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Sample records for cauda equina syndrome

  1. Cauda Equina Syndrome Secondary to Complicated Diverticulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ter Horst

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with cauda equina syndrome and sepsis. The symptoms were attributed to a complicated episode of sigmoid diverticulitis. MRI showed that the diverticulitis had caused an intra-abdominal fistula to a presacrally localized abscess expanding into the spinal canal, compressing the cauda equina nerves. Although Hartmann's procedure was performed, the neurological symptoms persisted, causing the patient to remain partially paraplegic. This case report illustrates that cauda equina syndrome is a condition that can also be caused by intra-abdominal pathology such as diverticulitis.

  2. Indeterminate cauda equina syndrome: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douraiswami, Balaji; Muthuswamy, Kumanan; Naidu, Dilip Kumar; Thanigai, Sriram; Anand, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    The presentation of cauda equina syndrome (CES) varies from its classical presentation, especially in its early stages of compression. We present a case of lumbar disc prolapse causing CES in an uncharacteristic way, knowledge of which is essential for orthopaedicians to diagnose this condition early and prevent neurological complications. A 32-year-old male patient presented to us with complaints of inability to lift his left ankle and numbness over his left leg and ankle for 14 days. Clinical examination showed involvement of left L3, L4, L5 and S1 nerve roots as evidenced by weakness of quadriceps, extensor hallucis longus, extensor digitorum longus muscles and tendo achilles. Knee jerk was absent. The opposite lower limb was normal and there was no evidence of bowel bladder involvement or saddle anaesthesia. The MRI showed L2 L3 posterocentral disc prolapse compressing the cauda equina. The patient underwent laminectomy and discectomy. Post-operatively, the patient showed significant improvement in his sensory symptoms with complete recovery of motor power in 12 weeks. In contrast to the classical presentation of CES, several case series have been reported with varied clinical manifestations like unilateral leg symptomatology, unilateral or bilateral saddle anaesthesia with or without leg symptoms and CES with complete absence of signs and symptoms in the lower limbs. The disc prolapse in our case at L2-L3 level has compressed the left-sided L3, L4, L5 roots with minimal compression of S1. The classical features of CES would have occurred due to the lateral shift of the cauda equina in our case but for our early diagnosis and intervention.

  3. Cauda equina syndrome: the importance of complete multidisciplinary team management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivji, Faiz; Tsegaye, Magnum

    2013-03-15

    A 44-year-old lady with a history of lumbar back pain presented to the emergency department complaining of severe back pain radiating to her buttocks. Positive examination findings were a loss of sensation in the perianal area and 348 ml of retained urine. An urgent MRI showed compression of the cauda equina by a herniated disc. The patient was operated upon that evening, having a lumbar 5/sacral 1 decompression and sequestrectomy. During follow-up, the patient was reviewed by a consultant spinal surgeon, a urologist and our cauda equina nurse at every appointment, as per the cauda equina pathway specifically designed and implemented by our spinal unit. This report shows the complex nature of cauda equina syndrome and broad functional deficit patients can suffer from. It shows the benefits of prompt diagnosis and surgery, together with intensive, multidisciplinary follow-up and treatment, all of which are possible by a specially created, cauda equina protocol.

  4. Cauda equina syndrome: case report of a neurosurgical emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. We present a young woman with symptoms and signs of cauda equina syndrome. Early surgical intervention led to improvement and restoration of sphincter function. The case serves to refresh our minds about this clinical entity.

  5. Conus Medullaris Arachnoid Cyst Presenting as Cauda Equina Syndrome.

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    Sharif, Salman; Afsar, Afifa; Qadeer, Mohsin

    2017-01-01

    Intradural arachnoid cysts are a rare cause of spinal cord and nerve root compression. Primarily, they are present in the thoracic region posteriorly. We report a 25-year-old man who had an intradural arachnoid cyst at the level of conus medullaris presenting with cauda equina syndrome, which is very rare.

  6. Cauda equina syndrome in the dog: radiographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Bailey, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Dogs with clinical signs typical of cauda equina syndrome require careful evaluation to determine the cause of the disease as this strongly influences choice of treatment. Possible aetiologies include congenital or developmental, inflammatory, traumatic, neoplastic, and degenerative lesions that may involve vertebrae, vertebral joints, intervertebral discs, spinal cord, spinal nerves, or meninges. It must be determined whether clinical signs are due to musculoskeletal or neurological disease before performing special radiographic procedures. Non-contrast radiography permits false-positive diagnosis of obvious degenerative changes involving the L-S disc that may be without clinical signs or permits a false-negative diagnosis due to the failure to appreciate soft tissue lesions not seen radiographically. Special radiographic techniques are recommended and include: (1) stress radiography, (2) discography, and (3) epidural myelography. Evaluation of the results of these studies assists in determining the cause of the cauda equina syndrome and the type of therapy required

  7. Lesson of the month 2: Cauda equina in Cushing's syndrome.

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    Maslin, Douglas; Gounaris, Ioannis; Ng, Kenrick; Corrie, Pippa

    2016-02-01

    We present the case of a 34-year old woman who initially presented with obesity and back pain. She was eventually diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome secondary to an adrenocortical carcinoma that had metastasised to her spine, causing cauda equina compression. The delays in reaching the correct diagnosis caused significant morbidity and exemplify the pitfalls of premature closing, a common cognitive error in diagnostic reasoning. © Royal College of Physicians 2016. All rights reserved.

  8. Gitelman's syndrome: a rare presentation mimicking cauda equina syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinlan, C S

    2012-02-01

    We describe a case of bilateral weakness of the lower limbs, sensory disturbance and intermittent urinary incontinence, secondary to untreated Gitelman\\'s syndrome, in a 42-year-old female who was referred with presumed cauda equina syndrome. On examination, the power of both legs was uniformly reduced, and the perianal and lower-limb sensation was altered. However, MRI of the lumbar spine was normal. Measurements of serum and urinary potassium were low and blood gas analysis revealed metabolic alkalosis. Her symptoms resolved following potassium replacement. We emphasise the importance of measurement of the plasma and urinary levels of electrolytes in the investigation of patients with paralysis of the lower limbs and suggest that they, together with blood gas analysis, allow the exclusion of unusual causes of muscle weakness resulting from metabolic disorders such as metabolic alkalosis.

  9. Spinal metastasis of occult lung carcinoma causing cauda equina syndrome.

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    Kotil, Kadir; Kilinc, Bekir Mahmut; Bilge, Turgay

    2007-04-01

    Cauda equina syndrome (CES) may be caused by tumor, herniated disc, trauma and spinal infections. However, CES due to occult lung cancer has not been reported in the literature. A 50-year-old man presented with a subacute CES caused by an intradural metastasis of an adenocarcinoma of the lung to the lumbosacral cauda fibers. His lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), showed a well-demarcated, intradural extramedullary mass lesion resembling a neurinoma at the L4/5 level. The patient underwent an L4-L5 laminectomy. The operative findings were also suggestive of neurinoma with involvement of three nerve roots, and a well-demarcated tumor without infiltration into the subarachnoid space. Although the findings of the operation were suggestive of neurinoma, final pathological diagnosis revealed metastatic carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry revealed clear cell adenocarcinoma metastasis. Chest X-ray and high resolution contrasted pulmonary computed tomography were normal. Positron emission tomography (PET) showed a lung mass, at the left apex. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and post-operative spinal radiotherapy was also performed. The CES resolved after the operation and the patient was followed up for 2 years with no recurrence. MRI of intradural cauda equina metastasis may be similar to that of intradural nerve sheath tumor. Surgery and postoperative radiotherapy may be effective for the treatment of CES due to lung carcinoma. Definitive diagnosis is by histopathological examination with immunohistochemistry. If the primary cancer cannot be detected by conventional radiological techniques, PET may be helpful.

  10. Cauda equina syndrome presenting as abdominal pain: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, Prasad

    2012-09-01

    Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is an uncommon entity. Symptoms include bowel and bladder dysfunction, saddle anesthesia, and varying degrees of lower limb motor and sensory disturbances. The consequences of delayed diagnosis can be devastating, resulting in bowel and bladder incontinence and lower limb paralysis. There is little in literature regarding abdominal pain as a significant feature of the initial presentation of CES. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman with CES who presented to the emergency department with gradually worsening lower abdominal pain.

  11. Definitions of traumatic conus medullaris and cauda equina syndrome: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, E.M.; Meent, H. van de; Curt, A.; Starremans, B.; Hosman, A.J.; Bartels, R.H.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review. OBJECTIVES: Conus medullaris syndrome (CMS) and cauda equina syndrome (CES) are well-known neurological entities. It is assumed that these syndromes are different regarding neurological and functional prognosis. However, literature concerning spinal trauma is

  12. Cauda equina syndrome: an uncommon symptom of aortic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fuliang; Xing, Tong; Yu, Fang; Li, Hongchuan; Fang, Xiutong; Song, Hongxing

    2015-01-01

    In order to help diagnose and deal with the fetal aortic diseases in time, we retrospectively reviewed 8 patients who presented with cauda equina syndrome (CES) but actually suffered from low spinal nerve ischemia due to aortic diseases. 8 patients were initially diagnosed as CES. 7 patients were confirmed with aortic diseases. 1 patient was confirmed with aortic saddle embolism post emergent laminectomy. Relief of CES symptoms was evaluated during preoperation and follow-up period. 1 patient was diagnosed as aortic dissection and 5 patients as AAA. These 6 patients underwent endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). The CES was relieved in 5-10 d post procedure. The 7th patient was diagnosed with acute abdominal aortic occlusion and then underwent catheter directed thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA) for 20 h and CES disappeared. The JOA scores of the 7 patients were recovered from preoperative 15.14±1.21 to 21.00±2.16 within 5-10 d (P<0.01), and evaluated to be 24.12±1.34, 25.88±1.21 and 26.29±1.11 at 3 m-, 6 m- and 12 m-follow-up point, respectively. The 8th patient was initially diagnosed as lumbar spinal stenosis and lumbar disc herniation. The patient underwent emergent vertebral canal decompression and presented with serious CES symptoms. CTA confirmed that the patient had been suffered from aortic saddle embolism (ASE). CES caused by abdominal aortic diseases is a special event with fetal consequences if it is not recognized and treated promptly. Orthopedists and neurosurgeons should pay attentions particularly to this issue to preserve the cauda equina functions to their maximums.

  13. Lumbar disk herniation presented with cauda equina syndrome in a pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite low back pain being common in pregnancy, cauda equina syndrome is rare. Misdiagnosis and delay in treatment may cause neurological sequelae including urinary and fecal incontinence, sexual dysfunction in patients. A case of cauda equina syndrome in a pregnant woman at 25-week gestation is presented here. The patient underwent an emergency, standard lumbar microdiscectomy under general anesthesia on prone position. Neither the patient nor the baby had any complication related to surgery.

  14. Cauda equina syndrome: A rare complication in intensive care

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    Jagatsinh Yogendrasinh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 73-year-old married retired woman with a history of myocardial infarction and primary biliary cirrhosis was admitted to intensive care unit with complaints of chest pain. She was suspected to have pulmonary embolism (PE and was treated with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH and aspirin. She had computerized tomographic pulmonary angiography on next day, which ruled out any evidence of PE, until she was continued on LMWH. Three days later, she developed progressive right leg weakness and loss of sphincter control and patchy loss of sensation from T10 and below. She was seen by neurologist and had an MRI scan, which showed extensive subdural clot compressing the conus and lower half of the thoracic cord. She underwent T9-L1, L3, L5-S1 laminectomies, and evacuation and decompression of the clot. She showed very slight recovery following the surgery and left with residual paraparesis. This case is reported to raise awareness among intensivists to be cautious in establishing the diagnosis before prescribing the LMWH and be vigilant to diagnose cauda equina syndrome and treat promptly to avoid residual neurological problems.

  15. Cauda equina syndrome as the initial presenting clinical feature of medulloblastoma: a case report

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    Al-Otaibi Faisal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Medulloblastoma is one of the most common pediatric brain malignancies. The usual presenting clinical features are related to posterior fossa syndrome or/and hydrocephalus. Cauda equina syndrome is a very rare presentation for this disease. Case presentation We describe the case of a three-year-old boy with cauda equina syndrome as the initial presenting clinical feature for medulloblastoma. He was initially diagnosed as having a spinal tumor by magnetic resonance imaging scan. Subsequently, a cranial magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a posterior fossa tumor with features of dissemination. He had substantial improvement after treatment. This case report is complemented by a literature review related to this unusual presentation. Conclusions Medulloblastoma primarily presenting with cauda equina syndrome is very rare. However, spinal drop metastasis should be considered in the pediatric age group to avoid suboptimal management.

  16. The cauda equina syndrome in pregnant woman with a massive disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón Capitán, B; Malillos Torán, M

    Low back pain during pregnancy is a common cause of medical consultation. Although back pain is very common, the incidence of low back pain secondary to lumbar disk herniation in pregnancy is low (1: 10,000). Cauda equina syndrome from lumbar disk herniation is a serious complication. The delay in diagnosis and treatment can be a cause of chronic disability secondary to neurological sequelae. Numerous cases of disk herniation in pregnancy have been reported, however the association of a cauda equina syndrome as a result of disk herniation is rare. A case is presented of cauda equina syndrome in a pregnant woman at 12-week gestation. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiology of cauda equina syndrome. What changed until 2015.

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    Dias, André Luiz Natálio; Araújo, Fernando Flores de; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi

    2018-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics and outcomes of cases admitted to hospital with cauda equina syndrome (CES) at the Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology (IOT) from 2005 to 2015. Secondly, this article is a continuation of the epidemiological work of the same base published in 2013, and will be important for other comparative studies to a greater understanding of the disease and its epidemiology. This was a retrospective study of the medical records of admissions due to CES at IOT in the period 2005-2015 with diagnosis of CES and neuropathic bladder. The following variables were analyzed: gender, age, etiology of the disease, topographic level of the injury, time interval between injury and diagnosis, presence of neurogenic bladder, time interval between diagnosis of the CES and surgery, and reversal of the deficit or of the neurogenic bladder. Since this is a rare disease, with a low global incidence, it was not possible, just with the current study to establish statistically significant correlations between the variables and outcomes of the disease. However, this study demonstrates the shortcomings of the Brazilian public health system, both with the initial management of these patients and the need for urgent surgical treatment. The study shows that despite well-defined basis for the conduct of CES, a higher number of sequelae caused by the pathology is observed in Brazil. The delay in diagnosis and, therefore, for definitive treatment, remains as the major cause for the high number of sequelae. Level of evidence: 4, case series.

  18. Cauda Equina Syndrome Due to Lumbar Disc Herniation: a Review of Literature

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    Kapetanakis Stylianos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cauda equina syndrome (CES is a rare neurologic condition that is caused by compression of the cauda equina. Cauda equina consists of spinal nerves L2-L5, S1-S5 and the coccygeal nerve. The compression of these nerve roots can be caused mainly by lumbar disc herniation (45% of all causes. The diagnosis consists of two critical points: a detailed history and physical examination and b MRI or CT. The gold standard of the treatment of this syndrome is the surgical approach in combination with the timing of onset of symptoms. The surgery as an emergency situation is recommended in the fi rst 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment leads to a poor prognosis of CES.

  19. Cauda Equina Syndrome Due to Lumbar Disc Herniation: a Review of Literature.

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    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Chaniotakis, Constantinos; Kazakos, Constantinos; Papathanasiou, Jannis V

    2017-12-20

    Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare neurologic condition that is caused by compression of the cauda equina. Cauda equina consists of spinal nerves L2-L5, S1-S5 and the coccygeal nerve. The compression of these nerve roots can be caused mainly by lumbar disc herniation (45% of all causes). The diagnosis consists of two critical points: a) detailed history and physical examination and b) MRI or CT. The gold standard of the treatment of this syndrome is the surgical approach in combination with the timing of onset of symptoms. The surgery as an emergency situation is recommended in the fi rst 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment leads to a poor prognosis of CES.

  20. Sensory Loss Mimicking Cauda Equina Syndrome due to Cervical Spinal Lesion in a Patient with Clinically Isolated Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Giulia Vinceti; Andrea Zini; Paolo Nichelli; Jessica Mandrioli

    2012-01-01

    We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman with signs and symptoms suggesting cauda equina syndrome. Lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated no lesion at this level, while cervical MRI showed a T2-hyperintense lesion in the middle-right anterolateral region of the cervical spinal cord, which may explain the symptoms by involving the anterior spinothalamic tract. We suggest that in cases with cauda equina syndrome presentation and normal lumbosacral MRI, a cervicodorsal lesi...

  1. Cauda Equina Syndrome Secondary to Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis of Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

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    Amal Alkhotani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC is a diffuse or multifocal malignant infiltration of the pia matter and arachnoid membrane. The most commonly reported cancers associated with LMC are breast, lung, and hematological malignancies. Patients with LMC commonly present with multifocal neurological symptoms. We report a case of LMC secondary to gastroesophageal junction cancer present initially with cauda equina syndrome. A 51-year-old male patient with treated adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction presented with left leg pain, mild weakness, and saddle area numbness. Initial radiological examinations were unremarkable. Subsequently, he had worsening of his leg weakness, fecal incontinence, and urine retention. Two days later, he developed rapidly progressive cranial neuropathies including facial diplegia, sensorineural hearing loss, dysarthria, and dysphagia. MRI with and without contrast showed diffuse enhancement of leptomeninges surrounding the brain, spinal cord, and cauda equina extending to the nerve roots. Cerebrospinal fluid cytology was positive for malignant cells. The patient died within 10 days from the second presentation. In cancer patients with cauda equina syndrome and absence of structural lesion on imaging, LMC should be considered. To our knowledge, this is the first case of LMC secondary to gastroesophageal cancer presenting with cauda equina syndrome.

  2. Perirectal Abscess Masquerading as Cauda Equina Syndrome in an Otherwise Healthy 12-Year-Old Child

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    Dylan Dean

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old boy was brought to an urgent care center for fever, back pain, and abnormal gait. In addition to back pain, the patient was found to be persistently febrile but also had decreased perianal sensation and bowel incontinence. He was therefore referred to the emergency department where his back pain improved without medication but he was still febrile with bowel incontinence and persistently decreased perianal sensation. An MRI was ordered to evaluate possible cauda equina syndrome and revealed a perirectal abscess. The child ultimately underwent an exam under anesthesia with pediatric surgery and had a drain placed. This case highlights a unique presentation of perirectal abscess masquerading as cauda equina syndrome. A discussion of important considerations in emergency room diagnosis and management is presented.

  3. Lumbar spinal canal MRI diameter is smaller in herniated disc cauda equina syndrome patients

    OpenAIRE

    Korse, Nina S.; Kruit, Mark C.; Peul, Wilco C.; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L. A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical features in cauda equina syndrome (CES) is unknown; nor is known whether there are differences in MRI spinal canal size between lumbar herniated disc patients with CES versus lumbar herniated discs patients without CES, operated for sciatica. The aims of this study are 1) evaluating the association of MRI features with clinical presentation and outcome of CES and 2) comparing lumbar spinal canal diameters of lumbar...

  4. Penetrating spinal injury with wooden fragments causing cauda equina syndrome: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Debasish; Timothy, Jake; Marks, Paul

    2006-10-01

    Case report. To report an unusual case of cauda equina syndrome following penetrating injury to the lumbar spine by wooden fragments and to stress the importance of early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in similar cases. A 22-year-old girl accidentally landed on wooden bannister and sustained a laceration to her back. She complained of back pain but had fully intact neurological function. The laceration in her back was explored and four large wooden pieces were removed. However 72 h later, she developed cauda equina syndrome. MRI demonstrated the presence of a foreign body between second and third lumbar spinal levels following which she underwent emergency decompressive laminectomy and the removal of the multiple wooden fragments that had penetrated the dura. Post-operatively motor function in her lower limbs returned to normal but she continued to require a catheter for incontinence. At review 6 months later, she was mobilising independently but the incontinence remained unchanged. There are no reported cases in the literature of wooden fragments penetrating the dura from the back with or without the progression to cauda equina syndrome. The need for a high degree of suspicion and an early MRI scan to localise any embedded wooden fragments that may be separate from the site of laceration is emphasized even if initial neurology is intact.

  5. Cauda Equina Syndrome Following an Epidural Lysis Procedure: A Case Report

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    Yasemin Turan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidural lysis is known to be one of the therapy methods used following an unsuccessful low back surgery. Despite its proven effectiveness, several complications associated with epidural lysis procedure have been reported. The most common complications are dural perforation, breaking of the catheter and infections. Cauda equina syndrome is a rare complication seen after epidural lysis. A 51-year-old female complaining of lower back pain for six years underwent an epidural lysis procedure at the lumbar 3-4-5 level. Following the procedure, the patient was not able to walk due to weakness starting in both lower extremities, besides, she had fecal and urinary incontinence. After being diagnosed with cauda equina syndrome, a rehabilitation program was administered. After three months, the patient was ambulant with a bilateral dynamic carbon fiber ankle foot orthoses and a walker. It should be kept in mind that serious complications such as cauda equina syndrome, which may considerably affect the patients’ quality of life in a negative way, might develop after an epidural lysis procedure.

  6. Spinal intradural hydatid cyst causing arachnoiditis: A rare etiology of cauda equina syndrome

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    Suyash Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to focus on a rare presentation of spinal hydatid cyst as cauda equine syndrome and misdiagnosed as intradural extramedullary (IDEM benign lesion on magnetic resonance imaging. In this article, we report a case of spinal hydatid cyst masquerading as IDEM tumor, and intraoperatively, we accidently find clumped granuloma with severe arachnoiditis and hydatid cyst in lumber region, which was present as bilateral S1 radiculopathy with cauda equina syndrome. An 11 year old boy who presented with symptoms and signs of cauda equina syndrome and planned for surgical excision. His radiological impression was IDEM possibly neurofibroma. To our surprise, we found multiple intradural cystic lesions with arachnoiditis. Dissecting in plane cyst was flushed out, and surgical cavity was irrigated with 3% saline. Postoperatively histopathology and serum tests confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. Hydatid disease is rare cause of cauda equine syndrome which can be miss diagnosed on radiological investigations. A high index of suspicion should be kept especially in a young patient from the Indian subcontinent.

  7. Cauda equina syndrome after spinal anaesthesia in a patient with asymptomatic tubercular arachnoiditis

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    Divya Sethi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old boy underwent emergency debridement surgery of right foot under spinal anaesthesia. Four hours after the surgery, the patient developed symptoms of cauda equina syndrome (CES. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the patient′s spine suggested underlying tubercular arachnoiditis. The boy was started on intravenous methylprednisolone and antitubercular therapy. He responded to the therapy and recovered completely in 2 weeks without any residual neurological deficits. We suggest that underlying pathological changes in the subarachnoid space due to tubercular arachnoiditis contributed to maldistribution of the local anaesthetic drug leading to CES.

  8. A Clinical Observation on the Case of Cauda Equina Syndrome Using Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture

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    Lee Hwi-yong

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was investigated on the Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture of Caude equina syndrome which has been described as a complex of low back pain, bilateral sciatica, saddle anesthesia and motor weakness in the lower extremity that progress to paraplegia with baldder and bowel incontinence. Methods & Results : Clinical observation was done on Cauda equina syndrome in the Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, Woosuk jeonju Oriental Medical Hospital frome May 30 to July 13. The patient was treated with Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture at Shinsu(B23, Gihaesu(B24, Taejangsu(B25, Gwanweonsu(b26, Dangryo(b31, Charyo(b32, Jang-gang(gv1 and Hoe-eum(cv1 with Oriental Medicine treatment. We evaluated SF-36, the bladder incontinence, bowel incontinence, sensibility by sting skin, before and after treatmeat. Conclusion : 1. At the early time, gait disturbance was treated well, but discomfort of bladder incontinence, bilateral sciatica, saddle anesthesia and motor weakness was remained. 2. The symptoms of Cauada equina syndrome, especially bladder incontinence and bilateral sciatica, was recurred in short duration by scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture and oriental medicine treatment.

  9. Persistent cauda equina syndrome after caudal epidural injection under severe spinal stenosis: a case report

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    Seo YT

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Young Tak Seo,1 Hyun Ho Kong,1 Goo Joo Lee,1 Heui Je Bang1,2 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Chungbuk National University Hospital, 2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea Abstract: Caudal epidural injection (CEI is one of the most common treatments for low-back pain with sciatica. CEI rarely leads to neurologic complications. We report a case of persistent cauda equina syndrome after CEI. A 44-year-old male patient with severe L4 and L5 spinal stenosis underwent CEI for low-back pain and sciatica. The CEI solution consisted of bupivacaine, hyaluronidase, triamcinolone acetonide, and normal saline. He experienced motor weakness and sensory loss in both lower extremities and neurogenic bladder for more than 1 year after the procedure. His ankle dorsiflexors, big-toe extensors, and ankle plantar flexors on both sides were checked and categorized as motor-power Medical Research Council grade 0. His bilateral ankle-jerk reflection was absent. An electrophysiological study showed lumbosacral polyradiculopathy affecting both sides of the L5 and S1 nerve roots. A urodynamic study revealed hypoactive neurogenic bladder affecting both sacral roots. Keywords: epidural injection, cauda equina syndrome, complications

  10. [Cauda equina compression syndrome (CECS): retrospective study of surgical treatment with partial dorsal laminectomy in 86 dogs with lumbosacral stenosis].

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    Kinzel, Sylvia; Koch, Johannes; Stopinski, Thaddeus; Afify, Mamdouh; Krombach, Gabriele; Buecker, Arno; Küpper, Werner

    2004-01-01

    We report our results of partial lumbosacral laminectomy for treatment of canine Cauda equina Compression Syndrome due to a lumbosacral stenosis. Opposite to conventional techniques of dorsal laminectomy, only widening of the Spatium interarcuale is performed. This is achieved by exstirpation of the Lig. flavum and partial dorsal laminectomy of the first sacral segment. The Proc. spinosi and integrity of facet joints are fully maintained by this technique. In 96.5% of 86 dogs treated with this method relief of dorsal pressure and permanent rapid regression of clinical symptoms was achieved. In two cases recurrence of clinical symptoms was observed during follow up and one case showed no improvement at all. In conclusion partial dorsal laminectomy is a minimal invasive technique for treatment of Cauda equina compression syndrome expressed by pain reaction accompanied by minor neurological deficits caused by lumbosacral stenosis. Maintained spinal stability allows short reconvalescence and the unrestricted use of dogs immediately post operation.

  11. 1991 Volvo Award in experimental studies. Cauda equina syndrome: neurologic recovery following immediate, early, or late decompression.

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    Delamarter, R B; Sherman, J E; Carr, J B

    1991-09-01

    An animal model of cauda equina syndrome was developed. Neurologic recovery was analyzed following immediate, early, and delayed decompression. Five experimental groups, each containing six dogs, were studied. Compression of the cauda equina was performed in all 30 dogs following an L6-7 laminectomy. The cauda equina was constricted by 75% in each group. The first group was constricted and immediately decompressed. The remaining groups were constricted for 1 hour, 6 hours, 24 hours, and 1 week, respectively, before being decompressed. Somatosensory evoked potentials were performed before and after surgery, before and immediately after decompression, and 6 weeks following decompression. Daily neurologic exams using the Tarlov grading scale were performed. At 6 weeks postdecompression, all dogs were killed, and the neural elements analyzed histologically. Following compression, all 30 dogs had significant lower extremity weakness, tail paralysis, and urinary incontinence. All dogs recovered significant motor function 6 weeks following decompression. The dogs with immediate decompression generally recovered neurologic function within 2-5 days. The dogs receiving 1-hour and 6-hour compression recovered within 5-7 days. The dogs receiving 24-hour compression remained paraparetic 5-7 days, with bladder dysfunction for 7-10 days and tail dysfunction persisting for 4 weeks. The dogs with compression for 1 week were paraparetic (Tarlov Grade 2 or 3) and incontinent during the duration of cauda equina compression. They recovered to walking by 1 week and Tarlov Grade 5 with bladder and tail control at the time of euthanasia. Immediately after compression, all five groups demonstrated at least 50% deterioration of the posterior tibial nerve evoked potential amplitudes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Cauda equina syndrome secondary to lumbar disc herniation: Surgical delay and its relationship with prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foruria, X; Ruiz de Gopegui, K; García-Sánchez, I; Moreta, J; Aguirre, U; Martínez-de Los Mozos, J L

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether surgical treatment delayed for more than 48 hours in patients with cauda equina syndrome (CES) influenced the clinical outcome. A retrospective study of 18 patients treated in our hospital from March 2000 to January 2012, after presenting with CES. The pre- and post-operative clinical status was determined: existence of back pain and/or sciatica, sensory disturbance in the perineum, sensory and motor deficits in the lower extremities, and the degree of sphincter incontinence (complete or incomplete CES). A clinical assessment was performed using the Oswestry disability index. As regards the onset of symptoms, 44% (8 of 18) of patients were treated at an early stage (within 48 hours). None of the patients with complete CES operated in the early stage had urinary incontinence, and also had greater motor recovery. Of the 5 patients with complete CES who underwent delayed surgery, 3 showed residual urinary incontinence. A mean of 12.55 was obtained on the Oswestry disability index scale at the end of follow-up. Although no statistically significant difference was found in our study, we observed greater motor and sphincter recovery in patients who were operated on within 48 hours. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. [Cauda equina syndrome secondary to neurolymphomatosis: Case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Zapata, Herbert Daniel; Rojas Medina, Luis Mariano; Carrasco Moro, Rodrigo; Martínez Rodrigo, Aurora; García-Cosio Piqueras, Mónica

    2017-09-20

    Neurolymphomatosis is a rare disorder characterised by infiltration of neoplastic lymphocytes into the peripheral nervous system. A wide variety of symptoms can manifest depending on its nature and location, making its diagnosis a real challenge. Treatment is based on methotrexate, although various chemotherapy regimens are currently available for patients with systemic disease. We present the case of a male patient with neurolymphomatosis of the cauda equina, together with a review of all cases published to date. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Lumbar spinal canal MRI diameter is smaller in herniated disc cauda equina syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korse, Nina S; Kruit, Mark C; Peul, Wilco C; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L A

    2017-01-01

    Correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical features in cauda equina syndrome (CES) is unknown; nor is known whether there are differences in MRI spinal canal size between lumbar herniated disc patients with CES versus lumbar herniated discs patients without CES, operated for sciatica. The aims of this study are 1) evaluating the association of MRI features with clinical presentation and outcome of CES and 2) comparing lumbar spinal canal diameters of lumbar herniated disc patients with CES versus lumbar herniated disc patients without CES, operated because of sciatica. MRIs of CES patients were assessed for the following features: level of disc lesion, type (uni- or bilateral) and severity of caudal compression. Pre- and postoperative clinical features (micturition dysfunction, defecation dysfunction, altered sensation of the saddle area) were retrieved from the medical files. In addition, anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spinal canal diameters of CES patients were measured at MRI. AP diameters of lumbar herniated disc patients without CES, operated for sciatica, were measured for comparison. 48 CES patients were included. At MRI, bilateral compression was seen in 82%; complete caudal compression in 29%. MRI features were not associated with clinical presentation nor outcome. AP diameter was measured for 26 CES patients and for 31 lumbar herniated disc patients without CES, operated for sciatica. Comparison displayed a significant smaller AP diameter of the lumbar spinal canal in CES patients (largest p = 0.002). Compared to average diameters in literature, diameters of CES patients were significantly more often below average than that of the sciatica patients (largest p = 0.021). This is the first study demonstrating differences in lumbar spinal canal size between lumbar herniated disc patients with CES and lumbar herniated disc patients without CES, operated for sciatica. This finding might imply that lumbar herniated disc patients with a

  15. The Evaluation of Digital Rectal Examination for Assessment of Anal Tone in Suspected Cauda Equina Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, Katrina Eve; Turner, William; Elsayed, Sherief; Bagouri, M; Baha, L; Boszczyk, Bronek M; McNally, Donal

    2015-08-01

    Seventy-five doctors completed a questionnaire documenting their grade, specialty, and experience in performing digital rectal examination (DRE). A model anus, using a pressure transducer surrounding an artificial canal, was assembled and calibrated. Participants performed 4 DREs on the model (with a break between attempts) and predicted tone as "reduced" or "normal" (35 and 60 mm Hg, respectively), followed by a "squeeze" test. Thirty health care assistants partook as a control group with no training in DRE. Our main objective was to investigate the validity of digital rectal examination (DRE) for assessment of anal tone. Cauda equina syndrome represents the constellation of symptoms and signs resulting from compression of lumbrosacral nerve routes. Combined with subjective neurological findings, a reduction in anal tone is an important sign, deeming further imaging necessary. DRE is an invasive procedure used to assess anal tone despite debated accuracy. A total of 75 doctors from various specialties were asked to fill in a questionnaire detailing their grade, age, and area of expertise. In addition, information was gathered with regard to prior training in performing DRE to assess anal tone and the importance placed on any findings. Thirty hospital health care assistants (HCAs) were used as a control group. HCAs were selected as a control group because they receive no training on the technique and would never be required to perform it in their clinical practice. A model anus was assembled using a modified pediatric sphygmomanometer cuff to act as a sphincter. The cuff could be inflated to simulate a full range of anal tone. The cuff was incorporated into an artificial anal canal, which was, in turn, placed into a model buttock created from plaster of Paris. The apparatus was calibrated across a range of pressures. In each attempt, 60%, 61%, 63%, and 67% of doctors correctly identified the anal tone, respectively (average accuracy: 64%). HCAs had an identical

  16. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor causing cauda equina syndrome with destruction of L5 vertebra

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    Dhatt Sarvdeep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old male patient presented with cauda equina lesion symptoms. His clinicoradiological examination including X-rays, CT scan and MRI revealed destruction of L 5 vertebral body, pedicle and a mass extending to lateral recess and left intervertebral foramina causing pressure over the thecal sac. A CT guided FNAC was inconclusive. Open biopsy and hemilaminectomy of L 5 vertebra was performed. Histopathology and immunocytochemical analysis revealed it to be primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Patient was given chemotherapy and radiation therapy. His lower limb power improved by grade I post operatively and at 2 years follow-up bowel/bladder recovery was noticed. Patient died after 2.5 years of surgery because of pulmonary metastasis.

  17. Sudden onset of cauda equina syndrome resulting from posterior migration of lumbar herniated disc without significant previous neurological signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jeong-Hyuk; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Chul-Ku; Ha, Ho-Gyun

    2012-09-01

    While extruded disc fragments are known to migrate anteriorly, posteriorly, or laterally to the theca sac, posterior migration of the fragments is relatively rare and sudden onset of cauda equina syndrome (CES) caused by the migration is extremely rare. The authors experienced a case of CES that was manifested abruptly with sudden paraplegia caused by posterior migration of the lumbar intervertebral disc. A 74-year old man, who had no prior significant neurologic signs or trauma history, visited our emergency center with paraplegia of both lower extremities occurring suddenly when awakened. On magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings, we could detect ruptured disc herniation with severe lumbar stenosis at the L2-3 level. We performed an emergent decompression, and the right posterior migrated disc fragments at L2-3 were intraoperatively observed. The patient was fully recovered himself on the follow up after 3 months of the operation. In conclusion, early operation can result in better outcome in acute paraplegia caused by the posterior migrated disc fragments.

  18. Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy for a huge herniated disc causing acute cauda equina syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Subash C; Tonogai, Ichiro; Takata, Yoichiro; Sakai, Toshinori; Higashino, Kosaku; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Hamada, Daisuke; Goto, Tomohiro; Nishisho, Toshihiko; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Goda, Yuichiro; Abe, Mitsunobu; Mineta, Kazuaki; Kimura, Tetsuya; Nitta, Akihiro; Hama, Shingo; Higuchi, Tadahiro; Fukuta, Shoji; Sairyo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Microsurgery for lumbar disc herniation that requires surgical intervention has been well described. The methods vary from traditional open discectomy to minimally invasive techniques. All need adequate preanesthetic preparation of patients as general anesthesia is required for the procedure, and nerve monitoring is necessary to prevent iatrogenic nerve injury. Conventional surgical techniques sometimes require the removal of the corresponding lamina to assess the nerve root and herniated disc, and this may increase the risk for posterior instability of the vertebral body. Should this occur, fusion surgery may be needed, further increasing morbidity and cost. We present here a case of lumbar herniated disc fragments causing acute cauda equina syndrome that were endoscopically resected through a transforaminal approach in an awake patient under local anesthesia. Percutaneous endoscopic discectomy under local anesthesia proved to be a better alternative to open back surgery as it made immediate intervention possible, was associated with fewer perioperative complications and morbidity, minimized soft tissue damage, and allowed early rehabilitation with a better outcome and greater patient satisfaction. In addition to these advantages, percutaneous endoscopic discectomy protects other approaches that may be needed in subsequent surgeries, whether open or minimally invasive.

  19. A Good Short-term Outcome in Delayed Decompression of Cauda Equina Syndrome in Klebsiella pneumoniae Spinal Epidural Abscess: A Case Report

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    Hanifah J

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidural abscess is a severe, generally pyogenic, infection of the epidural space of spinal cord or cauda equina. The swelling caused by the abscess leads to compression or vascular disruption of neurological structures that requires urgent surgical decompression to avoid significant permanent disability. We share a rare case of Klebsiella pneumoniae spinal epidural abscess secondary to haematogenous spread of previous lung infection that presented late at our centre with cauda equina syndrome that showed good short-term outcome in delayed decompression. A 50-year old female presented with one-week history of persistent low back pain with progressively worsening bilateral lower limb weakness for seven days and urinary retention associated with saddle anesthesia of 2-day duration. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast of the lumbo-sacral region showed an intramuscular collection of abscess at left gluteus maximus and left multifidus muscle with a L3-L5 posteriorly placed extradural lesion enhancing peripherally on contrast, suggestive of epidural abscess that compressed the cauda equina. The pus was drained using the posterior lumbar approach. Tissue and pus culture revealed Klebsiella pneumoniae, suggestive of bacterial infection. The patient made immediate improvement of muscle power over bilateral lower limbs postoperative followed by ability to control micturition and defecation in the 4th post-operative day. A good short-term outcome in delayed decompression of cauda equine syndrome is extremely rare. Aggressive surgical decompression combined with antibiotic therapy led to good short-term outcome in this patient despite delayed decompression of more than 48 hours.

  20. Episodic cauda equina compression from an intradural lumbar herniated disc: a case of 'floppy disc'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaria, J; Chan, Cc; Kamel, Mh; McEvoy, L; Bolger, C

    2011-09-01

    Intradural disc herniation (IDDH) is a rare complication of intervertebral disc disease and comprises 0.26-0.30% of all herniated discs, with 92% of them located in the lumbar region (1). We present a case of IDDH that presented with intermittent symptoms and signs of cauda equina compression. We were unable to find in the literature, any previously described cases of intermittent cauda equina compression from a herniated intradural disc fragment leading to a "floppy disc syndrome". © JSCR.

  1. Cavernous angioma of the cauda equina: case report Angioma cavernoso de cauda equina: relato de caso

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    Asdrubal Falavigna

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of cavernous angioma of the cauda equina and review the eleven cases available in the literature. A 44-year-old woman presented with low back pain and sciatica associated with bowel and bladder dysfunction and motor weakness of the lower extremity. The MRI revealed an enhancing, heterogeneous and hyperintense intradural lesion compressing the cauda equina roots at the L4 level. Laminectomy at L3-L4 and total removal of the tumor were performed without additional neurological deficit. Pathology revealed a cavernous angioma. The literature, clinical presentation, technical examinations, and treatment are reviewed.Relatamos um caso de angioma cavernoso de cauda equina em mulher de 44 anos de idade com sintomas de lombociatalgia associada a fraqueza de membros inferiores e disfunção esfincteriana vesical e anal. Exame de ressonância magnética evidenciou lesão expansiva intradural heterogênea e hiperintensa na cauda eqüina. Indicado tratamento cirúrgico com remoção completa através de laminectomia L3 e L4. O exame anatomopatológico foi compatível com angioma cavernoso. Os onze casos encontrados na literatura são revisados correlacionando a apresentação clínica, tratamento proposto e prognóstico.

  2. Leukemic meningitis involving the cauda equina: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hyun; Kim, Ho Kyun; Lee, Young Hwan [School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    The CNS involvement by leukemia may either be meningeal or parenchymal, although meningeal infiltration of leukemic cells, known as leukemic meningitis is more common. We report a case of leukemic meningitis involving the cauda equina in a patient with an acute lymphoblastic crisis which transformed from the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia. An MR image revealed diffuse enlargement and peripheral ring enhancement of the nerve roots of the cauda equina.

