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Sample records for caudal cranium causing

  1. A Novel Closed-head Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Caused by Primary Overpressure Blast to the Cranium Produces Sustained Emotional Deficits in Mice

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    Scott A Heldt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional disorders are a common outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (TBI in humans, but their pathophysiological basis is poorly understood. We have developed a mouse model of closed-head blast injury using an air pressure wave delivered to a small area on one side of the cranium, which we have used to create mild TBI. We found that 20-psi blasts in 3-month old C57BL/6 male mice yielded no obvious behavioral or histological evidence of brain injury, while 25-40 psi blasts produced transient anxiety in an open field arena but little histological evidence of brain damage. By contrast, 50-60 psi blasts resulted in anxiety-like behavior in an open field arena that became more evident with time after blast. In additional behavioral tests conducted 2-8 weeks after blast, 50-60 psi mice also demonstrated increased acoustic startle, perseverance of learned fear, and enhanced contextual fear, as well as depression-like behavior and diminished prepulse inhibition. We found no evident cerebral pathology, however, and only scattered axonal degeneration in brain sections from 50-60 psi mice 3-8 weeks after blast. Thus, the TBI caused by single 50-60 psi blasts in mice exhibits the minimal neuronal loss coupled to diffuse axonal injury characteristic of human mild TBI. A reduction in the abundance of a subpopulation of excitatory projection neurons in basolateral amygdala enriched in Thy1 was, however, observed. The reported link of this neuronal population to fear suppression suggests their damage by mild TBI may contribute to the heightened anxiety and fearfulness observed after blast in our mice. Our overpressure air blast model of concussion in mice will enable further studies of the mechanisms underlying the diverse emotional deficits seen after mild TBI.

  2. Pathological alterations in the archaic Homo sapiens cranium from Eliye Springs, Kenya.

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    Bräuer, Günter; Groden, Christoph; Delling, Günter; Kupczik, Kornelius; Mbua, Emma; Schultz, Michael

    2003-02-01

    This paper reports on the results of a first computerized tomography (CT)-based study of the Middle Pleistocene matrix-filled skull KNM-ES 11693 from Eliye Springs at Lake Turkana. Ectocranially, the hominid cranium exhibits a remarkable enlargement of the vault symmetrical to the sagittal suture and a porotic surface covering most of the vault. CT analysis further revealed a strong thickening of the cranial vault as well as other relevant aspects. Differential diagnosis suggests that the changes of the Eliye Springs cranium were probably caused by chronic anemia in the childhood or youth of this individual. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Use of magnetic resonance imaging to identify outcome predictors of caudal epidural steroid injections for lower lumbar radicular pain caused by a herniated disc.

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    Cha, Sung Oh; Jang, Chul Hoon; Hong, Jin Oh; Park, Joon Sang; Park, Jung Hyun

    2014-12-01

    We used lumbar magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings to determine possible outcome predictors of a caudal epidural steroid injection (CESI) for radicular pain caused by a herniated lumbar disc (HLD). Ninety-one patients with radicular pain whose MRI indicated a HLD were enrolled between September 2010 and July 2013. The CESIs were performed using ultrasound (US). A responder was defined as having complete relief or at least a 50% reduction of pain as assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS) and functional status on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ); responder (VAS n=61, RMDQ n=51), and non-responder (VAS n=30, RMDQ n=40). MRI findings were analyzed and compared between the two groups with regard to HLD level, HLD type (protrusion or exclusion), HLD zone (central, subarticular, foraminal, and extraforaminal), HLD volume (mild, moderate, or severe), relationship between HLD and nerve root (no contact, contact, displaced, or compressed), disc height loss (none, less than half, or more than half ), and disc degeneration grade (homogeneous disc structure or inhomogeneous disc structure-clear nucleus and height of intervertebral disc). A centrally located herniated disc was more common in the responder group than that in the non-responder group. Treatment of centrally located herniated discs showed satisfactory results. (VAS p=0.025, RMDQ p=0.040). Other factors, such as HLD level, HLD type, HLD volume, relationship to nerve root, disc height loss, and disc degeneration grade, were not critical. The HLD zone was significant for pain reduction after CESI. A centrally located herniated disc was a predictor of a good clinical outcome.

  4. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

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    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months.......Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  5. Ontogenetic relationships between cranium and mandible in coyotes and hyenas.

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    La Croix, Suzanne; Holekamp, Kay E; Shivik, John A; Lundrigan, Barbara L; Zelditch, Miriam Leah

    2011-06-01

    Developing animals must resolve the conflicting demands of survival and growth, ensuring that they can function as infants or juveniles while developing toward their adult form. In the case of the mammalian skull, the cranium and mandible must maintain functional integrity to meet the feeding needs of a juvenile even as the relationship between parts must change to meet the demands imposed on adults. We examine growth and development of the cranium and mandible, using a unique ontogenetic series of known-age coyotes (Canis latrans), analyzing ontogenetic changes in the shapes of each part, and the relationship between them, relative to key life-history events. Both cranial and mandibular development conform to general mammalian patterns, but each also exhibits temporally and spatially localized maturational transformations, yielding a complex relationship between growth and development of each part as well as complex patterns of synchronous growth and asynchronous development between parts. One major difference between cranium and mandible is that the cranium changes dramatically in both size and shape over ontogeny, whereas the mandible undergoes only modest shape change. Cranium and mandible are synchronous in growth, reaching adult size at the same life-history stage; growth and development are synchronous for the cranium but not for the mandible. This synchrony of growth between cranium and mandible, and asynchrony of mandibular development, is also characteristic of a highly specialized carnivore, the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), but coyotes have a much less protracted development, being handicapped relative to adults for a much shorter time. Morphological development does not predict life-history events in these two carnivores, which is contrary to what has been reported for two rodent species. The changes seen in skull shape in successive life-history stages suggest that adult functional demands cannot be satisfied by the morphology characterizing

  6. Caudal septal deviation.

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    Haack, Jason; Papel, Ira D

    2009-06-01

    The nasal septum is a structure poorly understood and appreciated by the lay public and the nonotolaryngologist--head and neck surgeon alike. Deviation of the caudal portion of the nasal septum may result in nasal obstruction, a crooked nose, and columellar irregularities. The correction of a severely deviated caudal septum is one of the most difficult challenges of the otolaryngologist and facial plastic surgeon. A variety of options are available for correction of mild, to the most severe, deflections. This condition, as with all challenges in medicine, should not be a one size fits all or one surgery fits all situation. The skilled surgeon should understand the multiple options available for surgical correction and tailor fit the procedure to the deformity.

  7. New Middle Pleistocene hominin cranium from Gruta da Aroeira (Portugal).

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    Daura, Joan; Sanz, Montserrat; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Hoffmann, Dirk L; Quam, Rolf M; Ortega, María Cruz; Santos, Elena; Gómez, Sandra; Rubio, Angel; Villaescusa, Lucía; Souto, Pedro; Mauricio, João; Rodrigues, Filipa; Ferreira, Artur; Godinho, Paulo; Trinkaus, Erik; Zilhão, João

    2017-03-28

    The Middle Pleistocene is a crucial time period for studying human evolution in Europe, because it marks the appearance of both fossil hominins ancestral to the later Neandertals and the Acheulean technology. Nevertheless, European sites containing well-dated human remains associated with an Acheulean toolkit remain scarce. The earliest European hominin crania associated with Acheulean handaxes are at the sites of Arago, Atapuerca Sima de los Huesos (SH), and Swanscombe, dating to 400-500 ka (Marine Isotope Stage 11-12). The Atapuerca (SH) fossils and the Swanscombe cranium belong to the Neandertal clade, whereas the Arago hominins have been attributed to an incipient stage of Neandertal evolution, to Homo heidelbergensis , or to a subspecies of Homo erectus A recently discovered cranium (Aroeira 3) from the Gruta da Aroeira (Almonda karst system, Portugal) dating to 390-436 ka provides important evidence on the earliest European Acheulean-bearing hominins. This cranium is represented by most of the right half of a calvarium (with the exception of the missing occipital bone) and a fragmentary right maxilla preserving part of the nasal floor and two fragmentary molars. The combination of traits in the Aroeira 3 cranium augments the previously documented diversity in the European Middle Pleistocene fossil record.

  8. New Middle Pleistocene hominin cranium from Gruta da Aroeira (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daura, Joan; Sanz, Montserrat; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Hoffmann, Dirk L.; Quam, Rolf M.; Ortega, María Cruz; Santos, Elena; Gómez, Sandra; Rubio, Angel; Villaescusa, Lucía; Souto, Pedro; Mauricio, João; Rodrigues, Filipa; Ferreira, Artur; Godinho, Paulo; Trinkaus, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The Middle Pleistocene is a crucial time period for studying human evolution in Europe, because it marks the appearance of both fossil hominins ancestral to the later Neandertals and the Acheulean technology. Nevertheless, European sites containing well-dated human remains associated with an Acheulean toolkit remain scarce. The earliest European hominin crania associated with Acheulean handaxes are at the sites of Arago, Atapuerca Sima de los Huesos (SH), and Swanscombe, dating to 400–500 ka (Marine Isotope Stage 11–12). The Atapuerca (SH) fossils and the Swanscombe cranium belong to the Neandertal clade, whereas the Arago hominins have been attributed to an incipient stage of Neandertal evolution, to Homo heidelbergensis, or to a subspecies of Homo erectus. A recently discovered cranium (Aroeira 3) from the Gruta da Aroeira (Almonda karst system, Portugal) dating to 390–436 ka provides important evidence on the earliest European Acheulean-bearing hominins. This cranium is represented by most of the right half of a calvarium (with the exception of the missing occipital bone) and a fragmentary right maxilla preserving part of the nasal floor and two fragmentary molars. The combination of traits in the Aroeira 3 cranium augments the previously documented diversity in the European Middle Pleistocene fossil record. PMID:28289213

  9. Natural History of Spina Bifida Cystica and Cranium Bifidum Cysticum

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    Laurence, K. M.; Tew, B. J.

    1971-01-01

    The 425 cases of spina bifida cystica and cranium bifidum cysticum born in a population of 850,000 between 1956 and 1962 (with an incidence of 4·12 per 1000 births) were followed. Most did not receive the modern treatment for the condition. Follow-up in 1968 showed that 25% were stillborn, 13% died during the first week of perinatal causes, a further 47% died mostly of the complications of the condition, and 15% are still alive. Life table survival figures suggest for the liveborns a 12·8% life expectancy to the 11th birthday. The series included 18 cases of meningocele (4·2% of the total), diagnosed largely by exclusion; all are surviving and are largely free from physical and mental handicap. 26 cases of encephalocele include 8 survivors who are all retarded but not much crippled. Of the 381 myeloceles, 37 survive who though not much affected mentally are severely handicapped physically with limb paralysis and incontinence, the pattern of which was largely determined by the level of the lesion. There is a close relation between degree of hydrocephalus and severity of mental retardation. Boys surviving show better performance than girls. The incontinent, whether treated or untreated, show no more emotional disturbance than the continent. This series provides a `baseline' allowing modern and surgical treatment to be evaluated. 60% of the total (or 85% of those liveborn) should be regarded as potentially salvageable. Nearly all cases should probably have the `open' lesion closed as a surgical emergency, but thereafter no further procedure should be undertaken on those with severe hydrocephalus, established renal damage, persistent intracranial infection, or severe kyphosis, or if other severe malformations are present. PMID:4930541

  10. Sexual dimorphism in the growth of the cranium.

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    Baughan, B; Demirjian, A

    1978-09-01

    The major sexual dimorphisms in body size appear at puberty but, by then, 95% of the growth of the cranium is completed. As sexual dimorphism in the cranium is as great as for other parts of the body, this suggests that it must appear at an earlier age, and that cranium/body size ratios for the two sexes will vary during growth. Results from a longitudinal study of Montreal children are used to investigate this phenomenon. The effect is expressed quantitatively by proportional growth and growth velocity curves, based on the final size of boys, which show that the dimorphism indeed makes an early appearance. The data are also analyzed on an age scale relative to the ages of peak growth velocity in stature, derived from the individual growth curves. This shows that although there is a minor pubertal spurt in growth for the external cranial dimensions of boys, it contributes relatively little to the final dimorphism in cranial size. To summarize this aspect of growth, an index of cephalization is calculated: head length X head width/stature. Cross-sectional standards for the change of the mean index with age show a linear decline for boys and girls until puberty, with a constant difference between them. After puberty, the index becomes equal in the two sexes. Individual development curves for the index are however not linear.

  11. The caudal septum replacement graft.

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    Foda, Hossam M T

    2008-01-01

    To describe a technique for reconstructing the lost tip support in cases involving caudal septal and premaxillary deficiencies. The study included 120 patients with aesthetic and functional nasal problems resulting from the loss of caudal septal and premaxillary support. An external rhinoplasty approach was performed to reconstruct the lost support using a cartilaginous caudal septum replacement graft and premaxillary augmentation with Mersilene mesh. The majority of cases (75%) involved revisions in patients who had previously undergone 1 or more nasal surgical procedures. A caudal septum replacement graft was combined with premaxillary augmentation in 93 patients (77.5%). The mean follow-up period was 3 years (range, 1-12 years). The technique succeeded in correcting the external nasal deformities in all patients and resulted in a significant improvement in breathing in 74 patients (86%) with preoperative nasal obstruction. There were no cases of infection, displacement, or extrusion. The caudal septum replacement graft proved to be very effective in restoring the lost tip support in patients with caudal septal deficiency. Combining the graft with premaxillary augmentation using Mersilene mesh helped increase support and stability over long-term follow-up.

  12. Reduction of caudal traction force using dural sac opening rather than spinal cord detethering for tethered cord syndrome caused by lipomyelomeningocele: a case report.

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    Murata, Yasuaki; Kanaya, Kohichi; Wada, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Keiji; Shiba, Masahiro; Kato, Yoshiharu

    2014-10-01

    A few reports have addressed tethered cord syndrome. Detethering surgery has been performed in these cases because abnormal tension on the spinal cord causes neurologic and urologic symptoms. To discuss the surgical treatment of tethered cord syndrome with the belief that the tension on the cord can be decreased by shifting tethered cord to the dorsal side. A patient with tethered cord syndrome was surgically treated by shifting the tethered cord to the dorsal side by harnessing the lumbar lordosis instead of detethering. We performed surgery to shift the tethered cord to the dorsal side by harnessing the lumbar lordosis to decrease the tension on the spinal cord. The tethered cord that was pressed to the ventral side because of a lipoma was shifted dorsally by laminectomy and opening of the dural sac. Pain and numbness were alleviated immediately after surgery. The method used in the present case, that is, shifting the tethered cord and lipoma to the dorsal side by harnessing the lumbar lordosis instead of detethering, is a viable treatment option for tethered cord syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. CT differential diagnosis of tumour of the cranium with intracranial spread - a case report

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    Trittmacher, S.; Purmann, H.; Schmid, A.

    1988-01-01

    A report on patient presenting in the cranial computer tomogram with changes in the cranium in the left temporal region typical of a meningioma, as well as with changes in the floor of the middle cranial fossa. Correct diagnosis was obtained only by the overall assessment comprising anamnesis, laboratory findings and state of the skeletal structure: namely, a plasmacytoma involving the calotte of the cranium.

  14. Caudal bupivacaine supplemented with caudal or intravenous clonidine in children undergoing hypospadias repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Henneberg, Steen Winther; Walther-Larsen, Søren

    2004-01-01

    Clonidine is used increasingly in paediatric anaesthetic practice to prolong the duration of action of caudal block with a local anaesthetic agent. Which route of administration of clonidine is the most beneficial remains unknown. We compared the effects of caudal and i.v. clonidine on postoperat...... on postoperative analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine after hypospadias repair....

  15. Aguas de un mismo caudal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Borges, creía que “el periodismo distorsiona la mentalidad del escritor”, el autor de este artículo, plantea en cambio que son “aguas de un mismo caudal, que muy a menudo viajan juntas”, varias han sido, y son, las concepciones que han expuesto célebres protagonistas de estos dos hechos escriturales a favor y en contra del ejercicio del periodismo para mejorar o perjudicar al escritor. El aparente divorcio entre literatura y periodismo radica cabalmente en el intento equivocado de separarlos. En verdad son lo mismo y bien podríamos clasificar al periodismo como un género dentro de la literatura.

  16. A new persistent suture technique for correction of caudal septal dislocation.

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    Batioglu-Karaaltin, Aysegul; Yigit, Ozgur; Donmez, Zehra

    2014-11-01

    Caudal septal dislocation is both a functional and an aesthetic problem. The caudal septum that causes nasal obstruction displaces the right or left of columella. Despite the various maneuvers currently available for treatment, this issue is still controversial. We describe a new technique that uses a nonabsorbable suture material to keep the septum in the midline in mild and moderate caudal septal dislocations and can be used in addition to other current techniques. A full-length (lengthways) pocket is opened between the medial cruras, and the dislocated caudal septum is placed in it and then fixed to the soft tissue in the region of columella under the skin by a nonabsorbable suture. It is used as a complementary technique for both the swinging door and the Goldman technique. This technique prevents redeviation in the same direction, especially in the superior portion of the caudal end, due to the memory of cartilage tissue. It will therefore reduce revision rates.

  17. MORPHOMETRIC INDICATORS OF AN ORBIT AT ADULTS IN CONNECTION WITH TYPES OF CRANIUM

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    S. O. Dubyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The norm of morphometric indicators of bone structures of an orbit for population of 96 people at the age of 48,6 ± 3,2 years without pathology of craniofacial area is established by method of a computer tomography. Means, confidence intervals (р = 0,05, correlation and reliability of distinctions in morphometric indicators of a skull and an orbit by groups on types of cranium are defined. In frequency distribution of the studied population by types of cranium brachiocephalic people are 63 %, dolichocephalic – 27% and mesocephalic – 10 %. In groups by types of cranium among linear indicators of an orbit length of a medial wall statistically reliable decreases from dolichocephals to brachiocephals, length of lateral wall, orbital floor and roof and also orbital breadth – from mesocephals to brachiocephals. Orbital height between groups’ types of cranium reliable does not differ. An angle between medial and lateral walls of orbit statistically reliable increases from dolichocephalic persons to brachiocephalic. The interrelation of changes of an angle of orbital entrance inclination and types of cranium is not observed. The number of statistically significant correlations between morphometric indicators of an orbit increases from dolichocephals to brachiocephals at the absence of a reliable difference between them. Average degree correlation is noted only between orbital breadth and lengths of medial wall and orbital floor; orbital depth and lengths of the orbital floor and roof; between lengths of the orbital floor and roof – at brachiocephals, and also between lengths of the orbital floor and roof – at dolichocephals and mesocephals. The conclusion is drawn that when planning reconstructive operations at bone structures of an orbit it is necessary to consider the available distinctions in length of lateral wall, orbital roof and floor, height and breadth and value of an angle between medial and lateral walls by types of cranium.

  18. Delayed occurrence of spinal arachnoiditis following a caudal block.

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    Na, Eun Hye; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2011-11-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis is a rare disease caused by fibrosis and adhesion of the arachnoid membrane due to chronic inflammation. The causes of arachnoiditis are infection, spinal surgery, intraspinal injection of steroid or myelography dye, and spinal anesthesia. Case report. A 60-year-old woman presented with progressive weakness and sensory change of both legs and urinary symptoms. She had received a single caudal block 6 months before symptom onset. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoraco-lumbar spine showed an intradural extramedullary tumor at the T5-T7 level. She underwent laminectomy and tumor resection. The pathological finding was arachnoiditis. After surgery, a rehabilitation program of strengthening exercises of both lower extremities and gait training was started. At 2-month follow-up, she was able to walk with orthoses and performed daily activities with minimal assistance. Symptoms of spinal arachnoiditis occurred 6 months after a single caudal block in this woman. Clinicians should be aware of this possible delayed complication.

  19. A case of cranium bifidum with meningocele in Ayrshire calf.

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    Kisipan, Mosiany Letura; Orenge, Caleb Oburu; Gacheru, David Njogu; Ngure, Raphael Muchangi

    2017-01-13

    Congenital cranial bone defects predispose to herniation of meninges, sometimes with brain tissue involvement, to form a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled cyst in the head. Such defects mainly results from focal failure of neural tube closure during fetal development and has been reported in various species of domestic mammals. A one week old Ayrshire calf with a fluctuant swelling on parieto-occipital region of the head was referred to the faculty. The calf was always lying on lateral recumbency and exhibited resistance to deep palpation around the swelling and neck flexion. Embedded to the midline of the dorso-caudal surface of the cyst's wall was a hard longitudinally oriented structure. The case was diagnosed as meningocele by means of radiographic examination. As the likelihood to full recovery was greatly reduced due to the negative impact already meted on brain tissue by intracranial pressure, the calf was euthanized on grounds of animal welfare and the diagnosis confirmed by anatomopathological findings which also revealed a circular bone defect in parieto-occipital region of the skull vault and a flattened bony structure embedded to the cyst's wall. Anatomopathological findings confirmed the diagnosis as cranial bifidum with meningocele at the parieto-occipital region of the skull vault. The presence of a bony structure embedded to the wall of meningeal sac was rather unusual and could not be sufficiently explained. It was however thought to, most likely, represent a part of interparietal bone that failed to get incorporated into squamous part of occipital bone as a result of the defect. The report also highlights challenges that work against timely delivery of urgent veterinary interventions in rural set ups of Africa and rest of the developing world, often leaving veterinarians with animal welfare consideration as main determinant of intervention measures.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: caudal regression syndrome

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    ... 2013 Sep 7. Citation on PubMed Thottungal AD, Charles AK, Dickinson JE, Bower C. Caudal dysgenesis and ... Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Rare Disease Day 2018 Darwin Day 2018 February is Age-related Macular Degeneration ...

  1. Morphological variation of the caudal fossa of domestic cat skulls assessed with computed tomography and geometric morphometrics analysis.

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    Gordon, Caroline R; Marchant, Thomas W; Lodzinska, Joanna; Schoenebeck, Jeffery J; Schwarz, Tobias

    2017-09-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate differences and demonstrate a normal range of morphological variation of the caudal fossa of the cranium of domestic cats. Methods CT scans of 32 domestic cat heads of 11 breeds were included. Isosurfaces from skulls were characterised through three-dimensional geometric morphometrics using geographical landmarks placed on the internal surface of the caudal fossa and foramen magnum. Raw data was transformed with a Procrustes fit and coordinate covariance was analysed by principal components to establish breed- and sex-level differences. Skulls were also classified according to the number of concavities along the mid-sagittal vermiform impression. Differences were investigated between breed groups and sex, and correlation was sought with age. Results Analyses revealed size-independent differences in occipital bone morphology across breeds and sex; however, no clustering was evident. Most variability was observed at the exoccipital bones, ventral portion of the supraoccipital bone, dorsum sellae of the basisphenoid and the osseous tentorium cerebelli. No statistically significant differences were identified via two-sample t-tests between breed groups or sexes. No statistically significant correlation using Spearman rho correlation coefficient was identified with age. Conclusions and relevance The feline caudal fossa displays a wide range of intra- and inter-breed variation, not linked to age or sex. Concavities along the vermiform impression have not previously been described. As advanced imaging modalities are becoming more frequently used for domestic felids, an established range of normality is important for discriminating pathological changes from anatomical variances.

  2. Caudal Fossa Ratio in Normal Dogs and Eurasier Dogs with VLDLR-Associated Genetic Cerebellar Hypoplasia

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    Alexander Lauda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar and hindbrain malformations, such as cerebellar hypoplasia (CH, vermis hypoplasia, and Dandy–Walker malformation, occur in dogs as well as in humans. Neuroimaging is essential for a precise description of these malformations and defining translational animal models. Neuroimaging is increasingly performed in puppies, but there is a lack of data on developmental changes in the caudal fossa, which can impair assessment of caudal fossa size in this age group. The purpose of this study was to validate caudal fossa ratio (CFR in dogs and to explore CFR in Eurasier dogs with genetic CH. CFR was calculated from midsagittal brain images of 130 dogs as caudal fossa area/total cranial cavity area. In addition, the volume of the caudal fossa was measured in 64 randomly selected dogs from this group. Repeated measurements were used to investigate inter- and intra-rater variability and influence of imaging modality. Furthermore, the influence of age, weight, and breed was explored. The CFR was a reliable parameter with negligible influence from the examiners, imaging modality, and weight of the dog. The midsagittal area of the caudal fossa and the volume of the caudal fossa correlated closely with each other. In this study, we observed a smaller CFR in puppies. The CFR in adult dogs lies within 0.255 and 0.330, while CFR is smaller in puppies up to 4 months of age. Besides age, there was also an effect of breed, which should be explored in larger data sets. Measurements of CFR in Eurasier dogs with genetic CH caused by a mutation in the very-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor gene revealed the presence of two variants, one with an enlarged caudal fossa and one with a normal to small caudal fossa. This observation indicates that there is phenotypic heterogeneity and interaction between the developing cerebellum and the surrounding mesenchyme in this animal model.

  3. Discordant lumbar epidural hematoma after caudal steroid injection: A case report (CARE-compliant).

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    Choi, Jung Ju; Chang, Young Jin; Jung, Wol Seon; Lee, Kyung Cheon; Kim, Ju Ho; Jo, Youn Yi

    2017-06-01

    Caudal epidural injection is one of the conventional treatments of chronic back pain. Even though spinal epidural hematoma after caudal epidural injection is rare but it can cause serious neurologic complication. An 83-year-old woman taking cilostazol received caudal epidural steroid injection because of her chronic back pain. Six hours later, she experienced an acute hip pain which worsened with time. Magnetic resonance image showed acute cord compression due to a spinal epidural hematoma at L2-S1 level with concomitant central canal compromise at L2/3, L3/4 level. Emergency decompressive laminectomy and evacuation of the lumbar epidural hematoma were performed. All of her symptoms were resolved over the 72 hours following surgery. Continuous vigilance after caudal epidural injection is important to prevent catastrophic neurologic deterioration with early detection and early treatment.

  4. Craniosynostosis in the Middle Pleistocene human Cranium 14 from the Sima de los Huesos, Atapuerca, Spain.

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    Gracia, Ana; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Martínez, Ignacio; Lorenzo, Carlos; Carretero, José Miguel; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2009-04-21

    We report here a previously undescribed human Middle Pleistocene immature specimen, Cranium 14, recovered at the Sima de los Huesos (SH) site (Atapuerca, Spain), that constitutes the oldest evidence in human evolution of a very rare pathology in our own species, lambdoid single suture craniosynostosis (SSC). Both the ecto- and endo-cranial deformities observed in this specimen are severe. All of the evidence points out that this severity implies that the SSC occurred before birth, and that facial asymmetries, as well as motor/cognitive disorders, were likely to be associated with this condition. The analysis of the present etiological data of this specimen lead us to consider that Cranium 14 is a case of isolated SSC, probably of traumatic origin. The existence of this pathological individual among the SH sample represents also a fact to take into account when referring to sociobiological behavior in Middle Pleistocene humans.

  5. Craniosynostosis in the Middle Pleistocene human Cranium 14 from the Sima de los Huesos, Atapuerca, Spain

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    Gracia, Ana; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Martínez, Ignacio; Lorenzo, Carlos; Carretero, José Miguel; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2009-01-01

    We report here a previously undescribed human Middle Pleistocene immature specimen, Cranium 14, recovered at the Sima de los Huesos (SH) site (Atapuerca, Spain), that constitutes the oldest evidence in human evolution of a very rare pathology in our own species, lambdoid single suture craniosynostosis (SSC). Both the ecto- and endo-cranial deformities observed in this specimen are severe. All of the evidence points out that this severity implies that the SSC occurred before birth, and that facial asymmetries, as well as motor/cognitive disorders, were likely to be associated with this condition. The analysis of the present etiological data of this specimen lead us to consider that Cranium 14 is a case of isolated SSC, probably of traumatic origin. The existence of this pathological individual among the SH sample represents also a fact to take into account when referring to sociobiological behavior in Middle Pleistocene humans. PMID:19332773

  6. Prospective Randomized Controlled Comparison of Caudal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bupivacaine and ropivacaine are commonly used agents for caudal anesthesia in pediatric patients. Several studies have shown different motor and cardiovascular effects of two drugs. Aim: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of both drugs and secondary objective was to compare ...

  7. Operaciones de Flujo de Fluidos. Tema 5: Medida de caudales

    OpenAIRE

    Salcedo Díaz, Raquel

    2011-01-01

    Apuntes del tema 5. Medida de caudales. En este tema se resumen las principales características de los medidores de caudal, analizando de manera especial los que basan su medida en diferencias de presión.

  8. New insights into the phenotypic covariance structure of the anthropoid cranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedonska, Jana

    2014-01-01

    In complex organisms, suites of non-random, highly intercorrelated phenotypic traits, organized according to their developmental history and forming semi-autonomous units (i.e. modules), have the potential to impose constraints on morphological diversification or to improve evolvability. Because of its structural, developmental and functional complexity, the cranium is arguably one of the best models for studying the interplay between developmental history and the need for various parts of a structure to specialize in different functions. This study evaluated the significance of two specific types of developmental imprints in the adult anthropoid cranium, those imposed by ossification pattern (i.e. ossification with and without a pre-existing cartilaginous phase) and those imposed by tissue origin (i.e. tissues derived principally from neural-crest vs. those derived from paraxial mesoderm). Specifically, this study tests the hypothesis that the face and the basicranium form two distinct modules with higher within-unit trait integration magnitudes compared with the cranium as a whole. Data on 12 anthropoid primate species were collected in the form of 23-dimensional landmarks digitized on cranial surface models that sample the basicranium as well as regions of functional importance during feeding. The presence of a significant modularity imprint in the adult cranium was assessed using a between-region within-species comparison of multivariate correlations (RV coefficients) obtained with partial least-squares, using within-module within-species eigenvalue variance (EV), and using cluster analyses and non-metric multidimensional scaling. In addition to addressing the validity of the cranial modularity hypothesis in anthropoids, this study addressed methodological aspects of the interspecific comparison of morphological integration, namely the effect of sample size and the effect of landmark number on integration magnitudes. Two methodological findings that are of

  9. Caudal articular process dysplasia of thoracic vertebrae in neurologically normal French bulldogs, English bulldogs, and Pugs: Prevalence and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Simon; Ter Haar, Gert; De Decker, Steven

    2018-02-20

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical characteristics of thoracic caudal articular process dysplasia in French bulldogs, English bulldogs and Pugs presenting for problems unrelated to spinal disease. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, computed tomography scans of the thoracic vertebral column of these three breeds were reviewed for the presence and location of caudal articular process hypoplasia and aplasia, and compared between breeds. A total of 271 dogs met the inclusion criteria: 108 French bulldogs, 63 English bulldogs, and 100 Pugs. A total of 70.4% of French bulldogs, 84.1% of English bulldogs, and 97.0% of Pugs showed evidence of caudal articular process dysplasia. Compared to French and English bulldogs, Pugs showed a significantly higher prevalence of caudal articular process aplasia, but also a lower prevalence of caudal articular process hypoplasia, a higher number of affected vertebrae per dog and demonstrated a generalized and bilateral spatial pattern more frequently. Furthermore, Pugs showed a significantly different anatomical distribution of caudal articular process dysplasia along the vertebral column, with a high prevalence of caudal articular process aplasia between T10 and T13. This area was almost completely spared in French and English bulldogs. As previously suggested, caudal articular process dysplasia is a common finding in neurologically normal Pugs but this also seems to apply to French and English bulldogs. The predisposition of clinically relevant caudal articular process dysplasia in Pugs is possibly not only caused by the higher prevalence of caudal articular process dysplasia, but also by breed specific anatomical characteristics. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  10. Caudal bupivacaine supplemented with caudal or intravenous clonidine in children undergoing hypospadias repair: a double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T G; Henneberg, S W; Walther-Larsen, S

    2004-01-01

    Clonidine is used increasingly in paediatric anaesthetic practice to prolong the duration of action of caudal block with a local anaesthetic agent. Which route of administration of clonidine is the most beneficial remains unknown. We compared the effects of caudal and i.v. clonidine on postoperat...... on postoperative analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine after hypospadias repair....

  11. In utero diagnosis of caudal regression syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Negrete, BS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of caudal regression syndrome (CRS, a relatively uncommon defect of the lower spine accompanied by a wide range of developmental abnormalities. CRS is closely associated with pregestational diabetes and is nearly 200 times more prevalent in infants of diabetic mothers (1, 2. We report a case of prenatally suspected CRS in a fetus of a nondiabetic mother and discuss how the initial neurological abnormalities found on imaging correlate with the postnatal clinical deficits.

  12. Somatostatin in the caudal spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of somatostatin in the rat spinal cord was studied immunohistochemically with particular reference to the localization in the caudal centers that innervate the pelvic organs. For detailed studies of the laminar distribution of somatostatin the combination of immunohistochemistry...... and acetylcholinesterase enzyme histochemistry was employed. Deafferentation experiments were carried out to shed light on the origin of the somatostatin-containing axons. These experiments showed that the bulk of the spinal somatostatin has a spinal origin. The structures showing somatostatin immunoreactivity formed...

  13. [Caudal regression syndrome--two case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokrdová, Z; Pavlíková, J

    2008-01-01

    The authors demonstrate two cases of caudal regression syndrome (CRS), a rare malformative syndrom, seen mainly in cases of maternal diabetes with poor metabolic control. Case report. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Medicine Regional Hospital Pardubice. The caudal regression syndrome (CRS) was revealed in two women with praegestational diabetes. The diagnosis was made at 18 and 20 weeks. The characteristic ultrasound findings include abrupt interruption of the spine and abnormal position of the lower limbs. The femur bones are fixed in a "V" pattern, giving a typical "Buddha's poise". A complete examination must be conducted for possible urinary and intestinal malformations. The mechanism leading to malformation is discussed in the article. To prevent pregnancy at the time of bad controlled diabetes is the only way to minimaze the risk of producing a congenitally malformed baby including caudal regression syndrom in the population of diabetic mothers. Family planning and supervision by the specialists is always advisable. Early diagnosis of CRS is possible using vaginal ultrasound. Emphasis is placed on the association of abrupt disruption of dorsal or lumbar spine and abnormal images of the lower limbs fixed in a,,V" formation, which is characteristic sign of CRS.

  14. Unusual caudal vena cava thrombosis in a cow, secondary to Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Garcia Motta

    Full Text Available Abstract: The caudal vena cava thrombosis, or pulmonary thromboembolism, in cattle is correlated with lactic acidosis, caused by diets rich in grains and highly fermentable, associated or not to septic situations, used in feedlots of beef or high-producing dairy cattle. This paper reports an unusual caudal vena cava thrombosis in a cow, secondary to Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes infection, resulting in reduced milk production, anorexia, pale mucous membranes, ruminal atony, sternal decubitus and autoauscultation position. The heart was enlarged at necropsy, presence of clots distributed along the thoracic cavity, adherence between lung and pleura, abscesses, emphysema, petechiae, suffusions and ecchymosis in lungs, thickening of the caudal vena cava wall, hepatomegaly with chronic passive congestion ("nutmeg" aspect, and rumenitis. In lab, the actinomycete Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from liver and lung samples, probably resulting through dissemination of the bacteria of the rumen content, what reaffirms the opportunistic behavior of this actinomycete.

  15. A large male hominin cranium from Sterkfontein, South Africa, and the status of Australopithecus africanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, C A; Tobias, P V

    1999-06-01

    Stw 505 is the most complete hominin cranium discovered in Sterkfontein Member 4 since Broom's excavations. It was found in situ in Member 4 breccia in 1989 and is larger, on the whole, than any other cranium from Sterkfontein that has comparable parts. Displacement due to breakage, as well as plastic deformation, has affected Stw 505 in several areas, especially the face and the vault. Diagnosticmorphology is nevertheless abundant in the specimen. In several areas-the distinct anterior pillar, the straight inferior border of the zygoma, the pattern of cresting on the naso-alveolar clivus, the basal aspect of the temporal bone-Stw 505 closely matches the morphology of specimens of Australopithecus africanus and is distinct from other hominins. Some isolated characters overlap with other groups, mainly early Homo and/or A. robustus. However, only the hypodigm of A. africanus can accommodate the entire suite of morphology.In some cases, Stw 505 introduces more variation into the Sterkfontein sample. For example, prominent superciliary eminences occupy the medial portions of the supraorbital region and flow medially into a strongly protruding glabellar mound. These characteristics are probably attributable to sexual dimorphism. In many respects, Stw 505 highlights similarities between A. africanus and early Homo. Comparison with other species suggests that males of A. africanus do not show derived features of A. robustus that are not also present in females, and that cranial differences between A. afarensis and A. africanus have, if anything, been understated. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  16. Finite-element simulation of firearm injury to the human cranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, A.; Klug, W. S.; Ortiz, M.; Pandolfi, A.

    An advanced physics-based simulation of firearms injury to the human cranium is presented, modeling by finite elements the collision of a firearm projectile into a human parietal bone. The space-discretized equations of motion are explicitly integrated in time with Newmark's time-stepping algorithm. The impact of the projectile on the skull, as well as the collisions between flying fragments, are controlled through a nonsmooth contact algorithm. Cohesive theories of fracture, in conjunction with adaptive remeshing, control the nucleation and the propagation of fractures. The progressive opening of fracture surfaces is governed by a thermodynamically irreversible cohesive law embedded into cohesive-interface elements. Numerical results compare well with forensic data of actual firearm wounds to human crania.

  17. Tissue Modeling and Analyzing with Finite Element Method: A Review for Cranium Brain Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xianfang; Wang, Li; Wang, Ruonan

    2013-01-01

    For the structure mechanics of human body, it is almost impossible to conduct mechanical experiments. Then the finite element model to simulate mechanical experiments has become an effective tool. By introducing several common methods for constructing a 3D model of cranial cavity, this paper carries out systematically the research on the influence law of cranial cavity deformation. By introducing the new concepts and theory to develop the 3D cranial cavity model with the finite-element method, the cranial cavity deformation process with the changing ICP can be made the proper description and reasonable explanation. It can provide reference for getting cranium biomechanical model quickly and efficiently and lay the foundation for further biomechanical experiments and clinical applications. PMID:23476630

  18. Tissue Modeling and Analyzing with Finite Element Method: A Review for Cranium Brain Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfang Yue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For the structure mechanics of human body, it is almost impossible to conduct mechanical experiments. Then the finite element model to simulate mechanical experiments has become an effective tool. By introducing several common methods for constructing a 3D model of cranial cavity, this paper carries out systematically the research on the influence law of cranial cavity deformation. By introducing the new concepts and theory to develop the 3D cranial cavity model with the finite-element method, the cranial cavity deformation process with the changing ICP can be made the proper description and reasonable explanation. It can provide reference for getting cranium biomechanical model quickly and efficiently and lay the foundation for further biomechanical experiments and clinical applications.

  19. Morphometric measurements of the cranium in congenital bilateral blind males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengin Kosif

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cranium dimensions differ according to racial, geopraphic, ethnic and nutritional factors. This study will shed light on the question “Is there a difference in the cranial distances measured between congenital bilateral blind people and healthy individuals?” Nine anthropometric measures were performed on the brain MRI midsagittally obtained from male and female congenital bilateral blinds. The anthropometric measures taken included the glabella-opisthocranion, nasion-dorsum sellae, dorsum sellae-opisthocranion, nasion-basion, nasion-opisthion, basion-opisthion, prosthion-basion, basion-vertex and the clival angle. In addition, the supratentorial and infratentorial areas were calculated. Glabella-opisthocranion, nasion-dorsum sellae, nasion-basion, prosthion-basion and clival angle were found to be smaller in the congenital bilateral blind females compared to the healthy group, but these results were not statistically significant. Whereas, other measures out of the basion-opisthion were found to be smaller in the congenital bilateral blind males than in the healthy subjects. Of these results, the distance between glabella-opisthocranion, nasion-dorsum sellae and nasion-basion was significantly smaller compared to the measurements taken from the healthy male group. The infratentorial area was significantly smaller in congenital blind male subjects and the supratentorial area was significantly larger in congenital blind female subjects. This study has revealed that the cranium dimensions of congenital blind people are to different from normal individuals. The most significant difference was in the distance of the nasion-dorsum sellae. The region anterior to the basion and dorsum sellae was prominently smaller. The infratentorial area was significantly smaller in congenital blind male subjects and the supratentorial area was significantly larger in congenital blind female subjects.

  20. Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Prasad Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting revealed pigeon chest and elevated right shoulder. Posterior examination of the trunk showed thoracic scoliosis with convexity to right. The patient was operated and at 1 year followup the boy had two separate legs with a good aesthetic and functional results.

  1. The management of postoperative pain in children with caudal blocks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pre-emptive analgesic effect and duration of postoperative analgesia after caudal blocks in children. Method: Forty-five children undergoing distal hypospadias surgery were assigned to group 1 (n = 23), and received caudal 0.25% bupivacaine 0.5 mg/kg and ...

  2. Caudal bupivacaine supplemented with caudal or intravenous clonidine in children undergoing hypospadias repair: a double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T G; Henneberg, S W; Walther-Larsen, S

    2004-01-01

    Clonidine is used increasingly in paediatric anaesthetic practice to prolong the duration of action of caudal block with a local anaesthetic agent. Which route of administration of clonidine is the most beneficial remains unknown. We compared the effects of caudal and i.v. clonidine on postoperat...

  3. Holoprosencephaly with caudal dysplasia. Pseudo-trisomy 13 or a distinct entity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, R.P.B.; Aylsworth, A.S. [Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Durham, NC (United States); Timmons, M.C. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We have studied three chromosomally normal patients with multiple anomalies that include holoprosencephaly and caudal dysplasia. Each has features found in patients with pseudo-trisomy 13, though each lacks malformations common in that syndrome. Patients 1 and 2 did not have polydactyly and patients 2 and 3 had no congenital heart malformation. Patient 1 is also unusual in that he does not have typical holoprosencephalic facies and is alive at age 25 months. We have also identified two other similar patients in the London Dysmorphology Database, each of which had holoprosencephaly, congenital heart malformation, and imperforate anus. Isolated caudal dysplasia and holoprosencephaly are both causally heterogeneous. They have been reported together rarely in patients with several different syndromes including chromosomal abnormalities, monogenic syndromes, teratogenic insults, and syndromes of unknown cause. Over thirty cases of {open_quotes}pseudo-trisomy 13{close_quotes} have now been reported and eight of these have had features of caudal dysplasia. There have been four with imperforate anus or anal stenosis, one with lumbosacral vertebral anomaly, and three others with bilateral renal agenesis or hypoplasia. Based on our patients and this review of other reported and unreported cases, we suggest that caudal dysplasia may be a significant clinical feature of pseudo-trisomy 13. Alternatively, holoprosencephaly and caudal dysplasia with a normal karyotype may represent a similar though distinct entity. Some may have submicroscopic chromosomal deletions. Molecular studies of regions known to be associated with holoprosencephaly are currently in progress on tissue from Patient 1. We hope these observations will stimulate reports of similarly affected patients to allow better definition of pseudo-trisomy 13 and other overlap syndromes.

  4. Virtual reconstruction and morphological analysis of the cranium of an ancient Egyptian mummy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S; Wright, R; Barry, M

    2005-06-01

    A mummy of an Egyptian priestess dating from the 22nd dynasty (c. 770 BC), completely enclosed in an anthropoid (human shaped) coffin, was scanned on a CT scanner. An accurate reconstruction of the cranium was generated from 115 x 2 mm CT images using AVS/Express on a SGI computer. Linear measurements were obtained from six orthogonal cranial views and used in a morphometric analysis software package (CRANID). The analyses carried out were both linear and nearest neighbour discriminant analysis. The results show that there is a 52.9% probability that the mummy is an Egyptian female, with a 24.5% probability that the mummy is an African female. Thus the technique confirms that the coffin contains an Egyptian female, which is consistent with the inscription on the coffin and the shape of the pelvic bones as revealed by plain X-rays. These results show that this technique has potential for analysing forensic cases where the bones are obscured by soft tissue and clothing. This technique may have an application in virtual autopsies.

  5. The stem species of our species: a place for the archaic human cranium from Ceprano, Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Mounier

    Full Text Available One of the present challenges in the study of human evolution is to recognize the hominin taxon that was ancestral to Homo sapiens. Some researchers regard H. heidelbergensis as the stem species involved in the evolutionary divergence leading to the emergence of H. sapiens in Africa, and to the evolution of the Neandertals in Europe. Nevertheless, the diagnosis and hypodigm of H. heidelbergensis still remain to be clarified. Here we evaluate the morphology of the incomplete cranium (calvarium known as Ceprano whose age has been recently revised to the mid of the Middle Pleistocene, so as to test whether this specimen may be included in H. heidelbergensis. The analyses were performed according to a phenetic routine including geometric morphometrics and the evaluation of diagnostic discrete traits. The results strongly support the uniqueness of H. heidelbergensis on a wide geographical horizon, including both Eurasia and Africa. In this framework, the Ceprano calvarium--with its peculiar combination of archaic and derived traits--may represent, better than other penecontemporaneous specimens, an appropriate ancestral stock of this species, preceding the appearance of regional autapomorphic features.

  6. {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone uptake in secondary hyperparathyroidism: comparison among mandible, cranium, radius and femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boasquevisque, Edson; Silva, Jorge Wagner Esteves da; Bernardo, Vanessa V. de Albuquerque; Macedo, Sara Mello Santana de; Boasquevisque, Camila S.

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Objective: Evaluating bone involvement in secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) by {sup 99m}Tc-MDP uptake in the mandible, cranium, radius and femur and with data correlation with PTHi serum (Intact Parathyroid Hormone). Materials and Methods: In a prospective study of 54 patients with SHPT due to chronic renal disease and 15 normal individuals (control group), all patients had elevated serum PTHi, concentration and positive {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Bone uptake measurements were carried out drawing regions-of-interest (ROI) on the mandible, posterior cranium, distal radius and proximal femur. Additionally, soft tissue uptake was measured with one region-of-interest on the internal tight soft tissue (BG). The ROI-BG ratio used as the index of normalized bone uptake. Results: The uptake differences from SHPT and control groups mainly for mandible (p = 0,001) and cranium (p = 0,002) were statistically significant, even when the SHPT groups were separated according to serum PTHi levels. There was increased bone uptake with the increased levels of PTHi serum. All of the mandibles of the SHPT patients were abnormal with 33% having focal lesions. Conclusions: The bone uptake in SHPT group was abnormal in all areas evaluated, with high uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP correlated to the increase of PTHi serum concentration. (author)

  7. Traction suture modification to tongue-in-groove caudal septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indeyeva, Y A; Lee, T S; Gordin, E; Chan, D; Ducic, Y

    2018-02-01

    Caudal septal deviation leads to unfavorable esthetic as well as functional effects on the nasal airway. A modification to the tongue-in-groove (TIG) technique to correct these caudal septal deformities is described. With placement of a temporary suspension suture to the caudal septum, manual traction is applied, assuring that the caudal septum remains in the midline position while it is being secured with multiple through-and-through, trans-columellar and trans-septal sutures. From 2003 to 2016, 148 patients underwent endonasal septoplasty using this modified technique, with excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes and a revision rate of 1.4%. This modified TIG technique replaces the periosteal suture that secures the caudal septum to the midline nasal crest in the original TIG technique. This simplifies the procedure and minimizes the risk of securing the caudal septum off-midline when used in endonasal septoplasty. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Validation experiments on finite element models of an ostrich (Struthio camelus cranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Cuff

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The first finite element (FE validation of a complete avian cranium was performed on an extant palaeognath, the ostrich (Struthio camelus. Ex-vivo strains were collected from the cranial bone and rhamphotheca. These experimental strains were then compared to convergence tested, specimen-specific finite element (FE models. The FE models contained segmented cortical and trabecular bone, sutures and the keratinous rhamphotheca as identified from micro-CT scan data. Each of these individual materials was assigned isotropic material properties either from the literature or from nanoindentation, and the FE models compared to the ex-vivo results. The FE models generally replicate the location of peak strains and reflect the correct mode of deformation in the rostral region. The models are too stiff in regions of experimentally recorded high strain and too elastic in regions of low experimentally recorded low strain. The mode of deformation in the low strain neurocranial region is not replicated by the FE models, and although the models replicate strain orientations to within 10° in some regions, in most regions the correlation is not strong. Cranial sutures, as has previously been found in other taxa, are important for modifying both strain magnitude and strain patterns across the entire skull, but especially between opposing the sutural junctions. Experimentally, we find that the strains on the surface of the rhamphotheca are much lower than those found on nearby bone. The FE models produce much higher principal strains despite similar strain ratios across the entirety of the rhamphotheca. This study emphasises the importance of attempting to validate FE models, modelling sutures and rhamphothecae in birds, and shows that whilst location of peak strain and patterns of deformation can be modelled, replicating experimental data in digital models of avian crania remains problematic.

  9. ORIGEM E RAMIFICAÇÕES DAS ARTÉRIAS MESENTÉRICAS CRANIAL E CAUDAL DO CÁGADO – DE- BARBICHA Phrynops geoffroanus (TESTUDINES; CHELIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA MACEDO MAGNINO SILVA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the origin and branching of the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries in geoffroy's side-necked turtle and to provide support on medical and surgical procedures. Five turtles from the Phrynops geoffroanus specie, from the Laboratory ofResearch in Wild Animals, which died of natural causes were used. The aorta artery was cannulated and filled with synthetic latex, and the plastron was removed to visualize the turtles´internal structures. The cranial mesenteric artery arises from the aorta and it branches into jejunal artery, ileocolic artery and caudal pancreaticoduodenal artery. The caudal mesenteric artery divides into two branches, a cranial one and a caudal one, and it also has its origin in aorta artery. The cranial branch structure binds itself to the ileocolic artery on the dorsal surface of the colon-rectum.

  10. Modulatory effects of probenecid on the nitroglycerin-induced changes in the rat caudal trigeminal nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamos, Eniko; Pardutz, Arpad; Fejes, Annamaria; Tajti, Janos; Toldi, Jozsef; Vecsei, Laszlo

    2009-10-25

    Four hours after systemic administration of the nitric oxide donor nitroglycerin (10 mg/kg bodyweight, s.c.), the neurons of the rat caudal trigeminal nucleus are activated, the area covered by calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive fibres is decreased and the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)- and the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CamKIIalpha)-immunopositive neurons in the same area are increased. Probenecid is a non-selective inhibitor of multidrug-resistance associated proteins and organic anion transporters thus it can modulate the transport functions in the central nervous system influencing nociception. Accordingly, the aim of the present experiments was to examine the effects of probenecid administration on the nitroglycerin-induced expressions of nNOS, CamKIIalpha and CGRP in the rat caudal trigeminal nucleus. Probenecid (200 mg/kg bodyweight, i.p.) pretreatment proved to mitigate the nitroglycerin-induced changes in expression in the rat caudal trigeminal nucleus. The data suggest that the changes caused by nitroglycerin in the expressions of CGRP, nNOS and CamKIIalpha can be influenced by probenecid modulating the inflammatory functions in the nervous system. These data may be of relevance for the pathogenesis of migraine headache.

  11. Caudal epidural blockade for major orthopedic hip surgery in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Schloss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There continues to be a significant focus on the value of regional and neuraxial anesthesia techniques for adjunctive use when combined with general anesthesia. The reported advantages include decreased patient opiate exposure, decreased medication-related adverse effects, decreased postanesthesia recovery room time and hospital stay, and increased patient satisfaction. Materials and Methods: The authors present a case-controlled series evaluating the use of a single caudal epidural injection prior to incision as an adjunct to general anesthesia for the open repair of slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Opiate consumption, pain scores, and hospital stay were compared between the two cohorts of 16 adolescent patients. All patients received a demand-only patient-controlled opiate delivery system. Results: Although the failed block rate was high (31%, there was decreased opioid use in the perioperative arena as well as during the first 24 postoperative hours in patients who had a successful caudal epidural block. Furthermore, discharge home was possible in 27% of patients who received a caudal epidural block compared to 0% of patients who did not receive a caudal block. Conclusion: The potential utility of caudal epidural block as an adjunct to general anesthesia during major hip surgery in adolescents is presented. Factors resulting in a failed block in this patient population as well as the use of the ultrasound as an added modality to increase block success are reviewed.

  12. Caudal block and emergence delirium in pediatric patients: Is it analgesia or sedation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergence delirium (ED although a short-lived and self-limiting phenomenon, makes a child prone to injury in the immediate postoperative period and hence is a cause of concern not only to the pediatric anesthesiologist, surgeons, and post anesthesia care unit staff but also amongst parents. Additional medication to quieten the child offsets the potential benefits of rapid emergence and delays recovery in day care settings. There is conflicting evidence of influence of analgesia and sedation following anesthesia on emergence agitation. We hypothesized that an anesthetic technique which improves analgesia and prolongs emergence time will reduce the incidence of ED. We selected ketamine as adjuvant to caudal block for this purpose. Methods: This randomized, double blind prospective study was performed in 150 premedicated children ASA I, II, aged 2 to 8 years who were randomly assigned to either group B (caudal with bupivacaine, BK (bupivacaine and ketamine, or NC (no caudal, soon after LMA placement. Recovery characteristics and complications were recorded. Results: Emergence time, duration of pain relief, and Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED scores were significantly higher in the NC group (P<0.05. Duration of analgesia and emergence time were significantly more in group BK than groups B and NC. However, the discharge readiness was comparable between all groups. No patient in BK group required to be given any medication to treat ED. Conclusion: Emergence time as well as duration of analgesia have significant influence on incidence of emergence delirium. Ketamine, as caudal adjuvant is a promising agent to protect against ED in children, following sevoflurane anesthesia.

  13. The structural rigidity of the cranium of Australopithecus africanus: implications for diet, dietary adaptations, and the allometry of feeding biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, David S; Grosse, Ian R; Dechow, Paul C; Smith, Amanda L; Wang, Qian; Weber, Gerhard W; Neubauer, Simon; Slice, Dennis E; Chalk, Janine; Richmond, Brian G; Lucas, Peter W; Spencer, Mark A; Schrein, Caitlin; Wright, Barth W; Byron, Craig; Ross, Callum F

    2010-04-01

    Australopithecus africanus is an early hominin (i.e., human relative) believed to exhibit stress-reducing adaptations in its craniofacial skeleton that may be related to the consumption of resistant food items using its premolar teeth. Finite element analyses simulating molar and premolar biting were used to test the hypothesis that the cranium of A. africanus is structurally more rigid than that of Macaca fascicularis, an Old World monkey that lacks derived australopith facial features. Previously generated finite element models of crania of these species were subjected to isometrically scaled loads, permitting a direct comparison of strain magnitudes. Moreover, strain energy (SE) in the models was compared after results were scaled to account for differences in bone volume and muscle forces. Results indicate that strains in certain skeletal regions below the orbits are higher in M. fascicularis than in A. africanus. Moreover, although premolar bites produce von Mises strains in the rostrum that are elevated relative to those produced by molar biting in both species, rostral strains are much higher in the macaque than in the australopith. These data suggest that at least the midface of A. africanus is more rigid than that of M. fascicularis. Comparisons of SE reveal that the A. africanus cranium is, overall, more rigid than that of M. fascicularis during premolar biting. This is consistent with the hypothesis that this hominin may have periodically consumed large, hard food items. However, the SE data suggest that the A. africanus cranium is marginally less rigid than that of the macaque during molar biting. It is hypothesized that the SE results are being influenced by the allometric scaling of cranial cortical bone thickness. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Sacral insufficiency fractures caudal to instrumented posterior lumbosacral arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klineberg, Eric; McHenry, Timothy; Bellabarba, Carlo; Wagner, Theodore; Chapman, Jens

    2008-07-15

    Retrospective review of sacral insufficiency fractures. Determine incidence of sacral insufficiency fractures after posterior lumbosacral fusion. Review the pertinent literature. Describe the ability of lumbopelvic fixation to restore the alignment of these fractures. Fractures of the sacrum are rare injuries that have been described at the caudal end of lumbopelvic constructs. Without a high index of suspicion, this entity can be overlooked, causing a diagnostic delay. Review of patients treated at our institution from 2002 to 2005. Nine patients meet our inclusion criteria. Sacral insufficiency fractures were recognized on an average of 5 weeks in the 6 patients with the index procedure performed at our institution (Incidence of fracture with short segment instrumentation is 1.3%, whereas long segment fixation has an incidence of 3.1%). The other 3 referred patients had an average delay in diagnosis of 8 months. Two patients underwent immediate fracture stabilization and fusion. The remaining 7 patients were initially treated nonoperatively. Four patients abandoned bracing an average of 3.3 months after initiation of treatment. For all of the surgical candidates, preoperative kyphosis measured 9.7 degrees and anterolisthesis averaged 10 mm. Postoperative measurement improved to a mean kyphosis of 2.3 degrees and mean displacement of 1.2 mm. All operatively treated fractures healed and the patients regained their ambulatory capacity. Sacral insufficiency fractures are an uncommon complication of segmental posterior lumbosacral fixation in osteoporotic patients. They are potentially unstable fractures and kyphosis and displacement may contribute to persistent problems of pain and postural malalignment. The diagnosis may be difficult and should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients who do not improve during the postoperative course. Lumbopelvic fixation is a useful salvage treatment modality for patients who fail nonoperative treatment.

  15. Comparison of caudal and intravenous dexamethasone as adjuvants for caudal epidural block: A double blinded randomised controlled trial

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    Bharath Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Dexamethasone has a powerful anti-inflammatory action with significant analgesic benefits. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of dexamethasone administered through intravenous (IV and caudal route on post-operative analgesia in paediatric inguinal herniotomy patients. Methods: One hundred and five paediatric patients undergoing inguinal herniotomy were included and divided into three groups. Each patient received a single caudal dose of ropivacaine 0.15%, 1.5 mL/kg combined with either corresponding volume of normal saline (Group 1 or caudal dexamethasone 0.1 mg/kg (Group 2 or IV dexamethasone 0.5 mg/kg (Group 3. Baseline, intra- and post-operative haemodynamic parameters, pain scores, time to rescue analgesia, total analgesic consumption and adverse effects were evaluated for 24 h after surgery. Unpaired Student′s t-test and analysis of variance were applied for quantitative data and Chi-square test for qualitative data. Time to first analgesic administration was analysed by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank test. Results: Duration of analgesia was significantly longer (P < 0.001, and total consumption of analgesics was significantly lower (P < 0.001 in Group II and III compared to Group I. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was higher in Group I (31.4% compared to Group II and III (8.6%. Conclusions: Addition of dexamethasone both caudally or intravenously as an adjuvant to caudal 0.15% ropivacaine significantly reduced the intensity of post-operative pain and prolonged the duration of post-operative analgesia with the significant advantage of caudal over IV route.

  16. Prospective Randomized Controlled Comparison of Caudal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    controlled trial (RCT) and to compare the motor blockade and hemodynamic effects caused by them. ... Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective randomized controlled study including 50 consecutive patients in the ... decrease of SBP or HR by >30% was defined as hypotension or bradycardia, respectively and was ...

  17. Caudal Regression Syndrome/neurogenic bladder presented as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burhan M. Edrees

    Caudal Regression Syndrome/neurogenic bladder presented as recurrent urinary tract infection. Burhan M. Edrees. Department of Pediatrics, Medical College, Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi .... The pulse rate was 129 per minute, respiratory rate was 40 per ... strated abnormalities in the structures and functions of the renal.

  18. Comparison of Caudal Analgesia and Intravenous Diclofenac for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Effective postoperative pain management is a vital determinant to when a child can be safely discharged from the hospital after day case surgery. This study compared the effect of caudal bupivacaine block with intravenous diclofenac for postoperative pain relief in children aged 1-7years undergoing ...

  19. Comparing caudal and penile nerve blockade using bupivacaine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Caudal anaesthesia is recommended for most surgical procedures of the lower part of the body, mainly below the umbilicus. It has been well established that a dorsal penile nerve block immediately after surgery decreases postoperative pain in children undergoing hypospadias repair. This study aimed to ...

  20. Neonatal caudal block revisited: can safety be improved?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia • March 2006. 36. TRAVEL FELLOWSHIP. Introduction. Ex premature infants less than 60 weeks conceptual age are at risk of apnoea following general anaesthesia. For this reason regional anaesthesia (spinal or caudal) has been advocated to reduce the incidence of ...

  1. Neonatal caudal block revisited: can safety be improved?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Anaesthesia was induced using halothane or sevoflurane. Intravenous access was obtained and the infant was turned onto the right side. Prior to performing a caudal block a. SonoSite 180+ portable ultrasound unit (SonoSiteô, Bothell,. WA, USA) and a 5-10 MHz linear hockey stick probe were used to determine the spinal ...

  2. ' Experience with caudal block regional anesthesia for transurethral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. Ninety five consecutive patients with obstructing prostatic enlargement requiring surgery underwent caudal anesthesia for transureth ral resection of the prostate gland (TURP). Their mean age was 73+/—7.8 years, the mean preoperative volume of the prostate gland was 160cc and the mean resection time was.

  3. Constrictive myelopathy secondary to hypoplasia or aplasia of the thoracolumbar caudal articular processes in Pugs: 11 cases (1993-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Stephen C; Shores, Andy; Simpson, Stephen T

    2013-01-15

    To report thoracolumbar caudal articular process malformations with secondary constrictive fibrosis of the spinal cord in Pugs. Retrospective case series. 11 Pugs with neurologic dysfunction resulting from constriction of fibrous tissue secondary to thoracolumbar caudal articular process malformation and 5 Pugs with no neurologic dysfunction. Medical records of dogs with myelopathy presumably caused by constriction of fibrous tissue secondary to thoracolumbar caudal articular process malformation at 2 referral institutions between 1993 and 2009 were reviewed. Dogs were included in the study if hypoplastic or aplastic thoracolumbar caudal articular processes were present on radiographs, CT images, or MRI images. The most common neurologic examination findings were paraparesis with ataxia or paraplegia but no evidence of hyperpathia along the vertebral column. All dogs' neurologic lesion localization was to the T3-L3 spinal cord segments. Median age at examination was 7. 7 years (range, 2 to 11 years). Five of 11 dogs had a history of unrelated trauma. Four of 11 dogs had urinary or fecal incontinence. Eight of 11 dogs underwent surgical exploration. Despite surgical intervention, all dogs that survived surgery continued to have neurologic deficits. In the present study, presence of aplastic or hypoplastic articular processes in the thoracolumbar region did not always produce neurologic signs. However, fibrous constrictive myelopathy should be considered in Pugs with pelvic limb gait and postural reaction deficits and lack of hyperpathia upon palpation of the vertebral column. Additional studies are warranted to further characterize the disease process and determine the most effective means of treatment.

  4. Caudal Regression and Encephalocele: Rare Manifestations of Expanded Goldenhar Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella D’Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum, or Goldenhar Syndrome, is a condition characterized by variable degrees of uni- or bilateral involvement of craniofacial structures, ocular anomalies, and vertebral defects. Its expressivity is variable; therefore, the term “expanded Goldenhar complex” has been coined. The Goldenhar Syndrome usually involves anomalies in craniofacial structures, but it is known that nervous system anomalies, including encephalocele or caudal regression, may, rarely, occur in this condition. We report two rare cases of infants affected by Goldenhar Syndrome, associated with neural tube defects, specifically caudal regression syndrome and nasal encephaloceles, to underline the extremely complex and heterogeneous clinical features of this oculoauriculovertebral spectrum. These additional particular cases could increase the number of new variable spectrums to be included in the “expanded Goldenhar complex.”

