna, com maior contribuição, e o ramo terminal da artéria basilar. Em 88,4% dos casos no antímero direito e em 84,6% no esquerdo, a artéria cerebral caudal originou a artéria tectal rostral e um ramo caudal. O ramo caudal bifurcou-se e vascularizou os colículos rostrais e caudais dos corpos quadrigêmeos e em alguns casos contribuiu na formação do plexo coroide do terceiro ventrículo. A artéria tectal rostral seguiu ventralmente ao lobo piriforme e durante seu trajeto liberou ramos para o hipocampo e, no antímero esquerdo, supriu a superfície dorsal do tálamo, contribuindo para a formação do plexo coroide do terceiro ventrículo.In this study were used 26 brains of adult cats, without sex differentiation and definable race, colored with latex and fixed in formaldehyde aqueous solution. The right and left caudal cerebral arteries were single in 96.1% and 88.4% of the sample, respectively. In 69.2% of the samples on the right side and 80.8% on the left, the caudal cerebral artery fin from the anastomosis behind the caudal branch of the internal carotid artery, with a large contribution, and the basal artery terminal branch. In 88.4% of the samples on the right side and 84.6% on the left, the caudal cerebral artery showed the tectal rostral artery and one caudal branche. The caudal branch forked in two branches that supplied the rostral and caudal colliculis of the quadruplet bodies and formed the choroid plexus of the third ventricle. The tectal rostral artery followed ventrally to the

  11. Sistematização, descrição e território das artérias cerebral caudal, cerebral média, cerebroetmoidal e cerebelar ventral caudal na superfície do encéfalo em avestruz (Struthio camelus)

    OpenAIRE

    Manoel Brandes Nazer

    2014-01-01

    Nesta tese foi descrito e sistematizado a distribuição e território das artérias cerebrais média e caudal, artéria cerebroetmoidal e artéria cerebelar ventral caudal na superfície do encéfalo de 30 avestruz ((Struthio camelus), 17 machos e 13 fêmeas, jovens e adultos. Os 30 espécimes foram injetados com látex corado em vermelho através das artérias (Aa.) carótidas internas. As artérias carótidas do cérebro e seus ramos foram sistematicamente descritas. A artéria (a.) cerebral caudal foi, à di...

  12. Sistematização, descrição e território das artérias cerebrais média e caudal, artéria cerebroetmoidal e da artéria cerebelar ventral caudal na superfície do encéfalo em peru (Meleagris gallopavo)

    OpenAIRE

    Amarílis Díaz de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Neste trabalho foi descrito e sistematizado a distribuição e território das artérias cerebrais média e caudal, artéria cerebroetmoidal e artéria cerebelar ventral caudal na superfície do encéfalo de 30 perus (Meleagris gallopavo), 10 machos e 20 fêmeas, jovens e adultos (idade entre 2,5 meses e 3,5). A artéria cerebral caudal de um antímero formava a artéria inter-hemisférica que lançava ramos hemisféricos dorsais para a face convexa de ambos os antímeros. Seu ramo tectal mesencefálico dorsal...

  13. Antagonism of glutamate receptors in the intermediate and caudal NTS of awake rats produced no changes in the hypertensive response to chemoreflex activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Benedito H; Bonagamba, Leni G H

    2005-01-15

    The role of excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors in the neurotransmission of the sympathoexcitatory component of the chemoreflex (pressor response) in the intermediate and caudal aspects of the commissural nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of awake rats was evaluated. Microinjection of kynurenic acid, a non-selective antagonist of EAA receptors, into the intermediate and caudal commissural NTS produced a large increase in the baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP), which may reduce the magnitude of the pressor response to chemoreflex activation. To avoid this problem sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was infused (i.v.) after microinjections of kynurenic acid (2 nmol/50 nl) into the NTS, in order to normalize the MAP and then the chemoreflex was activated and the magnitude of the pressor response evaluated. Microinjection of kynurenic acid into the intermediate (bilaterally) and caudal (midline) commissural NTS (n=6) produced a significant increase in baseline MAP (103+/-5 vs. 137+/-6 mm Hg) normalized by SNP infusion (107+/-4 mm Hg) and under this experimental condition the pressor response to chemoreflex activation was not statistically different in relation to the control (37+/-7 vs. 44+/-6 mm Hg). Bilateral microinjections of kynurenic acid into the caudal NTS (n=8) also produced a significant increase in baseline MAP (109+/-4 vs. 145+/-6 mm Hg) normalized by SNP infusion (109+/-6 mm Hg). After normalization of MAP, the pressor response to chemoreflex activation at 3 (34+/-6 mm Hg) and 10 min (37+/-6 mm Hg) was also not different in relation to the control (46+/-5 mm Hg). These data indicate that the antagonism of EAA receptors simultaneously in the intermediate (bilateral) and caudal (midline) commissural NTS or only in the caudal commissural NTS (bilateral) of awake rats had no effect on the hypertensive response to chemoreflex activation. We suggest that neurotransmitter other than l-glutamate may take part in the neurotransmission of the sympathoexcitatory component

  14. Role of CCK1 and Y2 receptors in activation of hindbrain neurons induced by intragastric administration of bitter taste receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shuzhen; Sternini, Catia; Raybould, Helen E

    2008-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors signaling bitter taste (T2Rs) in the oral gustatory system and the alpha-subunit of the taste-specific G-protein gustducin are expressed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. alpha-Subunit of the taste-specific G-protein gustducin colocalizes with markers of enteroendocrine cells in human and mouse GI mucosa, including peptide YY. Activation of T2Rs increases cholecystokinin (CCK) release from the enteroendocrine cell line, STC-1. The aim of this study was to determine whether T2R agonists in the GI tract activate neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and whether this activation is mediated by CCK and peptide YY acting at CCK(1) and Y(2) receptors. Immunocytochemistry for the protooncogene c-Fos protein, a marker for neuronal activation, was used to determine activation of neurons in the midregion of the NTS, the region where vagal afferents from the GI tract terminate. Intragastric administration of the T2R agonist denatonium benzoate (DB), or phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), or a combination of T2R agonists significantly increased the number of Fos-positive neurons in the mid-NTS; subdiaphragmatic vagotomy abolished the NTS response to the mixture of T2R agonists. Deletion of CCK(1) receptor gene or blockade of CCK(1) receptors with devazepide abolishes the activation of NTS neurons in response to DB, but had no effect on the response to PTC. Administration of the Y(2) receptor antagonist BIIE0246 blocks the activation of NTS neurons to DB, but not PTC. These findings suggest that activation of neurons in the NTS following administration of T2R agonists to the GI tract involves CCK(1) and Y(2) receptors located on vagal afferent terminals in the gut wall. T2Rs may regulate GI function via release of regulatory peptides and activation of the vagal reflex pathway.

  15. The anatomy of the dog soft palate. III. Histological evaluation of the caudal soft palate in brachycephalic neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichetto, Michela; Arrighi, Silvana; Gobbetti, Matteo; Romussi, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    A thickened and abnormally long soft palate is mostly involved in the pathogenesis of both nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal narrowing, affecting the respiratory activity in virtually all of the brachycephalic dogs suffering from Brachycephalic Airway Obstructive Syndrome (BAOS). The morphology of the soft palate in adult mesaticephalic and brachycephalic dogs has been previously described. In this article specimens from brachycephalic dog neonates (N=10) dead from one to 3 hr after birth of unrelated conditions were collected and histologically evaluated at three transverse levels to describe the microscopic aspect of the caudal part of the soft palate. The soft palate of neonate brachycephalic dogs was histologically characterized by a musculo-connective axis containing salivary glands and coated by a mucosal layer on both the nasopharyngeal and the oral side. Quali-quantitative features, such as thickened superficial epithelium, broad oedema of the lamina propria, mucous gland hyperplasia and diverse muscular modifications described in adult brachycephalic dogs, were not observed in the soft palate of brachycephalic neonate dogs. The lack of tissue lesions in the soft palate of newborn brachycephalic dogs further supports the hypothesis that inspiratory depression during the inspiratory phase causes chronic vibration and microtrauma, which lead to soft palate alterations in adult brachycephalic dogs starting from the earliest grade of the respiratory syndrome. Overall, this study provides baseline information for the comprehension of the pathogenesis of BAOS.

  16. The cough reflex is upregulated by lisinopril microinjected into the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Elenia; Bongianni, Fulvia; Pantaleo, Tito; Mutolo, Donatella

    2015-12-01

    We have previously shown that cough potentiation induced by intravenous administration of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan is lower than that induced by the ACE inhibitor lisinopril in anesthetized and awake rabbits. Since losartan and lisinopril cross the blood-brain barrier, their central action on the cough reflex can be hypothesized. Mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree and citric acid inhalation were used to induce cough reflex responses in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits. Bilateral microinjections (30-50 nl) of losartan (5mM), lisinopril (1mM), bradykinin (0.05 mM), HOE-140 (0.2mM, a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist) and CP-99,994 (1mM, an NK1 receptor antagonist) were performed into the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii, the predominant site of termination of cough-related afferents. Lisinopril, but not losartan increased the cough number. This effect was reverted by HOE-140 or CP-99,994. Cough potentiation was also induced by bradykinin. The results support for the first time a central protussive action of lisinopril mediated by an accumulation of bradykinin and substance P.

  17. The anatomy of the dog soft palate. I. Histological evaluation of the caudal soft palate in mesaticephalic breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Silvana; Pichetto, Michela; Roccabianca, Paola; Romussi, Stefano

    2011-07-01

    The gross anatomy and overall structure of the soft palate has been described in the average dog's head, however, no descriptive microanatomical studies of the dog soft palate are available, despite their possible utility in view of the manifold and important repercussions of this organ physiology. This is the first of two companion papers, dealing with the caudal part of the soft palate in the canine species, in mesaticephalic and brachycephalic dogs. Specimens from mesaticephalic healthy dogs (N = 8) were collected after euthanasia, processed for histology and sectioned at six transversal levels. Morphological stainings were used for a microscopic evaluation of the tissue layers composing the distal part of the soft palate in adult mesaticephalic dogs, and histochemical reactions were applied to assess mucin types within glandular tissue and to investigate the connective tissues. The organ was characteristically organized into a major deep musculo-connective axis mixed with salivary glands and covered by the mucosal lining on either the nasopharyngeal or the oral sides. The results of this investigation add to the general knowledge of the anatomy of soft palate in the canine species and establish baseline information for the parallel study on the long and thickened soft palate, which is typical of adult brachycephalic dogs.

  18. An Evolutionarily Conserved Network Mediates Development of the zona limitans intrathalamica, a Sonic Hedgehog-Secreting Caudal Forebrain Signaling Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies revealed new insights into the development of a unique caudal forebrain-signaling center: the zona limitans intrathalamica (zli. The zli is the last brain signaling center to form and the first forebrain compartment to be established. It is the only part of the dorsal neural tube expressing the morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (Shh whose activity participates in the survival, growth and patterning of neuronal progenitor subpopulations within the thalamic complex. Here, we review the gene regulatory network of transcription factors and cis-regulatory elements that underlies formation of a shh-expressing delimitated domain in the anterior brain. We discuss evidence that this network predates the origin of chordates. We highlight the contribution of Shh, Wnt and Notch signaling to zli development and discuss implications for the fact that the morphogen Shh relies on primary cilia for signal transduction. The network that underlies zli development also contributes to thalamus induction, and to its patterning once the zli has been set up. We present an overview of the brain malformations possibly associated with developmental defects in this gene regulatory network (GRN.

  19. In vivo dynamic compression has less detrimental effect than static compression on newly formed bone of a rat caudal vertebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, A.; Mustafy, T.; Londono, I.; Grimard, G.; Aubin, C-E.; Villemure, I.

    2016-01-01

    Fusionless devices are currently designed to treat spinal deformities such as scoliosis by the application of a controlled mechanical loading. Growth modulation by dynamic compression was shown to preserve soft tissues. The objective of this in vivo study was to characterize the effect of static vs. dynamic loading on the bone formed during growth modulation. Controlled compression was applied during 15 days on the 7th caudal vertebra (Cd7) of rats during growth spurt. The load was sustained in the “static” group and sinusoidally oscillating in the “dynamic” group. The effect of surgery and of the device was investigated using control and sham (operated on but no load applied) groups. A high resolution CT-scan of Cd7 was acquired at days 2, 8 and 15 of compression. Growth rates, histomorphometric parameters and mineral density of the newly formed bone were quantified and compared. Static and dynamic loadings significantly reduced the growth rate by 20% compared to the sham group. Dynamic loading preserved newly formed bone histomorphometry and mineral density whereas static loading induced thicker (+31%) and more mineralized (+12%) trabeculae. A significant sham effect was observed. Growth modulation by dynamic compression constitutes a promising way to develop new treatment for skeletal deformities. PMID:27609036

  20. Sympathoexcitation of moxonidine in the caudal ventrolateral medulla is dependent on I1-imidazoline receptors in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Gang; Gao, Lie; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Wen-Jun; Wang, Wei-Zhong

    2007-10-16

    Moxonidine is a second-generation centrally acting antihypertensive drug that has a high affinity for I(1)-imidazoline receptors (I(1)R). The caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM), an important region involved in cardiovascular activity, contains binding sites for centrally acting drugs. Our study aimed to determine the effects of moxonidine injected into the CVLM on cardiovascular activity in anesthetized rats. Unilateral microinjection of moxonidine (0.4 and 4 nmol) into the CVLM dose-dependently increased blood pressure (BP) by 8+/-2 and 18+/-2 mmHg and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) by 19+/-3 and 48+/-5% without modifying heart rate. Microinjection of the I(1)R/alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist efaroxan (4 nmol) into the CVLM produced significant decreases in baseline BP and RSNA, but also completely abolished the increases in BP (2+/-1 versus 18+/-2 mmHg, P0.05) effect on the moxonidine-induced increase in BP (18+/-2 versus 17+/-3 mmHg) and RSNA (45+/-10 versus 42+/-7%). The current data suggest that moxonidine injection into the CVLM has an excitatory effect on cardiovascular activity, which is mediated by an I(1)R dependent mechanism.

  1. Histomorphometric analysis of collagen and elastic fibres in the cranial and caudal fold of the porcine glottis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, A; Koch, R; Rohn, K; Gasse, H

    2015-06-01

    The porcine glottis differs from the human glottis in its cranial and caudal vocal folds (CraF, CauF). The fibre apparatus of these folds was studied histomorphometrically in adult minipigs. For object definition and quantification, the colour-selection tools of the Adobe-Photoshop program were used. Another key feature was the subdivision of the cross-sections of the folds into proportional subunits. This allowed a statistical analysis irrespective of differences in thickness of the folds. Both folds had a distinct, dense subepithelial layer equivalent to the basement membrane zone in humans. The subsequent, loose layer was interpreted - in principle - as being equivalent to Reinke's space of the human vocal fold. The next two layers were not clearly separated. Due to this, the concept of a true vocal ligament did not appear applicable to neither CauF nor CraF. Instead, the body-cover model was emphasized by our findings. The missing vocalis muscle in the CraF is substituted by large collagen fibre bundles in a proportional depth corresponding to the position of the muscle of the CauF. The distribution of elastic fibres made the CraF rather than the CauF more similar to the human vocal fold. We suggest that these data are useful for those wishing to use the porcine glottis as a model for studying oscillatory properties during phonation.

  2. Análisis de frecuencia de los caudales máximos diarios en ríos de Colombia considerando las fases del fenómeno ENSO.

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Vargas, Diana Milena; Poveda Jaramillo, Germán

    2006-01-01

    Se aplica una metodología para la estimación de eventos extremos de caudales máximos diarios en ríos de Colombia, mediante el uso de funciones de distribución de probabilidades mixtas que representan mejor el comportamiento de la hidrología a nivel interanual. Se concluye que es necesario modelar el comportamiento de caudales máximos con funciones de probabilidad mixtas que consideren las dos fases del ENSO. Este enfoque hace necesario replantear los análisis tradicionales de caudales extr...

  3. Sauvagine/urotensin I-like immunoreactivity in the caudal neurosecretory system of a seawater fish Diplodus sargus L. in normal and hyposmotic milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniti, F; Donato, A; D'Este, L; Renda, T

    1989-01-01

    We report the presence of sauvagine/urotensin I-like immunoreactive (SV/UI-LI) elements in the caudal neurosecretory system of a teleost (Diplodus sargus L.) collected from aquaria tanks of the Aquaculture Center (Talassographic Institut of CNR) of Messina or maintained in an hyposmotic milieu for different periods. In normal specimens, SV/UI-LI material was recognizable in discrete or little amounts both in Dahlgren cell cytoplasm and in their axons that reach the urophysis. On the contrary, the specimens transferred in an hyposmotic milieu showed a fast and dramatic increase of immunoreactivity mainly in neurohemal endings of the urophysis. This suggests a physiological role of caudal neurosecretory products on osmoregulatory mechanisms.

  4. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA BY CAUDAL EPIDURAL ROUTE USING BUPIVACAINE WITH TRAMADOL AND BUPIVACAINE WITH FENTANYL IN PAEDIATRIC BELOW UMBILICAL SURGERIES

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    Meera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Bupivacaine (0.25% 0.5 ml/kg with Fentanyl 1μg/kg and Bupivacaine (0.25% 0.5 ml/kg with Tramadol 2 mg/kg in caudal block for postoperative analgesia. In the present study, 60 children of ASA I and II, aged between 5-12 years who were scheduled for below umbilical surgical procedures were randomly allotted into 2 groups (30 each to receive either bupivacaine with fentanyl or bupivacaine with tramadol. Caudal block was performed after induction of general anesthesia, no analgesics were given intra-operatively. Postoperative analgesia was evaluated by Numerical Rating Scale and sedation was assessed by five point sedation score. Postoperative analgesia was supplemented with Syrup Paracetamol (10mg/kg when Numerical Rating Scale was 4. Any adverse effect like respiratory depression, urinary retention, nausea and vomiting were recorded in all patients. Caudal tramadol with bupivacaine produced significant increased postoperative analgesia. The duration of analgesia was 861±23 minutes in tramadol with bupivacaine group, as compared to 353.46±31.79 minutes in fentanyl with bupivacaine group. No significant difference found in sedation score in both groups in first hour postoperatively. Two cases in fentanyl with bupivacaine and three cases in tramadol with bupivacaine group developed urinary retention in postoperative period. Four cases in fentanyl with bupivacaine and three cases in tramadol with bupivacaine group developed nausea and vomiting. Our study showed that caudal tramadol with bupivacaine provided longer duration of postoperative analgesia without having significant side effects.

  5. Medición del caudal ecológico del río Acaponeta, Nayarit, comparando distintos intervalos de tiempo

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    Guadalupe de la Lanza Espino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El manejo diverso del agua de los ríos en México ha sido inadecuado por las diferentes actividades antrópicas, asociado a los cambios interanuales del clima y en consecuencia del patrón de sus escurrimientos, lo que ha llevado a la pérdida de los ecosistemas. Sin embargo, actualmente existen diversas metodologías para determinar el caudal necesario para conservar al medio ambiente y dentro de ellas están las de tipo hidrológicas, como la que aquí se aplica, y que se basa en una información de caudales quecomprenden registros de décadas que en el país no siempre se cuentan. Por lo anterior, esta contribución compararegistros de escurrimientos de diferentes lapsos de tiempo mínimos de 10 años, medios de 20 y más de 50 años para cuantificar el caudal ecológico. Dichos intervalos de tiempo dieron resultados semejantes, lo que significa que no sólo en el río Acaponeta sino posiblemente en otros, se puedan utilizar satisfactoriamente bases de datos de diez años. Endicho río el agua que escurre, que debe ser reservada con fines ambientales, fue para 10 años 70.1%, para 20 años 78.1% y para > de 50 años 68.8%% con un 72.3% promedio del caudal total o escurrimiento medio anual.

  6. The Human Thalamic Somatic Sensory Nucleus [Ventral Caudal (Vc)] Shows Neuronal Mechanoreceptor-Like Responses to Optimal Stimuli for Peripheral Mechanoreceptors

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    Weiss, N; Ohara, S; Johnson, K. O.; Lenz, F.A.

    2008-01-01

    Although the response of human cutaneous mechanoreceptors to controlled stimuli is well studied, it is not clear how these peripheral signals may be reflected in neuronal activity of the human CNS. We now test the hypothesis that individual neurons in the human thalamic principal somatic sensory nucleus [ventral caudal (Vc)] respond selectively to the optimal stimulus for one of the four mechanoreceptors. The optimal stimuli for particular mechanoreceptors were defined as follows: Pacinian co...

  7. Ultrasound versus fluoroscopy-guided caudal epidural steroid injection for the treatment of chronic low back pain with radiculopathy: A randomised, controlled clinical trial

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    Arindam Kumar Hazra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Caudal epidural steroid administration is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain (LBP. Fluoroscopy guidance is the gold standard for pain procedures. Ultrasound guidance is recently being used in pain clinic procedures. We compared the fluoroscopy guidance and ultrasound guidance for caudal epidural steroid injection with respect to the time needed for correct placement of the needle and clinical effectiveness in patients with chronic LBP. Methods: Fifty patients with chronic LBP with radiculopathy, not responding to conventional medical management, were randomly allocated to receive injection depot methyl prednisolone (40 mg through caudal route either using ultrasound guidance (Group U, n = 25 or fluoroscopy guidance (Group F, n = 25. Pre-procedural visual analogue scale (VAS score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI were noted. During the procedure, the time needed for correct placement of needle was observed. Adverse events, if any, were also noted. All patients were followed up for next 2 months to evaluate Visual Analogue Scale (VAS score and ODI at the 2nd week and again at the end of 1st and 2nd month. Results: The needle-placement time was less using ultrasound guidance as compared to fluoroscopy guidance (119 ± 7.66 vs. 222.28 ± 29.65 s, respectively,P< 0.001. Significant reduction in VAS score and ODI (clinical improvement was noted in the follow-up time points and comparable between the groups at all time points. Conclusion: Ultrasound guidance can be a safe alternative tool for achieving faster needle placement in caudal epidural space. Clinical effectiveness (reduction of VAS and ODI scores remains comparable between both the techniques.

  8. A comparative study of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl as adjuvants to levobupivacaine for caudal analgesia in children undergoing lower limb orthopedic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfawal, SM; Abdelaal, WA; Hosny, MR

    2016-01-01

    Background: Levobupivacaine is an effective local anesthetic agent with less systemic toxicity than racemic bupivacaine, but it has short postoperative analgesic duration. Dexmedetomidine and fentanyl are promising adjuncts to provide excellent and prolonged postoperative caudal analgesia. This study compared the effects of caudal levobupivacaine plus dexmedetomidine and levobupivacaine plus fentanyl for postoperative analgesia and sedation in children undergoing lower limb orthopedic surgery. Patients and Methods: Ninety children, whose age ranged from 1 to 7 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II, undergoing orthopedic lower limb surgery under general anesthesia received caudal block for postoperative analgesia. The children were randomly allocated into three groups: Group L (control) received 0.75 ml/kg levobupivacaine 0.25% diluted in saline; Group LD received 0.75 ml/kg levobupivacaine 0.25% with dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg; and Group LF received 0.75 ml/kg levobupivacaine 0.25% with fentanyl 1 μg/kg. Following the administration of the drugs; hemodynamic variables, the total anesthesia time, sedation score, Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability score, duration of analgesia, and side effects were recorded. Results: Demographically, all the groups were comparable, both the baseline and the intraoperative hemodynamic profile were similar in all groups. The mean duration of analgesia and the mean sedation score in the Group LD were significantly greater as compared to both the other groups. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine may be a better additive to levobupivacaine than fentanyl for caudal postoperative analgesia, arousable sedation with comparable hemodynamic and side effect profile in children. PMID:27833486

  9. Seasonal morphological and biochemical changes of Dahlgren cells implies a potential role of the caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) in the reproduction cycle of teleostean fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heng; Mu, Rui

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize recent research on the seasonal morphological and biochemical changes of Dahlgren cells in the caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) of the freshwater teleosts carp Carassius auratus. The quantitative proof for these seasonal changes in the morphology and biochemistry of Dahlgren cells reflects the relationship between the CNSS and the reproduction cycle of fish and implies that the CNSS is probably involved in the reproduction process of fish.

  10. Comparing the analgesic effect of caudal and ilioinguinal iliohypogastric nerve blockade using bupivacaine-clonidine in inguinal surgeries in children 2-7 years old

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    Mahin Seyedhejazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We compared the analgesic effects of caudal and ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block using bupivacaine-clonidine performed in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair. The ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block provides excellent pain relief for operations on the inguinal region, including emergency procedures (e.g. strangulated inguinal hernia with intestinal obstruction. It should be preferred to caudal block for these procedures. Materials and Methods: After local ethics committee approval and written parental consent, 67 ASA class I - II patients aged between 2-7 years old scheduled for elective inguinal hernia repair were allocated randomly into two groups after general anesthesia with same drugs in both groups. Group C received caudal block with 1 ml/kg bupivacaine 0.25% combined with 1 μg/kg clonidine, and group I received ilioinguinal- iliohypogastric nerve block with 0.3 ml /kg bupivacaine 0.25% combined with 1 μg/kg clonidine. Blood pressure and heart rate were documented every 5 minutes. Post-operative analgesia, analgesic use and side-effects were assessed during first 24 hours. Results: In group C, 7 / 34 and in group I, 12/33 patients required post-operative analgesia (P = 0.174. Five patients (15.5% in group I and one patient (2.94% in group C had severe pain after operation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased during operation, but the differences between two groups were not significant (P = 0.176, P = 0.111. Heart rate changes between two groups were insignificant (P = 0.182. Conclusion: It seems that in children, caudal epidural block and ilioinguinal - iliohypogastric nerve block using bupivacaine-clonidine have comparable effects on analgesia, severity of pain and hemodynamic changes during and after surgery on inguinal region.

  11. Concerted involvement of Cdx/Hox genes and Wnt signaling in morphogenesis of the caudal neural tube and cloacal derivatives from the posterior growth zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Cesca; Bialecka, Monika; Neijts, Roel; Young, Teddy; Rowland, Jennifer E; Stringer, Emma J; Van Rooijen, Carina; Meijlink, Frits; Nóvoa, Ana; Freund, Jean-Noel; Mallo, Moises; Beck, Felix; Deschamps, Jacqueline

    2011-08-01

    Decrease in Cdx dosage in an allelic series of mouse Cdx mutants leads to progressively more severe posterior vertebral defects. These defects are corrected by posterior gain of function of the Wnt effector Lef1. Precocious expression of Hox paralogous 13 genes also induces vertebral axis truncation by antagonizing Cdx function. We report here that the phenotypic similarity also applies to patterning of the caudal neural tube and uro-rectal tracts in Cdx and Wnt3a mutants, and in embryos precociously expressing Hox13 genes. Cdx2 inactivation after placentation leads to posterior defects, including incomplete uro-rectal septation. Compound mutants carrying one active Cdx2 allele in the Cdx4-null background (Cdx2/4), transgenic embryos precociously expressing Hox13 genes and a novel Wnt3a hypomorph mutant all manifest a comparable phenotype with similar uro-rectal defects. Phenotype and transcriptome analysis in early Cdx mutants, genetic rescue experiments and gene expression studies lead us to propose that Cdx transcription factors act via Wnt signaling during the laying down of uro-rectal mesoderm, and that they are operative in an early phase of these events, at the site of tissue progenitors in the posterior growth zone of the embryo. Cdx and Wnt mutations and premature Hox13 expression also cause similar neural dysmorphology, including ectopic neural structures that sometimes lead to neural tube splitting at caudal axial levels. These findings involve the Cdx genes, canonical Wnt signaling and the temporal control of posterior Hox gene expression in posterior morphogenesis in the different embryonic germ layers. They shed a new light on the etiology of the caudal dysplasia or caudal regression range of human congenital defects.

  12. Evaluación de requerimientos ecológicos para el diseño de regímenes ambientales de caudales fluviales

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    Juan Manuel Diez-Hernández

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Las sociedades avanzadas medioambientalmente están reclamando progresivamente una gestión fluvial auténticamente integral, que implemente Planes de Manejo de Cuencas Hidrográficas fundamentados en el paradigma del Régimen Ambiental de Caudales (RAC. Este trabajo sugiere una metodología genérica para establecer RAC confiables, que posibiliten el aprovechamiento hídrico a un coste ecológico admisible. Adicionalmente, plantea los criterios y técnicas preferentes para la evaluación de los requerimientos ecosistémicos de caudal, los cuales componen el RAC mediante el Régimen de Caudales Ecológicos (RCE. La adaptación de estos procedimientos para los ríos de Colombia favorecerá la conservación de su valiosa biodiversidad. / The environmentally advanced societies are claiming progressively an authentically integral fluvial management, that implements Watershed Management Programs based on the paradigm of the Environmental Flows Regime (EFR. This work suggests a generic methodology for the reliable EFR setting, that facilitate the water use with an environmental acceptable cost. Additionally, it outlines the approaches and outstanding techniques for the evaluation of instream flow requirements, which constitute the EFR by means of the Instream Flow Regime (IFR. The adaptation of these approaches to the Colombian rivers will contribute to the conservation of their valuable biodiversity.

  13. The behavioral assessment and alleviation of pain associated with castration in beef calves treated with flunixin meglumine and caudal lidocaine epidural anesthesia with epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currah, Jan M; Hendrick, Steven H; Stookey, Joseph M

    2009-04-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the effects of flunixin megulmine in combination with caudal epidural anesthesia as a postoperative analgesic in beef calves following surgical castration, and 2) to consider stride length and pedometry as potential behavioral assessment tools for detecting postcastration pain. Surgical castration was performed in 101 beef calves randomly assigned to 3 treatment subgroups: 1) castration without anesthesia (SURG); 2) castration following lidocaine with epinephrine caudal epidural anesthesia (SURG + EPI); 3) castration following lidocaine with epinephrine caudal epidural anesthesia and flunixin meglumine (SURG + EPI + F). Several outcomes, including pedometer counts, changes in stride length, subjective visual assessment of pain, instantaneous scan sampling of the calves' postoperative activities, and the amount of movement and vocalization during the castration procedure, were measured to identify and quantify pain. The results indicated that stride length and the number of steps taken by calves after castration appear to be good measures of pain. Significant differences found between treatment groups for stride length and visual assessments suggest that flunixin meglumine can be considered to provide visible pain relief up to 8 hours postcastration.

  14. Assessing Caudal Block Concentrations of Bupivacaine With and Without the Addition of Intravenous Fentanyl on Postoperative Outcomes in Pediatric Patients: A Retrospective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkera, Megha M; Harrison, Dale R; Aunspaugh, Jennifer P; Martin, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Caudal blocks are a significant and efficacious aspect of pediatric anesthesia, especially in urologic and many general surgery cases. This type of regional anesthesia is common because it has a high success rate and provides between 6 and 8 hours of postoperative pain control. The aim of this study was to determine whether the concentration of bupivacaine or the addition of intravascular (i.v.) fentanyl affected the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) discharge time. A retrospective cohort study comparing the outcomes in pediatric patients who have received varying caudal concentrations with and without the addition of i.v. fentanyl was performed. A total of 849 consecutive patients undergoing hypospadias repairs or circumcisions were reviewed and placed in one of the following 3 groups: 0.125% bupivacaine (group 1), 0.25% bupivacaine (group 2), or one of these concentrations of bupivacaine + i.v. fentanyl intraoperatively (group 3). Total PACU time for each group was 46.1 minutes (group 1), 48.9 minutes (group 2), and 49.7 minutes (group 3). Our results revealed that there is no statistically significant difference between concentrations of bupivacaine administered in a caudal block with or without i.v. fentanyl with regard to the outcome of PACU duration (P = 0.16). Overall, based on the retrospective cohort design, there is no difference in primary and secondary outcomes based on the concentration of bupivacaine, when administered at a volume of 1 mL/kg.