  3. Leukemic meningitis involving the cauda equina: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Hyun; Kim, Ho Kyun; Lee, Young Hwan

    2008-01-01

    The CNS involvement by leukemia may either be meningeal or parenchymal, although meningeal infiltration of leukemic cells, known as leukemic meningitis is more common. We report a case of leukemic meningitis involving the cauda equina in a patient with an acute lymphoblastic crisis which transformed from the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia. An MR image revealed diffuse enlargement and peripheral ring enhancement of the nerve roots of the cauda equina

  4. The long term outcome of micturition, defecation and sexual function after spinal surgery for cauda equina syndrome.

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    Nina S Korse

    Full Text Available Cauda equina syndrome (CES is a rare neurologic complication of lumbar herniated disc for which emergency surgical decompression should be undertaken. Despite the common belief that the restoration of functions that are affected by CES can take several years postoperatively, follow up seldom exceeds the first year after surgery. Long term outcome of especially micturition, defecation and sexual function-which are by definition affected in CES-are unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate 1 postoperative long term outcome of micturition, defecation and sexual function in CES patients 2 attitude of patients towards received hospital care with regard to (recovery of these functions.CES patients were selected by screening the records of all patients operated on lumbar herniated disc in our university hospital between 1995-2010. A questionnaire was sent to the selected CES patients evaluating current complaints of micturition, defecation and sexual function and attitude towards delivered care with focus on micturition, defecation and sexual function.Thirty-seven of 66 eligible CES patients were included (response rate 71%, inclusion rate 56%. Median time after surgery was 13.8 years (range 5.8-21.8 years. Dysfunction at follow up was highly prevalent: 38% micturition dysfunction, 43% defecation dysfunction and 54% sexual dysfunction. Younger age at presentation was associated with sexual dysfunction at follow up: for every year younger at presentation, odds ratio for sexual dysfunction at follow up was 1.11 (p = 0.035. Other associations with outcome were not identified. Two-third of the CES patients wished their neurosurgeon had given them more prognostic information about micturition, defecation and sexual function.The presented data demonstrate that dysfunction of micturition, defecation and sexual function are still highly prevalent in a large number of CES patients even years postoperatively. These alarming follow up data probably have a

  5. ROLE OF MEDICAL REHABILITATION IN CAUDA EQUINA SYNDROME WITH FLACCID PARAPARESIS AFTER SPINAL MENINGITIS. A CASE REPORT

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    DOGARU Gabriela

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Patient L.I., aged 47 years, with multiple hospitalizations in November 2013 for multiple neurological and infectious diseases. In October 2011, surgery was performed for vicious posttraumatic right acetabular callus, confirmed by computed tomography. Subsequently, in November 2013, the patient had lumbar pain radiating to the lower limbs, functional impotence, sphincter incontinence, septic state with positive hemocultures for Staphylococcus aureus, with multiple paravertebral abscesses involving the left iliopsoas muscle, confirmed by contrast magnetic resonance imaging of the dorsolumbar spine, operated phlegmon of the left leg, which were interpreted as diffuse secondary spinal meningitis, complicated by a cauda equina syndrome, for which adequate antibiotic treatment was administered at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases Cluj-Napoca. The patient also presented two episodes of Clostridium difficile acute enterocolitis, with two fecal transplant sessions. In May 2014, the patient was admitted to the Rehabilitation Hospital Cluj-Napoca for motor deficit of the lower limbs, walking disorders, micturition disorders, sexual dynamic disorders, pain in the lumbar spine radiating to the lower limbs, sudden onset sensitivity disorders at D10 level in a febrile context in November 2013, interpreted based on lumbar MRI as spinal meningitis secondary to dorsal and lumbar paravertebral abscesses. During the course of hospitalization, the patient received a complex medical rehabilitation treatment consisting of kinetotherapy (posturations, passive mobilizations, active mobilizations, transfers, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques, walking rehabilitation, respiratory gymnastics, rehabilitation of sensitivity disorders, occupational therapy, massage, medium frequency currents for the rehabilitation of micturition disorders, with good results particularly in walking and urinary incontinence rehabilitation. The aim of the presentation of this

  6. MR appearance of paraganglioma of the cauda equina. Case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taira, H.; Takasita, M.; Yoshida, S.; Takita, C.; Tsumura, H.; Torisu, T. [Oita Medical University, Oita-gun (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery

    2000-07-01

    In order to investigate the value of MR imaging for preoperative diagnosis of paraganglioma of the cauda equina, a retrospective review of 2 cases of paraganglioma of the cauda equina examined with MR imaging was undertaken. Features assessed included the homogeneity of the lesions, presence or absence of serpiginous flow void and thin hypointense margins. In case 1, the tumor was hyperintense on the postcontrast examination and serpiginous flow void suggested vessels in the upper pole of the tumor. In case 2, the tumor was encapsulated by a thin hypointense margin on both T1- and T2-weighted images, which suggested hemosiderin. The MR appearance may be of great value in the preoperative diagnosis of paraganglioma of the cauda equina.

  7. Neuritis of the cauda equina in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saey, V; Martlé, V; Van Ham, L; Chiers, Koen

    2010-10-01

    This study presents the first case report of neuritis of the cauda equina in a dog, including characterisation of the inflammatory infiltrate. The dog in question, a 6-year-old Welsh springer spaniel, was presented with flaccid tail and faecal and urinary incontinence. The histological lesions included severe mononuclear cell infiltration of the nerve roots of the cauda equina and of the lumbar nerve roots. The infiltrate was composed of large numbers of T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes and small numbers of macrophages. Polymerase chain reactions of brain and spinal tissues were positive for Neospora caninum. © 2010 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  8. Metastase de carcinoma comprometendo a cauda equina Metastatic carcinoma of the cauda equina: a case report

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    Lígia M. B. Coutinho

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de paciente, de 60 anos, que apresentou tumor nos segmentos apical e posterior direitos, cujo diagnóstico histopatológico foi de carcinoma indiferenciado. O paciente foi submetido à cobaltoterapia, tendo melhorado por três meses, quando foi novamente hospitalizado por dor lombar. A mielografia com lipiodol mostrou processo expansivo intrarraqueano. Mediante cirurgia foi encontrado tumor intra-dural, englobando raízes nervosas. O diagnóstico microscópico foi de carcinoma indiferenciado infiltrando os espaços epi e peri-neurais.The case of a 60 year-old man who had an indifferenciated carcinoma in the lung is reported. He had recieved cobaltotherapy and had improved. After 3 months a lumbar pain had begun and the patient was hospitalized. A myelography with lipiodol demonstrated an intra-dural mass. At operation a big intra-dural tumor including the cauda equina was found. The microscopic examination revealed an undifferenciated carcinoma, that infiltrated the epi and peri-neural space.

  9. Redundant nerve roots of the cauda equina : MR findings

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    Oh, Kyu Hyen; Lee, Jung Man; Jung, Hak Young; Lee, Young Hwan; Sung, Nak Kwan; Chung, Duck Soo; Kim, Ok Dong [Catholic University of Taegu-Hyosung, College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Kwon; Suh, Kyung Jin [Kyungbuk National Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    To evaluate MR findings of redundant nerve roots (RNR) of the cauda equina. 17 patients with RNR were studied; eight were men and nine were women, and their ages ranged from 46 to 82 (mean 63) years. Diagroses were established on the basis of T2-weighted sagittal and coronal MRI, which showed a tortuous or coiled configuration of the nerve roots of the cauda equina. MR findings were reviewed for location, magnitude, and signal intensity of redundant nerve roots, and the relationship between magnitude of redundancy and severity of lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) was evaluated. In all 17 patients, MR showed moderate or severe LSCS caused by herniation or bulging of an intervertebral disc, osteophyte from the vertebral body or facet joint, thickening of the ligamentum flavum, degenerative spondylolisthesis, or a combination of these. T2-weighted sagittal and coronal MR images well clearly showed the location of RNR of the cauda equina;in 16 patients(94%), these were seen above the level of constriction of the spinal canal, and in one case, they were observed below the level of constriction. T2-weighted axial images showed the thecal sac filled with numerous nerve roots. The magnitude of RNR was mild in six cases (35%), moderate in five cases (30%), and severe in six cases (35%). Compared with normal nerve roots, the RNR signal on T2-weighted images was iso-intense. All patients with severe redundancy showed severe LSCS, but not all cases with severe LSCS showed severe redundancy. Redundant nerve roots of cauda equina were seen in relatively older patients with moderate or severe LSCS and T2-weighted MR images were accurate in identifying redundancy of nerve roots and evaluating their magnitude and location.

  10. Redundant nerve roots of the cauda equina : MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyu Hyen; Lee, Jung Man; Jung, Hak Young; Lee, Young Hwan; Sung, Nak Kwan; Chung, Duck Soo; Kim, Ok Dong; Lee, Sang Kwon; Suh, Kyung Jin

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate MR findings of redundant nerve roots (RNR) of the cauda equina. 17 patients with RNR were studied; eight were men and nine were women, and their ages ranged from 46 to 82 (mean 63) years. Diagroses were established on the basis of T2-weighted sagittal and coronal MRI, which showed a tortuous or coiled configuration of the nerve roots of the cauda equina. MR findings were reviewed for location, magnitude, and signal intensity of redundant nerve roots, and the relationship between magnitude of redundancy and severity of lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) was evaluated. In all 17 patients, MR showed moderate or severe LSCS caused by herniation or bulging of an intervertebral disc, osteophyte from the vertebral body or facet joint, thickening of the ligamentum flavum, degenerative spondylolisthesis, or a combination of these. T2-weighted sagittal and coronal MR images well clearly showed the location of RNR of the cauda equina;in 16 patients(94%), these were seen above the level of constriction of the spinal canal, and in one case, they were observed below the level of constriction. T2-weighted axial images showed the thecal sac filled with numerous nerve roots. The magnitude of RNR was mild in six cases (35%), moderate in five cases (30%), and severe in six cases (35%). Compared with normal nerve roots, the RNR signal on T2-weighted images was iso-intense. All patients with severe redundancy showed severe LSCS, but not all cases with severe LSCS showed severe redundancy. Redundant nerve roots of cauda equina were seen in relatively older patients with moderate or severe LSCS and T2-weighted MR images were accurate in identifying redundancy of nerve roots and evaluating their magnitude and location

  11. Chondroblastoma of the Lumbar Vertebra Associated with Cauda Equina Compression

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    Ewe-Juan Yeap

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chondroblastoma is a benign tumour, most often affecting the epiphyses of long tubular bones such as the proximal end of the humerus, femur, and tibia, as well as the distal end of the femur. Vertebral involvement is extremely rare. We report a case of chondroblastoma of the second lumbar vertebra associated with cauda equina compression. Complete excision is necessary to relieve the compression and ensure surgical clearance.

  12. Cauda equina syndrome: is the current management of patients presenting to district general hospitals fit for purpose? A personal view based on a review of the literature and a medicolegal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, N V

    2015-10-01

    There is no universally agreed definition of cauda equina syndrome (CES). Clinical signs of CES including direct rectal examination (DRE) do not reliably correlate with cauda equina (CE) compression on MRI. Clinical assessment only becomes reliable if there are symptoms/signs of late, often irreversible, CES. The only reliable way of including or excluding CES is to perform MRI on all patients with suspected CES. If the diagnosis is being considered, MRI should ideally be performed locally in the District General Hospitals within one hour of the question being raised irrespective of the hour or the day. Patients with symptoms and signs of CES and MRI confirmed CE compression should be referred to the local spinal service for emergency surgery. CES can be subdivided by the degree of neurological deficit (bilateral radiculopathy, incomplete CES or CES with retention of urine) and also by time to surgical treatment (12, 24, 48 or 72 hour). There is increasing understanding that damage to the cauda equina nerve roots occurs in a continuous and progressive fashion which implies that there are no safe time or deficit thresholds. Neurological deterioration can occur rapidly and is often associated with longterm poor outcomes. It is not possible to predict which patients with a large central disc prolapse compressing the CE nerve roots are going to deteriorate neurologically nor how rapidly. Consensus guidelines from the Society of British Neurological Surgeons and British Association of Spinal Surgeons recommend decompressive surgery as soon as practically possible which for many patients will be urgent/emergency surgery at any hour of the day or night. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  13. Intraoperative neurophysiology of the conus medullaris and cauda equina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothbauer, Karl F; Deletis, Vedran

    2010-02-01

    . Electromyographic activity can be continuously observed during surgery, and monitoring concepts developed in cranial nerve surgery may be used in the cauda equina as well. A range of intraoperative neurophysiological techniques are available for neurophysiological testing of the neural structures of conus medullaris and cauda equina.

  14. Microsurgical DREZotomy in the treatment of chronic pain due to spinal cord and cauda equina injuries: 2 cases report and related literature review

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    LIU Qing-jun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The dorsal root entry zone (DREZ is a hyperactive focus in neuropathic pain (NP syndromes, and DREZotomy has been used in selective cases of NP. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of microsurgical DREZotomy in chronic pain due to spinal cord and cauda equina injuries. Methods Two patients suffered with chronic pain due to spinal cord and cauda equina injuries were treated with microsurgical DREZotomy, and postoperative therapeutic effect and complications were observed. Results One patient had great pain, and the pain was alleviated 2 weeks after surgery, while carbamazepine (300 mg/d was administered continously. Another patient was completely free of pain 2 weeks after surgery, and no recurrence occurred during 3-year follow up. No severe complications were found in the 2 patients. Conclusion Microsurgical DREZotomy is an effective approach in treating chronic pain due to spinal cord and cauda equina injuries.

  15. Malignant primary nerve sheath tumor of the cauda equina in a patient without Von Recklinghausen disease

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    Amit Shankar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST is a rare variety of soft-tissue sarcoma of ecto-mesenchymal origin. Various sites have been mentioned, but it is rare in cauda equina. Only five cases of MPNST of cauda equina are reported till date. A 42-year-old male presented with complaints of weakness in lower limbs for last 5 months with bladder and bowel dysfunction. On magnetic resonance imaging, an isointense lesion on T1 and a hyperintense on T2 imaging was found at terminal spinal cord level. The lesion was excised following laminectomy and showed varied cellularity with thin oval, polyhedral and spindle-shaped cells arranged in bundles on microscopic examination suggesting MPNST. MPNST of cauda equina is rare and is associated with Neurofibromatosis Type-1 or radiation exposure, but is rarer without these risk factors. Prognosis is favorable in these cases.

  16. Paraganglioma of the Cauda Equina Presenting with Erectile and Sphincter Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Marcol

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Paragangliomas of the cauda equina are rare neuroepithelial tumors, usually manifesting clinically as sciatica. Here, we report a case of cauda equina paraganglioma with an unusual course in a 43-year-old man. His main complaints were erectile and sphincter dysfunction. The low back pain was initially ascribed to accidental injury. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed intradural tumor at the L2/L3 level. The patient underwent gross tumor resection, and the diagnosis of paraganglioma was based on neuropathologic examination. The symptoms completely resolved after tumor resection.

  17. Diagnosis of cauda equina abnormalities by using electromyography, discography, and epidurography in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisson, A.F.; LeCouteur, R.A.; Ingram, J.T.; Park, R.D.; Child, G.

    1992-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG), L7-S1 discography and epidurography were investigated in 15 dogs with clinical signs of cauda equina dysfunction and in 7 control dogs without such clinical signs. Electromyography of paraspinal and pelvic limb muscles was done in 13 of 15 affected dogs. An L7-S1 discogram followed by an epidurogram was performed in all 22 dogs using 20% iopamidol. Results of discograms, epidurograms, and gross necropsy examinations were normal in six of seven control dogs. The one dog in which these studies were abnormal had a mild L7-S1 disc protrusion that did not result in nerve root compression at necropsy. Electromyographic analysis was 100% accurate in predicting the presence or absence of cauda equina disease. None of the results of discograms were falsely negative. Twelve of 15 discograms in clinically affected dogs indicated dorsal disc protrusion, but 2 of these protrusions were found to be noncompressive at surgery (13% error). Abnormal epidurograms occurred in 9 of 15 clinically affected dogs. There was one false positive and two false negatives (20% error). Electromyography was a sensitive screening technique for the presence of cauda equina disease. Discography may be more sensitive for detection of L7-S1 disc protrusion than epidurography. An abnormal radiographic contrast study of the cauda equina may only be useful when combined with an abnormal EMG

  18. Meningeal dissemination of a pituitary carcinoma to the cauda equina in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Nora K; Rylander, Helena; Christensen, Neil; Nafe, Laura A

    2017-08-01

    An 8-year-old spayed female border collie dog was diagnosed with an invasive pituitary macrotumor. Five months after radiation therapy, the patient developed paraparesis and lumbosacral pain. Necropsy revealed a pituitary carcinoma with cauda equina drop metastasis. In cases of pituitary masses, meningeal dissemination should be considered if neurologic status declines.

  19. Thickening of the cauda equina roots: a common finding in Krabbe disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Misun; Rodriguez, David; Zuccoli, Giulio; Panigrahy, Ashok; Poe, Michele D.; Escolar, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of Krabbe disease burden and eligibility for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are often based on neuroimaging findings using the modified Loes scoring system, which encompasses central but not peripheral nervous system changes. We show that quantitative evaluation of thickened cauda equina nerve roots may improve the evaluation of Krabbe disease and therapeutic guidance. Lumbar spine MRI scans of patients obtained between March 2013 and September 2013 were retrospectively evaluated and compared to those of controls. Quantitative evaluation of cauda equina roots was performed on the axial plane obtained approximately 5 mm below the conus medullaris. The largest nerves in the right and left anterior quadrants of the spinal canal were acquired. Fifteen symptomatic patients with Krabbe disease (5-44 months old) and eleven age-matched controls were evaluated. The average areas (mm 2 ) of anterior right and left nerves were 1.40 and 1.23, respectively, for patients and 0.61 and 0.60 for controls (differences: 0.79 and 0.63; p < 0.001). Cauda equina nerve root thickening is associated with Krabbe disease in both treated and untreated patients. Adding lumbar spine MRI to the current neurodiagnostic protocols, which fails to account for peripheral nerve abnormalities, will likely facilitate the diagnosis of Krabbe disease. (orig.)

  20. Thickening of the cauda equina roots: a common finding in Krabbe disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Misun; Rodriguez, David [Department of Radiology of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Zuccoli, Giulio; Panigrahy, Ashok [Section of Neuroradiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poe, Michele D.; Escolar, Maria L. [Department of Pediatrics at Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Evaluation of Krabbe disease burden and eligibility for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are often based on neuroimaging findings using the modified Loes scoring system, which encompasses central but not peripheral nervous system changes. We show that quantitative evaluation of thickened cauda equina nerve roots may improve the evaluation of Krabbe disease and therapeutic guidance. Lumbar spine MRI scans of patients obtained between March 2013 and September 2013 were retrospectively evaluated and compared to those of controls. Quantitative evaluation of cauda equina roots was performed on the axial plane obtained approximately 5 mm below the conus medullaris. The largest nerves in the right and left anterior quadrants of the spinal canal were acquired. Fifteen symptomatic patients with Krabbe disease (5-44 months old) and eleven age-matched controls were evaluated. The average areas (mm{sup 2}) of anterior right and left nerves were 1.40 and 1.23, respectively, for patients and 0.61 and 0.60 for controls (differences: 0.79 and 0.63; p < 0.001). Cauda equina nerve root thickening is associated with Krabbe disease in both treated and untreated patients. Adding lumbar spine MRI to the current neurodiagnostic protocols, which fails to account for peripheral nerve abnormalities, will likely facilitate the diagnosis of Krabbe disease. (orig.)

  1. Factors affecting neurological outcome in traumatic conus medullaris and cauda equina injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingwell, Stephen P; Curt, Armin; Dvorak, Marcel F

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to describe the relevant factors that influence neurological outcomes in patients who sustain traumatic conus medullaris injuries (CMIs) and cauda equina injuries (CEIs). Despite the propensity for spinal trauma to affect the thoracolumbar spine, few studies have adequately characterized the outcomes of CMIs and CEIs. Typically the level of neural axis injury is inferred from the spinal level of injury or the presenting neurological picture because no study from the spinal literature has specifically evaluated the location of the conus medullaris with respect to the level of greatest canal compromise. Furthermore, the conus medullaris is known to have a small but important variable location based on the spinal level. Patients with a CMI will typically present with variable lowerextremity weakness, absent lower-limb reflexes, and saddle anesthesia. The development of a mixed upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron syndrome may occur in patients with CMIs, whereas a CEI is a pure lower motor neuron injury. Many treatment options exist and should be individualized. Posterior decompression and stabilization offers at least equivalent neurological outcomes as nonoperative or anterior approaches and has the additional benefits of surgeon familiarity, shorter hospital stays, earlier rehabilitation, and ease of nursing care. Overall, CEIs and CMIs have similar outcomes, which include ambulatory motor function and a variable persistence of bowel, bladder, and potentially sexual dysfunctions.

  2. The relationship between the duration of acute cauda equina compression and functional outcomes in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennie, R Andrew; Urquhart, Jennifer C; Staudt, Michael D; Lawendy, Abdel-Rahman; Gurr, Kevin R; Bailey, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    Immunohistochemical and behavioral study using a rat model of acute cauda equina syndrome (CES). To determine the effect of duration of extradural cauda equina compression (CEC) on bladder, sensory, and motor functions. Cauda equina syndrome is a devastating injury treated with surgical decompression. Controversy exists regarding the optimal timing of surgery. Animal models of CES have focused on motor recovery but have not evaluated pain behavior or bladder function. A 4-mm balloon-tipped Fogarty catheter was inserted between the fifth and sixth lumbar lamina into the dorsal epidural space and inflated to compress the nerve roots at the L5 level. Maximal inflation was maintained at a constant balloon pressure of 304 Kpa for 1 or 4 hours. The catheter was inserted but not inflated in sham animals. During a 4-week period, pain behavior, bladder function, and locomotor function were assessed. Postmortem bladders and the lesion site were collected for analysis. Mechanical allodynia was 2-fold greater in 1-hour CEC rats than 4-hour CEC (P=0.002) and sham-operated (P=0.001) rats at 4 weeks after injury. Hind limb locomotor function was not different between groups at 4 weeks after injury. Both the 1-hour and 4-hour CEC group rats retained greater volumes of urine than the sham-operated rats throughout the 4-week period (P<0.05). At 4 weeks, bladder weight and volume were 2-fold greater in the 4-hour CEC group than in the 1-hour CEC group (P=0.006 and P=0.01, respectively). Histology of the bladder wall revealed an overall thinning after 4-hour CEC. Histology of the lesion site revealed a greater overall severity of injury after 4-hour CEC than after 1-hour CEC (P=0.04) and sham operation (P=0.002). Our data suggest that recovery of motor function is less affected by the timing of decompression compared with bladder function and pain behavior. Early decompression preserved bladder function but was associated with allodynia. N/A.

  3. Ancient Schwannoma of the Cauda Equina: Our Experience and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Venceslao; Marrocco, Luigi; Piccione, Emanuele; Frati, Alessandro; Caruso, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Ancient schwannomas (AS) are exceedingly rare variant of common schwannomas (CS). Only two cases involving the cauda equina region have been previously reported in literature. AS are typically associated with a higher histological degree of degenerative changes (Antoni B areas). It is of peculiar importance, according to our opinion, to outline that, because of their extremely slow growth (which explains the increase of the degenerative changes in respect to the CS) and their typical soft consistency in respect to their standard counterparts, AS usually imply an even better prognosis. PMID:28101394

  4. Redundant nerve roots of cauda equina in clinically neurologically asymptomatic patients. A clinical and radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoshi, Ken-ichi; Kikuchi, Shin-ichi; Konno, Shin-ichi; Arai, Itaru

    2005-01-01

    A radiographic study was conducted to determine the incidence of redundant nerve roots of the cauda equina (RNR) in neurologically asymptomatic patients, and to clarify whether RNR has an impact on the clinical symptom. 50 patients who had spine disease such as spondylosis and compression fracture were examined by MRI. They didn't have neurological symptom such as sciatica, leg numbness, and motor weakness of lower extremities. There were 18 men and 32 women, and their mean age was 72.4 years (range: 32-87 years). RNR was found in 18 of the 50 patients (36.0%) and in a higher percentage of the patients who had lumber spinal canal stenosis. We concluded that RNR was only a morphological change of the cauda equine and had little effect on the neurological symptom. (author)

  5. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with hypertrophy of the cauda equina and concomitant demyelinating white matter lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl-Wagner, B.B.; Staebler, A.; Reiser, M.

    2005-01-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) is thought to almost exclusively affect the peripheral nervous system. We report the case of a 48-year-old patient with a longstanding history of HMSN type I who developed signs and symptoms of a cauda equina compression and of a central nervous system relapsing-remitting demyelinating white matter disease. Gross enlargement of the cauda equina fibers was detected by MR imaging of the lumbar spine. Cranial MR imaging revealed demyelinating white matter lesions. This case suggests that peripheral neuropathic mechanisms may also affect the central myelin in HMSN type I

  6. Radiographic and tomographic aspects of meningeal hemangiosarcoma in a German Shepherd dog with clinical signs of cauda equina sindrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, A.C.B. de C.F.; Ferrigno, C.R.A.; Matera, J.M.; Torres, L.N.; Sinhorini, I.L.; Cortopassi, S.R.G.; Hage, M.C.F.N.S.

    2007-01-01

    Hemangiosarcoma is a highly malignant neoplasia derived from the endothelial cell line and, therefore, can arise in any tissue with blood vessels. A case of a rare meningeal site of hemangiosarcoma in an eight-year old German Shepherd dog with clinical signs of cauda equina sindrome is described. The diagnosis was made based on clinical, radiographic, tomographic and histopathological findings [pt

  7. Changes in excursion and strain in the rat sciatic nerve under cauda equina compression induced by epidural balloon inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Ta-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin; Chien, Jui-Teng; Lee, Jung-Shun; Huang, Yi-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Jou, I-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Healthy nerves are able to stretch and glide as responses to normal physiological movement. Injury to the nerve may alter the nerve's mechanical properties and result in neuropathy. Whether cauda equina compression alters the mechanical properties of the sciatic nerve is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the changes in excursions and strains of the sciatic nerve in vivo after acute cauda equina compression was induced by epidural balloon compression. An animal comparative study with induced cauda equina compression was designed for in situ measurements of nerve properties. Twenty-six adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups. The balloon group (n=10) underwent epidural compression induced by inflation of an embolectomy balloon catheter that was inserted through an L6 laminotomy. The control group (n=10) underwent laminotomy but without compression. The normal group (n=6) received no back surgery. This model of neuropathy was confirmed with electrophysiological examination. The excursions and strains of the sciatic nerve in response to the modified straight leg-raising (SLR) test were measured in situ and analyzed. The scales of the excursions were lower in the balloon group than in the other two groups, in both 90° flexion and extension of the knee. The balloon group was more sensitive to positional changes. The strain was significantly higher under the condition of epidural balloon compression. We concluded that cauda equina compression decreased the excursion and increased the strain of the sciatic nerve in response to a modified SLR test. These findings might indicate one of the mechanisms of the pain provoked by the SLR test and also possibly contribute to an understanding of the pathogenesis of the neuropathy in the lower limbs of patients with cauda equina compression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Distinctive Surgical Strategy for Removal of String of Beadlike Schwannomas of Cauda Equina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Dengyong; Zhang, Jing; Li, Dan; Deng, Xueyun; Ren, Qingqing; Chen, Haifeng

    2018-03-01

    Spinal schwannomas are the most common intradural extramedullary tumors. However, a string of beadlike schwannomas is rare. In some cases, the beadlike tumors might present a multiple segmental growing pattern, often located in the lumbar spinal canal and on 1 nerve fiber. Despite its benign nature, the resection of this string of beadlike tumors could be a challenge to neurosurgeons, especially when the tumors extend to a long distance. A 50-year-old female was admitted to our hospital, and her diagnosis was beadlike schwannomas. We performed 2 small hemilaminectomies and pulled all the tumors out gently. The patient made a full recovery quickly after resection. In this case, we first reported a new surgical approach for the removal of a string of beadlike cauda equina schwannomas. We hypothesize that this procedure would be a potential addition to the present surgical methods under some circumstances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reactive Arthritis Secondary to Cauda Equina Injury following Spine Fracture: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old man presented with a one-month history of muscle weakness and dysesthesia in the lower extremities, urinary retention, and urinary tract infection after lumbar burst fracture resulted from high fall. During the rehabilitation in our hospital, he had arthritis in both the ankle and knee. However, the patient was treated as gouty arthropathy initially. The arthritis was completely remitted in a few days after the patient was diagnosed as reactive arthritis and started with sulfasalazine therapy and there was no recurrence during 4 months of follow-up. Based on this case, early recognition of reactive arthritis is of major importance to avoid delayed initiation of appropriate treatment in the patients with polyarthritis secondary to neurogenic bladder following cauda equina injury after spine fracture.

  10. Post-irradiation lumbosacral radiculopathy associated with multiple cavernous malformations of the cauda equina: Case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Drazin, Doniel; Kappel, Ari; Withrow, Stefan; Perry, Tiffany; Chu, Ray; Phuphanich, Surasak

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multiple radiation-induced cavernous malformations of the cauda equina are extremely rare. A review of the literature suggested that the post-irradiation lumbosacral radiculopathy in our patient was most likely associated with a diagnosis of multiple radiation-induced cavernous malformations of the cauda equina. Case Description: A 76-year-old man with a remote history of abdominal radiation therapy presented with a 6-month history of progressively worsening right foot drop and...

  11. Effective cauda equina decompression in two siblings with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doormaal, Tristan P C; van Ruissen, Fred; Miller, Kai J; Hoogendijk, Jessica E

    2016-01-01

    Two siblings with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) 1B due to a c.517G>C (p.Gly173Arg) mutation in the MPZ gene both developed an acute cauda syndrome with unbearable back pain radiating to both legs, progressive muscle weakness of the legs, and saddle hypesthesia with fecal and urinary incontinence. MRI

  12. Cauda equina redundant nerve roots are associated to the degree of spinal stenosis and to spondylolisthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Garbin Savarese

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the association of redundant nerve roots of cauda equina (RNRCE with the degree of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS and with spondylolisthesis. Method After Institutional Board approval, 171 consecutive patients were retrospectively enrolled, 105 LSS patients and 66 patients without stenosis. The dural sac cross-sectional area (CSA was measured on T2w axial MRI at the level of L2-3, L3-4 and L4-5 intervertebral discs. Two blinded radiologists classified cases as exhibiting or not RNRCE in MRI. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was assessed. Results RNRCE were associated with LSS. RRNCE was more frequent when maximum stenosis<55 mm2. Substantial intra- observer agreement and moderate inter-observer agreement were obtained in the classification of RNRCE. Spondylolisthesis was identified in 27 patients and represented increased risk for RRNCE. Conclusion LSS is a risk factor for RNRCE, especially for dural sac CSA<55 mm2. LSS and spondylolisthesis are independent risk factors for RNRCE.

  13. Chronic Idiopathic Myelofibrosis Presenting as Cauda Equina Compression due to Extramedullary Hematopoiesis: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Duck-Ho; Cho, Dae-Chul; Park, Seong-Hyun; Hwang, Jeong-Hyun; Sung, Joo-Kyung

    2007-01-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is occasionally reported in idiopathic myelofibrosis and is generally found in the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes several years after diagnosis. Myelofibrosis presenting as spinal cord compression, resulting from EMH tissue is very rare. A 39-yr-old man presented with back pain, subjective weakness and numbness in both legs. Sagittal magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple anterior epidural mass extending from L4 to S1 with compression of cauda equina and nerve root. The patient underwent gross total removal of the mass via L4, 5, and S1 laminectomy. Histological analysis showed islands of myelopoietic cells surrounded by fatty tissue, consistent with EMH, and bone marrow biopsy performed after surgery revealed hypercellular marrow and megakaryocytic hyperplasia and focal fibrosis. The final diagnosis was chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis leading to EMH in the lumbar spinal canal. Since there were no abnormal hematological findings except mild myelofibrosis, additional treatment such as radiothepary was not administered postoperatively for fear of radiotoxicity. On 6 month follow-up examination, the patient remained clinically stable without recurrence. This is the first case of chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis due to EMH tissue in the lumbar spinal canal in Korea. PMID:18162730

  14. Effective cauda equina decompression in two siblings with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doormaal, Tristan P C; van Ruissen, Fred; Miller, Kai J; Hoogendijk, Jessica E

    2016-12-01

    Two siblings with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) 1B due to a c.517G>C (p.Gly173Arg) mutation in the MPZ gene both developed an acute cauda syndrome with unbearable back pain radiating to both legs, progressive muscle weakness of the legs, and saddle hypesthesia with fecal and urinary incontinence. MRI showed in both patients a lumbar spinal canal totally filled with hypertrophic caudal nerve roots. We performed acute decompression. Postoperatively, in both patients, the back pain resolved immediately, there was a significant improvement of both the paresis of the legs and the hypesthesia, and there was a full return of continence. There was no recurrence of acute symptoms during respectively 19 years and 1.5 years of follow-up. We conclude that in patients with CMT and a related cauda syndrome because of hypertrophic caudal nerve roots, acute decompression can be an effective and safe treatment with long-term efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Congenital muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and peripheral neuropathy due to merosin deficiency: Peripheral nerve histology of cauda equina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Hissong, M.D.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy, white matter abnormalities, and cardiomyopathy are associated findings with merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy. Although characterization of the neuropathy with nerve conduction studies has been well documented, limited research has been able to correlate histopathology with nerve biopsy in humans. Our understanding of the mechanism, described as a demyelinating neuropathy, is mainly derived from mouse model studies. We report a 23-year-old male who succumbed to respiratory failure and ultimately cardiac arrhythmia in the setting of an uncharacterized end stage progressive muscular disease complicated by cardiomyopathy and severe scoliosis. Autopsy revealed extensive muscular atrophy and replacement by fibroadipose tissue throughout the skeletal muscle and myocardium. Immunohistochemical analysis of the muscle biopsy showed a complete loss of merosin. Thus, the cause for both his muscular disease and demyelinating neuropathy was established with the diagnosis of merosin-deficient muscular dystrophy. Nerve biopsy obtained from the cauda equina showed clear evidence of segmental demyelination and remyelination, providing a better understanding of the proximal peripheral nerve histopathological changes in this disease entity.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Spinal Cord and Cauda Equina Motion in Supine Patients With Spinal Metastases Planned for Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Chia-Lin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sussman, Marshall S. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Atenafu, Eshetu G. [Department of Biostatistics, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Letourneau, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ma, Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Soliman, Hany; Thibault, Isabelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cho, B. C. John; Simeonov, Anna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yu, Eugene [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Fehlings, Michael G. [Department of Neurosurgery and Spine Program, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: To assess motion of the spinal cord and cauda equina, which are critical neural tissues (CNT), which is important when evaluating the planning organ-at-risk margin required for stereotactic body radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed CNT motion in 65 patients with spinal metastases (11 cervical, 39 thoracic, and 24 lumbar spinal segments) in the supine position using dynamic axial and sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI, 3T Verio, Siemens) over a 137-second interval. Motion was segregated according to physiologic cardiorespiratory oscillatory motion (characterized by the average root mean square deviation) and random bulk shifts associated with gross patient motion (characterized by the range). Displacement was evaluated in the anteroposterior (AP), lateral (LR), and superior-inferior (SI) directions by use of a correlation coefficient template matching algorithm, with quantification of random motion measure error over 3 separate trials. Statistical significance was defined according to P<.05. Results: In the AP, LR, and SI directions, significant oscillatory motion was observed in 39.2%, 35.1%, and 10.8% of spinal segments, respectively, and significant bulk motions in all cases. The median oscillatory CNT motions in the AP, LR, and SI directions were 0.16 mm, 0.17 mm, and 0.44 mm, respectively, and the maximal statistically significant oscillatory motions were 0.39 mm, 0.41 mm, and 0.77 mm, respectively. The median bulk displacements in the AP, LR, and SI directions were 0.51 mm, 0.59 mm, and 0.66 mm, and the maximal statistically significant displacements were 2.21 mm, 2.87 mm, and 3.90 mm, respectively. In the AP, LR, and SI directions, bulk displacements were greater than 1.5 mm in 5.4%, 9.0%, and 14.9% of spinal segments, respectively. No significant differences in axial motion were observed according to cord level or cauda equina. Conclusions: Oscillatory CNT motion was observed to be relatively minor. Our results

  17. Síndrome de cauda eqüina produzida por melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lamartine de Assis

    Full Text Available The authors present a case of melanoma of the cauda equina which evolved during two years, starting with pain in the lower extremities and becoming at length a cauda equina syndrome, with bilateral sciatic pain, motor and sensorial signs and bladder and rectal disturbances. The tumor was only partially removed, on account of its infiltrating character. The patient died eleven months later. He had X-ray therapy soon after the operation. Autopsy was not performed but considering the clinical data, the localization and the type of the tumor, authors believe it connected by a primary melanoma of the lombar leptomeninges. A brief review of the literature is made.

  18. Neurophysiological and histopathological evaluation of low-dose radiation on the cauda equina and postlaminotomy fibrosis: an experimental study in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Ren; Lee, Jung-Shun; Chen, Helen Hai-Wen; Wang, Liang-Chao; Huang, Yi-Hung; Jung, Yun-Chih; Jou, I-Ming

    2009-03-01

    We evaluated the electrophysiological changes to the cauda equina after low-dose external irradiation in a postlaminotomy fibrosis model in rats. To clarify the immediate and long-term electrophysiological responses of antifibrotic radiation therapy in a fibrosis model. Low-dose perioperative radiation therapy inhibits scar formation. However, its efficacy for preventing fibrosis-induced compressive neuropathy and its potential adverse effect on underlying neural structures have not been studied. Twenty-four rats were placed in 3 groups of 8: group I, sham operation (laminar exposure alone) with a single fraction of 700 cGy external irradiation given using a 9-MeV electron beam 24 hours postsurgery; group II, left L5 hemilaminectomy (laminotomy) alone; and group III, left L5 hemilaminectomy with the same radiation protocol as group 1. We recorded mixed-nerve-elicited somatosensory-evoked potentials (M-SSEP)- and dermal (D)-SSEP at the thoracolumbar junction, and L1-L2 interspinous ligament after percutaneously stimulating the posterior tibial nerve at the bilateral medial ankle and L5 dermatomal fields. We compared the potentials recorded immediately before, 30 minutes, 2 weeks, and 1, 2, and 3 months after surgery on the operated and nonoperated sides. We used gross dissection and histologic sections to evaluate the degree of perineural fibrosis and walking-track analysis for neurologic evaluation. Pre- and postoperative (30 minutes and 2 weeks) M- and D-SSEP were not statistically different. In group II, the relative amplitude of D-SSEP (elicited from 5 dermatomes) 1, 2, and 3 months postsurgery was lower; however, the M-SSEP in all groups and D-SSEP of groups I and III remained constant. Histologic evaluation of radiation efficacy showed that the frequency and extent of peridural fibrosis was consistently lower in group II than in group III. Low-dose irradiation reduced peridural fibrosis and prevented fibrosis-induced radiculopathy. The radiation caused no

  19. Aspectos radiográficos e tomográficos de hemangiossarcoma de meninges causando síndrome da cauda eqüina em um Pastor Alemão Radiographic and tomographic aspects of meningeal hemangiosarcoma in a German Shepherd dog with clinical signs of cauda equina sindrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Brandão de Campos Fonseca Pinto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O hemangiossarcoma é uma neoplasma altamente maligna da linha de células endoteliais e que, portanto, pode ter origem em qualquer tecido com vasos sangüíneos. Descreve-se um caso raro de hemangiossarcoma de meninge em um cão Pastor Alemão de 8 anos de idade, com manifestações clínicas de síndrome da cauda eqüina. O diagnóstico foi realizado com base nos achados clínicos, radiográficos, tomográficos e histopatológicos.Hemangiosarcoma is a highly malignant neoplasia derived from the endothelial cell line and, therefore, can arise in any tissue with blood vessels. A case of a rare meningeal site of hemangiosarcoma in an eight-year old German Shepherd dog with clinical signs of cauda equina sindrome is described. The diagnosis was made based on clinical, radiographic, tomographic and histopathological findings.

  20. Síndrome da cauda flácida em cão da raça labrador retriever: primeiro relato no Brasil Limber syndrome in a labrador retriever dog: first report in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lígia Mistieri

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome da cauda flácida é uma enfermidade que acomete cães de caça, principalmente Labradores Retriever e do grupo Pointer. Embora sua etiologia não esteja totalmente definida, sabe-se que sua ocorrência é precedida de esforço físico extenuante, exposição ao frio ou água fria e confinamento em caixas de transporte. O presente trabalho descreve o caso de um cão da raça Labrador Retriever, macho não castrado, de quatro anos de idade que apresentou súbita dor e flacidez da cauda após banho frio. Fratura vertebral, síndrome da cauda eqüina, outras enfermidades da medula espinhal ou de glândulas adanais e afecções prostáticas foram descartadas após exames auxiliares. A divulgação deste relato é relevante uma vez que esta síndrome ainda não foi descrita no Brasil.Limber syndrome is a disease that occurs in hunting dogs, commonly Labrador retriever and in dogs that belong to the group of Pointer. The aetiology is still unknown, but its occurrence is prior to extenuating exercises, cold exposure and cold water and transport jail maintenance. This article describes the case of a 4-year-old-intact-male Labrador Retriever that suddenly developed tail pain and limberness after cold bath. It was possible to exclude vertebral fracture, cauda equina syndrome, spinal cord or adanal gland injuries and prostatic disease as the auxiliary evaluations were made. This publication is important because there are no reports of Limber syndrome in Brazil.

  1. MR imaging in Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, F. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Hiroo General Hospital (Japan); Utsumi, Y. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Hiroo General Hospital (Japan)

    1997-01-01

    MRI in a 5-year-old girl with Guillain-Barre syndrome showed marked enhancement of nerve roots in the region of the conus medullaris and cauda equina. This enhancement gradually disappeared after high-dose immunoglobulin therapy. This characteristic finding of MRI may have diagnostic utility and represent the clinical course of the disease. (orig.). With 2 figs.

  2. MR imaging in Guillain-Barre syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, F.; Utsumi, Y.

    1997-01-01

    MRI in a 5-year-old girl with Guillain-Barre syndrome showed marked enhancement of nerve roots in the region of the conus medullaris and cauda equina. This enhancement gradually disappeared after high-dose immunoglobulin therapy. This characteristic finding of MRI may have diagnostic utility and represent the clinical course of the disease. (orig.). With 2 figs

  3. Posterior epidural migration of sequestered lumbar disc fragment causing cauda equina syndrome Migración epidural posterior de fragmento de disco lumbar secuestrado que causa síndrome de cauda equina Migração epidural posterior de fragmento de disco lombar sequestrado que causa síndrome da cauda equina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Rahimizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Posterior epidural migration (PEM of a sequestered free lumbar disc fragment is rare. The rarity is due to presence of several anatomical restraints which restrict a free fragment to move to the posterior compartment. This unusual presentation of disc herniation appeared in the literature either as a single case report or in small series from two to six cases. Herein two new demonstrative cases will be presented with a brief review of the literature.La migración epidural (PEM posterior Epidural Migration de fragmento de disco lumbar libre secuestrado es rara. La rareza se debe a la existencia de varias restricciones anatómicas impidiendo que el fragmento libre se mueva hacia el compartimento posterior. Esa presentación no común de hernia de disco apareció en la literatura como un relato de caso único o en pequeñas series de dos a seis casos. En este artículo, se presentan dos casos nuevos demostrativos, conjuntamente con una revisión breve de la literatura.A migração epidural posterior (PEM posterior epidural migration de fragmento de disco lombar livre sequestrado é rara. A raridade deve-se à presença de várias restrições anatômicas que impedem que o fragmento livre se mova para o compartimento posterior. Essa apresentação incomum de hérnia de disco apareceu na literatura como relato de caso único ou em pequenas séries de dois a seis casos. Neste artigo, são apresentados dois novos casos demonstrativos, com uma breve revisão da literatura.

  4. Functional Paraganglioma: A Rare Conus‑cauda Lesion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Functional Paraganglioma: A Rare Conus‑cauda Lesion. Vivek Agrawal, Mally Rahul, Shadma Khan, Velho Vernon, Binayke Rachana1. INTRODUCTION. Conus-cauda syndrome is caused due to involvement of the lower end of the spinal cord and bunch of nerve roots arising from it. It can lead to a number of symptoms ...