  5. Caudal Regression and Encephalocele: Rare Manifestations of Expanded Goldenhar Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Gabriella; Marseglia, Lucia; Aversa, Salvatore; Manti, Sara; Cuppari, Caterina; Cutrupi, Mariaconcetta; Salpietro, Carmelo; Gitto, Eloisa

    2017-01-01

    Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum, or Goldenhar Syndrome, is a condition characterized by variable degrees of uni- or bilateral involvement of craniofacial structures, ocular anomalies, and vertebral defects. Its expressivity is variable; therefore, the term "expanded Goldenhar complex" has been coined. The Goldenhar Syndrome usually involves anomalies in craniofacial structures, but it is known that nervous system anomalies, including encephalocele or caudal regression, may, rarely, occur in this condition. We report two rare cases of infants affected by Goldenhar Syndrome, associated with neural tube defects, specifically caudal regression syndrome and nasal encephaloceles, to underline the extremely complex and heterogeneous clinical features of this oculoauriculovertebral spectrum. These additional particular cases could increase the number of new variable spectrums to be included in the "expanded Goldenhar complex."

  6. MR epidurography: distribution of injectate at caudal epidural injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Darra T. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); St Paul' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Moynagh, Michael R.; Eustace, Stephen [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin 7 (Ireland); Poynton, Ashley; Chan, Vikki O. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland)

    2014-08-02

    To (a) evaluate the feasibility of MR epidurography (MRE) and (b) assess the distribution of injectate using two different volumes at caudal epidural steroid injection. Twenty patients who were referred with symptomatic low back pain for caudal epidural steroid injection were assigned to have either 10 ml (9/20) or 20 ml (11/20) of injectate administered. Gadolinium was included in the injection. The patients proceeded to MRI where sagittal and coronal T1-weighted fat-saturated sequences were acquired and reviewed in the mid-sagittal and right and left parasagittal views at the level of the exit foramina. Gadolinium was observed at or above the L3/4 disc level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %), compared with only five of nine patients who received 10 ml (56 %). Injectate was seen to the L4 nerve root level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %) but only four out of nine patients who received 10 ml (44 %), not even reaching the L5 nerve root level in four further of these nine patients (44 %). Overall, there was a trend to visualize gadolinium at higher levels of the epidural space with higher volumes injected. Firstly, MR epidurography is a safe technique that allows excellent visualization of the distribution of gadolinium in the epidural space following injection via the caudal hiatus. Secondly, a volume of 10 ml is unlikely to treat L5/S1 disease in almost half of patients at caudal epidural steroid injection and at least 20 ml of injectate is likely required for any medication to reach the desired level. (orig.)

  7. Numerical Study on Hydrodynamic Performance of Bionic Caudal Fin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, numerical simulations are conducted to reveal the hydrodynamic mechanism of caudal fin propulsion. In the modeling of a bionic caudal fin, a universal kinematics model with three degrees of freedom is adopted and the flexible deformation in the spanwise direction is considered. Navier-Stokes equations are used to solve the unsteady fluid flow and dynamic mesh method is applied to track the locomotion. The force coefficients, torque coefficient, and flow field characteristics are extracted and analyzed. Then the thrust efficiency is calculated. In order to verify validity and feasibility of the algorithm, hydrodynamic performance of flapping foil is analyzed. The present results of flapping foil compare well with those in experimental researches. After that, the influences of amplitude of angle of attack, amplitude of heave motion, Strouhal number, and spanwise flexibility are analyzed. The results show that, the performance can be improved by adjusting the motion and flexibility parameters. The spanwise flexibility of caudal fin can increase thrust force with high propulsive efficiency.

  8. Effectiveness of caudal septal extension graft application in endonasal septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadavut, Yunus; Akyıldız, Ilker; Karadaş, Hatice; Dinç, Aykut Erdem; Tulacı, Gökçe; Tastan, Eren

    Septal deviation is a common disease seen in daily otorhinolaryngology practice and septoplasty is a commonly performed surgical procedure. Caudal septum deviation is also a challenging pathology for ear, nose, and throat specialists. Many techniques are defined for caudal septal deviation. To evaluate the effectiveness of caudal septal extension graft (CSEG) application in patients who underwent endonasal septoplasty for a short and deviated nasal septum. Forty patients with nasal septal deviation, short nasal septum, and weak nasal tip support who underwent endonasal septoplasty with or without CSEG placement between August 2012 and June 2013 were enrolled in this study. Twenty patients underwent endonasal septoplasty with CSEG placement. The rest of the group, who rejected auricular or costal cartilage harvest for CSEG placement, underwent only endonasal septoplasty without any additional intervention. Using the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) and Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation (ROE) questionnaires, pre- and post-operative acoustic rhinometer measurements were evaluated to assess the effect of CESG placement on nasal obstruction. In the control group, preoperative and postoperative minimal cross-sectional areas (MCA1) were 0.44±0.10cm2 and 0.60±0.11cm2, respectively (pCirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. A case report of a retained and knotted caudal catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Joselyn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Caudal catheters advanced to the lumbar and thoracic regions can be used to provide excellent analgesia for pre-term neonates undergoing major abdominal and thoracic procedures. Despite their frequent use, attention to detail is mandatory to avoid complications related to the medications used or the placement technique. We present a 2-day-old, 2 kg, pre-term infant who was born at 32 weeks gestational age with a tracheoesophageal fistula. Following anesthetic induction, a caudal epidural catheter was placed with the intent of threading it to the mid-thoracic level. The intraoperative and post-operative courses were uneventful with the epidural catheter providing adequate analgesia without the need for supplemental intravenous opioids. During catheter removal, resistance was noted and it could not be easily removed. With repositioning and various other maneuvers, the catheter was removed with some difficulty. On examination of the catheter, a complete knot was noted. Options for catheter advancement from the caudal space to the thoracic dermatomes are reviewed and techniques discussed for removal of a retained epidural catheter.

  10. Acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, K.; Foster, R.A.; Casillas, E.R.

    1986-05-01

    Recently, the authors identified mM concentrations of acetylcarnitine in epidiymal fluids and have investigated the metabolism of acetylcarnitine by bovine and hamster caudal epididymal spermatozoa. (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl-L-carnitine is oxidized to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by washed, intact hamster and bovine sperm at maximal rates of 8.4 and 15.2 nmol/hr/10/sup 7/ cells respectively. Conversely, the carnitine moiety of acetyl-L-(/sup 3/H-methyl)carnitine is not accumulated by sperm under similar conditions. Hydrolysis of (/sup 3/H)acetyl-L-carnitine and competition of uptake of (/sup 3/H)acetate by unlabeled acetate was demonstrated in incubations of intact cells of both species. The amount of (/sup 3/H)acetate accumulated in the incubation medium is time-dependent and also depends on the concentration of unlabeled acetate. A partial solubilization of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity from washed, intact bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa in buffer or 0.01% Triton X-100 is observed. There is an enrichment of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in purified plasma membranes from bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa when compared to the activity present in broken cell preparations or other cellular fractions. The results suggest that acetylcarnitine is a substrate for spermatozoa as they traverse the epididymis.

  11. Magnesium as an adjuvant for caudal analgesia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Mi; Kim, Min-Soo; Han, Seok-Joo; Moon, Bong Ki; Choi, Eun Mi; Kim, Eun Ho; Lee, Jeong-Rim

    2014-12-01

    There is a need for an adjuvant agent of caudal block that prolongs its duration and improves the analgesic efficacy to fasten functional recovery. Magnesium is an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist that functions as an analgesic. This study was aimed to evaluate whether magnesium as an adjuvant for caudal block in children can improve postoperative analgesia and functional recovery. Eighty children, 2-6 years of age, undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy, were included in this prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. For caudal block, Group R received ropivacaine 1.5 mg·ml(-1), 1 ml·kg(-1) and Group RM received the same dose of ropivacaine mixed with 50 mg of magnesium. The Parents' Postoperative Pain Measure (PPPM) score, analgesic consumption, functional recovery, and adverse effects were evaluated at 6, 24, 48, and 72 h after surgery, as well as daily thereafter until the child showed full functional recovery. The PPPM score after hospital discharge was significantly lower for Group RM than for Group R at all times (P functional activity was shorter in Group RM (P magnesium provided superior quality of analgesia and faster return of normal functional activity than local anesthetic alone in children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Comparison between the intravenous and caudal routes of sufentanil in children undergoing orchidopexy and further evaluation of the association of caudal adrenaline and neostigmine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rocha Lauretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the intravenous (IV and caudal routes of administration of sufentanil for children undergoing orchidopexy and also to evaluate the effects on addition of caudal adrenaline and neostigmine. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients scheduled for orchidopexy were divided into the following groups: 1 Group IVSu received IV 0.5 μg/kg sufentanil and caudal saline; 2 Group CSu received caudal 0.5 μg/kg sufentanil and IV saline; 3 Group CSuAdr received caudal sufentanil plus adrenaline 5 μg/ml (1:200,000 and IV saline; 4 Group CSuNeo received caudal sufentanil plus neostigmine, and IV saline; and 5 Group CSuNeoAdr received caudal sufentanil plus neostigmine plus adrenaline, and IV saline. Heart rate and mean blood pressure >15% was treated with increasing isoflurane concentration. Consumption of isoflurane, side effects, quality of sleep, time to first administration of analgesic, and number of doses of 24-h rescue analgesic were recorded. Results: Groups were demographically similar. Isoflurane consumption showed the following association: Group IVSu = Group CSuNeo = Group CSuNeoAdr Group CSuNeo = Group CSuNeoAdr (P < 0.005. Incidence of adverse effects was similar among groups. Conclusion: Caudal sufentanil alone was no better than when administered in the IV route, and would just be justified by the association of neostigmine, but not adrenaline. Neostigmine association resulted in better perioperative analgesia.

  13. Position des lignes temporales sur le cranium de «Mrs » Ples (A.africanus) : une attribution sexuelle est-elle possible ?Possible position of the temporal lines on the cranium of 'Mrs' Ples (A. africanus): is sexual determination possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Sandrine; Thackeray, John Francis

    2001-03-01

    The cranium and associated matrix of Sts 5, a cranium of Australopithecus africanus is re-examined in the context of an unfused sagittal suture and the position of the temporal lines. These lines are not developed as a sagittal crest although they are close to the mid-sagittal line. A comparative study of the presence of sagittal crests in male, female, juvenile and adult specimens of extant great apes ( Gorilla, Pan, Pongo) suggests that the existence of a sagittal crest is influenced to a greater extent by anatomical age rather than by the sex of the individuals.

  14. ENFERMEDADES DEL TRACTO URINARIO CAUDAL DE LOS PERROS

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza López, Claudia Iveth

    2015-01-01

    Lasenfermedades)del)tracto)urinario)caudal)ETUC(en)perros)son)un)conjunto)de) enfermedades)que)afectan)a)la)vejiga,)uretra)y)próstata)siendo)los)signos)clínicos)más) comunes) la)estranguria,)polaquiuria,)disuria)y)hematuria.)Las)ETUC)más)comunes)en) los) perros) son) la) urolitiasis,) la) infección) del) tracto) urinario,) las) alteraciones) de) la) micción,) las)enfermedades)de) la)próstata,) las)neoplasias,) las)alteraciones)anatómicas) congénitas)y)los)traumatismos.)En)Méxic...

  15. Vitrification of caudal fin explants from zebrafish adult specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Costa, J; Roig, J; Perez-Camps, M; García-Ximénez, F

    2006-01-01

    No data on vitrification of tissue samples are available in fishes. Three vitrification solutions were compared: V1: 20% ethylene glycol and 20% dimethyl sulphoxide; V2: 25% propylene glycol and 20% dimethyl sulphoxide, and; V3: 20% propylene glycol and 13% methanol, all three prepared in Hanks' buffered salt solution plus 20 percent FBS, following the same one step vitrification procedure developed in mammals. Caudal fin tissue pieces were vitrified into 0.25 ml plastic straws in 30s and stored in liquid nitrogen for 3 days minimum, warmed (10s in nitrogen vapour and 5s in a 25 degree C water bath) and cultured (L-15 plus 20% FBS at 28.5 degree C). At the third day of culture, both attachment and outgrowing rates were recorded. V3 led to the worst results (8% of attachment rate). V1 and V2 allow higher attachment rates (V1: 63% vs V2: 50%. P < 0.05) but not significantly different outgrowing rates (83% to 94%). Vitrification of caudal fin pieces is advantageous in fish biodiversity conservation, particularly in the wild, due to the simplicity of procedure and equipment.

  16. Histomorphometry of Trabecular Bone of Caudal Vertebrae During Rat Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Shahtaheri

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy make demands upon maternal calcium hemeostasis and the extent to which the maternal bone mass is effected remains uncertain. Recently changes in the bone mass during human pregnancy have been associated also with the transformation of the cancellous architecture and the bone surface available for exchange. These jistomorphometrical structural changes were examined further in an animal model. Using uniparous laboratory rats fed at libitum, the histomorphometry of cancellous bone was compared in undecalcified of caudal vertebrae. Between 3 and 6 sections (8 m were analysed by an automated trabecular analysis system (TAS which measures a comprehensive range of structural variables including the trabecular separation, number, connectivity and width. There was an early stimulation of bone formation that was indicated by generation of thicker and interconnected trabeculae. However in caudal vertebrae, there were architectural changes in cancellous bone commencing with a significant increase in the trabecular separation. ‌‌ It was concluded that strengthens the cancellous component of the maternal skeleton possibly to counter increased load and to facilitate mineral mobilisation in maternal/neonate exchange during the subsequent lactation period.

  17. Hydrodynamics of a Flexible Soft-Rayed Caudal Fin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosilevskii, Gil

    2016-01-01

    The paper addresses hydrodynamic performance of a slender swimmer furnished with a flexible small-aspect-ratio soft-rayed caudal fin. The recoil of the fin is found by solving the coupled hydro-elastic problem, in which the structure of the fin is modeled by a cantilever of variable cross section and the hydrodynamic forces acting on it are modeled using the elongated body theory. It is shown that the recoil has practically no effect on the propulsion efficiency of anguilliform swimmers, but has a profound effect on the efficiency of carangiform swimmers, which can increase almost four-fold between low-speed (low-thrust) cruise and high-speed (high-thrust) burst. Whilst the magnitude of this effect furnishes a plausible argument in favor of burst-and-coast locomotion strategies, it also infers that carangiform swimmers cannot rely on elastic recoil of the caudal fin to be efficient throughout the usable speed range, and must actively flex it at low speeds.

  18. The caudal complex of Giardia lamblia and its relation to motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Karina Penedo; Monteiro-Leal, Luiz Henrique

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed study of the caudal complex of Giardia lamblia and its relation to movements observed in this region. The caudal complex of Giardia, composed of axonemes from the caudal flagella plus associated microtubular sheets, was investigated by light, electron microscopy, and 3D reconstruction tools. By the use of video-microscopy and digital image processing techniques, we were able to visualize in detail the caudal movements. A non-ionic detergent, Triton X-100, was used to isolate the complex that was afterwards analyzed by video-microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We showed for the first time, using video-microscopy, that the intracellular portion of the caudal flagella axonemes presented motility, even after the disrupture of the cell membrane, contrasting with the caudal flagella themselves, that do not show active beating pattern. To check if actin filaments play a role in the above described movements, as previously supposed, we incubated the cells with jasplakinolide, a drug that induces the disruption of actin filaments in living cells. The experiments demonstrated that the drug did not affect the caudal motility. The analysis of the caudal complex by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that, even after the exposure to higher detergent concentrations, the connections between their components remained intact. The information obtained by TEM and 3D reconstruction tools showed that the region between both nuclei marks the intracellular end of the caudal complex, which proceeds toward the caudal portion of the cell following its longitudinal axis, where the axonemes emerge as the caudal flagella. The results obtained from video-microscopy assays of the isolated beating complex together with the 3D reconstruction data indicated that the internal portion of the caudal flagella is the force-generator of the movements in this region.

  19. Linking bone development on the caudal aspect of the distal phalanx with lameness during life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, R; Green, M J; Bell, N J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C S; Rutland, C S; Sturrock, C J; Whay, H R; Huxley, J N

    2016-06-01

    Claw horn disruption lesions (CHDL; sole hemorrhage, sole ulcer, and white line disease) cause a large proportion of lameness in dairy cattle, yet their etiopathogenesis remains poorly understood. Untreated CHDL may be associated with damage to the internal anatomy of the foot, including to the caudal aspect of the distal phalanx upon which bone developments have been reported with age and with sole ulcers at slaughter. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether bone development was associated with poor locomotion and occurrence of CHDL during a cow's life. A retrospective cohort study imaged 282 hind claws from 72 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows culled from a research herd using X-ray micro-computed tomography (μ-CT; resolution: 0.11mm). Four measures of bone development were taken from the caudal aspect of each distal phalanx, in caudal, ventral, and dorsal directions, and combined within each claw. Cow-level variables were constructed to quantify the average bone development on all hind feet (BD-Ave) and bone development on the most severely affected claw (BD-Max). Weekly locomotion scores (1-5 scale) were available from first calving. The variables BD-Ave and BD-Max were used as outcomes in linear regression models; the explanatory variables included locomotion score during life, age, binary variables denoting lifetime occurrence of CHDL and of infectious causes of lameness, and other cow variables. Both BD-Max and BD-Ave increased with age, CHDL occurrence, and an increasing proportion of locomotion scores at which a cow was lame (score 4 or 5). The models estimated that BD-Max would be 9.8mm (SE 3.9) greater in cows that had been lame at >50% of scores within the 12mo before slaughter (compared with cows that had been assigned no lame scores during the same period), or 7.0mm (SE 2.2) greater if the cow had been treated for a CHDL during life (compared with cows that had not). Additionally, histology demonstrated that new bone development was osteoma

  20. Confirmation of a late middle Pleistocene age for the Omo Kibish 1 cranium by direct uranium-series dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Maxime; Pike, Alistair W G; Stringer, Chris; Bartsiokas, Antonis; Kinsley, Les; Eggins, Stephen; Day, Michael; Grün, Rainer

    2012-11-01

    While it is generally accepted that modern humans evolved in Africa, the specific physical evidence for that origin remains disputed. The modern-looking Omo 1 skeleton, discovered in the Kibish region of Ethiopia in 1967, was controversially dated at ~130 ka (thousands of years ago) by U-series dating on associated Mollusca, and it was not until 2005 that Ar-Ar dating on associated feldspar crystals in pumice clasts provided evidence for an even older age of ~195 ka. However, questions continue to be raised about the age and stratigraphic position of this crucial fossil specimen. Here we present direct U-series determinations on the Omo 1 cranium. In spite of significant methodological complications, which are discussed in detail, the results indicate that the human remains do not belong to a later intrusive burial and are the earliest representative of anatomically modern humans. Given the more archaic morphology shown by the apparently contemporaneous Omo 2 calvaria, we suggest that direct U-series dating is applied to this fossil as well, to confirm its age in relation to Omo 1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Muscimol inactivation caudal to the interstitial nucleus of Cajal induces hemi-seesaw nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Vallabh E; Leigh, R John; Swann, Michelle; Thurtell, Matthew J

    2010-09-01

    Hemi-seesaw nystagmus (hemi-SSN) is a jerk-waveform nystagmus with conjugate torsional and disjunctive vertical components. Halmagyi et al. in Brain 117(Pt 4):789-803 (1994), reported hemi-SSN in patients with unilateral lesions in the vicinity of the Interstitial Nucleus of Cajal (INC) and suggested that an imbalance in projections from the vestibular nuclei to the INC was the source of the nystagmus. However, this hypothesis was called into question by Helmchen et al. in Exp Brain Res 119(4):436-452 (1998), who inactivated INC in monkeys with muscimol (a GABA(A) agonist) and induced failure of vertical gaze-holding (neural integrator) function but not hemi-SSN. We injected 0.1-0.2 microl of 2% muscimol into the supraoculomotor area, 1-2 mm dorso-lateral to the right oculomotor nucleus and caudal to the right INC. A total of seven injections in two juvenile rhesus monkeys were performed. Hemi-SSN was noted within 5-10 min after injection for six of the injections. Around the time the hemi-SSN began, a small skew deviation also developed. However, there was no limitation of horizontal or vertical eye movements, suggesting that the nearby oculomotor nucleus was not initially compromised. Limitations in eye movement range developed about (1/2)-1 h following the injections. Clinical signs that were observed after the animal was released to his cage included a moderate to marked head tilt toward the left (contralesional) side, consistent with an ocular tilt reaction. We conclude that hemi-SSN can be caused by lesions just caudal to the INC, whereas lesions of the INC itself cause down-beat nystagmus and vertical gaze-holding failure, as demonstrated by Helmchen et al. Combined deficits may be encountered with lesions that involve several midbrain structures.

  2. Cranium metastasis of a squamous cell carcinoma with extensive bone destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahit Kural

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The musculoskeletal metastasis of the lung cancers is rare and locates usually at the spine, pelvis and femur. The cranial metastasis of lung cancer is very rare and generally in small size. Large bone destruction is not reported yet. Fifty six years old male patient was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of cough and respiratory difficulty. The needle biopsy of the lung revealed the diagnosis of squamous cell lung carcinoma (Grade 4 and the patient underwent palliative radiotherapy. The patient was admitted to our hospital 6 month later with rapidly growing mass lesion on the forehead. The radiological examination showed an extraaxial mass lesion 10x9x8 cm in size, which compressed on the brain tissue and caused large destruction in the frontal bone. The mass lesion was removed surgically, the brain tissue was decompressed and the bone defect was repaired with synthetic material. Although similar cases were reported previously, a lung carcinoma, which caused bone defect in this size, was not reported. For such metastases, removal of the mass lesion and cranioplasty are suggested.

  3. Effectiveness of caudal septal extension graft application in endonasal septoplasty

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    Yunus Karadavut

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Septal deviation is a common disease seen in daily otorhinolaryngology practice and septoplasty is a commonly performed surgical procedure. Caudal septum deviation is also a challenging pathology for ear, nose, and throat specialists. Many techniques are defined for caudal septal deviation. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of caudal septal extension graft (CSEG application in patients who underwent endonasal septoplasty for a short and deviated nasal septum. Methods Forty patients with nasal septal deviation, short nasal septum, and weak nasal tip support who underwent endonasal septoplasty with or without CSEG placement between August 2012 and June 2013 were enrolled in this study. Twenty patients underwent endonasal septoplasty with CSEG placement. The rest of the group, who rejected auricular or costal cartilage harvest for CSEG placement, underwent only endonasal septoplasty without any additional intervention. Using the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE and Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation (ROE questionnaires, pre- and post-operative acoustic rhinometer measurements were evaluated to assess the effect of CESG placement on nasal obstruction. Results In the control group, preoperative and postoperative minimal cross-sectional areas (MCA1 were 0.44 ± 0.10 cm2 and 0.60 ± 0.11 cm2, respectively (p < 0.001. In the study group, pre- and postoperative MCA1 values were 0.45 ± 0.16 cm2 and 0.67 ± 0.16 cm2, respectively (p < 0.01. In the control group, the nasal cavity volume (VOL1 value was 1.71 ± 0.21 mL preoperatively and 1.94 ± 0.17 mL postoperatively (p < 0.001. In the study group, pre- and postoperative VOL1s were 1.72 ± 0.15 mL and 1.97 ± 0.12 mL, respectively (p < 0.001. Statistical analysis of postoperative MCA1 and VOL1 values in the study and the control groups could not detect any significant intergroup difference (p = 0.093 and 0.432, respectively. In the study group, mean nasolabial angles were

  4. Caudal epidural sufentanil and bupivacaine decreases stress response in paediatric cardiac surgery

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    Sendasgupta Chaitali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery and anaesthesia are known to cause stress response. Attenuation of stress response can decrease morbidity, postoperative hospital length of stay and, thus, cost. Intrathecal and epidural techniques produce reliable analgesia in patients undergoing surgery along with stress response attenuation. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of caudal sufentanil and bupivacaine combination on perioperative stress response in paediatric patients undergoing open heart surgery. Thirty patients (ASA grade II-III undergoing elective corrective cardiac surgery for acyanotic congenital heart disease, were randomly allocated to two groups. In group GA ( n = 15, patients received balanced general anaesthesia. In group GC ( n = 15, in addition to general anaesthesia, caudal block with bupivacaine and sufentanil combination was given after endotracheal intubation. Monitoring included electrocardiography, invasive arterial pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide, pulse oximetry, arterial blood gases including serum electrolytes, blood glucose, serum cortisol, urine output, central venous pressure and temperature. Haemodynamic responses in both groups were statistically similar. Serum cortisol levels were significantly lower in GC group than GA group ( P 0.05 after sternotomy (9.8±7.5 vs. 34.74±27.35, on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB (12.17 ± 6.2 vs. 35.36 ± 24.15, after sternal closure (14.03 ± 5.1 vs. 37.62 ± 20.69, 4 hours (26.64 ± 14.61 vs. 37.62 ± 9.13 and 24 hours (14.30 ± 8.11 vs. 28.12 ± 16.31 after intubation. Blood glucose levels were significantly higher in GA group as compared to GC group at sternal closure (277.46 ± 77.25 vs.197.73 ± 42.17 and 4 hours (255.26 ± 73.73 vs. 185.26 ± 57.41 after intubation ( P 0.05. To conclude, supplementation of caudal epidural bupivacaine and sufentanil could effectively attenuate the stress response in paediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery under CPB in acyanotic congenital heart

  5. Spleen preservation in a caudal pancreatic serous cystadenoma - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, I; Ginghina, O; Iacobescu, C; Vrabie, C; Gidea, C; Munteanu, R; Iosifescu, R; Iordache, N

    2015-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas are relatively rare entities but have been increasingly diagnosed in recent years due to advanced imaging techniques. This category encompasses pancreatic pseudocyst as well as a wide range of pancreatic tumors with benign behavior, borderline or primary malignant. Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas represents the most common benign pancreatic tumor, with a very low but well recognized malignant potential. The clinical presentation varies according to its size; small tumors may be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally, while large tumors are more likely symptomatic. We report the case of a female patient presenting with non-specific left abdominal pain, who was diagnosed through a CT scan with a caudal pancreatic tumor. The patient underwent spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. The result of the histopathological examination revealed a serous cystadenoma.

  6. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.

  7. Coevolution of caudal skeleton and tail feathers in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Ryan N

    2014-12-01

    Birds are capable of a wide range of aerial locomotor behaviors in part because of the derived structure and function of the avian tail. The tail apparatus consists of a several mobile (free) caudal vertebrae, a terminal skeletal element (the pygostyle), and an articulated fan of tail feathers that may be spread or folded, as well as muscular and fibroadipose structures that facilitate tail movements. Morphological variation in both the tail fan and the caudal skeleton that supports it are well documented. The structure of the tail feathers and the pygostyle each evolve in response to functional demands of differing locomotor behaviors. Here, I test whether the integument and skeleton coevolve in this important locomotor module. I quantified feather and skeletal morphology in a diverse sample of waterbirds and shorebirds using a combination of linear and geometric morphometrics. Covariation between tail fan shape and skeletal morphology was then tested using phylogenetic comparative methods. Pygostyle shape is found to be a good predictor of tail fan shape (e.g., forked, graduated), supporting the hypothesis that the tail fan and the tail skeleton have coevolved. This statistical relationship is used to reconstruct feather morphology in an exemplar fossil waterbird, Limnofregata azygosternon. Based on pygostyle morphology, this taxon is likely to have exhibited a forked tail fan similar to that of its extant sister clade Fregata, despite differing in inferred ecology and other aspects of skeletal anatomy. These methods may be useful in reconstructing rectricial morphology in other extinct birds and thus assist in characterizing the evolution of flight control surfaces in birds. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The endocast of the one-million-year-old human cranium from Buia (UA 31), Danakil Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Emiliano; Bondioli, Luca; Coppa, Alfredo; Frayer, David W; Holloway, Ralph L; Libsekal, Yosief; Medin, Tsegai; Rook, Lorenzo; Macchiarelli, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    The Homo erectus-like cranium from Buia (UA 31) was found in the Eritrean Danakil depression and dated to 1 million years. Its outer morphology displays archaic traits, as well as distinctive and derived characters. The present study provides the description and metric comparison of its endocranial anatomy. UA 31 was originally filled by a diffuse concretion. Following its removal and cleaning, the endocast (995 cc) was reconstructed after physical molding and digital scan. Its morphology is here compared with specimens belonging to different human taxa, taking into account endocranial metrics, cortical traits, and craniovascular features. The endocast is long and narrow when compared to the H. erectus/ergaster hypodigm, although its proportions are compatible with the morphology displayed by all archaic and medium-brained human species. The occipital areas display a pronounced bulging, the cerebellum is located in a posterior position, and the middle meningeal vessels are more developed in the posterior regions. These features are common among specimens attributed to H. erectus s.l., particularly the Middle Pleistocene endocasts from Zhoukoudian. The parietal lobes are markedly bossed. This lateral bulging is associated with the lower parietal circumvolutions, as in other archaic specimens. This pronounced parietal curvature is apparently due to a narrow cranial base, more than to wider parietal areas. The endocast of UA 31 shows a general plesiomorphic phenotype, with some individual features (e.g., dolichocephaly and rounded lower parietal areas) which confirm a remarkable degree of morphological variability within the H. erectus/ergaster hypodigm. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:458-468, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Evaluation of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Combination with Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral in the Rabbit Cranium; A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Shafiee Ardestani

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Reconstruction methods are an essential prerequisite for functional rehabilitation of the stomatognathic system. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP offers a new and potentially useful adjunct to bone substitute materials (e.g. Xenografts inoral and maxillofacial bone and implant reconstructive surgery.Purpose: An animal study was carried out to investigate the influence of PRP on the regeneration of non-critical sized bony defects, treated with Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral (DBBM.Materials and Methods: Eight New Zealand white rabbits were included in this randomized, pilot study. Three equal cranial bone defects (3×6 mm were created and immediately grafted with DBBM and PRP+DBBM; one of them was left unfilled to serve as a control. The defects were evaluated using histologic and histomorphometricanalysis at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks.Results: The histomorphometric findings showed a significant increase in bone area and trabecular maturity in experimental defects as compared to the control at 4, 8 and 12 week intervals. A significant increase in bone formation was seen with the additionof PRP to DBBM at 2, 4 and 8 week intervals. At 12 weeks, the level of bone formation was similar between the two groups. There was also a significant increase in the rate of biodegradation of the DBBM particles with the addition of PRP at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks.No foreign body reaction and severe inflammation was seen in any of specimens.Conclusion: Within the limitations of this pilot study, it was concluded that the addition of PRP to Xenogenic bone substitute material in non-critical-sized defects of the rabbit cranium showed a histomorphometric increase in bone formation (until the 8th week ofhealing and a greater amount of biomaterial degradation throughout the study period.

  10. Multiple osteochondromas of the antlers and cranium in a free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus.

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    Uwe Kierdorf

    Full Text Available This paper reports a case of multiple osteochondromas affecting the antlers and the left zygomatic bone of a free-ranging adult white-tailed buck (Odocoileus virginianus from Georgia, USA. Along with a few postcranial bones, the antlered cranium of the individual was found in a severely weathered condition and devoid of any soft tissue. The antlers exhibited five pedunculated exostoses that were composed of cancellous bone and, in their peripheral portions, also mineralized cartilage. The largest of the exostoses, located on the right antler, had a maximum circumference of 55 cm. The exostosis arising from the zygomatic bone was broad-based and much smaller than the exophytic outgrowths on the antlers. Diagnosis of the exostoses as osteochondromas was based on their overall morphology, the normal bone structure in their stalk regions, and the continuity of their spongiosa and cortex with the respective components of the parent bones. Antleromas, i.e., pathological outgrowths developing on antlers as a result of insufficient androgen production, were excluded in the differential diagnosis, based on (1 the apparent maturity and, except for the tumors, normal shape of the antlers and (2 the fact that exostosis formation had also affected the zygomatic bone. Previously only a single case of solitary osteochondroma of an antler has been described in the scientific literature. The case presented here is the first report of multiple osteochondromas in a deer. As antlers are regularly collected as trophies, and huge numbers of them are critically inspected each year, the fact that thus far only two cases of antler osteochondromas have been reported suggests that these tumors are very rare.

  11. Effect of swim-training on caudal fin development in zebrafish larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiaz, Ansa

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide microarray analysis of the effects of swim-training on caudal fin development in zebrafish larvae. Zebrafish were subjected to swim-training from 5 days post fertilization (dpf) until 10 dpf. Subsequently, we performed a genome-wide microarray analysis on the caudal fins of control and

  12. β-catenin regulates Pax3 and Cdx2 for caudal neural tube closure and elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianyu; Gan, Qini; Stokes, Arjun; Lassiter, Rhonda N T; Wang, Yongping; Chan, Jason; Han, Jane X; Pleasure, David E; Epstein, Jonathan A; Zhou, Chengji J

    2014-01-01

    Non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling plays a primary role in the convergent extension that drives neural tube closure and body axis elongation. PCP signaling gene mutations cause severe neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the role of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in neural tube closure and NTDs remains poorly understood. This study shows that conditional gene targeting of β-catenin in the dorsal neural folds of mouse embryos represses the expression of the homeobox-containing genes Pax3 and Cdx2 at the dorsal posterior neuropore (PNP), and subsequently diminishes the expression of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling target genes T, Tbx6 and Fgf8 at the tail bud, leading to spina bifida aperta, caudal axis bending and tail truncation. We demonstrate that Pax3 and Cdx2 are novel downstream targets of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Transgenic activation of Pax3 cDNA can rescue the closure defect in the β-catenin mutants, suggesting that Pax3 is a key downstream effector of β-catenin signaling in the PNP closure process. Cdx2 is known to be crucial in posterior axis elongation and in neural tube closure. We found that Cdx2 expression is also repressed in the dorsal PNPs of Pax3-null embryos. However, the ectopically activated Pax3 in the β-catenin mutants cannot restore Cdx2 mRNA in the dorsal PNP, suggesting that the presence of both β-catenin and Pax3 is required for regional Cdx2 expression. Thus, β-catenin signaling is required for caudal neural tube closure and elongation, acting through the transcriptional regulation of key target genes in the PNP.

  13. Numerical simulation and experimental research of a flexible caudal fin by piezoelectric fiber composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Lin Guan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A flexible caudal fin made of the macro fiber composites and the carbon fiber orthotropic composite was investigated by the numerical simulations and the experiments. First, a three-dimensional numerical simulation procedure was adopted to research the torsion propulsion mode of the caudal fin and the impact of the water for the structural torsion frequency of the caudal fin. Then, a two-dimensional unsteady fluid computational method was used to analyze the hydrodynamic performance with the periodic swing of the caudal fin on the torsion mode. Based on the simulation results, the flow field was demonstrated and discussed. The interaction between the caudal fin and the water was explained. Finally, the laser vibrometer system was built to verify the torsion propulsion mode. Meanwhile, the application of the caudal fin was realized on the torsion propulsion, and the measured system was established to demonstrate the performance of the caudal fin. The established simulation procedures and experimental methods in this study may provide guidance to the fins made of the composite materials during the structural design and the investigation of the flow field characteristics with the movement of the fins.

  14. Transcriptional Profiling of Caudal Fin Regeneration in Zebrafish

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    Michael Schebesta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of severed limbs in adult animals is restricted to urodele amphibians. Mammals, including humans, have very limited regenerative capabilities and even with proper treatment, only the tips of our digits can grow back. Teleost fish can regenerate amputated fins, the evolutionary ancestors of limbs. To elucidate the principles of limb-fin regeneration, we performed an Affymetrix microarray screen on regenerating caudal fins 12, 24, 48, and 72 h post amputation. Approximately 15,000 zebrafish transcripts were analyzed, identifying 829 transcripts as differentially expressed during regeneration. Of those, 563 were up-regulated and 266 were down-regulated. We constructed a comprehensive database containing expression data, functional assignment, and background information from the literature for each differentially expressed transcript. In order to validate our findings, we employed three approaches: (1 microarray expression analysis of genes previously implicated in fin regeneration, (2 RT-PCR analysis of genes newly identified as differentially expressed during regeneration, and (3 in situ hybridization of the up-regulated genes bambi, dlx5A, and her6. Moreover, we show that Smad 1/5/8 proteins, effector molecules of Bmp signaling, are phosphorylated during fin regeneration. Taken together, we provide a comprehensive database of fin regeneration that will serve as an important tool for understanding the molecular mechanisms of regeneration.

  15. Aproximaciones neuronales univariantes para la predicción de caudales diarios en cuencas portuguesas

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido-Calvo, I.; Manuela Portela, M.

    2007-01-01

    Desde hace unos años, las redes neuronales computacionales están siendo una de las herramientas más prometedoras para la estimación de caudales en cuencas. La mayoría de los trabajos de la literatura utilizan para las predicciones, junto con los datos registrados de caudales, otras variables de entrada de carácter hidro-metorológico. En este estudio se analizó el funcionamiento de redes neuronales de retropropagación para la estimación de caudales diarios en cuencas portuguesas, consideran...

  16. Caudal Neuromodulation with the Transforaminal Sacral Electrode (InterStim®): Experience in a Pain Center Regarding 12 Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Guardo, Laura; Cano Gala, Carlos; Sánchez Poveda, David; Rueda Juan, Pablo; Sánchez Montero, Francisco José; Garzón Sánchez, José Carlos; Santos Lamas, Juan Ignacio; Sánchez Hernández, Miguel Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation is a therapeutic option with demonstrated efficacy for conditions presenting with perineal pain caused by different etiologies. We aimed to assess whether a sacral electrode (InterStim®, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) inserted through the caudal pathway is able to offer an acceptable level of sacral stimulation and rate of catheter migration. We present 12 patients with pelvic pain who received sacral neuromodulation via the sacral hiatus with the InterStim electrode. We evaluated patient satisfaction as well as migration and removal of the electrode, if necessary. Our experience included 12 patients, 10 women and two men, with a mean age of 60 years. In eight of the 12 patients, the initial therapy was effective, and the final system implantation was performed. During subsequent follow-up, patient satisfaction was good. To date, there have been no cases of electrode displacement or migration. The caudal insertion of the InterStim electrode, with its own fixation system, and initially designed for transsacral insertion, appears in our experience to be a satisfactory option which can minimize electrode displacements, achieving similar results in therapeutic efficacy and causing no difficulties in removal.

  17. Pre-anaesthetic metomidate sedation delays the stress response after caudal artery cannulation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Anders; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Kiessling, Anders

    2012-04-01

    Recovery from caudal artery cannulation with and without pre-anaesthesia metomidate sedation was assessed in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The levels of plasma cortisol, glucose, electrolytes and acid-base parameters were compared between sedated and unsedated cod and to those in uncannulated individuals, where the samples were obtained by sacrificial sampling (reference level). Metomidate sedation delayed the stress response, causing sedated cod plasma cortisol to return to the reference level more slowly [day 4 post surgery (PS)] than in unsedated cod (day 2 PS). Plasma glucose was elevated in both sedated and unsedated cod up to and including day 5 PS. Plasma K(+) was lower and pH was higher in cannulated cod than in the reference from 24 h PS until the end of experimentation, indicating a stress effect of sacrificial sampling on plasma K(+) and pH that was likely caused by an acute stress response. Metomidate sedation delayed the stress response following CA cannulation and should therefore not be used as a pre-anaesthetic sedation in Atlantic cod. The caudal artery cannulation can be a useful tool in obtaining repeated blood samples from Atlantic cod given an adequate recovery time, which was determined to be 6 days irrespective of pre-anaesthesia sedation status.

  18. Evaluacion de requerimientos ecologicos para el diseno de regimenes ambientales de caudales fluviales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diez-Hernandez, Juan Manuel

    2008-01-01

    ... en el paradigma del Regimen Ambiental de Caudales (RAC). Este trabajo sugiere una metodologia generica para establecer RAC confiables, que posibiliten el aprovechamiento hidrico a un coste ecologico admisible...

  19. Plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine with and without adrenaline following caudal anaesthesia in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Morton, N S; Cullen, P M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of adrenaline 1/400000 added to 0.25% bupivacaine significantly delays the systemic absorption of the drug from the caudal epidural space in young infants....

  20. Catecholamine innervation of the caudal spinal cord in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrøder, H D; Skagerberg, G

    1985-12-15

    By means of the aluminum-formaldehyde (ALFA) fluorescence technique for monoamine visualization the distribution of catecholamines was studied in the caudal spinal cord, particularly in relation to motoneurons innervating pelvic structures. In the lumbosacral cord all parts of the spinal gray matter were found to contain catecholamines. In the dorsal horn the most intense fluorescence was seen in the superficial layers. The motoneuron neuropil exhibited the most prominent catecholamine-fluorescence of the ventral horn layers. In the sixth lumbar segment, which contains the motor nuclei that innervate the pelvic striated muscles as well as one innervating muscles in the lower limb, a differential distribution of the density of catecholamine fluorescence was presented by the individual nuclei. The catecholamine fibers in the motoneuron neuropil were seen closely surrounding the motoneuron somata, suggesting the existence of axosomatic contacts, and by utilizing the fluorescent retrograde tracer True Blue in combination with the ALFA method tentative axosomatic noradrenergic synapses on identified neurons innervating small striated pelvic muscles could be visualized in the light microscope. In the intermediate gray the intermediolateral nucleus in thoracic and upper lumbar segments was the most heavily innervated area, followed by the medial lumbar sympathetic group, which contains the majority of the sympathetic preganglionic neurons innervating the pelvic organs. The parasympathetic intermediolateral nucleus in the upper sacral segments received a catecholamine innervation of moderate density. The catecholamine innervation pattern is discussed in relation to the patterns of other putative transmitters. The distribution of catecholamine fluorescence in relation to nuclei that control the pelvic organs differs from the arrangement of other transmitters in this region. The complexity of the innervation of the pelvic organs and their related striated muscles is thus

  1. Investigation of Fish Caudal Fin Locomotion Using a Bio-Inspired Robotic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyu Ren

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to its advantages of realizing repeatable experiments, collecting data and isolating key factors, the bio-robotic model is becoming increasingly important in the study of biomechanics. The caudal fin of fish has long been understood to be central to propulsion performance, yet its contribution to manoeuverability, especially for homocercal caudal fin, has not been studied in depth. In the research outlined in this paper, we designed and fabricated a robotic caudal fin to mimic the morphology and the three-dimensional (3D locomotion of the tail of the Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus. We applied heave and pitch motions to the robot to model the movement of the caudal peduncle of its biological counterpart. Force measurements and 2D and 3D digital particle image velocimetry were then conducted under different movement patterns and flow speeds. From the force data, we found the addition of the 3D caudal fin locomotion significantly enhanced the lift force magnitude. The phase difference between the caudal fin ray and peduncle motion was a key factor in simultaneously controlling the thrust and lift. The increased flow speed had a negative impact on the generation of lift force. From the average 2D velocity field, we observed that the vortex wake directed water both axially and vertically, and formed a jet-like structure with notable wake velocity. The 3D instantaneous velocity field at 0.6 T indicated the 3D motion of the caudal fin may result in asymmetry wake flow patterns relative to the mid-sagittal plane and change the heading direction of the shedding vortexes. Based on these results, we hypothesized that live fish may actively tune the movement between the caudal fin rays and the peduncle to change the wake structure behind the tail and hence obtain different thrust and lift forces, which contributes to its high manoeuvrability.

  2. Cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries of the paca (Cuniculus paca, L. 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Cristina de Souza Marques

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766 is a medium-sized rodent that occurs in Brazil; however, there is little information regarding its morphology. The goal of this study was to describe the origin and branching of the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries of this rodent in order to contribute to comparative anatomy studies. Ten animals (males and females were used. After death, their thoracic inlet was opened between the fourth and sixth ribs to expose the thoracic aorta, which was cannulated caudally. A stained, neoprene latex solution was then injected, in order to fill the arterial system, and the preparations were fixed in a 10% aqueous formalin solution for over 72h. The fixed specimens were dissected to identify the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries. The cranial mesenteric artery started at the abdominal aorta, caudally to the celiac artery, and originated in the following arterial branches: caudal pancreatic duodenal, pancreatic, jejunal, ileum colic and cecal. The origin of the caudal mesenteric artery occurred next to the end of abdominal aorta and this vessel issued the left colic artery and cranial rectal artery from which the sigmoid arteries initiated. It was found that there was little difference in the branching pattern of the arteries compared to other rodents and domestic mammals.

  3. Observations at the craniocervical junction with simultaneous caudal traction of the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Oakes, W Jerry

    2007-04-01

    Some have opined that caudal traction of the spinal cord may result in caudal descent of the hindbrain. In fresh adult cadavers (n = 12; less than 6 h postmortem) with no CIM, distal tension (75 N) was applied to the conus medullaris with simultaneous observation of the cervical spinal cord, brainstem, and hindbrain and their relationship to the foramen magnum per occipital craniectomy and removal of the posterior arch of C1. After lumbar laminectomy in cadavers, caudal tension on the cord (conus medullaris) demonstrated negligible movement (less than 1 mm) of the caudal brain stem and cervical spinal cord. No movement of the cerebellar tonsils was identified. Moreover, after transection of the lumbar dural cul-de-sac and lumbar spinal dural nerve sleeves, distal traction produced only 2 to 3 mm of caudal descent of the brain stem and cervical spinal cord. Again, no movement of the cerebellar tonsils was visualized. Our findings in a fresh cadaveric model suggest that it is unlikely that caudal fixation of the distal spinal cord results in inferior displacement of the cerebellar tonsils, and a resultant Chiari I malformation or that transection of the filum terminale may reverse tonsillar ectopia. In vivo animal studies are now necessary to verify our findings.

  4. Metastasis in the base of the cranium: initial manifestation of a hepato carcinoma. Findings in the CT and MRI; Metastasis en la base del carneo: manifestacion inicial de un hepatocarcinoma. Hallazgos en TC y RM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, M. T.; Saiz, A.; Cardenal, A.; Oruezabal, M. [Hospital Clinico San Carlos. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    We present a case of hepato carcinoma (HC) whose first clinical manifestation was diplopia. The imaging methods showed a sold mass in the base of the cranium with meningioma characteristics. The histological study showed the existence of hepatocytes, which confirmed the diagnosis of metastasis of the HC: We present the X-ray findings in the CT and MRI of this case and the differential diagnosis with other tumors that affect the cranium base. We also perform a bibliographic review of this clinical manifestation with such an unusual X-ray. (Author) 19 refs.

  5. A description of caudal migration during growth leading to the formation of the pericardial and pleural coeloms, to caudal movement of the aortic arches, and to development of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searls, R L

    1986-10-01

    Formation of the shoulder in the chick embryo results from movement of cells into the base of the wing from more cranial regions. Between stage 23 and stage 27, the lateral body wall overlying the pleural coelom is caused to move into the base of the wing because the cranial margin of the pleural coelom moves from the level of the tenth somite to the level of the 16th somite. Thus, formation of the shoulder is related to the formation of the pleural coelom. Textbook descriptions of the formation of the pleural coelom did not permit this relationship to be delineated. Therefore, investigation of the relationship between the formation of the shoulder and the formation of the pleural coelom seemed warranted. At stage 12 the coelom is lateral to the gut from the level of the second somite to the level of the 16th somite and is continuous with the extraembryonic coelom. During stage 13 the coelom obtains a ventral margin at the level of the third and fourth somites as the heart fuses with the lateral body wall to form the lateral mesocardium. Between stage 16 and stage 23, the second (cervical) flexure develops, causing the lateral mesocardium to form a ventral margin of the coelom from the level of the first to the 17th somites. Between stage 16 and stage 23, the coelom becomes ventral to the pharynx and lung to the level of the ninth somite. From stage 23 to stage 27, the lateral body wall from the cranial margin of the lung to the caudal margin of the hyoid arch moves in a caudal direction. During stage 27, the lateral body wall fuses with the lateral mesocardium to form the pleuro-pericardial membrane. The wing remains ventral to the 16th to 19th somites, causing a pileup of cells at the cranial base of the wing, the shoulder.

  6. Comparing caudal and penile nerve blockade using bupivacaine in hypospadias repair surgeries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Seyedhejazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caudal anaesthesia is recommended for most surgical procedures of the lower part of the body, mainly below the umbilicus. It has been well established that a dorsal penile nerve block immediately after surgery decreases postoperative pain in children undergoing hypospadias repair. This study aimed to compare caudal or penile nerve block using bupivacaine in postoperative pain control in hypospadias repair in children. Patients and Methods: After local ethical committee approval and obtaining informed parental consent, 85 American society of Anesthesiologists status I and II patients, aged 6 months to 6 years old, undergoing hypospadias repair, were prospectively enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly divided into the following two groups: Caudal block was performed in 44 and penile block was performed in 41 patients. Cardiorespiratory systems data, analgesic requirement and complications were compared between the groups. Results: There were statistically significant haemodynamic (blood pressureand heart rate alteration during operation in each group (P<0.01. The haemodynamic parameters were stable during operation in successful blocks in both groups. Caudal block success rate is 97.7%, whereas in penile block is 92.6%. Nineteen of 43 patients (44% in caudal group and 29 of 41 patients (70% in penile group received analgesia in the postoperative period and this difference was significant between the two groups (P = 0.025. Conclusions: Without ultrasonography and with blind block, with anatomic landmarks only, the caudal block success rate is high and if there is no contraindication for caudal block, it is the best choice in children under 6 years old (or 25 kg for hypospadias repai.

  7. Rat disc torsional mechanics: effect of lumbar and caudal levels and axial compression load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Orías, Alejandro A; Malhotra, Neil R; Elliott, Dawn M

    2009-03-01

    Rat models with altered loading are used to study disc degeneration and mechano-transduction. Given the prominent role of mechanics in disc function and degeneration, it is critical to measure mechanical behavior to evaluate changes after model interventions. Axial compression mechanics of the rat disc are representative of the human disc when normalized by geometry, and differences between the lumbar and caudal disc have been quantified in axial compression. No study has quantified rat disc torsional mechanics. Compare the torsional mechanical behavior of rat lumbar and caudal discs, determine the contribution of combined axial load on torsional mechanics, and compare the torsional properties of rat discs to human lumbar discs. Cadaveric biomechanical study. Cyclic torsion without compressive load followed by cyclic torsion with a fixed compressive load was applied to rat lumbar and caudal disc levels. The apparent torsional modulus was higher in the lumbar region than in the caudal region: 0.081+/-0.026 (MPa/degrees, mean+/-SD) for lumbar axially loaded; 0.066+/-0.028 for caudal axially loaded; 0.091+/-0.033 for lumbar in pure torsion; and 0.056+/-0.035 for caudal in pure torsion. These values were similar to human disc properties reported in the literature ranging from 0.024 to 0.21 MPa/degrees. Use of the caudal disc as a model may be appropriate if the mechanical focus is within the linear region of the loading regime. These results provide support for use of this animal model in basic science studies with respect to torsional mechanics.

  8. Papio Cranium from the Hominin-Bearing Site of Malapa: Implications for the Evolution of Modern Baboon Cranial Morphology and South African Plio-Pleistocene Biochronology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C Gilbert

    Full Text Available A new partial cranium (UW 88-886 of the Plio-Pleistocene baboon Papio angusticeps from Malapa is identified, described and discussed. UW 88-886 represents the only non-hominin primate yet recovered from Malapa and is important both in the context of baboon evolution as well as South African hominin site biochronology. The new specimen may represent the first appearance of modern baboon anatomy and coincides almost perfectly with molecular divergence date estimates for the origin of the modern P. hamadryas radiation. The fact that the Malapa specimen is dated between ~2.026-2.36 million years ago (Ma also has implications for the biochronology of other South African Plio-Pleistocene sites where P. angusticeps is found.

  9. Label-free and highly sensitive optical imaging of detailed microcirculation within meninges and cortex in mice with the cranium left intact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yali; An, Lin; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that the detailed blood flow distribution within intracranial dura mater and cortex can be visualized by an ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG). The study uses an UHS-OMAG system operating at 1310 nm with an imaging speed at 150 frames per second that requires ~10 s to complete one 3-D scan of ~2.5×2.5 mm2. The system is sensitive to blood flow with a velocity ranging from ~4 μm/s to ~23 mm/s. We show superior performance of UHS-OMAG in providing functional images of capillary level microcirculation within meninges in mice with the cranium left intact, the results of which correlate well with the standard dural histopathology.

  10. Caudal analgesia and cardiothoracic surgery: a look at postoperative pain scores in a pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khoa N; Byrd, Heather S; Tan, Jonathan M

    2016-11-01

    Caudal epidural anesthesia has been shown to reduce stress response and shorten the time to extubation in children after cardiac surgery. Combined with general anesthesia, regional anesthesia has been proven to be safe and efficacious in the pediatric population. It is not known, however, whether the use of caudal anesthesia actually reduces postoperative pain scores and decreases postoperative opioid use. We retrospectively analyzed the charts of 199 children who underwent repair for atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect (VSD), and Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) at a major academic children's hospital between 2010 and 2013. Eighty-six patients underwent preoperative placement of caudal anesthesia (bupivacaine 0.25% 1 ml·kg(-1) up to 20 ml + clonidine 2mcg·kg(-1) + Duramorph 40 mcg·kg(-1) up to 2.5 mg) and 113 patients did not have a caudal block. Postoperative cardiac intensive care pain scores were analyzed according to standard nurse-recorded patient-appropriate pain scales ranging from 0 to 10 (CRIES for neonates and FLACC for 2 months-7 years). There was no statistical difference between caudal and noncaudal groups with respect to postoperative pain scores or with postoperative opioid requirements. There was a statistical significance with regard to intraoperative opioid use as noncaudal patients invariably received more opioid during the procedure. Although regional anesthesia reduced intraoperative opioid usage, there was no difference in postoperative opioid usage or pain scores. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Outcome of single level disc prolapse treated with transforaminal steroid versus epidural steroid versus caudal steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, Prashant Chandrakant; Sharma, Ayush; Singh, Vijay; Natraj, B; Devani, Darshan; Khapane, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of fluoroscopic guided transforaminal steroid versus interlaminar epidural steroid versus caudal steroid. A total of 90 patients were studied who had complains of low back pain with radiculopathy and MRI evidence of disc prolapse. Out of this group, patients were randomly assigned to three groups each having 30 patients. First group received transforaminal steroid injection, second group received caudal steroid injection, and third group received epidural steroid. All patients were followed up for 12 months, and the results were compared using change in Visual Analogue Scale score and Oswestry Disability Index (OSD). The change in pain scores was statistically different at 1- and 6-month interval such that a higher change was observed by transforaminal route as compared to the other two. There was no difference in change of scores between interlaminar and caudal routes. For OSD, a greater change was seen in transforminal at all times as compared to the other two. There was no difference in change of scores between interlaminar and caudal routes at any time of assessment. In current study, transforaminal steroid injection group has better symptomatic improvement for both short and long term as compared to interlaminar and caudal steroid injection group.

  12. Masculinization and defeminization of female rats by males located caudally in the uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtsmuller, E J; Slob, A K

    1990-10-01

    It is assumed that female rats are masculinized by the presence of males in the same uterine horn. Two hypotheses regarding the mechanism have been proposed: 1) interamniotic diffusion of androgens (contiguity hypothesis) and 2) transport of androgens via the bloodflow (caudal male hypothesis). This study was designed to test these hypotheses while taking into account two previously uncontrolled factors: hemihysterectomy of the mother during pregnancy and birth by caesarean section. Pregnant females were hemihysterectomized during pregnancy or left intact; pups were born naturally or through caesarean section. Position in utero was determined. In adulthood all females were ovariectomized and tested for mounting behavior before and during testosterone treatment and lordosis behavior during estradiol treatment. It was found that females with males located caudally in the same uterine horn were more masculinized and defeminized than females without such males. Adjacent males had no influence on the behavioral sexual differentiation of females. These results confirm the "caudal male hypothesis" rather than the "contiguity hypothesis." Hemihysterectomy during pregnancy prevented the "caudal male effect." Birth through caesarean section did not interfere with the caudal male effect.

  13. Variabilidad temporal de caudales: aplicación a la gestión de ríos regulados

    OpenAIRE

    Baeza Sanz, D.; Martinez-Capel, Francisco; García de Jalón Lastra, D.

    2004-01-01

    Los efectos de la regulación de caudales en los ríos modifican severamente la variabilidad del régimen de caudales, así como su estacionalidad. Esto supone una alteración muy grave, puesto que el régimen de caudales es determinante para mantener la estructura de las comunidades (Poff, et al., 1997) y el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas fluviales. El estudio de un régimen de caudales debe contemplar un grupo de parámetros completo, y con significado biológico, que contemple la ...

  14. Análise radiológica da veia cava caudal em ratos Wistar Radiologic analyses of caudal vein in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rodrigues Schmidt

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar um método de estudo angiográfico da veia cava caudal em ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 24 ratos Wistar machos, com peso entre 300 a 350 gramas. Os animais foram operados com anestesia geral, utilizando-se injeção intraperiotoneal da solução de Cloridrato Ketamina e Cloridrato de 2-(2,6- xilidino -5,6- dihidro-4H-1,3-tiazina. O contraste iodado foi injetado na veia dorsal do pênis do rato, utilizando uma agulha de calibre 21 acoplada ao sistema Butterfly® de infusão. O método de cavografia foi testado, no 15º dia de pós-operatório, em três grupos de 6 animais. O Grupo I foi o controle. Nos grupos II e III os animais foram submetidos respectivamente à ligadura da veia cava caudal acima e abaixo da desembocadura das veias íleo-lombares. No grupo IV à ligadura da veia ilíaca direita. RESULTADOS: Os exames flebográficos realizados permitiram observar a anatomia e a perviedade das veias que formam o sistema cava, e a circulação colateral desenvolvida, de todos os animais estudados. CONCLUSÃO: A cavografia por via peniana, permite a visibilidade das vias ilíacas e cava caudal, bem como a circulação colateral desenvolvida, em ratos machos.PURPOSE: To present an angiographic method, to visualize the cava and iliac veins in rats, emphasizing the colateral circulation, developed after interrupting the venous flow. METHODS: Twenty four male Wistar rats were studied, weighting 300 to 350g. the access used to injection of the iodined contrast, necessary to the radiologic study, was the dorsal vein of the penis. The method of cavography was tested at the 15th postoperative day, in three groups of six animals. RESULTS: The group I is control. In groups II and III the animals were submitted respectively of ligature of the caudal vena cava above and below of the iliolumbar veins. In group IV they were submitted to the ligature of the right iliac vein, besides of control group that was not operated. CONCLUSION: The

  15. Effect of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy: multicentre, blinded, randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Trond; Solberg, Tore K; Romner, Bertil

    2011-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy in the short (6 weeks), intermediate (12 weeks), and long term (52 weeks).......To assess the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy in the short (6 weeks), intermediate (12 weeks), and long term (52 weeks)....

  16. The functional role of the caudal fin in the feeding ecology of the common thresher shark Alopias vulpinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbers, S A; Bernal, D; Sepulveda, C A

    2010-05-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that the common thresher shark Alopias vulpinus uses its elongate caudal fin to both produce thrust and immobilize prey during feeding. Underwater video recorded in southern California from 2007 to 2009 revealed 34 feeding events, all of which were initiated with the upper lobe of the caudal fin.

  17. Effect of microgravity on the biomechanical properties of lumbar and caudal intervertebral discs in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jeannie F; Hargens, Alan R; Cheng, Kevin K; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2014-09-22

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity has shown to have deleterious effects on the human spine, indicated by low back pain during spaceflight and increased incidence of post-spaceflight herniated nucleus pulposus. We examined the effect of microgravity on biomechanical properties of lumbar and caudal discs from mice having been on 15-day shuttle mission STS-131. Sixteen C57BL/C mice (spaceflight group, n=8; ground-based control group, n=8) were sacrificed immediately after spaceflight. Physiological disc height (PDH) was measured in situ, and compressive creep tests were performed to parameterize biomechanical properties into endplate permeability (k), nuclear swelling pressure strain dependence (D), and annular viscoelasticity (G). For caudal discs, the spaceflight group exhibited 32% lower PDH, 70% lower D and crept more compared to the control mice (p=0.03). For lumbar discs, neither PDH nor D was significantly different between murine groups. Initial modulus, osmotic pressure, k and G for lumbar and caudal discs did not appear influenced by microgravity (p>0.05). Decreases in both PDH and D suggest prolonged microgravity effectively diminished biomechanical properties of caudal discs. By contrast, differences were not noted for lumbar discs. This potentially deleterious interaction between prolonged weightlessness and differential ranges of motion along the spine may underlie the increased cervical versus lumbar disc herniation rates observed among astronauts. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. A Late Cretaceous theropod caudal vertebra from the Sultanate of Oman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Hanna, Samir S.; Hartman, Axel Frans; Jagt, John W M

    2000-01-01

    A caudal vertebra collected from conglomerates of the Al-Khod Formation (Late Cretaceous) in the Al-Khod area, Sultanate of Oman, is assigned to a medium-sized theropod dinosaur. The Al-Khod discovery represents one of the very few dinosaur records from the Middle East.

  19. Is caudal fin colour in tigerfish Hydrocynus vittatus a sex or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tigerfish caudal fin colours vary from yellow to red, with distinct dissimilarities previously noted. To understand these colour differences, tigerfish were collected during 2008 to 2010 from four southern African populations in the Upper Zambezi River (ZAM), Okavango Delta (OKA), Pongolapoort Dam (POD) and Phongolo ...

  20. Rostral and caudal prefrontal contribution to creativity: a meta-analysis of functional imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen-Yaacovi, Gil; de Souza, Leonardo Cruz; Levy, Richard; Urbanski, Marika; Josse, Goulven; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Creativity is of central importance for human civilization, yet its neurocognitive bases are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to integrate existing functional imaging data by using the meta-analysis approach. We reviewed 34 functional imaging studies that reported activation foci during tasks assumed to engage creative thinking in healthy adults. A coordinate-based meta-analysis using Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) first showed a set of predominantly left-hemispheric regions shared by the various creativity tasks examined. These regions included the caudal lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), the medial and lateral rostral PFC, and the inferior parietal and posterior temporal cortices. Further analyses showed that tasks involving the combination of remote information (combination tasks) activated more anterior areas of the lateral PFC than tasks involving the free generation of unusual responses (unusual generation tasks), although both types of tasks shared caudal prefrontal areas. In addition, verbal and non-verbal tasks involved the same regions in the left caudal prefrontal, temporal, and parietal areas, but also distinct domain-oriented areas. Taken together, these findings suggest that several frontal and parieto-temporal regions may support cognitive processes shared by diverse creativity tasks, and that some regions may be specialized for distinct types of processes. In particular, the lateral PFC appeared to be organized along a rostro-caudal axis, with rostral regions involved in combining ideas creatively and more posterior regions involved in freely generating novel ideas. PMID:23966927

  1. Caudal additives in pediatrics: a comparison among midazolam, ketamine, and neostigmine coadministered with bupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Rudra, A; Pan, A K; Acharya, A

    2005-07-01

    Single-shot "kiddie caudal" with bupivacaine alone is losing popularity because of its duration of 4-8 h. In a prospective randomized double-blind clinical study, we assessed and compared the efficacy of ketamine, midazolam, and neostigmine coadministered with bupivacaine in a caudal epidural to provide intraoperative and postoperative pain relief. Eighty children (ASA status I) aged 5-10 yr undergoing unilateral inguinal herniotomy were allocated randomly in equal numbers (n = 20) into 4 groups to receive a caudal injection of 0.25% bupivacaine (1 mL/kg) with or without ketamine (0.5 mg/kg), midazolam (50 microg/kg), and neostig-mine (2 microg/kg), after the induction of standardized general anesthesia without premedication. Monitoring for pain, sedation, postoperative nausea/vomiting, dizziness, and pruritus was performed by anesthesiologists blinded to the study allocation. The time to first analgesic administration (paracetamol syrup) was longer (P < 0.05) in the bupivacaine-neostigmine group and the bupivacaine-midazolam group than in the other groups. Undesirable effects, such as emesis, pruritus, and dizziness, were comparable in all groups. However, the incidence of hallucination was more frequent in the bupivacaine-ketamine group compared with the other groups. This study shows that single-shot caudal coadministration of bupivacaine-neostigmine and bupivacaine-midazolam was associated with an extended duration of postoperative pain relief.