  15. L-Cysteine and L-AP4 microinjections in the rat caudal ventrolateral medulla decrease arterial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Yumi

    2014-12-01

    The thiol amino acid L-cysteine increases arterial blood pressure (ABP) when injected into the cerebrospinal fluid space in conscious rats, indicating a pressor response to centrally acting L-cysteine. A prior synaptic membrane binding assay suggests that L-cysteine has a strong affinity for the L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) binding site. The central action of L-cysteine may be vial-AP4 sensitive receptors. The present study investigated cardiovascular responses to L-cysteine and L-ap4 microinjected into the autonomic area of the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) where inhibitory neurons regulate ABP via pre-sympathetic vasomotor neurons. Both the injection of L-cysteine and L-AP4 in the CVLM sites identified with L-glutamate produced the same depressor and bradycardic responses in urethane-anesthetized rats. Neither a prior antagonist microinjection of MK801 for the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor nor CNQX for the non-NMDA receptor attenuated the responses to L-cysteine, but the combination of the two receptor blocking with an additional prior injection abolished the response. In contrast, either receptor blockade alone abolished the response to L-AP4, indicating distinct mechanisms between responses to L-cysteine and L-AP4 in the CVLM. The results indicate that the CVLM is a central active site for L-cysteine's cardiovascular response. Central L-cysteine's action could be independent of the L-AP4 sensitive receptors. Cardiovascular regulation may involve endogenous L-cysteine in the CVLM. Further multidisciplinary examinations are required to elaborate on L-cysteine's functional roles in the CVLM.

  16. Functional connectivity of the human rostral and caudal cingulate motor areas in the brain resting state at 3T

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    Habas, Christophe [CHNO des Quinze-Vingts, UPMC Paris 6, Service de NeuroImagerie, Paris (France)

    2010-01-15

    Three cingulate motor areas have been described in monkeys, the rostral, dorsal, and ventral cingulate motor areas, and would control limbic-related motor activity. However, little anatomical data are available in human about the functional networks these cingulate areas underlie. Therefore, networks anchored in the rostral and caudal cingulate motor areas (rCMA and cCMA, respectively) were studied in human using functional connectivity during the brain resting state. Since the rCMA and cCMA are located just under the pre-supplementary and supplementary motor areas (pre-SMA and SMA), the pre-SMA- and SMA-centered networks were also studied to ensure that these four circuits were correctly dissociated. Data from 14 right-handed healthy volunteers were acquired at rest and analyzed by region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity. The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations of separate ROIs located in rCMA, cCMA, pre-SMA, and SMA were successively used to identify significant temporal correlations with BOLD signal fluctuations of other brain regions. Low-frequency BOLD signal of the CMA was correlated with signal fluctuations in the prefrontal, cingulate, insular, premotor, motor, medial and inferior parietal cortices, putamen and thalamus, and anticorrelated with the default-mode network. rCMA was more in relation with prefrontal, orbitofrontal, and language-associated cortices than cCMA more related to sensory cortex. These cingulate networks were very similar to the pre-SMA- and SMA-centered networks, although pre-SMA and SMA showed stronger correlation with the prefrontal and inferior parietal cortices and with the cerebellum and the superior parietal cortex, respectively. The human cingulate motor areas constitute an interface between sensorimotor, limbic and executive systems, sharing common cortical, striatal, and thalamic relays with the overlying premotor medial areas. (orig.)

  17. Weight-bearing locomotion in the developing opossum, Monodelphis domestica following spinal transection: remodeling of neuronal circuits caudal to lesion.

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    Benjamin J Wheaton

    Full Text Available Complete spinal transection in the mature nervous system is typically followed by minimal axonal repair, extensive motor paralysis and loss of sensory functions caudal to the injury. In contrast, the immature nervous system has greater capacity for repair, a phenomenon sometimes called the infant lesion effect. This study investigates spinal injuries early in development using the marsupial opossum Monodelphis domestica whose young are born very immature, allowing access to developmental stages only accessible in utero in eutherian mammals. Spinal cords of Monodelphis pups were completely transected in the lower thoracic region, T10, on postnatal-day (P7 or P28 and the animals grew to adulthood. In P7-injured animals regrown supraspinal and propriospinal axons through the injury site were demonstrated using retrograde axonal labelling. These animals recovered near-normal coordinated overground locomotion, but with altered gait characteristics including foot placement phase lags. In P28-injured animals no axonal regrowth through the injury site could be demonstrated yet they were able to perform weight-supporting hindlimb stepping overground and on the treadmill. When placed in an environment of reduced sensory feedback (swimming P7-injured animals swam using their hindlimbs, suggesting that the axons that grew across the lesion made functional connections; P28-injured animals swam using their forelimbs only, suggesting that their overground hindlimb movements were reflex-dependent and thus likely to be generated locally in the lumbar spinal cord. Modifications to propriospinal circuitry in P7- and P28-injured opossums were demonstrated by changes in the number of fluorescently labelled neurons detected in the lumbar cord following tracer studies and changes in the balance of excitatory, inhibitory and neuromodulatory neurotransmitter receptors' gene expression shown by qRT-PCR. These results are discussed in the context of studies indicating

  18. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CAUDAL FENTANYL AND CLONIDINE AS ADJUVANT TO BUPIVACAINE FOR POST- OPERATIVE ANALGESIA IN PEDIATRIC GENITOURINARY AND INGUINAL SURGERIES

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    Vikas Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-operative analgesia in children is a challenging task before the anesthesiologist. Caudal analgesia is an accepted and popular method of providing intraoperative and postoperative analgesia for genitourinary and inguinal surgeries in children. Because of short duration of action of Bupivacaine, various adjuncts have been tried by many anesthesiologists. Fentanyl and Clonidine are used along with local anesthetics to prolong duration of analgesia. Hence we are comparing 1 mcg/kg of Fentanyl and 1 mcg/kg of Clonidine as adjuvants to 0.25% bupivacaine at a volume of 0.75 ml/kg in children undergoing genitourinary and inguinal surgeries. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of Fentanyl and Clonidine as adjuncts to Bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia in pediatric patients and to evaluate the sequel and side effects of both. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study design – Comparative randomized controlled study. Sample size: 120 children aged between 2-7 years posted for genitourinary and inguinal surgeries. Group I (B received 0.75 ml/kg of 0.25% Bupivacaine alone caudally. Group II (BF received 0.75 ml/kg of 0.25% Bupivacaine and 1 µg/kg Fentanyl caudally. Group III (BC received 0.75 ml/kg of 0.25% Bupivacaine and 1 µg/kg Clonidine caudally. Postoperatively the duration of analgesia, motor blockade and sedation was assessed by Modified Objective Pain Scale, Ramsay Sedation Score and modified Bromage scale respectively. Side effects and complications, if present were recorded. Tests used for statistical analysis were Fishers exact test and student t test. RESULTS: The mean duration of analgesia in group BC (601.5 + 60.17 minutes was much higher than group BF and B but with side effect of sedation. We observed that there was a statistically increased duration of analgesia in Clonidine group as compared to Fentanyl and plain Bupivacaine group with no difference in duration of motor blockade. There was increased sedation in group BC. Group BF

  19. Formation of VEGF isoform-specific spatial distributions governing angiogenesis: computational analysis

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    Mac Gabhann Feilim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spatial distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF is an important mediator of vascular patterning. Previous experimental studies in the mouse hindbrain and retina have suggested that VEGF alternative splicing, which controls the ability of VEGF to bind to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs in the extracellular matrix (ECM, plays a key role in controlling VEGF diffusion and gradients in tissues. Conversely, proteolysis notably by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, plays a critical role in pathological situations by releasing matrix-sequestered VEGF and modulating angiogenesis. However, computational models have predicted that HSPG binding alone does not affect VEGF localization or gradients at steady state. Results Using a 3D molecular-detailed reaction-diffusion model of VEGF ligand-receptor kinetics and transport, we test alternate models of VEGF transport in the extracellular environment surrounding an endothelial sprout. We show that differences in localization between VEGF isoforms, as observed experimentally in the mouse hindbrain, as well as the ability of proteases to redistribute VEGF in pathological situations, are consistent with a model where VEGF is endogenously cleared or degraded in an isoform-specific manner. We use our predictions of the VEGF distribution to quantify a tip cell's receptor binding and gradient sensing capacity. A novel prediction is that neuropilin-1, despite functioning as a coreceptor to VEGF165-VEGFR2 binding, reduces the ability of a cell to gauge the relative steepness of the VEGF distribution. Comparing our model to available in vivo vascular patterning data suggests that vascular phenotypes are most consistently predicted at short range by the soluble fraction of the VEGF distributions, or at longer range by matrix-bound VEGF detected in a filopodia-dependent manner. Conclusions Isoform-specific VEGF degradation provides a possible explanation for numerous examples

  20. A differential synaptic input to the motor nuclei of triceps surae from the caudal and lateral cutaneous sural nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBella, L A; Kehler, J P; McCrea, D A

    1989-02-01

    1. Postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) were recorded in 115 triceps surae motoneurons of 10 chloralose-anesthetized adult cats (spinal cord intact), upon electrical stimulation of the caudal and lateral cutaneous sural nerve branches (CCS and LCS, respectively). 2. With twice threshold (2T) stimulation of CCS, excitatory PSPs (EPSPs) were the predominant effect in 95% of all medial gastrocnemius (MG) motoneurons tested (min. central latency 1.5 ms; mean 2.4 ms). In only a few MG cells was the EPSP followed by an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) and in only one cell was an IPSP the sole effect. Increasing the stimulus intensity to 5T tended to enhance both the later EPSP and IPSP components, with less change in the amplitude or latency of the earliest EPSPs. 3. In lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and soleus (SOL) motoneurons, 2T CCS stimulation led to either inhibition or no potential change in the majority of cells tested: EPSPs were the predominant effect in only 15 and 30% of LG and SOL cells, respectively (min. central latency 2.5 ms; mean 3.0 ms) and rarely occurred without subsequent inhibition. Again, increasing the stimulus intensity to 5T had more of an effect on later rather than earlier PSP components. 4. A predominance of depolarization in MG motoneurons but not in SOL motoneurons is in agreement with previous findings that CCS excitation is more powerful in "fast type" triceps surae motoneurons. However, the strong predominance of hyperpolarizing effects of CCS stimulation in the present LG population is evidence that such an organization does not transcend triceps surae motor nuclei as a whole. 5. Postsynaptic effects of LCS stimulation at 2T were frequently weak or absent but increasing the stimulus intensity to 5T produced predominant inhibition in 71% of all triceps surae motoneurons studied (n = 107). Of the few cells which did receive excitation from this nerve, most were MG, a few were SOL, and none were LG. These EPSPs occurred more frequently at 5

  1. PROPUESTA METODOLÓGICA PRELIMINAR PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN DEL CAUDAL AMBIENTAL EN PROYECTOS LICENCIADOS POR EL MINISTERIO DE AMBIENTE Y DESARROLLO SOSTENIBLE (MADS, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL A. PINILLA-AGUDELO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una propuesta metodológica para estimar los caudales ambientales en grandes proyectos licenciados por la Agencia Nacional de Licencias Ambientales (ANLA de Colombia, resultado de un convenio interadministrativo suscrito entre el ahora Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible (MADS de Colombia y la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (UNC. El método propuesto parte de garantizar criterios hidrológicos, continúa con una validación hidráulica y de calidad del agua, sigue con la determinación de la integridad del hábitat, en un proceso iterativo que requiere evaluación para las condiciones antes y después de la construcción del proyecto y que permite establecer un caudal que, además de conservar las funciones ecológicas del río, garantiza los usos del recurso aguas abajo. Específicamente dentro del componente biótico, la propuesta incluye la determinación y monitoreo de índices de integridad biótica para cuatro comunidades acuáticas (perifiton, macroinvertebrados, vegetación ribereña y peces, a fin de hacer un seguimiento a los efectos que puede producir la reducción del caudal a mediano y largo plazo. Se presentan los resultados de la aplicación de la metodología en varios proyectos licenciados por el MADS.

  2. 高首鲟背听侧核电感受神经元在电场刺激下的反应特性%Response properties of the electrosensory neurons in hindbrain of the white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭光; HendrikHerzog; 宋佳坤; 王晓杰; 范纯新; 郭弘艺

    2011-01-01

    目的 软骨硬鳞鱼类的电感受是一种古老的感觉系统,它们通过电感受器官感受生物电场或非生物电场进行摄食等活动.支配电感受器的初级传入神经首先将电感受信息传递至后脑的背听侧核进行处理.本文探讨了鲟鱼背听侧核的电生理特性.方法 采用胞外记录方法记录了高首鲟背听侧核在偶极子电场刺激下的神经元反应.结果 背听侧核神经元有低频(<l0 Hz)自发放电和高频(>10 Hz)自发放电两种,在电场刺激下均产生明显的自发放电的调制和相位耦合反应,同时部分神经元对偶极子电场的方向有选择性.结论 鲟鱼的电感受神经元反应特征与其电感受的生物功能相适应.%Objective The passive electrosense is a primitive sensory modality in the Chondrostei,which include sturgeon and paddlefish.Using electroreceptors,these fish detect the weak electric fields from other animals or geoelectric sources,and use this information for prey detection or other behaviors.The primary afferent fibers innervating the electroreceptors project to a single hindbrain target called the dorsal octavolateral nucleus(DON),where the electrosensory information is first processed.Here,we investigated the electrophysiological properties of DON neurons.Methods Extracellular recording was used to investigate the response properties of DON neurons to dipole electric fields with different amplitudes and frequencies in the white sturgeon,Acipenser transmontanus.Results The DON neurons showed regular spontaneous activity and could be classified into two types:neurons with a low spontaneous rate(<10 Hz)and those with a high spontaneous rate(> 10 Hz).In response to sinusoidal electric field stimuli,DON neurons showed sinusoidally-modulated and phase-locked firing.In addition,neurons showed opposite phase responses corresponding to the different directions of the dipole.Conclusion The response properties of DON neurons match the

  3. Evaluación de requerimientos ecológicos para el diseño de regímenes ambientales de caudales fluviales

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Las sociedades avanzadas medioambientalmente están reclamando progresivamente una gestión fluvial auténticamente integral, que implemente Planes de Manejo de Cuencas Hidrográficas fundamentados en el paradigma del Régimen Ambiental de Caudales (RAC). Este trabajo sugiere una metodología genérica para establecer RAC confiables, que posibiliten el aprovechamiento hídrico a un coste ecológico admisible. Adicionalmente, plantea los criterios y técnicas preferentes para la evaluación de los requer...

  4. Análisis de regresión lineal multivariable para la obtención del caudal pico de descarga en rotura de presas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Sánchez Muñoz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se hace un estudio del comportamiento dinámico e hidráulico del terreno en caso de avenida por rotura de presa, así como una presentación de una metodología de regresión lineal multivariable a partir del análisis de los datos históricos de rotura de presas para la obtención del caudal pico de descarga.

  5. Substituição dos ligamentos cruzados cranial e caudal em cães por duplo implante de polipropileno

    OpenAIRE

    Müller,Daniel Curvello de Mendonça; Basso,Paula Cristina; Serafini,Gabriele Maria Callegaro; Rosa,Maurício Borges da; Sprada,Arícia Gomes; Cunha,João Paulo Monteiro Carvalho Mori da; Pippi,Ney Luis

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é salientar uma alternativa eficaz no tratamento da ruptura dos ligamentos cruzados cranial e caudal de cães, sem associação de imobilização externa. Foram atendidos seis animais portadores de ruptura de ambos os ligamentos cruzados. Optou-se pela correção cirúrgica intracapsular, utilizando-se dois implantes sintéticos de polipropileno, para a estabilização da articulação. Os pacientes retornaram ao apoio completo do membro em 11,8±3,5 dias e não mantiveram i...

  6. Prediction of water flows in Colorado River, Argentina Predicción de caudales en río Colorado, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge O Pierini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification of suitable models for predicting daily water flow is important for planning and management of water storage in reservoirs of Argentina. Long-term prediction of water flow is crucial for regulating reservoirs and hydroelectric plants, for assessing environmental protection and sustainable development, for guaranteeing correct operation of public water supply in cities like Catriel, 25 de Mayo, Colorado River and potentially also Bahía Blanca. In this paper, we analyze in Buta Ranquil flow time series upstream reservoir and hydroelectric plant in order to model and predict daily fluctuations. We compare results obtained by using a three-layer artificial neural network (ANN, and an autoregressive (AR model, using 18 years of data, of which the last 3 years are used for model validation by means of the root mean square error (RMSE, and measure of certainty (Skill. Our results point out to the better performance to predict daily water flow or refill them of the ANN model performance respect to the AR model.La identificación de modelos adecuados para predecir caudales diarios es importante para la planificación y la gestión de almacenamiento de agua en los embalses de la Argentina. La predicción a largo plazo del caudal es crucial para la regulación de los embalses y centrales hidroeléctricas, evaluar la protección del medio ambiente y el desarrollo sostenible, garantizar el correcto funcionamiento del abastecimiento público de agua en ciudades como Catriel, 25 de Mayo, río Colorado y también, eventualmente, en Bahía Blanca. En este trabajo, se analizan series de tiempo de caudales de agua, arriba del embalse y de la planta hidroeléctrica en Buta Ranquil, para modelar y predecir las fluctuaciones diarias. Se comparan los resultados obtenidos mediante el uso de una red neuronal artificial (ANN de tres capas y un modelo autoregresivo (AR, con 18 anos de datos, cuyos últimos 3 anos se utilizan para la validación del

  7. EFFICACY OF MUSIC THERAPY IN THE REDUCTION OF REQUIREMENT OF SEDATIVE AGENTS, IN SURGERIES PERFORMED UNDER CAUDAL ANAESTHESIA: A ONE YEAR DOUBLE BLINDED RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath C

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Paediatric patients undergoing surgeries under regional anaesthesia require adequate sedation. Various intravenous agents and inhalational anaesthetics have been used for this purpose. The purpose of this study is to establish a relationship between music and intra operative requirement of sedative agents (inhalational and intravenous agents in pediatric patients undergoing surgeries under caudal epidural anaesthesia. AIM: The aim of this study is to establish a relationship between music and reduction in intra operative requirement of sedative agents (inhalational and intravenous agents in pediatric patients undergoing surgeries under caudal epidural anaesthesia. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: One year hospital based double blinded randomized clinical controlled trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 ASA grade I and II children in the age group of 1 to 6 years who were scheduled for herniotomy were included in this study. Children were randomly divided into two groups A and B. All the children received 1 ml/kg body weight of 0.25% bupivacaine in caudal epidural space, in addition all the a head phone was applied in all the children, the children in Group A were played a classical Indian music via head phone whereas children in Group B were devoid of any music in the intra operative period. SpO2, ECG, NIBP were monitored intra operatively. Level of sedation using “Ramsay Sedation Scale”. If the sedation scale was < 3, Inj.midazolam-0.03 mg/kg was administered i.v. as and when required, so that the maximum dose did not cross 0.6mg/kg4. If the midazolam requirement exceeded the maximum dose then adequate sedation scores were achieved using sevoflurane. The total number of doses of sedatives required and the total dose required were noted. STASTICAL ANALYSIS: The data was analyzed using the Mann Whitney test and Student’s t test comparing the sedation scores of between the two groups. RESULTS: The demographic parameters, duration of surgery were

  8. Bloqueo caudal en dolor crónico lumbar: ¿Es necesario el apoyo radiológico para disminuir los fallos de la técnica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cortiñas Sáenz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las infiltraciones de esteroides epidurales no ofrecen beneficio a largo plazo en el tratamiento del dolor de espalda, pero pueden ser eficaces en los pacientes con dolor radicular lumbosacro agudo. Los bloqueos epidurales vía caudal de esteroides son eficaces en el alivio sintomático a corto plazo (evidencia de nivel II, así como a largo plazo (nivel de evidencia III. Objetivos: evaluar la eficacia del bloqueo caudal con y sin guía fluoroscópica. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo, observacional y descriptivo para evaluar la tasa de fallos de la realización del bloqueo caudal mediante la técnica "a ciegas" respecto a la guiada por radiología. El análisis estadístico incluyó chi2 de Mantel y Haensel, t de Student y test ANOVA, considerándose una p Introduction: epidural steroid injections offer no long-term benefit for the treatment of low back pain but may be effective in the small subset of patients with acute lumbosacral radicular pain. Caudal epidural steroid injection was effective in producing short-term improvement (level II evidence as well as long-term relief (level III evidence. Objetives: to evaluate of the effectiveness of the caudal epidural block under fluoroscopic guidance. Material and methods: prospective, observational and descriptive study to assess the failure rates of caudal block using the technique "blind" with respect to radiological vision. Statistical comparisons were based on the chi2 test, the long-rank test, t test and ANOVA test, considering a statistically significant result p < 0.05. Results: we performed 129 caudal epidural blocks in 89 patients for chronic pain conditions. The overall success rate of caudal block with a blind technique was of 65.11%. Statistically significant differences in the rate of technical failure of the blind for the variables professional experience of the anesthesiologist and the presence of obesity. The most common malposition in our cohort is the

  9. C7 pars fracture subadjacent to C7 pedicle screw instrumentation at the caudal end of a posterior cervical instrumentation construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Andrea; Grauer, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    We report a case of a C7 pars fracture subadjacent to C7 pedicle screw instrumentation at the caudal end of posterior cervical instrumentation construct. To date, posterior cervical instrumentation has been "off label"; however, the US Food and Drug Administration is considering approving label indication of such instrumentation for this common surgical practice. Complications related to the techniques are reported to be relatively low. We know of no previous reports of pars fractures occurring subadjacent to such instrumentation. A 43-year-old man underwent posterior C5-C7 instrumented fusion. Postoperatively, the patient experienced cervical spine injury after a mechanical fall down stairs. Work-up detected bilateral C7 pars fractures subadjacent to the posterior instrumentation construct. After we treated the pars fracture with distal extension of the posterior fusion to the level of T2, the patient progressed to union and marked improvement of initial clinical symptoms that was maintained 2.5 years after posterior instrumentation. To our knowledge, a C7 pars fracture subadjacent to posterior cervical instrumentation construct has not been reported. We hypothesize that the pars may have been vulnerable to fracture because of excessive bone resection during foraminotomy or decortication. This complication was successfully treated by extending the fusion caudally.

  10. Bloqueo caudal en dolor crónico lumbar: ¿Es necesario el apoyo radiológico para disminuir los fallos de la técnica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cortiñas Sáenz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las infiltraciones de esteroides epidurales no ofrecen beneficio a largo plazo en el tratamiento del dolor de espalda, pero pueden ser eficaces en los pacientes con dolor radicular lumbosacro agudo. Los bloqueos epidurales vía caudal de esteroides son eficaces en el alivio sintomático a corto plazo (evidencia de nivel II, así como a largo plazo (nivel de evidencia III. Objetivos: evaluar la eficacia del bloqueo caudal con y sin guía fluoroscópica. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo, observacional y descriptivo para evaluar la tasa de fallos de la realización del bloqueo caudal mediante la técnica "a ciegas" respecto a la guiada por radiología. El análisis estadístico incluyó chi2 de Mantel y Haensel, t de Student y test ANOVA, considerándose una p < 0,05 con significación estadística. Resultados: se realizaron 129 bloqueos epidurales caudales en 89 pacientes por cuadros de dolor crónico. La tasa global de éxito del bloqueo caudal con la técnica a ciegas fue de un 65,11%. Existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la tasa de fallos de la técnica a ciegas para las variables: experiencia profesional del médico anestesiólogo y la presencia de obesidad. La mal posición más frecuente en nuestra cohorte es la colocación subcutánea de la aguja, que representa un 80% de los casos (36/45. Conclusiones: recomendamos el uso de la visión radiológica para realizar los bloqueos epidurales caudales.

  11. Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mental Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Specific phobias Treatment More information on specific phobias A specific ... targeted psychotherapy. Return to top More information on Specific phobias Explore other publications and websites Phobias (Copyright © American ...

  12. [Selective histochemical identification of neuronal cell populations using fucose-specific lectins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkuratov, E G; Nozdrachev, A D

    2004-01-01

    We studied lectin histochemical properties of structures of caudal ganglia of the vagus nerve and ganglion of the trigeminal nerve in white rats using fucose-specific conjugates to peroxidase. Morphological samples were processed on a computer video analyzer. Metrical and optical indices of the afferent neurons were analyzed. The obtained data demonstrate different topography of glycoconjugates in the afferent ganglia. Application of recent image processing techniques allows revealing neuron populations in afferent ganglia of rats undetectable by standard morphological techniques.

  13. Gastrotomia em cão para remoção de corpo estranho em esôfago caudal. Relato de Caso

    OpenAIRE

    Macambira, Karen Denise da Silva; Universidade Estadual do Ceará UECE, Fortaleza, CE.; Júnior, Francisco Antônio Félix Xavier; Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, UFC, Fortaleza, CE.; Silveira, João João Alison de Moraes Silveira; Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, UFC, Fortaleza, CE.; Morais, Glayciane Bezerra de; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, UECE, Fortaleza, CE; Passos, Yanna Deysi Bandeira; Médico Veterinário da Unidade Hospitalar Veterinária, UECE, Fortaleza, CE.; Bouty, Lúcio Flávio Marinho; Médico Veterinário da Unidade Hospitalar Veterinária, UECE, Fortaleza, CE.; Evangelista, Janaina Serra Azul Monteiro; Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, UECE, Fortaleza, CE

    2016-01-01

    Corpos estranhos são objetos digeríveis ou não e que podem causar obstrução esofágica. Uma vez localizado, o clínico deve decidir entre observar sua passagem ou realizar a remoção, sendo a intervenção imediata a mais recomendada. Com isso, objetivou-se relatar um caso de corpo estranho no esôfago caudal de um canino, fêmea, 8 anos, apresentando histórico de regurgitação e hiporexia. Com base na anamnese e nos achados do exame físico, foram realizadas radiografias nas posições látero-lateral e...

  14. The atypical cadherin Celsr1 functions non-cell autonomously to block rostral migration of facial branchiomotor neurons in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasco, Derrick M; Pike, Whitney; Qu, Yibo; Reustle, Lindsay; Misra, Kamana; Di Bonito, Maria; Studer, Michele; Fritzsch, Bernd; Goffinet, André M; Tissir, Fadel; Chandrasekhar, Anand

    2016-09-01

    The caudal migration of facial branchiomotor (FBM) neurons from rhombomere (r) 4 to r6 in the hindbrain is an excellent model to study neuronal migration mechanisms. Although several Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) components are required for FBM neuron migration, only Celsr1, an atypical cadherin, regulates the direction of migration in mice. In Celsr1 mutants, a subset of FBM neurons migrates rostrally instead of caudally. Interestingly, Celsr1 is not expressed in the migrating FBM neurons, but rather in the adjacent floor plate and adjoining ventricular zone. To evaluate the contribution of different expression domains to neuronal migration, we conditionally inactivated Celsr1 in specific cell types. Intriguingly, inactivation of Celsr1 in the ventricular zone of r3-r5, but not in the floor plate, leads to rostral migration of FBM neurons, greatly resembling the migration defect of Celsr1 mutants. Dye fill experiments indicate that the rostrally-migrated FBM neurons in Celsr1 mutants originate from the anterior margin of r4. These data suggest strongly that Celsr1 ensures that FBM neurons migrate caudally by suppressing molecular cues in the rostral hindbrain that can attract FBM neurons.

  15. Excitatory amino acid receptor blockade within the caudal pressor area and rostral ventrolateral medulla alters cardiovascular responses to nucleus raphe obscurus stimulation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva N.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressor responses elicited by stimulation of the nucleus raphe obscurus (NRO depend on the integrity of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM. Therefore, to test the participation of excitatory amino acid (EAA receptors in the cardiovascular responses evoked by NRO stimulation (1 ms, 100 Hz, 40-70 µA, for 10 s, the EAA antagonist kynurenic acid (Kyn was microinjected at different sites in the ventrolateral medullar surface (2.7 nmol/200 nl of male Wistar rats (270-320 g, N = 39 and NRO stimulation was repeated. The effects of NRO stimulation were: hypertension (deltaMAP = +43 ± 1 mmHg, P<0.01, bradycardia (deltaHR = -30 ± 7 bpm, P<0.01 and apnea. Bilateral microinjection of Kyn into the RVLM, which did not change baseline parameters, almost abolished the bradycardia induced by NRO stimulation (deltaHR = -61 ± 3 before vs -2 ± 3 bpm after Kyn, P<0.01, N = 7. Unilateral microinjection of Kyn into the CVLM did not change baseline parameters or reduce the pressor response to NRO stimulation (deltaMAP = +46 ± 5 before vs +48 ± 5 mmHg after Kyn, N = 6. Kyn bilaterally microinjected into the caudal pressor area reduced blood pressure and heart rate and almost abolished the pressor response to NRO stimulation (deltaMAP = +46 ± 4 mmHg before vs +4 ± 2 mmHg after Kyn, P<0.01, N = 7. These results indicate that EAA receptors on the medullary ventrolateral surface play a role in the modulation of the cardiovascular responses induced by NRO stimulation, and also suggest that the RVLM participates in the modulation of heart rate responses and that the caudal pressor area modulates the pressor response following NRO stimulation.

  16. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: Detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Skirrow, Rachel C. [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Rieberger, Kevin J. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Aggelen, Graham van [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Meays, Cynthia L. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Helbing, Caren C., E-mail: chelbing@uvic.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •A minimally-invasive tail fin biopsy assay was developed for use in fish. •Quantitative real time polymerase reaction provided gene expression readout. •Results were comparable to classical liver tissue responses. •The approach was used on two salmonid species and can be coupled with genomic sex determination using an additional biopsy for maximal information. -- Abstract: An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in

  17. Cryptorchidism as a caudal developmental field defect. A new description of cryptorchidism associated with malformations and dysplasias of the kidneys, the ureters and the spine from T10 to S5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Beck, B L;

    1998-01-01

    to in cryptorchidism in general. In the literature the association was reported in 5-10% of boys considered to suffer from cryptorchidism only. Furthermore, our observations are concordant with recent theories about cryptorchidism. Consequently, we propose that cryptorchidism in general may be a caudal developmental...

  18. Bloqueio peridural caudal: técnica anestésica de uso exclusivo em crianças? É possível sua realização em adultos? Qual o papel do ultrassom nesse contexto?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Esquenazi Najman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio peridural caudal é a mais popular entre todas as técnicas de anestesia regional em crianças. Com o avanço da idade, apenas a relativa dificuldade em localizar o hiato sacral limita seu uso. Entretanto, em adultos a técnica vem sendo largamente utilizada para controle de dor crônica com o auxílio da fluoroscopia. Assim, a habilidade em localizar o hiato e definir as variações anatômicas é o principal fator determinante do sucesso e segurança na execução do bloqueio peridural pela via caudal. Nesse contexto, o ultrassom vem ganhando espaço como guia para a realização do bloqueio caudal. O objetivo desta revisão foi elucidar o papel do ultrassom na anestesia caudal, além de demonstrar que o bloqueio caudal, muito utilizado em crianças, também é útil e pode ser usado em adultos. CONTEÚDO: Uma revisão literária sobre a anatomia da região sacral e da técnica anestésica necessária para a realização adequada do bloqueio caudal foi promovida. Além disso, artigos recentes sobre estudos realizados com bloqueios peridurais caudais guiados por ultrassom tanto em crianças quanto em adultos também foram incluídos. CONCLUSÕES: O ultrassom, apesar de suas limitações, pode ser útil como ferramenta adjuvante no posicionamento da agulha no espaço caudal. Permite a fácil identificação da anatomia sacral, além de visualização da injeção, em tempo real. Sua natureza portátil, não invasiva e livre de exposição à radiação faz dele uma tecnologia atrativa na sala operatória, principalmente na emergência de casos difíceis. Entretanto, como seu uso em bloqueios centrais do neuroeixo ainda é muito primitivo, é necessário que mais pesquisas sejam feitas para se consagre como técnica de rotina na prática anestésica.