  5. TANDEM COMPRESSION OF MEDULLA SPINALIS AND CAUDA AEQUINA

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    Zhelyazkov Christo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze and present cases of tandem compression of medulla spinalis and cauda equina. Material and Methods: The subjects of observation were four patients with simultaneous compression of medulla spinalis and cauda equina, admitted to the Neurosurgery Clinic of the St George University Hospital, Plovdiv, Bulgaria during the period March 2012 — March 2014. The average age of the patients was 60.5 years (47–72. In one case, left-sided paramedian herniated discs were found at levels L1–2 and L4–5 combined with a concomitant stenosis, in another case — right-sided paramedian herniated discs on the level of Th12 — L1 and a degenerative stenosis at level of L3–4, in the third case — pronounced degenerative compression at level Th7–8 and a central stenosis at level of L4–5, and in the last case — degenerative stenosis at level L3–5 and spinal meningioma at level Th9–10. Results: The clinical signs of the simultaneous compression of the spinal cord and cauda equina have been examined. These signs may mislead the physician in the diagnosis of the spinal lesion, thus, resulting in inappropriate surgical strategy. Conclusion: The involvement of the spinal cord must be clinically confirmed to rule out lesions in the thoracic region. When the lumbar imaging examinations are inconclusive or cannot explain the clinical symptoms of a certain patient, it is advisable to perform a magnetic resonance imaging of the entire spin

  6. Na Cauda do Cometa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Quando viam um cometa, os antigos gregos imaginavam uma estrela com uma vasta cabeleira. Não à toa, a palavra deriva do termo koma, que significa cabelo. Constituídos por fragmentos de gelo e gases, os cometas possuem um núcleo sólido, que pode ter vários quilômetros de diâmetro, e uma cauda que sempre aponta na direção contrária ao Sol, devido aos ventos solares. Graças à aparência de pontos luminosos em movimento (ao contrário de outros astros, que parecem estáticos), esses corpos celestes foram interpretados por diferentes povos com muito misticismo, inspirando mitos tanto de boas-novas como de maus presságios. Conheça algumas dessas histórias:

  7. Utilização de gastroscopia no despiste da EGUS / SUGE (Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome / Síndrome de Úlcera Gástrica Equina)

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Joana de Sousa Azevedo

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária A Síndrome de Úlcera Gástrica Equina (SUGE) tem recebido nas últimas décadas uma atenção crescente, devido à sua elevada prevalência, e às suas repercussões económicas e no bem-estar dos animais. Pensa-se que a SUGE terá uma etiologia multifactorial, envolvendo vários factores de risco que predispõem à lesão da mucosa ao alterarem a acidez gástrica, a concentração de ácidos gordos voláteis ou o aporte sanguíneo. São c...

  8. Myelography in patients with acquired immuno deficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstein, B.J.; Koster, P.A.; Peeters, F.L.M.; Portegies, P.

    1989-01-01

    Neurological complications in patients with Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are frequent and in addition to central nervous system syndromes, involvement of the peripheral nervous system is increasingly seen. We evaluated the indications and results of myelographic examination in six AIDS-patients with signs of peripheral nervous system disease, out of 200 AIDS-patients with neurological complications. Five of these patients had a polyradiculopathy, with proven cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in four cases. There were two abnormal myelographic examinations with findings of cauda equina nerve root involvement, both in patients with proven CMV-polyradiculopathy. These abnormal findings had no direct therapeutic consequences. Myelography is not essential for establishing the diagnosis, which is based on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, but may be indicated to exclude a spinal cord or nerve root compressive lesion. (orig.)

  9. Cauda equina enhancing lesion in a HIV-positive patient. Case report and literature revision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale De Bonis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case a spinal cord localization of neurological toxoplasmosis in a HIV-positive patient with Burkitt lymphoma, previously treated with chemotherapy and immunotherapy. This complication occurred while patient was in complete remission of lymphoma, with CD4+ T cell count of 270 /ml, undetectable HIV viremia, and despite the trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis. Indeed, we hypothesize that in our patient neurologic toxoplasmosis has been fostered more by previous immuno-chemotherapy than by HIV- related immunodeficiency. On the whole, this case suggests that parameters usually employed to predict the risk for opportunistic infections in HIV-positive people might not apply to patients with HIV-related lymphomas.

  10. Cauda equina enhancing lesion in a HIV-positive patient. Case report and literature revision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Maria Larocca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    We describe the case a spinal cord localization of neurological toxoplasmosis in a HIV-positive patient with Burkitt lymphoma, previously treated with chemotherapy and immunotherapy. This complication occurred while patient was in complete remission of lymphoma, with CD4+ T cell count of 270 /ml, undetectable HIV viremia, and despite the trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis. Indeed, we hypothesize that in our patient neurologic toxoplasmosis has been fostered more by previous immuno-chemotherapy than by HIV- related immunodeficiency. On the whole, this case suggests that parameters usually employed to predict the risk for opportunistic infections in HIV-positive people might not apply to patients with HIV-related lymphomas.

  11. Ocular infection of donkeys (Equus asinus) with Setaria equina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzok, Mohamed A; Desouky, Abdel-Razek Y

    2009-08-01

    Seven donkeys raised in different locations in Egypt were found to have a unilateral eye showing motile white worms in the aqueous humor. The parasites were surgically removed from the anterior chamber of the eye in five out of the seven donkeys, and were cleared, mounted and identified as Setaria equina based on light microscopic features. The ocular infection with S. equina reported herein may be the first reported aberrant cases in the Egyptian animals.

  12. The tolerance of feline corpus and cauda spermatozoa to cryostress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkitti, Panisara; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi; Sjunnesson, Ylva; Johannisson, Anders; Axnér, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Epididymal sperm preservation can be used to avoid the total loss of genetic material in threatened species. Spermatozoa from the corpus, as from the cauda, are motile and can undergo capacitation. Thus, they can potentially be preserved for assisted reproductive technologies. However, cryopreservation of spermatozoa has a direct detrimental effect on sperm quality. The aim of this study was to compare the chromatin stability and the survival rate of spermatozoa from the corpus and cauda epididymis after cryopreservation. Epididymal spermatozoa were collected and cryopreserved from the corpus and cauda of 12 domestic cats. Sperm motility, progressive motility, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, and DNA integrity were evaluated before and after freezing thawing. The average total number of spermatozoa collected from the corpus was lower (10.2 × 10(6) ± 7.4) than that from the cauda epididymis (24.9 × 10(6) ± 14.4; P = 0.005). The percentage of spermatozoa with intact DNA did not differ significantly whether it was collected from the corpus or cauda regions and did not decrease after freezing thawing in either region. However, motility of spermatozoa from both regions was affected by the freezing thawing process with a significant decline in motility after thaw compared with fresh spermatozoa. A significant difference in the percentage of motile sperm between the corpus and cauda was observed after the freezing thawing process (P corpus epididymidis than from the cauda, the rate of the reduction did not differ between regions. This study indicates that the cryopreservation process does not have a negative effect on chromatin stability of feline epididymal spermatozoa. Spermatozoa from the corpus region have a similar freezability as spermatozoa from the cauda region. Therefore, preservation of spermatozoa from the corpus and the cauda epididymidis might be of value in preserving genetic material from endangered or valuable felids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  13. Identification of peroxiredoxin-5 in bovine cauda epididymal sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagdas, Subir K; Buchanan, Teresa; Raychoudhury, Samir

    2014-02-01

    Developing spermatozoa require a series of posttesticular modifications within the luminal environment of the epididymis to achieve maturation; this involves several surface modifications including changes in plasma membrane lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and alterations in the outer acrosomal membrane. Epididymal maturation can therefore allow sperm to gain forward motility and fertilization capabilities. The objective of this study was to identify maturation-dependent protein(s) and to investigate their role with the production of functionally competent spermatozoa. Lectin blot analyses of caput and cauda sperm plasma membrane fractions identified a 17.5 kDa wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-binding polypeptide present in the cauda sperm plasma membrane not in the caput sperm plasma membrane. Among the several WGA-stained bands, the presence of a 17.5 kDa WGA-binding polypeptide band was detected only in cauda epididymal fluid not in caput epididymal fluid suggesting that the 17.5 kDa WGA-binding polypeptide is secreted from the cauda epididymis and binds to the cauda sperm plasma membrane during epididymal transit. Proteomic identification of the 17.5 kDa polypeptide yielded 13 peptides that matched the sequence of peroxiredoxin-5 (PRDX5) protein (Bos Taurus). We propose that bovine cauda sperm PRDX5 acts as an antioxidant enzyme in the epididymal environment, which is crucial in protecting the viable sperm population against the damage caused by endogeneous or exogeneous peroxide.

  14. The pharmacotherapy of low back pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern imaging techniques have contributed significantly to getting to the correct diagnosis. The following conditions may cause lower back pain: Cancer, Cauda Equina Syndrome, Herniated intervertebral disc, severe or progressive neurological deficits, spinal stenosis, vertebral compression fracture or vertebral infection.

  15. Lidocaine induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway independently of death receptor signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werdehausen, Robert; Braun, Sebastian; Essmann, Frank; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Walczak, Henning; Lipfert, Peter; Stevens, Markus F.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Local anesthetics, especially lidocaine, can lead to persistent cauda equina syndrome after spinal anesthesia. Recently, lidocaine has been reported to trigger apoptosis, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To elucidate the pathway of lidocaine-induced apoptosis, the

  16. Antioxidative effect of epichlorohydrin on rat cauda epididymal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of epichlorohydrin (ECH) on the antioxidant system of rat cauda epididymal sperm. Fresh epididymides of adult male rats were obtained from JIPMER, (Pondicherry) were collected by chopping the epididymis in modified Ringer's phosphate solution (RPS medium). After several ...

  17. ASOCIACIÓN SEROLÓGICA DE LA RINONEUMONITIS VIRAL EQUINA Y LA ANEMIA INFECCIOSA EQUINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albeiro López-Herrera

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el nivel de asociación serológica entre los herpesvirus equinos tipos 1 y 4 (HVE-1 y HVE-4 causantes de la rinoneumonitis equina y el virus de la anemia infecciosa equina (VAIE en caballos de trabajo provenientes de 5 municipios del Meta. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una encuesta serológica transversal en 68 equinos provenientes de los municipios de San Martín, Guamal, Restrepo, Cumaral y Paratebueno. Para la evaluación de los anticuerpos contra los HVE-1 y HVE-4, se utilizó un ELISA indirecto para detectar la presencia de anticuerpos dirigidos contra la glicoproteína G del HVE-1 y HVE-4 (Svanovir ™ EHV1/EHV4-Ab ELISA; para el diagnóstico de anticuerpos contra el VAIE se utilizó la prueba de inmunodifusión en agar de gel de Coggins. Resultados. No se encontraron reactores al HVE-1; sin embargo, el porcentaje de seropositividad fue de 94.12% (64/68 y 13.2%(9/68 para HVE-4 y VAIE respectivamente. El porcentaje de animales coinfectados HVE-4 y AIE fue 13.23% (9/68. Cuando se discriminaron los resultados por Municipio se encontró un 27.9% (19/68 de reactividad en el municipio de Restrepo, 26.5% (18/68 en Cumaral, 14.7% (10/68 en Paratebueno, 14.7% (10/68 en Guamal, y 10.3% (7/68 en San Martin. El porcentaje de reactores por municipio al VAIE fue Cumaral 5.88% (4/68, Restrepo 4.4% (3/68, Guamal 1.47%(1/68 y San Martín 1.47% (1/68. Conclusión. El alto porcentaje de coinfección entre HVE-4 y VAIE sugiere un efecto importante en la interacción, pues el efecto inmunosupresor del VAIE podría facilitar la reactivación del estado latente del HVE-4.

  18. Dermatopatías bacterianas de importancia en medicina equina.

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Tuemmers; Angélica Saldivia

    2016-01-01

    La dermatología representa una parte importante en la práctica equina. Las dermatopatías bacterianas comúnmente son causadas por patógenos oportunistas que son parte de la flora normal de la piel, que ingresan mediante disrupciones de la piel provocando el desarrollo de enfermedades; existen también patógenos que pueden provocar enfermedad sistémica que tienen manifestaciones cutáneas. Para el diagnóstico de las patologías cutáneas provocadas por bacterias es necesario realizar el examen clín...

  19. Outcome Analysis in Cases of Spinal Conus Cauda Ependymoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Devendra K; Desai, Ketan I; Dighe, Mohnish P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One half of all central nervous system ependymomas, arise within the spinal canal and about 40% of these arise from filum terminale. The myxopapillary variant of spinal ependymoma almost exclusively occurs in the lumbosacral region and they are histologically designated as Grade I. Long term control is best achieved by gross total removal at the initial operation. There is as yet no consensus on the management of incompletely excised tumour. Opinions regarding radiotherapy are controversial and the indications are empirical. Aim In the present study, we investigated the clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes in patients with conus cauda ependymoma that were managed at our center with baseline comparison of our findings with those reported in literature. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis of 44 cases of conus cauda ependymoma tumours treated at the Department of Neurosurgery at a tertiary care centre from January 2001 to December 2015 was done. Detailed scrutiny and analysis of the patient’s data with respect to the demographic features, clinical findings, investigative procedures, extent of surgical resection, intra and postoperative complications, efficacy of adjuvant therapy, postoperative results and long term follow-up were done. Results The analysis was done in 44 patients with conus cauda ependymoma over a period of 15 years. The mean age of presentation was 31 years. Incidence of male predominance was noted. Average duration of presenting features was 10 months. Back pain and motor weakness in the lower limbs were the commonest clinical findings. Total excision of the tumour was possible in 89% cases. Myxopapillary ependymoma was the commonest variant. Radiotherapy was only given in patients with near total to subtotal excision of tumour. Back pain and motor weakness improved in majority of patients after surgery. There is limited role of radiotherapy in cases with total tumour excision. Conclusion Conus cauda ependymomas

  20. Dermatopatías bacterianas de importancia en medicina equina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Tuemmers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La dermatología representa una parte importante en la práctica equina. Las dermatopatías bacterianas comúnmente son causadas por patógenos oportunistas que son parte de la flora normal de la piel, que ingresan mediante disrupciones de la piel provocando el desarrollo de enfermedades; existen también patógenos que pueden provocar enfermedad sistémica que tienen manifestaciones cutáneas. Para el diagnóstico de las patologías cutáneas provocadas por bacterias es necesario realizar el examen clínico general y luego hacer un examen específico de la piel describiendo las características de la piel y las lesiones que se presentan. Hay numerosos métodos complementarios que ayudan a la identificación del agente etiológico; con el fin de instaurar el tratamiento adecuado. En nuestro país se han realizado pocos reportes y publicaciones respecto de las patologías cutáneas que afectan a los equinos, a su vez también es poca la variedad de antimicrobianos de uso en la clínica equina lo que impide el correcto tratamiento de las diferentes dermatopatías.

  1. Spinal subarachnoid hematoma in a woman with HELLP syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimaki Hisako

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Subarachnoid hemorrhages of spinal origin are extremely rare during pregnancy. We present the case of a patient with hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count (the so-called HELLP syndrome, a potentially life-threatening complication associated with pre-eclampsia, who presented with an idiopathic spinal subarachnoid hematoma. Case presentation At 29 gestational weeks, a 35-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed with HELLP syndrome based on bilateral leg paralysis, diminished sensation and reflexes, and laboratory findings. The pregnancy was immediately brought to an end by Cesarean delivery. Post-operatively, an MRI scan revealed a space-occupying lesion in her thoracic spinal canal. Emergency decompression was followed by total laminectomy. A subarachnoid hematoma, partially extending as far as the ventral side, was removed. After thorough washing and drain placement, the operation was completed with the suturing of artificial dura mater. Eight months post-operatively, her lower extremity sensation had improved to a score of 8 out of 10, but improvements in her muscular strength were limited to slight gains in her toes. MRI scans taken two months post-operatively revealed edematous spinal cord changes within her medulla. Conclusions A subarachnoid hematoma during pregnancy is extremely rare, possibly due to increased coagulability during pregnancy. However, this complication is potentially devastating should a clot compress the spinal cord or cauda equina. While several causes of hematoma have been proposed, we speculate that the factors underlying hemorrhagic diathesis in our case were the decreased platelet count characteristic of HELLP syndrome and vascular fragility due to elevated estrogen levels, in addition to increased abdominal pressure during pregnancy and pressure from the gravid uterus resulting in ruptured vessels around the spinal cord. In cases displaying a progressive lesion and severe

  2. Spinal subarachnoid hematoma in a woman with HELLP syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Hisako; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Ueno, Masaki; Imura, Takayuki; Saito, Wataru; Takahira, Naonobu; Takaso, Masashi

    2012-06-13

    Subarachnoid hemorrhages of spinal origin are extremely rare during pregnancy. We present the case of a patient with hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count (the so-called HELLP syndrome), a potentially life-threatening complication associated with pre-eclampsia, who presented with an idiopathic spinal subarachnoid hematoma. At 29 gestational weeks, a 35-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed with HELLP syndrome based on bilateral leg paralysis, diminished sensation and reflexes, and laboratory findings. The pregnancy was immediately brought to an end by Cesarean delivery. Post-operatively, an MRI scan revealed a space-occupying lesion in her thoracic spinal canal. Emergency decompression was followed by total laminectomy. A subarachnoid hematoma, partially extending as far as the ventral side, was removed. After thorough washing and drain placement, the operation was completed with the suturing of artificial dura mater. Eight months post-operatively, her lower extremity sensation had improved to a score of 8 out of 10, but improvements in her muscular strength were limited to slight gains in her toes. MRI scans taken two months post-operatively revealed edematous spinal cord changes within her medulla. A subarachnoid hematoma during pregnancy is extremely rare, possibly due to increased coagulability during pregnancy. However, this complication is potentially devastating should a clot compress the spinal cord or cauda equina. While several causes of hematoma have been proposed, we speculate that the factors underlying hemorrhagic diathesis in our case were the decreased platelet count characteristic of HELLP syndrome and vascular fragility due to elevated estrogen levels, in addition to increased abdominal pressure during pregnancy and pressure from the gravid uterus resulting in ruptured vessels around the spinal cord. In cases displaying a progressive lesion and severe neurological signs, prompt decompression is crucial.

  3. Use of GDNF Releasing Nanofiber Nerve Guide Conduits for the Repair of Conus Medullaris/Cauda Equina Injury in the Nonhuman Primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    training, urodynamic recordings, electromyography of the pelvic floor, and pain behavioral testing. At 18 months after the surgery, a final set of...efficiency, and post-voiding residual volumes are determined. An elevation of the urethral pressure during the micturition reflex response is also a...Outcomes that are currently being analyzed include pelvic floor EMG recordings, pain behavioral monitoring, urodynamic studies, locomotor behavior

  4. Motor evoked potentials from the bladder on magnetic stimulation of the cauda equina: a new technique for investigation of autonomic bladder innervation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, B. L.; van Kerrebroeck, P. E.; Notermans, S. L.; Wijkstra, H.; Debruyne, F. M.

    1992-01-01

    Although neurophysiological techniques have become widely accepted in the diagnostic evaluation of urogenital tract dysfunction, arguments have been forwarded to question their validity. Current techniques merely deal with somatosensory nerves, whereas micturition and sexual functions depend on

  5. In vitro fertilization using frozen-thawed feline epididymal spermatozoa from corpus and cauda regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkitti, Panisara; Axnér, Eva; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi; Sjunnesson, Ylva

    2016-10-01

    Epididymal sperm preservation offers a potential for rescuing genetic material from endangered or valuable animals after injury or death. Spermatozoa from corpus, as well as from cauda, have the capability to be motile and to undergo capacitation and can thus potentially be preserved for assisted reproductive technologies. In the present study, feline frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa from corpus and cauda regions were investigated for their ability to fertilize homologous oocytes and further embryo development in vitro. Epididymal spermatozoa from corpus and cauda of seven cats were cryopreserved and used for IVF. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (n = 419) were obtained from female cats after routine spaying. Frozen-thawed corpus epididymal spermatozoa showed similar properties of acrosome integrity, membrane integrity, and chromatin integrity as frozen-thawed spermatozoa from cauda except corpus spermatozoa showed lower motility (P epididymal spermatozoa was confirmed by similar number of embryos developing to the two- and four-cell stages compared with sperm from cauda (32.03% vs. 33.33%). However, oocytes fertilized with corpus spermatozoa had lower potential to develop to the blastocyst stage (6.79%) and had lower cell numbers compared to oocytes fertilized with cauda spermatozoa (14.08%). In conclusion, spermatozoa from corpus epididymis had a similar capability to fertilize homologous oocytes in vitro as sperm from cauda but resulted in fewer embryos developing to the blastocyst stage compared to spermatozoa from the cauda. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Mucus of Actinia equina (Anthozoa, Cnidaria: An Unexplored Resource for Potential Applicative Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Stabili

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mucus produced by many marine organisms is a complex mixture of proteins and polysaccharides forming a weak watery gel. It is essential for vital processes including locomotion, navigation, structural support, heterotrophic feeding and defence against a multitude of environmental stresses, predators, parasites, and pathogens. In the present study we focused on mucus produced by a benthic cnidarian, the sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758 for preventing burial by excess sedimentation and for protection. We investigated some of the physico-chemical properties of this matrix such as viscosity, osmolarity, electrical conductivity, protein, carbohydrate, and total lipid contents. Some biological activities such as hemolytic, cytotoxic, and antibacterial lysozyme-like activities were also studied. The A. equina mucus is mainly composed by water (96.2% ± 0.3%, whereas its dry weight is made of 24.2% ± 1.3% proteins and 7.8% ± 0.2% carbohydrates, with the smallest and largest components referable to lipids (0.9% and inorganic matter (67.1%. The A. equina mucus matrix exhibited hemolytic activity on rabbit erythrocytes, cytotoxic activity against the tumor cell line K562 (human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia and antibacterial lysozyme-like activity. The findings from this study improve the available information on the mucus composition in invertebrates and have implications for future investigations related to exploitation of A. equina and other sea anemones’ mucus as a source of bioactive compounds of high pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest.

  7. Posterior epidural migration of lumbar ruptured disc: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Deug Hee; Lee, Sang Ho; Park, Hyeon Seon; Park, Jy Young; Chung, Seung Eun; Jo, Byung June [Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Disc fragment migration occurs in 35%-72% of lumbar disc herniations. Most of the herniated disc fragments migrate in the rostal, caudal and lateral directions. Posterior epidural disc fragment migration is a rare finding and posterior migration causing Cauda Equina syndrome is exceptionally rare. We report here on two cases of L4-5 disc fragment posterior epidural migration that caused Cauda Equina syndrome, and this was diagnosed by performing radiological examination, and we also include a review of the related literature.

  8. Anemia infecciosa equina en una yegua pony (Equss caballus). Estudio clinico patologico

    OpenAIRE

    P.A. Flores-Flores

    2015-01-01

    La anemia infecciosa equina (AIE), es una enfermedad infecto contagiosa que afecta a équidos: caballos y ponis (Equss caballus), mulas y burros (E. asinus), ocasionada por el Lentivirus de la familia Retroviridae, subfamilia Orthoretrovirinae. La infección produce cuadros febriles recurrentes, anemia autoinmune, ictericia y edema; el curso clínico de la enfermedad puede ser agudo o crónico, y alta letalidad de los animales afectados. En el prese...

  9. The influence of adjuvants used in regional anesthesia on lidocaine-induced neurotoxicity in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werdehausen, Robert; Braun, Sebastian; Hermanns, Henning; Kremer, David; Küry, Patrick; Hollmann, Markus W.; Bauer, Inge; Stevens, Markus F.

    2011-01-01

    Neurotoxic properties of local anesthetics can rarely lead to irreversible neuronal damage as in cauda equina syndrome. Clinically, local anesthetics are often combined with adjuvants to improve or prolong the anesthetic effect, whereas the impact of such adjuvants on lidocaine-induced apoptosis is

  10. Misdiagnosis of intraspinal lesions in childhood | Thompson | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three children with intraspinal mass lesions in whom the diagnosis was initially missed are described. Their case histories highlight the specific clinical features of and diagnostic difficulties with the syndromes produced by lesions of the craniocervical junction, the mid-thoracic spinal cord and the cauda equina.

  11. Genômica aplicada à reprodução equina

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Priscila Marques Moura de

    2011-01-01

    Em equinos, as intersecções entre a reprodução e a genômica são numerosas, no entanto, pouco se sabe sobre os fatores genéticos que atuam na fertilidade. Com o genoma equino completo, existe a possibilidade de análises moleculares e estudo de genes candidatos a biomarcadores para características reprodutivas específicas. Com base nestas informações, a presente tese teve como objetivo desenvolver estudos de genômica aplicada à reprodução equina. O primeiro artigo analisou a expressão de gen...

  12. A Cauda Longa Do Varejo Online: e-mail marketing aplicado ao mercado de nicho

    OpenAIRE

    Casas, Alexandre Luzzi Las; Pinheiro, Wesley Moreira

    2013-01-01

    O mercado de varejo online está em constante adaptação. A realidade virtual possibilitou a manutenção da oferta de produtos extintos das prateleiras das lojas físicas, mantendo a diversidade de catálogo e a amplitude de vendas. A investigação utilizou de método qualitativo e, propõe o estudo da Cauda Longa, de Chris Anderson como agente de apoio ao marketing direto por meio de e-mail marketing. A pesquisa propõe um entendimento sobre a evolução do mercado de varejo pela Internet desde a ocorr...

  13. High in situ repeatability of behaviour indicates animal personality in the beadlet anemone Actinia equina (Cnidaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Briffa

    Full Text Available 'Animal personality' means that individuals differ from one another in either single behaviours or suites of related behaviours in a way that is consistent over time. It is usually assumed that such consistent individual differences in behaviour are driven by variation in how individuals respond to information about their environment, rather than by differences in external factors such as variation in microhabitat. Since behavioural variation is ubiquitous in nature we might expect 'animal personality' to be present in diverse taxa, including animals with relatively simple nervous systems. We investigated in situ startle responses in a sea anemone, Actinia equina, to determine whether personalities might be present in this example of an animal with a simple nervous system. We found very high levels of repeatability among individuals that were re-identified in the same locations over a three week sampling period. In a subset of the data, where we used tide-pool temperature measurements to control for a key element of variation in microhabitat, these high levels of repeatability remained. Although a range of other consistent differences in micro-habitat features could have contributed to consistent differences between the behaviour of individuals, these data suggest the presence of animal personality in A. equina. Rather than being restricted to certain groups, personality may be a general feature of animals and may be particularly pronounced in species with simple nervous systems.

  14. Surto de encefalomielite equina Leste na Ilha de Marajó, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karinny F. Campos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nove casos de encefalomielite equina foram estudados na Ilha de Marajó, estado do Pará, Brasil. Os equinos apresentavam dificuldade em se manter em estação, andavam em círculo, tinham acentuada depressão, pálpebras cerradas, paralisia da língua, tremores musculares, bruxismo, anorexia e desidratação. Alguns apresentavam diminuição dos reflexos auricular, palpebral, de ameaça, diminuição do tônus da língua e taquicardia. Posição de auto-auscultação foi observada com frequência. Os animais muitas vezes eram encontrados apoiados em troncos e cercas para se manterem em estação. À necropsia verificou-se hemorragia das leptomeninges e da medula, alguns apresentaram ainda aderência das leptomeninges. À histopatologia verificou-se encefalite difusa que afetava principalmente a substância cinzenta, com meningite e coroidite. Foi observada perivasculite mononuclear. Em dois equinos identificou-se o vírus da encefalomielite equina Leste pela reação de Semi-Nested transcrição reversa de polimerase em cadeia (Semi-Nested RT-PCR.

  15. In-vivo gene transfer induces transgene expression in cells and secretions of the mouse cauda epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esponda, P; Carballada, R

    2009-06-01

    Mouse cauda epididymis were in-vivo transfected using the lipid FuGENE 6 as gene vector. Two gene constructions were employed: the p-GeneGRIP which codifies for the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and the pSEAP-control that expresses an alkaline phosphatase as a secretion. Transfection was detected by fluorescence and appeared in the nucleus and cytoplasm of epithelial cells. Transfection was observed in 39.70% of cells after 2 days and in 31.77% after 7 days, and then diminished progressively. Moreover, the presence of the transgene in the DNA isolated from treated epididymides was observed by polymerase chain reaction. GFP gene expression appeared in large areas of the cauda epididymis and it was observed exclusively in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. GFP gene expression occurred during 2 weeks after gene injection and occupied 32.24, 29.98 and 22.37% of the area of the tubules when analyzed 2, 7 and 15 days after gene injection. The cauda was also analyzed in toto and showed similar results. The use of the pSEAP-control gene showed that cauda epididymis secretions can also be modified by the transfection procedure. A significant increase of alkaline phosphatase activity appeared in the epididymal fluids 7 days after gene injection. These results indicate that transfection procedures could be an important tool in the future to study epididymal physiology or to change the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa.

  16. Differences in the expression of microRNAs and their predicted gene targets between cauda epididymal and ejaculated boar sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu; Dai, Ding-Hui; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Guang-Bin; Zeng, Chang-Jun

    2016-12-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa gradually mature and acquire fertility during the transition from the testis to the caput and cauda epididymis, after which they are stored at the tail of the epididymis and the ampulla of vas deferens. During ejaculation, mixing of spermatozoa with the secretions of accessory sex glands leads to their dilution and changes in their function. Although remarkable progress has been made toward the understanding of changes in spermatozoa biochemistry and function before and after ejaculation, it is unknown whether microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in regulating the function of spermatozoa during the transition between the cauda epididymis and ejaculation. In this study, 48 miRNAs were selected for analysis on the basis of their potential involvement in spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and quality parameters markers. The differential expression levels of these 48 miRNAs between the caudal epididymis and fresh ejaculates of boar spermatozoa were determined. We found that 15 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed (eight downregulated and seven upregulated) between boar cauda epididymal and fresh spermatozoa. Five miRNAs hypothesized to be involved in sperm apoptosis were further tested to demonstrate their influence over the expression of their target mRNAs using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Together, our findings suggest that these differentially expressed miRNAs are associated with the functional regulation of spermatozoa between cauda epididymis and ejaculation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. ATP-induced reactivation of ram testicular, cauda epididymal, and ejaculated spermatozoa extracted with Triton X-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, I G; Voglmayr, J K

    1986-02-01

    It was possible to demembrante and reactivate not only freshly collected testicular, cauda epididymal, and ejaculated ram sperm but also sperm that had been stored for several days at 0 degrees C and for several months at -196 degrees C in rete testis fluid or egg yolk citrate media. Sperm were usually washed free of seminal plasma before demembranation, but this was not essential for reactivation. Bovine serum albumin (1.0%) in the wash medium increased the survival of sperm, but more than 0.25% in the extraction medium decreased reactivation. A macro-molecular component of cauda epididymal fluid also inhibited the reactivation of testicular sperm. Triton X-100 concentrations between 0.01% and 1.00% in the extraction medium were satisfactory for demembranating the sperm. Rapid cooling (i.e., cold shock) mimicked the effect of detergent in making the sperm responsive to added ATP and demonstrated that damage to ram sperm in cold shock does not involve the axoneme. Ejaculated and cauda sperm were reactivated immediately on addition of ATP and activity persisted for up to 10 min. Testicular sperm, on the other hand, required about 4 min to become fully reactivated. The optimal ATP concentration for activation of sperm was 0.1-1.0 mM. Magnesium ions (0.1-1.0 mM) were important for reactivation, and testicular sperm required a higher magnesium concentration than did cauda or ejaculated sperm. Manganese ions were almost as effective as magnesium for reactivating cauda epididymal and ejaculated sperm. Cobalt and cadmium ions were much less active for cauda and ejaculated sperm and none of these ions were effective for testicular sperm. Fluoride (25-50 mM) inhibited reactivation. The presence of 50 microM cAMP in the extraction medium or preincubation of testicular sperm with theophylline or caffeine increased low levels of activation, but this was not evident with ejaculated or cauda sperm. We conclude that the motor apparatus is already functionally assembled in

  18. Eventos de Desconexao na Cauda de Plasma do Cometa P/Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Fahr, H. J.

    2001-08-01

    Observacoes cometárias e de vento solar sao comparadas com o propósito de determinar-se as condicoes do vento solar associadas aos eventos de desconexao (DEs) observados em caudas de plasma cometárias. Os dados cometários sao provenientes do The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena. A análise visual sistemática das imagens do atlas revelou, entre outras estruturas morfológicas, 47 DEs ao longo da cauda de plasma do P/Halley. Estes 47 DEs registrados em 47 imagens distintas permitiram a descoberta de 19 origens de DEs, ou seja, o tempo em que as desconexoes iniciaram foi calculado. Os dados do vento solar sao provenientes de medidas feitas in situ pela sonda espacial IMP-8, as quais foram usadas para elaborar a variacao da velocidade do vento solar, densidade e pressao dinâmica durante o intervalo analisado. O presente trabalho compara as atuais teorias conflitantes, baseadas nos mecanismos de formacao, com o intuito de explicar o fenômeno cíclico dos DEs, ou seja, os efeitos de producao iônica, os efeitos de pressao e os efeitos de reconexao magnética sao analisados. Para cada uma das 19 origens de DEs comparou-se a densidade com a respectiva velocidade do vento solar com o intuito de determinar-se uma possível correlacao entre estas origens e os efeitos de pressao dinâmica. Quando da ocorrência de 6 origens de DEs o IMP-8 nao realizou medidas, nos outros 13 casos 10 origens (77%) mostraram uma anticorrelacao entre velocidade e densidade e apenas 3 (23%) revelaram uma tendência similar entre velocidade e densidade. Portanto, a análise inicial demonstra uma fraca correlacao entre as origens dos DEs e os efeitos de pressao.

  19. Tethered spinal cord syndrome with lumbar segmental stenosis treated with XLIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Carpineta, MD

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Literature review of adults TCS associated with lumbar spinal degenerative disease as lumbar canal stenosis or disc herniation, is reported. Moderate entity of traction of spinal cord may remain asymptomatic in childhood and may result in delayed neurological deficits in adult life. The stretching of conus medullaris and spinal nerves of cauda equina, reduces regional blood flow and causes neural death and fibrous tissue replacement. Sudden or progressive onset of paraparesis with spastic gait, bladder dysfunction and acute low back pain in patient with history of spinal dysraphism must be considered as possible lumbar spinal cord compression caused by low lying cord related to TCS. Surgical decompression should be performed as early as possible to ensure neurological recovery. XLIF approach seems to be safe and fast and represent an excellent surgical option to obtain spinal cord indirect decompression and lumbar interbody fusion.

  20. Expression profiles of human epididymis epithelial cells reveal the functional diversity of caput, corpus and cauda regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, James A; Yang, Rui; Leir, Shih-Hsing; Eggener, Scott E; Harris, Ann

    2016-02-01

    Region-specific transcriptional profiling of tissues and cultured epithelial cells from the human epididymis will predict functional specialization along the duct. We identified the molecular signature driving functions of the caput, corpus and cauda epithelium, and determined how these differ to establish the regional differentiation of the organ. The epithelium lining the human male genital ducts has a critical role in fertility. In particular, it controls the luminal environment in the epididymis, which is required for normal sperm maturation and reproductive competence. Studies in many animal species have largely informed our understanding of the molecular basis of epididymis function. However, there are substantial differences between species. Using RNA sequencing on biological replicates, we described gene expression profiles for tissue from each region of the epididymis and cultured epithelial cells derived from these regions. Bioinformatic tools were then utilized to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between tissues and cells from the caput, corpus and cauda. The data showed that the caput is functionally divergent from the corpus and cauda, which have very similar transcriptomes. Interrogation of DEGs using gene ontology process enrichment analyses showed that processes of ion transport, response to hormone stimulus and urogenital tract development are more evident in the caput, while defense response processes are more important in the corpus/cauda. Consistent with these regional differences in epididymis function, we observed differential expression of transcription factors in the caput and corpus/cauda. Cultured caput, corpus and cauda cells may not faithfully represent the same cells in the intact organ, due to loss of hormonal signals from the testis and communication from other cell types. Our data provide a molecular characterization that will facilitate advances in understanding human epididymis epithelium biology in health and disease

  1. Ultrastructure of the epithelium lining of cauda epididymidis in mongrel dogs Ultraestrutura do epitélio de revestimento da cauda epididimária em cães sem raça definida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno C. Schimming

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The epithelium lining of cauda epididymidis in mongrel dogs was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The epididymal epithelium is pseudostratified with stereocilia and is composed predominantly of principal and clear cells. Therefore, exist basal and apical cells. The principal and clear cells show features suggesting that they may be preferentially involved in absorptive and secretive functions. These results are compared with previously published data on the cauda epididymidis of other mammalian species, in order to understand the significance of the epididymis in sperm maturation.O epitélio de revestimento da cauda epididimária em cães sem raça definida foi examinado através da microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. O epitélio epididimário é pseudoestratificado com estereocílios na borda luminal e é composto principalmente por células principais e claras. Além destes tipos, foi observado algumas células basais e apicais. As células principais e claras apresentaram características ultra-estruturais que sugerem que as mesmas estão envolvidas com funções absortivas e secretórias. Os resultados foram comparados com estudos prévios realizados na cauda do ducto epididimário de outros mamíferos, com o objetivo de melhor entender o papel do epidídimo na maturação espermática.

  2. Testicular and Related Size Evaluations in Nigerian Sahel Goats with Optimal Cauda Epididymal Sperm Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Y; Igbokwe, I O

    2015-01-01

    Testicular sizes of animals are important for identification of those with adequate sperm production. The aim of this study was to define the testicular and related size estimates that would be associated with optimal cauda epididymal sperm counts (ESC) in Sahel goats based on postmortem evaluations. A stratified quota sample population of 125 male goats inclusive of all testicular sizes was taken at a slaughterhouse in Maiduguri, Nigeria. The bucks were aged 18-30 months and weighed 17.04 ± 2.99 (12-25) kg. Body, testicular, and epididymal weights of each goat with other related size measurements were estimated. ESC was determined from homogenized tissue using a manual cytometer. At the cut-off ESC of >1.1 × 10(9) sperm heads, 66 (52.80%) of the goats had optimal ESC which was associated with testicular weight of 59.90 ± 16.10 (31.40-86.20) g, gonadosomatic index of 3.51 ± 0.69 (2.00-4.50) g/kg, and scrotal circumference of 19.07 ± 1.29 (17.00-21.80) cm. The size variables of the scrotum and testis correlated with one another and with the ESC. These findings provide data that may be used to anticipate adequate antemortem sperm reserve based on testicular size during preliminary selection of sires for breeding from a sexually mature Sahel buck population.

  3. Síndrome de la cola de caballo secundario a hernia discal traumática Horse-tail syndrome secondary to traumatic disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isael Olazábal Armas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La cola de caballo representa la continuación caudal de la médula espinal. Esta porción del sistema nervioso es asiento de numerosas patologías. Se presenta un caso clínico que debutó de forma aguda con un síndrome de la cola de caballo, secundario a una hernia discal lumbar traumática. Se trata de un paciente masculino de 45 años de edad, que acude al servicio de urgencias, porque refiere síntomas que inician siete días antes de forma aguda y progresiva, luego de haber caído de una altura de tres metros. Al interrogarlo existía debilidad muscular del miembro inferior izquierdo y dificultad para caminar. El examen físico corroboró la disminución de la fuerza muscular y arreflexia Aquileo-plantar. Se realizó estudio de resonancia magnética, que demostró una hernia discal extruída en el interespacio L5-S1. El paciente se llevó al salón de urgencia y se realizó exeresis de la hernia. Egresó al séptimo día con discreta mejoría clínica. Se ha seguido en consulta externa durante un periodo de 8 meses, con muy poca recuperación del control esfinteriano, de la actividad motora y sensitiva.Horse-tail represents the caudal continuation of the spinal cord. This portion of the nervous system is the seat of numerous pathologies. We present a case report of acute debuted with a syndrome of the cauda equina, secondary to traumatic lumbar disc herniation. This is a male patient aged 45, who was admitted to the emergency room because he referred acute and progressive symptoms starting seven days before, after falling from three meters high. By questioning, we found muscle weakness in his left leg and difficulty at walking. The physical examination confirmed the decrease in muscle strength and Achilles-plantar areflexia. We performed MRI, which showed extruded disc herniation in L5-S1 interspace. The patient was taken to the emergency room and we performed the hernia excision. He was discharged at the seventh day with mild clinical

  4. PREVALENCIA DEL VIRUS DE LA ANEMIA INFECCIOSA EQUINA (AIE EN DOS POBLACIONES DE CABALLOS DE TRABAJO DE LOS DEPARTAMENTOS DEL CHOCÓ Y LA GUAJIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sarmiento

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene como objetivo fundamental establecer la prevalencia del virus causante de la anemia infecciosa equina (AIE en dos poblaciones diferentes de equinos utilizados para el transporte y carga, establecidas en los departamentos de La Guajira y el Chocó. Se analizaron 123 muestras de sangre de las poblaciones equinas anteriormente mencionadas, utilizando el test de Coggins con el fin de detectar la presencia de anticuerpos específicos para la proteína p26, la cual hace parte de la cápside del virus.

  5. PREVALENCIA DEL VIRUS DE LA ANEMIA INFECCIOSA EQUINA (AIE) EN DOS POBLACIONES DE CABALLOS DE TRABAJO DE LOS DEPARTAMENTOS DEL CHOCÓ Y LA GUAJIRA

    OpenAIRE

    P. Sarmiento; M. Quijano-Pinzón

    2005-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene como objetivo fundamental establecer la prevalencia del virus causante de la anemia infecciosa equina (AIE) en dos poblaciones diferentes de equinos utilizados para el transporte y carga, establecidas en los departamentos de La Guajira y el Chocó. Se analizaron 123 muestras de sangre de las poblaciones equinas anteriormente mencionadas, utilizando el test de Coggins con el fin de detectar la presencia de anticuerpos específicos para la proteína p26, la cual hace part...

  6. PREVALENCIA DEL VIRUS DE LA ANEMIA INFECCIOSA EQUINA (AIE) EN DOS POBLACIONES DE CABALLOS DE TRABAJO DE LOS DEPARTAMENTOS DEL CHOCÓ Y LA GUAJIRA

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmiento, P.; Departamento de Biología Facultad de Ciencias Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá; Quijano Pinzón, M.; Departamento de Biología Facultad de Ciencias Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá

    2005-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene como objetivo fundamental establecer la prevalencia del virus causante de la anemia infecciosa equina (AIE) en dos poblaciones diferentes de equinos utilizados para el transporte y carga, establecidas en los departamentos de La Guajira y el Chocó. Se analizaron 123 muestras de sangre de las poblaciones equinas anteriormente mencionadas, utilizando el test de Coggins con el fin de detectarla presencia de anticuerpos específicos para la proteína p26, la cual hace parte...