  2. Use of epidurally derived evoked potentials for quantification of caudal nociception in ponies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, J.P.A.M.; Stienen, P.J.; Doornenbal, A.; Hellebrekers, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Am J Vet Res. 2009 Jul;70(7):813-9. Use of epidurally derived evoked potentials for quantification of caudal nociception in ponies. van Loon JP, Stienen PJ, Doornenbal A, Hellebrekers LJ. Department of Equine Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht, The

  3. Caudal regulates the spatiotemporal dynamics of pair-rule waves in Tribolium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat El-Sherif

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short-germ beetle Tribolium castaneum, waves of pair-rule gene expression propagate from the posterior end of the embryo towards the anterior and eventually freeze into stable stripes, partitioning the anterior-posterior axis into segments. Similar waves in vertebrates are assumed to arise due to the modulation of a molecular clock by a posterior-to-anterior frequency gradient. However, neither a molecular candidate nor a functional role has been identified to date for such a frequency gradient, either in vertebrates or elsewhere. Here we provide evidence that the posterior gradient of Tc-caudal expression regulates the oscillation frequency of pair-rule gene expression in Tribolium. We show this by analyzing the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in strong and mild knockdown of Tc-caudal, and by correlating the extension, level and slope of the Tc-caudal expression gradient to the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in wild type as well as in different RNAi knockdowns of Tc-caudal regulators. Further, we show that besides its absolute importance for stripe generation in the static phase of the Tribolium blastoderm, a frequency gradient might serve as a buffer against noise during axis elongation phase in Tribolium as well as vertebrates. Our results highlight the role of frequency gradients in pattern formation.

  4. Ultrasonic cervimetry to study the dilatation of the caudal cervix of the cow at parturition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeveld-Dwarkasingh, V.N.; Struijk, P.C.; Eijskoot, F.; Lotgering, F.K.; Dissel-Emiliani, F.M. van; Weyden, G.C. van der; Taverne, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the temporal changes in dilatation of the caudal cervix during induced calvings (n = 5). We used ultrasound cervimetry, allowing the continuous recording of the distance between a transmitting and receiving ultrasound crystal, which were implanted

  5. A pilot study of dexmedetomidine sedation and caudal anesthesia for inguinal hernia repair in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Choon L; Yeo, Angela S H; Fabila, Teddy; Tan, Josephine S K

    2016-06-01

    Recent concerns regarding possible long-term effects of early anesthesia exposure on neurodevelopment in children have provided an impetus to explore alternative anesthetic techniques using potentially neuroprotective agents. Dexmedetomidine has not been implicated in anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity and has been shown to be neuroprotective in preclinical studies. We describe a case series of 50 neonates and infants who received dexmedetomidine sedation with caudal anesthesia instead of general endotracheal anesthesia for inguinal hernia surgery. We conducted a retrospective chart review on all neonates and infants who underwent inguinal hernia surgery with dexemetomidine sedation and caudal anesthesia in our institution. We started exploring this technique since October 2011 and established a protocol of administering dexmedetomidine 2 mcg·kg(-1) over 10 min, followed by 1 mcg·kg(-1) over the next 10 min. This led to satisfactory conditions for caudal placement in 20 min, with minimal need for airway intervention during surgery. The median gestational age of the infants was 31.4 (28.7, 36.0) weeks and median postconceptual age was 39.7 weeks (IQR 37.8, 45.7) at time of surgery. Of patients, 86% had surgery successfully completed under this technique alone. Seven patients required sevoflurane or nitrous oxide due to failed caudal block (n = 1) or difficult or prolonged surgery (n = 6). After establishing the sedation protocol and excluding patients with large or complicated hernias, the success rate was 96%. Transient intra-operative apnea or hypoventilation occurred in five patients and postoperative apnea in two patients. All respiratory events were easily reversed and no patient developed significant bradycardia or required intubation. Dexmedetomidine sedation with caudal anesthesia is a feasible alternative to spinal or general anesthesia in selected infants undergoing uncomplicated hernia surgery. It avoids the need for endotracheal intubation and may be

  6. New high-resolution computed tomography data of the Taung partial cranium and endocast and their bearing on metopism and hominin brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ralph L; Broadfield, Douglas C; Carlson, Kristian J

    2014-09-09

    Falk and colleagues [Falk D, Zollikofer CP, Morimoto N, Ponce de León MS (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(22):8467-8470] hypothesized that selective pressures favored late persistence of a metopic suture and open anterior fontanelle early in hominin evolution, and they put an emphasis on the Taung Child (Australopithecus africanus) as evidence for the antiquity of these adaptive features. They suggested three mutually nonexclusive pressures: an "obstetric dilemma," high early postnatal brain growth rates, and neural reorganization in the frontal cortex. To test this hypothesis, we obtained the first high-resolution computed tomography (CT) data from the Taung hominin. These high-resolution image data and an examination of the hominin fossil record do not support the metopic and fontanelle features proposed by Falk and colleagues. Although a possible remnant of the metopic suture is observed in the nasion-glabella region of the Taung partial cranium (but not along the frontal crest), this character state is incongruent with the zipper model of metopic closure described by Falk and colleagues. Nor do chimpanzee and bonobo endocast data support the assertion that delayed metopic closure in Taung is necessary because of widening (reorganization) of the prefrontal or frontal cortex. These results call into question the adaptive value of delaying metopic closure, and particularly its antiquity in hominin evolution. Further data from hominoids and hominins are required to support the proposed adaptive arguments, particularly an obstetric dilemma placing constraints on neural and cranial development in Australopithecus.

  7. Wnt-3a is critical for caudal embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camper, S.A.; Greco, T.L.; Newhouse, M.M. [Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Skeletal and neural tube defects represent an important class of birth defects. The majority of mouse mutants with neural tube defects also have malformations of the tail. Vestigial tail (vt) is an autosomal recessive mouse mutation characterized by reduction or absence of the tail, vertebral abnormalities, and reduced fertility. The phenotype has been described as the result of failure of cell migration through the primitive streak, causing abnormalities in the development of the neural tube and a reduction in the ventral ectodermal ridge. Wnt3a is an excellent candidate gene for vt because Wnt3a is expressed in the primitive streak and in the embryonic mesoderm, and it is thought to be involved in cell-to-cell communication and formation of the dorsal-ventral axis in the CNS. A lack of Wnt3a might be expected to result in overdorsalization of the neural tube and reduction of the ventral ectodermal ridge characteristic of vt/vt embryos. In a high resolution backcross segregating vt, we observed no recombination between vt and Wnt3a in 363 individuals analyzed. In vt/vt mice, Southern blot analysis revealed no abnormalities in the Wnt3a gene, and the Wnt3a cDNA sequence does not encode any amino acid changes. Whole mount in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that Wnt3a expression is severely reduced in the developing tailbud of day 9.5 vt/vt embryos, suggestive of a lesion in the regulation on Wnt3a expression. An alleleism test, carried out by mating vt/vt males with Wnt3a +/Wnt3a- females, demonstrated that vt and Wnt3a are noncomplementing alleles. All of the compound heterozygotes exhibited severe tail defects, including occasional examples of hind limb parlaysis and spina bifida. The vertebral defects are intermediate between those of vt and Wnt3a homozygotes, suggesting that the concentration of Wnt3a correlates with the severity of the defect.

  8. Variabilidad de las anomalías de caudales medios mensuales con el área de la cuenca.

    OpenAIRE

    Góez Arango , Catalina; Poveda Jaramillo, Germán

    2004-01-01

    Se estudia la variabilidad de las anomalías estandarizadas de los caudales medios mensuales con respecto al área de drenaje de la cuenca, usando registros históricos de caudales medios mensuales sobre estaciones localizadas a lo largo del cauce principal de las cuencas de los ríos Magdalena-Cauca en Colombia y Tocantins-Purus en Brasil. Las anomalías estandarizadas se definen como las desviaciones de los caudales con respecto a la media del mes, escalados por la desviación típica mensual....

  9. Awake caudals and epidurals should be used more frequently in neonates and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhofer, Peter; Keplinger, Maya; Klug, Wolfgang; Metzelder, Martin L

    2015-01-01

    The current literature provides fundamental insights regarding the neurotoxic potency of various general anesthetic drugs in neonates and small infants. Therefore, considerations to minimize the use of general anesthetic drugs in this age group are required. The use of caudal and epidural anesthesia under sedation is one possibility to minimize the use of general anesthetic drugs. A large number of surgical procedures can be managed with this anesthetic concept. Training, practical hand skills, good infrastructure, a well-defined indication, and a team approach including the entire operation room staff are the major prerequisites to implement these techniques in the daily clinical practice. This review article discusses all present aspects and possible future evolutions of caudal and epidural anesthesia under sedation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effect of transection of the caudal menisco-tibial ligament on medial femorotibial contact mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Antonio; Kim, Stanley E; Lewis, Daniel D

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of transection of the medial caudal menisco-tibial ligament on contact mechanics in a canine cadaveric model of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture and tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). Ex vivo biomechanical study. Unpaired pelvic limbs (n=8) from 28-35 kg dogs. Cadaveric pelvic limbs with CCL-deficient stifles stabilized with TPLO were axially loaded using a material testing machine with 30% body weight and a stifle angle of 135 degrees. Medial compartment femorotibial contact force and area, peak and mean contact pressure, and peak pressure location were measured with pressure sensors. A paired t-test was used for comparison; Pmedial compartment (Pmedial meniscus and results in significant changes in medial femorotibial contact mechanics. The abnormal cartilage contact stresses after transection of the caudal menisco-tibial ligament may have a negative impact on the cartilage homeostasis and predispose to further degeneration of the medial compartment after TPLO.

  11. Vaginal delivery under caudal analgesia after caesarean section and other major uterine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, F P; Moolgaoker, A S; Stallworthy, J

    1972-06-24

    In the absence of a recurring indication for caesarean section vaginal delivery in subsequent pregnancy is a "trial of scar," with potentially serious implications for mother and baby. Labour under caudal analgesia was carefully supervised for 75 women with a surgically scarred uterus-due to lower segment section in 72, abdominal hysterotomy in one, and transcavity myomectomy in two. Every caesarean scar was assessed digitally during labour and every uterus was examined after delivery. Caudal analgesia provided a painless labour and delivery and made scar assessment easy. Controlled intravenous Syntocinon infusion was given to 25 patients. One scar dehiscence occurred early in labour and one in the second stage. Seventy mothers had 71 vaginal deliveries with one pair of twins and one breech. There was one stillbirth and no neonatal death. There were five repeat sections.

  12. Caudal Elbow Luxation in a Dog Managed by Temporary Transarticular External Skeletal Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hamilton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report details a caudal unilateral traumatic elbow luxation in a 4-year-old male neutered Labrador following a road traffic trauma. This is a highly unusual injury in the dog. The pathogenesis and successful treatment by closed reduction followed by stabilisation with a temporary transarticular external skeletal fixator are discussed. The dog was assessed at 4 weeks and 6 months after surgery. Findings at 6 months after treatment demonstrated a normal gait with no pain or crepitation. A mild amount of soft tissue thickening around the elbow was noted. The range of motion of the elbow was limited to 45 degrees of flexion and 150 degrees of extension. This is the first case of a traumatic caudal luxation of the elbow in a dog described in the English veterinary literature and the first report of successful management of an elbow luxation in a dog by closed reduction and temporary transarticular fixation.

  13. Cardiovascular and respiratory responses to microinjection of L-glutamate into the caudal pressor area in conscious and anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva N.F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the caudal pressor area (CPA in the maintenance of vasomotor tonus in anesthetized and decerebrate animals has been clearly established. In conscious animals, however, the participation of CPA in the cardiovascular control remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, unilateral L-glutamate (L-Glu (10 and/or 20 nmol/70 nl microinjection into CPA, in conscious male Wistar rats (250-280 g caused a significant increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP; control: 112 ± 1.9 mmHg; after 20 nmol L-Glu: 139 ± 4.5 mmHg, N = 12, P<0.05 and respiratory rate (control: 81 ± 3.5 breaths/min; after 10 nmol L-Glu: 92 ± 3 breaths/min, P<0.05; after 20 nmol L-Glu: 104 ± 5 breaths/min, N = 6, P<0.05. The subsequent anesthesia with urethane caused a significant increase in basal respiratory frequency (conscious: 81 ± 3.5 breaths/min; under urethane: 107 ± 1.3 breaths/min, N = 6, P<0.05. Anesthesia also significantly attenuated L-Glu-evoked pressor (conscious: deltaMAP = +27 mmHg; anesthetized: deltaMAP = +18 mmHg, P<0.05 and respiratory responses. These results suggest that glutamatergic receptors in the CPA are involved in cardiovascular and respiratory modulation in conscious rats.

  14. The caudal bursa in the Heligmonellidae (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina. Characterization and hypothesis on its evolution

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    Durette-Desset M.C.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The different patterns of the caudal bursa of the Heligmonellidae (Nematoda are redefined, taking into account the grouping of rays 2-6 and the sequence of origin of these rays from their common trunk. The type of symmetry of the caudal bursa is also redefined. The following patterns were observed and characterized: the basic patterns: types 2-3, 2-2-1, 1-3-1 and 1-4 and the intermediary patterns: type 2-3 tending to type 2-2-1, type 2-2-1 tending to type 1-3-1, type 1-3-1 tending to type 1-4 and type 2-2-1 tending to type 1-4. An evolutionary interpretation of the patterns is attempted and seems to follow the direction: 2-3 to 2-2-1 to 1-3-1 to 1-4. Seven atypical patterns are described. The caudal bursae were classified based on their symmetry: subsymmetrical, dissymmetrical and asymmetrical. Independently of the type of symmetry, the two latero-ventral lobes may have the same or different patterns. The type of symmetry, the ratio between the two latero-ventral lobes and a characteristic pattern were utilized to characterize the caudal bursae at the level of the genus and the subfamily. The combination of the right/left ratio and the type of symmetry gives heterogeneous results, with no real association between these characters. The most conspicuous asymmetries and dissymmetries were found among the Nippostrongylinae. The most frequent pattern in the Heligmonellidae is the basic type 2-2-1; types 1-3-1 and 1-4 are less frequent but are characteristic of several genera; type 1-4 is absent from the Heligmonellinae. Whatever the pattern, in the Heligmonellidae rays 4 and 5 are the last to diverge from the common trunk of rays 2-6.

  15. The caudal bursa in the Heligmonellidae (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina). Characterization and hypothesis on its evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, M C; Digiani, M C

    2012-02-01

    The different patterns of the caudal bursa of the Heligmonellidae (Nematoda) are redefined, taking into account the grouping of rays 2-6 and the sequence of origin of these rays from their common trunk. The type of symmetry of the caudal bursa is also redefined. The following patterns were observed and characterized: the basic patterns: types 2-3, 2-2-1, 1-3-1 and 1-4 and the intermediary patterns: type 2-3 tending to type 2-2-1, type 2-2-1 tending to type 1-3-1, type 1-3-1 tending to type 1-4 and type 2-2-1 tending to type 1-4. An evolutionary interpretation of the patterns is attempted and seems to follow the direction: 2-3 to 2-2-1 to 1-3-1 to 1-4. Seven atypical patterns are described. The caudal bursae were classified based on their symmetry: subsymmetrical, dissymmetrical and asymmetrical. Independently of the type of symmetry, the two latero-ventral lobes may have the same or different patterns. The type of symmetry, the ratio between the two latero-ventral lobes and a characteristic pattern were utilized to characterize the caudal bursae at the level of the genus and the subfamily. The combination of the right/left ratio and the type of symmetry gives heterogeneous results, with no real association between these characters. The most conspicuous asymmetries and dissymmetries were found among the Nippostrongylinae. The most frequent pattern in the Heligmonellidae is the basic type 2-2-1; types 1-3-1 and 1-4 are less frequent but are characteristic of several genera; type 1-4 is absent from the Heligmonellinae. Whatever the pattern, in the Heligmonellidae rays 4 and 5 are the last to diverge from the common trunk of rays 2-6.

  16. Radiation exposure to the physician performing fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwin, K P; Freeman, E D; Gruber, R D; Torres-Rames, F M; Bouchtas, C G; Sanelli, J T; Hanna, A F

    2001-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate radiation exposure to a physician performing fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injections. The prospective study design included 100 consecutive fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injections performed on patients with radiculitis from either herniated nucleus pulposus or lumbar spinal stenosis. Radiation exposure was monitored with the assistance of a radiological technologist (RT) who allocated four dosimetry badges to all physicians performing fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injections on consecutive patients being treated for radicular pain. The badges were placed on the ring finger, glasses and both the inside and outside of the lead apron worn by the physician. In addition, the RTs also wore a marked badge outside his/her lead apron. A control badge was placed 67 inches away from the fluoroscopy table, and a second control badge was located in a desk over 500 feet away from the procedure, to monitor ambient radiation. The average fluoroscopy time per procedure was 12.55 seconds. The average/cumulative exposure per procedure was 4.10/410 mREM at the "ring" badge, 2.47/247 mREM at the "glasses" badge, 3.98 /398 mREM at the "outside apron" badge and 0.15/15 mREM at the "inside" apron; no radiation was detectable at the "outside room" control badge. The RT's average exposure during these procedures was below the limit of detectability. Radiation exposure to the physician needs to be considered and minimized in the performance of spinal interventional procedures. Our study demonstrates that radiation exposure to the physician performing fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injections is well within safety limits when he/she adheres to proper technique.

  17. Comparison of adding neostigmine and fentanyl to bupivacaine in caudal analgesia in pediatric inguinal herniorrhaphy

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Aghadavoudi; Amir Shafa; Zahra Nowrozi

    2017-01-01

    AbstractObjective: The aim of the present trial was to compare efficacy and adverse effects of neostigmine against fentanyl when used as adjuvant to bupivacaine in caudal anesthesia.Method: A total of 140 children, aged 1-6 year scheduled to elective herniorrhaphy, were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were sacral area infection, history of allergic reactions to local anesthetics, bleeding tendency, neurological or spinal disease and lack of parent consent. Patients were assigned, using permuted ...

  18. Organ and Effective Dose Coefficients for Cranial and Caudal Irradiation Geometries: Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinot, K. G.; Eckerman, K. F.; Hertel, N. E.; Hiller, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    With the introduction of new recommendations by ICRP Publication 103, the methodology for determining the protection quantity, effective dose, has been modified. The modifications include changes to the defined organs and tissues, the associated tissue weighting factors, radiation weighting factors, and the introduction of reference sex-specific computational phantoms (ICRP Publication 110). Computations of equivalent doses in organs and tissues are now performed in both the male and female phantoms and the sex-averaged values used to determine the effective dose. Dose coefficients based on the ICRP 103 recommendations were reported in ICRP Publication 116, the revision of ICRP Publication 74 and ICRU Publication 57. The coefficients were determined for the following irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right and left lateral (RLAT and LLAT), rotational (ROT), and isotropic (ISO). In this work, the methodology of ICRP Publication 116 was used to compute dose coefficients for neutron irradiation of the body with parallel beams directed upward from below the feet (caudal) and directed downward from above the head (cranial). These geometries may be encountered in the workplace from personnel standing on contaminated surfaces or volumes and from overhead sources. Calculations of organ and tissue absorbed doses for caudal and cranial exposures to neutrons ranging in energy from 10-9 MeV to 10 GeV have been performed using the MCNP6 radiation transport code and the adult reference voxel phantoms of ICRP Publication 110. At lower energies the effective dose per particle fluence for cranial and caudal exposures is less than AP orientations while above about 30 MeV the cranial and caudal values are greater.

  19. Evaluation of a segmented rectal probe and caudal epidural anesthesia for electroejaculation of bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Etson, Cathy J.; Waldner, Cheryl L.; Barth, Albert D.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in concentrations of cortisol and progesterone in serial blood samples were used to quantify a stress response to different methods of electroejaculation in 10 Hereford bulls. Treatments included restraint (control), and electroejaculation using rectal probes with segmented electrodes or conventional nonsegmented electrodes, with or without lidocaine caudal epidural anesthesia. A subjective scoring system was used to assess behavioral responses to the different methods of electroejacu...

  20. Arachnoiditis Following Caudal Epidural Injections for the Lumbo-Sacral Radicular Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjayan, Shashi Kumar; Yallappa, Sachin; Bommireddy, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Caudal epidural steroid injection is a very common intervention in treatment of low back pain and sciatica symptoms. Although extensively used, it is not devoid of complications. A few reports of chemical and infective arachnoiditis exist following lumbar epidural anaesthesia, but none following a caudal epidural steroid injection.We report a case of arachnoiditis following caudal epidural steroid injections for lumbar radiculopathy. The patient presented with contralateral sciatica, worsening low back pain and urinary retention few days following the injection, followed by worsening motor functions in L4/L5/S1 myotomes with resultant dense foot drop. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging suggested infective arachnoiditis with diffuse enhancement and clumping of the nerve roots within the lumbar and sacral thecal sac. As the number of injections in the management of back pain and lumbo-sacral radicular pain is increasing annually, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of this potentially dangerous complication and educate the patients appropriately. PMID:24353855

  1. Conditions for initiating Lake Victoria haplochromine (Oreochromis esculentus) primary cell cultures from caudal fin biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filice, Melissa; Lee, C; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F

    2014-10-01

    The global decline of freshwater fishes has created a need to cryopreserve biological materials from endangered species in an effort to conserve the biodiversity within this taxon. Since maternal gametes and embryos from fish are difficult to cryopreserve, somatic cells obtained from caudal fins have become an increasingly popular resource as they contain both maternal and paternal DNA ensuring valuable traits are not lost from the population. Somatic cells stored in cryobanks can be used to supplement endangered populations with genetically valuable offspring with the use of assisted reproductive technologies. However, initiating primary cell cultures from caudal fin biopsies of endangered species can be challenging as standardized protocols have not yet been developed. The objective of this study was to identify culture conditions, including antibiotic supplementation, biopsy size, and culture temperature, suitable for establishing primary cell cultures of ngege (Oreochromis esculentus), a critically endangered African cichlid. Six-millimeter caudal fin biopsies provided sufficient material to develop a primary cell culture when incubated at 25°C using standard fish cell culture medium containing 1× Primocin. Further investigation and application of these culture conditions for other endangered freshwater fishes is necessary.

  2. Early neurogenesis during caudal spinal cord regeneration in adult Gekko japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Youlang; Xu, Qing; Li, Donghui; Zhao, Lijuan; Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Mei; Gu, Xiaosong; Liu, Yan

    2013-06-01

    Gekko japonicus undergoes dramatic changes in the caudal spinal cord after tail amputation. The amputation induces cell proliferation in the caudal ependymal tube. We performed hematoxylin and eosin staining at different time points in the regeneration process to investigate the morphological characterization of the regenerated appendages. The central canal extended to the blastema post-amputation and the cartilage and muscle tissue appeared 3 weeks after injury. We performed the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay to detect proliferating cells during the regeneration process. BrdU positive cells were detected in the peri-central canal. Furthermore, nestin and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) immunocytochemistry were applied to detect neural stem/progenitor cells and neurons. Two weeks after injury, nestin-positive cells undergoing proliferation were located outside of the ependymal tube, and NSE positive cells appeared after 3 weeks of amputation. These data suggest that neurogenesis is an early event during caudal spinal cord regeneration in gecko.

  3. Postoperative analgesia in children when using clonidine in addition to fentanyl with bupivacaine given caudally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarraya, Anouar; Elleuch, Sahar; Zouari, Jawhar; Smaoui, Mohamed; Laabidi, Sofiene; Kolsi, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of clonidine in association with fentanyl as an additive to bupivacaine 0.25% given via single shot caudal epidural in pediatric patients for postoperative pain relief. In the present prospective randomized double blind study, 40 children of ASA-I-II aged 1-5 years scheduled for infraumblical surgical procedures were randomly allocated to two groups to receive either bupivacaine 0.25% (1 ml/kg) with fentanyl 1 μg/kg and clonidine 1μg/kg (group I) or bupivacaine 0.25% (1 ml/kg) with fentanyl 1 μg/kg (group II). Caudal block was performed after the induction of general anesthesia. Postoperatively patients were observed for analgesia, sedation, hemodynamic parameters, and side effects or complications. Both the groups were similar with respect to patient and various block characteristics. Heart rate and blood pressure were not different in 2 groups. Significantly prolonged duration of post-operative analgesia was observed in group I (Pfentanyl as additives to bupivacaine in single shot caudal epidural in children may provide better and longer analgesia after infraumblical surgical procedures.

  4. A caudal proliferating growth center contributes to both poles of the forming heart tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Gert; Abu-Issa, Radwan; de Boer, Bouke A; Hutson, Mary R; de Boer, Piet A J; Soufan, Alexandre T; Ruijter, Jan M; Kirby, Margaret L; van den Hoff, Maurice J B; Moorman, Antoon F M

    2009-01-30

    Recent studies have shown that the primary heart tube continues to grow by addition of cells from the coelomic wall. This growth occurs concomitantly with embryonic folding and formation of the coelomic cavity, making early heart formation morphologically complex. A scarcity of data on localized growth parameters further hampers the understanding of cardiac growth. Therefore, we investigated local proliferation during early heart formation. Firstly, we determined the cell cycle length of primary myocardium of the early heart tube to be 5.5 days, showing that this myocardium is nonproliferating and implying that initial heart formation occurs solely by addition of cells. In line with this, we show that the heart tube rapidly lengthens at its inflow by differentiation of recently divided precursor cells. To track the origin of these cells, we made quantitative 3D reconstructions of proliferation in the forming heart tube and the mesoderm of its flanking coelomic walls. These reconstructions show a single, albeit bilateral, center of rapid proliferation in the caudomedial pericardial back wall. This center expresses Islet1. Cell tracing showed that cells from this caudal growth center, besides feeding into the venous pole of the heart, also move cranially via the dorsal pericardial mesoderm and differentiate into myocardium at the arterial pole. Inhibition of caudal proliferation impairs the formation of both the atria and the right ventricle. These data show how a proliferating growth center in the caudal coelomic wall elongates the heart tube at both its venous and arterial pole, providing a morphological mechanism for early heart formation.

  5. The hydrodynamic principle for the caudal fin shape of small aquatic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongsu; Park, Yong-Jai; Cho, Kyu-Jin; Kim, Ho-Young

    2014-11-01

    The shape of caudal fins of small aquatic animals is completely different from that of large cruising animals like dolphin and tuna which have high aspect-ratio lunate tail. To unveil the physical principle behind natural selection of caudal fins of small aquatic animals, here we investigate the hydrodynamics of an angularly reciprocating plate as a model for the caudal fin oscillation. We find that the thrust production of a reciprocating plate at high Strouhal numbers is dominated by generation of two distinct vortical structures associated with the acceleration and deceleration of the plate regardless of their shape. Based on our observations, we construct a scaling law to predict the thrust of the flapping plate, which agrees well with the experimental data. We then seek the optimal aspect ratio to maximize thrust and efficiency of a flapping plate for fixed flapping frequency and amplitude. Thrust is maximized for the aspect ratio of approximately 0.7. We also theoretically explain the power law behaviors of the thrust and efficiency as a function of the aspect ratio.

  6. Caudal Pneumaticity and Pneumatic Hiatuses in the Sauropod Dinosaurs Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedel, Mathew J.; Taylor, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal pneumaticity is found in the presacral vertebrae of most sauropod dinosaurs, but pneumaticity is much less common in the vertebrae of the tail. We describe previously unrecognized pneumatic fossae in the mid-caudal vertebrae of specimens of Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus. In both taxa, the most distal pneumatic vertebrae are separated from other pneumatic vertebrae by sequences of three to seven apneumatic vertebrae. Caudal pneumaticity is not prominent in most individuals of either of these taxa, and its unpredictable development means that it may be more widespread than previously recognised within Sauropoda and elsewhere in Saurischia. The erratic patterns of caudal pneumatization in Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus, including the pneumatic hiatuses, show that pneumatic diverticula were more broadly distributed in the bodies of the living animals than are their traces in the skeleton. Together with recently published evidence of cryptic diverticula—those that leave few or no skeletal traces—in basal sauropodomorphs and in pterosaurs, this is further evidence that pneumatic diverticula were widespread in ornithodirans, both across phylogeny and throughout anatomy. PMID:24205162

  7. MODELO AUTORREGRESIVO BILINEAL APLICADO A LA PREDICCIÓN MENSUAL DE CAUDALES EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Cadavid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se aplica un modelo estocástico bilineal, el cual inicialmente es propuesto para análisis de retornos financieros y otros sistemas complejos combinando la alta no linealidad y multiplicidad del ruido. Este modelo, por su carácter aleatorio, no tiene componente determinística que permita considerar la persistencia de los caudales en una aplicación a la Hidrología. Por lo tanto, se propone el acoplamiento entre la parte determinística de un modelo autorregresivo de orden 2 y el modelo estocástico bilineal como componente aleatorio, y se obtiene un modelo autorregresivo bilineal (MAB. El MAB se empleó para la predicción de caudales en ventanas de 3, 6 y 12 meses en 12 ríos de Colombia de diferentes regiones del país. El MAB tiene una estructura simple y muestra una mejora sustancial en la disminución de los errores para los caudales máximos y mínimos en el período de validación respecto de los modelos estocásticos tradicionales.

  8. Postoperative analgesia in children: A comparison of three different doses of caudal epidural morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Baduni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Caudal epidural block is the most commonly used neuraxial block in children. Morphine has been used as a caudal additive for more than three decades. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and duration of analgesia of three different doses of caudal epidural morphine (CEM, and to find out the incidence of side effects. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 75 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists grades I and II, aged 2-12 years, undergoing lower abdominal and urogenital surgeries. Patients were randomly allocated to one of the three groups according to the dose of morphine. Group I received 30 μg/kg, group II 50 μg/kg, and group III 70 μg/kg. Heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, electrocardiogram, pain score, sedation score, duration of analgesia, and side-effects were noted. Results: The mean duration of analgesia was 8.63 h in group I, 13.36 h in group II and 19.19 h in group III. Respiratory depression was noted in three patients in group III. One patient in group I had itching. One patient each in groups I, II, and III had nausea/vomiting. Conclusion: CEM significantly prolongs the duration of analgesia, though with a higher dose the risk of respiratory depression should always be kept in mind.

  9. Postoperative Analgesia in Children- Comparative Study between Caudal Bupivacaine and Bupivacaine plus Tramadol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Doda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty children, ASAI-II, aged between 2yrs-5yrs, undergoing sub umbilical operation (inguinal and penile surgery were selected for this double blind study. They were randomly divided in two groups, group Aand group B. Group A(n15 received 0.25%bupivacaine 0.5ml.kg -1 and Group B (n=15 received 0.25% bupivaeaine 0.5ml.kg -1 and tramadol 2mg.kg -1 as single shot caudal block. Postoperative pain was assessed by a modified TPPPS (Toddler-Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale and analgesic given only when the score was more than 3. In the first 24 hrs it was observed that the mean duration of time interval between the caudal block and first dose of analgesic was significantly long(9. lhrs in Group B as compared to Group A (6.3hrs which was much shorter(p< 0.01.There was no significant haemodynamie changes, motor weakness or respiratory depression in both groups. This study con-cluded that addition of tramadol 2mg.kg -1 to caudal 0.25% bupivacaine 0.5ml.kg -1 significantly prolong the duration of postoperative analgesia in children withoutprodueing much adverse effects.

  10. Caudal pneumaticity and pneumatic hiatuses in the sauropod dinosaurs Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedel, Mathew J; Taylor, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal pneumaticity is found in the presacral vertebrae of most sauropod dinosaurs, but pneumaticity is much less common in the vertebrae of the tail. We describe previously unrecognized pneumatic fossae in the mid-caudal vertebrae of specimens of Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus. In both taxa, the most distal pneumatic vertebrae are separated from other pneumatic vertebrae by sequences of three to seven apneumatic vertebrae. Caudal pneumaticity is not prominent in most individuals of either of these taxa, and its unpredictable development means that it may be more widespread than previously recognised within Sauropoda and elsewhere in Saurischia. The erratic patterns of caudal pneumatization in Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus, including the pneumatic hiatuses, show that pneumatic diverticula were more broadly distributed in the bodies of the living animals than are their traces in the skeleton. Together with recently published evidence of cryptic diverticula--those that leave few or no skeletal traces--in basal sauropodomorphs and in pterosaurs, this is further evidence that pneumatic diverticula were widespread in ornithodirans, both across phylogeny and throughout anatomy.

  11. An FGF3-BMP Signaling Axis Regulates Caudal Neural Tube Closure, Neural Crest Specification and Anterior-Posterior Axis Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew J; Schimmang, Thomas; Lewandoski, Mark

    2016-05-01

    During vertebrate axis extension, adjacent tissue layers undergo profound morphological changes: within the neuroepithelium, neural tube closure and neural crest formation are occurring, while within the paraxial mesoderm somites are segmenting from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). Little is known about the signals between these tissues that regulate their coordinated morphogenesis. Here, we analyze the posterior axis truncation of mouse Fgf3 null homozygotes and demonstrate that the earliest role of PSM-derived FGF3 is to regulate BMP signals in the adjacent neuroepithelium. FGF3 loss causes elevated BMP signals leading to increased neuroepithelium proliferation, delay in neural tube closure and premature neural crest specification. We demonstrate that elevated BMP4 depletes PSM progenitors in vitro, phenocopying the Fgf3 mutant, suggesting that excessive BMP signals cause the Fgf3 axis defect. To test this in vivo we increased BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants by removing one copy of Noggin, which encodes a BMP antagonist. In such mutants, all parameters of the Fgf3 phenotype were exacerbated: neural tube closure delay, premature neural crest specification, and premature axis termination. Conversely, genetically decreasing BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants, via loss of BMP receptor activity, alleviates morphological defects. Aberrant apoptosis is observed in the Fgf3 mutant tailbud. However, we demonstrate that cell death does not cause the Fgf3 phenotype: blocking apoptosis via deletion of pro-apoptotic genes surprisingly increases all Fgf3 defects including causing spina bifida. We demonstrate that this counterintuitive consequence of blocking apoptosis is caused by the increased survival of BMP-producing cells in the neuroepithelium. Thus, we show that FGF3 in the caudal vertebrate embryo regulates BMP signaling in the neuroepithelium, which in turn regulates neural tube closure, neural crest specification and axis termination. Uncovering this FGF3-BMP signaling axis is

  12. Comparative study of caudal clonidine and midazolam added to bupivacaine during infra-umbilical surgeries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana Sanwatsarkar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that the addition of both clonidine (1 μg/kg and midazolam (30 μg/kg with bupivacaine administered caudally significantly increase the duration of postoperative analgesia with minimal side-effects in children. The use of clonidine as an additive to bupivacaine in caudal epidural is a superior choice to midazolam as it reduces the demand of postoperative rescue analgesics significantly.

  13. Incertidumbres en Mediciones de Caudal con Perfiladores de Corriente Acústicos Doppler desde Plataformas Móviles

    OpenAIRE

    Tarrab, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    Tesis (DCI)--FCEFN-UNC, 2013 Determina la incertidumbre en las mediciones de caudal con Perfiladores de Corriente Acústicos Doppler (ADCP) desde plataformas móviles a los fines de optimizar las técnicas de medición y elaborar recomendaciones para minimizar los errores (sesgo e incertidumbre aleatoria) en el uso de las técnicas de medición de caudales.

  14. Analgesia caudal continua guiada por ultrasonido en una paciente de 4 años Caudal anesthesia ultrasound-guided continuos flow in patient 4 years

    OpenAIRE

    A. Beltrán Franco; M. M. Pelaez Hernández; C. E. Restrepo-Garcés; C. M. Gómez Bermúdez; G. A. Molina

    2013-01-01

    La epidural caudal es la técnica más popular en anestesia y analgesia regional pediátrica. El empleo de una guía ecográfica en este procedimiento, aunque aún no es un estándar, podría disminuir los riesgos inherentes a la técnica tradicional y ofrecer algunas ventajas. Nosotros describimos el caso de una niña de 4 años sometida a una resección de un rabdomiosarcoma en muslo izquierdo con metástasis ganglionar inguinal e implantación de catéteres para braquiterapia; a quien se le colocó un cat...

  15. INTRAVENOUS DEXAMETHASONE IN COMBINATION WITH CAUDAL BLOCK PROLONGS POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA IN PEDIATRIC DAYCARE SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murni Sari Ahmad, Arbi; Azarinah, Izaham; Esa, Kamaruzaman; Khairulamir, Zainuddin; Hamidah, Ismail; Norsidah Abdul, Manap

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine if intravenous dexamethasone combined with caudal block was able to prolong post-operative analgesia in pediatric daycare surgeries. Sixty four ASA I or II children aged 3 to 10 year old scheduled for daycare open unilateral herniotomy received general anesthesia and caudal block using 0.25% levobupivacaine 0.75 mg.kg(-1) with suppository paracetamol 30 mg.kg(-1). After anesthesia induction, they were randomized to receive either intravenous dexamethasone 0.5 mg.kg(-1) (Group I) or same volume intravenous normal saline (Group II). Postoperatively, pain scores were assessed using Wong- Baker faces scale. At home, their parents assessed and recorded the pain scores, time to first oral paracetamol served and frequency of paracetamol given in two consecutive days post surgery. On the third postoperative day, these information were gathered from the parents via a phone call. There were statistically significant differences between Group I and Group II in the median time to first paracetamol (800 vs 520 min, p = 0.01), mean pain scores postoperative day 1 (1.9 ± 2.0 vs 3.5 ± 2.2, p = 0.05), mean pain score-postoperative day 2 (0.8 ± 1.6 vs 2.3 ± 2.0, p = 0.03) and mean frequencies of paracetamol given on postoperative day 2 (0.3 ± 0.8 vs 1.1 ± 1.0, p = 0.02). A single intravenous dexamethasone dose when combined with caudal block reduces postoperative pain, decreases paracetamol requirement and prolongs analgesic duration in children after open herniotomy.

  16. Systematization, distribution and territory of the caudal cerebral artery on the brain's surface of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarílis Díaz de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Meleagris gallopavo heads with their neck segments were used. Animals were contained and euthanized with the association of mebezonium iodide, embutramide and tetracaine hydrochloride (T 61, Intervet by intravenous injection. The arterial system was rinsed with cold saline solution (15°C, with 5000IU heparin and filled with red-colored latex. The samples were fixed in 20% formaldehyde for seven days. The brains were removed with a segment of cervical spinal cord and after, the dura-mater was removed and the arteries dissected. The cerebral carotid arteries, after the intercarotid anastomosis, were projected around the hypophysis, until they reached the tuber cinereum and divided into their terminal branches, the caudal branch and the rostral branch. The rostral branch was projected rostrolateralwards and gave off, in sequence, two collateral branches, the caudal cerebral and the middle cerebral arteries and the terminal branch was as cerebroethmoidal artery. The caudal cerebral artery of one antimere formed the interhemispheric artery, which gave off dorsal hemispheric branches to the convex surface of both antimeres. Its dorsal tectal mesencephalic branch, of only one antimere, originated the dorsal cerebellar artery. In the interior of the cerebral transverse fissure, after the origin of the dorsal tectal mesencephalic artery, the caudal cerebral artery emitted occipital hemispheric branches, pineal branches and medial hemispheric branches, on both antimeres. The caudal cerebral artery's territory comprehended the entire surface of the dorsal hemioptic lobe, the rostral surface of the cerebellum, the diencephalic structures, the caudal pole and the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere and in the convex surface, the sagittal eminence except for its most rostral third. Due to the asymmetry found in the caudal cerebral arteries' ramifications, the models were classified into three types and their respective subtypes.

  17. Morphometric characteristics of caudal cranial nerves at petroclival region in fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdogmus, Omer; Saban, Enis; Ozkan, Mazhar; Yildiz, Sercan Dogukan; Verimli, Ural; Cakmak, Ozgur; Arifoglu, Yasin; Sehirli, Umit

    2016-06-01

    Morphometric measurements of cranial nerves in posterior cranial fossa of fetus cadavers were carried out in an attempt to identify any asymmetry in their openings into the cranium. Twenty-two fetus cadavers (8 females, 14 males) with gestational age ranging between 22 and 38 weeks (mean 30 weeks) were included in this study. The calvaria were removed, the brains were lifted, and the cranial nerves were identified. The distance of each cranial nerve opening to midline and the distances between different cranial nerve openings were measured on the left and right side and compared. The mean clivus length and width were 21.2 ± 4.4 and 13.2 ± 1.5 mm, respectively. The distance of the twelfth cranial nerve opening from midline was shorter on the right side when compared with the left side (6.6 ± 1.1 versus 7.1 ± 0.8 mm, p = 0.038). Openings of other cranial nerves did not show such asymmetry with regard to their distance from midline, and the distances between different cranial nerves were similar on the left and right side. Cranial nerves at petroclival region seem to show minimal asymmetry in fetuses.

  18. Comparison of Lidocaine and Lidocaine-Meperidine Combination for Caudal Epidural Analgesia in Mares

    OpenAIRE

    BİRİCİK, Halil Selçuk

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare some haemodynamic and clinical parameters and the analgesic, sedative effects of lidocaine and a lidocaine-meperidine combination for caudal epidural analgesia in mares. This study was performed on 12 thoroughbred mares aged 13-24 years. Time to onset of analgesia in the combination group (6.67 ± 0.42 min) was significantly (P < 0.01) lower than in the lidocaine group (12.17 ± 1.05 min). However, duration of analgesia was significantly (P &a...

  19. Exploring alternative models of rostral-caudal patterning in the zebrafish neurectoderm with computer simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, Ajay B; Itoh, Motoyuki

    2004-08-01

    The StarLogo and NetLogo programming environments allow developmental biologists to build computer models of cell-cell interactions in an epithelium and visualize emergent properties of hypothetical genetic regulatory networks operating in the cells. These environments were used to explore alternative models that show how a posteriorizing morphogen gradient might define gene-expression domains along the rostral-caudal axis in the zebrafish neurectoderm. The models illustrate how a hypothetical genetic network based on auto-activation and cross-repression could lead to establishment of discrete non-overlapping gene-expression domains. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Use of CO2 laser as an adjunctive treatment for caudal stomatitis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John R; Tsugawa, Anson J; Reiter, Alexander M

    2007-12-01

    Lasers have become a popular tool in veterinary practice, particularly the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. In humans, the CO2 laser is used most commonly in oral and maxillofacial soft tissue surgery due to its favorable interactions with oral soft tissues. Other types of lasers are better suited for use on hard tissues such as enamel and dentin. This article reviews the history of laser use, physics of laser-tissue interaction, delivery systems, and laser types used in dentistry and oral surgery. This is followed by a case report describing the use of CO2 laser as an adjunctive treatment for therapy of refractory caudal stomatitis in a cat.

  1. A histoenzymological investigation of the caudal neurosecretory system in six species of freshwater teleosts: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A C

    1989-01-01

    Enzymecytochemical features of the caudal neurosecretory system of 6 species of freshwater teleosts, Gudusia chapra, Gonialosa manmina (Clupeidae, Clupeiformes), Oxygaster bacaila (Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes), Mystus bleekeri (Bagridae, Cypriniformes), Sciaena coiter (Scienidae, Perciformes), and Mastacembelus pancalus (Mastacembelidae, Mastacembeliformes) have been investigated with the help of several specific histochemical techniques. No sex-dependent variation have been observed in the enzymecytochemical characteristics of the caudal neurosecretory system of the present species. The Dahlgren cells show intense RNA activity. Caudal neurosecretion lacks carbohydrate but seems to possess small amount of lipid. Acid-phosphatase is located in the Dahlgren cells and axons. Alkaline-phosphatase has been observed in the Dahlgren cells, axons, and urophysial blood-capillaries. Acetylcholine esterase is present in the Dahlgren cells, axons, and urophysis of Mystus, Mastacembelus, and Gonialosa, but lacking in the other 3 species. It is concluded that the caudal neurosecretory system of Mystus, Mastacembelus, and Gopialosa is innervated by cholinergic neurons. Despite their different taxonomic positions, caudal neurosecretory system of all 6 species produce similar responses to various enzymecytochemical tests, except for acetylcholine esterase.

  2. Dinosaur speed demon: the caudal musculature of Carnotaurus sastrei and implications for the evolution of South American abelisaurids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Scott Persons

    Full Text Available In the South American abelisaurids Carnotaurus sastrei, Aucasaurus garridoi, and, to a lesser extent Skorpiovenator bustingorryi, the anterior caudal ribs project at a high dorsolateral inclination and have interlocking lateral tips. This unique morphology facilitated the expansion of the caudal hypaxial musculature at the expense of the epaxial musculature. Distinct ridges on the ventrolateral surfaces of the caudal ribs of Aucasaurus garridoi are interpreted as attachment scars from the intra caudofemoralis/ilio-ischiocaudalis septa, and confirm that the M. caudofemoralis of advanced South American abelisaurids originated from a portion of the caudal ribs. Digital muscle models indicate that, relative to its overall body size, Carnotaurus sastrei had a substantially larger M. caudofemoralis than any other theropod yet studied. In most non-avian theropods, as in many extant sauropsids, the M. caudofemoralis served as the primary femoral retractor muscle during the locomotive power stroke. This large investment in the M. caudofemoralis suggests that Carnotaurus sastrei had the potential for great cursorial abilities, particularly short-burst sprinting. However, the tightly interlocking morphology of the anterior caudal vertebrae implies a reduced ability to make tight turns. Examination of these vertebral traits in evolutionary context reveals a progressive sequence of increasing caudofemoral mass and tail rigidity among the Abelisauridae of South America.

  3. Extracellular Recording of Light Responses from Optic Nerve Fibers and the Caudal Photoreceptor in the Crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Steven C; Van Hoof, Alexander G; Le, Chi C; Dearworth, James R

    2015-01-01

    Few laboratory exercises have been developed using the crayfish as a model for teaching how neural processing is done by sensory organs that detect light stimuli. This article describes the dissection procedures and methods for conducting extracellular recording from light responses of both the optic nerve fibers found in the animal's eyestalk and from the caudal photoreceptor located in the ventral nerve cord. Instruction for ADInstruments' data acquisition system is also featured for the data collection and analysis of responses. The comparison provides students a unique view on how spike activities measured from neurons code image-forming and non-image-forming processes. Results from the exercise show longer latency and lower frequency of firing by the caudal photoreceptor compared to optic nerve fibers to demonstrate evidence of different functions. After students learn the dissection, recording procedure, and the functional anatomy, they can develop their own experiments to learn more about the photoreceptive mechanisms and the sensory integration of modalities by these light-responsive interneurons.

  4. Caudal anesthesia with sedation for inguinal hernia repair in high risk neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balent, Eric; Edwards, Mary; Lustik, Michael; Martin, Paul

    2014-08-01

    The use of caudal anesthesia with sedation (CAS) has theoretical benefits over general anesthesia (GA) in high risk neonates undergoing inguinal hernia repair. This benefit has not been established in clinical studies. We compare outcomes of these two approaches at a single institution. A retrospective review was performed of all neonates and preterm infants undergoing inguinal hernia over an 8year period. Of 71 infants meeting inclusion criteria, 50 underwent repair with caudal block and systemic sedation, and 21 with general anesthesia. Minor incidents of respiratory depression requiring non invasive interventions were common in the first 24h post operatively (24% for CAS, 14% with GA), 4% of patients receiving CAS had a respiratory complication which prolonged their hospital stay beyond 24h post operation. Both required conversion to general anesthesia. Statistically significant differences between the two groups were lacking in terms of preoperative risk and post operative outcome. CAS is a safe, effective anesthetic option for high risk neonates undergoing inguinal hernia repair. Patients requiring conversion to GA from CAS may be at increased risk for complications. Large, randomized trials are needed to determine any benefit over GA. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The anatomy and histology of caudal autotomy and regeneration in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Emily A B; Payne, Samantha L; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Caudal autotomy-the ability to self-detach the tail-is a dramatic adaptation common to many structural-grade lizards. For most species, tail loss is followed by the equally dramatic phenomenon of tail regeneration. Here we review the anatomy and histology of caudal autotomy and regeneration in lizards, drawing heavily from research published over the past 2 decades. The autotomous tail is characterized by various structural adaptations, which act to minimize blood loss and trauma to adjacent tissues. The early phase of wound healing involves a leukocytic response but limited inflammation. Reepithelialization via a specialized wound epithelium is not only critical for scar-free healing but also necessary for subsequent tissue patterning and regenerative outgrowth. Regeneration begins with the formation of the blastema, a mass of proliferating mesenchymal-like cells. As the blastema expands, it is invaded by blood vessels and the spinal cord. Whereas the replacement tail outwardly resembles the original appendage, it differs in several notable respects, including the tissue composition and organization of the skeleton, muscular system, and spinal cord. Increasingly, the lizard tail is being recognized among biomedical scientists as an important model for the study of wound healing and multitissue restoration.

  6. Anatomical Variation of Human Sacral Hiatus Its Morphometry and Clinical Importance in Caudal Epidural Anesthesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ashish Khokhariya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The sacrum is a bone which contributes to the formation of the pelvic girdle. It has piqued the interest of anatomists, forensic scientists and physicians, especially anaesthetists because of its unique value in gender estimation in medico- legal proceedings as well as the importance of its anatomical structure in relation to the technique of giving caudal anaesthesia. Material & Method:-This study was carried out on 200 dry human sacrum in Bone store of Anatomy Department, B.J Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Parameters of sacral hiatus such as shape, level of apex and base, length, antero-posterior (AP diameter at apex, and intercornual distance along with distance between supero-lateral sacral crests and their distance from apex of sacral hiatus were studied. Results: Various shapes of sacral hiatus were observed which included inverted U, inverted V, irregular, dumbbell, bifid and absent of sacral hiatus. Conclusion: The understanding of the sacral hiatus anatomy helps to define landmarks clinically used during the procedure of caudal anaesthesia.

  7. A population of caudally migrating cranial neural crest cells: functional and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonnell, I M; McKay, I J; Graham, A

    2001-08-15

    The deployment of the cranial neural crest is central to the patterning of the skeletomuscular elements of the vertebrate head, with cranial muscles invariably attaching to skeletal elements formed by crest from the same axial level. Here we demonstrate, through gene expression analysis, ablation studies and fate-mapping, the existence of a population of caudally migrating cranial crest that arise from the postotic neural tube. As with the rest of the postotic crest, these cells express the transcription factor Mafb, and this marker can be used to highlight their posterior migration. They pass out between the anterior somite and the otic vesicle, before turning caudally and running along the base of the somites. With long-term fate mapping, we show that these cells migrate to the clavicle and settle at the site of formation of the attachment point for the cleidohyoid muscle. As such, the influence of the cranial neural crest in organising skeletomuscular connectivity seems to extend beyond the head into the trunk. These results are of further importance as they help explain how, even though the pectoral girdle and the skull became physically dissociated during tetrapod evolution, skeletomuscular connectivity has been maintained. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Caudal epidural analgesia using lidocaine alone or in combination with ketamine in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Azari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the analgesic effect of lidocaine and a combination of lidocaine and ketamine following epidural administration in dromedary camels. Ten 12–18-month-old camels were randomly divided into two equal groups. In group L, the animals received 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg and in group LK the animals received a mixture of 10% ketamine (1 mg/kg and 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg administered into the first intercoccygeal (Co1–Co2 epidural space while standing. Onset time and duration of caudal analgesia, sedation level and ataxia were recorded after drug administration. Data were analysed by U Mann-Whitney tests and significance was taken as p < 0.05. The results showed that epidural lidocaine and co-administration of lidocaine and ketamine produced complete analgesia in the tail, anus and perineum. Epidural administration of the lidocaine-ketamine mixture resulted in mild to moderate sedation, whilst the animals that received epidural lidocaine alone were alert and nervous during the study. Ataxia was observed in all test subjects and was slightly more severe in camels that received the lidocaine-ketamine mixture. It was concluded that epidural administration of lidocaine plus ketamine resulted in longer caudal analgesia in standing conscious dromedary camels compared with the effect of administering lidocaine alone.

  9. Caudal Epidural Analgesia in Pediatric Patients: Comparison of 0.25% Levobupivacaine and 0.25% Ropivacaine in Terms of Motor Blockade and Postoperative Analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    P Praveen; Remadevi, R.; Pratheeba, N.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Ropivacaine and Levo-Bupivacaine have been safely used for caudal anaesthesia in children, but there are limited studies comparing the efficacy of 0.25% Ropivacaine and 0.25% Levo-Bupivacaine for caudal anaesthesia in infraumbilical surgeries. Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of motor blockade and postoperative analgesia with 0.25% ropivacaine and 0.25% levobupivacaine for the caudal block in children receiving infraumbilical surgery. Settings and Design: This...

  10. Evaluación de la sensibilidad de los caudales máximos de diseño ante la influencia del cambio climático

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Yulia; Corredor, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    El calentamiento global producirá cambios en el patrón de precipitaciones de todo el planeta. Esto alterará el comportamiento de los caudales de los ríos. Al cambiar el régimen de caudales se produce no sólo un cambio en los valores medios sino también en los valores extremos. Los valores extremos representan los caudales mínimos de sequía hidrológica y los caudales máximos de las grandes avenidas. Estos últimos son importantes en el diseño estructural de los puentes que habilitan la intersec...

  11. Experimental Study on Oscillating Wing for Propulsor with Bending Mechanism Modeled on Caudal Muscle-Skeletal Structure of Tuna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Hirohisa; Nakao, Seitaroh; Kobayashi, Shun-Ichi

    The purpose of our study is to investigate the effect of the caudal fin behavior resulting from the caudal muscle-skeletal structure of tuna on the propulsive force. A propulsion system by tuna-like fin stroke using two air rubber artificial muscles and a multi-joint bending mechanism (a tuna-like bending mechanism) modeled on the antagonism muscles and the caudal skeletal structure of tuna was developed. In order to realize instructed oscillation of a wing, a method of continuous path follow-up control of a wing in water was discussed in regard to the control of the internal pressure of the artificial muscles. It was found that the optimum control method for the tuna-like bending mechanism was the pressure control of the artificial muscles with both feedforward and pressure feedback compensations. The propulsion performance on a deformable wing using the propulsion system was discussed.

  12. Ultrasound-Guided Pudendal Block is a Viable Alternative to Caudal Block for Hypospadias Surgery: a Single Surgeon Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Sarah; Piñeda, Jorge; Bayne, Aaron

    2017-11-16

    To evaluate pudendal nerve block as an alternative to caudal block for hypospadias surgery. Data were obtained by chart review. Children who underwent hypospadias repair between 2012 and 2016 by a single surgeon at an academic institution were included. Patients received ultrasound-guided pudendal block (n=21) or caudal block (n=19) as a regional adjunct to general anesthesia. Primary outcomes included analgesic requirement and postoperative length of stay in the recovery unit. The pudendal block cohort was slightly older (27.6 vs. 18.5 months, p = 0.017) and had more severe hypospadias than the caudal block cohort (53% vs. 35% proximal hypospadias, respectively). We detected no statistically significant difference in intraoperative opioid, postoperative opioid, or nonopioid analgesic requirement (17.9 vs. 12.9 mcg fentanyl, p=0.267; 0.3 vs. 0.3 doses, p = 0.92; 0.2 vs. 0.1 doses, p= 0.46, respectively). Postoperative length of stay was significantly shorter in the pudendal block cohort (96 vs. 128 minutes, p=0.016). We are the first to report the use of ultrasound-guided pudendal block for hypospadias repair. This appears to be a safe, effective alternative to caudal block with no perioperative delays. Pudendal block has several advantages over caudal block. It avoids the risks of urinary retention and lower extremity weakness and can be administered to older patients and children with spinal anomalies. Compared to caudal block, ultrasound-guided pudendal nerve block is safe, provides equivalent pain control for hypospadias repair, and results in a shorter time to discharge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Selective nerve root blocks vs. caudal epidural injection for single level prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc - A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhir; Kumar, Sanjiv; Chahal, Gaurav; Verma, Reetu

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lumbar radiculopathy has a lifetime prevalence of 5.3% in men and 3.7% in women. It usually resolves spontaneously, but up to 30% cases will have pronounced symptoms even after one year. A prospective randomized single-blind study was conducted to compare the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid injection and selective nerve root block in management of pain and disability in cases of lumbar disc herniation. Eighty patients with confirmed single-level lumbar disc herniation were equally divided in two groups: (a) caudal epidural and (b) selective nerve root block group, by a computer-generated random allocation method. The caudal group received three injections of steroid mixed with local anesthetics while selective nerve root block group received single injection of steroid mixed with local anesthetic agent. Patients were assessed for pain relief and reduction in disability. In SNRB group, pain reduced by more than 50% up till 6 months, while in caudal group more than 50% reduction of pain was maintained till 1 year. The reduction in ODI in SNRB group was 52.8% till 3 months, 48.6% till 6 months, and 46.7% at 1 year, while in caudal group the improvement was 59.6%, 64.6%, 65.1%, and 65.4% at corresponding follow-up periods, respectively. Caudal epidural block is an easy and safe method with better pain relief and improvement in functional disability than selective nerve root block. Selective nerve root block injection is technically more demanding and has to be given by a skilled anesthetist.

  14. Secuencia de displasia caudal: Estudio clínico y radiológico de un paciente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Arévalo Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La secuencia de displasia caudal (SDC, denominada también síndrome de regresión caudal y síndrome de agenesia sacra, es una malformación congénita poco frecuente, que incluye principalmente agenesia con extensión variable de cuerpos vertebrales distales lumbosacrococcígeos y/o sacrococcígeos. En este trabajo se presentan criterios diagnósticos por imagen, clasificación y estudio de un caso clínico.

  15. Responses of primate caudal parabrachial nucleus and Kolliker-fuse nucleus neurons to whole body rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Carey D.; McGee, David M.; Zhou, Jianxun; Scudder, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    The caudal aspect of the parabrachial (PBN) and Kolliker-Fuse (KF) nuclei receive vestibular nuclear and visceral afferent information and are connected reciprocally with the spinal cord, hypothalamus, amygdala, and limbic cortex. Hence, they may be important sites of vestibulo-visceral integration, particularly for the development of affective responses to gravitoinertial challenges. Extracellular recordings were made from caudal PBN cells in three alert, adult female Macaca nemestrina through an implanted chamber. Sinusoidal and position trapezoid angular whole body rotation was delivered in yaw, roll, pitch, and vertical semicircular canal planes. Sites were confirmed histologically. Units that responded during rotation were located in lateral and medial PBN and KF caudal to the trochlear nerve at sites that were confirmed anatomically to receive superior vestibular nucleus afferents. Responses to whole-body angular rotation were modeled as a sum of three signals: angular velocity, a leaky integration of angular velocity, and vertical position. All neurons displayed angular velocity and integrated angular velocity sensitivity, but only 60% of the neurons were position-sensitive. These responses to vertical rotation could display symmetric, asymmetric, or fully rectified cosinusoidal spatial tuning about a best orientation in different cells. The spatial properties of velocity and integrated velocity and position responses were independent for all position-sensitive neurons; the angular velocity and integrated angular velocity signals showed independent spatial tuning in the position-insensitive neurons. Individual units showed one of three different orientations of their excitatory axis of velocity rotation sensitivity: vertical-plane-only responses, positive elevation responses (vertical plane plus ipsilateral yaw), and negative elevation axis responses (vertical plane plus negative yaw). The interactions between the velocity and integrated velocity components

  16. Fluoroscopically guided tunneled trans-caudal epidural catheter technique for opioid-free neonatal epidural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Andrew D; Hughes, Elisabeth M

    2016-06-01

    Epidural analgesia confers significant perioperative advantages to neonates undergoing surgical procedures but may be very technically challenging to place using a standard interlaminar loss-of-resistance to saline technique given the shallow depth of the epidural space. Thoracic epidural catheters placed via the caudal route may reduce the risk of direct neural injury from needle placement, but often pose higher risks of infection and/or improper positioning if placed without radiographic guidance. We present a detailed method of placing a fluoroscopically guided, tunneled transcaudal epidural catheter, which may reduce both of these risks. The accuracy and precision of this technique often provides adequate analgesia to allow for opioid-free epidural infusions as well as significant reductions in systemic opioids through the perioperative period. Opioid-free analgesia using a regional anesthetic technique allows for earlier extubation and reduced perioperative sedation, which may have a less deleterious neurocognitive effect on the developing brain of the neonate.

  17. Identification of QTL for dorso-caudal chronic pleuritis in 12 crossbred porcine families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, V R; Sørensen, K K; Christensen, O F

    2010-01-01

    Pleuropneumonia is a major problem in pig production. At the time of slaughter, chronic pleuritis (CP) developed from pleuropneumonia is a common finding, and breeding for a reduced incidence of CP using marker-assisted selection (MAS) would be advantageous. Before applying MAS, quantitative trait...... loci (QTL) or markers associated with the prevalence of CP should be identified. In this study, 7470 pigs from crosses between 12 Danish Duroc boars and 604 sows (Danish Landrace × Danish Large White) were evaluated for CP located on the dorso-caudal part of the lungs. Quantitative trait loci were...... identified within boar families using both a Binomial logistic regression method and a chi-square test of association. Significant QTL for CP were detected on Sus scrofa chromosomes (SSC) 2, 8, 12, 13, 14 and 18 using both methods. One QTL on SSC 8 was also detected across families. For the QTL identified...

  18. Sobre remisión de caudales en las fragatas "Gloria" y "Santa Agueda" 1794

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    de Historia Social y de la Cultura Anuario Colombiano

    1969-01-01

    del Despacho Universal de Hacienda de los caudales que Oficiales Reales de Cartagena de Indias y de las Cajas Reales de su cargo remiten registrados en las dos Fragatas de Guerra, a saber, en la "Santa Agueda", del mando del Capitán de Fragata don Marcelo Espinola, y de que es Maestre don Alejandro de Lanas, y la titulada "Gloria", del mando del Capitán de Navío don Miguel Goycochea, y de que es Maestre don Luis Muñoz, que todo se ha de entregar al señor Presidente Juez de Arribadas del Puerto de Cádiz, para que desde allí les de su respectivo destino, en la forma siguiente.