  19. Influencia del caudal de aire, temperatura y velocidad de agitación en el proceso discontinuo de acetificación para la obtención de vinagre de naranja (Citrus sinensis var.W. Navel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ferreyra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la influencia de variables de proceso para la producción de vinagre de naranja. El jugo de naranja, se fermentó con Saccharomyces cer evisiae hasta 14 % v/v de alcohol. La bioxidación se realizó con Acetobacter sp., en cultivo sumergido, en biorreactor de laboratorio. Para evitar el efecto inhibidor del etanol sobre las bacterias acéticas, el vino de naranja fue diluido a 6 % v/v de alco hol con solución de minerales. La influencia de las variables se evaluó con diseño factorial 2 k . Se estudió caudal de aire/velocidad de agitación, ensayando los niveles 0.3 – 0.6 vvm y 200 - 400 rpm y luego, caudal de aire/temperatura, siendo los niveles para cada variable 0.4 – 0.6 vvm y 25 - 30 ºC, respectivamente. Cada tratamiento se realizó por duplicado, usando como respuestas productividad y rendimiento. El análisis del diseño (α<0.05 se efectuó mediante programa Statgraphics Centurion XV Corporate. En los tratamientos con 200 rpm y distintos caudales de aire, no hubo diferencias significativas respecto a la productividad. A mayor velocidad de agitación y caudal de aire, la productividad fue mayor. Los mayores rendimientos se obtuvieron con menores caudales de aire y mayores velocidades de agitación. Con respecto a la temperatura, los valores ensayados no presentaron diferenc ias significativas en las respuestas estudiadas. El mejor rendimiento se obtuvo con 400 rpm y 0.3 vvm a 25 ºC. Se concluye que la velocidad de agitación juega un rol muy importante para lograr una mejor productividad mientras que elevados flujos de aire d isminuyen el rendimiento.

  20. Estudio probabilístico de precipitación y caudal en la cuenca hidrográfica del río Cali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marulanda V. Edgar

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Se analizó el comportamiento probabilístico de la precipitación y el caudal, así como la influencia del fenómeno del Niño en la cuenca hidrográfica del río Cali (123 Km2, localizada en la vertiente Oriental de la cordillera Occidental en el Municipio de Santiago de Cali, en el Valle del Cauca (Colombia. En la determinación de las curvas de variación temporal y el análisis de los eventos extremos, se obtuvo buen ajuste con el método probabilístico de Weibull, la precipitación media de 2046 mm varía entre 3600 (Zona Alta y 1200 mm (Zona Baja; el escurrimiento superficial anual de 3.94 m3 s-1 oscila entre 2.32 (julio y 6.09 m3s-1 (mayo. Los caudales extremos del río Cali han variado entre 0.20 (sequia y 193.0 m3 S-1 (época de lluvias intensas; mientras que en el río Pichindé, su principal afluente, la fluctuación ha oscilado entre 0.17 y 79.9 m3s-1.  Entre 1990 y 1993 el caudal medio anual del no se redujo en 26% respecto al promedio histórico. En los años de incidencia del fenómeno del Niño han ocurrido los eventos más intensos: entre el 52 y el 84% de las precipitaciones máximas mayores de 60 mm en 24 horas los caudales críticos máximos (193.0 y mínimos (0.20 m3 s-1; el Niño 1991-1992 tuvo la mayor incidencia en la disponibilidad de agua en los últimos 43 años, redujo en 36% (1311 mm la precipitación anual y en 50% (1.97 m3 s-1 el caudal medio anual.

    The probabilistic behavior of the precipitation and the flow in the Cali River catchment (123 km2 was analyzed. The attained curves with the Weibull probabilistic method followed a very good adjustment. The catchment shows a medium precipitation of 2046 mm that varies from 3600 (High Zone to 1200 mm (Low zone. The annual superficial flow was about 3.94 m3S-1 with monthly variations between 2.32 (july and 6

  1. The Wnt and Delta-Notch signalling pathways interact to direct pair-rule gene expression via caudal during segment addition in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönauer, Anna; Paese, Christian L B; Hilbrant, Maarten; Leite, Daniel J; Schwager, Evelyn E; Feitosa, Natália Martins; Eibner, Cornelius; Damen, Wim G M; McGregor, Alistair P

    2016-07-01

    In short-germ arthropods, posterior segments are added sequentially from a segment addition zone (SAZ) during embryogenesis. Studies in spiders such as Parasteatoda tepidariorum have provided insights into the gene regulatory network (GRN) underlying segment addition, and revealed that Wnt8 is required for dynamic Delta (Dl) expression associated with the formation of new segments. However, it remains unclear how these pathways interact during SAZ formation and segment addition. Here, we show that Delta-Notch signalling is required for Wnt8 expression in posterior SAZ cells, but represses the expression of this Wnt gene in anterior SAZ cells. We also found that these two signalling pathways are required for the expression of the spider orthologues of even-skipped (eve) and runt-1 (run-1), at least in part via caudal (cad). Moreover, it appears that dynamic expression of eve in this spider does not require a feedback loop with run-1, as is found in the pair-rule circuit of the beetle Tribolium Taken together, our results suggest that the development of posterior segments in Parasteatoda is directed by dynamic interactions between Wnt8 and Delta-Notch signalling that are read out by cad, which is necessary but probably not sufficient to regulate the expression of eve and run-1 Our study therefore provides new insights towards better understanding the evolution and developmental regulation of segmentation in other arthropods, including insects.

  2. Origin of a Non-Clarke's Column Division of the Dorsal Spinocerebellar Tract and the Role of Caudal Proprioceptive Neurons in Motor Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuengert, Rachel; Hori, Kei; Kibodeaux, Erin E; McClellan, Jacob X; Morales, Justin E; Huang, Teng-Wei P; Neul, Jeffrey L; Lai, Helen C

    2015-11-10

    Proprioception, the sense of limb and body position, is essential for generating proper movement. Unconscious proprioceptive information travels through cerebellar-projecting neurons in the spinal cord and medulla. The progenitor domain defined by the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, ATOH1, has been implicated in forming these cerebellar-projecting neurons; however, their precise contribution to proprioceptive tracts and motor behavior is unknown. Significantly, we demonstrate that Atoh1-lineage neurons in the spinal cord reside outside Clarke's column (CC), a main contributor of neurons relaying hindlimb proprioception, despite giving rise to the anatomical and functional correlate of CC in the medulla, the external cuneate nucleus (ECu), which mediates forelimb proprioception. Elimination of caudal Atoh1-lineages results in mice with relatively normal locomotion but unable to perform coordinated motor tasks. Altogether, we reveal that proprioceptive nuclei in the spinal cord and medulla develop from more than one progenitor source, suggesting an avenue to uncover distinct proprioceptive functions.

  3. Phosphorylation of Dpsyl2 (CRMP2) and Dpsyl3 (CRMP4) is required for positioning of caudal primary motor neurons in the zebrafish spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Rii; Nozawa, Keisuke; Tanaka, Hideomi; Ohshima, Toshio

    2013-12-01

    Dpysls (CRMPs) that were initially identified as mediator proteins of Semaphorin3a (Sema3a) signaling are involved in neuronal polarity and axon elongation in cultured neurons. Previous studies have shown that knockdown of neuropilin1a, one of the sema3a receptors, exhibited ectopic primary motor neurons (PMNs) outside of the spinal cord in zebrafish. However, downstream molecules of sema3a signaling involved in the positioning of motor neurons are largely unknown. Here, we addressed the role of Dpysl2 (CRMP2) and Dpysl3 (CRMP4) in the positioning of PMNs in the zebrafish spinal cord. We found that the knockdown of dpysls by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (AMO) causes abnormal positioning of caudal primary (CaP) motor neurons outside the spinal cord. The knockdown of cdk5 and dyrk2 by AMO also caused similar phenotype in the positioning of CaP motor neurons, and this phenotype was rescued by co-injection of phosphorylation-mimic type dpysl2 mRNA. These results suggest that the phosphorylation of Dpysl2 and Dpysl3 by Cdk5 and Dyrk2 is required for correct positioning of CaP motor neurons in the zebrafish spinal cord.

  4. Establishment of caudal fin cell lines from tropical ornamental fishes Puntius fasciatus and Pristolepis fasciata endemic to the Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, T Raja; Basheer, V S; Gopalakrishnan, A; Rathore, Gaurav; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Kumar, Raj; Jena, J K

    2013-12-01

    Two new cell lines, PFF and CFF were established from the caudal fin of the Puntius fasciatus, and Pristolepis fasciata respectively. Since their initiation, these cell lines (PFF and CFF) have been subcultured in L-15 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum for more than 35 passages at 28°C and both the cell lines were characterized. Karyotyping analysis of PFF and CFF cells at 25th passage indicated that the modal chromosome number was 2n=50 and 2n=48 respectively. The cell line was cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen at -196°C and could be recovered from storage after six months with good cell viability. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the fragments of two mitochondrial genes, 16S rRNA and COI confirmed that the cell lines originated from the respective species. The bacterial extracellular products from Vibrio cholerae MTCC3904 and Aeromonas hydrophila were found to be toxic to PFF and CFF. Both the cells were resistant to the marine viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV). No CPE could be found in both cell lines inoculated with the fish samples and cell culture supernatants were demonstrated free of SVC, iridovirus and KHV by molecular methods. These results indicated the absence of SVC, iridovirus and KHV in the ornamental fishes collected from the Western Ghats of India.

  5. Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Defines Organizing Centers that Orchestrate Growth and Differentiation of the Regenerating Zebrafish Caudal Fin

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    Daniel Wehner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish regenerate their fins via the formation of a population of progenitor cells, the blastema. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is essential for blastemal cell proliferation and patterning of the overlying epidermis. Yet, we find that β-catenin signaling is neither active in the epidermis nor the majority of the proliferative blastemal cells. Rather, tissue-specific pathway interference indicates that Wnt signaling in the nonproliferative distal blastema is required for cell proliferation in the proximal blastema, and signaling in cells lining the osteoblasts directs osteoblast differentiation. Thus, Wnt signaling regulates epidermal patterning, blastemal cell proliferation, and osteoblast maturation indirectly via secondary signals. Gene expression profiling, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and functional rescue experiments suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling acts through Fgf and Bmp signaling to control epidermal patterning, whereas retinoic acid and Hedgehog signals mediate its effects on blastemal cell proliferation. We propose that Wnt signaling orchestrates fin regeneration by defining organizing centers that instruct cellular behaviors of adjacent tissues.

  6. Specificity of specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GoorhuisBrouwer, SM; WijnbergWilliams, BJ

    1996-01-01

    In children with specific language impairment (SLI) their problems are supposed to be specifically restricted to language. However, both on a theoretical basis as well as on a practical basis it is often difficult to make a sharp distinction between specific and nonspecific language disorders. In a

  7. Bupivacaína-buprenorfina vs. bupivacaína por vía caudal para analgesia postoperatoria en el paciente pediátrico en cirugía ortopédica Bupivacaine-buprenorphine vs. caudal bupivacaine as postoperative analgesia for pediatric patients undergoing orthopedic surgery

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    M. E. Flores Arana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el dolor postoperatorio en el niño constituye una entidad especial ya que en el influyen varios factores, por tanto es una experiencia no esperada por el niño y más difícil de tratar. Objetivos: evaluar y comparar la duración y calidad de la analgesia postoperatoria caudal así como la estabilidad hemodinámica y los efectos adversos entre bupivacaína-buprenorfina contra bupivacaína. Material y método: ensayo clínico controlado, prospectivo, longitudinal y comparativo; se estudian 40 pacientes de 1 a 7 años, para cirugía ortopédica bajo bloqueo caudal en el HTO No 21 de Monterrey, Nuevo León, de mayo 2009 a enero 2010. Se asignan en forma aleatoria a dos grupos: grupo A bupivacaína 0,25% 1,4 ml/kg y grupo B se le administrará bupivacaína al 0,25% 1,4 ml/kg adicionada de 1 μg/kg de buprenorfina. La intensidad del dolor postoperatorio se medirá a través del EVA, NIPS Y CRIES a las 2, 4, 6, 12 y 24 horas posteriores. Análisis estadístico: T de Student, U de Mann-Whitney; y prueba de Chi cuadrado. Resultados: el tiempo de administración del primer analgésico posterior a cirugía fue más corto en el grupo A (5,33 vs. 8,46 horas, con una diferencia a favor del grupo B (p Background: postoperative pain in children is a special entity and that the influence various factors, therefore it is an unexpected experience for the child and more difficult to treat. Objective: to evaluate and compare the length and quality of post-operative caudal analgesia and hemodynamic stability and adverse effects between bupivacaine-buprenorphine against bupivacaine. Material and methods: a controlled clinical trial, prospective, longitudinal, comparative study included 40 patients 1-7 years for orthopedic surgery under caudal block in the HTO No 21, of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, from May 2009 to January 2010. Are assigned at random to two groups: group A 0.25% bupivacaine 1.4 ml/kg, and group B bupivacaine mL/kg 0.25% 1.4 mg/kg of

  8. Review of species of the Astyanax bimaculatus "caudal peduncle spot" subgroup sensu Garutti & Langeani (Characiformes, Characidae) from the rio La Plata and rio São Francisco drainages and coastal systems of southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Carlos Alberto S De; Soares, Helena Gouvea

    2016-01-28

    The species of the Astyanax bimaculatus 'caudal peduncle spot' subgroup of the drainages of the rios La Plata and São Francisco, as well as southeastern coastal systems of Brazil and Uruguay, are revised. Two nominal species are considered valid and are redescribed: Astyanax lacustris and A. abramis. Astyanax jacuhiensis, A. asuncionensis and A. altiparanae are recognized as new junior synonyms of A. lacustris. Bertoniolus paraguayensisis recognized as a new junior synonym of A. abramis. The names Astyanax orbignyanus, A. vittatus, and A. borealis are considered species inquirendae. Notes on A. maculisquamis, included in the 'caudal peduncle spot' subgroup from rio Guaporé (rio Madeira drainage), and Astyanax bahiensis from Bahia, mistakenly considered of the same subgroup, are presented.

  9. Corticotrigeminal Projections from the Insular Cortex to the Trigeminal Caudal Subnucleus Regulate Orofacial Pain after Nerve Injury via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation in Insular Cortex Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Zhi-Hua; Feng, Ban; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Han; Li, Hui; Chen, Tao; Cui, Jing; Zang, Wei-Dong; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cortical neuroplasticity alterations are implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic orofacial pain. However, the relationship between critical cortex excitability and orofacial pain maintenance has not been fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated a top-down corticospinal descending pain modulation pathway from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the spinal dorsal horn that could directly regulate nociceptive transmission. Thus, we aimed to investigate possible corticotrigeminal connections that directly influence orofacial nociception in rats. Infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI) induced significant orofacial nociceptive behaviors as well as pain-related negative emotions such as anxiety/depression in rats. By combining retrograde and anterograde tract tracing, we found powerful evidence that the trigeminal caudal subnucleus (Vc), especially the superficial laminae (I/II), received direct descending projections from granular and dysgranular parts of the insular cortex (IC). Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), an important signaling molecule involved in neuroplasticity, was significantly activated in the IC following IoN-CCI. Moreover, in IC slices from IoN-CCI rats, U0126, an inhibitor of ERK activation, decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and reduced the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) of Vc-projecting neurons. Additionally, U0126 also reduced the number of action potentials in the Vc-projecting neurons. Finally, intra-IC infusion of U0126 obviously decreased Fos expression in the Vc, accompanied by the alleviation of both nociceptive behavior and negative emotions. Thus, the corticotrigeminal descending pathway from the IC to the Vc could directly regulate orofacial pain, and ERK deactivation in the IC could effectively alleviate neuropathic pain as well as pain-related negative emotions in IoN-CCI rats, probably through this top-down pathway. These findings may help

  10. Acute hypercapnic hyperoxia stimulates reactive species production in the caudal solitary complex of rat brain slices but does not induce oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarlone, Geoffrey E; Dean, Jay B

    2016-12-01

    Central CO2 chemoreceptive neurons in the caudal solitary complex (cSC) are stimulated by hyperoxia via a free radical mechanism. Hyperoxia has been shown to increase superoxide and nitric oxide in the cSC, but it remains unknown how changes in Pco2 during hyperoxia affect the production of O2-dependent reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) downstream that can lead to increased levels of oxidative and nitrosative stress, cellular excitability, and, potentially, dysfunction. We used real-time fluorescence microscopy in rat brain slices to determine how hyperoxia and hypercapnic acidosis (HA) modulate one another in the production of key RONS, as well as colorimetric assays to measure levels of oxidized and nitrated lipids and proteins. We also examined the effects of CO2 narcosis and hypoxia before euthanasia and brain slice harvesting, as these neurons are CO2 sensitive and hypothesized to employ CO2/H(+) mechanisms that exacerbate RONS production and potentially oxidative stress. Our findings show that hyperoxia ± HA increases the production of peroxynitrite and its derivatives, whereas increases in Fenton chemistry are most prominent during hyperoxia + HA. Using CO2 narcosis before euthanasia modulates cellular sensitivity to HA postmortem and enhances the magnitude of the peroxynitrite pathway, but blunts the activity of Fenton chemistry. Overall, hyperoxia and HA do not result in increased production of markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress as expected. We postulate this is due to antioxidant and proteosomal removal of damaged lipids and proteins to maintain cell viability and avoid death during protracted hyperoxia.

  11. Orexin in Rostral Hotspot of Nucleus Accumbens Enhances Sucrose 'Liking' and Intake but Scopolamine in Caudal Shell Shifts 'Liking' Toward 'Disgust' and 'Fear'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Daniel C; Terry, Rachel A; Berridge, Kent C

    2016-07-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) contains a hedonic hotspot in the rostral half of medial shell, where opioid agonist microinjections are known to enhance positive hedonic orofacial reactions to the taste of sucrose ('liking' reactions). Within NAc shell, orexin/hypocretin also has been reported to stimulate food intake and is implicated in reward, whereas blockade of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by scopolamine suppresses intake and may have anti-reward effects. Here, we show that NAc microinjection of orexin-A in medial shell amplifies the hedonic impact of sucrose taste, but only within the same anatomically rostral site, identical to the opioid hotspot. By comparison, at all sites throughout medial shell, orexin microinjections stimulated 'wanting' to eat, as reflected by increases in intake of palatable sweet chocolates. At NAc shell sites outside the hotspot, orexin selectively enhanced 'wanting' to eat without enhancing sweetness 'liking' reactions. In contrast, microinjections of the antagonist scopolamine at all sites in NAc shell suppressed sucrose 'liking' reactions as well as suppressing intake of palatable food. Conversely, scopolamine increased aversive 'disgust' reactions elicited by bitter quinine at all NAc shell sites. Finally, scopolamine microinjections localized to the caudal half of medial shell additionally generated a fear-related anti-predator reaction of defensive treading and burying directed toward the corners of the transparent chamber. Together, these results confirm a rostral hotspot in NAc medial shell as a unique site for orexin induction of hedonic 'liking' enhancement, similar to opioid enhancement. They also reveal distinct roles for orexin and acetylcholine signals in NAc shell for hedonic reactions and motivated behaviors.

  12. MRI determination of the vertebral termination of the dural sac tip in a South African population: clinical significance during spinal irradiation and caudal anaesthesia

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    A Cilliers

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Knowing where the dural sac (DS ends is important, especially when placing the portal fields during craniospinal irradiation (CSI and performing caudal anesthesia. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the level of termination of the DS in relation to the spine in a group of South African patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We retrospectively reviewed the lumbosacral MR Imaging of 309 patients in each case identifying the tip of the DS. This level was recorded in relation to the adjacent vertebral body i.e. upper-, middle- and lower third and adjacent intervertebral disc. The overall mean of the DS position was at the middle third of S2. A notable percentage (13.9% of patients had a DS level lower than the lower third of S2 and (15.2% patients had a DS level higher than the S1-S2 intervertebral disc. This study failed to demonstrate a difference in the DS termination level, compared to the levels reported in various international studies; nor is there a statistical difference between gender, race and age. Our study shows that routine placement of the portal field at the lower border of S2 adequately treats the majority of CSI patients. However some patients (13.9% will be undertreated and some patients (15.2% will be overradiated. Using spinal MRI to establish the lower border of the CSI portal field will however benefit patients by ensuring adequate coverage of the entire neuroaxis as well as minimizing late gonadal toxicity due to overradiation.

  13. The human thalamic somatic sensory nucleus [ventral caudal (Vc)] shows neuronal mechanoreceptor-like responses to optimal stimuli for peripheral mechanoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, N; Ohara, S; Johnson, K O; Lenz, F A

    2009-02-01

    Although the response of human cutaneous mechanoreceptors to controlled stimuli is well studied, it is not clear how these peripheral signals may be reflected in neuronal activity of the human CNS. We now test the hypothesis that individual neurons in the human thalamic principal somatic sensory nucleus [ventral caudal (Vc)] respond selectively to the optimal stimulus for one of the four mechanoreceptors. The optimal stimuli for particular mechanoreceptors were defined as follows: Pacinian corpuscles (PC), vibration at 128 Hz; rapidly adapting (RA), vibration at 32 or 64 Hz; slowly adapting type 1 (SA1), edge; slowly adapting type 2 (SA2), skin stretch. Nineteen neurons had a significant response to at least one optimal stimulus, and 17 had a significantly greater response to one stimulus than to the other three, including 7 PC-related, 7 RA-like, 3 SA1-like, and 2 SA2-like neurons. One of each of the SA1- and SA2-like thalamic neurons responded to vibration with firing rates that were lower than those to edge or stretch but not significantly. Except in the case of PC-related neurons, the receptive field (RF) sizes were larger for these thalamic neurons than for the corresponding mechanoreceptor. Von Frey thresholds were higher than those for the corresponding human RA and SA1 mechanoreceptors. These results suggest that there is a convergence of pathways transmitting input from multiple mechanoreceptors of one type on single thalamic neurons via the dorsal columns. They are also consistent with the presence of primate thalamic elements of modality and somatotopic isorepresentation.

  14. Connections between EM2-containing terminals and GABA/μ-opioid receptor co-expressing neurons in the rat spinal trigeminal caudal nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Ying; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Lu, Ya-Cheng; Yin, Jun-Bin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Ting; Dong, Yu-Lin; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Endomorphin-2 (EM2) demonstrates a potent antinociceptive effect via the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). To provide morphological evidence for the pain control effect of EM2, the synaptic connections between EM2-immunoreactive (IR) axonal terminals and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)/MOR co-expressing neurons in lamina II of the spinal trigeminal caudal nucleus (Vc) were investigated in the rat. Dense EM2-, MOR- and GABA-IR fibers and terminals were mainly observed in lamina II of the Vc. Within lamina II, GABA- and MOR-neuronal cell bodies were also encountered. The results of immunofluorescent histochemical triple-staining showed that approximately 14.2 or 18.9% of GABA-IR or MOR-IR neurons also showed MOR- or GABA-immunopositive staining in lamina II; approximately 45.2 and 36.1% of the GABA-IR and MOR-IR neurons, respectively, expressed FOS protein in their nuclei induced by injecting formalin into the left lower lip of the mouth. Most of the GABA/MOR, GABA/FOS, and MOR/FOS double-labeled neurons made close contacts with EM2-IR fibers and terminals. Immuno-electron microscopy confirmed that the EM2-IR terminals formed synapses with GABA-IR or MOR-IR dendritic processes and neuronal cell bodies in lamina II of the Vc. These results suggest that EM2 might participate in pain transmission and modulation by binding to MOR-IR and GABAergic inhibitory interneuron in lamina II of the Vc to exert inhibitory effect on the excitatory interneuron in lamina II and projection neurons in laminae I and III. PMID:25386121

  15. The Influence of Tetrodotoxin (TTX on the Distribution and Chemical Coding of Caudal Mesenteric Ganglion (CaMG Neurons Supplying the Porcine Urinary Bladder

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    Ewa Lepiarczyk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of micturition disorders creates a serious problem for urologists. Recently, new therapeutic agents, such as neurotoxins, are being considered for the therapy of urological patients. The present study investigated the chemical coding of caudal mesenteric ganglion (CaMG neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder after intravesical instillation of tetrodotoxin (TTX. The CaMG neurons were visualized with retrograde tracer Fast blue (FB and their chemical profile was disclosed with double-labeling immunohistochemistry using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, neuropeptide Y (NPY, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, somatostatin (SOM, calbindin (CB, galanin (GAL and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS. It was found that in both the control (n = 6 and TTX-treated pigs (n = 6, the vast majority (92.6% ± 3.4% and 88.8% ± 2%, respectively of FB-positive (FB+ nerve cells were TH+. TTX instillation caused a decrease in the number of FB+/TH+ neurons immunopositive to NPY (88.9% ± 5.3% in the control animals vs. 10.6% ± 5.3% in TTX-treated pigs or VIP (1.7% ± 0.6% vs. 0%, and an increase in the number of FB+/TH+ neurons immunoreactive to SOM (8.8% ± 1.6% vs. 39% ± 12.8%, CB (1.8% ± 0.7% vs. 12.6% ± 2.7%, GAL (1.7% ± 0.8% vs. 10.9% ± 2.6% or nNOS (0% vs. 1.1% ± 0.3%. The present study is the first to suggest that TTX modifies the chemical coding of CaMG neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder.

  16. Origin and neurochemical properties of bulbospinal neurons projecting to the rat lumbar spinal cord via the medal longitudinal fasciculus and caudal ventrolateral medulla

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    Zilli eHuma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bulbospinal systems (BS originate from various regions of the brainstem and influence spinal neurons by classical synaptic and modulatory mechanisms. Our aim was to determine the brainstem locations of cells of origin of BS pathways passing through the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF and the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM. We also examined the transmitter content of spinal terminations of the CVLM pathway. Six adult rats received Fluorogold (FG injections to the right intermediate grey matter of the lumbar cord (L1-L2 and the b-subunit of cholera toxin (CTb was injected either into the MLF or the right CVLM (3 animals each. Double-labelled cells were identified within brainstem structures with confocal microscopy and mapped onto brainstem diagrams. An additional 3 rats were injected with CTb in the CVLM to label axon terminals in the lumbar spinal cord. Double-labelled cells projecting via the MLF or CVLM were found principally in reticular regions of the medulla and pons but small numbers of cells were also located within the midbrain. CVLM projections to the lumbar cord were almost exclusively ipsilateral and concentrated within the intermediate grey matter. Most (62% of terminals were immunoreactive for the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 while 23% contained the vesicular GABA transporter. The inhibitory subpopulation was glycinergic, GABAergic or contained both transmitters. The proportions of excitatory and inhibitory axons projecting via the CVLM to the lumbar cord are similar to those projecting via the MLF. Unlike the MLF pathway, CVLM projections are predominantly ipsilateral and concentrated within intermediate grey but do not extend into motor nuclei or laminia VIII. Terminations of the CVLM pathway are located in a region of the grey matter that is rich in premotor interneurons; thus its primary function may be to coordinate activity of premotor networks.

  17. Analgesia pós-operatória em correção cirúrgica de pé torto congênito: comparação entre bloqueio nervoso periférico e bloqueio peridural caudal Analgesia postoperatoria en corrección quirúrgica de pie jorobado congénito: comparación entre bloqueo nervioso periférico y bloqueo epidural caudal Postoperative analgesia for the surgical correction of congenital clubfoot: comparison between peripheral nerve block and caudal epidural block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Rossi Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O procedimento de correção de pé torto congênito (PTC cursa com dor pós-operatória intensa. A técnica mais utilizada em crianças é a peridural caudal associada à anestesia geral. Tem como limitação a curta duração da analgesia pós-operatória. Os bloqueios de nervos periféricos têm sido apontados como procedimentos com baixa incidência de complicações e tempo prolongado de analgesia. O objetivo do estudo foi comparar o tempo de analgesia dos bloqueios nervosos periféricos e bloqueio caudal e o consumo de morfina nas primeiras 24 horas após a correção de PTC em crianças. MÉTODO: Estudo randômico, encoberto, em crianças submetidas à intervenção cirúrgica para liberação póstero-medial de PTC, alocadas em 4 grupos conforme a técnica anestésica: Caudal (ACa; Bloqueios isquiático e femoral (IF; Bloqueios isquiático e safeno (IS; Bloqueio isquiático e anestesia local (IL, associados à anestesia geral. Nas primeiras 24 horas os pacientes receberam dipirona e paracetamol via oral e foram avaliados por anestesiologista que desconhecia a técnica empregada. Conforme escores da escala CHIPPS (Children's and infants postoperative pain scale era administrada morfina via oral (0,19 mg.kg-1 por dia. RESULTADOS: Foram estudadas 118 crianças distribuídas nos grupos ACa (30, IF (32, IS (28 IL (28. O tempo médio entre o bloqueio e a primeira dose de morfina foi 6,16 horas no grupo ACa, 7,05 horas no IF, 7,58 horas no IS e 8,18 horas no IL. O consumo de morfina foi 0,3 mg.kg-1 por dia nos quatro grupos. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: Os bloqueios nervosos periféricos não promoveram maior tempo de analgesia, tampouco redução no consumo de morfina nas primeiras 24 horas em crianças submetidas à correção de PTC quando comparados ao bloqueio peridural caudal.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El procedimiento de corrección de pie jorobado congénito (PJC, debuta

  18. A PROSPECTIVE, RANDOMIZED, DOUBLE BLIND, CONTROLLED CLINICAL STUDY OF ADJUVANT EFFECT OF FENTANYL (1 µg/kg OR CLONIDINE (2µg / kg TO ROPIVACAINE 0.2% 1ML/KG FOR CAUDAL ANALGESIA IN CHILDREN UNDERGOING LOWER ABDOMINAL SURGERIES

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    Manjunath

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ropivacaine having better safety profile and less motor blockade than bupivacaine is well suited for caudal analgesia. Since studies done regarding the effect of fentanyl and clonidine as adjuvants to ropivacaine for prolongation of caudal analgesia are scant and have shown conflicting results, the present study was conducted. METHODS: A total of 90 children aged between 3-6yrs belonging to ASA class I and II undergoing surgical procedures below the umbilicus were randomly allocated to one of two groups: Group R received ropivacaine 0.2%, 1 ml/kg with saline 0.02ml/kg and Group RF received ropivacaine 0.2%, 1 ml/kg with fentanyl 1 μg/kg (0.02ml/kg and Group RC (clonidine received 1ml/kg of 0.2% Ropivacaine plus clonidine 2µg / kg caudally after induction of general endotracheal anaesthesia. The pain score was evaluated using Hannallah pain scale, motor blockade using modified bromage scale and sedation assessed using 4 point sedation score at 30 minutes after extubation and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h. The time to awakening, first analgesic requirement time, number of doses of rescue analgesic and side-effects in a 24 hours period were also recorded. The results were evaluated using SPSS 17 statistical method. RESULTS: There were no differences in demographic characteristics between the groups. However, mean duration of caudal analgesia was 659.5 minutes in group R, 784.5 minutes in group RF and 960.5 minutes in group RC which was statistically highly significant (P<0.01.The total dose of rescue analgesic in 24 hours was lower in groups RF and RC. Also the number of children receiving rescue analgesia at 12 hours was higher in placebo group than fentanyl group and clonidine group which was statistically highly significant (P<0.01. Increased incidence of urinary retention and pruritis was noted in group RF which was statistically not significant (P=0.366. CONCLUSION: Addition of inj. Fentanyl 1µg/kg or clonidine 2µg/kg to Ropivacaine 0.2% 1ml

  19. Columnar organization of estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray projecting to the nucleus para-retroambiguus in the caudal brainstem of the female golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, P O; Krukerink, M; Veening, J G

    2009-06-30

    In the hamster brainstem estrogen receptor-alpha-immunoreactive neurons (ER-alpha-IR) are present in the nucleus para-retroambiguus (NPRA), located in the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) ventrolaterally to the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA). NPRA neurons project mainly to the thoracic and upper lumbar cord and are probably involved in the autonomic adaptations during the estrous cycle. The periaqueductal gray (PAG), projecting to the CVLM, also contains ER-alpha-IR neurons. This raises the questions: how are these projections organized and are ER-alpha-IR neurons in PAG and NPRA linked directly? Combined retro- and anterograde tracing techniques, using wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP), were carried out to demonstrate neuronal relationships between PAG and NPRA and/or NRA. Finally, a double-label immunostaining was performed in ovariectomized hamsters combining anti-ER-alpha antibody immunocytochemistry with cholera toxin B injections into the CVLM, to differentiate between ER-alpha-IR projections from the PAG to either NRA or NPRA. The experiments showed that retrograde labeling from the NRA mainly occurred in the rostral and intermediate ipsilateral PAG, while injections involving both NRA and NPRA resulted in numerous labeled neurons in the ipsilateral rostral, intermediate and especially the caudal PAG. The anterograde tracing studies confirmed these projections: from the rostral PAG almost exclusively to the NRA and from the caudal PAG to the NPRA, while the intermediate lateral PAG projects to both NPRA and NRA. Our double-immunostudies revealed that ER-alpha-IR projections descend only towards the NPRA and mainly originate from the ipsilateral caudal PAG. Retrogradely labeled ER-alpha-IR neurons in the PAG were observed in two separate columns, laterally and ventrolaterally in the caudal half of the PAG. The results provide evidence for the existence of differentiated PAG-CVLM projections to NRA and NPRA, respectively, originating from

  20. Passive Immunization in JNPL3 Transgenic Mice Using an Array of Phospho-Tau Specific Antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina d'Abramo

    Full Text Available Recent work from our lab and few others have strongly suggested that immunotherapy could be an effective means of preventing the development of tau accumulation in JNPL3 transgenic mice, carrying the human P301L mutation. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a variety of specific tau monoclonal antibodies in JNPL3. Starting at 3 months of age, mice were treated for 4 months with weekly intraperitoneal injections of saline or purified tau monoclonal antibodies (10 mg/Kg different in specificity for pathological tau: CP13 (pSer202, RZ3 (pThr231 and PG5 (pSer409. As expected, not all the antibodies tested showed efficacy at preventing the development of tau pathology at the described dose, with some of them even worsening the pathological scenario. Only by targeting the pSer202 epitope with CP13 was a conspicuous reduction of insoluble or soluble tau in cortex and hindbrain obtained. Here we report about the importance of screening in vivo multiple tau antibodies in order to select the antibodies to direct into future clinical studies.