  7. EVALUACIÓN DE UN NUEVO PROTOCOLO PARA CONCENTRAR PLAQUETAS EQUINAS, EN EL LABORATORIO CLÍNICO

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Lenín Espinoza Mejía; Alvaro Sánchez España

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en evaluar un nuevo protocolo para obtener Concentrados Autólogos de Plaquetas Equinas (APCs) por el método del tubo de doble centrifugación. Se utilizaron caballos criollos colombianos, clínicamente normales. Los APCs fueron obtenidos a partir de sangre venosa depositada en tubos con solución anticoagulante de citrato de trisodio, ácido cítrico y dextrosa que fueron centrifugados durante 10 minutos a 900 rpm (128 g) para aspirar el 50 % de la fr...

  8. Prevalência da anemia infecciosa equina em haras de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Andrade Almeida

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A criação de cavalos está em expansão no Brasil. No entanto, a anemia infecciosa equina (EIA, uma doença transmissível, incurável é um obstáculo ao desenvolvimento da indústria equidea. Dessa forma, para determinar a incidência de AIE em haras de Minas Gerais, foi realizado um levantamento sorológico para estimar a prevalência e identificar potenciais fatores de risco para a transmissão do vírus da anemia infecciosa equina (EIAV. Esta foi a segunda etapa de um estudo em curso sobre a epidemiologia da doença, que foi realizado pela primeira vez em animais de serviço. Uma amostra de 7.742 equídeos de 717 fazendas em sete regiões do Estado foi testada entre maio de 2004 e janeiro de 2006. Testes de laboratório incluindo ensaios imunoenzimáticos e a imunodifusão em gel de ágar foram conduzidos para triagem e confirmação, respectivamente. A prevalência de AIE foi estimada em 0,44% (intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC] = 0,00-0,871 ao nível de propriedade e 0,07% (IC 95% = 0,00-0,251 ao nível animal. A baixa prevalência de AIE em haras pode ser explicada pelo maior valor zootécnico de animais de raça estabulados, o que leva ao controle sorológico periódico e ao cumprimento do abate de animais positivos ao teste, a fim de manter a fazenda livre da AIE. Além disso, os cavalos de haras geralmente viajam mais e são submetidos aos controles oficiais com maior frequência do que os animais de serviço. A maior prevalência de AIE foi observada nas regiões 1 (Norte / Noroeste de Minas Gerais e 2 (Vale do Mucuri / Jequitinhonha, com taxas de 0,34% e 0,72%, respectivamente. Esses resultados mostram que a prevalência de AIE em haras em Minas Gerais é geralmente baixa, sendo a prevalência maior na região norte do Estado (regiões 1 e 2. Um levantamento sorológico prévio sobre AIE em animais de serviço mostrou uma distribuição muito semelhante da doença em Minas Gerais. Estes resultados sugerem um padrão muito

  9. Cauda Epididymis-Specific Beta-Defensin 126 Promotes Sperm Motility but Not Fertilizing Ability in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Fuertes, Beatriz; Narciandi, Fernando; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Kelly, Alan K; Fair, Sean; Meade, Kieran G; Lonergan, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    Bovine beta-defensin 126 (BBD126) exhibits preferential expression for the cauda epididymis of males, where it is absorbed onto the tail and postacrosomal region of the sperm. The aim of this study was to examine the role of BBD126 in bull sperm function. Fresh and frozen-thawed semen were incubated in the presence of different capacitating agents as well as with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. These treatments, which have been successful in releasing beta-defensin 126 from macaque sperm, proved to be ineffective in bull sperm. This finding suggests that the protein behaves in a different manner in the bovine. The lack of success in removing BBD126 led us to use corpus epididymis sperm, a model in which the protein is not present, to study its functional role. Corpus sperm were incubated with cauda epididymal fluid (CEF) in the absence or presence of BBD126 antibody or with recombinant BBD126 (rBBD126). Confocal microscopy revealed that rBBD126 binds to corpus sperm with the same pattern observed for BBD126 in cauda sperm, whereas an aberrant binding pattern is observed when sperm are subject to CEF incubation. Addition of CEF increased motility as well as the number of corpus sperm migrating through cervical mucus from estrus cows. However, it decreased the ability of sperm to fertilize in vitro matured oocytes. The presence of the antibody failed to abrogate these effects. Furthermore, when rBBD126 was added in the absence of other factors and proteins from the CEF, an increase in motility was also observed and no negative effects in fertility were seen. These results suggest that BBD126 plays a key role in the acquisition of sperm motility in the epididymis. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  10. Cauda Epididymis-Specific Beta-Defensin 126 Promotes Sperm Motility but Not Fertilizing Ability in Cattle1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Fuertes, Beatriz; Narciandi, Fernando; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Kelly, Alan K.; Fair, Sean; Meade, Kieran G.; Lonergan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Bovine beta-defensin 126 (BBD126) exhibits preferential expression for the cauda epididymis of males, where it is absorbed onto the tail and postacrosomal region of the sperm. The aim of this study was to examine the role of BBD126 in bull sperm function. Fresh and frozen-thawed semen were incubated in the presence of different capacitating agents as well as with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. These treatments, which have been successful in releasing beta-defensin 126 from macaque sperm, proved to be ineffective in bull sperm. This finding suggests that the protein behaves in a different manner in the bovine. The lack of success in removing BBD126 led us to use corpus epididymis sperm, a model in which the protein is not present, to study its functional role. Corpus sperm were incubated with cauda epididymal fluid (CEF) in the absence or presence of BBD126 antibody or with recombinant BBD126 (rBBD126). Confocal microscopy revealed that rBBD126 binds to corpus sperm with the same pattern observed for BBD126 in cauda sperm, whereas an aberrant binding pattern is observed when sperm are subject to CEF incubation. Addition of CEF increased motility as well as the number of corpus sperm migrating through cervical mucus from estrus cows. However, it decreased the ability of sperm to fertilize in vitro matured oocytes. The presence of the antibody failed to abrogate these effects. Furthermore, when rBBD126 was added in the absence of other factors and proteins from the CEF, an increase in motility was also observed and no negative effects in fertility were seen. These results suggest that BBD126 plays a key role in the acquisition of sperm motility in the epididymis. PMID:27707713

  11. Prevalencia de anemia infecciosa equina en caballos de tracción en el municipio de Florencia (Caquetá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Elena Patiño-Quiroz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se evaluó la prevalecía de anemia infecciosa equina (AIE en los caballos de tracción en el municipio de Florencia, buscando relación por sexo, edad, condición corporal y distribución por comunas. Para ello se recolectaron 128 muestras de sangre de equinos (103 machos y 25 hembras que asistieron a 4 brigadas de salud animal realizadas por el semillero de investigación en equinos “SIEQUUS”, de la Universidad de la Amazonia, durante el periodo comprendido entre mayo de 2014 y diciembre de 2015. Las muestras fueron analizadas en laboratorio con la prueba de inmunodifusión en agar gel. Se realizó análisis estadístico descriptivo y una prueba Chí cuadrado (P10 fue del 14.29 %, y en los animales entre 5 y 10 años fue considerablemente mayor, el 33.33 %. Las condiciones ambientales y socioeconómicas facilitan la transmisión del virus entre los caballos del mismo gremio y con cualquier sistema de manejo y producción equina de la zona, lo que generaría pérdidas económicas y de semovientes de importancia para el sector equino.

  12. Third Party Collection Program; Case Study of Naval Hospital Oakland and Community Hospital of Monterey Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    laminectomies of L3 through L5 for cauda equina syndrome . a PAST HISTORY: Except as noted above, the patient’s past history, C-J- family history, and...patients, especially heart attack patients, those with acute respiratory problems, and acute post -operative patients. 1. Facts "* Treats about 11,500...payment and the amount of denial is recorded on the Billing Log. Then the payment and is posted and the record on the AQCESS system is updated. The

  13. Spontaneous Remission of a Big Subligamentous Extruded Disc Herniation: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    ?iti?li, Veli; ?brahimo?lu, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous Regression of a Big Subligamentous Extruded Disc Herniation: Case Report And Review of The Literature The most efficient method for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation is still controversial. The most important aspect is the application of the suitable conservative or surgical treatment to the right patient at the right time. In lumbar disc herniation patients, one must not precipitate except for cases that require surgical indications as in cauda equina syndrome, evolutive mo...

  14. A importância da odontologia na prática clínica equina

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo, Diana Luísa de Oliveira Moreira

    2010-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária A odontologia equina é uma área da prática clínica que se encontra em ascensão. O domínio desta área tem-se revelado bastante importante quando se pretende estimar a idade de um cavalo através da sua dentição. No entanto, a sua máxima importância prende-se com a prevenção de alterações que eventualmente possam surgir na cavidade oral do equino e com a identificação e resolução destas aquando da sua presença. É também de grande...

  15. Eficiência placentária na espécie equina: quais fatores podem estar relacionados?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Fatima Guimarães

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão de literatura propõe levantar os principais fatores que podem influenciar o crescimento intrauterino e o suprimento de nutrientes placentários para o feto, abordando aspectos morfofuncionais relacionados à eficiência placentária, correlacionando-os com aspectos zootécnicos, como raça, pluriparidade e idade das fêmeas gestantes. O objetivo foi estabelecer as interrelações que determinem maior eficiência placentária, propondo um paralelo comparativo entre espécies a fim de ser entendida a eficiência placentária na espécie equina.

  16. Análise Temporal de Estruturas Morfológicas na Cauda do Tipo I do Cometa P/Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Matsuura, O. T.

    1996-08-01

    Com base em (Brandt et al, 1992), centenas de imagens do cometa P/Halley foram visualmente analisadas, objetivando examinar possíveis perturbações magnetohidrodinâmicas ao longo da cauda do tipo I. Do total de 1439 imagens, abrangendo o período entre 16 de outubro de 1982 e 12 de fevereiro de 1991, foram escolhidas 531 do período entre 17 de setembro de 1985 e 06 de julho de 1986 por mostrarem cauda bem desenvolvida e rica de estruturas morfológicas. Nelas constatou-se a existência de 124 estruturas ondulatórias (trens de onda) ao longo da cauda principal, 27 ao longo de caudas secundárias, 109 ondas solitárias (sólitons) ao longo da cauda principal, 36 ao longo de caudas secundárias, 12 caudas do tipo Swan, 47 eventos de desconexão e 23 regiões de adensamento ("knots"). Foi examinada a correlação temporal entre esses diferentes tipos de eventos. Os de desconexão foram analisados isoladamente. Seus movimentos próprios foram calculados, bem como os seus instantes iniciais, o que nos permitiu inferir a passagem do cometa pela fronteira entre setores magnéticos distintos. A velocidade do plasma cometário desconectado foi corrigida dos efeitos de projeção e correlacionada com a distância heliocêntrica do cometa. Também foi investigada a periodicidade de ocorrência das desconexães, e constatado que sua distribuição é bimodal. Por fim, a possibilidade dos modos de propagação de ondas MHD "sausage" e "kink" superficiais ou volumétricas, é discutida no contexto das descontinuidades magnéticas tangenciais. - Brandt, J.C., Niedner Jr., M.B., Rahe, J.: The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena. Impresso por: Johnson Printing Co, Boulder, CO. University of Colorado-Boulder, 1992.

  17. Mechanical properties of nerve roots and rami radiculares isolated from fresh pig spinal cords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Norihiro; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Ohgi, Junji; Ichihara, Kazuhiko; Chen, Xian; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2015-11-01

    No reports have described experiments designed to determine the strength characteristics of spinal nerve roots and rami radiculares for the purpose of explaining the complexity of symptoms of medullary cone lesions and cauda equina syndrome. In this study, to explain the pathogenesis of cauda equina syndrome, monoaxial tensile tests were performed to determine the strength characteristics of spinal nerve roots and rami radiculares, and analysis was conducted to evaluate the stress-strain relationship and strength characteristics. Using the same tensile test device, the nerve root and ramus radiculares isolated from the spinal cords of pigs were subjected to the tensile test and stress relaxation test at load strain rates of 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 s(-1) under identical settings. The tensile strength of the nerve root was not rate dependent, while the ramus radiculares tensile strength tended to decrease as the strain rate increased. These findings provide important insights into cauda equina symptoms, radiculopathy, and clinical symptoms of the medullary cone.

  18. Adenite equina: sua etiologia, diagnóstico e controle Strangles: etiology, diagnosis and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Martins de Moraes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A adenite equina, também conhecida como garrotilho, é uma enfermidade bacteriana contagiosa, causada por Streptococcus equi, subsp. equi, bactéria β hemolítica do grupo C de Lancefield, que afeta o trato respiratório anterior de equinos de todas as idades, com maior prevalência entre um e cinco anos de idade. Caracteriza-se por produzir secreção mucopurulenta das vias aéreas anteriores e linfadenite dos gânglios retrofaríngeos e submandibulares com formação de abscessos. Fatores de virulência de S. equi, subsp. equi, incluem cápsula de ácido hialurônico, hialuronidase, estreptolisina O, estreptoquinase, receptores para Fc de IgG, peptidoglicano e proteína M. Dentre esses fatores, a proteína M tem especial importância por ser de membrana com propriedades antifagocitárias e de aderência. A doença tem baixa letalidade e alta morbidade e seus prejuízos econômicos devem-se à perda de performance e custo do tratamento. O diagnóstico clínico e o tratamento não apresentam dificuldades, mas a profilaxia é prejudicada pela baixa eficiência das vacinas disponíveis, com índices de proteção de 50%. O garrotilho pode ocorrer em todas as épocas do ano, mas o frio e a umidade facilitam a sobrevivência do agente e sua disseminação, portanto animais que vivem nos estados mais frios e úmidos do país são mais vulneráveis à infecção. Novas vacinas utilizando antígenos purificados ou de subunidades estão sendo desenvolvidas com a finalidade de incrementar sua potência e evitar efeitos indesejáveis. A comprovação de diferenças de antigenicidade, entre estirpes, alerta sobre a importância da seleção apropriada das cepas vacinais.Strangles is a contagious disease of the respiratory tract of horses produced by Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, a Lancefield's group C β haemolytic bacterium. It produces a mucopurulent secretion of the anterior airways, as well as lymphadenitis and abscesses. The bacteria synthesizes

  19. Antígeno heterólogo no diagnóstico imunológico da wuchereriose: extrato de Setaria equina utilizado na reação imunoenzimática - ELISA Heterologous antigen in the immunological diagnosis of wucheriasis: Setaria equina extract used in the immunoenzymatic reaction - ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Camargo

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available A reação imunoenzimática - ELISA foi empregada na sorologia da Wuchereriose, utilizando como antígeno extrato bruto de verme adulto de Setaria equina. Foram estudados soros de 139 indivíduos em três grupos: grupo 1 - de pacientes com diagnóstico parasitológico de Wuchereriose; grupo 2 - de pacientes com diversas patologias; grupo 3 - de pessoas clinicamente normais, de área endêmica e não endêmica. O antígeno utilizado mostrou alta comunidade antigênica coma W. bancrofti. As reações cruzadas, obtidas em particular com soros de pacientes com parasitoses intestinais (áscaris, ancilóstoma recomendam a investigação de frações antigênicas de Setaria equina que possam fornecer testes de maior especificidade.A total extract of Setaria equina adult worms was used as antigen in the enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay - ELISA - for serological diagnosis of Wuchereriasis. Patients were included with a parasitological diagnosis of Wuchereriasis, with other diseases, as well as clinically normal individuals, in a total of 139 cases. The high titers observed for Wuchereriasis patients indicated a close antigenic community between S. equina and W. bancrofti. However, the frequent reactivity found in other parasitic diseases, especially intestinal parasitoses, suggests antigenic fractions should be investigated which could furnish higher specificity in the test.

  20. Acute onset of paraganglioma of filum terminale: A case report and surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrone, Domenico; Romanelli, Bruno; Vella, Giuseppe; Ierardi, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Paragangliomas of filum terminale are rare benign tumors, arising from the adrenal medulla or extra-adrenal paraganglia. These lesions usually present with chronic back pain and radiculopathy and only two cases of acute neurological deficit have been reported in literature. A case with an acute paraplegia and cauda equina syndrome due to an hemorrhagic paraganglioma of the filum terminale is described. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an intradural tumor extending from L1 to L2 compressing the cauda equina, with an intralesional and intradural bleed. An emergent laminectomy with total removal of the tumor was performed allowing a post-operative partial sensory recovery. Histopathological examination diagnosed paraganglioma. Paragangliomas are solid, slow growing tumors arising from specialized neural crest cells, mostly occurring in the head and neck and rarely in cauda equina or filum terminale. MRI is gold standard radiological for diagnosis and follow-up of these lesions. They have no pathognomonic radiological and clinical features and are frequently misdiagnosed as other spinal lesions. No significant correlation was observed between the duration of symptoms and tumor dimension. Acute presentation is unusual and emergent surgical treatment is fondamental. The outcome is very good after complete excision and radiotherapical treatment is recommended after an incomplete resection. Early radiological assessment and timely surgery are mandatory to avoid progressive neurological deficits in case of acute clinical manifestation of paraganglioma of filum terminale. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrastructural investigation of antennae in three cutaneous myiasis flies: Melophagus ovinus, Hippobosca equina, and Hippobosca longipennis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; Liu, X H; Li, X Y; Cao, J; Chu, H J; Li, K

    2015-05-01

    Melophagus ovinus (Linnaeus 1758), Hippobosca equina Linnaeus, 1758, and Hippobosca longipennis Fabricius, 1805 (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) are economically and medically important ectoparasites that can act as mechanic vectors of pathogens and cause myiasis in both human and domestic animals. As essential olfactory organs, antennae of these adult hippoboscids were examined using stereoscopic and scanning electron microscopes. General morphology of the antenna is provided in detail, combined with distribution, types, size, and ultrastructures of antennal sensilla. On the antennal funiculus, two types of sensilla are observed, including basiconic sensilla and coeloconic sensilla. Four common characters are shared among the three species: (1) the scape is either obsolete or fused with the fronto-clypeus; (2) branched antennal structures (branched pedicellar microtrichiae and branched arista with only one segment) are detected; (3) the enlarged antennal pedicel completely envelops the antennal funiculus; and (4) less types of sensilla on funiculus. Disparity and diversity of the antennal and sensory structures are analyzed from the phylogenetic and functional perspective. We suggest that hippoboscids are potential model for the study of the function of coeloconic sensilla in Calyptratae.

  2. Imperfuração anal associada à agenesia parcial do sacro e lipoma pré-sacral: síndrome de Currarino Imperforate anus associated with partial sacral agenesis and presacral lipoma: Currarino syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo G. Zen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o caso de uma criança com síndrome de Currarino diagnosticada após avaliação por episódios recorrentes de infecção urinária. DESCRIÇÃO DE CASO: Menina branca de dois anos, única filha de pais hígidos e sem história familiar de defeitos congênitos. A criança nasceu com imperfuração anal e com fístula retovestibular diagnosticadas no primeiro dia de vida. Por volta dos sete meses, começou a apresentar episódios recorrentes de infecção urinária, estabelecendo-se o diagnóstico de bexiga neurogênica. Na mesma ocasião, foi constatada a presença de agenesia parcial do sacro. A avaliação pela tomografia computadorizada e ressonância nuclear magnética de coluna identificou presença de fístula coincidente com a fosseta da transição lombo-sacral, observada ao exame físico; amputação da porção inferior da medula, com diminuição do número de raízes nervosas da cauda equina e massa pré-sacral de aspecto lipomatoso. Esta foi confirmada durante a cirurgia de correção do ânus imperfurado. A criança não apresentava outras dismorfias e a avaliação radiológica dos pais não identificou anormalidades sacrais. COMENTÁRIOS: A síndrome de Currarino é uma doença genética autossômica, dominante e rara caracterizada pela tríade formada por atresia anal, agenesia parcial do sacro e tumoração pré-sacral. Inclui teratomas, meningoceles, cistos entéricos e lipomas, como observado em nossa paciente. Crianças apresentando anormalidades anorretais deveriam ser sempre cuidadosamente avaliadas quanto à presença da síndrome de Currarino. A agenesia parcial do sacro é um forte indicativo da doença.OBJECTIVE: To report a patient with Currarino syndrome diagnosed after evaluation for recurrent urinary infections. CASE DESCRIPTION: This is a Caucasian two-year-old girl, the only daughter of healthy unrelated parents with no family history of congenital defects. The patient was born with imperforate

  3. EVALUACIÓN DE UN NUEVO PROTOCOLO PARA CONCENTRAR PLAQUETAS EQUINAS, EN EL LABORATORIO CLÍNICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Lenín Espinoza Mejía

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en evaluar un nuevo protocolo para obtener Concentrados Autólogos de Plaquetas Equinas (APCs por el método del tubo de doble centrifugación. Se utilizaron caballos criollos colombianos, clínicamente normales. Los APCs fueron obtenidos a partir de sangre venosa depositada en tubos con solución anticoagulante de citrato de trisodio, ácido cítrico y dextrosa que fueron centrifugados durante 10 minutos a 900 rpm (128 g para aspirar el 50 % de la fracción plasmática más cercana a la capa leucocitaria, esta porción fue centrifugada nuevamente por 10 minutos a 1200 rpm (227 g, obteniendo un 50 % en la parte inferior del contenido del tubo. Los recuentos celulares en la sangre entera y los APCs presentaron diferencias estadísticas significativas respecto a los valores de plaquetas (P < 0.01 y leucocitos (P < 0.05 Se encontró correlación positiva de Pearson (ρ = 0.9133 entre el recuento de leucocitos y de plaquetas presentes en los APCs. La eficiencia de colección de plaquetas fue de 67%, con un incremento de 238% y una concentración de 338%. Se calculó el costo económico del nuevo protocolo en 10.28 dólares. En conclusión, el nuevo protocolo de centrifugación doble en tubo evaluado es eficiente, simple y de bajo costo para la producción APCs y puede ser usado como terapia regenerativa de heridas y lesiones en equinos.

  4. The incidence of transient neurologic syndrome after spinal anesthesia with lidocaine or bupivacaine: The effects of needle type and surgical position: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etezadi F

    2011-10-01

    was in lumbosacral area that radiated to lower limbs and was aggravated in sitting position but in 22 patients pain was in thighs with no radiation. The mean visual analogue scale (VAS for the determination of pain severity was six in all patients. Pain was alleviated by the administration of pethidine. With regard to the needle type, there were no significant differences between the two types of needles (P=0.7."nAccording to the results of this prospective study, it seems that induction of spinal anesthesia by lidocaine combined with surgical lithotomy position increases the risk of TNS. Our study is in concordance with Keld's study.5 Higher neurotoxicity of lidocaine in comparison with bopivacaine may justify the higher incidence of TNS in the lidocaine group. Moreover, natural lumbar lordosis is maintained better in supine position while it is lost in lithothomy position which may lay traction forces on cauda equina or other nerve roots in the lumbar area leading to neuropraxia.

  5. Vantagens e desafios das biotécnicas avançadas utilizadas na reprodução equina assistida

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Ramos Bertozzo; breno Fernandes Barreto Sampar; Érika Saltiva Cruz Brender; Ricardo Rodrigues Pagnoncelli; Eliane Vianna da Costa e Silva; Carmem Estefania Serra neto Zuccari

    2014-01-01

    Relatos apontam que a espécie equina foi a primeira a ser submetida à inseminação artificial. Apesar deste fato, o desenvolvimento da reprodução assistida nos equinos foi lento em comparação às demais espécies voltadas diretamente para a produção animal. A liberação do uso da transferência de embriões pela maioria das associações de raças estimulou o desenvolvimento e a expansão de algumas técnicas de multiplicação animal para uso em equinos. A presente revisão teve por objetivo abordar as bi...

  6. Community-Acquired Serratia Marcescens Spinal Epidural Abscess in a Patient Without Risk Factors: Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Parkins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Serratia marcescens has rarely been reported as an agent of invasive disease in patients presenting from the community. Furthermore, S marcescens is frequently opportunistic, affecting individuals with serious medical comorbidities including immune suppression and diabetes. A case of a community-acquired S marcescens spontaneous lumbar epidural abscess presenting as cauda equina syndrome is reported in a previously well 36-year-old man with no identifiable risk factors. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of invasive S marcescens causing disease in a patient with no medical comorbidities.

  7. Acute epidural lipedema: a novel entity and potential complication of bone morphogenetic protein use in lumbar spine fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Michael T; Hamilton, Kendall D; Russo, Scott S

    2013-10-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce osteogenesis, making them useful for decreasing time to union and increasing union rates. Although the advantages of BMP-2 as a substitute for iliac crest graft have been elucidated, less is known about the safety profile and adverse events linked to their use in spinal fusion. An accumulation of reactive edema in the epidural fat may lead to neural compression and significant morbidity after lumbar spinal fusion. Bone morphogenetic protein has never been implicated as a cause of spinal epidural lipedema. We report on a case of rapid accumulation of edematous adipose tissue in the epidural space after lumbar spine decompression and fusion with bone morphogenic protein. Case report. The patient was a 45-year-old woman with chronic back pain, worsening bilateral L5 radiculopathy, and degenerative disc disease. Surgery consisting of a one-level transpedicular decompression, transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, and posterolateral fusion was performed using BMP-2 as an adjunct for arthrodesis. Two days postoperatively, the patient developed progressive cauda equina syndrome. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging revealed edematous epidural fat extending above the initial laminectomy, compromising the spinal canal, and compressing the thecal sac. Emergent laminectomies at L3, L4, and L5 were performed, and intraoperative pathology revealed edematous epidural adipose tissue. The patient's cauda equina syndrome resolved after spinal decompression and the removal of epidural fat. Final cultures were negative for infection, and histology report yielded an accumulation of edematous fibroadipose tissue. We present a case of rapid accumulation of edematous adipose tissue causing cauda equina syndrome after a lumbar decompression and fusion surgery. The acute nature and extensive development of the lipedema presented in this case indicate an intense inflammatory reaction. We hypothesize that there may be a link between the use of BMP-2

  8. Faecal incontinence as presentation of an ependymomas of the spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyarajah, Santhini; King, Andrew; Papagrigoriadis, Savvas

    2007-01-01

    Background Spinal tumours and ependymomas in particular are rare causes of cauda equina syndrome that present with faecal incontinence. Case presentation We present a case of a 45 year old gentleman who presents to a colorectal clinic with incontinence. We then present a review of ependymomas with particular reference to the symptoms they cause as well a review of the neurophysiology of faecal continence. Conclusion Suspicion for non-colonic causes for faecal incontinence should arise when there is absence of other etiologic factors. Establishment of the diagnosis of spinal tumours is with neurological examination and MRI spine. PMID:17894884

  9. Faecal incontinence as presentation of an ependymomas of the spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papagrigoriadis Savvas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal tumours and ependymomas in particular are rare causes of cauda equina syndrome that present with faecal incontinence. Case presentation We present a case of a 45 year old gentleman who presents to a colorectal clinic with incontinence. We then present a review of ependymomas with particular reference to the symptoms they cause as well a review of the neurophysiology of faecal continence. Conclusion Suspicion for non-colonic causes for faecal incontinence should arise when there is absence of other etiologic factors. Establishment of the diagnosis of spinal tumours is with neurological examination and MRI spine.

  10. The rising root sign: the magnetic resonance appearances of post-operative spinal subdural extra-arachnoid collections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharath, A.; Uhiara, O.; Botchu, Rajesh; Davies, A.M.; James, S.L. [The Royal Orthopedic Hospital, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2017-09-15

    We present a case series of symptomatic post-operative spinal subdural extra-arachnoid collections that displace the cauda equina roots anteriorly. This is described as the ''rising root sign''. (orig.)

  11. Laminectomy without instrumentation for surgical treatment of metastatic spinal cord compression

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Paulo Alvim; Teixeira, William Gemio Jacobsen; Narazaki, Douglas Kenji; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Ghilardi, Cesar Salge; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Camargo, Olavo Pires de; Barros Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa de

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the development of mechanical complications as a result of spinal decompression or cauda equina in patients with metastatic tumors of the spine via laminectomy or laminoartrectomy without fixation. METHODS: We studied the medical records of all patients submitted to spine decompression with laminectomy without fixation. The decompression was indicated to treat cord compression or cauda equina caused by metastatic tumors. Patients were evaluated for the development of p...

  12. Ceratoplastia lamelar em cães usando membrana amniótica equina. Estudo clínico e morfológico

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    Andréa Barbosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A membrana amniótica (MA consolidou-se no tratamento de afecções na superfície ocular. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a viabilidade do implante de MA equina em ceratoplastia lamelar de cães. As membranas amnióticas foram preservadas em glicerina (98%. A eficácia do implante foi acompanhada por avaliação clínica, tempo de cicatrização, resposta inflamatória e reconstrução da arquitetura da córnea. Foram selecionados 12 cães, que foram divididos em quatro grupos de três animais. Em cada animal, foi realizada ceratotomia lamelar com 5 mm de diâmetro, seguida de aplicação do implante de MA. Após cirurgia, os animais foram avaliados em diferentes tempos: 2, 7, 21 e 40 dias. Durante o período de observação, os exames oftalmológicos foram realizados com intervalo de 48 h e, após a última avaliação, os animais foram submetidos à eutanásia. Os olhos foram enucleados, fixados e corados com hematoxilina-eosina (HE, ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS e picrossirius. Os implantes foram completamente epitelizados em cerca de 10 dias após a cirurgia. Os neovasos apresentaram involução progressiva a partir de 21 dias e não foram detectados ao final de 40 dias pós-cirurgia, restando apenas uma nébula no local da lesão. À microscopia óptica, observou-se resposta inflamatória moderada, presença de epitélio pavimentoso estratificado aos sete dias e epitelização completa aos 21 dias. Aos 40 dias, a membrana basal do epitélio apresentou-se reconstituída. Assim, concluímos que a membrana amniótica equina é viável como implante em córnea de cão, sendo incorporada ao estroma e resultando em restabelecimento parcial da transparência.

  13. Surto de encefalomielite equina Leste na Ilha de Marajó, Pará Eastern equine encephalitis on Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karinny F. Campos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nove casos de encefalomielite equina foram estudados na Ilha de Marajó, estado do Pará, Brasil. Os equinos apresentavam dificuldade em se manter em estação, andavam em círculo, tinham acentuada depressão, pálpebras cerradas, paralisia da língua, tremores musculares, bruxismo, anorexia e desidratação. Alguns apresentavam diminuição dos reflexos auricular, palpebral, de ameaça, diminuição do tônus da língua e taquicardia. Posição de auto-auscultação foi observada com frequência. Os animais muitas vezes eram encontrados apoiados em troncos e cercas para se manterem em estação. À necropsia verificou-se hemorragia das leptomeninges e da medula, alguns apresentaram ainda aderência das leptomeninges. À histopatologia verificou-se encefalite difusa que afetava principalmente a substância cinzenta, com meningite e coroidite. Foi observada perivasculite mononuclear. Em dois equinos identificou-se o vírus da encefalomielite equina Leste pela reação de Semi-Nested transcrição reversa de polimerase em cadeia (Semi-Nested RT-PCR.Nine cases of equine encephalomyelitis on Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil, were studied. The affected horses had difficulty to stand, walked in circles, with marked depression, closed eyelids, tongue paralysis, muscle tremors, bruxism, anorexia and dehydration. Some had their ear and eyelid reflexes diminished, decreased tongue tone and tachycardia; laid down frequently they kept their head on the chest. Often they were seen resting their head on tree trunks or fences. At necropsy, hemorrhages of the meninges and spinal cord, and in some animals also adhesion of the meninges were found. Histologically there was diffuse encephalitis affecting mainly the gray matter, with meningitis and choroiditis. Presence of perivascular cuffs consisting of mononuclear inflammatory cells was observed. From two horses the Eastern equine encephalitis virus was identified by semi-nested reverse transcription

  14. Avaliação da migração das células progenitoras após terapia da tendinite equina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G.G. Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A terapia celular vem sendo utilizada com resultados promissores no tratamento da tendinite equina, entretanto ainda existem dúvidas quanto à persistência e ao comportamento dessas células quando implantadas no local da lesão, e quanto à sua migração para outros focos inflamatórios. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a marcação das células-tronco mesenquimais (CTMs com nanocristal antes e após o implante em lesões tendíneas experimentais do tendão flexor digital superficial (TFDS de equinos, bem como observar a possibilidade de migração das CTMs marcadas para outro foco de lesão, o membro contralateral do mesmo animal. Para isso, foi realizada a indução de lesão experimental no TFDS em ambos os membros torácicos de cinco equinos e, após sete dias, foram implantadas as CTMs autólogas marcadas com o nanocristal Qtracker 655 em um dos membros dos animais. Após sete dias do implante, foi realizada a biópsia tendínea para posterior avaliação histopatológica, utilizando-se microscopia com fluorescência. Também foi realizado o teste de viabilidade celular antes e após a incubação com o nanocristal. As CTMs marcadas e injetadas no tecido tendíneo mantiveram sua fluorescência sete dias após seu implante, e não ocorreu migração para o membro contralateral. O uso do nanocristal para a marcação das CTMs derivadas da medula óssea equina mostrou-se efetivo pelo fato de essa nanopartícula não ter alterado a viabilidade celular e por ela ter permanecido ativa durante o período implantado.

  15. Vantagens e desafios das biotécnicas avançadas utilizadas na reprodução equina assistida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ramos Bertozzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Relatos apontam que a espécie equina foi a primeira a ser submetida à inseminação artificial. Apesar deste fato, o desenvolvimento da reprodução assistida nos equinos foi lento em comparação às demais espécies voltadas diretamente para a produção animal. A liberação do uso da transferência de embriões pela maioria das associações de raças estimulou o desenvolvimento e a expansão de algumas técnicas de multiplicação animal para uso em equinos. A presente revisão teve por objetivo abordar as biotécnicas avançadas atualmente disponíveis para a espécie, como a superovulação, a transferência de ovócitos, a transferência intratubárica de gametas, a injeção intracitoplasmática de gametas, a produção in vitro de embriões e a clonagem, enfatizando suas aplicações prática e clínica, bem como determinados desafios que ainda precisam ser superados em cada biotécnica.

  16. Serotonin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperserotonemia; Serotonergic syndrome; Serotonin toxicity; SSRI - serotonin syndrome; MAO - serotonin syndrome ... brain area. For example, you can develop this syndrome if you take migraine medicines called triptans together ...

  17. Protective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on lidocaine-induced apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, HUI; XU, JUNMEI; WANG, XIN; YUAN, GUIXIU

    2014-01-01

    Lidocaine, as an anesthetic substance, is often used for surface and spinal anesthesia. However, studies have shown that lidocaine may induce transient neurological symptoms and cauda equina syndrome. In the present study the effects of the ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) on lidocaine-induced apoptosis were assessed in Jurkat cells using flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). The data showed that incubation with Rg1 provides protection against lidocaine-induced apoptosis in cultured Jurkat cells. In order to investigate the effect of Rg1 on the apoptosis pathway, caspase 3 gene expression was determined. The results suggested that the protective effect of Rg1 on lidocaine-induced apoptosis is mediated by altering the level of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) family proteins and downregulating caspase-3 expression. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that incubation with Rg1 provides protection against lidocaine-induced apoptosis in cultured Jurkat cells. In addition, the study demonstrated that Rg1 is a notable antiapoptotic molecule that is capable of blocking the caspase-dependent signaling cascade in Jurkat cells, and that the protective effect of Rg1 on lidocaine-induced apoptosis is mediated by altering levels of BCL-2 family proteins and downregulating caspase-3 expression. The present study provides the basis for understanding and evaluating the effect of Rg1 in the in vivo treatment of lidocaine-induced transient neurological symptoms and cauda equina syndrome by lidocaine. PMID:24270314

  18. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in patients with peripheral nervous system lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podnar, Simon; Vodušek, David B

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction in peripheral nervous system (PNS) disorders is larger than in comparable control populations. This is particularly true for polyneuropathies with autonomic nervous system involvement, and for localized lesions with LUT innervation. LUT symptoms may be the guide to the diagnosis of processes localized in the lumbosacral spinal canal (as in cauda equina syndrome), and in the pelvis. Typical LUT dysfunctions (LUTD) caused by PNS involvement include bladder and sphincter hypoactivity with poor emptying, and incontinence. Paradoxically, bladder overactivity may also occur in pure PNS lesions. The acute cauda equina syndrome is an emergency requiring magnetic resonance imaging and surgery; in chronic neurogenic LUTD due to PNS involvement, the diagnosis of the lesion may be clarified by clinical neurophysiologic testing. Other important causes of neurogenic LUT dysfunction are perineoabdominal and pelvic surgeries. Surgeons are devising nerve-sparing techniques to prevent such major and often persistent complications in patients who are otherwise cured of the underlying disease. LUTD significantly affects the quality of life in patients and may lead to recurring urinary infections and upper urinary tract involvement. Thorough assessment of LUT function by urodynamics may be necessary in patients who are not improved by simple conservative measures. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Selección de las variables que permiten la evaluación del potencial de producción cárnica de las razas equinas españolas

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, M.D.; Romero Falcón, Francisco; Juárez Dávila, Manuel María; Alcalde Aldea, María Jesús; Valera Córdoba, María Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    El consumo de carne de potro en España se encuentra muy localizado mayoritariamente en un área geográfica limitada, situada en el norte y noreste de la Península. De manera tradicional, la producción de carne equina se han basado en la crianza específica de animales de razas autóctonas mediante el empleo de sistemas extensivos o semi-extensivos, en los que los animales son destetados a los 6-7 meses de edad pasando después por una fase de engorde intensivo en cebaderos hasta alcanzar su pe...

  20. CARACTERIZACIÓN CLÍNICA Y PATÓLOGICA DE LA ENCEFALITIS EQUINA VENEZOLANA SUBTIPO IE EN UNA REGIÓN ENDÉMICA EN EL SUR DEL ESTADO DE VERACRUZ EN MODELOS EQUINOS

    OpenAIRE

    FABELA BECERRIL, VERÓNICA ALEJANDRINA

    2016-01-01

    La Encefalitis Equina Venezolana (EEV) es una enfermedad que se presenta principalmente en equinos y humanos y se caracteriza por un cuadro febril que en ocasiones va seguido de uno neurológico y la muerte. El agente etiológico es un virus clasificado dentro de la familia Togaviridae, género alfavirus (1) , el cual fue reconocido por primera vez en Venezuela por Beck y Wickoff en 1938 y por Kubes y Ríos en 1939 (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8) La enfermedad se consideró propia del norte de Sudamérica...

  1. Beals Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the syndrome. How does Beals syndrome compare with Marfan syndrome? People with Beals syndrome have many of the ... bone) and aortic enlargement problems as people with Marfan syndrome, and treatments for these problems are the same. ...

  2. Situação epidemiológica da anemia infecciosa equina em equídeos de tração do Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella D.A. Moraes

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A anemia infecciosa equina (AIE é uma doença causada por um lentivirus que possui distribuição mundial. Essa enfermidade é um entrave ao desenvolvimento da equinocultura no Brasil devido à obrigatoriedade de eutanásia dos animais positivos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a prevalência de AIE em equídeos de tração no Distrito Federal, assim como identificar fatores de risco associados à doença. Foram sorteados aleatoriamente 350 proprietários (Unidades Primárias de Amostragem- UPA e foram amostrados todos os equídeos (Unidades secundárias de Amostragem de cada proprietário sorteado, totalizando 496 animais. As amostras sanguíneas foram analisadas no Lanagro/MG por meio da técnica de imunodifusão em ágar gel (IDGA. No momento da coleta de sangue, também foi aplicado um questionário epidemiológico para a análise de possíveis fatores de risco. A prevalência de AIE nas UPA foi estimada em 2,29%, (IC 95%: 1,01-4,2% e nos animais foi de 1,81% (IC 95%: 0,55-3,07%. A prevalência foi significativamente maior em muares do que em equinos. Não foi possível comprovar a presença de nenhum outro fator de risco associado à doença. Este estudo demonstra que a prevalência da AIE em equídeos de tração é baixa no Distrito Federal, porém mais alta do que os dados de vigilância de rotina sugerem, o que justifica a eutanásia dos equídeos reagentes, com a finalidade de promover a erradicação da enfermidade. Ratifica-se a importância da realização de exames periódicos nesses animais e a manutenção das atividades de vigilância.

  3. Double-level Incomplete Spinal Cord Injuries: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bin Ayaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Brown-Séquard Syndrome is a type of Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury characterized by a relatively greater ipsilateral loss of proprioception and motor function, with contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensations. The residual deficits in balance produced by such injury may render a person liable to fall that may result in vertebral fracture and another injury to the spinal cord. We present here a case who initially had Brown-Séquard Syndrome due to penetrating knife injury to the neck and later on developed Cauda Equina Syndrome (another Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury due to fractured LV1 following a fall. The fracture was fixed through Pedicle Screws and the patient underwent effective rehabilitation to gain maximum achievable independence in functional activities. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 392-398

  4. Fanconi syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toni-Fanconi syndrome ... Fanconi syndrome can be caused by faulty genes, or it may result later in life due to kidney damage. Sometimes the cause of Fanconi syndrome is unknown. Common causes of Fanconi syndrome in ...

  5. Duane Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Duane Syndrome En Español Read in Chinese What is Duane Syndrome? Duane syndrome, also called Duane retraction syndrome (DRS), ...

  6. Hunter Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in girls. There's no cure for Hunter syndrome. Treatment of Hunter syndrome involves management of symptoms and complications. Symptoms Hunter syndrome is one type of a group of inherited metabolic disorders called mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs), and Hunter syndrome is ...

  7. Avaliação da nested PCR em comparação aos testes sorológicos IDGA e ELISA para o diagnóstico da anemia infecciosa equina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Santos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a técnica nested PCR (nPCR com os testes sorológicos IDGA e ELISA para o diagnóstico da anemia infecciosa equina. Amostras do DNA provenientes das células mononucleares do sangue periférico foram submetidas à amplificação do gene gag pela nPCR, que apresentou valores de sensibilidade e especificidade relativas de 90% e 52,9%, respectivamente, em relação à IDGA, e valores de 85,7% e 49%, respectivamente, em relação ao ELISA. Considerando-se os fatores referentes às limitações de cada técnica, pode ser sugerido o uso da nPCR como teste de diagnóstico complementar para AIE em amostras brasileiras.

  8. Hamartomatous polyposis syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsig, Anne Marie; Qvist, Niels; Brusgaard, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes (HPS) are genetic syndromes, which include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (Cowden Syndrom, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba and Proteus Syndrome) as well as hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. Other syndromes such as ......Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes (HPS) are genetic syndromes, which include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (Cowden Syndrom, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba and Proteus Syndrome) as well as hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. Other syndromes...