  19. Conserved size and periodicity of pyramidal patches in layer 2 of medial/caudal entorhinal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Robert K.; Ray, Saikat; Prokop, Stefan; Las, Liora; Heppner, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To understand the structural basis of grid cell activity, we compare medial entorhinal cortex architecture in layer 2 across five mammalian species (Etruscan shrews, mice, rats, Egyptian fruit bats, and humans), bridging ∼100 million years of evolutionary diversity. Principal neurons in layer 2 are divided into two distinct cell types, pyramidal and stellate, based on morphology, immunoreactivity, and functional properties. We confirm the existence of patches of calbindin‐positive pyramidal cells across these species, arranged periodically according to analyses techniques like spatial autocorrelation, grid scores, and modifiable areal unit analysis. In rodents, which show sustained theta oscillations in entorhinal cortex, cholinergic innervation targeted calbindin patches. In bats and humans, which only show intermittent entorhinal theta activity, cholinergic innervation avoided calbindin patches. The organization of calbindin‐negative and calbindin‐positive cells showed marked differences in entorhinal subregions of the human brain. Layer 2 of the rodent medial and the human caudal entorhinal cortex were structurally similar in that in both species patches of calbindin‐positive pyramidal cells were superimposed on scattered stellate cells. The number of calbindin‐positive neurons in a patch increased from ∼80 in Etruscan shrews to ∼800 in humans, only an ∼10‐fold over a 20,000‐fold difference in brain size. The relatively constant size of calbindin patches differs from cortical modules such as barrels, which scale with brain size. Thus, selective pressure appears to conserve the distribution of stellate and pyramidal cells, periodic arrangement of calbindin patches, and relatively constant neuron number in calbindin patches in medial/caudal entorhinal cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:783–806, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26223342

  20. Comparison of adding neostigmine and fentanyl to bupivacaine in caudal analgesia in pediatric inguinal herniorrhaphy

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    Omid Aghadavoudi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: The aim of the present trial was to compare efficacy and adverse effects of neostigmine against fentanyl when used as adjuvant to bupivacaine in caudal anesthesia.Method: A total of 140 children, aged 1-6 year scheduled to elective herniorrhaphy, were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were sacral area infection, history of allergic reactions to local anesthetics, bleeding tendency, neurological or spinal disease and lack of parent consent. Patients were assigned, using permuted block randomization method, into four groups of 35. Children in the first group received a caudal injection of 0.5 ml/kg bupivacaine 0.25% plus fentanyl 1µ/kg. The second group received 0.5 ml/kg bupivacaine 0.25% plus neostigmine 1µ/kg. Patients in the third group received 0.5 ml/kg bupivacaine 0.25% plus combination of fentanyl 1µ/kg and neostigmine 1µ/kg, and those in the fourth group only received 0.5 ml/kg bupivacaine 0.25% concentration. To assess pain intensity, Wong-Baker Scale was used. Time to first analgesic request and the dosage of analgesic agent was recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0.Results:Significant differences were observed among groups in terms of number of patients needing analgesic (p=0.01, time to first analgesic request (p=0.005 and analgesic dose. (p=0.05 The lowest number of requests for analgesia, lowest dose of pethidine and longest time to first analgesic request were in patients receiving combination of bupivacaine, neostigmine and fentanyl.Conclusion: The present study shows that the combination of fentanyl and neostigmine, could prolong duration of analgesia, and decrease severity of pain when added to bupivacaine

  1. Involvement of the caudal raphe nuclei in the feeding behavior of rats

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    Takase L.F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of the caudal raphe nuclei (raphe pallidus, RPa; raphe magnus, RMg, and raphe obscurus, ROb in feeding behavior of adult rats was studied by measuring c-Fos protein expression, in animals submitted to the "meal-feeding" model of food restriction in which the rats were fed ad libitum only from 7:00 to 9:00 h, for 15 days. The experimental groups submitted to chronic fasting, named 'search for food' (SF, 'ingestion of food' (IF and 'satiety of food' (SaF were scheduled after a previous study in which the body weight and the general and feeding behaviors were evaluated by daily monitoring. Acute, 48-h fasting (AF was used as control. In the chronic group, the animals presented a 16% reduction in body weight in the first week, followed by a continuous, slow rise in weight over the subsequent days. Entrainment of the sleep-wake cycle to the schedule of food presentation was also observed. The RPa was the most Fos immunopositive nucleus in the chronic fasting group, followed by the RMg. The ANOVA and Tukey test (P<0.05 confirmed these results. The IF group was significantly different from the other three groups, as also was the number of labeled cells in the RPa in SF and IF groups. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed between RMg and RPa, or RMg and ROb in the SaF and AF. However, it is interesting to observe that the groups in which the animals were more active, searching for or ingesting food, presented a larger number of labeled cells. These results suggest a different involvement of the caudal raphe nuclei in the somatic and autonomic events of feeding behavior, corroborating the functions reported for them earlier.

  2. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.rainwater@tiehh.ttu.edu; Wu, Ted H. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Yu Lu [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Reynolds, Kevin D. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Barr, Brady [National Geographic Channel, 1145 17th St. NW Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States); Cobb, George P. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  3. C8 cross transfer for the treatment of caudal brachial plexus avulsion in three dogs.

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    Moissonnier, Pierre; Carozzo, Claude; Thibaut, Jean-Laurent; Escriou, Catherine; Hidalgo, Antoine; Blot, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the cervical nerve 8 cross-transfer technique (C8CT) as a part of surgical treatment of caudal brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) in the dog. Case series. Client-owned dogs suspected to have caudal BPA based on neurological examination and electrophysiological testing (n = 3). The distal stump of the surgically transected contralateral C8 ventral branch (donor) was bridged to the proximal stump of the avulsed C8 ventral branch (recipient) and secured with 9-0 polypropylene suture under an operating microscope. A carpal panarthrodesis was performed on the injured limb after C8CT. Surgical exploration confirmed avulsion of nerve roots C7, C8, and T1 in all cases. There was no evidence of an iatrogenic effect on the donor forelimb. Gradual improvement in function of the affected forelimb occurred in all dogs, with eventual recovery of voluntary elbow extension. Reinnervation was evident in EMG recordings 6 months postoperatively in all three dogs. Stimulation of the donor C8 ventral branch led to motor evoked potentials in the avulsed side triceps brachialis and radial carpus extensor muscles. Variable functional outcome was observed in the 3 dogs during clinical evaluation 3-4 years after surgery. Digital abrasion wounds, distal interphalangeal infectious arthritis, and self-mutilation necessitated distal phalanx amputation of digits 3 and 4 in 2 dogs. C8CT provided partial reconnection of the donor C8 ventral branch to the avulsed brachial plexus in the 3 dogs of this series. Reinnervation resulted in active elbow extension and promoted functional recovery in the affected limb. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  4. Tail loss incidence in the Chihuahuan fringe toed-lizard Uma paraphygas (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae Incidencia de autotomía caudal en la lagartija de arena de Chihuahua Uma paraphygas (Sauria: Phrynosomatidae

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    Gamaliel Castañeda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed lizard population density and tail loss frequency in 2 populations of Uma paraphygas to determine if the proportion of lizards with tail loss was different between populations, sexes, and age classes. Also, we estimated unbroken and regenerated tail growth rates for adult males and females, and juveniles. Data were collected between fall 1997 and summer 1999. Tail loss incidence was relatively low overall, but was significantly higher at the site (Dune 1 with lower vegetation cover. Adult lizards showed a higher tail loss frequency than juveniles at the site with higher vegetation density (Dune 2; there was no difference between adult males and females in both dunes. Observations on 33 lizards with bite marks suggest that intraspecific encounters are not a direct cause of caudal autotomy in this species. The caudal growth rates of lizards were similar for unbroken and regenerated tails between sexes and among age classes.Analizamos la densidad poblacional y la frecuencia de autotomía caudal en 2 poblaciones de Uma paraphygas para determinar si la proporción de lagartijas con cola regenerada fue diferente entre poblaciones, sexos y clases de edad. También estimamos las tasas de crecimiento de la cola en regeneración y la original para machos y hembras adultas y juveniles. Los datos se tomaron estacionalmente desde el otoño de 1997 hasta el verano de 1999. La incidencia de pérdida de cola fue relativamente baja en proporción con la densidad poblacional y fue mayor en la población con menor cobertura vegetal (Duna 1. Las lagartijas adultas presentaron mayor autotomía caudal sólo en la población con mayor vegetación (Duna 2; sin embargo, no hubo diferencia entre machos y hembras adultos en ambas poblaciones. Observaciones en 33 lagartijas con marcas de mordidas sugieren que los encuentros intraespecíficos no causan directamente la autotomía caudal en esta especie. Las tasas de crecimiento de la cola original y regenerada de

  5. Targeting of the Plzf Gene in the Rat by Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nuclease Results in Caudal Regression Syndrome in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

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    František Liška

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been found that spontaneous mutation Lx (polydactyly-luxate syndrome in the rat is determined by deletion of a conserved intronic sequence of the Plzf (Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein gene. In addition, Plzf is a prominent candidate gene for quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR. In the current study, we tested the effects of Plzf gene targeting in the SHR using TALENs (transcription activator-like effector nucleases. SHR ova were microinjected with constructs pTAL438/439 coding for a sequence-specific endonuclease that binds to target sequence in the first coding exon of the Plzf gene. Out of 43 animals born after microinjection, we detected a single male founder. Sequence analysis revealed a deletion of G that resulted in frame shift mutation starting in codon 31 and causing a premature stop codon at position of amino acid 58. The Plzftm1Ipcv allele is semi-lethal since approximately 95% of newborn homozygous animals died perinatally. All homozygous animals exhibited manifestations of a caudal regression syndrome including tail anomalies and serious size reduction and deformities of long bones, and oligo- or polydactyly on the hindlimbs. The heterozygous animals only exhibited the tail anomalies. Impaired development of the urinary tract was also revealed: one homozygous and one heterozygous rat exhibited a vesico-ureteric reflux with enormous dilatation of ureters and renal pelvis. In the homozygote, this was combined with a hypoplastic kidney. These results provide evidence for the important role of Plzf gene during development of the caudal part of a body-column vertebrae, hindlimbs and urinary system in the rat.

  6. Use of skin stretching techniques before bilateral caudal superficial epigastric axial flaps in a dog with severe burns.

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    Zingel, Michelle M; Sakals, Sherisse A

    2017-08-01

    This report describes how 2 days of skin stretching facilitated a tension-free closure of single event bilateral caudal superficial epigastric flaps in a dog with severe hindquarter burns. Full healing at all surgical sites with only minor dehiscence and without further treatment or abnormalities of gait or coat regrowth was achieved.

  7. Assessment of Caudal Fin Clips as a Non-lethal Technique for Predicting Muscle Tissue Mercury Concentrations in Largeouth Bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The statistical relationship between total mercury (Hg) concentration in clips from the caudal fin and muscle tissue of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from 26 freshwater sites in Rhode Island, USA was developed and evaluated to determine the utility of fin clip analysis ...

  8. Effect of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy: multicentre, blinded, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iversen, T.; Solberg, T.K.; Romner, B.; Wilsgaard, T.; Twisk, J.W.; Anke, A.; Nygaard, O.; Hasvold, T.; Ingebrigtsen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy in the short (6 weeks), intermediate (12 weeks), and long term (52 weeks). Design: Multicentre, blinded, randomised controlled trial. Setting: Outpatient multidisciplinary back clinics of

  9. Pitch Variability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; van Doorn, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) pitch characteristics of connected speech in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The authors evaluated 16 patients preoperatively and 12 months after DBS surgery. Eight…

  10. Caudal Nucleus Accumbens Core Is Critical in the Regulation of Cue-Elicited Approach-Avoidance Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Laurie; Thangarasa, Tharshika; Samadi, Osai; Ito, Rutsuko

    2017-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is thought to be a site of integration of positively and negatively valenced information and action selection. Functional differentiation in valence processing has previously been found along the rostrocaudal axis of the shell region of the NAc in assessments of unconditioned motivation. Given that the core region of the NAc has been implicated in the elicitation of motivated behavior in response to conditioned cues, we sought to assess the role of caudal, intermediate, and rostral sites within this subregion in cue-elicited approach-avoidance decisions. Rats were trained to associate visuo-tactile cues with appetitive, aversive, and neutral outcomes. Following the successful acquisition of the cue-outcome associations, rats received microinfusions of GABAA and GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol/baclofen) or saline into the caudal, intermediate, or rostral NAc core and were then exposed to a superimposition of appetitively and aversively valenced cues versus neutral cues in a "conflict test," as well as to the appetitive versus neutral cues, and aversive cues versus neutral cues, in separate conditioned preference/avoidance tests. Disruption of activity in the intermediate to caudal parts of the NAc core resulted in a robust avoidance bias in response to motivationally conflicting cues, as well as a potentiated avoidance of aversive cues as compared with control animals, coupled with an attenuated conditioned preference for the appetitive cue. These results suggest that the caudal NAc core may have the capacity to exert bidirectional control over appetitively and aversively motivated responses to valence signals.

  11. Longer than expected-duration of caudal analgesia with two different doses of levobupivacaine in children undergoing hypospadias repair.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thies, K.C.; Driessen, J.J.; Gwan Kho, H.; Kwak, K.; Knoll, J.; Gier, R.P.E. de; Feitz, W.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess our study design and to obtain preliminary data for a dose-effect study on levobupivacaine for caudal analgesia in patients undergoing hypospadias repair. STUDY DESIGN: non randomised, non-blinded pilot study. METHOD: For this non-randomized, non-blinded pilot study, 20 patients

  12. Capturing the Cranio-Caudal Signature of a Turn with Inertial Measurement Systems: Methods, Parameters Robustness and Reliability

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    Karina Lebel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTurning is a challenging mobility task requiring coordination and postural stability. Optimal turning involves a cranio-caudal sequence (i.e., the head initiates the motion, followed by the trunk and the pelvis, which has been shown to be altered in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease as well as in fallers and frails. Previous studies have suggested that the cranio-caudal sequence exhibits a specific signature corresponding to the adopted turn strategy. Currently, the assessment of cranio-caudal sequence is limited to biomechanical labs which use camera-based systems; however, there is a growing trend to assess human kinematics with wearable sensors, such as attitude and heading reference systems (AHRS, which enable recording of raw inertial signals (acceleration and angular velocity from which the orientation of the platform is estimated. In order to enhance the comprehension of complex processes, such as turning, signal modeling can be performed.AimThe current study investigates the use of a kinematic-based model, the sigma-lognormal model, to characterize the turn cranio-caudal signature as assessed with AHRS.MethodsSixteen asymptomatic adults (mean age = 69.1 ± 7.5 years old performed repeated 10-m Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG with 180° turns, at varying speed. Head and trunk kinematics were assessed with AHRS positioned on each segments. Relative orientation of the head to the trunk was then computed for each trial and relative angular velocity profile was derived for the turn phase. Peak relative angle (variable and relative velocity profiles modeled using a sigma-lognormal approach (variables: Neuromuscular command amplitudes and timing parameters were used to extract and characterize the cranio-caudal signature of each individual during the turn phase.ResultsThe methodology has shown good ability to reconstruct the cranio-caudal signature (signal-to-noise median of 17.7. All variables

  13. Oviduct binding ability of porcine spermatozoa develops in the epididymis and can be advanced by incubation with caudal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Santiago; Summers, Phillip; Gummow, Bruce; Paris, Damien B B P

    2015-06-01

    The sperm reservoir is formed when spermatozoa bind to the epithelium of the uterotubal junction and caudal isthmus of the oviduct. It is an important mechanism that helps synchronize the meeting of gametes by regulating untimely capacitation and polyspermic fertilization. This study investigated the influence of epididymal maturation and caudal fluid on the ability of spermatozoa to bind to oviduct epithelium using a model porcine oviduct explant assay. Spermatozoa from the rete testis, middle caput (E2-E3), middle corpus (E6), and cauda (E8) of Large White or Large White × Landrace boars aged 10 to 14 months were diluted in modified Androhep solution and incubated with porcine oviduct explants. Results reported in this study support our hypothesis that testicular spermatozoa need to pass through the regions of the epididymis to acquire the ability to bind to the oviduct. There was a sequential increase in the number of spermatozoa that bound to oviduct explants from the rete testis to caudal epididymis. Binding of caudal spermatozoa to isthmic explants was the highest (15.0 ± 1.2 spermatozoa per 1.25 mm(2), mean ± standard error of the mean; P ≤ 0.05) and lowest by spermatozoa from the rete testis (2.0 ± 0.3 per 1.25 mm(2)), and higher to isthmus from sows compared to gilts (35.8 ± 6.7 per 1.25 mm(2) vs. 14.8 ± 3.0 per 1.25 mm(2); P ≤ 0.05). Binding of ejaculated spermatozoa to porcine isthmus was higher than that for caudal spermatozoa (26.3 ± 1.4 per 1.25 mm(2) vs. 15.0 ± 0.8 per 1.25 mm(2); P ≤ 0.05) and higher to porcine than to bovine isthmus (26.3 ± 2.3 per 1.25 mm(2) vs. 18.8 ± 1.9 per 1.25 mm(2); P ≤ 0.05). Incubation of spermatozoa from the caput and corpus in caudal fluid increased the ability of spermatozoa to bind to the oviduct epithelium (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the capacity of testicular spermatozoa to bind to the oviduct epithelium increases during their maturation in the epididymis and can be advanced by components of the

  14. Ecology and caudal skeletal morphology in birds: the convergent evolution of pygostyle shape in underwater foraging taxa.

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    Ryan N Felice

    Full Text Available Birds exhibit a specialized tail that serves as an integral part of the flight apparatus, supplementing the role of the wings in facilitating high performance aerial locomotion. The evolution of this function for the tail contributed to the diversification of birds by allowing them to utilize a wider range of flight behaviors and thus exploit a greater range of ecological niches. The shape of the wings and the tail feathers influence the aerodynamic properties of a bird. Accordingly, taxa that habitually utilize different flight behaviors are characterized by different flight apparatus morphologies. This study explores whether differences in flight behavior are also associated with variation in caudal vertebra and pygostyle morphology. Details of the tail skeleton were characterized in 51 Aequornithes and Charadriiformes species. Free caudal vertebral morphology was measured using linear metrics. Variation in pygostyle morphology was characterized using Elliptical Fourier Analysis, a geometric morphometric method for the analysis of outline shapes. Each taxon was categorized based on flight style (flap, flap-glide, dynamic soar, etc. and foraging style (aerial, terrestrial, plunge dive, etc.. Phylogenetic MANOVAs and Flexible Discriminant Analyses were used to test whether caudal skeletal morphology can be used to predict flight behavior. Foraging style groups differ significantly in pygostyle shape, and pygostyle shape predicts foraging style with less than 4% misclassification error. Four distinct lineages of underwater foraging birds exhibit an elongate, straight pygostyle, whereas aerial and terrestrial birds are characterized by a short, dorsally deflected pygostyle. Convergent evolution of a common pygostyle phenotype in diving birds suggests that this morphology is related to the mechanical demands of using the tail as a rudder during underwater foraging. Thus, distinct locomotor behaviors influence not only feather attributes but also

  15. The Efficacy of Continuous Negative Pressure and Irrigation Treatment Inside the Wound by a Closed System in Reconstruction of All Layers of the Cranium Accompanying Infection and Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Mai; Rikimaru, Hideaki; Migita, Hisashi; Sakata, Kensuke; Kiyokawa, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    There have been many reports to date with respect to treatments on reconstruction of the cranium without accompanying infections following trauma and tumor resection. The morality is, however, high in patients observed with generation of cranial bone defect of all layers accompanying infection and cerebrospinal fluid leakage, and moreover, there are barely any reports on such cases because of the reconstruction thereof being very difficult. In this study, the authors were able to cure such 2 cases by carrying out continuous negative pressure and irrigation treatment inside the wound by a closed system following transplant of free latissimus dorsi muscle flap. This method is believed to be very effective for cranial bone defect of all layers accompanying infection and cerebrospinal fluid leakage, in which treatment was determined to be very difficult.

  16. Recovering missing data: estimating position and size of caudal vertebrae in Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando N. Grillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Missing data is a common problem in paleontology. It makes it difficult to reconstruct extinct taxa accurately and restrains the inclusion of some taxa on comparative and biomechanical studies. Particularly, estimating the position of vertebrae on incomplete series is often non-empirical and does not allow precise estimation of missing parts. In this work we present a method for calculating the position of preserved middle sequences of caudal vertebrae in the saurischian dinosaur Staurikosaurus pricei, based on the length and height of preserved anterior and posterior caudal vertebral centra. Regression equations were used to estimate these dimensions for middle vertebrae and, consequently, to assess the position of the preserved middle sequences. It also allowed estimating these dimensions for non-preserved vertebrae. Results indicate that the preserved caudal vertebrae of Staurikosaurus may correspond to positions 1-3, 5, 7, 14-19/15-20, 24-25/25-26, and 29-47, and that at least 25 vertebrae had transverse processes. Total length of the tail was estimated in 134 cm and total body length was 220-225 cm.Dados lacunares são um problema comum na paleontologia. Eles dificultam a reconstrução acurada de táxons extintos e limitam a inclusão de alguns táxons em estudos comparativose biomecânicos. Particularmente, estimar a posição de vértebras em séries incompletas tem sido feito com base em métodos não empíricos que não permitem estimar corretamente as partes ausentes. Neste trabalho apresentamos uma metodologia que permite estimar a posição de sequências médias preservadas de vértebras caudais no dinossauro saurísquio Staurikosaurus pricei, com base no comprimento e altura dos centros das vértebras anteriores e posteriores preservadas. Equações de regressão foram usadas para estimar essas dimensões para as vértebras médias e, consequentemente, para posicionar as sequências médias preservadas e para estimar o tamanho das

  17. Comparable effectiveness of caudal vs. trans-foraminal epidural steroid injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Lattes, Sergio; Weiss, Andrew; Found, Ernest; Zimmerman, Bridget; Gao, Yubo

    2009-01-01

    Retrospective case-control study. To compare the effectiveness between caudal and trans-foraminal epidural steroid injections for the treatment of primary lumbar radiculopathy. Spinal injections with steroids play an important role in non-operative care of lumbar radiculopathy. The trans-foraminal epidural steroid injection (TESI) theoretically has a higher success rate based on targeted delivery to the symptomatic nerve root. To our knowledge, these results have not been compared with other techniques of epidural steroid injection. 93 patients diagnosed with primary lumbar radiculopathy of L4, L5, or SI were recruited for this study: 39 received caudal epidural steroid injections (ESI) and 54 received trans-foraminal epidural steroid injections (TESI). Outcomes scores included the SF-36, Oswestry disability index (ODI) and pain visual analogue scale (VAS), and were recorded at baseline, post-treatment (1 year). The average follow-up was 2 years, and 16 patients were lost to follow-up. The endpoint "surgical intervention" was a patient-driven decision, and considered failure of treatment. Intent-to-treat analysis, and comparisons included t-test, Chi-square, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Baseline demographics and outcomes scores were comparable for both treatment groups (ESI vs. TESI): (SF-36 PCS (32.3 +/- 7.5 vs. 29.5 +/- 8.9 respectively; p = 0.173), MCS (41.2 +/- 12.7 vs. 41.1 +/- 10.9, respectively; p = 0.971), and VAS (7.4 +/-2.1 vs. 7.9 +/- 1.2, respectively; p = 0.228)). Surgery was indicated for failure of treatment at a similar rate for both groups (41.0% vs. 44.4%, p=0.743). Symptom improvement was comparable between both treatment groups (ESI vs. TESI): SF-36 PCS improved to 42.0+/-11.8 and 37.7+/-12.3, respectively; p=0.49; ODI improved from 50.0+/-21.2 to 15.6+/-17.9and from 62.1+/-17.9 to 26.1+/-20.3, respectively (p=0.407). The effectiveness of TESI is comparable to that of ESI (approximately 60%) for the treatment of primary lumbar radiculopathy. The

  18. Functional anatomy of the caudal thoracolumbar and lumbosacral spine in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, N C; Hodges, P W; Jeffcott, L B; Cowin, G; Hodgson, D R; McGowan, C M

    2006-08-01

    Research in spinal biomechanics and functional anatomy has advanced back pain research in man. Yet, despite the performance limiting nature of back pain in horses, there are few data for the equine spine. To describe aspects of functional anatomy of the equine thoracolumbar and lumbosacral (LS) spine and potential effects on performance. The first study investigated variations in LS vertebral formula by post mortem examination of 120 horses. Midline vertebral transection was carried out on 65 Thoroughbred (TB), 24 Standardbred (SB) and 31 other breeds. The second study investigated morphology and biomechanics of the deep stabilising epaxial muscles of 13 horses using MRI (n = 3), anatomical dissection (n = 11) and biomechanical analysis (n = 6). The spinous process angular orientation relative to the vertebral body, was analysed at vertebrae T13, T18, L3, L5, L6 and S1. LS variations were found in 33.3% of the total group, 40.0% TB and 45.2% others, but 0% SB. Sacralisation of lumbar vertebra (L) 6 with LS motion between L5 and L6 occurred in 32.3% TB and 29.0% others. Five segmental multifidus fascicles were identified originating from spinous processes and vertebral laminae running craniocaudally onto the mammillary processes and lateral border of the sacrum, crossing between 1-5 intervertebral discs. Sacrocaudalis dorsalis (SCD) lateralis muscle was an extension of multifidus from L4, L5 and L6 depending on the vertebral formula whereas SCD medialis mm originated from S3. Both inserted on caudal vertebrae. Based on the location and direction of fibres, the principal action of the deep epaxial muscles was dorsoventral sagittal rotation. This action was dependent on vertebral spinous process/body orientation. We hypothesise that equine multifidus and SCD lateralis muscles act as caudal sagittal rotators of their vertebra of origin, as is the case in man, allowing dynamic stabilisation during dorsoventral motion. Equine multifidus anatomy and function are

  19. Formation of body appendages during caudal regeneration in Platynereis dumerilii: adaptation of conserved molecular toolsets

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    Jan Grimmel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platynereis and other polychaete annelids with homonomous segmentation are regarded to closely resemble ancestral forms of bilateria. The head region comprises the prostomium, the peristomium, a variable number of cephalized body segments and several appendages, like cirri, antennae and palps. The trunk of such polychaetes shows numerous, nearly identical segments. Each segment bears a parapodium with species-specific morphology on either side. The posterior end of the trunk features a segment proliferation zone and a terminal pygidium with the anus and anal cirri. The removal of a substantial part of the posterior trunk is by no means lethal. Cells at the site of injury dedifferentiate and proliferate forming a blastema to regenerate both the pygidium and the proliferation zone. The pygidium forms new anal cirri, and the proliferation zone generates new segments at a rapid pace. The formation of body appendages like the cirri and the segmental parapodia can thus be studied in the caudal regenerate of Platynereis within only a few days. Results The development of body appendages in Platynereis is regulated by a network of genes common to polychaetes but also shared by distant taxa. We isolated DNA sequences from P. dumerilii of five genes known to be involved in appendage formation within other groups: Meis/homothorax, Pbx1/extradenticle, Dlx/Distal-less, decapentaplegic and specific protein 1/buttonhead. Analyses of expression patterns during caudal regeneration by in situ hybridization reveal striking similarities related to expression in arthropods and vertebrates. All genes exhibit transient expression during differentiation and growth of segments. As was shown previously in other phyla Pdu-Meis/hth and Pdu-Pbx1/exd are co-expressed, although the expression is not limited to the proximal part of the parapodia. Pdu-Dll is prominent in parapodia but upregulated in the anal cirri. No direct dependence concerning Pdu-Dll and

  20. Frontal mucocele with intracranial extension causing frontal lobe syndrome.

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    Weidmayer, Sara

    2015-06-01

    Mucoceles are mucus-containing cysts that form in paranasal sinuses; although mucoceles themselves are benign, this case report highlights the extensive damage they can cause as their expansion may lead to bony erosion and extension of the mucocele into the orbit and cranium; it also presents a rarely reported instance of frontal sinus mucocele leading to frontal lobe syndrome. A thorough discussion and review of mucoceles is included. A 68-year-old white man presented with intermittent diplopia and a pressure sensation in the right eye. He had a history of chronic sinusitis and had had endoscopic sinus surgery 5 years prior. A maxillofacial computed tomography scan revealed a large right frontal sinus mucocele, which had caused erosion along the medial wall of the right orbit and the outer and inner tables of the right frontal sinus. The mucocele had protruded both into the right orbit and intracranially, causing mass effect on the frontal lobe, which led to frontal lobe syndrome. The patient was successfully treated with endoscopic right ethmoidectomy, radial frontal sinusotomy, marsupialization of the mucocele, and transcutaneous irrigation. Paranasal sinus mucoceles may expand and lead to bony erosion and can become very invasive in surrounding structures such as the orbit and cranium. This case not only exhibits a very rare presentation of frontal sinus mucocele with intracranial extension and frontal lobe mass effect causing a frontal lobe syndrome but also demonstrates many of the ocular and visual complications commonly associated with paranasal sinus mucoceles. Early identification and surgical intervention is vital for preventing and reducing morbidity associated with invasive mucoceles, and the patient must be followed regularly to monitor for recurrence.

  1. Efficacy of Epidural Steroid Injection in Management of Lumbar Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc: A Comparison of Caudal, Transforaminal and Interlaminar Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ritesh Arvind

    2016-07-01

    Epidural steroid is an important modality in the conservative management of prolapsed lumbar disc and is being used for over 50 years. However, controversy still persists regarding their effectiveness in reducing the pain and improving the function with literature both supporting and opposing them are available. To study the efficacy of epidural steroid injection in the management of pain due to prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc and to compare the effectiveness between caudal, transforaminal and interlaminar routes of injection. A total of 152 patients with back pain with or without radiculopathy with a lumbar disc prolapse confirmed on MRI, were included in the study and their pre injection Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) Score was calculated. By simple randomization method (picking a card), patients were enrolled into one of the three groups and then injected methyl prednisone in the epidural space by one of the techniques of injection i.e. caudal, transforaminal and interlaminar. Twelve patients didn't turn up for the treatment and hence were excluded from the study. Remaining 140 patients were treated and were included for the analysis of the results. Eighty two patients received injection by caudal route, 40 by transforaminal route and 18 by interlaminar route. Post injection JOA Score was calculated at six month and one year and effectiveness of the medication was calculated for each route. The data was compared by LSD and ANOVA method to prove the significance. Average follow-up was one year. At one year after injecting the steroid, all three routes were found to be effective in improving the JOA Score (Caudal route in 74.3%, transforaminal in 90% and interlaminar in 77.7%). Transforaminal route was significantly more effective than caudal (p=0.00) and interlaminar route (p=0.03) at both 6 months and one year after injection. No significant difference was seen between the caudal and interlaminar route (p=0.36). The management of low back pain and

  2. Os arranjos configurados pelas artérias mesentéricas cranial e caudal no pato doméstico (Cairina moshata

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    Marcos Rogério Alves Pinto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Herewith we studied the pattern disposition of the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries in 30 domestic ducks (Cairina moshata, 20 males and 10 females. Latex 650 was injected in the arterial system and then the samples were fixed in 10% aquous formol solution for later dissection. The cranial mesenteric artery originates as a single vessel from the descendent aorta at the 6th or 7th rib, in a position immediately caudal to the celiac artery. Close to the ileo-cecum-colic junction, it subdivides itself primarily in 3 branches: the first branch gives away a vessel that goes to the colorectum, forming anastomosys with the caudal mesenteric artery. The second branch follows as a trunk to the jejunal arteries, that vary in numbers from 8-20. Finally the third branch is directed to the main and final portions of the right cecum and also ileo, vascularizing them. Concerning the pattern followed by the caudal mesenteric artery, we observed that it originates from the aorta as a single vessel, next to the caudal portions of the kidneys. In all observed samples the caudal mesenteric artery divides itself in 2 branches: a cranial one, that by itself gives away two smaller vessels to the mesorectum and a caudal branch that vascularizes the final portion of the rectum, cloacal bursa and cloaca.

  3. Persistent cauda equina syndrome after caudal epidural injection under severe spinal stenosis: a case report

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    Seo YT

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Young Tak Seo,1 Hyun Ho Kong,1 Goo Joo Lee,1 Heui Je Bang1,2 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Chungbuk National University Hospital, 2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea Abstract: Caudal epidural injection (CEI is one of the most common treatments for low-back pain with sciatica. CEI rarely leads to neurologic complications. We report a case of persistent cauda equina syndrome after CEI. A 44-year-old male patient with severe L4 and L5 spinal stenosis underwent CEI for low-back pain and sciatica. The CEI solution consisted of bupivacaine, hyaluronidase, triamcinolone acetonide, and normal saline. He experienced motor weakness and sensory loss in both lower extremities and neurogenic bladder for more than 1 year after the procedure. His ankle dorsiflexors, big-toe extensors, and ankle plantar flexors on both sides were checked and categorized as motor-power Medical Research Council grade 0. His bilateral ankle-jerk reflection was absent. An electrophysiological study showed lumbosacral polyradiculopathy affecting both sides of the L5 and S1 nerve roots. A urodynamic study revealed hypoactive neurogenic bladder affecting both sacral roots. Keywords: epidural injection, cauda equina syndrome, complications

  4. Distribution of new methylene blue injected into the caudal epidural space in cattle.

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    Lee, I; Yamagishi, N; Oboshi, K; Ayukawa, Y; Sasaki, N; Yamada, H

    2005-03-01

    To investigate the distribution of solutions injected into the first intercoccygeal epidural space, 24 adult, standing cattle were randomly assigned to 5-, 10- and 20-mL groups and injected with 0.12% new methylene blue (NMB) in 0.9% saline. Ten heifers received 1 mL NMB solution/100 kg of body weight. There was a significant correlation between the injected volume and the number of cranially stained spinal segments in three adult cattle groups (correlation coefficient R2=0.46; P<0.0001). In three cattle, NMB solution did not distribute more than one spinal segment cranially from the injection site due either to fibrosis of the epidural tissue or to inadvertent intravenous administration into the epidural vein. The study showed that the larger the volume of solution injected, the greater the spread with increased individual variation. The results could form the basis for determining the volume of injection required and for evaluating the pharmacokinetics of anaesthetics used in caudal epidural anaesthesia.

  5. A sacro-caudal spinal cord choroid plexus papilloma in a shar-pei dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannuzzi, A Pasquale; Gernone, F; Ricciardi, M; De Simone, A; Mandara, M Teresa

    2013-10-01

    A seven-year-old shar-pei dog was referred because of severe lumbosacral pain and faecal incontinence of 20 days' duration. Neurological examination was characterised by plegic tail, absence of perineal reflex, dilated anus, perineum and tail analgesia, and severe lumbosacral pain. The neurological clinical signs were suggestive of a selective lesion involving sacral and caudal spinal cord segments and/or related nerve roots. A magnetic resonance imaging of lumbosacral spine was performed and was suggestive of an intradural lesion. Primary or secondary neoplasia was considered as the most probable differential diagnosis. The dog was euthanased upon the owner's request. Histopathological examination confirmed the presence of an intradural-extramedullary neoplastic tissue enveloping intradural tract of spinal nerve roots. On the basis of histological and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of well-differentiated choroid plexus papilloma was made. To the authors's knowledge, this is the first case of primary or metastatic spinal choroid plexus papilloma in dogs. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  6. Post-operative pain relief in children following caudal bupivacaine and buprenorphine--a comparative study.

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    Anilkumar T

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-five paediatric patients (age range: 6 mths-12yrs undergoing lower abdominal surgery were studied for post-operative pain relief following either caudal bupivacaine (GpI: n = 43 or buprenorphine (GpII: n = 42. Bupivacaine was administered as 0.5ml/kg body weight of 0.25% solution and buprenorphine as 4 micrograms/ml and volume of 0.5 ml/Kg body weight in normal saline. Post-operatively pain was graded on a 4-point scale and behaviour on a 5-point scale. Any post-operative complications and need for additional analgesia were also noted. Bupivacaine provided good pain relief in the early post-operative hours but buprenorphine provided pain relief lasting for 24 hrs or more post-operatively. Post-operative behaviour of 10 patients receiving buprenorphine was graded as cheerful as compared to 2 from bupivacaine group. Till the end of observation period (i.e. 8 hr post-operatively, majority of patients receiving buprenorphine remained cheerful.

  7. Evaluation of a segmented rectal probe and caudal epidural anesthesia for electroejaculation of bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etson, Cathy J; Waldner, Cheryl L; Barth, Albert D

    2004-03-01

    Changes in concentrations of cortisol and progesterone in serial blood samples were used to quantify a stress response to different methods of electroejaculation in 10 Hereford bulls. Treatments included restraint (control), and electroejaculation using rectal probes with segmented electrodes or conventional nonsegmented electrodes, with or without lidocaine caudal epidural anesthesia. A subjective scoring system was used to assess behavioral responses to the different methods of electroejaculation. The increases in concentrations of serum cortisol and progesterone after electroejaculation were higher for all electroejaculation treatments than for restraint alone. The increases in serum progesterone concentrations were significantly lower at 5 and 20 minutes after electroejaculation with epidural anesthesia than with no anesthesia. However, the change in cortisol or progesterone concentrations did not differ after electroejaculation when comparing the conventional probe or a segmented probe at any time during the study. Subjective scoring showed no differences among electroejaculation methods. Use of epidural anesthesia was beneficial in reducing progesterone, one indicator of an endocrine stress response to electroejaculation.

  8. Expression and regulation of caudal in the lower cyclorrhaphan fly Megaselia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Michael; Lemke, Steffen; Schmidt-Ott, Urs

    2008-02-01

    The homeobox gene caudal (cad) regulates posterior development in Drosophila. In early embryos, the cad protein (CAD) is expressed in a posterior-to-anterior concentration gradient, which contributes polarity to the developing embryo. The CAD gradient is complementary to and dependent on the anterior pattern organizer Bicoid (BCD), which represses the translation of ubiquitous maternal cad transcripts in the anterior embryo through a direct interaction with the cad 3' untranslated region (UTR). Here, we show that early embryos of the lower cyclorrhaphan fly Megaselia express the putative cad orthologue Mab-cad throughout the posterior three quarters of the blastoderm but lack maternal transcripts. In transgenic blastoderm embryos of Drosophila, Mab-cad cis-regulatory DNA drives the expression of a reporter gene in a similar pattern, while Mab-cad 3' UTR fails to mediate translational repression of a ubiquitously transcribed reporter. For another lower cyclorrhaphan fly (Lonchoptera) and two related outgroup taxa of Cyclorrhapha (Empis, Haematopota), we report maternal cad expression in ovarian follicles. Together, our results suggest that BCD is not required for the translational repression of Mab-cad, and that maternal cad expression was lost in the Megaselia lineage.

  9. Anestesia caudal en paciente quirúrgico menor de 6 años de edad: Estudio retrospectivo

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    Israel Pérez Pérez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Hospital Pediátrico Docente "William Soler" se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de 50 pacientes en los que se aplicó la anestesia peridural vía caudal y se destacan como ventajas la seguridad y la sencillez de la técnica, una adecuada analgesia posoperatoria, un despertar tranquilo, un mínimo de complicaciones y una significativa reducción en los costos anestésicos.A retrospective study of 50 patients was undertaken in the Teaching Pediatric Hospital. They were applied caudal paridural anesthesia whose advantages such as safety, simplicity, adequate post-surgery analgesia, easy and relaxed wake-up, minimun adverse effects and significant reduction in anesthesia costs are all stressed.

  10. RÉGIMEN DE CAUDAL ECOLÓGICO, HERRAMIENTA DE GESTIÓN PARA CONSERVAR LA BIOTA ACUÁTICA

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Lucía Izquierdo Santacruz; Sandra Milena Madroñero Palacios

    2013-01-01

    En el presente artículo de revisión se consolidó información sobre el Régimen de Caudal Ecológico, al constituirse en una herramienta de gestión en la conservación de la Biota Acuática. De esta manera, se considera relevante informar a la comunidad académica y actores de gestión, sobre la importancia de la gestión del recurso hídrico, el análisis de conceptos sobre el caudal ambiental y ecológico, la descripción de las diferentes metodologías que permiten su determinación y la normatividad am...

  11. Predictive Factors of the Effectiveness of Caudal Epidural Steroid Injections in Managing Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain and Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billy, Gregory G; Lin, Ji; Gao, Mengzhao; Chow, Mosuk X

    2017-07-01

    Retrospective clinical outcome analysis. To evaluate and determine whether demographic, comorbid factors, or physical examination findings may predict the outcome of caudal epidural steroid injections in managing patients with chronic low back pain and radiculopathy SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:: The caudal epidural approach is commonly utilized with patients who are on anticoagulation or who have had prior lumbar surgery to treat L5 or S1 radiculopathies. A retrospective review of 136 patients undergoing an initial caudal epidural steroid injection for radiculopathy from January 1, 2006 to August 30, 2013. The patients were assessed before their injections for their pain levels: visual analog scale, presence of lumbar paraspinal and sciatic notch sensitivity, pain with provocative maneuvers, motor weakness, and sensory loss. The patients were then reassessed following their injection for their visual analog scale pain levels, percentage improvement, and duration of pain relief. Stepwise regression was used to determine whether demographic, comorbid factors, or physical examination signs were predictive of percentage improvement or length of relief following an injection. Among these variables, duration of symptoms was found to be negatively significantly related with a P-value of 0.032 for percentage of improvement. For each week of the duration of symptoms, the percentage of improvement decreased by 0.07%. Regarding physical examination findings, presence of pain with lumbar extension was negatively and significantly related to length of relief duration with a P-value of 0.0124. The mean length of relief duration is 38.37 weeks for individuals without painful lumbar extension and 14.68 weeks for individuals with painful lumbar extension CONCLUSIONS:: The mean length of relief following a caudal injection is reduced by 62% in patients who exhibit pain with lumbar extension.

  12. Comparison of preemptive intravenous paracetamol and caudal block in terms of analgesic and hemodynamic parameters in children

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    Serbülent Gökhan Beyaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Paracetamol has a widespread use for feverand symptomatic relief of pain in children. The aim ofthis study was to compare analgesic effects of preemptiveintravenous (i.v. paracetamol, and caudal block withlevobupivacaine.Materials and methods: A total of 60 children with ASAI-II physical status, aged 5-15 years and undergoing inguinalhernia repair, were randomly allocated to threegroups so that each group contained 20 patients. Group Pchildren received i.v. 15mg/kg paracetamol. Group C receivedonly caudal block with levobupivacaine, and GroupPC received both i.v. paracetamol, and caudal block withlevobupivacaine. Pain level assessed by modified EasternOntario Children’s Hospital pain scale (mCHEOPs,sedation status by Ramsey sedation scale at postoperative5, 15, 30 min and 1,3, and 6th hours.Results: No significant differences were found in age,gender distribution, body weight, ASA status, type andduration of surgery between three groups (p>0.05. Althoughsignificant difference were found in mCHEOPsscores within groups by repeated measures, no differenceof pain scores was observed between three groups(p>0.05. There were no significant differences in the hemodynamicparameters (heart rate, blood pressure bothwithin groups and between groups (p>0.05.Conclusions: Preemptive intravenous paracetamol hadsimilar analgesic effects compared with caudal block withlevobupivacaine with regard to postoperative pain scoresin children undergoing inguinal hernia repair. No hemodynamicor other adverse effects were observed withintravenous paracetamol. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(2:202-208

  13. Systematization, description and territory of the caudal cerebral artery of the brain in broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris

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    Lygia Almeida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty heads with the neck segment of Caiman latirostris were used. The animals were provided from a creation center called Mister Caiman, under the authorization of the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (Ibama. Animals were sacrificed according to the slaughtering routine of the abattoir, and the heads were sectioned at the level of the third cervical vertebra. The arterial system was washed with cold saline solution, with drainage through jugular veins. Subsequently, the system was filled with red colored latex injection. Pieces were than fixed in 20% formaldehyde, for seven days. The brains were removed, with a spinal cord segment, the duramater removed and the arteries dissected. At the level of the hypophysis, the internal carotid artery gave off a rostral branch, and a short caudal branch, continuing, naturally, as the caudal cerebral artery. This artery projected laterodorsalwards and, as it overpassed the optic tract, gave off its I (the first central branch. Penetrated in the cerebral transverse fissure, emitting the diencephalic artery and next its II (second central branch. Still inside the fissure, originated occipital hemispheric branches and a pineal branch. Emerged from the cerebral transverse fissure, over the occipital pole of the cerebral hemisphere. Projected rostralwards, sagital to the cerebral longitudinal fissure, as interhemispheric artery. This artery gave off medial and convex hemispheric branches to the respective surfaces of the cerebral hemispheres, anastomosed with its contralateral homologous, forming the common ethmoidal artery. This artery entered the fissure between the olfactory peduncles, emerging ventrally and dividing into ethmoidal arteries, right and left, which progressed towards the nasal cavities, vascularizing them. The territory of the caudal cerebral artery included the most caudal area of the base of the cerebral hemisphere, its convex surface, the olfactory

  14. Surgical management of first caudal nerve root foraminal compression secondary to intervertebral disc disease in a Cocker Spaniel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vicente, F; Pinilla, M; McConnell, J F; Bernard, F

    2012-01-01

    A nine-year-old spayed female Cocker Spaniel was investigated for an eight week history of licking and rubbing at the tail base, dullness, and signs of pain on manipulation of the tail. Left-sided intraforaminal compression of the first caudal nerve root due to intervertebral disc disease was diagnosed by radiographic, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging examinations. The dog was nonresponsive to conservative medical therapy. A decompressive left-sided first-second caudal (Cd1-Cd2) foraminotomy was performed. Postoperative computed tomography confirmed surgical decompression of the involved nerve root. At the one month follow-up examination there was marked improvement in clinical signs. At two months, clinical signs were completely resolved and there was not any evidence of recurrence twelve months after surgery. Intervertebral disc disease should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs with discomfort at the tail base or signs of pain on manipulation of the tail. Surgical decompression may be indicated for management of these cases. This is the first report of diagnosis and surgical management of caudal intervertebral disc disease by foraminotomy in the dog. Surgical decompression by foraminotomy may therefore be a treatment option for this condition.

  15. Surgical treatment of a proximal diaphyseal tibial deformity associated with partial caudal and cranial cruciate ligament deficiency and patella baja.

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    Vincenti, S; Knell, S; Pozzi, A

    2017-04-01

    Caudal cruciate ligament injury can be a complication following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) (Slocum und Slocum, 1993) especially if the post-operative Tibial Plateau Angle (TPA) is less than 5 degree. We describe a case of negative TPA associated with partial cranial and caudal ligament rupture treated with a center of rotation of angulation (CORA) based cranial tibial opening wedge osteotomy and tibial tuberosity transposition. A 13 kg, mixed breed dog was presented for right pelvic limb lameness. Radiographically a bilateral patella baja and a malformed tibia tuberosity along with a bilateral TPA of -8 degree were detected. Arthroscopically a partial rupture of the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments were found. A cranial tibial opening wedge osteotomy of 23 degree and a fibular ostectomy were performed. The osteotomy was fixed with a 8 holes ALPS 9 (KYON, Switzerland) and a 3-holes 2.0mm UniLock plate (Synthes, Switzerland). Then a proximal tibial tuberosity transposition of 10mm was performed and fixed with a pin and tension band construct. The postoperative TPA was 15 degree. The radiographic controls at 6, 10 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after surgery revealed an unchanged position of the implants and progressive healing of the osteotomies. At the 6 and 12 months recheck evaluation the dog had no evidence of lameness or stifle pain and radiographs revealed complete healing of the osteotomy site and no implant failure. The diaphyseal CORA based osteotomy allowed accurate correction of a proximal tibial deformity associated with negative TPA.

  16. Computed tomographic arthrography of the stifle for detection of cranial and caudal cruciate ligament and meniscal tears in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samii, Valerie F; Dyce, Jonathan; Pozzi, Antonio; Drost, Wm Tod; Mattoon, John S; Green, Eric M; Kowaleski, Michael P; Lehman, Amy M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of single-detector computed tomographic arthrography (CT arthrography) for the diagnosis of cranial and caudal cruciate ligament and meniscal lesions in the dog stifle. Four normal and 25 abnormal stifle joints, determined to have lesions related to intra-articular ligamentous insufficiency based on clinical history, orthopedic examination, and survey orthogonal radiographs, were imaged using a previously developed CT arthrography protocol. Surgery was performed immediately following the CT procedure. Three board-certified radiologists inexperienced at interpreting CT stifle arthrograms reviewed all CT studies independently, and then as a group, without knowledge of surgical or necropsy findings. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for determination of cranial and caudal cruciate and meniscal tears were calculated for each individual reviewer and based on group consensus. All reviewers identified the normal canine stifle joints imaged correctly. Reviewers did well in discriminating normal from torn cranial cruciate ligaments, with sensitivities of 96-100% and specificities of 75-100%. No reviewer correctly identified the solitary caudal cruciate ligament tear and specificity ranged from 89.3% to 100%. Reviewers were less adept at discriminating normal from torn meniscal fibrocartilage, with sensitivities of 13.3-73.3% and specificities of 57.1-100%. Interpretive accuracy improved slightly when consensus scores were compared with surgical findings. Single-detector CT arthrography may be useful for identifying pathology of the canine cruciate ligaments but is of limited value for assessing the menisci.

  17. Transorbital orbitocranial penetrating injury caused by a metal bar

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    Mehmet Arslan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transorbital intracranial injury is uncommon, representing 0.04% of penetrating head trauma with a high mortality rate. Orbital penetrating injuries may cause severe brain injury if the cranium is entered, typically via the orbital roof, the superior orbital fissure, or the optic canal. A 13-year-old male sustained a severe brain injury due to penetration of the right orbit with an iron bar. The bar entered the inferiomedial aspect of the orbit and emerged from the left occipital bone. Neurological examination revealed deep coma (GCS: E1M2V1 with fixed, dilated, and non-reactive pupils. The bar followed an intracranial trajectory, through the third ventricle and suprasellar cistern. The patient underwent an immediate exploration with removal of the bar. Unfortunately, he died 10 days postoperatively due to severe diencephalic injury with brainstem herniation. In this case report, we discuss the radiologic diagnosis and surgical management of transorbital orbitocranial injury by foreign body penetration.

  18. Transorbital orbitocranial penetrating injury caused by a metal bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Mehmet; Eseoğlu, Metehan; Güdü, Burhan Oral; Demir, Ismail

    2012-05-01

    Transorbital intracranial injury is uncommon, representing 0.04% of penetrating head trauma with a high mortality rate. Orbital penetrating injuries may cause severe brain injury if the cranium is entered, typically via the orbital roof, the superior orbital fissure, or the optic canal. A 13-year-old male sustained a severe brain injury due to penetration of the right orbit with an iron bar. The bar entered the inferiomedial aspect of the orbit and emerged from the left occipital bone. Neurological examination revealed deep coma (GCS: E1M2V1) with fixed, dilated, and non-reactive pupils. The bar followed an intracranial trajectory, through the third ventricle and suprasellar cistern. The patient underwent an immediate exploration with removal of the bar. Unfortunately, he died 10 days postoperatively due to severe diencephalic injury with brainstem herniation. In this case report, we discuss the radiologic diagnosis and surgical management of transorbital orbitocranial injury by foreign body penetration.

  19. Predicción no lineal de caudales medios mensuales usando funciones de influencia radial y técnicas espectrales.

    OpenAIRE

    Rojo Hernández, Julián David; Carvajal Serna, Luis Fernando

    2012-01-01

    La estrecha relación no lineal entre los caudales y los procesos climáticos de escala global justifican la modelación no lineal para la predicción de caudales. El presente trabajo muestra una aproximación a la dinámica no lineal de los caudales usando un modelo no paramétrico de regresión basado en las funciones de influencia radial y técnicas de descomposición espectral. El modelo propuesto es aplicado para la predicción de los caudales medios mensuales para horizontes de pronóstico de 1,3 y...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis of Caudal Regression Syndrome and Concomitant Anomalies in Pediatric Patients

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    Deb K Boruah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of caudal regression syndrome (CRS and concomitant anomalies in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted. The study group comprised 21 pediatric patients presenting to the Departments of Radiodiagnosis and Pediatric Surgery in a tertiary care hospital from May 2011 to April 2016. All patients were initially evaluated clinically followed by MRI. Results: In our study, 21 pediatric patients were diagnosed with sacral agenesis/dysgenesis related to CRS. According to the Pang′s classification, 2 (9.5% patients were Type I, 5 (23.8% patients were Type III, 7 (33.3% patients were Type IV, and 7 (33.3% patients were of Type V CRS. Clinically, 17 (81% patients presented with urinary incontinence, 6 (28.6% with fecal incontinence, 9 patients (42.9% had poor gluteal musculatures and shallow intergluteal cleft, 7 (33.3% patients had associated subcutaneous mass over spine, and 6 (28.6% patients presented with distal leg muscle atrophy. MRI showed wedge-shaped conus termination in 5 (23.8% patients and bulbous conus termination in 3 (14.3% patients above the L1 vertebral level falling into Group 1 CRS while 7 (33.3% patients had tethered cord and 6 (28.6% patients had stretched conus falling into Group 2 CRS. Conclusion: MRI is the ideal modality for detailed evaluation of the status of the vertebra, spinal cord, intra- and extra-dural lesions and helps in early diagnosis, detailed preoperative MRI evaluation and assessing concomitant anomalies and guiding further management with early institution of treatment to maximize recovery.

  1. One-year results of a randomized, double-blind, active controlled trial of fluoroscopic caudal epidural injections with or without steroids in managing chronic discogenic low back pain without disc herniation or radiculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; McManus, Carla D; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Smith, Howard S

    2011-01-01

    Lumbar radicular pain pathophysiology continues to be the subject of research and debate as discogenic pain is increasingly seen as a cause of non-specific low back pain. Among non-surgical methods used to manage chronic low back pain with or without disc herniation, epidural injections are one of the most common modalities. However, there is little evidence utilizing contemporary methodology for using epidural injections in patients with discogenic pain. A randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial. An interventional pain management practice, a specialty referral center, a private practice setting in the United States. To evaluate the effectiveness of caudal epidural injections with local anesthetic, with or without steroids, in managing chronic low back pain without disc herniation or radiculitis. A total of 120 patients were assigned to one of 2 groups. Group I patients received caudal epidural injections with local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5% 10 mL); Group II patients received caudal epidural injections with 9 mL of 0.5% lidocaine mixed with 1 mL of steroid (either brand name or non-particulate betamethasone [6 mg] or methylprednisolone [40 mg]). Computer-generated randomization and random allocation sequence by simple randomization were the randomization techniques utilized. Multiple outcome measures were utilized which included the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the Oswestry Disability Index 2.0 (ODI), employment status, functional status, and opioid intake at 3, 6, and 12 months post treatment. Significant pain relief and functional status improvement were described as a 50% or more reduction in scores from baseline. Significant pain relief and functional status improvement were observed in 55% of the patients in Group I and 68% of the patients in Group II. In contrast, 84% of patients in Group I and 85% in Group II saw significant pain relief and functional status improvement in the successful group (62% in Group I and 68% in Group II). The average

  2. Cloning and expression of a retinoic acid receptor β2 subtype from the adult newt: evidence for an early role in tail and caudal spinal cord regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Christopher; Clark, Alysen; Spencer, Gaynor; Carlone, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Retinoic acid receptor beta 2 (RARβ2) has been proposed as an important receptor mediating retinoid-induced axonal growth and regeneration in developing mammalian spinal cord and brain. In urodele amphibians, organisms capable of extensive central nervous system (CNS) regeneration as adults, this receptor had not been isolated, nor had its function been characterized. We have cloned a full-length RARβ2 cDNA from adult newt CNS. This receptor, NvRARβ2, is expressed in various adult organs capable of regeneration, including the spinal cord. Interestingly, both the NvRARβ2 mRNA and protein are up-regulated during the first 2 weeks after amputation of the tail, primarily in the ependymoglial and meningeal tissues near the rostral cut surface of the cord. Treatment with LE135, a RARβ-selective antagonist, caused a significant inhibition of ependymal outgrowth and a decrease in tail regenerate length. These data support an early role for this receptor in caudal spinal cord and tail regeneration in this amphibian. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Silibinin modulates caudal-type homeobox transcription factor (CDX2), an intestine specific tumor suppressor to abrogate colon cancer in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, N; Nalini, N

    2015-01-01

    To authenticate the colon cancer preventive potential of silibinin, the efficacy of silibinin needs to be tested by evaluating an organ-specific biomarker. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of silibinin on the colonic expression of the caudal-type homeobox transcription factor (CDX2) an intestine specific tumor suppressor gene and its downstream targets in the colon of rats challenged with 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine (DMH). Rats of groups 1 and 2 were treated as control and silibinin control. Rats under groups 3 and 4 were given DMH (20 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) subcutaneously) once a week for 15 consecutive weeks from the 4th week of the experimental period. In addition, group 4 rats alone were treated with silibinin (50 mg/kg b.w. per os) everyday throughout the study period of 32 weeks. Histological investigation and messenger RNA and protein expression studies were performed in the colonic tissues of experimental rats. Findings of the study revealed that DMH administration significantly decreased the expression of CDX2 and Guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) in the colon of experimental rats. Further the decreased levels of CDX2 protein, colonic mucin content, and increased number of mast cells in the colon of DMH alone-administered rats reflects the onset of carcinogenesis. The pathological changes caused due to CDX2 suppression were attenuated by silibinin supplementation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Effects of simulated microgravity on circadian rhythm of caudal arterial pressure and heart rate in rats and their underlying mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li CHEN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the effects of simulated microgravity on the circadian rhythm of rats' caudal arterial pressure and heart rate, and their underlying mechanism. Methods  Eighteen male SD rats (aged 8 weeks were randomly assigned to control (CON and tail suspension (SUS group (9 each. Rats with tail suspension for 28 days were adopted as the animal model to simulate microgravity. Caudal arterial pressure and heart rate of rats were measured every 3 hours. The circadian difference of abdominal aorta contraction was measured by aortic ring test. Western blotting was performed to determine and compare the protein expression level of clock genes such as Per2 (Period2, Bmal1 (Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocatorlike and dbp (D element binding protein in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and abdominal aorta of rats in CON and SUS group at different time points. Results  Compared with CON group, the caudal arterial pressure, both systolic and diastolic pressure, decreased significantly and the diurnal variability disappeared, meanwhile the heart rate increased obviously and also the diurnal variability disappeared in rats of SUS group. Compared with CON group, the contraction reactivity of abdominal aorta decreased with disappearence of the diurnal variability, and also the clock genes expression in SCN and abdominal aorta showed no diurnal variability in rats of SUS group. Conclusion  Simulated microgravity may lead to circadian rhythm disorders in rats' cardiovascular system, which may be associated with the changes of the clock genes expression. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.06

  5. Effects of ketamine and midazolam on emergence agitation after sevoflurane anaesthesia in children receiving caudal block: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Ozcan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Emergence agitation is a common postanaesthetic problem in children after sevoflurane anaesthesia. We aimed to compare the effects of ketamine and midazolam administered intravenously, before the end of surgery, for prevention of emergence agitation in children who received caudal block for pain relief under sevoflurane anaesthesia. Methods: 62 American Society of Anesthesiologists patient classification status I children, aged 2–7 years, scheduled for inguinal hernia repair, circumcision or orchidopexy were enrolled to the study. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane 8% in a mixture of 50% oxygen and nitrous oxide. After achieving adequate depth of anaesthesia, a laryngeal mask was placed and then caudal block was performed with 0.75 mL kg−1, 0.25% bupivacaine. At the end of the surgery, ketamine 0.25 mg kg−1, midazolam 0.03 mg kg−1 and saline were given to ketamine, midazolam and control groups, respectively. Agitation was assessed using Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and postoperative pain was evaluated with modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale. Results and conclusions: Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores were found higher in control group than in ketamine and midazolam groups. Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores were similar between groups. Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale and Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores showed a significant decrease by time in all groups during follow-up in postanaesthesia care unit. The present study resulted in satisfactory Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores which are below 10 in all groups. As a conclusion, neither ketamine nor midazolam added to caudal block under sevoflurane anaesthesia did show further effect on emergence agitation. In addition, pain relief still seems to be the major factor in preventing emergence agitation after

  6. Comparison of invasive blood pressure measurements from the caudal ventral artery and the femoral artery in male adult SD and Wistar rats.

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    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies have suggested that the caudal ventral artery is a potential site for continuous arterial blood pressure monitoring in rats. However, the agreement of mean arterial pressure values between the femoral artery and the caudal ventral artery has not been investigated. This study was performed to identify whether the caudal ventral artery could be safely used for continuous blood pressure monitoring as an alternative site to the femoral artery. METHODS: Rats were randomized into four groups: Sprague Dawley rats under normothermia; Wistar rats under normothermia; Sprague Dawley rats under hypothermia; Wistar rats under hypothermia. Each rat underwent simultaneous monitoring of blood pressure using femoral artery and caudal ventral artery catheterization during a stable hemodynamic state and three periods of acute severe hemodynamic changes. The effects of rat strain, rectal temperature, experimental time course and hemodynamic factors on pressure gradients, the concordance of mean arterial pressure values between the femoral artery and the caudal ventral artery, and the rates of distal ischemia after surgery were determined. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in the rate of distal ischemia between femoral and caudal ventral arteries after catheterization (25% vs 5%, P<0.05. The overall mean gradient and the mean gradient under a steady hemodynamic state were 4.9±3.7 mm Hg and 5.5±2.5 mm Hg, respectively. The limits of agreement (bias±1.96 SD were (-2.5 mm Hg, 12.3 mm Hg and (-0.5 mm Hg, 10.5 mm Hg, respectively. Although the concordance decreased during the first 30 sec of each period of severe hemodynamic changes, the degree of agreement was acceptable regardless of the effects of rat strain and rectal temperature. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the degree of agreement and the safety of catheterization, the caudal ventral artery may be a preferred site for continuous arterial blood pressure monitoring without acute

  7. Differential contributions of dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal prefrontal white matter tracts to cognitive control in healthy older adults.

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    Maren Strenziok

    Full Text Available Prefrontal cortex mediates cognitive control by means of circuitry organized along dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal axes. Along the dorso-ventral axis, ventrolateral PFC controls semantic information, whereas dorsolateral PFC encodes task rules. Along the rostro-caudal axis, anterior prefrontal cortex encodes complex rules and relationships between stimuli, whereas posterior prefrontal cortex encodes simple relationships between stimuli and behavior. Evidence of these gradients of prefrontal cortex organization has been well documented in fMRI studies, but their functional correlates have not been examined with regard to integrity of underlying white matter tracts. We hypothesized that (a the integrity of specific white matter tracts is related to cognitive functioning in a manner consistent with the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal organization of the prefrontal cortex, and (b this would be particularly evident in healthy older adults. We assessed three cognitive processes that recruit the prefrontal cortex and can distinguish white matter tracts along the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal dimensions -episodic memory, working memory, and reasoning. Correlations between cognition and fractional anisotropy as well as fiber tractography revealed: (a Episodic memory was related to ventral prefrontal cortex-thalamo-hippocampal fiber integrity; (b Working memory was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; and (c Reasoning was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving rostral and caudal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings confirm the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex's role in semantic control and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex's role in rule-based processing, in accordance with the dorso-ventral prefrontal cortex gradient. Reasoning-related rostral and caudal superior frontal white matter may facilitate different levels of task rule complexity. This study is the

  8. Asociación determinístico-estocástica para predicción de caudales

    OpenAIRE

    Chavasse, Diana Irene; Seoane, Rafael Santiago

    1997-01-01

    En este trabajo se propone una metodología que aplica un modelo detenninístico complejo, compuesto por uno de traslado y otro de humedad de suelo, y un modelo estocástico para simular los procesos de transformación precipitación-caudal y de propagación de crecidas en una cuenca de gran extensión. Por otra parte se realiza un experimento para analizar la capacidad de pronóstico del modelo deteminístico complejo. En la primera parte se verifica la calibración de este modelo deteminístico y s...