  1. Specific Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Sandhya

    The investigation reported in this volume attempts to clarify some issues relating to the existence, nature, and causes of specific dyslexia. Based on an extended study of 98 boys of at least average intelligence with severe reading and spelling problems, the report provides detailed data relating to their developmental and perinatal histories,…

  2. Subset specification of central serotonergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten P Smidt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The last decade the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT system has received enormous attention due to its role in regulation of behavior, exemplified by the discovery that increased 5-HT tone in the central nervous system is able to alleviate affective disorders. Here, we review the developmental processes, with a special emphasis on subset specification, leading to the formation of the 5-HT system in the brain. Molecular classification of 5-HT neuronal groups leads to the definition of two independent rostral groups positioned in rhombomere 1 and 2/3 and a caudal group in rhombomere 5-8. In addition, more disperse refinement of these subsets is present as shown by the selective expression of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor, indicating functional diversity between 5-HT subsets. The functional significance of the molecular coding differences is not well known and the molecular basis of described specific connectivity patterns remain to be elucidated. Recent developments in genetic lineage tracing models will provide these data and form a major step-up towards the full understanding of the importance of developmental programming and function of 5-HT neuronal subsets.

  3. Wnt activity guides facial branchiomotor neuron migration, and involves the PCP pathway and JNK and ROCK kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Matthew

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wnt proteins play roles in many biological processes, including axon guidance and cell migration. In the mammalian hindbrain, facial branchiomotor (FBM neurons undergo a striking rostral to caudal migration, yet little is known of the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we investigated a possible role of Wnts and the planar cell polarity (PCP pathway in this process. Results Here we demonstrate a novel role for Wnt proteins in guiding FBM neurons during their rostral to caudal migration in the hindbrain. We found that Wnt5a is expressed in a caudalhigh to rostrallow gradient in the hindbrain. Wnt-coated beads chemoattracted FBM neurons to ectopic positions in an explant migration assay. The rostrocaudal FBM migration was moderately perturbed in Wnt5a mutant embryos and severely disrupted in Frizzled3 mutant mouse embryos, and was aberrant following inhibition of Wnt function by secreted Frizzled-related proteins. We also show the involvement of the Wnt/PCP pathway in mammalian FBM neuron migration. Thus, mutations in two PCP genes, Vangl2 and Scribble, caused severe defects in FBM migration. Inhibition of JNK and ROCK kinases strongly and specifically reduced the FBM migration, as well as blocked the chemoattractant effects of ectopic Wnt proteins. Conclusion These results provide in vivo evidence that Wnts chemoattract mammalian FBM neurons and that Wnt5a is a candidate to mediate this process. Molecules of the PCP pathway and the JNK and ROCK kinases also play a role in the FBM migration and are likely mediators of Wnt signalling.

  4. Estimación de los caudales ecológicos en el Río Valles con el método Tennant Estimates of ecological flows in the Río Valles with the Tennant method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Santacruz de León

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Los caudales ecológicos se definen como el régimen fluvial en un cuerpo de agua que permite mantener el funcionamiento del ecosistema acuático en condiciones naturales. La legislación ambiental en México establece la importancia de fijar estos caudales en los cuerpos de aguas nacionales, sin embargo, son pocos los ríos en los que se tienen establecidos. Se fijaron dos puntos (Micos y Santa Rosa sobre el cauce principal del Río Valles, San Luis Potosí; a la información hidrométrica registrada en esos puntos se le aplicó el método Tennant para estimar los caudales ecológicos. Los resultados mostraron que en los últimos treinta años, dichos flujos han disminuido entre 10% y 11%. Se concluyó que, en términos de flujo de agua, las condiciones más adversas para la vida acuática se presentan de marzo a mayo en el tramo Micos-Santa Rosa.The ecological flows are defined as the fluvial regime in a water body needed to function fluvial ecosystem. The environmental legislation in Mexico establishes the importance to setup ecological flows in water; however they are few rivers with established ecological flows. In this research were set two points (Micos and Santa Rosa on the mainstream River Valles, San Luis Potosí; on these points was applied Tennant method for estimating ecological flows. Results showed that over the past thirty years ecological flows have declined between 10% and 11%. We conclude that in terms of water flow, the most adverse conditions for aquatic life are presented from March to May in the Micos-Santa Rosa section.

  5. HRT Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Möller, M

    1996-01-01

    In the context of the AIS Project (Advanced Informatics Systems for administration and management) a study has been conducted that resulted in the definition of a high level information systems model. Thirteen proposed systems were defined for detailed analysis. The Finance, Foundation, Human Resources, Logistics and Purchasing areas have been studied in detail. These studies have lead to the purchase and implementation of the ORIAC and SIRIAC packages, the Foundation database, the Oracle HR package, the Triton package and EDH and BHT. This specification describes the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) intended to be used for accessing data in the HR and Foundation systems. This toolkit should help the divisions carry out their Human Resource management, planning and follow-up. It will have extensive report generation capabilities and offer a variety of standard graphs. It should have an easy-to-use graphical user interface and run on the CERN standard desktop platforms.

  6. Early determination of nasal-temporal retinotopic specificity in the eye anlage of the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dütting, D; Thanos, S

    1995-01-01

    The retinotectal projection of the chick is established between Embryonic Days 3 and 13 (E3 to E13). Fate mappings of the eye anlage by local injections of the fluorescent dyes DiI and DiA revealed that the anteroposterior axis of the optic vesicle corresponds to the nasotemporal axis of the retina. To investigate possible alterations in retinotopic specificity after ablating parts of the early eye anlage, we resected either most of the presumptive temporal or a large part of the presumptive nasal half of the eye anlage around stage 11 of the Hamburger-Hamilton scale (40-45 hr). After such treatment, the axes are restored in the healed optic vesicle. In the healing process the wound is closed by cells moving in from surrounding areas. After early posterior (i.e., temporal) ablation, the projection from the restored temporal half-retina onto the optic tectum was examined in embryos (E13 to E17) and juvenile chicken (P16) by retrograde and anterograde labeling of ganglion cells and their axons with DiI and DiASP. Normally, only a small fraction of ganglion cells from the temporal retina (between 6.4% on E13 and 0.08% on P16) projects onto the caudal part of the tectum. In experimental embryos and juvenile chicken this fraction is significantly increased (up to 80%). Retrograde double-labeling from the rostral and the caudal tectum reveals that temporal cells project onto either the rostral or the caudal tectum, but not via collaterals upon both areas. The ganglion cells with "displaced nasal" identity within the temporal retina that were backlabeled from the caudal tectum were to a large extent segregated into distinct clusters, indicating their derivation from few or possibly even single progenitor cells. Likewise, ablation of the anterior half of the optic vesicle led to clusters of rostrally projecting cells of "displaced temporal" identity within the restored nasal retina. In these experiments the dorsal-ventral retinotectal relationship remained intact. The

  7. Specific phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Alfons O

    2009-09-01

    Exposure based treatments in which patients are systematically confronted with their feared objects of situations are highly effective in the treatment of specific phobias and produce stable improvement both in reported fear and behavioral avoidance. Exposure in reality is more effective in most cases than exposure in sensu. For situations that are difficult to realize, exposure in virtual environments has become increasingly valuable. Exposure in vivo is clearly superior to pharmacotherapy, although cognitive enhancers have been successfully used recently to increase the effect of exposure therapy. The induction of relaxation is not a necessary precondition for exposure therapy. Rather the current mechanisms of change focus on extinction learning as being the central mechanism both on a cognitive level namely that the feared object is no longer associated with severely threatening consequence but also on an affective level, meaning that feared cue is no longer capable to activate the fear circuit in the brain. Accordingly future diagnostic categorizations of phobic disorders in the DSM-V should rather focus on the pattern of the fear response that needs to be changed than on the eliciting cues or situations that are avoided.

  8. Comparative efficacy of a recombinant feline interferon omega in refractory cases of calicivirus-positive cats with caudal stomatitis: a randomised, multi-centre, controlled, double-blind study in 39 cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennet, Philippe R; Camy, Guy A L; McGahie, David M; Albouy, Maxime V

    2011-08-01

    Chronic caudal stomatitis with alveolar/buccal mucositis in calicivirus-positive cats is the most severe presentation of feline chronic gingivostomatitis. Refractory cases are helped by antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatments often including glucocorticoids. In order to evaluate the comparative efficacy of oromucosal administration of recombinant feline interferon omega (rFeIFN-ω) versus oral administration of glucocorticoids, a randomised, multi-centre, controlled, double-blind study was performed in 39 cats. The progression of behavioural, clinical and lesional scores was assessed over 90 days. Daily oromucosal treatment with 0.1 MU of rFeIFN-ω was associated with a significant improvement of clinical lesions (caudal stomatitis and alveolar/buccal mucositis) and a decrease of pain scores from D0 to D90. Although no such statistical improvement was noticed in the prednisolone group, there was, however, no significant difference between the two groups for most of the parameters, except pain at D60 and D90.

  9. Specification of Region-Specific Neurons Including Forebrain Glutamatergic Neurons from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Taylor, Kristen; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Zheng; Park, Jung Woo; Zhan, Shuning; Kronenberg, Mark S.; Lichtler, Alexander; Liu, Hui-Xia; Chen, Fang-Ping; Yue, Lixia; Li, Xue-Jun; Xu, Ren-He

    2010-01-01

    Background Directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) into functional, region-specific neural cells is a key step to realizing their therapeutic promise to treat various neural disorders, which awaits detailed elucidation. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed neural differentiation from various hiPSC lines generated by others and ourselves. Although heterogeneity in efficiency of neuroepithelial (NE) cell differentiation was observed among different hiPSC lines, the NE differentiation process resembles that from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) in morphology, timing, transcriptional profile, and requirement for FGF signaling. NE cells differentiated from hiPSC, like those from hESC, can also form rostral phenotypes by default, and form the midbrain or spinal progenitors upon caudalization by morphogens. The rostrocaudal neural progenitors can further mature to develop forebrain glutamatergic projection neurons, midbrain dopaminergic neurons, and spinal motor neurons, respectively. Typical ion channels and action potentials were recorded in the hiPSC-derived neurons. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that hiPSC, regardless of how they were derived, can differentiate into a spectrum of rostrocaudal neurons with functionality, which supports the considerable value of hiPSC for study and treatment of patient-specific neural disorders. PMID:20686615

  10. Specification of region-specific neurons including forebrain glutamatergic neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC into functional, region-specific neural cells is a key step to realizing their therapeutic promise to treat various neural disorders, which awaits detailed elucidation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed neural differentiation from various hiPSC lines generated by others and ourselves. Although heterogeneity in efficiency of neuroepithelial (NE cell differentiation was observed among different hiPSC lines, the NE differentiation process resembles that from human embryonic stem cells (hESC in morphology, timing, transcriptional profile, and requirement for FGF signaling. NE cells differentiated from hiPSC, like those from hESC, can also form rostral phenotypes by default, and form the midbrain or spinal progenitors upon caudalization by morphogens. The rostrocaudal neural progenitors can further mature to develop forebrain glutamatergic projection neurons, midbrain dopaminergic neurons, and spinal motor neurons, respectively. Typical ion channels and action potentials were recorded in the hiPSC-derived neurons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that hiPSC, regardless of how they were derived, can differentiate into a spectrum of rostrocaudal neurons with functionality, which supports the considerable value of hiPSC for study and treatment of patient-specific neural disorders.

  11. Segmental identity and cerebellar granule cell induction in rhombomere 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Esther

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebellar granule cell precursors are specifically generated within the hindbrain segment, rhombomere 1, which is bounded rostrally by the midbrain/hindbrain isthmus and caudally by the boundary of the Hoxa2 expression domain. While graded signals from the isthmus have a demonstrable patterning role within this region, the significance of segmental identity for neuronal specification within rhombomere 1 is unexplored. We examined the response of granule cell precursors to the overexpression of Hoxa2, which normally determines patterns of development specific to the hindbrain. How much does the development of the cerebellum, a midbrain/hindbrain structure, reflect its neuromeric origin as a hindbrain segment? Results We show that a Gbx2-positive, Otx2-/Hoxa2-negative territory corresponding to rhombomere 1 forms prior to an identifiable isthmic organiser. Early global overexpression of Hoxa2 at embryonic day 0 has no effect on the expression of isthmic signalling molecules or the allocation of rhombomere 1 territory, but selectively results in the loss of granule cell markers at embryonic day 6 and the depletion of cell bodies from the external granule cell layer. By comparison the trochlear nucleus and locus coeruleus form normally in ventral rhombomere 1 under these conditions. Microsurgery, coupled with electroporation, to target Hoxa2 overexpression to rhombic lip precursors, reveals a profound, autonomous respecification of migration. Rhombic lip derivatives, normally destined to occupy the external granule cell layer, violate the cerebellar boundary to form a ventrolateral nucleus in a position comparable to that occupied by rhombic lip derived neurons in rhombomere 2. Conclusions Different overexpression strategies reveal that the recognition of migration cues by granule cell precursors is dependent on their identity as rhombomere 1 derivatives. Segmental patterning cues operate autonomously within the rhombic lip

  12. 七氟醚联合骶管麻醉在患儿下腹部手术中的应用%Sevoflurane Combined with Caudal Anesthesia in Pediatric Abdominal Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵会奇

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨七氟醚联合骶管麻醉在患儿下腹部手术中的应用。方法收集2012年4月至2014年4月于本院行下腹部手术的患儿88例资料,将患儿按照随机数字表法分为两组,对照组患者应用七氟醚麻醉,观察组患者行七氟醚联合骶管麻醉,观察比较两组患者各时点平均动脉压(MAP)、心率(HR),诱导时间及苏醒时间比较情况。结果麻醉后观察组各时点MAP、HR均低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05)。结论小儿下腹部手术应用七氟醚联合骶管麻醉,获得明显效果。%Objective To investigate the sevoflurane combined caudal anesthesia in pediatric abdominal surgery applications.Methods Data selected at random from April 2012 to April 2014 to 88 cases in children under hospital abdominal surgery,according to a random number table is divided into two groups,the application of the patients in the control group sevoflurane anesthesia,patients in the observation group of seven desflurane combined caudal anesthesia,two groups were compared at each time point were observed in mean arterial pressure(MAP),heart rate (HR),the induction time and wake time comparison situation.Results Observation group at al time points after anesthesia MAP,HR values were lower than the control group,the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05). Conclusion Pediatric abdominal surgery under sevoflurane combined caudal anesthesia,achieve significant results.

  13. Complicações determinadas por placas de cloreto de polivinila (PVC na estabilização da porção cervical caudal da coluna vertebral de cães Complications determined by polyvinylchloride (PVC plates in the stabilization of caudal cervical vertebral column of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 10 cães com peso médio de 14,6kg, as vértebras cervicais 5 e 6 foram cirurgicamente desestabilizadas através da secção do disco intervertebral e, em seguida, estabilizadas com placas ortopédicas confeccionadas com PVC de 2mm de espessura, para após 180 dias, proceder-se ao estudo histológico do tecido ósseo e conjuntivo circunvizinho. Constatou-se que o PVC causou alterações ósseas que podem ter favorecido o afrouxamento dos parafusos e a falha do implante. O material induziu ainda à formação de granuloma de corpo estranho e a reações inflamatórias locais que podem ter causado degradação do material implantado. Assim, placas de PVC, apesar de proporcionarem estabilidade e alinhamento da coluna vertebral, não satisfazem a maioria das propriedades necessárias a um biomaterial, não sendo recomendadaa a sua utilização em ortopedia veterinária.In ten dogs with an average mean weight of 14,6 kg, the cervical vertebra 5 and 6 were destabilized and fixed with plates of 2mm of thickness. The purpose of this work was to verify the effect of orthopedic PVC plates on the internal stabilization of the caudal cervical spine of dogs by studying the occurrence of alterations in the bone tissue and fibrous tissue adjacent to the plate after 180 days of permanence of the material in the dogs' organism. PVC causes progressive bone alterations, which, in the long term, could promote the loosening of the screws and failure of the implant. It also induces the formation of foreign body granuloma and inflammatory reactions which could cause degradation of the implant. Thus, PVC plates do not satisfy the majority of properties required of a biomaterial, its use not being recommended in veterinary orthopedics.

  14. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid alfentanil, butorphanol, and morphine concentrations following caudal epidural administration in horses Concentrações plasmáticas e no líquido cérebro-espinhal de alfentanil, butorfanol e morfina após administração epidural caudal em eqüinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Corrêa Natalini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective of determining the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF concentrations after epidurally administered alfentanil, butorphanol, and morphine in horses. Five clinically healthy adult horses were studied. Morphine 0.1mg kg-1, alfentanil 0.02mg kg-1, and butorphanol 0.08mg kg-1 in equal volumes (20ml were epidurally injected. A 10-ml sample of CSF and blood were drawn at sampling times before the epidural administration and at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 120 minutes, and hourly for 24 hours Enzyme-linked immonosorbent assay (ELISA was used as the screening test to detect the injected opioids. ANOVA and Bonferroni’s test were used with a P values Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de se detectar as concentrações plasmáticas e no líquido cérebro-espinhal de alfentanil, butorfanol e morfina administrados por via epidural caudal em cavalos. Foram utilizados cinco eqüinos adultos, clinicamente hígidos. Doses de morfina (0,1mg kg-1, alfentanil (0,02mg kg-1, e butorfanol (0,08mg kg-1, diluídos em volume idêntico de 20ml em solução salina 0,9%, foram administrados por via epidural. Uma amostra de 10ml de sangüe venoso e de líqüido cérebro-espinhal foram colhidas anteriormente à administração epidural e 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 120 minutos e a cada hora por 24 horas. O teste enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA foi utilizado como método analítico para detecção dos opióides. Os resultados foram avaliados com teste ANOVA e Bonferroni com valor de P<0,05. O teste de ELISA mostrou-se eficiente para detecção plasmática e no LCE de alfentanil, butorfanol, e morfina administrados por via epidural. A administração epidural de alfentanil em eqüinos produz níveis no líquido cérebro-espinhal mais rapidamente que no plasma. Opióides de maior hidrossolubilidade tais como morfina e butorfanol produzem níveis plasmáticos mais rapidamente do que no líquido cérebro-espinhal quando

  15. Epb41l5 competes with Delta as a substrate for Mib1 to coordinate specification and differentiation of neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Miho; Rand, Kinneret; Palardy, Greg; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Hiromi; Dalle Nogare, Damian; Itoh, Motoyuki; Chitnis, Ajay B

    2016-09-01

    We identified Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 5 (Epb41l5) as a substrate for the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mind bomb 1 (Mib1), which is essential for activation of Notch signaling. Although loss of Epb41l5 does not significantly alter the pattern of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) specified as neurons at the neural plate stage, it delays their delamination and differentiation after neurulation when NPCs normally acquire organized apical junctional complexes (AJCs) in the zebrafish hindbrain. Delays in differentiation are reduced by knocking down N-cadherin, a manipulation expected to help destabilize adherens junctions (AJs). This suggested that delays in neuronal differentiation in epb41l5-deficient embryos are related to a previously described role for Epb41l5 in facilitating disassembly of cadherin-dependent AJCs. Mib1 ubiquitylates Epb41l5 to promote its degradation. DeltaD can compete with Epb41l5 to reduce Mib1-dependent Epb41l5 degradation. In this context, increasing the number of NPCs specified to become neurons, i.e. cells expressing high levels of DeltaD, stabilizes Epb41l5 in the embryo. Together, these observations suggest that relatively high levels of Delta stabilize Epb41l5 in NPCs specified as neurons. This, we suggest, helps coordinate NPC specification with Epb41l5-dependent delamination and differentiation as neurons.

  16. Estimación de caudales ecológicos basada en simulación del hábitat físico en un pequeño río del sudeste de Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    El método de simulación del hábitat físico, integrado en el marco de la metodología IFIM (Instream Flow Incremental Methodology) y en otros marcos metodológicos hoy día, utiliza variables hidráulicas e índices de idoneidad del hábitat (a escala de microhábitat) para predecir los cambios potenciales del hábitat al cambiar el caudal circulante. Este enfoque se ha utilizado para simular los cambios potenciales de idoneidad del hábitat para tres especies de peces tropicales de diferentes órdenes,...

  17. Cryptorchidism as a caudal developmental field defect. A new description of cryptorchidism associated with malformations and dysplasias of the kidneys, the ureters and the spine from T10 to S5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, J M; Beck, Bjarne Lomholdt;

    1998-01-01

    to S5. The description of this association is new. The association was seen in 18% of cryptorchid boys younger than 3 years of age in a department of paediatric surgery, in 34% of cryptorchid foetuses who died in the third trimester, in 65% of cryptorchid patients with imperforate anus, and in all...... to in cryptorchidism in general. In the literature the association was reported in 5-10% of boys considered to suffer from cryptorchidism only. Furthermore, our observations are concordant with recent theories about cryptorchidism. Consequently, we propose that cryptorchidism in general may be a caudal developmental...... field defect. Study of cryptorchid patients exhibiting malformations or dysplasias of the kidneys, the ureters or the spine from T10 to S5 is essential in order to isolate new genetic disorders and to spot environmental factors causing cryptorchidism....

  18. Estado del arte en la medición de magnitudes hidráulicas (I): medición de caudales en conducciones cerradas, en diámetros pequeños y medianos

    OpenAIRE

    Larreategui Fadrique, Andoni

    1994-01-01

    En este artículo y entregas sucesivas se pasa revista al estado actual de la tecnología y el conocimiento, en lo concerniente a mediciones hidráulicas. En este número la exposición se centra en los caudales, en tuberías de pequeño y mediano diámetro. Por su extensión este primer artículo se divide en dos partes: En primer lugar se realiza una descripción básica de los principales equipos de medida disponibles en el mercado. Se incluye un listado de normas técnicas y legales y a ...

  19. Correlación de variables macroclimáticas del Océano Pacífico con los caudales en los ríos interandinos del Valle del Cauca (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesid Carvajal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los fenómenos climáticos sobre los océanos ejercen gran influencia sobre la hidroclimatología del valle del río Cauca (Colombia, en especial el evento "El Niño Oscilación Sur" (ENOS, que es responsable de la variabilidad climática en escalas de tiempo que van desde meses hasta décadas. Debido a esta dependencia, se estudió la correlación entre 8 variables indicadoras del clima en los Océanos Pacífico y Atlántico con los caudales medios mensuales de 8 ríos del valle del río Cauca. Las series cubren un período promedio de 40 años 1957-1997. Los resultados muestran las variaciones regionales de la situación hidrológica del valle del río Cauca respecto a las variables macroclimáticas. Los coeficientes de correlación indican que las variables que presentan mayor asociación con los caudales analizados son en su orden: Las temperaturas de la superficie del mar en las regiones Niño 3, Niño 3-4, Niño 4 Y SOl, mientras en el Atlántico, las mejores correlaciones las presentan: la Temperatura en el Trópico, en el Atlántico Norte (NATL y Atlántico Sur (SATL respectivamente.

  20. Resolución de ecuaciones de flujo espacialmente variado con caudales decrecientes (F.E.V.) mediente métodos numéricos : caso de una reja de captación de fondo en canal en lámina libre

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Arévalo, César

    2013-01-01

    El presente proyecto resuelve las ecuaciones de Flujo Espacialmente Variado con Caudales Decrecientes (Sotelo, 1998) para el caso de una reja de captación de fondo situada en un canal que funciona en lámina libre y con un régimen de aproximación subcrítico (Fr

  1. Historical database for estimating flows in a water supply network; Base de datos historica para estimacion de caudales en una red de abastecimiento de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez Martinez, A.; Ariel Gomez Gutierrez, A.; Alvarez Ramos, I.; Biscarri Trivino, F. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Monitoring the flows managed by water supply companies involves processing huge amounts of data. These data also have to correspond to the topology of the network in a way that is consistent with the data collection time. The specific purpose database described in this article was developed to meet such requirements. (Author) 4 refs.

  2. Development of regional specificity of spinal and medullary dorsal horn neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Feng Xie; Xing-Hong Jiang; Barry J Sessle; Xian-Min Yu

    2016-01-01

    Extensive studies have focused on the development and regionalization of neurons in the central nervous system(CNS). Many genes, which play crucial roles in the development of CNS neurons, have been identified. By using the technique "direct reprogramming", neurons can be produced from multiple cell sources such as fibroblasts. However, understanding the region-specific regulation of neurons in the CNS is still one of the biggest challenges in the research field of neuroscience. Neurons located in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis(Vc) and in the spinal dorsal horn(SDH) play crucial roles in pain and sensorimotor functions in the orofacial and other somatic body regions, respectively. Anatomically, Vc represents the most caudal component of the trigeminal system, and is contiguous with SDH. This review is focused on recent data dealing with the regional specificity involved in the development of neurons in Vc and SDH.

  3. Selective activation of tumor growth-promoting Ca2+ channel MS4A12 in colon cancer by caudal type homeobox transcription factor CDX2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Christoph

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Colon cancer-associated MS4A12 is a novel colon-specific component of store-operated Ca2+ (SOC entry sensitizing cells for epidermal growth factor (EGF-mediated effects on proliferation and chemotaxis. In the present study, we investigated regulation of the MS4A12 promoter to understand the mechanisms responsible for strict transcriptional restriction of this gene to the colonic epithelial cell lineage. DNA-binding assays and luciferase reporter assays showed that MS4A12 promoter activity is governed by a single CDX homeobox transcription factor binding element. RNA interference (RNAi-mediated silencing of intestine-specific transcription factors CDX1 and CDX2 and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP in LoVo and SW48 colon cancer cells revealed that MS4A12 transcript and protein expression is essentially dependent on the presence of endogenous CDX2. In summary, our findings provide a rationale for colon-specific expression of MS4A12. Moreover, this is the first report establishing CDX2 as transactivator of tumor growth-promoting gene expression in colon cancer, adding to untangle the complex and conflicting biological functions of CDX2 in colon cancer and supporting MS4A12 as important factor for normal colonic development as well as for the biology and treatment of colon cancer.

  4. Efecto de la regulación del caudal del Río Guadalquivir sobre las características fisicoquímicas del agua y la macrofauna acuática de su estuario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La temperatura, salinidad y turbidez del agua en el estuario del Guadalquivir, así como la abundancia, biomasa y número de especies de su macrofauna acuática (necton e hiperbentos, se estimaron mensualmente, entre junio de 1997 y mayo de 1999, en cinco estaciones de muestreo a 8, 20, 30, 40 y 50 km de la desembocadura utilizando para la toma de muestras un barco angulero provisto de un arte de pesca con malla de 1 mm de luz. En el estuario existió horizontalmente un marcado gradiente salino: la salinidad media mensual osciló habitualmente entre 17 y 27 en la estación más externa, mientras que en la zona más interna raramente sobrepasó 4. La temperatura fue homogénea en todo el estuario, con máximos estivales (28ºC y mínimos invernales (10ºC. La turbidez también fue relativamente homogénea en todo el estuario, con valores máximos invernales (362 UNT y mínimos principalmente estivales (10 UNT. Los máximos de turbidez coincidieron con la zona de confluencia del agua marina y dulce. Los resultados de los análisis de regresión múltiple por pasos indican que la distancia a la desembocadura y el caudal medio de agua desembalsada (el mes previo desde la presa de Alcalá del Río (a 110 km de la desembocadura explican 70% de la varianza de la salinidad, mientras que el caudal desembalsado apenas explica 17% de la varianza observada en la temperatura y la turbidez del agua. La salinidad explica 50% de la varianza del número de especies, mientras que la salinidad y la temperatura son las variables ambientales que controlan la variación de la abundancia y biomasa de la macrofauna estuárica, llegando a explicar 75% y 71% de la varianza de la abundancia y biomasa de la comunidad nectónica, respectivamente, y 54% y 48% de la varianza de la abundancia y biomasa hiperbentónica, respectivamente. La salinidad fue, en todos los casos, la variable que explicó un mayor porcentaje de la varianza.

  5. Myositis specific autoantibodies : specificity and clinical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengstman, G.J.D.