  9. Tarlov cyst: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashad Bhagwat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of sacral perineural cyst presenting with complaints of low back pain with neurological claudication. The patient was treated by laminectomy and excision of the cyst. Tarlov cysts (sacral perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly in the sacral roots, arising between the covering layer of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The incidence of Tarlov cysts is 5% and most of them are asymptomatic, usually detected as incidental findings on MRI. Symptomatic Tarlov cysts are extremely rare, commonly presenting as sacral or lumbar pain syndromes, sciatica or rarely as cauda equina syndrome. Tarlov cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with these complaints.

  10. Efeito do meio e da dose inseminação sobre a congelabilidade e fertilidade de espermatozóides recuperados da cauda do epidídimo de garanhões

    OpenAIRE

    Guasti, Priscilla Nascimento [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    A colheita de espermatozóides da cauda do epidídimo e sua criopreservação representam um grande avanço biotecnológico na equinocultura, e pode ser a última chance de preservação do material genético de garanhões após sua morte inesperada ou lesões que impossibilitem a cobertura ou colheita de sêmen. Os objetivos dessa pesquisa foram comparar a efetividade de dois diluidores utilizados para a recuperação dos espermatozóides epididimários em relação aos índices de congelabilidade determinados l...

  11. Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfan syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue. Connective tissues are proteins that support skin, bones, blood ... fibrillin. A problem with the fibrillin gene causes Marfan syndrome. Marfan syndrome can be mild to severe, and ...

  12. WIEDEMANN SYNDROME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    BILATERAL BENIGN HAEMORRHAGIC ADRENAL CYSTS IN BECKWITH - WIEDEMANN. SYNDROME: CASE REPORT. P. ANOOP and M. A. ANJAY. SUMMARY. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is the most common overgrowth malformation syndrome. The classical features include macrosomia, macroglossia, ...

  13. Tourette syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome; Tic disorders - Tourette syndrome ... Tourette syndrome is named for Georges Gilles de la Tourette, who first described this disorder in 1885. The disorder is likely passed down through families. ...

  14. Williams syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Beuren syndrome ... Williams syndrome is caused by not having a copy of several genes. It may be passed down in families. ... history of the condition. However, people with Williams syndrome have a 50% chance of passing the disorder ...

  15. Piriformis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Piriformis Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome Show More Show Less Search Disorders SEARCH SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Piriformis syndrome ...

  16. Perfil de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana e presença do gene vapA em Rhodococcus equi de origem humana, ambiental e equina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Kolling Girardini

    2013-06-01

    macrolídeos (azitromicina a 6,7%, eritromicina a 6% e claritromicina a 3,3% e rifamicina (13%. Todas as amostras humanas e ambientais foram sensíveis aos macrolídeos e rifamicina. Contudo, isolados ambientais demonstraram níveis elevados de resistência à penicilina e cloranfenicol. Da mesma forma, os isolados humanos apresentaram alto nível de resistência ao ceftiofur, lincomicina e sulfazotrim. O IRMA em todos os isolados de R. equi variou de 0 a 0,67, tendo como valores médios 0,19 para as amostras clínicas de equinos, 0,14 nas ambientais e em isolados humanos foi de 0,1. Apesar da alta sensibilidade observada nos isolados analisados, verificaram-se diferentes níveis de resistência nas amostras clínicas de equinos. Em contraste, os isolados ambientais não demonstraram resistência em relação aos agentes antimicrobianos utilizados na terapia da rodococose equina. Além disso, em isolados humanos não se observou resistência contra a droga para uso restrito em terapia de humano. Com base no IRMA observado em isolados clínicos de equinos, destacamos a importância de medidas restritivas e mais cautela na utilização de antimicrobianos em infecções causadas por R. equi para evitar o aumento de novas cepas multirresistentes.

  17. [An adolescent with lumbosacral instability due to the presence of a hydatid cyst: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcarra, Miguel; Mujica, Mijaíl; Sánchez, Vladimir; Méndez, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Hydatidosis, caused by Echinococcus granulosus, affects the spinal column in 0.5-2% of all cases, with the sacral column being a rare location typically observed only in adults. The case is reported of a 14-year-old boy from Juliaca (Puno, Peru) who presented with chronic lower back pain and cauda equina syndrome. He was initially attended to in Juliaca, and then transferred to the Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins (Lima, Peru) with a diagnosis of sacral tumor. In magnetic resonance imaging, a multicystic tumor was seen with L5 and S1 lysis and instability. The surgical treatment was an L5- S2 laminectomy and extraction of multiple hydatid cysts followed by lumbopelvic stabilization with transpedicular screws. Post-operatively, he was prescribed albendazol (15 mg/kg/d) for six months. Hydatid cysts should be considered within the differential diagnosis when there are cystic lesions in the spinal column, particularly in endemic areas such as Peru.

  18. Spontaneous remission of a big subligamentous extruded disc herniation: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çitişli, Veli; İbrahimoğlu, Muhammet

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous Regression of a Big Subligamentous Extruded Disc Herniation: Case Report And Review of The Literature The most efficient method for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation is still controversial. The most important aspect is the application of the suitable conservative or surgical treatment to the right patient at the right time. In lumbar disc herniation patients, one must not precipitate except for cases that require surgical indications as in cauda equina syndrome, evolutive motor deficit and persistence of pain in spite of the narcotics. However, the spontaneous regression mechanism has not been completely determined yet. The proposed hypotheses are; dehydration, retraction of the disc to the hernia in the annulus fibrosis, enzymatic catabolism and phagocytosis. In this study, the case of a patient with huge lumbar disc hernia regressing by itself has been presented and the potential mechanisms of disc regression have been discussed.

  19. Severe Intradural Lumbar Disc Herniation with Cranially Oriented Free Fragment Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Zachary; Zhu, Xiao; McDowell, Michael M; Agarwal, Nitin; Monaco, Edward A

    2016-08-01

    Intrathecal disc herniation is a rare but serious condition that has the potential to generate devastating neurologic deficits. We present a case of a 56-year-old man who developed cauda equina syndrome after several episodes of severe Valsalva maneuver. The patient was found to have developed subacute urinary retention and leg weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were concerning for an unusual-appearing lesion extending cranially at L2-3. Urgent decompression via an L2 laminectomy, exploration, and subsequent discectomy was performed. The patient recovered exceptionally well, regaining bladder function and ultimately being able to ambulate without assistance. Cranially extending intrathecal disc herniations are a rare phenomenon and exceptionally uncommon above L3. The clinician should have a high level of suspicion for herniation when looking at the clinical and historical information consistent with such a diagnosis even in the presence of ambiguous imaging findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. LUMBAR DISC HERNIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialle, Luis Roberto; Vialle, Emiliano Neves; Suárez Henao, Juan Esteban; Giraldo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is the most common diagnosis among the degenerative abnormalities of the lumbar spine (affecting 2 to 3% of the population), and is the principal cause of spinal surgery among the adult population. The typical clinical picture includes initial lumbalgia, followed by progressive sciatica. The natural history of disc herniation is one of rapid resolution of the symptoms (four to six weeks). The initial treatment should be conservative, managed through medication and physiotherapy, sometimes associated with percutaneous nerve root block. Surgical treatment is indicated if pain control is unsuccessful, if there is a motor deficit greater than grade 3, if there is radicular pain associated with foraminal stenosis, or if cauda equina syndrome is present. The latter represents a medical emergency. A refined surgical technique, with removal of the extruded fragment and preservation of the ligamentum flavum, resolves the sciatic symptoms and reduces the risk of recurrence over the long term. PMID:27019834

  1. Hypertrophic Synovitis of the Facet Joint Causing Root Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Iwatsuki M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritic changes in the facet joints are common in the presence of degenerative disc disease. Changes in the joint capsule accompany changes in the articular surfaces. Intraspinal synovial cysts that cause radicular pain, cauda equina syndrome, and myelopathy have been reported; however, there have been few reports in orthopedic or neurosurgical literature regarding hypertrophic synovitis of the facet joint presenting as an incidental para-articular mass. Here, we report a case of hypertrophic synovitis causing root pain. We describe the case of a 65-year-old man suffering from right sciatica and right leg pain in the L5 nerve-root dermatome for 1 year; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed an enhanced mass around the L4–5 facet joint. We investigated this mass pathologically. After right medial facetectomy, the symptoms resolved. Pathological investigation revealed this mass was hypertrophic synovitis. Hypertrophic synovitis of the facet joint might cause root pain.

  2. Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood cells, and the cells have a specific mutation in their DNA. Myelodysplastic syndrome with excess blasts — ... Chemicals linked to myelodysplastic syndromes include tobacco smoke, pesticides and industrial chemicals, such as benzene. Exposure to ...

  3. Moebius Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and supports a broad range of research on neurogenetic disorders, including Moebius syndrome. The goals of these ... and supports a broad range of research on neurogenetic disorders, including Moebius syndrome. The goals of these ...

  4. Pendred Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan) to look for two characteristics of Pendred syndrome. One characteristic might be a cochlea with too few turns. ... Inner Ear Credit: NIH Medical Arts A second characteristic of Pendred syndrome is an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (see figure). The ...

  5. Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rett syndrome is a rare genetic disease that causes developmental and nervous system problems, mostly in girls. It's related to autism spectrum disorder. Babies with Rett syndrome seem to grow and ...

  6. Ohtahara Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but be profoundly handicapped. As they grow, some children will progress into other epileptic disorders such as West syndrome and Lennox-Gestaut syndrome. What research is being done? The NINDS conducts and supports an extensive research program on seizures ...

  7. Gardner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrado Junior, C.W.; Bresser, A.; Cerri, G.G.; Habr-Gama, A.; Pinotti, H.W.; Magalhaes, A.

    1988-01-01

    A case of familiar poliposis of colon related to a right mandibular osteoma is reported (this association is usually called Gardner's syndrome). Radiologic pictures ae shown and some commentaries about this syndrome concerning the treatment are made. (author) [pt

  8. Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development. The cause is a missing or incomplete X ... work properly. Other physical features typical of Turner syndrome are Short, "webbed" neck with folds of skin ...

  9. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These conditions ... agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  10. Felty syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA); Felty's syndrome ... The cause of Felty syndrome is unknown. It is more common in people who have had rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for a long time. People with ...

  11. Cushing's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder. The cause is long-term exposure to too much cortisol, a hormone that ... your body to make too much cortisol. Cushing's syndrome is rare. Some symptoms are Upper body obesity ...

  12. Usher Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher syndrome is an inherited disease that causes serious hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, an eye disorder that causes ... and vision. There are three types of Usher syndrome: People with type I are deaf from birth ...

  13. Piriformis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudosciatica; Wallet sciatica; Hip socket neuropathy; Pelvic outlet syndrome; Low back pain - piriformis ... Sciatica is the main symptom of piriformis syndrome. Other symptoms include: Tenderness or a dull ache in ...

  14. Dressler's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome Overview Dressler's syndrome is a type of pericarditis — inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart (pericardium). ... reducing its ability to pump blood efficiently. Constrictive pericarditis. Recurring or chronic inflammation can cause the pericardium ...

  15. International Rett Syndrome Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletters & Reports About Rett Syndrome What is Rett Syndrome? Rett Syndrome Diagnosis Boys with MECP2 Clinics FAQs Glossary ... Newsletters & Reports About Rett Syndrome What is Rett Syndrome? Rett Syndrome Diagnosis Boys with MECP2 Clinics FAQs Glossary ...

  16. [Capgras syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoverro Fortuny, O; Sierra Acín, A C

    2001-01-01

    The authors report a case of Capgras' syndrome in a 16-years-old child, who had been hospitalized for psychotic disorder. A review of the literature is performed. Most authors state that Capgras' syndrome would represent a symptom of underlying medical o functional disorders, although the term syndrome is used. The main etiopathogenic hypothesis of this syndrome are put forward (psychodynamic, disconnection, neuropsychological and medical).

  17. Velocardiofacial Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothelf, Doron; Frisch, Amos; Michaelovsky, Elena; Weizman, Abraham; Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as DiGeorge, conotruncal anomaly face, and Cayler syndromes, is caused by a microdeletion in the long arm of Chromosome 22. We review the history of the syndrome from the first clinical reports almost half a century ago to the current intriguing molecular findings associating genes from the…

  18. Frequência de anemia infecciosa equina em equinos nos estados da Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte e Ceará durante o ano de 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpejane Ferreira Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A frequência de equinos soro-reagentes para o vírus da Anemia Infecciosa Equina (AIE foi investigada, durante o ano de 2010, em 5615 animais originários de 209 municípios de três estados do nordeste do Brasil: Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte e Ceará. Os soros foram examinados com o emprego do teste de imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA produzido com o antígeno p26. Dos 5615 animais examinados, 151 (2,69% foram soropositivos. As proporções de animais reatores positivos por estado foram: Paraíba (2,86%, Rio Grande do Norte (1,29% e Ceará (3,10%. Tomando-se por base a menor proporção de resultados positivos encontrada no estado do Rio Grande do Norte, o estado da Paraíba apresentou uma odds ratio de 2,64 (IC 95% = 1,33-5,36; p = 0,004 e o Ceará de 2,87 (IC 95% = 1,48-5,71; p = 0,001. Na Paraíba houve o registro de animais soropositivos em todos os meses do ano, com frequência mínima (0,58% em julho e máxima (5,82% em junho; no Rio Grande do Norte de março a maio e de julho a novembro, com variação de 0% em janeiro, fevereiro, junho e dezembro a 3,61% em maio; e no Ceará em todos os meses com frequência mínima (1,10% em agosto e máxima (7,29% no mês de dezembro.

  19. Diagnóstico diferencial de trombose aortoilíaca e mieloencefalite protozoária equina: relato de caso Differential diagnosis between aorto-iliac thrombosis and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Escodro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de uma égua de atividade de polo, que apresentou inicialmente claudicação leve no membro posterior esquerdo, a qual evoluiu para ataxia e atrofia da musculatura glútea do lado esquerdo, com diagnóstico de trombose aortoilíaca (TAI. A paciente foi tratada com suspeita de mieloencefalite protozoária equina, devido à semelhança dos sinais clínicos com essa doença, porém o líquido cefalorraquidiano apresentou-se negativo para anticorpos anti-Sarcocystis neurona. A palpação transretal indicou uma massa na bifurcação aortoilíaca esquerda. Na avaliação ultrassonográfica, visualizou-se imagem hiperecoica aderida ao endotélio vascular, sugerindo TAI atingindo a estenose de 70% da luz arterial.The case of a mare used for polo is reported. The animal showed clinical signs of soft lameness of the hindlimb, evolving to ataxia and gluteal muscle atrophy, with aorto-iliac thrombosis (AIT. The patient was treated with the suspect of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM, due to the resemblance of clinical signs. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was negative for antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona. The transrectal examination indicated a mass in the left aorto-iliac bifurcation. In the ultrasonographic evaluation, a hyperechoic image adhered to the vascular endothelium was observed, suggesting (AIT, occupying 70% of arterial lumen. The present article has the objective of pointing out the importance of the differential diagnosis between AIT and EPM in horses with ataxia in hindlimbs and muscular atrophy.

  20. Revesz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristine Issaho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Revesz syndrome is a rare variant of dyskeratosis congenita and is characterized by bilateral exudative retinopathy, alterations in the anterior ocular segment, intrauterine growth retardation, fine sparse hair, reticulate skin pigmentation, bone marrow failure, cerebral calcification, cerebellar hypoplasia and psychomotor retardation. Few patients with this syndrome have been reported, and significant clinical variations exist among patients. This report describes the first Brazilian case of Revesz syndrome and its ocular and clinical features.

  1. Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanti Devi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin Syndrome, a rare genodermatosis, otherwise known as Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS is a multisystem disease affecting skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine glands, and bones. It is characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits, jaw cysts, and bony deformities like kyphoscoliosis and frontal bossing. We would like to report a case of Gorlin syndrome with classical features, as this is a rare genodermatosis.

  2. Urofacial syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal F Akl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The urofacial syndrome is characterized by functional obstructive uropathy asso-ciated with an inverted smile. The importance of the subject is that it sheds light, not only on the muscles of facial expression, but also on the inheritance of voiding disorders and lower urinary tract malformations. We report a 10-year-old-male patient who had the urofacial syndrome. Early diagnosis of the urofacial syndrome is important to avoid upper urinary tract damage and renal failure.

  3. Joubert Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner (meaning both parents must have a copy of ... physical, occupational, and speech therapy may benefit some children. Infants with abnormal ...

  4. Reye's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that contain aspirin. Some hospitals and medical facilities conduct newborn screenings for fatty acid oxidation disorders to determine which children are at greater risk of developing Reye's syndrome. ...

  5. Angelman Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... See More About Research The NINDS supports and conducts research on neurogenetic disorders such as Angelman syndrome, to develop techniques to diagnose, treat, ... Publications Definition Angelman ...

  6. Russell-Silver syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver-Russell syndrome; Silver syndrome; RSS; Russell-Silver syndrome ... One in 10 children with this syndrome has a problem involving chromosome 7. In other people with the syndrome, it may affect chromosome 11. Most of the time, it ...

  7. [Ballantyne syndrome or mirror syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Gómez, Luis Guillermo; Silva-González, María Eugenia; González-Hernández, Rigoberto

    2010-11-01

    Ballantyne syndrome or mirror syndrome is a triad consisting of the presence of fetal hydrops, generalized edema placentomegaly mother. May be related to any cause of fetal hydrops. The fetal prognosis is poor in untreated cases, the mother has reference to be the cause or the termination of pregnancy. Present the case of a 26-year-old who developed mirror syndrome secondary to non-immune fetal hydrops of unknown origin, accompanied by preeclampsia.

  8. Myxoid Neurothekeoma: A Rare Soft Tissue Tumor of Hand in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the literature, such as oral cavity, cauda equina, lower limb, shoulder, and neck.[3]. Clinically, neurothekeomas are slow‑growing asymptomatic lesions. They are commonly dermal, but mucosal and submucosal lesions have been described.[3] It is a tumor of the adolescent and young adult, with a female predilection, ...

  9. Neurological observations after local irradiation and hyperthermia of rat lumbosacral spinal cord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sminia, P.; Hendriks, J. J.; van der Kracht, A. H.; Rodermond, H. M.; Haveman, J.; Jansen, W.; Koedooder, K.; Franken, N. A.

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: Investigation of the effects of hyperthermia on the radiation response of rat lumbosacral spinal cord with respect to: (a) incidence of paralysis, (b) latency, (c) histopathology, and (d) tumor induction. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Rat lumbosacral spinal cord with the cauda equina was

  10. Antiphospholipid syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera, Ricard; Piette, Jean-Charles; Font, Josep

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in a large cohort of patients and to define patterns of disease expression.......To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in a large cohort of patients and to define patterns of disease expression....

  11. Ascher syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Zhai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ascher syndrome is a rare, benign skin disorder characterized by a double upper lip, blepharochalasis, and nontoxic enlargement of the thyroid gland. The exact cause is unknown, but it is considered to be a hereditary disease with an autosomal dominant trait. We report here a case of forme fruste Ascher syndrome in a 29-year-old man.

  12. Passwell syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed K

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an expanding list of syndromes that combine ichthyosis with neuroectodermal and mesodermal defects. We report a syndrome of congenital ichthyosis with atrophy, mental retardation, dwarfism, aminoaciduria, primary amenorrhoea and underdeveloped secondary sexual characters in a 38-year-old woman of non consanguinous parentage.

  13. Proteus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Renu

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of proteus syndrome in a 20 year old male is repoted. Hemihypertrophy, asymmetric megalodactyly, linear epidermal naevus, naevus flammeus, angiokeratoma, lymphangioma circumscriptum, thickening of the palms and soles, scoliosis and varicose veins were present. There are only few reports of these cases in adults. The syndrome has not been reported from India.

  14. Lemierre's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Katrine; Bødtger, Uffe; Heltberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is an often un-diagnosed disease seen in previously healthy young subjects, presenting with symptoms of pharyngitis, fever and elevated markers of inflammation. The syndrome is characterised by infectious thrombosis of the jugular vein due to infection with Fusobacteria, causing...

  15. Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have Tourette syndrome, you make unusual movements or sounds, called tics. You have little or no control over them. Common tics are throat- ... spin, or, rarely, blurt out swear words. Tourette syndrome is a disorder of the nervous system. It ...

  16. Fahr's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or 50s, although it can occur at any time in childhood or adolescence. × Definition Fahr's Syndrome is a rare, genetically dominant, inherited ... or 50s, although it can occur at any time in childhood or adolescence. View Full Definition Treatment There is no cure for Fahr's Syndrome, ...

  17. TAFRO Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, Takuro; Sato, Yasuharu

    2018-02-01

    TAFRO syndrome is a newly recognized variant of idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD) that involves a constellation of syndromes: thrombocytopenia (T), anasarca (A), fever (F), reticulin fibrosis (R), and organomegaly (O). Thrombocytopenia and severe anasarca accompanied by relatively low serum immunoglobulin levels are characteristic clinical findings of TAFRO syndrome that are not present in iMCD-not otherwise specified (iMCD-NOS). Lymph node biopsy is recommended to exclude other diseases and to diagnose TAFRO syndrome, which reveals characteristic histopathological findings similar to hyaline vascular-type CD. TAFRO syndrome follows a more aggressive course, compared with iMCD-NOS, and there is no standard treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of Gd-enhanced three-dimensional MRI fast low-angle shot (FLASH) in the evaluation of symptomatic lumbosacral nerve roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikkawa, Ichiro; Sugimoto, Hideharu; Saita, Kazuo; Ookami, Hitoshi; Nakama, Sueo; Hoshino, Yuichi [Jichi Medical School, Minamikawachi, Tochigi (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In the field of lumbar spine disorders, three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can clearly depict a lumbar nerve root from the distal region to the dorsal root ganglion. In this study, we used a gadoliniumdiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhanced-three-dimensional (3-D) fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence when examining lumbosacral disorders. The subjects were 33 patients (14 men and 19 women) in whom lumbosacral neural compression had been diagnosed clinically. Twenty-one patients had lumbar disc herniation, 11 had lumbar spinal stenosis, and 1 had lumbar radiculopathy caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Five subjects with low back pain were also studied as a control group. In all patients and in all 5 of the controls, the dorsal root ganglion of every root was enhanced clearly. There was no root enhancement in the 5 controls. Enhancement of the symptomatic nerve roots, caused by compression, was found in 11 of the 33 patients. All 11 patients had rediculopathy, and muscle weakness was more frequent in patients with enhanced nerve roots than in those without enhancement. There was no enhancement of the cauda equina, even in the patients with cauda syndrome. The enhancement effect may reflect some pathological condition of the compressed nerve root and needs to be studied further. (author)

  19. CHARGE syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Chitra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract CHARGE syndrome was initially defined as a non-random association of anomalies (Coloboma, Heart defect, Atresia choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital hypoplasia, Ear anomalies/deafness. In 1998, an expert group defined the major (the classical 4C's: Choanal atresia, Coloboma, Characteristic ears and Cranial nerve anomalies and minor criteria of CHARGE syndrome. Individuals with all four major characteristics or three major and three minor characteristics are highly likely to have CHARGE syndrome. However, there have been individuals genetically identified with CHARGE syndrome without the classical choanal atresia and coloboma. The reported incidence of CHARGE syndrome ranges from 0.1–1.2/10,000 and depends on professional recognition. Coloboma mainly affects the retina. Major and minor congenital heart defects (the commonest cyanotic heart defect is tetralogy of Fallot occur in 75–80% of patients. Choanal atresia may be membranous or bony; bilateral or unilateral. Mental retardation is variable with intelligence quotients (IQ ranging from normal to profound retardation. Under-development of the external genitalia is a common finding in males but it is less apparent in females. Ear abnormalities include a classical finding of unusually shaped ears and hearing loss (conductive and/or nerve deafness that ranges from mild to severe deafness. Multiple cranial nerve dysfunctions are common. A behavioral phenotype for CHARGE syndrome is emerging. Mutations in the CHD7 gene (member of the chromodomain helicase DNA protein family are detected in over 75% of patients with CHARGE syndrome. Children with CHARGE syndrome require intensive medical management as well as numerous surgical interventions. They also need multidisciplinary follow up. Some of the hidden issues of CHARGE syndrome are often forgotten, one being the feeding adaptation of these children, which needs an early aggressive approach from a feeding team. As the child

  20. Molecular characterization of soybean cultivars by microsatellite markers with universal tail sequence Caracterização molecular de cultivares de soja por meio de marcadores microssatélites com sequência de cauda universal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Gomes Ribeiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to standardize a semiautomated method for genotyping soybean, based on universal tail sequence primers (UTSP, and to compare it with the conventional genotyping method that uses electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Thirty soybean cultivars were genotypically characterized by both methods, using 13 microsatellite loci. For the UTSP method, the number of alleles (NA was 50 (2-7 per marker and the polymorphic information content (PIC ranged from 0.40 to 0.74. For the conventional method, the NA was 38 (2-5 per marker and the PIC varied from 0.39 to 0.67. The genetic dissimilarity matrices obtained by the two methods were highly correlated with each other (0.8026, and the formed groups were coherent with the phenotypic data used for varietal registration. The 13 markers allowed the distinction of all analyzed cultivars. The low cost of the UTSP method, associated with its high accuracy, makes it ideal for the characterization of soybean cultivars and for the determination of genetic purity.O objetivo deste trabalho foi padronizar um método semi‑automatizado para genotipagem de soja, baseado na metodologia de iniciadores com sequências de cauda universal (PSCU, e compará‑lo ao método de genotipagem convencional de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida. Trinta cultivares de soja foram caracterizadas genotipicamente por ambos os métodos, com o uso de 13 locos microssatélites. Para o método PSCU, o número de alelos (NA foi de 50 (2-7 por marcador e o conteúdo de informação polimórfica (PIC variou de 0,40 a 0,74. Para o método convencional, o NA foi de 38 (2-5 por marcador e o PIC variou de 0,39 a 0,67. As matrizes de dissimilaridade genética obtidas pelos dois métodos apresentaram alta correlação entre si (0,8026, e os grupos formados foram coerentes com dados fenotípicos utilizados para o registro varietal. Os 13 marcadores permitiram a distinção de todas as cultivares analisadas. O baixo custo

  1. Bouveret's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, A.; Hasan, Z.; Saeed, A.; Abdullah, K.

    2008-01-01

    Gastric Outlet Obstruction (GOO) due to impaction of a gallstone in the duodenum after migration through a bilioduodenal fistula is known as Bouveret's syndrome. Its clinical symptoms are entirely vague and nonspecific. Because of its rarity, insidiousness and unpredictable symptomatology. Bouveret's syndrome is never thought of in the differential diagnosis as aetiology of gastric outlet obstruction. Recent advances in fiberoptics technology, advent of modern imaging modalities and minimally-invasive techniques like endoscopy and laparoscopy has brought a great revolution in the management of Bouveret's syndrome and have tremendously decreased morbidity and mortality associated with this rare clinical entity. (author)

  2. Neuroacanthocytosis Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Ruth H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuroacanthocytosis (NA syndromes are a group of genetically defined diseases characterized by the association of red blood cell acanthocytosis and progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia. NA syndromes are exceptionally rare with an estimated prevalence of less than 1 to 5 per 1'000'000 inhabitants for each disorder. The core NA syndromes include autosomal recessive chorea-acanthocytosis and X-linked McLeod syndrome which have a Huntington´s disease-like phenotype consisting of a choreatic movement disorder, psychiatric manifestations and cognitive decline, and additional multi-system features including myopathy and axonal neuropathy. In addition, cardiomyopathy may occur in McLeod syndrome. Acanthocytes are also found in a proportion of patients with autosomal dominant Huntington's disease-like 2, autosomal recessive pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration and several inherited disorders of lipoprotein metabolism, namely abetalipoproteinemia (Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome and hypobetalipoproteinemia leading to vitamin E malabsorption. The latter disorders are characterized by a peripheral neuropathy and sensory ataxia due to dorsal column degeneration, but movement disorders and cognitive impairment are not present. NA syndromes are caused by disease-specific genetic mutations. The mechanism by which these mutations cause neurodegeneration is not known. The association of the acanthocytic membrane abnormality with selective degeneration of the basal ganglia, however, suggests a common pathogenetic pathway. Laboratory tests include blood smears to detect acanthocytosis and determination of serum creatine kinase. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging may demonstrate striatal atrophy. Kell and Kx blood group antigens are reduced or absent in McLeod syndrome. Western blot for chorein demonstrates absence of this protein in red blood cells of chorea-acanthocytosis patients. Specific genetic testing is possible in all NA syndromes

  3. Cowden syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Prakash S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowden syndrome or multiple hamartoma syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition with variable expressions that result mainly from mutation in the PTEN gene on arm 10q. It is characterized by multiple hamartomatous neoplasms of the skin, oral mucosa, gastrointestinal tract, bones, CNS, eyes, and genitourinary tract. Mucocutaneous features include trichilemmomas, oral mucosal papillomatosis, acral keratosis, and palmoplantar keratosis. Here we present a case of Cowden syndrome in a 14-year-old female patient with the chief complaint of multiple oral papillomatous lesions.

  4. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search FAQs Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Patient Education FAQs Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish ...

  5. Reye's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vomiting Diarrhea Reye's syndrome Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  6. Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girls and women with TS may have low self- esteem, anxiety, or depression. How is Turner syndrome diagnosed? ... to active partners in their health care. This fact sheet is also available in Spanish at www. ...

  7. Alport syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have equally severe disease. Autosomal dominant Alport syndrome (ADAS) -- This is the rarest type. Males and females ... and girls have hearing loss during childhood. With ADAS, it occurs later in life. Hearing loss usually ...

  8. Sotos Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and social development; hypotonia (low muscle tone), and speech impairments. Clumsiness, an awkward gait, and unusual aggressiveness or irritability may also occur. Although most cases of Sotos syndrome occur sporadically (meaning they are not known to be inherited), familial ...

  9. Potter syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter phenotype ... In Potter syndrome, the primary problem is kidney failure. The kidneys fail to develop properly as the baby is ... kidneys normally produce the amniotic fluid (as urine). Potter phenotype refers to a typical facial appearance that ...

  10. Alport Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signs and symptoms may differ, based on age, gender and inherited type of Alport syndrome. For example, ... prevention and treatment of kidney disease. The Better Business Bureau Wise Giving Alliance Charity Seal provides the ...

  11. Gilbert's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor before taking new medications. Also, having certain types of Gilbert's syndrome may increase your risk of ... of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  12. Compartment syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term (chronic) compartment syndrome can be caused by repetitive activities, such as running. The pressure in a compartment ... or loosened to relieve the pressure Stopping the repetitive activity or exercise, or changing the way it's done ...

  13. Aicardi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... See More About Research The NINDS supports and conducts research on neurogenetic disorders such as Aicardi syndrome. The goals of this research are to locate and understand ... Publications Definition Aicardi ...

  14. Zellweger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... swallow. Some babies will be born with glaucoma, retinal degeneration, and impaired hearing. Jaundice and gastrointestinal bleeding also may occur. Treatment There is no cure for Zellweger syndrome, nor ...

  15. Gerstmann's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drawings. Frequently, there is also an impairment in reading. Children with a high level of intellectual functioning as well as those with brain damage may be affected with the disorder. × Definition Gerstmann's syndrome is a cognitive impairment that results ...

  16. Usher Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with age. Decline in hearing and vision varies. Children with type 3 Usher syndrome often develop hearing loss by adolescence, requiring hearing aids by mid-to-late adulthood. Night blindness also usually begins during adolescence. Blind spots appear ...

  17. Piriformis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may order additional tests. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans cannot diagnose piriformis syndrome, ... you are sitting, driving or standing. Don’t lift by bending over. Lift an object by bending ...

  18. Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have an increased risk of an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) due to the autoimmune disorder Hashimoto's thyroiditis. They also have an increased risk of diabetes. Some women with Turner syndrome have gluten intolerance (celiac disease) or inflammatory bowel disease. Skeletal ...

  19. Reye Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now What Is Reye’s Syndrome? ...

  20. Alagille Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Alagille Syndrome Back Alagille ...

  1. Cushing syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mellitus High blood pressure (hypertension) Increased cholesterol and triglycerides (hyperlipidemia) Women with Cushing syndrome may have: Excess ... Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, ...

  2. What is Metabolic Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Home / Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome What Is Metabolic syndrome is the name for a group of risk ... three metabolic risk factors to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A large waistline. This also is called abdominal ...

  3. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Also known as Pickwickian Syndrome What ... your neck is larger than normal. Complications of Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome When left untreated, OHS can cause ...

  4. Learning about WAGR Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children who have WAGR syndrome may have normal intelligence. Other symptoms of WAGR syndrome may also include: ... mild. Some individuals with WAGR syndrome have normal intelligence. Children with WAGR syndrome should be referred for ...

  5. Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may also be caused by toxins produced by group A streptococcus (strep) bacteria. Toxic shock syndrome has been associated ... syndrome. The syndrome can also be caused by group A streptococcus (strep) bacteria. Risk factors Toxic shock syndrome can ...

  6. Milk-alkali syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium-alkali syndrome; Cope syndrome; Burnett syndrome; Hypercalcemia; Calcium metabolism disorder ... Milk-alkali syndrome is almost always caused by taking too many calcium supplements, usually in the form of calcium ...

  7. What Causes Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it? Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What causes Down syndrome? Down syndrome is caused by a random error ... The Down Syndrome Registry . Chromosomal Changes That Can Cause Down Syndrome Research shows that three types of chromosomal changes ...

  8. Pfeiffer syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryns Jean-Pierre

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pfeiffer syndrome is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that associates craniosynostosis, broad and deviated thumbs and big toes, and partial syndactyly on hands and feet. Hydrocephaly may be found occasionally, along with severe ocular proptosis, ankylosed elbows, abnormal viscera, and slow development. Based on the severity of the phenotype, Pfeiffer syndrome is divided into three clinical subtypes. Type 1 "classic" Pfeiffer syndrome involves individuals with mild manifestations including brachycephaly, midface hypoplasia and finger and toe abnormalities; it is associated with normal intelligence and generally good outcome. Type 2 consists of cloverleaf skull, extreme proptosis, finger and toe abnormalities, elbow ankylosis or synostosis, developmental delay and neurological complications. Type 3 is similar to type 2 but without a cloverleaf skull. Clinical overlap between the three types may occur. Pfeiffer syndrome affects about 1 in 100,000 individuals. The disorder can be caused by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor genes FGFR-1 or FGFR-2. Pfeiffer syndrome can be diagnosed prenatally by sonography showing craniosynostosis, hypertelorism with proptosis, and broad thumb, or molecularly if it concerns a recurrence and the causative mutation was found. Molecular genetic testing is important to confirm the diagnosis. Management includes multiple-staged surgery of craniosynostosis. Midfacial surgery is performed to reduce the exophthalmos and the midfacial hypoplasia.

  9. Resposta ovariana de cabras submetidas a implantes de progesterona seguidos de aplicações de gonadotrofina coriônica equina Ovarian response of goats submitted to implants of progesterone followed by administration of equine corionic gonadotrophin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Uribe-Velásquez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar os efeitos de diferentes doses de gonadotrofina coriônica equina (eCG na dinâmica folicular e nas concentrações hormonais em cabras alpinas. Durante a estação reprodutiva, as cabras foram submetidas à sincronização do estro e da ovulação com um dispositivo de progesterona por 14 dias. As cabras (n=24 foram divididas aleatoriamente, em quatro grupos de seis e, no dia da remoção do dispositivo, receberam 0 (controle, 200, 300 e 400 UI de eCG. O desenvolvimento folicular foi observado via ultrassonografia um dia antes da administração da eCG até a ovulação seguinte. Determinaram-se diariamente as concentrações plasmáticas de estradiol e progesterona por radioimunoensaio. Todos os animais tratados manifestaram estro. Observaram-se ciclos estrais com três e quatro ondas de crescimento folicular. O tamanho do maior folículo nos animais controle na terceira onda (5,5 ± 0,50 mm foi menor que naqueles tratados com 300 UI de eCG (7,17 ± 0,35 mm. A aplicação de gonadotrofina aumentou o número de folículos pequenos e médios em relação ao grupo controle, uma vez que o número médio de corpos lúteos foi maior nas fêmeas tratadas com 400 UI (4,27 ± 0,23 em comparação àquelas tratadas com 200 UI (1,95 ± 0,19. A concentração plasmática de progesterona e estradiol diferiu entre os grupos experimentais. A combinação de progestágenos e eCG é uma alternativa adequada para a sincronização do estro e suporta o desenvolvimento de novos protocolos de técnicas reprodutivas, como a superovulação e a transferência de embriões em cabras.The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of different dosages of equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG on the follicular dynamics and hormonal concentrations in Alpine goats. During the breeding season, the goats were submitted to estrous and ovulation synchronization with a device containing progesterone for 14 days. Female goats (n=24 were divided

  10. Compartment syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  11. Fraser syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Odak, Ljubica; Loane, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Fraser syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, laryngeal, and urogenital malformations. We present a population-based epidemiological study using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network...... of birth defect registries. Between January 1990 and December 2008, we identified 26 cases of Fraser syndrome in the monitored population of 12,886,464 births (minimal estimated prevalence of 0.20 per 100,000 or 1:495,633 births). Most cases (18/26; 69%) were registered in the western part of Europe, where...... was particularly high (42%). Most cases of Fraser syndrome (85%) are suspected prenatally, often due to the presence of the association of renal agenesis and cryptophthalmos. In the European population, a high proportion (82%) of pregnancies is terminated, thus reducing the live birth prevalence to a third...

  12. Dressler Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Ceylan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dressler Syndrome (DS is a febrile illness secondary to an inflammatory reaction involving the pleura and pericardium. It is more common in patients who have undergone surgery that involves opening the pericardium. However, DS has also been described following myocardial infarction and as an unusual complication after percutaneous procedures such as coronary stent implantation, after implantation of epicardial pacemaker leads and transvenous pacemaker leads, and following blunt trauma, stab wounds, and heart puncture. Pericardial effusions often accompany the syndrome and may develop into early or late postoperative cardiac tamponade and even recurrent cardiac tamponade. The syndrome is also characterized by pericardial or pleuritic pain, pleural effusions, pneumonitis, and abnormal ECG and radiography findings.

  13. BRUGADA SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kostić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, Brugada syndrom was introduced as a new clinical entity linking typical but variable ST segment changes in the right precordial leads to an increased vulnerability for lethal ventricular arrhythmias. The diagnosis of Brugada syndrome is based on clinical and electrocardiographic features. Recent studies illustrate the dynamic character of these ECG patterns. Whenever a large number of baseline ECGs was available during a follow-up, the diagnostic pattern could be documented only in approximately 25% of the tracings. Because the presence of the spontaneous coved type I ECG pattern is thought to be a useful predictor of future arrhythmic events in asymptomatic patients, these findings are of great clinical importance. ICD implantation is an option for the patients with Brugada syndrome and ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Extensive research is ongoing to find alternative pharmacological options for these patients, especially for patients in whom ICD implantation is contraindicated for various reasons.

  14. Eagle's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro, Thaís Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is difficult, and it is generally confounded by other manifestations of cervicopharyngeal pain. Objective: To describe a case of Eagle's syndrome. Case Report: A 53-year-old man reported lateral pain in his neck that had been present for 30 years. Computed tomography (CT of the neck showed elongation and ossification of the styloid processes of the temporal bone, which was compatible with Eagle's syndrome. Surgery was performed for bilateral resection of the stylohyoid ligament by using a transoral and endoscopic access route. The patient continued to present pain laterally in the neck, predominantly on his left side. CT was performed again, which showed elongation of the styloid processes. The patient then underwent lateral cervicotomy with resection of the stylohyoid process, which partially resolved his painful condition. Final Comments: Patients with Eagle's syndrome generally have a history of chronic pain. Appropriate knowledge of this disease is necessary for adequate treatment to be provided. The importance of diagnosing this uncommon and often unsuspected disease should be emphasized, given that correct clinical-surgical treatment is frequently delayed. The diagnosis of Eagle's syndrome is clinical and radiographic, and the definitive treatment in cases of difficult-to-control pain is surgical.

  15. Eagle syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina, Deepika; Gothi, Rajesh; Rajan, Sriram

    2009-01-01

    Eagle syndrome occurs due to elongation of the styloid process or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament, which then may produce a pain sensation due the pressure exerted on various structures in the head and neck. When suspected, imaging helps in identifying the abnormally elongated styloid process or the calcified ligament. In recent years, three-dimensional CT (3DCT) has proved to be valuable in these cases. We report the case of a 62-year-old man with this syndrome in whom imaging with 3DCT conclusively established the diagnosis

  16. Lemierre's syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, D N

    2012-02-01

    Lemierre\\'s syndrome is a rare disease that results in an oropharyngeal infection, which precipitates an internal jugular vein thrombosis and metastatic infection. Fusobacterium necrophorum is an anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus and has been identified as the causative agent. We describe the case of a young girl whose presentation and diagnosis were confounded by a history of valvular heart disease. Infection of heart valves can produce many of the signs and symptoms associated with Lemierre\\'s syndrome. We describe the diagnosis, investigation and optimal management of this rare disorder.

  17. Olmsted syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pramod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Olmsted syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the combination of periorificial, keratotic plaques and bilateral palmoplantar keratoderma. New associated features are being reported. Olmsted syndrome is particularly rare in a female patient, and we report such a case in a six year-old Indian girl, who presented with keratoderma of her soles since birth and on her palms since the age of two years along with perioral and perinasal hyperkeratosis. She had sparse, light brown, thin hair. Although the psychomotor development of the child was normal until 18 months of age, the keratoderma plaques had restricted the child′s mobility after that stage.

  18. Rapunzel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Wadan, Ali H.; Al-Saai, Azan S.; Abdoulgafour, Mohamed; Al-Absi, Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    An 18-year-old single female patient, presented with non specific gastrointestinal symptoms of anorexia, abdominal pain, and change in bowel habit. Clinically she was anemic, cachectic, and depressed. Abdominal examination revealed mobile epigastric mass. The scalp alopecia and endoscopy coupled by computed tomography scan, confirmed the diagnoses of trichobezoar, but it was not diagnosed as Rapunzel syndrome except after laparotomy, gastrotomy, and enterotomy. There are less than 16 cases of Rapunzel syndrome described worldwide, and this is the first case to be described in the middle east. (author)

  19. Fenton's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimondi, E.; Albasini, V.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report two recent cases of Fenton's syndrome, a very rare carpal fracture-dislocation. After some anatomophysiopathological considerations and a review of the literature, a wider nosographic frame is proposed in which the entity of the dislocation of the head of capitate bone is not essential. According to both the literature and personal findings, the authors remark that this syndrome is always found in the presence of two morphological variants of the distal radioulnar joint. Finally, the authors stress the importance of a corect diagnosis of this lesion to avoid unnecessary attempts of reduction

  20. Waardenburg syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagra Sunita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Waardenburg syndrome is a rare inherited and genetically heterogenous disorder of neural crest cell development. Four distinct subtypes showing marked interfamilial and intrafamilial variability have been described. We report a girl showing constellation of congenital hearing impairment with 110 dB and 105 dB loss in right and left ear respectively, hypoplastic blue iridis, white forelock, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal root. Other affected relatives of the family, with variable features of the syndrome, have been depicted in the pedigree.