  9. Spumiform basement membrane aberrations in the microvasculature of the midbrain periaqueductal gray region in hamster: rostro-caudal pathogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, P O; Kortekaas, R; de Weerd, H; Luiten, P G M; van der Want, J J L; Veening, J G

    2013-01-03

    Spumiform basement membrane degeneration (sbmd) is a specific kind of aberration present in the capillaries of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) region of the senescent hamster. These capillaries, separated by the ependymal cell layer, are bordering the Sylvian cerebral aqueduct. The aqueduct, connecting the 3rd and 4th ventricle, may be crucial for local homeostatic as well as general autonomic functions of the PAG. Local pressure effects of the flowing and pulsating cerebrospinal fluid on the PAG-vasculature are probably different for the rostral 'entrance' and the caudal 'exit' of the aqueduct. In view of the different functions of the various divisions of the PAG, the frequency and extent of the aberrations in the rostral, intermediate and caudal dl/vlPAG-microvasculature could shed some light on the causal factors involved in the regional distribution of the particular microvascular aberrations found in the PAG during aging. In the present study we investigated the ultrastructure of capillaries in dorsal and ventral subdivisions of anterior and posterior regions of the PAG of young and old female Syrian hamsters. Sbmds were classified into four stages of spumiform severity and for each stage the frequency was determined in the rostral PAG, at two levels in the intermediate PAG and in a dorsal and a ventral part of the caudal PAG. Results of our quantitative studies showed that in aged hamster PAG various stages of sbmd were present in 91.6 ± 0.6% of all capillaries. No clear evidence was found for regional differentiation between rostral, intermediate and caudal parts of the PAG. Next to sbmd, capillary split basement membrane (sbm) and vacuolization were common features at all five PAG locations. 84.3 ± 2.3% of all screened PAG capillaries displayed sbm. In agreement with our previous findings, several other types of microvascular aberrations were observed in addition to general aspects of aging and some ependymal structural peculiarities. We conclude

  10. Efecto de la discretización espacial sobre las simulaciones de caudal con el modelo distribuido CEQUEAU

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Hugo Guerra-Cobián

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo analiza el efecto que tiene la discretización espacial de una cuenca sobre los resultados de las simulaciones de caudal con el modelo CEQUEAU . Este modelo es de tipo distribuido, y se desarrolló por el Instituto Nacional de Investigación Científica de la Universidad de Quebec, Canadá. CEQUEAU ha sido empleado en varios países para la modelación de escurrimientos y utilizado en estudios de comparación de modelos efectuada por la Organización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM). El...

  11. Latency of vestibular responses of pursuit neurons in the caudal frontal eye fields to whole body rotation.

    OpenAIRE

    Akao, Teppei; Saito, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Junko; Kurkin, Sergei; Fukushima, Kikuro

    2007-01-01

    The smooth pursuit system and the vestibular system interact to keep the retinal target image on the fovea by matching the eye velocity in space to target velocity during head and/or whole body movement. The caudal part of the frontal eye fields (FEF) in the fundus of the arcuate sulcus contains pursuit-related neurons and the majority of them respond to vestibular stimulation induced by whole body movement. To understand the role of FEF pursuit neurons in the interaction of vestibular and pu...

  12. Tendencias en la distribución de probabilidades de lluvias y caudales en Antioquía.

    OpenAIRE

    Rave Herrera, Claudia Cristina; Mantilla Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Poveda Jaramillo, Germán

    2000-01-01

    Se estudia una metodología para el análisis de cambios y tendencias de los cuantiles de las distribuciones de probabilidades de series de registros de lluvias y caudales diarios en Antioquia, para las cuales ya existian resultados de analisis de tendencias y cambios en la media y la varianza. El análisis de cuantiles verificó dichos resultados y aporto importantes conclusiones sobre los fenómenos fisicos involucrados en los cambios; además de un acercamiento mas serio en la consideración de u...

  13. Fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection for management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: short-term and long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Woo; Myung, Jae Sung; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Park, Kun Woo; Yeom, Jin S. [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Kim, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Hyun-Jib [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea)

    2010-07-15

    To evaluate the short-term and long-term effects of fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection (ESI) for the management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) and to analyze outcome predictors. All patients who underwent caudal ESI in 2006 for DLSS were included in the study. Response was based on chart documentation (aggravated, no change, slightly improved, much improved, no pain). In June 2009 telephone interviews were conducted, using formatted questions including the North American Spine Society (NASS) patient satisfaction scale. For short-term and long-term effects, age difference was evaluated by the Mann-Whitney U test, and gender, duration of symptoms, level of DLSS, spondylolisthesis, and previous operations were evaluated by Fisher's exact test. Two hundred and sixteen patients (male: female = 75:141; mean age 69.2 years; range 48{proportional_to}91 years) were included in the study. Improvements (slightly improved, much improved, no pain) were seen in 185 patients (85.6%) after an initial caudal ESI and in 189 patients (87.5%) after a series of caudal ESIs. Half of the patients (89/179, 49.8%) replied positively to the NASS patient satisfaction scale (1 or 2). There were no significant outcome predictors for either the short-term or the long-term responses. Fluoroscopically guided caudal ESI was effective for the management of DLSS (especially central canal stenosis) with excellent short-term and good long-term results, without significant outcome predictors. (orig.)

  14. Acetylcarnitine metabolism and the partial purification and characterization of an acetylcarnitine hydrolase from bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Epididymal spermatozoa are capable of utilizing extracellular substrates for energy, but carbohydrates and free or esterified fatty acids are present in only very low concentrations in epididymal fluid. Acetyl-L-carnitine has been identified in epididymal fluid in low mM concentrations in several mammalian species and could possibly be an energy substrate for epididymal spermatozoa. Evidence that extracellular acetyl-L-carnitine can be used by intact caudal epididymal spermatozoa for energy, and a model for the metabolism of acetyl-L-carnitine by epididymal spermatozoa are presented here. Intact bovine and hamster caudal epididymal spermatozoa oxidized (1-{sup 14}C) acetyl-L-carnitine to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in a time-, cell number-, and substrate concentration-dependent manner. No concomitant uptake of acetyl-D,L-(N-methyl-{sup 3}H) carnitine was observed by cells from the same preparations. Half-maximal rates of oxidation were observed at 8 mM and 4.5 mM acetyl-L-carnitine for the two species, respectively; the rates of oxidation at these concentrations were 15.3 nmol/10{sup 8} cells{centered dot}h and 2.9 nmol/10{sup 7} cells{centered dot}h. Intact spermatozoa in incubation with ({sup 3}H) acetyl-L-carnitine were observed to produce ({sup 3}H) acetate in the medium, and addition of sodium acetate competed for the uptake of radioactive acetate by these cells.

  15. Evaluation of Artificial Caudal Fin for Fish Robot with Two Joints by Using Three-Dimensional Fluid-Structure Simulation

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    Yogo Takada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fish robot with image sensors is useful to research for underwater creatures such as fish. However, the propulsion velocity of a fish robot is very slow compared with live fish. It is necessary to swim at a speed several times faster than the speed of the current robots for various usages. Therefore, we are searching for the method of making the robot swim fast. The simulation before making the robot is important. We have made the computational simulation program of three-dimensional fluid-structure analysis. The flow around the caudal fin can be examined by analyzing the fin as an elastic body. We compared the results of numerical analysis with the results of PIV measurement. Both were agreed well. Because the performance of a fish robot with two joints is better than that of a fish robot with one joint, we searched for an excellent fin for the fish robot with two joints by using CFD. We confirmed that the swimming performance of a fish robot becomes very good when the caudal fin is rigid except for the root of the fin which is comparatively flexible.

  16. A novel approach to brachycephalic syndrome. 3. Isolated laser-assisted turbinectomy of caudal aberrant turbinates (CAT LATE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenemann, Riccarda; Pohl, Sabine; Oechtering, Gerhard U

    2017-01-01

    To describe isolated laser-assisted turbinectomy of caudal aberrant turbinates (CAT LATE) as a new minimally invasive surgical procedure for the treatment of brachycephalic dogs with obstructing caudal aberrant turbinates (CAT). Prospective clinical study. Brachycephalic dogs (24 Pugs, 1 English Bulldog) with CAT but adequate air spaces between the lamellae of the nonobstructing ventral nasal concha. A rhinoscopically guided diode laser fiber introduced from anterior was used to dissect CAT within the nasopharyngeal meatus, while leaving the intranasal turbinates intact. Small grasping forceps were used to extract the dissected CAT from anterior or to push it through the nasopharyngeal meatus for extraction from posterior. Isolated CAT LATE was successfully performed on 32 CAT in 25 dogs. Intranasally applied xylometazoline helped shrink the ventral concha, making the approach and extraction easier. Minor bleeding was the only complication observed. It is possible to remove CAT with endoscopically applied diode-laser energy while leaving the nonobstructing ventral nasal concha intact. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  17. Comparison of the therapeutic effect between a transforminal along with a caudal epidural injection, as well as two-level transforaminal epidural injections ina radiculopathy patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jung Han; Hwang, Cheol Mog; Cho, Young Jun; Kim, Keun Won; Kim, Young Joong; Seo, Jae Young; Lim, Seong Joo [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Konyang University Hospital, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byeong Seong [Dept. of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of a transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) along with a caudal epidural steroid injection (ESI), compared to two-level TFESIs in a multi-level radiculopathy patient. A total of 895 lumbar ESIs were performed in 492 patients with multi-level radiculopathy from January 2012 to January 2015. Before injections were performed, the initial Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score was assessed in all patients, categorized into no pain (excellent), mild (good, NRS: 1-3), moderate (fair, NRS: 4-6), and severe pain (poor, NRS: 7-10). Therapeutic effects were examined for two groups: one-level TFESI along with caudal and ESI two-level TFESIs. Patient outcomes were assessed by NRS in a serial follow-up at one, three, and six months. One TFESI along with caudal ESI was performed in 274 patients and two TFESIs for 218. For the former group with one TFESI along with caudal ESI, excellent results were shown: 219 (79.9%) patients after one month, 200 (72.9%) after three, and 193 (70.4%) after six months. In the patient group with two TFESIs (n = 218) the outcomes were also very good: 152 (69.7%) after one month, 131 (60.0%) after three months, and 123 (56.4%) patients after six months. The therapeutic effect of one TFESI along with caudal ESI was better than two TFESIs in for one, threes, and six months (p < 0.01). Transforaminal epidural steroid with caudal epidural injection is a more effective tool for lumbosacral radiculopathy than two level transforaminal injections in multi-level radiculopathy patients.

  18. The Influence of Tetrodotoxin (TTX) on the Distribution and Chemical Coding of Caudal Mesenteric Ganglion (CaMG) Neurons Supplying the Porcine Urinary Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepiarczyk, Ewa; Bossowska, Agnieszka; Kaleczyc, Jerzy; Majewska, Marta; Gonkowski, Sławomir; Majewski, Mariusz

    2017-03-30

    The treatment of micturition disorders creates a serious problem for urologists. Recently, new therapeutic agents, such as neurotoxins, are being considered for the therapy of urological patients. The present study investigated the chemical coding of caudal mesenteric ganglion (CaMG) neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder after intravesical instillation of tetrodotoxin (TTX). The CaMG neurons were visualized with retrograde tracer Fast blue (FB) and their chemical profile was disclosed with double-labeling immunohistochemistry using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM), calbindin (CB), galanin (GAL) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). It was found that in both the control (n = 6) and TTX-treated pigs (n = 6), the vast majority (92.6% ± 3.4% and 88.8% ± 2%, respectively) of FB-positive (FB+) nerve cells were TH+. TTX instillation caused a decrease in the number of FB+/TH+ neurons immunopositive to NPY (88.9% ± 5.3% in the control animals vs. 10.6% ± 5.3% in TTX-treated pigs) or VIP (1.7% ± 0.6% vs. 0%), and an increase in the number of FB+/TH+ neurons immunoreactive to SOM (8.8% ± 1.6% vs. 39% ± 12.8%), CB (1.8% ± 0.7% vs. 12.6% ± 2.7%), GAL (1.7% ± 0.8% vs. 10.9% ± 2.6%) or nNOS (0% vs. 1.1% ± 0.3%). The present study is the first to suggest that TTX modifies the chemical coding of CaMG neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder.

  19. The Influence of Tetrodotoxin (TTX on the Distribution and Chemical Coding of Caudal Mesenteric Ganglion (CaMG Neurons Supplying the Porcine Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Lepiarczyk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of micturition disorders creates a serious problem for urologists. Recently, new therapeutic agents, such as neurotoxins, are being considered for the therapy of urological patients. The present study investigated the chemical coding of caudal mesenteric ganglion (CaMG neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder after intravesical instillation of tetrodotoxin (TTX. The CaMG neurons were visualized with retrograde tracer Fast blue (FB and their chemical profile was disclosed with double-labeling immunohistochemistry using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, neuropeptide Y (NPY, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, somatostatin (SOM, calbindin (CB, galanin (GAL and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS. It was found that in both the control (n = 6 and TTX-treated pigs (n = 6, the vast majority (92.6% ± 3.4% and 88.8% ± 2%, respectively of FB-positive (FB+ nerve cells were TH+. TTX instillation caused a decrease in the number of FB+/TH+ neurons immunopositive to NPY (88.9% ± 5.3% in the control animals vs. 10.6% ± 5.3% in TTX-treated pigs or VIP (1.7% ± 0.6% vs. 0%, and an increase in the number of FB+/TH+ neurons immunoreactive to SOM (8.8% ± 1.6% vs. 39% ± 12.8%, CB (1.8% ± 0.7% vs. 12.6% ± 2.7%, GAL (1.7% ± 0.8% vs. 10.9% ± 2.6% or nNOS (0% vs. 1.1% ± 0.3%. The present study is the first to suggest that TTX modifies the chemical coding of CaMG neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder.

  20. CARACTERÍSTICAS DE LA CIRCULACIÓN TROPOSFÉRICA ASOCIADA A LAS VARIACIONES INTERANUALES DEL CAUDAL DEL RÍO TECKA – GUALJAINA, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana P. Torrero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La cuenca del río Tecka – Gualjaina se localiza al Noroeste de la provincia de Chubut, Argentina y desarrolla una superficie de 5.318 km2. El trabajo explora los forzantes del sistema atmósfera-océano asociados a la variabilidad interanual del caudal para la temporada de máximo caudal (de junio a noviembre, que representa el 80% del total anual, y de mínimo caudal (de diciembre a mayo. El balance hídrico de la cuenca arrojó condiciones de aridez, por lo que el comportamiento temporal del caudal depende del de la precipitación. En el registro disponible 1956-2013 la serie de máximo caudal presentó tendencia negativa, con un cambio de régimen en las anomalías de caudal a comienzos de los 80, pasando de un predominio positivo antes a otro negativo después. La serie de mínimo caudal mostró ser más estacionaria, sin tendencia significativa. Los ciclos dominantes en ambas series temporales sólo se observaron en la alta frecuencia interanual ( 2 años y 4-5 años. Las teleconexiones y forzantes asociados a las series de caudal se analizaron para el período 1979-2013 mediante el reanálisis del ERA-Interim. Las variaciones interanuales del caudal máximo estuvieron asociadas a teleconexión troposférica de baja frecuencia (interanual simétrica respecto del Ecuador, posiblemente asociada a variaciones en la convección tropical entre aproximadamente 10oN-10oS y 150oE-180oE, inducidas por variaciones de temperatura superficial del mar en el Pacífico occidental ecuatorial (entre 180oO-150oO. La teleconexión afectó la posición e intensidad de las corrientes en chorro subtropical y polar, alterando la trayectoria de sistemas baroclínicos invernales que precipitan en la región. Las variaciones interanuales del mínimo caudal estuvieron asociadas a una variabilidad de altas latitudes simétricamente anular, modulada por un tren de onda 3 en latitudes medias sobre el Pacífico Sur y el Atlántico Sur. Estas características pudieron

  1. Caudal Ganglionic Eminence Precursor Transplants Disperse and Integrate as Lineage-Specific Interneurons but Do Not Induce Cortical Plasticity

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    Phillip Larimer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The maturation of inhibitory GABAergic cortical circuits regulates experience-dependent plasticity. We recently showed that the heterochronic transplantation of parvalbumin (PV or somatostatin (SST interneurons from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE reactivates ocular dominance plasticity (ODP in the postnatal mouse visual cortex. Might other types of interneurons similarly induce cortical plasticity? Here, we establish that caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE-derived interneurons, when transplanted into the visual cortex of neonatal mice, migrate extensively in the host brain and acquire laminar distribution, marker expression, electrophysiological properties, and visual response properties like those of host CGE interneurons. Although transplants from the anatomical CGE do induce ODP, we found that this plasticity reactivation is mediated by a small fraction of MGE-derived cells contained in the transplant. These findings demonstrate that transplanted CGE cells can successfully engraft into the postnatal mouse brain and confirm the unique role of MGE lineage neurons in the induction of ODP.

  2. Sistematização da veia cava caudal em búfalos (Bubalus bubalis bubalis Simpson, 1945

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    Adelmar Afonso de Amorim Júnior

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para o presente trabalho utilizou-se 25 animais, fetos de búfalos da Raça Murrah, com idades variando entre 5 e 9 meses, sendo 15 fêmeas e 10 machos, com vistas à dissecação e sistematização dos vasos em estudo. Os animais foram coletados em abatedouro e fixados em solução aquosa de formol 10%. Obtiveramse para a Veia Cava Caudal os seguintes afluentes de origem: as veias ilíacas comuns direita e esquerda, e seus afluentes colaterais; veia sacral mediana; veias frênicas; veias lombares (1-5; veias circunflexas profunda do ílio direita e esquerda; 3-4 veias hepáticas; veia genital direita (testicular ou ovárica; veias adrenais e veias renais direita e esquerda.

  3. Regional (spinal, epidural, caudal) versus general anaesthesia in preterm infants undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa J; Craven, Paul D; Lakkundi, Anil; Foster, Jann P; Badawi, Nadia

    2015-06-09

    With improvements in neonatal intensive care, more preterm infants are surviving the neonatal period and presenting for surgery in early infancy. Inguinal hernia is the most common condition requiring early surgery, appearing in 38% of infants whose birth weight is between 751 grams and 1000 grams. Approximately 20% to 30% of otherwise healthy preterm infants having general anaesthesia for inguinal hernia surgery at a postmature age have at least one apnoeic episode within the postoperative period. Research studies have failed to adequately distinguish the effects of apnoeic episodes from other complications of extreme preterm gestation on the risk of brain injury, or to investigate the potential impact of postoperative apnoea upon longer term neurodevelopment. In addition to episodes of apnoea, there are concerns that anaesthetic and sedative agents may have a direct toxic effect on the developing brain of preterm infants even after reaching postmature age. It is proposed that regional anaesthesia may reduce the risk of postoperative apnoea, avoid the risk of anaesthetic-related neurotoxicity and improve neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants requiring surgery for inguinal hernia at a postmature age. To determine if regional anaesthesia reduces postoperative apnoea, bradycardia, the use of assisted ventilation, and neurological impairment, in comparison to general anaesthesia, in preterm infants undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy at a postmature age. The following databases and resources were searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, 2015, Issue 2), MEDLINE (December 2002 to 25 February 2015), EMBASE (December 2002 to 25 February 2015), controlled-trials.com and clinicaltrials.gov, reference lists of published trials and abstracts published in Pediatric Research and Pediatric Anesthesia. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of regional (spinal, epidural, caudal) versus general anaesthesia, or

  4. Latency of vestibular responses of pursuit neurons in the caudal frontal eye fields to whole body rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akao, Teppei; Saito, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Junko; Kurkin, Sergei; Fukushima, Kikuro

    2007-03-01

    The smooth pursuit system and the vestibular system interact to keep the retinal target image on the fovea by matching the eye velocity in space to target velocity during head and/or whole body movement. The caudal part of the frontal eye fields (FEF) in the fundus of the arcuate sulcus contains pursuit-related neurons and the majority of them respond to vestibular stimulation induced by whole body movement. To understand the role of FEF pursuit neurons in the interaction of vestibular and pursuit signals, we examined the latency and time course of discharge modulation to horizontal whole body rotation during different vestibular task conditions in head-stabilized monkeys. Pursuit neurons with horizontal preferred directions were selected, and they were classified either as gaze-velocity neurons or eye/head-velocity neurons based on the previous criteria. Responses of these neurons to whole body step-rotation at 20 degrees/s were examined during cancellation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), VOR x1, and during chair steps in complete darkness without a target (VORd). The majority of pursuit neurons tested (approximately 70%) responded during VORd with latencies smooth pursuit. The shortest latency to the onset of target motion during smooth pursuit was 80 ms and the modal value was 95 ms. The time course of discharge rate difference of the two groups of neurons between VOR cancellation and x1 was predicted by the discharge modulation associated with smooth pursuit. These results provide further support for the involvement of the caudal FEF in integration of vestibular inputs and pursuit signals.

  5. Wnt3 and Wnt3a are required for induction of the mid-diencephalic organizer in the caudal forebrain

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    Mattes Benjamin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental requirement for development of diverse brain regions is the function of local organizers at morphological boundaries. These organizers are restricted groups of cells that secrete signaling molecules, which in turn regulate the fate of the adjacent neural tissue. The thalamus is located in the caudal diencephalon and is the central relay station between the sense organs and higher brain areas. The mid-diencephalic organizer (MDO orchestrates the development of the thalamus by releasing secreted signaling molecules such as Shh. Results Here we show that canonical Wnt signaling in the caudal forebrain is required for the formation of the Shh-secreting MD organizer in zebrafish. Wnt signaling induces the MDO in a narrow time window of 4 hours - between 10 and 14 hours post fertilization. Loss of Wnt3 and Wnt3a prevents induction of the MDO, a phenotype also observed upon blockage of canonical Wnt signaling per se. Pharmaceutical activation of the canonical Wnt pathways in Wnt3/Wnt3a compound morphant embryos is able to restore the lack of the MDO. After blockage of Wnt signaling or knock-down of Wnt3/Wnt3a we find an increase of apoptotic cells specifically within the organizer primordium. Consistently, blockage of apoptosis restores the thalamus organizer MDO in Wnt deficient embryos. Conclusion We have identified canonical Wnt signaling as a novel pathway, that is required for proper formation of the MDO and consequently for the development of the major relay station of the brain - the thalamus. We propose that Wnt ligands are necessary to maintain the primordial tissue of the organizer during somitogenesis by suppressing Tp53-mediated apoptosis.

  6. Comparison of caudal and pre-scrotal castration for management of perineal hernia in dogs between 2004 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, W L; Orsher, R J; Larenza-Menzies, M P; Popovitch, C A

    2015-09-01

    To compare peri- and post-operative complications associated with caudal scrotal castration (CSC) and perineal hernia repair with pre-scrotal castration (PSC) in conjunction with another surgical procedure. Medical records were reviewed for 51 intact male dogs that were admitted to the Veterinary Emergency and Surgical Center, Levittown, PA, and underwent a CSC and perineal hernia repair using an internal obturator muscle flap (IOMF) between 2004 and 2014. Perioperative, and major and minor post-operative complications noted within the 2 week follow up period were reported and compared to 91 intact male dogs that underwent a PSC in conjunction with a second surgical procedure. There were no recorded perioperative or major post-operative complications in either group. There were 3/51 (6%) minor post-operative complications in the CSC group compared to 6/91 (7%) in the PSC group. There were 2/51 (4%) and 4/91 (4%) cases that developed heat, erythema and swelling associated with the incision site and 1/51 (2%) and 2/91 (2%) cases that developed scrotal swelling in the CSC and PSC groups, respectively. Overall, there was no difference in the prevalence of minor complications between the two groups (p=0.86). Caudal scrotal castration was not associated with more perioperative or postoperative complications relative to PSC. Utilising the CSC approach eliminates the need to aseptically prepare and drape a second site when carrying out perineal hernia repair, as well as the need for patient repositioning. Thus, we recommend that CSC be the preferred surgical technique when performing orchiectomy in dogs concurrent with perineal hernia repair.

  7. Articulatory Closure Proficiency in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Following Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus and Caudal Zona Incerta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; Nordh, Erik; van Doorn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed at comparing the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) on the proficiency in achieving oral closure and release during plosive production of people with Parkinson's disease. Method: Nineteen patients participated preoperatively and…

  8. Propuesta de caudal ecológico en la cuenca del Río Ayuquila-Armería en el Occidente de México

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Demetrio Meza-Rodríguez; Luis Manuel Martínez-Rivera; Norman Mercado-Silva; Diego García de Jalón-Lastra; Miguel Marchamalo-Sacristán; Celia De la Mora-Orozco

    2017-01-01

    ... a través de la Norma Mexicana NMX-AA-159-SCFI-2012, que establece el procedimiento para la determinación del caudal ecológico. La cuenca del Río Ayuquila-Armería, uno de los más importantes ríos del occidente...

  9. Characterization of a novel caudal vertebral interbody fusion in a rat tail model: An implication for future material and mechanical testing

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    Yu-Cheng Yeh

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: The rat caudal disc interbody fusion model proved to be an efficient, repeatable and easily accessible model. Future research into adjuvant treatments like growth factor injection and alternative fusion materials under conditions of osteoporosis using this model would be worthwhile.

  10. An optimized method for measuring hypocretin-1 peptide in the mouse brain reveals differential circadian regulation of hypocretin-1 levels rostral and caudal to the hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justinussen, Jessica; Holm, A; Kornum, B R

    2015-01-01

    as does prepro-hypocretin mRNA in the hypothalamus. However, in midbrain and brainstem tissue caudal to the hypothalamus, there was less circadian fluctuation and a tendency for higher levels during the light phase. These data suggest that regulation of the hypocretin system differs between brain areas....

  11. The Effects of Single-Dose Rectal Midazolam Application on Postoperative Recovery, Sedation, and Analgesia in Children Given Caudal Anesthesia Plus Bupivacaine

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    Sedat Saylan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to compare the effects of rectal midazolam addition after applying bupivacaine and caudal anesthesia on postoperative analgesia time, the need for additional analgesics, postoperative recovery, and sedation and to find out its adverse effects in children having lower abdominal surgery. Methods. 40 children between 2 and 10 years of ASA I-II were randomized, and they received caudal anesthesia under general anesthesia. Patients underwent the application of caudal block in addition to saline and 1 mL/kg bupivacaine 0.25%. In the postoperative period, Group C (n = 20 was given 5 mL saline, and Group M (n = 20 was given 0.30 mg/kg rectal midazolam diluted with 5 mL saline. Sedation scale and postoperative pain scale (CHIPPS of the patients were evaluated. The patients were observed for their analgesic need, first analgesic time, and adverse effects for 24 hours. Results. Demographic and hemodynamic data of the two groups did not differ. Postoperative sedation scores in both groups were significantly lower compared with the preoperative period. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of sedation and sufficient analgesia. Conclusions. We conclude that caudal anesthesia provided sufficient analgesia in peroperative and postoperative periods, and rectal midazolam addition did not create any differences. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02127489.

  12. Régimen natural de caudales del río Ayuquila-Armería en el occidente de México

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    Demetrio Meza Rodríguez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El caudal superficial a nivel cuenca, constituye hoy en día un proceso clave para los estudios hidrológicos de cualquier índole. El presente trabajo explora la reconstrucción del régimen natural de caudales de la cuenca del Río Ayuquila-Armería para el periodo 1963‑1991, su importancia radica en que el método usado, puede ser extrapolado a otras cuencas en México y Latinoamérica, donde se carece de datos hidrométricos puntuales. El campo de interés está centrado en la técnica de reconstrucción del caudal natural basándose en las precipitaciones y las temperaturas, en situaciones donde se carece de información hidrológica puntual, utilizando el modelo determinístico “precipitación-escurrimiento”. Es un modelo que requiere de pocos parámetros para su implementación, usando los procesos climáticos y físicos en el ámbito espacial y temporal, con la utilización del Sistemas de Información Geográfica (l. A partir de caudales calibrados en la misma área geográfica, es posible extrapolar el modelo de predicción a toda la cuenca. El resultado fue una base de datos de 29 años de régimen natural de caudales, con un caudal aproximado de 71.5 (m3 s-1, y con un volumen anual de 2254 (hm3 año-1, donde se observaron las pautas estacionales y su fluctuación a lo largo del año. El uso de esta metodología servirá de apoyo para la nueva norma NMX-AA-159-SCFI-2012, donde el principio científico para la determinación de caudal ecológico es el paradigma del régimen hidrológico natural.

  13. Sistematização da origem, da distribuição e dos territórios da artéria cerebral caudal na superfície do encéfalo em gatos Systematization of the origin, distribution and territory of the caudal cerebral artery on the surface of the encephalon in cats

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    Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 26 encéfalos de gatos, adultos, sem diferenciação de sexo, sem raça definida, corados com látex e fixados por solução aquosa de formaldeído. As artérias cerebrais caudais, direita e esquerda, apresentaram-se únicas em 96,1 e 88,4% dos casos, respectivamente. Em 69,2% dos casos no antímero direito e 80,8% no esquerdo, a artéria cerebral caudal originou-se pela anastomose entre o ramo caudal da artéria carótida interna, com maior contribuição, e o ramo terminal da artéria basilar. Em 88,4% dos casos no antímero direito e em 84,6% no esquerdo, a artéria cerebral caudal originou a artéria tectal rostral e um ramo caudal. O ramo caudal bifurcou-se e vascularizou os colículos rostrais e caudais dos corpos quadrigêmeos e em alguns casos contribuiu na formação do plexo coroide do terceiro ventrículo. A artéria tectal rostral seguiu ventralmente ao lobo piriforme e durante seu trajeto liberou ramos para o hipocampo e, no antímero esquerdo, supriu a superfície dorsal do tálamo, contribuindo para a formação do plexo coroide do terceiro ventrículo.In this study were used 26 brains of adult cats, without sex differentiation and definable race, colored with latex and fixed in formaldehyde aqueous solution. The right and left caudal cerebral arteries were single in 96.1% and 88.4% of the sample, respectively. In 69.2% of the samples on the right side and 80.8% on the left, the caudal cerebral artery fin from the anastomosis behind the caudal branch of the internal carotid artery, with a large contribution, and the basal artery terminal branch. In 88.4% of the samples on the right side and 84.6% on the left, the caudal cerebral artery showed the tectal rostral artery and one caudal branche. The caudal branch forked in two branches that supplied the rostral and caudal colliculis of the quadruplet bodies and formed the choroid plexus of the third ventricle. The tectal rostral artery followed ventrally to the

  14. Differential Gene Expression Profile in the Rat Caudal Vestibular Nucleus is Associated with Individual Differences in Motion Sickness Susceptibility.

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    Jun-Qin Wang

    Full Text Available To identify differentially expressed genes associated with motion sickness (MS susceptibility in the rat caudal vestibular nucleus.We identified MS susceptible (MSS and insusceptible (inMSS rats by quantifying rotation-induced MS symptoms: defecation and spontaneous locomotion activity. Microarray analysis was used to screen differentially expressed genes in the caudal vestibular nucleus (CVN after rotation. Plasma stress hormones were identified by radioimmunoassay. Candidate genes were selected by bioinformatics analysis and the microarray results were verified by real-time quantitative-PCR (RT-qPCR methods. By using Elvax implantation, receptor antagonists or recombinant adenovirus targeting the candidate genes were applied to the CVN to evaluate their contribution to MS susceptibility variability. Validity of gene expression manipulation was verified by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis.A total of 304 transcripts were differentially expressed in the MSS group compared with the inMSS group. RT-qPCR analysis verified the expression pattern of candidate genes, including nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAchR α3 subunit, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 (5-HT4R, tachykinin neurokinin-1 (NK1R, γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR α6 subunit, olfactory receptor 81 (Olr81 and homology 2 domain-containing transforming protein 1 (Shc1. In MSS animals, the nAchR antagonist mecamylamine significantly alleviated rotation-induced MS symptoms and the plasma β-endorphin response. The NK1R antagonist CP99994 and Olr81 knock-down were effective for the defecation response, while the 5-HT4R antagonist RS39604 and Shc1 over-expression showed no therapeutic effect. In inMSS animals, rotation-induced changes in spontaneous locomotion activity and the plasma β-endorphin level occurred in the presence of the GABAAR antagonist gabazine.Our findings suggested that the variability of the CVN gene expression profile after motion stimulation might be a putative

  15. The central anorexigenic mechanism of adrenocorticotropic hormone involves the caudal hypothalamus in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Steven L; Yi, Jiaqing; Dridi, Sami; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Cline, Mark A

    2015-10-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), consisting of 39 amino acids, is most well-known for its involvement in an organism's response to stress. It also participates in satiety, as exogenous ACTH causes decreased food intake in rats. However, its anorexigenic mechanism is not well understood in any species and its effect on appetite is not reported in the avian class. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate central ACTH's effect on food intake and to elucidate the mechanism mediating this response using broiler chicks. Chicks that received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 1, 2, or 4 nmol of ACTH reduced food intake, under both ad libitum and 180 min fasted conditions. Water intake was also reduced in ACTH-injected chicks under both feeding conditions, but when measured without access to feed it was not affected. Blood glucose was not affected in either feeding condition. Following ACTH injection, c-Fos immunoreactivity was quantified in key appetite-associated hypothalamic nuclei including the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamus (LH), arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the parvo- and magno-cellular portions of the paraventricular nucleus. ACTH-injected chicks had increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the VMH, LH, and ARC. Hypothalamus was collected at 1h post-injection, and real-time PCR performed to measure mRNA abundance of some appetite-associated factors. Neuropeptide Y, pro-opiomelanocortin, glutamate decarboxylase 1, melanocortin receptors 2-5, and urocortin 3 mRNA abundance was not affected by ACTH treatment. However, expression of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), urotensin 2 (UT), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and orexin (ORX), and melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) mRNA decreased in the hypothalamus of ACTH-injected chicks. In conclusion, ICV ACTH causes decreased food intake in chicks, and is associated with VMH, LH, and ARC activation, and a decrease in hypothalamic mRNA abundance of CRF, UT, AgRP, ORX

  16. Microinjection of codeine into the region of the caudal ventral respiratory column suppresses cough in anesthetized cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Corrie, Lu Wen-Chi; Rose, Melanie J.; Bolser, Donald C.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the influence of microinjection of codeine into the caudal ventral respiratory column (cVRC) on the cough reflex. Experiments were performed on 36 anesthetized spontaneously breathing cats. Electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded bilaterally from inspiratory parasternal and expiratory transversus abdominis (ABD) muscles and unilaterally from laryngeal posterior cricoarytenoid and thyroarytenoid muscles. Repetitive coughing was elicited by mechanical stimulation of the intrathoracic airways. The unilateral microinjection of codeine (3.3 mM, 20–32 nl) in the cVRC reduced cough number by 29% (P codeine in the cVRC (3.3 mM, 30–40 nl) on ABD activity induced by a microinjection of d,l-homocysteic acid (30 mM, 27–40 nl) in the same location. However, a cumulative dose of codeine (0.1 mg/kg, 330 nmol/kg) applied into the brain stem circulation through the vertebral artery reduced the ABD motor response to cVRC d,l-homocysteic acid microinjection (30 mM, 28–32 nl) by 47% (P codeine can act within the cVRC to suppress cough and 2) expiratory premotoneurons within the cVRC are relatively insensitive to this opioid. PMID:20093669

  17. Histology and ultrastructure of the caudal courtship glands of the red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus (Amphibia: Plethodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, David M; Siegel, Dustin S

    2015-03-01

    Caudal courtship glands (CCGs) are sexually dimorphic glands described in the skin of the dorsal tail base of some male salamanders in the genera Desmognathus, Eurycea, and Plethodon in the family Plethodontidae. These glands are believed to deliver pheromones to females during courtship, when the female rests her chin on the dorsal tail base during the stereotypic tail straddling walk unique to plethodontids. Although CCGs have been studied histologically, no investigations of their ultrastructure have been made. This article presents the first study on the fine structure and seasonal variation of CCGs, using the plethodontid Plethodon cinereus. The CCGs vary seasonally in height and secretory activity. The mature secretory granules observed in males collected in October and April consist of oval, biphasic granules that are eosinophilic and give positive reactions to periodic acid-Schiff for neutral carbohydrates but do not stain for acidic mucosusbtances or proteins with alcian blue and bromphenol blue, respectively. Granular glands, some of which contain mucous demilunes, are twice as large as CCGs, are syncytial (unlike CCGs), and stain for proteins. Mucous glands are similar in size to CCGs, but are basophilic, show no seasonal variation in secretory activity, and stain positive for acidic mucosubstances. CCGs do not resemble cytologically the sexually dimorphic mental glands of some plethodontids, which contain round or oval granules filled with an electron-dense amorphous substance. The CCGs are similar histologically to sexually dimorphic skin glands described in some anurans, but more comparative work is needed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Homology and architecture of the caudal basket of Pachycephalosauria (Dinosauria: Ornithischia: the first occurrence of myorhabdoi in Tetrapoda.

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    Caleb Marshall Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Associated postcranial skeletons of pachycephalosaurids, most notably those of Stegoceras and Homalocephale, reveal enigmatic osseous structures not present in other tetrapod clades. The homology and functional significance of these structures have remained elusive as they were originally interpreted to be abdominal ribs or gastralia, and more recently have been interpreted as de novo structures in the tail. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of these structures in nearly all pachycephalosaurid skeletons has facilitated a complete description of their architecture, and the establishment of patterns consistent with those of myorhabdoid ossifications--ossifications of the myoseptal tendons associated with myomeres. The presence and structure of myorhabdoid ossifications are well established for teleost fish, but this marks their first recognition within Tetrapoda. These elements are both structurally and histologically distinct from the deep, paraxial ossified tendon bundles of other ornithischian clades, although they may have performed a similar function in the stiffening of the tail. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These myorhabdoi are not de novo structures, but are instead ossifications (and therefore more amenable to fossilization of the normally unossified plesiomorphic caudal myosepta of vertebrates. The ubiquitous ossification of these structures in pachycephalosaurids (all specimens preserving the tail also exhibit myorhabdoid ossifications suggests it is a likely synapomorphic condition for Pachycephalosauria.

  19. Homology and architecture of the caudal basket of Pachycephalosauria (Dinosauria: Ornithischia): the first occurrence of myorhabdoi in Tetrapoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Caleb Marshall; Russell, Anthony P

    2012-01-01

    Associated postcranial skeletons of pachycephalosaurids, most notably those of Stegoceras and Homalocephale, reveal enigmatic osseous structures not present in other tetrapod clades. The homology and functional significance of these structures have remained elusive as they were originally interpreted to be abdominal ribs or gastralia, and more recently have been interpreted as de novo structures in the tail. Analysis of these structures in nearly all pachycephalosaurid skeletons has facilitated a complete description of their architecture, and the establishment of patterns consistent with those of myorhabdoid ossifications--ossifications of the myoseptal tendons associated with myomeres. The presence and structure of myorhabdoid ossifications are well established for teleost fish, but this marks their first recognition within Tetrapoda. These elements are both structurally and histologically distinct from the deep, paraxial ossified tendon bundles of other ornithischian clades, although they may have performed a similar function in the stiffening of the tail. These myorhabdoi are not de novo structures, but are instead ossifications (and therefore more amenable to fossilization) of the normally unossified plesiomorphic caudal myosepta of vertebrates. The ubiquitous ossification of these structures in pachycephalosaurids (all specimens preserving the tail also exhibit myorhabdoid ossifications) suggests it is a likely synapomorphic condition for Pachycephalosauria.

  20. Distraction-fusion for caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy using an intervertebral cage and locking plates in 14 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Frank; Voss, Katja; Morgan, Joe P

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate clinical and radiographic outcome in dogs with caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy (CCSM) treated with an intervertebral fusion cage and locking plates. Prospective clinical study. Large breed dogs (n=14) with CCSM. Dogs had single level cervical spine distraction/fusion performed using an intervertebral cage with a hollow center filled with cancellous autograft and 2 ventrally applied locking plates. Outcome was measured using neurologic scores and radiographic interpretation 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively. The surgical procedure was well tolerated in all dogs. Final outcome at 12 months was available in 9 dogs. Five dogs were judged excellent, 1 dog was good, 2 dogs were satisfactory, and 2 dogs were poor because of adjacent segment disease. Four dogs died for reasons unrelated to the procedure. Radiographically, implants remained stable over the entire follow-up period. The disc space continued to fill with an immature pattern of new bone, which showed progressive increase in opacity and quantity. Subsidence of the cage (median 2 m) was detected in 9 dogs at 6 weeks and remained unchanged in those that could be followed further. Distraction-fusion of single level CCSM in dogs with a combination of intervertebral cage and ventral locking plates is clinically effective and results in successful bony fusion. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. An Evolutionarily Conserved Network Mediates Development of the zona limitans intrathalamica, a Sonic Hedgehog-Secreting Caudal Forebrain Signaling Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies revealed new insights into the development of a unique caudal forebrain-signaling center: the zona limitans intrathalamica (zli. The zli is the last brain signaling center to form and the first forebrain compartment to be established. It is the only part of the dorsal neural tube expressing the morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (Shh whose activity participates in the survival, growth and patterning of neuronal progenitor subpopulations within the thalamic complex. Here, we review the gene regulatory network of transcription factors and cis-regulatory elements that underlies formation of a shh-expressing delimitated domain in the anterior brain. We discuss evidence that this network predates the origin of chordates. We highlight the contribution of Shh, Wnt and Notch signaling to zli development and discuss implications for the fact that the morphogen Shh relies on primary cilia for signal transduction. The network that underlies zli development also contributes to thalamus induction, and to its patterning once the zli has been set up. We present an overview of the brain malformations possibly associated with developmental defects in this gene regulatory network (GRN.

  2. Automatic identification of pectoralis muscle on digital cranio-caudal-view mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Mei; Mawdsley, Gordon; Yaffe, Martin

    2011-03-01

    To improve efficiency and reduce human error in the computerized calculation of volumetric breast density, we have developed an automatic identification process which suppresses the projected region of the pectoralis muscle on digital CC-view mammograms. The pixels in the image of the pectoralis muscle, represent dense tissue, but not related to risk, will cause an error in estimated breast density if counted as fibroglandular tissue. The pectoralis muscle on the CC-view is not always visible and has variable shape and location. Our algorithm robustly detects the existence of the pectoralis in the image and segments it as a semi-elliptical region that closely matches manually segmented images. We present a pipeline where adaptive thresholding and distance transforms have been used in the initial pectoralis region identification process; statistical region growing is applied to explore the region within the identified location aimed at refining the boundary; and a 2D shape descriptor is developed for the target validation: the segmented region is identified as the pectoralis muscle if it has a semi-elliptical contour. After the pectoralis muscle is identified, a 1D-FFT filtering is used for boundary smoothing. Quantitative evaluation was performed by comparing manual segmentation by a trained operator, and analysis using the algorithm in a set of 174 randomly selected digital mammograms. Use of the algorithm is shown to improve accuracy in the automatic determination of the volumetric ratio of breast composition by removal of the pectoralis muscle from both the numerator and denominator. As well, it greatly improves the efficiency and throughput in large scale volumetric mammographic density studies where previously interaction with an operator was required to obtain that level of accuracy.

  3. Dexmedetomidine sedation combined with caudal anesthesia for lower abdominal and extremity surgery in ex-preterm and full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waurick, Katrin; Sauerland, Cristina; Goeters, Christiane

    2017-06-01

    Awake caudal anesthesia is a potentially attractive option, because the administration of general anesthesia is associated with a high rate of respiratory complications and hemodynamic disturbances and potential neurotoxic effects. To facilitate the caudal puncture and subsequent surgical intervention, additional sedatives are commonly administered. We aimed to establish a new, safe, and effective anesthetic procedure for very young children with comorbidities. We retrospectively analyzed 23 children who underwent lower abdominal or lower extremity surgery with dexmedetomidine sedation and caudal anesthesia from January 2015 to August 2015. Dexmedetomidine was initiated with a total bolus infusion of 0.7-1.1 μg·kg(-1) followed by a continuous infusion of 1 μg·kg(-1) ·h(-1) . Bupivacaine (2.5 mg·kg(-1) ) was supplemented with 5-10 μg·kg(-1) epinephrine to strengthen and prolong motor block. According to maturity at birth, two groups were defined: ex-preterm and full-term infants. There were 12 ex-preterm and 10 full-term infants available for analysis. The median postmenstrual age was 44 (38-52) weeks in ex-preterm and 46.5 (40-72) weeks in full-term infants. Without any additional intervention, surgery was successfully accomplished in 82% of all cases. While respiratory complications were not a problem, hemodynamic disturbances commonly occurred. Maximum decreases in heart rate (HR) of 30% were accompanied by maximum decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 38%. No infant had a heart rate below 100 bpm. MAP declined in one ex-preterm infant to a minimum value of 32 mmHg. Caudal anesthesia combined with dexmedetomidine sedation is an effective anesthetic technique for lower abdominal and extremity surgery in ex-preterm and full-term infants with severe comorbidities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Alterations of protein composition along the rostro-caudal axis after spinal cord injury: proteomic, in vitro and in vivo analyses

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    Dasa eCizkova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on proteomic analyses we investigated the differences of released molecules in the conditioned media (CM from the spinal cord central lesion and adjacent rostral and caudal segments at 3, 7 and 10 days after spinal cord injury (SCI, in order to specify the molecular environment within greater extent of tissue damage. Proteins found in CM were analyzed by shot-gun MS using nanoLC coupled to an orbitrap. The results showed some specific proteins at each site of the lesion at 3days. Among the proteins from rostral and lesion segments, some are related to chemokines, cytokines or to neurogenesis factors. In contrast, proteins from caudal segments are more related to necrosis factors. The CM from each spinal segment were used in vitro, on microglial BV2 cell lines and DRGs explants, showing a lesion site-dependent impact on microglia activation and DRGs neurite outgrowth. In addition, while naive BV2 cells exhibited insignificant staining for CX3CR1 receptor, the level of CX3CR1 was strongly enhanced in some BV2 cells after their stimulation by CM collected from SCI. The molecular data might correlate with different polarization of activated microglia and macrophages along the rostro-caudal axis following acute injury. This was partially confirmed in vivo with CX3CR1 receptor, revealing higher expression in the rostral segment, with potential neuroprotective action. In addition, the neurotrophic factors released from rostral and lesion segments enhanced outgrowth of DRGs explants. Taken together these data suggest that regionalization in terms of inflammatory and neurotrophic responses may occur between rostral and caudal segments in acute SCI.

  5. Caudal Epidural Analgesia in Pediatric Patients: Comparison of 0.25% Levobupivacaine and 0.25% Ropivacaine in Terms of Motor Blockade and Postoperative Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, P; Remadevi, R; Pratheeba, N

    2017-01-01

    Ropivacaine and Levo-Bupivacaine have been safely used for caudal anaesthesia in children, but there are limited studies comparing the efficacy of 0.25% Ropivacaine and 0.25% Levo-Bupivacaine for caudal anaesthesia in infraumbilical surgeries. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of motor blockade and postoperative analgesia with 0.25% ropivacaine and 0.25% levobupivacaine for the caudal block in children receiving infraumbilical surgery. This was a randomized double-blinded study. Sixty patients of either sex, between 1 and 10 years posted for elective infraumbilical surgeries, to receive caudal block with either (Group R) ropivacaine 0.25% or (Group L) levobupivacaine 0.25% of volume 1 ml/kg were included in the study. Motor blockade was assessed using motor power scale, and pain was assessed every 1 h for first 6 h, then 2(nd) hourly for following 18 h using modified Hannallah objective pain scale. If pain score is ≥4, the patients were given paracetamol suppositories 20 mg/kg as rescue analgesia. All analyses were performed using Chi-square test, Student's independent t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U-test. The time for full motor recovery was similar in both groups; in Group R, ropivacaine: 180.50 ± 14.68 min, and in Group L, levobupivacaine: 184.50 ± 18.02 min, with P = 0.163. The duration of postoperative pain relief between the groups was 330.50 ± 9.54 min in Group L (levobupivacaine) and 312.67 ± 5.56 min in Group R (ropivacaine) with P = 0.165 not statistically significant. Both ropivacaine 0.25% and levobupivacaine 0.25% have similar recovery from motor blockade and postoperative analgesia.

  6. Jaundice causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a yellow color in the skin, mucus membranes, or eyes. The yellow color comes from bilirubin, a byproduct of old red blood cells. Jaundice is a sign of other diseases. This article discusses the possible causes of jaundice in children ...

  7. Clonal analysis of kit ligand a functional expression reveals lineage-specific competence to promote melanocyte rescue in the mutant regenerating caudal fin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Tryon

    Full Text Available The study of regeneration in an in vivo vertebrate system has the potential to reveal targetable genes and pathways that could improve our ability to heal and repair damaged tissue. We have developed a system for clonal labeling of discrete cell lineages and independently inducing gene expression under control of the heat shock promoter in the zebrafish caudal fin. Consequently we are able to test the affects of overexpressing a single gene in the context of regeneration within each of the nine different cell lineage classes that comprise the caudal fin. This can test which lineage is necessary or sufficient to provide gene function. As a first example to demonstrate this approach, we explored which lineages were competent to functionally express the kit ligand a protein as assessed by the local complementation of the mutation in the sparse-like (kitlgatc244b background. We show that dermal fibroblast expression of kit ligand a robustly supports the rescue of melanocytes in the regenerating caudal fin. kit ligand a expression from skin and osteoblasts results in more modest and variable rescue of melanocytes, while lateral line expression was unable to complement the mutation.

  8. Wernekink Commissure Syndrome Secondary to Bilateral Caudal Paramedian Midbrain Infarction Presenting with a Unique “Heart or V” Appearance Sign: Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Chenguang Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wernekink commissure syndrome secondary to caudal paramedian midbrain infarction (CPMI is a rare midbrain syndrome involving the decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncle in the caudal paramedian midbrain tegmentum. The central characteristics are constant bilateral cerebellar dysfunction, variable eye movement disorders, and rare delayed palatal myoclonus. Following is a description of the case of a 60-year-old man who presented with dizziness, slurred speech, and difficulty walking. Neurological examination revealed bilateral cerebellar dysfunction and bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (bilateral INO. Serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a lesion in the caudal paramedian midbrain with a “heart-shaped” sign on fluid-attenuation inversion recovery images and a “V-shaped” appearance on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI. An acute CPMI with a “heart or V” appearance sign was diagnosed. Upon follow-up evaluation 3 months later, a palatal tremor accompanied by involuntary head tremor was discovered. Hypertrophy and increased signal of the bilateral inferior olivary nucleus, compatible with hypertropic olivary degeneration (HOD were revealed during a subsequent MRI study.

  9. The behavioral assessment and alleviation of pain associated with castration in beef calves treated with flunixin meglumine and caudal lidocaine epidural anesthesia with epinephrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currah, Jan M.; Hendrick, Steven H.; Stookey, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the effects of flunixin megulmine in combination with caudal epidural anesthesia as a postoperative analgesic in beef calves following surgical castration, and 2) to consider stride length and pedometry as potential behavioral assessment tools for detecting postcastration pain. Surgical castration was performed in 101 beef calves randomly assigned to 3 treatment subgroups: 1) castration without anesthesia (SURG); 2) castration following lidocaine with epinephrine caudal epidural anesthesia (SURG + EPI); 3) castration following lidocaine with epinephrine caudal epidural anesthesia and flunixin meglumine (SURG + EPI + F). Several outcomes, including pedometer counts, changes in stride length, subjective visual assessment of pain, instantaneous scan sampling of the calves’ postoperative activities, and the amount of movement and vocalization during the castration procedure, were measured to identify and quantify pain. The results indicated that stride length and the number of steps taken by calves after castration appear to be good measures of pain. Significant differences found between treatment groups for stride length and visual assessments suggest that flunixin meglumine can be considered to provide visible pain relief up to 8 hours postcastration. PMID:19436444

  10. Chondroitinase ABC promotes recovery of adaptive limb movements and enhances axonal growth caudal to a spinal hemisection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Stephanie C; Tester, Nicole J; Howland, Dena R

    2011-04-13

    A number of studies have shown that chondroitinase ABC (Ch'ase ABC) digestion of inhibitory chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans significantly enhances axonal growth and recovery in rodents following spinal cord injury (SCI). Further, our group has shown improved recovery following SCI in the larger cat model. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether intraspinal delivery of Ch'ase ABC, following T10 hemisections in adult cats, enhances adaptive movement features during a skilled locomotor task and/or promotes plasticity of spinal and supraspinal circuitry. Here, we show that Ch'ase ABC enhanced crossing of a peg walkway post-SCI and significantly improved ipsilateral hindlimb trajectories and integration into a functional forelimb-hindlimb coordination pattern. Recovery of these complex movements was associated with significant increases in neurofilament immunoreactivity immediately below the SCI in the ipsilateral white (p = 0.033) and contralateral gray matter (p = 0.003). Further, the rubrospinal tract is critical in the normal cat during skilled movements that require accurate paw placements and trajectories like those seen during peg walkway crossing. Rubrospinal connections were assessed following Fluoro-Gold injections, caudal to the hemisection. Significantly more retrogradely labeled right (axotomized) red nucleus (RN) neurons were seen in Ch'ase ABC-treated (23%) compared with control-treated cats (8%; p = 0.032) indicating that a larger number of RN neurons in Ch'ase ABC-treated cats had axons below the lesion level. Thus, following SCI, Ch'ase ABC may facilitate axonal growth at the spinal level, enhance adaptive features of locomotion, and affect plasticity of rubrospinal circuitry known to support adaptive behaviors in the normal cat.

  11. Density and distribution of cutaneous sensilla on tails of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) in relation to caudal autotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Anthony P; Lai, Erica K; Lawrence Powell, G; Higham, Timothy E

    2014-09-01

    The lizard tail is well known for its ability to autotomize and regenerate. Physical contact of the tail by a predator may induce autotomy at the location at which the tail is grasped, and upon detachment the tail may undergo violent, rapid, and unpredictable movements that appear to be, to some degree, regulated by contact with the physical environment. Neither the mechanism by which tail breakage at a particular location is determined, nor that by which environmental feedback to the tail is received, are known. It has been suggested that mechanoreceptors (sensilla) are the means of mediation of such activities, and reports indicate that the density of sensilla on the tail is high. To determine the feasibility that mechanoreceptors are involved in such phenomena, we mapped scale form and the size, density, distribution, and spacing of sensilla on the head, body, limbs, and tail of the leopard gecko. This species has a full complement of autotomy planes along the length of the tail, and the postautotomic behavior of its tail has been documented. We found that the density of sensilla is highest on the tail relative to all other body regions examined; a dorsoventral gradient of caudal sensilla density is evident on the tail; sensilla are more closely spaced on the dorsal and lateral regions of the tail than elsewhere and are carried on relatively small scales; and that the whorls of scales on the tail bear a one to one relationship with the autotomy planes. Our results are consistent with the hypotheses of sensilla being involved in determining the site at which autotomy will occur, and with them being involved in the mediation of tail behavior following autotomy. These findings open the way for experimental neurological investigations of how autotomy is induced and how the detached tail responds to external environmental input. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Functional connectivity of the human rostral and caudal cingulate motor areas in the brain resting state at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habas, Christophe [CHNO des Quinze-Vingts, UPMC Paris 6, Service de NeuroImagerie, Paris (France)

    2010-01-15

    Three cingulate motor areas have been described in monkeys, the rostral, dorsal, and ventral cingulate motor areas, and would control limbic-related motor activity. However, little anatomical data are available in human about the functional networks these cingulate areas underlie. Therefore, networks anchored in the rostral and caudal cingulate motor areas (rCMA and cCMA, respectively) were studied in human using functional connectivity during the brain resting state. Since the rCMA and cCMA are located just under the pre-supplementary and supplementary motor areas (pre-SMA and SMA), the pre-SMA- and SMA-centered networks were also studied to ensure that these four circuits were correctly dissociated. Data from 14 right-handed healthy volunteers were acquired at rest and analyzed by region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity. The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations of separate ROIs located in rCMA, cCMA, pre-SMA, and SMA were successively used to identify significant temporal correlations with BOLD signal fluctuations of other brain regions. Low-frequency BOLD signal of the CMA was correlated with signal fluctuations in the prefrontal, cingulate, insular, premotor, motor, medial and inferior parietal cortices, putamen and thalamus, and anticorrelated with the default-mode network. rCMA was more in relation with prefrontal, orbitofrontal, and language-associated cortices than cCMA more related to sensory cortex. These cingulate networks were very similar to the pre-SMA- and SMA-centered networks, although pre-SMA and SMA showed stronger correlation with the prefrontal and inferior parietal cortices and with the cerebellum and the superior parietal cortex, respectively. The human cingulate motor areas constitute an interface between sensorimotor, limbic and executive systems, sharing common cortical, striatal, and thalamic relays with the overlying premotor medial areas. (orig.)

  13. [Caudal epidural steroid injection in the treatment of chronic discogenic low back pain. Comparative, prospective and randomized study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera-Irimia, J; Tomé-Bermejo, F

    2013-01-01

    There is no consensus on the treatment of chronic low back pain of disc origin in the medical literature. The few prospective, randomized, controlled studies evaluating the effectiveness of caudal epidural steroid injections (CESI) have obtained contradictory results. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of CEI in reducing pain and improving the associated disability. This is a prospective, randomized, case-control study of a group of 46 patients with chronic low back disc pain. Patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups to either receive fluoroscopy guided CESI (CESI-group), or oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID-group). All patients were clinically evaluated at 4, 12, and 24 weeks, and according to the indications of the Spanish Society for Study of Diseases of the Spine (GEER). Lumbar pain, measured by the visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODQ), did not improve significantly during follow-up in any of the two study groups (P>.05). Younger patients, women, patients with shorter duration of symptoms, low physical job demand, without leg pain, and sport-active, included in CESI-group showed a trend towards better results, but none reached statistical significance (P>.05). The present study has not demonstrated the superiority of CESI over NSAIDs in treating chronic low back pain of disc origin. While CESI could show some improvement in patients with degenerative lumbar disc disease, we consider it should be used with caution, informing patients about realistic expectations on the success of treatment. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. The caudal regeneration blastema is an accumulation of rapidly proliferating stem cells in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Bernhard; Gschwentner, Robert; Hess, Michael W; Nimeth, Katharina T; Adamski, Zbigniew; Willems, Maxime; Rieger, Reinhard; Salvenmoser, Willi

    2009-07-15

    Macrostomum lignano is a small free-living flatworm capable of regenerating all body parts posterior of the pharynx and anterior to the brain. We quantified the cellular composition of the caudal-most body region, the tail plate, and investigated regeneration of the tail plate in vivo and in semithin sections labeled with bromodeoxyuridine, a marker for stem cells (neoblasts) in S-phase. The tail plate accomodates the male genital apparatus and consists of about 3,100 cells, about half of which are epidermal cells. A distinct regeneration blastema, characterized by a local accumulation of rapidly proliferating neoblasts and consisting of about 420 cells (excluding epidermal cells), was formed 24 hours after amputation. Differentiated cells in the blastema were observed two days after amputation (with about 920 blastema cells), while the male genital apparatus required four to five days for full differentiation. At all time points, mitoses were found within the blastema. At the place of organ differentiation, neoblasts did not replicate or divide. After three days, the blastema was made of about 1420 cells and gradually transformed into organ primordia, while the proliferation rate decreased. The cell number of the tail plate, including about 960 epidermal cells, was restored to 75% at this time point. Regeneration after artificial amputation of the tail plate of adult specimens of Macrostomum lignano involves wound healing and the formation of a regeneration blastema. Neoblasts undergo extensive proliferation within the blastema. Proliferation patterns of S-phase neoblasts indicate that neoblasts are either determined to follow a specific cell fate not before, but after going through S-phase, or that they can be redetermined after S-phase. In pulse-chase experiments, dispersed distribution of label suggests that S-phase labeled progenitor cells of the male genital apparatus undergo further proliferation before differentiation, in contrast to progenitor cells of

  15. Complicações determinadas por placas de cloreto de polivinila (PVC na estabilização da porção cervical caudal da coluna vertebral de cães Complications determined by polyvinylchloride (PVC plates in the stabilization of caudal cervical vertebral column of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 10 cães com peso médio de 14,6kg, as vértebras cervicais 5 e 6 foram cirurgicamente desestabilizadas através da secção do disco intervertebral e, em seguida, estabilizadas com placas ortopédicas confeccionadas com PVC de 2mm de espessura, para após 180 dias, proceder-se ao estudo histológico do tecido ósseo e conjuntivo circunvizinho. Constatou-se que o PVC causou alterações ósseas que podem ter favorecido o afrouxamento dos parafusos e a falha do implante. O material induziu ainda à formação de granuloma de corpo estranho e a reações inflamatórias locais que podem ter causado degradação do material implantado. Assim, placas de PVC, apesar de proporcionarem estabilidade e alinhamento da coluna vertebral, não satisfazem a maioria das propriedades necessárias a um biomaterial, não sendo recomendadaa a sua utilização em ortopedia veterinária.In ten dogs with an average mean weight of 14,6 kg, the cervical vertebra 5 and 6 were destabilized and fixed with plates of 2mm of thickness. The purpose of this work was to verify the effect of orthopedic PVC plates on the internal stabilization of the caudal cervical spine of dogs by studying the occurrence of alterations in the bone tissue and fibrous tissue adjacent to the plate after 180 days of permanence of the material in the dogs' organism. PVC causes progressive bone alterations, which, in the long term, could promote the loosening of the screws and failure of the implant. It also induces the formation of foreign body granuloma and inflammatory reactions which could cause degradation of the implant. Thus, PVC plates do not satisfy the majority of properties required of a biomaterial, its use not being recommended in veterinary orthopedics.