    2005-01-01

    The sera of about half of the patients with myositis contain autoantibodies that are specific for this group of diseases compared to other inflammatory connective tissue disorders. In a recent study we showed that these myositis specific autoantibodies (MSAs) are also specific for myositis as compar

  6. Implementación de un Control Predictivo Basado en Modelo Aplicado a un Sistema de Control de Caudal de Agua Didáctico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin H. Lopera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The proportional-integral-derivative controller -PID- has become the most used tool of regulation of process variables, and so it has been applied indiscriminately on linear and nonlinear dynamic systems, resulting in control problems in the industry, occurring loss of efficiency in productivity and decreased quality of manufactured products. Among the modern control techniques that have emerged to respond to those applications in which the PID controller has not operated satisfactorily, there is the model based predictive control -MPC-. This control algorithm has been characterized by its great capacity to respond, however, its expansion in the industrial sector has been slow, as it has been commercialized for specific applications. This paper presents an application of MPC on the regulation of water flow in a laboratory system using commercial control equipment and instrumentation, describing the formulation process control algorithm, the technical assistance required for the execution of experimental tests necessary to obtain the mathematical model of the plant and finally implementing the proposed control technique. The results evidence the great possibilities of applying effectively this control technique in variable regulation of general dynamic systems.

  7. Importance of mechanics and kinematics in determining the stiffness contribution of the vertebral column during body-caudal-fin swimming in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowroozi, Bryan N; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2014-02-01

    Whole-body stiffness in fishes has important consequences for swimming mode, speed and efficiency, but the contribution of vertebral column stiffness to whole-body stiffness is unclear. In our opinion, this lack of clarity is due in part to the lack of studies that have measured both in vitro mechanical properties of the vertebral column as well as in vivo vertebral kinematics in the same species. Some lack of clarity may also come from real variation in the mechanical role of the vertebral column across species. Previous studies, based on either mechanics or kinematics alone, suggest species-specific variation in vertebral column locomotor function that ranges from highly stiff regimes that contribute greatly to whole-body stiffness, and potentially act as a spring, to highly compliant regimes that only prohibit excessive flexion of the intervertebral joints. We review data collected in combined investigations of both mechanics and kinematics of three species, Myxine glutinosa, Acipenser transmontanus, and Morone saxatilis, to illustrate how mechanical testing within the context of the in vivo kinematics more clearly distinguishes the role of the vertebral column in each species. In addition, we identify species for which kinematic data are available, but mechanical data are lacking. We encourage further investigation of these species to fill these mechanical data gaps. Finally, we hope these future combined analyses will identify certain morphological, mechanical, or kinematic parameters that might be associated with certain vertebral column functional regimes with respect to body stiffness.

  8. An early role for WNT signaling in specifying neural patterns of Cdx and Hox gene expression and motor neuron subtype identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Nordström

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The link between extrinsic signaling, progenitor cell specification and neuronal subtype identity is central to the developmental organization of the vertebrate central nervous system. In the hindbrain and spinal cord, distinctions in the rostrocaudal identity of progenitor cells are associated with the generation of different motor neuron subtypes. Two fundamental classes of motor neurons, those with dorsal (dMN and ventral (vMN exit points, are generated over largely non-overlapping rostrocaudal domains of the caudal neural tube. Cdx and Hox genes are important determinants of the rostrocaudal identity of neural progenitor cells, but the link between early patterning signals, neural Cdx and Hox gene expression, and the generation of dMN and vMN subtypes, is unclear. Using an in vitro assay of neural differentiation, we provide evidence that an early Wnt-based program is required to interact with a later retinoic acid- and fibroblast growth factor-mediated mechanism to generate a pattern of Cdx and Hox profiles characteristic of hindbrain and spinal cord progenitor cells that prefigure the generation of vMNs and dMNs.

  9. Hidrogeología e hidrodinámica del acuífero de los manantiales de Gormaz y su importancia en el caudal base del río Duero, España = Hydrogeology and hydrodynamic of the Gormaz Springs Aquifer and its importance to the base flow of the Duero River, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Távara Espinoza, Lucía Carolina; Sanz Pérez, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    Se cuantifican las descargas subterráneas de un acuífero a un río que lo atraviesa utilizando correlaciones estadísticas. El río Duero, España, incrementa su caudal base en varios m3/s, al atravesar unos afloramientos carbonatados mesozoicos en un pequeño tramo de su cabecera; esto es de especial importancia en época de estiaje, cuando la mayor parte del caudal base del río procede de manantiales que allí se sitúan. Dichos afloramientos corresponden a uno de los dos acuíferos calcáreos confin...

  10. Region-specific regulation of voltage-gated intrinsic currents in the developing optic tectum of the Xenopus tadpole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamodi, Ali S; Pratt, Kara G

    2014-10-01

    Across the rostrocaudal (RC) axis of the Xenopus tadpole optic tectum exists a developmental gradient. This gradient has served as a useful model to study many aspects of synapse and dendrite maturation. To compliment these studies, we characterized how the intrinsic excitability, the ease in which a neuron can fire action potentials, might also be changing across the same axis. Whole-cell recordings from tectal neurons at different points along the RC axis revealed a graded increase in intrinsic excitability: compared with neurons at the caudal end of the tectum, neurons at the rostral end fired more action potentials in response to current injection and expressed greater peak Na⁺ and K⁺ currents, the major intrinsic currents in these neurons that underlie the action potential. We also observed, along the same axis and in the same direction, a previously described increase in the amount of synaptic drive received by individual neurons (Wu GY, Malinow R, Cline HT. Science 274: 972-976, 1996). Thus as synaptic activity ramps up across the RC axis, so does intrinsic excitability. The reduction of overall circuit activity induced a compensatory scaling up of peak Na⁺ and K⁺ currents only in the caudal portion of the tectum, suggesting a region-specific, compensatory form of plasticity.

  11. Segmental specificity in belly dance mimics primal trunk locomotor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Marilee Margaret; Milner, Theodore E

    2016-12-28

    Belly dance was used to investigate control of rhythmic undulating trunk movements in humans. Activation patterns in lumbar erector spinae muscles were recorded using surface electromyography at four segmental levels spanning T10 to L4. Muscle activation patterns for movement tempos of 2 Hz, 3 Hz and as fast as possible (up to 6 Hz) were compared to test the hypothesis that frequency modulates muscle timing, causing pattern changes analogous to gait transitions. Groups of trained and untrained female subjects were compared to test the hypothesis that experience modifies muscle coordination patterns and the capacity for selective motion of spinal segments. Three distinct coordination patterns were observed. An ipsilateral simultaneous pattern (S) and a diagonal synergy (D) dominated at lower frequencies. The S pattern was selected most often by novices and resembled the standing wave of activation underlying the alternating lateral trunk bending in salamander trotting. At 2 Hz, most trained subjects selected the D pattern, suggesting a greater capacity for segmental specificity compared to untrained. At 3-4 Hz, there emerged an asynchronous (A) pattern analogous to the rostral-caudal traveling wave in salamander and lamprey swimming. The neural networks and mechanisms identified in primitive vertebrates, such as chains of coupled oscillators and segmental crossed inhibitory connections, could explain the patterns observed here in humans. Training allows modification of these patterns, possibly through improved capacity for selectively exciting or inhibiting segmental pattern generators.

  12. Risk Factors of Accidental Intravascular Injection in Caudal Anesthesia%骶管麻醉时发生血管内意外注入麻醉药的风险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑瑾; 李树华; 张静; 张晓晓

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the risk index for prediction of accidental intravascular injection during caudal anesthesia. Methods The clinical data of 213 patients suffering from chronic low back pain under-went sacral epidurography were analysed retrospec-tively. The incidence of accidental intravascular injec-tion during sacral epidurography was recorded. Poten-tial risk factors were investigated by univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. Results Univari-ate analysis showed that radicular symptoms of the lumbar spine (P=0.02) and duration of symptoms (P<0.01) were risk factors for accidental intravascular injection during sacral epidurography. Multivariate logistic regres-sion analysis also demonstrated that radicular symptoms of the lumbar spine (OR=2.52 95%CI: 1.11~5.75) and duration of symptoms (OR=1.2 95%CI: 1.01~1.31) were significant and independent risk factors. Conclusion The incidence of accidental intravascular drug injection during caudal anesthesia will be higher in patients with chronic radicular symptoms of the lumbar spine.%目的:通过骶管造影的方法,评价骶管麻醉中发生血管内意外注入的发生率以及相关风险因素.方法:回顾性分析213例接受骶管造影的下腰痛或下肢放射痛患者临床资料.记录发生血管内意外注入造影剂的发生次数,并对血管内意外注入造影剂相关的风险指标进行评价.通过单因素及多因素logistic回归分析,评价骶管麻醉时发生血管内意外注入的风险因素和独立风险因素.结果:单因素回归分析结果显示,有两项因素与血管内注入相关:存在腰椎神经根性症状(P=0.02)和症状持续时间长短(P<0.01).多因素logistic回归分析显示,腰椎神经根性症状(OR=2.52, 95%CI:1.11~5.75)和症状持续时间长短(OR=1.2, 95%CI:1.01~1.31)亦为发生血管内意外注入麻醉药的独立风险因素.结论:骶管麻醉时,患者存在腰椎神经根性症状和症状持续时间长与发生血

  13. Genetics Home Reference: caudal regression syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidneys that are fused together (horseshoe kidney), or duplication of the tubes that carry urine from each kidney to the bladder (ureteral duplication). These kidney abnormalities can lead to frequent urinary ...

  14. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  15. Phobia - simple/specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anxiety disorder - phobia ... Specific phobias are a type of anxiety disorder in which a person may feel extremely anxious or has a ... when exposed to the object of fear. Specific phobias are a common mental disorder. Common phobias include ...

  16. The SIFT Code Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The specification of Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT) consists of two parts, the specifications of the SIFT models and the specifications of the SIFT PASCAL program which actually implements the SIFT system. The code specifications are the last of a hierarchy of models describing the operation of the SIFT system and are related to the SIFT models as well as the PASCAL program. These Specifications serve to link the SIFT models to the running program. The specifications are very large and detailed and closely follow the form and organization of the PASCAL code. In addition to describing each of the components of the SIFT code, the code specifications describe the assumptions of the upper SIFT models which are required to actually prove that the code will work as specified. These constraints are imposed primarily on the schedule tables.

  17. Distinct enhancers of ptf1a mediate specification and expansion of ventral pancreas in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashos, Evanthia; Park, Joon Tae; Leach, Steven; Fisher, Shannon

    2013-09-15

    Development of the pancreas and cerebellum require Pancreas-specific transcription factor-1a (Ptf1a), which encodes a subunit of the transcription factor complex PTF1. Ptf1a is required in succession for specification of the pancreas, proper allocation of pancreatic progenitors to endocrine and exocrine fates, and the production of digestive enzymes from the exocrine acini. In several neuronal structures, including the cerebellum, hindbrain, retina and spinal cord, Ptf1a is transiently expressed and promotes inhibitory neuron fates at the expense of excitatory fates. Transcription of Ptf1a in mouse is maintained in part by PTF1 acting on an upstream autoregulatory enhancer. However, the transcription factors and enhancers that initially activate Ptf1a expression in the pancreas and in certain structures of the nervous system have not yet been identified. Here we describe a zebrafish autoregulatory element, conserved among teleosts, with activity similar to that described in mouse. In addition, we performed a comprehensive survey of all non-coding sequences in a 67kb interval encompassing zebrafish ptf1a, and identified several neuronal enhancers, and an enhancer active in the ventral pancreas prior to activation of the autoregulatory enhancer. To test the requirement for autoregulatory control during pancreatic development, we restored ptf1a function through BAC transgenesis in ptf1a morphants, either with an intact BAC or one lacking the autoregulatory enhancer. We find that ptf1a autoregulation is required for development of the exocrine pancreas and full rescue of the ptf1a morphant phenotype. Similarly, we demonstrate that a ptf1a locus lacking the early enhancer region is also capable of rescue, but only supports formation of a hypoplastic exocrine pancreas. Through our dissection of the complex regulatory control of ptf1a, we identified separate cis-regulatory elements that underlie different aspects of its expression and function, and further demonstrated

  18. Análisis correlatorio y espectral de los caudales del manantial de Iturriotz (Vizcaya: El sistema del barranco de Peñalba como ejemplo de un tipo de Karst de caraclerísticas mixtas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Latorre, F.

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to define the structure of the time series of rainfall and discharge, and also to improve the knowledge of the Barranco Peñalba karstic system, a correlation and spectral analysis has been made of the Iturriotz spring and the Juncal pluviometer data (period: 6th August 1983 to 12th October 1985. Such analysis reveals a relatively important memory effect and a regulation time of 23,5 days. However, it has been made clear a very small modulation effect with a spectral band of 0.30-0.32. The cross correlation reveals a lag very small between the input and output signals, in spite of the existence of a some regulation power at the end of the impulsional answer. These results do not match exactly any of the type-model defined by Mangin (1982, but suggests a system with mixed characteristics. The apparently contradictory features inferred from this analysis can be atributed to the heterogeneity of the aquifer materials and to the complexity of the recharge mecanisms.Con objeto de definir la estructura de las series cronológicas de lluvias y caudales, así como para mejorar el conocimiento del sistema kárstico del barranco de Peñalba, se ha aplicado el análisis de correlación y espectral a los datos del manantial de Iturriotz y del pluviómetro del Juncal, del período 6 de Agosto de 1983 a 12 de Octubre de 1985. Dicho análisis revela un efecto memoria relativamente importante y un tiempo de regulación de 23,5 días; sin embargo, se pone de manifiesto un efecto de filtro muy reducido, con una banda espectral de 0.30-0.32; el correlograma cruzado evidencia un desfase muy corto entre las señales de entrada y salida, a pesar de que existe un cierto poder regulador al final de la respuesta impulsional. Estos resultados no corresponden exactamente a ninguno de los modelos-tipo definidos por Mangin (1982, sino que sugieren un sistema de características mixtas. Los rasgos aparentemente contradictorios que se deducen de este análisis pueden

  19. SUBFIELD AND LAYER-SPECIFIC DEPLETION IN CALBINDIN-D28K, CALRETININ AND PARVALBUMIN IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN THE DENTATE GYRUS OF APP/PS1 TRANSGENIC MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovi, Miroljub; Caballero-Bleda, María; Kadish, Inga; van Groen, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The depletion of neuronal calcium binding proteins deprives neurons of the capacity to buffer high levels of intracellular Ca2+ and this leaves them vulnerable to pathological processes, such as those present in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of the calcium binding proteins, calbindin-D28K, calretinin and parvalbumin in the dentate gyrus (DG) of APP/PS1 transgenic mice and their non-Tg littermates, as well as the relation with the deposition of human Aβ. We measured the expression of these three proteins at seven different rostro-caudal levels, and in the molecular, granular and polymorphic layers of the DG. We found that, except in the most caudal part of the DG, there is a substantial loss of calbindin-D28K immunoreactivity in all three layers of the DG in APP/PS1 mice compared to the non-Tg mice. Significant loss of calretinin immunoreactivity is present in most of the polymorphic layer of the DG of APP/PS1 mice compared to the non-Tg mice, as well as in the rostral and intermediate part of the inner molecular layer. Compared to the non-Tg mice parvalbumin immunoreactivity is significantly reduced throughout the whole polymorphic layer as well as in the rostral and intermediate part of the granular layer of DG in APP/PS1 mice. The relatively preservation of calbindin immunoreactivity in the caudal part of molecular and granular layers as well as calretinin immunoreactivity in the caudal part of polymorphic layer of the DG is likely related to the lower Aβ expression in those parts of DG. The present data suggest an involvement of calcium-dependent pathways in the pathogenesis of AD and indicate that there exists a subfield and layer-specific decrease in immunoreactivity which is related to the type of calcium-binding protein in APP/PS1 mice. Moreover, it seems that APP expression affects more the calbindin expression then parvalbumin and calretinin expression in the DG of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. PMID

  20. Screening for Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  1. Experiences with effects specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten; Barlach, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We describe the effects-specification process from a project that was conducted during the fall 2010 and spring of 2011 in this chapter. The project configured and implemented an electronic patient record system at a maternity ward at a hospital located in a European region. The process comprised...... workshops with effects specification with management and end-users and an agile development process including prototypes configured from the effects specifications. We describe the project and the effects-specification process through which effects were related to the system design and instruments...... for measuring effects were designed. The project is analyzed and lessons learned are discussed....

  2. Lidar base specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Hans Karl.

    2012-01-01

    In late 2009, a $14.3 million allocation from the “American Recovery and Reinvestment Act” for new light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data prompted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program (NGP) to develop a common base specification for all lidar data acquired for The National Map. Released as a draft in 2010 and formally published in 2012, the USGS–NGP “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” (now Lidar Base Specification) was quickly embraced as the foundation for numerous state, county, and foreign country lidar specifications.

  3. Improved technical specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Improved technical specifications for nuclear power plants are outlined. The objectives of this work are to improve safety, provide a clearer understanding of safety significance, and ease NRC and industry administrative burdens. Line item improvements, bases, and implementation of the specifications are discussed.

  4. Place-Specific Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn

    2009-01-01

    An increased interest in the notion of place has evolved in interaction design based on the proliferation of wireless infrastructures, developments in digital media, and a ‘spatial turn’ in computing. In this article, place-specific computing is suggested as a genre of interaction design...... that addresses the shaping of interactions among people, place-specific resources and global socio-technical networks, mediated by digital technology, and influenced by the structuring conditions of place. The theoretical grounding for place-specific computing is located in the meeting between conceptions...... examples of place-specific computing are presented from a series of pilot studies, conducted in close collaboration with design students in Malmö, Berlin, Cape Town and Rome, that generated 36 design concepts in the genre. Reflecting on these examples, issues in the design of place-specific computing...

  5. FOXP3-specific immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2013-01-01

    Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells are present among human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), especially in cancer patients. Such T lymphocytes are able not only to specifically recognize dendritic cells (DCs) that have been exposed to recombinant FOXP3 and regulat......Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells are present among human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), especially in cancer patients. Such T lymphocytes are able not only to specifically recognize dendritic cells (DCs) that have been exposed to recombinant FOXP3...... and regulatory T cells, but also to kill FOXP3(+) malignant T cells. The natural occurrence of FOXP3-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes among human PBMCs suggests a general role for these cells in the complex network of immune regulation....

  6. SPECIFIC DEGRADATION OF WATERSHEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boubacar KANE; Pierre Y.JULIEN

    2007-01-01

    An extensive database of reservoir sedimentation surveys throughout continental United States is compiled and analyzed to determine specific degradation SD relationships as function of mean annual rainfall R, drainage area A, and watershed slope S. The database contains 1463 field measurements and specific degradation relationships are defined as function of A, R and S. Weak trends and significant variability in the data are noticeable. Specific degradation measurements are log normally distributed with respect to R, A, and S and 95% confidence intervals are determined accordingly. The accuracy of the predictions does not significantly increase as more independent variables are added to the regression analyses.

  7. Non-NMDA receptors within caudal ventrolateral medulla are involved in transmission of baroreflex of rats%大鼠尾端延髓腹外侧区非NMDA受体参与压力反射传导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟忠; 袁文俊; 潘燕霞; 白洁; 廖茂瑶; 唐朝枢

    2003-01-01

    目的:探讨大鼠尾端延髓腹外侧区(CVLM)非N-甲基-D-天门冬氨酸(non NMDA)受体在介导压力反射中的作用.方法:在戊巴比妥钠和氨基甲酸乙酯麻醉、制动和人工呼吸的SD大鼠,观察CVLM内局部给予non-NMDA受体选择性阻断剂CNQX对刺激主动脉神经导致的减压反应和头端延髓腹外侧区(RVLM)神经元的压力敏感性的作用.结果:双侧CVLM微量注射CNQX(每侧200 pmo1/100 nL)后明显(P<0.01)地增高基础血压(BP)和心率,而且显著(P<0.01)地减弱刺激主动脉神经导致的降压反应.单侧CVLM内给予CNQX(200 pmol/100 nL)明显(P<0.01)增高同侧RVLM压力敏感性神经元的基础放电频率,但显著(P<0.01)减弱刺激主动脉神经和升高血压导致的神经元活动的抑制效应和部分抑制神经元的心性节律.结论:大鼠尾端延髓腹外侧区non-NMDA受体在维持紧张性兴奋的心血管活动和传递压力感受器信息中具有重要的意义.%AIM: To investigate the role of non N-methyl-D-aspartate acid (non-NMDA) receptors within the caudal ventrolat-eral medulla (CVLM) in mediating the baroreflex. METHODS: In urethane-anesthetized, paralyzed, and artificiallyventilated rats, the effects of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dinoe (CNQX, a selective non-NMDA receptorsantagonist) locally injected into the CVLM on the depressor responses evoked by aortic nerve stimulation and thebarosensitivity of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) barosensitive neurons were observed. RESULTS: Bilat-eral microinjection of CNQX (200 pmol in 100 nL for each side) into the CVLM significantly (P<0.01) increasedthe blood pressure (BP) and heart rate, and markedly (P<0.01) attenuated the depressor response to the aortic nervestimulation. CNQX (200 pmol in 100 nL) unilaterally injected into the CVLM significantly (P<0.01) increased thefiring rate of the ispilateral RVLM barosensitive neurons and reduced the inhibitory responses of neurons evoked

  8. Place-Specific Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Johansson, Michael

    An increased interest in the notion of place has evolved in interaction design. Proliferation of wireless infrastructure, developments in digital media, and a ‘spatial turn’ in computing provides the base for place-specific computing as a suggested new genre of interaction design. In the REcult...... project place- specific computing is explored through design oriented research. This article reports six pilot studies where design students have designed concepts for place-specific computing in Berlin (Germany), Cape Town (South Africa), Rome (Italy) and Malmö (Sweden). Background and arguments...... for place-specific computing as a genre of interaction design are described. A total number of 36 design concepts designed for 16 designated zones in the four cities are presented. An analysis of the design concepts is presented indicating potentials, possibilities and problems as directions for future...

  9. The Learning Design Specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, Bill; Tattersall, Colin

    2005-01-01

    Olivier, B. & Tattersall, C. (2005). The Learning Design Specification In: Koper, R. & Tattersall, C., Learning Design: A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training (pp. 21-40). Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.

  10. Ontology Requirements Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen; Gómez-Pérez, A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the ontology requirements specification activity is to state why the ontology is being built, what its intended uses are, who the end users are, and which requirements the ontology should fulfill. This chapter presents detailed methodological guidelines for specifying ontology requirements efficiently. These guidelines will help ontology engineers to capture ontology requirements and produce the ontology requirements specification document (ORSD). The ORSD will play a key role dur...

  11. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

     This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....... This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....

  12. Nkx2.2:Cre knock-in mouse line: a novel tool for pancreas- and CNS-specific gene deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderes, Dina A; Magnuson, Mark A; Sussel, Lori

    2013-12-01

    Nkx2.2 is a homeodomain-containing transcriptional regulator necessary for the appropriate differentiation of ventral neuronal populations in the spinal cord and hindbrain, and endocrine cell populations in the pancreas and intestine. In each tissue, Nkx2.2 inactivation leads to reciprocal cell fate alterations. To confirm the cell fate changes are due to respecification of Nkx2.2-expressing progenitors and to provide a novel tool for lineage tracing in the pancreas and CNS, we generated an Nkx2.2:Cre mouse line by knocking in a Cre-EGFP cassette into the Nkx2.2 genomic locus and inactivating endogenous Nkx2.2. The R26R-CAG-LSL-tdTomato reporter was used to monitor the specificity and efficiency of Nkx2.2:Cre activity; the tomato reporter faithfully recapitulated endogenous Nkx2.2 expression and could be detected as early as embryonic day (e) 9.25 in the developing CNS and was initiated shortly thereafter at e9.5 in the pancreas. Lineage analyses in the CNS confirmed the cell populations thought to be derived from Nkx2.2-expressing progenitor domains. Furthermore, lineage studies verified Nkx2.2 expression in the earliest pancreatic progenitors that give rise to all cell types of the pancreas; however they also revealed more robust Cre activity in the dorsal versus ventral pancreas. Thus, the Nkx2.2:Cre line provides a novel tool for gene manipulations in the CNS and pancreas.

  13. Acquiring specific interpreting competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zidar Forte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In postgraduate interpreter training, the main objective of the course is to help trainees develop various competences, from linguistic, textual and cultural competence, to professional and specific interpreting competence. For simultaneous interpreting (SI, the main focus is on mastering the SI technique and strategies as well as on developing and strengthening communicative skills, which is discussed and illustrated with examples in the present paper. First, a brief overview is given of all the necessary competences of a professional interpreter with greater emphasis on specific interpreting competence for SI. In the second part of the paper, various approaches are described in terms of acquiring specific skills and strategies, specifically through a range of exercises. Besides interpreting entire speeches, practical courses should also consist of targeted exercises, which help trainees develop suitable coping strategies and mechanisms (later on almost automatisms, while at the same time "force" them to reflect on their individual learning process and interpreting performance. This provides a solid base on which trained interpreters can progress and develop their skills also after joining the professional sphere.

  14. Site-Specific Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik; Hemmersam, Peter

    2015-01-01

    , but also places for emerging lifestyles and cultural processes. In this transformation process, harbours provide arenas for a new urban dynamics, involving multiple sectors and functions in society, as opposed to the monoculturalism prevailing in the ages of the industrial city. To us, the critical...... question is how innovation may contribute to urban life and site-specific qualities....

  15. IDC System Specification Document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, David J.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  16. LOCKE Detailed Specification Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Menezo, Lucia G; Gregorio, Jose-Angel

    2012-01-01

    This document shows the detailed specification of LOCKE coherence protocol for each cache controller, using a table-based technique. This representation provides clear, concise visual information yet includes sufficient detail (e.g., transient states) arguably lacking in the traditional, graphical form of state diagrams.

  17. Specificity in LSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas N. Huckin

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The defining feature of our field is the teaching and use of language for specific purposes. Not surprisingly, this has led to a debate over just how specific those purposes should be. The debate is longstanding, stirred initially by Hutchinson and Waters' classic 1980 article, 'ESP at the Crossroads' and reinvigorated most recently by Hyland (2002, who argues that the field has drifted away from specificity, becoming too generalized and diffuse. This paper lays out the arguments on both sides and then stakes out a position that draws from each of them. While agreeing with some of Hyland's criticisms of the 'wide-angle' position (for example, that generalized LSP can fail to appreciate the distinct linguistic and rhetorical features of specialized discourses, the paper criticizes his 'narrow-angle' position as well by pointing out that it can easily lead to a teacher-centered prescriptivism and to an overly rigid focus on certain forms and tasks at the expense of others. Furthermore, such an approach fails to prepare students for the unpredictable new forms of communication that await them in their professional careers. In general, a teachercentered approach, no matter how specific, is unlikely to have the pedagogical effectiveness of a student-centered approach, especially in heterogeneous classes. Specificity, it is argued, must ultimately be supplied by the student, not by the teacher, for it is the student more than the LSP teacher who is in the process of becoming an insider and whose interests are best served by becoming an astute analyst of the specialist discourse. The teacher's role should be that of facilitator, instructing students in analytic strategies, both rhetorical and textual. The paper concludes with a number of illustrations in how this can be done, drawing especially on work in genre study.

  18. Allergen Specific Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Çekiç

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT is the only treatment that can provide a cure for allergic disorders. This treatment is based on development of immune tolerance by exposure to allergen in repetitive and increasing doses. It is tertiary to avoidance of allergen and pharmacotherapy. Allergens used for immunotherapy, must be confirmed by skin prick test or specific IgE and must be applied in supervision of allergy specialists. Studies show that immunotherapy, improve asthma symptoms, decreases drug consumption, prevent development of asthma in rhinitis patients and reduce new sensitizations. Common side effects diminished with the usage of standardized allergen solutions. It is contraindicated in severe asthma. Though it is recommended to avoid immunotherapy in patients using beta blockers and ACE inhibitors, immunotherapy can be considered in mandatory situations regarding possible benefits and harms. Most common ways of administration are subcutaneous and sublingual; new methods such as epicutaneous and intralymphatic injections are currently being studied.

  19. Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. I....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases....

  20. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. In the comp....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases. The comparative test cases include: ventilation, shading and geometry....

  1. Allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moote William

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy is a potentially disease-modifying therapy that is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis, allergic asthma and stinging insect hypersensitivity. However, despite its proven efficacy in these conditions, it is frequently underutilized in Canada. The decision to proceed with allergen-specific immunotherapy should be made on a case-by-case basis, taking into account individual patient factors such as the degree to which symptoms can be reduced by avoidance measures and pharmacological therapy, the amount and type of medication required to control symptoms, the adverse effects of pharmacological treatment, and patient preferences. Since this form of therapy carries the risk of anaphylactic reactions, it should only be prescribed by physicians who are adequately trained in the treatment of allergy. Furthermore, injections must be given under medical supervision in clinics that are equipped to manage anaphylaxis. In this article, the authors review the indications and contraindications, patient selection criteria, and the administration, safety and efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  2. 针刀松解术联合骶管阻滞治疗腰椎间盘突出症的疗效观察%Under X-ray Machine Positioning Needle Knife Surgery Combined with Caudal Block for Lumbar Disc Herniation of Efficacy Observed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志; 刘明雪

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察针刀松解术联合骶管阻滞治疗腰椎间盘突出症的疗效和安全性.方法:49例腰椎间盘突出症患者在X光机定位下行针刀松解术联合骶管阻滞治疗,在治疗前、治疗后7d、30 d、3个月、6个月对如下疗效与安全性指标进行评价.疗效指标包括:疼痛视觉模拟评分( VAS);局部压痛评分;直腿抬高角度;疗效评定等指标.结果:经治疗后第7d、30 d、3个月、6个月,患者各项指标均有明显的改善(P<0.05),第7d时总有效率达到100%,第3个月及6个月总有效率为97.9%及95.9%.49例治疗无一例出现不良反应.结论:X光机定位下行针刀松解术联合骶管阻滞治疗疼痛具有疗效确切、稳定、安全性高、不良反应少等优点.%Objective; Observe the needle knife surgery combined with caudal block for lumbar disc hemiation of the efficacy and safety. Methods: 49 patients with lumbar disc hemiation in patients with X-ray machine positioning downstream needle knife sur gery combined caudal block treatment, before treatment, after 7 days, 30 days, 3 months, 6 months on the following efficacy and To e valuate the safety index. Outcome measures included: pain visual analogue scale ( VAS) ; local tenderness score; straight leg raising angle; efficacy evaluation and other indicators. Results; After treatment, 7 days, 30 days, 3 months, 6 months, patients were signifi cantly improved indicators (P <0. 05) , when the first 7 days and 100% total efficiency, the first 3 Month and 6 months the total ef fective rate was 97. 9% and 95. 9%. None of 49 patients with treatment of adverse reactions. Conclusion; X-ray machine positioning downstream needle knife surgery combined with caudal block for pain precise, stable efficacy, safety, adverse reactions and so on.