  1. Morbihan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Veraldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of severe Morbihan syndrome (chronic erythematous edema of the upper portion of the face in a 60-year-old man. The syndrome was characterized clinically by erythematous edema involving the forehead, glabella, and both eyelids, because of which the patient was not able to open completely his eyes. Furthermore, erythema and telangiectasiae were visible on the nose and cheeks. Laboratory and instrumental examinations were within normal ranges or negative. Histopathological examination showed dermal edema, perivascular and periadnexal lympho-histiocytic infiltrate, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia. Oral isotretinoin was ineffective despite the relatively long duration of the therapy (26 weeks.

  2. Joubert syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanua, J.A.; Lopez, J.M.; Recondo, J.A.; Garcia, J.M.; Gaztanaga, R.

    1998-01-01

    Joubert syndrome is a rare malformation of the posterior fossa, mainly affecting the cerebellar vermis, which generally appears as a dysplastic lesion. Other structures of the cervico medullary junction may be involved, with accompanying brainstem hypoplasia according to neuroimaging studies. The diagnosis is usually reached during, childhood, based on a constellation of changes in the child's neurological development that are supported by the results of imaging studied. Respiratory problems are the most common signs in newborns,leading to the suspicion of the presence of this syndrome. (Author) 11 refs

  3. Lemierre's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, J.; Garcia, J.

    1999-01-01

    Postanginal sepsis, or Lemierre's syndrome, is rare but with life-threatening potential involving mainly infants and adolescents. The morbidity or mortality is caused mainly by lack of knowledge of the syndrome. The 18-year-old boy described here developed a jugular thrombosis 7 days after an angina. Fusobacterium necrophorum was isolated from the culture of the excised jugular vein. Secondary embolism involved the lungs, associated with an iliac osteomyelitis and sacroiliitis. Computed tomography was used for diagnosis and follow-up. (orig.)

  4. Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Sudarshan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects mostly females. Affected females have characteristic features such as short stature, premature ovarian failure, and several other features. Oral manifestations of this condition are not much discussed in the literature. But reported literature includes teeth, palate, periodontal and salivary changes. So the aim of this review is to illustrate the general manifestations, and especially the oral manifestations of Turner syndrome and evaluate their possible management. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(4.000: 246-252

  5. Marfan syndrome masked by Down syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, J.C.; Engelen, K. van; Timmermans, J.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Mulder, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality. A simultaneous occurrence with Marfan syndrome is extremely rare. We present a case of a 28-year-old female with Down syndrome and a mutation in the fibrillin-1 gene. The patient showed strikingly few manifestations of Marfan syndrome.

  6. Gitelman syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Levtchenko, E.N.

    2008-01-01

    Gitelman syndrome (GS), also referred to as familial hypokalemia-hypomagnesemia, is characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis in combination with significant hypomagnesemia and low urinary calcium excretion. The prevalence is estimated at approximately 1:40,000 and accordingly, the prevalence

  7. Dravet Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but can be reduced by anticonvulsant drugs. A ketogenic diet, high in fats and low in carbohydrates, also may be beneficial. View Full Treatment Information Definition Dravet syndrome, also called severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI), is a severe form of ...

  8. Kartagener's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, D K; Ganguly, K C; Alam, S; Hossain, A; Sarker, U K; Das, B K; Haque, M J

    2009-01-01

    Kartagener's Syndrome or Immotile Cilia Syndrome, a variant of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD), is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by defect in the tiny hair like structure, the cilia lining the respiratory tract (upper and lower), sinuses, eustachian tubes, middle ear and fallopian tubes. Here electron microscopy shows abnormal arrangement of ciliary tubules and patients with Kartagener's syndrome has an absence of dynein arms at the base of the cilia. The inability of cilia to move results in inadequate clearance of bacteria from the air passages, resulting in an increased risk of infection and causing bronchiectasis. Another result of ciliary immobility is infertility. A 60 years old lady was diagnosed as a case of Kartagener's syndrome. She had history of chronic cough for 20 years, irregular fever for 20 years and occasional shortness of breath for 5 years. Relevant investigations revealed dextrocardia, situs inversus, bilateral maxillary sinusitis with non pneumatised frontal sinus and bronchiectasis. She was treated with low concentration oxygen inhalation, antibiotic, bronchodilator, chest physiotherapy including postural drainage, vitamins and other supportive treatment.

  9. Barth Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saric, Ana; Andreau, Karine; Armand, Anne-Sophie

    2016-01-01

    , liver and skeletal muscle of patients have revealed mitochondrial malformations and dysfunctions. It is the purpose of this review to summarize recent results of studies on various animal or cell models of Barth syndrome, which have characterized biochemically the strong cellular defects associated...

  10. Proteus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debi Basanti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteus syndrome is a variable and complex disorder characterized by multifocal overgrowths affecting any tissue or structure of the body. We present a girl aged 3 years and 8 months with an epidermal nevus, port-wine stain, macrodactyly with gigantism of the feet, lymphohemagiomas and multiple lipomas.

  11. Sjogren syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito-Zeron, Pilar; Baldini, Chiara; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bowman, Simon J.; Jonsson, Roland; Mariette, Xavier; Sivils, Kathy; Theander, Elke; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Ramos-Casals, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Sjogren syndrome (SjS) is a systemic autoimmune disease that primarily affects the exocrine glands (mainly the salivary and lacrimal glands) and results in the severe dryness of mucosal surfaces, principally in the mouth and eyes. This disease predominantly affects middle-aged women, but can also be

  12. Goldenhar syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    operational on the derivatives of the first and second bran- chial arches and clefts before the end of the organogenetic period (7'h or 8'h week of embryonic life)? ..... Marshman WE, Schalit G, Jones RB, Lee JP, Mathews TD and McCabe S: Congenital anomalies in patients with Duane retraction syndrome and their relatives.

  13. Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Linda A.

    This pamphlet reviews the historical process involved in initially recognizing Rett Syndrome as a specific disorder in girls. Its etiology is unknown, but studies have considered factors as hyperammonemia, a two-step mutation, a fragile X chromosome, metabolic disorder, environmental causation, dopamine deficiency, and an inactive X chromosome.…

  14. Nodding Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-12-19

    Dr. Scott Dowell, a CDC director, discusses the rare illness, nodding syndrome, in children in Africa.  Created: 12/19/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/27/2014.

  15. Metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/pubmed/26718656 . Ruderman NB, Shulman GI. Metabolic syndrome. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 43. Review ... NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  16. Stickler Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tongue to drop back toward the throat. Blindness. Blindness can occur if retinal detachments aren't repaired promptly. Ear infections. Children with facial structure abnormalities associated with Stickler syndrome are more likely to develop ear infections than are children with normal facial ...

  17. Gorlin syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    develop medulloblastomas and are treated with radiation, it is mandatory that they be monitored for the development of BCCs in the radiation field. Management of a patient or family with this syndrome should include genetic counselling and neurological evaluations to detect medulloblastoma until the age of 7, after which ...

  18. Kartagener's Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    presenting with recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections, sinusitis or bronchiectasis. Inability to diagnose this condition may subject the patient to unnecessary and repeated hospital admissions, investigations and treatment failure. KEY WORDS: Kartagener's syndrome, primary cilliary dyskinesia, situs inversus, ...

  19. Kounis syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kounis syndrome is charac terised by a group of symp toms that manifest as unsta ble vasospastic or nonvaso spastic angina secondary to a hypersensitivity reaction.[1] It was first described by. Kounis and Zavras in 1991[2] as the concurrence of an allergic response with an anaphylactoid or anaphylactic reaction and ...

  20. Marfan Syndrome (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Marfan Syndrome KidsHealth / For Teens / Marfan Syndrome What's in this ... a genetic disorder called Marfan syndrome. What Is Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome is named after Antoine Marfan, the ...

  1. The Source for Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Gail J.; Hoge, Debra Reichert

    Designed for practicing speech-language pathologists, this book discusses different syndrome disabilities, pertinent speech-language characteristics, and goals and strategies to begin intervention efforts at a preschool level. Chapters address: (1) Angelman syndrome; (2) Asperger syndrome; (3) Down syndrome; (4) fetal alcohol syndrome; (5) fetal…

  2. Apert syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premalatha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apert syndrome (acrocephalosyndactyly is a rare developmental malformation characterized by craniosynostosis, mid-face hypoplasia, symmetrical syndactyly of hands and feet. The prodromal characteristics for the typical cranio-facial appearance are early craniosynostosis of the coronal suture, cranial base and agenesis of the sagittal suture. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of Apert syndrome with emphasis on craniofacial and oral features in an eighteen-month-old male child. The patient presented with several craniofacial deformities, including brachycephaly, midface hypoplasia, flat face, hypertelorism, ocular proptosis, downslanting palpebral fissures. Syndactylies with osseous fusion of the hands and feet were also observed. Intraoral findings included delayed eruption of teeth, high arched palate with pseudo cleft in the posterior one third.

  3. Hepatorenal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yilmaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS is functional renal failure that occurs with advanced liver failure. HRS is considered the most severe complication of cirrhosis. Type 1 HRS develops due to severe reduction of effective circulating volume results in hemodynamic dysfunction. Type 1 HRS is characterized by acute renal failure and rapid deterioration in the function of other organs. It can ocur spontaneously or in the setting of a precipitating event. Type 2 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS, which is characterized by slowly progressive renal failure and refractory ascites. Liver transplantation is the only definitive treatment for both type. The most suitable and ldquo;bridge treatments and rdquo; or treatment for patients ineligible for a liver transplant include terlipressin plus albumin. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(2.000: 106-113

  4. Paraneoplastic syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) comprise a diverse group of disorders that are associated with cancer but unrelated to the size, location, metastases, or physiologic activities of the mature tissue of origin. They are remote effects of tumors that may appear as signs, symptoms, or syndromes which can mimic other disease conditions encountered in veterinary medicine. Recognition of PNS is valuable for several reasons: the observed abnormalities may represent tumor cell markers and facilitate early diagnosis of the tumor; they may allow assessment of premalignant states; they may aid in the search metastases; they may help quantify and monitor response to therapy; and, they may provide insight into the study of malignant transformation and oncogene expression. This review will concentrate on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of some of the common PNS encountered in veterinary medicine.

  5. Pearson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farruggia, Piero; Di Marco, Floriana; Dufour, Carlo

    2018-03-01

    Pearson syndrome (PS) is a sporadic and very rare syndrome classically associated with single large-scale deletions of mitochondrial DNA and characterized by refractory sideroblastic anemia during infancy. Areas covered: This review presents an analysis and interpretation of the published data that forms the basis for our understanding of PS. PubMed, Google Scholarand Thompson ISI Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant data. Expert commentary: PS is a very rare mitochodrial disease that involves different organs and systems. Clinical phenotype is extremely variable and may change over the course of disease itself with the possibility both of worsenings and improvements. Outcome is invariably lethal and at the moment no cure is available. Accurate supportive treatment and follow up program in centres with experience in mitochondrial diseases and marrow failure may positively influence quality and duration of life.

  6. Otodental syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloch-Zupan Agnès

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The otodental syndrome also named otodental dysplasia, is characterised by a striking dental phenotype known as globodontia, associated with sensorineural high frequency hearing loss and eye coloboma. Globodontia occurs in both primary and permanent dentition, affecting canine and molar teeth (i.e. enlarged bulbous malformed posterior teeth with almost no discernable cusps or grooves. The condition appears to be inherited in an autosomal dominant mode, although sporadic cases have been reported. It is a rare disease, a few families have been described in the literature. In the British family, the locus for oculo-oto-dental syndrome was mapped to 20q13.1 within a 12-cM critical chromosomal region. Dental management is complex, interdisciplinary and will include regular follow up, scheduled teeth extraction and orthodontic treatment. Hearing checks and, if necessary, hearing aids are mandatory, as well as eye examination and ad hoc treatment if necessary.

  7. Antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Ricard

    2017-03-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined by the development of venous and/or arterial thromboses, often multiple, and pregnancy morbidity (mainly, recurrent fetal losses), in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Some estimates indicate that the incidence of the APS is around 5 new cases per 100,000 persons per year and the prevalence around 40-50 cases per 100,000 persons. The aPL are positive in approximately 13% of patients with stroke, 11% with myocardial infarction, 9.5% of patients with deep vein thrombosis and 6% of patients with pregnancy morbidity. Currently, there is consensus in treating APS patients with thrombosis with long-term oral anticoagulation and to prevent obstetric manifestations with the use of aspirin and heparin. This review summarizes the main knowledge on the clinical and therapeutic aspects of this syndrome. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dravet syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Incorpora Gemma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract "Dravet syndrome" (DS previously named severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI, or epilepsy with polymorphic seizures, is a rare disorder characterized by an early, severe, generalized, epileptic encephalopathy. DS is characterized by febrile and afebrile seizures beginning in the 1st year of life followed by different types of seizures (either focal or generalized, which are typically resistant to antiepileptic drugs. A developmental delay from the 2nd to 3rd year of life becomes evident, together with motor disturbances and personality disorders. Beside the classic syndrome, there are milder cases which have been called severe myoclonic epilepsy borderline (SMEB. DS is caused by a mutation in the neuronal sodium channel gene, SCN1A , that is also mutated in generalized epilepsy with FS+ (GEFS+.

  9. [Fibromyalgia syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo Hernández, A; Rodríguez Lozano, C; Ojeda Bruno, S

    1992-02-01

    The Fibromialgia Syndrome (FS) is a common clinical entity which may produce symtoms and signs related to multiple fields of Medicine. Typical clinical characteristics of FS include extensive pain, presence of sensitive points during exploration, morning stiffness, asthenia and non-refresing sleep. Frequently, associated rheumatologic diseases are observed, as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthrosis and vertebral disorders. In FS, complementary tests are usually normal. The most widely accepted hypothesis suggests that this is a disorder affecting modulation of pain sensitivity.

  10. Griscelli syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar T

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial albinism with immunodeficiency is a rare and fatal immunologic disorder characterized by pigmentary dilution and variable cellular immunodeficiency. It was initially described in 1978. Primary abnormalities included silvery grayish sheen to the hair, large pigment agglomerations in hair shafts and an abundance of mature melanosomes in melanocytes, with reduced pigmentation of adjacent keratinocytes. We describe a child with Griscelli syndrome who presented with hepatitis, pancytopenia and silvery hair. The diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic skin and hair examination.

  11. Asperger Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Friedlander, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Asperger syndrome (AS) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder of social interaction, communication, and a restricted range of behaviors or interests. Although not generally associated with intellectual disability, the severe social disability and, in many cases, associated mental health and other medical problems, result in disability throughout life. The diagnosis is often delayed, sometimes into adulthood, which is unfortunate because there are now a range...

  12. What Is Marfan Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outreach Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Marfan Syndrome Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Marfan Syndrome Marfan syndrome affects connective tissue, which is the “ ...

  13. Turner Syndrome: Other FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... celiac disease. 5 Is Turner syndrome considered a disability? Turner syndrome is not considered a disability, although ... girls with Turner syndrome have difficulty with arithmetic, visual memory, and visio-spatial skills (such as determining ...

  14. Basal cell nevus syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nevus syndrome Basal cell nevus syndrome - face References Evans DG, Farndon PA. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  15. What Causes Rett Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it? Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What causes Rett syndrome? Most cases of Rett syndrome are ... in the MECP2 gene represent the most prevalent causes of Rett syndrome. The development and severity of ...

  16. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  17. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs between days ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: antiphospholipid syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Antiphospholipid syndrome Antiphospholipid syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... area? Other Names for This Condition anti-phospholipid syndrome antiphospholipid antibody syndrome Hughes syndrome Related Information How are ...

  19. Inherited ichthyosis: Syndromic forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Kozo

    2016-03-01

    Among diseases that cause ichthyosis as one of the symptoms, there are some diseases that induce abnormalities in organs other than the skin. Of these, diseases with characteristic signs are regarded as syndromes. Although these syndromes are very rare, Netherton syndrome, Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome, Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome, ichthyosis follicularis, atrichia and photophobia (IFAP) syndrome, and Refsum syndrome have been described in texts as representative ones. It is important to know the molecular genetics and pathomechanisms in order to establish an effective therapy and beneficial genetic counseling including a prenatal diagnosis. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. Cockayne syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karikkineth, Ajoy C; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Fivenson, Elayne

    2017-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a disorder characterized by a variety of clinical features including cachectic dwarfism, severe neurological manifestations including microcephaly and cognitive deficits, pigmentary retinopathy, cataracts, sensorineural deafness, and ambulatory and feeding difficulties......, leading to death by 12 years of age on average. It is an autosomal recessive disorder, with a prevalence of approximately 2.5 per million. There are several phenotypes (1-3) and two complementation groups (CSA and CSB), and CS overlaps with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). It has been considered a progeria...

  1. [Dependency syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorisalo, Sailaritta

    2013-01-01

    The most common causes of lower limb edema include cardiac insufficiency, venous insufficiency, insufficiency of lymph flow, and side effects of drugs. It can also be due to dependency syndrome, in which the edema and skin changes can only be explained by a passive calf muscle pump and the resulting venous hypertension. Underlying the drop foot is always immobilization for one reason or other. The patient must be given an explanation about the situation, activated to move if possible, and in any case guided to the use of support stockings and postural therapy.

  2. Eagle Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beytholahi JM

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Eagle's syndrome is characterized by an elongated styloid process and (or calcification of"nstylohyoid ligament besides clinical symptoms. The symptoms are those related to pain when"nswallowing or rotating the neck, headacke, earache, dizziness, intermittent glossitis, sensation of"nforeign body in pharynx and transient syncope. The case which is presented can be considered a very"nrare form of the disease in which complete calcification of the ligament and it's thickening has"noccured. Also there is little relationship between the severity of calcification and severity of symptoms."nA careful and thorough evaluation of each panoramic radiography is emphasized.

  3. Jacobsen syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossfeld Paul

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Jacobsen syndrome is a MCA/MR contiguous gene syndrome caused by partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. To date, over 200 cases have been reported. The prevalence has been estimated at 1/100,000 births, with a female/male ratio 2:1. The most common clinical features include pre- and postnatal physical growth retardation, psychomotor retardation, and characteristic facial dysmorphism (skull deformities, hypertelorism, ptosis, coloboma, downslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, broad nasal bridge, short nose, v-shaped mouth, small ears, low set posteriorly rotated ears. Abnormal platelet function, thrombocytopenia or pancytopenia are usually present at birth. Patients commonly have malformations of the heart, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, genitalia, central nervous system and skeleton. Ocular, hearing, immunological and hormonal problems may be also present. The deletion size ranges from ~7 to 20 Mb, with the proximal breakpoint within or telomeric to subband 11q23.3 and the deletion extending usually to the telomere. The deletion is de novo in 85% of reported cases, and in 15% of cases it results from an unbalanced segregation of a familial balanced translocation or from other chromosome rearrangements. In a minority of cases the breakpoint is at the FRA11B fragile site. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings (intellectual deficit, facial dysmorphic features and thrombocytopenia and confirmed by cytogenetics analysis. Differential diagnoses include Turner and Noonan syndromes, and acquired thrombocytopenia due to sepsis. Prenatal diagnosis of 11q deletion is possible by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling and cytogenetic analysis. Management is multi-disciplinary and requires evaluation by general pediatrician, pediatric cardiologist, neurologist, ophthalmologist. Auditory tests, blood tests, endocrine and immunological assessment and follow-up should be offered to all patients. Cardiac malformations can be

  4. HELLP syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Acar

    2014-08-01

    Suggested treatment modality consists, stabilization of blood pressure and magnesium sulfate infusion. Then evaluation of fetal status and planning delivery method and time if maternal status remains unstable. If prognosis seems favorable without urgent delivery and fetus can benefit from it, a course of betamethasone can be given to fetuses between 24 and 34 weeks of gestational age. The only and definite treatment of HELLP syndrome is delivering the baby. Suggested benefits of steroid therapy and other experimental treatments are still to be proven effective by large randomized controlled trials. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 735-760

  5. Olmsted Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirka C

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old Sikh man had palmoplantar keratoderma, flexion deformity of digits, universal alopecia, keratotic plaques at the angles of mouth, gluteal cleft, knees and dorsal aspects of the metacarpophalangeal joints of the hand; features of Olmsted syndrome. He had normal nails, teeth, oral mucosa and normal joint movements. Treatment with acitretin, 25mg/day for three and a half months, followed by 25mg once daily alternating with 50mg once daily for 3 months resulted in significant improvement.

  6. KBG syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brancati Francesco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract KBG syndrome is a rare condition characterised by a typical facial dysmorphism, macrodontia of the upper central incisors, skeletal (mainly costovertebral anomalies and developmental delay. To date, KBG syndrome has been reported in 45 patients. Clinical features observed in more than half of patients that may support the diagnosis are short stature, electroencephalogram (EEG anomalies (with or without seizures and abnormal hair implantation. Cutaneous syndactyly, webbed short neck, cryptorchidism, hearing loss, palatal defects, strabismus and congenital heart defects are less common findings. Autosomal dominant transmission has been observed in some families, and it is predominantly the mother, often showing a milder clinical picture, that transmits the disease. The diagnosis is currently based solely on clinical findings as the aetiology is unknown. The final diagnosis is generally achieved after the eruption of upper permanent central incisors at 7–8 years of age when the management of possible congenital anomalies should have been already planned. A full developmental assessment should be done at diagnosis and, if delays are noted, an infant stimulation program should be initiated. Subsequent management and follow-up should include an EEG, complete orthodontic evaluation, skeletal investigation with particular regard to spine curvatures and limb asymmetry, hearing testing and ophthalmologic assessment.

  7. Cardiorenal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Omar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease.  Heart failure may lead to acute kidney injury and vice versa. Chronic kidney disease may affect the clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disorders. Renal impairment with any degree of albuminuria has been increasingly recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and heart failure hospitalizations, while chronic heart failure may cause chronic kidney disease. The bidirectional nature of these disorders contributes to the complexity and the composite definitions of cardiorenal syndromes. However, the most important clinical trials in heart failure tend to exclude patients with significant renal dysfunction. The mechanisms whereby renal insufficiency worsens the outcome in heart failure are not known, and several pathways could contribute to the ‘‘vicious heart/kidney circle.’’ Traditionally, renal impairment has been attributed to the renal hypoperfusion due to reduced cardiac output and decreased systemic pressure. The hypovolemia leads to sympathetic activity, increased renin-angiotensin aldosterone pathway, and arginine-vasopressin release. These mechanisms cause fluid and sodium retention, peripheral vasoconstriction, and volume overload. Therapy to improve renal dysfunction, reduce neurohormonal activation and ameliorate renal blood flow could lead to a reduction in mortality and hospitalization in patients with cardiorenal syndrome.

  8. Sotos syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormier-Daire Valérie

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth condition characterized by cardinal features including excessive growth during childhood, macrocephaly, distinctive facial gestalt and various degrees of learning difficulty, and associated with variable minor features. The exact prevalence remains unknown but hundreds of cases have been reported. The diagnosis is usually suspected after birth because of excessive height and occipitofrontal circumference (OFC, advanced bone age, neonatal complications including hypotonia and feeding difficulties, and facial gestalt. Other inconstant clinical abnormalities include scoliosis, cardiac and genitourinary anomalies, seizures and brisk deep tendon reflexes. Variable delays in cognitive and motor development are also observed. The syndrome may also be associated with an increased risk of tumors. Mutations and deletions of the NSD1 gene (located at chromosome 5q35 and coding for a histone methyltransferase implicated in transcriptional regulation are responsible for more than 75% of cases. FISH analysis, MLPA or multiplex quantitative PCR allow the detection of total/partial NSD1 deletions, and direct sequencing allows detection of NSD1 mutations. The large majority of NSD1 abnormalities occur de novo and there are very few familial cases. Although most cases are sporadic, several reports of autosomal dominant inheritance have been described. Germline mosaicism has never been reported and the recurrence risk for normal parents is very low (

  9. Marfan Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Marfan Syndrome KidsHealth / For Parents / Marfan Syndrome Print en español Síndrome de Marfan What Is Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder of the ...

  10. What Is Usher Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Usher syndrome. However, the RP associated with Usher syndrome shares most of its characteristics with other forms of RP. Researchers expect that advances in understanding and treating other forms of RP will directly benefit people with Usher syndrome and vice versa. What is Usher Syndrome? Risk ...

  11. Burnout Syndrome of Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Semrádová, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis covers burnout syndrome of teachers. Defines burnout syndrome, describes its causes and symptoms. Describes teaching as helping profession and focousing on stressful situations at school. In the last chapter described different prevention strategies burnout syndrome. Key words: burnout syndrome, teaching, teacher, helping professions, beginning teacher, stress

  12. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome or Wilkie Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano Llano, Rodrigo; Chams Anturi, Abraham; Arango Vargas, Paula

    2009-01-01

    We described three cases of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome, also known as Wilkie's syndrome, chronic duodenal ileus, or cast syndrome. This syndrome occurs when the third portion of the duodenum is compressed between the SMA and the aorta. The major risk factors for development of SMA syndrome are rapid weight loss and surgical correction of spinal deformities. The clinical presentation of SMA syndrome is variable and nonspecific, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and weight loss. The diagnosis is based on endoscopic, radiographic and tomographic findings of duodenal compression by the SMA. The treatment of SMA syndrome is aimed at the precipitating factor, which usually is related to weight loss. Therefore, conservative therapy with nutritional supplementation is the initial approach, and surgery is reserved for those who do not respond to nutritional therapy.

  13. [Syndrome X vs metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Villegas, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    Himsworth in 1939 postulated that Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM2) was not only an insulin deficiency state but also a cellular insulin insensitivity disease. Thirty years later, DeFronzo and Reaven demonstrated that insulin resistance (IR) preceded and predisposed for DM2 and atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease (ACVD). Reaven was the first to point out the relationship between IR and with hyperglycemia, dyslipidosis, and hypertension as mediators for ACVD, creating the concept of Syndrome X (SX) in 1988. WHO and, thereafter, other medical societies and medical groups, mainly ATP-III, in 2002, based on the difficulty of diagnosing IR in a simple, reliable, and inexpensive way, proposed and published the Metabolic Syndrome (MS) concept, as a group of five variables, i.e., obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL, and hypertension, as an easy clinical approximation to suspect and treat an increased cardiometabolic risk. Nowadays, there are deep and extensive controversies on this issue; however, these controversies do not really exist since all discordant points of view are rather quantitative and not qualitative in nature. This article is aimed at differentiating and harmonizing the complementary concepts of SX and MS, at analyzing why MS is a good "clinical window" to look for IR and its underlying manifestations, and finally to accept that the MS concept complements, but does not substitute or antagonize, traditional scales used to asses cardiovascular risk, such as the Framingham scale.

  14. Syndromes with supernumerary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinsky, Mark; Kantaputra, Piranit Nik

    2016-10-01

    While most supernumerary teeth are idiopathic, they can be associated with a number of Mendelian syndromes. However, this can also be a coincidental finding, since supernumerary teeth occur in 6% or more of the normal population. To better define this relationship, we analyzed the evidence for specific associations. We excluded conditions with a single affected patient reported, supernumerary teeth adjacent to clefts or other forms of alveolar disruption (as secondary rather than primary findings), and natal teeth, which can involve premature eruption of a normal tooth. Since, the cause of supernumerary teeth shows considerable heterogeneity, certain findings are less likely to be coincidental, such as five or more supernumerary teeth in a single patient, or locations outside of the premaxilla. We found only eight genetic syndromes with strong evidence for an association: cleidocranial dysplasia; familial adenomatous polyposis; trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type I; Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome; Nance-Horan syndrome; Opitz BBB/G syndrome; oculofaciocardiodental syndrome; and autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome. There is also suggestive evidence of an association with two uncommon disorders, Kreiborg-Pakistani syndrome (craniosynostosis and dental anomalies), and insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus with acanthosisnigricans. An association of a Mendelian disorder with a low frequency manifestation of supernumerary teeth is difficult to exclude without large numbers, but several commonly cited syndromes lacked evidence for clear association, including Hallermann-Streiff syndrome, Fabry disease, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Apert and Crouzon syndromes, Zimmermann-Laband syndrome, and Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. HEPATORENAL SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Hafner

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS is acommon complication of advanced hepatic disease characterizedby marked abnormalities in arterial circulation and byrenal failure. An extreme arteriolar vasodilatation located inthe splanchnic circulation results in a reduction of total systemicvascular resistence and arterial hypotension. Vasoconstrictionoccurs in the renal circulation as in all other extrasplanchnicvascular territories. In the kidney, marked renalvasoconstriction results in a low glomerular filtration rate.Conclusions. The diagnosis of HRS is currently based on exclusionof other causes of renal failure. Prognosis of patientswith HRS is very poor. Liver transplantation is the best therapeuticoption, but it is seldom applicable due to the short survivalexpectancy of most patients with HRS, particularly thosewith the rapidly progressive type of HRS. New therapies developedduring the last few years, such as the use of systemicvasoconstrictors or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemicshunts (TIPS appear promising. Such treatments are of interestnot only as a bridge to liver transplantation but also as atherapy for patients who are not candidates for transplantation.

  16. Noonan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Burgt Ineke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Noonan Syndrome (NS is characterised by short stature, typical facial dysmorphology and congenital heart defects. The incidence of NS is estimated to be between 1:1000 and 1:2500 live births. The main facial features of NS are hypertelorism with down-slanting palpebral fissures, ptosis and low-set posteriorly rotated ears with a thickened helix. The cardiovascular defects most commonly associated with this condition are pulmonary stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Other associated features are webbed neck, chest deformity, mild intellectual deficit, cryptorchidism, poor feeding in infancy, bleeding tendency and lymphatic dysplasias. The syndrome is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. In approximately 50% of cases, the disease is caused by missense mutations in the PTPN11 gene on chromosome 12, resulting in a gain of function of the non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 protein. Recently, mutations in the KRAS gene have been identified in a small proportion of patients with NS. A DNA test for mutation analysis can be carried out on blood, chorionic villi and amniotic fluid samples. NS should be considered in all foetuses with polyhydramnion, pleural effusions, oedema and increased nuchal fluid with a normal karyotype. With special care and counselling, the majority of children with NS will grow up and function normally in the adult world. Management should address feeding problems in early childhood, evaluation of cardiac function and assessment of growth and motor development. Physiotherapy and/or speech therapy should be offered if indicated. A complete eye examination and hearing evaluation should be performed during the first few years of schooling. Preoperative coagulation studies are indicated. Signs and symptoms lessen with age and most adults with NS do not require special medical care.

  17. Sotos syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baujat, Geneviève; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

    2007-09-07

    Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth condition characterized by cardinal features including excessive growth during childhood, macrocephaly, distinctive facial gestalt and various degrees of learning difficulty, and associated with variable minor features. The exact prevalence remains unknown but hundreds of cases have been reported. The diagnosis is usually suspected after birth because of excessive height and occipitofrontal circumference (OFC), advanced bone age, neonatal complications including hypotonia and feeding difficulties, and facial gestalt. Other inconstant clinical abnormalities include scoliosis, cardiac and genitourinary anomalies, seizures and brisk deep tendon reflexes. Variable delays in cognitive and motor development are also observed. The syndrome may also be associated with an increased risk of tumors. Mutations and deletions of the NSD1 gene (located at chromosome 5q35 and coding for a histone methyltransferase implicated in transcriptional regulation) are responsible for more than 75% of cases. FISH analysis, MLPA or multiplex quantitative PCR allow the detection of total/partial NSD1 deletions, and direct sequencing allows detection of NSD1 mutations. The large majority of NSD1 abnormalities occur de novo and there are very few familial cases. Although most cases are sporadic, several reports of autosomal dominant inheritance have been described. Germline mosaicism has never been reported and the recurrence risk for normal parents is very low (therapies are mostly symptomatic, including phototherapy in case of jaundice, treatment of the feeding difficulties and gastroesophageal reflux, and detection and treatment of hypoglycemia. General pediatric follow-up is important during the first years of life to allow detection and management of clinical complications such as scoliosis and febrile seizures. An adequate psychological and educational program with speech therapy and motor stimulation plays an important role in the global development of the

  18. Raynaud syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Sergio Toledo; Landry, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    Raynaud syndrome (RS) was first described by the French physician Maurice Raynaud in 1862 with the characteristic tricolor change featuring pallor (ischemic phase), cyanosis (deoxygenation phase), and erythema (reperfusion phase) induced by cold or stress. Although the underlying pathophysiological mechanism is unclear, alterations in activity of the peripheral adrenoceptor have been implicated, specifically an enhanced smooth muscle contraction due to overexpression or hyperactivity of postsynaptic alpha 2 receptors. There are 2 ways that RS can appear clinically; isolated, formerly referred as Raynaud disease or now primary RS and in association with other conditions, usually connective tissue disorders (eg, Sjögren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, and rheumatoid arthritis), frequently called Raynaud phenomenon or secondary RS. The estimated prevalence in the general population is 3%-5%, with a higher prevalence in women than in men. The diagnosis is mainly clinical, based on patient descriptions of skin changes. Upper extremity pulse-volume recording is used to rule out proximal arterial obstruction. The differentiation between a vasospastic vs and obstructive mechanism is made using digital pressures and photoplethysmography, where an obstructive mechanism has decreased pressures and blunted waveforms. Cold challenge testing, such as ice water immersion with temperature recovery, is highly sensitive but lack specificity. Serologic screening (antinuclear antibody and rheumatoid factor) is advocated to rule out associated connective tissue disorders. Most patients with RS can be managed conservatively, with avoidance of cold exposure or hand warming. For those in whom conservative management is inadequate, a number of pharmacologic and surgical therapies have been used. Owing to lack of complete understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, targeted therapy has not been possible; rather, therapy has been focused on the use of general

  19. Griscelli syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Patrick O; Sternberg, Lauren J; Phelps, Robert G

    2007-01-01

    The dermatology staff was called to evaluate abnormal hair on a 22-month-old Hispanic girl whose parents were first cousins. Her medical history was significant for leptomeningitis with subsequent neurologic devastation, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and recurrent respiratory infections. Her hospital course was complicated by sepsis, liver dysfunction, pan-cytopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. She had developed normally for the first year of life. At 13 months she became progressively lethargic and developed floppy muscle tone; a delay in mental and motor milestones was recognized. Results of a metabolic workup were negative. On examination she was noted to have generalized excessively fair skin when compared with her parents. She had silver-gray hair (Figure 1) and white eyebrows and body hair. Her maternal grandfather and granduncles had silver hair since childhood, but were without health problems. A maternal family member was said to have light skin. The presumed diagnosis before pathologic examination was Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Hematoxylin and eosin stain tests revealed prominent melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis. The melanocytes were large and distended with a large volume of melanin (Figure 2). The adjacent keratinocytes were completely devoid of melanin. Application of Masson-Fontana ammoniac silver stain highlighted prominent melanocytic melanin and a relative paucity of melanin in the adjacent keratinocytes (Figure 3). Microscopic examination of her hair revealed clumps of melanin of various sizes and shapes irregularly distributed throughout the hair shaft. Ultrastructural examination of the epidermis showed the melanocytes were distended by an accumulation of large stage IV mature melanosomes. Peripheral blood smear failed to show abnormal granules, even after repeated examination. Based on the clinical features and the pathologic findings, a diagnosis of Griscelli syndrome type 2 was made.

  20. Goldenhar Syndrome in Association with Duane Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U D Shrestha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Goldenhar syndrome (GHS is also known as Oculo-Auriculo-Vertebral (OAV syndrome or Branchial arch syndrome. Duane retraction syndrome (DRS is a congenital disorder of ocular motility characterized by limited abduction, adduction or both. It is unilateral in 80% of cases. The important and interesting part of this eight months old child is presence of GHS with DRS. She has bilateral invol-vement, which is seen in only 5-8% of GHS, as compared to high incidence of unilateral involve-ment. This child also had refractive error of + 6.00/ - 1.5 * 180. At four year of age her vision with glass was 6/9. Children with GHS and DRS should have early eye examination done to treat the problem of refractive error. Keywords: Duane retraction syndrome; goldenhar syndrome, refractive error.

  1. Prenatal Tests for Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRENATAL TESTS FOR DOWN SYNDROME S HARE W ITH W OMEN PRENATAL TESTS FOR DOWN SYNDROME What Is Down Syndrome? ... suggests that you consult your health care provider. PRENATAL TESTS FOR DOWN SYNDROME 256 Volume 50, No. ...

  2. Computed tomography in lumbar canal stenosis. Relationship between its findings and clinical symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Shu; Baba, Itsushi; Ishida, Akihisa; Sumida, Tadayuki; Sasaki, Seishu (Hiroshima Shiritsu Asa Shimin Hospital (Japan))

    1984-09-01

    Preoperative CT was done in 39 patients with lumbar canal stenosis. Marked symmetrical narrowing of the whole vertebral canal was seen in the group with nervous symptoms in the cauda equina. Deformed bilateral intervertebral joints were seen in the group with both nervous symptoms in the cauda equina and radicular sciatica. The lateral recess on the affected side was markedly narrowed by the projection of the upper and lower joints and herniation. In the group with radicular sciatica, the vertebral canal itself was not so narrowed, but the unilateral intervertebral joint was extremely deformed, causing a narrowing of the lateral recess. There were large differences in the angle of the left and right intervertebral joints.

  3. Hepatorenal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Zeyneloğlu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Renal failure is a common major complication in patients with advanced cirrhosis and generally indicates a poor prognosis when combined with liver failure. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS is characterised by a combination of disturbances in circulatory and kidney function. Arterial pressure is decreased in the systemic circulation due to reduced total systemic vascular resistance. Kidney dysfunction is caused by reduction in renal blood flow. The diagnosis of HRS is based on exclusion of other disorders that cause acute kidney injury in cirrhosis as there are no specific tests. There are two types of HRS with different characteristics and prognostics. Liver transplantation is the treatment of choice for all patients without contraindication. The best approach to the pharmacologic management is the administration vasoconstrictor drugs based on the pathogenesis. Many vasoconstrictors including vasopressin analogues (terlipressin, ornipressin and vasopressin, somatostatin analogues (octreotide and alpha-adrenergic analogues (midodrine and norepinephrine have been studied. In most of the studies intravenous albumin therapy was coadministered with vasoconstrictor drugs and suggested that albumin should be considered as the component of pharmacologic intervention in patients with HRS. Renal replacement therapy in the form of hemodialysis or continuous venovenous hemofiltration has been used in the management of HRS patients awaiting transplantation or in those with acute potentially reversible conditions. The artificial hepatic support systems require further investigation. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2012; 10: 37-44

  4. Tics and Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OTC Relief for Diarrhea Home Diseases and Conditions Tics and Tourette Syndrome Condition Tics and Tourette Syndrome Share Print Table of Contents1. ... little or no control over. These are called tics. Several different tics can happen at the same ...

  5. Stuttering and Tourette's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... written specifically for parents. - Understanding Tourette Syndrome: A Handbook for Educators published by The Tourette Syndrome Foundation ... Earl Jones Actor James Earl Jones, a Broadway, television and movie star, is well-known for his ...

  6. The obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, R. H. W. M.; de Grootb, Ph. G.

    The association of persistent presence of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies and thromboembolic events, (recurrent) pregnancy loss or both is termed antiphospholipid syndrome. Pregnancies in women with the syndrome should be regarded as at high-risk for complications. Optimal management

  7. Prune belly syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001269.htm Prune belly syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Prune belly syndrome is a group of birth defects that ...

  8. Oculoauriculovertebral dysplasia (Goldenhar's syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, F K

    1971-03-01

    A case of Goldenhar's Syndrome or Oculoauriculovertebral dysplasia in a Ghanaian infant is described. Significant were the additional findings of congenital esophageal atresia and arthrogryposis which have so far not been reported in association with the syndrome.

  9. Cri du chat syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001593.htm Cri du chat syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cri du chat syndrome is a group of symptoms that result ...

  10. Alport Syndrome Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Groups Hear From the Experts Follow us on Facebook! Alport Syndrome Foundation of USA 2 days ago ... BIRTHDAY! ... See More See Less Photo View on Facebook · Share View on Facebook The Alport syndrome Foundation ...

  11. Terlipressin for hepatorenal syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Christensen, Kurt; Christensen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Clinical trials suggest that terlipressin improves renal function in hepatorenal syndrome, but the evidence concerning mortality is equivocal.......Clinical trials suggest that terlipressin improves renal function in hepatorenal syndrome, but the evidence concerning mortality is equivocal....

  12. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preena A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disease, with oculocutneous albinism, pulmonary fibrosis and bleeding diathesis. Here we report a case of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome who presented with dyspnea, oculocutaneous albinism and nystagmus.

  13. Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Contact Us Donate Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ...

  14. Marfan syndrome (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfan syndrome is a disorder of connective tissue which causes skeletal defects typically recognized in a tall, lanky person. A person with Marfan syndrome may exhibit long limbs and spider-like fingers, ...

  15. What is Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Information Find a Study Resources and Publications Turner Syndrome Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a ... years today. 4 Down syndrome is named after John Langdon Down, the first physician to describe the ...

  16. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Yosemite FAQ: Non-U.S. Visitors to Yosemite History of HPS Related Links Prevent Rodent Infestations Cleaning Up After Rodents Diseases From Rodent Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is ...

  17. Chediak-Higashi syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001312.htm Chediak-Higashi syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chediak-Higashi syndrome is a rare disease of the immune ...

  18. Complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRPS; RSDS; Causalgia - RSD; Shoulder-hand syndrome; Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome; Sudeck atrophy; Pain - CRPS ... In: Cifu DX, ed. Braddom's Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 37.

  19. Klinefelter Syndrome (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sexual development in guys. It's a genetic condition (meaning a person is born with it). Klinefelter syndrome ... Klinefelter syndrome may also have problems with attention, speech development, and learning word skills like spelling, reading, ...

  20. 4H Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome? 4H syndrome is short for hypomyelination, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hypodontia. Hypomyelination means that there is lack ... myelin in the central nervous system. In hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, normal puberty development is absent because the central ...