  16. The caudal regeneration blastema is an accumulation of rapidly proliferating stem cells in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamski Zbigniew

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrostomum lignano is a small free-living flatworm capable of regenerating all body parts posterior of the pharynx and anterior to the brain. We quantified the cellular composition of the caudal-most body region, the tail plate, and investigated regeneration of the tail plate in vivo and in semithin sections labeled with bromodeoxyuridine, a marker for stem cells (neoblasts in S-phase. Results The tail plate accomodates the male genital apparatus and consists of about 3,100 cells, about half of which are epidermal cells. A distinct regeneration blastema, characterized by a local accumulation of rapidly proliferating neoblasts and consisting of about 420 cells (excluding epidermal cells, was formed 24 hours after amputation. Differentiated cells in the blastema were observed two days after amputation (with about 920 blastema cells, while the male genital apparatus required four to five days for full differentiation. At all time points, mitoses were found within the blastema. At the place of organ differentiation, neoblasts did not replicate or divide. After three days, the blastema was made of about 1420 cells and gradually transformed into organ primordia, while the proliferation rate decreased. The cell number of the tail plate, including about 960 epidermal cells, was restored to 75% at this time point. Conclusion Regeneration after artificial amputation of the tail plate of adult specimens of Macrostomum lignano involves wound healing and the formation of a regeneration blastema. Neoblasts undergo extensive proliferation within the blastema. Proliferation patterns of S-phase neoblasts indicate that neoblasts are either determined to follow a specific cell fate not before, but after going through S-phase, or that they can be redetermined after S-phase. In pulse-chase experiments, dispersed distribution of label suggests that S-phase labeled progenitor cells of the male genital apparatus undergo further proliferation before

  17. PROPUESTA METODOLÓGICA PRELIMINAR PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN DEL CAUDAL AMBIENTAL EN PROYECTOS LICENCIADOS POR EL MINISTERIO DE AMBIENTE Y DESARROLLO SOSTENIBLE (MADS, COLOMBIA

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    GABRIEL A. PINILLA-AGUDELO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una propuesta metodológica para estimar los caudales ambientales en grandes proyectos licenciados por la Agencia Nacional de Licencias Ambientales (ANLA de Colombia, resultado de un convenio interadministrativo suscrito entre el ahora Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible (MADS de Colombia y la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (UNC. El método propuesto parte de garantizar criterios hidrológicos, continúa con una validación hidráulica y de calidad del agua, sigue con la determinación de la integridad del hábitat, en un proceso iterativo que requiere evaluación para las condiciones antes y después de la construcción del proyecto y que permite establecer un caudal que, además de conservar las funciones ecológicas del río, garantiza los usos del recurso aguas abajo. Específicamente dentro del componente biótico, la propuesta incluye la determinación y monitoreo de índices de integridad biótica para cuatro comunidades acuáticas (perifiton, macroinvertebrados, vegetación ribereña y peces, a fin de hacer un seguimiento a los efectos que puede producir la reducción del caudal a mediano y largo plazo. Se presentan los resultados de la aplicación de la metodología en varios proyectos licenciados por el MADS.

  18. Biomaterial bridges enable regeneration and re-entry of corticospinal tract axons into the caudal spinal cord after SCI: Association with recovery of forelimb function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Kiran; Cummings, Brian J; Thomas, Aline; Shea, Lonnie D; Levine, Ariel; Pfaff, Sam; Anderson, Aileen J

    2015-10-01

    Severed axon tracts fail to exhibit robust or spontaneous regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). Regeneration failure reflects a combination of factors, including the growth state of neuronal cell bodies and the regeneration-inhibitory environment of the central nervous system. However, while spared circuitry can be retrained, target reinnervation depends on longitudinally directed regeneration of transected axons. This study describes a biodegradable implant using poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) bridges as a carrier scaffold to support regeneration after injury. In order to detect regeneration of descending neuronal tracts into the bridge, and beyond into intact caudal parenchyma, we developed a mouse cervical implantation model and employed Crym:GFP transgenic mice. Characterization of Crym:GFP mice revealed that descending tracts, including the corticospinal tract, were labeled by green fluorescent protein (GFP), while ascending sensory neurons and fibers were not. Robust co-localization between GFP and neurofilament-200 (NF-200) as well as GFP and GAP-43 was observed at both the rostral and caudal bridge/tissue interface. No evidence of similar regeneration was observed in mice that received gelfoam at the lesion site as controls. Minimal co-localization between GFP reporter labeling and macrophage markers was observed. Taken together, these data suggest that axons originating from descending fiber tracts regenerated, entered into the PLG bridge at the rostral margin, continued through the bridge site, and exited to re-enter host tissue at the caudal edge of the intact bridge. Finally, regeneration through implanted bridges was associated with a reduction in ipsilateral forelimb errors on a horizontal ladder task. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Central vestibular syndrome in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes with presumptive right caudal cerebral artery ischemic infarct and prevalent midbrain involvement

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    Mario Ricciardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A wild young male red fox (Vulpes vulpes was found in the mountainous hinterland of Rome (Italy with a heavily depressed mental status and unresponsive to the surrounding environment. Neurological examination revealed depression, left circling, right head tilt, ventromedial positional strabismus and decreased postural reactions on the left side. Neurological abnormalities were suggestive of central vestibular syndrome. Two consecutive MRIs performed with 30 days interval were compatible with lacunar ischemic infarct in the territory of right caudal cerebral artery and its collateral branches. The lesion epicentre was in the right periaqueductal portion of the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological correlation between lesion localization and clinical presentation are discussed.

  20. Central vestibular syndrome in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with presumptive right caudal cerebral artery ischemic infarct and prevalent midbrain involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Mario; Gernone, Floriana; Simone, Antonio De; Giannuzzi, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    A wild young male red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) was found in the mountainous hinterland of Rome (Italy) with a heavily depressed mental status and unresponsive to the surrounding environment. Neurological examination revealed depression, left circling, right head tilt, ventromedial positional strabismus and decreased postural reactions on the left side. Neurological abnormalities were suggestive of central vestibular syndrome. Two consecutive MRIs performed with 30 days interval were compatible with lacunar ischemic infarct in the territory of right caudal cerebral artery and its collateral branches. The lesion epicentre was in the right periaqueductal portion of the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological correlation between lesion localization and clinical presentation are discussed.

  1. Pronóstico probabilístico de caudales de avenida mediante redes bayesianas aplicadas sobre un modelo hidrológico distribuido

    OpenAIRE

    Mediero Orduña, Luis

    2007-01-01

    RESUMEN La presente tesis muestra el desarrollo de un modelo de pronóstico probabilístico de caudales con aplicación al proceso de toma de decisiones en una situación real de avenidas. El modelo de pronóstico se fundamenta en la combinación de un conjunto de herramientas que permiten la simulación del comportamiento hidrológico de la cuenca y un modelo de redes Bayesianas que permite captar la variabilidad e incertidumbre de los procesos hidrológicos desde un punto de vista probabilístico....

  2. Los nuevos regímenes ecológicos de caudales como herramienta para la mejora ambiental de los ecosistemas acuáticos y riparios.

    OpenAIRE

    Magdaleno Mas, Fernando; Martinez Romero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Dos estrategias fundamentales para una gestión correcta de los regímenes fluviales, en el ámbito de las exigencias impuestas por la Directiva Marco del Agua (2000/60/CE) y por la propia Directiva Hábitat (92/43/CE) son el análisis de la alteración hidrológica de las masas de agua, y el establecimiento de un régimen ambiental de caudales que permita alcanzar un estado ecológico adecuado a los objetivos medioambientales de cada una de esas masas. Por lo que respecta al primero de estos aspectos...

  3. Medición del caudal ecológico del río Acaponeta, Nayarit, comparando distintos intervalos de tiempo

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe de la Lanza Espino; Jose Luis Carbajal Pérez; Sergio Alberto Salinas Rodríguez; Jorge Eugenio Barrios Ordóñez

    2012-01-01

    El manejo diverso del agua de los ríos en México ha sido inadecuado por las diferentes actividades antrópicas, asociado a los cambios interanuales del clima y en consecuencia del patrón de sus escurrimientos, lo que ha llevado a la pérdida de los ecosistemas. Sin embargo, actualmente existen diversas metodologías para determinar el caudal necesario para conservar al medio ambiente y dentro de ellas están las de tipo hidrológicas, como la que aquí se aplica, y que se basa en una información de...

  4. Prediction of water flows in Colorado River, Argentina Predicción de caudales en río Colorado, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge O Pierini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification of suitable models for predicting daily water flow is important for planning and management of water storage in reservoirs of Argentina. Long-term prediction of water flow is crucial for regulating reservoirs and hydroelectric plants, for assessing environmental protection and sustainable development, for guaranteeing correct operation of public water supply in cities like Catriel, 25 de Mayo, Colorado River and potentially also Bahía Blanca. In this paper, we analyze in Buta Ranquil flow time series upstream reservoir and hydroelectric plant in order to model and predict daily fluctuations. We compare results obtained by using a three-layer artificial neural network (ANN, and an autoregressive (AR model, using 18 years of data, of which the last 3 years are used for model validation by means of the root mean square error (RMSE, and measure of certainty (Skill. Our results point out to the better performance to predict daily water flow or refill them of the ANN model performance respect to the AR model.La identificación de modelos adecuados para predecir caudales diarios es importante para la planificación y la gestión de almacenamiento de agua en los embalses de la Argentina. La predicción a largo plazo del caudal es crucial para la regulación de los embalses y centrales hidroeléctricas, evaluar la protección del medio ambiente y el desarrollo sostenible, garantizar el correcto funcionamiento del abastecimiento público de agua en ciudades como Catriel, 25 de Mayo, río Colorado y también, eventualmente, en Bahía Blanca. En este trabajo, se analizan series de tiempo de caudales de agua, arriba del embalse y de la planta hidroeléctrica en Buta Ranquil, para modelar y predecir las fluctuaciones diarias. Se comparan los resultados obtenidos mediante el uso de una red neuronal artificial (ANN de tres capas y un modelo autoregresivo (AR, con 18 anos de datos, cuyos últimos 3 anos se utilizan para la validación del

  5. Harmless effects of argon plasma on caudal fin regeneration and embryogenesis of zebrafish: novel biological approaches for safe medical applications of bioplasma

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Min-Kyung; Kim, Goo-Young; Yun, Si-Eun; Jang, Ja-Young; Kim, Yong-Hee; Choi, Eun Ha; Kang, Seongman; Rhim, Hyangshuk

    2017-01-01

    The argon plasma jet (Ar-PJ) is widely used in medical fields such as dermatology and dentistry, and it is considered a promising tool for cancer therapy. However, the in vivo effects of Ar-PJ for medical uses have not yet been investigated, and there are no biological tools to determine the appropriate clinical dosages of Ar-PJ. In this study, we used the caudal fin and embryo of zebrafish as novel in vivo tools to evaluate the biosafety of Ar-PJ. Typically, Ar-PJ is known to induce cell dea...

  6. Reconstrucción histórica de los caudales mensuales a lo largo de la red de drenaje de Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Roldán Taborda, Ernesto; Mesa Sánchez, Óscar José

    2011-01-01

    Se implementó un modelo mensual de balance de agua distribuido para estimar caudales medios mensuales en cualquier punto de la red hidrográfica de Colombia, en el período comprendido entre los años 1975 y 2005. Se adoptó el esquema del modelo agregado GR2M, el cual se alimenta de datos mensuales de precipitación y evaporación potencial. Su conceptualización consta de un tanque de producción, asociado al almacenamiento de agua en el suelo, un tanque de tránsito y una componente para modelar...

  7. Análisis de regresión lineal multivariable para la obtención del caudal pico de descarga en rotura de presas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Sánchez Muñoz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se hace un estudio del comportamiento dinámico e hidráulico del terreno en caso de avenida por rotura de presa, así como una presentación de una metodología de regresión lineal multivariable a partir del análisis de los datos históricos de rotura de presas para la obtención del caudal pico de descarga.

  8. Comportamento dos nervos glossofaríngeo e vago, na região retrofaríngea de ovinos: origem aparente no crânio, trajeto, ramificação e distribuição Behavior of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves in the retropharyngeal region of sheep: apparent origin in cranium, course, branching and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria M.D. Farias

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Em 60 hemicabeças de ovinos da raça Santa Inês foram estudadas a origem aparente no crânio, trajeto, ramificação e distribuição do nervo glossofaríngeo (Gf e do nervo vago (Vg, na região retrofaríngea (Rr. Mediante fixação e dissecação das peças, foi observado que os nervos glossofaríngeos e vagos originam-se no forame jugular em 100% dos casos. Os nervos glossofaríngeos direito e esquerdo (Gfde são localizados, com maior freqüência (86,6%, medialmente à bula timpânica, passam caudalmente ao osso estiloióide, contornam a margem caudal do músculo estilofaríngeo caudal, tonsilar, da mucosa faríngea e lingual. Estes ramos distribuemse, respectivamente, no seio carotídeo, musculatura faríngea, palato mole, músculo estilofaríngeo caudal, tonsila palatina, mucosa faríngea e terço caudal da língua (100%. Os nervos vagos direito e esquerdo (Vgde correm caudalmente em associação com os nervos acessórios (Ac até o atlas (70%, após o que passam medialmente à artéria occipital, dorsalmente à carótida comum e ao tronco simpático, na região cervical (80%. Os ramos dos nervos vagos são os faríngeos (86,66% e os laríngeos craniais (100%.In 60 hemiheads of sheep of the Santa Ines breed the apparent origin in the skull of itinerary, ramification and distribution of the glossopharingeal nerve (Gf and the vagus nerve (Vg in the retropharyngeal region (Rr were studied. By fixation and dissection of the specimens it was seen that the glossopharyngeal nerve and the vagus nerve arise from the jugular foramen in 100% of the cases. The right and the left glossopharingeal nerve (Glde are frequently (86.6% located more medially to the tympanic bulla, pass caudally to the stylohyoid bone, bypass the margin of the caudal stylopharyngeal muscle, the tonsilla, of the pharyngeal and the lingual mucous membrane. These branches are distributed, respectively, in the carotid sinus, pharyngeal musculature, soft palate, stylopharyngeal

  9. Estudio del impacto del cambio climático en los caudales de entrada al embalse del Río Frío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Tatiana Gómez Vargas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó cual podría ser la tendencia y la afectación en los caudales de entrada hasta el año 2100 del embalse que se tiene proyectado sobre el Río Frío para el abastecimiento de los municipios de Chía, Tenjo, Tabio, Cota y Cajicá considerando el RCP 4.5 y 8.5, los cuales describen dos caminos del forzamiento radiativo hasta el año 2100. Estos tuvieron en cuenta las series asociadas a las simulaciones realizadas en los modelos climáticos globales CCSM4, IPSL CM5A –LR y MIROC ESM y los RCP. Se realizaron análisis comparativos para saber si las demandas proyectadas hasta el año 2070 podrán cumplirse al considerar el cambio climático. Se puso en evidencia que las demandas estimadas son elevadas y tienen un crecimiento exponencial, mientras que la oferta que se estimó tiene valores pequeños que no son suficientes para satisfacer los requerimientos de abastecimiento. Los caudales de entrada se esperan que tengan disminuciones de aproximadamente un 20%.

  10. Kappa-Opioid Receptors in the Caudal Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Mediate 100 Hz Electroacupuncture-Induced Sleep Activities in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Hsiang Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous results demonstrated that 10 Hz electroacupuncture (EA of Anmian acupoints in rats during the dark period enhances slow wave sleep (SWS, which involves the induction of cholinergic activity in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS and subsequent activation of opioidergic neurons and -receptors. Studies have shown that different kinds of endogenous opiate peptides and receptors may mediate the consequences of EA with different frequencies. Herein, we further elucidated that high-frequency (100 Hz-EA of Anmian enhanced SWS during the dark period but exhibited no direct effect on rapid eye movement (REM sleep. High-frequency EA-induced SWS enhancement was dose-dependently blocked by microinjection of naloxone or -receptor antagonist (nor-binaltorphimine into the caudal NTS, but was affected neither by - (naloxonazine nor -receptor antagonists (natatrindole, suggesting the role of NTS -receptors in the high-frequency EA-induced SWS enhancement. Current and previous results depict the opioid mechanisms of EA-induced sleep.

  11. C7 pars fracture subadjacent to C7 pedicle screw instrumentation at the caudal end of a posterior cervical instrumentation construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Andrea; Grauer, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    We report a case of a C7 pars fracture subadjacent to C7 pedicle screw instrumentation at the caudal end of posterior cervical instrumentation construct. To date, posterior cervical instrumentation has been "off label"; however, the US Food and Drug Administration is considering approving label indication of such instrumentation for this common surgical practice. Complications related to the techniques are reported to be relatively low. We know of no previous reports of pars fractures occurring subadjacent to such instrumentation. A 43-year-old man underwent posterior C5-C7 instrumented fusion. Postoperatively, the patient experienced cervical spine injury after a mechanical fall down stairs. Work-up detected bilateral C7 pars fractures subadjacent to the posterior instrumentation construct. After we treated the pars fracture with distal extension of the posterior fusion to the level of T2, the patient progressed to union and marked improvement of initial clinical symptoms that was maintained 2.5 years after posterior instrumentation. To our knowledge, a C7 pars fracture subadjacent to posterior cervical instrumentation construct has not been reported. We hypothesize that the pars may have been vulnerable to fracture because of excessive bone resection during foraminotomy or decortication. This complication was successfully treated by extending the fusion caudally.

  12. Projections from the lowest lumbar and sacral-caudal segments to the cerebellar cortex in the rat: An anterograde tracing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Matsuo

    2017-01-01

    The crossed spinocerebellar tracts originate from neurons in the basolateral part of lamina V, the sacral nuclei of Stilling and the ventrolateral part of the ventral horn of the L6 to caudal segments. The present study examined their projection areas in the cerebellar cortex by using anterograde labeling of mossy fiber terminals with biotinylated dextran in the rat. Labeled terminals were distributed bilaterally in lobules I-V of the anterior lobe. They were most abundant in the apical parts of the lateral vermis and the intermediate region of lobules Ib and IIa, and the rostral side of lobule IIb. The number of labeled terminals in lobules Ib-IIb accounted for 56% and 81%, respectively, of the total 9783 and 7045 labeled terminals. The number of labeled terminals decreased in lobules III to V. In the posterior lobe labeled terminals were distributed exclusively to lobules VIIIa and VIIIb and copula pyramidis. The present study demonstrates that spinocerebellar neurons of the sacral-caudal segments project primarily to the lateral part of lobules I and II, and less densely to lobules III-V and VIII, and copula pyramidis. The projection pattern was essentially similar to that observed in the cat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Determinación del caudal ecológico : impacto económico en el usuario agrícola de la cuenca Río Yautepec, estado de Morelos.

    OpenAIRE

    Palma Raymundo, María Lidia

    2014-01-01

    En México, a partir de la modificación de la Ley de Aguas Nacionales en el 2004, en México es obligatorio destinar parte del agua de los ríos para usos ambientales. Esta agua que se debe dejar que corra en el cauce del río se conoce como caudal ecológico. El reto es, por un lado, estimar cuánta agua debe corresponder al caudal ecológico. Por otro lado, que consecuencias sociales y económicas tendrá el quitar agua asignada actualmente a otros usuarios para destinarla como caudal ecológico. En...

  14. Modelación de caudales en función de los macroporos del suelo en una microcuenca forestal de Durango, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Návar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available La predicción de caudales en suelos forestales y el efecto potencial de la silvicultura son importantes en el manejo forestal. En este reporte de investigación se probó el efecto de la presencia y ausencia de macroporos en el suelo en la producción de caudales utilizando un balance hidrológico de masas. Con mediciones de la precipitación diaria (P y la evaporación en evaporímetros (Et, desde 1945 hasta 2007 y utilizando submodelos para estimar la interceptación (I y la evapotranspiración potencial (Etp, se calcularon las descargas superficiales (Qs, subsuperficiales (Qp, y los cambios en el contenido de humedad del suelo (θ para la microcuenca La Rosilla II del Salto, Pueblo Nuevo en el Estado de Durango, México. Los resultados del análisis matemático mostraron que la falta de macroporos aumentó Qs en 149 mm pero disminuyó Qp a 0; así mismo la evapotranspiración actual (Eta aumentó de 506 mm hasta 541 mm y el valor promedio de θ cambió de 0.43 a 0.38 cm cm‑1. Como consecuencia, la ausencia de macroporos trae consigo la falta de caudales de infiltración profunda por la eliminación de la recarga y el aumento de la escorrentía superficial durante la época de lluvias y un aumento en el agua disponible para Eta. Es por estas razones que las prácticas de manejo forestal deben de estar encaminadas al mantenimiento de los bosques que cumplan al mismo tiempo con los objetivos del manejo forestal, destinado a la producción de bienes, y con su efecto regulador en la hidrología de los suelos forestales para cumplir con uno de los objetivos de los servicios que prestan los ecosistemas forestales.

  15. In vitro and in vivo responses of saccular and caudal nucleus neurons in the grassfrog (Rana temporaria)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Walkowiak, W

    1999-01-01

    We present results from in vitro and in vivo studies of response properties of neurons in the saccular and caudal nuclei in the frog. In the in vitro studies the saccular nerve of the isolated brain was stimulated with electrical pulses. In the in vivo experiments, the neurons were stimulated...... by dorso-ventral vibrations of the intact animal. We identified six response types: (1) primary-like cells with short latencies and follow repetition rates up to 100 Hz; (2) phasic cells responding only to the first pulse in a train; (3) bursting cells firing several spikes in response to any stimulation......; (4) late responders with very long latencies; (5) integrator cells showing facilitated responses, and (6) inhibitory cells inhibited by saccular nerve stimulation.The cells have comparable sensitivity and frequency characteristics to the primary fibres (BF 10-80 Hz, thresholds from 0.01 cm/s2...

  16. Energetics of median and paired fin swimming, body and caudal fin swimming, and gait transition in parrotfish (Scarus schlegeli) and triggerfish (Rhinecanthus aculeatus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsmeyer, Keith E; Steffensen, John Fleng; Herskin, Jannik

    2002-01-01

    To determine the energetic costs of rigid-body, median or paired-fin (MPF) swimming versus undulatory, body-caudal fin (BCF) swimming, we measured oxygen consumption as a function of swimming speed in two MPF swimming specialists, Schlegel's parrotfish and Picasso triggerfish. The parrotfish swam.......1 L s(-1) (30 min U(crit)). In both species, the rates of increase in oxygen consumption with swimming speed were higher during BCF swimming than during rigid-body MPF swimming. Our results indicate that, for these species, undulatory swimming is energetically more costly than rigid-body swimming......, and therefore support the hypothesis that MPF swimming is more efficient. In addition, use of the BCF gait at higher swimming speed increased the cost of transport in both species beyond that predicted for MPF swimming at the same speeds. This suggests that, unlike for terrestrial locomotion, gait transition...

  17. Cost utility analysis of caudal epidural injections in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation, axial or discogenic low back pain, central spinal stenosis, and post lumbar surgery syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Falco, Frank J E; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Cash, Kimberly A; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2013-01-01

    In this era of escalating health care costs and the questionable effectiveness of multiple interventions, cost effectiveness or cost utility analysis has become the cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, and has an influence coverage decisions. Even though multiple cost effectiveness analysis studies have been performed over the years, extensive literature is lacking for interventional techniques. Cost utility analysis studies of epidural injections for managing chronic low back pain demonstrated highly variable results including a lack of cost utility in randomized trials and contrasting results in observational studies. There has not been any cost utility analysis studies of epidural injections in large randomized trials performed in interventional pain management settings. To assess the cost utility of caudal epidural injections in managing chronic low back pain secondary to lumbar disc herniation, axial or discogenic low back pain, lumbar central spinal stenosis, and lumbar post surgery syndrome. This analysis is based on 4 previously published randomized trials. A private, specialty referral interventional pain management center in the United States. Four randomized trials were conducted assessing the clinical effectiveness of caudal epidural injections with or without steroids for lumbar disc herniation, lumbar discogenic or axial low back pain, lumbar central spinal stenosis, and post surgery syndrome. A cost utility analysis was performed with direct payment data for a total of 480 patients over a period of 2 years from these 4 trials. Outcome included various measures with significant improvement defined as at least a 50% improvement in pain reduction and disability status. The results of 4 randomized controlled trials of low back pain with 480 patients with a 2 year follow-up with the actual reimbursement data showed cost utility for one year of quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of $2,206 for disc herniation, $2,136 for axial or discogenic pain without

  18. Deforming mandibular osteomyelitis in a cow caused by Trueperella pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Antas Caffaro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reports an unusual case of deforming mandibular osteomyelitis in a cow caused by Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes, on the face of the ventrolateral caudal portion of the right branch of the mandible. Fragment aspired of lesion by fine needle allowed cytological characterization, isolation and identification of T. pyogenes. Radiographic examination showed marked periosteal reaction in the right mandible, numerous lytic areas and cortical bone destruction. Despite of treatment based on in vitro antimicrobial sensitivity test, it was recommended the euthanasia due to progressive worsening of the cow's condition. Multiple abscesses were observed in the mandibular region at necropsy. Pyogranuloma was characterized in histological exam. Sampled material collected from the lesion after necropsy resulted in microbiological reisolation of T. pyogenes

  19. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: Detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Skirrow, Rachel C. [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Rieberger, Kevin J. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Aggelen, Graham van [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Meays, Cynthia L. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Helbing, Caren C., E-mail: chelbing@uvic.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •A minimally-invasive tail fin biopsy assay was developed for use in fish. •Quantitative real time polymerase reaction provided gene expression readout. •Results were comparable to classical liver tissue responses. •The approach was used on two salmonid species and can be coupled with genomic sex determination using an additional biopsy for maximal information. -- Abstract: An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in

  20. Caudal Edge of the Liver in the Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ View Is the Most Sensitive Area for Free Fluid on the FAST Exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveta Lobo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST exam is a critical diagnostic test for intraperitoneal free fluid (FF. Current teaching is that fluid accumulates first in Morison’s pouch. The goal of this study was to evaluate the “sub-quadrants” of traditional FAST views to determine the most sensitive areas for FF accumulation. Methods: We analyzed a retrospective cohort of all adult trauma patients who had a recorded FAST exam by emergency physicians at a Level I trauma center from January 2012 – June 2013. Ultrasound fellowship-trained faculty with three emergency medicine residents reviewed all FAST exams. We excluded studies if they were incomplete, of poor image quality, or with incorrect medical record information. Positive studies were assessed for FF localization, comparing the traditional abdominal views and on a sub-quadrant basis: right upper quadrant (RUQ1 - hepatodiaphragmatic; RUQ2 - Morison’s pouch; RUQ3 - caudal liver edge and superior paracolic gutter; left upper quadrant (LUQ1 - splenic-diaphragmatic; LUQ2 - spleno-renal; LUQ3 – around inferior pole of kidney; suprapubic area (SP1 - bilateral to bladder; SP2 - posterior to bladder; SP3 – posterior to uterus (females. FAST results were confirmed by chart review of computed tomography results or operative findings. Results: Of the included 1,008 scans, 48 (4.8% were positive. The RUQ was the most positive view with 32/48 (66.7% positive. In the RUQ sub-quadrant analysis, the most positive view was the RUQ3 with 30/32 (93.8% positive. Conclusion: The RUQ is most sensitive for FF assessment, with the superior paracolic gutter area around the caudal liver edge (RUQ3 being the most positive sub-quadrant within the RUQ. [West J Emerg Med. 2017;18(2270-280.

  1. Excitatory amino acid receptor blockade within the caudal pressor area and rostral ventrolateral medulla alters cardiovascular responses to nucleus raphe obscurus stimulation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva N.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressor responses elicited by stimulation of the nucleus raphe obscurus (NRO depend on the integrity of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM. Therefore, to test the participation of excitatory amino acid (EAA receptors in the cardiovascular responses evoked by NRO stimulation (1 ms, 100 Hz, 40-70 µA, for 10 s, the EAA antagonist kynurenic acid (Kyn was microinjected at different sites in the ventrolateral medullar surface (2.7 nmol/200 nl of male Wistar rats (270-320 g, N = 39 and NRO stimulation was repeated. The effects of NRO stimulation were: hypertension (deltaMAP = +43 ± 1 mmHg, P<0.01, bradycardia (deltaHR = -30 ± 7 bpm, P<0.01 and apnea. Bilateral microinjection of Kyn into the RVLM, which did not change baseline parameters, almost abolished the bradycardia induced by NRO stimulation (deltaHR = -61 ± 3 before vs -2 ± 3 bpm after Kyn, P<0.01, N = 7. Unilateral microinjection of Kyn into the CVLM did not change baseline parameters or reduce the pressor response to NRO stimulation (deltaMAP = +46 ± 5 before vs +48 ± 5 mmHg after Kyn, N = 6. Kyn bilaterally microinjected into the caudal pressor area reduced blood pressure and heart rate and almost abolished the pressor response to NRO stimulation (deltaMAP = +46 ± 4 mmHg before vs +4 ± 2 mmHg after Kyn, P<0.01, N = 7. These results indicate that EAA receptors on the medullary ventrolateral surface play a role in the modulation of the cardiovascular responses induced by NRO stimulation, and also suggest that the RVLM participates in the modulation of heart rate responses and that the caudal pressor area modulates the pressor response following NRO stimulation.

  2. Caudal Edge of the Liver in the Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ) View Is the Most Sensitive Area for Free Fluid on the FAST Exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Viveta; Hunter-Behrend, Michelle; Cullnan, Erin; Higbee, Rebecca; Phillips, Caleb; Williams, Sarah; Perera, Philips; Gharahbaghian, Laleh

    2017-02-01

    The focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) exam is a critical diagnostic test for intraperitoneal free fluid (FF). Current teaching is that fluid accumulates first in Morison's pouch. The goal of this study was to evaluate the "sub-quadrants" of traditional FAST views to determine the most sensitive areas for FF accumulation. We analyzed a retrospective cohort of all adult trauma patients who had a recorded FAST exam by emergency physicians at a Level I trauma center from January 2012 - June 2013. Ultrasound fellowship-trained faculty with three emergency medicine residents reviewed all FAST exams. We excluded studies if they were incomplete, of poor image quality, or with incorrect medical record information. Positive studies were assessed for FF localization, comparing the traditional abdominal views and on a sub-quadrant basis: right upper quadrant (RUQ)1 - hepato-diaphragmatic; RUQ2 - Morison's pouch; RUQ3 - caudal liver edge and superior paracolic gutter; left upper quadrant (LUQ)1 - splenic-diaphragmatic; LUQ2 - spleno-renal; LUQ3 - around inferior pole of kidney; suprapubic area (SP)1 - bilateral to bladder; SP2 - posterior to bladder; SP3 - posterior to uterus (females). FAST results were confirmed by chart review of computed tomography results or operative findings. Of the included 1,008 scans, 48 (4.8%) were positive. The RUQ was the most positive view with 32/48 (66.7%) positive. In the RUQ sub-quadrant analysis, the most positive view was the RUQ3 with 30/32 (93.8%) positive. The RUQ is most sensitive for FF assessment, with the superior paracolic gutter area around the caudal liver edge (RUQ3) being the most positive sub-quadrant within the RUQ.

  3. Harmless effects of argon plasma on caudal fin regeneration and embryogenesis of zebrafish: novel biological approaches for safe medical applications of bioplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Min-Kyung; Kim, Goo-Young; Yun, Si-Eun; Jang, Ja-Young; Kim, Yong-Hee; Choi, Eun Ha; Kang, Seongman; Rhim, Hyangshuk

    2017-07-14

    The argon plasma jet (Ar-PJ) is widely used in medical fields such as dermatology and dentistry, and it is considered a promising tool for cancer therapy. However, the in vivo effects of Ar-PJ for medical uses have not yet been investigated, and there are no biological tools to determine the appropriate clinical dosages of Ar-PJ. In this study, we used the caudal fin and embryo of zebrafish as novel in vivo tools to evaluate the biosafety of Ar-PJ. Typically, Ar-PJ is known to induce cell death in two-dimensional (2D) cell culture systems. By contrast, no detrimental effects of Ar-PJ were shown in our 3D zebrafish systems composed of 2D cells. The Ar-PJ-treated caudal fins grew by an average length of 0.7 mm, similar to the length of the normally regenerating fins. Remarkably, Ar-PJ did not affect the expression patterns of Wnt8a and β-Catenin, which play important roles in fin regeneration. In the embryo system, 85% of the Ar-PJ-treated embryos hatched, and the lateral length of these embryos was ~3.3 mm, which are equivalent to the lengths of normal embryos. In particular, vasculogenesis, which is the main cellular process during tissue regeneration and embryogenesis, occurred normally under the Ar-PJ dose used in this study. Therefore, our biosafety evaluation tools that use living model systems can be used to provide an experimental guideline to determine the clinically safe dosage of Ar-PJ.

  4. Characterization of a novel caudal vertebral interbody fusion in a rat tail model: An implication for future material and mechanical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Cheng-Chun; Tai, Ching-Lung; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Lai, Po-Liang; Fu, Tsai-Sheng; Niu, Chi-Chien; Chen, Lih-Huei; Chen, Wen-Jer

    2017-02-01

    Of the proposed animal interbody fusion models, rat caudal discs have gained popularity in disc research due to their strong resemblance to human discs with respect to geometry, composition and mechanical properties. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an efficient, repeatable and easily accessible animal model of interbody fusion for future research into mechanical testing and graft materials. Twelve 12-week-old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats underwent caudal interbody fusion of the third and fourth coccygeal vertebrae of the tail. Serial radiological evaluation, and histological evaluation and manual palpation after sacrifice were performed to assess the fusion quality. Mechanical testing of functional units (FUs) of non-operated and operated segments was compared using a three-point bending test. At postoperative 12 weeks, callus formation was observed at the fusion sites in all rats, with the mean radiological evaluations of 2.75/3 according to the Bransford classification. Newly formed bone tissue was also observed in all rats with the mean histological score of 5.85/7, according to the Emery grading system. No palpable gaps and obvious change of bending stiffness was observed in the operated segments. The mean bending stiffness of the FUs was statistically higher than that of the control FUs (26.57 ± 6.71 N/mm vs. 12.45 ± 3.21 N/mm, p fusion model proved to be an efficient, repeatable and easily accessible model. Future research into adjuvant treatments like growth factor injection and alternative fusion materials under conditions of osteoporosis using this model would be worthwhile. Copyright © 2017 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bloqueio peridural caudal: técnica anestésica de uso exclusivo em crianças? É possível sua realização em adultos? Qual o papel do ultrassom nesse contexto?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Esquenazi Najman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio peridural caudal é a mais popular entre todas as técnicas de anestesia regional em crianças. Com o avanço da idade, apenas a relativa dificuldade em localizar o hiato sacral limita seu uso. Entretanto, em adultos a técnica vem sendo largamente utilizada para controle de dor crônica com o auxílio da fluoroscopia. Assim, a habilidade em localizar o hiato e definir as variações anatômicas é o principal fator determinante do sucesso e segurança na execução do bloqueio peridural pela via caudal. Nesse contexto, o ultrassom vem ganhando espaço como guia para a realização do bloqueio caudal. O objetivo desta revisão foi elucidar o papel do ultrassom na anestesia caudal, além de demonstrar que o bloqueio caudal, muito utilizado em crianças, também é útil e pode ser usado em adultos. CONTEÚDO: Uma revisão literária sobre a anatomia da região sacral e da técnica anestésica necessária para a realização adequada do bloqueio caudal foi promovida. Além disso, artigos recentes sobre estudos realizados com bloqueios peridurais caudais guiados por ultrassom tanto em crianças quanto em adultos também foram incluídos. CONCLUSÕES: O ultrassom, apesar de suas limitações, pode ser útil como ferramenta adjuvante no posicionamento da agulha no espaço caudal. Permite a fácil identificação da anatomia sacral, além de visualização da injeção, em tempo real. Sua natureza portátil, não invasiva e livre de exposição à radiação faz dele uma tecnologia atrativa na sala operatória, principalmente na emergência de casos difíceis. Entretanto, como seu uso em bloqueios centrais do neuroeixo ainda é muito primitivo, é necessário que mais pesquisas sejam feitas para se consagre como técnica de rotina na prática anestésica.

  6. Influencia del caudal de aire, temperatura y velocidad de agitación en el proceso discontinuo de acetificación para la obtención de vinagre de naranja (Citrus sinensis var.W. Navel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ferreyra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la influencia de variables de proceso para la producción de vinagre de naranja. El jugo de naranja, se fermentó con Saccharomyces cer evisiae hasta 14 % v/v de alcohol. La bioxidación se realizó con Acetobacter sp., en cultivo sumergido, en biorreactor de laboratorio. Para evitar el efecto inhibidor del etanol sobre las bacterias acéticas, el vino de naranja fue diluido a 6 % v/v de alco hol con solución de minerales. La influencia de las variables se evaluó con diseño factorial 2 k . Se estudió caudal de aire/velocidad de agitación, ensayando los niveles 0.3 – 0.6 vvm y 200 - 400 rpm y luego, caudal de aire/temperatura, siendo los niveles para cada variable 0.4 – 0.6 vvm y 25 - 30 ºC, respectivamente. Cada tratamiento se realizó por duplicado, usando como respuestas productividad y rendimiento. El análisis del diseño (α<0.05 se efectuó mediante programa Statgraphics Centurion XV Corporate. En los tratamientos con 200 rpm y distintos caudales de aire, no hubo diferencias significativas respecto a la productividad. A mayor velocidad de agitación y caudal de aire, la productividad fue mayor. Los mayores rendimientos se obtuvieron con menores caudales de aire y mayores velocidades de agitación. Con respecto a la temperatura, los valores ensayados no presentaron diferenc ias significativas en las respuestas estudiadas. El mejor rendimiento se obtuvo con 400 rpm y 0.3 vvm a 25 ºC. Se concluye que la velocidad de agitación juega un rol muy importante para lograr una mejor productividad mientras que elevados flujos de aire d isminuyen el rendimiento.

  7. Estudio probabilístico de precipitación y caudal en la cuenca hidrográfica del río Cali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marulanda V. Edgar

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Se analizó el comportamiento probabilístico de la precipitación y el caudal, así como la influencia del fenómeno del Niño en la cuenca hidrográfica del río Cali (123 Km2, localizada en la vertiente Oriental de la cordillera Occidental en el Municipio de Santiago de Cali, en el Valle del Cauca (Colombia. En la determinación de las curvas de variación temporal y el análisis de los eventos extremos, se obtuvo buen ajuste con el método probabilístico de Weibull, la precipitación media de 2046 mm varía entre 3600 (Zona Alta y 1200 mm (Zona Baja; el escurrimiento superficial anual de 3.94 m3 s-1 oscila entre 2.32 (julio y 6.09 m3s-1 (mayo. Los caudales extremos del río Cali han variado entre 0.20 (sequia y 193.0 m3 S-1 (época de lluvias intensas; mientras que en el río Pichindé, su principal afluente, la fluctuación ha oscilado entre 0.17 y 79.9 m3s-1.  Entre 1990 y 1993 el caudal medio anual del no se redujo en 26% respecto al promedio histórico. En los años de incidencia del fenómeno del Niño han ocurrido los eventos más intensos: entre el 52 y el 84% de las precipitaciones máximas mayores de 60 mm en 24 horas los caudales críticos máximos (193.0 y mínimos (0.20 m3 s-1; el Niño 1991-1992 tuvo la mayor incidencia en la disponibilidad de agua en los últimos 43 años, redujo en 36% (1311 mm la precipitación anual y en 50% (1.97 m3 s-1 el caudal medio anual.

    The probabilistic behavior of the precipitation and the flow in the Cali River catchment (123 km2 was analyzed. The attained curves with the Weibull probabilistic method followed a very good adjustment. The catchment shows a medium precipitation of 2046 mm that varies from 3600 (High Zone to 1200 mm (Low zone. The annual superficial flow was about 3.94 m3S-1 with monthly variations between 2.32 (july and 6

  8. Regional influence of cocaine on evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core: A role for the caudal brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerth, Ashlynn I; Alhadeff, Amber L; Grill, Harvey J; Roitman, Mitchell F

    2017-01-15

    Cocaine increases dopamine concentration in the nucleus accumbens through competitive binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT). However, it also increases the frequency of dopamine release events, a finding that cannot be explained by action at the DAT alone. Rather, this effect may be mediated by cocaine-induced modulation of brain regions that project to dopamine neurons. To explore regional contributions of cocaine to dopamine signaling, we administered cocaine to the lateral or fourth ventricles and compared the effects on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens evoked by electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area to that of systemically-delivered cocaine. Stimulation trains caused a sharp rise in dopamine followed by a slower return to baseline. The magnitude of dopamine release ([DA]max) as well as the latency to decay to fifty percent of the maximum (t(1/2); index of DAT activity) by each stimulation train were recorded. All routes of cocaine delivery caused an increase in [DA]max; only systemic cocaine caused an increase in t(1/2). Importantly, these data are the first to show that hindbrain (fourth ventricle)-delivered cocaine modulates phasic dopamine signaling. Fourth ventricular cocaine robustly increased cFos immunoreactivity in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), suggesting a neural substrate for hindbrain cocaine-mediated effects on [DA]max. Together, the data demonstrate that cocaine-induced effects on phasic dopamine signaling are mediated via actions throughout the brain including the hindbrain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Voice in Health Care Decisions Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print ... son la causa del asma? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Allergies don't cause asthma. But kids who ...

  10. Selecting caudal fusion levels: 2 year functional and stiffness outcomes with matched pairs analysis in multilevel fusion to L5 versus S1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Alan H; Koller, Heiko; Hiratzka, Shannon L; Mayer, Michael; Meier, Oliver; Contag, Alec Gabriel; Eltorai, Adam E M; Hiratzka, Jayme; Kojo Hamilton, D; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Smith, Justin S; Bess, Shay; Klineberg, Eric O; Ames, Christopher P; Lafage, Virginie; Line, Breton; Schwab, Frank J; Hart, Robert A; Group, International Spine Study

    2017-06-01

    Controversy persists as to whether to end multilevel thoracolumbar fusions caudally at L5 or S1. Some argue that stopping at L5 may preserve greater function, but there are few data comparing functional limitations due to lumbar stiffness in patients with fusion to L5 versus S1. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether patients undergoing multilevel thoracolumbar fusions with an L5 caudal endpoint have a better lumbosacral function than patients with an S1 caudal endpoint. Patients undergoing successful thoracolumbar fusion of 5 or more levels to L5 or S1, with solid fusion at 2 year follow-up, were examined from a single European center in addition to a multi-center North American database of 237 patients. In total, 40 patients with a distal stopping point of L5 were matched with a subset of 40 patients with a distal endpoint of S1 ± pelvic fixation. The L5 and S1 groups were matched for the final Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Sagittal Vertical Axis (SVA C7-S1), number of fusion levels, and age. Impacts of lumbar stiffness on function as measured by the Lumbar Stiffness Disability Index (LSDI) were compared using the conditional logistic regression. After matching, there was no significant difference between the S1 and L5 groups for the final ODI (29.22 ± 21.6 for S1 versus 29.21 ± 21.7 for L5; p = 0.98), SVA (29.5 ± 40.3 mm for S1 versus 33.7 ± 37.1 mm for L5; p = 0.97), mean age (61.6 ± 11.0 years for S1 versus 58.3 ± 12.6 years for L5; p = 0.23), and number of fusion levels (9.7 ± 3.3 levels for S1 versus 9.0 ± 3 levels for L5; p = 0.34). The final 2-year postoperative LSDI scores were not significantly different between the S1 group (28.08 ± 21.47) and L5 group (29.21 ± 21.66) (hazard ratio 0.99, 95 % CI 0.97-1.03, p = 0.81). The analysis of patients with multilevel thoracolumbar fusions demonstrated that after minimum 2 year follow-up, self-reported functional impacts of lumbar stiffness were not

  11. Dandy–Walker malformation is a rare cause of syringomyelia in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Yu. Evzikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects are the most common central nervous system malformation. Dandy–Walker malformation (DWM is a rare abnormality of the posterior cranial fossa, which is generally diagnosed in the prenatal period or early infancy.The paper describes a case of the late clinical manifestation of DWM, which has caused syringomyelia. All variants of pathological changes within the Dandy–Walker complex very rarely become a cause of syringomyelia. Only four cases of DWM, in which syringomyelia was found in adults, are known.The authors believe that formation of syringomyelia cysts in these patients is associated with the impaired circulation of normal cerebrospinal fluid between the superior cistern and the subarachnoid spaces of the spinal cord due to the caudal dislocation of the cyst formed in the fourth ventricle.Decompression of the craniovertebral junction, by resecting the caudal portion of the cyst in the foramen magnum, and repair of the free communication between the superior cistern and the cerebrospinal fluid spaces of the spinal cord, which is complemented by duroplasty, are pointed out to be an optimal treatment in these patients.

  12. Caudal mucogingival lesions secondary to traumatic dental occlusion in 27 cats: macroscopic and microscopic description, treatment and follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracis, Margherita; Molinari, Elena; Ferro, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    The main aim of this retrospective study was to describe clinical and histopathological findings in cats with mucogingival lesions developed at the contact point of the premolar and molar teeth of the opposite quadrant. Cases were retrieved following manual review of the medical records, dental records and photographic documentation of all feline dental patients visited in the period between February 2001 and August 2011. Cats showing different lesions at different times were calculated as multiple cases. A total of 27 cats (31 cases) with 44 lesions (26 proliferations [59%], 11 clefts [25%] and seven foveae [16%]) were included. Mean age at the time of the first visit was 6.6 years. The lesion object of the study was the main reason for presentation in only five cases (16%). Proliferations showed two different histopathological patterns and had characteristics in common with human oral pyogenic granuloma. Successful treatment was achieved in all cases by removing the occlusal contact by dental extraction or coronal reduction, possibly associated with lesion excision. This study underlines the need for a thorough oral examination and evaluation of dental occlusion in all patients. Causes for the development of traumatic occlusion may include an acquired overbite (possibly secondary to selective dental extraction), congenital or post-traumatic malocclusion, abnormal latero-lateral mobility of the mandible, occlusal drift of the premolar and molar teeth, and/or alveolar bone expansion. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  13. The human mucin MUC4 is transcriptionally regulated by caudal-related homeobox, hepatocyte nuclear factors, forkhead box A, and GATA endodermal transcription factors in epithelial cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, Nicolas; Vincent, Audrey; Perrais, Michaël; Ducourouble, Marie-Paule; Male, Anita Korteland-van; Aubert, Jean-Pierre; Pigny, Pascal; Carraway, Kermit L; Freund, Jean-Noël; Renes, Ingrid B; Van Seuningen, Isabelle

    2007-08-03

    The human gene MUC4 encodes a large transmembrane mucin that is developmentally regulated and expressed along the undifferentiated pseudostratified epithelium, as early as 6.5 weeks during fetal development. Immunohistochemical analysis of Muc4 expression in developing mouse lung and gastrointestinal tract showed a different spatio-temporal pattern of expression before and after cytodifferentiation. The molecular mechanisms governing MUC4 expression during development are, however, unknown. Hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNF), forkhead box A (FOXA), GATA, and caudal-related homeobox transcription factors (TFs) are known to control cell differentiation of gut endoderm derived-tissues during embryonic development. They also control the expression of cell- and tissue-specific genes and may thus control MUC4 expression. To test this hypothesis, we studied and deciphered the molecular mechanisms responsible for MUC4 transcriptional regulation by these TFs. Experiments using small interfering RNA, cell co-transfection, and site-directed mutagenesis indicated that MUC4 is regulated at the transcriptional level by CDX-1 and -2, HNF-1 alpha and -1 beta, FOXA1/A2, HNF-4 alpha and -4 gamma, and GATA-4, -5, and -6 factors in a cell-specific manner. Binding of TFs was assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation, and gel-shift assays. Altogether, these results demonstrate that MUC4 is a target gene of endodermal TFs and thus point out an important role for these TFs in regulating MUC4 expression during epithelial differentiation during development, cancer, and repair.

  14. Proteome profile of zebrafish caudal fin based on one-dimensional gel electrophoresis LCMS/MS and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis MALDI MS/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sachin K; Lakshmi, Mula G Meena; Saxena, Sandeep; Swamy, Cherukuvada V Brahmendra; Idris, Mohammed M

    2011-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is the widely used vertebrate model animal for understanding the complexity of development and disease process. Zebrafish has been also extensively used in understanding the mechanism of regeneration for its extensive capability of regenerating fins and other tissues. We have analyzed the proteome profile of zebrafish caudal fin in its native state based on one-dimensional gel electrophoresis LCMS/MS and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis MS/MS analyses. A total of 417 proteins were identified as zebrafish fin tissue specific, which includes 397 proteins identified based on one-dimensional gel electrophoresis LCMS/MS analysis and 101 proteins identified based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis MALDI MS/MS. The proteins mapped to the zebrafish fin tissue were shown to be involved in various biological activities related to development, apoptosis, signaling and metabolic process. Focal adhesion, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, cancer-related pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, antigen processing and presentation, and proteasome are some of the important pathways associated with the identified proteome data set of the zebrafish fin. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The histone lysine methyltransferase Ezh2 is required for maintenance of the intestine integrity and for caudal fin regeneration in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupret, Barbara; Völkel, Pamela; Vennin, Constance; Toillon, Robert-Alain; Le Bourhis, Xuefen; Angrand, Pierre-Olivier

    2017-10-01

    The histone lysine methyltransferase EZH2, as part of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), mediates H3K27me3 methylation which is involved in gene expression program repression. Through its action, EZH2 controls cell-fate decisions during the development and the differentiation processes. Here, we report the generation and the characterization of an ezh2-deficient zebrafish line. In contrast to its essential role in mouse early development, loss of ezh2 function does not affect zebrafish gastrulation. Ezh2 zebrafish mutants present a normal body plan but die at around 12 dpf with defects in the intestine wall, due to enhanced cell death. Thus, ezh2-deficient zebrafish can initiate differentiation toward the different developmental lineages but fail to maintain the intestinal homeostasis. Expression studies revealed that ezh2 mRNAs are maternally deposited. Then, ezh2 is ubiquitously expressed in the anterior part of the embryos at 24 hpf, but its expression becomes restricted to specific regions at later developmental stages. Pharmacological inhibition of Ezh2 showed that maternal Ezh2 products contribute to early development but are dispensable to body plan formation. In addition, ezh2-deficient mutants fail to properly regenerate their spinal cord after caudal fin transection suggesting that Ezh2 and H3K27me3 methylation might also be involved in the process of regeneration in zebrafish. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Caudal Zona Incerta/VOP Radiofrequency Lesioning Guided by Combined Stereotactic MRI and Microelectrode Recording for Posttraumatic Midbrain Resting-Kinetic Tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Lopez, William Omar; Azevedo, Angelo R; Cury, Rubens G; Alencar, Francisco; Neville, Iuri S; Reis, Paul R; Navarro, Jessie; Monaco, Bernardo; da Silva, Fabio E Fernandes; Teixeira, Manoel J; Fonoff, Erich T

    2016-02-01

    Reporting the outcome of two patients who underwent unilateral ablative stereotactic surgery to treat pharmacologic resistant posttraumatic tremor (PTT). We present two patients (31 and 47 years old) with refractory PTT severely affecting their quality of life. Under stereotactic guidance, refined by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and double-channel multiunit microelectrode recording (MER), three sequential radiofrequency lesions were performed in the caudal zona incerta (cZi) up to the base of thalamus (VOP). Effects of cZi/VOP lesion were prospectively rated with a tremor rating scale. Both patients demonstrated intraoperative tremor suppression with sustained results up to 18 months follow-up, with improvement of 92% and 84%, respectively, on the tremor rating scale. Tremor improvement was associated with enhancement functionality and quality of life for the patients. The patients returned to their work after the procedure. No adverse effects were observed up to the last follow-up. Radiofrequency lesion of the cZi/VOP target was effective for posttraumatic tremor in both cases. The use of T2-weighted images and MER was found helpful in increasing the precision and safety of the procedure, because it leads the RF probe by relying on neighbor structures based on thalamus and subthalamic nucleus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Needle Tip Position and Bevel Direction Have No Effect in the Fluoroscopic Epidural Spreading Pattern in Caudal Epidural Injections: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Kyoung Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Caudal epidural steroid injections (CESIs are an effective treatment for pain. If the injection spreads in a specific pattern depending on the needle position or bevel direction, it would be possible to inject the agent into a specific and desired area. Objectives. We conducted a prospective randomized trial to determine if the needle position and bevel direction have any effect on the epidural spreading pattern in CESI. Methods. Demographic data of the patient were collected. During CESI, the needle position (middle or lateral and direction (ventral or dorsal were randomly allocated. Following fluoroscope-guided injection of 4 mL contrast media and 10 mL of injectates, the epidural spreading patterns (ventral or dorsal, bilateral or lateral were imaged. Results. In the 210 CESIs performed, the needle tip position and bevel direction did not influence the epidural spreading patterns at L4-5 and L5-S1 disc levels. A history of Lumbar spine surgery was associated with a significantly limited spread to each disc level. A midline needle tip position was more effective than the lateral position in spreading to the distant disc levels. Conclusions. Neither the needle tip position nor the bevel direction affected the epidural drug spreading pattern during CESI.

  18. Establishment of caudal fin cell lines from tropical ornamental fishes Puntius fasciatus and Pristolepis fasciata endemic to the Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, T Raja; Basheer, V S; Gopalakrishnan, A; Rathore, Gaurav; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Kumar, Raj; Jena, J K

    2013-12-01

    Two new cell lines, PFF and CFF were established from the caudal fin of the Puntius fasciatus, and Pristolepis fasciata respectively. Since their initiation, these cell lines (PFF and CFF) have been subcultured in L-15 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum for more than 35 passages at 28°C and both the cell lines were characterized. Karyotyping analysis of PFF and CFF cells at 25th passage indicated that the modal chromosome number was 2n=50 and 2n=48 respectively. The cell line was cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen at -196°C and could be recovered from storage after six months with good cell viability. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the fragments of two mitochondrial genes, 16S rRNA and COI confirmed that the cell lines originated from the respective species. The bacterial extracellular products from Vibrio cholerae MTCC3904 and Aeromonas hydrophila were found to be toxic to PFF and CFF. Both the cells were resistant to the marine viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV). No CPE could be found in both cell lines inoculated with the fish samples and cell culture supernatants were demonstrated free of SVC, iridovirus and KHV by molecular methods. These results indicated the absence of SVC, iridovirus and KHV in the ornamental fishes collected from the Western Ghats of India. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Shock Cardiogenic Shock Causes Immediate Causes Cardiogenic shock occurs if the ... is cardiogenic shock. Tests and Procedures To Diagnose Shock and Its Underlying Causes Blood Pressure Test Medical ...

  20. Cryptorchidism as a caudal developmental field defect. A new description of cryptorchidism associated with malformations and dysplasias of the kidneys, the ureters and the spine from T10 to S5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, J M; Beck, Bjarne Lomholdt

    1998-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is a feature of abnormalities in the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis, and almost all disorders of sexual differentiation in which a testis is present. We found cryptorchidism to be associated with malformations and dysplasias of the kidneys, the ureters and the spine from T10...... defects were also the predominant abnormalities in the other groups of patients. Thus, cryptorchidism may be a feature of abnormal differentiation of the caudal developmental field. Position and histology of the undescended testes of the patients included in the association were similar...... to in cryptorchidism in general. In the literature the association was reported in 5-10% of boys considered to suffer from cryptorchidism only. Furthermore, our observations are concordant with recent theories about cryptorchidism. Consequently, we propose that cryptorchidism in general may be a caudal developmental...

  1. Review of species of the Astyanax bimaculatus "caudal peduncle spot" subgroup sensu Garutti & Langeani (Characiformes, Characidae) from the rio La Plata and rio São Francisco drainages and coastal systems of southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Carlos Alberto S De; Soares, Helena Gouvea

    2016-01-28

    The species of the Astyanax bimaculatus 'caudal peduncle spot' subgroup of the drainages of the rios La Plata and São Francisco, as well as southeastern coastal systems of Brazil and Uruguay, are revised. Two nominal species are considered valid and are redescribed: Astyanax lacustris and A. abramis. Astyanax jacuhiensis, A. asuncionensis and A. altiparanae are recognized as new junior synonyms of A. lacustris. Bertoniolus paraguayensisis recognized as a new junior synonym of A. abramis. The names Astyanax orbignyanus, A. vittatus, and A. borealis are considered species inquirendae. Notes on A. maculisquamis, included in the 'caudal peduncle spot' subgroup from rio Guaporé (rio Madeira drainage), and Astyanax bahiensis from Bahia, mistakenly considered of the same subgroup, are presented.

  2. Transcriptomics of two evolutionary novelties: how to make a sperm-transfer organ out of an anal fin and a sexually selected "sword" out of a caudal fin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji Hyoun; Manousaki, Tereza; Franchini, Paolo; Kneitz, Susanne; Schartl, Manfred; Meyer, Axel

    2015-02-01

    Swords are exaggerated male ornaments of swordtail fishes that have been of great interest to evolutionary biologists ever since Darwin described them in the Descent of Man (1871). They are a novel sexually selected trait derived from modified ventral caudal fin rays and are only found in the genus Xiphophorus. Another phylogenetically more widespread and older male trait is the gonopodium, an intromittent organ found in all poeciliid fishes, that is derived from a modified anal fin. Despite many evolutionary and behavioral studies on both traits, little is known so far about the molecular mechanisms underlying their development. By investigating transcriptomic changes (utilizing a RNA-Seq approach) in response to testosterone treatment in the swordtail fish, Xiphophorus hellerii, we aimed to better understand the architecture of the gene regulatory networks underpinning the development of these two evolutionary novelties. Large numbers of genes with tissue-specific expression patterns were identified. Among the "sword genes" those involved in embryonic organ development, sexual character development and coloration were highly expressed, while in the gonopodium rather more morphogenesis-related genes were found. Interestingly, many genes and genetic pathways are shared between both developing novel traits derived from median fins: the sword and the gonopodium. Our analyses show that a larger set of gene networks was co-opted during the development and evolution of the "older" gonopodium than in the "younger," and morphologically less complex trait, the sword. We provide a catalog of candidate genes for future efforts to dissect the development of those sexually selected exaggerated male traits in swordtails.

  3. Corticotrigeminal projections from the insular cortex to the trigeminal caudal subnucleus regulate orofacial pain after nerve injury via extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in insular cortex neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian eWang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cortical neuroplasticity alterations are implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic orofacial pain. However, the relationship between critical cortex excitability and orofacial pain maintenance has not been fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated a top-down corticospinal descending pain modulation pathway from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC to the spinal dorsal horn that could directly regulate nociceptive transmission. Thus, we aimed to investigate possible corticotrigeminal connections that directly influence orofacial nociception in rats. Infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI induced significant orofacial nociceptive behaviors as well as pain-related negative emotions such as anxiety/depression in rats. By combining retrograde and anterograde tract tracing, we found powerful evidence that the trigeminal caudal subnucleus (Vc, especially the superficial laminae (I/II, received direct descending projections from granular and dysgranular parts of the insular cortex (IC. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, an important signaling molecule involved in neuroplasticity, was significantly activated in the IC following IoN-CCI. Moreover, in IC slices from IoN-CCI rats, U0126, an inhibitor of ERK activation, decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and reduced the paired-pulse ratio (PPR of Vc-projecting neurons. Additionally, U0126 also reduced the number of action potentials in the Vc-projecting neurons. Finally, intra-IC infusion of U0126 obviously decreased Fos expression in the Vc, accompanied by the alleviation of both nociceptive behavior and negative emotions. Thus, the corticotrigeminal descending pathway from the IC to the Vc could directly regulate orofacial pain, and ERK deactivation in the IC could effectively alleviate neuropathic pain as well as pain-related negative emotions in IoN-CCI rats, probably through this top-down pathway. These

  4. l-kynurenine combined with probenecid and the novel synthetic kynurenic acid derivative attenuate nitroglycerin-induced nNOS in the rat caudal trigeminal nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vámos, Eniko; Párdutz, Arpád; Varga, Hedvig; Bohár, Zsuzsanna; Tajti, János; Fülöp, Ferenc; Toldi, József; Vécsei, László

    2009-09-01

    Systemic administration of the nitric oxide (NO) donor nitroglycerin (NTG) triggers a delayed attack without aura in many migraineurs, but not in healthy volunteers. In rats, 4 h after the systemic administration of NTG (10 mg/kg bw, s.c.), the neurons of the caudal trigeminal nucleus (TNC) are activated and the expression of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in the same area is increased suggesting a self-amplifying process in the trigeminal system, which seems to be crucial in migraine pathogenesis. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) and its analogues may exert modulatory effects in many neuropathological conditions, probably via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonism. Since NMDA receptors play a crucial role in trigeminal pain processing, the aim of our experiments was to compare the effects of L-kynurenine (L-KYN) combined with probenecid (PROB) or with 2-(2-N,N-dimethylaminoethylamine-1-carbonyl)-1H-quinolin-4-one hydrochloride alone, a newly synthetized KYNA derivative, on the NTG-induced nNOS expression in the rat TNC. Pretreatment with L-KYN (300 mg/kg bw, i.p.) together with PROB (200 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and KYNA derivative (300 mg/kg bw, i.p.) attenuated the NTG-induced nNOS expression in the rat TNC. Our data suggest that the stimulating effect of NTG, and thus of NO, on the expression of nNOS might be modulated by increasing the KYNA level in the brain, probably through the NMDA receptors. These data could help promote a better understanding of the pathogenesis of headaches and the action of antimigraine drugs.

  5. Food-restricted and dehydrated-induced anorexic rats present differential TRH expression in anterior and caudal PVN. Role of type 2 deiodinase and pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Salas, E; Aceves, C; Anguiano, B; Uribe, R M; García-Luna, C; Sánchez, E; de Gortari, P

    2012-08-01

    TRH synthesized in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) regulates thyroid axis function and is also implicated in anorexigenic effects. Under energy deficit, animals present decreased PVN TRH expression and release, low TSH levels, and increased appetite. Dehydration-induced anorexia (DIA) model allows insight into underlying mechanisms of feeding regulation. Animals drinking a 2.5% NaCl solution for 7 d present body weight reduction; despite their negative energy balance, they avoid food and have increased PVN TRH expression and TSH serum levels. These findings support an inhibiting role of PVN TRH in feeding control. We compared TRH expression by in situ hybridization in PVN subdivisions of 7-d dehydrated male rats to those of a pair-fed group (forced food-restricted) with similar metabolic changes than DIA, but motivated to eat, and to controls. We measured peripheral deiodinase activities, and expression and activity of medial basal hypothalamic type 2 deiodinase and pyroglutamyl-aminopeptidase II, to understand their regulating role in PVN TRH changes between food restriction and anorexia. TRH mRNA levels increased in anterior (aPVN) and medial-caudal subdivisions in DIA rats, whereas it decreased in medial PVN in both experimental groups. We confirmed the nonhypophysiotropic nature of aPVN TRHergic cells by injecting ip fluorogold tracer. Findings support a subspecialization of TRHergic hypophysiotrophic cells that responded differently between anorexic and food-restricted animals; also, that aPVN TRH participates in food intake regulation. Increased type 2 deiodinase activity seemed responsible for low medial PVN TRH synthesis, whereas increased medial basal hypothalamic pyroglutamyl-aminopeptidase II activity in DIA rats might counteract their high TRH release.