  3. 骶管阻滞加静脉复合麻醉应用于婴幼儿胸腹部手术的初步探讨%Caudal Block with Supplementary Intravenous Anesthesia for Thoracic and Abdominal Surgery in Infants and Young Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝复; 袁惠芬; 陈文英; 汤卫平; 徐金龙; 康健; 肖菡

    1987-01-01

    In order to reduce the required dosage of intravenous anesthetics and favour early extubation,caudal block was adopted with supplementary intravenous anesthesia in 17 infants and young children for abdominothoracic surgery(Group Ⅰ).Anather group of randomly selected 27 similar cases who received total intravenous anesthesia without caudal block(Group Ⅱ),was taken for comparison.In both groups,the same induction method was used.Infusion of SCC mixed with 1 % Procaine at the same rate followed endotracheal intubation.In some cases,intermittent increments of ketamine and or fentanyl were then given intravenously for maintenance of a smooth anesthesia.As a result,fentanyl was given in 3 cases of Group Ⅰ(17.64%)and in 23 cases in Group Ⅱ(85.18%),while ketamine was given in 4 cases of Group Ⅰ(23.5%)and in 15 of Group Ⅱ(55.6%).These showed that the need of supplementary drugs was significantly lower in Group Ⅰ than in Group Ⅱ,(P<0.05).No analeptics was administered in Group Ⅰ and the average time of extubation was only 10.35±15.49 min after the end of operation.While the average time of extubation in Group Ⅱ was 36.74±44.19min after operation.The difference between the two groups was noticible(P<0.05).It is concluded that caudal block with supplementary intravenous procaine anesthesia is preferable for infants and young children who have to undergo thoracic and abdominal operations.%应用骶管阻滞加静脉复合麻醉,可减少静脉麻醉剂的用量,便于早期拔管.本文17例婴幼儿应用此法完成了胸腹部手术,并与随机选择的27例应用全静脉麻醉的相似病例进行比较.研究结果表明,骶管阻滞加静脉复合麻醉用于婴幼儿胸腹部手术是一种较好的麻醉方法.

  4. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    Concurrent objects are named concurrent processes that interact by invoking each other's operations. We describe how such concurrent objects can be specified, how objects can be composed, and how it can be shown that one object refines another.First a model is defined, based on a transition...... relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract...

  5. Disease specific protein corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2015-03-01

    It is now well accepted that upon their entrance into the biological environments, the surface of nanomaterials would be covered by various biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids). The absorption of these biomolecules, so called `protein corona', onto the surface of (nano)biomaterials confers them a new `biological identity'. Although the formation of protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles has been widely investigated, there are few reports on the effect of various diseases on the biological identity of nanoparticles. As the type of diseases may tremendously changes the composition of the protein source (e.g., human plasma/serum), one can expect that amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona composition may be varied, in disease type manner. Here, we show that corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles (after interaction with in the plasma of the healthy individuals) could induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes release of the inflammatory cytokines. However, no considerable releases of inflammatory cytokines were observed for corona coated graphene sheets. In contrast, the obtained corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles from the hypofibrinogenemia patients could not induce inflammatory cytokine release where graphene sheets do. Therefore, one can expect that disease-specific protein coronas can provide a novel approach for applying nanomedicine to personalized medicine, improving diagnosis and treatment of different diseases tailored to the specific conditions and circumstances.

  6. Neural crest contributions to the lamprey head

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, David W.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    The neural crest is a vertebrate-specific cell population that contributes to the facial skeleton and other derivatives. We have performed focal DiI injection into the cranial neural tube of the developing lamprey in order to follow the migratory pathways of discrete groups of cells from origin to destination and to compare neural crest migratory pathways in a basal vertebrate to those of gnathostomes. The results show that the general pathways of cranial neural crest migration are conserved throughout the vertebrates, with cells migrating in streams analogous to the mandibular and hyoid streams. Caudal branchial neural crest cells migrate ventrally as a sheet of cells from the hindbrain and super-pharyngeal region of the neural tube and form a cylinder surrounding a core of mesoderm in each pharyngeal arch, similar to that seen in zebrafish and axolotl. In addition to these similarities, we also uncovered important differences. Migration into the presumptive caudal branchial arches of the lamprey involves both rostral and caudal movements of neural crest cells that have not been described in gnathostomes, suggesting that barriers that constrain rostrocaudal movement of cranial neural crest cells may have arisen after the agnathan/gnathostome split. Accordingly, neural crest cells from a single axial level contributed to multiple arches and there was extensive mixing between populations. There was no apparent filling of neural crest derivatives in a ventral-to-dorsal order, as has been observed in higher vertebrates, nor did we find evidence of a neural crest contribution to cranial sensory ganglia. These results suggest that migratory constraints and additional neural crest derivatives arose later in gnathostome evolution.

  7. Macrofauna del curso inferior y estuario del río Biobío (Chile: cambios asociados a variabilidad estacional del caudal hídrico Macrofauna of the lower reach and estuary of Biobío river (Chile: changes associated to seasonal changes of the river flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS BERTRÁN

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los sistemas lóticos chilenos de mayor importancia de acuerdo a su caudal es el río Biobío (ca. 37º S. Su estuario es reducido, especialmente en las épocas de máximo caudal. Con el objetivo de poner a prueba la hipótesis de que en verano la disminución del caudal del río Biobío, determina una mayor depositación del material particulado fino y que el aumento del caudal en invierno resulta en el lavado y transporte del material depositado hacia el mar, y consecuentemente en una disminución de la macrofauna bentónica, se recolectaron muestras para análisis sedimentológicos y faunísticos en el curso inferior y estuario del río Biobío, durante agosto de 1993 y marzo de 1994. Los análisis sedimentológicos indican que el tamaño medio del sedimento correspondió a arenas gruesas. La depositación del material fino suspendido, que ocurre durante el verano se manifiesta en el mayor porcentaje de finos y materia orgánica durante este período. La macrofauna bentónica estuvo compuesta por 16 taxa en el muestreo de invierno y 42 taxa en el de verano. Durante el invierno, la mayoría de ellas estuvo representada por muy pocos individuos. Durante el verano aumentó la riqueza específica y abundancias totales de la macrofauna. Los taxa más abundantes fueron un Archiannelida indeterminado y el poliqueto Perinereis gualpensis. El aumento del caudal en la época invernal, determina el transporte del material depositado hacia el mar y consecuentemente el arrastre de organismos bentónicos. Aún cuando los valores de abundancia y biomasa de macrofauna durante el verano fueron de un orden de magnitud mayor que en la fase invernal, fueron menores que los citados para otros estuarios del centro-sur de Chile (ca. 39º S. Eso contribuye a confirmar el carácter atípico del estuario del río Biobío, el que debido a sus cambios estacionales de caudal genera cambios significativos en la estructura comunitaria de la macrofauna bent

  8. Tbx2 regulates anterior neural specification by repressing FGF signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gun-Sik; Park, Dong-Seok; Choi, Sun-Cheol; Han, Jin-Kwan

    2017-01-15

    During early embryogenesis, FGF signals regulate the antero-posterior (AP) patterning of the neural plate by promoting posterior cell fates. In particular, BMP signal-mediated attenuation of FGF pathway plays a critical role in the determination of the anterior neural region. Here we show that Tbx2, a T-box transcriptional repressor regulates anterior neural specification by suppressing FGF8 signaling pathway in Xenopus embryo. Tbx2 is expressed in the anterior edge of the neural plate in early neurulae. Overexpression and knockdown of Tbx2 induce expansion and reduction in the expression of anterior neural markers, respectively. It also suppresses FGF8-induced ERK phosphorylation and neural caudalization. Tbx2, which is a target gene of BMP signal, down-regulates FGF8 signaling by inhibiting the expression of Flrt3, a positive regulator of this pathway. We found that Tbx2 binds directly to the T-box element located in the promoter region of Flrt3 gene, thereby interfering with the activity of the promoter. Consistently, Tbx2 augmentation of anterior neural formation is inhibited by co-expression of Flrt3. Furthermore, disruption of the anterior-most structures such as eyes in Tbx2-depleted embryos can be rescued by inhibition of Flrt3 function or FGF signaling. Taken together, our results suggest that Tbx2 mediates BMP signal to down-regulate FGF signaling pathway by repressing Flrt3 expression for anterior tissue formation.

  9. ADANS database specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-16

    The purpose of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) Database Specification (DS) is to describe the database organization and storage allocation and to provide the detailed data model of the physical design and information necessary for the construction of the parts of the database (e.g., tables, indexes, rules, defaults). The DS includes entity relationship diagrams, table and field definitions, reports on other database objects, and a description of the ADANS data dictionary. ADANS is the automated system used by Headquarters AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) for airlift planning and scheduling of peacetime and contingency operations as well as for deliberate planning. ADANS also supports planning and scheduling of Air Refueling Events by the TACC and the unit-level tanker schedulers. ADANS receives input in the form of movement requirements and air refueling requests. It provides a suite of tools for planners to manipulate these requirements/requests against mobility assets and to develop, analyze, and distribute schedules. Analysis tools are provided for assessing the products of the scheduling subsystems, and editing capabilities support the refinement of schedules. A reporting capability provides formatted screen, print, and/or file outputs of various standard reports. An interface subsystem handles message traffic to and from external systems. The database is an integral part of the functionality summarized above.

  10. Tissue specific electrochemical fingerprinting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlina Sobrova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proteomics and metalloproteomics are rapidly developing interdisciplinary fields providing enormous amounts of data to be classified, evaluated and interpreted. Approaches offered by bioinformatics and also by biostatistical data analysis and treatment are therefore of extreme interest. Numerous methods are now available as commercial or open source tools for data processing and modelling ready to support the analysis of various datasets. The analysis of scientific data remains a big challenge, because each new task sets its specific requirements and constraints that call for the design of a targeted data pre-processing approach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study proposes a mathematical approach for evaluating and classifying datasets obtained by electrochemical analysis of metallothionein in rat 9 tissues (brain, heart, kidney, eye, spleen, gonad, blood, liver and femoral muscle. Tissue extracts were heated and then analysed using the differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. The voltammograms were subsequently processed. Classification models were designed making separate use of two groups of attributes, namely attributes describing local extremes, and derived attributes resulting from the level=5 wavelet transform. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: On the basis of our results, we were able to construct a decision tree that makes it possible to distinguish among electrochemical analysis data resulting from measurements of all the considered tissues. In other words, we found a way to classify an unknown rat tissue based on electrochemical analysis of the metallothionein in this tissue.

  11. The GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide reduces pathology-specific tau phosphorylation and improves motor function in a transgenic hTauP301L mouse model of tauopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Henrik H; Barkholt, Pernille; Fabricius, Katrine; Jelsing, Jacob; Terwel, Dick; Pyke, Charles; Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre; Vrang, Niels

    2016-03-01

    In addition to a prominent role in glycemic control, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists exhibit neuroprotective properties. There is mounting experimental evidence that GLP-1 receptor agonists, including liraglutide, may enhance synaptic plasticity, counteract cognitive deficits and ameliorate neurodegenerative features in preclinical models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), predominantly in the context of β-amyloid toxicity. Here we characterized the effects of liraglutide in a transgenic mutant tau (hTauP301L) mouse tauopathy model, which develops age-dependent pathology-specific neuronal tau phosphorylation and neurofibrillary tangle formation with progressively compromised motor function (limb clasping). Liraglutide (500 µg/kg/day, s.c., q.d., n=18) or vehicle (n=18) was administered to hTauP301L mice for 6 months from the age of three months. Vehicle-dosed wild-type FVB/N mice served as normal control (n=17). The onset and severity of hind limb clasping was markedly different in liraglutide and vehicle-dosed transgenic mice. Clasping behavior was observed in 61% of vehicle-dosed hTauP301L mice with a 55% survival rate in 9-month old transgenic mice. In contrast, liraglutide treatment reduced the clasping rate to 39% of hTauP301L mice, and fully prevented clasping-associated lethality resulting in a survival rate of 89%. Stereological analyses demonstrated that hTauP301L mice exhibited hindbrain-dominant neuronal accumulation of phosphorylated tau closely correlated to the severity of clasping behavior. In correspondence, liraglutide treatment significantly reduced neuronal phospho-tau load by 61.9±10.2% (p<0.001) in hTauP301L mice, as compared to vehicle-dosed controls. In conclusion, liraglutide significantly reduced tau pathology in a transgenic mouse tauopathy model.

  12. The hindbrain neural crest and the development of the enteric nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.H. van der Sanden (Marjo)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe wonder of things is the beginning of knowledge, as was already stated by Aristotle, the fIrst embryologist known to history. Embryology has remained a source of wonder ever since. It all starts with the fusion of the female egg and the male sperm. Sperm cells were first described by

  13. Teaching English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Netikšienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English for Specific Purposes and General English is analysed in the article. The scientific approach of a scientist M. Rosenberg is presented. The experience of teaching English for Specific Purposesat VGTU is alsopresented. The ideas and teaching methods from the classes of general English can be transferred to the classes of English for Specific Purposes.

  14. An Anthropometric-Based Subject-Specific Finite Element Model of the Human Breast for Predicting Large Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianigiani, Silvia; Ruggiero, Leonardo; Innocenti, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    The large deformation of the human breast threatens proper nodules tracking when the subject mammograms are used as pre-planning data for biopsy. However, techniques capable of accurately supporting the surgeons during biopsy are missing. Finite element (FE) models are at the basis of currently investigated methodologies to track nodules displacement. Nonetheless, the impact of breast material modeling on the mechanical response of its tissues (e.g., tumors) is not clear. This study proposes a subject-specific FE model of the breast, obtained by anthropometric measurements, to predict breast large deformation. A healthy breast subject-specific FE parametric model was developed and validated by Cranio-caudal (CC) and Medio-Lateral Oblique (MLO) mammograms. The model was successively modified, including nodules, and utilized to investigate the effect of nodules size, typology, and material modeling on nodules shift under the effect of CC, MLO, and gravity loads. Results show that a Mooney–Rivlin material model can estimate healthy breast large deformation. For a pathological breast, under CC compression, the nodules displacement is very close to zero when a linear elastic material model is used. Finally, when nodules are modeled, including tumor material properties, under CC, or MLO or gravity loads, nodules shift shows ~15% average relative difference. PMID:26734604

  15. Application of Midazolam-Ketamine by intravenous anesthesia and caudal block in inguinal hernia surgery in children%咪达唑仑-氯胺酮静脉麻醉复合骶管阻滞在小儿腹股沟疝手术中的应用效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡俊; 杨文庆; 阚智勇

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较咪达唑仑-氯胺酮静脉麻醉复合骶管阻滞在小儿腹股沟疝手术中的麻醉效果.方法 选择80例腹股沟疝手术患儿,分为复合骶管阻滞组(1组)和单纯静脉麻醉组(2组).1组咪哒唑仑-氯胺酮静脉麻醉后行骶管阻滞,2组单纯咪哒唑仑-氯胺酮静脉麻醉,术中视情况间断推注氯胺酮维持麻醉效果.分别记录两组在麻醉前(TO)、手术后20分钟(T1)及术毕时平均动脉压(MAP)、血氧饱和度(SPO2)、心率(HR)、术中氯胺酮用量、术后苏醒时间、术后麻醉不良反应等.结果 两组SpO2、HR、MAP差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),1组术中氯胺酮用量明显少于2组(P0.05).结论 咪达唑仑-氯胺酮静脉麻醉复合骶管阻滞应用于小儿腹股沟疝手术具有显著的麻醉效果.%Objective To evaluate the effect of Midazolam plus Ketamine by intravenous anesthesia and caudal block in inguinal hernia surgery in children. Methods Eighty cases of inguinal hernia were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 underwent sacral block after intravenous anesthesia, group 2 underwent intravenous anesthesia only. Anesthesia was maintained by intermittent bolus injection of Ketamine during the surgery appropriately. The mean arterial blood pressure ( MAP) , oxygen saturation (SpO2) , heart rate ( HR) , intraoperative dosage of Ketamine and postoperative recovery time, postoperative adverse reactions were recorded before anesthesia and 20 minutes after surgery. Results SpO2, HR, MAP between the two groups were not statistically different ( P > 0. 05 ). The intraoperative dosage of Ketamine in group 1 was significantly less than that in group 2 (P 0.05). Conclusion Midazolam plus Ketamine by intravenous anesthesia combined with caudal block is safe and effective in inguinal hernia surgery in children.

  16. Specification-Based Testing Via Domain Specific Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sroka Michal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents tCF (testCaseFramework - a domain specific language with corresponding toolchain for specification-based software testing of embedded software. tCF is designed for efficient preparation of maintainable and intelligible test cases and for testing process automation, as it allows to generate platform specific test cases for various testing levels. The article describes the essential parts of the tCF meta-model and the applied concept of platform specific test cases generators.

  17. Action-Specific Effects Underwater

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, Jessica; Schuck, Donald M; Taylor, J. Eric T.

    2011-01-01

    Action-specific effects on perception are apparent in terrestrial environments. For example, targets that require more effort to walk, jump, or throw to look farther away than when the targets require less effort. Here, we examined whether action-specific effects would generalize to an underwater environment. Instead, perception might be geometrically precise, rather than action-specific, in an environment that is novel from an evolutionary perspective. We manipulated ease to swim by giving p...

  18. 骶管阻滞复合七氟醚吸入全麻与氯胺酮静脉全麻在小儿腹股沟疝手术中的比较%Comparison of caudal block combined with sevoflurane inhalation anesthesia and ketamine intravenous anesthesia in patients with pediatric inguinal hernia operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英; 王中胜; 魏开明

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To compare the anesthetic effect and safety of caudal block combined with sevoflurane inhalation anesthesia and ketamine intravenous anesthesia in patients with pediatric inguinal hernia operation.Methods:40 children with inguinal hernia surgery were selected,they were randomly divided into the two groups.Patients in the observation group in the sevoflurane inhalation of 8% after entering the operation room,and made sacral block after sleep.Patients in the control group were intravenously injected with ketamine after entering the operation room,we observed the effect of anesthesia in the two groups. Results:The number of additional drugs over 2 times in the observation group was significantly less than that in the control group, the recovery time was significantly shorter than that of the control group(P2 次的例数明显少于对照组,术后苏醒时间明显比对照组缩短(P<0.01),观察组用药后在 T1~T6 各时间点 SBP、DBP、HR 比对照组更平稳(P<0.05).结论:骶管阻滞复合七氟醚吸入全麻可安全用于小儿腹股沟疝手术,术后苏醒较氯胺酮全麻快、术中血流动力学更平稳.

  19. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  20. Response to "Transfer or Specificity?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Transfer or Specificity?" and reports a research that supports a strong case for a fundamental motor skill as a precursor to two sport specific skills as in Gallahue and Ozmun's (2002) theoretical model of motor development. Reported changes in performance of the overarm throw are…

  1. Performance Specifications for Occupational Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore. Div. of Career Technology and Adult Learning.

    This document lists and discusses the development of Maryland's performance specifications for occupational programs. The introduction explains the process used to develop performance standards and specifications for 10 career cluster majors that were identified by a task force of educators and employers as high-demand occupational areas in…

  2. Hanford Site environmental management specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.

    1998-06-10

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) uses this Hanford Site Environmental Management Specification (Specification) to document top-level mission requirements and planning assumptions for the prime contractors involved in Hanford Site cleanup and infrastructure activities under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. This Specification describes at a top level the activities, facilities, and infrastructure necessary to accomplish the cleanup of the Hanford Site and assigns this scope to Site contractors and their respective projects. This Specification also references the key National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), and safety documentation necessary to accurately describe the cleanup at a summary level. The information contained in this document reflects RL`s application of values, priorities, and critical success factors expressed by those involved with and affected by the Hanford Site project. The prime contractors and their projects develop complete baselines and work plans to implement this Specification. These lower-level documents and the data that support them, together with this Specification, represent the full set of requirements applicable to the contractors and their projects. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this Specification to the other basic Site documents. Similarly, the documents, orders, and laws referenced in this specification represent only the most salient sources of requirements. Current and contractual reference data contain a complete set of source documents.

  3. Region-specific upregulation of parvalbumin-, but not calretinin-positive cells in the ventral hippocampus during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Adriana; Diah, Kimberly C; Tseng, Kuei Y

    2013-12-01

    Animal studies have highlighted the role of the ventral hippocampus-prefrontal cortex pathway in the acquisition of mature cortical function through refinement of GABAergic circuits during adolescence. Inhibitory GABAergic responses are mediated by highly specialized interneurons, which have distinct functional properties and are characterized by the expression of calcium binding proteins. Among these, we recently found that parvalbumin (PV)- and calretinin (CR)-positive interneurons in the prefrontal cortex follow opposite developmental trajectories during the periadolescent transition period. In the present study, we asked whether interneurons expressing PV and CR in the ventral hippocampus follow similar periadolescent trajectories as seen in the prefrontal cortex. By measuring the relative abundance of these interneurons in three age groups (postnatal days (PD) 25-40, 45-55, and 60-85), we found that regions within the dorso-ventral axis of the ventral hippocampus undergo distinct developmental trajectories in PV expression during the periadolescent transition. Specifically, the ventral subiculum displayed a dramatic increase in PV-positive interneurons from PD25-40 to PD45-55 with an increasing rostro-caudal gradient, whereas negligible changes were found in the dorsal and middle regions. In contrast, the number of CR-positive interneurons in the ventral hippocampus remained unchanged across the three age groups studied. Together, these results describe for the first time that GABAergic circuits in the ventral hippocampus undergo protracted development during adolescence, in particular the PV-positive cell population circumscribed to the ventral region of the ventral hippocampus.

  4. Distinct localization and target specificity of galanin-immunoreactive sympathetic preganglionic neurons of a teleost, the filefish Stephanolepis cirrhifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, K; Kadota, T; Atobe, Y; Nakano, M; Hibiya, K; Goris, R C; Kishida, R

    2000-03-15

    Immunoreactivity for galanin was examined in the sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord, adrenal glands, sympathetic ganglia, and some sensory ganglia of the filefish Stephanolepis cirrhifer. Galanin-immunoreactive neurons were found only in the rostral part, but not in the caudal part of the central autonomic nucleus (a column of sympathetic preganglionic neurons of teleosts). Many galanin-immunoreactive nerve terminals were found in contact with neurons in the celiac ganglia and the cranial sympathetic ganglia on both sides of the body. Most neurons encircled by galanin-immunoreactive nerve fibers were negative for tyrosine hydroxylase. Galanin-immunoreactive nerve fibers were very sparse in the spinal sympathetic paravertebral ganglia. No galanin-immunoreactive nerve fibers were found in the adrenal glands. No sensory neurons of the trigeminal, vagal, or spinal dorsal root ganglia were positive for galanin-immunoreactivity. These results suggest that galanin-immunoreactive sympathetic preganglionic neurons have distinct segmental localization and might project specifically to a population of non-adrenergic sympathetic postganglionic neurons in the celiac and cranial sympathetic ganglia.

  5. Patient-Specific Computational Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Peña, Estefanía

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses patient-specific modeling. It integrates computational modeling, experimental procedures, imagine clinical segmentation and mesh generation with the finite element method (FEM) to solve problems in computational biomedicine and bioengineering. Specific areas of interest include cardiovascular problems, ocular and muscular systems and soft tissue modeling. Patient-specific modeling has been the subject of serious research over the last seven years and interest in the area is continually growing and this area is expected to further develop in the near future.

  6. Youth job market specific features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Yu. Zhuravleva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers youth job market peculiarities, its specific features and regulation means, determines theoretical and application tasks of qualitative and quantitative comparison of vocations, which are highly in demand at the job market.

  7. SPECIFIC EMISSIONS FROM BIOMASS COMBUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skopec

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with determining the specific emissions from the combustion of two kinds of biomass fuels in a small-scale boiler. The tested fuels were pellets made of wood and pellets made of rape plant straw. In order to evaluate the specific emissions, several combustion experiments were carried out using a commercial 25 kW pellet-fired boiler. The specific emissions of CO, SO2 and NOx were evaluated in relation to a unit of burned fuel, a unit of calorific value and a unit of produced heat. The specific emissions were compared with some data acquired from the reference literature, with relatively different results. The differences depend mainly on the procedure used for determining the values, and references provide no information about this. Although some of our experimental results may fit with one of the reference sources, they do not fit with the other. The reliability of the references is therefore disputable.

  8. Eternity Variables to Simulate Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, WH; Boiten, EA; Moller, B

    2002-01-01

    Simulation of specifications is introduced as a unification and generalization of refinement mappings, history variables, forward simulations, prophecy variables, and backward simulations. Eternity variables are introduced as a more powerful alternative for prophecy variables and backward simulation

  9. CCL22-specific T Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenaite, Evelina; Munir Ahmad, Shamaila; Hansen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating macrophages produce the chemokine CCL22, which attracts regulatory T cells (Tregs) into the tumor microenvironment, decreasing anticancer immunity. Here, we investigated the possibility of targeting CCL22-expressing cells by activating specific T cells. We...... analyzed the CCL22 protein signal sequence, identifying a human leukocyte antigen A2- (HLA-A2-) restricted peptide epitope, which we then used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) to expand populations of CCL22-specific T cells in vitro. T cells recognizing an epitope derived from...... the signal-peptide of CCL22 will recognize CCL22-expressing cells even though CCL22 is secreted out of the cell. CCL22-specific T cells recognized and killed CCL22-expressing cancer cells. Furthermore, CCL22-specific T cells lysed acute monocytic leukemia cells in a CCL22 expression-dependent manner. Using...

  10. EEG in Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The value of routine wake electroencephalography in children with specific language impairment was reviewed retrospectively in 111 children examined over a 10-year interval at Montreal Children’s Hospital, Quebec, Çanada.

  11. GFF Specification for SAR Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, Nathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bielek, Timothy P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matthews, John D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coakley, Henry John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pan, Len [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This document provides the basic GFF format definition for a GFF file. This document covers the contents of the main header and the basic GFF file structure. The contents of specific extensions are covered in a separate document.

  12. Site Specific Weed Control Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend; Søgaard, Henning Tangen; Kudsk, Per;

    2009-01-01

    describe the basic parts of site specific weed control technologies, comprising of weed sensing systems, weed management models and precision weed control implements. A review of state-of-the-art technologies shows that several weed sensing systems and precision implements have been developed over the last...... of knowledge about the economic and environmental potential for increasing the resolution of weed control. The integration of site-specific information on weed distribution, weed species composition and density, and the effect on crop yield, is decisive for successful site-specific weed management.   Keywords......Site-specific weed control technologies are defined as machinery or equipment embedded with technologies that detect weeds growing in a crop and, taking into account predefined factors such as economics, takes action to maximise the chances of successfully controlling them. In the article, we...

  13. A Domain Specific DSP Processor

    OpenAIRE

    Tell, Eric

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes the design of a domain specific DSP processor. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first part gives some theoretical background, describes the different steps of the design process (both for DSP processors in general and for this project) and motivates the design decisions made for this processor. The second part is a nearly complete design specification. The intended use of the processor is as a platform for hardware acceleration units. Support for this has howe...

  14. [Specificities of pneumonia in geriatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepersack, T

    2014-09-01

    Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality leading to a high rate of hospitalization especially in theelderly. It is often a sign of frailty and is associated with a poor prognosis. However, taking into account the geriatric specificities (risk factors, atypical clinical presentations with "geriatric syndromes", ethical debate) using an interdisciplinary and a comprehensive geriatric approach remains an important responsibility of the general practitionner. This article summarizes these specificities and offers interventions targeted on the characteristics of elderly patients.

  15. CASL, the Common Algebraic Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossakowski, Till; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Sannella, Donald;

    2008-01-01

    CASL is an expressive specification language that has been designed to supersede many existing algebraic specification languages and provide a standard. CASL consists of several layers, including basic (unstructured) specifications, structured specifications and architectural specifications...

  16. NIF optical specifications - the importance of the RMS gradient specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerbach, J M; Cotton, C T; English, R E; Henesian, M A; Hunt J T; Kelly, J H; Lawson, J K; Sacks, J B; Shoup, M J; Trenholme, W H

    1998-07-06

    The performance of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), especially in terms of laser focusability, will be determined by several key factors. One of these key factors is the optical specification for the thousands of large aperture optics that will comprise the 192 beamlines. We have previously reported on the importance of the specification of the power spectral density (PSD) on NIF performance. Recently, we have been studying the importance of long spatial wavelength (>33 mm) phase errors on focusability. We have concluded that the preferred metric for determining the impact of these long spatial wavelength phase errors is the rms phase gradient. In this paper, we outline the overall approach to NIF optical specifications, detail the impact of the rms phase gradient on NIF focusability, discuss its trade-off with the PSD in determining the spot size and review measurements of optics similar to those to be manufactured for NIF.

  17. VHDL Specification Methodology from High-level Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmohammed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Design complexity has been increasing exponentially this last decade. In order to cope with such an increase and to keep up designers' productivity, higher level specifications were required. Moreover new synthesis systems, starting with a high level specification, have been developed in order to automate and speed up processor design. This study presents a VHDL specification methodology aimed to extend structured design methodologies to the behavioral level. The goal is to develop VHDL modeling strategies in order to master the design and analysis of large and complex systems. Structured design methodologies are combined with a high-level synthesis system, a VHDL based behavioral synthesis tool, in order to allow hierarchical design and component re-use.

  18. ESTIMACIÓN DE CAUDALES DE AVENIDA Y DELIMITACIÓN DE ÁREAS INUNDABLES MEDIANTE MÉTODOS HIDROMETEOROLÓGICOS E HIDRÁULICOS Y TÉCNICAS S.I.G., ESTUDIO APLICADO AL LITORAL SUR DE LA REGIÓN DE MURCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael García Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se centra en el empleo combinado de datos de precipitación, modelos hidrológicos e hidráulicos, y técnicas S.I.G. (Sistema de Información Geográfica para la estimación de caudales de avenidas y la delimitación de áreas inundables en el Sur de la Región de Murcia. Con el fin de obtener datos espacialmente distribuidos en las áreas potenciales de inundación, se han integrado en un S.I.G. diferentes modelos de conversión lluvia-escorrentía superficial (Hidrograma Unitario Adimensional SCS, Hidrograma Unitario Gamma de Témez y el Método Racional Modificado y métodos de geometría hidráulica. Para la conversión de datos de lluvia (tormentas de diseño por periodos de retorno a escorrentía se ha empleado el programa HEC-HMS 3.0.0 en combinación con la extensión HEC-GeoHMS 1.1 de ArcView 3.x. La modelización hidrológica se realiza con ayuda de ArcGIS 9.x y GRASS (v.5.4, mientras que la hidráulica ha requerido el uso de HEC-RAS y HEC-GeoRAS.

  19. 带翼型髋臼加强杯在重建髋臼肿瘤切除后骨缺损中的应用%UTILIZATION OF REINFORCED ACETABULAR CAGES WITH CAUDAL FLANGE IN RECONSTRUCTING PELVIC DEFECT AFTER ACETABULAR TUMOR RESECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大森; 郭卫; 杨荣利; 汤小东; 曲华毅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the surgical procedure of reinforced acetabular cage with caudal flange in reconstruction of pelvic defect after acetabular tumor resection. Methods Between June 2003 and December 2009, 25 patients with Harrington class III pelvic defect underwent reconstruction with a reinforced acetabular cage with caudal flange and total hip arthroplasty (THA). There were 13 males and 12 females with an average age of 51.2 years (range, 13-73 years). The main clinical manifestations included hip pain and buttock pain, with a median disease duration of 6 months (range, 1-96 months). Pathological findings showed 18 cases of metastasis, 3 cases of multiple myeloma, 1 case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 1 case of grade I chondrosarcoma, 1 case of giant cell tumor, and 1 case of chondroblastoma. For the patient with chondroblastoma, THA with LINK RIBBED system was used. An artificial total hip system made in China was used in 6 patients and LINK SP II system was used in the other 18 patients. Results No patients died perioperatively. Deep infection and hip dislocations occurred inI and 2 patients, respectively. At last follow-up, 8 of 18 patients with metastasis died of cancer and the average survival time wasII months. The other 10 who were alive were followed up 15 months on average. One patient with multiple myeloma died of pulmonary infection at 21 months after operation and the other 2 with multiple myeloma and 1 with lymphoma were alive with an average follow-up of 17 months. The patient with grade I chondrosarcoma and patient with chondroblastoma were followed up 58 and 12 months, respectively, without recurrence. Recurrence occurred in the patient with giant cell tumor at 19 months after operation. Loosening of implant occurred in 3 patients because of local tumor recurrence. For the 23 patients at 6 months after operation, the mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) 93 score was 81% (range, 57%-93%). Conclusion Reinforced acetabular cage with caudal

  20. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaw, J. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -11/ Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components. (LEW)

  1. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  2. Compiler writing system detail design specification. Volume 1: Language specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Construction within the Meta language for both language and target machine specification is reported. The elements of the function language as a meaning and syntax are presented, and the structure of the target language is described which represents the target dependent object text representation of applications programs.