  1. Moebius Syndrome Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conference. If you ... READ MORE » The Foundation is Hiring! Posted by Kim Cunningham The Moebius Syndrome Foundation ... in individuals nor does it endorse particular medical professionals, treatments, products or services. The Moebius Syndrome Foundation ...

  2. Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome can be helpful in genetic counseling. Complications Obesity-related complications In addition to having constant hunger, ... result from Prader-Willi syndrome include: Effects of binge eating. Eating large amounts of food quickly, called binge ...

  3. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  4. Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suter, Aude-Annick; Itin, Peter; Heinimann, Karl

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poikiloderma is defined as a chronic skin condition presenting with a combination of punctate atrophy, areas of depigmentation, hyperpigmentation and telangiectasia. In a variety of hereditary syndromes such as Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS), Clericuzio-type poikiloderma...

  5. Coffin Lowry Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome varies depending on the severity of symptoms. Early intervention may improve the outlook for patients. Life span ... syndrome varies depending on the severity of symptoms. Early intervention may improve the outlook for patients. Life span ...

  6. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000085.htm Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is a condition in some ...

  7. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ121 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) • What are common signs and symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? • What causes PCOS? • What is insulin ...

  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polycystic ovaries; Polycystic ovary disease; Stein-Leventhal syndrome; Polyfollicular ovarian disease; PCOS ... RL, Barnes RB, Ehrmann DA. Hyperandrogenism, hirsuitism, and polycystic ovary syndrome. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de ...

  9. Sexuality and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NDSS Events Shop NDSS Contact NDSS > Resources > Sexuality Sexuality Sexuality & Down Syndrome Human sexuality encompasses an individual’s self- ... community standards for adult behavior. How Can Healthy Sexuality be Encouraged for Individuals with Down Syndrome? Creating ...

  10. Meconium aspiration syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001596.htm Meconium aspiration syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) refers to breathing problems that a newborn ...

  11. Down Syndrome (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Changed What's Life Like for Kids With Down Syndrome? Print en español El síndrome de Down You have probably seen people who have Down syndrome. They have certain physical features, such as a ...

  12. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a passing cramp? It could be carpal tunnel syndrome. The carpal tunnel is a narrow passageway of ... three times more likely to have carpal tunnel syndrome than men. Early diagnosis and treatment are important ...

  13. Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillain-Barre syndrome is a rare disorder that causes your immune system to attack your peripheral nervous system (PNS). The PNS ... your brain. No one knows what causes the syndrome. Sometimes it is triggered by an infection, surgery, ...

  14. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) happens when a woman's ovaries or adrenal glands produce more male hormones than normal. PCOS causes cysts ( ... PCOS are at higher risk of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, heart disease, and high blood pressure. PCOS is ...

  15. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes Types Type 1 disease Type 2A disease Type 2B disease Diagnosis Treatment Resources In This Article Drugs Mentioned In This ...

  16. Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001311.htm Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome is a rare, inherited disease. It causes ...

  17. Extramedullary haematopoiesis in Thalassaemia: results of radiotherapy: a report of three patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistevou-Gompaki, K.; Paraskevopoulos, P.; Kotsa, K. [Theagenion Cancer Center, Thessaloniki (Greece); Skaragas, G.; Repanta, E. [Saint Paul`s Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1996-10-01

    Extramedullary haematopoiesis is sometimes encountered in serve anaemia. Rarely, it may cause neurological symptoms, leading to spinal cord or cauda equina compression. Three patients with thalassaemia intermedia, who developed neurological complications, are described. The diagnoses were based on the clinical findings, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Small doses of radiotherapy (10-20 Gy in 5-10 fractions) relieved symptoms in all of these patients. Our experience supports the role of radiation therapy as a treatment for this complication. (Author).

  18. Modulation of the visceromotor reflex by a lumbosacral ventral root avulsion injury and repair in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Huiyi H.; Havton, Leif A.

    2012-01-01

    Increased abdominal muscle wall activity may be part of a visceromotor reflex (VMR) response to noxious stimulation of the bladder. However, information is sparse regarding the effects of cauda equina injuries on the VMR in experimental models. We studied the effects of a unilateral L6-S1 ventral root avulsion (VRA) injury and acute ventral root reimplantation (VRI) into the spinal cord on micturition reflexes and electromyographic activity of the abdominal wall in rats. Cystometrogram (CMG) ...

  19. [The Capgras syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikina, M A; Levin, O S

    2013-01-01

    The Capgras syndrome is one of delusional-like misidentification syndrome in which a person holds a delusion that one or several his/her friends or relatives have been replaced by an identical-looking impostor. As any other delusional disorder, the Capgras syndrome is characterized by stability despite the indisputable arguments against fault views. Initially, this syndrome was considered as a presentation of schizophrenia but later it has been described in brain organic disorders, primarily in elderly patients with dementia.

  20. Ogilvies syndrom efter sectio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, B T; Sørensen, Jette Led; Svaerke, T

    2001-01-01

    Ogilvie's syndrome, acute pseudo-obstruction of the colon, can lead to perforation of the caecum and death. The syndrome is not well known and diagnosis can be difficult to make in time.......Ogilvie's syndrome, acute pseudo-obstruction of the colon, can lead to perforation of the caecum and death. The syndrome is not well known and diagnosis can be difficult to make in time....

  1. The wellness syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    Klumme. Wellness er blevet et syndrom, og dets symptomer er angst, selvbebrejdelser og skyldfølelse. Kommentar med udgangspunkt i: Carl Cederström & Andre Spicer, "The Wellness Syndrome" (Polity Books, 2015. 200 p.).......Klumme. Wellness er blevet et syndrom, og dets symptomer er angst, selvbebrejdelser og skyldfølelse. Kommentar med udgangspunkt i: Carl Cederström & Andre Spicer, "The Wellness Syndrome" (Polity Books, 2015. 200 p.)....

  2. Brugada syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priori Silvia G

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A novel clinical entity characterized by ST segment elevation in right precordial leads (V1 to V3, incomplete or complete right bundle branch block, and susceptibility to ventricular tachyarrhythmia and sudden cardiac death has been described by Brugada et al. in 1992. This disease is now frequently called "Brugada syndrome" (BrS. The prevalence of BrS in the general population is unknown. The suggested prevalence ranges from 5/1,000 (Caucasians to 14/1,000 (Japanese. Syncope, typically occurring at rest or during sleep (in individuals in their third or fourth decades of life is a common presentation of BrS. In some cases, tachycardia does not terminate spontaneously and it may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and lead to sudden death. Both sporadic and familial cases have been reported and pedigree analysis suggests an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. In approximately 20% of the cases BrS is caused by mutations in the SCN5A gene on chromosome 3p21-23, encoding the cardiac sodium channel, a protein involved in the control of myocardial excitability. Since the use of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD is the only therapeutic option of proven efficacy for primary and secondary prophylaxis of cardiac arrest, the identification of high-risk subjects is one of the major goals in the clinical decision-making process. Quinidine may be regarded as an adjunctive therapy for patients at higher risk and may reduce the number of cases of ICD shock in patients with multiple recurrences.

  3. Sjogren's Syndrome Information Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials Organizations Publications Definition Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which immune cells attack and destroy the ... syndrome than men. × Definition Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which immune cells attack and destroy the ...

  4. Gorlin-goltz syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.; Salman, M.; Mansoor, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple jaw cysts are a characteristic manifestation of basal cell nevus (Gorlin) syndrome. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is characterized by symptoms primarily involving the skin, central nervous system, and skeletal system. In 90% of the patients, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is associated with recurring odontogenic keratocysts. This patient showed recurrent jaw and maxillary cysts, for which he was followed for 2 years. (author)

  5. Diagnostik af Dravet syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kjaersgård; Rasmussen, Niels Henrik; Ousager, Lilian Bomme

    2010-01-01

    Dravet syndrome is an epileptic syndrome of infancy. We describe the features of two cases with genetically verified SCNA1 mutations. The diagnosis was established rather late in one case. The epilepsies were medically intractable and the symptoms characteristic of Dravet syndrome. The children...

  6. Exophthalmos in Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, W

    1996-08-01

    Exophthalmos was noted in 4 of the 12 patients reported by Harvey Cushing in 1932. Although exophthalmos has often been included in clinical descriptions, no previous study has reported actual measurements in patients with active and treated Cushing's syndrome, and in control patients. The aim of this study was to obtain these measurements. Thirty-one patients with active Cushing's syndrome (19 iatrogenic), 15 with treated Cushing's syndrome, 18 with Graves' ophthalmopathy, 59 control patients, and 3 patients with active Cushing's syndrome plus a family or personal history of thyroid disease. A consecutive series of patients with active and treated Cushing's syndrome were assessed. They were compared with patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy, and with control patients. Exophthalmos was assessed by the author using a Hertel meter. Urinary free cortisol was measured on patients with Cushing's syndrome, and serum thyroxine was estimated for them, and for the patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. Exophthalmos exceeding 16 mm (> 2 SD above normal mean) was found in 45% of active Cushing's syndrome, 21% of iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome, 20% of treated Cushing's syndrome, 2% of normal controls, and 77% of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. No patient with Cushing's syndrome had significant symptoms due to exophthalmos. Patients with active Cushing's syndrome have statistically significant exophthalmos. This rarely causes symptoms, and diminishes when cortisol concentrations become normal. Cushing's syndrome and autoimmune thyroid disease may coexist in patients with exophthalmos.

  7. DIDMOAD (Wolfram Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Nashibi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wolfram syndrome was first described by physician D J Wolfram and Wagener in 1938. This autosomal recessive syndrome is also referred to as DIDMOAD syndrome which stands for Diabetes Insipidus, Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy and Deafness

  8. The acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souhami Filho, L.

    1985-01-01

    Symptoms and signs from medical aspects resulting from whole body exposure, or in the main part, to ionizing radiation are described. The dose-response relationship is studied and the exposure is divided in three parts: central nervous system syndrome, gastrointestinal syndrome and hematopoietic syndrome. Brief comments about the treatment are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. Post cardiac injury syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S L; Nielsen, F E

    1991-01-01

    The post-pericardiotomy syndrome is a symptom complex which is similar in many respects to the post-myocardial infarction syndrome and these are summarized under the diagnosis of the Post Cardiac Injury Syndrome (PCIS). This condition, which is observed most frequently after open heart surgery...

  10. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  11. Differential Expression of Tubulin Acetylase and Deacetylase Between the Damaged Central and Peripheral Branch of Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhiyi; Shi, Jiangang

    2017-07-28

    BACKGROUND The differences between the peripheral and central branches of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to explore the expression of tubulin post-translational modifications (acetylation and deacetylation) between damaged peripheral and central branches of DRG neurons. MATERIAL AND METHODS Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups with 10 rats in each group. These five groups consisted of spinal nerve ligation (SNL) at 24 hour and 48 hour, and cauda equina compression (CEC) at 24 hour and 48 hour, and a sham group. SNL injury in rats was induced by ligating L5 and L6 spinal nerves with 1-0 silk thread outboard the DRGs. CEC injury in rats was induced by a piece of silicone (10×1×1 mm) placed under the laminae of the L5-6 vertebra. Sham-operated rats underwent a simple laminectomy in L4, but silicone was not implanted. The expression profile of acetylase and deacetylase was examined by real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS In the experimental groups, rats presented increased expression of acetylase (NAT1 and MEC-17) and decreased expression of deacetylase (Sirt2 and HDAC6) levels. Additionally, the expression of NAT1 and MEC-17 was gradually increased in DRG neurons following peripheral axonal injury compared to central axonal injury in a time-dependent manner. Conversely, the expression of Sirt2 and HDAC6 was gradually decreased in DRG neurons following peripheral axonal injury compared to central axonal injury in a time-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS Our study indicated that insufficiency of acetylase and upregulation of deacetylase in DRG neurons after central axonal injury may contribute to the pathogenesis of cauda equine syndrome.

  12. Barth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Sarah LN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract First described in 1983, Barth syndrome (BTHS is widely regarded as a rare X-linked genetic disease characterised by cardiomyopathy (CM, skeletal myopathy, growth delay, neutropenia and increased urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid (3-MGCA. Fewer than 200 living males are known worldwide, but evidence is accumulating that the disorder is substantially under-diagnosed. Clinical features include variable combinations of the following wide spectrum: dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE, left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC, ventricular arrhythmia, sudden cardiac death, prolonged QTc interval, delayed motor milestones, proximal myopathy, lethargy and fatigue, neutropenia (absent to severe; persistent, intermittent or perfectly cyclical, compensatory monocytosis, recurrent bacterial infection, hypoglycaemia, lactic acidosis, growth and pubertal delay, feeding problems, failure to thrive, episodic diarrhoea, characteristic facies, and X-linked family history. Historically regarded as a cardiac disease, BTHS is now considered a multi-system disorder which may be first seen by many different specialists or generalists. Phenotypic breadth and variability present a major challenge to the diagnostician: some children with BTHS have never been neutropenic, whereas others lack increased 3-MGCA and a minority has occult or absent CM. Furthermore, BTHS was first described in 2010 as an unrecognised cause of fetal death. Disabling mutations or deletions of the tafazzin (TAZ gene, located at Xq28, cause the disorder by reducing remodeling of cardiolipin, a principal phospholipid of the inner mitochondrial membrane. A definitive biochemical test, based on detecting abnormal ratios of different cardiolipin species, was first described in 2008. Key areas of differential diagnosis include metabolic and viral cardiomyopathies, mitochondrial diseases, and many causes of neutropenia and

  13. Imaging findings in patients with ventral dural defects and herniation of neural tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, A.; Staebler, A.; Reiser, M.; Psenner, K.; Hamburger, C.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe clinical and imaging findings in three patients with ventral dural defects and herniation of the spinal cord or cauda equina. The literature is reviewed and the clinical, radiological and operative findings are compared. Three patients with ventral dural defects of different etiologies are presented. One patient gave a longstanding history of ankylosing spondylitis, the second patient presents 37 years after spinal trauma, and the third patient presents with spontaneous spinal cord herniation. All patients had typically slowly progressive neurological symptoms with multiple hospitalizations until diagnosis was made. Characteristic findings in postmyelographic CT included a ventral or ventrolateral displacement with deformation of the spinal cord or the cauda equina. Sagittal MRI showed this abrupt and localized anterior deviation of the spinal cord or the cauda equina to the posterior portions of a vertebral body with or without a bony vertebral defect optimally. Additionally, due to the ventral displacement of the spinal cord, the dorsal subarachnoid space was relatively enlarged without evidence of an arachnoid cyst, in all patients. Magnetic resonance imaging and postmyelographic CT can diagnose ventral dural defects with spinal cord herniation or nerve root entrapment. Dural defects must be considered in the presence of neurological symptoms in cases of longstanding ankylosing spondylitis, late sequelae of fractures of vertebral bodies, and without history of spinal trauma or surgery. (orig.). With 3 figs

  14. Fatores prognósticos do trauma raquimedular por projétil de arma de fogo em pacientes submetidos a laminectomia Prognostic factors related to gunshot wounds to the spine in patients submited to laminectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO PRETTO FLORES

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Os traumas sobre a coluna resultantes de projetil de arma de fogo (PAF são lesões geralmente graves e muitas vezes com baixo potencial para recuperação neurológica. A indicação cirúrgica destas lesões ainda é motivo de controvérsia. O objetivo deste artigo é identificar fatores no pré e trans-operatório que irão influenciar na recuperação neurológica destes pacientes. Realizamos estudo retrospectivo de 45 pacientes submetidos a laminectomia para trauma raquimedular por PAF, avaliando os seguintes fatores: nível da lesão, apresentação clínica, uso de glicocorticóide no pré-operatório, presença de lesão dural, momento cirúrgico e relação entre escala de Frankel pré e pós-operatória. Observamos que os fatores mais importantes para a recuperação neurológica foram o nível da lesão (53% dos pacientes com lesão lombar melhoraram após a cirurgia e a apresentação clínica pré-operatória (pacientes com síndrome de cauda equina obtiveram melhora em 60% dos casos, sendo que as demais variáveis não apresentaram significância estatística. Em 71% dos casos, a dor pré-operatória foi aliviada com o procedimento cirúrgico.The spinal trauma related to civilian gunshot missile still remains a serious neurological event that carries a dismal prognosis almost in all cases. Its surgical indication also is a mather of discution. Our goal is to identify the aspects that could influence the prognosis after surgery to this kind of lesions. We conducted a retrospective study of 45 consecutive patients submitted to laminectomy at Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal (Brasília, Brazil, testing the following aspects: initial neurological status, level of the deficit, surgical timing, use of methilprednisolone and presence of dural tearing. Among those, the initial clinical presentation and the level of the lesion (60% of the patients with cauda equina syndrome and 53% of that with lesions in the lombar region improved

  15. Hérnia discal lombar Lumbar disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Roberto Vialle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A hérnia discal lombar é o diagnóstico mais comum dentre as alterações degenerativas da coluna lombar (acomete 2 a 3% da população e a principal causa de cirurgia de coluna na população adulta. O quadro clínico típico inclui lombalgia inicial, seguida de lombociatalgia e, finalmente, de dor ciática pura. A história natural da hérnia de disco é de resolução rápida dos sintomas (quatro a seis semanas. O tratamento inicial deve ser conservador, com manejo medicamentoso e fisioterápico, podendo ser acompanhado ou não por bloqueios percutâneos radiculares. O tratamento cirúrgico está indicado na falha do controle da dor, déficit motor maior que grau 3, dor radicular associada à estenose óssea foraminal ou síndrome de cauda equina, sendo esta última uma emergência médica. Uma técnica cirúrgica refinada, com remoção do fragmento extruso, e preservação do ligamento amarelo, resolve a sintomatologia da ciática e reduz a possibilidade de recidiva em longo prazo.Lumbar disc herniation is the most common diagnosis amongst the degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine (affecting around 2 to 3% of the population, and is the principal cause of spine surgery in the adult population. The typical clinical picture includes initial lumbalgia, followed by progressive sciatica. The natural history of disc herniation is one of rapid resolution of the symptoms (from 4-6 weeks. Early treatment should be conservative, with pain management and physiotherapy, sometimes associated with selective nerve root block. Surgery should be considered if pain management is unsuccessful, if there is a motor deficit (strength grade 3 or less, where there is radicular pain associated with foraminal stenosis, or in the presence of cauda equina syndrome, the latter representing a medical emergency. A refined surgical technique, with removal of the extruded fragment and preservation of the ligamentum flavum, resolves the sciatic symptoms and reduces

  16. [Spontaneous regression from intervertebral disc herniation. Propos of a series of 37 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Quiñones, J V; Aso-Escario, J; Consolini, F; Arregui-Calvo, R

    2010-04-01

    The intervertebral disc disease (IDD) is one of the most common muscle-skeletal disorders, causing both high work disability and elevated healthcare costs. There are two specific origins of disk disease that should be kept in mind: degenerative (DDD) and traumatic (TDD). Concerning the TDD, nowadays it has not been determined which patients could gradually improve and which ones will require surgery. Some studies indicate that about 85% of lumbar and 90% cervical acute disc herniation will get better in an average of 6 weeks. We conducted an observational, prospective study, over a group of 858 patients, with the following inclusion criteria: 1. MRI imaging indicating TDD, 2. No signs or symptoms requiring urgent surgical treatment (cauda equina syndrome, progressive or serious motor deficit or unbearable pain) and 3. Development of progressively spontaneous symptoms remission. All of the patients included in our study were treated in our Department of Neurosurgery from 2006 to 2007. Patients were tested for disc herniation regression with a second MRI study. A spontaneous regression of their hernia was appreciated as follow: 33 cases of lumbar hernia (29 male, 4 female), 3 cervical hernia (1 male, 2 female) and 1 dorsal hernia (male). Research about other reported series was done, and the different factors that could take place in disc spontaneous regression were analyzed: a) lodgement of the herniated disc back into the intervertebral space; b) disappearance of the herniated fragment due to dehydration and retraction mechanisms; c) gradual resorption of the herniated tissue by phagocytosis and enzymatic degradation induced by an inflammatory reaction that appeared as the disc (acting the extrusion itself as an foreign body) and, d) pulsion of cephaloarchidian liquid against the herniated portion. Disc herniation can regress, or even disappear, in a number of patients, rendering the radiological findings not to be taken as the only surgical indication criterium

  17. Neosporose equina: ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Neospora spp. e associação entre status sorológico de éguas e de suas crias Equine neosporosis: occurrence of antibodies against Neospora spp. and association between the serological status of the mares and of their offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Toscan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Os protozoários Neospora caninum e N. hughesi infectam os equinos e podem provocar diferentes sinais clínicos associados a problemas reprodutivos ou a distúrbios neurológicos, respectivamente. A patogenia da neosporose é pouco conhecida nos equinos, bem como as fontes de infecção horizontal de N. hughesi. Além disso, há dúvidas quanto ao papel da transmissão vertical de Neospora spp. na sua manutenção em populações equinas. Neste estudo avaliaram-se: (1 a ocorrência da infecção por Neospora spp. na população de éguas em idade reprodutiva em um haras de cavalos da raça Crioula; e (2 a possível associação entre o status sorológico destas éguas com o de suas crias, como meio de investigar, indiretamente, a relevância da transmissão transplacentária na ocorrência da infecção por Neospora spp. nestes animais. A associação entre o status sorológico das éguas e o de suas crias foi altamente significativa. Os animais descendentes de éguas soropositivas tiveram maior ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Neospora spp. do que os descendentes de éguas soronegativas, embora expostos aos mesmos fatores de risco ambientais. A associação entre parentesco em primeiro grau e status sorológico indica a influência da infecção vertical (transplacentária na ocorrência de Neospora spp. na população equina estudada.Neospora caninum and N. hughesi are protozoa which can infect horses and can cause reproductive and neurological diseases, respectively. The pathogenesis of neosporosis in horses is poorly understood, as well as the sources of horizontal infection of N. hughesi. Furthermore, there are doubts about the role of the vertical transmission of Neospora spp. in maintenance of these parasites in equine populations. In this study, we evaluated: (1 the occurrence of infections by Neospora spp. in a population of mares (in reproductive age on a farm of Crioula breed horses; and (2 the possible association between the

  18. [The Othello syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, R

    1980-12-01

    A case is described and 7 others are discussed of the Othello Syndrome, characterized by cognitive, affective and conative manifestations plus non-specific psychosomatic accesory symptoms. The nuclear symptom is the delusional or delusion-like idea of jealousy. The syndrome is seen in both sexes, as part of a number of clinical entities (paranoia, psychoses, organic brain syndromes, neuroses and personality disorders). Premorbid personality and family history are always abnormal. Cases of cocaine abuse, involutional melancholia and borderline syndrome are remarkers. The management of this syndrome and of its social sequelae is emphasized.

  19. Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Pandeshwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS (the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome—NBCCS is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome caused due to mutations in the PTCH (patched gene found on chromosome arm 9q. The syndrome, characterized by increased predisposition to develop basal cell carcinoma and associated multiorgan anomalies, has a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. GGS is a multidisciplinary problem, early diagnosis of which allows introduction of secondary prophylaxis and following an appropriate treatment to delay the progress of the syndrome. The following report emphasizes the need for awareness of the diagnostic criteria of this syndrome in cases with no typical skin lesions.

  20. Cardiorenal Syndrome in Acute Heart Failure Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sarraf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired cardiac function leads to activation of the neurohumoral axis, sodium and water retention, congestion and ultimately impaired kidney function. This sequence of events has been termed the Cardiorenal Syndrome. This is different from the increase in cardiovascular complications which occur with primary kidney disease, that is, the so-called Renocardiac Syndrome. The present review discusses the pathogenesis of the Cardiorenal Syndrome followed by the benefits and potential deleterious effects of pharmacological agents that have been used in this setting. The agents discussed are diuretics, aquaretics, natriuretic peptides, vasodilators, inotropes and adenosine α1 receptor antagonists. The potential role of ultrafiltration is also briefly discussed.

  1. [Menopause and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirelles, Ricardo M R

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease increases considerably after the menopause. One reason for the increased cardiovascular risk seems to be determined by metabolic syndrome, in which all components (visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose metabolism disorder) are associated with higher incidence of coronary artery disease. After menopause, metabolic syndrome is more prevalent than in premenopausal women, and may plays an important role in the occurrence of myocardial infarction and other atherosclerotic and cardiovascular morbidities. Obesity, an essential component of the metabolic syndrome, is also associated with increased incidence of breast, endometrial, bowel, esophagus, and kidney cancer. The treatment of metabolic syndrome is based on the change in lifestyle and, when necessary, the use of medication directed to its components. In the presence of symptoms of the climacteric syndrome, hormonal therapy, when indicated, will also contribute to the improvement of the metabolic syndrome.

  2. Gorlin-goltz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B V Shobha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin-Goltz syndrome also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT in the jaw, multiple basal cell carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic examination in the first decade of life, as KCOTs are usually one of the first manifestations of the NBCCS syndrome. This article reports the case of a 12-year-old girl with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, emphasizing its clinical and radiographic manifestation. This study highlights the importance of health professionals in the early diagnosis of this syndrome and a multidisciplinary approach to provide a better diagnosis and prognosis.

  3. Mobius syndrome: MRI features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markarian, Maria F.; Villarroel, Gonzalo M.; Nagel, Jorge R.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Mobius Syndrome or congenital facial diplegia is associated with paralysis of the lateral gaze movements. This syndrome may include other cranial nerve palsies and be associated to musculoskeletal anomalies. Our objective is to show the MRI findings in Mobius Syndrome. Material and methods: MRI study was performed in 3 patients with clinic diagnosis of Mobius Syndrome. RMI (1.5T); exams included axial FSE (T1 and T2), FLAIR, SE/EPI, GRE/20, sagittal FSE T2 , coronal T1, diffusion, angio MRI and Spectroscopy sequences. Results: The common features of this syndrome found in MRI were: depression or straightening of the floor of the fourth ventricle, brainstem anteroposterior diameter diminution, morphologic alteration of the pons and medulla oblongata and of the hypoglossal nuclei as well as severe micrognathia. Conclusion: The morphologic alterations of Mobius Syndrome can be clearly identified by MRI; this method has proved to be a useful diagnostic examination. (author)

  4. Metabolic syndrome and menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Jouyandeh, Zahra; Nayebzadeh, Farnaz; Qorbani, Mostafa; Asadi, Mojgan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is defined as an assemblage of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and menopause is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among postmenopausal women in Tehran, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study in menopause clinic in Tehran, 118 postmenopausal women were investigated. We used the adult treatment panel 3 (ATP3) criteria t...

  5. Melkersson-rosenthal syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Dev Raj; Resident, Sr.; Mohan, C.; Minnas, R. S.; Mohindroo, N. K.; Sharma, M. L.

    1999-01-01

    Melkersson - Rosenthal syndrome was described by Melkersson and Rosenthal separately in the year 1928 and 1931 respectively. It is supposed to be a rare syndrome of bilateral alternating recurrent facial paralysis alongwith fissured tongue and oedema of the lips, face and eyelids. A case of Melkersson - Rosenthal syndrome is reported with all the classic findings which is a rarity. In this case there was alternating facial paralysis to begin with followed by bilateral paralysis third time, al...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Poland syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Poland syndrome Poland syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Poland syndrome is a disorder in which affected individuals ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: DOORS syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This Page Campeau PM, Hennekam RC; DOORS syndrome collaborative group. DOORS syndrome: phenotype, genotype and comparison with ... M. DOOR syndrome: clinical report, literature review and discussion of natural history. Am J Med Genet A. ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Marfan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Marfan syndrome Marfan syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Marfan syndrome is a disorder that affects the connective tissue ...

  9. Toxic Shock Syndrome (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Toxic Shock Syndrome KidsHealth / For Teens / Toxic Shock Syndrome What's ... it, then take some precautions. What Is Toxic Shock Syndrome? If you're a girl who's had ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Waardenburg syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Waardenburg syndrome Waardenburg syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Waardenburg syndrome is a group of genetic conditions that can ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Wolfram syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Wolfram syndrome Wolfram syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Wolfram syndrome is a condition that affects many of the ...

  12. Exacerbation of Symptoms of Lumbar Disc Herniation Complicated by a Schwannoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen-Yung Liu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Herniation of the lumbar disc is a common cause of low back pain. Conservative management with physiotherapy, such as lumbar spine traction, is usually effective. Although a schwannoma of the lumbar spine is relatively uncommon, the clinical manifestations are similar to those of lumbar disc herniation, making the diagnosis difficult. This case report describes a 51-year-old male who had suffered from low back pain for 3 years and who was diagnosed with L2/L3 lumbar disc herniation. The low back pain was well-controlled by conservative treatment and the symptoms improved progressively. Two months prior to our evaluation, however, the symptoms worsened acutely, and were accompanied by the onset of symptoms of cauda equina syndrome. A small tumor at the site of the L2/L3 disc herniation, observed incidentally during magnetic resonance imaging, was responsible for the symptoms of spinal stenosis at the lumbar region. The patient underwent laminectomy, tumor resection, and discectomy with near-complete resolution of symptoms. In patients with lumbar disc herniation that improves with conservative treatment, the recurrence of symptoms should prompt a thorough review of the medical history, physical examination, and imaging studies to establish the diagnosis and prevent delay in treatment.

  13. Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic surgery (PTES) for symptomatic lumbar disc herniation: a surgical technique, outcome, and complications in 209 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu-Tong; Cui, Zhan; Shao, Hong-Wei; Ye, Yun; Gu, Ai-Qun

    2017-02-08

    We designed an easy posterolateral transforaminal endoscopic decompression technique, termed PTES, for radiculopathy secondary to lumbar disc herniation. The purpose of the study is to describe the technique of PTES and evaluate the efficacy and safety for treatment of lumbar disc herniation including primary herniation, reherniation, intracanal herniation, and extracanal herniation and to report outcome and complications. PTES was performed to treat 209 cases of intracanal or extracanal herniations with or without extruding or sequestrated fragment, high iliac crest, scoliosis, calcification, or cauda equina syndrome including recurrent herniation after previous surgical intervention at the index level or adjacent disc herniation after decompression and fusion. Preoperative and postoperative leg pain was evaluated using the 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) and the results were determined to be excellent, good, fair, or poor according to the MacNab classification at 2-year follow-up. The patients were followed for an average of 26.3 ± 2.3 months. The VAS score of leg pain significantly dropped from 9 (6-10) before operation to 1 (0-3) (P disc herniation is an effective and safe method with simple orientation, easy puncture, reduced steps, and little X-ray exposure, which can be applied in almost all kinds of lumbar disc herniation, including L5/S1 level with high iliac crest, herniation with scoliosis or calcification, recurrent herniation, and adjacent disc herniation after decompression and fusion. The learning curve is no longer steep for surgeons.

  14. PEMLIF-a tale of two stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Raja K; Sunilkumar, Balakrishnan Sreemathyamma; Peethambaran, Anilkumar; Jain, Sourabh Kumar; Kumar, Shailesh

    2017-09-01

    Intervertebral disc prolapse is a common cause of both acute and chronic low back pain. This can result in differential grades of motor and sensory disturbances in lower limbs and even cauda equina syndrome (CES). The neurological manifestations are a result of compression of the spinal cord and roots ventrally in the spinal canal due to the prolapsed disc. However, neurologic deficits owing to compression of the spinal cord dorsally as a result of migration of sequestrated disc fragments are very rare. We present two different cases of back pain with severe neurologic deficit referred to us within a short span of one month. Among them, one had long standing history of back pain while other had none. Both patients were investigated and found to have a sequestrated disc fragment which had dorsally migrated to the epidural space and was causing severe compression of the spinal cord. They underwent laminectomy and removal of the sequestrated fragment. However, they were only partially relieved of their motor and bladder weakness. We present our cases to highlight this rare form of lumbar epidural intervertebral disc migration, as well as enumerate the diagnostic challenges and discuss the differential diagnosis and treatment.

  15. A Case of Urinary Incontinence Patients After Having an Vertebrae Lumbales Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Se-young

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study is to show that there was a significant result in prescribing Herb remedy and Korean-Bee-Venom acupuncture and acupuncture & moxibustion therapy to Urinary incontinence patients due to Neurologic Bladder caused by Cauda equina syndrome after having an vertebrae lumbale operation. Methods : The methods used in this study was observe the patient's subjective improvement, valuation of the bladder function and the change of the sensibility drop when Herb remedy and Korean-Bee-Venom acupuncture and acupuncture was applied . Results : When acupuncture and Korean-Bee-Venom acupuncture was both applied the function of Bladder changed from score 10 to 0 and the Grade of Urinary Incontinence changed from Grade III to 0 also with the sensibility drop. Conclusion : The results show that when using Umnungchon(SP9, Yangnungchon (GB34, Taedon(LR1, Kokkol(CV2 there was an effect to some degree to the Urinary incontinence patients but when Korean-Bee-Venom was acupunctured to Kwanwon(CV4 and Kihae(CV6 the effect increased. Further studies and examples for evidence are required.

  16. Characteristic MRI and MR Myelography Findings for the Facet Cyst Hematoma at T12-L1 Spine: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Seung Eun; Lee, Sang Ho; Kim, Tae Hong; Choi, Gun; Paeng, Sung Suk

    2011-01-01

    A facet cyst is a very rare condition in the thoracolumbar spine and more so, hemorrhage into a cyst is extremely rare. We present a case of a facet cyst hematoma in the T12-L1 spine. A 69-year-old woman complained of chronic back pain with right lower extremity pain, and weakness for 3 years. MRI and MR myelography showed an extradural mass at the T12-L1 level with heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1-and T2-weighted images, which was continuous to the right T12-L1 facet joint. The neighboring facet joint showed severe degeneration on the CT scan. The mass a was simple hematoma covered with a thin fibrous membrane and connected with facet joint macroscopically and microscopically. The pathogenesis of the facet cyst hematoma is not clear but it can compress nerve roots or dura mater and cause radiculopathy or cauda equina syndrome. Surgical removal should be recommended for symptomatic relief.

  17. Characteristic MRI and MR Myelography Findings for the Facet Cyst Hematoma at T12-L1 Spine: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Seung Eun [Dept of Diagnostic Radiology, Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Ho [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hong [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Gun [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Seoul Wooridul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paeng, Sung Suk [Dept of Radiology, Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    A facet cyst is a very rare condition in the thoracolumbar spine and more so, hemorrhage into a cyst is extremely rare. We present a case of a facet cyst hematoma in the T12-L1 spine. A 69-year-old woman complained of chronic back pain with right lower extremity pain, and weakness for 3 years. MRI and MR myelography showed an extradural mass at the T12-L1 level with heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1-and T2-weighted images, which was continuous to the right T12-L1 facet joint. The neighboring facet joint showed severe degeneration on the CT scan. The mass a was simple hematoma covered with a thin fibrous membrane and connected with facet joint macroscopically and microscopically. The pathogenesis of the facet cyst hematoma is not clear but it can compress nerve roots or dura mater and cause radiculopathy or cauda equina syndrome. Surgical removal should be recommended for symptomatic relief.

  18. Persistent lesion hyperintensity on brain diffusion-weighted MRI is an early sign of intravascular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Takashi; Yamanaka, Haruo; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Suenaga, Toshihiko

    2017-06-08

    A 63-year-old man presented with right-sided hemianopia and unsteady gait. Brain MRI revealed multiple hyperintense infarct-like lesions on diffusion-weighted images (DWI). Hyperintensity persisted in some of these lesions even after 6 weeks, although his symptoms were ameliorated then. The patient developed episodic dizziness and a transient event of apraxia at 18 weeks after the first episode. Brain MRI revealed additional hyperintense lesions on DWI, which persisted even after 7 weeks. Eventually, the patient manifested cauda equina syndrome 39 weeks after the first episode. Brain MRI showed the presence of new lesions in addition to the persistent hyperintense lesions on DWI over 21 weeks in the right frontal lobe. Based on laboratory findings and the pathological assessment of bone marrow and random skin biopsies, the patient was diagnosed with intravascular lymphoma (IVL). Persistent hyperintense lesions on DWI of brain MRI may precede the clinical exacerbation of IVL. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Diverticular Disease Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Dumping Syndrome ...

  20. [Neurobiology of Tourette Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Dilek; Akdemir, Devrim

    2016-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by chronic motor and vocal tics. Although it is a common disorder in childhood, the etiology of Tourette Syndrome has not been fully elucidated yet. Studies, -conducted so far- have revealed differences in neurobiological structures of individuals who suffer from Tourette Syndrome. The objective of this review is to assess etiological and pathophysiological studies in the Tourette Syndrome literature. An electronical search was conducted in PubMed database using the keywords tic disorders, Tourette Syndrome, neurobiology, genetics, neuroimaging and animal models. Research and review studies published between 1985 and 2015, with a selection preference towards recent publications, were reviewed. According to the studies, genetic predisposition hypothesis is considered as a priority. However, a precise genetic disorder associated with Tourette Syndrome has not been found. The evidence from postmortem and neuroimaging studies in heterogenous patient groups and animal studies supports the pathological involvement of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits in Tourette Syndrome. Consequently, the most emphasized hypothesis in the pathophysiology is the dopaminergic dysfunction in these circuits. Furthermore, these findings of the animal, postmortem and neuroimaging studies have confirmed the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of Tourette Syndrome. In conclusion, more studies are needed to understand the etiology of the disorder. The data obtained from neurobiological studies of the disorder will not only shed light on the way of Tourette Syndrome, but also guide studies on its treatment options.

  1. Vertebral Artery Stump Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masato; Dembo, Tomohisa; Hara, Wataru; Tajima, Takashi; Yamashita, Minako; Oji, Satoru; Nomura, Kyoichi

    2018-03-01

    Carotid stump syndrome is a well-documented embolic source for ischemic stroke. However, few cases have been reported of a similar condition - termed vertebral artery stump syndrome - which affects the posterior circulation after vertebral artery origin occlusion. We herein report a case of infarction of the right superior cerebellar artery and left posterior inferior cerebellar artery territories due to vertebral artery stump syndrome. In this interesting case, a turbulent flow at the distal side of the vertebral artery occlusion was captured on ultrasonography, and was identified as the probable mechanism of vertebral artery stump syndrome.

  2. Polyposis syndromes: pediatric implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, W

    2001-10-01

    The diagnosis of a polyposis syndrome, such as juvenile polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and familial adenomatous polyposis, requires knowledge of the site, number, and histologic type of the polyps and an appreciation of relevant family history. Children and adolescents with polyposis syndromes are faced with not only the immediate complications of the polyps, such as intussusception or bleeding, but also the extraintestinal manifestations and the long-term risk for malignancy. This article reviews the diagnosis, clinical management, surveillance, and surgical options for children with polyposis syndromes and discusses genetics and appropriate screening programs.

  3. Capgras' syndrome with organic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. N.; Hawthorne, M. E.; Gribbin, N.; Jacobson, R.

    1990-01-01

    Capgras' syndrome, one form of the delusional misidentification syndromes, is described. Three patients with the syndrome are reported. The first had a right cerebral infarction, the second had nephrotic syndrome secondary to severe pre-eclampsia in the puerperium, and the third had uncontrolled diabetes mellitus with dementia. Evidence is reviewed regarding an organic aetiology for Capgras' syndrome. We conclude that, when the syndrome is present, a thorough search for organic disorder should be made. PMID:2084656

  4. Metabolic syndrome in acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalli, M.A.; Aamir, M.; Mustafa, G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome in male patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome Study design: A Descriptive study Place and duration of study: Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology and National Institute of Heart Diseases, Rawalpindi, from October 2007 to September 2008 Patients and Methods: Male patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were included. Patients having angioplasty (PCI), coronary artery bypass surgery in the past and other co-morbid diseases were excluded. All patients were assessed for the presence of five components of metabolic syndrome including hypertension, HDL-Cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose intolerance and abdominal obesity. Systolic, diastolic blood pressures, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured. ECG, cardiac enzymes, fasting glucose and lipid profile were also done. Results: A total of 135 male patients of ACS were studied with a mean age of 54.26 +- 11 years. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was present in 55 (40.7%) patients. MS with all five components was documented in 4 (7.27%) while MS with four and three components was seen in 23 (41.81%) and 28 (50.90%) patients respectively. Only 24 (43.63%) patients with MS had diabetes mellitus, remaining 31(56.36%) were non diabetic. Frequencies of diabetes, hypertension and family history of CAD were significantly higher (p<0.05) in patients with metabolic syndrome as compared to patients with normal metabolic status. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is fairly common and important risk factor in patients of IHD. Other risk factors like smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes were also frequently found. Public awareness to control the risk factors can reduce the prevalence of CAD in our country. (author)

  5. [Muir-Torre syndrome and Turcot syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velter, C; Caussade, P; Fricker, J-P; Cribier, B

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is a syndrome that carries a genetic predisposition to certain cancers associating, either in a single individual or in a family, a visceral tumour, mainly colorectal, with a high risk of other synchronous or metachronous cancers. LS is linked with mutations in the genes coding for proteins in the DNA repair system. Phenotypic variants of SL exist, including Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS) and Turcot syndrome (TS), both of which predispose to colorectal cancer. They may be distinguished by the presence of benign or malignant sebaceous tumours in MTS, and tumours of the central nervous system in TS. A 59-year-old man, with a history of right colon cancer at the age of 36 years, consulted for a nose lesion shown by histopathological examination to be a sebaceous tumour. Immunohistochemistry revealed loss of expression of proteins MSH2 and MSH6, strongly suggesting a diagnosis of MTS. Eight years earlier, the man's son had developed a fatal glioblastoma; given the paternal phenotype of MTS, the hypothesis of TS in the son is probable. This case suggests that several variants of Lynch syndrome may be seen within the same family. It raises the issue of screening for cerebral tumours in patients with MTS and in their family members, even though such a recommendation does not exist; current recommendations in fact consist primarily of gastrointestinal and gynaecological monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Wolfram syndrome 1 and Wolfram syndrome 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Luciana; Di Bella, Chiara

    2012-08-01

    Wolfram syndrome 1 (WS1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness (DI DM OA D syndrome) associated with other variable clinical manifestations. The causative gene for WS1 (WFS1) encoding wolframin maps to chromosome 4p16.1. Wolframin has an important function in maintaining the homeostasis of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in pancreatic β cells. Recently, another causative gene, CISD2, has been identified in patients with a type of Wolfram syndrome (WS2) resulting in early optic atrophy, diabetes mellitus, deafness, decreased lifespan, but not diabetes insipidus. The CISD2-encoded protein ERIS (endoplasmic reticulum intermembrane small protein) also localizes to ER, but does not interact directly with wolframin. ERIS maps to chromosome 4q22. Numerous studies have shown an interesting similarity between WFS1 and CISD2 genes. Experimental studies demonstrated that the Cisd2 knockout (Cisd2) mouse shows premature aging and typical symptoms of Wolfram syndrome. These researches provide interesting insight into the relation of neurodegenerative diseases, mitochondrial disorders, and autophagy and are useful for the pathophysiological understanding of both Wolfram syndrome and mitochondrial-mediated premature aging. The knowledge of WS1 and WS2 pathogenesis, and of the interactions between WFS1 and CISD2 genes, is useful for accurate diagnostic classification and for diagnosis of presymptomatic individuals.