  6. Area- and band-specific representations of hand movements by local field potentials in caudal cingulate motor area and supplementary motor area of monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Osamu; Nakayama, Yoshihisa; Hoshi, Eiji

    2016-03-01

    The caudal cingulate motor area (CMAc) and the supplementary motor area (SMA) play important roles in movement execution. The present study examined the neural mechanisms underlying these roles by investigating local field potentials (LFPs) from these areas while monkeys pressed buttons with either their left or right hand. During hand movement, power increases in the high-gamma (80-120 Hz) and theta (3-8 Hz) bands and a power decrease in the beta (12-30 Hz) band were observed in both the CMAc and SMA. High-gamma and beta activity in the SMA predominantly represented contralateral hand movements, whereas activity in the CMAc preferentially represented movement of either hand. Theta activity in both brain regions most frequently reflected movement of either hand, but a contralateral hand bias was more evident in the SMA than in the CMAc. An analysis of the relationships of the laterality representations between the high-gamma and theta bands at each recording site revealed that, irrespective of the hand preference for the theta band, the high-gamma band in the SMA preferentially represented contralateral hand movement, whereas the high-gamma band in the CMAc represented movement of either hand. These findings suggest that the input-output relationships for ipsilateral and contralateral hand movements in the CMAc and SMA differ in terms of their functionality. The CMAc may transform the input signals representing general aspects of movement into commands to perform movements with either hand, whereas the SMA may transform the input signals into commands to perform movement with the contralateral hand. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Presence of TSH receptors in discrete areas of the hypothalamus and caudal brainstem with relevance for feeding controls-Support for functional significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Jonathan R; Iresjö, Britt-Marie; Wärnåker, Sara; Smedh, Ulrika

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that brain-derived thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and its receptor (TSHr) are present in hypothalamic extracts. No studies investigating both the anatomical location and functional significance of putative TSHr proteins in specific central nervous system (CNS) nuclei involved in feeding controls have yet been conducted. The aim was thus to determine whether TSHr are present in nuclei associated with feeding behavior, and if such receptors may be functional. Brain tissue from adult rats was analyzed for gene expression and receptor protein expression was investigated with immunohistochemistry and western blotting. To investigate whether putative TSHr may be functional, we evaluated food intake of rats given intraparenchymal nanoinjections of TSH into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). RT-qPCR confirmed previous reports that TSHr mRNA is expressed in CNS tissues of the adult rat. Immunohistochemistry showed TSHr-immunoreactivity in the arcuate, the ventromedial, the dorsomedial, and the paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei. We also found TSHr-ir in the dorsal hindbrain to be localized to the area postrema, NTS, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and the hypoglossal motor nucleus. Further protein analysis with western blotting showed 120kDa TSHr-ir proteins present in the hypothalamus and brainstem. Injections of TSH into the NTS reduced food intake similar to the positive control, urocortin. These data suggest that functional TSHr are present in the caudal brainstem and hypothalamic nuclei of relevance for feeding control as a possibly uncleaved holoreceptor, and highlights a hindbrain component to central TSH inhibition of food intake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. MRI determination of the vertebral termination of the dural sac tip in a South African population: clinical significance during spinal irradiation and caudal anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Cilliers

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Knowing where the dural sac (DS ends is important, especially when placing the portal fields during craniospinal irradiation (CSI and performing caudal anesthesia. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the level of termination of the DS in relation to the spine in a group of South African patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We retrospectively reviewed the lumbosacral MR Imaging of 309 patients in each case identifying the tip of the DS. This level was recorded in relation to the adjacent vertebral body i.e. upper-, middle- and lower third and adjacent intervertebral disc. The overall mean of the DS position was at the middle third of S2. A notable percentage (13.9% of patients had a DS level lower than the lower third of S2 and (15.2% patients had a DS level higher than the S1-S2 intervertebral disc. This study failed to demonstrate a difference in the DS termination level, compared to the levels reported in various international studies; nor is there a statistical difference between gender, race and age. Our study shows that routine placement of the portal field at the lower border of S2 adequately treats the majority of CSI patients. However some patients (13.9% will be undertreated and some patients (15.2% will be overradiated. Using spinal MRI to establish the lower border of the CSI portal field will however benefit patients by ensuring adequate coverage of the entire neuroaxis as well as minimizing late gonadal toxicity due to overradiation.

  9. Corticotrigeminal Projections from the Insular Cortex to the Trigeminal Caudal Subnucleus Regulate Orofacial Pain after Nerve Injury via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation in Insular Cortex Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Zhi-Hua; Feng, Ban; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Han; Li, Hui; Chen, Tao; Cui, Jing; Zang, Wei-Dong; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cortical neuroplasticity alterations are implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic orofacial pain. However, the relationship between critical cortex excitability and orofacial pain maintenance has not been fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated a top-down corticospinal descending pain modulation pathway from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the spinal dorsal horn that could directly regulate nociceptive transmission. Thus, we aimed to investigate possible corticotrigeminal connections that directly influence orofacial nociception in rats. Infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI) induced significant orofacial nociceptive behaviors as well as pain-related negative emotions such as anxiety/depression in rats. By combining retrograde and anterograde tract tracing, we found powerful evidence that the trigeminal caudal subnucleus (Vc), especially the superficial laminae (I/II), received direct descending projections from granular and dysgranular parts of the insular cortex (IC). Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), an important signaling molecule involved in neuroplasticity, was significantly activated in the IC following IoN-CCI. Moreover, in IC slices from IoN-CCI rats, U0126, an inhibitor of ERK activation, decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and reduced the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) of Vc-projecting neurons. Additionally, U0126 also reduced the number of action potentials in the Vc-projecting neurons. Finally, intra-IC infusion of U0126 obviously decreased Fos expression in the Vc, accompanied by the alleviation of both nociceptive behavior and negative emotions. Thus, the corticotrigeminal descending pathway from the IC to the Vc could directly regulate orofacial pain, and ERK deactivation in the IC could effectively alleviate neuropathic pain as well as pain-related negative emotions in IoN-CCI rats, probably through this top-down pathway. These findings may help

  10. Analgesia pós-operatória em correção cirúrgica de pé torto congênito: comparação entre bloqueio nervoso periférico e bloqueio peridural caudal Analgesia postoperatoria en corrección quirúrgica de pie jorobado congénito: comparación entre bloqueo nervioso periférico y bloqueo epidural caudal Postoperative analgesia for the surgical correction of congenital clubfoot: comparison between peripheral nerve block and caudal epidural block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Rossi Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O procedimento de correção de pé torto congênito (PTC cursa com dor pós-operatória intensa. A técnica mais utilizada em crianças é a peridural caudal associada à anestesia geral. Tem como limitação a curta duração da analgesia pós-operatória. Os bloqueios de nervos periféricos têm sido apontados como procedimentos com baixa incidência de complicações e tempo prolongado de analgesia. O objetivo do estudo foi comparar o tempo de analgesia dos bloqueios nervosos periféricos e bloqueio caudal e o consumo de morfina nas primeiras 24 horas após a correção de PTC em crianças. MÉTODO: Estudo randômico, encoberto, em crianças submetidas à intervenção cirúrgica para liberação póstero-medial de PTC, alocadas em 4 grupos conforme a técnica anestésica: Caudal (ACa; Bloqueios isquiático e femoral (IF; Bloqueios isquiático e safeno (IS; Bloqueio isquiático e anestesia local (IL, associados à anestesia geral. Nas primeiras 24 horas os pacientes receberam dipirona e paracetamol via oral e foram avaliados por anestesiologista que desconhecia a técnica empregada. Conforme escores da escala CHIPPS (Children's and infants postoperative pain scale era administrada morfina via oral (0,19 mg.kg-1 por dia. RESULTADOS: Foram estudadas 118 crianças distribuídas nos grupos ACa (30, IF (32, IS (28 IL (28. O tempo médio entre o bloqueio e a primeira dose de morfina foi 6,16 horas no grupo ACa, 7,05 horas no IF, 7,58 horas no IS e 8,18 horas no IL. O consumo de morfina foi 0,3 mg.kg-1 por dia nos quatro grupos. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: Os bloqueios nervosos periféricos não promoveram maior tempo de analgesia, tampouco redução no consumo de morfina nas primeiras 24 horas em crianças submetidas à correção de PTC quando comparados ao bloqueio peridural caudal.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El procedimiento de corrección de pie jorobado congénito (PJC, debuta

  11. Retrospective analysis of free-fall fractures with regard to height and cause of fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Slaus, Mario; Coklo, Miran; Sosa, Ivan; Cengija, Morana; Bosnar, Alan

    2013-03-10

    Free-fall fractures represent a specific form of blunt force trauma that can be hard to interpret because of the numerous factors that affect it. The aim of this study is to focus on skeletal injury patterns resulting from free-falls and to analyse the relationship between specific skeletal fractures, and the height and cause (accidental vs. suicidal) of the fall. A total of 179 autopsy reports of fatal free-falls from known heights were analysed at the Department of Forensic Medicine and Criminalistics, in Rijeka, Croatia. The location, type and frequency of fractures, as well as the number and distribution of fractured regions were analysed with regard to height and cause of fall. Height was found to be the major factor influencing fracture patterns in free-falls. In our sample, the frequencies of thoracic fractures, fractures to the extremities and those to the pelvis increased with height. Head fractures show no such relationship. However, types of fractures recorded in different anatomical regions, including the cranium, differ between height groups suggesting different injury mechanisms in each. Victims of falls generally sustained fractures in more than one body region, and the number of injured regions correlates significantly with height. Although no statistical difference was found in the number of fractured regions or frequency of fractures between accidental fallers and suicidal jumpers, jumpers showed a significantly higher number of bilateral extremity fractures when compared to victims of accidental falls. Logistic regression analyses also demonstrate a significant relationship between lower extremity fractures, and the cause of the fall. Our results highlight the need for further investigations of the influence that behaviour and height have in free-fall fractures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exocranial surfaces for sex assessment of the human cranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musilová, Barbora; Dupej, Ján; Velemínská, Jana; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Bruzek, Jaroslav

    2016-12-01

    Determination of sex is one of the most important and challenging disciplines in biological anthropology. Creating a robust tool for sexing crania is crucial for forensic anthropology, especially in this period of migration, travel, and globalization, when different populations are mixed together in one region. Many different approaches to sex estimation using the skull have been published; however, population specificity and oscillation of variable sexual dimorphism typically reduces their effectiveness. The aim of this study was to create a robust classifier using virtual anthropology without the use of a CT scanner. The entire cranial surface was analyzed using coherent point drift-dense correspondence analysis and classification was performed using a support vector machine with a radial kernel, minimizing subjective error. The study sample consisted of 103 CT scans of a recent southern French population. Virtual scans of 52 males and 51 females (age from 18 to 92) were analyzed using 3D software systems (Rapidform, Avizo, Morphome3cs) and innovative approaches in geometric morphometrics. Leave-one-out crossvalidation was also applied. Sex differences in shape and form were displayed by colour scale maps. The whole cranial surface was significantly different between males and females in size (form). Sexual dimorphism was significantly lower in senile skulls. The most exclusive areas were the supraorbital region, orbits, cheek bones, nasal apertures, mastoids, and external occipital protuberances. The method provided a high level of classification accuracy (90.3%) in sexing male and female skulls and is a valuable tool for sex determination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cranium Metastasis: An Unusual Presentation of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kubat Üzüm

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Distant metastasis may be the initial sign of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in rare cases. In this instance, the treatment approach is usually individualized. Unlike most other cancers, local treatment of the primary tumor (total thyroidectomy is preferred as ablative surgery; so that radioactive iodine therapy should be more effective. Repeated doses of I-131 and radiotherapy for metastatic lesions may be needed. We report a female who presented with bone metastasis with fatal progression. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 71-4

  14. How does occipitalization influence the dimensions of the cranium?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, L M; Kjaer, I; Sonnesen, L

    2010-01-01

    To describe occipitalization on human dry skulls and to compare craniofacial morphology including the posterior cranial fossa in skulls with occipitalization and in skulls without occipitalization and with normal craniofacial morphology (controls)....

  15. Causes of High Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Causes of High Cholesterol Updated:Nov 16,2017 If you have high ... for a heart or stroke event? Find out . Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • HDL, LDL, and Triglycerides • Causes ...

  16. What Causes Polycythemia Vera?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Polycythemia Vera? Primary Polycythemia Polycythemia vera (PV) also is known as primary ... may play a role in causing PV. Secondary Polycythemia Another type of polycythemia, called secondary polycythemia, isn' ...

  17. What Causes Cushing's Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What causes Cushing syndrome? Cushing syndrome can develop for two reasons: ... uhs ), thyroid, or thymus How Tumors Can Cause Cushing Syndrome Normally, the pituitary gland in the brain ...

  18. What Causes COPD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Challenge of COPD What Causes COPD? Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents Long- ... and the airways usually is the cause of COPD. In the United States, the most common irritant ...

  19. What Causes Rett Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What causes Rett syndrome? Most cases of Rett syndrome are caused by ... as bad for development as too little. Is Rett syndrome passed from one generation to the next? In ...

  20. What Causes Lactose Intolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Study Resources and Publications What causes lactose intolerance? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... lactase in the body is the cause of lactose intolerance. The names for the three types of ...

  1. Implications for Caudal Epidural Injections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-01-20

    Jan 20, 2011 ... inter-cornual distance and the distance of the apex from the level of the second ... morphological and morphometric characteristics of the sacral hiatus in an adult Kenyan population. Study design. A descriptive cross-sectional study. Materials and .... In the present study the modal verte- bral level was S4 ...

  2. Causes and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Carol L; Feldman, Mark A; DaSilva, Alison T

    2003-07-01

    Most companies make charitable donations, but few approach their contributions with an eye toward enhancing their brands. Those that do take such an approach commit talent and know-how, not just dollars, to a pressing but carefully chosen social need and then tell the world about the cause and their service to it. Through the association, both the business and the cause benefit in ways they could not otherwise. Organizations such as Avon, ConAgra Foods, and Chevrolet have recognized that a sustained cause-branding program can improve their reputations, boost their employees' morale, strengthen relations with business partners, and drive sales. And the targeted causes receive far more money than they could have from direct corporate gifts alone. The authors examine these best practices and offer four principles for building successful cause-branding programs. First, they say, a company should select a cause that advances its corporate goals. That is, unless the competitive logic for supporting the cause is clear, a company shouldn't even consider putting its finite resources behind it. Second, a business should commit to a cause before picking its charitable partners. Otherwise, a cause-branding program may become too dependent on its partners. Third, a company should put all its assets to work, especially its employees. It should leverage the professional skills of its workers as well as its other assets such as distribution networks. And fourth, a company should promote its philanthropic initiatives through every possible channel. In addition to using the media, it should communicate its efforts through the Web, annual reports, direct mail, and so on. Cause branding is a way to turn the obligations of corporate citizenship into a valuable asset. When the cause is well chosen, the commitment genuine, and the program well executed, the cause helps the company, and the company helps the cause.

  3. Caudal bupivacaine supplemented with morphine or clonidine, or supplemented with morphine plus clonidine in children undergoing infra-umbilical urological and genital procedures: a prospective, randomized and double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Magda L; Pires, Kleber C C; Tibúrcio, Moacir A; Gomez, Renato S

    2012-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate postoperative analgesia of morphine, or clonidine, or morphine plus clonidine, added to caudal bupivacaine in children undergoing infra-umbilical urological and genital procedures. Eighty patients aged 1-10 years were prospectively enrolled. After the induction of general anesthesia, the patients were randomized to four caudal anesthesia groups: Group B (1.0 mL/kg of bupivacaine 0.166% with epinephrine 1:600,000); Group BM (1.0 mL/kg of bupivacaine 0.166% with epinephrine 1:600,000 plus morphine 20 μg/kg); Group BC (bupivacaine 0.166% with epinephrine 1:600,000 plus clonidine 1.0 μg/kg), and Group BMC (bupivacaine 0.166% with epinephrine 1:600,000 plus morphine 20 μg/kg and clonidine 1.0 μg/kg). Duration of surgery, emergence time, postoperative pain score measured by the face, legs, activity, cry, consolability (FLACC) scale, postoperative analgesia time, and overall use of rescue analgesics were recorded. The FLACC pain score (6, 12, and 24 h after the surgery) and the number of patients requiring analgesics during the first 24 h of the postoperative period were higher in Groups B and BC than in Groups BM and BMC (p  0.05). However, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was higher in Groups BM (35%) and BMC (25%) than in Groups B (5%) and BC (5%) (p < 0.05). To conclude, we showed that 20 μg/kg of morphine added to caudal bupivacaine 0.166% plus epinephrine 1:600,000 decreased the use of analgesics in the postoperative period, although it was associated with an increased incidence of PONV. However, the addition of clonidine (1.0 μg/kg) to caudal bupivacaine provided no additional clinical benefit over bupivacaine alone.

  4. Dinámica de la humedad del suelo y el nivel freático, y su influencia sobre el régimen de caudales en la cuenca Los Gavilanes, Veracruz - México

    OpenAIRE

    Barrero Rojas, Johanna Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Resumen: La cuenca Los Gavilanes (Veracruz – México) juega un papel importante en el abastecimiento de agua a ciudades como Xalapa, Coatepec y otros municipios en la región; además provee agua para riego agrícola, uso recreativo y pesca local. La vegetación asociada actualmente es la presencia de relictos de bosque de niebla y cubriendo gran parte de la cuenca, parches de cultivos, pastizales y plantaciones de pino; usos que parecen haber alterado el régimen de caudales y el funcionamiento hi...

  5. What causes education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Why do universities not give priority to education? The article suggests a formal answer on the basis of Lacan’s four discourses. Why education? Why do we learn? Is it caused by a natural curiosity or is it caused by anxiety? Is it at all possible to control the influence that we undoubtedly have...

  6. What Causes Heart Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects. Acquired heart block is more common than congenital heart block. Damage to the heart muscle or its electrical system causes acquired heart block. Diseases, surgery, or medicines can cause this damage. The three types of heart block are first degree, second degree, ...

  7. Pneumonia Caused by Klebsiella spp. in 46 Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estell, K E; Young, A; Kozikowski, T; Swain, E A; Byrne, B A; Reilly, C M; Kass, P H; Aleman, M

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella spp. are implicated as a common cause of bacterial pneumonia in horses, but few reports describe clinical presentation and disease progression. To describe the signalment, clinicopathologic data, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings, antimicrobial susceptibility, outcome, and pathologic lesions associated with Klebsiella spp. pneumonia in horses. Forty-six horses from which Klebsiella spp. was isolated from the lower respiratory tract. Retrospective study. Medical records from 1993 to 2013 at the William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California, Davis were reviewed. Exact logistic regression was performed to determine if any variables were associated with survival to hospital discharge. Survival in horses Klebsiella pneumoniae was the primary isolate, survival was 52%. Mechanical ventilation preceded development of pneumonia in 11 horses. Complications occurred in 25/46 horses, with thrombophlebitis and laminitis occurring most frequently. Multi-drug resistance was found in 47% of bacterial isolates. Variables that significantly impacted survival included hemorrhagic nasal discharge, laminitis, and thoracic radiographs with a sharp demarcation between marked caudal pulmonary alveolar infiltration and more normal-appearing caudodorsal lung. Klebsiella spp. should be considered as a differential diagnosis for horses presenting with hemorrhagic pneumonia and for horses developing pneumonia after mechanical ventilation. Multi-drug resistance is common. Prognosis for survival generally is fair, but is guarded for adult horses in which K. pneumoniae is isolated as the primary organism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. [Rhinoorbitocerebral zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus microsporus in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Martin; Eikelberg, Deborah; Jongmans, Vincent; Pranada, Arthur Boniface; Wohlsein, Peter

    2014-01-01

    An one-year-old male roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) with abnormal behaviour was shot in order to exclude rabies virus infection. The 12.8 kg weighing animal was emaciated and revealed an asymmetric head with protruding left eye and expositional keratitis. There was a grey whitish soft mass within the caudal nasal cavity, which had infiltrated the frontal cerebrum through the cribriform plate and the retrobulbar tissue through the orbita. Histologically, the mass consisted of a chronic granulomatous inflammation with plentiful fungal hyphae. Fungal culture revealed mold fungi of the zygomycotic genus Rhizomucor, which were differentiated as Rhizopus microsporus by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and DNA-sequencing. Rhinoorbitocerebral zygomycosis has to be considered as a differential diagnosis for nasal and orbital tumour-like lesions and as a cause of abnormal behaviour of roe deer.

  9. What Causes Respiratory Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Home / Respiratory Failure Respiratory Failure What Is Respiratory (RES-pih-rah-tor- ... injure your lungs. Normal Lungs and Conditions Causing Respiratory Failure Figure A shows the location of the ...

  10. What causes bone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bone loss. For men, a drop in testosterone as they age can cause bone loss. Your ... Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, ...

  11. Dandruff: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during the summer. A type of dandruff called cradle cap can affect babies. This disorder, which causes a ... infancy. Although it can be alarming for parents, cradle cap isn't dangerous and usually clears up on ...

  12. EAMJ March -Causes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iMac User

    2008-03-01

    Mar 1, 2008 ... emotions; determination, control and environment manipulation (1). Given this ... assist in managing long-term effects of the injuries. Understanding the .... In Ireland, falls (15%) and sports (15%) were the leading causes, while ...

  13. Causes of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin -producing beta cells of the pancreas . Scientists think type ... of diabetes—is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes. Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity ...

  14. What Causes Heart Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intramural Research Home / Heart Failure Heart Failure Also known as Congestive heart failure What ... diseases for many years that led to heart failure. Heart failure is a leading cause of hospital stays ...

  15. What Causes SIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Look Like? How Can Caregivers Create a Safe Sleep Environment? Babies Need Tummy Time! FAQs Myths and Facts Printer-Friendly Email Page Skip sharing on social media links What Causes SIDS? Page Content We don’ ...

  16. Dyslexia: Causes, Symptoms, Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Albert J.

    1986-01-01

    The article reviews proposed causes and observable symptoms that characterize dyslexia, concluding that individualized analysis and specialized treatments are required and that, until an operational definition can be agreed upon, use of the label "dyslexia" is counterproductive. (DB)

  17. Causes of Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Erhan Deveci

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000: 396-405

  18. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); S. Bouwmeester (Samantha)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more

  19. Landslides - Cause and effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radbruch-Hall, D. H.; Varnes, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Landslides can cause seismic disturbances; landslides can also result from seismic disturbances, and earthquake-induced slides have caused loss of life in many countries. Slides can cause disastrous flooding, particularly when landslide dams across streams are breached, and flooding may trigger slides. Slope movement in general is a major process of the geologic environment that places constraints on engineering development. In order to understand and foresee both the causes and effects of slope movement, studies must be made on a regional scale, at individual sites, and in the laboratory. Areal studies - some embracing entire countries - have shown that certain geologic conditions on slopes facilitate landsliding; these conditions include intensely sheared rocks; poorly consolidated, fine-grained clastic rocks; hard fractured rocks underlain by less resistant rocks; or loose accumulations of fine-grained surface debris. Field investigations as well as mathematical- and physical-model studies are increasing our understanding of the mechanism of slope movement in fractured rock, and assist in arriving at practical solutions to landslide problems related to all kinds of land development for human use. Progressive failure of slopes has been studied in both soil and rock mechanics. New procedures have been developed to evaluate earthquake response of embankments and slopes. The finite element method of analysis is being extensively used in the calculation of slope stability in rock broken by joints, faults, and other discontinuities. ?? 1976 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  20. [What causes English sweats?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimar, Yossi

    2004-09-01

    English sweating disease also known as Sudor Anglicus is one of the least familiar epidemics of the Middle Ages, striking England 5 times during the 15th and 16th centuries before fading. This article will discuss the knowledge available to us about this fascinating epidemic, its characteristics and causes.

  1. Tagged vulture causes concerns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-09-15

    Sep 15, 2008 ... student from the Department of Ecology,. Evolution and. Behaviour at the. Tagged vulture causes concerns. Hebrew University of Jerusalem, working under Professor Ran Nathan and studying the movement and ... in a proliferation of feral dogs, wolves and particularly Golden Jackals (which are extremely ...

  2. EAMJ March -Causes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iMac User

    2008-03-01

    Mar 1, 2008 ... Ireland and Qatar (4,5). However, Larsen et al in a study in The Netherlands and Denmark described the peak of injury to be in teenagers (6). These were largely due to recreational causes. This difference could be attributed to presence of less work place- related injuries which usually occur among older.

  3. Darwin's Sacred Cause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    of scholarly specialists and been appropriated by money makers. One could not help thinking about this as, in the autumn of 2008, the publisher began hyping Darwin's Sacred Cause as ‘one of the major contributions to the worldwide Darwin anniversary celebrations in 2009' Udgivelsesdato: February...

  4. Aliteracy : causes and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, Thijs Martinus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The reading motivation of the majority of students declines in the upper half of primary school, which implies a risk for aliteracy: Students can read but, due to lack of practice, their skills remain underdeveloped (Chapter 2). In this thesis we have explored causes and solutions for this important

  5. Tracing Actual Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-08

    drunken pilot, a system failure, or a maintenance lapse?”. This kind of deter- mination is of interest in many fields, ranging from philoso- phy to law...describe the vocabulary with which we express causative and caused events. A primitive event is an assertion of the form X = x, where X ∈ V and x ∈ R(X). An

  6. What Causes Rainbows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, John

    2004-01-01

    If one looks at a rain cloud with the Sun behind one's back, the sunlight and water drops may interact just right, revealing the familiar arc of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. Many of people have been pleasantly surprised to see a rainbow in the sky, but probably have not considered why they occur. Rainbows are caused by…

  7. Unusual cause of Coma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Confusion and reduced levels of consciousness are a common cause of admission to medical wards ... of 50% glucose. She regained consciousness, but remained confused and uncommunicative. ... The main features on examination were: puffy face; slow and slurred speech; no axillary hair; supine pulse rate ...

  8. Teacher Dismissal for Cause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Brad; Schumacher, Gary; Hammonds, Craig

    2013-01-01

    This case presents a discussion of events that led to the dismissal of a teacher for cause. A first year high school principal is confronted with teacher behavior that creates a dangerous situation for students. The decision process to determine the appropriate organizational response involves a number of individuals and systems. The…

  9. What Causes Hemophilia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... methods of screening and treating donated blood, the risk of getting an infectious disease from human clotting factors is very small. ... that cause HIV/AIDS and hepatitis. However, the risk of getting an infectious disease from human clotting factors is very small ...

  10. Fighting a lost cause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mario Haaf

    2015-01-01

    This essay claims that the declared war on drugs has failed, it has caused more harm than good, and that a new approach is necessary. The focus of analysis lays especially on the implemented drug policies of Mexico and the United States. The goal is to point out the flaws of the current policy based

  11. Protocol for evaluation of the comparative effectiveness of percutaneous adhesiolysis and caudal epidural steroid injections in low back and/or lower extremity pain without post surgery syndrome or spinal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Cash, Kimberly A

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of chronic low back pain with or without lower extremity pain continues to be a challenge. Epidural steroids are commonly utilized in patients after the failure of conservative treatment. The results of epidural steroid injections have been variable based on the pathophysiology, the route of administration, injected drugs, and utilization of fluoroscopy. In patients resistant to fluoroscopically directed epidural injections, percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis and percutaneous targeted delivery of injections with or without adhesiolysis has been recommended. Percutaneous adhesiolysis has been studied in chronic pain syndromes related to post laminectomy syndrome and spinal stenosis with encouraging results. There is a paucity of literature regarding the effectiveness of the targeted delivery of medications with or without epidural adhesiolysis in patients recalcitrant to epidural steroid injections without a history of surgery and spinal stenosis. A randomized, equivalence trial of percutaneous lumbar adhesiolysis and caudal epidural steroid injections in patients with low back and/or lower extremity pain without post surgery syndrome or spinal stenosis. An interventional pain management practice setting in the United States. The study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis in managing chronic low back and/or lower extremity pain in patients without post lumbar surgery syndrome or spinal stenosis and compare it with fluoroscopically directed caudal epidural steroid injections The study design includes 120 patients randomly assigned into 2 groups. Group I (60 patients), the control group, will receive caudal epidural injections with catheterization up to S3 with local anesthetic, steroids, and 0.9% sodium chloride solution; Group II (60 patients), the intervention group, will receive percutaneous adhesiolysis with target delivery of lidocaine, 10% hypertonic sodium chloride solution, and non-participate betamethasone

  12. The preliminary results of a comparative effectiveness evaluation of adhesiolysis and caudal epidural injections in managing chronic low back pain secondary to spinal stenosis: a randomized, equivalence controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; McManus, Carla D; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Singh, Vijay; Benyamin, Ramsin

    2009-01-01

    Lumbar surgery and epidural injections for spinal stenosis are the most commonly performed interventions in the United States. However, there is only moderate evidence to the effectiveness of surgery and caudal epidural injections. The next sequential step is adhesiolysis and hypertonic neurolysis with targeted delivery. There have not been any randomized trials evaluating the effectiveness of percutaneous adhesiolysis and targeted delivery of local anesthetic, steroid and hypertonic sodium chloride solution in lumbar spinal stenosis. A randomized, equivalence, controlled trial. An interventional pain management practice, a specialty referral center, a private practice setting in the United States. To evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis in patients with chronic low back and lower extremity pain with lumbar central spinal stenosis and compare with fluoroscopically directed caudal epidural injections. Patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups with 25 patients in each group. Group I patients received caudal epidural injections with catheterization up to S3 with local anesthetic, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, non-particulate betamethasone and served as the control group. Group II patients received percutaneous adhesiolysis with targeted delivery and injection of lidocaine, 10% hypertonic sodium chloride solution, and non-particulate Betamethasone and formed the intervention group. Randomization was performed by computer-generated random allocation sequence by simple randomization. Multiple outcome measures were utilized including the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the Oswestry Disability Index 2.0 (ODI), employment status, and opioid intake with assessment at 3, 6, and 12 months post treatment. Significant pain relief was described as 50% or more, whereas significant improvement in the disability score was defined as a reduction of 40% or more. This evaluation showed significant pain relief (>or= 50%) in 76% of the patients at one

  13. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid alfentanil, butorphanol, and morphine concentrations following caudal epidural administration in horses Concentrações plasmáticas e no líquido cérebro-espinhal de alfentanil, butorfanol e morfina após administração epidural caudal em eqüinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Corrêa Natalini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective of determining the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF concentrations after epidurally administered alfentanil, butorphanol, and morphine in horses. Five clinically healthy adult horses were studied. Morphine 0.1mg kg-1, alfentanil 0.02mg kg-1, and butorphanol 0.08mg kg-1 in equal volumes (20ml were epidurally injected. A 10-ml sample of CSF and blood were drawn at sampling times before the epidural administration and at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 120 minutes, and hourly for 24 hours Enzyme-linked immonosorbent assay (ELISA was used as the screening test to detect the injected opioids. ANOVA and Bonferroni’s test were used with a P values Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de se detectar as concentrações plasmáticas e no líquido cérebro-espinhal de alfentanil, butorfanol e morfina administrados por via epidural caudal em cavalos. Foram utilizados cinco eqüinos adultos, clinicamente hígidos. Doses de morfina (0,1mg kg-1, alfentanil (0,02mg kg-1, e butorfanol (0,08mg kg-1, diluídos em volume idêntico de 20ml em solução salina 0,9%, foram administrados por via epidural. Uma amostra de 10ml de sangüe venoso e de líqüido cérebro-espinhal foram colhidas anteriormente à administração epidural e 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 120 minutos e a cada hora por 24 horas. O teste enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA foi utilizado como método analítico para detecção dos opióides. Os resultados foram avaliados com teste ANOVA e Bonferroni com valor de P<0,05. O teste de ELISA mostrou-se eficiente para detecção plasmática e no LCE de alfentanil, butorfanol, e morfina administrados por via epidural. A administração epidural de alfentanil em eqüinos produz níveis no líquido cérebro-espinhal mais rapidamente que no plasma. Opióides de maior hidrossolubilidade tais como morfina e butorfanol produzem níveis plasmáticos mais rapidamente do que no líquido cérebro-espinhal quando

  14. Labor Informality: General Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sandoval Betancour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main causes of labor informality in order to verify the validity of classical theories that explain unemployment in market economies and its relationship to informality. Methodologically, the project was based, in the empirical part, on international statistics, comparing the evolution of labor market structure in a combined sample of highly industrialized countries and other less industrialized ones. Empirical evidence supports the conclusion that the classical economic theory of Marxist origin is inefficient to explain the causes of unemployment in contemporary market economies, as well as it fails to satisfactorily explain informality. On the contrary, we conclude that the theory in question is more relevant to explain informality in centrally planned economies where this phenomenon has been present even more significantly than in free market economies.

  15. Hacking for a cause

    OpenAIRE

    Still, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of hacktivism, which is hacking for a political or social cause on the Internet. Generally hackers, even those hacking government–sponsored sites, have been negatively stereotyped as malicious thrill seekers or, worse yet, cyberterrorists. But increasingly there are more politically motivated hackers distancing themselves from cyberterrorism by engaging in hacktivism that is intent more upon disruption than disobedience. Certain hacktivists, in fact, have creat...

  16. What causes violent crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Loayza, Norman

    1998-01-01

    This study uses a new data set of crime ratesfor a large sample of countriesfor the period 1970- 1994, based on information from the United Nations World Crime Surveys, to ana/yze the determinants ofnational homicide and robbery rates. A simple model of the incentives to commit crimes is proposed, which explicit/y considers possible causes of the persistence of crime over time (criminal inertia). Several econometric mode/s are estimated, attempting to capture the . determinonts...

  17. Causes autocracy in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Kopylov, Alexei; Kopylova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the causes of the existing Russian autocratic management system. The analysis is based on a Marxist materialist conception of history, expressed postulates “politics is the concentrated expression of economics” and “social existence determines the consciousness of men”. The social existence of stable autocratic form of government in modern Russia is due corresponding to this form of government economic base.

  18. Estado del arte en la medición de magnitudes hidráulicas (I): medición de caudales en conducciones cerradas, en diámetros pequeños y medianos

    OpenAIRE

    Larreategui Fadrique, Andoni

    1994-01-01

    En este artículo y entregas sucesivas se pasa revista al estado actual de la tecnología y el conocimiento, en lo concerniente a mediciones hidráulicas. En este número la exposición se centra en los caudales, en tuberías de pequeño y mediano diámetro. Por su extensión este primer artículo se divide en dos partes: En primer lugar se realiza una descripción básica de los principales equipos de medida disponibles en el mercado. Se incluye un listado de normas técnicas y legales y a ...

  19. Correlación de variables macroclimáticas del Océano Pacífico con los caudales en los ríos interandinos del Valle del Cauca (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesid Carvajal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los fenómenos climáticos sobre los océanos ejercen gran influencia sobre la hidroclimatología del valle del río Cauca (Colombia, en especial el evento "El Niño Oscilación Sur" (ENOS, que es responsable de la variabilidad climática en escalas de tiempo que van desde meses hasta décadas. Debido a esta dependencia, se estudió la correlación entre 8 variables indicadoras del clima en los Océanos Pacífico y Atlántico con los caudales medios mensuales de 8 ríos del valle del río Cauca. Las series cubren un período promedio de 40 años 1957-1997. Los resultados muestran las variaciones regionales de la situación hidrológica del valle del río Cauca respecto a las variables macroclimáticas. Los coeficientes de correlación indican que las variables que presentan mayor asociación con los caudales analizados son en su orden: Las temperaturas de la superficie del mar en las regiones Niño 3, Niño 3-4, Niño 4 Y SOl, mientras en el Atlántico, las mejores correlaciones las presentan: la Temperatura en el Trópico, en el Atlántico Norte (NATL y Atlántico Sur (SATL respectivamente.

  20. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  1. Penicillium species causing onychomycosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani R

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Onychomycosis caused by mould infection is rare. A 40 year old male patient presented with dystrophic finger nails and multiple, erythematous lesions with slightly raised borders and scaling all over the body. The patient was a known diabetic. He did not respond to griseofulvin. Samples from nails and skin scales were cultured. From the nails, Penicillium species and from the skin scales. Trichophyton rubrum were isolated. Ketoconazole therapy (200 mg twice daily x 4 mths led to complete cure with negative cultures and normalization of nails.

  2. Serotonin release in the caudal nidopallium of adult laying hens genetically selected for high and low feather pecking behavior: An in vivo microdialysis study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kops, Marjolein S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341590649; Kjaer, Joergen B.; Güntürkün, Onur; Westphal, Koen G.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304839337; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A.H.; Olivier, Berend|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073067199; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Korte, S. Mechiel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/088952827

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (FP) is a detrimental behavior causing welfare problems in laying hens. Divergent genetic selection for FP in White Leghorns resulted in strong differences in FP incidences between lines. More recently, it was shown that the high FP (HFP) birds have increased locomotor

  3. [Cellulite - causes, prevention, treatment ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Katarzyna; Tomikowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cellulite is a multifactorial etiology ailment. It changes the skin topography by the formation of the skin surface's appearance, changes described as "orange peel". This prob- lem concerns 85-98% of women, and for them it is one of the most intolerable aesthetic imperfections. In the past few years the interest of scientists in this problem has clearly increased. Several theories on the pathophysiology of cel- lulite have been produced A number of different thera- peutic regimens have been developed using modern tech- nology. However, despite the many treatment options for cellulite, it is extremely important that patients should be aware that only multidirectional treatment can bring sat- isfactory results. The aim of this review was to describe the causes of cellulite, and its prevention and treatment.

  4. Same causes, same cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2006-12-22

    Thanks to the continuing bio-medicinal efforts, similar causes underlying the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and prion diseases (PDs) have been revealed, which include oxidative stress, excessive transition metal ions, and misfolded/aggregated proteins. Therefore, the therapeutic strategy for one disease may be effective for the other. More interestingly, accumulating evidence indicates that not just the strategies but also the prescriptions may be shared by AD and PD treatments. In this review, we first summarize the known dual fighters against AD and PDs (which include antioxidants, metal chelators, and protein aggregation inhibitors), and then indicate that some super-dual-fighters may hit multiple targets implicated in AD and PDs, whose structural features highlight the importance of aromatic moiety and phenolic groups. These findings not only provide important clues to accelerating the screening of anti-AD and anti-PDs drugs but also help to understand the etiology of AD and PDs.

  5. Protective and therapeutic effects of fucoxanthin against sunburn caused by UV irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mio Matsui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mild exposure to ultraviolet (UV radiation is also harmful and hazardous to the skin and often causes a photosensitivity disorder accompanied by sunburn. To understand the action of UV on the skin we performed a microarray analysis to isolate UV-sensitive genes. We show here that UV irradiation promoted sunburn and downregulated filaggrin (Flg; fucoxanthin (FX exerted a protective effect. In vitro analysis showed that UV irradiation of human dermal fibroblasts caused production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS without cellular toxicity. ROS production was diminished by N-acetylcysteine (NAC or FX, but not by retinoic acid (RA. In vivo analysis showed that UV irradiation caused sunburn and Flg downregulation, and that FX, but not NAC, RA or clobetasol, exerted a protective effect. FX stimulated Flg promoter activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Flg promoter deletion and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that caudal type homeo box transcription factor 1 (Cdx1 was a key factor for Flg induction. Cdx1 was also downregulated in UV-exposed skin. Therefore, our data suggested that the protective effects of FX against UV-induced sunburn might be exerted by promotion of skin barrier formation through induction of Flg, unrelated to quenching of ROS or an RA-like action.

  6. Protective effect of recombinant human erythropoietin on liver and kidney injury as well as endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by infec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Li Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the protective effect of recombinant human erythropoietin on liver and kidney injury as well as endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by infection. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into negative control group, LPS group and LPS+EPO group, LPS group and LPS+EPO group received injection of LPS via caudal vein to establish infection models, and LPS+EPO group received injection of rHuEPO via caudal vein for intervention; before intervention as well as 6 and 12 h after intervention, serum was collected to detect TNF-α, iNOS, BUN, Cr, ALT and AST contents; 12 h after intervention, liver and kidney tissue was collected to detect mRNA contents of endoplasmic reticulum stress molecules (GRP78, CHOP and Caspase-12. Results: After model establishment and before rHuEPO intervention, serum TNF-α, iNOS, BUN, Cr, ALT and AST contents of LPS group and LPS+EPO group had no differences and were higher than those of negative control group; 6 and 12 h after intervention, serum TNF-α, iNOS, BUN, Cr, ALT and AST contents of LPS+EPO group were lower than those of LPS group; 12 h after intervention, mRNA contents of GRP78, CHOP and Caspase-12 in liver and kidney tissue of LPS+EPO group were lower than those of LPS group. Conclusions: Recombinant human erythropoietin has protective effect on liver and kidney injury as well as endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by infection.

  7. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P J L Verkoeijen

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown, the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection. However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  8. Causes for "ghost" manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borok, S.; Goldfarb, I.; Gol'dshtein, V.

    2009-05-01

    ;71:359-82; Flockerzi D. Tutorial: intrinsic low-dimensional manifolds and slow attractors. Magdeburg: Max-Planck-Institut; 2001-2005. ; Flockerzi D, Heineken W. Comment on "Identification of low order manifolds: validating the algorithm of Maas and Pope". Chaos 1999;9:108-23; Flockerzi D, Heineken W. Comment on "Identification of low order manifolds: validating the algorithm of Maas and Pope". Chaos 2006;16:048101]. The present work studies the causes for the "ghost" manifolds appearance for the case of a two-dimensional singularly perturbed system.

  9. Efecto de la regulación del caudal del Río Guadalquivir sobre las características fisicoquímicas del agua y la macrofauna acuática de su estuario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La temperatura, salinidad y turbidez del agua en el estuario del Guadalquivir, así como la abundancia, biomasa y número de especies de su macrofauna acuática (necton e hiperbentos, se estimaron mensualmente, entre junio de 1997 y mayo de 1999, en cinco estaciones de muestreo a 8, 20, 30, 40 y 50 km de la desembocadura utilizando para la toma de muestras un barco angulero provisto de un arte de pesca con malla de 1 mm de luz. En el estuario existió horizontalmente un marcado gradiente salino: la salinidad media mensual osciló habitualmente entre 17 y 27 en la estación más externa, mientras que en la zona más interna raramente sobrepasó 4. La temperatura fue homogénea en todo el estuario, con máximos estivales (28ºC y mínimos invernales (10ºC. La turbidez también fue relativamente homogénea en todo el estuario, con valores máximos invernales (362 UNT y mínimos principalmente estivales (10 UNT. Los máximos de turbidez coincidieron con la zona de confluencia del agua marina y dulce. Los resultados de los análisis de regresión múltiple por pasos indican que la distancia a la desembocadura y el caudal medio de agua desembalsada (el mes previo desde la presa de Alcalá del Río (a 110 km de la desembocadura explican 70% de la varianza de la salinidad, mientras que el caudal desembalsado apenas explica 17% de la varianza observada en la temperatura y la turbidez del agua. La salinidad explica 50% de la varianza del número de especies, mientras que la salinidad y la temperatura son las variables ambientales que controlan la variación de la abundancia y biomasa de la macrofauna estuárica, llegando a explicar 75% y 71% de la varianza de la abundancia y biomasa de la comunidad nectónica, respectivamente, y 54% y 48% de la varianza de la abundancia y biomasa hiperbentónica, respectivamente. La salinidad fue, en todos los casos, la variable que explicó un mayor porcentaje de la varianza.

  10. Neurophysiologic markers of primary motor cortex for laryngeal muscles and premotor cortex in caudal opercular part of inferior frontal gyrus investigated in motor speech disorder: a navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogić Vidaković, Maja; Jerković, Ana; Jurić, Tomislav; Vujović, Igor; Šoda, Joško; Erceg, Nikola; Bubić, Andreja; Zmajević Schönwald, Marina; Lioumis, Pantelis; Gabelica, Dragan; Đogaš, Zoran

    2016-11-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation studies have so far reported the results of mapping the primary motor cortex (M1) for hand and tongue muscles in stuttering disorder. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for locating the M1 for laryngeal muscle and premotor cortical area in the caudal opercular part of inferior frontal gyrus, corresponding to Broca's area in stuttering subjects by applying new methodology for mapping these motor speech areas. Sixteen stuttering and eleven control subjects underwent rTMS motor speech mapping using modified patterned rTMS. The subjects performed visual object naming task during rTMS applied to the (a) left M1 for laryngeal muscles for recording corticobulbar motor-evoked potentials (CoMEP) from cricothyroid muscle and (b) left premotor cortical area in the caudal opercular part of inferior frontal gyrus while recording long latency responses (LLR) from cricothyroid muscle. The latency of CoMEP in control subjects was 11.75 ± 2.07 ms and CoMEP amplitude was 294.47 ± 208.87 µV, and in stuttering subjects CoMEP latency was 12.13 ± 0.75 ms and 504.64 ± 487.93 µV CoMEP amplitude. The latency of LLR in control subjects was 52.8 ± 8.6 ms and 54.95 ± 4.86 in stuttering subjects. No significant differences were found in CoMEP latency, CoMEP amplitude, and LLR latency between stuttering and control-fluent speakers. These results indicate there are probably no differences in stuttering compared to controls in functional anatomy of the pathway used for transmission of information from premotor cortex to the M1 cortices for laryngeal muscle representation and from there via corticobulbar tract to laryngeal muscles.

  11. Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Society for Reproductive Medicine Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility? This fact sheet was developed in collaboration with ... a surgical procedure called laparoscopy. Does endometriosis cause infertility? If you have endometriosis, it may be more ...

  12. Drugs that may cause impotence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impotence caused by medications; Drug-induced erectile dysfunction; Prescription medicines and impotence ... Many medicines and recreational drugs can affect a man's sexual arousal and sexual performance. What causes impotence in one ...

  13. Successful treatment of intra-abdominal eumycotic mycetoma caused by Penicillium duponti in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovec, J; Brockman, D J; Priestnall, S L; Kulendra, N J

    2016-03-01

    A 2-year-old female neutered golden retriever was presented for investigation of an intra-abdominal mass. Computed tomography revealed a mass associated with the caudal pole of the right kidney. Incisional biopsy findings were consistent with eumycotic mycetoma. The mass was subsequently removed in conjunction with right ureteronephrectomy. Two years later, the dog re-presented with a splenic mass and fungal plaques located throughout the peritoneum. Splenectomy was performed and the mass was diagnosed as eumycotic mycetoma caused by Penicillium duponti. Indefinite systemic treatment with 10 mg/kg itraconazole orally once a day was initiated. Thirty-two months after the last surgery, there were no clinical signs apart from mild polydipsia. Haematology and biochemistry results were unremarkable. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of intra-abdominal eumycotic mycetoma with a combination of surgery and systemic antifungal therapy in the dog. Penicillium duponti has not apparently been reported to cause disease in animals or humans. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  14. Exposure of the thorax to a sublethal blast wave causes a hydrodynamic pulse that leads to perivenular inflammation in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, J Marc; Pampori, Adam; Keledjian, Kaspar; Tosun, Cigdem; Schwartzbauer, Gary; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

    2014-07-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by an explosive blast (blast-TBI) is postulated to result, in part, from transvascular transmission to the brain of a hydrodynamic pulse (a.k.a., volumetric blood surge, ballistic pressure wave, hydrostatic shock, or hydraulic shock) induced in major intrathoracic blood vessels. This mechanism of blast-TBI has not been demonstrated directly. We tested the hypothesis that a blast wave impacting the thorax would induce a hydrodynamic pulse that would cause pathological changes in the brain. We constructed a Thorax-Only Blast Injury Apparatus (TOBIA) and a Jugular-Only Blast Injury Apparatus (JOBIA). TOBIA delivered a collimated blast wave to the right lateral thorax of a rat, precluding direct impact on the cranium. JOBIA delivered a blast wave to the fluid-filled port of an extracorporeal intravenous infusion device whose catheter was inserted retrograde into the jugular vein, precluding lung injury. Long Evans rats were subjected to sublethal injury by TOBIA or JOBIA. Blast injury induced by TOBIA was characterized by apnea and diffuse bilateral hemorrhagic injury to the lungs associated with a transient reduction in pulse oximetry signals. Immunolabeling 24 h after injury by TOBIA showed up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha, ED-1, sulfonylurea receptor 1 (Sur1), and glial fibrillary acidic protein in veins or perivenular tissues and microvessels throughout the brain. The perivenular inflammatory effects induced by TOBIA were prevented by ligating the jugular vein and were reproduced using JOBIA. We conclude that blast injury to the thorax leads to perivenular inflammation, Sur1 up-regulation, and reactive astrocytosis resulting from the induction of a hydrodynamic pulse in the vasculature.

  15. Dementia due to metabolic causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic brain - metabolic; Mild cognitive - metabolic; MCI - metabolic ... Possible metabolic causes of dementia include: Hormonal disorders, such as Addison disease , Cushing disease Heavy metal exposure, such as ...

  16. Transcriptomics of two evolutionary novelties: how to make a sperm-transfer organ out of an anal fin and a sexually selected “sword” out of a caudal fin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji Hyoun; Manousaki, Tereza; Franchini, Paolo; Kneitz, Susanne; Schartl, Manfred; Meyer, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Swords are exaggerated male ornaments of swordtail fishes that have been of great interest to evolutionary biologists ever since Darwin described them in the Descent of Man (1871). They are a novel sexually selected trait derived from modified ventral caudal fin rays and are only found in the genus Xiphophorus. Another phylogenetically more widespread and older male trait is the gonopodium, an intromittent organ found in all poeciliid fishes, that is derived from a modified anal fin. Despite many evolutionary and behavioral studies on both traits, little is known so far about the molecular mechanisms underlying their development. By investigating transcriptomic changes (utilizing a RNA-Seq approach) in response to testosterone treatment in the swordtail fish, Xiphophorus hellerii, we aimed to better understand the architecture of the gene regulatory networks underpinning the development of these two evolutionary novelties. Large numbers of genes with tissue-specific expression patterns were identified. Among the “sword genes” those involved in embryonic organ development, sexual character development and coloration were highly expressed, while in the gonopodium rather more morphogenesis-related genes were found. Interestingly, many genes and genetic pathways are shared between both developing novel traits derived from median fins: the sword and the gonopodium. Our analyses show that a larger set of gene networks was co-opted during the development and evolution of the “older” gonopodium than in the “younger,” and morphologically less complex trait, the sword. We provide a catalog of candidate genes for future efforts to dissect the development of those sexually selected exaggerated male traits in swordtails. PMID:25750712

  17. Statins: Do They Cause ALS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statins: Do they cause ALS? Do statins cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)? Answers from Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, M.D. ... M.D. Sorensen HT, et al. Statins and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: The level of evidence for an association. Journal ...

  18. Hepatopulmonary syndrome causing severe hypoxaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsøe, Bente Kjær; Andersen, Mette Winther; Eriksen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Dyspnoea is a common complaint in patients with chronic liver disease. Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an important cause to be aware of in the setting of liver disease, dyspnoea and hypoxaemia. HPS causes microvascular dilatation, angiogenesis and arteriovenous bypassing. The patients suffer...

  19. Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumichi Itoh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 were diagnosed in a 6-month-old female Pomeranian with tetraplegia as a clinical sign. Lateral survey radiography of the neck with flexion revealed atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral subluxation of C2. Computed tomography revealed absence of dens and atlanto-occipital overlapping. Magnetic resonance imaging showed compression of the spinal cord and indentation of caudal cerebellum. The diagnosis was Chiari-like malformation, atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral displacement of C2, atlanto-occipital overlapping, and syringomyelia. The dog underwent foramen magnum decompression, dorsal laminectomy of C1, and ventral fixation of the atlantoaxial joint. Soon after the operation, voluntary movements of the legs were recovered. Finally, the dog could stand and walk without assistance. The dog had complicated malformations at the craniocervical junction but foramen magnum decompression and dorsal laminectomy for Chiari-like malformation, and ventral fixation for atlantoaxial subluxation resulted in an excellent clinical outcome.

  20. Dynamic chronic rectal obstruction causing a severe colonic dilatation in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia García-Pertierra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 5-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was presented to our referral centre with a 13 month history of chronic tenesmus due to malunion of the right caudal iliac body. Constipation and pelvic canal stenosis were initially addressed by the referring veterinarian with a right femoral head and neck excision and a right acetabulectomy without observable clinical improvement. At admission, abdominal radiographs revealed severe colonic distension and a narrowed pelvic canal caused by the right proximal femur. Rectal examination and colonography revealed a dynamic compression of the rectum, which worsened with femoral abduction and improved with femoral adduction. A right hindlimb amputation was performed to relieve the obstruction. The cat defaecated 2 days postoperatively and was discharged uneventfully. Neither faecal tenesmus nor dyschaezia were observed over the following 10 months. Relevance and novel information The dynamic nature of the rectal obstruction most likely prevented the development of an irreversible colonic dilatation leading to a megacolon. This is the first report describing a chronic dynamic rectal compression, which was successfully managed with a right hindlimb amputation without the need for subtotal colectomy.

  1. Human Caused Fire and Acres

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Number of wildland fires and acres burned as a result of human causes, from 2001 through 2008 (updated annually). Displayed by the eleven Geographic Areas used by...

  2. Cervicomedullary neurocysticercosis causing obstructive hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Doris D; Huang, Michael C

    2015-09-01

    We present a 45-year-old man with tussive headache and blurred vision found to have obstructive hydrocephalus from a neurocysticercal cyst at the cervicomedullary junction who underwent surgical removal of the cyst. We performed a suboccipital craniectomy to remove the cervicomedullary cyst en bloc. Cyst removal successfully treated the patient's headaches without necessitating permanent cerebrospinal fluid diversion. Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasite infection of the central nervous system causing seizures and, less commonly, hydrocephalus. Intraventricular cysts or arachnoiditis usually cause hydrocephalus in neurocysticercosis but craniocervical junction cysts causing obstructive hydrocephalus are rare. Neurocysticercosis at the craniocervical junction may cause Chiari-like symptoms. In the absence of arachnoiditis and leptomeningeal enhancement, surgical removal of the intact cyst can lead to favorable outcomes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Nongenetic causes of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chade, A R; Kasten, M; Tanner, C M

    2006-01-01

    Study of the nongenetic causes of Parkinson's disease (PD) was encouraged by discovery of a cluster of parkinsonism produced by neurotoxic pyridine 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in the 1980s. Since that time, epidemiologic investigations have suggested risk factors, though their results do not establish causality. Pesticide exposure has been associated with increased risk in many studies. Other proposed risks include rural residence and certain occupations. Cigarette smoking, use of coffee/caffeine, and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) all appear to lower risk of PD, while dietary lipid and milk consumption, high caloric intake, and head trauma may increase risk. The cause of PD is likely multifactorial. Underlying genetic susceptibility and combinations of risk and protective factors likely all contribute. The combined research effort by epidemiologists, geneticists, and basic scientists will be needed to clarify the cause(s) of PD.

  4. Causes of secondary headache (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporomandibular joint, or TMJ, dysfunction, can be a cause of secondary headache. Secondary headaches result from underlying disorders which produce pain as a symptom. The TMJ may become painful and dysfunctional as a result of incorrect alignment ...

  5. What Causes Thrombocythemia and Thrombocytosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites News & Resources Press ... causes the platelet count to rise. For example, 35 percent of people who have high platelet counts ...

  6. Osteomyelitis Caused by Moraxella osloensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Barrett; Clarridge, Jill

    1982-01-01

    Moraxella osloensis osteomyelitis of the femur developed in a paraplegic man. He responded to treatment with oral ampicillin. Disease in humans caused by this unusual clinical isolate is reviewed. PMID:7107844

  7. THE FUNDAMENTS OF EXPLANATORY CAUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela VLĂDILĂ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new Criminal Code in the specter of the legal life the division of causes removing the criminal feature of the offence in explanatory causes and non-attributable causes. This dichotomy is not without legal and factual fundaments and has been subjected to doctrinaire debates even since the period when the Criminal Code of 1969 was still in force. From our perspective, one of the possible legal fundaments of the explanatory causes results from that the offence committed is based on the protection of a right at least equal with the one prejudiced by the action of aggression, salvation, by the legal obligation imposed or by the victim’s consent.

  8. Causes of Hypersomnia – Narcolepsy

    OpenAIRE

    M V Padma Srivastav

    2014-01-01

    The causes of hypersomnia or excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) besides volitionalsleep deprivation and obstructive sleep apnea are principally due to primary centralnervous system abnormalities. Most common amongst these is Narcolepsy, a primarydisorder of the neural control of wakefulness and sleep. The recent discovery ofhypocretin/orexin deficiency as the main cause of narcolepsy will lead to importanttherapeutic advances for patients with narcolepsy and further to understanding of thecon...

  9. Radiculopathy Caused by Discal Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sae Young

    2013-01-01

    Discal cyst is an intraspinal cyst with a distinct communication with the corresponding intervertebral disc. It is a rare condition and could present with radiculopathy similar to that caused by lumbar disc herniation. We present a patient with a large discal cyst in the ventrolateral epidural space of the 5th lumbar vertebral (L5) level that communicated with the adjacent 4th lumbar and 5th lumbar intervertebral disc, causing L5 radiculopathy. We alleviated the radiating pain with selective ...

  10. Does Excessive Pronation Cause Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Olesen Gammelgaard, Christian; Nielsen, R. G.

    2008-01-01

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist of ...... pronation patients recieve antipronation training often if the patient is in pain but wanted to investigate if it was possible to measure a change in foot posture after af given treatment....

  11. Science 101: What Causes Wind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There's a quick and easy answer to this question. The Sun causes wind. Exactly how the Sun causes wind takes a bit to explain. We'll begin with what wind is. You've no doubt heard that wind is the motion of air molecules, which is true. Putting aside the huge leap of faith it takes for us to believe that we are experiencing the motion of millions…

  12. Análisis correlatorio y espectral de los caudales del manantial de Iturriotz (Vizcaya: El sistema del barranco de Peñalba como ejemplo de un tipo de Karst de caraclerísticas mixtas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Latorre, F.

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to define the structure of the time series of rainfall and discharge, and also to improve the knowledge of the Barranco Peñalba karstic system, a correlation and spectral analysis has been made of the Iturriotz spring and the Juncal pluviometer data (period: 6th August 1983 to 12th October 1985. Such analysis reveals a relatively important memory effect and a regulation time of 23,5 days. However, it has been made clear a very small modulation effect with a spectral band of 0.30-0.32. The cross correlation reveals a lag very small between the input and output signals, in spite of the existence of a some regulation power at the end of the impulsional answer. These results do not match exactly any of the type-model defined by Mangin (1982, but suggests a system with mixed characteristics. The apparently contradictory features inferred from this analysis can be atributed to the heterogeneity of the aquifer materials and to the complexity of the recharge mecanisms.Con objeto de definir la estructura de las series cronológicas de lluvias y caudales, así como para mejorar el conocimiento del sistema kárstico del barranco de Peñalba, se ha aplicado el análisis de correlación y espectral a los datos del manantial de Iturriotz y del pluviómetro del Juncal, del período 6 de Agosto de 1983 a 12 de Octubre de 1985. Dicho análisis revela un efecto memoria relativamente importante y un tiempo de regulación de 23,5 días; sin embargo, se pone de manifiesto un efecto de filtro muy reducido, con una banda espectral de 0.30-0.32; el correlograma cruzado evidencia un desfase muy corto entre las señales de entrada y salida, a pesar de que existe un cierto poder regulador al final de la respuesta impulsional. Estos resultados no corresponden exactamente a ninguno de los modelos-tipo definidos por Mangin (1982, sino que sugieren un sistema de características mixtas. Los rasgos aparentemente contradictorios que se deducen de este análisis pueden

  13. WELLBORE INSTABILITY: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoje Pašić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Wellbore instability is one of the main problems that engineers meet during drilling. The causes of wellbore instability are often classified into either mechanical (for example, failure of the rock around the hole because of high stresses, low rock strength, or inappropriate drilling practice or chemical effects which arise from damaging interaction between the rock, generally shale, and the drilling fluid. Often, field instances of instability are a result of a combination of both chemical and mechanical. This problem might cause serious complication in well and in some case can lead to expensive operational problems. The increasing demand for wellbore stability analyses during the planning stage of a field arise from economic considerations and the increasing use of deviated, extended reach and horizontal wells. This paper presents causes, indicators and diagnosing of wellbore instability as well as the wellbore stresses model.

  14. Polyhydramnios: Causes, Diagnosis and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, A; Herr, D; Solomayer, E F; Meyberg-Solomayer, G

    2013-12-01

    Polyhydramnios is defined as a pathological increase of amniotic fluid volume in pregnancy and is associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. Common causes of polyhydramnios include gestational diabetes, fetal anomalies with disturbed fetal swallowing of amniotic fluid, fetal infections and other, rarer causes. The diagnosis is obtained by ultrasound. The prognosis of polyhydramnios depends on its cause and severity. Typical symptoms of polyhydramnios include maternal dyspnea, preterm labor, premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), abnormal fetal presentation, cord prolapse and postpartum hemorrhage. Due to its common etiology with gestational diabetes, polyhydramnios is often associated with fetal macrosomia. To prevent the above complications, there are two methods of prenatal treatment: amnioreduction and pharmacological treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, prenatal administration of NSAIDs to reduce amniotic fluid volumes has not been approved in Germany. In addition to conventional management, experimental therapies which would alter fetal diuresis are being considered.

  15. Causes of Hypersomnia – Narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Padma Srivastav

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The causes of hypersomnia or excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS besides volitionalsleep deprivation and obstructive sleep apnea are principally due to primary centralnervous system abnormalities. Most common amongst these is Narcolepsy, a primarydisorder of the neural control of wakefulness and sleep. The recent discovery ofhypocretin/orexin deficiency as the main cause of narcolepsy will lead to importanttherapeutic advances for patients with narcolepsy and further to understanding of thecontrol of sleep and wakefulness in general. Importantly, the excessive daytimesleepiness is not due to psychiatric conditions, but rather is always due to sleepdeprivation or an underlying diagnosable and treatable sleep disorder.Key words : EDS, Sleep, Narcolepsy

  16. Does Excessive Pronation Cause Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Christian Gammelgaard; Nielsen, RG; Rathleff, M

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist...... of antipronation shoes or insoles, which latest was studied by Kulce DG., et al (2007). So far there have been no randomized controlled studies showing methods that can measure the effect of treatments with insoles. Some of the excessive pronation patients recieve antipronation training often if the patient...

  17. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  18. What Caused the Great Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  19. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  20. Cyberbullying: Causes, Effects, and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Dianne L.; Mitchell, Sidney N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present research exploring the pervasiveness and causes of cyberbullying, the psychological impact on students, and the responses to cyberbullying from students and administrators. The goal is to give school leaders a greater understanding of this phenomenon and suggest steps to deal with this challenging…

  1. Sore Throat: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... voice box. Allergies. Seasonal allergies or ongoing allergic reactions to dust, molds or pet dander, make developing a sore throat more likely. Exposure to chemical irritants. Particles in the air from burning fossil fuels and common household chemicals can cause throat irritation. Chronic or ...

  2. EDITORIAL PREVENTABLE CAUSES OF BLINDNESS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damary

    2006-04-01

    Apr 1, 2006 ... or jealousy rage. In this latter case hot water is a more common material used to cause intended disfigurement in the Kenyan setting. Avoidance of such acts is not in doubt. Retino - toxic drug reactions: Although largely iatrogenic in nature drug adverse effects can be monitored using both subjective tests ...

  3. Do Cell Phones Cause Cancer?

    CERN Document Server

    Leikind, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Do cell phones, household electrical power wiring or appliance, or high voltage power lines cause cancer? Fuggedaboudit! No way! When pigs fly! When I'm the Pope! Don't text while you're driving, however, or eat your cell phone. All organisms absorb microwave radiation directly as thermal energy. In living organisms, the organisms' thermal control systems, including the blood flow, and various cooling mechanisms, such as sweating in humans, that work to maintain a stable body temperature rapidly transfer the absorbed energy to the environment. Any temperature rise is small or even unobserved. Any proposed mechanism by which cell phone radiation might cause cancer must begin with this fact. But the amount of radiation absorbed from a cell phone is less than that produced by normal metabolic processes, and much less than that produced by, for example, exercise. None of these normal metabolic processes cause cancer. Therefore, the much smaller amounts of energy from cell phones doesn't cause cancer either. All f...