  3. Program Construction by Verifying Specification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林洪; 陈国良

    1998-01-01

    A program construction method based on Gamma language is proposed.The problem to be solved is specified by first-order predicate logic and a semantic verification program is constructed directly from the specification.Ways for improving efficiency of the program are also studied.The method differs from the one proposed by Manna and Waldinger,where a program is extracted from the proof of the existence of an object meeting the given specification.On the other hand,it also differs from the classical one used for deriving Gamma programs of Banatre and Le metayes,which consists in decomposing the specification into an invariant and a termination conditon.

  4. Specific probiotics or 'fecal transplantation'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The intestinal ecosystem consists mainly of the enteric flora and to a large extent determines intestinal but also extraintestinal health and disease. General alterations and specific molecular changes of intestinal bacteria cause local as well as systemic immune reactions. Nonantibiotic treatment of the enteric flora has a long tradition and spans a range of different interventions from nutrition to specific probiotics and complete fecal transplantation. When comparing therapy to specific probiotics and fecal transplantation, several aspects need to be considered, like biological consequences, safety and therapeutic evidence. The introduction of probiotics into therapy occurred more than hundred years ago. In contrast, experiences with fecal transplantation are more recent and more limited. Safety issues have not been definitively clarified. Because of the different biological activities of probiotics and fecal transplantation, it can be hypothesized that they may play different roles in the treatment of various diseases. More research is needed before the details, safety and therapeutic effects of bacteriotherapy for IBD become sufficiently clear.

  5. EphrinA5 Signaling Is Required for the Distinctive Targeting of Raphe Serotonin Neurons in the Forebrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzerelle, Aude

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission in the brain relies on a widespread axon terminal network originating from the hindbrain raphe nuclei. These projections are topographically organized such that the dorsal (DR), and median raphe (MnR) nuclei have different brain targets. However, the guidance molecules involved in this selective targeting in development are unknown. Here, we show the implication of ephrinA5 signaling in this process. We find that the EphA5 gene is selectively expressed in a subset of 5-HT neurons during embryonic and postnatal development. Highest coexpression of EphA5 and the 5-HT marker Tph2 is found in the DR, with lower coexpression in the MnR, and hardly any colocalization of the caudal raphe in the medulla. Accordingly, ephrinA induced a dose-dependent collapse response of 5-HT growth cones cultured from rostral but not caudal raphe. Ectopic expression of ephrinA3, after in utero electroporation in the amygdala and piriform cortex, repelled 5-HT raphe fiber ingrowth. Conversely, misplaced DR 5-HT axons were found in ephrin A5 knockout mice in brain regions that are normally only targeted by MnR 5-HT axons. This causes an overall increase in the density of 5-HT innervation in the ventromedial hypothalamus, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and the olfactory bulb. All these brain areas have high expression of ephrinAs at the time of 5-HT fiber ingrowth. Present results show for the first time the role of a guidance molecule for the region-specific targeting of raphe neurons. This has important implications to understand how functional parsing of central 5-HT neurons is established during development. PMID:28197551

  6. Methylation-Specific PCR Unraveled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Derks

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylation‐specific PCR (MSP is a simple, quick and cost‐effective method to analyze the DNA methylation status of virtually any group of CpG sites within a CpG island. The technique comprises two parts: (1 sodium bisulfite conversion of unmethylated cytosine's to uracil under conditions whereby methylated cytosines remains unchanged and (2 detection of the bisulfite induced sequence differences by PCR using specific primer sets for both unmethylated and methylated DNA. This review discusses the critical parameters of MSP and presents an overview of the available MSP variants and the (clinical applications.

  7. Wnt-3a is critical for caudal embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camper, S.A.; Greco, T.L.; Newhouse, M.M. [Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Skeletal and neural tube defects represent an important class of birth defects. The majority of mouse mutants with neural tube defects also have malformations of the tail. Vestigial tail (vt) is an autosomal recessive mouse mutation characterized by reduction or absence of the tail, vertebral abnormalities, and reduced fertility. The phenotype has been described as the result of failure of cell migration through the primitive streak, causing abnormalities in the development of the neural tube and a reduction in the ventral ectodermal ridge. Wnt3a is an excellent candidate gene for vt because Wnt3a is expressed in the primitive streak and in the embryonic mesoderm, and it is thought to be involved in cell-to-cell communication and formation of the dorsal-ventral axis in the CNS. A lack of Wnt3a might be expected to result in overdorsalization of the neural tube and reduction of the ventral ectodermal ridge characteristic of vt/vt embryos. In a high resolution backcross segregating vt, we observed no recombination between vt and Wnt3a in 363 individuals analyzed. In vt/vt mice, Southern blot analysis revealed no abnormalities in the Wnt3a gene, and the Wnt3a cDNA sequence does not encode any amino acid changes. Whole mount in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that Wnt3a expression is severely reduced in the developing tailbud of day 9.5 vt/vt embryos, suggestive of a lesion in the regulation on Wnt3a expression. An alleleism test, carried out by mating vt/vt males with Wnt3a +/Wnt3a- females, demonstrated that vt and Wnt3a are noncomplementing alleles. All of the compound heterozygotes exhibited severe tail defects, including occasional examples of hind limb parlaysis and spina bifida. The vertebral defects are intermediate between those of vt and Wnt3a homozygotes, suggesting that the concentration of Wnt3a correlates with the severity of the defect.

  8. Domain specific MT in use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus; Almsten, Lisbeth Kjeldgaard

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on domain specific use of MT with a special focus on SMT in the workflow of a Language Service Provider (LSP). We report on the feedback of post-editors using fluency/adequacy evaluation and the evaluation metric ’Usability’, understood in this context as where users on a three ...

  9. Vibrio chromosome-specific families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David

    2014-01-01

    We have compared chromosome-specific genes in a set of 18 finished Vibrio genomes, and, in addition, also calculated the pan- and core-genomes from a data set of more than 250 draft Vibrio genome sequences. These genomes come from 9 known species and 2 unknown species. Within the finished...

  10. CONTRACT DOCUMENTS AND PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First California Commission on School Construction Systems, Palo Alto.

    A SET OF EDUCATIONAL SPECIFICATION DRAFTED BY THE FIRST CALIFORNIA COMMISSION ON SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS GIVES INFORMATION ON BIDDING PROCEDURES, A DESCRIPTION OF THE CURRENT CONSTRUCTION PROGRAM, PROCEDURES FOR SUBMITTING A PROPOSAL, DATA AND CONDITIONS RELATED TO THE DEVELOPMENT PHASE OF THE PROJECT, COMPONENT CONTRACTS, AND GENERAL…

  11. [Specificities in children wound healing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J; Antonicelli, F; Tuton, D; Mazouz Dorval, S; François, C

    2016-10-01

    Children have specific characteristics of wound healing. The aim of this study was to describe the specific clinical characteristics of wounds healing in children and to present the current knowledge on the specific mechanisms with regard to infant age. The tissue insult or injury in fetus can heal without scar, mainly due to reduced granulation tissue associated to diminished or even no inflammatory phase, modified extracellular matrix such as the concentration of hyaluronic acid in amniotic liquid, expression and arrangement of collagen and tenascin. Thickness of children skin is a serious negative factor in case of trauma, whereas poor co-morbidities and efficient growth tissue mechanisms are beneficial to good evolution, even in cases of extensive damage and loss of tissue. The subsequent tissue mechanical forces, wound healing during childhood, spanning from the age of 2 until the end of puberty, is associated with more hypertrophic scars, both in duration and in intensity. Consequently, unnecessary surgery has to be avoided during this period when possible, and children with abnormal or pathologic wound healing should benefit from complementary treatments (hydration, massage, brace, silicone, hydrotherapy…), which represent efficient factors to minimize tissue scarring. After wound healing, the growth body rate can be responsible for specific complications, such as contractures, alopecia, and scar intussusceptions. Its evolutionary character implies the need of an attentive follow-up until adult age. Psychologic repercussions, as a consequence of pathologic scars, must be prevented and investigated by the surgeon.

  12. Final Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one....

  13. Priming the Query Specification Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toms, Elaine G.; Freund, Luanne

    2003-01-01

    Tests the use of questions as a technique in the query specification process. Using a within-subjects design, 48 people interacted with a modified Google interface to solve four information problems in four domains. Half the tasks were entered as typical keyword queries, and half as questions or statements. Results suggest the typical search box…

  14. Adaptive Assessments Using Open Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Hector Barbosa; Garcia-Penalvo, Francisco J.; Rodriguez-Conde, Maria Jose; Morales, Erla M.; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation is a key element in formal education processes; it must be constructed in a way that the item questions within help students understand by adapting them to the learning style as well. The focus of the present research work specifically in the convenience to adapt an associated multimedia material in each single question besides the…

  15. Specific yield, High Plains aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents specific-yield ranges in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer underlies 112.6 million acres (176,000...

  16. Epididymis-specific lipocalin promoters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kichiya Suzuki; Xiuping Yu; Pierre Chaurand; Yoshihiko Araki; Jean-Jacques Lareyre; Richard M. Caprioli; Marie-Claire Orgebin-Crist; Robert J. Matusik

    2007-01-01

    Our goal is to decipher which DNA sequences are required for tissue-specific expression of epididymal genes. At least 6 epididymis-specific lipocalin genes are known. These are differently regulated and regionalized in the epididymis.Lipocalin 5 (Lcn5 or mE-RABP) and Lipocalin 8 (Lcn8 or mEP17) are homologous genes belonging to the epididymis-specific lipocalin gene cluster. Both the 5 kb promoter fragment of the Lcn5 gene and the 5.3 kb promoter fragment of the Lcn8 gene can direct transgene expression in the epididymis (Lcn5 to the distal caput and Lcn8 to the initial segment), indicating that these promoter fragments contain important cis-regulatory element(s) for epididymisspecific gene expression. To define further the fragments regulating gene expression, the Lcn5 promoter was examined in transgenic mice and immortalized epididymal cell lines. After serial deletion, the 1.8 kb promoter fragment of the Lcn5 gene was sufficient for tissue-specific and region-specific gene expression in transgenic mice. Transient transfection analysis revealed that a transcription factor forkhead box A2 (Foxa2) interacts with androgen receptor and binds to the 100 bp fragment of the Lcn5 promoter between 1.2 kb and 1.3 kb and that Foxa2 expression inhibitsandrogen-dependent induction of the Lcn5 promoter activity. Immunohistochemistry indicated a restricted expression of Foxa2 in the epididymis where endogenous Lcn5 gene expression is suppressed and that the Foxa2 inhibition of the Lcn5 promoter is consistent with the lack of expression of Lcn5 in the corpus and cauda. Our approach provides a basic strategy for further analysis of the epididymal lipocalin gene regulation and flexible control of epididymal function.

  17. Expression of the Lingo/LERN gene family during mouse embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Bryan P; Rigby, Peter W J

    2008-01-01

    We have analysed the expression during mouse development of the four member Lingo/LERN gene family which encodes type 1 transmembrane proteins containing 12 extracellular leucine rich repeats, an immunoglobulin C2 domain and a short intracellular tail. Each family member has a distinct pattern of expression in the mouse embryo as is the case for the related NLRR, FLRT and LRRTM gene families. Lingo1/LERN1 is expressed in the developing trigeminal, facio-acoustic and dorsal root ganglia. An interesting expression pattern is also observed in the somites with expression localising to the inner surface of the dermomyotome in the ventro-caudal lip. Further expression is seen in lateral cells of the hindbrain and midbrain, lateral cells in the motor horn of the neural tube, the otic vesicle epithelium and epithelium associated with the developing gut. Lingo3/LERN2 is expressed in a broad but specific pattern in many tissues across the embryo. Lingo2/LERN3 is seen in a population of cells lying adjacent to the epithelial lining of the olfactory pit while Lingo4/LERN4 is expressed in the neural tube in a subset of progenitors adjacent to the motor neurons. Expression of all Lingo/LERN genes increases as the embryo develops but is low in the adult with only Lingo1/LERN1 and Lingo2/LERN3 being detectable in adult brain.

  18. Formation of the avian nucleus magnocellularis from the auditory anlage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Susan J; Rubel, Edwin W; Nishi, Rae

    2006-10-01

    In the avian auditory system, the neural network for computing the localization of sound in space begins with bilateral innervation of nucleus laminaris (NL) by nucleus magnocellularis (NM) neurons. We used antibodies against the neural specific markers Hu C/D, neurofilament, and SV2 together with retrograde fluorescent dextran labeling from the contralateral hindbrain to identify NM neurons within the anlage and follow their development. NM neurons could be identified by retrograde labeling as early as embryonic day (E) 6. While the auditory anlage organized itself into NM and NL in a rostral-to-caudal fashion between E6 and E8, labeled NM neurons were visible throughout the extent of the anlage at E6. By observing the pattern of neuronal rearrangements together with the pattern of contralaterally projecting NM fibers, we could identify NL in the ventral anlage. Ipsilateral NM fibers contacted the developing NL at E8, well after NM collaterals had projected contralaterally. Furthermore, the formation of ipsilateral connections between NM and NL neurons appeared to coincide with the arrival of VIIIth nerve fibers in NM. By E10, immunoreactivity for SV2 was heavily concentrated in the dorsal and ventral neuropils of NL. Thus, extensive pathfinding and morphological rearrangement of central auditory nuclei occurs well before the arrival of cochlear afferents. Our results suggest that NM neurons may play a central role in formation of tonotopic connections in the auditory system.

  19. Rapid Estimation of Specific Impulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bhat

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific impulse (Isp is one of the important criteria for propellant characterisation. In the present paper a semiempirical approach has been suggested to calculate Isp of composite modified doublebase(CMDB propellant formulations by utilizing calorimetric value(Cal-Val of the propellant composition. The Cal-Val of aluminium has been computed on the basis of oxygen balance of the propellant composition. The validity of the new approach has been demonstratedby comparing predicted values witli actual results.

  20. A development calculus for specifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李未

    2003-01-01

    A first order inference system, named R-calculus, is defined to develop the specifications.This system intends to eliminate the laws which are not consistent with users' requirements. TheR-calculus consists of the structural rules, an axiom, a cut rule, and the rules for logical connectives.Some examples are given to demonstrate the usage of the R-calculus. Furthermore, the propertiesregarding reachability and completeness of the R-calculus are formally defined and proved.

  1. Lack of specificity of commercially available antisera: better specifications needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradidarcheep, Wisuit; Labruyère, Wil T; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F; Lamers, Wouter H

    2008-12-01

    The ideal antiserum for immunohistochemical (IHC) applications contains monospecific high-affinity antibodies with little nonspecific adherence to sections. Many commercially available antibodies are "affinity" purified, but it is unknown if they meet "hard" specificity criteria, such as absence of staining in tissues genetically deficient for the antigen or a staining pattern that is identical to that of an antibody raised against a different epitope on the same protein. Reviewers, therefore, often require additional characterization. Although the affinity-purified antibodies used in our study on the distribution of muscarinic receptors produced selective staining patterns on sections, few passed the preabsorption test, and none produced bands of the anticipated size on Western blots. More importantly, none showed a difference in staining pattern on sections or Western blots between wild-type and knockout mice. Because these antibodies were used in most studies published thus far, our findings cast doubts on the validity of the extant body of morphological knowledge of the whole family of muscarinic receptors. We formulate requirements that antibody-specification data sheets should meet and propose that journals for which IHC is a core technique facilitate consumer rating of antibodies. "Certified" antibodies could avoid fruitless and costly validation assays and should become the standard of commercial suppliers.

  2. How specific is specific phobia? Different neural response patterns in two subtypes of specific phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, Ulrike; Kruschwitz, Johann Daniel; Muehlhan, Markus; Siegert, Jens; Hoyer, Jürgen; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-05-01

    Specific phobia of the animal subtype has been employed as a model disorder exploring the neurocircuitry of anxiety disorders, but evidence is lacking whether the detected neural response pattern accounts for all animal subtypes, nor across other phobia subtypes. The present study aimed at directly comparing two subtypes of specific phobia: snake phobia (SP) representing the animal, and dental phobia (DP) representing the blood-injection-injury subtype. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), brain activation and skin conductance was measured during phobogenic video stimulation in 12 DP, 12 SP, and 17 healthy controls. For SP, the previously described activation of fear circuitry structures encompassing the insula, anterior cingulate cortex and thalamus could be replicated and was furthermore associated with autonomic arousal. In contrast, DP showed circumscribed activation of the prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex (PFC/OFC) when directly compared to SP, being dissociated from autonomic arousal. Results provide preliminary evidence for the idea that snake and dental phobia are characterized by distinct underlying neural systems during sustained emotional processing with evaluation processes in DP being controlled by orbitofrontal areas, whereas phobogenic reactions in SP are primarily guided by limbic and paralimbic structures. Findings support the current diagnostic classification conventions, separating distinct subtypes in DSM-IV-TR. They highlight that caution might be warranted though for generalizing findings derived from animal phobia to other phobic and anxiety disorders. If replicated, results could contribute to a better understanding of underlying neurobiological mechanisms of specific phobia and their respective classification.

  3. Advances in bacterial specific imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wareham, David; Das, Satya [St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Microbiology; London Univ. (United Kingdom). Queen Mary' s School of Medicine and Dentistry. Inst. of Cell and Molecular Science

    2005-10-15

    Nuclear medicine is a powerful diagnostic technique able to detect inflammatory foci in human disease. A wide range of agents have been evaluated for their ability to distinguish lesions due to microbial infection from those due to sterile inflammation. Advances continue to be made on the use of radiolabelled antibiotics which as well as being highly specific in the diagnosis of infection may be useful in monitoring the treatment and course of disease. Here we provide an update on in-vitro and clinical studies with a number of established and novel radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  4. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  5. IntelliCable Interface Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    manager on how to use this. Some will factor the priority into account and always consume the highest priority while others...Battlefield Air Operations power manager uses a 10 pin Glenair Mighty Mouse connector with default keying . Pin 9 is specified as the IntelliCable pin. A BAO...standard Soldier Power Manager uses a 7 pin Glenair Mighty Mouse Connector, using alternative keying distinct from the Land Warrior battery specification, and the Li-145 battery. Pin 3 is defined as the IntelliCable pin.

  6. Specifications of EA-BRACHI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Namba, Hideki; Aoki, Yasushi; Watanabe, Ritsuko; Matsumoto, Yuuichi; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1996-11-01

    EA-BRACHI (Experimental Apparatus for Basic study of Radiation Chemistry with Heavy Ions) has been constructed at a vertical port of AVF cyclotron in TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facility. This apparatus is used for measurement of the spatial distribution of energy deposited around the ion`s path, and the reaction of radicals and other intermediates produced by heavy ion irradiation in solid and liquid samples. This report detailed specifications and performance of this apparatus, including operational procedures and some basic data. (author)

  7. Posterior fossa decompression with tonsillectomy in 104 cases of basilar impression, Chiari malformation and/or syringomyelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Gonçalves da Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The prime objective in the surgical treatment of basilar impression (BI, Chiari malformation (CM and/or syringomyelia (SM is based on the restoration of the normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF dynamics at the craniovertebral junction through the creation of a large artificial cisterna magna. A small suboccipital craniectomy has been emphasized to avoid caudal migration of the hindbrain structures into the vertebral canal. Nevertheless, the results showed downward migration of the hindbrain related to that type of craniectomy. The authors present, otherwise, the results of 104 cases of BI, CM and/or SM, whose surgical treatment was characterized by a large craniectomy with the patient in the sitting position, tonsillectomy, large opening of the fourth ventricle and duraplasty with creation of a large artificial cisterna magna. A significant upward migration of the posterior fossa structures was detected by postoperative magnetic resonance imaging.

  8. Flight Guidance System Requirements Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven P.; Tribble, Alan C.; Carlson, Timothy M.; Danielson, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a requirements specification written in the RSML-e language for the mode logic of a Flight Guidance System of a typical regional jet aircraft. This model was created as one of the first steps in a five-year project sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center, Rockwell Collins Inc., and the Critical Systems Research Group of the University of Minnesota to develop new methods and tools to improve the safety of avionics designs. This model will be used to demonstrate the application of a variety of methods and techniques, including safety analysis of system and subsystem requirements, verification of key properties using theorem provers and model checkers, identification of potential sources mode confusion in system designs, partitioning of applications based on the criticality of system hazards, and autogeneration of avionics quality code. While this model is representative of the mode logic of a typical regional jet aircraft, it does not describe an actual or planned product. Several aspects of a full Flight Guidance System, such as recovery from failed sensors, have been omitted, and no claims are made regarding the accuracy or completeness of this specification.

  9. Arithmetic Memory Is Modality Specific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Myers

    Full Text Available In regards to numerical cognition and working memory, it is an open question as to whether numbers are stored into and retrieved from a central abstract representation or from separate notation-specific representations. This study seeks to help answer this by utilizing the numeral modality effect (NME in three experiments to explore how numbers are processed by the human brain. The participants were presented with numbers (1-9 as either Arabic digits or written number words (Arabic digits and dot matrices in Experiment 2 at the first (S1 and second (S2 stimuli. The participant's task was to add the first two stimuli together and verify whether the answer (S3, presented simultaneously with S2, was correct. We hypothesized that if reaction time (RT at S2/S3 depends on the modality of S1 then numbers are retrieved from modality specific memory stores. Indeed, RT depended on the modality of S1 whenever S2 was an Arabic digit which argues against the concept of numbers being stored and retrieved from a central, abstract representation.

  10. [Pharmacological gender-specific medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Koichi; Negishi, Etsuko

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of Gender-specific Medicine has become more widespread in Japan. We need to understand gender differences in the use patterns of prescription drugs for proper use of medicines. We therefore investigated gender differences in the use of prescription drugs using the data of 9 hospitals in Japan. The data on prescription drugs were extracted from the drug ordering system for a month from March 1 to 31, 2003. We analyzed the data according to sex and age. As a result, we found that the prescription frequency of central nervous system drugs and Kampo medications for females was higher than that for males. There was also the same trend for hormone medicines and vitamins. On the other hand, the prescription frequency of cardiovascular drugs for males was higher than that for females. Moreover, there was the same trend for unclassified metabolic drugs such as arthrifuge. As a result of detailed analysis by age, a correlation between age-specificity of prescription drugs and gender difference of diseases was suggested. Such information has not been investigated in Japan. Since these results are thought to be useful, we will perform a detailed examination and accumulate evidence for their future exploitation in drug therapy.

  11. MATISSE: specifications and expected performances

    CERN Document Server

    Matter, A; Petrov, R G; Berio, P; Robbe-Dubois, S; Lopez, B; Antonelli, P; Allouche, F; Cruzalebes, P; Millour, F; Bazin, G; Bourgès, L

    2016-01-01

    MATISSE (Multi AperTure mid-Infrared SpectroScopic Experiment) is the next generation spectro-interferometer at the European Southern Observatory VLTI operating in the spectral bands L, M and N, and combining four beams from the unit and auxiliary telescopes. MATISSE is now fully integrated at the Observatoire de la C\\^ote d'Azur in Nice (France), and has entered very recently its testing phase in laboratory. This paper summarizes the equations describing the MATISSE signal and the associated sources of noise. The specifications and the expected performances of the instrument are then evaluated taking into account the current characteristics of the instrument and the VLTI infrastructure, including transmission and contrast degradation budgets. In addition, we present the different MATISSE simulation tools that will be made available to the future users.

  12. Specifications for gas treatment apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Mikazuki, Hyogo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    A surface reaction analysis apparatus was installed as an experimental end-station for the study of surface chemistry at the JAERI soft x-ray beamline in the SPring-8. The surface reaction analysis apparatus is devoted to the study of reaction mechanisms on solid surfaces with incident gas molecules. It is necessary to supply reagent gases to the apparatus. Chlorine and metal organic molecules will be used in the apparatus as well as oxygen molecules. Since the chlorine is corrosive and virulent, the metal organic molecules are flammable, the satiety treatments and the removal of virulence from the exhaust gas are needed. This gas supply and exhaust system is mainly composed of a cylinder cabinet, a gas mixer, a virulence removal cell and an urgent virulence removal apparatus. The former three devices are considered to take a countermeasure against virulent gas leak. The detail specifications concerning the gas supply and exhaust system are described in this report. (author)

  13. Distribution-Specific Agnostic Boosting

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Vitaly

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of boosting the accuracy of weak learning algorithms in the agnostic learning framework of Haussler (1992) and Kearns et al. (1992). Known algorithms for this problem (Ben-David et al., 2001; Gavinsky, 2002; Kalai et al., 2008) follow the same strategy as boosting algorithms in the PAC model: the weak learner is executed on the same target function but over different distributions on the domain. We demonstrate boosting algorithms for the agnostic learning framework that only modify the distribution on the labels of the points (or, equivalently, modify the target function). This allows boosting a distribution-specific weak agnostic learner to a strong agnostic learner with respect to the same distribution. When applied to the weak agnostic parity learning algorithm of Goldreich and Levin (1989) our algorithm yields a simple PAC learning algorithm for DNF and an agnostic learning algorithm for decision trees over the uniform distribution using membership queries. These results substantia...

  14. The Specificity of Human Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchet, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Today, humankind is being reintroduced within nature. Humankind is no longer presented as supernatural to nature. There is no longer a clear divide between animal and human. What makes us human is neither culture, nor language nor labor, nor art, but the degree of complexity those products and ca...... creativity. Art is fundamentally about shaping visions and very closely related to this specific human ability to make projects. Especially in times of crisis, when the old sources of meaning hardly can make sense in a new context, imagination must be used in order to survive......., and the craving to make sense of all kinds of relations that characterizes humans. Being able to produce artworks as external representations aimed at “the other,” made of internal representations is thus essential to humanity. Human aesthetics is not so much an issue of beauty but of imagination and social...

  15. Genetic specificity of face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert

    2015-10-13

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  16. Specific Carbohydrate Diet: Does It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Go Back The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Email Print + Share There is no ... diet that has received attention is the Specific Carbohydrate Diet. This diet limits poorly digestible carbohydrates to ...

  17. Identificación de áreas de homogeneidad estadística para los caudales de ríos andinos argentinos y su relación con la circulación atmosférica y la temperatura superficial del mar Identification of statistical homogeneous areas for argentinean andean river flows and their relationship with the atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa H. Compagnucci

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se centra en localizar las distintas regiones a lo largo de la Cordillera de los Andes sobre las cuales el comportamiento de los caudales de los ríos involucrados muestran homogeneidades estadísticas, estudiando además su vinculación con las condiciones de Temperatura de la Superficie del Mar y Circulación Atmosférica. Se define un índice lineal de correlación corregido, utilizado como medida de distancia en un Análisis de Componentes Principales. Las primeras dos Componentes permiten identificar dos regiones independientes que explican la mayor variabilidad. Estas regiones abarcan: I desde el río Neuquén hasta el río Senguer y II desde el río Jachal hasta el río Colorado. La región I presenta un régimen de doble máximo de caudal en invierno-primavera, mientras que la región II se caracteriza por un máximo en verano. Esta última estaría íntimamente ligada a los patrones del ciclo El Niño / Oscilación Sur. Las diferencias más relevantes de la circulación asociada a los extremos de caudal en la región I con respecto a la II serían: 1 el corrimiento de los sistemas de circulación hacia mayores latitudes, 2 la mayor relevancia de los sistemas de latitudes medias, 3 la menor importancia de los ubicados sobre el Pasaje de Drake y 4 la presencia en altura de un tren de ondas estacionarias de menor longitud que atraviesa el continente por latitudes subtropicales provenientes del Pacífico central en dirección NO-SE.The purpose of this paper is to locate the different regions in Los Andes mountain range on which the behavior of the flows of the involved rivers shows statistical homogeneities, studying also their entailment with sea surface temperature and atmospheric circulation. A corrected correlation linear index is defined and used as a distance measurement in a Principal Component Analysis. The first two Components identify two independent regions that explain the greater variability. These regions

  18. FY97 ICCS prototype specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, J.

    1997-02-20

    The ICCS software team will implement and test two iterations of their software product during FY97. The first of these iterations will concentrate on construction of selected framework components; the subsequent iteration will extend the product and perform measurements of performance based on emulated FEP devices. This document specifies the products to be delivered in that first prototype and projects the direction that the second prototype will take. Detailed specification of the later iteration will be written when the results of the first iteration are complete. The selection of frameworks to be implemented early is made on a basis of risk analysis from the point of view of future development in the ICCS project. The prototype will address risks in integration of object- oriented components, in refining our development process, and in emulation testing for FEP devices. This document is a specification that identifies products and processes to undertake for resolving these risks. The goals of this activity are to exercise our development process at a modest scale and to probe our architecture plan for fundamental limits and failure modes. The product of the iterations will be the framework software which will be useful in future ICCS code. Thus the FY97 products are intended for internal usage by the ICCS team and for demonstration to the FEP software developers of the strategy for integrating supervisory software with FEP computers. This will be the first of several expected iterations of the software development process and the performance measurements that ICCS will demonstrate, intended to support confidence in our ability to meet project RAM goals. The design of the application software is being carried out in a separate WBS 1.5.2 activity. The design activity has as its FY97 product a series of Software Design Documents that will specify the functionality of the controls software of ICCS. During the testing of this year`s prototypes, the application

  19. Tumor specific cytotoxicity of glucosylceramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Hirosuke; Wongtangtintharn, Sawitree; Iwasaki, Hironori; Inafuku, Masashi; Shimatani, Masayuki; Toda, Takayoshi

    2007-11-01

    To develop a new taxon of anti-cancer agent with lower side effect, this study described a tumor selective cytotoxicity of glucosylceramide extracted from malt feed of beer brewing waste. Interpretation of (13)C- and (1)H-NMR spectra identified the chemical structure of major component of glucosylceramide as 1-O-beta-D: -glucopyranosyl-2(2'-hydroxyeicosanoylamino)-4,11-octadecadiene-1,3-diol. Selective cytotoxicity was studied with three pairs of normal and cancer cells: liver, skin and lung. The glucosylceramide selectively lowered the relative viability of cancer cells. Of the pairs, the selectivity was most pronounced with the liver cells, and, for this reason, further experiment was conducted with this pair of normal (CS-HC) and cancer cells (HepG2) to get more insight into the selective toxicity. The glucosylceramide significantly increased the cell population at G(2)/M phase in HepG2 cells, and also increased the numbers of apoptotic (sub-G(0)/G(1)) cells, but to much lesser extent compared with the increase in G(2)/M phase. Treatment of HepG2 cells with this agent selectively disrupted the mitochondrial membrane integrity without activation of caspase pathway to induce apoptosis. These findings suggested that the glucosylceramide specifically suppressed the growth of cancer cells by inhibiting cell renewal capacity rather than induction of apoptosis. The underlying mechanism for the selectivity remains to be answered in the forthcoming study.