  7. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  8. Cardiomyopathy in Vici syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solaf M. Elsayed

    2018-01-12

    Jan 12, 2018 ... The syndrome was first described in 1988, in two brothers with ACC, bilateral cataracts, ... syndrome with brain anomalies, cardiomyopathy, and severe intellectual disability. Case Reports in Genetics 2011, Volume 2011. [6] Finocchi A, Angelino G, Cantarutti N, Corbari M, Bevivino E, Cascioli S, et al.

  9. Tropical Diabetic Hand Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [2,3] Tropical diabetic hand syndrome is a terminology used to describe a specific acute symptom complex found in diabetic patients in the tropics.[1-4] The syndrome comprises can rapidly progress to synergistic gangrene (Meleney's gangrene), affecting the entire limb and extending to the superficial fascia that can result in ...

  10. Chronic fatigue syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To acknowledge the dinical syndrome chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and outline the diagnostic criteria and reasonable management. Outcomes. Attempt at containment of treatmentcost and improvement of the quality of care of patients with. CFS. Evidence. Delphi-type commentary from 20 expert clinicians and ...

  11. The Othello syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famuyiwa, O O; Ekpo, M

    1983-02-01

    A case of the Othello syndrome is presented. In its classical form the syndrome is rare, but as with other allied paranoid states, its medicosocial implications are great. Rational management should include pharmacotherapy, conjoint family therapy after symptom remission, and long-term individual psychotherapy.

  12. Chronic fatigue syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic fatigue syndrome. Committee for Science and Education, Medical. Association of South Africa. Objective. ... Synonyms. Major controversy surrounds the name of the syndrome. In medical circles the preferred term is chronic fatigue .... urine tests using dipsticks. The above investigations should only be pursued when.

  13. Adult onset Leigh syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandit Lekha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Leigh syndrome is a rare progressive mitochondrial disorder of oxidative metabolism. Though it has been reported in infancy and childhood, it is rarely described in adults. The authors describe a patient who had clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features diagnostic of Leigh syndrome, with supportive biochemical and muscle histochemistry evidence.

  14. Metabolic syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouyandeh Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is defined as an assemblage of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and menopause is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among postmenopausal women in Tehran, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study in menopause clinic in Tehran, 118 postmenopausal women were investigated. We used the adult treatment panel 3 (ATP3 criteria to classify subjects as having metabolic syndrome. Results Total prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our subjects was 30.1%. Waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, diastolic blood pressure ,Systolic blood pressure, and triglyceride were significantly higher among women with metabolic syndrome (P-value Conclusions Our study shows that postmenopausal status is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, to prevent cardiovascular disease there is a need to evaluate metabolic syndrome and its components from the time of the menopause.

  15. Churg Strauss syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Rengifo, Diana Milena; Contreras Zuniga, Eduardo; Osio, Luis Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The Churg-Strauss syndrome, also called allergic granulomatosis and angiitis, is a multisystem disorder characterized by allergic rhinitis, asthma, and prominent peripheral blood eosinophilia. The most common organ involved is the lung, followed by the skin. The Churg-Strauss syndrome, however, can affect any organ system, including the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, renal, and central nervous systems

  16. The stress ulcer syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. van Essen

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThe stress ulcer syndrome is described in this thesis. This syndrome is seen in patients admitted to intensive care departments or being treated in field hospitals, in disaster areas, or battle fields. Acute mucosal lesions associated with burns (Curling's ulcers) and central nervous

  17. The scapulocostal syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-06-15

    Jun 15, 1991 ... The scapulocostal syndrome, a hitherto insufficiently under- stood condition, was clinically studied in 201 cases. The main findings were: (i) pain was the presenting symptom in all cases and was mainly cervicobrachial (90%); (ill the syndrome is a definable entity within the wide spectrum of fibromyalgia ...

  18. ACUTE COMPARTMENT SYNDROME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muscle destruction, muscle fibrosis, contractures and permanent disability and at worst case scenario of amputation (3,4). As reported by Frink et al (3) on their study on acute compartment syndrome it can occur even when there is no fracture. Also general surgeons have reported acute compartment syndrome.

  19. Sheehan's Syndrome (Postpartum Hypopituitarism)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in developing countries. Treatment of Sheehan's syndrome involves lifelong hormone replacement therapy. Symptoms Signs and symptoms of Sheehan's syndrome typically appear slowly, after a period of months or even years. But sometimes problems appear right away, such as the inability to ...

  20. Acute heart failure syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heart failure can be defined as a clinical syndrome in which a structural or functional cardiac abnormality impairs the capacity of the ventricle to fill or eject enough blood for the requirements of the body. Acute heart failure syndrome represents a complex, heterogeneous set of clinical conditions, all with the common.

  1. Ehlers-Danlos' syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leganger, Julie; Søborg, Marie-Louise Kulas; Farholt, Stense

    2016-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) comprises a group of diseases characterized by connective tissue fragility. The clinical symptoms primarily involve the skin, joints, blood vessels and internal organs. Diagnosing EDS is complicated because of the clinical variability, imprecise...

  2. Korsakoff's syndrome is preventable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudman, Erik; Wijnia, Jan W.

    2014-01-01

    Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is a life-threatening neuropsychiatric disorder caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is associated with mammillary body edema and small vessel ischemia. Many patients who develop WKS have a history of serious alcoholism and

  3. Proteus syndrome in adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, E; Lichtendahl, DHE; Hofer, SOP

    Proteus syndrome is a very rare congenital condition comprising malformations and overgrowth of multiple sorts of tissue. It was described for the first time in 1979 and was termed Proteus syndrome in 1983. The authors describe a 37-year-old patient who was diagnosed initially as having

  4. Managing Sjogren's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Sheila; Tagliavini, Lynda B

    2015-10-01

    There are approximately 4 million Americans diagnosed with Sjogren's Syndrome. This article discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostics, and implications for home care clinicians who may encounter patients with this syndrome. Chronic pain is discussed as well as interventions to manage symptoms such fatigue, dry eyes mouth and skin.

  5. Dandy-Walker Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organizations Publications Definition Dandy-Walker Syndrome is a congenital brain malformation involving the cerebellum (an area of the back ... and toes. × Definition Dandy-Walker Syndrome is a congenital brain malformation involving the cerebellum (an area of the back ...

  6. Meconium aspiration syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Bushtyreva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathophysiological aspects of formation and development of meconium aspiration syndrome, as well as peculiaritues of its development based on data from native and foreign literature are studied. Special emphasis is pointed out to possible diagnostic techniques and prevention of syndrome

  7. Anton's syndrome and eugenics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Frahm-Falkenberg, Siska

    2011-01-01

    Anton's syndrome is arguably the most striking form of anosognosia. Patients with this syndrome behave as if they can see despite their obvious blindness. Although best known for his description of asomatognosia and visual anosognosia, Gabriel Anton (1858-1933) made other significant contributions...

  8. Redefining syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Katz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field’s capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries.

  9. Ramsay Hunt syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SP. Management of Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome. In: Brackmann DE, Shelton C, Arriaga MA, eds. Otologic Surgery . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 27. Habif TP. Warts, ... Ramsay Hunt syndrome. In: Waldman SD, ed. Atlas of Uncommon Pain ...

  10. Colitis of Behcet's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, D.J.; Courtney, J.V.; Riddell, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Three patients with Behcet's syndrome and colitis are described. The radiologic and histologic appearances of the colitis are discussed. The similarities of Behcet's colitis to Crohn's disease are outlined. The cases demonstrate the necessity to consider Behcet's syndrome in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. (orig.) [de

  11. Rothmund - Thomson Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma N. L

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rothmund-Thomson syndrome is a rare geno-photodermatosis of children. Poikilodermatous cutaneous changes, growth retardation, juvenile cataract and high incidence of malignancy are its classical features. A Thomson type of Rothmund-Thomson syndrome with characteristic poikiloderma congenitale, growth retardation, absence of juvenile cataract and parental non-consanguinity is described in an 8 year old Indian girl.

  12. Eosinophilic fasciitis (Shulman syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Sueli; Brotas, Arles; Lamy, Fabrício; Lisboa, Flávia; Lago, Eduardo; Azulay, David; Cuzzi, Tulia; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2005-04-01

    We present a case of eosinophilic fasciitis, or Shulman syndrome, in a 35-year-old man and discuss its clinical and histopathologic aspects, as well as its relationship to scleroderma. Although controversial, the tendency is to set Shulman syndrome apart from all other sclerodermiform states.

  13. Central Cord Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... finding better ways to prevent, treat, and ultimately cure neurological disorders such as central cord syndrome. Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Spinal ... cord syndrome is the most common form of incomplete spinal cord injury characterized by impairment in the arms and hands and to a lesser extent in the legs. ...

  14. Usher syndrome in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shzeena, Dad; Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Usher syndrome (USH) is a genetically heterogeneous deafness-blindness syndrome, divided into three clinical subtypes: USH1, USH2 and USH3. METHODS: Mutations in 21 out of 26 investigated Danish unrelated individuals with USH were identified, using a combination of molecular diagnostic...

  15. [Chronic glomerulonephritis syndrome (CGNS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Naoaki

    2003-08-01

    Chronic glomerulonephritis syndrome is one of clinical classification in primary glomerulonephritis. Clinical classification of primary glomerulonephritis consists of five groups. (WHO 1995) They are acute nephritic syndrome, rapidly progressive nephritic syndrome, recurrent or persistent hematuria (proteinuria), chronic nephritic syndrome, and nephrotic syndrome. After therapy or renal biopsy, they have interaction with one another and many cases are followed up as chronic glomerulonephritis. In the long term clinical course, it is most important thing that not to deteriorate renal function by therapies. (blood pressure control, low protein diet, salt restriction) If there are not only glomerular change but also interstitial and vessel changes in renal biopsy the prediction of prognosis will be poor so it will be necessary to administer medication under strict observation.

  16. Eisenmenger Syndrome in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    Full Text Available Abstract Eisenmenger syndrome is very rare in pregnant women. Debates remain concerning the management of Eisenmenger syndrome in this patient population and the prognosis is unclear in terms of maternal and fetoneonatal outcomes. Epidural analgesia is preferred for Cesarean section as it alleviates perioperative pain and reduces the pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances. Maternal mortality in the presence of Eisenmenger syndrome is reported as 30-50% and even up to 65% in those with Cesarean section. The major causes of death could be hypovolemia, thromboembolism and preeclampsia. Pregnancy should ideally be avoided in a woman with Eisenmenger syndrome concerning the high maternal mortality rate and probable poor prognosis of the baby. A short labour and an atraumatic delivery under epidural block are preferred in the women with a strong desire of pregnancy. The purpose of this article is to discuss the debates of Eisenmenger syndrome in pregnancy and the possible resolutions.

  17. Apert syndrome (acrocephalosyndactyly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Apert syndrome is named for the French physician, Eugen Apert who was, in 1906. described anomalous shape of the skull with coronary suture synostosis and hypoplasia sphenoethmoidmaxillary part of the face and fingers syndactyly of hands and feet. Apert syndrome accounts for about 4,5% of all craniosynostosis. With the prevalence of 1:160 000-200 000, inherited in an autosomal domi­nant, and in 25% of cases are fresh mutations in the gene. This syndrome has no predilection by gender and race, varies in severity form in witch it is manifested. Anomality of internal organs are very rare, but half of the patients with this syndrome have mental retardation. Apert syndrome has no cure, but surgery can help to correct some of the problems.

  18. Hereditary intestinal polyposis syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, P A

    1996-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, with overall mortality exceeding 40% even with treatment. Effective efforts for screening and prevention are most likely to succeed in patient groups identified as high risk for colorectal cancer, most notably the hereditary intestinal polyposis syndromes. In these syndromes, benign polyps develop throughout the intestinal tract prior to the development of colorectal cancer, marking the patient and associated family for precancer diagnosis followed by either close surveillance or preventive treatment. This review article was undertaken to discuss the most recent developments in the knowledge of hereditary intestinal polyposis syndromes, emphasizing the clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment relative to preventing the development of cancer. The most common of the hereditary polyposis syndromes is familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), which is characterized by the development of hundreds to thousands of adenomatous polyps in the colon followed at an early age by colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer can be prevented in this autosomal dominant condition by prophylactic colectomy, though a risk for other tumors, including periampullary cancers, remains throughout life. Variant of FAP associated with fewer and smaller polyps (hereditary flat adenoma syndrome), or even CNS tumors (Turcot's syndrome) also carry this high risk of colorectal cancer. Hereditary hamartomatous polyposis syndromes such as juvenile polyposis and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (also autosomal dominant) are characterized by less frequent polyps. Though these are generally benign polyps, they are also associated with a significant risk of colorectal and other cancers. Other polyposis syndromes, including neurofibromatosis and Cowden's disease, do not carry this increased risk of colorectal cancer, and therefore affect different treatment strategies. Analysis of genetic factors responsible for these and other hereditary syndromes with

  19. Down syndrome, RASopathies, and other rare syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Christian P; Izraeli, Shai

    2017-04-01

    In this article we discuss the occurrence of myeloid neoplasms in patients with a range of syndromes that are due to germline defects of the RAS signaling pathway and in patients with trisomy 21. Both RAS mutations and trisomy 21 are common somatic events contributing to leukemogenis. Thus, the increased leukemia risk observed in children affected by these conditions is biologically highly plausible. Children with myeloid neoplasms in the context of these syndromes require different treatments than children with sporadic myeloid neoplasms and provide an opportunity to study the role of trisomy 21 and RAS signaling during leukemogenesis and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Coexistence of Reverse Capgras Syndrome, Subjective Double and Cotard Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Mashayekhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Misidentification syndrome is a condition in which the person thinks that familiar persons have been replaced with other one. Coexistence of some types of this syndrome has been reported with other psychiatric syndromes. In this report, we present a 47-year-old married man with coexistence of reverse Capgras and subjective double syndromes with Cotard syndrome. There is no previous report of coexistence of these three forms of delusions in a single case.

  1. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome presenting as Balint syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Abhayambika, Archana; Sundaram, Arun N E; Sharpe, James A

    2011-09-01

    Balint syndrome is a disorder of inaccurate visually guided saccades, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia that typically results from bilateral parieto-occipital lesions. Visual perception disturbances in the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) include hemianopia, visual neglect, and cerebral blindness, but Balint syndrome had not been recognized. We report Balint syndrome associated with PRES in a 37-year-old woman with acute hypertension and systemic lupus erythematosus. Balint syndrome can be an initial presentation of PRES.

  2. Toxic Shock Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Toxic Shock Syndrome KidsHealth / For Parents / Toxic Shock Syndrome What's ... en español Síndrome de shock tóxico About Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a serious ...

  3. Sjögren syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xerostomia - Sjögren syndrome; Keratoconjunctivitis sicca - Sjögren; Sicca syndrome ... The cause of Sjögren syndrome is unknown. It is an autoimmune disorder. This means the body attacks healthy tissue by mistake. The syndrome occurs most ...

  4. [PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF THE CARDIORENAL SYNDROME].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, I; Vučak, J; Bašić-Marković, N; Klarić, D; Šakić, V Amerl

    2016-12-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome, a complex pathophysiological disorder of both the heart and kidneys, is a condition in which acute or chronic damage to one organ can lead to acute or chronic dysfunction of the other organ. Depending on primary organ dysfunction and disease duration, there are five different types of cardiorenal syndrome. Type 1 cardiorenal syndrome (acute cardiorenal syndrome) is defined as acute kidney injury caused by sudden decrease in heart function. Type 2 cardiorenal syndrome (chronic cardiorenal syndrome) refers to chronic kidney disease linked to chronic heart failure. Type 3 cardiorenal syndrome (acute renocardial syndrome) is caused by acute kidney injury that leads to heart failure. Type 4 cardiorenal syndrome (chronic renocardial syndrome) includes chronic heart failure due to chronic kidney disease. Type 5 cardiorenal syndrome (secondary cardiorenal syndrome) is reversible or irreversible condition marked by simultaneous heart and kidney insufficiency, as a result of multiorgan disease such as sepsis, diabetes mellitus, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, etc. The pathophysiological patterns of cardiorenal syndrome are extremely complicated. Despite numerous publications, perplexed physiological, biochemical and hormonal disturbances as parts of the main pathogenic mechanisms of cardiorenal syndrome remain obscure. Even though there are guidelines for the treatment of patients with heart failure and chronic kidney disease, similar guidelines for the treatment of cardiorenal syndrome are lacking. In everyday practice, it is crucial to diagnose cardiorenal syndrome and use all diagnostic and therapeutic procedures available to prevent or alleviate kidney and heart failure.

  5. [Cramp-fasciculation syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagueny, A

    2005-12-01

    The cramp-fasciculation syndrome is a rare clinical entity in comparison with the frequency of cramps and isolated fasciculations in the general population. It is recognized as a benign syndrome without weakness and atrophy, however a few reports suggest that it may precede the occurrence of a motor neuron disease. Most often, the cramp-fasciculation syndrome is idiopathic and may be a component of a hyperexcitable peripheral nerve syndrome including other activities such as myokymia and neuromyotonia where antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) appear to be one of the effector mechanisms. The most complete form of this hyperexcitable peripheral nerve syndrome is Isaacs' syndrome. The central nervous system is also concerned with anti-VGKC antibodies found in Morvan's disease and limbic encephalitis which is often a paraneoplastic condition. These findings extend the spectrum of the anti-VGKC syndrome that may be associated with other auto-immune diseases, chiefly myasthenia gravis with thymoma. Carbamazepine and phenytoin cause reduction of the clinical and electrophysiological signs of the nerve hyperexcitability, and plasmapheresis and (or) immunosuppressors are useful when an auto-immune origin is considered.

  6. The Marfan syndrome genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Pungerčič

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant heritable disorder of connective tissue. It is caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene encoding glycoprotein fibrillin-1, a component of microfibrils of extracellular matrix. Patients with Marfan syndrome show wide spectra of clinical signs, primarily on skeletal, cardiovascular and ocular organ systems. Cardiovascular complications (especially aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection are the most common cause of mortality of Marfan syndrome patients. Discovering genotype-phenotype correlations is complicated because of the large number of mutations reported as well as clinical heterogeneity among individuals with the same mutation. Despite the progress in the knowledge of the molecular nature of Marfan syndrome the diagnosis is still based mainly on the clinical features in the different body systems.Conclusions: Early identification of patient with Marfan syndrome is of considerable importance because of appropriate treatment that can greatly improve life expectancy. Unfortunately, despite the improvement of diagnostic methods, medical and surgical therapy, the mortality due to undiagnosed Marfan syndrome is still high. The present article reviews the molecular genetic studies of Marfan syndrome since the discovery of the mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene.

  7. Isolated central vestibular syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Park, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2015-04-01

    Isolated vestibular syndrome may occur all along the vestibular pathways from the peripheral labyrinth to the brain. By virtue of recent developments in clinical neurotology and neuroimaging, however, diagnosis of isolated central vestibulopathy is increasing. Here, we review five distinct syndromes of isolated central vestibular syndrome from lesions restricted to the vestibular nuclei, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, the flocculus, the tonsil, and the nodulus, and introduce a new vestibular syndrome from isolated involvement of the inferior cerebellar peduncle. Decreased responses to head impulses do not exclude a central lesion as a cause of isolated vestibular syndrome. Brain imaging, including diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), may be falsely negative during the acute phase in patients with isolated vestibular syndrome because of a stroke. Central signs should be sought carefully in patients with isolated vertigo, even when the patients show the features of peripheral vestibulopathy and negative MRIs. Recognition of these isolated central vestibular syndromes would aid in defining the lesions responsible for various vestibular manifestations in central vestibulopathy. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Rare case of nephrotic syndrome: Schimke syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Anna Kelly Krislane de Vasconcelos; Torres, Luiz Fernando Oliveira; Silva, Ana Corina Brainer Amorim da; Dantas, Adrianna Barros Leal; Zuntini, Káthia Liliane da Cunha Ribeiro; Aguiar, Lia Cordeiro Bastos

    2016-01-01

    Schimke syndrome corresponds to dysplasia of bone and immunity, associated with progressive renal disease secondary to nephrotic syndrome cortico-resistant, with possible other abnormalities such as hypothyroidism and blond marrow aplasia. It is a rare genetic disorder, with few reports in the literature. The most frequent renal involvement is nephrotic syndrome with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and progressive renal failure. The objective of this study was to report a case of Schimke syndrome, diagnostic investigation and management of the case. Resumo A síndrome Schimke corresponde à displasia imuno-óssea, associada à doença renal progressiva secundária à síndrome nefrótica córtico-resistente, podendo haver outras anormalidades como hipotireoidismo e aplasia de medula óssea. Trata-se de uma patologia genética rara, com poucos relatos na literatura. O acometimento renal mais frequente é uma síndrome nefrótica por glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal e falência renal progressiva. O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um caso de síndrome de Schimke, investigação diagnóstica e condução do caso.

  9. Pediatric Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the diagnosis and management of a pediatric patient with toxic shock syndrome. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as a review of the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Toxic shock syndrome is a low-frequency, high-acuity scenario requiring timely identification and aggressive management. If patients suffering from this condition are managed incorrectly, they may progress into multi-organ dysfunction and potentially death. Toxic shock syndrome has been associated with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. Approximately half of Staph cases are associated with menstruation, which was first described in the 1970s-1980s and was associated with the use of absorbent tampons.1 Group A Streptococcus may cause complications such as necrotizing fasciitis and gangrenous myositis.2 Pediatric patients may present critically ill from toxic shock syndrome. Providers need to perform a thorough history and physical exam to discern the source of infection. Management requires aggressive care with antibiotics and IV fluids. Objectives: By the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1 Recognize toxic shock syndrome. 2 Review the importance of a thorough physical exam. 3 Discuss management of toxic shock syndrome, including supportive care and the difference in antibiotic choices for streptococcal and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. 4 Appropriately disposition a patient suffering from toxic shock syndrome. 5 Communicate effectively with team members and nursing staff during a resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on toxic shock syndrome.

  10. Gardner′s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Panjwani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gardner′s syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease and is a subtype of familial adenomatous polyposis. It is characterized by adenomatous intestinal polyps, multiple osteomas in the skull, maxillae, mandible, and multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous masses (epidermoids and desmoid. Intestinal polyps, if not treated, have 100% chance of becoming malignant. We report a case of a 25-year-old female patient with Gardner′s syndrome, with clinical manifestations including impacted supernumerary teeth, odontomes, sebaceous cyst on the scalp, and osteomas. It is important for the general dental practitioners to be aware of the clinical and radiological characteristics of Gardner′s syndrome.

  11. Iliopsoas Syndrome in Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Catherine; Swanson, David; Garofolo, Garret; Rose, Donald J

    2013-08-01

    Coxa saltans refers to a constellation of diagnoses that cause snapping of the hip and is a major cause of anterior hip pain in dancers. When the internal type is accompanied by weakness or pain, it is referred to as iliopsoas syndrome. Iliopsoas syndrome is the result of repetitive active hip flexion in abduction and can be confused with other hip pathology, most commonly of labral etiology. To report the incidence, clinical findings, treatment protocol, and results of treatment for iliopsoas syndrome in a population of dancers. Retrospective case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective database review of 653 consecutive patients evaluated for musculoskeletal complaints over a 3-year period was completed. The diagnosis of iliopsoas syndrome was made based on anterior hip or groin pain, weakness with resisted hip flexion in abduction, or symptomatic clicking or snapping with a positive iliopsoas test. Patients identified with iliopsoas syndrome were further stratified according to age at time of onset, insidious versus acute onset, duration of symptoms, side of injury, presence of rest pain, pain with activities of daily living, and associated lower back pain. All patients diagnosed with iliopsoas syndrome underwent physical therapy, including hip flexor stretching and strengthening, pelvic mobilization, and modification of dance technique or exposure as required. A total of 49 dancers were diagnosed and treated for iliopsoas syndrome. Within this injured population of 653 patients, the incidence in female dancers was 9.2%, significantly higher than that in male dancers (3.2%). The mean age at the time of injury was 24.6 years. The incidence of iliopsoas syndrome in dancers younger than 18 years was 12.8%, compared with 7% in dancers older than 18 years. Student dancers had the highest incidence (14%), followed by amateur dancers (7.5%), while professional dancers had the lowest incidence (4.6%). All patients responded to conservative treatment, and no

  12. Bouveret's Syndrome: diagnostic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, S.G.; Sherman, S.B.; Steinhardt, J.E.; Wilson, J.M. Jr.; Richman, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Bouveret's syndrome is a rare disease entity manifested by the formation of a cholecystoduodenal or choledochoduodenal fistula with passage of a gallstone into the duodenal bulb and subsequent obstruction of the gastric outlet. To date, no report of this entity using computed tomographic (CT) imaging is available. This article presents a case of Bouveret's syndrome with the classic findings on upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract series and a description of the CT manifestations. The literature is reviewed with discussion of the diagnostic approach to patients with Bouveret's syndrome

  13. Recurrent Miller Fisher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, S; Geetha; Bhargavan, P V

    2004-07-01

    Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) is a variant of Guillan Barre syndrome characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and areflexia. Recurrences are exceptional with Miller Fisher syndrome. We are reporting a case with two episodes of MFS within two years. Initially he presented with partial ophthalmoplegia, ataxia. Second episode was characterized by full-blown presentation characterized by ataxia, areflexia and ophthalmoplegia. CSF analysis was typical during both episodes. Nerve conduction velocity study was fairly within normal limits. MRI of brain was within normal limits. He responded to symptomatic measures initially, then to steroids in the second episode. We are reporting the case due to its rarity.

  14. Dostoevsky and Stendhal's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amâncio, Edson José

    2005-12-01

    Stendhal's syndrome occurs among travelers when they encounter a work of art of great beauty. It is characterized by an altered perception of reality, emotional disturbances, and crises of panic and anxiety with somatization. The patient profile described originally for this syndrome was of particularly sensitive individuals who were admirers of works or art: artists, poets, writers and art students, among others. The Russian writer Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky suffered from epilepsy and there is evidence that he presented the symptoms of Stendahl's syndrome while contemplating some works of art, particularly when viewing Hans Holbein's masterpiece, Dead Christ, during a visit to the museum in Basle.

  15. Capgras syndrome in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R S; Naylor, M W; Shain, B N; King, C A

    1992-09-01

    Capgras syndrome, the delusion of substitution, has rarely been reported in adolescents. The etiology is unknown, and intense controversy surrounds the debate over the relative importance of biological versus psychological factors. Presented here are two cases of Capgras syndrome in adolescents and a review of the relevant biological, neuropsychological, and psychodynamic literature. The authors suggest that the psychological processes underlying the Capgras delusion are mediated by neuroanatomical connections between various brain areas and hypothesize that the fundamental lesion in Capgras syndrome may be the patient's inability or failure to acknowledge the authenticity of a person they clearly recognize.

  16. Cantu syndrome and lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cruz, Diana; Mampel, Alejandra; Echeverria, Maria I; Vargas, Ana L; Castañeda-Cisneros, Gema; Davalos-Rodriguez, Nory; Patiño-Garcia, Brenda; Garcia-Cruz, Maria O; Castañeda, Victor; Cardona, Ernesto G; Marin-Solis, Bertha; Cantu, Jose M; Nuñez-Reveles, Nelly; Moran-Moguel, Cristina; Thavanati, Pavarthi K R; Ramirez-Garcia, Sergio; Sanchez-Corona, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Three female patients with Cantu syndrome were studied, two of whom were adults presenting with the complication of lymphoedema, as described earlier in a male patient with this syndrome. The aim of this study is to report the clinical characteristics of these three new cases and to emphasize that lymphoedema, as observed in two of the patients described here, has been observed in 11.5% of patients with Cantu syndrome and that heterochromia iridis, observed in one patient, is probably a new feature of this condition.

  17. Melkersson-rosenthal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, D R; Resident, S; Mohan, C; Minnas, R S; Mohindroo, N K; Sharma, M L

    1999-10-01

    Melkersson - Rosenthal syndrome was described by Melkersson and Rosenthal separately in the year 1928 and 1931 respectively. It is supposed to be a rare syndrome of bilateral alternating recurrent facial paralysis alongwith fissured tongue and oedema of the lips, face and eyelids. A case of Melkersson - Rosenthal syndrome is reported with all the classic findings which is a rarity. In this case there was alternating facial paralysis to begin with followed by bilateral paralysis third time, along with oedema of lips and face, fissured tongue, and dialation of sig-moid colon with absence of haustrations.

  18. Olfactory Reference Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Evrensel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory reference syndrome is a delusional disorder in which the patient persistently and falsely believes that his or her body emits a foul odor. The disease is considered a variant of somatic type of delusional disorder under the diagnostic systems. Similarities between olfactory reference syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder have also been noted. The etiopathogenesis of the disorder has not yet been clarified. Antidepressants, antipsychotics and psychotherapy are used in the treatment of this disorder. The aim of this article was to review clinical features, neurobiology, differantial diagnosis, classification problems and treatment of olfactory reference syndrome.

  19. [The Reye syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanret, I; Duh, D

    2011-03-01

    The Reye syndrome is a complex disease that remains little-known despite its severity. It can occur in children of all ages, and is often fatal, while surviving children often display neurological damage. The therapy is symptomatic and supportive. The diagnosis of Reye's syndrome is not straightforward, as the symptoms are very diverse. The causes of the disease are moreover still unclear, and, after many years of discussion and research, it can still not be proved irrefutably whether administration of acetylsalicylic acid to children suffering from viral infections is a factor in the development of Reye's syndrome.

  20. Treatment in Postconcussional Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Keskin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Postconcussional syndrome is characterized by somatic, cognitive and psychiatric (emotional, behavioral symptoms that occur after mild traumatic brain injury. These symptoms usually recover fully within 3-6 months almost in 90% of patients. Persistent post-concussion symptoms could occur in 10% of patients. Diagnosis is based on the subjective complaints and the treatment of the syndrome is mainly of palliative nature. The patient should be educated about the nature and outcome of the syndrome and reassured that almost all symptoms recover fully within 3-6 months. Multifaceted rehabilitation programs and cognitive behavioral therapy could be beneficial. Pharmacotherapy and somatic therapy are other options for persistent symptoms.

  1. Radiology of syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taybi, H.

    1982-01-01

    In the course of 20 years, the author has investigated the radiological aspects of many different syndromes. 541 of them are listed in this book, together with their typical X-ray pictures. Congenital deformities, genetic diseases, and acquired diseases with typical combinations of sigs and symptoms are presented with information on how to identify them. Clinical manifestations are briefly characterized, and hereditary aspects are mentioned. Pathological characteristics and names of the syndromes are presented. A bibliography is given for every syndrome for those who intend to deepen their knowledge. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Mobious syndrome: MR findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskal Revanna Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Möbius syndrome is an extremely rare congenital disorder. We report a case of Möbius syndrome in a 2-year-old girl with bilateral convergent squint and left-sided facial weakness. The characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of Möbius syndrome, which include absent bilateral abducens nerves and absent left facial nerve, were noted. In addition, there was absence of left anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA and absence of bilateral facial colliculi. Clinical features, etiology, and imaging findings are discussed.

  3. Bullous Wells’ syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengu Cevirgen Cemil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wells’ syndrome (WS is an uncommon inflammatory skin disease which typically presents single or multiple erythematous and edematous urticarial plaques similar to cellulitis. The lesions may evolve into blue-grey morphea-like lesions and may persist for weeks or months. They ultimately heal without scar. Other clinical presentations reported in literature include papular and nodular and, rarely, bullous eruptions. Previously, bullous Wells’ syndrome was rarely reported in the literature. Herein, we describe a case of a female patient with bullous Wells’ syndrome localized to the upper limbs without any associated disorders.

  4. Congenital nephrotic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome . It occurs mostly in families of Finnish origin and develops shortly after birth. It is inherited, ... amount of protein leaking into the urine Diuretics ("water pills") to remove excess fluid Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory ...

  5. Sjogren-Larsson Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SLS is dry, scaly skin, which is called ichthyosis. In addition to these and can develop some ... clinical names of Sjogren-Larsson Syndrome include: SLS Ichthyosis, Spastic Neurological Disorder, and Oligophrenia Fatty Alcohol: NAD+ ...

  6. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  7. Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawhya R. El-Shereef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports one case of successfully treated patients suffering from a rare entity, the catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS. Management of this patient is discussed in detail.

  8. Children with Usher syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mental and behavioral disorders among adults with Usher syndrome have been discussed and reported in some case studies but no research has been reported on children with Usher syndrome. Methods: This article investigates the prevalence and characteristics of mental and behavioral...... disorders among 26 children, 3-17 years of age, with Usher syndrome. Results: Six of the 26 children were diagnosed with a mental or behavioral disorder (1 with schizophrenia and mild mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and severe mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and mild mental retardation......, 1 with mild mental retardation, and 2 with conduct disorder). Another 3 children had had a mental or behavioral disorder previously in their childhood. Conclusion: Even though vision impairment first manifests in late childhood, some children with Usher syndrome seem to develop mental and behavioral...

  9. Vogt koyanagi harada syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin S

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Vogt Koyanagi Harada syndrome is reported. The depigmented macules appeared initially over eyebrows and around both eyes after an episode of fever and then rapidly involved almost the entire body within 6 months.

  10. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Valer'evich Artem'ev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment of restless legs syndrome. Recommendations are given how to choose therapeutic modalities and drugs in relation to different factors.

  11. Landau-Kleffner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... misdiagnosed as autism, pervasive developmental disorder, hearing impairment, learning disability, auditory/verbal processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, childhood schizophrenia, or emotional/behavioral problems. × Definition Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) is a rare, ...

  12. Anisocoria and Horner's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome. This is a condition most common in young adult females, which usually begins in one eye. The ... Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye ( ...

  13. The Expert Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Peter F.; Henson, Kenneth T.

    1982-01-01

    The curriculum and instruction specialist should not fall prey to the "expert syndrome," in which the specialist decides on the "best" curriculum or instructional method without considering the teacher's discipline or personality. (CJ)

  14. Bardet-Biedl Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference Audio/Video Recordings For Researchers & Industry Funding Philosophy Funded Grants & Researchers Apply for Funding Clinical Research ... problems but rarely polydactyly. Polydactyly is a defining feature of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, while neurologic problems almost ...

  15. Joubert Syndrome, A Ciliopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at Neurogenetics Unit, Mendel Laboratory, Rome, and University of Salerno, Italy, review the clinical features and genetic basis of Joubert syndrome, overlap with other ciliopathies, and the multifaceted roles of primary cilia in CNS development.

  16. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Main, K M

    2001-01-01

    summarizes existing evidence supporting a new concept that poor semen quality, testis cancer, undescended testis and hypospadias are symptoms of one underlying entity, the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), which may be increasingly common due to adverse environmental influences. Experimental...

  17. Det hepatopulmonale syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eibye, Simone; Christensen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) - a complication of liver disease - seems to be underdiagnosed, probably because of decreased awareness. HPS consists of the triade liver disease, intrapulmonary vascular dilatation and as a consequence arterial hypoxaemia. No medical therapy has proven effective...

  18. Learning about Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Marfan Syndrome Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  19. Ehlers- Danlos Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta Basak

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A female patient had Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type II since infancy, manifesting with hyperextensible skin and ciagarette paper scars at the sites of trauma. Treatment with vitamin C 1 gm a day seemed to be useful.

  20. Ehlers-Danlos' Syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leganger, Julie; Søborg, Marie-Louise Kulas; Farholt, Stense

    2016-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) comprises a group of diseases characterized by connective tissue fragility. The clinical symptoms primarily involve the skin, joints, blood vessels and internal organs. Diagnosing EDS is complicated because of the clinical variability, imprecise diagnostic criteria...

  1. Exogenous Cushing syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome occurs when a person takes man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medicines to treat a disease. Glucocorticoids are given for many diseases, such as lung diseases, skin conditions, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, brain tumors, and ...

  2. LEOPARD-syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kjaersgård; Risby, Kirsten; Bygum, Anette

    2009-01-01

    We describe a 12-year-old boy with a typical phenotype of the LEOPARD syndrome (LS). The diagnosis was confirmed in the boy and his mother, who both had a mutation in the PTPN11 gene at Thr468Met (c.1403C > T). Several other members of the maternal family are suspected also to have the LEOPARD sy...... syndrome. We discuss the clinical characteristics of LS, the need for follow-up and genetic counselling, and the molecular-genetic background as well as the relationship to the allelic disease Noonan syndrome. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-26......We describe a 12-year-old boy with a typical phenotype of the LEOPARD syndrome (LS). The diagnosis was confirmed in the boy and his mother, who both had a mutation in the PTPN11 gene at Thr468Met (c.1403C > T). Several other members of the maternal family are suspected also to have the LEOPARD...

  3. Parental Alienation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Torun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Children who have been programmed by one parent to be alienated from the other parent are commonly seen in the context of child-custody disputes. Its primary manifestation is the child’s campaign of denigration against a parent, a campaign that has no justification. It is said to result from a combination of a programming (brainwashing parent’s indoctrinations and the child’s own contributions to the vilification of the targeted parent. Many evaluators use the term parental alienation syndrome to refer to the disorder engendered in such children. However, there is significant controversy going on about the validity of parental alienation syndrome. The purpose of this article has been to describe and help to differentiate parental alienation syndrome and abuse for mental health professionals working in the field, and discuss the arguments about the validity of this syndrome.

  4. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prescribe medications to help you manage the pain, dry mouth, or other symptoms. More Burning Mouth Health Info Publications Cover image Burning Mouth Syndrome Publication files Download Language English PDF ( Number of ...

  5. Overview of Barth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome children should be tested in order to define the genetic risk in each family. Any male ... other websites, our site may utilize a standard technology called "cookies" (see explanation below, "What Are Cookies?") ...

  6. Fragile X syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of puberty Subtle differences in face features In females, excess shyness may be the only sign of ... X syndrome. Instead, training and education have been developed to help affected children function ...

  7. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) PCOS is a set of symptoms related to ... women and girls of reproductive age. What is PCOS? PCOS is a set of symptoms related to ...

  8. Turner Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other problems, with the right medical care, early intervention, and ongoing support, a girl with Turner syndrome ... maturity before kindergarten. If learning problems are found, early preventive and intervention strategies can help. Looking Ahead Girls with Turner ...

  9. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cysts (fluid-filled sacs) on one or both ovaries—"polycystic" literally means "having many cysts" Some women diagnosed ... Citations American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2015). Polycystic ovary syndrome . Retrieved May 20, 2016, from http://www. ...

  10. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakhloo Tulika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous inherited connective tissue disorders with widespread manifestations. The prevalence of this syndrome is 1:5000 worldwide without gender, racial or ethnic associations. This syndrome is characterized by joint hypermobility, dermal hyperelasticity and tissue fragility caused by mutations in genes encoding collagen type I, III, V and enzymes involved in the posttranslational modifications of collagen. The oral manifestations include increased mucosal fragility, delayed wound healing, early onset generalized periodontitis and temporomandibular joint hypermobility. Children presenting with this syndrome are often misdiagnosed for hematological problem as they present with bruising, malignancy and/or child abuse. A thorough assessment of the patient is, therefore, essential for early diagnosis and patient referral. This paper reviews current literature, oral manifestations, diagnostic investigations and effective dental management.

  11. Treacher Collins Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cleft palate is a frequently associated conditions this syndrome. Cleft palate itself sometimes can cause feeding problems and increase the risk of middle ear problems. Your child’s primary care provider or cleft palate or craniofacial ...

  12. Holmes-Adie Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is rarely an inherited condition. View Full Definition Treatment Doctors may prescribe reading glasses to compensate for impaired vision in the ... treatment for excessive sweating. × ... Definition Holmes-Adie syndrome (HAS) is a neurological disorder ...

  13. 47,XXY Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Link, Katarina; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    to 75% of the patients left undetected. Typically, diagnosis is delayed with the majority of patients identified during fertility workup in adulthood, and only 10% of patients diagnosed prior to puberty. Early detection of this syndrome is recommended in order to offer treatment and intervention...... at the appropriate ages and stages of development for the purpose of preventing osteopenia/osteoporosis, metabolic syndrome, and other medical conditions related to hypogonadism and to the XXY as well as minimizing potential learning and psychosocial problems. The aim of this review is to present the clinical......47,XXY (Klinefelter syndrome) is the most frequent sex chromosomal disorder and affects approximately one in 660 newborn boys. The syndrome is characterized by varying degrees of cognitive, social, behavioral, and learning difficulties and in adulthood additionally primary testicular failure...

  14. Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... central nervous system infection and inherited degenerative or metabolic conditions. In 30-35 percent of cases, no cause can be found. Treatment Treatment for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome includes clobazam and anti-epileptic medications such as ...

  15. What is Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mild to moderate. Due to advances in medical technology, individuals with Down syndrome are living longer than ... the typical education system and take part in sports, music, art programs and any other activities in ...

  16. Thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation Exposure in Scoliosis Kyphosis Adolescent Back Pain Spondylolysis For Adolescents For Adults Common Questions & Glossary Resources ... Radiation Exposure in Scoliosis Kyphosis Adolescent Back Pain Spondylolysis For Adolescents For Adults Thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome (TIS) ...

  17. Sturge-Weber Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be performed on more serious cases of glaucoma. Physical therapy should be considered for infants and children with muscle weakness. ... syndrome is a neurological disorder indicated at birth by a port-wine ...

  18. Ellis Von Creveld Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar H

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One patient with Ellis Von Creveld syndrome contains: dwarfism, congenital heart"ndisease, ectodermal dysplasia, polyductyly, an abnormally wide labial frenum and maxillary"nmolars with single root.

  19. Facts about Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great Arteries Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Pulmonary Atresia Tetralogy of ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  20. CT of Mirizzi syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Fukushima, Keisuke; Ishihara, Kenji; Hirano, Yutaka; Sano, Kaizo

    1983-01-01

    PTC or ERCP findings of four cases of Mirizzi syndrome were demonstrated. They consisted of a smooth stricture of the common hepatic duct, curved impressions of the duct and dilatation of proximal biliary radicles. CT could visualize the impacted stone in the neck of the gallbladder, dilatation of proximal common hepatic and intrahepatic duct. Absence of the dilatation of distal common bile duct could also be confirmed by CT, thus the diagnosis of Mirizzi syndrome might be possible by CT. (author)