  4. Complex Odontome Causing Facial Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeya Patil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common non-cystic odontogenic lesions representing 70% of all odontogenic tumors. Often small and asymptomatic, they are detected on routine radiographs. Occasionally they become large and produce expansion of bone with consequent facial asymmetry. We report a case of such a lesion causing expansion of the mandible in an otherwise asymptomatic patient.

  5. Cradle Cap: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradle cap Overview Cradle cap causes crusty or oily scaly patches on a baby's scalp. The condition isn't painful or itchy. But it ... yellow scales that aren't easy to remove. Cradle cap usually clears up on its own in a ...

  6. Causes, concerns, and remediation strategies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work examined the performance of team Nigeria since its first participation in Olympics and the major causes of persistent poor performance which among other includes, politics and power use in sports, corruption, defective preparation mechanism for international sport competition, lack of state-of-the-art training ...

  7. Mycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar P

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available One case of actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis presented with a swelling on the right ankle with multiple sinuses discharging sero-sanguinous material without any granules. He was treated successfully with dapsone followed by surgical excision of the swelling and skin graft.

  8. Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babich, Harvey; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

  9. Aplicación del método PHABSIM para la determinación del caudal ecológico en el río Chulco de la subcuenca del río Machángara

    OpenAIRE

    Sichique Sánchez, Adriana Soledad; Rocano Portoviejo, Adrián Fernando

    2014-01-01

    El documento consiste en determinar el caudal óptimo necesario aguas abajo de la represa El Labrado para la conservación de la especie objetivo (Hyalellidae) que se consideró para el modelamiento a través del método PHABSIM, apoyándose para determinar la calidad del agua con el método BMWP/Col. The document consists to determine the optimum flow necessary downstream of the dam El Labrado for the conservation of the target species (Hyalellidae) which was considered for the modeling method u...

  10. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of high blood pressure? Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  11. Unusual Cause of Knee Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Huri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of partial intrasubstance tear of popliteus tendon as an unusual cause of pseudolocking of the knee. A 13-year-old semiprofessional soccer player applied to our clinic with a locked right knee in spite of the therapy applied (cold pack, NSAID, and immobilization in another institution 20 days after the injury. Significant extension loss was observed in his right knee with 30∘–90∘ ROM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and arthroscopy confirmed the intrasubstance tear of popliteus tendon and synovitis. The ruptured part of the tendon was debrided, and the inflammatory tissue around the tendon, which may lead to pseudolocking, was gently removed with a shaver in order to regain the normal ROM. The patient was discharged with full ROM and weight bearing first day after the surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first case demonstrating intrasubstance tear of popliteus tendon causing pseudolocking of the knee.

  12. ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS PROGRAM MANUAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravois, Melanie C.

    2007-05-02

    Root Cause Analysis (RCA) identifies the cause of an adverse condition that, if corrected, will preclude recurrence or greatly reduce the probability of recurrence of the same or similar adverse conditions and thereby protect the health and safety of the public, the workers, and the environment. This procedure sets forth the requirements for management determination and the selection of RCA methods and implementation of RCAs that are a result of significant findings from Price-Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) violations, occurrences/events, Significant Adverse Conditions, and external oversight Corrective Action Requests (CARs) generated by the Office of Enforcement (PAAA headquarters), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and other oversight entities against Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Performance of an RCA may result in the identification of issues that should be reported in accordance with the Issues Management Program Manual.

  13. Skills Obsolescence: Causes and Cures

    OpenAIRE

    van de Loo, Jasper; De Grip, Andries; Steur, Margot de

    2001-01-01

    Until now there has been surprisingly little research on the causes of and the remedies for skills obsolescence. This study tries to fill that gap to some extent by analysing the relation between risk factors and skills obsolescence. Moreover, the role remedies play to counter skills obsolescence is analysed. Four empirical analyses that relate skills obsolescence to risk factors and remedies are presented. We find that most risk factors identified in the literature can be validated empirical...

  14. A rare cause of osteonecrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Agostinis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHereditary hemochromatosis (HH is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the HFE gene, which increase intestinal iron absorption. The prevalence of C282Y homozygosity, which causes the disorder, is 0.5% in Caucasian populations. The clinical manifestations are related to excess iron in the tissues, especially the liver, heart, pancreas, pituitary, and skin. They include fatigue, loss of libido or impotence in males, liver disease, skin pigmentation, diabetes mellitus, cardiac enlargement—with or without heart failure, and conduction defects. The classic triad of cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, and skin pigmentation (“bronze diabetes” results from a combination of iron deposits and melanin. It occurs late in the disease, when the total body iron content is more than five times the normal value, about 20 grams. Left untreated, approximately half of all patients with HH eventually develop arthralgia or arthropathy. Chondrocalcinosis, chronic pseudo-osteoarthritis, and osteoporosis are the major rheumatic manifestations of HH. The cause of the arthropathy is still unknown. Iron deposits within joints may trigger a number of pathologic events, such as free radical generation and crystal deposition, which stimulate immune complex formation and inflammation.Materials and methodsWe describe the case of a 48-year-old male suffering from chronic bilateral ankle pain.ResultsThe work-up revealed osteonecrosis of ankle. The patient also presented high plasma ferritin levels and homozygosity for the C282Y mutation. Other than HH, which was confirmed by liver biopsy, the patient had no other risk factors for osteonecrosis.DiscussionHH represents a rare cause of osteonecrosis, and there are no prior reports of aseptic osteonecrosis of the ankle in a patient with this disease. The pathogenetic mechanism remains unknown.

  15. Women trafficking: causes, concerns, care!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Shaneela Sadaruddin; Tharani, Ambreen Jawed; Agha, Ajmal; Karamaliani, Rozina Sherali

    2012-08-01

    Pakistan is both a country of origin and destination as far as women trafficking is concerned. Poverty, gender discrimination, lack of education, and ignorance about legal rights are some of the underlying causes. Available data suggest several areas of concern, like, for instance: direct health effects, maladaptive coping leading to the use of illicit drugs, and inaccessibility to healthcare facilities. Therefore, numerous interventions would be required at three levels: the prevention of trafficking, the protection of victims and the prosecution of the traffickers.

  16. Endophthalmitis caused by Klebsiella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Jayanth; Flynn, Harry W; Kuriyan, Ajay E; Dubovy, Sander; Miller, Darlene

    2014-09-01

    To report the clinical presentation, antibiotic sensitivities, treatment strategies, and visual outcomes associated with endophthalmitis caused by Klebsiella species. A noncomparative consecutive case series. Microbiology database records were retrospectively reviewed for all patients with endophthalmitis caused by Klebsiella species from 1990 to 2012 at a large university referral center. The corresponding clinical records were then reviewed to evaluate the endophthalmitis clinical features and treatment outcomes. Seven patients were identified. Clinical settings included endogenous (n = 3), posttraumatic (n = 2), trabeculectomy bleb-associated (n = 1), and postpenetrating keratoplasty (n = 1). Five patients presented with hypopyon. Presenting visual acuity ranged from 20/60 to light perception in nonendogenous cases and 1/200 to light perception in endogenous cases. Klebsiella was sensitive to aminoglycosides, third-generation cephalosporins, and second- and third-generation fluoroquinolones in all cases. Initial treatment strategies were vitreous tap and injection (n = 4), pars plana vitrectomy with intravitreal antibiotics (n = 2), and anterior chamber tap and injection (n = 1). All three endogenous cases later underwent enucleation or evisceration. In nonendogenous cases, the final visual acuity was 20/70 or better in all 4 patients. Endophthalmitis caused by Klebsiella species is associated with poor visual outcomes. Endogenous cases had high rates of enucleation or evisceration.

  17. Unusual causes of Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliadi, Dimitra; Tsagarakis, Stylianos

    2007-11-01

    Although in the majority of the patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS), hypercortisolism is due to ACTH hypersecretion by a pituitary tumour or to ectopic ACTH secretion from an extrapituitary neoplastic lesion or to autonomous cortisol secretion by an adrenal tumour, in occasional patients a much rarer entity may be the cause of the syndrome. Herein, we attempted to summarise and categorise these unusual causes according to their presumed aetiology. To this end, we performed a comprehensive computer-based search for unusual or rare causes of CS. The following unusual forms of CS were identified: (i) ACTH hyperesecretion due to ectopic corticotroph adenomas in the parasellar region or the neurohypophysis, or as part of double adenomas, or gangliocytomas; (ii) ACTH hypersecretion due to ectopic CRH or CRH-like peptide secretion by various neoplasms; (iii) ACTH-independent cortisol hypersecretion from ectopic or bilateral adrenal adenomas; (iv) glucocorticoid hypersensitivity; (v) iatrogenic, due to megestrol administration or to ritonavir and fluticasone co-administration. Such unusual presentations of CS illustrate why Cushing's syndrome represents one of the most puzzling endocrine syndromes.

  18. Occupational causes of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Jens P E

    2013-06-01

    To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function. Semen quality following occupational exposure to boron (an acknowledged experimental reproductive toxicant) and benzene, and new evidence on low-level environmental exposure to widespread xenobiotics with endocrine actions. The naturally occurring semimetal boron is an experimental reproductive toxicant, but now a Turkish semen study corroborates earlier evidence that high-level occupational exposure is not toxic to human spermatogenesis. It seems that human exposure levels are below the levels that cause reproductive toxicity in rodents. On the contrary, there is now ample evidence that the carcinogenic substance benzene may cause chromosomal aberrations in sperm at very low exposure levels. This includes chromosomal deletions that are known to cause infertility, mental retardation and congenital malformations. This research highlights the need to scrutinize the chemicals for possible male-mediated developmental toxicity. Several occupational studies are addressing adult testicular function in men exposed to chemicals that may interfere with endocrine signalling such as bisphenol A and phthalates, but findings are rather inconsistent and it remains to be established whether these widespread chemicals have any impact on male fertility.

  19. Unusual Cause of Knee Locking

    OpenAIRE

    Huri, Gazi; Bi?er, Omer Sunkar

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of partial intrasubstance tear of popliteus tendon as an unusual cause of pseudolocking of the knee. A 13-year-old semiprofessional soccer player applied to our clinic with a locked right knee in spite of the therapy applied (cold pack, NSAID, and immobilization) in another institution 20 days after the injury. Significant extension loss was observed in his right knee with 30∘–90∘ ROM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopy confirmed the intrasubstance tear of popli...

  20. Trapezoid fracture caused by assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malshikare V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report we describe an open fracture of trapezoid and break in anterior cortex of capitate due to assault in a young adult male. Direct impact force of a sharp object to the first web space caused the above fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation of the trapezoid was carried out using Kirschner wires. Cut extensor tendons, extensor retaniculum, capsule, adductor pollicis muscle, first dorsal interosseous muscle, soft tissue and overlying skin were sutured primarily. Three months after the operation the patient has made a complete recovery. There is no similar case reported in the literature.

  1. What causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sarah; Al Khleifat, Ahmad; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease predominantly affecting upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure within 2 to 3 years. The peak age of onset is 55 to 70 years, with a male predominance. The causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are only partly known, but they include some environmental risk factors as well as several genes that have been identified as harbouring disease-associated variation. Here we review the nature, epidemiology, genetic associations, and environmental exposures associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:28408982

  2. [Meningoencephalitis caused by Pseudomonas cepacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Monrás, Miriam Fina; Batlle Almodóvar, María del Carmen; González, Cernero; Tamargo Martínez, Isis; Meneses, Félix Dickinson

    2006-01-01

    A case of meningoencephalitis of bacterial etiology caused by Pseudomonas cepacia was described. The strain was received at the Reference Laboratory of Bacterial Acute Respiratory Infections of "Pedro Kouri" Institute of Tropical Medicine, where its microbiological identification was confirmed. This isolation was a finding in an adult immunocompetent patient. The evolution was favourable with no sequelae for his future life. Pseudomona cepacia has been associated with respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. Patients with Pseudomonas cepacia may be asymptomatic or present fatal acute and fulminant infection.

  3. Protein causes a glycemic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, William J; Ghanchi, Hammad; Ricciardi, Michael

    2010-06-01

    The glycemic index is used to compare the extent to which the blood glucose level increases following the consumption of foods containing digestible carbohydrate and is considered to be zero, or not measurable, if the food, such as protein, is carbohydrate-free. We have found that after overnight fasting, the consumption of several varieties of meat caused significant increases in blood glucose levels. We consider these possibly to be because of gluconeogenesis from the digested protein. It is a curious feature that in two instances the response was inversely related to the amount of meat consumed, over the range from 26 to 78 g of protein.

  4. Oral injury caused by fellatio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsaae, N; Wanscher, B

    1978-01-01

    A 34-year-old Caucasian woman is presented with a circular hemorrhagic lesion located on the soft palate and caused by fellatio. The lesion consisted of erythema, petechiae, dilated blood vessels and vesicles. It healed in a few days. No evidence of the major clinical alternatives such as thrombocytopenia, venereal disease, candida infection or pathomimia were found. Injuries due to fellatio must be considered as an etiological factor to hemorrhagic changes of the oral mucosa, and with a positive history, patients can be spared from other investigations.

  5. Cavitation onset caused by acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhao; Kiyama, Akihito; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Daily, David J; Thomson, Scott L; Hurd, Randy; Truscott, Tadd T

    2017-07-24

    Striking the top of a liquid-filled bottle can shatter the bottom. An intuitive interpretation of this event might label an impulsive force as the culprit in this fracturing phenomenon. However, high-speed photography reveals the formation and collapse of tiny bubbles near the bottom before fracture. This observation indicates that the damaging phenomenon of cavitation is at fault. Cavitation is well known for causing damage in various applications including pipes and ship propellers, making accurate prediction of cavitation onset vital in several industries. However, the conventional cavitation number as a function of velocity incorrectly predicts the cavitation onset caused by acceleration. This unexplained discrepancy leads to the derivation of an alternative dimensionless term from the equation of motion, predicting cavitation as a function of acceleration and fluid depth rather than velocity. Two independent research groups in different countries have tested this theory; separate series of experiments confirm that an alternative cavitation number, presented in this paper, defines the universal criteria for the onset of acceleration-induced cavitation.

  6. Systemic causes of hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richard L; Garibyan, Lilit; Kimball, Alexandra B; Drake, Lynn A

    2016-09-01

    Hair loss is both a common chief complaint by patients and a clinical challenge for physicians, especially general practitioners, yet few dermatological problems yield as much patient satisfaction when resolved as hair loss. The diagnosis is often attributed to androgen-related hair loss, while other causes, some of which are life-threatening but treatable, are overlooked. We searched for relevant literature on hair loss and supported these findings with our clinical experience to identify seven major systemic etiologies of hair loss, ranging from infectious agents to consumption of unsafe supplements. Many causes are only described in the literature through case studies, though some original articles and meta-analyses are available. Careful history taking, proper examination techniques, and judicious use of laboratory tests are essential to reach at the correct diagnosis in a cost-effective manner when performing patient work-up. Such methodical evaluation of hair loss can result in the appropriate treatment plan and provide significant patient satisfaction. Key messages Hair loss is a common chief complaint and a difficult challenge for both general practitioners and dermatology consultants. We identified seven major categories of systemic hair loss etiology and present a framework for their clinical evaluation. A methodical approach to hair loss can result in the appropriate treatment plan and provide significant patient satisfaction.

  7. Cavitation onset caused by acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhao; Kiyama, Akihito; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Daily, David J.; Thomson, Scott L.; Hurd, Randy; Truscott, Tadd T.

    2017-08-01

    Striking the top of a liquid-filled bottle can shatter the bottom. An intuitive interpretation of this event might label an impulsive force as the culprit in this fracturing phenomenon. However, high-speed photography reveals the formation and collapse of tiny bubbles near the bottom before fracture. This observation indicates that the damaging phenomenon of cavitation is at fault. Cavitation is well known for causing damage in various applications including pipes and ship propellers, making accurate prediction of cavitation onset vital in several industries. However, the conventional cavitation number as a function of velocity incorrectly predicts the cavitation onset caused by acceleration. This unexplained discrepancy leads to the derivation of an alternative dimensionless term from the equation of motion, predicting cavitation as a function of acceleration and fluid depth rather than velocity. Two independent research groups in different countries have tested this theory; separate series of experiments confirm that an alternative cavitation number, presented in this paper, defines the universal criteria for the onset of acceleration-induced cavitation.

  8. Do endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Sisir; Cunha, Gerald R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Endocrine disruptors or environmental agents, disrupt the endocrine system, leading to various adverse effects in humans and animals. Although the phenomenon has been noted historically in the cases of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), the term “endocrine disruptor” is relatively new. Endocrine disruptors can have a variety of hormonal activities such as estrogenicity or anti-androgenicity. The focus of this review concerns on the induction of hypospadias by exogenous estrogenic endocrine disruptors. This has been a particular clinical concern secondary to reported increased incidence of hypospadias. Herein, the recent literature is reviewed as to whether endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias. Methods A literature search was performed for studies involving both humans and animals. Studies within the past 5 years were reviewed and categorized into basic science, clinical science, epidemiologic, or review studies. Results Forty-three scientific articles were identified. Relevant sentinel articles were also reviewed. Additional pertinent studies were extracted from the reference of the articles that obtained from initial search results. Each article was reviewed and results presented. Overall, there were no studies which definitely stated that endocrine disruptors caused hypospadias. However, there were multiple studies which implicated endocrine disruptors as one component of a multifactorial model for hypospadias. Conclusions Endocrine disruption may be one of the many critical steps in aberrant development that manifests as hypospadias. PMID:26816789

  9. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyagari A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic on intestinal mucosa and pharmacological effect on gut motility. The antibiotics most frequently associated with C. difficile associated diarrhoea are clindamycin, cephalosporin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Clinical presentation may vary from mild diarrhoea to severe colitis and pseudomembranous colitis associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most sensitive and specific diagnostic test for C. difficile infection is tissue culture assay for cytotoxicity of toxin B. Commercial ELISA kits are available. Though less sensitive, they are easy to perform and are rapid. Withdrawal of precipitating antibiotic is all that is needed for control of mild to moderate cases. For severe cases of AAD, oral metronidazole is the first line of treatment, and oral vancomycin is the second choice. Probiotics have been used for recurrent cases.

  10. Occupational asthma caused by palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daenen, M.; Rochette, F.; Demedts, M.; Nemery, B. [K.U. Leuven, Pneumology (Belgium); Rogiers, P. [A.Z. St-Lucas, Brugge (Belgium); Walle, C. Van de [Siemens, Oostkamp (Belgium)

    1999-01-01

    Occupational exposure to complex platinum salts is a well-known cause of occupational asthma. Although there is evidence that platinum refinery workers may also be sensitized to other precious metals, such as palladium or rhodium, no instances of occupational asthma due to an isolated sensitization to palladium have been reported. A case is reported of occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma in a previously healthy worker exposed to the fumes of an electroplating bath containing palladium. There was no exposure to platinum. Sensitization to palladium was documented by skin-prick tests. The skin-prick test was positive with Pd(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}Cl{sub 2}, but not with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}PdCl{sub 4}. Corresponding salts of platinum were all negative. A bronchial provocation test with Pd(NH{sub 34})Cl{sub 2} (0.0001 % for a total of 315 s, followed by 0.001 % for a total of 210 s) led to an early decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (-35%). A similar exposure (0.001 % for a total of 16 min) in an unrelated asthmatic gave no reaction. This case shows that an isolated sensitization to palladium can occur and that respiratory exposure to palladium is a novel cause of metal-induced occupational asthma. (au) 24 refs.

  11. Environmental causes of cancer death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, E.R.; Meier, F.A.

    1982-12-01

    People increasingly look to the forensic autopsy as a way of determining whether a particular cancer death was environmentally caused. The forensic pathologist must be diligent pursuing evidence that links potential environmental causes to cancer but must also educate the public providing reassurance that most cancers are not due to industrial pollution. Cigarette smoking and various life-style factors appear to account for more cancers than do man-made environmental contaminants. Assessing the possibility that a cancer death is due to a specific environmental agent requires extensive information. First, one must obtain an accurate history of lifetime occupational and environmental exposures. Second, one must analyze this information in view of epidemiologic data on the cancer risks associated with each exposure. Finally, one should seek to document through the autopsy that exposure to a potentially harmful agent actually occurred. The carefully done forensic autopsy can alert the public to dangerous conditions and can provide individuals a basis for recovery in court for damages due to harmful exposures.

  12. Hippocampal Sclerosis: Causes and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Matthew Charles

    2015-06-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis is the commonest cause of drug-resistant epilepsy in adults, and is associated with alterations to structures and networks beyond the hippocampus.In addition to being a cause of epilepsy, the hippocampus is vulnerable to damage from seizure activity. In particular, prolonged seizures (status epilepticus) can result in hippocampal sclerosis. The hippocampus is also vulnerable to other insults including traumatic brain injury, and inflammation. Hippocampal sclerosis can occur in association with other brain lesions; the prevailing view is that it is probably a secondary consequence. In such instances, successful surgical treatment usually involves the resection of both the lesion and the involved hippocampus. Experimental data have pointed to numerous neuroprotective strategies to prevent hippocampal sclerosis. Initial neuroprotective strategies aimed at glutamate receptors may be effective, but later, metabolic pathways, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species, and inflammation are involved, perhaps necessitating the use of interventions aimed at multiple targets. Some of the therapies that we use to treat status epilepticus may neuroprotect. However, prevention of neuronal death does not necessarily prevent the later development of epilepsy or cognitive deficits. Perhaps, the most important intervention is the early, aggressive treatment of seizure activity, and the prevention of prolonged seizures. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Thujone--cause of absinthism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Emmert, J; Kuballa, T; Sartor, G

    2006-04-20

    Habitual abuse of the wormwood spirit absinthe was described in the 19th and 20th centuries as a cause for the mental disorder "absinthism" including the symptoms hallucinations, sleeplessness and convulsions. A controversial discussion is going on if thujone, a characteristic component of the essential oil of the wormwood plant Artemisia absinthium L., is responsible for absinthism, or if it was merely caused by chronic alcohol intoxication or by other reasons such as food adulterations. To ascertain if thujone may have caused absinthism, absinthes were produced according to historic recipes of the 19th century. Commercial wormwood herbs of two different manufacturers, as well as self-cultivated ones, were used in a concentration of 6 kg/100 l spirit. In addition, an authentic vintage Pernod absinthe from Tarragona (1930), and two absinthes from traditional small distilleries of the Swiss Val-de-Travers were evaluated. A GC-MS procedure was applied for the analysis of alpha- and beta-thujone with cyclodecanone as internal standard. The method was shown to be sensitive with a LOD of 0.08 mg/l. The precision was between 1.6 and 2.3%, linearity was obtained from 0.1 to 40 mg/l (r = 1.000). After the recent annulment of the absinthe prohibition all analysed products showed a thujone concentration below the maximum limit of 35 mg/l, including the absinthes produced according to historic recipes, which did not contain any detectable or only relatively low concentrations of thujone (mean: 1.3 +/- 1.6 mg/l, range: 0-4.3 mg/l). Interestingly, the vintage absinthe also showed a relatively low thujone concentration of 1.8 mg/l. The Val-de-Travers absinthes contained 9.4 and 1.7 mg/l of thujone. In conclusion, thujone concentrations as high as 260 mg/l, reported in the 19th century, cannot be confirmed by our study. With regard to their thujone concentrations, the hallucinogenic potential of vintage absinthes can be assessed being rather low because the historic products also

  14. An unusual cause for halitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, Gabriella; Ali, Haythem; Aboul Enein, Mohamed; Poynter, Liam

    2016-04-19

    This report describes an unusual cause for halitosis and an unusual treatment for the underlying problem. Halitosis is a symptom which can result from a diverse range of underlying pathologies, most frequently those affecting the oral cavity or respiratory tract. Uncommonly, it arises due to pathology within the upper gastrointestinal tract. The case of a patient presenting with severe persistent halitosis attributable to mesh erosion occurring 8 years after redo laparoscopic hiatus hernia repair is described. Full external healing of the erosion tract was observed such that no symptomatic oesophageal perforation resulted. Mesh erosion is typically managed with surgical intervention. In this case, the infected mesh was successfully removed endoscopically. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Adolescent Sleepiness: Causes and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Shana L; Capener, Dale; Daly, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Insufficient sleep duration and poor sleep quality are common among adolescents. The multidimensional causes of insufficient sleep duration and poor sleep quality include biological, health-related, environmental, and lifestyle factors. The most common direct consequence of insufficient and/or poor sleep quality is excessive daytime sleepiness, which may contribute to poor academic performance, behavioral health problems, substance use, and drowsy driving. Evaluation of sleepiness includes a detailed sleep history and sleep diary, with polysomnography only required for the assessment of specific sleep disorders. Management involves encouraging healthy sleep practices such as having consistent bed and wake times, limiting caffeine and electronics at night before bed, and eliminating napping, in addition to treating any existing sleep or medical disorders. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(9):e340-e344.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Classical endocrine diseases causing obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jolanta U

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is associated with several endocrine diseases, including common ones such as hypothyroidism and polycystic ovarian syndrome to rare ones such as Cushing's syndrome, central hypothyroidism and hypothalamic disorders. The mechanisms for the development of obesity vary in according to the endocrine condition. Hypothyroidism is associated with accumulation of hyaluronic acid within various tissues, additional fluid retention due to reduced cardiac output and reduced thermogenesis. The pathophysiology of obesity associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome remains complex as obesity itself may simultaneously be the cause and the effect of the syndrome. Net excess of androgen appears to be pivotal in the development of central obesity. In Cushing's syndrome, an interaction with thyroid and growth hormones plays an important role in addition to an increased adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. This review also describes remaining rare cases: hypothalamic obesity due to central hypothyroidism and combined hormone deficiencies.

  17. Lactobacillus gasseri Causing Bilateral Empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Esquibel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli are common commensal bacteria found in the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract. Although they are usually thought to be nonpathogenic, there have been several cases that demonstrate severe infections caused by these microorganisms. This is a case of a 49-year-old male with previously undiagnosed type two diabetes mellitus who presented with a 3-month history of cough and was found to have right sided Lactobacillus gasseri empyema for which he underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS with chest tube placement. He subsequently developed a left sided pleural empyema for which the aspiration also grew out L. gasseri. The patient made a complete recovery and was seen for four months in follow-up after his initial presentation.

  18. Codfish may cause acute abdomen☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Almeida, Carlos E.; Rainho, Rui; Gouveia, António

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Foreign bodies ingestion is frequent and can cause several complications. Perforation is rare but can occur in any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Fish bones are one of the most frequent objects responsible. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 77-year-old patient resorted to emergency room for severe abdominal pain with 5 days of evolution. A CT scan showed an undefined liquid collection involving a linear image with 25 mm, suggestive of a foreign body. On laparotomy an abscess was resected with a fish bone inside. DISCUSSION Bowel perforation by foreign bodies can mimic other abdominal emergency conditions. Since fish bone ingestion is usually not remembered, diagnosis can be late. Surgery is the treatment of choice and is most commonly performed by laparotomy. CONCLUSION A low threshold of suspicion along with a good clinical history and radiological studies is extremely important in order to make a correct diagnosis. PMID:24055920

  19. Osteomyelitis caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Shinha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an aerobic, nonfermenting gram-negative rod and described as a waterborne bacterium since it habits aquatic environments ubiquitously. It has frequently been isolated from aquatic surroundings in the hospital and from various human body sites. Although occasionally considered a non-pathogen, A. xylosoxidans has been associated with outbreaks of nosocomial infection due to contaminated fluids. Moreover, a wide variety of infectious etiologies due to A. xylosoxidans has been reported primarily in immunocompromised individuals. Heightened awareness of this bacterium and associated clinical importance is warranted for clinicians since its broad disease spectrum in humans and frequent multi-drug resistance may result in an increased mortality rate. In this report, we describe a case of osteomyelitis caused by A. xylosoxidans in a patient with a history of diabetes mellitus.

  20. Renal abscess caused by Brucella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of the renal parenchyma in the acute phase of brucellosis is very rare. Only two cases of renal brucelloma have been reported in the English language literature to date. We report a case of renal abscess caused by Brucella in the acute phase. A 45-year-old Chinese man presented with a high fever, urine occult blood, and a low density lesion in the right kidney. Ultrasound-guided aspiration was done. Brucella melitensis was isolated from both blood and puncture fluid culture. Minocycline combined with moxifloxacin was prescribed for 4 months. The infection relapsed at 6 months after discontinuation. Minocycline combined with rifampin was administered for another 2 months. The brucellosis had not relapsed at more than 20 months later. It is possible to cure renal brucelloma with antibiotics and ultrasound-guided aspiration. Treatment should not be discontinued until the abscess has disappeared and two consecutive blood cultures taken 1 month apart are negative.

  1. Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh

    2013-01-01

    Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...... is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the “aid-corruption...... paradox,” namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid...

  2. Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma causing intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassel Salman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy toddler with bilious vomiting and erythematous gluteal rash over 2 weeks had intermittent pain, constipation and decreased appetite. All labs were negative with the exception of fecal occult blood. Abdominal x-ray and ultrasound revealed dilated air-filled loops of bowel and partial small bowel obstruction. After persistent worsening abdominal pain and vomiting a CT scan with IV contrast (Fig. 1 suggested small bowel obstruction. Emergent surgery was performed and diagnostic laparoscopy revealed about 61 cm of necrotic bowel causing stricture formation and mesenteric shortening in the distal small bowel. 56 cm of inflamed bowel was resected with end-to-end anastomosis. Final pathology report indicated diffuse intestinal angiomatosis with transmural involvement and focal erosion consistent with KHE (Fig. 2. Presentation is varied, consists of cutaneous lesion, retroperitoneal mass, intestinal obstruction, jaundice, intussusception, or multifocal neoplasms. Complete surgical resection with wide margins is the best therapeutic option and has achieved the best outcomes. If not treated in sufficient time, KHE has a relatively high mortality rate of 30%, with most deaths occurring due to its locally invasive effects [5]. There are limited reports of identifying features of KHE on imaging. Of 165 cases of KHE none were presented in the small bowel [5]. We report the unique case of KHE presenting as a hypervascular mass causing obstruction in the distal small bowel. Although extremely rare, KHE should be considered as a reason for severe GI stricture or obstruction in infants and children in obscure cases and included in the differential.

  3. Levantine cranium from Manot Cave (Israel) foreshadows the first European modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Israel; Marder, Ofer; Ayalon, Avner; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Yasur, Gal; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Caracuta, Valentina; Alex, Bridget; Frumkin, Amos; Goder-Goldberger, Mae; Gunz, Philipp; Holloway, Ralph L; Latimer, Bruce; Lavi, Ron; Matthews, Alan; Slon, Viviane; Mayer, Daniella Bar-Yosef; Berna, Francesco; Bar-Oz, Guy; Yeshurun, Reuven; May, Hila; Hans, Mark G; Weber, Gerhard W; Barzilai, Omry

    2015-04-09

    A key event in human evolution is the expansion of modern humans of African origin across Eurasia between 60 and 40 thousand years (kyr) before present (bp), replacing all other forms of hominins. Owing to the scarcity of human fossils from this period, these ancestors of all present-day non-African modern populations remain largely enigmatic. Here we describe a partial calvaria, recently discovered at Manot Cave (Western Galilee, Israel) and dated to 54.7 ± 5.5 kyr bp (arithmetic mean ± 2 standard deviations) by uranium-thorium dating, that sheds light on this crucial event. The overall shape and discrete morphological features of the Manot 1 calvaria demonstrate that this partial skull is unequivocally modern. It is similar in shape to recent African skulls as well as to European skulls from the Upper Palaeolithic period, but different from most other early anatomically modern humans in the Levant. This suggests that the Manot people could be closely related to the first modern humans who later successfully colonized Europe. Thus, the anatomical features used to support the 'assimilation model' in Europe might not have been inherited from European Neanderthals, but rather from earlier Levantine populations. Moreover, at present, Manot 1 is the only modern human specimen to provide evidence that during the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic interface, both modern humans and Neanderthals contemporaneously inhabited the southern Levant, close in time to the likely interbreeding event with Neanderthals.

  4. [Pubertal growth spurt in the thickness of the bones of the human cranium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaichenko, A A

    1985-05-01

    Frontal saw-cuts of 60 human cranial fornices (age 1-21 years) served as the material for the investigation. By means of the microscope MBC-2 thickness of the bones was measured. The age changes of the bone thickness in the cranial fornix are approximated by the function of asymptotic growth TK' = 5.3-3.5 X 10(-0.14(X-1) (mm), where X = 1.2,..., 8 and logistic function TK' = 1/(1 + 10(11.4 - 0.74X) +4.93 (mm), where X = 8.9,..., 21 (years). Thus the bone thickness of the cranial fornix undergoes the pubertal spurt of growth, when the maximal rate in increasing thickness is noted between 15 and 16 years of age. This phenomenon should determine certain increase in dimentions of the skull during the pubertal period.

  5. Neanderthal-Derived Genetic Variation Shapes Modern Human Cranium and Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Michael D; Kippenhan, J Shane; Eisenberg, Daniel P; Kohn, Philip D; Dickinson, Dwight; Mattay, Venkata S; Chen, Qiang; Weinberger, Daniel R; Saad, Ziad S; Berman, Karen F

    2017-07-24

    Before their disappearance from the fossil record approximately 40,000 years ago, Neanderthals, the ancient hominin lineage most closely related to modern humans, interbred with ancestors of present-day humans. The legacy of this gene flow persists through Neanderthal-derived variants that survive in modern human DNA; however, the neural implications of this inheritance are uncertain. Here, using MRI in a large cohort of healthy individuals of European-descent, we show that the amount of Neanderthal-originating polymorphism carried in living humans is related to cranial and brain morphology. First, as a validation of our approach, we demonstrate that a greater load of Neanderthal-derived genetic variants (higher "NeanderScore") is associated with skull shapes resembling those of known Neanderthal cranial remains, particularly in occipital and parietal bones. Next, we demonstrate convergent NeanderScore-related findings in the brain (measured by gray- and white-matter volume, sulcal depth, and gyrification index) that localize to the visual cortex and intraparietal sulcus. This work provides insights into ancestral human neurobiology and suggests that Neanderthal-derived genetic variation is neurologically functional in the contemporary population.

  6. The morphology of the cranium and the cervical coumn in patients with hypophosphatemic rickets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Hans

    2014-01-01

    oprindelse II. at karakterisere pandehulens og næsebenets morfologi og størrelse hos voksne HR patienter sammenlignet med voksne KTR og i analysen at have et særligt fokus på resorptions- og appositions-processer i knoglen III. at karakterisere halshvirvelsøjlens morfologi på voksne HR patienter sammenlignet......-lokalisationer, 2) alvorlighedsgraden af den generelle skeletale påvirkning ved HR og 3) medicinsk behandling i barndommen. Desuden blev sella turcicas (ST) morfologi og størrelse studeret hos de voksne HR patienter i en sammenligning med voksne KTR. I undersøgelsen er inkluderet 53 HR patienter (gennemsnitsalder......-strukturer. I artikel I (n = 132) gennemførtes cephalometriske opmålinger på kraniebasis, den posteriore kraniefossa, neurokraniet, kranieskallen (theca), maxillen, mandiblen og næsebenet. Kraniebasis var affladet (p = 0,001) og dybden af den posteriore kraniefossa var reduceret (phos HR patienter i...

  7. [Gunshot wounds of the cranium studied with computerized tomography. Personal experience in 23 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzano, A; De Rosa, A; Scialpi, M; Rossi, E; Carbone, M; Brunese, L; Nocera, V; Muto, M

    2000-01-01

    Gunshot wounds to the head are usually mortal injuries. Their frequency has been increasing in the last years because of increasing crime rates. Gunshot wounds to the head require close clinical and diagnostic cooperation of the neurosurgeon and radiologist, detailed assessment of skull and brain damage, and finally prompt treatment. Emergency Computed Tomography (CT) makes a useful tool for depicting bullet course and brain damage, and thus helps plan treatment. We investigated the CT signs of subdural hematoma, lacerocontusive focus, subarachnoid hemorrhage, hemoencephalus, skull bone fracture and thecal hollow and report them as an aid to the neurosurgeon and the radiologist, for best treatment planning, and in an attempt to establish useful prognostic criteria. We retrospectively reviewed 23 cases of gunshot injuries to the head studied with CT at the Emergency Unit of Loreto Mare Hospital in Naples, Italy. Twenty patients were men and 3 women; their mean age was 31 years (range: 18-49). Three women and 2 men had been injured accidentally by wandering bullets, and one case was an attempted suicide; all the other cases resulted from shootings. CT slices were 10 mm thick, with 8 mm gap (5 mm in complex injuries and when posterior cranial fossa was involved); all scans were unenhanced. We found 22 penetrating gunshot wounds: 13 of them with thecal entry hole and intracranial bullet retention and 9 with an entry and an exit hole. One case was a superficial wound. Crash skull fractures were seen in 22 cases and they were fragmented in 12, with overlapping thecal fragments in 4, and with deep fragments in 2 cases. There were scattered bone splinters in 3 cases and the bullet was retained in the mastoid bone in one case. Lacerocontusive foci were assessed in 22 cases, brain swelling in 20, subarachnoid hemorrhage in 19, brain hematoma in 15, blood in the ventricular system in 9, pneumoencephalus in 7, air bubbles along the bullet course in 7, impression on ventricula and linear structures in 7, interhemispheric blood in 5, and finally blood effusion in Sylvian scissure in 4 cases. Gunshot wounds to the head are complex and severe traumas with high mortality rates because of both early and late effects and complications. CT provides the neurosurgeon with abundant findings for diagnosis and surgical planning, which may result in improved survival rates. In these patients emergency CT plays a fundamental diagnostic role in depicting brain damage and thus remains the method of choice for thorough, rapid and accurate brain and skull studies, as well as to detect possible injury to the chest and abdomen.

  8. Modeling Multiple Causes of Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T D

    1999-01-24

    multiple causes of carcinogenesis and shifts the risk-assessment logic to considerations of "what dose does?" in contrast to the current process of the substance-specific question of "what dose is?" Whether reactive oxygen is the proximate or contributing cause of disease or simply a better estimate of biologically effective dose, it has enormous advantages for improved risk- and policy-based decisions. Various estimates of immune system modulation will be given based on radiobiology.

  9. Evolution caused by extreme events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Peter R; Grant, B Rosemary; Huey, Raymond B; Johnson, Marc T J; Knoll, Andrew H; Schmitt, Johanna

    2017-06-19

    Extreme events can be a major driver of evolutionary change over geological and contemporary timescales. Outstanding examples are evolutionary diversification following mass extinctions caused by extreme volcanism or asteroid impact. The evolution of organisms in contemporary time is typically viewed as a gradual and incremental process that results from genetic change, environmental perturbation or both. However, contemporary environments occasionally experience strong perturbations such as heat waves, floods, hurricanes, droughts and pest outbreaks. These extreme events set up strong selection pressures on organisms, and are small-scale analogues of the dramatic changes documented in the fossil record. Because extreme events are rare, almost by definition, they are difficult to study. So far most attention has been given to their ecological rather than to their evolutionary consequences. We review several case studies of contemporary evolution in response to two types of extreme environmental perturbations, episodic (pulse) or prolonged (press). Evolution is most likely to occur when extreme events alter community composition. We encourage investigators to be prepared for evolutionary change in response to rare events during long-term field studies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. INTERCULTURAL MISUNDERSTANDINGS: CAUSES AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Майкл Б Хиннер

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural misunderstandings involve a number of complex causes which can easily escalate into conflicts. Since conflicts are also complex, it is not easy to find solutions because there is no one solution for all problems. Systems Theory, transdisciplinarity, and the social ecological model take a holistic approach in investigating complex phenomena. They permit the creation of a theoretical framework based on previous empirical research and theories across scientific disciplines to identify the relevant elements of complex phenomena and to understand the interrelationship of these elements. Intercultural misunderstandings and conflicts are very complex phenomena because they include culture, perception, identity, ethnocentrism, relationships, trust building and conflict management as well as intercultural commu-nication competence which entails cognition, metacognition, and social metacognition. Since most em-pirical studies focus on isolated, individual elements in specific contexts, this article describes the theoretical framework of how the various findings and theories developed in different scientific disciplines can be used to form a cohesive framework to help circumvent intercultural misunderstandings and conflicts. In so doing, it follows the general principles of Systems Theory, transdisciplinarity, and the social ecological model.

  11. [Rare cause of recurrent subileus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Florian; Rossol, Siegbert

    2015-04-01

    An 85-years-old woman with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) presented at our emergency unit with repeating abdominal pain and changes in the consistency of the stool. The PEG was placed during a treatment of an oropharynxcarcinoma in the past, was replaced repeatedly and is still in use. The initial clinical results were unobtrusive; the ultrasound of the abdomen showed mild distended loops of the small intestine, the x-ray of the abdomen was unsuspicious with diagnosis of subileus by constipation. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy was also without pathological findings and showed correct position of the PEG and normal aspect of the gastric tissue. An additional computerized tomography (ct-scan) of the abdomen demonstrated a foreign body nearly 2.5 cm in diameter in the distal part of the small intestine, the terminal ileum, differentiated as PEG retaining plate, also seen retrospectively in the initial x-ray. Because the endoscopic salvage failed, the foreign body had to be removed surgically. The retaining plate was the cause for subtotal occlusion and also for the perforation of the small intestine. It was found nearly 15 cm before ileo-terminal valve. After operation the patient recovered soon. The history gave no hints of accidentally broken PEG-tube; presumably the retaining plate was cut off while the PEG was changed and let go on natural way. The aim of gastroenterologists should be removing PEG under endoscopic control. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushnapriya Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children′s physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.

  13. Onychomycosis caused by Trichosporon mucoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzitelli, Gaetano; Guanziroli, Elena; Moschin, Annalisa; Sangalli, Roberta; Veraldi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A case of onychomycosis caused by Trichosporon mucoides in a man with diabetes is presented. The infection was characterized by a brown-black pigmentation of the nail plates and subungual hyperkeratosis of the first three toes of both feet. Onychogryphosis was also visible on the third left toe. Direct microscopic examinations revealed wide and septate hyphae and spores. Three cultures on Sabouraud-gentamicin-chloramphenicol 2 agar and chromID Candida agar produced white, creamy, and smooth colonies that were judged to be morphologically typical of T. mucoides. Microscopic examinations of the colonies showed arthroconidia and blastoconidia. The urease test was positive. A sugar assimilation test on yeast nitrogen base agar showed assimilation of galactitol, sorbitol, and arabinitol. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) confirmed the diagnosis of T. mucoides infection. The patient was treated with topical urea and oral itraconazole. Three months later, a mild improvement was observed. The patient was subsequently lost to follow-up. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental Degradation: Causes and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Tyagi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of environmental economics is at the forefront of the green debate: the environment can no longer be viewed as an entity separate from the economy. Environmental degradation is of many types and have many consequences. To address this challenge a number of studies have been conducted in both developing and developed countries applying different methods to capture health benefits from improved environmental quality. Minimizing exposure to environmental risk factors by enhancing air quality and access to improved sources of drinking and bathing water, sanitation and clean energy is found to be associated with significant health benefits and can contribute significantly to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals of environmental sustainability, health and development. In this paper, I describe the national and global causes and consequences of environmental degradation and social injustice. This paper provides a review of the literature on studies associated with reduced environmental risk and in particular focusing on reduced air pollution, enhanced water quality and climate change mitigation.

  15. Onychomycosis caused by Trichosporon mucoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Rizzitelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of onychomycosis caused by Trichosporon mucoides in a man with diabetes is presented. The infection was characterized by a brown–black pigmentation of the nail plates and subungual hyperkeratosis of the first three toes of both feet. Onychogryphosis was also visible on the third left toe. Direct microscopic examinations revealed wide and septate hyphae and spores. Three cultures on Sabouraud–gentamicin–chloramphenicol 2 agar and chromID Candida agar produced white, creamy, and smooth colonies that were judged to be morphologically typical of T. mucoides. Microscopic examinations of the colonies showed arthroconidia and blastoconidia. The urease test was positive. A sugar assimilation test on yeast nitrogen base agar showed assimilation of galactitol, sorbitol, and arabinitol. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF confirmed the diagnosis of T. mucoides infection. The patient was treated with topical urea and oral itraconazole. Three months later, a mild improvement was observed. The patient was subsequently lost to follow-up.

  16. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.

  17. Offshore Blowouts, Causes and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holand, P.

    1996-02-01

    The main objective of this doctoral thesis was to establish an improved design basis for offshore installations with respect to blowout risk analyses. The following sub objectives are defined: (1) Establish an offshore blowout database suitable for risk analyses, (2) Compare the blowout risk related to loss of lives with the total offshore risk and risk in other industries, (3) Analyse blowouts with respect to parameters that are important to describe and quantify blowout risk that has been experienced to be able to answer several questions such as under what operations have blowouts occurred, direct causes, frequency of occurrence etc., (4) Analyse blowouts with respect to trends. The research strategy applied includes elements from both survey strategy and case study strategy. The data are systematized in the form of a new database developed from the MARINTEK database. Most blowouts in the analysed period occurred during drilling operations. Shallow gas blowouts were more frequent than deep blowouts and workover blowouts occurred more often than deep development drilling blowouts. Relatively few blowouts occurred during completion, wireline and normal production activities. No significant trend in blowout occurrences as a function of time could be observed, except for completion blowouts that showed a significantly decreasing trend. But there were trends regarding some important parameters for risk analyses, e.g. the ignition probability has decreased and diverter systems have improved. Only 3.5% of the fatalities occurred because of blowouts. 106 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  18. Dyscalculia: Characteristics, Causes, and Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin R. Price

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental Dyscalculia (DD is a learning disorder affecting the ability to acquire school-level arithmetic skills, affecting approximately 3-6% of individuals. Progress in understanding the root causes of DD and how best to treat it have been impeded by lack of widespread research and variation in characterizations of the disorder across studies. However, recent years have witnessed significant growth in the field, and a growing body of behavioral and neuroimaging evidence now points to an underlying deficit in the representation and processing of numerical magnitude information as a potential core deficit in DD. An additional product of the recent progress in understanding DD is the resurgence of a distinction between ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’ developmental dyscalculia. The first appears related to impaired development of brain mechanisms for processing numerical magnitude information, while the latter refers to mathematical deficits stemming from external factors such as poor teaching, low socio-economic status, and behavioral attention problems or domain-general cognitive deficits. Increased awareness of this distinction going forward, in combination with longitudinal empirical research, offers great potential for deepening our understanding of the disorder and developing effective educational interventions.

  19. Common Cause Abduction : Its Scope and Limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dziurosz-Serafinowicz, Patryk

    2012-01-01

    Patryk Dziurosz-Serafmowicz, Common Cause Abduction: Its Scope and Limits This article aims to analyze the scope and limits of common cause abduction which is a version of explanatory abduction based on Hans Reichenbach's Principle of the Common Cause. First, it is argued that common cause abduction

  20. Hypocalcaemia: Causes, diagnostics and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypocalcaemia is a state with total calcium serum level below 2.25 mM/l. From the total serum calcium content, 50% is free and ionized, 40% is protein-bound and 10% is bound for organic anions. The most frequent causes of hypocalcaemia are iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism, magnesium deficit, disorders of vitamin D metabolism and chronic renal failure. Iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism is associated with low serum ionized calcium and low serum parathormone levels. There are two important clinical signs of hypocalcemia: Chvostek's sign (twitches of upper lip after percussion on facial nerve over mandible and Trousseau's sign (carpal spasm after increasing pressure in blood pressure cuff placed about the upper arm for 20 milimeters above systolic pressure for 3-5 minutes. The following lab analyses should be performed when hypocalcaemia is an option: serum levels of creatinine, calcium, magnesium, 25 - hydroxyvitamin, parathormone, potassium, sodium, chloride and bicarbonates. If hypocalcaemia is mild, it could be treated with oral calcium preparations, usually calcium carbonate, in a dose of 1 to 2 grams of elemental calcium daily. In more severe hypocalcaemia intravenous calcium-gluconate or calcium-chloride should be administered, as 10% solutions. These parenteral preparations of calcium should be diluted prior to the intravenous administration, and the administration should be longer than 20 minutes in order to avoid adverse effects on heart. If administration of calcium does not correct hypocalcaemia, oral vitamin D should be also prescribed. If this does not regulate calcaemia, from 0.25 to 1 micrograms of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (clacitriol daily should be prescribed. Calcium serum levels should be kept within the lower part of normal serum concentration range.

  1. Sucrose ingestion causes opioid analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segato F.N.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The intake of saccharin solutions for relatively long periods of time causes analgesia in rats, as measured in the hot-plate test, an experimental procedure involving supraspinal components. In order to investigate the effects of sweet substance intake on pain modulation using a different model, male albino Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g received either tap water or sucrose solutions (250 g/l for 1 day or 14 days as their only source of liquid. Each rat consumed an average of 15.6 g sucrose/day. Their tail withdrawal latencies in the tail-flick test (probably a spinal reflex were measured immediately before and after this treatment. An analgesia index was calculated from the withdrawal latencies before and after treatment. The indexes (mean ± SEM, N = 12 for the groups receiving tap water for 1 day or 14 days, and sucrose solution for 1 day or 14 days were 0.09 ± 0.04, 0.10 ± 0.05, 0.15 ± 0.08 and 0.49 ± 0.07, respectively. One-way ANOVA indicated a significant difference (F(3,47 = 9.521, P<0.001 and the Tukey multiple comparison test (P<0.05 showed that the analgesia index of the 14-day sucrose-treated animals differed from all other groups. Naloxone-treated rats (N = 7 receiving sucrose exhibited an analgesia index of 0.20 ± 0.10 while rats receiving only sucrose (N = 7 had an index of 0.68 ± 0.11 (t = 0.254, 10 degrees of freedom, P<0.03. This result indicates that the analgesic effect of sucrose depends on the time during which the solution is consumed and extends the analgesic effects of sweet substance intake, such as saccharin, to a model other than the hot-plate test, with similar results. Endogenous opioids may be involved in the central regulation of the sweet substance-produced analgesia.

  2. Causes of early neonatal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Y S; Dattal, M S; Khadilker, V V; Kshirsager, V Y; Walimbe, A V; Shetti, S B

    1992-06-01

    The early neonatal period extends up to the 7th day of the infant's life. 75% of infant deaths occur within the first 28 days of life, and most of them occur within the first 7 days. In a retrospective study undertaken from June 1, 1987, to May 31, 1990, data was obtained from the Neonatal Care Section of Krishna Hospital, Karad, District Satara, in south western Maharashtra. Most of the villagers wee of low socioeconomic status, and the women had poor educational level. Most of the deliveries in this area are conducted by untrained dais under unhygienic conditions. The early neonatal mortality rate (ENMR) was defined as neonatal death of babies weighing over 1000 g during the first 7 days per 1000 live births. A total of 1013 live births with weight more than 1000 g were included in the study: 533 wee males and 480 females. The incidence of low-birth-weight (=or- 2.5 kg) babies was 77.1%, and that of prematurity (gestational age 37 weeks) was 58.9%. There were 37 neonatal deaths, with an ENMR of 36.6. The chief causes of ENMR were perinatal asphyxia (40.5%), prematurity (29.7%), bacterial infections (27.0%), and congenital malformations (2.8%). The mortality was higher in low-birth-weight as compared to the normal-birth-weight babies. A total of 59% of all births were preterms who contributed to 29.7% of deaths. The high incidence of low-birth-weight babies was attributable to the fact that this hospital received 79.4% of total admissions for delivery of complicated pregnancy referrals from the peripheries. The difference between mortality of babies with birth weight of less than and more than 2.5 kg was statistically significant (p0.05). Regular antenatal checkups, health education of pregnant and lactating mothers, professional child delivery, and timely referral of pregnancy complications to well-equipped hospitals may cut down on early neonatal mortality.

  3. Minimally invasive interventional therapy for Tarlov cysts causing symptoms of interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidenstein, James; Aldrete, J Antonio; Ness, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Tarlov cysts (TC) are present in 4.6% of the population and represent a potential source of chronic pain. When present at lumbosacral levels, symptoms are classically described as perineal pain/pressure, radiculopathy, and headache. Treatment outlined to date primarily includes cyst drainage with fibrin glue sealant and surgical interventions. We present 2 cases in which TC presented with signs and symptomatology consistent with interstitial cystitis who were treated with caudal epidural steroid injections. Patients with urinary bladder pain and urgency received urological workups demonstrating hallmark features of interstitial cystitis including cystoscopic evidence of glomerulations. Radiographic imaging identified TC to be present on sacral nerve roots. Since pelvic pains could represent compressive radiculopathy of sacral roots, a cautious trial of minimally invasive caudal epidural steroid injections was performed. Both patients attained nearly 100% relief of pain for a period ranging from 6 months to 2 years following low volume, targeted caudal epidural steroid injection. They continue to be followed clinically and continue to report benefit with this treatment. This limited case series is retrospective in nature and potential complications have been noted by others in association with TC. Use of caudal epidural steroid injections proved beneficial in the treatment of pelvic pain symptomatology and so may be considered as an option in patients with identified sacral TC.

  4. [Furunculoid myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirande, L M; Landolfi, J M; Pedemonte, L H; Pepe, C M

    1976-01-01

    The authors report a case of forunculoid miasis by "Dermatobia hominis" ("Ura" fly). a process that being not very common in the Argentine Republic is sometimes misjudged as a furunculosis. The patient reported, a white woman, 51, travelled to a zone where this parasitose is endemid. After some time of her stay there, she noted three small nodes in her vulvar region. They grew on until reaching nearly the size of a walnut. At her first consultation with a gynecologist it was taken as a case of furuncolosis and treated with antibiotics. As the treatment didn't prove succesful, she asked for dermatological advice. It was then possible to verify the presence of three nodes. In the central hole of one of them, there could be seen a whitish body that soon disappeared inwards. This lead to the diagnosis of forunculoid miasis. An accurate and easy-to-perform treatment was carried out: a 1% solution of formaldehyde in distilled water was infused through the central hole of each node. This determined the larva's caudal extremity to appear in search of air. It was taken advantage of this situation to remove the larvae with a pair of nippers. "Dermatobia hominis" is widely spread in the warm-climated Argentine northern provinces of Chaco, Formosa and Misiones, as well as in Brazil, Paraguay and some regions of Uruguay. It is also known under the name of "Ura". It is a large fly, yellow faced, with dark-blue thorax; an almost rombic metallic-blue abdomen, orange antennae and legs, and dark-brown wings. It lives on the nutrients spared during its larval stage and both fecundation and oviposition, take place along its week-long life. The fecundated female catches different haematophagus insects on the wing, sticking sets of eggs to their abdomens. An embryo developes in each egg, being ready to emerge in a week but does this only when the bearer insect settles on a homeothermal being piercing and penetrating the skin of the new guest in about 10 minutes.

  5. HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borrione

    2008-12-01

    effects. Also, some herbs are safe in modest amounts but they may become toxic at higher doses. For example, liquorice root can be used safely for treating duodenal and gastric ulcers, but large amounts of liquorice can cause serious side effects such as hypokalemia, high blood pressure, and heart failure. Finally, other herbs, toxic by themselves: for example, germander, an herb used in some weight-loss programs, can cause fatal hepatitis. Other herbs may be toxic because of possible contaminants: the Chinese herbs caowu and chuanwu used for the management of rheumatism, arthritis, bruises, and fractures may contain highly toxic potentially fatal alkaloids such as aconitine.Therefore, despite the increased tendency to seek natural therapies, athletes have to be aware that "natural" does not equal to "safe." Herbs should not be touted as miraculous side effects-free substances, but rather as compounds that work through simple biochemistry. The effects of most herbal supplements have not been studied using rigorous scientific methodology, and the hyperbolic advertising and advocacy literature surrounding herbal products often contains untested claims, and under-reports side effects.All the preparations mentioned above exhibit hormone-like activity. Evidence in animals of reproductive disturbances associated with ingestion of feed rich in oestrogenic substances includes a lower conception rate in sheep after prolonged isoflavones consumption, infertility in cattle after consuming feed containing coumestrol, decreased fertility in captive cheetahs fed with dietary oestrogens, hyperoestrogenism in pigs fed with diets containing zearalenone, uterotropic effects in mice fed with soybean, reduced fecundity in adult males rats fed a high phytoestrogen diet for 3 days (Glover and Assinder, 2006; Srilatha, 2004 Also, in a population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom, a vegetarian diet during pregnancy was associated with a 5-fold higher risk of hypospadias, and consumption

  6. Macrofauna del curso inferior y estuario del río Biobío (Chile: cambios asociados a variabilidad estacional del caudal hídrico Macrofauna of the lower reach and estuary of Biobío river (Chile: changes associated to seasonal changes of the river flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS BERTRÁN

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los sistemas lóticos chilenos de mayor importancia de acuerdo a su caudal es el río Biobío (ca. 37º S. Su estuario es reducido, especialmente en las épocas de máximo caudal. Con el objetivo de poner a prueba la hipótesis de que en verano la disminución del caudal del río Biobío, determina una mayor depositación del material particulado fino y que el aumento del caudal en invierno resulta en el lavado y transporte del material depositado hacia el mar, y consecuentemente en una disminución de la macrofauna bentónica, se recolectaron muestras para análisis sedimentológicos y faunísticos en el curso inferior y estuario del río Biobío, durante agosto de 1993 y marzo de 1994. Los análisis sedimentológicos indican que el tamaño medio del sedimento correspondió a arenas gruesas. La depositación del material fino suspendido, que ocurre durante el verano se manifiesta en el mayor porcentaje de finos y materia orgánica durante este período. La macrofauna bentónica estuvo compuesta por 16 taxa en el muestreo de invierno y 42 taxa en el de verano. Durante el invierno, la mayoría de ellas estuvo representada por muy pocos individuos. Durante el verano aumentó la riqueza específica y abundancias totales de la macrofauna. Los taxa más abundantes fueron un Archiannelida indeterminado y el poliqueto Perinereis gualpensis. El aumento del caudal en la época invernal, determina el transporte del material depositado hacia el mar y consecuentemente el arrastre de organismos bentónicos. Aún cuando los valores de abundancia y biomasa de macrofauna durante el verano fueron de un orden de magnitud mayor que en la fase invernal, fueron menores que los citados para otros estuarios del centro-sur de Chile (ca. 39º S. Eso contribuye a confirmar el carácter atípico del estuario del río Biobío, el que debido a sus cambios estacionales de caudal genera cambios significativos en la estructura comunitaria de la macrofauna bent

  7. Genetic Causes of Cerebrovascular Disorders in Childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.C. Meuwissen (Marije)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Cerebrovascular disorders in childhood comprise ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. This thesis comprises a escription of genetic causes of childhood cerebrovascular disorders. Two examples of genetic causes of ischemic stroke, comprising a case of ACTA2 mutation

  8. Cervical adenitis caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan-Poirier, K; Patrick, C C

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis, a human commensal, is a common cause of bacteremia in immunocompromised patients with indwelling medical devices. We report a case of isolated cervical adenitis caused by S. epidermidis in an immunocompetent patient and comment on the presumed pathogenesis.

  9. Can Beta Blockers Cause Weight Gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta blockers: Do they cause weight gain? Can beta blockers cause weight gain? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, ... can occur as a side effect of some beta blockers, especially the older ones, such as atenolol (Tenormin) ...

  10. Triple X Syndrome: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help determine the cause and suggest appropriate action. Causes Although triple X syndrome is genetic, it's usually not inherited — it's due to a random genetic error. Normally, people have 46 chromosomes in each cell, ...

  11. What Causes Prader-Willi Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Study Resources and Publications What causes Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS)? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Prader-Willi syndrome is caused by genetic changes on an "unstable" ...

  12. Phaeomycotic cysts caused by Phoma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasoo, Shawn; Yong, Lee Kien; Sultania-Dudani, Priyanka; Scorza, Mary Lou; Sekosan, Marin; Beavis, Kathleen G; Huhn, Gregory D

    2011-08-01

    Phoma species are primarily phytopathogens which have been reported to sporadically cause human disease. We report a patient with phaeohyphomycotic cysts caused by Phoma species, which were initially mistaken for ganglions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. FastStats: Leading Causes of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chronic Sinusitis Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to ... Cause of Death Contribute to the Hispanic Mortality Advantage in the United States? Leading Causes of Death ...

  14. Hypothyroidism: Does It Cause Joint Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism: Does it cause joint pain? Can hypothyroidism cause joint pain? I have hypothyroidism and have been experiencing severe arthritis-like pain in my shoulders and hips. Answers from Todd B. ...

  15. Hypothyroidism: Can It Cause Peripheral Neuropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism: Can it cause peripheral neuropathy? Can hypothyroidism cause peripheral neuropathy and, if so, how is it treated? Answers from Todd B. Nippoldt, M.D. Hypothyroidism — a condition in which your ...

  16. Primary Sternal Osteomyelitis Caused by Actinomyces israelii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary sternal osteomyelitis is a rare disease. Common infectious organisms causing primary sternal osteomyelitis include Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Actinomyces species are common saprophytes of the oral cavity, but there have been few reports in the literature of primary sternal osteomyelitis caused by Actinomyces species. We describe a case of primary sternal osteomyelitis caused by Actinomyces israelii without pulmonary involvement.

  17. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection caused by Bifidobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwantarat, Nuntra; Romagnoli, Mark; Wakefield, Teresa; Carroll, Karen C

    2014-08-01

    Bifidobacterium breve is a rare cause of human infections. Previously, bacteremia and meningitis caused by this organism linked to probiotic use have been reported in a neonate. We report the first case of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection caused by B. breve in an adult without a history of probiotic use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Root Cause Analysis: Methods and Mindsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluch, Jacob H.

    This instructional unit is intended for use in training operations personnel and others involved in scram analysis at nuclear power plants in the techniques of root cause analysis. Four lessons are included. The first lesson provides an overview of the goals and benefits of the root cause analysis method. Root cause analysis techniques are covered…

  19. Simulation of fluctuations of temperature and flow at the entrance of the nucleus of Trillo NPP; Simulacion de fluctuaciones de temperatura y caudal a la entrada del nucleo de C.N. Trillo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermejo, J. A.; Pelaez, S. B.; Lopez, A.; Ortego, A.

    2013-07-01

    One of the lines of work of the r and d program initiated in CNAT, to investigate the causes increasing the level of neutronic noise in C.N. Trillo, is the simulation of fluctuations thermohydraulics at the entrance of the neutron kernel with capability of simulation transient. The paper summarizes the status of this line of work and are presented some of the main results obtained so far.

  20. Cryptorchidism as a caudal developmental field defect. A new description of cryptorchidism associated with malformations and dysplasias of the kidneys, the ureters and the spine from T10 to S5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Beck, B L

    1998-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is a feature of abnormalities in the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis, and almost all disorders of sexual differentiation in which a testis is present. We found cryptorchidism to be associated with malformations and dysplasias of the kidneys, the ureters and the spine from T10...... field defect. Study of cryptorchid patients exhibiting malformations or dysplasias of the kidneys, the ureters or the spine from T10 to S5 is essential in order to isolate new genetic disorders and to spot environmental factors causing cryptorchidism....