  20. RNB-specific linac development

    CERN Document Server

    Ratzinger, U

    2002-01-01

    The acceleration of secondary, radioactive beams from primary beam driven ion sources provides many challenges when compared to the case of conventional ion beams. The clean separation of the specific ion species, the low beam current, the short life time of the ions as well as the needed energy variability have consequences on the layout of the accelerator. As also experiments with astrophysical relevance are performed, the energy range should go down below 1 MeV/u in some cases. Additionally, to investigate nuclear reactions around the Coulomb barrier, the beam energy should be flexible up to around 8 MeV/u. Short isotope life times below a few milliseconds do not allow for charge breeding. In these cases, low charged ions from 'simple' ion sources have to be accepted by the accelerator. Furthermore, stripping processes along the linac are excluded in case of low beam currents. Multicoincidence experiments profit a lot from cw operation of ion source and accelerators. During the last three decades, room tem...

  1. Advances in bacterial specific imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wareham

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear medicine is a powerful diagnostic technique able to detect inflammatory foci in human disease. A wide range of agents have been evaluated for their ability to distinguish lesions due to microbial infection from those due to sterile inflammation. Advances continue to be made on the use of radiolabelled antibiotics which as well as being highly specific in the diagnosis of infection may be useful in monitoring the treatment and course of disease. Here we provide an update on in-vitro and clinical studies with a number of established and novel radiopharmaceuticalsA medicina nuclear é uma técnica poderosa de diagnóstico capaz de detectar focos inflamatórios em doenças humanas. Uma ampla gama de agentes tem sido avaliada em sua capacidade de distinguir lesões, devidas a infecções microbianas daquelas causadas por inflamações estéreis. Avanços continuam sendo realizados no uso de antibióticos radiomarcados que, da mesma forma que têm sido usados no diagnóstico altamente específico de infecções, podem ser úteis na monitoração do tratamento e do curso da doença. Neste estudo, nós apresentamos uma atualização sobre estudos in vitro e clínicos, com alguns novos radiofármacos e outros já consagrados.

  2. Are specific emotions narrated differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Meier, Michaela; Mukhtar, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Two studies test the assertion that anger, sadness, fear, pride, and happiness are typically narrated in different ways. Everyday events eliciting these 5 emotions were narrated by young women (Study 1) and 5- and 8-year-old girls (Study 2). Negative narratives were expected to engender more effort to process the event, be longer, more grammatically complex, more often have a complication section, and use more specific emotion labels than global evaluations. Narratives of Hogan's (2003) juncture emotions anger and fear were expected to focus more on action and to contain more core narrative sections of orientation, complication, and resolution than narratives of the outcome emotions sadness and happiness. Hypotheses were confirmed for adults except for syntactic complexity, whereas children showed only some of these differences. Hogan's theory that juncture emotions are restricted to the complication section was not confirmed. Finally, in adults, indirect speech was more frequent in anger narratives and internal monologue in fear narratives. It is concluded that different emotions should be studied in how they are narrated, and that narratives should be analyzed according to qualitatively different emotions.

  3. Role of serotonin transporter inhibition in the regulation of tryptophan hydroxylase in brainstem raphe nuclei: time course and regional specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, L; Lagrou, L M; Reynolds, K B; Rosebush, P I; Mazurek, M F

    2010-12-01

    Drugs that selectively inhibit the serotonin transporter (SERT) are widely prescribed for treatment of depression and a range of anxiety disorders. We studied the time course of changes in tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in four raphe nuclei after initiation of two different SERT inhibitors, citalopram and fluoxetine. In the first experiment, groups of Sprague-Dawley rats received daily meals of rice pudding either alone (n=9) or mixed with citalopram 5 mg/kg/day (n=27). Rats were sacrificed after 24 h, 7 days or 28 days of treatment. Sections of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), median raphe nucleus (MRN), raphe magnus nucleus (RMN) and caudal linear nucleus (CLN) were processed for TPH immunohistochemistry. Citalopram induced a significant reduction in DRN TPH-positive cell counts at 24 h (41%), 7 days (38%) and 28 days (52%). Similar reductions in TPH-positive cell counts were also observed at each timepoint in the MRN and in the RMN. In the MRN, citalopram resulted in significant reductions at 24 h (26%), 7 days (16%) and 28 days (23%). In the RMN, citalopram induced significant reductions of TPH-positive cell counts at 24 h (45%), 7 days (34%) and 28 days (43%). By contrast, no significant differences between control and treatment groups were observed in the CLN at any of the time points that we studied. To investigate whether these changes would occur with other SERT inhibitors, we conducted a second experiment, this time with a 28-day course of fluoxetine. As was observed with citalopram, fluoxetine induced significant reductions of TPH cell counts in the DRN (39%), MRN (38%) and RMN (41%), with no significant differences in the CLN. These results indicate that SERT inhibition can alter the regulation of TPH, the rate limiting enzyme for serotonin biosynthesis. This persistent and regionally specific downregulation of serotonin biosynthesis may account for some of the clinical withdrawal symptoms associated with drugs that inhibit SERT.

  4. Specifications in early conceptual design work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2007-01-01

    specifications, which express attractive product goals, and has to synthesise the product idea. The authors of this paper see a challenge to enhance and improve our understanding of the nature of design specifications as a means to support the synthesis of a product idea. In this empirical study we analyse...... the structure and content of design specifications during early ideation activities, where initial design specifications are formulated and a product idea is synthesised. We have analysed specification documents of 19 teams of novice designers. Our analysis indicates that a productive product design...... specification in early conceptual design consists of few specification statements, which express value, important aspects of product context and articulate key functions. A product design specification, which contains a lot of specification statements about product properties, is not productive to support...

  5. "11~13周超声扫描颅内透明层诊断胎儿脊柱裂价值"点评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈萍

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1论文题目及原文摘要 Assessment of intracranial translucency ( IT) in the detection of spina bifida at the 11-13-week scan Prenatal diagnosis of open spina bifida is carried out by ultrasound examination in the second trimester of pregnancy.Objective The diagnosis is suspected by the presence of a 'lemon-shaped' head and a 'bananashaped' cerebellum, thought to be consequences of caudal displacement of the hindbrain.The aim of the study was to determine whether in fetuses with spina bifida this displacement of the brain is evident from the first trimester of pregnancy.

  6. Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The objectives of Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications are to ensure that the design team applies commissioning concepts to the design and prepares commissioning specifications and a commission plan for inclusion in the bid construction documents.

  7. Ion specific effects on charged interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Medda, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The physico-chemical phenomena occurring at charged interfaces are specifically affected by the type and the concentration of electrolytes. This has implications both in living and in inorganic systems. The discovery of the ‘ion specific effects’ dates back to Hofmeister (1888), who observed the specific effect of salts in promoting egg white proteins precipitation. Nowadays we are aware that ion specific effects are ubiquitous in all fields of science and technology where electrolytes play a...

  8. Genre-Specific Semantic Video Indexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.; Worring, M.

    2010-01-01

    In many applications, we find large video collections from different genres where the user is often only interested in one or two specific video genres. So, when users are querying the system with a specific semantic concept, they are likely aiming a genre specific instantiation of this concept. Thu

  9. Map Specifications and Exchange of Geographical Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1999-01-01

    Specifications for Technical Maps 1993 – 99 are described giving an overview of the specification structure including the object description of the latest version: TK99.The technical map specifications are related to the standards for topographical maps - especially the TOP10DK standard. Common o...

  10. Programming Bacteriophages by Swapping Their Specificity Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Moran G; Yosef, Ido; Qimron, Udi

    2015-12-01

    Bacteriophages, bacteria's natural enemies, may serve as potent antibacterial agents. Their specificity for certain bacterial sub-species limits their effectiveness, but allows selective targeting of bacteria. Lu and colleagues present a platform for such targeting through alteration of bacteriophages' host specificity by swapping specificity domains in their host-recognition ligand.

  11. 31 CFR 515.318 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific license. 515.318 Section 515.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 515.318 Specific license. A specific license is any license or authorization issued pursuant to...

  12. 31 CFR 535.318 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific license. 535.318 Section 535.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 535.318 Specific license. A specific license is any license or authorization issued pursuant to...

  13. 31 CFR 585.308 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific license. 585.308 Section 585.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 585.308 Specific license. The term specific license means any license...

  14. 31 CFR 500.318 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific license. 500.318 Section 500.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 500.318 Specific license. A specific license is any license or authorization issued pursuant to...

  15. 31 CFR 586.315 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific license. 586.315 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.315 Specific license. The term specific license means any license or authorization not set forth in this part but issued pursuant to this part....

  16. 31 CFR 536.313 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific license. 536.313 Section 536.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 536.313 Specific license. The term specific license means any license or authorization not...

  17. 31 CFR 595.312 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific license. 595.312 Section 595.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 595.312 Specific license. The term specific license means any license or authorization not set...

  18. 31 CFR 560.312 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific license. 560.312 Section 560.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.312 Specific license. The term specific license means any license or authorization not set...

  19. 31 CFR 538.311 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific license. 538.311 Section 538.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.311 Specific license. The term specific license means any license or authorization not set...

  20. 50 CFR 648.260 - Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Specifications include the specification of OY, the setting of any target TACs, allocation of DAS, and/or... allocation based on target TAC. For purposes of determining the appropriate DAS allocation, any overage of... developing the management measures and specifications, the PDT shall review at least the following data,...

  1. The etiology of specific phobias : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckelbach, H; de Jong, Peter; Muris, P; vandenHout, MA

    1996-01-01

    The present article summarizes theory and data about symptomatology, epidemiology, and etiology of specific phobias. Additionally, the cognitive mechanisms involved in specific Phobias are briefly discussed By and large, the general pattern behind the development of specific phobias can be summarize

  2. Normalized Specifications for Identifying Reusable Software

    OpenAIRE

    Luqi

    1987-01-01

    An approach to retrieving reusable software components by means of module specifications is described. The approach depends on normalizing specifications to reduce the variations in the representation of software concepts. The concept is illustrated in terms of both formal and informal approaches to component specifications.

  3. A zebrafish larval model reveals early tissue-specific innate immune responses to Mucor circinelloides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Voelz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is an emerging fungal infection that is clinically difficult to manage, with increasing incidence and extremely high mortality rates. Individuals with diabetes, suppressed immunity or traumatic injury are at increased risk of developing disease. These individuals often present with defects in phagocytic effector cell function. Research using mammalian models and phagocytic effector cell lines has attempted to decipher the importance of the innate immune system in host defence against mucormycosis. However, these model systems have not been satisfactory for direct analysis of the interaction between innate immune effector cells and infectious sporangiospores in vivo. Here, we report the first real-time in vivo analysis of the early innate immune response to mucormycete infection using a whole-animal zebrafish larval model system. We identified differential host susceptibility, dependent on the site of infection (hindbrain ventricle and swim bladder, as well as differential functions of the two major phagocyte effector cell types in response to viable and non-viable spores. Larval susceptibility to mucormycete spore infection was increased upon immunosuppressant treatment. We showed for the first time that macrophages and neutrophils were readily recruited in vivo to the site of infection in an intact host and that spore phagocytosis can be observed in real-time in vivo. While exploring innate immune effector recruitment dynamics, we discovered the formation of phagocyte clusters in response to fungal spores that potentially play a role in fungal spore dissemination. Spores failed to activate pro-inflammatory gene expression by 6 h post-infection in both infection models. After 24 h, induction of a pro-inflammatory response was observed only in hindbrain ventricle infections. Only a weak pro-inflammatory response was initiated after spore injection into the swim bladder during the same time frame. In the future, the zebrafish larva

  4. Checking MSC Specifications for Timing Inconsistency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuandong(李宣东); TAN Wenkai(谭文凯); ZHENG Guoliang(郑国梁)

    2002-01-01

    Message sequence chart (MSC) is a graphical and textual language for the description and specification of the interactions between system components. MSC specifica tions allow convenient expression of multiple scenarios, and offer an intuitive and visual way of describing design requirements. Like any other aspect of the specification and design process, MSCs are amenable to errors, and their analysis is important. In this paper, the verification problem of MSC specification for timing inconsistency is studied, which means that no execu tion scenario described by an MSC specification is timing consistent. An algorithm is developed to check MSC specifications for timing inconsistency.

  5. Co-expression of guanylyl cyclase-C and caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2 in human gastric cancer and precursor lesions%鸟苷酸环化酶C和尾型同源盒转录因子2在胃癌及癌前病变组织中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛振彪; 许钟; 张健锋; 朱慧君; 章建国; 潘正平

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究鸟苷酸环化酶C(GC-C)和尾型同源盒转录因子2(CDX2)基因与蛋白在胃癌及癌前病变组织中的表达并探讨其临床意义.方法 收集30例手术切除的胃癌及相应癌旁5 cm胃黏膜组织,另32例非胃癌患者胃镜下取活检标本,其中23例肠上皮化生、9例异型增生.应用逆转录(RT)-PCR检测GC-C和CDX2 mRNA在胃癌及癌旁组织中的表达,Western印迹和间接免疫荧光组化技术检测GC-C和CDX2蛋白的表达,同时检测两者在肠上皮化生和异型增生中的表达.结果 RT-PCR显示GC-C和CDX2 mRNA在胃癌中的表达率分别为20/30和19/30,显著高于癌旁组织(0/30和0/30,P值均=0.000).Western印迹检测GC-C和CDX2蛋白在胃癌组织中表达率分别为19/30和17/30,显著高于癌旁组织(0/30和0/30,P值均=0.000).免疫荧光检测GC-C和CDX2在癌旁组织中不表达,在肠上皮化生组织中表达率为39.1 %和39.1%、异型增生组织为55.6%和55.6%、胃癌组织为56.7%和60.0%,与癌旁组织间差异有统计学意义(P值均=0.000).但在肠上皮化生、异型增生和胃癌间阳性率比较差异无统计学意义(P值均>0.05).两者在肠型胃癌中的表达高于弥漫型(P值分别=0.009和0.024),但与年龄、性别、病灶大小、临床病理分期、分化程度和淋巴结转移等因素无关(P值均>0.05).在肠上皮化生和胃癌中GC-C与CDX2的表达呈正相关(r分别=0.4524和0.3845,P分别=0.0371和0.0408).结论 GC-C和CDX2的异常表达与胃黏膜癌变的发生有关,可能参与人胃腺癌致癌过程的调节,检测GC-C与CDX2有助于早期胃癌和胃癌前病变诊断.%Objective To investigate the expressions of guanylyl cyclase-c(GC-C) and caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) in human gastric tissues and precursor lesions and its significance. Methods The cancerous and paracancerous (5 cm from cancer lesion )samples from 30 cases of gastric cancer and 32 samples including 23 intestinal metaplasia

  6. SU-E-T-176: Clinical Experience of Brass Mesh Bolus: Patient-Specific Parameters as Predictors of Measured Dosimetric Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yock, A; Manger, R; Einck, J; Yashar, C; Sanghvi, P; Hattangadi-Gluth, J; Cervino, L [University of California - San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Increasingly, brass mesh bolus is used to insure dosimetric coverage of the skin for patients treated post-mastectomy for breast cancer. Contribution of photoelectrons from interactions between the bolus and the primary beam increases dose superficially without affecting dose at greater depths. We present our experience using brass mesh bolus – including patients for whom the bolus was dosimetrically inadequate – along with analysis of relevant patient-specific parameters. Methods: Optically-stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) were used to determine the effect of the bolus for 15 patients. They were positioned beneath the bolus within the tangent fields at three positions: 1.5–3cm inside the medial and lateral field edges, and midway between the two. All OSLDs were midfield in the cranial-caudal direction. The measurements were compared with patient-specific parameters including separation, chest wall/breast tissue thickness, beam angle incidence, and planned surface dose. Results: The average OSLD measurement at the medial field edge, midfield, and lateral field edge position was 86.8%, 101.8%, and 92.8% of the prescription dose, respectively. A measurement for one patient was low enough (77.0%) to warrant a switch to an alternative type of bolus. Anatomic parameters were analyzed to investigate the low dose in this case, not observed in the planning system. The patient was observed to have a thin chest wall and very oblique beam angles. A second patient was also switched to an alternative type of bolus due to her being high risk and treated with an electron patch that extended onto the breast. Conclusion: Brass mesh bolus increases dose superficially while leaving dose at greater depths unaffected. However, our results suggest that this effect may be insufficient in patients with a thin chest wall or very oblique beam angles. More data and analysis is necessary to proactively identify patients for whom brass mesh bolus is effective.

  7. Using Abduction to Evolve Inconsistent Requirements Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Nuseibeh

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Requirements specifications are often inconsistent. Inconsistencies may arise because multiple conflicting requirements are embodied in these specifications, or because the specifications themselves are in a transient stage of evolutionary development. In this paper we argue that such inconsistencies, rather than being undesirable, are actually useful drivers for changing the requirements specifications in which they arise. We present a formal technique to reason about inconsistency handling changes. Our technique is an adaptation of logical abduction - adapted to generate changes that address some specification inconsistencies, while leaving others. We represent our specifications in quasi-classical (QC logic - an adaptation of classical logic that allows continued reasoning in the presence of inconsistency. The paper develops a sound algorithm for automating our abductive reasoning technique and presents illustrative examples drawn from a library system case study.

  8. Towards a theory of product design specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2004-01-01

    The product design specification is an important element in a product development project because it defines the target to be met. One requirement on the product design specification is to articulate and communicate the aspects, which makes the product attractive seen from the users' viewpoint....... In the design methodology literature we find guidelines and methods to compile a product design specification. The contributions are based on the common underlying assumption that it is meaningful and the only feasible approach to interpret the result of a need analysis into a set of technical specifications......, which express the customers¿ need and perception of value. In this paper we will scrutinize this assumption. We outline the roles and tasks of the product design specification in order to identify the requirements on a theory of product design specifications and we identify existing theory elements...

  9. Peptide binding specificity of the chaperone calreticulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, N.; Duus, K.; Jorgensen, C.S.;

    2007-01-01

    Calreticulin is a molecular chaperone with specificity for polypeptides and N-linked monoglucosylated glycans. In order to determine the specificity of polypeptide binding, the interaction of calreticulin with polypeptides was investigated using synthetic peptides of different length and composit......Calreticulin is a molecular chaperone with specificity for polypeptides and N-linked monoglucosylated glycans. In order to determine the specificity of polypeptide binding, the interaction of calreticulin with polypeptides was investigated using synthetic peptides of different length...... and composition. A large set of available synthetic peptides (n=127) was tested for binding to calreticulin and the results analysed by multivariate data analysis. The parameter that correlated best with binding was hydrophobicity while beta-turn potential disfavoured binding. Only hydrophobic peptides longer...... a peptide-binding specificity for hydrophobic sequences and delineate the fine specificity of calreticulin for hydrophobic amino acid residues....

  10. Embedded systems specification and design languages

    CERN Document Server

    Villar, Eugenio

    2008-01-01

    This book is the latest contribution to the Chip Design Languages series and it consists of selected papers presented at the Forum on Specifications and Design Languages (FDL'07), in September 2007. The book represents the state-of-the-art in research and practice, and it identifies new research directions. It highlights the role of specification and modelling languages, and presents practical experiences with specification and modelling languages.

  11. Domain-Specific Ontology of Botany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Gu; Cun-Gen Cao; Yue-Fei Sui; Wen Tian

    2004-01-01

    Domain-specific ontologies are greatly useful in knowledge acquisition, sharing and analysis. In this paper, botany-specific ontology for acquiring and analyzing botanical knowledge is presented. The ontology is represented in a set of well-defined categories, and each concept is viewed as an instance of certain category. The authors also introduce botany-specific axioms, an integral part of the ontology, for checking and reasoning with the acquired knowledge. Consistency, completeness and redundancy of the axioms are discussed.

  12. Standards and methods for software requirements specification

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the comparison between three selected standards and methods for software requirements specifications. IEEE 830 specification and use cases represent older, while user stories represent newer generation of methods for specification writing. Each method is first explained in theory and then on a practical example. E-študent, a well-known application to the students of the Faculty of computer and information science, serves as our practical example. The application is onl...

  13. Specifications in early conceptual design work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2007-01-01

    In early conceptual design the design team is working in an uncertain situation, where the understanding of a need is limited and not much is known about the solution space. In this situation the design team has to both analyse need and explore solution space. Thus, the team has to formulate design...... specification in early conceptual design consists of few specification statements, which express value, important aspects of product context and articulate key functions. A product design specification, which contains a lot of specification statements about product properties, is not productive to support...

  14. 77 FR 27814 - Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... COMMISSION Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force... availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is announcing the availability of the model safety evaluation (SE) for plant-specific adoption of Technical Specifications (TSs) Task Force...

  15. 77 FR 27490 - Plant-Specific Adoption, Revision 4 of the Improved Standard Technical Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Technical Specifications, NUREG-1430, ``Standard Technical Specifications, Babcock and Wilcox Plants....resource@nrc.gov . NUREG-1430, ``Standard Technical Specifications, Babcock and Wilcox Plants'' Revision 4... ML12100A177 ML12100A178 Specifications, Babcock and Wilcox Plants'' NUREG-1431, ``Standard...

  16. User Interface Technology for Formal Specification Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michael; Philpot, Andrew; Pressburger, Thomas; Underwood, Ian; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Formal specification development and modification are an essential component of the knowledge-based software life cycle. User interface technology is needed to empower end-users to create their own formal specifications. This paper describes the advanced user interface for AMPHION1 a knowledge-based software engineering system that targets scientific subroutine libraries. AMPHION is a generic, domain-independent architecture that is specialized to an application domain through a declarative domain theory. Formal specification development and reuse is made accessible to end-users through an intuitive graphical interface that provides semantic guidance in creating diagrams denoting formal specifications in an application domain. The diagrams also serve to document the specifications. Automatic deductive program synthesis ensures that end-user specifications are correctly implemented. The tables that drive AMPHION's user interface are automatically compiled from a domain theory; portions of the interface can be customized by the end-user. The user interface facilitates formal specification development by hiding syntactic details, such as logical notation. It also turns some of the barriers for end-user specification development associated with strongly typed formal languages into active sources of guidance, without restricting advanced users. The interface is especially suited for specification modification. AMPHION has been applied to the domain of solar system kinematics through the development of a declarative domain theory. Testing over six months with planetary scientists indicates that AMPHION's interactive specification acquisition paradigm enables users to develop, modify, and reuse specifications at least an order of magnitude more rapidly than manual program development.

  17. Understanding the substrate specificity of conventional calpains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorimachi, Hiroyuki; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi; Ono, Yasuko

    2012-09-01

    Calpains are intracellular Ca(2+)-dependent Cys proteases that play important roles in a wide range of biological phenomena via the limited proteolysis of their substrates. Genetic defects in calpain genes cause lethality and/or functional deficits in many organisms, including humans. Despite their biological importance, the mechanisms underlying the action of calpains, particularly of their substrate specificities, remain largely unknown. Studies show that certain sequence preferences influence calpain substrate recognition, and some properties of amino acids have been related successfully to substrate specificity and to the calpains' 3D structure. The full spectrum of this substrate specificity, however, has not been clarified using standard sequence analysis algorithms, e.g., the position-specific scoring-matrix method. More advanced bioinformatics techniques were used recently to identify the substrate specificities of calpains and to develop a predictor for calpain cleavage sites, demonstrating the potential of combining empirical data acquisition and machine learning. This review discusses the calpains' substrate specificities, introducing the benefits of bioinformatics applications. In conclusion, machine learning has led to the development of useful predictors for calpain cleavage sites, although the accuracy of the predictions still needs improvement. Machine learning has also elucidated information about the properties of calpains' substrate specificities, including a preference for sequences over secondary structures and the existence of a substrate specificity difference between two similar conventional calpains, which has never been indicated biochemically.

  18. Determining the specific electric resistance of rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad' ko, V.Ia.

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented on perfecting the method of laboratory determination of the specific electric resistance of a rock formation. The average error in determining the specific electric resistance of the core at various locations is no more than two percent with low resistance values (2-5 ohms).

  19. PCR specific for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, L.; Jones, S.C.P.; Angen, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    , but the method has liminations, for example, cross-reactions between serotypes 3, 6, and 8. This study describes the development of a serotype 3-specific PCR, based on the capsule locus, which can be used in a multiplex format with the organism's specific gene apxIV. The PCR test was evaluated on 266 strains...

  20. An Institution for Imperative RSL Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    -oriented type definitions, declaration of state variables, axiomatic specification of values (including functions), and explicit function definitions. Functions may be imperative. The semantics of an RSLI specification is defined to be the loose semantics of a theory presentation consisting of a signature Σ...

  1. 21 CFR 107.100 - Nutrient specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrient specifications. 107.100 Section 107.100... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Nutrient Requirements § 107.100 Nutrient specifications. (a) An infant formula shall contain the following nutrients at a level not less than the minimum level...

  2. Cell-Type-Specific Optogenetics in Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K; Stuber, Garret D

    2016-09-08

    The recent advent of technologies enabling cell-type-specific recording and manipulation of neuronal activity spurred tremendous progress in neuroscience. However, they have been largely limited to mice, which lack the richness in behavior of primates. Stauffer et al. now present a generalizable method for achieving cell-type specificity in monkeys.

  3. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trumpf, J.; Margraf, J.; Vriends, N.; Meyer, A.H.; Becker, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young wom

  4. SPECIFIC SKILLS AND SOCIAL COMPETENCE IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    APPELO, MT; WOONINGS, FMJ; VANNIEUWENHUIZEN, CJ; EMMELKAMP, PMG; SLOOFF, CJ; LOUWERENS, JW

    1992-01-01

    Generalization of skills is a major problem in social skills training for schizophrenic patients. Assessment of skills is mostly not based on objective indices of specific skill deficits. The results of this study show that global competence of schizophrenics can be differentiated from specific comp

  5. Some Approaches for Integration of Specification Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    It is often useful to apply several specification techniques within the same software development project. This raises the question how specification techniques can be integrated. In this presentation we give three different examples of how this can be done. In the first example, we summarise how...

  6. Specific and social phobias in ICD-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the current status of research with respect to specific phobias and social phobia as defined in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV, and to provide op- tions for their classification in the ICD-11. Both ICD-10 and DSM-IV identify three main classes of phobias: specific ph

  7. 28 CFR 0.101 - Specific functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific functions. 0.101 Section 0.101 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration § 0.101 Specific functions. The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration shall...

  8. 14 CFR 398.3 - Specific airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific airports. 398.3 Section 398.3... STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.3 Specific airports. (a) At an eligible place, essential air service may be specified as service to a particular...

  9. 28 CFR 0.131 - Specific functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific functions. 0.131 Section 0.131 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives § 0.131 Specific functions. The Director of the Bureau of...

  10. Specific vulnerability of substantia nigra compacta neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt, M.P.; Giovanni, G.; Di Matteo, V.; Esposito, E.

    2009-01-01

    The specific loss of substantia nigra compacta (SNc) neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been the main driving force in initiating research efforts to unravel the apparent SNc-specific vulnerability. Initially, metabolic constraints due to high dopamine turnover have been the main focus in the a

  11. Introduction to the ISO specification language LOTOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolognesi, Tomasso; Brinksma, Ed

    1987-01-01

    LOTOS is a specification language that has been specifically developed for the formal description of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) architecture, although it is applicable to distributed, concurrent systems in general. In LOTOS a system is seen as a set of processes which interact and exchan

  12. 14 CFR 23.1397 - Color specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color specifications. 23.1397 Section 23.1397 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Color specifications. Each position light color must have the applicable International Commission...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1397 - Color specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color specifications. 27.1397 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1397 Color specifications. Each position light color must have the applicable International Commission on Illumination...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1397 - Color specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color specifications. 25.1397 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1397 Color specifications. Each position light color must have the applicable International Commission on Illumination...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1397 - Color specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color specifications. 29.1397 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1397 Color specifications. Each position light color must have the applicable International Commission on Illumination...

  16. Tissue Specific Promoters in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Rama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal carcinoma is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. In the most advanced stages, the use of chemotherapy induces a poor response and is usually accompanied by other tissue damage. Significant progress based on suicide gene therapy has demonstrated that it may potentiate the classical cytotoxic effects in colorectal cancer. The inconvenience still rests with the targeting and the specificity efficiency. The main target of gene therapy is to achieve an effective vehicle to hand over therapeutic genes safely into specific cells. One possibility is the use of tumor-specific promoters overexpressed in cancers. They could induce a specific expression of therapeutic genes in a given tumor, increasing their localized activity. Several promoters have been assayed into direct suicide genes to cancer cells. This review discusses the current status of specific tumor-promoters and their great potential in colorectal carcinoma treatment.

  17. Task-specific dystonia: pathophysiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadnicka, Anna; Kassavetis, Panagiotis; Pareés, Isabel; Meppelink, Anne Marthe; Butler, Katherine; Edwards, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Task-specific dystonia is a form of isolated focal dystonia with the peculiarity of being displayed only during performance of a specific skilled motor task. This distinctive feature makes task-specific dystonia a particularly mysterious and fascinating neurological condition. In this review, we cover phenomenology and its increasingly broad-spectrum risk factors for the disease, critically review pathophysiological theories and evaluate current therapeutic options. We conclude by highlighting the unique features of task-specific dystonia within the wider concept of dystonia. We emphasise the central contribution of environmental risk factors, and propose a model by which these triggers may impact on the motor control of skilled movement. By viewing task-specific dystonia through this new lens which considers the disorder a modifiable disorder of motor control, we are optimistic that research will yield novel therapeutic avenues for this highly motivated group of patients.

  18. Fundamental Characteristics of Industrial Variant Specification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the operational task of creating customised variants of industrial specifications (e.g. drawings, routings and bill-of-materials). Rooted in a lack of existing literature on the subject the paper describes the nature of variant specification systems. It introduces some funda...... examples. In general the paper discusses an important focus area within mass customization and build-to-order production: the nature of industrial variant specification systems.......This paper focuses on the operational task of creating customised variants of industrial specifications (e.g. drawings, routings and bill-of-materials). Rooted in a lack of existing literature on the subject the paper describes the nature of variant specification systems. It introduces some...

  19. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report III, Volume 2. Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Report III, Volume 2 contains those specifications numbered K through Y, as follows: Specifications for Compressors (K); Specifications for Piping (L); Specifications for Structures (M); Specifications for Insulation (N); Specifications for Electrical (P); Specifications for Concrete (Q); Specifications for Civil (S); Specifications for Welding (W); Specifications for Painting (X); and Specifications for Special (Y). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available for the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors.

  20. Descending control of nociception: Specificity, recruitment and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinricher, M M; Tavares, I; Leith, J L; Lumb, B M

    2009-04-01

    The dorsal horn of the spinal cord is the location of the first synapse in pain pathways, and as such, offers a very powerful target for regulation of nociceptive transmission by both local segmental and supraspinal mechanisms. Descending control of spinal nociception originates from many brain regions and plays a critical role in determining the experience of both acute and chronic pain. The earlier concept of descending control as an "analgesia system" is now being replaced with a more nuanced model in which pain input is prioritized relative to other competing behavioral needs and homeostatic demands. Descending control arises from a number of supraspinal sites, including the midline periaqueductal gray-rostral ventromedial medulla (PAG-RVM) system, and the more lateral and caudal dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt) and ventrolateral medulla (VLM). Inhibitory control from the PAG-RVM system preferentially suppresses nociceptive inputs mediated by C-fibers, preserving sensory-discriminative information conveyed by more rapidly conducting A-fibers. Analysis of the circuitry within the RVM reveals that the neural basis for bidirectional control from the midline system is two populations of neurons, ON-cells and OFF-cells, that are differentially recruited by higher structures important in fear, illness and psychological stress to enhance or inhibit pain. Dynamic shifts in the balance between pain inhibiting and facilitating outflows from the brainstem play a role in setting the gain of nociceptive processing as dictated by behavioral priorities, but are also likely to contribute to pathological pain states.